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Full text of "History of Davis County, Iowa, containing a history of the county, its cities, towns, etc., a biographical directory of many of its leading citizens, war record of its volunteers in the late rebellion, general and local statistics, portraits of early settlers and prominent men, history of Iowa and the Northwest .."

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Theee is no proper place in history for the element of fiction. In the 
correct delineation of a landscape the artist judiciously employs both lights 
and shades; so the historian must need contrast the true and the false, that 
the eternal beauty and symmetry of truth apj^ear, but draw ui>on the imagi- 
nation, he may never. As in the landscape, the true outline of objects is 
obscured in the shadows, requiring the full blaze of day to bi-ing them into 
proper view, so histoi'y bi'ings out the facts partially obscured in the haze of 
tradition — itself never history. 

The history of the growth of any branch of knowledge has a doiible inter- 
/ that which comes to it from the knowledge itself, and that which comes 
from its relations to the history of the operation of the human mind. Men 
think under the limitations of their times; they reason on such material as 
they have; they form their estimate of changes from the facts immediately 
known to them. What Matthew Arnold has written of man's thoughts, as 
he floats adown the " liiver of Time," is most true. Says he: 

" .\s is the world on the banks, 
So is the mind of man. 
Only the track \rhere he sails 
He wots of: only the thoug-hts 
Raised by the objects he passes, are his." 

Impressions thus received, the mind will modify and work upon, trans- 
mitting the products to other minds in shapes that often .seem new, strange 
and arbitrary, but which yet result from processes familiar to our experi- 
ence, and to be found at work in our own individual consciousness. And 
this is the necessity that renders history, as entirely distinct from tradition, 
imperative. Here the province of the historian begins. It is imperative 
on him that he record facts as they are, freed from the gloss given them by 
verbal transmissions. 

Davis county ranks among the first in political influence, and is not be- 
hind in the intelligence of its people and its jealous regard for education; 
its material resources are practically unlimited, and the promise for its fu- 
ture ever brightening. Now, to clearly understand this happy present, its 
glories and its greatness, its opportunities and its wonders, it is our duty to 
look back to their sources. We shall find that the seeds which have so au- 
spicioush' borne fruit in this jjresent generation, were sown by men tried 
and true; men who deserve to be remembered, not merely as historic names, 


but as men in whose broad breasts beat the noblest hearts, and within whose 
rustic homes were to^be found the very bone and sinew of this "Western 
world; men whose sterling worth and integrity have contributed weyy largely 
to its present higli position. 

The whole history of this county is one of surpassing interest, and the 
more it is studied the clearer does it become that underlying its records are 
certain truths, which aiibrd a clew to the causes that have contributed so 
powerfully to bring it to its present marked prominence. They will be 
lound identical with those which have influenced the history of the nations 
during many centuries. To narrate these facts is the object of these pages; 
with what success this has been done, we do not presume to say. It has 
been our aim to learn and present the truth, without favor or prejudice. 
j.j It has heretofore been possible for the scholar, with leisure and a compre- 
hensive library, to trace out the written history of his county by patient re\ 
search among voluminous government documents and dusty records, some- 
times old and scarce; but tliese sources of information, and the time to study 
them, are not at the command of most of those who are intelligently inter- 
ested in local history; and there are many unpublished facts to be rescued 
from the failing memories of the oldest residents, who would soon have car- 
ried their information with them to the grave; and others to be obtained 
from the citizens best informed in regard to the various present interests 
and institutions of the county, which should be treated of in giving its his- 
tory. This service of research and record, which very few could have un- 
dertaken for themselves, the publishers of this work have performed. While 
a few unimportant mistakes may, perhaps, be found in such a multitude of 
details, in spite of the care exercised in the production of the volume, they 
still confidently present this result of many weeks' labor, as a true and or- 
derly narration of all the events in the history of the county which were of 
suflScient interest and value to merit such a record. 

Authenticity is always difficult in history. Much passes for history which 
is mere anecdote, and that domain is always doubtful. Other facts again, 
come to us through the prejudice and colors of personal narration. Great 
eare has, therefore, been necessary to prevent publishing misconceptions as 
history. There has been admitted no statement of fact without ample au- 
thority, and mentioned not even the slightest incident without the support 
of creditable testimony. Attention is called to one feature, considered of 
special value— the introduction of the original records for all transactions 
directly affecting the interests of the county. Concerning the first records, 
and the facts they teach, little or nothing need be said. Of this period in ; 
the county's history there have been explored for evidence, every known ear- 


ly document, and, wliere not mutilated, they have been presented in full. 
If, among the pages devoted to early settlers and settlements, the sentences 
seem short and broken, and the method of treatment faiiltj^ it should be 
borne in mind that the nature of the data renders any other method of pre- 
sentment impossible. Accuracy, rather than finish, has been the object held 
steadily in view. 

In the preparation of this volume, the oldest residents and others have 
cheerfully volunteered their services in the undertaking, adding largely to the 
value of the results obtained. Special thanks are due to tiie following named 
persons, who have not only aided us by placing at our disposition much val- 
uable matter, but have themselves devoted much time to searching recoi-ds, 
and afforded every opportunity in their power to perfect the chronological 
sequence and accuracy of the (hda used: Col. S. A. Moore, M. H. Jones, A. 
H. Hill, Col. H. H. Trimble, William S. Stevens, county auditor; Dr. Sell- 
man, Dr. D. C. Greenleaf, William Taylor, county clerk; S. M. Eppley> 
county treasurer; A. C. Lester, county recorder; Crawford Davis, proprietor 
of the Lerjal Tender Greenback; J. J. Hamilton, editor of the RepuTMcan; 
T. O. Walker, editor of the Democrat; J. R. Anderson, ex-county superin- 
tendent; F. W. Moore, deputy auditor; Samuel Russell; S. B. Downing, rep- 
resentative; James Jordon, the oldest resident of the county, and other old 
settlers in the various townships of tiie county. Throughout the county are 
many impossible to name here, who have freely given what of history they 
had. The clergy and other church officers, and those of civic associations, 
have been universally obliging in placing at our command the needed statis- 
tics of their several societies. 

Under the sway of cause and efi^ect, historic events cannot stand alone; they 
form an unbroken chain. This liistory of so limited a territory as a county in 
Iowa, has its roots not only in remote times, but in distant lands, and cannot 
be justly written out without consulting the influence of such a foreign ele- 
ment; nor can such a county history be understood in all its relations, without 
a historic review of at least the State of which the county is a part; hence, we 
feel that in giving such an outline we have been more taithful to the main 
purpose of the work, while we have added an element of independent interest 
and value. We little doubt that this book will be a welcome one to the in- 
habitants of the county, for all take a just pride in whatever calls to mind 
the scenes and incidents of other days. It is presented in the belief that the 
work done will meet with the heartiest approval of our readers ; and if, through 
that commendation, it awakens an earnest spirit of enterprise and emulation 
among the younger citizens of the county, it will be a source of just pleasure 

and congratulation to 

The Publishers. 


The Northwest Territory 19 

Geographical position 19 

Early explorations 20 

Discovery of the Ohio ■ 32 

English explorations and settlement 34 

American settlements 59 

Division of the Northwest Territory 65 

Tecumseh, and the War of 1812 69 

Black Hawk and the Black Hawk 

War 73 

Present condition of the Northwest 79 

The Early History of Illinois. . . 88 

Early discoveries 88 

Fii'st French occupation 91 

Genius of La Salle 92 

Early settlements 94 

The "Compact of 1787" 95 

Physical features of prairie States. . 99 

Progress of development 101 

Material Resources of the State 102 

Coal is king 103 

The religion and morals 106 

Education 107 

TuE State of Iowa 109 

Geographical situation 109 

Topography 109 

Drainage system 110 

Rivers Ill 

Lakes 118 

Springe 119 

Origin of the prairies 120 

Geology 120 

The Azoic system 121 

Lower Silurian system 122 

Upper Silurian system 123 

Devonian system 123 

Carboniferous system 124 

■■ Subcarboniferous system 124 

The Coal-measure group 127 

Cretaceous system 129 

Peat 130 

Gypsum 131 

Minor deposits of Sulphate of Lime 135 

Sulphate of Strontia 136 

Sulphate of Baryta 137 

Sulphate of Magnesia 137 

Climatology 137 

History of the State op Iowa 139 

Discovery and occupation 139 

The original o%vners 147 

Pike's Expedition 151 

Indian Wars 152 

The Black Hawk War 157 

Indian purchases, reserves and treat- 
ies 159 

Spanish Grants 163 

The Half-breed Tract 164 

Early settlements 166 

Territorial history 173 

The boundary question 177 

State organization 181 

Growth and progress 185 

The Agricultural College and Farm. 186 

The State University 187 

State Historical Society 198 

The Penitentiary 194 

Additional Penitentiary 195 

Iowa Hospital for the Insane 195 

Iowa College for the Blind 197 

Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. • 199 

Soldiers' Orphans' Homes 199 

State Normal School 201 

Asylum for Feeble-minded Children 201 

The Reform School 202 

Fish Hatching establishment 203 

The public lands 204 

The public schools. 218 

Political record 223 

War record 229 

Infantry 233 

Cavalry 244 

Artillery 247 

Miscellaneous 248 

Casualties among officers of Iowa regi- 
ments during the war 250 

Casualties among enlisted men of Iowa 

regiments during the war 252 

Number of troops furnished by the 

State of Iowa, etc 254 

Population of Iowa 255 

Illinois 257 

Indiana 259 

Iowa. 260 

Michigan 263 

Wisconsin 264 

Minnesota 266 

Nebraska 267 

Constitution of the United States and 

its Amendments 269 

Vote for governor 1879, and president, 

1876 ._ 283 

Vote for congressmen, 1876 283 

Practical i-ules for every day use 284 

U. S. government land measure 287 

Surveyor's measure 288 

How to keep accounts 288 


Names of the States of the Union, 

and their significations 290 

Population of the United States — 291 

Population of fifty principal cities. . 291 
Population of principal countries of 

the world 292 

Abstract of Iowa State Laws. ... 293 

Bills of exchange and notes 293 

Interest 293 

Descent 293 

"Wills and estates 294 

Taxes 295 

Jurisdiction of courts 297 

Limitations of actions 297 

Jurors 297 

Capital punishment 298 

Married women 298 

Exemptions from execution 298 

Estrays 299 

Wolf-scalps 300 

Marks and brands 300 

Damages from trespass 300 

Fences 300 

Mechanics' lien 301 

Roads and bridges 302 

Adoption of children 303 

Surveyors and sui-veys ,303 

Support of poor 303 

Landlord and tenant 304 

VV eights and measures 305 

Definitions of commercial terms... . 305 

Notes 306 

Orders 306 

Receipts 306 

Bills of purchase 306 

Confession of judgment 306 

Articles of agreement 307 

Bills of sale 308 

Notice to quit 309 

Form of will .309 

Codicil 310 

Satisfaction of mortgage 310 

Forms of mortgage 311 

Form of lease 312 

Form of note 313 

Chattel mortgage 314 

Warranty deed 314 

Quitclaim deed 315 

Bond for deed 815 

Charitable, scientific and religious 

associations 316 

Intoxicating liquors 317 

Suggestions to those purchasing 

books by subscription 319 

Statistics of agriculture of Iowa 

(census of 1875) 320 


Introduction 323 

Name and location 325 

Name 325 

Location 327 

Physical features 328 

Streams 328 

Timber 331 

Coal and stone 331 

Soil 332 

Climate 337 

Table of temperature from 1839 to 

1869 339 

Number days rain and snow, period 

of thirty years 340 

Observations of Miss Hamilton 341 

Geology 345 

Alluvium 346 

Drift 347 

Coal-measures 348 

Economical resources 350 

Natural history .351 

AvidiE — birds 352 

Notes .361 

PlantiB 367 

General flora 367 

Medicinal plants 373 

Reptilia 374 

Ophidia 375 

Batrachia 376 

Mollusca 378 

Fresh- water mollujks ... 378 

Land mollusks 379 


Mammals 380 

The red man 381 

The pioneers — their settlements and 

careers 385 

The Pioneer 388 

The Hairy Nation 39S 

First United States land entries 395 

County organization _ 39ft 

History of county and township or- 
ganization 399 

Organizing act 40O 

Act to amend the militia law 401 

Fixing terms of court 402 

Territorial roads 403 

Mail route 405 

Constitutional convention 405 

Early courts and judges 406 

First murder case ■ 408 

First divorce case 408 

First grand jury 408 

Petit jurors 409 

Circuit court 409 

County court 412 

Early recorded events 412 

Kirst marriage license 412 

Quill pens 413 

Public well 413 

Whiskey 414 

Town lot agency 415 

Official salaries 416 

The first judgment 418 

First town lot deed 419 


First chattel mortgage 419 

First real estate mortgage 420 

Cemetery 420 

County commissioners 421 

Township oi'ganizations 427 

Connty institutions 431 

"The old log court-house" 431 

New court-house to be erected 433 

Description of new court-house. . . . 434 

Thejail 435 

Poor-house and farm 436 

Deed of the poor farm 439 

Political record 444 

Othcial canvass, election of 1881. . . 467 

Financial review 468 

Ta.Kation — general remarks 468 

Tax levies from 184.'') to 1880 473 

Abstract of assessment foi- 1881 .... 478 

Swamp and saline lands 478 

|The railroads in the county 483 

North Missouri 485 

Burlington & Southwestern 486 

Chicago & Southwestern 486 

Des Moines Valley. 487 

Length and valuation, January 1, 

1881 487 

The press of Davis county 487 

General newspaper histoiy 487 

List of papers living and dead 494 

Davis County Republican 494 

Legal Tender Greenback 495 

Bloomfield Democrat 495 

Educational progress 496 

Table showing condition of schools 

in 1862...." 502 

Table showing condition of schools 

in 1879 503 

Table showing condition of schools 

inl880 503 

Statistical table for 1881 504 

Religious advancement 505 

The temperance cause 508 

Criminal history 510 

Execution of William Hinkle 512 

War recoi'd 514 

Proclamations 515 

Second Infantry 516 

Fourth Infantrv 519 

Sixth Infantry 519 

Thirteenth 1 nfantry 520 

Fourteenth Infantry 520 

Fifteenth Infantry 521 

Seventeenth Infantry 521 

Nineteenth Infantry 521 

Twenty-fourth Infantry 522 

Twenty- fifth Infantry 522 

Thirtieth Infantry 522 

Thirty-sixth Infantry 525 

Thirty-seventh Infantry 525 

First Cavalry 525 

Third Cavalry 526 

Seventh Cavalry 5:34 

Eighth Cavalry 585 

Ninth Cavalry .536 


Fourth Battery 537 

Additional enlistments: 

Second Iowa Cavalry 537 

Third Iowa Cavalry 537, 543 

Fifteenth Iowa Infantry .544 

Seventeenth Iowa Infantry 538 

Thirtieth Iowa Infantry .5.38 

Thirty-sixth Iowa Infantry 545 

Forty-fifth Iowa Infantry 538 

Forty-seventh Iowa Infantry 539 

Southern Border Brigade 545 

Tenth Missouri Infantry 546 

Twenty-fii'st Missouri Infantry. . . 547 

Seventh Missouri Cavalry 547 

Second Cavalry, M. S. M 648 

Veteran re-enlistments : 

Third Cavalry 539 

Second Infantry 542 

Thirteenth Infantry 542 

Fourteenth Infantry 542 

Fifteenth Infantry 542 

Seventeenth Infantry .543 

History of Davis county soldiers 549 

Southern border troubles 554 

Townships, towns and their growth. . -567 

Bloomaeld City 567 

Named 567 

Order of the board of supervisors. 568 

Deed conveying title 569 

Adoption of charter 570 

Election of officers 570 

Business houses in 1858 571 

Officers from 1866 to 1881 572 

Additions 573 

Churches 574 

Lodges 576 

Infirmary.... 579 

Schools .581 

Southern Iowa Normal School . . . 582 

Banks .582 

Public library 582 

Hotels .582 

Foundry 583 

Wagon factory 583 

Plow factory .583 

Lawyer's jokes 583 

Bloomfield township .585 

History 585 

Early officers 585 

First birth 586 

First physician -586 

Drakeville township 586 

Geography 586 

Name .586 

Early settlers 586 

L. N. English 586 

First death 586 

Other "first things'' -587 

Christian Church 587 

Lodges 587 

Drakeville... 589 

Fabius township 589 

Description 589 

Pioneers 589 



Monterey 589 

Early events 589 

Fox River township 590 

Composition 590 

Historical beginnings 590 

Grove township 590 

Place and name 590 

Stiles 591 

Stilesville Christian Church 591 

Lodges 591 

Lick Creek township 582 

Name 592 

Floris post-office 592 

Miscellaneons matters 592 

Chequest Union Baptist Church. 593 

Marion township .593 

For whom named 593 

Railroads 593 

Belknap 593 

First marriage, etc 593 

Wesley Chapel 594 

Perry township 594 

Hero of Lake Erie 594 

Early settlers 594 

Other matters 594 

Prairie township 595 

Physical geography 595 

First happenings 595 

Pulaski .596 

Roscoe township 59'( 

Population and location 597 

Ajax 59i: 

Miscellaneous events 59S 

Soap Creek township 598 

Name 598 

Early settlers, etc 598 

Salt Creek township 59f 

Name, etc 595 

Cliristian Church 60( 

Mr. Jordan and the centennial . . 60( 

Union township 60( 

Early settlers, mDls, etc 601 

Churches 605 

Lodges 605 

Stringtown 60.'- 

Troy 60£ 

Troy Academy 60c 

West Grove township 60;! 

Name, etc 60i 

West Grove 604 

Cumberland Presbyterian Church 604 

Christian Church 604 

Wyiicondah township 604 

Description 604 

The Hairy Nation 60f 

Savannah 60E 

Martinsville 606 

Springville 606 



Explanatory. . .' 607 

Bloomfield'City 608 

Bloomfield township , 642 

Drakeville township 656 

Fabius township 659 

Fox River township 665 

■Grove township 668 

Lick Creek township 675 

Marion township 680 


Perry township 688 

Prairie township 695 

Roscoe township 701 

Salt Creek township 706 

Soap Creek township 71C 

Union township 715 

Wyacondah township 727 

West Grove township 738 



H. H. Trimble Front. 

C.F.Davis 227 

W. A. Duckworth 261 

J. W. Beauchamp 279 

James H. Jordan 321 

E. J. Shelton, M. D 355 

W. H. Shelton, M. D 389 

R. W. Anderson 423 

Samuel Rnssell opposite 457 

J. C. Dooley " 489 

P. H. Bence " 521 

J. W. Young, M. D " 553 

D. N. Uooley, M. D " 685 

The Northwest Territory. 


When the Northwestern Teiritory uas ceded to the United States 
hy Virgiuiii in 1784, it embraced only the tenitory lying between the 
<Jliio and the Mississippi Rivers, and north to the northern limits of the 
United States. It coincided with the area now embraced in the States 
of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and that portion of 
.Minnesota lying on the east side of the Mississippi River. The United 
States itself at that period extended no farther west than the Mississippi 
River; but by the purchase of Louisiana in 1803, the western boundary 
of the United States was extended to the Rocky Mountains and the 
Northern Pacific Ocean. The new territory thus added to the National 
domain, and subsequently opened to settlement, has been called the 
*''New Northwest," in contradistinction from the old " North westein 
Territory. " 

In comparison with tiie old Northwest this is a territory of vast 
magnitude. It includes an area of 1,887,850 square miles ; being greater 
in extent than the united areas of all the Middle and Southern States, 
including Texas. Out of this magnificent territory have been erected 
eleven sovereign States and eight Territories, with an aggregate popula- 
tion, at the present time, of l.H,000.000 inhabitants, or nearly one third of 
the entire population of the LTnited States. 

Its lakes are fresh-water seas, and the larger rivers of the continent 
Mow for a thousand miles through its rich alluvial valleys and far- 
stretching prairies, more acres of which are ai-ablc and productive of the 
highest percentage of the cereals than of any other area of like extent 
on the globe. 

For the last twenty years the increase of population in the North- 
%vest has been about as three to one in any other portion of the United 





In the year 1.341, DeSoto first saw the Great West in the New 
World. He, however, penetiated no farther north than the 85th parallel 
of latitude. The expedition resulted in his death and that of more than 
half his army, the remainder of whom found tlicir way to Cuha, thence 
to Spain, in a famished and demoralized condition. DeSoto founded no 
settlements, produced no results, and left no traces, unless it were that 
he awakened the hostility of the red man against the white man, and 
disheartened such as might desire to follow up the career of discovery 
for better purposes. The French nation were eager and ready to seize 
upon any news from this extensive domain, and were the first to profit by 
DeSoto's defeat. Yet it was more than a century before any adventurer 
took advantage of tiiese discoveries. 

In 1616, four years before the pilgrims " moored their bark on the 
wild New England shore," Le Caron, a French Franciscan, had pene- 
trated through the Iioquois and Wyandots (Hurons) to the streams which 
run into Lake Pluron ; and in 1634, two Jesuit missionaries founded tlie 
first mission among the lake tribes. It was just one hundred years from 
the discovery of the Mississippi by DeSoto (1">41) until the Canadian 
envoys met the savage nations of the Noilhwest at the Falls of St. Mary, 
below the outlet of Lake S.uperior. Tins visit led to no permanent 
result; yet it was not until 1659 that any of the adventurous fur traders 
attempted to spend a Winter in the frozen wilds about the great lakes, 
nor was it until 1660 that a station was established upon their borders by 
Mesnard, Vv'ho perished in the woods a few months after. In 1665, Claude 
Allouez built tlie earliest lasting habitation of the white man among the 
Indians of the Nortliwest. In 1668, Claude Dablon and .lames Marquette 
founded the mission of Sault Ste. Marie at the Falls of St. Mary, and two 
vears afterward, Nicholas Perrot, as agent for jM. Talon, Governor Gen- 
eral of Canada, ex[)lored Lake Illinois (Michigan) as south as tlie 
present City of Chicago, and invited the Indian nations to meet him at a 
grand council at Sault Ste. Marie the following Spring, where they were 
taken under the protection of the king, and formal possession was taken 
of the Northwest. This same year Marquette established a mission at 
Point St. Ignatius, where was founded the old town of Michillimackinac. 

During ]\I. Talon's explorations and Marquette's residence at St. 
Ignatius, they learned of a great river away to the west, and fancied 
— as all others did then — that upon its fertile banks whole tribes of God's 
children resided, to \\hora the sound of the Gospel had never come. 
Filled with a wish to go and preach to them, and in compliance with a 


request of M. Talon, who earnestly desired to extend the domain of his 
king, and to ascertain whether the river flowed into the Gulf of Mexico 
or tlie Pacific Ocean, Marquette with Joiiet, as commander of the expe- 
dition, prepared for the undertaking. 

On the 13th of May, 1673, tlie explorers, accompanied by five assist- 
ant French Canadians, set out from Mackinaw on their daring voyage of 
discovery. The Indians, who gatheied to witness their dci)arture, were 
astonished at the boldness of the undertaking, and endeavored to dissuade 
them from tlieir purpose by representing the tribes on tlie Mississippi as 
exceedingly savage and cruel, and the river itself as full of all sorts of 
frightful monsters ready to swallow them and their c;!noes together. But, 
nothing daunted by these terrific descriptions, Marquette told them he 
was willing not only to encounter all the perils of the unknown region 
they were about to explore, but to lay down his life in a cause in which 
the salvation of souls was involved ; and having prayed together they 
separated. Coasting along the northern shore of Lake Michigan, the 
adventurers entered Green Bay, and passed thence up the Fox River and 
Lake Winnebago to a village of the Miamis and Kickapoos. Here Mar- 
quette was delighted to find a beautiful cross planted in the middle of tlie 
town ornamented with white skins, red girdles and bows and ariows, 
which these good pt'nple had offered to the Great Manitou, or God, to 
thank liiuj for the [)ity he had bestowed on them during the Winter in 
giving tliem an abundant " chase." This was the farthest outpost to 
■which Dablun and Allouez liad extended their missionary labors the 
} ear previous. Here ALirquette drank mineral waters and was instructed 
in the secret of a root wliich cuies tlie bite of the venomous rattlesnake. 
He assembled the chiefs and old men of the village, and, pointing to 
•liiliet, said: "■ My friend is an envov of France, to discover new coun- 
ti ies, and I am an ambassador fnuii God to enlighten them with the truths 
of the Gosj)el." Two Miami guides were here fuinished to conduct 
lliem to the Wisconsin River, and they set out from the Lidiau village on 
tlie 10th of June, amidst a great e;owd of natives who had assembled to 
witness their departure into a region where no white man had ever yet 
ventured. The guides, having conducted them across the portage, 
returned. The explorers launched their canoes upon the Wisconsin, 
which they descended to the Mississippi and proceeded down its unknown 
waters. What emotions must have swelled their breasts as they struck 
out into the broadening current and became conscious that they were 
now upon the bosom of ths Father of Waters. The mystery was about 
to be lifted from the long-sought river. The scenery in that locality is 
beautiful, and on that delightful seventeenth of June must have been 
clad in all its primeval loveliness as it had been adorned by the hand of 


Nature. Drifting rapidly, it is said that the bold bluffs on either hand 
"reminded tliem of the castled shores of their own beautiful rivers of 
Fi'ance." By-and-hy, as they drifted along, great herds of buffalo appeared 
on the banks. On going to the heads of the valley they could see a 
country of the greatest beauty and fertility, apparently destitute of iidiab- 
itants yet presenting tlie appearance of extensive manors, under the fas- 
tidious cultivation of lordly jjroprietors. 


On June 2 J, they went ashore and found some fresh traces of men upon 
the sand, and a path which led to the prairie. The men remained in (he 
boat, and Marquette and Joliet followed the path till they discovered a 
village on the banks of a river, and two other villages on a hill, Avithin a 
half league of the first, inhabited by Indians. They were received most 
hospitably by these natives, who had never before seen a white person. 
After remaining a few days they re-embarked and descended the river to 
iiliout latitude 33°, where they found a village of the Arkansas, and being 
satisfied that the river flowed into the Gulf of Mexico, turned their course 


up the river, and ascending the stream to tlie mouth of the Illinois, 
rowed up that stream to its source, and piocuied guides from that point 
to the hikes. " Nowhere on this journey." says Marquette, "'did we see 
such grounds, meadows, woods, stags, huEFaloes, deer, wildcats, bustaids, 
swans, ducks, parroquets, and even heavers, as on the Illinois River." 
The partjs without loss or injury, reached Green Bay iu Septemlier, and 
reported their discovery — one of the most important of the age, liut of 
which no i-ecoi'd was preserved save Marquette's. Joliet losing his iiy 
the upsetting of his canoe on his way to Qael)ee. Afterward Marquette 
returned to the Illinois Indians by tlieir request, and niiinstered to them 
until 1675. On the 18th of May, in that year, as he was passing the 
mouth of a stream — going with his boatmen up Lake Michigan — he asked 
; to land at its mouth and celebrate Mass. Leaving his men with the canoe, 
: he retired a short distance and began his devotions. As much time 
passed and he did not return, his men went in search of him, and found 
him upon his knees, dead. He had peacefully passed away while at 
' prayer. He was buried at this spot. Charlevoix, who visited the place 
fifty years after, found tire waters had retreated tioni the grave, leaving 
the beloved missionary to repose in peace, Tiie river has since been 
called Marquette. • 

While Marquette and his companions were pursuing their labors in 
the West, two men, differing widely from him and each other, were pre- 
paring to follow in his footsteps and perfect the discoveries so well begun 
by him. These were Robert de La Salle and Louis Henneiiin. 

•After La Salle's return from the discovery of the Ohio River (see 
' the narrative elsewhere), he established himself again among the French 
' trading posts in Canada. Here he mused long upon the pet project of 
those ages — a short way to China and the East, and was busily planning an 
expedition up the great lakes, and so across the continent to the Pacific, 
when Marquette returned from the Mississippi. At once the vigorous mind 
of LaSalle received from his and his companions' stories the idea that by fol- 
lowing the Great River northward, or by turning up some of the numerous 
western tributaries, the object could easily be gained. He ap[)lied to 
Frontenac, Governor General cf Canada, and laid before him the plan, 
dim but gigantic. Frontenac entered warmly into his plans, and saw that 
LaSalle's idea to connect the great iak3s by a chain of forts with the Gulf 
of Mexico would bind the country so wonderfully together, give un- 
measured power to France, and glory to himself, under whose adminis- 
tration he earnestl}^ hoped all would be realized. 

LaSalle now repaired to France, laid his plans before the King, who 
warmly approved of them, and made him a Chevalier. He also received 
from all the noblemen the warmest wishes for his success. The Chev- 



alier returned to Canada, and liusily entered upon his work. He at 
once rebuilt Fort Frontenac and constructed the first ship to sail on 
these fresh-water seas. On the 7th of August, 1679, having been joined 
by Hennepin, he began his voyage in the Griffin up Lake Erie. He 
passed over this lake, through the straits beyond, up Lake St. Clair and 
into Huron. In this lake they encountered heavy storms. They were 
some time at Micliillimackinac, where LaSalle founded r fort, and passed 
on to Green Bay, the " Bale des Puans " of the French, where he found 
,1 large quantity of furs collected for him. He loaded tlie Griffin with 
these, and placing her under the care of a pilot and fourteen sailors, 


Started her on her return voyoge. The vessel was never afterward heard 
of. He remained about these parts until early in the Winter, when, liear- 
mg nothing from the Griffin, he collected ail tiie men — thirty working 
men and three monks — and started again upon his great undertaking. 

By a short portage they passed to the Illinois or Kankakee, c.dled liy 
the Indians, "Thcakeke," wolf, because of the tribes of Indians calhd 
by that name, commonly known as the Mahingans, dwelling there. The 
French pronounced it Kiakiki, which became corrupted to Kankake<3. 
"Falling down the said river by easy journeys, the better to observe the 
country," about the last of December they reached a village of the Illi- 
nois Indians, containing some five hundred cabins, but at that moment 


no inhabitants. The Seui- de LaSalle being- in want of some bieadstuffs, 
took advantage of the absence of the Indians to help himself to a suffi- 
ciency of maize, large quantities of whicli he found concealed iu holes 
under the wigwams. This village was situated near the present village 
of Utica in LaSalle County, Illinois. Tiie corn being securely stored, 
the voyagers again betook themselves to the stream, and toward evening, 
on the 4t]i day of January, 1680, they came into a lake which must liave 
been the lake of Peoria. This was called b}' the Indians Pim-i-te-wi, that 
is, a place where there are many fat beasts. Here the natives were met 
with in large numbers, but they were gentle and kind, and having spent 
some time with them, LaSalle determined to erect another fort in that 
place, for he liad heard rumors that some of the adjoining tribes weie 
trying to disturb the good feeling which existed, and some of his men 
'. were disposed to complain, owing to the hardships and perils of the tiavel.' 
i He called this fort " Crevecoeur " (broken-heart), a name expressive of ilie 
very natural sorrow and anxiety which the pretty certain loss of his ship. 
Griffin, and his consequent impoverishment, the danger of hostility on tlie 
part of tiie Indians, and of mutin)'- among- his own men, might well cause 
him. His fears were not entirely groundless. At one time poison was 
placed in his food, but fortunately was discovered. 

While building this fort, the .Winter wore awa}^ the prairies began to 
look green, and LaSalle, despairing of any reinforcements, concluded to 
return to Canada, raise new means and new men, and embark anew in 
the enterprise. For this purpose he made Hennepin the leader of a party 
to exjilore the head waters of the Mississippi, and he set out on his jour- 
ney. This journey was accomplished with the aid of a few persons, and 
was successfully made, though over an almost u iknown route, and in a 
bad season of the year. He safely reach'id Cana Ja, and set out again for 
the object of his search. 

Hennepin and his party left Fort Crevecoeur on the last of February, 
1G80. Wlien LaSalle reached this place on his return expedition, he 
found the fort entirely' deserted, and he was obliged to return again to 
Canada. He embarked the third time, and succeeded. Seven days after 
leaving the fort, Hennepin reached the Mississippi, and paddling up the 
i"}- stream as best he could, reached no higher than the Wisconsin River 
by tlie 11th of April. Here he and his followers were taken prisoners by a 
hand of Northern Indians, who treated them with great kindness. Hen- 
nepin's comrades were Anthony Auguel and Michael Ako. On this voy- 
age they found several beautiful lakes, and " saw some charming prairies."' 
Their captors were the Isaute or Sauteurs, Chippewas, a tribe of the Sioux 
nation, who took them up the river until about the first of May, when 
they reached some falls, which Hennepin christened Falls of St. Anthony 



in honor of his patron saint. Here they took the land, and traveling 
nearly two hundred miles to the northwest, brought them to ttieir villages. 
Here they were kept about three months, weic treated kindly by chaiu 
captors, and at the end of that time, were met by a band of Frenchmen, 


headed by one Seur de Luth, who, in pursuit of trade and game, had pen&- 
;;-ated thus far bj' the route of Lake Superior ; and with these felloAT- 
couutrymen Hennepin and his companions were allowed to return to the 
borders of civilized life in November, 1680, just after LaSalle had 
returned to the wilderness on his second trip. Hennepin soon after wen: 
to France, where he published an account of his adventures. 


The Mississippi was first discovered by De Soto in April, 1541, in his 
vain endeavor to find gold and precious gems. In the following Spring, 
De Soto, weary with hope long deferred, and worn out with his wander- 
ings, fell a victim to disease, and on the 21st of May died. His followers, 
reduced by fatigue and disease to less than three hundred men, wandered 
about the country nearly a year, in the vain endeavor to rescue lliem- 
selves by land, and finally constructed seven small vessels, called brig- 
aulines, in wliich they embarked, and descending tiie river, supposing it 
would lead them to the sea, in July they came to the sea (Gulf of 
Mexico), and by September reached the Island of Cuba. 

They were the first to see the great outlet of the Mississippi; but, 
being so weary and discouraged, made no attempt to claim the eountiy, 

\ and hardly had an intelligent idea of what they had passed through. 

I To La Salle, the intrepid explorer, belongs the honor of giving tlie 

' first account of the mouths of the river. His great desire was to possess 
this entire country for his king, and in January, 1682, he and his band of 

I explorers left the shores of Lake Michigan on their third attempt, crossed 
tlie Portage, passed down the Illinois River, and on the 6th of February 
readied the banks of the Mississippi. 

On the loth they commenced their downward course, wliich thej^ 
pursued with but one interruption, until upon the 6th of March tliey dis- 
covered tlie three great passages by which the river discharges its waters 
into the gulf. La Salle thus narrates the event: 

" We landed on the bank of the most western channel, about three 
leagues (nine miles) from its mouth. On the seventh, M. de La Salle 
went to reconnoiter the shores of the neighboring sea, and M. de Tonti 
meanwhile examined the great middle channel. They found tlie main 
outlets beautiful, large and deep. On the eighth we reascended the river, 
a little above its confluence with the sea, to find a dry place beyond the 
reach of inundations. The elevation of the North Pole was h'ere about 
twenty-seven degrees. Here we prepared a column and a cross, and to 
tlie column were affixed the arms of France with this inscription : 

" Louis Le Grand, Roi de France et de Navarre, regne ; Le neuvieme April, 1682." 

The whole party, under arms, chanted the Te Deum, and then, after 
a salute and cries of '■'■Vive le Roi,'' the column was erected by M. de 
La Salle, who, standing near it, proclaimed in a loud voice the autliorit}' of 
the King of France. La Salle returned and laid the foundations of the Mis- 
sissippi settlements in Illinois ; thence he proceeded to France, where 
another expedition was fitted out, of which lie was commander, and in two 
succeeding voyages failed to find the outlet of the river by sailing along 
tlie shore of the gulf. On the third voyage he was killed, through the 


treachery of liis followers, and tlie object of his expeditions was not 
accomplished until 1G90, when D"Iberville, nnder the authority of the 
crown, discovered, on tlie second of March, by way of the sea, the mouth 
of the " Hidden River." .This majestic stream Avas called by the natives 
'■'■ MaUiouflua'' and by the Spaniards, '■'■la Palissade,'''' from the great 

V /^ *.(.. s: ^— tt 


< V 





' ^J^^ 


number of trees aijout its mouth. After traversing the several outlets, 
and satisfying himself as to its certainty, he erected a fort near its western 
outlet, and returned to France. 

An avenue of trade was now opened out which was fully improved. 
In 1718, New Orleans was laid out and settled by some European colo- 
nists. In 1762, the colony was made over to Spain, to be regained by 
France under the consulate of Napoleon. In 1803, it was purchased by 


the United States for the sum of fifteen million dollars, and the territory 
of Louisiana and commerce of the Mississippi River came under the 
charge of the United States. Although LaSalle's labors ended in defeat; 
and deatli, he h.ul not worked and suffered in vain. He had thrown 
open to France and tlie world an immense and most valuable country; 
had established several ports, and laid the foundations of more than one 
settlement ( iiere. " Peoria, Kaskaskia and Cahokia, are to this day monu- 
ments of LaSalle's labors ; for, though he had founded neither of them 
(unless Pe(uia, which was built nearly upon the site of Fort Crevecceur,) 
it was by those whom he led into the West that these places were 
peopled and civilized. He was, if not the discoverer, the first settler of 
the Mississippi Valley, and as such deserves to be known and honored."' 

Tlie French early improved the opening made for them. Before the 
year 1698, the Rev. Father Gravier began a mission among the Illinois, 
and founded Kaskaskia. For some time this was merely a missionarv 
station, where none but natives resided, it being one of three such vil- 
l.iges, the other two being Caliokia and Peoria. What is known of 
these missions is learned from a letter written by Father Gabriel IMarest, 
dated " Au.x; Cascaskias, autrement dit de llmmaculate Conception dc 
la Saintc Vierge, le 9 Novembre, 1712." Soon after the founding of 
Kaskaskia, the missionary, Pinet, gathered a flock at Cahokia, while 
Peoria arose near the ruins of Fort Crevecoenr. This must have been 
about the year 1700. The post at Vincennes on the Oubache river, 
(lironounced Wa-ba, meaning »iimmer cloud movlmj swiftly') was estab- 
lished in 1702, according to the best authorities.* It is altogether prob- 
able that on LaSalle's last trip he established the stations at Kaskaskia 
and Cahokia. In Jnl\', 1701, the foundations of Fort Ponchartraiii 
were laid by De la Motte Cadillac on the Detroit River. These sta- 
tions, with those establislied further nortli, were the earliest attempts to 
occupy the Northwest Territory. At the same time efforts were being 
made to occujiy the Southwest, which finally culminated in the settle- 
ment and founding of the City of New Orleans by a colony from England 
in 171S. This was mainly accomplished through the efforts of the 
famous MississijDpi Company, established by the notorious John Law, 
who so (piickly arose into prominence in France, and who with his 
scheme s-o quickly and so ignominiously passed away. 

From the time of the founding of these stations for fifty years the 
French nation were engrossed with the settlement of the lower Missis- 
sippi, and the war with the Chicasaws, who had, in revenge for repeated 

• There is consider.ible dispute .-ibout this dale, some asserting It was founded as late as 1742. When 
the new ourt house at Vini-enue.s was erected, all authorities on the subject were carefully examined, and 
J /OS fixed upou as the correct date. It was accordingly engraved on the corner-stone of the court house. 


injuries, cut oif tlie entire colony at Natchez. Although the compnny 
did little for Louisiana, as the entire West was then called, yet it opened 
the trade through the Mississippi River, and started the raising of grains 
indigenous to that climate. Until the year 1750, but little is known of 
the settlements in the Northwest, as it Avas not until this time that the 
attention of the English was called to the occupation of this portion of the 
New World, which they then supposed they owned. Vivier, a missionary 
among the Illinois, writing from " Anx Illinois," six leagues from Fort 
Chartres, June 8, 1750, says: "We have here whites, negroes and 
Indians, to say nothing of cross-breeds. There are five French villages, 
and three villages of the natives, within a space of twenty-one leagues 
situated between the Mississippi and another river called the Karkadaid 
(Kaskaskias). In the five French villages are, perhaps, eleven hundred 
whites, three hundred blacks and some sixty red slaves or savages. The 
three Illinois towns do not contain more than eight hundred souls all 
told. Most of the Frencli till the soil; they raise wheat, cattle, pigs and 
horses, and live like princes. Three times as much is produced as can 
be consumed; and great quantities of grain and flour are sent to New 
Orleans." This city was now the seajDort town of the Northwest, and 
save in the extreme northern part, where only furs and copper ore were 
found, almost all the products of the countiy found their way to France 
by the mouth of the Father of Waters. In another letter, dated Novem- 
ber 7, 1750, this same priest says: "For fifteen leagues above the 
mouth of the Mississippi one sees no dwellings, the ground being too low 
to be habitable. Thence to New Orleans, the lands are only partially 
occupied. New Orleans contains black, white and red, not more, I 
think, than twelve hundred persons. To this point come all lumber, 
bricks, salt-beef, tallow, tar, skins and bear's grease ; and above all, pork 
and flour from the Illinois. These things create some commerce, as forty 
vessels and more have come hither this year. Above New Orleans, 
plantations are again met with ; the most considerable is a colony of 
Germans, some ten leagues up the river. At Point Coupee, thirty-five 
leagues above the German settlement, is a fort. Along here, within five 
or six leagues, are not less than sixty habitations. Fifty leagues farther 
up is the Natchez post, where we have a garrison, who are kept prisoners 
through fear of the Chickasaws. Here and at Point Coupee, they raise 
excellent tobacco. Another hundred leagues brings us to the Arkansas, 
where we have also a fort and a garrison for the benefit of the river 
traders. * * * From the Arkansas to the Illinois, nearly five hundred 
leagues, there is not a settlement. There should be, however, a fort at 
the Oubache (Ohio), the only path by which the English can reach the 
Mississippi. In the Illinois country are numberless mines, but no one to 



work them as thej^ deserve." Father Slarest, writing from the post at 
Vincennesin 1812, makes the same observation. Yivier also says : " Some 
individuals dig lead near the surface and supply the Indians and Canada. 
Two Spaniards now here, who claim to be adepts, say that our mines are 
like those of Mexico, and that if we would dig deeper, we should find 
silver under the lead ; and at any rate the lead is excellent. There is also 
in this countrj-, beyond doubt, copper ore, as from time to time large 
pieces are found in the streams." 


At the close of the year 1750, the French occupied, in addition to the 
lower Mississippi posts and those in Illinois, one at Du Quesne, one at 
the Maumee in the country of the Miamis, and one at Sandusky in*what 
may be termed the Ohio Valley. In the northern part of the Northwest 
they had stations at St. Jose])h's on the St. Josejih's of Lake Michigan, 
at Fort Ponchartrain (Detroit), at Michillimackanac or Massillimacanac, 
Fox River of Green Bay, and at Sault Ste. Marie. The fondest dreams of 
LaSalle were now fully realized. The French alone were jjossessors of 
this vast realm, basing their claim on discovery and settlement. Another 
nation, however, was now turning its attention to this extensive country, 


iind hearing of its wealth, began to lay plans for occupying it and for 
securing the great profits arising therefrom. 

The French, liowever, had ancither claim to tliis country, niimely, liie 


This " Beautiful" river was discovered hy Robert Cavalier de La- 
Salle in 1669, four years before tlie discovery of the Mississipj>i by Joliet 
and Marquette. 

WJiile LaSalle was at his trading post on the St. Lawrence, lie found 
leisure to study nine Indian dialects, the chief of which was the Iroquois. 
He not only desired to facilitate his intercourse in trade, but he longed 
to travel and explore the unknown regions of the West. An incident 
soon occurred which decided him to fit out an exploring expedition. 

While conversing with some Senecas, he learned of a river called the 
Ohio, which rose in their country and flowed to the sea, but at such a 
distance that it required eight months to reach its mouth. In this state- 
ment the Mississippi and its tributaries were considered as one stream. 
LaSalle believing, as most of the French at that period did, that tlie great 
rivers flowing west emptied into the Sea of California, was anxious to 
embark in tlie enterprise of discovering a route across the conlaient to 
the commerce of China and Japan. 

He repaired at once to Quebec to obtain the approval of the Gov- 
ernor. His eloquent appeal prevailed. The Governor and the Intendant, 
Talon, issued letters patent authorizing the enterprise, but made no pro- 
vision to defray the expenses. At this juncture the seminary of St. Sul- 
pice decided to send out missionaries in connection with thq expedition, 
and LaSalle offering to sell his improvements at LaChine to raise money, 
the offer was accepted by the Superior, and two thousand eight hundred 
dollars were raised, with which LaSalle purchased four canoes and the 
necessary supplies for the outfit. 

On the 6th of Julj% 1669, the party, numbering twenty-four persons, 
embarked in seven canoes on the St. Lawrence; two additional canoes 
carried the Indian guides. In three days they were gliding over the 
bosom of Lake Ontario. Their guides conducted them directly to the 
Seneca village on the bank of the Genesee, in the vicinity of the present 
City of Rochester, New York. Here they expected to procure guides to 
conduct them to the Ohio, but in tins they were disappointed. 

The Indians seemed unfriendly' to the enterprise. LaSalle suspected 
that the Jesuits had prejudiced their minds against his plans. After 
waiting a month in the hope of gaining their object, they met an Indian 



from the Iroquois colony at the head of Lake Ontario, who assured them 
that they could there find guides, and offered to conduct them thence. 

On their way they passed the mouth of the Niagara River, when they 
licard for the first time the distant thunder of the cataract. Arriving' 


iiiGii nnrDGK, lake eluff, lake county, Illinois. 

among the Iroquois, they met with a friendly reception, and learned 
from a Shawauee prisoner that they could reach the Ohio in six weeks. 
Delighted with the unexpected good fortune, they made ready to resume 
their journey ; but just as they were about to start they heard of the 
arrival of two Frenchmen in a neighboring village. One of them proved 
to hi Louis Juliet, afterwards famous as an explorer in the West. Ha 


had been sent by the Canadiein Government to explore the copper mines 
on Lake Superior, but had failed, and was on his way back to Quebec. 
He gave the missionaries a map of the country he had explored in the 
lake region, together with an account of the condition of the Indians in 
that quarter. This induced the priests to determine on leaving the 
expedition and going to Lake Superior. LaSalle warned them that the 
Jesuits were probably occupying that field, and that they would meet 
with a cold reception. Nevertheless they persisted in their purpose, and 
after worship on the lake shore, parted from LaSalle. On arriving at 
Lake Superior, tliey found, as LaSalle had predicted, the Jesuit Fathers, 
Marquette and Dablon, occupying tlie field. 

These zealous disciples of Loyola informed them that they wanted 
no assistance from St. Sulpice, nor from those who made him" their patron 
saint ; and thus repulsed, they returned to Montreal tlie following June 
without having made a single discovery or converted a single Indian. 

After parting with the priests, LaSalle went to the chief Iroquois 
village at Onondaga, where he obtained guides, and passing thence to a 
tributary of the Ohio south of Lake Erie,' he descended the latter as far 
as the falls at Louisville. Thus was the Ohio discovered by LaSalle, the 
persevering and successful French explorer of the West, in 1669. 

The account of the latter part of his journey is found in an anony- 
mous paper, which purports to have been taken from the lips of LaSalle 
himself during a subsequent visit to Paris. In a letter written to Count 
Frontenac in 1667, shortly after the discovery, he himself says that he 
discovered the Ohio and descended it to the falls. This was regarded as 
an indisputable fact by the French authorities, who claimed the Ohio 
Valley upon another ground. When Washington was sent by the colony 
of Virginia in 1753, to demand of Gordeur de St. Pierre why the French 
had built a fort on the Monongahela, the haughty commandant at Quebec 
replied : " We claim the country on tlie Ohio by virtue of the discoveries 
of LaSalle, and will not give it up to the English. Our orders are to 
make prisoners of every Englishman'found trading in the Ohio Valley." 


When the new year of 1750 broke in upon the Fatlier of Waters 
and the Great Northwest, all was still wild save at the French posts 
already described. In 1749, when the English first began to think seri- 
ousl}' about sending men into the West, the greater portion of the States^ 
of Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota were ye™ 
under the dominion of the red men. The English knew, however, pretty 


conclusively of the nature of the wealth of these wilds. As early as 
1710, Governor Spotswood, of Virginia, hiid commenced movements to 
secure the country west of the AUeghenies to the English crown. In 
Pennsylvania, Governor Keith and James Logan, secretary of the prov- 
ince, from 1719 to 1731, represented to the powers of England the neces- 
sity of securing the Western lands. Nothing was done, however, by that 
power save to take some diplomatic steps to secure the claims of Britain 
to tliis unexplored wilderness. 

England had from the outset claimed from the Atlantic to the Pacific, 
on the ground that the discovery of the seacoast and its possession was a 
discovery and possession of the country, and, as is well known, her grants 
to tlie colonies extended " from sea to sea." This was not all her claim. 
She had purchased from the Indian tribes lai-ge tracts of land. This lat- 
ter was also a strong argument. As early as 1684, Lord Howard, Gov- 
ernor of Virginia, held a treaty with the six nations. Tliese were the 
great Northern Confederacy, and comprised at first the Mohawks, Onei- 
das, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. Afterward the Tuscaroras were 
taken into the confederac}', and it became known as the Six Nations. 
They came under the protection of the mother country, and again in 
1701, they repeated the agreement, and in September, 1726, a formal deed 
was drawn up and signed by the chiefs. The validity of this claim has 
often been disputed, but never successfully. In 1744, a purchase was 
made at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, of certain lands within the " Colony of 
Virginia," for which tlie Indians received .£.200 in gold and a like sum in 
goods, with a promise that, as settlements increased, more should be paid. 
The Commissioners from Virginia were Colonel Thomas Lee and Colonel 
William Beverly. As settlements extended, the promise of more pay was 
called to mind, and Mr. Conrad Weiser was sent across tlie mountains with 
presents to appease the savages. Col. Lee, and some Virginians accompa- 
nied him with the intention of sounding the Indians upon their feelings 
regarding the English. They were not satisfied with their treatment, 
and plainly told the Commissioners why. The English did not desire the 
cultivation of the country, but the monopoly of the Indian trade. In 
1748, the Ohio Company was formed, and petitioned the king for a grant 
of land beyond the AUeghenies. This was granted, and the government 
of Virginia was ordered to grant to them a half million acres, two hun- 
dred thousand of which were to be located at once. Upon the 12th of 
June, 1749, 800,000 acres from the line of Canada north and west was 
made to the Loyal Company, and on the 29th of October, 1751, 100,000 
acres were given to the Greenbriar Company. All this time the French 
were not idle. They saw that, should the British gain a foothold in 1' ^ 
West, especially upon the Ohio, they might not only prevent the French 


settling upon it, Ijut in time would come to the lower posts and so gain 
possession of the whole country. Upon tlie lOlh ot" May, 1774, Vaud- 
reuil. Governor of Canada and the French possessions, well knowing the 
consequences tliatmust arise from allowing the English to build trading 
posts in the Northwest, seized some of their frontier posts, and to further 
secure the claim of the French to the West, he, in 1719, sent Louis Cel- 
eron with a party of soldiers to plant along the Ohio River, in the mounds 
and at the mouths of its principal tributaries, plates of lead, on which 
were inscribed the claims of France. These were heard of in 17-52, and 
within the memory of residents now living along the " Oyo," as the 
beautiful river was called by the French. One of these plates was found 
with the iuscription partly defaced. It bears date August IG, 1749, and 
a copy of the inscription with particular account of the discovery of the 
plate, was sent by DeWitt Clinton to the American Antiquarian Society, 
among whose journals it may now be found.* These measures did not, 
however, deter the English from going on with their explorations, and 
though neither party resorted to arms, yet the conflict was gathering, and 
it was only a question of time when the storm would burst upon the 
frontier settlements. In 1750, Christopher Gist was sent by the Ohio 
Company to exa.nine its lands. He went to a village of the Twigtwees, 
on the Miami, about one Imndred and fifty miles above its mouth. He 
afterward spoke of it as very populous. From there he went down 
the Ohio River nearly to the falls at the present City of Louisville, 
and in November he commenced a survey of the Company's lands. Dur- 
ing the Winter, General Andrew Lewis performed a similar work for tlie 
Greenbriar Company. Meanwhile the French were busy in preparing 
their forts for defense, and in opening roads, and also sent a small party 
of soldiers to keep the Ohio clear. This party, having heard of the Eng- 
lish post on the Miami River, early in 1652, assisted by the Ottawas and 
Chippewas, attacked it, and, after a severe battle, in which fourteen of 
the natives were killed and others wounded, captured the garrison. 
(They were probably garrisoned in a block house). The traders were 
carried away to Canada, and one account says several were buined. Tliis 
fort or post was called by the Englisli Pickawillany. A memorial of the 
king's ministers refers to it as " Pickawillanes, in the center of the terri- 
.tory between the Ohio and tlie Wabash. Tlie name is probably some 
variation of Pickaway or Picqua in 1773, written by Rev. David Jones 

* The following'l3 a traiislatioa of the inscription on the plate: "In tlie year 1749. reign of Louis XV., 
ICiiij; of France, we, Celeron, commandant of a detachment l)y Monsienr the ISIarfiuis of Gallisoniere, cuia- 
niander-in-chief of Is'cw rrance, to estal>li9li tranquility in certain Indian villages of these cantons, have 
buried tins phite at the conflunice of the Toradalioin. this twenty- ninth of July, near tlie river Ohio, otherwise 
Reautiful River, as a monumt- nt of renewal of possession wMiich we have taken of the said river, and all its 
triljutaries; inasniuch as the prerediii^i Kings of France have enjoyed it, and maintaiued it by their arms auU 
treaties; especially by those ol Ryswicli, Utrecht, aud Aix La Cbapelle." 


This was the first l>lood shed between tli8 French and Englisli, and 
occurred near the present City of Piqna, Oliio, or at least at a i)oint about 
forty-seven miles north of Dayton. Each nation l)ecanie now more inter- 
ested in the progress of events in the Northwest. Tlie English deter- 
mined to purchase from the Indians a title to the lands they wished to 
occup3% and Messrs. Fry (afterward Commander-in-chief over Washing- 
ton at the commencement of the French War of 1775-1763), Lomax and 
Patton were sent in the Spring of 1752 to hold a conference with the 
natives at Logstown to learn what they objected to in the treaty of Lan- 
caster already noticed, and to settle all difficulties. On the 9th of June, 
these Commissioners met the I'ed men at Logstown, a little village. on the 
north bank of the Ohio, about seventeen miles Ijelow the site of Pitts- 
burgh. Here had been a trading point for ni:iny years, but it was aban- 
doned by the Indians in 1750. At first the Indians declined to recognize 
the treaty of Lancaster, but, the Commissioners taking aside Montour, 
the interpreter, who was a son of the famous Catharine Montour, and a 
chief among the six nations, induced him to use his influence in their 
favor. This he did, and upon the LUh of June they all united in signing 
a deed, confirming the Lancaster treaty in its full extent, consenting to a 
settlement of the southeast of the Ohio, and guaranteeing that it should 
not be disturbed by them. These were the means used to obtain the first 
treaty with the Indians in the Ohio Valley. 

Meanwhile the powers beyond the sea were trying to but-nianojuvre 
each other, and were professing to be at peace. . The English generally 
outwitted the Indians, and failed in many instances to fulfill their con- 
tracts. They thereby gained the ill-will of the red men, and further 
increased the feeling by failing to provide them Avith arms and ammuni- 
tion. Said an old chief, at Easton, in 1758: " The Indians on the Ohio 
left 30U because of your own fault. When we heard the French were 
coming, we asked you for help and arms, but we did not get them. The 
French came, they treated us kindl}-, and gained our affections. The 
Governor of Virginia settled on our lands for his own benefit, and, when 
we wanted help, forsook us." 

At the beginning of 1653, the English thought they had secured by 
title the lands in the West, but the French had quietly gathered cannon 
and military stores to be in readiness for the expected blow. The Eng-^ 
lish made other attempts to ratify these existing treaties, but not until 
the Summer could the Indians be gathered together to discuss the plans 
of the French. They had sent messages to the French, warning them 
away ; but they replied that they intended to complete the ciiain of forts 
already begun, and would not abandon the field. 

Soon after this, no satisfaction being obtained from the Ohio regard- 


ing the positions and jjurposes of the French, Governor Dinwiddie of 
Virginia determined to send to them anotlier messenQer and learn from 
them, if possible, tlieir intentions. For this purpose he selected a young 
man, a surveyor, who, at the early age of nineteen, had received the rank 
of major, and who was thoroughly posted regarding frontier life. This 
personage was no other than the illustrious George Washington, wlio then 
held considerable interest in Western lands. He was at this time just 
twenty-two years of age. Taking Gist as liis guide, the two, accompanied 
by four servitors, set out on their perilous march. They left Will's 
Creek on the 10th of November, 1753, and on the 22d reached the Monon- 
gahela, about ten miles above the fork. From there they went t: 
Logstown, where Washington had a long conference with the chiefs of 
the Six Nations. From them he learned the condition of the Freneli, and 
also lieard of their determination not to come down the river till the fol- 
lowing Spring. The Indians were non-committal, as they were afraid to 
turn either way, and, as far as they could, desired to remain neutral. 
Washington, finding nothing could be done with them, went on to 
Venango, an old Indian town at the mouth of French Creek. Here the 
French had a fort, called Foit Machault. Through the rum and flattery 
of tlie Frencli, he nearly lost all his Indian followers. Finding nothing 
of importance here, he pursued his way amid great privations, and on the 
11th of December reached the fort at the head of French Creek. Here 
lie delivered Governor Dinv/iddie's letter, received his answer, took his 
observations, and on the 16th set out upon his return journey with no one 
but Gist, his guide, and a few Indians wlio still remained true to him, 
notwithstanding tlie endeavors of the French to retain them. Their 
homeward journey was one of great peril and suffering from the cold, 3-et 
they reached liome in safety on the 6th of January, 1754. 

From the letter of St. Pierre, commander of the French fort, sent by 
Washington to Governor Dinwiddie, it was learned tliat the French would 
not give up without a struggle. Active preparations were at once made 
in all the English colonies for the coming conflict, wliile the French 
finislied the fort at Venango and strengthened their lines o'f fortifications, 
and gathered their forces to be in readiness. 

Tlie Old Dominion was all alive. Virginia was the center of great 
activities ; volunteers were called for, and from all the iieigliboring 
colonies men rallied to the conflict, and everywhere along the Potomac 
men were eulisting under the Governor's proclamation — which promised 
two hundred thousand acres on the Ohio. Along this river they were 
ECathering as far as Will's Creek, and far beyond this point, whither Trent 
had come for assistance for his little band of fortj-one men, who were 


working away in hunger and want, to fortify that point at the fork of 
the Ohio, to which both parties were looking with deep interest. 

" The fi\st birds of Spring filled the air with their song ; the swift 
river rolled hy the Allegheny hillsides, swollen by the melting snows of 
Spring and the April showers. The leaves were appearing ; a few Indian 
scouts were seen, but no enemy seemed near at hand ; and all was so quiet, 
that Frazier, an old Indian scout and trader, who had been left by Trent 
in command, ventured to his home at the mouth of Turtle Creek, ten 
miles up the Monongahela. But, though all was so quiet in that wilder- 
ness, keen e3"es had seen the low intrenchment rising at the fork, and 
swift feet had borne the news of it up the river; and upon the morning 
of the ITth of April, Ensign Ward, who then had charge of it, saw 
upon the Allegheny a sight thnt made his heart sink — sixty batteaux and 
three hundred canoes filled with men, and laden deep with cannon and 
stores. * * * That evening he supped with his captor, Contrecoeur, 
and the next day he was bowed off by the Frenchman, and with his men 
and tools, marched up the Monongahela." 

The French and Indian war had begun. The treaty of Aix la 
Chapelle, in 1748, had left the boundaries between the French and 
English possessions unsettled, and the events already narrated show the 
French were determined to hold the country watered by the Mississippi 
and its tributaries ; while the English laid claims to the country by virtue 
of the discoveries of the Cabots, and claimed all the country from New- 
foundland to Florida, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The 
first decisive blow had now been struck, and the first attempt of the 
English, through the Ohio Company, to occupy these lands, had resulted 
disastrously to them. The French and Indians immediately completed 
the fortifications begun at the Forlc, which they had so easily captured, 
and when completed gave to the fort the name of DuQuesne. Washing- 
ton was at Will's Creek when the news of the capture of the fort arrived. 
He at once departed to recapture it. On his way he entrenched him- 
self at a place called the " Meadows," where he erected a fort called 
by him Fort Necessity. From there he surprised and captured a force of 
French and Indians marching against him, but was soon after attacked 
in his fort by a much superior force, and was obliged to yield on the 
morning of July 4th. He was allowed to return to Virginia. 

The English Government immediately planned four campaigns ; one 
against Fort DuQuesne ; one against Nova Scotia ; one against Fort 
Niagara, and one against Crown Point. These occurred during 1755-6, 
and were not successful in driving the French from tlieir possessions. 
The expedition against Fort DuQuesne was led by the famous General 
Braddock, who, refusing to listen to the advice of Washington and those 


acquainted v.-ith Indian warfare, suffered such an inglorious defeat. Tiiis 
occurred on tlie morning of July 9th, and is generally known as the battle 
of Monongahela, or " Braddock's Defeat." The war continued with 
various vicissitudes through tlie years 1756-7 ; when, at the commence- 
ment of 1758, in accordance with the plans of William Pitt, tlieii Secre- 
tary of State, afterwards Lord Chatham, active preparations were made to 
carry on the war. Tliree expeditions were planned ior this year: one, 
under General Amlieist, against Louisburg ; another, under Abercrombie, 
against Fort Ticonderoga ; and a third, under General Forbes, against 
Fort DuQuesne. On the 2Gth of July, Louisburg surrendered after a 
desperate resistance of more than forty days, and the eastern part of the 
Canadian possessions fell into the hands of the British. Abercrombie 
captured Fort Frontenac, and when the expedition against Fort DuQuesne, 
of which Washington had the active command, arrived there, it was 
found in flames and deserted. The English at once took possession, 
rebuilt the fort, and in honor of their illustrious statesman, changed the 
name to Fort Pitt. 

The great object of the campaign of 1759, was the reduction of 
Canada. General Wolfe was to lay siege to Quebec ; Amherst was to 
reduce Ticonderoga and Crown Point, and General Prideaux was to 
capture Niagara. This latter place was taken in July, but the gallant 
Prideaux lost his life in the attempt. Amherst captured Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point witiiout a blow ; and Wolfe, after making the memor- 
able ascent to the Plains of Abraliam, on September 13th, defeated 
Montcalm, and on the ISth, the city capitulated. In this engagement 
Montcolra and Wolfe Ijoth lost their lives. De Levi, Montcalm's successor, 
marched to Sillery, three miles above the city, with the purpose of 
defeating the English, and tliere, on the 28th of tlie following April, was 
fought one of the bloodiest battles of the French and Indian War. It 
resulted in the defe.xt of tlie French, and the fall of the City of Montreal. 
Tlie Governor signed a capitulation by which the whole of Canada was 
surrendered to the English. This practically concluded the Avar, but it 
was not until 1763 that the treaties of peace between France and England 
were signed. This was done on t '3 10th of February of tliat year, and 
under its provisions all the country east of the Mississippi and north of 
the Iberville River, in Louisiana, were ceded to England. At the same 
time Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain. 

On tlie 13th of September, 1760, Maior Robert Rogers was sent 
from Montreal to take charge of Detroit, the only remaining French post 
in the territory. He arrived there on the 19th of November, and sum- 
moned the place to surrender. At first the commander of the post, 
Beletre. refused, but on the 29th, hearing of the continued defeat of the 


French arms, surrendered. Rogers remained there until December 23d 
under the personal protection of the celebrated chief, Pontiac, to whom, 
no doubt, he owed his safety. Pontiac had come here to inquire the 
purposes of the English in taking possession of the country. He was 
assured that they came simply to trade with the natives, and did not 
desire their country. Tliis answer conciliated tiie savages, and did much 
to insure the safety of Rogers and his party during their stay, and while 
on their journey home. 

Rogers set out for Fort Pitt on December 23, and was just one 
montii on the way. His route was from Detroit to Maumee, thence 
across the present State of Ohio directly to tiie fort. This was the com- 
mon trail of the Indians in their journeys from Sandusky to the fork of 
the Ohio. It went from Fort SanduskN^, where Sandusky City now is, 
crossed the Huron river, then called Bald Eagle Creek, to " Mohickon 
John's Town " on Mohickon Creek, the northern branch of White 
Woman's River, and thence crossed to Beaver's Town, a Delaware town 
on what is now Sandy Creek. At Beaver's Town were probably one 
hundred and fifty warriors, and not less than three thousand acres of 
cleared land. From there the track went up Sandy Creek to and across 
Big Beaver, and up the Ohio to Logstown, thence on to the fork. 

The Northwest Territory was now entirely under the English rule. 
New settlements began to be rapidly made, and the promise of a large 
trade was speedily manifested. Had the British carried out their promises 
with the natives none of those savage butcheries would have been perpe- 
trated, and the country would have been spared their recital. 

The renowned chief, Pontiac, was one of the leading spirits in these 
atrocities. We will now pause in our narrative, and notice the leading 
events in his life. The earliest authentic information regarding this 
noted Indian chief is learned from an account of an Indian trader named 
Alexander Henrj^ who, in the Spring of 1761, penetrated his domains as 
far as Missillimacnac. Pontiac was then a great friend of the French, 
but a bitter foe of the English, whom lie considered as encroaching on his 
hunting grounds. Henry was obliged to disguise himself as a Canadian 
to insure safety, but was discovered by Pontiac, who bitterly reproached 
him and the English for their attempted subjugation of the West. He 
declared that no treaty had been made with them ; no presents sent 
them, and that he would resent any possession of the West by that nation. 
He was at the time about fifty years of age, tall and dignified, and was 
civil and military ruler of the Ottawas, Ojibwas and Pottawatamies. 

The Indians, from Lake Michigan to the borders of North Carolina, 
were united in tiiis feeling, and at the time of the treaty of Paris, ratified 
February 10, 1763, a general conspiracy was formed to fall suddenly 





upon the frontier Britisli posts, and with one blow strike every man dead. 
Pontiac was tlie marked leader in all this, and was the commander 
of the Chippewas, Ottawas, Wyandots, Miamis, Shawanese, Delawares 
and jNIingoes, who had, for the time, laid aside their local quarrels to unite 
in this enterprise. 

The blow came, as near as can now be ascertained, on May 7, 176?'. 
Nine British posts fell, and the Indians drank, " scooped up in the hollow 
of joined hands," the blood of many a Briton. 

Pontiac's immediate field of action was the garrison at Detroit. 
Here, however, the plans were frustrated by an Indian woman disclosing 
the plot the evening previous to his arrival. Everything was carried out, 
however, according to Pontiac's plans until the moment of action, when 
Major Gladwyn, the commander of the post, stepping to one of the Indiari 
chiefs, suddenly drew aside his blanket and disclosed the concealed 
musket. Pontiac, though a brave man, turned pale and trembled. He 
saw his plan was known, and that the garrison were prepared. He 
endeavored to exculpate himself from any such intentions; but the guilt 
was evident, and he and his followers were dismissed with a severe 
reprimand, and warned never to again enter the walls of the post. 

Pontiac at once laid siege to tiie fort, and until the treaty of peace 
between the British and the Western Indians, concluded in August, 1764, 
continued to harass and besiege the fortress. He organized a regular 
commissariat department, issued bills of credit written out on bark, 
which, to his credit, it may be stated, were punctually redeemed. At 
the conclusion of the treaty, in which it seems he took no part, he went 
further south, living many years among the Illinois. 

He had given up all hope of saving his countr\' and race. After a 
time he endeavored to unite the Illinois tribe and those about St. Louis 
in a war with the whites. His efforts were fruitless, and only ended in a 
quarrel between himself and some Kaskaskia Indians, one of whom soon 
afterwards killed him. His death was, however, avenged by the northern 
Indians, who nearly exterminated the Illinois in the wars which followed. 

Had it not been for the treachery of a few of his followers, his plan 
for the extermination of the whites, a masterly one, would undoubtedly 
have been carried out. 

It was in the Spring of the year following Rogers' visit that Alex- 
ander Henr}- went to Missillimacnac, and everywhere found the strongest 
feelings against the English, who had not carried out their promises, and 
were doing nothing to conciliate the natives. Here he met the chief, 
Pontiac, who, after conveying to him in a speech the idea that their 
French father would awake soon and utterly destroy his enemies, said : 
" Englishman, although you have conquered the French, you have not 


yet conquered us ! AVe are not your slaves! These lakes, these woods, 
these mountains, were left us by our ancestors. They are our inheritance, 
and we will part with them to none. Your nation supposes that we, like 
the white people, can not live without bread and pork and Ijeef. But you 
ought to know that He, the Great Spirit and Master of Life, has provided 
food for us upon tliese broad lakes and in these mountains." 

He tlien spoke of the fact that no treaty had been made with them, 
no piesents sent them, and that he and his people were yet for war. 
Sucli were the feelings of the Northwestern Indians immediately after 
tiie English took possession of their countr)'. Tiiese feelings were no 
doubt encouraged by the Canadians and French, who hoped that yet the 
French aims might prevail. The treaty of Paris, however, gave to the 
English the right to this vast domain, and active preparations were going 
on to occupy it and enjoy its trade and emoluments. 

In 1762, France, by a secret treaty, ceded Louisiana to Spain, to pre- 
vent it falling into the hands of the English, who were becoming masters 
of the entire West. Tiie next year the treaty of Paris, signed at Fon- 
tainbleau, gave to the English the domain of the country in question. 
Twenty years after, by the treaty of peace between the United States 
and England, that part of Canada lying south and west of the Great 
Lakes, comprehending a large territory which is the subject of these 
sketches, was acknowledged to be a portion of the United States ; and 
twenty yeai's still later, in 1803, Louisiana was ceded by Spain back to 
France, and by France sold to the United States. 

In the half centur}', from the building of the Fort of Crevecoeur by 
LaSalle. in 1680, up to the erection of Fort Chartres, many French set- 
tlements had been made in that quarter. These have already been 
noticed, being those at St. Vincent (Vincennes), Kohokia or Cahokia, 
Kaskaskia and Prairie du Rocher, on tlie American Bottom, a large tract 
of liuh alluvial soil in Illinois, on the Mississippi, opposite the site of St. 

By the treaty of Paris, the regions east of the Mississippi, including 
all these and other towns of the Northwest, were given over to England; 
but they do not appear to have been taken possession of until 1765, when 
Captain Stirling, in the name of the Majesty of England, established him- 
self at Fort Ciiartres bearing with him the proclamation of General Gage, 
dated December 30, 1764, which promised religious freedom to all Cath- 
olics who worshiped here, and a right to leave the country Avith their 
effects if they wished, or to remain with the privileges of Englishmen, 
It was shortl)' after the occupancy of the West by tiie British that the 
war with Ponti'ac opened. It is already noticed in the sketch of that 
chieftain- By it many a Briton lost his life, and many a frontier settle- 


tnent in its infancy ceased to exist. This was not ended until the year 
17G4, wlien, failing to captui-e Detroit, Niagara and Fort Pitt, his confed- 
eracy became disheartened, and, receiving no aid from the French, Pon- 
tiae abandoned the enterprise and departed to the Illinois, among whom 
he afterwaid lost his life. 

As soon as these difficulties were definitely settled, settlers began 
rapidly to survey the country and prepare for occupation. During the 
year 1770, a number of persons from Virginia and other British provinces 
explored and marked out nearly all the valuable lands on the Mononga- 
hela and along the banks of the Ohio as far as the Little Kanawha. Tliis 
was followed by another exploring expedition, in which George Washing- 
ton was a party. The latter, accompanied by Dr. Craik, Capt. Crawford 
and others, on the 20th of October, 1770, descended the Ohio from Pitts- 
burgh to tlie mou'h of the Kanawha ; ascended that stream about fourteen 
miles, marked out several large tracts of land, shot several buffalo, which 
were then abundant in the Ohio Valley, and returned to the fort. 

Pittsburgh was at this time a trading post, about which was clus- 
tered a village of some twenty houses, inhabited by Indian traders. This 
jSame year, Capt. Pittman visited Kaskaskia and its neighboring villages. 
He found there about sixty-five resident families, and at Cahokia only dwellings. At Fort Chartres was another small settlement, and 
lit Detroit the garrison were quite prosperous and strong. For a year 
or two settlers continued to locate near some of these posts, generally 
Fort Pitt or Detroit, owing to the fears of the Indians, who still main- 
tained some feelings of hatred to the English. The trade from the posts 
was quite good, and from those in Illinois large quantities of pork and 
fldur found their way to the New Orleans market. At this time the 
policy of the British Government was strongly opposed to the extension 
of the colonies west. In 1763, the King of England forbade, by royal 
proclamation, his colonial subjects from making a settlement beyond the 
sources of the rivers which fall into the Atlantic Ocean. At the instance 
of the Board of Trade, measures were taken to prevent the settlement 
witliout the limits prescribed, and to retain the commerce within easy 
reach of Great Britain. 

The commander-in-chief of the king's forces wrote in 17G9 : " In the 

course of a few years necessity will compel the colonists, should they 

extend their settlements west, to provide manufactures of some kind for 

themselves, and when all connection upheld by commerce with the mother 

ountry ceases, an independency in their government will soon follow." 

In accordance with this policy. Gov. Gage issued a proclamation 
in 1772, commanding the inhabitants of Vincennes to abandon their set- 
tlements and join some of the Eastern English colonies. To this they 


strenuously objected, giving good reasons therefor, and -were allowed to 
remain. The strong opposition to this policy of Great Britain led to its 
change, and to such a course as to gain the attachment of the French 
population. In December, 1773, influential citizens of Quebec petitioned 
the king for an extension of the boundary lines of that province, which 
was granted, and Parliament passed an act on Juno 2, 1774, extend- 
ing the boundary so as to include the territory lying within the present 
States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Michigan. 

In consequence of the liberal policy pursued by the British Govern- 
ment toward the French settlers in the West, they were disposed to favor 
that nation in the war which soon followed with the colonies ; but the 
early alliance between France and America soon brought them to the side 
of the war for independence. 

In 1774, Gov. Dunmore, of Virginia, began to encourage emigration 
to the Western lands. He appointed magistrates at Fort Pitt under the 
pretense that the fort was under the government of that commonwealth. 
One of these justices, John Connelly, who possessed a tract of land in the 
Ohio Valley, gathered a force of men and garrisoned the fort, calling it 
Fort Dunmore. This and other parties were formed to select sites for 
settlements, and often ca;ne in conflict with the Indians, who yet claimed 
portions of the valley, and several battles followed. These ended in the 
famous battle of Kanawha in July, where the Indians were defeated and 
driven across the Ohio. 

During the years 1775 and 1776, by the operations of land companies 
and the perseveranceof individuals, several settlements were firmly estab- 
lished between the Alleghanies and the Ohio River, and wester::> land 
speculators were busy in Illinois and on the Wabash. At a council held 
in Kaskaskia on July 5, 1773, an association of English traders, calling 
themselves the " Illinois Land Company," obtained from ten chiefs of the 
Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Peoria tribes two large tracts of land lying on 
the east side of the Mississippi River southof the Illinois. In 1775, a mer- 
chant from the Illinois Country, named Viviat, came to Post Vincennes 
as the agent of the association called the "Wabash Land Company. " On 
the 8th of October he obtained from eleven Piankeshaw chiefs, a deed for 
37,497,600 acres of land. This deed was signed by the grantors, attested 
by a number of the inhabitants of Vincennes, and afterward recorded in 
the office of a notary public at Kaskaskia. This and other land com- 
panies had extensive schemes for the colonization of the West ; but all 
were frustrated by the breaking out of the Revolution. On the 20th of 
April, 17fcO, the two companies named consolidated under the name of the 
" United Illinois and Wabash Land Company." They afterward made 


Btrenuous efforts to have these giants sanctioned by Congress, but all 
siyiially failed. 

When the War of the Revolution commenced, Kentucky was an unor- 
ganized country, though tliere were several settlements within her borders. 

In Hutchins' Topography of Virginia, it is stated tliat at that time 
" Kaskaskia contained 80 houses, and nearly 1,000 Avhite and black in- 
habitants — the whites being a little the more numerous. Cahokia con- 
tains 50 houses and 300 white inhabitants, and SO negroes. There were 
east of the Mississippi River, about the year 1771 " — when these observa- 
tions were made — " 300 white men capable of bearing arms, and 230 

From 1775 until the expedition of Clark, nothing is recorded and 
nothing known of these settlements, save what is contained in a report 
made by a committee to Congress in June, 1778. From it the following 
extract is made : 

"Near the mouth of the River Kaskaskia, there is a village which 
appeals to have contained nearly eiglity families from the beginning of 
the late revolution. There are twelve lamilies in a small village at la 
Prairie dii Rochers, and near fifty families at the Kahokia Village. There 
are also four or five families at Fort Chartres and St. Philips, which is five 
miles further up the river." 

St. Louis had been settled in February, 1764, and at this time con- 
tained, including its neighboring towns, over six hundred whites and one 
liundred and fifty negroes. It must be remembered that all the country 
west of the Mississippi was now under French rule, and remained .so until 
ceded again to Spain, its original owner, who afterwards sold it and the 
country including New Orleans to the United States. At Detroit there 
Were, according to Capt. Carver, who was in the Northwest from 176G to 
17G8, more than one hundred houses, and the river was settled fci' more 
than twenty miles, although poorl}- cultivated — the people being engaged 
in t!ie Indian trade. This old town has a history, which we will here 

It is the oldest town in the Northwest, having been founded by 
Antoine de Lamotte Cadillac, in 1701. It was laid out in the form of an 
oblong square, of two acres in length, and an acre and a half in width. 
As described by A. D. Frazer, who first visited it and became a permanent 
resident of the place, in 1X78, it comprised within its limits that space 
between Mr. Palmer's store (Conant Block) and Capt. Perkins' house 
(near the Arsenal building), and extended back as far as the public barn, 
and was bordered in front by the Detroit River. It was surrounded by 
oak and cedar pickets, about fifteen feet long, set in the ground, and had 
four gates — east, west, north and south. Over the first tkree of these 


gate;* were block lidines provided with four guns apiere, each a, bix- 
pouiider.. Two six-gun batteries were planted fronting the river and iu a 
parallel divectiou with the blo^k jiouses. There were four streets running 
east and west, the main street being twenty feet wide and tlio rest fifteen 
feet, while the four streets crossing these at right angles were from tenj 
to fifteen feet in width. 

At the date spoken of by ]Mr. Frazer, there was no fort within the' 
enclosure, but a citadel on the ground corresponding to the p/esent 
northwest corner of Jefferson Avenue and Wayne Street. The citadel was 
inclosed by pickets, and within it were erected barracks of wood, two 
stories high, sufficient to contain ten oflBcers, and also barracks sufficient 
to contain four hundred men, and a provision store built of brick. The 
citadel also contained a hospital and guard-house. The old town of 
Detroit, in 1T7S, contained about sixty houses, most of them one story, 
with a few a story and a half in height. Tliey were all of logs, some 
hewn and some round. There was one building of splendid ajj^jcarance, 
called the " King's Palace," two stories high, which stood near the east 
gate. It was built for Governor Hamilton, the first governor commissioned 
by the British. Tiiere were two guard-houses, one near the west gate and 
ihe other near the Government House. Each of the guards consisted of 
twenty-four men and a subaltern, who mounted regularly every morning 
between nine and ten o'clock, Each furnished four sentinels, who were 
relieved every two hours. There was also an officer of the da}', who per- 
formed strict dutj'. Each of the gates was shut regularly at sunset, 
even wicket gates were shut at nine o'clock, and all the kej-s were 
delivered into the hands of the commanding officer. They were opened, 
in the morning at sunrise. No Indian or squaw was permitted to enter 
town with any -weapon, such as a tomahawk or a knife. It was a stand- 
ing order that the Indians should deliver their arms and instruments of 
every kind before they were permitted to pass the sentinel, and they were 
restored to them on their return. No more than twenty-five Indians were 
allowed to enter the town at any one time, and they were admitted only 
at the east and west gates. At sundown the drums beat, and all the 
Indians were required to leave town instantl}'. There was a council house 
near the water side for the purpose of holding council with the Indians. 
The population of the town was about sixty families, in all about two 
hundred males and one hundred females. This town was destroyed by 
lire, all except one dwelling, in 1805. After which the present •' new" 
town was laid out. 

On the breaking out of the Revolution, the British held every post of 
importance in tlie West. Kentucky was formed as a component part of 
V'irginia, and the sturdy jjioneers of the West, alive to their interests, 


and recognizing the great benefits of obtaining the control of the trade in 
this part of tlie New Wojld, hekl steadily to tlieir purposes, and those 
within the commonwealth of Kentucky proceeded to exercise their 
civil privileges, by electing John Todd and Itichard Gallaway, 
burgesses to represent them in the Assembly of the parent state. 
Early in September of that year (1777) the fiist court was held 
in Harrodsburg, and Col. Bowman, afterwards major, who had arrived 
in August, was made the connnander of a militia organization which 
had been commenced the March previous. Thus the tree of loyalty 
was growing. The chief spirit in tliis far-out colony, who had represented 
her the year previous east of the mountains, was now meditating a move 
unequaled in its boldness. He had been watching the movements of the 
British tiiroughout the Nortiiwest, and understood tlieir whole plan. Ht 
saw it was through tlieir possession of the posts at Detroit, Vincennes, 
Kaskaskia, and other places, which would give them constant and easy 
access to the various Indian tribes in the Northwest, that the British 
intended to penetrate the country from the north and soutn, ana annihi- 
late the frontier fortresses. This moving, energetic man was Colonel, 
afterwards General, George Rogers Clark. He knew the Indians were not 
unanimously in accord with the English, and he was convinced that, could 
the British be defeated and expelled from the Northwest, the natives 
might be easily awed into neutrality ; and by spies sent for the purpose, 
he satisfied himself that the enterprise against the Illinois settlements 
might easily succeed. Having convinced himself of the certainty of the 
project, lie repaired to the Capital of Virginia, wliicli place he reached on 
November 5th. While he was on his way, fortunately, on October 17th, 
Burgoyne had been defeated, and the spirits of the colonists greatly 
encouraged thereby. Patrick Henry was Governor of Virginia, and at 
once entered heartily into Clark's plans. The same plan had before been 
■agitated in the Colonial Assemblies, but there was no one until Clark 
came who was sufficiently acquainted with the condition of affairs at the 
scene of action to be able to guide them. 

Clark, having satisfied the Virginia leaders of the feasibility of his 
plan, received, on the 2d of January, two sets of instructions — one secret, 
the other open — the latter authorized him to proceed to enlist seven 
companies to go to Kentucky, subject to liis orders, and to serve three 
months from their arrival in the West. The secret order authorized him 
to arm these troops, to procure his powder and lead of General Hand 
at Pittsburgh, and to proceed at once to subjugate the coiintiy. 

With these instructions Clark repaired to Pittsburgh, choosing rather 
to raise his men west of the mountains, as he well knew all were needed 
in the colonies in the conflict there. He sent Col. W, B. Smith to Hoi- 


ston for the same purpose, but neither succeeded in raising the required 
number of men. Tiie settlers in these parts were afraid to leave their 
own firesides exposed to a vigilant foe, and but few could be induced to 
join the projDosed expedition. With three companies and several private 
volunteers, Clark at length commenced his descent of the Ohio, which he 
navigated as far as the Falls, where he took possession of and fortified 
Corn Island, a small island between the present Cities of Louisville, 
Kentucky, and New Albany, Indiana. Remains of this fortification may 
yet be found. At this place he appointed Col. Bowman to meet him 
with such recruits as had reached Kentucky by the southern route, and 
as many as could be spared from the station. Here he announced to 
the men their real destination. Having completed his arrangements, 
and chosen his party, he left a small garrison upon the island, and on the 
2-l:th of June, during a total eclipse of the sun, which to them augured 
no good, and which fixes beyond dispute the date of starting, he with 
his chosen band, fell down the river. His plan was to go by water as 
far as Fort Massac or Massacre, and thence march direct to Kaskaskia. 
Here he intended to surprise the garrison, and after its capture go to 
Cahokia, then to Vincennes, and lastly to Detroit. Should he fail, he 
intended to march directly to the Mississippi River and cross it into the 
Spanish country. Before his start he received two good items of infor- 
mation : one that the alliance had been formed between France and the 
United States; and the other that the Indians throughout the Illinois 
country and the inhabitants, at the various frontier posts, had been led to 
believe by the British that the " Long Knives" or Virginians, were the- 
most fierce, bloodthirsty and cruel savages that ever scalped a foe. With 
this impression on their minds, Clark saw that proper management would 
cause them to submit at once from fear, if surprised, and then from grati- 
tude would become fi-iendly if treated with unexjjected leniency. 

The march to Kaskaskia was accomplished through a hot July sun, 
and the toAvn reached on the evening of July 4. He captured the fort 
near the village, and soon after the village itself by surprise, and without 
the loss of a single man or bj^ killing any of the enemy. After sufficientl}^ 
working upon the fears of the natives, Clark told them they were at per- 
fect liberty to worship as they pleased, and to take whichever side of the 
great conflict they would, also he would protect them from any barbarity 
from British or Indian foe. This had the desired effect, and the inhab- 
itants, so unexpectedly and so gratefully surprised by the unlooked 
for turn of affairs, at once swore allegiance to the American arms, and 
when Clark desired to go to Cahokia on the 6th of July, they accom- 
panied him, and through tiieir influence the inhabitants of the place 
surrendered, and gladly placed themselves under his protection. Thus 


the two important posts in Illinois passed from the hands of the English 
into the possession of Virginia. 

In the person of the priest at Kaskaskia, M. Gibault, Clark found a 
powerful ally and generous friend. Clark saw tiiat, to retain possession 
of the Northwest and treat successfully with the Indians witiiin its boun- 
daries, he must establish a government for the colonies he had taken. 
St. Vincent, the next important post to Detroit, remained yet to be taken 
before the Mississippi Valley was conquered. M. Gibault told him that 
he would alone, by persuasion, lead Vincennes to throw off its connection 
with England. Clark gladly accepted his offer, and on the 14th of July, 
in company with a fellow-townsman, M. Gibault started on his mission of 
peace, and on the 1st of August returned with the cheerful intelligence 
that the post on the " Oubache " had taken the oath of allegiance to 
the Old Dominion. During this interval, Clark established his courts, 
placed garrisons at Kaskaskia and Cahokia, successfully re-enlisted his 
men, sent word to have a fort, which proved the germ of Louisville, 
erected at the Falls of the Ohio, and dispatched Mr. Rocheblave, wiio 
had been commander at Kaskaskia, as a prisoner of war to Richmond. 
In October the County of Illinois was established by the Legislature 
of Virginia, John Todd appointed Lieutenant Colonel and Civil Governor, 
and in November General Clark and his men received the thanks of 
the Old Dominion through their Legislature. 

In a speech a few days afterward, Clark made known fully to the 
natives his plans, and at its close all came forward and swore alle- 
giance to the Long Knives. While he was doing this Goveinor Hamilton, 
having made his various arrangements, had left Deti'oit and moved down 
tiie Waljash to Vincennes intending to operate from that point in reducing 
the Illinois posts, and then proceed on down to Kentucky ai'd drive the 
rebels from the West. Gen. Clark had, on the return of M. Gibault, 
dispatched Captain Helm, of Fauquier County, Virginia, with an attend- 
ant named Henry, across the Illinois prairies to command the fort. 
Hamilton knew nothing of the capitulation of the post, and was greatly 
surprised on his arrival to be confronted by Capt. Helm, who, standing at 
tiie entrance of the fort by a loaded cannon ready to fire upon his assail- 
ants, demanded upon what terms Hamilton demanded possession of the 
fort. Being granted the rights of a prisoner of war, he surrendered to 
the Britisii General, who could scarcely believe his eyes when he saw the 
force in the garrison. 

Hamilton, not realizing the character of the men with whom he was 
contending, gave up his intended campaign for the Winter, sent his four 
hundred Indian warriors to prevent troops from coming down the Ohio, 


<and to annoy the Americans in all ways, and sat quietly down to pass the 
Winter. Information of all these proceedings having reached Clark, he 
saw that immediate and decisive action was necessary, and that unless 
he captured Hamilton, Hamilton would capture him. Clark received the 
news on the 29th of January, 1779, and on February 4th, having suffi- 
ciently garrisoned Kaskaskia and Cahokia, he sent down the Mississippi 
a " battoe," as Major Bowman writes it, in order to ascend the Ohio and 
Wabash, and operate with the land forces gathering for the fray. 

On the next day, Clark, with his little force of one hundred and j 
twenty men, set out for the post, and after incredible hard marching 
through much mud, the ground being thawed by the incessant spring- 
rains, on the 22d reached the fort, and being joined bj^ his " battoe," at 
once commenced the attack on the post. The aim of the American back- 
woodsman was unerring, and on the 24th the garrison surrendered to the 
intrepid boldness of Clark. The French were treated with great kind- 
ness, and gladly renewed their allegiance to Virginia. Hamilton was 
sent as a prisoner to Virginia, where he was kept in close confinement. 
During his command of the British frontier posts, he had offered prizes 
to the Indians for all the scalps of Americans they would bring to him, 
and had earned in consequence thereof the title " Hair-buyer General," 
by which he was ever afterward known. 

Detroit was now without doubt within easy reach of the enterprising 
Virginian, could he but raise the necessaiy force. Governor Henry being 
apprised of this, promised him the needed reinforcement, and Clark con- 
cluded to wait until he could capture and sufficiently garrison the posts. 
Had Clark failed in this bold undertaking, and Hamilton succeeded in 
uniting the western Indians for the next Spring's campaign, the West 
would indeed have been swept from the Mississippi to the Allegheny 
Mountains, and the great blow struck, which had been contemplated from 
the commencement, by the British. 

" But for this small army of dripping, but fearless Virginians, the 
union of all the tribes from Georgia to Maine against the colonies might 
have been effected, and the whole current of our history changed." 

At this time some fears were entertained by the Colonial Govern- 
ments that the Indians in the North and Northwest were inclining to the 
British, and under the instructions of Washington, now Commander-in- 
Chief of the Colonial army, and so bravely fighting for American inde- 
pendence, armed forces were sent against the Six Nations, and upon the 
Ohio frontier. Col. Bowman, acting under the same general's orders, 
marched against Indians within the present limits of that State. These 
expeditions were in the main successful, and the Indians were compelled 
to sue for peace. 


During this same year (1779) the famous " Land Laws" of Virginia 
were passed. The passage of these laws was of more consequence to the 
pioneers of Kentucky and the Northwest than the gaining of a few Indian 
conflicts. These laws confirmed in main all grants made, and guaranteed 
to all actual settlers their rights and privileges. After providing for the 
settlers, the laws provided for selling the balance of the public lands at 
forty cents per acre. To carry the Land Laws into effect, the Legislature 
sent four Virginians westward to attend to the various claims, over many 
of which great confusion prevailed concerning their validity. These 
gentlemen opened their court on October 13, 1779, at St. Asaphs, and 
continued until April 2G, 1780, when they adjourned, having decided 
three , thousand claims. They were succeeded by the surveyor, whi; 
came in the person of Mr. George May, and assumed his duties on the 
10th day of the month whose name he bore. With the opening of the 
next year (1780) the troubles concerning the navigation of the Missis- 
sippi commenced. The Spanish Government exacted such measures in 
relation to its trade as to cause the overtures made to the United States 
to be rejected. The American Government considered they had a right 
to navigate its channel. To enforce their claims, a fort was erected below 
the mouth of the Ohio on the Kentucky side of the river. The settle- 
ments in Kentucky were being rapidl}' filled by emigrants. It was dur- 
ing this year that the first seminary of learning was established in the 
West in this young and enteiprising Commonwealth. 

The settlers here did not look ujDon the building of this fort in a 
friendly manner, as it aroused the hostility of the Indians. Spain had 
been friendly to tlie Colonies during their struggle for independence, 
and though for a while this friendship appeared in danger from the 
refusal of the free navigation of the river, jet it was finally settled to the 
satisfaction of both nations. 

The Winter of 1779-80 was one of the most unusually severe ones 
ever experienced in the West. The Indians always rei'erred to it as the 
"Great Cold." Numbers of wild animals perished, and not a few 
pioneers lost their lives. The following Summer a party of Canadians 
and Indians attacked St. Louis, and attempted to take possession of it 
in consequence of the friendly disposition of Spain to the revolting 
colonies. They met with such a determined resistance on the part of the 
inhabitants, even the women taking part in the battle, that they wei'e 
compelled to abandon the contest. They also made an attack on the 
settlements in Kentucky, but, becoming alarmed in some unaccountable 
manner, they fled the country in great haste. 

About this time arose the question in the Colonial Congress con- 
cerning the western lands claimed by Virginia, New York, Massachusetts 


and Connecticut. The agitation concerning this subject finally led New 
York, on the 19th of February, 1780, to pass a law giving to the dele- 
gates of that State iii Congress the power to cede her western lands for 
the benefit of the United States. Tliis law was laid before Congress 
during the next montli, but no steps were taken concerning it until Sep- 
tember 6th, when a resolution passed that body calling upon the States 
claiming western lands to release their claims in favor of the whole body. 
This basis formed the union, and was the first after all of those legislative 
measures which resulted in the creation of the States of Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. In December of the same 
year, the plan of conquering Detroit again arose. The conquest might 
have easily been effected by Clark had the necessary aid been furnished 
him. Nothing decisive was done, yet the heads of the Government knew 
that the safety of the Northwest from British invasion lay in the capture 
and retention of that important post, the only uneonquered one in tke 

Before the close of the year, Kentucky was divided into the Coun- 
ties of Lincoln, Fayette and Jefferson, and the act establishing the Town 
of Louisville was passed. This -same year is also noted in the annals of 
American history as the year in which occurred Arnold's treason to tlie 
United States. 

Virginia, in accordance with the resolution of Congress, on the 2d 
day of January, 1781, agreed to yield her western lands to the United 
States upon certain conditions, which Congress would not accede to, and 
the Act of Cession, on the part of the Old Dominion, failed, nor was 
an3'thing farther done until 1783. During all that time the Colonies 
were busily engaged in the struggle with the mother countr}^ and in 
consequence thereof but little heed was given to the Avestern settlements. 
Upon the 16th of April, 1781, the first birth north of the Ohio River of 
American parentage occurred, being that of Mary Hecke welder, daughter 
of the widely known Moravian missionai-y, whose band of Christian 
Indians suffered in after years a horrible massacre by the hands of the 
frontier settlers, who had been exasperated by the murder of several of 
their neighbors, and in their rage committed, without regard to humanity, 
a deed which forever afterwards cast a shade of shame upon their lives. 
For this and kindred outrages on the jiart of the whites, the Indians 
committed many deeds of cruelty which darken the years of 1771 and 
1772 in the history of the Northwest. 

During the year 1782 a number of battles among the Indians and 
frontiersmen occurred, and between the Moravian Indians and the Wyan- 
dots. In these, horrible acts of cruelty were practised on the caj^tives, 
many of such dark deeds transpiring under the leadership of the notorious 



frontier outlaw, Simon Girty, whose name, as well as those of his brothers, 
was a terror to women and children. Tiiese occurred chief!}' in the Ohio 
valleys. Cotemporary with tliem were several engagements in Kentucky, 
in which the famous Daniel Boone engaged, and who, often by his skill 
and knowledge of Indian warfare, saved the outposts from cruel destruc- 


tion. By the close of the year victory had perched upon the Amerlcaa 
banner, and on the 30th of November, provisional articles of peace had 
been arranged between the Commissioners of England and her uncon- 
querable colonies. Cornwallis had been defeated on the 19th of October 
preceding, and the liberty of America was assured. On the 19th of 
April following, the anniversary of the battle of Lexington, peace was 


proclaimed to the army of the United States, and on the 3d of the next 
September, the definite treaty which ended our revolutionary struggle 
was concluded. By the terms of that treaty, the boundaries of the West 
were as follows : On the north the line was to extend along tiie center of 
the Great Lakes ; from the western point of Lake Suj^erior to Long Lake ; 
thence to the Lake of the Woods ; thence to the head of the Mississippi 
River; down its center to the 81st parallel of latitude, then on that line 
east to the head of the Appalachicola River; down its center to its junc- 
tion with the Flint : thence straight to the head of St. Mary's River, and 
thence down along its center to the Atlantic Ocean. 

Following the cessation of hostilities with England, several posts 
were still occupied by the British in the North and West. Among these 
was Deti'oit, still in the hands of the enemjr. Numerous engagements 
with the Indians throughout Ohio and Indiana occurred, upon whose 
lands adventurous whites would settle ere the title had been acquired by 
the proper treaty. 

To remedy this latter evil, Congress appointed commissioners to 
treat with the natives and purchase their lands, and prohibited the set- 
tlement of the territory until this could be done. Before the close of the 
year another attempt was made to capture Detroit, which was, however, 
not pushed, and Virginia, no longer feeling the interest in the Northwest 
she had formerly done, withdrew her troops, having on the 20th of 
December preceding authorized the whole of her possessions to be deeded 
to the United States. This was done on the 1st of March following, and 
the Northwest Territory passed from the control of the Old Dominion. 
To Gen. Clark and his soldiers, however, she gave a tract of one hundred 
and fifty thousand acres of land, to be situated any where north of the 
Ohio wherever they chose to locate them. They selected the region 
opposite the falls of the Ohio, where is now the dilapidated village of 
Clarksville, about midway between the Cities of New Albany and Jeffer- 
sonville, Indiana. 

While the frontier remained thus, and Gen. Haldimand at Detroit 
refused to evacuate alleging that he had no orders from his King to do 
so, settlers were rapidly gathering about the inland forts. In the Spring 
of 1784, Pittsburgh was regularly laid out, and from the journal of Arthur 
Lee, who passed through the town soon after on his way to the Indian 
council at Fort Mcintosh, we suppose it was not very prepossessing in 
appearance. He says : 

" Pittsburgh is inhabited almost entirely by Scots and Irish, who 
live in paltry log houses, and are as dirty as if in the north of Ireland or 
even Scotland. There is a great deal of trade carried on, the goods being 
bought at the vast expense of forty-five shillings per pound from Phila- 


delphia and Baltimore. They take in the shops flour, wheat, skins and 
monej". There are in the town four attorneys, two doctors, and not a 
priest of any persuasion, nor church nor chapel." 

Kentucky at this time contained thirty thousand inhabitants, and 
was beginning to discuss measures for a separation from Virginia. A 
hind office was opened at I>ouisville, and measures were adopted to take 
defensive precaution against the Indians who were 3-et, in some instances, 
incited to deeds of violence by the British. Before the close of this j'ear, 
1784, the military claimants of land began to occupy them, although no 
entries were recorded until 1787. 

The Indian title to the Northwest was not yet extinguished. They 
held large tracts of lands, and in order to prevent bloodshed Congress 
adopted means for treaties with the original owners and provided for the 
surveys of the lands gained thereby, as well as for those north of the 
Ohio, now in its possession. On January 31, 1786, a treaty was made 
with the Wabash Indians. The treaty of Fort Stanwix had been made 
in 1784. That at Fort Mcintosh in 1785, and through these much land 
was gained. The Wabash Indians, however, afterward refused to comply 
with the provisions of the treaty made with them, and in order to compel 
their adherence to its provisions, force was used. Daring the year 1786. 
the free navigation of the Mississippi came up in Congress, and caused 
various discussions, which resulted in no definite action, only serving to 
excite speculation in regard to the western lands. Congress had promised 
bounties of land to the soldiers of the Revolution, but owing to the 
unsettled condition of affairs along the Mississippi respecting its naviga- 
tion, and the trade of the Northwest, that body had, in 1783, declared 
its inability to fulfill these promises until a treaty could be concluded 
between the two Governments. Before the close of the year 1786, how- 
ever, it was able, through the treaties with the Indians, to allow some 
grants and the settlement thereon, and on the 14th of September Con- 
necticut ceded to the General Government the tract of laud known as 
the " Connecticut Reserve," and before the close of the following year a 
large tract of land north of the Ohio was sold to a company, who at once 
took measures to settle it. By the provisions of this grant, the company 
were to pay the United States one dollar per acre, subject to a deduction 
of one-third for bad lands and other contingencies. They received 
750,000 acres, bounded on the south by the Ohio, on the east by the 
seventh range of townships, on the west by the sixteenth range, and on 
the north by a line so drawn as to make the grant complete without 
the reservations. In addition to this. Congress afterward granted 100,000 
acres to actual settlers, and 214,285 acres as army bounties under the 
resolutions of 1789 and 1790. 



While Dr. Cutler, one of the agents of the company, was pressing 
its claims before Congress, that body was bringing into form an ordinance 
for the political and social organization of this Territory. When the 
cession was made by Virginia, in 17S4, a plan was offered, but rejected. 
A motion had been made to strike from the proposed plan the prohibition 
of slavery, which prevailed. The plan was then discussed and altered, 
and finally passed unanimously, with the exception of South Carolina. 
By this proposition, the Territoiy was to have been divided into states 


I)y parallels and meridian lines. This, it was thought, would make ten 
states, which were to have been named as follows — beginning at the 
northwest corner and going southwardly : Sylvania, Michigania, Cher- 
sonesus, Assenisipia, Metropotamia, lUenoia, Saratoga, Washington, Poly- 
|)otamia and Pelisipia. 

There was a more serious objection to this plan than its category of 
names, — the boundaries. The root of the difficulty was in the resolu- 
tion of Congress passed in October, 1780, which fixed the boundaries 
of the ceded lands to be from one hundred to one hundred and fifty miles 


square. These resolutions being presented to the Legislatures of Vir- 
ginia and Massachusetts, they desired a change, and in July, 1786, the 
sul) ect was taken up in Congress, and changed to favor a division into 
not more than five states, and not less than three. This was approved by 
the State Legislature of Virginia. The subject of the Government was 
again taken up by Congress in 1786, and discussed throughout that year 
and until July, 1787, when the famous "Compact of 1787" was passed, 
and the foundation of the government of the Northwest laid. This com- 
pact is full}' discussed and explained in the history of Illinois in this book, 
and to it the reader is referred. 

The passage of this act and the grant to the New England Company 
was soon followed by an application to the Government by John Cleves 
Svniraes, of New Jersey, for a grant of the land between the Miamis. 
This gentlenran had visited these lands soon after the treaty of 1786, and, 
being greatly pleased with them, offered similar terms to those given to the 
New England Company. The petition was referred to the Treasury 
Board with power to act, and a contract was concluded the following 
vear. During the Autumn the directors of the New England Company 
were preparing to occupy their grant the following Spring, and upon the 
2:3d of November made arrangements for a party of forty-seven men, 
under the superintendency of Gen. Rufus Putnam, to set forward. Six 
boat-builders were to leave at once, and on the first of January the sur- 
veyors and their assistants, twenty-six in number, were to meet at Hart- 
ford and proceed on their journey westward ; the remainder to follow as 
soon as possible. Congress, in the meantime, upon the :kl of October, 
had ordered seven liundred troops for defense of the western settlers, and 
to prevent unauthorized intrusions ; and two days later appointed Arthur 
St. Clair Governor of tlje Territory of the Northwest. 


Tlie civil organization of the Northwest Territory was now com- 
plete, antl notwithstanding the uncertainty of Indian affairs, settlers from 
the East began to come into the country rapidly. The New England 
Company sent their men during the Winter of 1787-8 pressing on over 
the Alleghenies by the old Indian path which had been opened into 
Braddock"s road, and which has since been made a national turnpike 
from Cumberland westward. Through the weary winter days they toiled 
on, and by April were all gathered on the Yohiogany, where boats had 
been built, and at once started for the Muskingum. Here they arrived 
on the 7th of that month, and unless the Moravian missionaries be regarded 
as the pioneers of Ohio, this little band can justly claim that honor. 



Gen. St. Clair, the appointed Governor of tlie Northwast, not having 
yet arrived, a set of laws were passed, written out, and published by 
being nailed to a tree in the embryo town, and Jonathan Meigs appointed 
to administer them. 

Washington in writing of this, the first American settlement in the 
Northwest, said : " No colony in America was ever settled under 
such favorable auspices as that which has just ccimmenced at Muskingum. 
Information, property and strength will be its cliaracteristics. I know 
many of its settlers personally, and there' never were men better calcu- 
lated to promote the welfare of such a community." 


On the 2(1 of July a meeting of the directors and agents was held 
on the banks of the Muskingum, " for the purpose of naming the new- 
born city and its squares." As yet the settlement was known as the 
"Muskingum," but that was now changed to the name Marietta, in honor 
of Marie Antoinette. The square upon which the block - houses stood 
was called ^"^ Campus Martins f square number 19, '■^ Capitolium ;'' square 
number 61, '■'■ Oecilia ;'' and the great road through the covert way, " Sacra 
Via.'" Two days after, an oration was delivered by James M. Varnum, 
who with S. H. Parsons and John Armsti-ong had been apjjointed to the 
judicial bench of the territory on the 16th of October, 1787. On July 9, 
Gov. St. Clair arrived, and the colony began to assume form. The act 
of 1787 provided two district grades of government for the Northwest, 


under the first of wliich the whole power was invested in the hands of a 
governor and three district judges. This was immediately formed upon 
the Governor's arrival, and the first Laws of the colony passed on the 25th 
of July. These provided for the organization of the militia, and on the 
next da}^ appeared the Governor's proclamation, erecting all that country 
that had been ceded by the Indians east of the Scioto River into the 
County of Washington. From that time forward, notwithstanding the 
doubts 3'et existing as to the Indians, all Marietta prospered, and on the 
2d of September the first court of the territory was held with imposing 

The emigration westward at this time was very great. The com- 
mander at Fort Harmer, at the month of tlie Muskingum, reported four 
thousand five hundred persons as having passed that post between Feb- 
ruary and June, 1788 — many of whom would have purchased of the 
"Associates," as the New England Company was called, had they been 
ready to receive them. 

On the 26th of November, 1787, Symmes issued a jjamphlet stating 
the terms of his contract and the plan of sale he intended to adopt. In 
Januar^r, 1788, Matthias Denman, of New Jersey, took an active interest 
in Symmes' purchase, and located aniong other tracts the sections upon 
which Cincinnati has been built. Retaining one-third of this locality, he 
sold the other two-thirds to Robert Patterson and John Filson, and the 
three, about August, commenced to lay out a town on the spot, which 
was designated as being opposite Licking River, to the mouih of which 
they proposed to have a road cut from Lexington. The naming of the 
town is thus narrated in the "Western Annals " : — " Mr. Filson, who had 
been a schoolmaster, was appointed to name the town, and, in respect to 
its situation, and as if with a prophetic perception of the mixed race that 
were to inhabit it in after days, he named it Losantiville, which, being 
interpreted, means : ville, the town ; anti, against or opposite to ; os, the 
mouth ; L. of Licking." 

Meanwhile, in Jidy, Symmes got thirt\' persons and eight four-horse 
teams under way for the West. These i-eached Limestone (now Mays- 
ville) in September, where were several persons from Redstone. Here 
Mr. Symmes tried to found a settlement, but the great freshet of 1789 
caused the " Point," as it was and is yet called, to be fifteen feet under 
water, and the settlement to be abandoned. The little band of settlers 
removed to the mouth of the Miami. Before Symmes and his colony left 
the " Point," two settlements had been made on his purchase. The first 
was by Mr. Stiltes, the original projector of the whole plan, who, with a 
colony of Redstone people, had located at the mouth of the Miami, 
whither Symmes went with his Maysville nolonj. Here a clearing had 



been made by the Indians owing to tlie gi-ea>t fertility of the soil. Mr. 
Stiltes with his colony came to this place on the 18th of November, 1788, 
with twenty-six persons, and, bnilding a block-house, prepared to remain 
through the Winter. Tiiey named the settlement Columbia. Here they 
were kindly treated by the Indians, but suffered greatly from the flood 
of 1789. 

On the 4th of March, 1789, the Constitution of ihe United States 
went into operation, and on April 30, George Washington was inaug- 
urated President of the American people, and during the next Summer, 
an Indian war was commenced by the tribes north of the Ohio. The 
President at first used pacific means; but these failing, he sent General 
Harmer against the hostile tribes. He destroyed several villages, but 


.» ,-^^. ;k&-j^ ■"^11 iMriir>i 

J ...i.wSS^ 


Tlie frontage of Lake Bluff Groiindson Laki.- Micliigaii, with uiie tiitmlred and seventy feet of gradual ascent. 

was defeated in two battles, near the present City of Fort Wayne, 
Indiana. From this time till the close of 1795, the principal events were 
the wars with the various Indian tribes. In 1796, General St. Clair 
was appointed in command, and marched against the Indians; but while 
he was encamped on a stream, the St. Mary, a branch of the Maumee, 
he was attacked and defeated with the loss of six hundred men. 

General Wayne was now sent against the savages. In August, 1794, 
he met them near the rapids of the Maumee, and gained a complete 
victory. ■ This success, followed by vigorous measures, compelled the 
Indians to sue for peace, and on the 30th of July, tiie following year, the 
treaty of Greenville was signed by the principal chiefs, by which a large 
tract of country was ceded to the United States. 

Before proceeding in our narrative, we will pause to notice Fort 
Washington, erected in the early part of this war on the site of Cincinnati. 
Nearly all of the great cities of the Northwest, and indeed of the 


wliole country, have hud their nuclei in those rude pioneer structures, 
known as forts or stockades. Thus Forts Dearborn, Washington, Pon- 
chartrain, mark the original sites of the now proud Cities of Chicago, 
Cincinnati and Detroit. So of most of the flourisliing cities east and west 
of the Mississipi)i. Fort Washington, erected by Doughty in 1790, was a 
rude but highly interesting structure. It was composed of a number of 
strongly-built hewed log cabins. Those designed for soldiers' barracks 
were- a story and a half high, while those composing tlie officers quarters 
were more imposing and more conveniently arranged and furnished. 
The whole were so placed as to form a liollow square, enclosing about an 
acre of ground, with a block house at each of the four angles. 

The logs for the construction of this fort were cut from the ground 
upon which it was erected. It stood between Third and Fourth Streets 
of the present cit}'' (Cincinnati) extending east of Eastern Row, now 
Broadway, whicli was then a narrow alley, and the eastern boundar}' of 
of the town as it was originall}' laid out. On the bank of the river, 
immediately in front of the fort, was an appendage of the fort, called the 
Artificer's Yard. It contained about two acres of ground, enclosed by 
small contiguous buildings, occupied by workshops and quartei-s of 
laborers. Within this enclosure there was a large two-story frame liouse, 
familiarly called the " Yellow House," built for the accommodation of 
the Quartermaster General. For many years this was the best finished 
and most commodious edifice in the Queen City. Fort Washington was 
for some time the lieadtjuarters of both the civil and military governments 
of the Northwestern Territorj'. 

Following the consummation of the treaty various gigantic land spec- 
ulations were entered into b}' different persons, who hoped to obtain 
from the Indians in Michigan and northern Indiana, large tracts of lands. 
These were generally discovered in time to prevent the outrageous 
schemes from being carried out, and from involving the settlers in war. 
On October 27, 1795, the treaty between the United States and Spain 
was signed, whereby the free navigation of the Mississippi was secured. 

No sooner had the treat}' of 179.5 been ratified than settlements began 
to pour rapidly into the The great event of the year 1796 was the 
occupation of that part of the Northwest including Michigan, which was 
this year, under the provisions of the treaty, evacuated by the British 
forces. Tlie United States, owing to certain conditions, did not feel 
justified in addressing the authorities in Canada in relation to Detroit 
and other frontier posts. When at last the British authorities were 
called to give thera U[i, they at once comjDlied, and General Wayne, who 
had done so much to pi-eserve the frontier settlements, and who, before 
the year's close, sickened and died near Erie, transferred his head- 


quarters to tho iieighhorliood of the lakes, wliere a county named after 
him was formed, whicli included the northwest of Ohio, all of Michigan, 
and the northeast of Indiana. During this same year settlements were 
formed at the present City of Chillicothe, along the Miami from Middle- 
town to Piqua, while in the more distant West, settlers and speculators 
began to appear in great numbers. In September, the City of Cleveland 
was laid out, and during the Summer and Autumn, Samuel Jackson and 
Jonathan Sliarpless erected the first manufactory of paper — the " Red- 
stone Paper Mill" — in the West. St. Louis contained some seventy! 
houses, and Detroit over three hundred, and along the river, contiguous 
to it, were more than three thousand inhabitants, mostly French Canadians, 
Indians and half-breeds, scarcely any Americans venturing yet into that 
part of the Northwest. 

The election of representatives for the territory had taken place, 
and on the 4th of February, 1799, they convened at Losantiville — now 
known as Cincinnati, having been named so by Gov. St. Clair, and 
considered the capital of the Territory — to nominate persons from whom 
the members of the Legislature were to be chosen in accordance with 
a previous ordinance. This nomination being made, the Assembly 
adjourned until the 16th of the following September. From those named 
the President selected as members of the council, Henry Vandenburg, 
of Vincennes, Robert Oliver, of Marietta, James Findlay and Jacob 
Burnett, of Cincinnati, and David Vance, of Vanceville. On the 16tli 
of September the Territorial Legislature met, and on the 21th the two 
houses were duly organized, Henry Vandenburg being elected President 
of the Council. 

The message of Gov. St. Clair was addressed to the Legislature 
September 20th, and on October 13th that body elected as a delegate to 
Congress Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison, who received eleven of the votes 
cast, being a majority of one over his opponent, Arthur St. Clair, son of 
Gen. St. Clair. 

The whole number of acts passed at this session, and apjjroved by 
the Governor, were thirty -seven — eleven others were jiassed, but received 
his veto. The most imjjortant of those passed related to the militia, to 
the administration, and to taxation. On the 19th of December this pro- 
tracted session of the first Legislature in the West was closed, and on the 
30th of December the President nominated Charles Willing Bryd to the 
office of Secretary of the Territory vice Wm. Henry Harrison, elected to 
Congress. The Senate confirmed his nomination the next day. 



The increased emigration to the Nortlnvest, the extent of the domain, 
and the inconvenient modes of travel, made it very difficult to conduct 
the ordinar}' operations of government, and rendered the efficient action 
of courts almost impossible. To remedy this, it was deemed advisable to 
divide the territory for civil purposes. Congress, in 1800, appointed a 
committee to examine the question and report some means for its solution. 
This committee, on the 3d of March, reported that : 

" In the three western countries there has been but one court having 
cognizance of crimes, in five years, and the immunity which offenders 
experience attracts, as to an asylum, the most vile and abandoned crim- 
inals, and at the same time deters useful citizens from making settlements 
ia such society. The extreme necessit)^ of judiciary attention and assist- 
ance is experienced in civil as well as in criminal cases. * * * * Xo 
minister a remedy to these and other evils, it occurs to this committee 
that it is expedient that a division of said territorj' into two distinct and 
separate governments should be made ; and that such division l)e made 
by a line beginning at the mouth of the Great Miami River, running 
directly north until it intersects the boundary between the United States 
and Canada." 

The report was accepted by Congress, and, in accordance with its 
suggestions, that body passed an Act extinguishing the Northwest Terri- 
tory, which Act was approved May 7. Among its provisions were these : 

" That from and after July 4 next, all that part of the Territory of 
the United States northwest of the Ohio River, which lies to the westward 
of a line beginning at a point on the Ohio, opposite to the mouth of the 
Kentucky River, and running thence to Fort Recovery, and thence north 
until it shall intersect the territorial line between the United States and 
Canada, shall, for the purpose of temporary government, constitute a 
separate territory, and be called the Indiana Territory." 

After providing for the exercise of the civil and criminal powers of 
the territories, and other provisions, the Act further provides : 

" That until it shall otherwise be ordered by the Legislatures of the 
said Territories, respectively, Chillicothe on the Scioto River shall be the 
seat of government of the Territory of the United States northwest of the 
Ohio River; and that St. Vincennes on the Wabash River shall be the 
seat of government for the Indiana Territory." 

Gen. Wm. Henry Harrison was appointed Governor of the Indiana 
Territory, and entered upon his duties about a year later. Connecticut 
also about this time released her claims to the reserve, and in March a law 


was passed accepting this cession. Settlements had been made upon 
thirty-five of the townships in the reserve, mills had been built, and seven 
hundred miles of road cut in various directions. On the 3d of November 
the General Assembly met at Chillicothe. Near the close of the year, 
the first missionary of the Connecticut Reserve came, who found no 
township containing more than eleven families. It was upon the first of 
October that the secret treaty had been made between Napoleon and the 
King of Spain, whereby the latter agreed to cede to France the province 
of Louisiana. 

In January, 1802, the Assembly of the Northwestern Territory char- 
tered the college at Athens. From the earliest dawn of the western 
colonies, education was promptly provided for, and as early as 1787, 
newspapers were issued from Pittsburgh and Kentucky, and largely read 
throughout the frontier settlements. Before the close of this year, the 
Congress of the United States granted to the citizens of the Northwestern 
territory the formation of a State government. One of the provisions of 
the " compact of 1787 " provided that whenever the number of inhabit- 
ants within prescribed limits exceeded 45,000, they should be entitled to 
a separate government. The prescribed limits of Ohio contained, from a 
census taken to ascertain the legality of the act, more than that number, 
and on the 30th of April, 1802, Congress passed the act defining its limits, 
and on the 29th of November the Constitution of the new State of Oiiio, 
so named from the beautiful river forming its southern boundary, came 
into existence. The exact limits of Lake Michigan were not then known, 
but the territory now included within the State of Michigan was wholly 
within the territory of Indiana. 

Gen. Harrison, while residing at Vincennes, made several treaties 
witli the Indians, thereby gaining large tracts of lands. The next 3 ear is 
memorable in the history of tlie West for the purchase of Louisiana from 
France by the United States for $15,000,000. Thus by a peaceful mode, 
the domain of the United States was extended over a large tract of 
country west of the Mississippi, and was for a time under the jurisdiction 
of the Northwest government, and, as has been mentioned in the earl}- 
part of this narrative, was called the "New Northwest." The limits 
of this history will not allow a description of its territory. The same year 
large grants of land were obtained from the Indians, and the House of 
Representatives of the new State of Ohio signed a bill respecting the 
College Township in the district of Cincinnati. 

Before the close of the year, Gen. Harrison obtained additional 
-grants of lands from the various Indian nations in Indiana and tlie present 
limits of Illinois, and on the 18th of August, 1804, completed a treaty at 
St. Louis, whereby over 51,000,000 acres of lands were obtained from the 


aborigines. Measures were also taken to learn the condition of affairs in 
and about Detroit. 

C. Jouett, the Indian agent in Michigan, still a part of Indiana Terri- 
tory, reported as follows upon the condition of matters at that post : 

" The Town of Detroit. — The charter, which is for fifteen miles 
square, was granted in tlie time of Louis XIV. of France, and is now, 
from the best information I have been able to get, at Quebec. Of those 
two luindred and twenty-five acres, only four are occupied by tlie town 
and Fort Lenault. Tiie remainder is a common, except twenty-four 
acres, which were added twenty years ago to a farm belonging to Wm. 
Macomb. « * « A stockade incloses the town, fort and citadel. Tlie 
pickets, as well as tlie public houses, are in a state of gradual deca}'. The 
streets are nari-ow, straight and regular, and intersect each other at right 
angles. Tlie houses are, for the most part, low and inelegant." 

During tliis year, Congress granted a township of land for the sup- 
port of a college, and began to offer inducements for settlers in tliese 
wilds, and the country now comprising the State of Michigan began to 
fill rapidly with settlers along its southern borders. This same year, also, 
a law was passed organizing the Southwest Territory, dividing it into two 
portions, the Territory of New Orleans, which city was made the seat of 
government, and the District of Louisiana, which was annexed to the 
domain of Gen. Harrison. 

On the 11th of January, 1805, the Territory of Michigan was formed, 
Wra, Hull was appointed governor, with headtjuarters at Detroit, the 
change to take eifect on June 30. On th*e 11th of that month, a fire 
occurred at Detroit, which destroj'-ed almost every building in the place. 
When the officers of the new territory readied the post, they found it in 
ruins, and the inhabitants scattered throughout the country. Rebuild- 
ing, however, soon commenced, and ere long the town contained more 
houses than before the fire, and many of them much better built. 

While this was being done, Indiana had passed to the second grade 
of government, and through her General Assembly had obtained large 
tracts of land from the Indian tribes. To all this the celebrated Indian, 
Tecumthe or Tecumseh, vigorously protested, and it was the main cause 
of his attempts to unite the various Indian tribes in a conflict with the 
settlers. To obtain a full account of these attempts, the workings of the 
British, and the signal failure, culminating in the death of Tecumseh at 
the battle of the Thames, and the close of the war of 1812 in the Northwest, 
we will step aside in our story, and relate the principal events of his life, 
and liis coanection with this conflict. 






Tliis famous Indian chief was born about the year 1768, not far from 
the site of the present City of Piqua, Ohio. His father, Puckeshinwa, 
was a member of the Kisopok tribe of the Swanoese nation, and his 
inother, Methontaske, was a memljer of the Turtle tribe of the same 
people. Tiiey removed from Florida about the middle of the last century 
to the birthplace of Tecumseh. In 1774, his father, who had risen to be 
chief, was slain at the battle of Point Pleasant, and not long after Tecum- 
seh, by his bravery, became the leader of his tribe. In 179o he was 
declared chief, and then lived at Deer Creek, near the site of the 
present City of Urbana. He remained here about one year, when he 
returned to Piqua, and in 1798, he went to White River. Indiana. In 
1805, he and his brother, Laulewasikan (Open Door), who had announced 
himself as a prophet, went to a tract of land on the Wabash River, given 
them by the Pottawatomies and Kickapoos. From this date the chiei 
comes into prominence. He was now about thirt3'-seven years of age, 
was five feet and ten inches in height, was stoutlj' built, and jiossessed of 
enormous powers of endurance. His countenance was naturally pleas- 
ing, and he was, in general, devoid of those savage attributes possessed 
by most Indians. It is stated he could read and write, and had a confi- 
(lential secretary and adviser, named Billy Caldwell, a half-breed, who 
afterward became chief of the Pottawatomies. He occupied the first 
house built on the site of Chicago. At this time, Tecumseh entered 
upon the great work of his life. He had long objected to the grants of 
bind made Viv the Indians to the whites, and determined to unite all the 
Indian tribes into a league, in order that no treaties or grants of land 
could be made save by the consent of this confederation. 

He traveled constantly, going from north to south ; from the south 
to the noi-th, everywhere urging the Indians to this step. He was a 
matchless orator, and his burning words had their effect. 

Gen. Harrison, then Governor of Indiana, by watching the move- 
ments of the Indians, became convinced that a grand conspiracy was 
forming, and made preparations to defend the settlements. Tecumseh's 
plan was similar to Pontiac's, elsewhere described, and to tlie cunning 
artifice of that chieftain was added his own sagacity. 

During the year 1809, Tecumseh and the prophet were actively pre- 
paring for the work. In that year. Gen. Harrison entered into a treaty 
with the Delawares, Kickapoos, Pottawatomies, Miamis, Eel River Indians 
and Weas, in which these tribes ceded to the whites certain lands upon 
the Wabash, to all of which Tecumseh entered a bitter protest, averring 



as one principal reason tliat he did not want tlie Indians to give up any 
lands nortli and west of the Ohio River. 

Tecumseh, in August, 1810, visited tlie General at Vincennes and 
lield a council relating to the grievances of the Indians. Becoming unduly 
angry at this conference he was dismissed fiom the village, and soon after 
departed to incite the southern Indian tribes to the conflict. 

Gen. Harrison determined to move upon the chief's headquarters at 
Tippecanoe, and for this purpose went about sixty-five miles up the 
Wabash, where he built Fort Harrison. From this placfe he went to the 
prophet's tiiwn, where he informed the Indians he had no hostile inten- 
tions, pi'ovided tiiey were true to the existing treaties. He encamped 
near the village early in October, and on the morning of November 7, he 
was attacked by a large force of the Indians, and the famous battle of 
Tippecanoe occurred. The Indians were routed and their town broken 
up. Tecumseh returning not long after, was greatly exasperated at his 
i)rother, the prophet, even threatening to kill him for rashly ju'ecipitating 
tlie war, and foiling liis (Tecumseh's) plans. 

Tecumseh sent word to Gen. Harrison tliat he was now returned 
from the South, and was ready to visit the President as had at one time 
previouslv been proposed. Gen. Harrison informed him he could not go 
as 11 chief, which method Tecumseh desired, and the visit was never 

In June of the following year, he visited the Indian agent at 
Fort Wayne. Here he disavowed any intention to make a war against 
the United States, and reproached Gen. Harrison for marching against his 
people. The .agent replied to this ; Tecumseh listened with a cold indif- 
ference, and after making a few general lemarks, with a haughty air drew 
his blanket about him, left the council liouse, and departed for Fort Mai- 
den, iu U[)p('r Canada, where he joined the British standard. 

He remained mider this Goveinment, doing effective work for the 
Crown wiiile engaged in the war o± 1812 which now opened. He was, 
however, always humane in his treatmei.'^^ of the prisoners, never allow- 
ing liis warriors to ruthlessly mutilate the bodies of those slain, or wan- 
tonly murder the captive. 

In the Summer of 1813, Perry's victorj^ on Lake Erie occurred, and 
shortly after active preparations were made to capture Maiden. On the 
27th of September, the American army, under Gen. Harrison, set sail for 
the shores of Canada, and in a few hours stood around the ruins of Mai- 
den, from which the British army, under Proctor, had retreated to Sand- 
wich, intending to make its way to tlie heart of Canada by the Valley oi 
tlie Thames. On the 29th Gen. Harrison was at Sandwich, and Gen. 
McArthur took possession of Detroit and the territory of Michigan. 



On the 2d of October, tlie AmL'ricitiis began their pursuit of Proctor, 
wh«iu tliey overtook on ihe otli, ;iikI the battle of tlie Thames foUowed. 
Eai'ly in the engagement, Tecuuiseh who was at the head of the eolunui 
of Indians was slain, and they, no longer iiearin.f the voice of their chief- 
tain, fled. The victory was decisive, and practically closed the war in 
the Northwest. 



Just who killed the great chief has been a matter of mucli dis{>ute ; 
but the weight of opinion awards the act to Col. Richard M. Johnson, 
who fired at him with a pistol, the shot proving fatal. 

In 1805 occurred Burr's Insurrection. He took possession of a 
beautiful island in the Ohio, after the killing of Hamilton, and is charged 
by many with attempting to set up an independent government. His 
plans were frustrated by the general government, his property confiscated 
and he was compelled to flee the country for safety. 


In January, 1807, Governor Hull, of Michigan Territory, made a 
treaty with the lutlians, whereby all that peninsula was ceded to the 
United States. Before the close of the year, a stockade was built about 
Detroit. It was also daring this year that Indiana and Illinois endeavored 
to obtain the repeal of that section of the compact of 1787, whereby 
slavery was excluded from the Northwest Tei'ritory. These attempts, 
however, all signally failed. 

In 1809 it was deemed advisable to divide the Indiana Territory. 
This was done, and the Territory of Illinois was formed from the western 
part, the seat of government being fixed at Kaskaskia. The next year, 
the intentions of Tecumseh manifested themselves in open hostilities, and 
then l)egan the events already narrated. 

While this war was in progress, emigration to the West went on with 
surprising rapidity. In 1811, under Mr. Roosevelt of New York, the 
first steamboat trip was made on the Ohio, much to the astonishment of 
the natives, many of whom fled in terror at the appearance of the 
" monster." It arrived at Louisville on the 10th day of October. At the 
close of the first week of Januaiy, 1812, it arrived atNatcliez, after being 
nearly overwhelmed in the great earthquake whicli occurred while on its 
downward trip. 

The battle of the Thames was fought on October 6, 1813. It 
effectually closed hostilities in the Northwest, although peace was not 
fully restored until July 22, 1814, when a treaty was formed at Green- 
ville, under the direction of General Harrison, between the United States 
and the Indian tribes, in which it was stii>ulated that the Indians should 
cease hostilities against the Americans if the war were continued. Such, 
happily, was not the case, and on the 24th of December the treaty 
of Ghent was signed by the representatives of England and the United 
States. This treaty was followed the next year by treaties with various 
Indian tribes throughout tlie West and Northwest, and quiet was again 
restored in this part of the new world. 

On the 18th of March, 1816, Pittsburgh was incorporated as a city. 
It then had a population of 8,000 people, and was already noted for its 
manufacturing interests. On April 19, Indiana Territory was allowed 
to form a state government. At that time there were thirteen counties 
organized, containing about sixty-three thousand inhabitants. The first 
election of state officers was held in August, when Jonathan Jennings 
was chosen Governor. The officers were sworn in on November 7, and 
on December 11, the State was formallj^ admitted into the Union. For 
some time the seat of government was at Corydon, but a more central 
location being desirable, the present capital, Indianapolis (City of Indiana), 
was Uiid out January 1, 1825. 



Oil the 28th of December the Bank of Illinois, at Shawneetown, was 
chartered, with a capital of $300,000. At this period all banks were 
under the control of the States, and were allowed to establish branches 
at different convenient points. 

Until this time Chillicothe and Cincinnati had in turn enjoyed the 
privileges of being the capital of Ohio. But the rapid settlement of the 
northern and eastern portions of the State demanded, as in Indiana, a 
more "Central location, and before the close of the year, the site of Col- 
umbus was selected and surveyed as the future capital of the State. 
Banking had begun in Ohio as early as 1808, when the first bank was 
chartered at Marietta, but here as elsewhere it did not bring to the state 
the hoped-for assistance. It and other banks were siiljsequently unable 
to redeem their currency, and were obliged to suspend. 

In 1818, Illinois was made a state, and all the territor}- north of her 
northern limits was erected into a separate territory and joined to Mich- 
igan for judicial purposes. By the following year, navigation of the lakes 
was increasing with great rapidity and affording an immense source of 
revenue to the dwellers in the Northwest, but it was not until 1820 thai 
the trade was extended to Lake Michigan, or that steamships beg^an to 
navigate the bosom of that inland sea. 

Until the year 1832, the commencement of the Black Hawk War, 
but few hostilities were experienced with the Indians. Roads were 
opened, canals were dug, cities were built, common schools were estab- 
lished, universities were founded, many of which, especially the iMichigaii 
University, have achieved a world wide-reputation. The people were 
becoming wealthy. The domains of the United States had been extended, 
and had the sons of the forest been treated with honesty and justice, tlic 
record of many years would have been that of peace and continuous pros- 


This conflict, though confined to Illinois, is an important epoch in 
the Northwestern history, being the last war with the Indians in this part 
of the United States. 

Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiah, or Black Hawk, was born in the principal 
Sac village, about three miles from the junction of Rock River with the 
Mississippi, in the year 1767. His father's name was Py-e-sa or Pahaes ; 
his grandfather's, Na-na-ma-kee, or the Thunderer. Black Hawk early 
distinguished himself as a warrior, and at the age of fifteen was permitted 
to paint and was ranked among the braves. About the year 1783, he 
Went on an expedition against the enemies of his nation, the Osages, one 


nr^Acic iiAwic, the sac chieftain. 


of whom he killed and scalped, and for this deed of Indian bravery he was 
permitted to join in the scalp dance. Three or four years after he, at the 
• head of two hundred braves, went on another expedition against the 
Osages, to avenge the murder of some women and children belonging to 
his own tribe. Meeting an equal number of Osage warriors, a fierce 
battle ensued, in which the latter tribe lost one-half their number. The 
Sacs lost only about nineteen warriors. He next attacked the Cherokees 
for a similar cause. In a severe battle with them, near the present City 
of St. Louis, his father was slain, and Black Hawk, taking possession of 
the " Medicine Bag," at once announced himself chief of the Sac nation. 
He had now conquered the Cherokees, and about the year 1800, at the 
head of five hundred Sacs and Foxes, and a hundred lowas, he waged 
war against the Osage nation and subdued it. For two years he battled 
successfully with other Indian tribes, all of whom he conquered. 

Black Hawk does not at any time seem to have been friendly to 
the Americans. When on a visit to St. Louis to see his " Spanish 
Father," he declined to see any of the Americans, alleging, as a reason, 
he did not want two fathers. 

The treaty at St. Louis was consummated in 1804. The next year the 
United States Government erected a fort near the head of the Des Moines 
Rapids, called Fort Edwards. This seemed to enrage Black Hawk, who 
at once determined to capture Fort Madison, standing on the west side of 
the Mississippi above the mouth of the Des Moines River. The fort was 
garrisoned by about fifty men. Here he was defeated. The difficulties 
with the British Government arose about this time, and the War of 1812 
followed. That government, extending aid to the Western Indians, by 
giving them arms and ammunition, induced them to remain hostile to the 
Americans. In August, 1812, Black Hawk, at the head of about five 
hundred Ijraves, started to join the British forces at Detroit, passing on 
his way the site of Chicago, where the famous Fort Dearborn Massacre 
h:.:^ a few days before occurred. Of his connection with the British 
uc , ernment but little is known. In 1813 he with his little band descended 
the Mississippi, and attacking some United States troops at Fort Howard 
was defeated. 

In the early part of 1815, the Indian tribes west of the Mississippi 
were notified that peace had been declared between the United States 
and England, and nearly all hostilities had ceased. Black Hawk did not 
sign any treaty, however, until May of the following year. He then recog- 
nized the validity of the treaty at St. Louis in 1804. From the time of 
signing this treaty in 1816, until the breaking out of the war in 1832, he 
and his band passed their time in the common pursuits of Indian life. 

Ten years before the commencement of this war, the Sac and Fox 


Indians were urged to join the lowas on the west bank of the Father of 
Waters. All were agreed, save the band known as the British Band, of 
which Black Hawk was leader. He strenuously objected to the removal, 
and \vas induced to comply only after being threatened with the power of 
the Government. This and various actions on the part of the white set- 
tlers provoked Black Hawk and his band to attempt the capture of his 
native village now occupied by the whites. The war followed. He and 
his actions were undoubtedly misunderstood, and had his wishes been 
acquiesced in at the beginning of the struggle, much bloodshed would 
have been prevented. 

Black Hawk was chief now of the Sac and Fox nations, and a noted 
warrior. He and his tribe inhabited a village on Rock River, nearly three 
miles above its confluence with the Mississippi, where the tribe had lived 
many generations. When that portion of Illinois was reserved to them, 
they remained in peaceable possession of their reservation, spending their 
time in the enjoyment of Indian life. The fine situation of their village 
and the quality of their lands incited the more lawless white settlers, who 
from time to time began to encroach upon the red men's domain. From 
one pretext to another, and from one step to another, the crafty white 
men gained a foothold, until through whisky and artifice they obtained 
deeds from many of the Indians for their possessions. The Indians were 
finally induced to cross over the Father of Waters and locate among the 
lowas. Black Hawk was strenuously opposed to all this, but as the 
authorities of Illinois and the United States thought this the best move, he 
was forced to comply. Moreover other tribes joined the whites and urged 
the removal. Black Hawk would not agree to the terms of the treaty 
made with his nation for their lands, and as soon as the military, called to 
enforce his removal, had retired, he returned to the Illinois side of the 
river. A large force was at once raised and marched against him. On 
the evening of May 14, 1832, the first engagement occurred between a 
band from this army and Black Hawk's band, in which the former were 

This attack and its result aroused the whites. A huge force of men 
was raised, and Gen. Scott hastened from the seaboard, by way of the 
lakes, with United States troops and artillery to aid in the subjugation of 
the Indians. On the 24th of June, Black Hawk, with 200 warriors, was 
repulsed by Major Demont between Rock River and Galena. The Ameri- 
can army continued to move up Rock Rivei- toward the main body of 
the Indians, and on the 21st of July came upon Black Hawk and his band, 
and defeated them near the Blue Mounds. 

Before this action, Gen. Henry, in command, sent word to the main 
army by whom he was immediately rejoined, and the whole crossed the J 


Wisconsin in pursuit of Black Hawk and his band who were fleeing to the 
Mississippi. They were overtaken on the 2d of August, and in the battle 
which followed the power of the Indian chief was completely broken. He 
fled, but was .seized by the Winnebagoes and delivered to the whites. 

On the 21st of September, 1832, Gen. Scott and Gov. Reynolds con- 
cluded a treaty with the Winnebagoes, Sacs and Foxes by which they 
ceded to the United States a vast tract of country, and agreed to remain 
])eaceable with the whites. • For the faithful performance of the iirovi- 
sions of this treaty on the part of the Indians, it was stipulated that 
Black Hawk, his two sons, the prophet Wabokieshiek, and six other chiefs 
of the hostile bands should be retained as hostages during the pleasure 
of the President. They were confined at Fort Barracks and put in irons. 

The next Spring, by order of the Secretary of War, they were taken 
to Washington. From there they were removed to Fortress Monroe, 
"there to remain until the conduct of their nation was such as to justify 
their being set at liberty-." They were retained here until the 4th of 
June, when the authorities directed them to be taken to the principal 
cities so that they might see the folly of contending against the white 
people. Ever3'where they Avere observed by thousands, the name of the 
old chief being extensively known. By the middle of August they 
reached Fort Armstrong on Rock Island, where Black Hawk was soon 
after released to go to his countrymen. As he passed the site of his birth- 
place, now the home of the white man, he was deeply moved. His village 
where he was born, where he had so happily lived, and where he had 
hoped to die, was now another's dwelling place, and he was a wanderer. 

On the next d.ay after his release, he went at once to his tribe and 
his lodge. His wife was 3'et living, and with her he passed the remainder 
of his da3-s. To his credit it may be said that Black Hawk always re- 
mained true to his wife, and served her with a devotion uncommon among 
the Indians, living with her upward of forty years. 

Black Hawk now passed his time hunting and fishing. A deep mel- 
ancholj^ had settled over him from which he could not be freed. At all 
times when he visited the whites he was received with marked atten- 
tion. He was an honored guest at the old settlers' reunion in Lee County, 
Illinois, at some of their meetings, and received many tokens of esteem. 
In September, 1838, while on his way to Rock Island to receive his 
annuity from the Government, he contracted a severe cold which resulted 
in a fatal attack of bilious fever which terminated his life on October 3. 
His faithful wife, who was devotedly attached to him, mourned deeply 
during his sickness. After his death he was dressed in the uniform pre- 
sented to him by the President while in Washington. He was buried in 
a grave six feet in depth, situated upon a beautiful eminence. " The 



body was placed in the middle of the grave, in a sitting posture, upon a 
seat consti'ucted for the puri^ose. On his left side, the cane, given him 
by Henry Clay, was placed upright, with his right hand resting upon it. 
Many of the old warrior's troj^hies were placed in the gi'ave, and some 
Indian garments, together with liis favorite weapons." 

No sooner was the Black Hawk war concluded than settlers began 
rapidly to pour into the northern parts of Illinois, and into Wisconsin, 
now free from Indian depredations. Chicago, from a trading post, had 
grown to a commercial center, and was rapidly comiiig into prominence. 
In 1835, the formation of a State Government in Micliigan was discussed, 
but did not take active form until two years later, when the State became 
a part of the Federal Union. 

Tlie main attraction to tliat portion of the Noi'thwest lying west of 
Lake Michigan, now included in the State of Wisconsin, was its alluvial 
wealth. Copper ore was found aliout Lake Superior. For some time this 
region was attached to Michigan for judiciary purposes, but in 183(1 was 
made a territory, then including Minnesota and Iowa. The latter State 
was detached two years later. In 1848, W^isconsin was admitted as a 
State, Madison being made the capital. We have now traced the various 
divisions of the Northwest Territory (save a little in Minnesota) from 
the time it was a unit comprising this vast territory, until circumstances 
compelled its present division. 




Preceding clia[itei's have brought us to the close of the Black Hav/k 
War, ami we now turn to the contemplation of the growth and prosperity 
cf the Northwest under the sm'.le cf peace and the blessings of our civil: ■ 
za-ti'>n. The pioneers of this region date events back to the deep sac-v?' 


of 1831, no one arriving here since that date taking first honors. The 
inciting cau e of the iniraigration which overflowed the ]iraiiies early in 
the '3Us was the reports of the marvelous beauty and fertility of the 
region distributed through the East by those M-ho had participated in the 
Black Hawk campaign with Gen. Scott. ("!hicago and Milwaukee then 
had a few hundred inhabitants, and Gurdon S. Hubbard's trail from the 
former c'ty to Kaskaskia led almost through a wilderness. Vegetables 
and clothing were largely distributed through the regions adjoining the 


lakes by steamers from the Ohio towns. There are men now living in 
Illinois who came to the stute when barely an acre was in cultivation, 
and a man now prominent in the business circles of Chicago looked over 
the swampy, cheeiless site of that metropolis in 1818 and went south 
ward into civilization. Emigrants from Pennsylvania in 1830 left behind 


them hut one small railway in tlie coal regions, thirty miles in length, 
and made their way to the Northwest mostly with ox teams, finding in 
Northern Illinois petty settlements scores of miles apart, although the 
southern portion of the state was fairly dotted with farms. The 
water courses of the lakes and rivers furnished transportation to the 
second great army of immigrants, and about 1850 railroads were 
pushed to that extent that the crisis of 1837 was precipitated upon us, 



from the effects of which the Western couiitiy had not fully recovered 
at the outbreak of the war. Hostilities found the colonists of the prairies 
fully alive to the demands of the occasion, and the lioiior of recruiting 


I ; f i 







^ :^i§ 






the vast armies of the Union fell largely to Gov. Yates, of Illinois, and 
Gov. j\Io-k-ton, of Indiana. To recount the share of the glories of the 
campaign won hy our Western troops is a needless task, except to 
mention the fact that Illinois gave to the nation the President who saved 


it. and sent out at the head of one of its regiments tne general wlio led 
•ts armies to the final \ictoTy at Appomattox. The struggle, on ths 





whole, had a marked effect for the better on the new Northwest, g: dng 
it an impetus which twenty years of jDeace would not have produced. 
In a large degree this prosperity was an inflated one, and with the rest 
of the Union we have since been compelled to atone therefor by four 


years of depression of values, of scarcity of employment, and loss of 
fortune. To a less degree, however, than the manufacturing or mining- 
regions has the West suffered during the prolonged panic now so near its 
end. Agriculture, still the leading feature in our industries, has been 
quite prosperous through all these dark years, and the farmers have 
cleared away many incumbrances resting over them from the period of 
fictitious values. The population has steadily increased, the arts and 
sciences are gaining a stronger foothold, the trade area of the region is 
becoming daily more extended, and we have been largely exempt from 
the financial calamities which have nearly wrecked communities on the 
seaboard dependent wholly on foreign' commerce or domestic manufacture. 

At the present period there are no great schemes broached for the 
Northwest, no proijositions for government subsidies or national works 
of improvement, but the capital of the world is attracted hither for the 
purchase of our products or the expansion of our capacity for serving the 
nation at large. A new era is dawning as to transportation, and we bid 
fair to deal almost exclusively with tlie increasing and expanding lines 
of steel rail running througli every few miles of territory on the prairies. 
The lake marine will no doubt continue to be useful in tlie warmer 
season, and to serve as a regulator of freight rates; but experienced 
navigators forecast the decay of the system in moving to the seaboard 
the enormous crops of the West. Within the past five years it has 
become quite common to see direct shipments to Europe and the West 
Indies going through from the second-class towns along the Mississippi 
and Missouri. 

As to popular education, the standard has of late risen very greatly, 
and our schools would be creditable to any section of the Union. 

j\Iore and more as the events of the war pass into obscurity will the 
fate of the Northwest be linked with that of the Southwest, and the 
next Congressional apportionment will give the valley of the Mississippi 
absolute control of the legislation of the nation, and do much toward 
securing the removal of the Federal capitol to some more central location. 

Our public men continue to wield the full share of influence pertain- 
ing to their rank in the national autonomy, and seem not to forget that 
for the past sixteen years they and their constituents have dictated the 
principles which should govern the country. 

In a work like this, destined to lie on the shelves of the library for 
generations, and not doomed to daily destruction like a newspaper, one 
can not indulge in the same glowing predictions, the sanguine statements 
of actualities that fill the columns of ephemeral publications. Time may 
bring grief to the pet projects of a writer, and explode castles erected on 
a pedestal of facts. Yet there are unmistakable indications before us of 


the same radical change in our great Northwest which characterizes its 
history for the jDast thirty years. Our domain lias a sort of natural 
geographical border, save where it melts away to the southward in the 
cattle raising districts of the southwest. 

Our prime interest will for some years doubtless be the growth of 
the food of the world, in which branch it has already outstripped all 
competitors, and our great rival in this duty will nat\irally be the fertile 
plains of Kansas, Nebraska and Colorado, to say nothing of the new 
em2iire so rapidly growing up in Texas. Over these regions there is a 
continued progress in agriculture and in railway building, and we must 
look to our laurels. Intelligent observers of events are fully aware of 
the strides made in the way of shipments of fresh meats to Europe, 
many of these ocean cargoes being actually slaughtered in the West and 
transported on ice to the wharves of the seaboard cities. That this new 
entei'prise will continue there is no reason to doubt. There are in 
Chicago several factories for the canning of prepared meats for European 
consumption, and the orders for this class of goods are already immense. 
Englisli capital is becoming daily more and more dissatisfied with railway 
loans and investments, and is gradually seeking mammoth outlays in 
lands and live stock. The stock yards in Chicago, Indianapolis and East 
St. Xouisare yearly increasing their facilities, and their plant steadily 
grows more valuable. Importations of blooded animals from the pro- 
gressive countries of Europe are destined to greatly improve the quality 
of our beef and mutton. Nowhere is there to be seen a more enticing 
display in this line than at our state and count)' fairs, and the interest 
in the matter is on the increase. 

To attempt to give statistics of our grain production for 1877 would 
be useless, so far have we surpassed ourselves in the quantity and 
quality of our product. We are too liable to forget that we are giving 
the world its first article of necessity — its food supply. An opportunity 
to learn this fact so it never can be forgotten was afforded at Cliicago at 
the outbreak of the great panic of 1873, when Canadian purchasers, 
fearing the prostration of business mightbring about an anarchical condition 
of affairs, went to that city with coin in bulk and foreign drafts to secure 
their supplies in their own currency at fii'st liands. It may be justly 
claimed by the agricultural community that their combined efforts gave 
the nation its first imj^etus toward a restoration of its crippled industries, 
and their labor brought the gold premium to a lower depth than the 
government was able to reach hy its most intense efforts of legislation 
and comi^ulsion. Tlie hundreds of millions about to be disbursed for 
farm products have already, by the anticipation common to all commercial 



imtions, set the wheels in uiotioii, and will relieve us from the perils so 
long shadowing our efforts to return to a healtliy tone. 

Manufacturing lias attained in the chief cities a foothold wliicli bids 
fair to render the Nm-tliwest iudeiiendent of the outside world. Nearly 


onr whole region has a distribution of coal measures which will in time 
support the manufactures necessary to our comfort and prosperity. As 
to transportation, the chief factor in the production of all articles excep*^' 
food, no section is so magnificently endowed, and our facilities are yearly- 
increasing beyond those of any other region. 


The period from a central point of the war to the outbreak of the 
panic was marked by a tremendous growth in our railway lines, but the 
depression of the times caused almost a total suspension of operations. 
Now that prosperity is returning to our stricken country we witness its 
anticipation by the railroad interest in a series of projects, extensions, 
and leases whicli bid fair to largely increase our transjDortation facilities. 
The process of foreclosure and sale of incumbered lines is another matter 
to be considered. In the case of the Illinois Central road, which formerly 
transferred to other lines at Cairo the vast burden of freight destined for 
the Gulf region, we now see the incorporation of the tracks connecting 
through to New .Orleans, every mile co-operating in turning toward the 
northwestern metropolis the weight of the inter-state commerce of st 
thousand miles or more of fertile plantations. Three competing routes 
to Texas have established in Chicago their general freight and passenger 
agencies. Four or five lines compete for all Pacific fi-eights to a point as 
as far as the interior of Nebraska. Half a dozen or more splendid bridge 
structures have been thrown across the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers by 
the railways. The Chicago and Northwestern line has become an aggre- 
gation of over two thousand miles of rail, and the Chicago, Milwaukee 
and St. Paid is its close rival in extent and importance. The three lines 
running to Cairo via Vincennes form a through route for all traffic with 
the states to the southward. The chief projects now under discussion 
are the Chicago and Atlantic, which is to unite with lines now built to- 
Charleston, and the Chicago and Canada Southern, which line will con- 
nect with all the various branches of that Canadian enterprise. Our 
latest new road is the Chicago and Lake Huron, formed of three lines, 
and entering the city from Valparaiso on the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne 
and Chicago track. The trunk lines being mainly in operation, the 
progress made in the way of shortening tracks, making air-line branches, 
and running extensions does not show to the advantage it deserves, as 
this process is constantly adding new facilities to the established order 
of. things. The panic reduced the price of steel to a point where the 
railways could hardly afford to use iron rails, and all our northwestern 
lines report large relays of Bessemer track. The immense crops now 
being moved have given a great rise to the value of railway stocks, and 
their transportation must result in heavy pecuniary advantages. 

Few are aware of the importance of the wholesale and jobbing trade 
of Chicago. One leading firm has since the panic sold $24,000,000 of 
dry goods in one year, and they now expect most confidently to add 
seventy per cent, to the figures of their last year's business. In boots 
and shoes and in clothing, twenty or more great firms from the east have 
placed here their distributing agents or their factories ; and in groceries. 



Chicago supplies the entire Northwest at rates presenting advantages 
over New York. 

Cliicago has stepped in between New York and the rural banks as a 
financial center, and scarcely a banking institution in the grain or cattle 
regions but keeps its reserve funds in the vaults of our commercial insti- 
tutions. Accumulating here throughout the spring and summer months, 
they are summoned home at pleasure to move the products of the 
prairies. This process greatly strengthens the northwest in its financial 
operations, leaving home capital to supplement local operations on 
behalf of home interests. 

It is impossible to forecast the destiny of this grand and growing 
section of the Union. Figures and predictions made at this date might 
£eem ten years hence so ludicrously small as to excite only derision. 


Early History of Illinois. 

The name of this beautiful Prairie State is derived from Illim, a 
Delaware word signifying Sujjerior Men. It has a French termination, 
and is a symbol of how the two races — the French and the Indians — 
were intermixed during the early history of the country. 

The appellation was no doubt well applied to the primitive inhabit- 
ants of the soil whose prowess in savage warfare long withstood the 
combined attacks of the fierce Iroquois on the one side, and the no less 
savage and relentless Sacs and Foxes on the other. The Illinois were 
once a powerful confederacy, occupying the most beautiful and fertile 
region in the great Valley of the Mississippi, which their enemies coveted 
and struggled long and hard to wrest from them. By the fortunes of 
war they were diminished in numbers, and finally destroyed. " Starved 
Rock," on the Illinois River, according to tradition, commemorates their 
last tragedy, where, it is said, the entire tribe starved rather than sur- 


The first European discoveries in Illinois date back over two hun- 
dred years. They are a part of that movement which, from the begin- 
ning to the middle of the seventeenth century, brought the French 
Canadian missionaries and fur traders into the Valley of the Mississippi, 
and which, at a later period, established the civil and ecclesiastical 
authority of France from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico, 
and from the foot-hills of the Alleghanies to the Rocky Mountains. 

The great river of the West had been discovered by DeSoto, the 
Spanish conqueror of Florida, three quarters of a century before the 
French founded Quebec in 1608, but the Spanish left the country a wil- 
derness, without further exploration or settlement within its borders, in 
which condition it remained until the Mississippi was discovered b}^ the 
agents of the French Canadian government, Jolietand Marquette, in 1673. 
These renowned explorers were not the first white visitors to Illinois. 
In 1671 — two years in advance of them — came Nicholas Perrot to Chicago. 
He had been sent by Talon as an agent of the Canadian government to 






call a great peace convention of Western Indians at Green Bay, prepara- 
tory to the movement for the discovery of tlie Mississippi. It was 
deemed a good strolce of policy to secure, as far as possible, the friend- 
ship and co-operation of the Indians, far and near, before venturing upon 
an enterprise which their hostility might render disastrous, and which 
their friendship and assistance would do so much to make successful ; 
and to this end Perrot was sent to call together in council the tribes 
throughout the Northwest, and to promise them the commerce and pro- 
tection of the French government. He accordingly arrived at Green 
Bay in 1671, and procuring an escort of Pottawattamies, proceeded in a 
bark canoe upon a visit to tlie Miamis, at Chicago. Perrot was there- 
fore the first European to set foot upon the soil of Illinois. 

Still tiiere were others before Marquette. In 1672, the Jesuit mis- 
sionaries. Fathers Claude Allouez and Claude Dablon, bore the standard 
of the Cross from their mission at Green Bay through western Wisconsin 
and northern Illinois, visiting the Foxes on Fox River, and the Masquo- 
tiues and Kickapoos at the mouth of the Milwaukee. These missionaries 
penetrated on the route afterwards followed by Marquette as far as the 
Kickapoo village at the head of Lake Winnebago, where Marquette, in 
his journey, secured guides across the portage to the Wisconsin. 

The oft-repeated story of Marquette and Joliet is well known. 
They were the agents employed by the Canadian government to discover 
the Mississippi. Marquette was a native of France, born in 1637, a 
Jesuit priest by education, and a man of simple faith and of great zeal and 
devotion in extending the Roman Catholic religion among the Indians. 
Arriving in Canada in 1666, he was sent as a missionary to the far 
Northwest, and, in 1668, founded a mission at Sault Ste. Marie. The 
following year he moved to La Pointe, in Lake Superior, where he 
instructed a branch of the Hurons till 1670, when he removed south, and 
founded the mission at St. Ignace, on the Straits of Mackinaw. Here 
he remained, devoting a^ portion of liis time to the study of the Illinois 
language under a native teacher who had accompanied him to the mission 
from La Pointe, till he was joined by Joliet in the Spring of 1673. By 
the way of Green Bay and the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, they entered 
the Mississipjii, which they explored to the mouth of the Arkansas, and 
returned liy the way of the Illinois and Chicago Rivers to Lake Michigan. 

On his way up the Illinois, Marquette visited the great village of 
the Kaskaskias, near what is now Utica, in the county of LaSalle. The 
following year he returned and established among them the mission of 
the Immaculate Virgin Mary, which was the first Jesuft mission founded 
in liJiuois and iu the Mississippi Valley. The intervening winter he 
had spent in a hut which his companions erected on the Chicago River, a 
few leagues from its mouth. The founding of this mission was the last 


act of Marquette's life. He died in Michigan, on his way back to Green 
Bay, May 18, 1675. 


The first French occupation of the territory now embraced in Illi- 
nois was effected by LaSalle in 1680, seven years after the time of Mar- 
quette and Joliet. LaSalle, liaving constructed a vessel, the " Griffin," 
ubove the falls of Niagara, which he sailed to Green Bay, and having 
passed thence in canoes to the mouth of the St. .Joseph River, by which 
and the Kankakee he reached the Illinois, in January, 1680, erected Fort 
Crevecoeur, at tiie lower end of Peoria Lake, wiiere the citj' of Peoria is 
now situated. The place where this ancient fort stood may still be seen 
just below the outlet of Peoria Lake. It was destined, however, to a 
temporary existence. From this point, LaSalle determined to descend 
the Mississippi to its mouth, but did not accomplish this purpose till two 
years later — in 1682. Returning to Fort Frontenac for the purpose of 
getting materials with which to rig his vessel, he left the fort in charge of 
Touti, his lieutenant, who during his absence was driven off by the Iro- 
quois Indians. These savages had made a raid upon the settlement of 
the Illinois, and had left nothing in their track but ruin and desolation. 
Mr. Davidson, in his History of Illinois, gives the following graphic 
account of tlie picture that met the eyes of LaSalle and his companions 
on their return : 

" At the great town of the Illinois they were appalled at the scene 
which opened to their view. No hunter appeared to break its death-like 
silence with a salutatory whoop ot welcome. The plain on wliich the 
town had stood was now strewn with charred fragments of lodges, which 
had so recently swarmed with savage life and hilarity. To render more 
hideous the picture of desolation, large numbers of skulls had been 
placed on the upper extremities of lodge-poles which had escaped the 
devouring flames. In the midst of these hoi'rors was the rude fort of 
the spoilers, rendered frightful by the same ghastly relics. A near 
approach showed that the graves had been robbed of their bodies, and 
swarms of buzzards were discovered gluttin:; their loathsome stomachs 
on the reeking corruption. To complete the work of destruction, the 
<rrowino- corn of the villa2:e had been cut down and burned, while the 
pits containing the products'of previous years, had been rifled and their 
contents scattered with wanton waste. It was evident the suspected 
blow of the Iroquois had fallen with relentless fury." 

Tonti had escaped LaSalle knew not whither. Passing down the 
lake in search of him and his men, IjaSalle discovered that the fort had 
been destroyed, but the vessel which he had partly constructed was still 


Oil the stocks, and but slightly injured. After further fruitless search, 
failing to find Tonti, he fastened to a tree a painting representing himself 
and party sitting in a canoe and bearing a pipe of peace, and to the paint- 
ing attached a letter addressed to Tonti. 

Tonti had escaped, and, after untold privations, taken shelter among 
the Pottawattaniies near Green Bay. These were friendly to the French. 
One of their old chiefs used to say, " There were but three great cap- 
tains ill the world, himself, Tonti and LaSalle." 


We must now return to LaSalle, whose exploits stand out in such 
bold relief. He was born in Rouen, France, in 1643. His father was 
wealtliy, but he renounced liis patrimony on entering a college of the 
Jesuits, from which he separated and came to Canada a poor man in 1666. 
The jiriests of St. Sulpice, among whom he had a brother, were then the 
proprietors of Montreal, the nucleus of which was a seminary or con- 
vent founded by that order. The Superior granted to LaSalle a large- 
tract of land at LaChine, where he established himself in the fur trade. 
He was a man of daring genius, and outstripped all his competitors in 
exploits of travel and commerce with the Lidians. In 1669, he visited 
the headquarters of the great Iroquois Confederacy, at Onondaga, in the 
heart of New York, and, obtaining guides, explored the Ohio River to 
the falls at Louisville. 

In order to understand the genius of LaSalle, it must, be remembered 
that for many years prior to his time the missionaries and traders were 
obliged to make their way to the Northwest by the Ottawa River (of 
Canada) on account of the fierce hostility of the Iroquois along the lower 
lakes and Niagara River, which entirely closed this latter route to the 
Upper Lakes. They carried on their commerce chiefly by canoes, pad- 
dling them through the Ottawa to Lake Nipissing, carrying them across 
the portage to French River, and descending that to Lake Huron. This 
being the route by which they reached the Northwest, accounts for the 
fact that all the earliest Jesuit missions were established in the neighbor- 
hood of the Upper Lakes. LaSalle conceived the grand idea of opening 
the route by Niagara River and the Lower Lakes to Canadian commerce 
by sail vessels, connecting it with the navigation of tlie Mississij^pi, and 
thus opening a magnificent water communication from the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico. This truly grand and comprehensive 
purpose seems to have animated him in all his wonderful achievements 
and the matchless difficulties and hardships he surmounted. As the first 
step in the accomplishment of this object he established himself on Lake ' 
Ontario, and built and garrisoned Fort Frontenac, the site of the present - 


city of Kingston, Canada. Here he obtained a grant of land from the 
French crown and a body of troops by which he beat back the invading 
Iroquois and cleared the passage to Niagara Falls. Having by this mas- 
terly stroke made it safe to attempt a hitherto untried expedition, his 
next step, as we have seen, was to advance to the Falls with all his 
outfit for building a ship with whicli to sail the lakes. He was success- 
ful in this undertaking, though his ultimate purpose was defeated by a 
strange combination of untoward circumstances. The Jesuits evidently 
hated LaSalle and plotted against him, because he had abandoned them 
and co-operated with a rival order. The fur traders were also jealous of 
his superior success in opening new channels of commerce. At LaChine 
he had taken the trade of Lake Ontario, which but for his presence there 
would have gone to Quebec. While they were plodding with their barjc 
canoes through the Ottawa he was constructing sailing vessels to com- 
mand ohe trade of the lakes and the Mississippi. These great plans- 
excited the jealousy and envy of the small traders, introduced treason and 
revolt into the ranks of his own companicjns, and finally led to the foul 
assassination by which his great achievements were prematurely ended. 

In 1682, LaSalle, having completed liis vessel at Peoria, descended 
the Mississippi to its confluence with the Gulf of Mexico. Erecting a. 
standard on which he inscribed tlie arms of France, he took formal pos- 
session of the whole valley of the mighty river, in the name of Loui* 
XIV., then reigning, in honor of whom he named the country Louisiana. 

LaSalle tlien went to France, was appointed Governor, and returned 
with a fleet and immigrants, for the purpose of planting a colony in Illi- 
nois. They arrived in due time in the Gulf of Mexico, but failing to 
find the mouth of the Mississippi, up which LaSalle intended to sail, his 
sujjply ship, with the immigrants, was driven ashore and wrecked on 
Matagorda Bay. With tlie fragments of the vessel he constructed a 
stockade and rude huts on the shore for the protection of the immigrants, 
calling the post Fort St. Louis. 'He then made a trip into New Mexico, 
in search of silver mines, but, meeting with disappointment, returned to- 
find his little colony reduced to forty souls. He then resolved to travel 
on foot to Illinois, and, starting with his companions, had reached the 
valley of the Colorado, near the mouth of Trinity river, when he was. 
shot by one of his men. This occurred on the 19tli of March, 1687. 

Dr. J. W. Foster remarks of him : " Thus fell, not far from the banks 
of the Trinity, Robert Cavalier de la Salle, one of the grandest charac- 
ters that ever figured in American history — a man capable of originating- 
the vastest schemes, and endowed with a will and a judgment capable of 
carrying them to successful results. Had ample facilities been placed by 
the King of France at his disposal, the result of the colonization of this 
continent might have been far different from what we now behold." 



A temporary settlement was made at Fort St. Louis, or the old Kas- 
kaskia village, oa the Illinois River, in what is now LaSalle County, in 
1682. In 1690, this was removed, with the mission connected with it, to 
Kaskaskia, on the river of that name, emptying into the lower Mississippi 
in St. Clair Count}^ Cahokia was settled about the same time, or at 
least, both of these settlements began in the year 1690, though it is now 
pretty well settled that Cahokia is the older place, and ranks as the oldest 
permanent settlement in Illinois, as well as in the Mississippi Valley. 
The reason for the removal of the old Kaskaskia settlement and mission, 
was probably because the dangerous and difficult route by Lake Michigan 
:and the Chicago portage had been almost abandoned, and travelers and 
traders passed down and up the Mississippi by the Fox and Wisconsin 
River route. They removed, to the vicinity of the Mississippi in order 
to be in the line of travel from Canada to Louisiana, that is, the lower 
part of it, for it was all Louisiana then south of the lakes. 

Daring the period of French rule in Louisiana, the population prob- 
ably never exceeded ten thousand, including whites and blacks. Within 
that portion of it now included in Indiana, trading posts were established 
at the principal Miami villages which stood on the head waters of the 
Maumee, the Wea villages situated at Ouiatenon, on the Wabash, and 
the Piankeshaw villages at Post Vincennes ; all of which were probably 
visited by French traders and missionaries before the close of the seven- 
teenth century. 

In the vast territory claimed by the French, many settlements of 
considerable importance had sprung up. Biloxi, on Mobile Bay, had 
been founded by DTberville, in 1699; Antoine de Laraotte Cadillac had 
founded Detroit in 1701 ; and New Orleans had been founded by Bien- 
ville, under the auspices of the Mississippi Company, in 1718. In Illi- 
nois also, considerable settlements had been made, so that in 1730 they 
■embraced one hundred and fort\' French families, about six hundred " con- 
verted Indians," and many traders and voyageurs. In that portion of the 
country, on the east side of tlie Mississippi, there were five distinct set- 
tlements, with their respective villages, viz.: Cahokia, near the mouth 
of Caliokia Creek and about five miles below the present city of St. 
Louis ; St. Philip, about forty-five miles below Cahokia, and four miles 
above Fort Chartres ; Fort Chartres, twelve miles above Kaskaskia." 
Kaskaskia, situated on tlie Kaskaskia River, five miles above its conhu- 
ence with the Mississippi; and Prairie dii Rocher, near Fort Chartres- 
To these must be added St. Genevieve and St. Louis, on the west side 
of the Mississippi. These, with the exception of St. Louis, are among 


the oldest French towns in the Mississippi Valley. Kaskaskia, in its best 
days, was a town of some two or three thousand inhabitants. After it 
passed from the crown of France its population for many years did not 
exceed fifteen hundred. Under British rule, in 1773, the population had 
decreased to four hundred and fifty. As early as 1721, the Jesuits had 
established a college and a monastery in Kaskaskia. 

Fort Chartres was first built under the direction of the Mississippi 
Company, in 1718, by M. de Boisbraint, a military officer, under command 
of Bienville. It stood on the east bank of the Mississippi, about eighteen 
miles .below Kaskaskia, and was for some time the headquarters of the 
military commandants of the district of Illinois. 

In the Centennial Oration of Dr. Fowler, delivered at Philadelphia, 
by appointment of Gov. Beveridge, we find some interesting facts with 
regard to the State of Illinois, which we appropriate in this history: 

In 1682 Illinois became a possession of the French crown, a depend- 
ency of Canada, and a part of Louisiana. In 17G5 the English flag was 
run up on old Fort Chartres, and Illinois was counted among the treas- 
ures of Great Britain. 

In 1779 it was taken from the English by Col. George Rogers Clark. 
This man was resolute in nature, wise in council, prudent in policy, bold 
in action, and heroic in danger. Few men who have figured in the his- 
tory of America are more deserving than this colonel. Nothing short of 
first-class ability could have rescued Vincens and all Illinois from the 
English. And it is not possible to over-estimate the influence of this 
achievement upon the republic. In 1779 Illinois became a part of Vir- 
ginia. It was soon known as Illinois County. In 1784 Virginia ceded 
all this territory to the general government, to be cut into States, to be 
republican in form, with " the same right of sovereignty, freedom, and 
independence as the other States." 

In 1787 it was the object of the wisest and ablest legislation found 
in any merely human records. No man can study the secret history of 


and not feel that Providence was guiding with sleepless eye these unborn 
States. The ordinance that on July 13, 1787, finally became the incor- 
porating act, has a most marvelous history. Jefferson had vainly tried 
to secure a system of government for the northwestern territory. He 
was an emancipationist of that day, and favored the exclusion of slavery 
from the territory Virginia had ceded to the general government; but 
the South voted hira down as often as it came up. In 1787, as late as 
July 10, an organizing act without the anti-slavery clause was pending. 
This concession to the South was expected to carry it. Congress was in 


session in New York City. On July 5, Rev. Dr. Manasseh Cutler, of 
Massachusetts, came into New York to lobby on the northwestern terri- 
tory. Everything' seemed to fall into his hands. Events were ripe. 

The state of the public credit, the growing of Southern prejudice, 
the basis of his mission, his personal cliaracter, all combined to complete 
one of those sudden and marvelous revolutions of public sentiment that 
once in five or ten centuries are seen to sweep over a country like the 
breath of the Almighty. Cutler was a graduate of Yale — received his 
A.M. from Harvard, and his D.D. from Yale. He had studied and taken 
degrees in the three learned professions, medicine, law, and divinity. He 
had thus America's best indorsement. He liad published a scientific 
examination of the plants of New England. His name stood second only 
to that of Franklin as a scientist in America. He was a courtly gentle- 
man of the old style, a man of commanding presence, and of inviting 
face. The Southern members said they had never seen such a gentleman 
in the North. He came representing a company that desired to purchase 
a tract of land now included in Ohio, for the purpose of planting a colony. 
It was a speculation. Government money was worth eighteen cents on 
the dollar. This Massachusetts company had collected enough to pur- 
chase 1,500,000 acres of land. Other speculators in New York made 
Dr. Cutler their agent (lobbyist). On the 12th he represented a demand- J 
for 5,500,000 acres. Tliis would reduce the national debt. Jefferson^ 
and Virginia were regarded as authority concerning the land Virginia 
had just ceded. Jefferson's policy wanted to provide for the public credit, 
and this was a good opportunity to do something. 

Massachusetts then owned the territory of Maine, which she was 
crowding on the market. She Avas opposed to opening the northwestern 
region. This fired the zeal of Virginia. Tlie South cauglit the inspira- 
tion, and all exalted Dr. Cutler. The English minister invited him to 
dine with some of the Southern gentlemen. He was the center of interest. 

The entire South rallied round him. Massachusetts could not vote 
against him, because many of the constituents of her members were 
interested personally in the western speculation. Thus Cutler, making 
friends with the South, and, doubtless, using all the arts of the lobby, 
was enabled to command the situation. True to deeper convictions, he 
dictated one of the most compact and finished documents of wise states- 
manship that has ever adorned any human law book. He borrowed from 
Jefferson the term " Articles of Compact," which, preceding the federal 
constitution, rose into the most sacred character. He then followed very 
closely the constitution of Massachusetts, adopted three years before. 
Its most marked points were : 

1. The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever. 

2. Provision for public schools, giving one township for a seminary, 


and every section numbered 16 in each township ; that is, one-thirty-sixth 
of all the land, for public schools. 

3. A provision prohibiting the adoption of anjr constitution or the 
enactment of any law that should nullify pre-existing contracts. 

Be it forever remembered that this compact declared that " Religion, 
morality, and knowledge being necessary to good government and the 
happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall always 
be encouraged." 

Dr. Cutler planted himself on this platform and would not yield. 
Giving his unqualified declaration that it was that or nothing — that unless 
they could make the land desirable they did not want it — he took his 
horse and buggy, and started for the constitutional convention in Phila- 
delphia. On July 13, 1787, the bill was put upon its passage, and was 
unanimously adopted, every Southern member voting for it, and onlj^ one 
man, Mr. Yates, of New York, voting against it. But as the States voted 
as States, Yates lost his vote, and the compact was put beyond repeal. 

Thus the great States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wis- 
consin — a vast empire, the heart of the great valle}^ — were consecrated 
to freedom, intelligence, and honesty. Thus the great heart of the nation 
was prepared for a year and a day and an hour. In the light of these eighty- 
nine years I affirm that this act was the salvation of the republic and the 
destruction of slavery. Soon the South saw their great blunder, and 
tried to repeal the compact. In 1803 Congress referred it to a committee 
of which John Randolph was chairman. He reported that tliis ordinance 
was a compact, and opj^osed repeal. Thus it stood a rock, in the way 
of the on-rushing sea of slavery. 

With all this timely aid it was, after all, a most desperate and pro- 
tracted struggle to keep the soil of Illinois sacred to freedom. It was 
the natural battle-field for the irrepressible conflict. In the southern end 
of the State slavery preceded the compact. It existed among the old 
French settlers, and was hard to eradicate. The southern part of the 
State was settled from the slave States, and this population brought their 
laws, customs, and institutions with them. A stream of population from 
the North poured into the northern part of the State. These sections 
misunderstood and hated each other perfectly. The Southerners regarded 
the Yankees as a skinning, tricky, penurious race of peddlers, filling the 
country with tinware, brass clocks, and wooden nutmegs. The North- 
erner thought of the Southerner as a lean, lank, lazy creature, burrowing 
in a hut, and rioting in whisky, dirt and ignorance. These causes aided 
in making the struggle long and bitter. So strong was the sympathy 
with slavery that, in spite of the ordinance of 1787, and in spite of the 
deed of cession, it was determined to allow the old French settlers to 
retain their slaves. Planters from the slave States might bring their 


slaves, if they would give them a chance to choose freedom or years 
of service and bondage for their children till they should become 
thirty years of age. If they chose freedom they must leave the State 
in sixty days or be sold as fugitives. Servants were whipped for offenses- 
for whicli white men are fined. Each lash paid forty cents of -the fine. A 
negro ten miles from home witliout a pass was whipped. These famous 
laws were imported from the shave States just as they imported laws ioi 
the inspection of flax and wool when there was neither in the State. 

These Black Laws are now wiped out. A vigorous effort was made 
to i)rotect slavery in the State Constitution of 1817. It barely failed. 
It was renewed in 1825, when a convention was asked to make a new 
constitution. After a hard fight the convention was defeated. But 
slaves did not disappear from the census of tlie State until 1850. There 
were mobs and murders in the interest of slavery. Lovejoy was added 
to the list of martyrs — a sort of first-fruits of that long life of immortal 
heroes who saw freedom as the one supreme desire of their souls, and 
were so enamored of her that they preferred to die rather than survive, her. 

The population of 12,282 that occupied the territory in A.D. 1800, 
increased to 45,000 in A.D. 1818, when the State Constitution was 
adopted, and Illinois took her place in the Union, with a star on the flag 
and two votes in the Senate. 

Shadrach Bond was the first Governor, and in his first message he 
recommended the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. 

The simple economy in those days is seen in the fact that the entire 
bill for stationery for the first Legislature was only $13.50. Yet this 
simplo body actually enacted a very superior code. 

There was no money in the territory before the war of 1812. Deer 
skins and coon skins were the circulating medium. In 1821, the Legis- 
lature ordained a State Bank on the credit of the State. It issued notes 
in the likeness of bank bills. These notes were made a legal tender for 
every thing, and the bank was ordered to loan to the people $100 on per- 
sonal security, and more on mortgages. Tliey actually passed a resolu- 
tion requesting the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States to 
receive these notes for land. The old French Lieutenant Governor, Col. 
Menard, put the resolution as follows : " Gentlemen of the Senate : It is 
moved and seconded dat de notes of dis bank be made land-office money. 
All in favor of dat motion say aye ; all against it say no. It is decided 
in de affirmative. Now, gentlemen, I bet you one hundred dollar he 
never be land-office money ! " Hard sense, like hard money, is always 
above par. 

This old Frenchman presents a fine figure up against the dark back- 
ground of most of his nation. They made no progress. They clung to 
their sarliest and simplest implements. They never wore hats or cap*. 


They pulled their lilankets over their heads in the winter like the Indians, 
with whom they freely intermingled. 

Demagogism had an eady development. One John Grammar (only 
in name), elected to the. Territorial and State Legislatures of 1816 and 
1830, invented the policy of opposing every new thing, saying, " If it 
succeeds, no one will ask who voted against it. If it proves a failure, he 
could quote its record." In sharp' contrast with Grammar was the char- 
acter of D. P. Cook, after whom the county containing Chicago was 
named. Such was his transparent integrity and remarkable ability that 
his will was almost the law of the State. In Congress, a young man. 
and from a poor State, he was made Cliairman of tlie Ways and Means 
Committee. He was pre-eminent for standing by his committee, regard- 
less of consequences. It was his integrity that elected John Quincy 
Adams to the Presidency. There were four candidates in 1824, Jackson, 
Clay, Crawford, and Joiin Quincy Adams. There being no choice by the 
people, tlie election was tlirown into the House. It was so balanced that 
it turned on his vote, and that he cast for Adams, electing him; then 
went home to face the wrath of the Jackson party in Illinois. It cost 
him all but character and greatness. It is a suggestive comment on the 
times, that there was no .legal interest till 1830. It often reached 150 
per cent., usually 50 per cent. Tiien it was reduced to 12, and now to 
10 per cent. 


In area tlie State has 55,410 square miles of territory. It is about 
150 miles wide and 400 miles long, stretching in latitude from Maine to 
North Carolina. It embraces wide variety of climate. It is tempered 
on tlie north by tlie great inland, saltless, tideless sea, wliich keeps the 
thermometer fiom eitlier extreme. Being a table land, from 600 to 1,600 
feet above the level of the sea, one is prepared to find on the health 
maps, prepared b}^ the general government, an almost clean and perfect 
record. In freedom from fever and malarial diseases and consumptions, 
the three deadly enemies of the American Saxon, Illinois, as a State, 
stands without a superioi*. She furnishes one of the essential conditions 
of a great people — sound bodies. I suspect that tliis fact lies back of 
tliat old Delaware word, Illini, superior men. 

The great battles of history that have been deterniiiiativc of dynas- 
ties and destinies liave been strategical battles, chiefly the question of 
position. Thermopylaj has been the war-cry of freemen for twenty-four 
" centuries. It only tells how much tliere may be in position. All this 
advantage belongs to Illinois. It is iU the heart of the greatest valley in 
the world, the vast region between the mountains — a valley that could 


feed mankind for one thousand years. It is well on toward the center of 
the continent. It is in the great temperate belt, in which Jiave been 
found nearly all the aggressive civilizations of history. It lias sixty-five 
miles of frontage on the head of the lake. With the Mississippi forming 
the western and southern Ijoundary, with tlie Ohio running along the 
southeastern line, with the Illinois River and Canal dividing the State 
diagonally from the lake to the Lower Mississippi, and with the Rock and 
Wabash Rivers furnishing altogether 2,000 miles of water-front, con- 
necting with, and running through, in all about 12,000 miles of navi- 
gable water. 

But this is not all. These waters are made most available by the 
fact that the lake and the State lie on the ridge running into the great 
valley from the east. Witliin cannon-shot of the lake the water runs 
away from the lake to the Gulf. The lake now empties at both ends, 
one into the Atlantic and one into the Gulf of Mexico. The lake thus 
seems to hang over the land. This makes tlie dockage most serviceable ; 
there are no steep banks to damage it. Both lake and river are made 
for use. 

Tlie climate varies from Portland to Richmond ; it favors eveiy pro- 
duct of the continent, including the tropics, with less than half a dozen 
exceptions. It produces every great nutriment of the world except ban- 
anas and rice. It is hardly too much to say that it is the most productive 
spot known to civilization. With the soil full of bread and the earth full 
of minsrals ; with an upper surface of food and an under layer of fuel ; 
with perfect natural drainage, and abundant springs and streams and 
navigable rivers ; half way between the forests of the North and the fruits 
of the South ; within a day's ride of the great deposits of iron, coal, cop- 
per, lead, and zinc ; containing and controlling the great grain, cattle, 
pork, and lumber markets of the world, it is not strange that Illinois has 
the advantage of position. 

This advantage has been supplemented by the character of tlie popu- 
lation. In the early days when Illinois was first admitted to the Union, 
her population were cliiefly from Kentucky and Vii-ginia. But, in the 
conflict of ideas concerning slavery, a strong tide of emigration came in 
from the East, and soon changed this composition. In 18T0 her non- 
native population were from colder soils. New York furnished 133,290 ; 
Oliio gave 162,623 ; Pennsylvania sent on 98,352; the entire South gave 
us only 206,734. In all her cities, and in all her German and Scandina- 
vian and other foreign colonies, Illinois has only about one-fifth of her 
people of foreign birth. 



One of the greatest elements in the early development of Illuiois is 
tiie niinois and Michigan Canal, connecting the Illinois and Mississiiipi 
Rivers with the lakes. It was of the utmost importance to the State. 
It was recommended by Gov. Bond, tlie first governor, in liis first message. 
In 1821, the Legislature appropriated $10,000 for surveying the route. 
Two bright young engineers surveyed it, and estimated the cost at 
^600,000 or $700,0^00. It finally cost •$ S,000,000. In 182.5, a law was 
passed to incorporate the Canal Com[iany, but no stock was sold. In 
1826, upon the solicitation of Cook, Congress gave 800,000 acres of land 
on the line of the work. In 1826, another law — commissioners appointed, 
and work commenced with new survey and new estimates. In 18-34-3.0, 
George Farquhar made an able report on the whole matter. This was, 
doubtless, the ablest report ever made to a western legislature, and it 
became the model for subsequent reports and action. From this the 
work went on till it was finished in 1818. It cost the State a large 
amount of money; but it gave to the industries of the State an impetus 
that pushed it up into the first rank of greatness. It was not built as a 
speculation any more than a doctor is employed on a speculation. But 
it has paid into the Treasarj' of the State an average annual net sum of 
over $111,000. 

Pending the construction of the canal, the land and town-lot fevei 
l)roke out in the State, in 18d4-35. It took on the malignant type in 
Chicago, lifting tlie town up into a city. The disease spread over the 
entire State and adjoining States, It was epidemic. It cut up men's 
farms without regard to locality, and jut up the purses of the purchasers 
without regard to consequences. It is estimated that building lots enough 
were sold in Indiana alone to accommodate every citizen then in the 
United States. 

Towns and cities were exported to che Eastern market by the ship- 
load. There was no lack of buj'ers. Every up-ship came freighted with 
speculators and their money. 

This distemper seized upon the Legislature in 1836-37, and left not 
one to tell the tale. They enacted a syste'n of internal improvement 
without a parallel in the grandeur of its conception. They ordered the 
construction of 1,300 miles of railroad, crossing the State in all direc- 
tions. This was surpassed by the river and canal improvements. 
There were a few counties not touched by either railroad or river or 
canal, and those were to be comforted and compensated by the free dis- 
tribution of '1200,000 among them. To inflate this balloon beyond cre- 
dence it was ordered that work should be commenced on both ejids of 


each of these raUroads and rivers, and at each river-crossing, ail at tlie 
same time. The appropriations for tiiese vast improvements w.ere over- 
$12,000,000, and commissioners were appointed to borrow tlie money on 
the credit of tlie State. Remember that all tliis was in the early days of 
railroading, when railroads were luxuries ; that the State had whole 
counties with scarcely a cabin ; and that tlie population of the State was 
less than 400,000, and you can form some idea of the vigor with which 
these brave men undertook the work of making a great State. In the 
light of history I am compelled to say that this was only a premature 
throb of the power that actually slumbered in the soil of the State. It 
was Hercules in the cradle. 

At this juncture the State Biink loaned its funds largely to Godfrev 
Oilman & Co., and to other leading houses, for the purpose of drawing 
trade from St. Louis to Alton. Soon they failed, and took down the 
banlc with them. 

In 1840, all hope seemed gone. A population of 480,000 were loaded 
with a debt of $14,000,000. It had only six small cities, really only 
towiis, namely : Chicago, Alton, Springfield, Quincy, Galena, Nauvoo. 
Tliis debt was to be cared for when there was not a dollar in the treas- 
ury, and when the State had borrowed itself out of all credit, and when 
there was not good money enough in the hands of all the people to pav 
the interest of the debt for a single year. Yet, in the presence of all 
these difficulties, the young State steadily refused to repudiate. Gov. 
Find t(inl< hold of the problem and solved it, bringing the State through 
in triumph. 

Having touchcil lightly upon some of the more distinctive points in 
the history of the development of Illinois, let us next briefly consider the 


It is a gnrden four hundred miles long and one hundred and fifty 
miles wide. Its soil is chiefly a black sandy loam, from six inches to 
sixty feet thick. On the American bottoms it has been cultivated for 
one hundred and fifty years without renewal. About the old French 
towns it has yielded corn for a century and a half without rest or help. 
It produces nearly everything green in the tempei'ate and tropical zones. 
She leads all other States in the number of acres actually under plow. 
Her products fi'om 2.5,000,000 of acres are incalculable. Her mineral 
"vveiillh is scarcely second to her agricultural power. She has coal, iron, 
:eafl, copper, zinc, many viirieties of building stone, fire clay, cuma clay, 
'jo-nmon brick clay, sand of all kinds, gravel, mineral paint — every thing 
ni eded for a high civilization. Left to herself, she has the elements of 
all greatness. The single item of coal is too vast for an appreciative 


handling in figures. We can handle it in general terms like algebvaical 
signs, but long before we get up into the millions and billions the huuian 
mind drops down from comprehension to mere sjmbolic apprehension. 

When I tell j'ou that nearly four-fifths of the entire State is under- 
laid with a deposit of coal more than forty feet thick on the average (now 
estimated, by recent surve\"s, at seventj'^ feet thick), you can get some 
idea of its amount, as you do of the amount of the national debt. There 
it is ! 41,000 square miles — one vast mine into which you could put 
an}'' of the States ; in which you could bury scores of European and 
ancient empires, and have room enough all round to work without know- 
ing that they had been sepulchered there. 

Put this vast coal-bed down by the other great coal deposits of the 
world, and its importance becomes manifest. Great Britain has 12,000 
square miles of coal; Spain, 3,000; France, 1,719; Belgium, .578; Illinois 
about twice as many square miles as all com!)ined. Virginia has 20,000 
s(iuare miles ;. Pennsylvania, 16,000; Oiiio, 12,000. Illinois has 41,000 
s<[iiare miles. One-seventh of all the known coal on tliis continent is in 

Could we sell the coal in this single State for one-seventh of one cent 
a ton it would pay the national debt. Converted into power, even with 
the wastage in our common engines, it would do more work than could 
he done by the entire race, beginning at Adam's wedding and working 
ten hours a day through all the centuries till the present time, and right 
on into the future at the same rate for the next 600,000 years. 

Great Britain uses enough mechanical 230wer to-day to give to each 
man, woman, and child in the kingdom the help and service of nineteen 
untiring servants. No wonder she has leisure and luxuries. No wonder 
the home of the connnon artisan has in it more luxuries than could be 
found in the palace of good old King Arthur. Think, if you can conceive 
of it, of the vast army of servants that slumber in the soil of Illinois, 
impatiently awaiting the call of Genius to come forth to minister to our 

At the present rate of consumption England's coal supply will be 
exhausted in 250 years. When this is gone she must transfer her dominion 
either to the Indies, or to British America, which I would not resist; or 
to some other people, which I would regret as a loss to civilization. 


At the same rate of consnm[(tion (which far exceeds our own) the 
deposit of coal in Illinois will last 120,000 years. And her kingdom shall 
be an everlasting kingdom. 

Let us turn now from this reserve power to the annual products of 


the State. We shall not be humiliated in this field. Here we strike the 
secret of our national credit. Nature provides a market in the constant 
appetite of the race. Men must eat, and if we can furnish the provisions 
we can command the treasure. All that a man hath will he give for his 

According to the last census Illinois produced 30,000,000 of bushels 
of wheat. That is more wheat than was raised by any other State in the 
Union. She raised In 1875, 130,000,000 of bushels of corn — twice as 
much as any other State, and one-sixth of all the corn raised in tiie United 
States. She harvested 2,747,000 tons of hay, nearly one-tenth of all the 
hay in the Republic. It is not generally appreciated, but it is true, that 
the hay crop of the country is worth more than the cotton crop. The 
hay of Illinois equals the cotton of Louisiana. Go to Cliarleston, S. C, 
and see tliem peddling handfuls of hay or grass, almost as a curiosity, 
as we regard Chinese gods or the cryolite of Greenland ; drink your 
coffee and condensed milk ; and walk back from the coast for manj' a 
league through the sand and l)urs till you get up into the better atmos- 
phere of the mountains, without seeing a waving meadow or a grazing 
herd ; tlien you will begin to appreciate the meadows of the Prairie State, 
where the grass often grows sixteen feet high. 

The value of her farm implements is $211,000,000, and the value of 
her live stock is only second to the great State of New York. in 1875 
she had 25,000,000 hogs, and packed 2,113,845, about one-half of all that 
were packed in the United States. Tliis is no insignificant item. Pork 
is a growing demand of the old world. Since the laborers of Europe 
have gotten a taste of our bacon, and we have learned how to pack it dry 
in boxes, like dry goods, the world has become the market. 

The hog is on the march into the future. His nose is ordained to 
uncover the secrets of dominion, and his feet shall be guided by the star 
of empire. 

Illinois marketed $")7, 000,000 worth of slaughtered animals — more 
than any other State, and a seventh of all the States. 

Be patient with me, and pardon my pride, and I will give you a list 
of some of the things in which Illinois excels all other States. 

Depth and richness of soil ; per cent, of good ground ; acres of 
improved land ; large farms — some farms contain from 40,000 to 60,000 
acres of cultivated land, 40,000 acres of corn on a single farm ; number of 
farmers ; amount of wheat, corn, oats and honey produced ; value of ani- 
mals for slaughter; number of hogs ; amount of pork ; number of horses 
— three times as many as Kentucky, the horse State. 

Illinois excels all other States in miles of railroads and in miles of 
postal service, and in money orders sold per annum, and in the amount of 
hnnber sold in her markets. 


Illinois is only second in many important matters. This sample list 
comprises a few of the more important : Permanent school fund (good 
for a }'oung state) ; total income for educational purposes ; number of pul>- 
lishers of books, maps, papers, etc.; value of fiirm products and imple- 
ments, and of live stock ; in tons of coal mined. 

Tlie shipping of Illinois is only second to New York. Out of one 
port during the business hours of the season of navigation she sends forth 
a vessel every ten minutes. This does not include canal boats, which gc 
one every five minutes. No wonder slie is only second in number of 
bankers and brokers or in physicians and surgeons. 

Slie is third in colleges, teachers and schools; cattle, lead, hay, 
flax, sorghum and beeswax. 

She is fourth in population, 'n children enrolled in public schools, in 
law scliools, in butter, potatoes and carriages. 

She is fifth in value of real and personal propert}', in theological 
seminaries and colleges exclusively for women, in milk sold, and in boots 
and shoes manufactured, and in book-binding. 

Siie is only seventh in the production of wood, while she is the 
twelfth in area. Surely that is well done for the Prairie State. She now 
has much more wood and growing timber than she had thirty years ago. 

A few leading industries will justif)' eniiiliasis. She manufacture.^ 
$205,000,000 W(n'lh of goods, which places her well up toward New York 
and Pennsylvania. The number of her manufacturing establishments 
increased from 18G0 to 1870, 300 per cent.; capital em[)loyed increased 350 
per cent., and the amount of product increased 400 per cent. She issued 
5,500,000 copies of commercial and financial newspapei"s — only second to 
New York. She has 6,759 miles of railroad, thus leading all other States, 
worth $03(5,458,000, using 3,245 engines, and 67,712 cars, making a train 
long enough to cover one-tenth of the entire roads of the State. Her 
stations are only five miles apart. She carried last year 15,795,000 passen- 
gers, an average of 36.V miles, or equal to taking her entire population twice 
across the State. More than two-thirds of her land is within five miles of 
a railroad, and less than two per cent, is inore than fifteen miles away. 

The State has a large financial interest in the Illinois Central railroad. 
The road was incorporated in 1850, and the State gave each alternate sec- 
tion for six miles on each side, and doubled the price of the remaining 
land, so keeping herself good. The road received 2,595,000 acres of land, 
and pays to the State one-seventh of the gross receipts. The State 
receives this year $350,000, and has receiYed in all about $7,000,000. It 
is practicall}' the people's road, and it has a most able and gentlemanly 
management. Add to this the annual receipts from the canal, #111,000, 
and a large per cent, of the State tax is provided for. 



of the State keep step with her productions and growth. She was born 
of the missionary spirit. It was a minister who secured for her the ordi- 
nance of 17S7, by which she has been saved from slaver}", ignorance, and 
dishonesty. Rev. Mr. Wile\% pastor of a Scotch congregation in Randolph 
County, petitioned the f'onstitntional Convention of 1818 to recognize 
Jesus Christ as king, and the Scriptures as the oidy necessary guide and 
book of law. 'The convention did not act in the case, and the old Cove- 
nanters refused to accept citizenship. They never voted until 1824, when 
the slavery question was submitted to the people; then they all voted 
against it and cast the determining votes. Conscience has predominated 
whenever a great moral question has been submitted to the people. 

But little mob violence has ever been felt in the State. In 1817 
regulators disposed of a band of horse-thieves that infested the territory. 
The Mormon indignities finally awoke the same spirit. Alton was also 
the scene of a pro-slavery mob, in which Lovejoy was added to the list of 
martyrs. The moral sense of the people makes the law supreme, and gives 
tu the State unruffled peace. 

With $22,300,000 in church property, and 4,298 church organizations, 
the State has that divine police, the sleepless pati'ol of moral ideas, that 
alone is able to secure perfect safety. Conscience takes tlie knife from 
the assassin's hand and the. bludgeon from the grasp of the highwayman. 
We sleep in safety, not because we are behind bolts and bars — these only 
fence against the innocent ; not because a lone officer drowses on a distant 
corner of a street; not because a sheiiff may call his posse from a remote 
part of the county ; but because conscience guards the very portals of the 
air and stirs in the deepest recesses of the public mind. This spirit issues 
within the State 9,500,000 copies of religious papers annually, and i-eceives 
still more from without. Thus the crime of the State is only one-fourth 
that of New York and one-half that of Pennsylvania. 

Illinois never had but one duel between her own citizens. In Belle- 
ville, in 1820, Alphonso Stewart and William Bennett arranged to vindi- 
cate injured honor. The seconds agreed to make it a sham, and make 
them shoot blanks. Stewart was in the secret. Bennett mistrusted some- 
thing, and, unobserved, slipped a bullet into his gun and killed Stewart. 
He then fled the State. After two years he Avas caught, tried, convicted, 
and, in spite of friends and political aid, was hung. This fixed the code 
of honor on a Christian basis, and terminated its use in Illinois. 

The early preachers were ignorant men, who were accounted eloquent 
according to the strength of their voices. But they set the style for all 
public speakers. Lawyers and political speakers followed this rule. Gov. 


Ford says: "Nevertheless, these first preachers were of inoalculable 
Ijenefit to the country. They inculcated justice and morality. To them 
are we indebted for the first Christian character of the Protestant portion 
of the people." 

In education Illinois surpasses her material resources. The ordinance 
of 1787 conseorated one thirty-sixth of her soil to common schools, and 
the law of 1818, the first law that went upon her statutes, gave three per 
cent, of all the rest to 


The ol'l compact secures this interest forever, and by its yoking 
moralit}' and intelligence it precludes the legal interference with the Bible 
in the public schools. With such a start it is natural that we should have 
11,050 schools, and that our illiteracy should be less than New York or 
Pennsylvania, and only about one-half of Massachusetts. We are not to 
blame for not having more than one-half as many idiots as the great 
States. These public schools soon made colleges inevitable. The first 
college, still flourishing, was started in Lebanon in 1828, by the M. E. 
cluirch, and named after Bishop JNIcKendiee. Illinois College, at Jackson- 
ville, supported by the Presbyterians, followed in 1830. In 1832 the Bap- 
tists built Shurtleff College, at Alton. Then the Presbyterians built Knox 
College, at Galesburg, in 1838, and the Episcopalians built Jubilee College, 
at Peoria, in 1847. After these early years colleges have rained down. 
A settler could hardly encamp on the prairie but a college would spring 
up by his wagon. Tiie State now has one very well endowed and equipped 
university, namely, the Northwestern University, at Evanston, with six 
colleges, ninety instructors, over 1,000 students, and #1,500,000 endow- 

Rev. J. M. Peck was the first educated Protestant minister in tne 
State. He settled at Rock Spring, in St. Clair County, 1820, and left his 
impress on the State. Before 1837 only party papers were published, but 
Mr. Peck published a Gazetteer of Illinois. Soon after John Russell, of 
Bluffdale, published essays and tales showing genius. Judge James Hall 
published The Illinois 3Ionthly Magazine with great ability, and an annual 
called The Western Souvenir, which gave him an enviable fame all over the 
United States. From these beginnings Illinois has gone on till she has 
more volumes in public libaaries even than Massachusetts, and of the 
44,500,000 volumes in all the public libraries of the United States, she 
has one-thirteenth. In newspapers she stands fourth. Her increase is 
marvelous. In 1850 she issued 5,000,000 copies; in 1860, 27,590,000 ; in 
1870, 113,140,000. In 1860 she had eighteen colleges and seminaries ; in 
1870 she had eighty. That is a grand advance for the war decade. 

This brings us to a record unsurpassed in the history of any age, 





Tlie State of Iowa has an outline figure nearly approaching that of a rec- 
tangular parallelogram, the northern and southern boundaries being nearly due 
east anil west lines, and its eastern and western boundaries determined by 
southerly flowing rivers — the Mississippi on the east, and the Missouri, together 
with its tributary, the Big Sioux, on the west. The nQ»|;hern boundary is upon 
the parallel of forty-three degrees thirty minutes, and the southern is approxi- 
mately upor^ that of forty degrees and thirty-six minutes. The distance from 
the northern to the southern boundary, excluding the small prominent angle at 
the southeast corner, is a little more than two hundred miles. Owing to the 
irregularity of the river boundaries, however, the number of square miles does 
not reach that of the multiple of these numbers; but according to a report of 
the Secretary of the Treasury to the United States Senate, March 12, 1863, 
the State of Iowa contains 35,228,200 acres, or 55,044 square miles. When it 
is understood that all this vast extent of surface, except that which is occupied 
by our rivers, lakes and peat beds of the northern counties, is susceptible of the 
highest cultivation, some idea may be formed of the immense agricultural 
resources of the State. Iowa is nearly as large as England, and twice as large 
as Scotland ; but when we consider the relative area of surface which may be 
made to yield to the wants of man, those countries of the Old World will bear 
no comparison with Iowa. 


No complete topographical survey of the State of Iowa has yet been made. 
Therefore all the knowledge we have yet upon the subject has been obtained 
from incidental observations of geological corps, from barometrical observations 
by authority of the General Government, and levelings done by railroad en- 
gineer corps within the State. 

Taking into view the facts that the highest point in the State is but a little 
more than twelve hundred feet above the lowest point, that these two points are 
nearly three hundred miles apart, and that the whole State is traversed by 


gently flowing rivers, it will be seen that in reality the State of Iowa rests 
wholly within, and comprises a part of, a vast plain, with no mountain or hill 
ranges within its borders. 

A clearer idea of the great uniformity of the surface of the State may be 
obtained from a statement of the general slopes in feet per mile, from point to 
point, in straight lines across it : 

From the N. E. corner to the S. E. corner of the State 1 foot 1 inch per mile. 

From the N E. corner to Spirit Liike 5 feet 5 inches per mile. 

From the N. W. corner to Spirit Lake u feetO inches per mile. 

From the N. W. corner to the S. W. corner of the State 2 feet inches per mile. 

From the S. W corner to the highest ridge between the two 

great rivers (in Ringgold County) 4 feet 1 inch per mile 

From the dividing ridge in the S. E. corner of the State 5 feet 7 inches per mile. 

From the highest point in the State (near Spirit Lake) to the 
lowest point in the State (at the mouth of Des Moines 
River) 4 feet inches per mile. 

It will be seen, therefore, that there is a good degree of propriety in regard- 
ing the whole State as a part of a great plain, the lowest point of which within 
its borders, the southeast corner of the State, is only 441 feet above the level of 
the sea. The average height of the whole State above the level of the sea is 
not fir from eight hundred feet, although it is more than a thousand miles 
inland from the nearest sea coast. These remarks are, of course, to be under- 
stood as applying to the surface of the State as a whole. When we come to 
consider its surface feature in detail, we find a great diversity of surface by the 
formation of valleys out of the general level, which have been evolved by the 
action of streams during the unnumbered years of the terrace epoch. 

It is in the northeastern part of the State that the river valleys are deepest ; 
consequently the country there has the greatest diversity of surface, and its 
physical features are most strongly marked. 


The Mississippi and Missouri Rivers form the eastern and western boundar 
ries of the State, and receive the eastern and western drainage of it. 

The eastern drainage system comprises not far from two-thirds of the en- 
tire surface of the State. The great watershed which divides these two systems 
is formed by the highest land between those rivers along the whole length of a 
line running southward from a point on the northern boundary line of the State 
near Spirit Lake, in Dickinson County, to a nearly central point in the northern 
part of Adair County. 

From the last named point, this highest ridge of land, between the two great 
rivers, continues southward, witliout change of character, through Ringgold 
County into the State of Missouri ; but southward from that point, in Adair 
County, it is no longer the great watershed. From that point, another and 
lower ridge bears off more nearly southeastward, through the counties of Madi- 
son, Clarke, Lucas and Appanoose, and becomes itself the great watershed. 




All Streams that rise in Iowa rise upon the incoherent surface deposits, 
occupying at first only slight depressions in the surface, and scarcely percept- 
ible. These successively coalesce to form the streams. 

The drift and bluff deposits are both so thick in Iowa that its streams not 
only rise upon their surface, but they also reach considerable depth into these 
deposits alone, in some cases to a depth of nearly two hundred feet from the 
general prairie level. 

The majority of streams that constitute the western system of Iowa drainage 
run, cither along the whole or a part of their course, upon that peculir deposit 
known as bluff deposit. Their banks are often, even of the small streams, 
from five to ten feet in height, quite perpendicular, so that they make the 
streams almost everywhere unfordable, and a great impediment to travel across 
the open country where there are no bridges. 

The material of this deposit is of a slightly yellowish ash color, except 
where darkened by decaying vegetation, very fine and silicious, but not sandy, 
not very cohesive, and not at all plastic. It forms excellent soil, and does not 
bake or crack in drying, except limy concretions, which are generally dis- 
tributed throughout the mass^ in shape and size resembling pebbles ; not a 
stone or pebble can be found in the whole deposit. It was called "silicious 
marl" by Dr. Owen, in his geological report to the General Government, and 
its oriirin refen-ed to an accumulation of sediment in an ancient lake, which 
was afterward drained, when its sediment became dry land. Prof Swallaw 
gives it the name of "bluff," which is here adopted ; the term Lacustral would 
have been better. The peculiar properties of this deposit are that it will stand 
securely with a precipitous front two hundred feet high, and yet is easily 
excavated with a spade. Wells dug in it require only to be walled to a point just 
above the water line. Yet, compact as it is, it is very porous, so that water 
which falls on its surface does not remain, bi^t percolates through it; neither 
does it accumulate within its mass, as it does upon the surface of and within 
the drift and the stratified formations. 

The bluff deposit is known to occupy a region through which the Missouri 
runs almost centrally, and measures, as far as is known, more than two hun- 
dred miles in length and nearly one hundred miles in width. The thickest 
part yet known in Iowa is in Fremont County, where it reaches two hundred 
feet. The boundaries of this deposit in Iowa are nearly as follows : Com- 
mencing at the southeast corner of Fremont County, follow up the watershed 
between the East Nishnabotany aild the West Tarkio Rivers to the southern 
boundary of Cass County ; thence to the center of Audubon County ; thence 
to Tip Top Station, on the Chicago & Northwestern Railway ; thence by a 
broad curve westward to the northwest corner of Plymouth County. 

This deposit is composed of fine sedimentary particle?, similar to ii'.at 
which the Missouri River now deposits from its waters, and is the same which 


that river did deposit in a broad depression in the surface of the drift that 
formed a lake-like expansion of that river in tlie earliest period of the history 
of its valley. That lake, as shown by its deposit, which now remains, was 
about one hundred miles wide and more than twice as long. The water of the 
river was muddy then, as now, and the broad lake became filled with the sedi- 
ment which the river brought down, before its valley had enough in the lower 
portion of its course to drain it. After the lake became filled with the sedi- 
ment, the valley below became deepened by the constant erosive action of the 
waters, to a depth of more than sufficient to have drained the lake of its first 
waters ; but the only effect then was to cause it to cut its valley out of the de- 
posits its own muddy waters had formed. Thus along the valley of that river, 
so far as it forms the western boundary of Iowa, the bluffs which border it are 
composed of that sediment known as bluff deposit, forming a distinct border 
alo'niT the broad, level flood plain, the width of which varies from five to fifteen 
miles, while the original sedimentary deposit stretches far inland. 

All the rivers of the western system of drainage, except the Missouri itself, 
are quite incomplete as rivers, in consequence of their being really only 
branches of other larger tributaries of that great river , or, if they empty into 
the Missouri direct, they have yet all the usual characteristics of Iowa rivers, 
from their sources to their mouths. 

Chariton and Grand Rivers both rise and run for the first twenty-five miles 
of their courses uj^on the drift deposit alone. The first strata that are exposed 
by the deepening valleys of both these streams belong to the upper coal meas- 
ures, and they both continue upon the same formation until they make their 
exit from the State (the former in Appanoose County, the latter in Ringgold 
Uounty), near the boundary of which they have passed nearly or quite through 
the whole of that formation to the middle coal measures. Their valleys gradu- 
ally deepen from their upper portions downward, so that Avithin fifteen or twenty 
miles they have reached a depth of near a hundred and fifty feet below the gen- 
eral level of the adjacent high land. When the rivers have cut their valleys 
down through the series of limestone strata, they reach those of a clayey com- 
position. Upon these they widen their valleys and make broad flood plains 
(commonly termed "bottoms "), the soil of which is stifl" and clayey, except 
where modified by sandy washings. 

A considerable breadth of woodland occupies the bottoms and valley sides 
along a great part of their length ; but their upper branches and tributaries aie 
mostly prairie streams. 

Platte Hiver. — This river belongs mainly to Missouri. Its upper branches 
pass through Ringgold County, and, with the west fork of the Grand River, 
drain a large region of country. 

Here the drift deposit reaches its maximum thickness on an east and west 
line across the State, and the valleys are eroded in some instances to a depth of 
two hundred feet, apparently, through this deposit alone. 


The term " drift deposit " applies to the soil and sub-soil of the greater part 
of the State, and in it alone many of our wells are dug and our forests take 
root. It rests upon the stratified rocks. It is composed of clay, sand, gravel 
and boulders, promiscuously intermixed, ■without stratification, varying in char- 
acter in different parts of the State. 

The proportion of lime in the drift of Iowa is so great that the water of all 
our wells and springs is too '' hard '' for washing purposes ; and the same sub- 
stance is so prevalent in the drift clays tliat they are always found to have suiE- 
cient flux when used for the manufacture of brick. 

One Tlanlred and Two Rloi-r is represented in Taylor County, the valleys 
of whicli have the same general character of those just described. The country 
around and between the east and west forks of this stream is almost entirely 

Noilawajj Rher. — Tliis stream is represented by east, middle and west 
branches. The two former rise la Adair County, the latter in Cass County. 
Tlicse rivers and valleys are fine examples of the small rivers and valleys of 
Southern Iowa. They have the general character of drift valleys, and with 
beautiful undulating and sloping sides. The Nodaways drain one of the finest 
agricultural regions in the State, the soil of which is tillable almost to their very 
banks. The banks and the adjacent narrow flood plains are almost everywhere 
composed of a rich, deep, dark loam. 

Nlshnabotany liivcr. — Tliis river is represented by east and west branches, 
the former having its source in Anderson County, the latter in Shelby County. 
Both these branches, from tli^r source to their confluence — and also the main 
stream, from thence to the point where it enters the great flood plain of the 
Missouri — run through a region the surface of which is occupied by the bluff 
deposit. The West Kishnabotany is probably without any valuable mill sites. 
In the western part of Cass County, the East Nishnabotany loses its identity 
by becoming abruptly divided up into five or six diiTerent creeks. A few 
good mill sites occur here on this stream. None, however, that are thought 
reliable exist on either of these rivers, or on the main stream below the 
confluence, except, perhaps, one or two in Montgomery County. The 
valleys of the two branches, and the intervening upland, possess remarkable 

Boi/cr River. — Until it enters the flood plain of the iNIissouri, the Boyer 
rims almost, if not quite, its entii-e course through the region occupied by the 
bluff deposit, and has cut its valley entirely through it along most of its pas- 
sage. Tjie only rocks exposed are the upper coal measures, near Reed's mill, in 
Harrison County. The exposures are slight, and arfe the most northerly now 
known in Iowa. The valley of this river has usually gently sloping sides, and an 
nilistinctly defined flood plain. Along the lower half of its course the adjacent 
upland presents a surface of the billowy character, peculiar to the blu.T deposit. 
The source of this river is in Sac County. 


Soldier River, — Tlie east and middle branches of this stream have their 
source in Crawford County, and the west branch in Ida County. Tlie whole 
course of this river is through the blufif deposit. It has no exposure of strata 
along its course. 

Little Sioux River. — Under this head are ineiiided both the main and west 
branches of that stream, together with the Maple, which is one of its branches. 
Tlie west branch and the Maple are so similar to tlie Soldier River that they 
need no separate description. The main stream has its boundary near the 
northern boundary of the State, and runs most of its course upon drift deposit 
alone, entering the region of the bluff deposit in the soutliern part of Cherokee 
County. The two principal upper branches, near their source in Dickinson 
and Osceola .Counties, are small prairie creeks, with indistinct valleys. On 
entering Clay County, the valley deepens, and at their confluence has a depth 
of one hundred feet, which still further increases until along the boundary line 
between Clay and Biicna Vista Counties, it reaches a depth of two hundred 
feet. Just as the valley enters Cherokee County, it tuims to the southward and 
becomes much widened, with its sides gently sloping to the uplands. When the 
valley enters the region of the bluff deposit, it assumes the billowy appearance. 
No exposures of strata of any kind have been found in the valley of the Little 
Sioux or any of its branches. 

. Fhyd River. — This river rises upon the drift in O'Brien County, and flow- 
ing southward enters the region of tie bluff deposit a little north of the center 
of Plymouth County. Almost from its source to its mouth it is a prairie stream, 
with slightly sloping valley sides, which blend gradually with the uplands. A 
single slight exposure of sandstone of cretaceous age occurs in the valley near 
Sioux City, and which is the only known exposure of rock of any kind along 
its whole length. Near this exposure is a mill site, but farther up the stream 
It is not valuable for such purposes. 

Rock River. — This stream passes through Lyon and Sioux Counties. It 
was evidently so named from the fact tliat considerable exposures of the red 
Sioux quartzite occur along the main branches of the stream in Minnesota, a 
few miles north of our State boundary. Within this State the main stream and 
its branches are drift streams, and strata are exposed. The beds 'and banks of 
the streams are usually sandy and gravelly, with occasional boulders intermixed. 

Big Sioux River. — Tlie valley of this river, from the northwest corner of 
the State to its mouth, possesses much the same character as all tlie streams of 
the surface deposits. At Sioux Falls, a few miles above the northivest corner 
of the State, the stream meets with remarkable obstructions from the presence 
of Sioux quartzite, whiclf outcroDS directly across the stream, and causes a fall 
of aboiit sixty feet within a distance of half a mile, producing a series of cas- 
cades. For the first twenty-five miles above its mouth, tlie valley is very broad, 
with a broad, flat flood plain, with gentle slopes occasionally showing indistinctly 
defined terraces. These terraces and valley bottoms constitute some of the finest 


agricultural land of the region. On the Iowa side of the valley the upland 
presents abrupt bluffs, steep as the materials of which they are composed will 
stand, and from one hundred to nearly two hundred feet high above the stream. 
At rare intervals, about fifteen miles from its mouth, the cretaceous strata are 
found exposed in the face of the bluffs of the Iowa side. No other strata are 
exposed along that part of the valley which borders our State, with the single 
exception of Sioux quartzite at its extreme northwestern corner. Some good mill 
sites may be secured along that portion of this river which borders Lyon County, 
but below this the fall will probably be found insufficient and the location for 
dams insecure. 

Missouri liiver. — This is one of tli-e muddiest streams on the globe, and its 
waters are known to be very turbid far toward its source. The chief pecul- 
iarity of this river is its broad flood plains, and its adjacent bluff deposits. 
Much the greater part of the flood plain of this river is upon the Iowa side, and 
continuous from the south boundary line of the State to Siou.x City, a distance 
of more than one hundred miles in length, varying from three to five miles in 
width. This alluvial plain is estimated to contain more than half a million acres 
of land within the State, upward of four hundred thousand of which are now 

The rivers of the eastern system of drainage have quite a different character 
from those of the western, system. They are larger, longer and have their val- 
leys modified to a much greater extent by the underlying strata. For the lat- 
ter reason, water-power is much more abundant upon them than upon the 
streams of the western system. 

Des Moines River. — This river has its source in Minnesota, but it enters 
Iowa before it has attained any size, and flows almost centrally through it from 
northwest to southeast, emptying into the Mississippi at the extreme southeast- 
ern corner of the State. It drains a greater area than any river within the 
State. The upper portion of it is divided into two branches known as the east 
and west forks. These unite in Humboldt County. The valleys of these 
branches above their confluence are drift-valleys, except a few small exposures 
of subcarboniferous limestone about five miles above their confluence. These 
exposures produce several small mill-sites. The valleys vary from a few hun- 
dred yards to half a mile in width, and are the finest agricultural lands. In the 
northern part of Webster County, the character of the main valley is modified 
by the presence of ledges and low cliffs of the subcarboniferous limestone and 
gypsum. From a point a little below Fort Dodge to near Amsterdam, in Ma- 
rion County, the river runs all the way through and upon the lower coal-meas- 
nre strata. Along this part of its course the flood-plain varies from an eighth 
to half a mile or more in width. From Amsterdam to Ottumwa the subcarbon- 
iferous limestone appears at intervals in the valley sides. Near Ottumwa, the sub- 
carboniferous rocks pass beneath the river again, bringing down the coal-measure 
Strata into its bed ; but they rise again from it in the extreme northwestern part 


of Van Buren County, and subcarboniferous strata resume and keep their place 
along the valley to the north of the river. From Fort Dodge to the northern 
part of Lee County, the strata of the lower coal measures are present in the 
valley. Its flood plain is frequently sandy, from the debris of the sandstone 
and sandy shales of the coal measures produced by their removal in the process 
of the formation of the valley. 

The principal tributaries of the Des Moines are upon the western side. 
These are the Raccoon and the three rivers, viz.: South, Middle and North Riv- 
ers. The three latter have their source in the region occupied by the upper 
coal-measure limestone formation, flow eastward over the middle coal measures, 
and enter the valley of the Des Moines upon the lower coal measures. These 
streams, especially South and Middle Rivei's, are frequently bordered by high, 
rocky cliffs. Raccoon River has its source upon the heavy surface deposits of 
the middle region of Western Iowa, and along the greater part of its course it 
has excavated its valley out those deposits and the middle coal measures alone. 
The valley of the Des Moines and its branches are destined to become the seat 
of extensive manufactures in consequence of the numerous mill sites of immense 
power, and the fact that the main valley traverses the entire length of the Iowa 
coal fields. 

Skunk River. — This river has its source in Hamilton County, and runs 
almost its entire course upon the border of the outcrop of the lower coal meas- 
ures, or, more properly speaking, upon the subcarboniferous limestone, just where 
it begins to pass beneath the coal measures by its southerly and westerly dip. 
Its general course is southeast. From the western part of Henry County, up 
as far as Story County, the broad, flat flood plain is covered with a rich deep 
clay soil, which, in time of long-continued rains and overflows of the river, has 
made the valley of Skunk River a terror to travelers from the earliest settle- 
ment of the country. There are some excellent mill sites on the lower half of 
this river, but they are not so numerous or valuable as on other rivers of the 
eastern system. 

Iowa River. — This river rises in Hancock County, in the midst of a broad, 
slightly undulating drift region. The first rock exposure is that of subcarbon- 
iferous limestone, in the southwestern corner of Franklin County. It enters 
the region of the Devonian strata near the southwestern corner of Benton 
County, and in this it continues to its confluence with the Cedar in Louisa 
County. Below the junction with the Cedai-, and for some miles above that 
point, its valley is broad, and especially on the northern side, with a well 
marked flood plain. Its borders gradually blend with the uplands as they slope 
away in the distance from the river. The Iowa furnishes numerous and valua- 
ble mill sites. 

Cedar River. — This stream is usually understood to be a branch of the 
Iowa, but it ought, really, to be regarded as the main stream. It rises by 
numerous branches in the northern part of the State, and flows the entire length 


of tlic State, through the region occupied bv the Devonian strata and along the 
trend occupied by that formation. 

The valley of this river, in the upper part of its course, is narrow, and the 
sides slope so gently as to scarcely show where the lowlands end and the up- 
lands begin. Below the confluence with the Shell Rock, the flood plain is more 
distinctly marked and the valley broad and shallow. The valley of the Cedar 
is one of the finest regions in the State, and both the main stream and its 
branches afford abundant and reliable mill sites. 

Wapsipinnieon River. — This river has its source near the source of the 
■Cedar, and runs parallel and near it almost its entire course, the upper half 
upon the same formation — the Devonian. In the northeastern part of Linn 
County, it enters the region of the Niagara limestone, upon which it continues 
to the Mississippi. It is one hundred miles long, and yet the area of its drain- 
age is only from twelve to twenty miles in width. Hence, its numerous mill 
sites are unusually secure. 

Turkey River. — This river and the Upper Iowa are, in many respects, un- 
like other Iowa rivers. The difi'erence is due to the great depth they have 
eroded their valleys and the different character of the material through which 
they have eroded. Turkey River rises in Howard County, and in Winnesheik 
County, a few miles from its source, its valley has attained a depth of more than 
two hundred feet, and in Fayette and Clayton Counties its depth is increased to 
three and four hundred feet. The summit of the uplands, bordering nearly the 
whole length of the valley, is capped by the Maquoketa shales. These shales 
are underlaid by the Galena limestone, between two and three hundred feet 
thick. The valley has been eroded through these, and runs upon the Trenton 
limestone. Thus, all the formations along and within this valley are Lower 
Silurian. The valley is usually narrow, and without a well-marked flood plain. 
Water power is abundant, but in most places inaccessible. 

Upper loiva River. — This river rises in Minnesota, just beyond the north- 
ern boundary line, and enters our State in Howard County before it has attained 
uny considerable size. Its course is nearly eastward until it reaches the Mis- 
sissippi. It rises in the region of the Devonian rocks, and flows across the out- 
crops, respectively, of the Niagara, Galena and Trenton limestone, fhe lower 
masnesian limestone and Potsdam sandstone, into and throufrh all of which, 
except the last, it has cut its valley, which is the deepest of any in Iowa. The 
valley sides are, almost everywhere, high and steep, and cliffs of lower magne- 
sian and Trenton limestone give them a wild and rugged aspect. In the lower 
part of the valley, the flood plain reaches a width sufficient for the location of 
small farms, but usually it is too narrow for such purposes. On the higher 
surface, however, as soon as you leave the valley you come immediately upon a 
cultivated country. This stream has the gi-eatest slope per mile of any in Iowa, 
consequently it furnishes immense water power. In some places, where creeks 
come into it, the valley widens and affords good locations for farms. The town 


of Decorah, in Winnesheik County, is located in one of these spots, whicb 
makes it a lovely location ; and the power of the river and the small spring; • 
Btreams around it offer fine facilities for manufacturing. This river and its 
tributaries are the only trout streams in Iowa. 

Mississippi River. — This river may be described, in general terms, as a broad 
canal cut out of the general level of the country through which the river flows. 
It is bordered by abrupt hills or bluffs. The bottom of the valley ranges from. 
one to eight miles in width. The whole space between the bluffs is occupied by 
the river and its bottom, or flood plain only, if we except the occasional terraces 
or remains of ancient flood plains, which are not now reached by the highest 
floods of the river. The river itself is from half a mile to nearly a mile ia 
•width. There are but four points along the wliole length of the State where the- 
bluffs approach the stream on both sides. The Lower Silurian formations com- 
pose the bluffs in the northern part of the State, but they gradually disappear 
by a southerly dip, and the bluffs are continued successively by the Upper 
Silurian, Devonian, and subcarboniferous rocks, which are reached near the 
southeastern corner of the State. 

Considered in their relation to the present general surface of the state, the 
relative ages of the river valley of Iowa date back only to the close of the 
glacial epoch ; but that the Mississippi, and all tlie rivers of Northeastern lowa^ 
if no others, had at least a large part of the rocky portions of their valleys 
eroded by pre-glacial, or perhaps even by palaeozoic rivers, can scarcely be 


The lakes of Iowa may be properly divided into two distinct classes. The- 
first may be called drift lakes, having had their origin in the depressions left 
in the surface of the drift at the close of the glacial epoch, and have rested upon 
the undisturbed surface of the drift deposit ever since the glaciers disappeared. 
The others may be properly termed fluvatile or alluvial lakes, because they have 
had their origin by the action of rivers while cutting their own valleys out from 
the surface of the drift as it existed at the close of the glacial epoch, and are now 
found resting upon the alluvium, as the others rest upon the drift. By the term 
alluvium is meant the deposit which has accumulated in the valleys of rivers by 
the action of their own currents. It is largely composed of sand and other 
coarse material, and upon that deposit are some of the best and most productive 
soils in the State. It is this deposit which form the flood plains and deltas of 
our rivers, as well as the terraces of their valleys. 

The regions to which the drift lakes ai'e principally confined are near the 
head waters of the principal streams of the State. We consequently find them 
in those regions which lie between the Cedar and Des Moines Rivers, and the 
Des Moines and Little Sioux. No drift lakes are found in Southern Iowa. 
The largest of the lakes to be found in the State are Spirit and Okoboji, ia 


Dickinson County ; Clear Lake, in Cerro Gordo County ; and Storm Lake, in 
Bunea Vista County. 

Spirit Lake. — The width and length of this lake are about equal , and it 
•contains about twelve square miles of surface, its northern border resting directly 
•on the boundary of the State. It lies almost directly upon the great watershed. 
Its shores are mostly gravelly, and the country about it fertile. 

Okohoji Lake. — This body of water lies directly south of Spirit Lake, and 
ias somewhat the shape of a horse-shoe, with its eastern projection within a few 
rods of Spirit Lake, where it receives the outlet of the latter. Okoboji Lake 
■extends about five miles southward from Spirit Lake, thence about the same 
•distance westward, and then bends northward about as far as the eastern projec- 
tion. The eastern portion is narrow, but the western is larger, and in some 
places a hundred feet deep. The surroundings of this and Spirit Lake are very 
pleasant. Fisli are abundant in them, and they are the resort of myriads of 
water fowl. 

Clear Lake. — This lake is situated . in Cerro Gordo County, upon the 
watershed between the Iowa and Cedar Rivers. It is about five miles long, 
and two or three miles wide, and has a maximum depth of only fifteen 
feet. Its shores and the country around it are like that of Spirit Lake. 

Storm Lake. — This body of water rests upon the great water shed in Buena 
Vista County. It is a clear, beautiful sheet of water, containing a surface area 
of between four and five square miles. 

The outlets of all these drift-lakes are dry during a portion of the year, ex- 
cept Okoboji. 

Walled Lakes. — Along the water sheds of Northern Iowa great numbers of 
small lakes exist, varying from half a mile to a mile in diameter. One of the lakes 
in Wright County, and another in Sac, have each received the name of " Walled 
Lake," on account of tlie existence of embankments on their borders, which are 
supposed to be the work of ancient inhabitants. These embankments are from 
two to ten feet in height, and from five to thirty feet across. They are the 
result of natural causes alone, being referable to the periodic action of ice, aided, 
■to some extent, by the force of the waves. These lakes are very shallow, and 
an winter freeze to the bottom, so that but little unfrozen water remains in the 
middle. The ice freezes fast to everything upon tlie bottom, and the expansive 
power of the water in freezing acts in all directions from the center to the cir- 
cumference, and whatever was on the bottom of the lake has been thus carried 
to the shore, and this has been going on from year to year, from century to 
■century, forming the embankments which have caused so much wonder. 


Springs issue from all formations, and from the sides of almost every valley, 
but they are more numerous, and assume proportions which give rise to the 
jname of sink-holes, along the upland borders of the Upper Iowa River, owing 


to the peculiar fissured and laminated character and great thickness of the strata. 
of the age of the Trenton limestone which underlies the whole region of the 
valley of that stream. 

No mineral springs, properly so called, have yet been discovered in Iowa, 
though the water of several artesian wells is frequently found charged with 
soluble mineral substances. 


It is estimated that seven-eighths of the surface of the State was prairie 
when first settled. They are not confined to level surfaces, nor to any partic- 
ular variety of soil, for witliin the State they rest upon all formations, from' 
those of the Azoic to those of the Cretaceous age, inclusive. Whatever may 
have been their origin, their present existence in Iowa is not due to the influ- 
ence of climate, nor the soil, nor any of the underlying formations. Tlie real 
cause is the prevalence of the annual fires. If these had been prevented fiftj 
years ago, Iowa would now be a timbered country. The encroachment of forest 
trees upon prairie farms as soon as the bordering woodland is protected from 
the annual prairie fires, is well known to farmers throughout the State. 

The soil of Iowa is justly famous for its fertility, and there is probably no 
equal area of the earth's surface that contains so little untillable land, or whose 
soil has so high an average of fertility. Ninety-five per cent, of its surface is 
tillable land. 


The soil of Iowa may be separated into three general divisions, which not 
only possess different physical characters, but also difier in the mode of their 
origin. These are drift, bluff and alluvial, and belong respectively to the 
deposits bearing the same names. The drift occupies a much larger part of the 
surface of the State than both the others. The bluff has the next greatest area- 
of surface, and the alluvial least. 

All soil is disintegrated rock. The drift deposit of Iowa was derived, to a. 
considerable extent, from the rocks of Minnesota ; but the greater part of Iowa, 
drift was derived from its own rocks, much of which has been transported but a* 
short distance. In general terms the constant component element of the drift 
soil is that portion which was transported from the north, while the inconstant 
elements are those portions which were derived from the adjacent or underlying 
strata. For example, in Western Iowa, wherever that cretaceous formation 
known as the Nishnabotany sandstone exists, the soil contains more sand thaa 
elsewhere. The same may be said of the soil of some parts of the State occu- 
pied by the lower coal measures, the sandstones and sandy shales of that forma- 
tion furnishing the sand. 

In Northern and Northwestern Iowa, the drift contains more sand and 
gravel than elsewhere. This sand and gravel was, doubtless, derived from the^ 



cretaceous rocks tha.t now do, or formerly did, exist there, and also in part 
from the conglomerate and pudding-stone beds of the Sioux quartzite. 

In Southern Iowa, the soil is frequently stiff and clayey. This preponder- 
ating clay is doubtless derived from the clayey and shaly beds which alternate 
with the limestones of that region. 

The bluff soil is that which rests upon, and constitutes a part of, the bluff 
deposit. It is found only in the western part of the State, and adjacent to the 
Missouri River. Although it contains less than one per cent, of clay in its 
composition, it is in no respect inferior to the best drift soil. 

The alluvial soil is that of the flood plains of the river valleys, or bottom 
lands. That which is periodically flooded by the rivers is of little value for 
agricultural purposes ; but a large part of it is entirely above the reach of the 
highest floods, and is very productive. 

The stratified rocks of Iowa range from the Azoic to the Mesozoic, inclu- 
sive ; but the greater portion of the surface of the State is occupied by those 
of the Palaeozoic age. The table below will show each of these formations in 
their order : 






Upper Silurian 

Lower Silurian 



Post Tertiary 

Lower Cretaceous. 

Coal Measures. 











Inocernmoun bed 

Wooiiburi/ Sandstone and Shales... 

Nishyiabotani/ Sandstone 

Upper Coal Measures 

Middle Coal Measures 

Lower Coal Measures 

St. Louis Limestone 

Keokuk Limestone 

Burlington Limestone 

Kinderhook beds 

Hamilton Limestone and Shales., 

Niagara Limestone 

Maijuoketa Shales 

Galena Limestone 

jTrenron Limestone 

St. Peter's Sandstone 

Lower Magnesian Limestone 

Potsdam Sandstone 

■Sioux Quartzite 




to 200 








The Sioux quartzite is found exposed in natural ledges only upon a few 
acres in the extreme northwest corner of the State, upon the banks of the Big 
Sioux River, for which reason the specific name of Sioux Quartzite has been 
given them. It is an intensely hard rock, breaks in splintery fracture, and a 
color varying, in different localities, from a light to deep red. The process of 
metamorphism has been so complete throughout the whole formation that the 
rock is almost everywhere of uniform texture. The dip is four or five degrees 
to the northward, and the trend of the outcrop is eastward and westward. This 


rock may be quarried in a few rare cases, but usually it cannot be secured in 
dry forms except that into which it naturally cracks, and the tendency is to 
angular pieces. It is absolutely indestructible. 



Potsdam Sandstone. — This formation is exposed only in a small portion of 
the northeastern portion of the State. It is only to be seen in the bases of the 
bluff's and steep valley sides which border the river there. It may be seen 
underlying the lower magnesian limestone, St. Peter s sandstone and Trenton 
limestone, in their regular order, along the bluffs of the Mississippi from the 
northern boundary of the State as far south as Guttenburg, along the Upper 
Iowa for a distance of about twenty miles from its mouth, and along a few of 
the streams which empty into the Mississippi in Allamakee County. 

It is nearly valueless for economic purposes. 

No fossils have been discovered in this formation in Iowa. 

Lower 3Iagnesiuvi Limestone. — This formation has but little greater geo- 
graphical extent in Iowa than the Potsdam sandstone. It lacks a uniformity 
of texture and stratification, owing to which it is not generally valuable for 
building purposes. 

The only fossils found in this formation in Iowa are a few traces of crinoids, 
near McGregor. 

St. Peter's Sandstone. — This formation is remarkably uniform in thickness 
throughout its known geographical extent ; and it is evident it occupies a large 
portion of the northern half of Allamakee County, immediately beneath the 


Trenton Limestone. — With the exception of this, all the limestones of both 
Upper and Lower Silurian age in Iowa are magnesian limestones — nearly pure 
dolomites. This formation occupies large portions of Winnesheik and Alla- 
makee Counties and a portion of Clayton. The greater part of it is useless for 
economic purposes, yet there are in some places compact and evenly bedded 
layers, which afford fine material for window caps and sills. 

In this formation, fossils are abundant, so much so that, in some places, the 
rock is made up of a mass of shells, corals and fragments of tribolites, cemented 
by calcareous material into a solid rock. Some of these fossils are new to 
science and peculiar to Iowa. 

Tlie Galena Limestone. — This is the upper formation of the Trenton group. 
It seldom exceeds twelve miles in width, although it is fully one hundred and 
fifty miles long. The outcrop traverses portions of the counties of Howard, 
Winnesiieik, Allamakee, Fayette, Clayton, Dubuque and Jackson. It exhibits 
its greatest development in Dubuque County. It is nearly a pure dolomite, 
with a slight admixture of silicious matter. It is usually unfit for dressing, 


though sometimes near the top of the bed good blocks for dressing are found. 
This formation is the source of the lead ore of the Dubuque lead mines. The 
lead region proper is confined to an area of about fifteen miles square in the 
vicinity of Dubuque. The ore occurs in vertical fissures, which traverse the 
rock at regular intervals from east to west ; some is found in those which have 
a north and south direction. The ore is mostly that known as Galena, or sul- 
phuret of lead, very small quantities only of the carbonate being found with it. 


Maquoketn Shales. — The surface occupied by this formation is singularly 
long and narrow, seldom reaching more than a mile or two in width, but more 
than a hundred miles in length. Its most southerly exposure is in the bluffs of 
the Mississippi near Bellevue, in Jackson County, and the most northerly yet 
recognized is in the western part of Winnesheik County. The whole formation 
is largely composed of bluish and brownish shales, sometimes slightly arena- 
ceous, sometimes calcareous, which weather into a tenacious clay upon the sur- 
face, and the soil derived from it is usually stiff and clayey. Its economic 
value is very slight. 

Several species of fossils which characterize the Cincinnati group are found 
in the Maquoketa shales ; but they contain a larger number that have been 
found anywhere else than in these shales in Iowa, and their distinct faunal char- 
acteristics seem to warrant the separation of the Maquoketa shales as a distinct 
formation from any others of th • group. 



Niagara Limestone. — The ai-ea occupied by the Niagara limestone is nearly 
one hundred and sixty miles long from north to south, and forty and fifty miles 

This formation is entirely a magnesiun limestone, with in some places a con- 
siderable proportion of silicious matter in tlie form of chert or coarse flint. A 
large part of it is evenly bedded, and probably affords the best and greatest 
amount of quarry rock in the State. The quarries at Anamosa, LeClaire and 
Farley are all opened in this formation. 



Hamilton Limestone. — The area of surface occupied by the Hamilton lime- 
stone and shales is fully as great as those by all the formations of both Upper 
and Lower Silurian age in the State. It is nearly two hundred miles long and 
from forty to fifty miles broad. The general trend is northwestward and soutli- 

.'.Ithough a large part of the material of this formation is practically quite 
"Sarthless, yet other portions are valuable for economic purposes ; and having a 


large geographical extent in the State, is one of the most important formations, 
in a practical point of view. At Waverly, Bremer County, its value for the 
production of hydraulic lime has been practically demonstrated. The heavier 
and more uniform magnesian beds furnish material for bridge piers and other- 
material requiring strength and durability. 

All the Devonian strata of Iowa evidently belong to a single epoch, and re- 
ferable to the Hamilton, as recognized by New York geologists. 

The most conspicuous and characteristic fossils of this formation are bra- 
chiopod, mollusks and corals. The coral Acervularia Davidsoni occurs near 
Iowa City, and is known as " Iowa City Marble," and " bird's-eye marble." 


Of the three groups of formations that constitute the carboniferous system, 
viz., the subcarboniferous, coal measures and permian, only the first two are 
found in Iowa. 


The area of the surface occupied by this group is very large. Its eastern 
border passes from the northeastern part of Winnebago County, with consider- 
able directness in a southeasterly direction to the northern part of Washington 
County. Here . it makes a broad and direct bend nearly eastward, striking 
the Mississippi River at Muscatine. The southern and western boundary is to- 
a considerable extent the same as that which separates it from the coal field. 
From the southern part of Pocahontas County it passes southeast to Fort Dodge, 
thence to Webster City, thence to a point three or four miles northeast of El- 
dora, in Hardin County, thence southward to the middle of the north line of 
Jasper County, thence southeastward to Sigourney, in Keokuk County, thence 
to the northeastern corner of Jefferson County, thence sweeping a few miles 
eastward to the southeast corner of Van Buren County. Its area is nearly two 
hundred and fifty miles long, and from twenty to fifty miles wide. 

The Kiriderhook Beds. — The most southerly exposure of these beds is near 
the mouth of Skunk River, in Des Moines County. The most northerly now 
known is in the eastern part of Pocahontas County, more than two hundred 
miles distant. The principal exposures of this formation are along the bluffa 
which border the Mississippi and Skunk Rivers, where they form the eastern 
and northern boundary of Des Moines County, along English River, in Wash- 
ington County ; along the Iowa River, in Tama, Marshall, Hamlin and Frank- 
lin Counties ; and along the Des Moines River, in Humboldt County. 

The economic value of this formation is very considerable, particularly in 
the northern portion of the region it occupies. In Pocahontas and Humboldt. 
Counties it is almost invaluable, as no other stone except a few boulders are 
found here. At Iowa Falls the lower division is very good for building pur-- 
poses. In Marshall County all the limestone to be obtained comes from this 
formation, and tlie quarries near LeGrand are very valuable. At this point 


some of the layers are finely veined with peroxide of iron, and are wrought into 
ornamental and useful objects. 

1, In Tama County, the oolitic member is well exposed, where it is manufac- 
tured into lime. It is not valuable for building, as upon exposure to atmosphere 
and frost, it crumbles to pieces. 

The remains of fishes are the only fossils yet discovered in this formation 
that can be referred to the sub-kingdom vertebrata ; and so far as yet recog- 
nized, they all belong to the order selachians. 

Of ARTICULATES, Only two specics have been recognized, both of which 
belong to the genus phillipsia. 

The sub-kingdom mollusca is largely represented. 

The KADIATA are represented by a few crinoids, usually found in a very im- 
perfect condition. The sub-kingdom is also represented by corals. 

The prominent feature in the life of this epoch was molluscan ; so much so 
in fact as to overshadow all other branches of the animal kingdom. The pre- 
vailing classes are : lamellibranchiates, in the more arenaceous portions ; and 
brachiopods, in the more calcareous portions. 

No remains of vegetation have been detected in any of the strata of this 

The Burlington Limestone. — This formation consists of two distinct calca- 
reous divisions, which are separated by a series of silicious beds. Both divi- 
sions are eminently crinoidal. 

The southerly dip of the Iowa rocks carries the Burlington limestone down, 
Bo that it is seen for the last time in this State in the valley of Skunk River, 
near the soutliern boundary of Des Moines County. The most northerly point 
:at which it has been recognized is in the northern part of Washington County. 
It probably exists as far north as Marshall County. 

This formation affords much valuable material for economic purposes. The 
upper division furnishes excellent common quarry rock. 

The great abundance and variety of its fossils — crinoids — now known to be 
more tlian three hundred, have justly attracted the attention of geologists in all 
parts of the world. 

The only remains of vertebrates discovered in this formation are those of 
fishes, and consist of teeth and spines ; bone of bony fishes, like those most 
common at the present day, are found in these rocks. On Buffington Creek, in 
Louisa County, is a stratum in an exposure so fully charged with these remains 
that it might with propriety be called bone breccia. 

Remains of articulates are rare in this formation. So far as yet discovered, 
they are confined to two species of tribolites of the genus jihillipsia. 

Fossil shells are very common. 

The two lowest classes of the sub-kingdom radiata are represented in the 
genera zaphrentis, amplexus and syringapora, while the highest class — echino- 
derms — are found in most extraordinary profusion. 


The Keokuk Limestone. — It is only in the four counties of Lee, Van 
Buren, Henry and Des Moines that this formation is to be seen. 

In some localities the upper silicious portion of this formation is known as 
the Geode bed. It is not recognizable in the northern portion of the formation, 
nor in connection with it where it is exposed, about eighty miles below Keokuk. 

The geodes of the Geode bed are more or less spherical masses of silex, 
usually hollow and lined with crystals of quartz. The outer crust is rough and 
unsightly, but the crystals which stud the interior are often very beautiful. 
They vary in oize from the size of a walnut to a foot in diameter. 

The economic value of this formation is very great. Large quantities of its 
stone have been used in the finest structures in the State, among which are the 
J)ost offices at Dubuque and Des Moines. The principal quarries are along the 
banks of the Mississippi, from Keokuk to Nauvoo. 

The only vertebrate fossils found in the formation are fishes, all belonging 
to the order selachians, some of which indicate that their owners reached a 
length of twenty-five or thirty feet. 

Of the articulates, only two species of the genus phillipsia have been found 
in this formation. 

Of the mollusks, no cephalopods have yet been recognized in this formation in 
this State ; gasteropods are rare ; brachiopods and polyzoans are quite abundant. 

Of radiates, corals of genera zaphrentes, amplexus and aulopera are found, 
but crinoids are most abundant. 

Of the low forms of animal life, the protozoans, a small fossil related to the 
sponges, is found in this formation in small numbers. 

The St. Louis Limestone. — This is the uppermost of the subcarboniferous 
group in Iowa. The superficial area it occupies is comparatively small, because 
it consists of long, narrow strips, yet its exten*- is very great. It is first seen 
resting on the geode division of the Keokuk limestone, near Keokuk. Pro- 
ceeding northward, it forms a narrow border along the edge of the coal fields 
in Lee, Des Moines, Henry, Jefferson, Washington, Keokuk and Mahaska 
Counties. It is then lost sight of until it appears again in the banks of Boone 
River, where it again passes out of view under the coal measures until it is 
next seen in the banks of the Des Moines, near Fort Dodge. As it exists in 
Iowa, it consists of three tolerably distinct subdivisions — the magnesian, arena- 
ceous and calcareous. 

The upper division furnishes excellent material for quicklime, and when 
quarries are well opened, as in the northwestern part of Van Buren County, 
large blocks are obtained. The sandstone, or middle division, is of little 
economic value. The lower or magnesian division furnishes a valuable 
and durable stone, exposures of wliich are found on Lick Creek, in Van Buren 
County, and on Long Creek, seven miles west of Burlington. 

Of the fossils of this formation, the vertebrates are represented only by the 
remains of fish, belonging to the two orders, selachians and ganoids. The 


articulates are represented by one species of the trilobite, genus jjliilUpsia, and 
two ostracoid, genera, cythre and beyricia. The moUusics distinguish this 
formation more than any other branch of the animal kingdom. Radiates are 
exceedingly rare, showing a marked contrast between this formation and the 
two preceding it. 

The rocks of the subcarbonifernus period have in other countries, and in 
other parts of our own country, furnished valuable minerals, and even coal, but 
in Iowa the economic value is confined to its stone alone. 

The Lower Silurian, Upper Silurian and Devonian rocks of Iowa are largely 
composed of limestone. Magnesia also enters largely into the subcarbon- 
iferous group. With the completion of the St. Louis limestone, the 
production of the magnesian limestone seems to have ceased among the rocks of 

Although the Devonian age has been called the age of fishes, yet so far as 
Iowa is concerned, the rocks of no period can compare with the subcarbon- 
iferous in the abundance and variety of the fish remains, and, for this reason, 
the Burlington and Keokuk limestones will in the future become more 
famous among geologists, perhaps, than any other formations in North 

It will be seen that the Chester limestone is omitted from the subcarbon- 
iferous group, and which completes the full geological series. It is probable 
the whole surface of Iowa was above the sea during the time of the 
formation of the Chester limestone to the southward about one hundred 

At the close of the epoch of the Chester limestone, the shallow seas in 
which the lower coal measures were formed again occupied the land, extending 
1 almost as far north as that sea had done in which the Kinderhook beds were 
formed, and to the northeastward its deposits extended beyond the subcarbon- 
iferous groups, outlines of which are found upon the next, or Devonian rock. 


The coal-measure group of Iowa is properly divided into three formations, 
viz., the lower, middle and upper coal measures, each having a vertical thick- 
ness of about two hundred feet. 

A line drawn upon the map of Iowa as follows, will represent the eastern 
and northern boundaries of the coal fields of the State : Commencing at the 
southeast corner of Van Buren County, carry the line to the northeast corner 
of Jefferson County by a slight easterly curve through the western portions of 
Lee and Henry Counties. Produce this line until it reaches a point six or 
eight miles northward from the one last named, and then carry it northwest- 
ward, keeping it at about the same distance to the northward of Skunk River 
and its north branch that it had at first, until it reaches the southern boundary 
of Marshall County, a little west of its center. Then carry it to a point 


three or four miles northeast from Eldora, in Hardin County ; thence west- 
"ward to a point a little north of Webster City, in Hamilton County ; and 
thence further westward to a point a little north of Fort Dodge, in Webster 

Lower Coal Measures. — In consequence of the recedence to the southward 
•of the borders of the middle and upper coal measures, the lower coal measures 
alone exist to the eastward and northward of Des Moines River. They also 
occupy a large area westward and southward of that river, but their southerly 
dip passes them below the middle coal measures at no great distance from the 

No other formation in the whole State possesses the economic value of the 
lower coal measures. The clay that underlies almost every bed of coal furnishes 
a large amount of material for potters' use. The sandstone of these measures 
is usually soft and unfit, but in some places, as near Red Rock, in Marion 
County, blocks of large dimensions are obtained which make good building 
material, samples of which can be seen in the State Arsenal, at Des Moines. 
On the whole, that portion of the State occupied by the lower coal measures, 
is not well supplied with stone. 

But few fossils have been found in any of the strata of the lower coal meas- 
ures, but such animal remains as have been found are without exception of 
marine origin. 

Of fossil plants found in these measures, all probably belong to the class 
acrogens. Specimens of calamites, and several species of ferns, are found in 
all of the coal measures, but the genus lepidodendron seems not to have existed 
later than the epoch of the middle coal measures. 

Middle Coal Measures. — This formation within the State of Iowa occupies 
■a narrow belt of territory in the southern central portion of the State, embrac- 
ing a superficial area of about fourteen hundred square miles. The counties 
more or less underlaid by this formation are Guthrie, Dallas, Polk, Madison, 
Warren, Clarke, Lucas, Monroe, Wayne and Appanoose. 

This formation is composed of alternating beds of clay, sandstone and lime- 
stone, the clays or shales constituting the bulk of the formation, the limestone 
occurring in their bands, the lithological peculiarities of which ofier many con- 
trasts to the limestones of the upper and lower coal measures. The formation 
is also characterized by regular wave-like undulations, with a parallelism which 
indicates a widespread disturbance, though no dislocation of the strata have 
been discovered. 

Generally speaking, few species of fossils occur in these beds. Some of the 
shales and sandstone have aff'orded a few imperfectly preserved land plants — 
three or four species of ferns, belonging to the genera. Some of the carbonif- 
erous shales afford beautiful specimens of what appear to have been sea-weeds. 
Radiates are represented by corals. The mollusks are most numerously repre- 
sented. Trilohites and ostracoids are the only remains known of articulates. 


Vertebrates are only known by the remains of mlacMans, or sharks, and 

TJpfer Coal Measures. — The area occupied by this formation in Iowa is 
Tery great, comprising thirteen whole counties, in the southwestern part of the 
State. It adjoins by its northern and eastern boundaries the area occupied by 
■the middle coal measures. 

The prominent lithological features of this formation are its limestones, yet 
it contains a considerable proportion of shales and sandstones. Although it is 
known by the name of upper coal measures, it contains but a single bed of coal, 
and tliat only about twenty inches in maximum thickness. 

The limestone exposed in this formation furnishes good material for building 
as in Madison and Fremont Counties. The sandstones are quite worthless. No 
beds of clay for potter's use are found in the whole formation. 

The fossils in this formation are much more numerous than in either the 
middle or lower coal measures. The vertebrates are represented by the fishes 
of the orders selachians and ganoids. The articulates are represented by the 
trilobites and ostracoids. Mollusks are represented by the classes cepkalapoda, 
gasteropoda, lamelli, branchiata, brachiapoda and polyzoa. Radiates are more 
numerous than in the lower and middle coal measures. Protogoans are repre- 
sented in the greatest abundance, some layers of limestone being almost entirely 
composed of their small fusiform shells. 


There being no rocks, in Iowa, of permian, triassic or Jurassic age, the 
next strata in the geological series are of the cretaceous age. They are found 
in the western half of the State, and do not dip, as do all the other formations 
upon which they rest, to the southward and westward, but have a general dip 
of their own to the north of westward, which, however, is very slight. 
Although the actual exposures of cretaceous rocks are few in Iowa, there is 
reason to believe that nearly all the western half of the State was originally 
occupied by them ; but being very friable, they have been removed by denuda- 
tion, which has taken place at two separate periods. The first period was 
during its elevation from the cretaceous sea, and during the long tei-tiary age 
that passed between the time of that elevation and the commencement of the 
glacial epoch. The second period was during the glacial epoch, when the ice 
produced theii entire removal over considerable areas. 

It is difficult to indicate the exact boundaries of these rocks ; the following 
will approximate the outlines of the area : 

From the northeast corner to the southwest corner of Kossuth County ; 
thence to the southeast corner of Guthrie County; thence to the southeast 
corner of Cass County ; thence to the middle of the south boundary of Mont- 
gomery County ; thence to the middle of the north boundary of Pottawattamie 
County; thence to the middle of the south boundary of Woodbury County; 


thence to Sergeant's bluffs ; up the Missouri and Big Sioux Rivers to the 
northwest corner of the State ; eastward along the State line to the place of 

All the cretaceous rocks in Iowa are a part of the same deposits farther up 
the Missouri River, and in reality form their eastern boundary. 

Nishnabotany Sandstone. — This rock has the most easterly and southerly 
extent of the cretaceous deposits of Iowa, reaching the southeastern part of 
Guthrie County and the soutliern part of Montgomery County. To tlie north- 
ward, it passes beneath the Woodbury sandstones and shales, the latter passing 
beneath the inoceramus, or chalky, beds. This sandstone is, with few excep- 
tions, almost valueless for economic purposes. 

The only fossils found in this formation are a few fragments of angiosper- 
mous leaves. 

Woodbury Sandstones and Shales. — These strata rest upon the Nishna- 
botany sandstone, and have not been observed outside of Woodbury County 
hence their name. Their principal exposure is at Sergeant's Bluffs, seven 
miles below Sioux City. 

This rock has no value except for purposes of common masonry. 

Fossil remains are rare. Detached scales of a lepidoginoid species have 
been detected, but no other vertebrate remains. Of remains of vegetation, 
leaves of salix meekii and sassafras cretaceum have been occasionally found. 

Inoceramus Beds. — These beds rest upon the Woodbury sandstones and 
shales. They have not been observed in Iowa, except in the bluffs which 
border the Big Sioux River in Woodbury and Plymouth Counties. They are 
composed almost entirely of calcareous material, the upper portion of which is 
extensively used for lime. No building material is to be obtained from these 
beds ; and the only value they possess, except lime, are the marls, which at 
some time may be useful on the soil of the adjacent region. 

The only vertebrate remains found in the cretaceous rocks are the fishes. 
Those in the inoceramus beds of Iowa are two species of squoloid selachians, 
or cestratrcnt, and three genera of teliosts. Molluscan remains are rare. 


Extensive beds of peat exist in Northern Middle Iowa, which, it is esti- 
mated, contain the following areas : 

Counties. Aerei. 

Cerro Gordo 1,500 

Worth 2,000 

Winnebago 2,000 

Hancock 1,500 

Wright 500 

Kossuth 700 

Dickinson 80 

Several other counties contain peat beds, but the character of the peat is 

inferior to that in the northern part of the State. The character of the peat 


named is equal to that of Ireland, Tlie beds are of an average depth of four 
feet. It is estimated that each acre of these beds will furnish two hundred and 
fifty tons of dry fuel for each foot in depth. At present, owing to the sparse- 
ness of the population, this peat is not utilized ; but, owing to its great distunce 
from the coal fields and the absence of timber, the time is coming when their 
value will be realized, and the fact demonstrated that Nature has abundantly 
compensated the deficiency of other fuel. 


The only deposits of the sulphates of the alkaline earths of any economic 
value in Iowa are those of gypsum at and in the vicinity of Fort Dodge, in 
Webster County. All others are small and unimportant. The deposit occupies 
a nearly central position in Webster County, tlie Des Moines River running 
nearly centrally through it, along the valley sides of which the gypsum is seen 
in the form of ordinary rock cliff and ledges, and also occurring abundantly in 
similar positions along both sides of the valley's of the smaller streams and of 
the numerous ravines coming into the river valley. 

I The most northerly known limit of the deposit is at a point near the mouth 
of Lizard Creek, a tributary of the Des Moines River, and almost adjoining 
the town of Fort Dodge. The most southerly point at which it has been 
found exposed is about si.x mile^, by way of the river, from this northerly point 
before mentioned. Our knowledge of the width of the area occupied by it is 
limited by the exposures seen in the valleys of the small streams and in the 
ravinea wliich come into the valley within tlie distance mentioned. As one goes 
up these ravines and minor valleys, the gypsum becomes lost beneath the over- 
lying drift. There can be no doubt that the different parts of tliis deposit, now 
disconnected by the valleys and ravines having been cut through it, were orig- 
inally connected as a continuous deposit, and there seems to be as little reason 
to doubt that the gypsum still extends to considerable distance on each side of 
the valley of the river beneath the drift which covers the region to a depth of 
from twenty to sixty feet. 

The country round about this region has the prairie surface approximating 
a general level which is so characteristic of the greater part of the State, and 
which exists irrespective of the character or geological age of the strata beneath, 
mainly because the drift is so deep and uniformly distributed that it frequently 
almost alone gives character to the surface. The valley sides of the Des Moines 
River, in the vicinity of Fort Dodge, are somewhat abrupt, having a depth there 
from the general level of the upland of about one hundred and seventy feet, 
and consequently presents somewhat bold and interesting features in the land- 

As one walks up and down the creeks and I'avines which come into the 
valley of the Des Moines River there, he sees the gypsum exposed on 
either side of them, jutting out from beneath the drift in the form of 



ledges and bold quarry fronts, having almost the exact appearance of 
ordinary limestone exposures, so horizontal and regular are its lines of 
S' ratification, and so similar in color is it to some varieties of that rock. The 
principal quarries now opened are on Two Mile Creek, a couple of miles below 
Foi-t Dodse. 

The reader will pk-ase bear in mind that the gypsum of this remarkable 
deposit does not occur in "heaps" or "nests," as it does in most deposits of 
gypsum in the States farther eastward, but that it exists here in the form of a 
regularly stratified, continuous formation, as uniform in texture, color and 
quality throughout the whole region, and from top to bottom of the deposit 
as the granite of the Quincy quarries is. Its color is a uniform gray, result- 
ing from alternating fine horizontal lines of nearly white, with similar lines 
of darker shade. The gypsum of the white lines is almost entirely pure, the 
darker lines containing the impurity. This is at intervals barely sufficient in 
amount to cause the separation of the mass upon those lines into beds or layers, 
thus facilitating the quarrying of it into desired shapes. These bedding sur- 
faces have occasionally a clayey feeling to the touch, but there is nowhere any 
intercalation of clay or other foreign substance in a separate form. The deposit 
is known to reach a thickness of thirty feet at the quarries referred to, but 
although it will i)robably be found to exceed this thickness at some other points, 
at the natural exposures, it is seldom seen to be more than from ten to twenty 
feet thick. 

Since the drift is usually seen to rest directly upon tlie gypsum, with noth- 
^ing intervening, except at a few points where traces appear of an overlying bed 
of clayey material without douljt of the same age as the gypsum, the latter 
probably lost something of its thickness by mechanical erosion during thr 
glacial epoch ; and it has, doubtless, also suffered some diminution of thickness 
since then by solution in the waters which constantly percolate through tlie 
drift from the surfiice. The drift of this region being somewhat clayey, partic- 
ulary in its lower part, it has doubtless served in some degree as a protection 
against the diminution of the gypsum by solution in consequence of its partial 
impcrviousness to water. If the gypsum had been covered by a deposit of sand 
instead of the drift clays, it would have no doubt long since disappeared by 
being dissolved in the water that would have constantly reached it from the sur- 
face. Water merely resting upon it would not dissolve it away to any extent, 
but it rapidly disappears under the action of running water. Where little rills 
of water at the time of every rain run over the face of an unused quarry, from 
the surface above it, deep grooves are thereby cut into it, giving it somewhat the 
appearance of melting ice around a waterfall. The fact that gypsum is now 
suffering a constant, but, of course, very slight, diminution, is apparent in the 
fact the springs of the region contain more or less of it in solution in their 
waters. ,-An analysis of water from one of these springs will be found in Prof. 
Emery's report. 


Besides the clayey beds that are sometimes seen to rest upon the gypsum, 
there are occasionally others seen beneath them that are also of the same 
age, and not of the age of the coal-measure strata upon which they rest. 

Ai/e of the Gypsum Deposit. — In neither the gypsum nor the associated 
clays has any trace of any fossil remains been found, nor has any other indica- 
tion of its geological age been observed, except that which is aiTorded by its 
stratigraphical relations ; and the most that can be said with certainty is that it 
is newer than the coal measures, and older than the drift. The indications 
afforded by the stratigraphical relations of the gypsum deposit of Fort Dodge 
are, however, of considerable value. 

As already shown, it rests in that region directly and unconformably upon 
tlie lower coal measures ; but going southward from there, the whole series of 
coal-measure strata from the top of tJio subcarboniferous group to the upper 
coal measures, inclusive, can be traced without break or unconformability. 
The strata of the latter also may be traced in the same manner up into the 
Permian rocks of Kansas; and through this long series, there is no place or 
horizon which suggests that the gypsum deposit might belong there. 

Again, no Tertiary deposits are known to exist within or near the borders 
of Iowa to suggest that the gypsum might be of that age ; nor are any of tlie 
palix;ozoic strata newer than the subcarboniferous unconformable upon each 
other as the other gypsum is unconformable upon the strata beneath it. It 
therefore seems, in a measure, conclusive, that the gypsum is of Mesozoic age, 
perhaps older than the Cretaceous. 

Lithohgical Origin. — As little can be said with certainty concerning the 
lithological origin of this deposit as can be said concerning its geological age, 
for it seems to present itself in this relation, as in the former one, as an isolated 
fact. None of the associated strata show any traces of a double decomposition 
of pre-existing materials, such as some have supposed all deposits of gypsum to 
have resulted from. No considerable quantities of oxide of iron nor any trace 
of native sulphur liave been found in connection with it; nor has any salt been 
found in the waters of the region. These substances are common in association 
with other gypsum deposits, and are regarded by some persons as indicative of 
the method of or resulting from their origin as such. Throughout the whole 
region, the Fort Dodge gypsum has the exact appearance of a sedimentary 
deposit. It is arranged in layers like the regular layers of limestone, and the 
whole mass, from top to bottom, is traced with fine horizontal lamintie of alter- 
nating white and gray gypsum, parallel with the bedding surface? of the layers, 
but the whole so intimately blended as to form a solid mass. The darker lines 
contain almost all the impurity there is in the gypsum, and that impurity is 
evidently sedimentary in its character. Fron these facts, and also from the 
further one that lio trace of fossil remains has been detected in the gypsum, it 
seems not unreasonable to entertain the opinion that the gypsum of Fort Dodge 
originated as a chemical precipitation in comparatively still waters which were 


saturated ■with sulphate of lime and destitute of life ; its stratification and 
impurities being deposited at the same time as clayey impurities which had been 
held suspended in the same waters. 

Physical Properties. — Much has already been said of the physical proper- 
ties or character of this gypsum, but as it is so difterent in some respects from 
that of other deposits, there are yet other matters worthy of mention in connec- 
tion ■with those. According to the results of a complete and exhaustive anal- 
ysis by Prof. Emery, the ordinary gray gypsum contains only about eight per 
cent, of impurity ; and it is possible that the average impurity for the whole 
deposit ■will not exceed that proportion, so uniform in quality is it from to top 
to bottom and from one end of the region to the other. 

When it is remembered that plaster for agricultural purposes is sometimea 
prepared from gypsum that contains as much as thirty per cent, of impurity, it 
will be seen that ours is a very superior article for such purposes. The impu- 
rities are also of such a character that they do not in anyway interfere with its 
value for use in the arts. Although the gypsum rock has a gray color, it 
becomes quite white by grinding, and still whiter l)y the calcining process nec- 
essary in the preparation of plaster of Paris. These tests have all been practi- 
cally made in the rooms of the Geological Survey, and the quality of the plaster 
of Paris still further tested by actual use and experiment. No hesitation, 
therefore, is felt in stating that the Fort Dodge gypsum is of as good a quality 
as any in the country, even for the finest uses. 

In view of the bounteousness of the primitive fertility of our Iowa soils, 
many persons forget that a time may come when Nature ■»vill refuse to respond 
so generously to our demand as she does now, without an adequate return. 
Such are apt to say that this vast deposit of gypsum is valueless to our com- 
mon^vvealth, except to the small extent that it may be used in the arts. This 
is undoubtedly a short-sighted view of the subject, for the time is even no^w 
rapidly passing a^way when a man may purchase a new farm, for less money 
than he can re-fertilize and restore the partially wasted primitive fertility of the 
one he now' occupies. There are farms even now in a large part of the older 
settled portions of the State that would be greatly benefited by the proper 
application of plaster, and such areas will continue to increase until it will bo 
difficult to estimate the value of the deposit of gypsum at Fort Dodge. It 
should be remembered, also, that the inhabitants of an extent of country 
adjoining our State more than throe times as great as its own area will find it 
more convenient to obtain their supplies from Fort Dodge than from any other 

For want of direct railroad communication between this region and other 
parts of the State, the only use yet made of the gypsum by the inhabitants is 
for the purposes of ordinary building stone. It is so compact that it is found 
to be comparatively unaffected by the frost, and its ordinary situation in walls 
of houses is such that it is protected from the dissolving action of water, which 


can at most reach it only from occasional rains, and the cSect of these is too 
slight to be perceived after the lapse of several years. 

One of the citizens of Fort Dodge, Hon. John F. Duncombe, built a lar<;e, 
fine residence of it. in 1801, the walls of which appear as unaflected by 
exposure and as beautiful as they were when first erected. It has been so long 
and successfully used for building stone by the inhabitants that they now prefer 
it to the limestone of good quality, which also exists in the immediate vicinity. 
This preference is due to the cheapness of the gypsum, as compared with the 
stone. The cheapness of the former is largely due to the facility with which it 
is ([uarried and v.rought. Several other houses have been constructed of it in 
Fort Dodge, including the depot building of the Dubuque & vSioux City Rail- 
road. The company have also constructed a large culvert of the same material 
to span a creek near the town, limestone only being used fur the lower courses, 
which come in contact witii the water. It is a fine arch, each stone of gypsum 
being nicely hewn, and it will doubtless prove a very durable one. Many of 
the .sidewalks in the town are made of the slabs or flags of gypsum which occur 
in some of the quarries in the form of thin layers. They are more durable 
than their softness would lead one to suppose. They also possess an advantage 
over stone in not becoming slippery when worn. 

The method adopted in quarrying and dressing the blocks of gypsum is 
peculiar, and quite unlike that adopted in similar treatment of ordinary stone. 
Taking a stout auger-bit of an ordinary brace, such as is used by carpenters, 
and filing the cutting parts of it into a peculiar form, the quarrynian bores his 
holes into the gypsum quarry for blasting, in the same manner and with as 
great facility as a carpenter would bore hard wood. The pieces being loosened 
by blasting, they are broken up with sledges into convenient sizes, or hewn 
into the dcsireil shapes by me;ins of hatchets or ordinary chopping axes, or cut 
by means of ordinary wood-saws. So little grit does the gypsum contain that 
these tools, made for working wood, are found to be better adapted for working 
the former substance than those tools are which are universally used for work- 
ing stone. 


Besides the great gypsum deposit of Fort Dodge, sulphate of lime in the 
various forms of fibrous gypsum, selenite, and small, amorphous masses, has 
also been discovered in various formations in difierent parts of the State, includ- 
ing the coal -measure shales near Fort Dodge, where it exists in small quanti- 
'i<^s-, quite independently of the great gypsum deposit there. The cjuantity of 
gypsum in these minOi deposits is always too small to be of any practical value, 
and frec[uently minute. They usually occur in shales and shaly clays, asso- 
ciated with strata that contain more or less sulphuret of iron (iron pyrites). 
Gypsum has thus been detected in the coal measures, the St. Louis limestone, 
the cretaceous strata, and also in the lead caves of Dubuque. In most of these 
cases it is evidently the result of double decomposition of iron pyrites and car- 


bonate of lime, previously existing there ; in which cases the gypsum is of course 
not an original deposit as the great one at Fort Dodge is supjwsed to be. 

The existence of these comparatively minute quantities of gypsum in the 
shales of the coal measures and the subcarboniferous limestone which are exposed 
within the region of and occupy a stratigraphical position beneath the great 
gypsum deposits, suggests the possibility that the former may have originated as 
a precipitate from percolating waters, holding gypsum in solution which they 
had derived from that deposit in passing over or through it. Since, however, 
the same substance is found in similar sm\ll quantities and under similar con- 
ditions in regions where they could have had no possible connection with that 
deposit, it is believed that none of those mentioned have necessarily originated 
from it, not even those that are found in close proximity to it. 

The gypsum found in the lead caves is usually in the form of efflorescent 
fibers, and is always in small quantity. In the lower coal-measure shale near 
Fort Dodge, a small mass was found in the form of an intercalated layer, which 
had a distinct fibrous structure, the fibers being perpendicular to the plane of 
the layer. The same mass had also distinct, horizontal planes of cleavage at 
right angles with the perpendicular fibers. Thus, being more or less transpa- 
rent, tlie mass combined the characters of both fibrous gypsum and selenite. 
No anhydrous sulphate of lime (anhi/dnfe) has been found in connection with 
the great gypsum dejjosit, nor elsewhere in Iowa, so far as yet known. 

( Celestine. ) 

The only locality at which this interesting mineral has yet been found in 
Iowa, or, so far as is known, in the great valley of the Mississippi, is at Fort 
Dodi'e. It occurs there in very small quantity in both the shales of the lower 
coal measures and in the clays that overlie the gypsum deposit, and which are 
regarded as of the same age with it. The first is just below the city, near Rees' 
coal bank, and occurs as a layer intercalated among the coal measure shales, 
amounting in quantity to only a few hundred pounds' weight. The mineral is 
fibrous and crystalline, the fibers 'being perpendicular to the plane of the layer. 
Breaking also with more or less distinct horizontal planes of cleavage, it resem- 
bles, in physical character, the layer of fibro-crystalline gypsum before men- 
tioned. Its color is light blue, is transparent and shows crystaline facets upon 
both the upper and under surfaces of the layer; those of the upper surface 
being smallest and most numerous. It breaks up readily into small masses 
along the lines of the perpendicular fibers or columns. The layer is probably 
not more than a rod in extent in any direction and about three inches in maxi- 
mum thickness. Apparent lines of stratification occur in it, corresponding with 
those of the shales which imbed it. 

The other deposit was still smaller in amount, and occurred as a mass of 
crystals imbedded in the clays that overlie the gypsum at Cummins' quarry in 


the valley of Soldier Creek, upon the north side of the town. The mineral is 
in this case nearly colorless, and but for the form of the separate crystals would 
closely resemble masses of impure salt. The crystals are so closely aggregated 
that they enclose but little impurity in the mass, but in almost all cases their 
fundamental forms are obscured. This mineral has almost no real practical 
value, and its occurrence, as described, is interesting only as a mineralogical 

[Barj/tis, Heavy Spar.) 

This mineral has been found only in minute quantities in Iowa. It has 
been detected in the coal-measure shales of Decatur, Madison and Marion 
Counties, the Devonian limestone of Johnson and Bremer Counties and in the 
lead caves of Dubuque. In all these cases, it is in the form of crystals or small 
crystalline masses. 

( Fpnotnite.) 

Epsomite, or native epsom salts, having been discovered near Burlington, 
•we have thus recognized in Iowa all the sulphates of the alkaline earths of 
natural origin ; all of them, except the sulphate of lime, being in very small 
quantity. Even if the sulphate of magnesia were produced in nature, in large 
quantities, it is so very soluble that it can accumulate only in such positions as 
afford it complete shelter from the rains or running water. The epsomite 
mentioned- was found beneath the overhanging cliff of Burlington limestone, 
near Starr's mill, which are represented in the sketch upon another page, illus- 
trating the subcarboniferous rocks. It occurs in the form of efflorescent encrus- 
tations upon the surface of stones and in similar small fragile masses among the 
fine debris that has fallen down beneath the overhanging cliff. The projection 
of the cliff over the perpendicular face of the strata beneath amounts to near 
twenty feet at the point where epsomite was found. Consequently the rains 
never reach far beneath it from any quarter. The rock upon which the epsom- 
ite accumulates is an impure limestone, containing also some carbonate of mag- 
nesia, together with a small proportion of iron pyrites in a finely divided con- 
dition. It is doubtless by double decomposition of these that the epsomite re- 
sults. By experiments with this native salt in the office of the Survey, a fine 
article of epsom salts was produced, but the quantity that might be annually 
obtained there would amount to only a few pounds, and of course is of no pi-ac- 
tical value whatever, on account of its cheapness in the market. 


No extended record of the climatology of Iowa has been made, yet much of 
great value may be learned from observations made at a single point. Prof. T. 
S. Parvin, of the State University, has recorded observations made from 1839 
to the present time. Previous to 1860, these observations were made at Mus- 


catine. Since that date, they were made in Iowa City. The result is that the 
atmospheric conditions of the climate of Iowa are in the highest degree favor- 
able to health. 

The highest temperature here occurs in August, while July is the hottest 
month in the year by two degrees, and January the coldest by three degrees. 

The mean temperature of April and October most nearly corresponds to the 
mean temperature of the year, as well as their seasons of Spring and Fall, 
while that of Summer and Winter is best repi-esented in that of August and 

The period of greatest heat ranges from June 22d to August 31st ; the next 
mean time being July 27th. Tiie lowest temperature extends from December 
16th to February 15th, the average being January 20th — the range in each 
case bein"; two full months. 

The climate of Iowa embraces the range of tliat of New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. The seasons are not ciiaracterized by the 
frequent and sudden changes so common in the latitudes further south. The 
temperature of the Winters is somewhat lower than States eastwai-d, but of other 
seasons it is higher. The atmosphere is dry and invigorating. The surface of 
the State being free at all seasons of the year from stagnant water, with good 
breezes at nearly all .seasons, the miasmatic and pulmonary diseases are 
unknown. Mortuary statistics show this to be one of the most healtlifiil States 
in the Union, being one death to every ninety-four persons. The Spring, 
Summer and Fall months are delightful ; indeed, the glory of Iowa is her 
Autumn, and nothing can transcend the splendor of her Indian Summer, which 
lasts for weeks, and finally blends, almost imperceptibly, into Winter. 



Iowa, in the symbolical nnd expressive language of the aboriginal inhab- 
itants, is said to signify " The Beautiful Land," and was applied to this 
magnificent and fruitful region by its ancient owners, to express their apprecia- 
tion of its superiority of climate, soil and location. Prior to 1803, the Mississippi 
River was the extreme western boundary of the United States. All the great 
empire lying west of the "Father of Waters," from the Gulf of Mexico on the 
south to Britisli America on the north, and westward to the Pacific Ocean, was 
a Spanisli province. A brief historical sketch of the discovery and occupation 
of this grand empire by the Spanish and French governments will be a fitting 
introduction to the history of the young and thriving State of Iowa, which, 
until the commencement of the present century, was a part of the Spanish 
possessions in America. 

Early in the Spring of 1542, fifty years after Columbus discovered tlie New 
AVorld, and one hundred and thirty years before the French missionaries discov- 
ered its upper waters, Ferdinand De Soto discovered tlie mouth of the Mississippi 
River at the mouth of the Washita. After the sudden death of De Soto, in 
May of the same year, his followers built a small vessel, and in July, 1543, 
descended the great river to the Gulf of Mexico. 

In accordance with the usage of nations, under which title to the soil was 
claimed by right of discovery, Spain, having conquered Florida and discovered 
tlie Mississippi, claimed all the territory bordering on that river and the Gulf of 
Mexico. But it was also held by the European nations that, while discovery 
gave title, that title must be perfected by actual possession and occupation. 
Althougli Spain claimed the territory by right of first discovery, she made no 
effort to occupy it; bv no permanent settlement had she perfected and held her 
title, and therefore had forfeited it when, at a later period, the Lower Mississippi 
V^alley was re-discovered and occiipied by France. 

The unparalleled labors of the zealous Fr( nc'i Jesuitsof Canada in penetrating 
the unknown region of tlie West, commencing in 1611, form a history of no ordi- 
nary interest, but have no particular connection with the scope of the present 
work, until in the Fall of 1(3(35. Pierre Claude AUouez, who had entered Lake 
vSupcrior in September, and sailed along the southern coast in search of copper, 
had arrived at the great village of tlie Chippewas at Chegoincegon. Here a 
grand council of some ten or twelve of the principal Indian nations was held. 
The Pottawatomies of Lake Michigan, the Sacs and Foxes of the AVest, the 
Hurons from the North, the Illinois from the South, and the Sioux from the 
land of tlie urairie and wild rice, were all assembled there. The Illinois told 


the storv of their ancient glory and about the noble river on tlie banks of Avliich 
they dwelt. The Sioux also told their white brother of the same great river. 
and Allouez promised to the assembled tribes the protection of the Freneh 
nation against all their enemies, native or foreign. 

The purpose of discovering the great river about which the Indian na- 
tions had given such glowing accounts appears to have originated with Mar- 
quette, in 1669. In the year previous, he and Claude Dablon had established 
the Mission of St. Mary's, the oldest white settlement within the present limits 
of the State of Michigan. Marquette was delayed in the execution of his great 
undertaking, and spent the interval in studying the language and habits of the 
Illinois Indians, among whom he expected to travel. 

About this time, the French Government had determined to extend the do- 
minion of France to the extreme western borders of Canada. Nicholas Perrot 
was sent as the agent of the government, to propose a grand council of the 
Indian nations, at St. Mary's. 

When Perrot reached Green Bay, he extended the invitation far and near ; 
and, escorted by Pottawatomies, repaired on a mission of peace and friend- 
ship to the Miamis, who occupied the region about the present location of 

In May, 1671, a great council of Indians gathered at the Falls of St. 
Mary, from all parts of the Northwest, from the head waters of the St. Law- 
rence, from the valley of the Mississippi and from the Red River of the North. 
Perrot met with them, and after grave consultation, formally announced to the 
assembled nations tliat their good French Father felt an abiding interest in their 
welfare, and had placed them all under the powerfid protection of the French 

Marquette, during that same year, had gathered at Point St. Ignace the 
vemn ants of one branch of the Hurons. This station, for a long series of 
years, was considered the key to the unknown West. 

The time was now auspicious for the consummation of Marquette's grand 
project. The .successful termination of Perrot's mission, and the general friend- 
liness of the native tribes, rendered the contemplated expedition much less per- 
ilous. But it was not until 1673 that the intrepid and enthusiastic priest was 
finally ready to depart on his daring and perilous journey to lands never trod by 
white men. 

The Indians, who had gathered in large numbers to witness his departure, 
were astounded at the boldness of the proposed undertaking, and tried to dis- 
courage him, representing that the Indians of the Mississippi A'alley were cruel 
and bloodthirsty, and would resent the intrusion of strangers u])on their domain. 
The great river itself, they said, was the abode of terrible monsters, who could 
swallow both canoes and men. 

But Marquette was not to be diverted from his purpose by these fearful re- 
ports. He assured his dusky friends that he was ready to make any sacrifice, 
even to lay down his life for the sacred cause in which he was engaged. He 
prayed with them ; and having implored the blessing of God upon his undertak- 
ing, on the 13th day of May, 1673, with Joliet and five Canadian-French voy- 
ageurs, or boatmen, he left the mission on his daring journey. Ascending 
Green Bay and Fox River, these bold and enthusiastic pioneers of religion and 
discovery proceeded until they reached a Miami and Kickapoo village, where 
Marquette was delighted to find " a beautiful cross planted in the middle of the 
town', ornamented with white skins, red girdles and bows and arrows, which 
these good people had offered to the Great Manitou, or God, to thank Him for 


tlio pity He had bestowed on tlicm during tlio Winter, in having given them 
abundant chase." 

This was tlie extreme point beyond wbicli tlie cxpkirations of tlie French 
missionaries had not then extended. Here Marquette was instructed by lii.s 
Indian liosts in the secret of a root that cures the bite of the venomous rattle- 
snake, drank mineral water with them and was entertained with generous hos- 
pitality. He called together the principal men of the village, and informed 
them that his companion, Joliet, had been sent by the French Governor of Can- 
ada to discover new countries, to be added to the dominion of France ; but that 
he, himself, had been sent by the Most High God, to carry the glorious religion 
of the Cross ; and assured his wondering hearers that on this mission he had 
no fear of death, to which be knew he would be exposed on his perilousjourneys. 

Obtaining the services of two Miami guides, to conduct his little band to the 
Wisconsin River, he left the hospitable Indians on the 10th of June. Conduct- 
ing them across the i)ortage, their Indian guides returned to their village, and 
the little party descended the AVisconsin, to the great river which had so long 
been so anxiously looked for, and boldly floated down its unknown waters. 

On the 25th of June, the explorers discovered indications of Indians on the 
west bank of the river and land d a little above the mouth of the river now 
known as Des Moines, and for the first time Eui'opeans trod the soil of Iowa. 
Leaving the Canadians to guard the canoes, Marquette and Joliet boldly fol- 
lowed the trail into the interior for fourteen miles (some authorities say six), to 
an Indian village situate on the banks of a river, and discovered two other vil- 
lages, on the rising ground about half a league distant. Their visit, while it 
created much astonishment, did not seem to be entirely unexpectofl, for there 
was a tradition or prophecy among the Indians that white visitors were to come 
to them. They were, therefore, received with great respect and hospitality, and 
were cordially tendered the calumet or pipe of peace. Tliey were informed that 
this band was a part of the Illini nation and that their village was called Mon- 
in-gou-ma or Moingona, which was the name of the river on which it stood. 
This, from its similarity of sound, Marquette corrupted into Des Moines 
(Monk's River), its present name. 

Here the voyagers remained six days, learning much of the manners and 
customs of their new friends. The new religion they boldly preached and the 
authority of the King of France they proclaimed were received without hos- 
tility or remonstrance by their savage entertainers. On their departure, they 
were accompanied to their canoes by the chiefs and hundreds of warriors. 
Marquette received from them the sacred calumet, the emblem of peace and 
safeguard among the nations, and rc-embarked for the rest of his journey. 

It is needless to follow him further, as his explorations beyond his discovery 
of Iowa more properly belong to the history of another State. 

In 1682, La Salle descended the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico, and in 
the iiame of the King of France, took formal possession of all the immense 
region watered by the great river and its tributaries from its source to its mouth, 
and named it Louisiana, in honor of his master, Louis XIV. The river he 
called " Colbert," after the French Minister, and at its mouth erected a column 
and a cross bearing the inscription, in the French language, 

" Louis the Great, King of France and Navarre, 
Reigning April 9th, 1682." 

At the close of the seventeenth century, France claimed, by right of dis- 
covery and occupancy, the whole valley of the Mississippi and its tributaries, 
including Texas, as for as the Rio del Norte. 


The province of Louisiana stretched from tlie Gulf of Mexico to the sources 
of tlie Tennessee, the Kanawha, the Alleglienj and the Monongaliela on the 
east, and the Missouri and the other great tributaries of the Fatiier of Waters 
on • the west. Says Bancroft, " France had obtained, under Providence, the 
guardianship of this immense district of country, not, as it proved, for her own 
benefit, but rather as a trustee for the infant nation by which it was one day to 
be inherited." 

By the treaty of Utrecht, France ceded to Enghmd her possessions 
in Hudson's Bay, Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. France still retained 
Louisiana; but the province had so far failed to meet the expectations of the 
crown and the people that a change in the government and policy of the country 
was deemed indispensable. Accordingly, in 1711, the province was placed in 
the hands of a Governor General, w^ith headquarters at Mobile. This govern- 
ment was of brief duration, and in 1712 a charter was granted to Anthony 
Crozat, a wealthy merchant of Paris, giving him the entire control and mo- 
nopoly of all the trade and resources of Louisiana. But this scheme also failed. 
Crozat met with no success in his commercial operations ; every Spanish harbor 
on tlie Gulf was closed against his vessels; the occupation of Louisiana was 
deemed an encroachment on Spanish territory; Spain was jealous of the am- 
bition of France. 

Failing in his efforts to open the ports of the district, Crozat "sought to 
develop the internal resources of Louisiana, by causing trading posts to be 
opened, and explorations to be made to its remotest borders. But he accomplished nothing for the advancement of the colony. The only 
prosperity which it ever jiossessed grew out of the enterprise of humble indi- 
viduals, Avho had succeeded in instituting a little barter bjtwe-ni themselves 
and the natives, and a petty trade with neighboring European settlements. 
After a persevering effort of nearly five years, he surrendered his charter in 
August, 1717." 

Immediately following the surrender of his charter by Crozat, another and 
moi-e magnificent scheme was inaugurated. The national government of France 
was deeply involved in debt; the colotues were nearly bankrupt, and John Law 
appeared on the scene with his famous Mississippi Comjiany, as the Louisiana 
branch of the Bank of France. The charter granted to this company gave it a 
legal existence of twenty -five years, and conferred upon it more extensive powers 
and privileges than had been granted to Crozat. It invested the new company 
with the exclusive privilege of the entire commerce of Louisiana, and of New 
France, a ad with authority to enforce their rights. T!ie Company was author- 
ized to monopolize all the trade in the country; to make treaties with the 
Indians ; to declare and prosecute war ; to grant lands, erect forts, open mines 
of precious metals, levy taxes, nominate civil oflUcers, commission those of the 
army, and to appoint and remove judges, to cast cannon, and build and equip 
ships of war. All this was to be done with the pajier currency of John Law's 
Bank of Fiance. He had succeeded in getting His Majesty the French King 
to adopt and sanction his scheme of financial operations both in France and ire 
the colonies, and probably there never was such a huge financial bubble ever 
blown by a visionary theorist. Still, such was the condition of France that i'. 
was accepted as a national deliverance, and Law became the most powerful man 
in France. He became a Catholic, and was appointed Comptroller General of 

Among the first operations of the Company was to send eight hundred 
emigrants to Louisiana, who arrived at Dauphine Island in 1718. 


In 1710, riiilipe Francis Renault anived in Illinois with two hundred 
miners and artisans. The war between France and Spain at this time rendered 
it extremely probable that the Mississippi Valley might become the theater of 
Spanish hostilities against the French settlements ; to prevent this, as well as to 
e.xtend French claims, a chain of forts was begun, to keep open the connection 
between the mouth and the sources of the Mississippi. Fort Orleans, high up 
the Mississippi River, was erected as an outpost in 1720. 

Tiie Mississippi scheme was at the zenith of its power and glory in January, 
1720, but the gigantic bubble collapsed more suddenly than it liad been inliateil, 
and the Company was declared hopelessly bankrupt in May following. France 
was impoverished by it, both private and public credit were overthrown, capi- 
talists .suddenly found themselves paupers, and labor was left without emplo}'- 
nient. The effect on the colony of Louisiana was disastrous. 

While this was going im in Lower Louisiana, the region about the lakes was 
the tlieater of Indian hostilities, rendering the passage from Canada to Louisiana 
extremely dangerous for many years. Tlie English had not only extended their 
Indian trade into the vicinity of the French settlements, but through their 
friends, the Iroijuois, had gained a marked ascendancy over the Foxes, a fierce 
and powerful tribe, of Iroquois descent, whom they incited to hostilities against 
the French. The Foxes began their hostilities with the siege of Detroit in 
1712, a siege which they continued for nineteen consecutive days, and although 
the expedition resulted in diminishing their numbers and humbling their pride, 
yet it was not until after .several successive campaigns, embodying the best 
military resources of New France, had been directed against them, tluit were 
finally defeated at the great battles of Butte des Morts, and on the Wisconsin 
River, and driven west in 1740. 

The Company, having found that the cost of defending Louisiana exceeded 
the returns from its commerce, solicited leave to surrender the Mississippi 
wilderness to the home government. Accordingly, on the 10th of April, 1732, 
the jurisdiction and control over the commerce reverted to the crown of France, 
riic Company had held possession of Louisiana fourteen years. In 1735, Bien- 
ville returned to assume command for the King. 

A glance at a few of the old French settlements will show the progress made 
in portions of Louisiana during the early part of the eighteenth century. As 
early a5 1705, traders and hunters had penetrated the fertile regions of the 
Wabash, and from this region, at that early date, fifteen thousand hides and 
skins had been collected and sent to Mobile for the European market. 

In the year 1716, the French )>opulation on the Wabash kept up a lucrative 
commerce with Mobile by means of traders and voyageurs. The Ohio River 
was comparatively unknown. 

Ill 1746, agriculture on the Wabash had attained to greater prosperity than 
in any of the French settlements besides, and in that year six hundred barrels 
of ilour were manufactured and shipped to New Orleans, together with consider- 
able quantities of hides, peltry, tallow and beeswax. 

In the Illinois country, also, considerable .settlements had been made, so that, 
in 1730, they embraced one hundred and forty French firmilies, about six 
hundred "converted Indians," and many traders and voyageurs. 

In 1753, the first actual conflict arose between Louisiana and the Atlantic 
ccionies. From the earliest advent of the Jesuit fathers, up to the period of 
which we speak, the great ambition of the French had been, not alone to preserve 
their possessions in the West, but by every possible means to prevent the 
slightest attempt of the English, east of the mountains, to extend their settle- 


mcnts toward the Mississippi. . France was resolved on retaining posses'viin of 
tlie great territory which her missionaries had discovered and revealed to the 
world. French commandants had avowed their purpose of seizing every 
Englishman within the Ohio Valley. 

The colonies of Pennsylvania, New York and ^"irginia were most affected by 
the encroachments of France in the extension of her dominion, and particularly 
in the great scheme of uniting Canada with Louisiana. To carry out this 
purpose, the French had taken possession of a tract of country claimed by Vir- 
ginia, and had commenced a line of forts e.xtending from the la.kes to the Ohio 
River. Virginia was not only alive to her own interests, but attentive to tlie 
vast importance of an immediate and effectual resistance on the part of all 
the English colonies to the actual and contemplated encroachments of the 

In 17C3, Governor Dinwiddle, of Virginia, sent George "Washington, then a 
young man just twenty-one, to demand of the French commandant "a reason 
for invading British dominions while a solid peace subsisted.'' Washington met 
the French commandant, Gardeur dc St. Pierre, on the head waters of the 
Alleghany, and having communicated to him the object of his journey, received 
the insolent answer that the French would not discuss the matter of right, but 
would make prisoners' of every Englishman found trading on the Oliio and its 
waters. The country, he said, belonged to the French, by virtue of the dis- 
coveries of La Salle, and they would not withdraw from it. 

In January, lTo4, 'W^ashington returned to Virginia, and made his report to 
the Governor and Council. Forces were at once raised, and AVashington, as 
Lieutenant Colonel, was dispatched at the head of a hundred and fifty men, to 
the forks of the Ohio, with orders to "finish the fort already begun there by the 
<.)hio Company, and to make prisoners, kill or destroy all who interrupted the 
English settlements." 

On his march through the forests of Western Pennsylv,ania, Washington, 
through the aid of friendly Indians, discovered the French concealed among the 
rocks, and as they ran to seize their arms, ordered his men to fire upon them, at 
the same time, with his own musket, setting the e.xample. An action lasting 
about a quarter of an hour ensued; ten of the Frenchmen were killed, among 
tliem Jumonville, the commander of the party, and twenty-one were made pris- 
oners. Tlie dead were scalped by the Indians, and the chief, bearing a toma- 
hawk and a scalp, visited all the tribes of the Miamis, urging them to join the 
Six Nations and the English against the French. The French, however, were 
soon re-enforced, and Col. Washington was compelled to retui'n to Fort 
Necessity. Here, on the ild day of July, De Villiers invested the fort with 
600 French troops and 100 Indians. On the 4th, Washington accepted 
terms of capitulation, and the English giirrison withdrew from the valley of 
the Ohio. 

This attack of Washington upon Jumonville aroused the indignation of 
France, arid war was formally declared in May, ITTHi, and the "French and 
Iii'lian War" devastated the colonies for several years. Montreal, Detroit 
and all Canada were surrendered to the English, and on the 10th of February, 
ITGo, by the treaty of Paris — which had been signed, though not formally ratified 
by the respective governments, on the 3d of November, 1762 — France relinquished 
to Great Britian all that portion of the province of Louisiana lying on the east 
side of the Mississippi, except the island and town of New Orleans. On the 
.same day that the tr?aty of Paris was signed, France, by a secret treaty, ceded 
to Spain all her possessions on the west side of the Mississippi,- including the 




whole country to the he;ul waters of the Great River, anil west to the Rocky 
Mountains, and the jurisdiction of France in America, wiiich had lasted nearly 
a century, was ended. 

At the close of tlie Revolutionary war, by the treaty of peace between Great 
Britain and the United States, the Enj;;lish Government ceded to tlie latter 
all the territory on the east side of the Mississijipi River and north of the thirty- 
first parallel of north latitude. At the sanje time, Great Britain ceded to 
Spain all the Fh)ridas, comprising all the territory east of the Mississippi and 
south of the southern limits of the United States. 

At this time, therefore, the present State of Iowa was a part of the. Span isli 
possessions in North America, as all the territory west of the Mississippi River 
was under the dominifin of Spain. That government also possessed all the 
territory of the Floridas east of the great river and south of tlie thirty-first 
parallel of north latitude. Tiie Mississippi, therefore, so essential to tlio [jros- 
perity of the western portion of the United States, for the last tliree hundred 
miles of its course flowed wholly within the Spanish dominions, and that govern- 
ment claimed the exclusive right to use and control it below the southern l)oun- 
dary of the United States. 

The free navigation of the Mississippi was a very important question during 
all the time that Louisiana remained a dependency of tlie Spanish (Jrown, and 
as the final settlement intimately affected the status of the then future State 
of Iowa, it will be interesting to trace its progress. 

Tiio people of the United States occupied and exercised jurisdiction over 
the entire eastern valle_^ of the Mississippi, embracing all the country drained 
by its eastern tributaries ; they had a natural right, according to the accepted in- 
ternational law, to follow these rivers to the sea, and to the use of the Missis- 
sippi River acconlingly, as the great natural channel of commerce. The river 
V. as not only necessary but absolutely indispensable to the prosperity and growth 
of tlie western settlements then rapidly rising into commercial and political 
importance. They were situated in the heart of the great valley, and with 
wonderfully expansive energies and accumulating resources, it was very evident 
that no power on earth could deprive them of the fiee use of the river below 
them, only while their numbers were insufficient to enable them to maintain 
their ri'ht by force. Inevitably, therefore, iraraediatcly after the ratification of 
the treaty of 1783, the Western people began to demand the free navigation 
of the Jlississippi — not as a favor, but as a right. In 1786, both banks of 
the river, below the mouth of the Ohio, were occupied by Spain, and military 
|iosts on the east bank enforced her power to exact heavy duties on all im- 
])orts by way of the river for the Ohio region. Every boat descending the 
river was forced to land and submit to the arbitrary revenue exactions of the 
Spanish authorities. Under the administration of Governor Miro, these rigor- 
ous exactions were somewhat relaxed from 1787 to 1790 ; but Spain held it as 
her right to make them. Taking advantage of the claim of the American people, 
that the Mississippi should be opened to them, iir 1791, the Spanish Govern- 
ment concocted a scheme for the dismembership of the Union. The plan was 
to induce the Western people to separate from the Eastern States by liberal land 
grants and extraordinary commercial privileges. 

Spanish emissaries, among the people of Ohio and Kentucky, informed them 
that the Spanish Government would grant them fiivorable commercial privileges, 
provided they would secede from the Federal Government east of the mountains. 
The Spanish JMinister to the United States plainly declared to his confidential 
correspondent tiiat, unless tlie Western people would declare their independence 


and refuse to remain in the Union, Spain was determined never to grant the 
free navigation of the Mississippi. 

By the treaty of Madrid, October 20, 1795, however, Spain formally stip- 
ulated that the Mississippi River, from its source to the Gulf, for its entire width, 
should be free to American trade and commerce, and that the people of the 
United States should be permitted, for three years, to use the port of New 
Orleans as a port of deposit for tlieir merchandise and produce, duty free. 

In November, 1801, the United States Government received, through Rufus 
King, its Minister at the Court of St. James, a copy of the treaty between Spain 
and France, signed at Madrid ]\Iarch 21, 1801, by which the cession of Loui- 
siana to France, made the previous Autumn, was confirmed. 

Tlic change offered a favorable opportunity to secure tlie just rights of the 
United States, in relation to the free navigation of the Mississippi, and ended 
the attempt to dismember the Union by an effort to secure an independent 
government west of the Alleghany Mountains. On the 7th of January, 1803, 
the American House of Representatives adopted a resolution declaring their 
" unalterable determination to maintain the boundaries and the rights of navi- 
gation and commerce through the River Mississippi, as established by existing 

In tlie same month. President Jefferson nominated and the Senate confirmed 
Robert R. Livingston and Jamea Monroe as Envoys Plenipotentiary to the 
Court of France, and Charles Pinckney and James Monroe to the Court of 
Spain, with plenary powers to negotiate treaties to effect the object enunciated 
by the popular branch of the National Legislature. These envoys were in- 
structed to secure, if possible, the cession of Florida and New Orleans, but it 
does not appear tliat Mr. Jefferson and his Cabinet had any idea of purchasing 
that part of Louisiana lying on the -west side of the Mississippi. In fact, on 
the 2d of March following, tiie instructions were sent to our Ministers, conta n- 
ing a plan which expressly left to France "all her territory on tlic west side of 
the jMis.-ussippi." Had tlicse instructions been followed, it might liave been that 
there would not have been any State of Iowa or any other member of the glori- 
ous Union of States west of the " Father of Waters." 

In obedience to his instructions, however, Mr. Livingston broached this 
plan to M. Talleyranil, Napoleon's Prime Minister, when that courtly diplo- 
matist quietly suggested to the American Minister that France miyltt be willing 
to cede the whole French domain in North America to the United States, and 
asked how much the Federal Government would be willing to give for it. Liv- 
ingston intimated that twenty millions of francs might bo a fair price. Talley- 
rand thought that not enough, but asked the Americans to " think of it." A 
few days later. Napoleon, in an interview with Mr. Livingston, in effect informed 
the American Envoy that he had secured Louisiana in a contract wiih S])ain 
for tlie purpose of turning it over to the United States for a mere nominal sum. 
He had been compelled to provide for the safety of that jirovince by the treaty, 
and ho was " anxious to give the United States a magnificent bargain fur a 
mere trifle." Tlie price proposed was one hundred and twenty-five million 
francs. This was subsequently modified to fifteen million dollars, and on this 
basis a treaty was negotiated, and was signed on the 30th day of xXpril, 1803. 

This treaty was ratified by the Federal Government, and by act of Congress, 
approved October 31, 1803, the President of tlie United States was authorized 
to take possession of the territory and provide for it a temporary government. 
Accordinirly, on the 20th dav of December foil 'wing;. on behalf of the Presi- 
dent. Gov. Clairborno and Gen. Wilkinson took possession of the Louisiana 


purchase, and raised the American flag over the newly acquired domain, at New 
Orleans. Spain, although it had by treaty ceded the province to France in 
1801, still held quasi possession, and at first objected to the transfer, but with- 
drew her opposition early in 1804. 

By this treaty, thus successfully consummated, and the peaceable withdrawal 
of Spain, the then infant nation of the New World extended its dominion west 
of the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean, and north from the Gulf of Mexico to. 
British America. 

If the original design of Jefferson's a(hninistration had been accomplished, 
the United States would have acquired only that portion of the French territory 
lying east of the Mississippi River, and while the American people would thus 
have acquired the free navigation of tliat great river, all of the vast and fertile 
empire on the west, so rich in its agricultural and inexhaustible mineral 
resources, would have remained under tlie dominion of a foreign power. To _ 
Napoleon's desire to sell the whole of his North American possessions, and Liv- 
ingston's act transcending his instructions, which was ac(iuiesced in after it was 
done, does Iowa owe her position as a part of the United States by the 
Louisiana purchase. 

By authority of an act of Congress, approved March 26, 1804, the newly 
acquired territory was, on the 1st day of October following, divided : that part 
lying south of the 33d parallel of north latitude was called the Territory of 
Orleans, and all north of that parallel the District of Louisiana, which was placed 
under the authority of the oflScers of Indiana Territory, until July 4, 1805, when 
it was organized, with territorial government of its own, and so remained until 
1812, when the Territory of Orleans became the State of Louisiana, and the 
name of the Territory of Louisiana was changed to Missouri. On the 4th of 
July, 1814, that part of Missouri Territory comprising the present State of 
Arkansas, and the country to the westward, was organized into the Arkansas 

On the 2d of March, 1821, the State of Missouri, being a part of the Terri- 
tory of that name, was admitted to the Union. June 28, 1834, the territory 
west of the Mississippi River and north of Missouri was made a part of the 
Territory of Michigan ; but two years later, on the 4th of July, 1836, Wiscon- 
sin Territory was erected, embracing within its limits the present States of 
Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota. 

By act of Congress, approved June 12, 1838, the 


was erected, comprising, in addition to the present State, much the larger part 
of Minnesota, and extending north to the boundary of the British Possessions. 


Having traced the early history of the great empire lying west of the Mis- 
sissippi, of which the State of Iowa constitutes a part, from the earliest dis- 
covery to the organization of the Territory of Iowa, it becomes necessary to 
give some history of 


According to the policy of the European nations, possession perfected title 

to any territory. We have seen that the country west of the Mississippi was first 

discovered by the Spaniards, but afterward, was visited and occupied by the 

French. It was ceded by France to Spain, and by Spain back to France again, 



and then was purchased and occupied by the United States. During all that 
time, it does not appear to have entered into the heads or hearts of the high 
contracting parties that the country they bouglit, sold and gave away was in 
the possession of a race of men who, although savage, owned the vast domain 
before Columbus first crossed the Atlantic. Having purchased the territory, 
the United States found it still in the possession of its original owners, who had 
never been dispossessed; and it became necessary to purchase again wliat had 
already been bought before, or forcibly eject the occupants; therefore, the his- 
tory of the Indian nations Avho occupied Iowa prior to and during its early set- 
tlement by the whites, becomes an important chapter in the history of the State, 
that cannot be omitted. 

For more than one hundred years after Marquette and Joliet trod the virgin 
soil of Iowa, not a single settlement had been made or attempted ; not even a 
trading post had been established. Tlie whole country remained in the undis- 
puted possession of the native tribes, who roamed at will over her beautiful and 
fertile prairies, hunted in her woods, fished in her streams, and often poured out 
their life-blood in obstinately contested contests for supremacy. That this State 
so aptly styled ''Tiie Beautiful Land," had been the theater of numerous, 
fierce and bloody struggles between rival nations, for possession of the favored 
region, long before its settlement by civilized man, there is no room for doubt. 
In these savage wars, the weaker party, whether aggressive or defensive, was 
either exterminated or driven from their ancient hunting grounds. 

In 1673, when Marquette discovered Iowa, the Illini were a very powerful 
people, occupying a large portion of the State ; but when the country was again 
visited by the whites, not a remnant of that once powerful ti'ibe remained on 
the west side of the Mississippi, and Iowa was principally in the possession of 
the Sacs and Foxes, a warlike tribe which, originally two distinct nations, 
residing in New York and on the waters of the St. Lawrence, had gradually 
fought their way westward, and united, probably, after the Foxes had been driven 
out of the Fox River country, in 1846, and crossed tiie Mississippi. The death 
of Pontiac, a famous Sac chieftain, was made the pretext for war against the 
Illini, and a fierce and bloody struggle ensued, which continued until the Illinois 
were nearly destroyed and their hunting grounds possessed by their victorious 
foes. The lowas also occupied a portion of the State for a time, in common 
with the Sacs, but they, too, were nearly destroyed by the Sacs and Foxes, and, 
in "The Beautiful Land," these natives met their equally warlike foes, the 
Northern Sioux, with whom they maintained a constant warfare for the posses- 
sion of the country for many years. 

When the United States came in possession of the great valley of the Mis- 
sissippi, by the Louisiana purchase, the Sacs and Foxes and lowas possessed 
the entire territory now comprising the State of Iowa. The Sacs and Foxes, 
also, occupied the most of the State of Illinois. 

The Sacs had four principal villages, where most of them resided, viz. : 
Their largest and most important town — if an Indian village may be called 
such — and from which emanated most of the obstacles and difficulties encoun- 
tered by the Government in the extinguishment of Indian titles to land in this 
region, was on Rock River, near Rock Island ; another was on the cast bank of 
the Mississippi, near the mouth of Henderson River; the third was at the 
head of the i)e3 Moines Rapids, near the present site of Montrose, and the fourth 
was near the mouth of the Upper Iowa. 

The Foxes had three principal villages, viz. : One on the west side of the 
Mississippi, six miles above the rapids of Rock River ; another about twelve 


"iniles from the river, in the rear of the Dubuque lead mines, and the tliird on 
"Turkey River. 

Tlie lowas, at one time identified with tlie Sacs, of Rock River, had with- 
drawn from them and become a separate tribe. Their principal village was on 
. the Des Moines River, in A'an Euren County, on the site where lowaville now 
'■'Stands. Here the last great battle between the Sacs and Foxes and the lowas 
■'was fought, in which Elack Hawk, then a young man, commanded one division 
"■of the attacking forces. The following account of the battle has been given : 

"Contrary to long established custom of Indian attack, this battle was commenced in the day 
time, the attending circumstances justifying this departure from the well settled usages of Indian 
warfare. The battle field was a level river bottom, about four miles in length, and two miles 
wide near the middle, narrowing to a point at either end. The main area of this bottom rises 
perhaps twenty feet above the river, leaving a narrow strip of low bottom along the shore, covered 
with trees tliut belted the prairie on the river side with a thick forest, and the immediate bank of 
the river was fringed with a dense growth of willows. Near the lower end of this prairie, near 
■the river bank, was situated the Iowa village. About two miles above it and near the middle of 
the prairie is a mound, covered at the time with a tuft of small trees and underbrush growing on 
its summit. In the rear of this little elevation or mound lay a belt of wet prairie, covered, at that 
time, with a dense growth of rank, coarse grass. Bordering this wet prairie on the north, the 

■ country rises abruptly into elevated broken river blutfs, covered with a heavy forest for many 
miles in extent, and in places thickly clustered with undergrowth, aifording a convenient shelter 
for the stealthy approach of the foe. 

" Through this forest the Sac and Fox war party made their way in the night and secreted 
^themselves in the tall grass spoken of above, intending to remain in ambush during the day and 
make such observations as this near proximity to their intended victim might afford, to aid them 
in their contemplated attack on the town during the following night. From this situation their 
spies could take a full survey of the village, and watch every movement of the inhabitants, by 
which means they were soon convinced that the lowas had no suspicion of their presence. 

"At the foot of the mound abovementioned, the lowas had their race course, where they diverted 
themselves with the excitement of horse racing, and schooled their young warriors in cavixlry 
evolutions. In these exercises mock battles were fought, and the Indian tactics of attack and 

■ defense carefully inculcated, by which means a skill in horsemanship was acquired rarely excelled. 
Unfortunately for them this day was selected for their equestrian sports, and wholly uncon- 
scious of the proximity of their foes, the warriors repaired to the race ground, leaving most of 
their arms in the village and their old men and women and children unprotected. 

" Pasb-a-po-po, who was chief in command of the Sacs and Foxes, perceived at once the 
advantage tliis state of things afforded for a complete surprise of his now doomed victims, and 
ordered Bbick Hawk to file off with his young warriors through the tall grass and gain the cover 
of the timbur along the ri^er bank, and with the utmost speed reach the village and commence 
the battle, wliile he remained with his division in the ambush to make a simultaneous assault on 
the unarmed men whose attention was engrossed with the excitement of the races. The plan 
was skillfully laid and most dexterously executed. Black Hawk with his forces reached the 
village undi!:Covered, and made a furious onslaught upon the defenseless inhabitants, by tiring 
one general volley into their midst, and completing the slaughter with the tomahawk ami scalp- 
ing knife, aided by the devouring flames with which they enveloped the village as soon as the 
fire brand could be spread from lodge to lodge. 

" On the instant ot the report of fire arms at the village, the forces under Pash-a-po-po 
leaped from their cone bant position iu the grass and sprang tiger-like upon the astonished and 
unarme J lowas in the midst of their r.icing spurts. The fir^t impulse of the latter naturally led 
them to make tlie utmost speed toward their arms In the village, and protect if possible their 
wives and chd Iren from the attack of their merciless assailants. The distance from the placs of 
attack on 1 he prairie was two miles, and a great number fell in their flight by the bullets and 
tomahawks of their enemies, who pressed them closely with a running fire the whole way, and 
the survivors only reached their town in time to witness the horrors of its destruction. Their 
whole vilhige wns in fliimes, and the dourest objects of their lives lay in slaughter^'d heaps 
amidst the devouring clem jni, an 1 thj agonizing groans of the dying, mingled with (he exulting 
shouts of ihe victoriou-i foe, fillet their he, tits with maddening despair. Their wives and children 
who had been spared the general massacre were prisoners, and togeiher with their arms were in 
the hands of the victors; and all that could now be done was to draw off their shattered and 
defenseless forces, and save as many lives as possible by a retreiVt across the Des Moinei River, 
which they effected in the best possible manner, and took a position among the Soap Creek 

The Sacs and Foxes, prior to the settlement of their village on Rock River, 
had a fierce conflict with the Winnebagoes, subdued them and took possession 


t>f their lands. Their village on Rock River, at one time, contained upward of 
sixty lodges, and was among the largest Indian villages on the continent. Im 
182r>, the Secretary of War estimated the entire number of the Sacs and Foxes 
at 4,6U0 souls, 'i'heir village was situated in tJie immediate vicinity of the- 
upper rapids of the Mississippi, where the beautiful and flourishing towns of 
Rock Island and Davenport are now situated. The beautiful scenery of the 
island, the extensive prairies, dotted over with groves; the picturesque bluffs- 
along the river banks, the rich and fertile soil, producing large crops of corn, 
squash and other vegetables, with little labor; the aljundance of wild fruit, 
game, fish, and almost everything calculated to make it a delightful spot for an 
Indian village, wiiich was found there, had made this place a favorite home of 
the Sacs, and secured for it the strong attachment and veneration of the whole 

North of the hunting grounds of the Sacs and Foxes, were those of the 
Sioux, a fierce and warlike nation, who often disputed possession with their 
rivals in savage and bloody warfare. The possessions of these tribes were 
mostly located in Minnesota, but extended over a portion of Northern and 
Western Iowa to the Missouri River. Their descent from the north upon the 
hunting grounds of Iowa frequently brought them into collision with the Sacs 
and Foxes ; and after many a conflict and bloody struggle, n, boundary line was 
established between them by the Government of the Unite<l States, in a treaty 
held at Prairie du Cliien, in 1825. But this, instead of settling the difficulties, 
caused them to quarrel all the more, in consequence of alleged trespasses upon 
each other's side of the line. These contests were kept up and became so unre- 
lenting that, in 1830, Government bought of the respective tribes of the Sac» 
and Foxes, and the Sioux, a strip of land twenty miles in widtli, on both sides 
of the line, and thus throwing them forty miles apart by creating between them 
a "neutral ground," commanded them to cease their hostilities. Both the 
Sacs and Foxes and the Sioux, however, were allowed to fish and hunt on this 
ground unmolested, provided they did not interfere with each other on United 
States territory. The Sacs and Foxes and the Sioux were deadly enemies, and 
neither let an opportunity to punish the other pass unimproved. 

In April, 1852, a fight occurred between the Musquaka band of Sacs and. 
Foxes and a band of Sioux, about six miles above Algona, in Kossuth County, 
on the west side of the Des Moines River. The Sacs and Foxes were under 
the leadership of Ko-ko-wah, a subordinate chief, and had gone up from their 
home in Tama County, by way of Clear Lake, to what was then the " neutral 
ground." At Clear Lake, Ko-ko-wah was informed that a party of Sioux were 
encamped on the west side of the East Fork of the Des Moines, and he deter- 
mined to attack them. With sixty of his warriors, he started and arrived at a> 
point on the east side of the river, about a mile above the Sioux encampment, 
in the night, and concealed themselves in a grove, where they were able to dis- 
cover the position and strength of their hereditary foes. The next morning, 
after many of the Sioux braves had left their camp on hunting tours, the vin- 
dictive Sacs and Foxes crossed the river and suddenly attacked the camp. The- 
conflict was desperate for a short time, but the advantage was with the assail- 
ants, and the Sioux were routed. Sixteen of them, including some of their 
women and children, were killed, and a boy 14 years old was captured. One 
of the Musquakas was shot in the breast by a squaw as they were rushing into 
the Sioux's camp. He started to run away, when the same brave squaw shot 
him through the body, at a distance of twenty rods, and he fell dead. Three 
other Sac braves were killed. But few of the Sioux escaped. The victorious 


party hurriedly buried their own dead, leaving the dead Sioux above ground, 
-and made their way home, with their captive, with all possible expedition. 

pike's expedition. 

Very soon after the acquisition of Louisiana, the United States Government 
adopted measures for the exploration of the new territory, having in view the 
-conciliation of the numerous tribes of Indians by whom it was possessed, and, 
;a;lso, the selection of proper sites for the establishment of military posts and 
trading stations. The Army of the West, Gen. James Wilkinson commanding, 
had its head((uarters at St. Louis. From this post, Captains Lewis and Clark, 
■with a sufficient force, were detailed to explore the unknown sources of the 
Missoiiri, and Lieut. Zebulon M. Pike to ascend to the head waters of the Mis- 
sissippi. Lieut. Pike, with one Sergeant, two Corporals and seventeen privates, 
left the military camp, near St. Louis, in a keel-boat, with four months' rations, 
►on the 9th day of August, 1805. On the 20th of the same month, the expe- 
•dition arrived within the present limits of Iowa, at the foot of the Des Moines 
Rapids, where Pike met William Ewing, who had just been apjiointed Indian 
Agent at this point, a French interpreter and four chiefs and fifteen Sac and 
Fox warriors. 

At the head of the Rapids, where Montrose is now situated. Pike held a 
■council with the Indians, in which he addressed them substantially as follows : 
■""Your great Father, the President of the United States, wished to be more 
intimately acquainted with the situation and wants of the different nations of 
red people in our newlv acquired territory of Louisiana, and has ordered the 
'General to send a number of his warriors in different directions to take them by 
:the hand and make such inquiries as might afford the satisfaction required." 
At the close of the council he presented the red men with some knives, whisky 
and tobacco. 

Pursuing his way up the river, he arrived, on the 2;:5d of August, at what is 
supposed, from his description, to be the site of the present city of Burlington, 
which he selected as the location of a iiiilitar\' post. He describes the place as 
being " on a hill, about forty miles above the River de Moyne Rapids, on the 
west side of the river, in latitude about 41° 21' north. The channel of the 
river runs on that shore; the hill in front is about sixty feet perpendicular; 
nearly level on top ; four hundred yards in the rear is a small prairie fit for 
gardening, and immediately under the hill is a limestone spring, sufficient for 
the consumption of a whole regiment." In addition to this description, which 
corresponds to Burlington, the spot is laid down on his map at a bend in the 
river, a short distance below tbe mouth of the Henderson, which pours its waters 
into the Mississippi from Illinois. The fort was built at Fort Madison, but from 
the distance, latitude, description and map furnished by Pike, it could not have 
been the place selected by him, -while all the circumstances corroborate the 
opinion that the place he selected was the spot where Burlington is now located, 
called by the early voyagers on the Mississippi, "Flint Hills." 

On the 24:th, with one of his men, he went on shore on a hunting expedition, 
and following a stream which they supposed to be a part of the Mississippi, they 
were led away from their course. Owing to the intense heat and tall grass, his 
two favorite dogs, which he had taken with him, became exhausted and he left 
them on the prairie, supposing that they would follow him as soon as they 
shoidd g(^t rested, and went on to overtake his boat. Reaching the river, he 
waited some time for his canine friends, but they did not come, and as he deemed 
it inexpedient to detain the boat longer, two of his men volunteered to go in pur- 


suit of them, and he continued on his Tvay up the river, expecting that the twcj' 
men would soon overtaive him. They lost their way, however, and for six days 
were without food, except a few morsels gathered from the stream, and might 
have perished, had they not accidentally met a trader from St. Louis, who in- 
duced two Indians to take them up the river, and they overtook the boat at- 

At Dubuque, Pike was cordially received by Julien Dubuque, a Frenchman, 
who held a mining claim under a grant from Spain. Dubuque had an old field 
piece and fired a salute in honor of the advent of the first Americans who had 
visited that part of the Territory. Dubuque, however, was not disposed to pub- 
lish the wealth of his mines, and the young and evidently inquisitive officer 
obtained but little information from him. 

After leaving this place. Pike pursued his way up the river, but as he passed 
beyond the limits of the present State of Iowa, a detailed history of his explo- 
rations on the upper waters of the Mississippi more properly belongs to the his- 
tory of another State. 

It is sufficient to say that on the site of Fort Snelling, Minnesota, at the 
mouth of the Minnesota River, Pike held a council with the Sioux, September 
23, and obtained from them a grant of one hundred thousand acres of land. 
On the 8th of January, 1806, Pike arrived at a trading post belonging to the 
Northwest Company, on Lake De Sable, in latitude 47°. At this time the 
then powerful Northwest Company carried on their immense operations from 
Hudson's Bay to the St. Lawrence ; up that river on both sides, along the great 
lakes to the head of Lake Superior, thence to the sources of the Red River of 
the north and west, to the Rocky Mountains, embracing within the scope of 
their operations the entire Territory of Iowa. After successfully accomplishing 
his mission, and performing a valuable service to Iowa and the whole Northwest,. 
Pike returned to St. Louis, arriving there on the 30th of April, 1800. 


The Territory of Iowa, although it had been purchased by the United States,. 
and was ostensibly in the posses>ion of the Government, was still occupied by 
the Indians, who claimed title to the soil by right of ownership and possession. 
Before it could be open to settlement by the whites, it was indispensable that 
the Indian title should be extinguished and the original owners removed. The 
accomplishment of this purpose required the expenditure of large sums of 
money and blood, and for a long series of years the frontier was disturbed by 
Indian wars, terminated repeatedly by treaty, only to be renewed by some act 
of oppression on the part of the whites or some violation of treaty stipidation. 

As previously shown, at the time when the United States assumed the con- 
trol of the country by virtue of the Louisiana purchase, nearly the whole State 
was in possession of the Sacs and Foxes, a powerful and warlike nation, who 
were not disposed to submit without a struggle to what they considered the 
encroachments of the pale faces. 

Among the most noted chiefs, and one whose restlessness and hatred of the 
Americans occasioned more trouble to the Government than any other of his 
tribe, was Black Hawk, who was born at the Sac village, on Rock River, in 
1767. He was simply the chief of his own band of Sac warriors, but by his 
energy and ambition he became the leading spirit of the united nation of Sacs 
and Foxes, and one of the prominent figures in the history of the country from 
180-1 until his death. In early manhood he attained some distinction as a 
fighting chief, having led campaigns against the Osages, and other neighboring:. 


tribes. About the beginning of the present century he began to appear prom- 
inent in attairs on the Mississippi. Some liistorians have added to the statement 
that " it does not appear that he was ever a great general, or possessed any of 
the qualifications of a successful leader." If this was so, his life was a marvel. 
How any man who had none of the qualifications of a leader became so prom- 
inent as such, as he did, indicates either that he had some ability, or that his 
cotemporaries, both Indian and Anglo-Saxon, had less than he. He is said 
to have been tlie " victim of a narrow prejudice and bitter ill-will against the 
Americans,' but the impartial historian must admit that if he was the enemy 
of the Americans, it was certainly not without some reason. 

It will be remembered that Spain did not give up possession of the country 
to France on its cession to the latter power, in 1801, but retained possession of 
it, and, by the authority of France, transferred it to the United States, in 1804. 
Black Hawk and his band were in St. Louis at the time, and were invited to be 
present and witness the ceremonies of the transfer, but he refused the invitation, 
and it is but just to say that this refusal was caused probably more from 
regret that the Indians were to be transferred from the jurisdiction of the 
Spanish authorities than from any special hatred toward the Americans. In 
his life he says : " I found many sad and gloomy faces because the United 
States were about to take possession of the town and country. Soon after the 
Americans came, I took my band and wont to take leave of our Spanish father. 
The Americans came to see him also. Seeing them approach, we passed out 
of one door as they entered another, and immediately started in our canoes for 
our village, on Rock River, not liking the change any more than our friends 
appeared to at St. Louis. On arriving at our village, we gave the news that 
strange people had arrived at St. Louis, and that we should never see our 
Spanish father again. Tlie information made all our people sorry." 

On the 3(1 day of November, 1804, a treaty was concluded between William 
Henry ILirrison, then Governor of Indiana Territory, on behalf of the United 
States, and five chiefs of the Sac and Fox nation, by which the latter, in con- 
sideration of two thousand two hundred and thirty-four dollars' worth of goods 
then delivered, and a yearly annuity of one thousand dollars to be paid in 
goods at just cost, ceded to the United States all that land on the east side of 
the Rlissi.ssppi, extending from a point opposite the Jefferson, in Missouri, to 
the Wisconsin River, embracing an area of over fifty-one millions of acres. 

To this treaty Black Hawk always objected and always refused to consider 
it binding upon his people. He asserted that the chiefs or braves who made it 
had no authority to relinquish the title of the nation to any of the lands they 
held or occupied ; and, moi-eover, that they had been sent to St. Louis on quite 
a different errand, namely, to get one of their people released, who had been 
imprisoned at St. Louis for killing a white man. 

The year following tliis treaty (180')), Lieutenant Zebulon M. Pike came up 
the river for the purpose of holding friendly councils with the Indians and select- 
ing sites for forts Avithin the territory recently acquired from France by the 
United States. Lieutenant Pike seems to have been the first American whom 
Black Hawk ever met or had a personal interview with ; and ho was very much 
prei)i)sscssed in Pike's favor. Ho gives the following account of his visit to 
Rock Island : 

" A boat came up the river with a young American chief and a small party 
of soldiers. We heard of them soon after they passed Salt River. Some of our 
young braves watched them every day, to sec what sort of people he had on 
board. The boat at length arrived at Rock River, and the young chief came on 


Bliore ■with his interpreter, and made a speecli and gave us some presents. We 
in turn presented them with meat and sucii otlier provisions as we had to spare. 
'We were well pleased with the young chief. He gave us good advice, and said 
our American lather would treat us well." 

Tiie events which soon followed Pike's expedition were the erection of Fort 
Edwards, at what is now Warsaw, Illinois, and Fort Madison, on the site of the 
present town of that name, the latter being the first fort erected in Iowa. These 
movements occasioned great uneasiness among the Indians. When work was 
commenced on Fort Edwards, a delegation from their' nation, headed by some of 
their chiefs, Avent down to see what the Americans were doing, and had an in- 
terview with the comipander; after which they returned home apparently satis- 
fied. In like manner, when Fort Madison was being erected, they sent down 
another delcgatiun from a council of the nation held at Ruck River. Accord- 
ing to Black Hawk's account, the Amei-ican chief told them that he was build- 
ing a house for a trader who was coming to sell them goods cheap, and that the 
soldiers were coming to keep him company — a statement which Black Hawk 
says they distrusted at the time, believing that the fort was an encroachment 
upon their rights, and designed to aid in getting their lands away from them. 

It has been held by good American authorities, that the erection of Fort 
Madison at the point where it was located was a violation of the treaty of 1804. 
By the eleventh article of that treaty, the United States had a right to build a 
fort near the mouth of the AVisconsin River ; by article six they had bound 
themselves ''that if any citizen of the United States or any other Avhite persons 
should firm a settlement upon their lands, such intruders should forthwith be 
removed." Probably the authorities of the United States did not regard the 
Establishment of military posts as coming properly within the meaning of the 
term "settlement," as used in tiie treaty. At all events, they erected Fort 
Madison within tlie territory reserved to the Indians, who became very indig- 
nant. Not long after the fort was built, a party led by Black Hawk attempted 
its destruction. They sent spies to watch the movements of the garrison, who 
ascertained that the soldiers were in the habit of marching out of the fort every 
morning and evening for parade, and the plan of the party was to conceal them- 
'selves near the fort, and attack and surprise them when they were outside. On 
the morning of the proposed day of attack, five soldiers came out and were fired 
upon by the Indians, two of them being killed. The Indians were too hasty in 
their movement, for the regular drill had not yet commenced. However, they 
kept up the attack for several days, attempting the olil Fox strategy of setting 
fire to the fort with blazing itrrows ; but finding their eflbrts unavailing, ihey 
soon gave up and returned to Rock River. 

' When war was declared between tlie United States and Great Britain, m 
1812, Black Hawk and his band allied themselves with th^ British, partly 
because he was dazzled by their specious promises, and more probably because 
they had been deceived by the Americans. Black Hawk himself declared that 
they were ''forced into the war by being deceived." He narrates the circum- 
stances as follows : " Several of the chiefs and head men of the Sacs and 
Foxes were called upon to go to Washington to see their Great Father. On 
their return, they related what had been said and done. They said the Great 
Father wished them, in the event of a war taking place with England, not to 
interfere on cither si<le, but to remain neutral. He did not want our help, but 
•wished tis to hunt and support our families, and live in peace. He said that 
British traders would not be permitted to come on the jMississippi to furnish us 
with goods, but that we should be supplied with an American trader. Our 


chiefs then told him that the British traders always gave them credit in the 
Fall for guns, powder and goods, to enable us to hunt and clothe our families. 
He repeated that the traders at Fort Madison would have plenty of goods ; 
that we should go there in the Fall and he would supply us on credit, as the 
British traders had done." 

Black Hawk seems to have accepted of this proposition, and he and his 
•people were very much pleased. Acting in good faith, they fitted out for their 
Winter's hunt, and went to Fort Madison in high spirits to receive from the 
trader their outfit of supplies. But, after waiting some time, they were told by 
the trader that he would not trust them. It was in vain that they pleaded the 
promise of their great father at Washington. The trader was inexorable ; and, 
disappointed and crest&llen, they turned sadly toward their own village. •' Few 
■of us," says Black Hawk, "slept that night; all was gloom and discontent. In 
the morning, a canoe was seen ascending the river ; it soon arrived, bearing an 
•express, who brought intelligence that a British trader had landed at Hock 
Island with two boats loaded with goods, and recjuested us to come up imme- 
diately, because he had good news for us, and a variety of presents. The 
express presented us with tobacco, pipes and wampum. The news ran through 
■our camp like fire on a prairie. Our lodges were soon taken down, and all 
sfartcd for Rock Island. Here ended all hopes of our remaining at peace, 
having been forced into the war by being deceived." 

He joined the British, who flattered him, styled him " Gen. Black Hawk," 
decked him with medals, excited his jealousies against the Americans, and 
armed his band ; but he met with defeat and disappointment, and s jon aban- 
doned the service and came home. 

■ With all his skill and courage. Black Hawk was unable to lead all the Sacs 
and Foxes into hostilities to the United States. A portion of them, at the head 
of whom was Keokuk (''the Watchful Fox"), were disposed to abide by the 
treaty of 1804, and to cultivate friendly relations with the American people. 
Therefore, when Black Hawk and his liand joined the fortunes of Great 
Britain, the rest of the nation remained neutral, and, for protection, organized, 
■with Keokuk for their chief. This diviiled the nation into the " War and the 
I'eace party." 

Black 'Hawk says he was informed, after he hail gone to the war, that the 
nation, which had been reduced to so small a body of fighting men, were unable 
to defend themselves in case the Americans sliould attack them, and having all 
the old men and women and children belonging to the warriors who had joined 
the British on their hands to provide for, a council was held, and it was agreed 
4hat Quash-qiia-me (the Lance) and other chiefs, together with the old men, 
•women and children, and such others as chose to accompany them, should go to 
St. Louis and place themselves under the American chief stationed tliere. 
'They aqf:;ordingly went down, and were received as the "friendly band" of the . 
Sacs and Foxes, and were provided for and sent up the Missouri River. On 
Black Hawk's return frohi the British army, he says Keokuk was introduced 
'to him as the Avar chief of the braves then in the village. He inquired how he 
liad become chief, and was informed that their spies had seen a large armed 
force goi'ng toward Peoria, and fears were entertained of an attack upon the 
village; whereupon a council was held, which concluded to leave the village 
and cross over to the west side of the Mississippi. Keokuk had been standing 
jrt the door of the lodge where tlie council was lield, not being allowed to enter 
on account of never having killed an enemy, where he retnained until Wa-co-me 
came out. Keokuk asked permission to speak in the council, which Wa-co-me 


obtained for him. Keiikuk then addressed the chiefs ; he remonstrated against 
the desertion of their village, their own homes and the graves of their fathers, 
and offered to defend the village. The council consented that he should be- 
their war chief. He marshaled his braves, sent out spies, and advanc»d on the 
trail leading to Peoria, but returned without seeing the enemy. The Americans 
did not disturb the village, and all were satisfied with the appointment of 

Keokuk, like Black Hawk, was a descendant of the Sac branch of the 
nation, and was born on Rock River, in 1780. He was of a pacific disposition, 
but possessed the elements of true courage, and could fight, when occasion; 
required, with a cool judgment and heroic energy. In his first battle, he en- 
countered and killed a Sioux, which placed him in the rank of warriors, and he 
was honored with a public feast by his tribe in commemoration of the event. 

Keokuk has been described as an orator, entitled to rank with the most 
gifted of his race. In person, he was tall and of portly bearing ; in his public 
speeches, he displayed a commanding attitude and graceful gestures ; he spoke- 
rapidly, but his enunciation was clear, distinct and forcible ; he culled his fig- 
ures from the stores of nature and based his arguments on skillful losric. Un- 
fortunately for the reputation of Keokuk, as an orator among white people, he 
was never able to obtain an interpreter who could claim even a slight acquaint- 
ance with philosophy. With one exception only, his interpreters were unac- 
quainted with the elements of their mother-tongue. Of this serious hindrance 
to his fame, Keokuk was well aware, and retained Frank Labershure, who had 
received a rudimental education in the French and English languages, until the 
latter broke down by dissipation and died. But during the meridian of his 
career among the white people, he was compelled to submit his speeches for 
translation to uneducated men, whose range of thought fell below the flights of 
a gifted mind, and the fine imagery drawn from nature was beyond their power 
of reproduction. He had sufficient knowledge of the English language to make 
him sensible of this bad rendering of his thoughts, and often a feeling of morti- 
fication at the bungling efforts was depicted on his countenance while speaking. 
The proper place to form a correct estimate of his ability as an orator was in 
the Indian council, where he addressed himself exclusively to those who under- 
stood his language, and witness the electrical effect of his eloquence upon his 

Keokuk seems to have possessed a more sober judgment, and to have had a 
more' intelligent view of the greatstrengtli and resources of the United States, 
than his noted and restless cotemporary, BLick Hawk. He knew from the first 
that the reckless war which Black Hawk and his band had determined to carry on 
could result in nothing but defeat and disaster, and used every argument against 
it. The large number of warriors whom he had dissuaded from following Black 
Hawk became, however, greatly excited with the war spirit after Stillman's- 
defeat, and but for the signal tact displayed by Keokuk on that occasion, would 
have forced him to submit to their wishes in joining the rest of the warriors in 
the field. A war-dance was held, and Keokuk took part in it, seeming to be 
moved with the current of the rising storm. When the dance was over, he 
called the council to prepare i'nv war. He made a speech, in which he admitted 
the justice of their complaints against the Americans. To seek redress was a 
noble aspiration of their nature. The blood of their brethren had been shed by 
the white man, and the spirits of their braves, slain in battle, called loudly for 
vengeance. "T am your chief," he said, "and it is ray duty to lead you to bat- 
tle, if, after fully considering the matter, you are determined to go. But before 


you decide on taking tins important step, it is wise to inquire into the chances of" 
success." He tlien portrayed to them the great power of the United States, 
against whom they woukl have to contend, that their chance of success was 
utterly hopeless. '' But," said he, '' if you do determine to go upon the war- 
path, I will agree to lead you, on one condition, viz.: that before we go, we will 
kill all our old men and our wives and children, to save them from a lingering 
death of starvation, and that every one of us determine to leave our homes on 
the other side of the Mississippi." 

This was a strong but truthful picture of the prospect before them, and was 
presented in sucli a forcible light as to cool their ardor, and cause them to aban- 
don the rash undertaking. 

But during the war of 1832, it is now considered certain that small bands of 
Indians, from the west side of the Mississippi, made incursions into the white 
settlements, in the lead mining region, and committed some murders aixl dep- 

When peace was declared between the United States and England, Black 
Hawk was required to make peace with tlie former, and entered into a treaty 
at Portage des Sioux, September 14, 1815, but did not "touch the goose-quill 
to it until May 13, 1816, when he smoked the pipe of peace with the great 
white chief," at St. Louis. This treaty was a renewal of the treaty of 1804, 
but Black Hawk declared lie had been deceived ; tliat he did not know that by 
signing the treaty lie was giving away his village. This weighed upon his mind, 
already soured by previous disappointment and tlie irresistible encroachments of 
the whites ; and when, a few years later, lie and his people were driven from 
their possessions by tlie military, he determined to return to the home of his 

It is also to be remarked that, in 1816, by treaty witli various tribes, the 
United States reliiujuished to the Indians all the lands lying north of a line 
drawn from the southernmost point of Lake Michigan west to the Mississippi, 
except a reservation five leagues square, on the Mississippi River, supposed then 
to be sufficient to include all the mineral lands on and adjacent to Fever River, 
and one league square at the mouth of the Wisconsin River. 


The immediate cause of the Indian outbreak in 1830 was the occupation or 
Black Hawk's village, on the Rock River, by the whites, during the absence of 
the chief and his braves on a hunting expedition, on the west side of the 
Mississippi. When they returned, they found their wigwams occupied by white 
families, and their own women and children were slielterlcss on the banks of 
the river. The Indians were indignant, and determined to repossess their village 
at all hazards, and early in tlie Spring of 1831 recrossed the Mississippi and 
'•lenacingly took possession of their own cornfields and cabins. It may be well 
to remark here tliat it was expressly stipulated in tlie treaty of 1804, to which 
they attributed all their troubles, that tlie 'Indians should not be obliged to 
leave their lands until they were sold by the United States, and it does not 
appear thattliey occupied any lands otlier tlian those owned by the Government. 
If this was true, the Indians had good cause for indignation and complaint. 
But the whites, driven out in turn by tlie returning Indians, became so clamorous 
against what they termed the encroachments of the natives, that Gov. Reynolds, of 
Illinois, ordered Gen Gaines to Rock Island with a military force to drive the- 
Indians again from their homes to the west side of the Mississippi. Black Hawk 
says he did not intend to be provoked into war by anytliing less than the blood of 


some of his own people ; in other ■words, that there would be no war unless it should 
be commenced by the pale faces. But it was said and probably thought by the mili- 
tary commanders along the frontier that the Indians intended to unite in a general 
■war asrainst the whites, from Rock River to the Mexican borders. But it does not 
appear that the hardy frontiersmen themselves had any fears, for their experi- 
ence had been that, wlien well treated, their Indian neighbors were not danger- 
ous. Black Hawk and his band had done no more than to attempt to repossess the 
the old homes of whicli the}- had been deprived in their absence. No blood 
had been shed. Black Hawk and his chiefs sent a Hag of truce, and a new 
treaty was made, by which Black Hawk and his band agreed to remain forever- 
on the Iowa side and never recross the river without the permission of the 
President or tlie Governor of Illinois. Whether the Indians clearly understood 
the terms of this treaty is uncertain. As was usual, the Indian traders had 
dictated terms on their behalf, and they had received a large amount of pro- 
visions, etc., from tlie Government, but it may well be doubted whether the 
Indians comprehended that tliey could never revisit the graves of their fathers 
without violating their treaty. They undoubtedly thought that they had agreed 
never to recross the Mississippi with hostile intent. However this may be, on 
the 6th day of April, 18-32, Black Hawk and his entire band,- ■with their women 
and children, again recrossed the Mississippi in plain view of the garrison of 
Fort Armstrong, and went up Rock River. Although this act was construed 
into an act of hostility by the military authorities, who declared that Black 
Hawk intended to recover his village, or the site where it stood, by force ; but 
it does not appear that he made any such attempt, nor did his apearance 
preate any special alarm among the settlers. They knew that the Indians never 
went on the war i)ath encumbered with the old men, their women and their 

Tlie Galenian, printed in Galena, of May 2, 1832, says that Black Hawk 
was invited by the Prophet and had taken possession of a tract about forty 
miles up Rock River ; but that he did not remain there long, but commenced 
his march up Rock River. Capt. W. B. Green, who served in Capt. Stephen- 
son's com'pany of mounted rangei's, says that "Black Hawk and h's band 
■crossed the river with no hostile intent, but that his band had had bad luck in 
hunting during the jirevious Winter, were actually in a starving condition, and 
had come over to spend the Summer with a friendly tribe on tlie hea<l waters of 
the Rock and Illinois Rivers, by invitation from their chief Other old set- 
tlers, who all agree that Black Hawk had no idea of fighting, say that he came 
back to the west side expecting to negotiate another treaty, and get a new 
■supply of provisions. The most reasonable explanation of this movement, which 
resulled so disisti'ously to Black Hawk and his starving people, is that, during 
the Fall and Winter of 1831-2, his people became deejily indebted to their 
favorite trader at Fi)rt Armstrong (Rock Island). They had not been fortunate** 
in hunting, and he was likely to lose heavily, as an Indian debt was outlawed 
in one year. If, therefore, the Indians could be induced to come over, and the 
fears of the military could be sufficiently aroused to pursue them, another treaty 
could be negotiated, and from tlie payments from the Government the shrewd 
trader could get his pay. Just a week after Black Hawk crossed the river, on 
the loth of April, 1832, George Davenport wrote to Gen. Atkinson : " I am 
Informed that the British band of Sac Indians are determined to make war on 
the frontier settlements. * * * From eveiy information that I have 
received. I am of tlie opinion that the intention of the British band of Sac 
Indians is to commit dei^redations on the inhabitants of the frontier." And 


yet, from the 6th day of April until after Stillman's men commenced war by 
firing on a flag of truce from Black Hawk, no murders nor depredations were- 
committed by the British band of Sac Indians. 

It is not tlie purpose of this sketch to detail the incidents of the Black 
Hawk war of 1832, as it pertains rather to the history of the State of Illinois. 
It is sufficient to say that, after the disgraceful affair at Stillman's Run, Black 
Hawk, concluding that the whites, refusing to treat witli him, were determined 
to exterminate liis people, determined to return to the Iowa side of the Missis- 
sippi. He could not retifrn by the way he came, for the army was behind him, 
an array, too, that would sternly I'efuse to recognize the white flag of peace. 
His only course was to make liis way northward and reach the Mississippi, if 
possible, before the troops could overtake him, and this he did ; but, before he 
could get his w'onien and children across the Wisconsin, he was overtaken, and a 
battle ensued. Here, again, he sued for peace, and, through his trusty Lieu- 
tenant, "the Prophet," the whites were plainly informed that the starving 
Indians did not wish to fight, but would return to the west side of the Missis- 
sippi, peaceably, if they could be permitted to do so. No attention was paid to 
this second effort to negotiate peace, and, as soon as supplies could be obtained, 
the pursuit was resumed, the flying Indians were overtaken again eight miles 
befi)re they reached the mouth of the Bad Axe, and the slaughter (it should not 
be digtiified by the name of battle) commenced. Here, overcome by starvation- 
and tlie victorious whites, his band was scattered, on the 2d day of August, 
1832. Black Hawk escaped, but was brought into camp at Prairie du Chien 
by three Winnebagoes. He was confined in Jefferson Barracks until the 
Spring of 1833, when he was sent to Washington, arriving there April 22. On 
the 2Gtb of April, they were taken to Fortress Monroe, where they remained 
till the 4th of June, 1833, when orders were given for them to be liberated and 
returned to their own country. By order of the President, he was brought 
back to Iowa through the principal Eastern cities. Crowds flocked to see him 
all along his route, and he was very much flattered by the attentions he 
received. He lived among his people on the Iowa River till that reservation 
was sold, in 183G, when, with the rest of the Sacs and Foxes, he removed to 
the Des Moines Reservation, where he remained till his death, which occurred 
on the 3d of October, 1838. 


At the close of the Black Hawk Wai', in 1832, a treaty was made at a 
council held on the west bank of the Mississippi, where now stands the thriving 
city of Davenport, on grounds now occupied by the Chicago, Rock Island & 
Pacific Railroad Company, on the 21st day of September, 1832. At this 
council, the United States were represented by Gen. Wmfield Scott and Gov. 
Reynolds, of Illinois. Keokuk, Pash-a-pa-ho and some thirty other chiefs and 
warriors of the Sac and Fox nation were present. By this treaty, the Sacs anJ 
Foxes ceded to the United States a strip of land on the eastern border of Iowa 
fifty miles wide, from the northern boundary of Missouri to the mouth of the 
Upper Iowa River, containing about six million acres. The western line of the 
purchase was parallel with the Mississippi. In consideration of this cession, 
the United States Government stipulated to pay annually to the confederated 
tribes, for thirty consecutive years, twenty thousand dollars in specie, and to 
pay the debts of the Indians at Rock Island, which had been accumulating for 


seventeen years and amountcil to fifty thousand dollars, due to Davenport & 
Farnham, Indian traders. The Government also generously donated to tlie 
Sac and Fox women and children whose husbands and fiithers had fallen in the 
Black Hawk Avar, thirty-five beef cattle, twelve bushels of salt, thirty barrels of 
pork, fifty barrels of flour and six thousand bushels of corn. 

This territory is known as the " Black Hawk Purchase." Although it was 
not the first portion of Iowa ceded to the United States by the Sacs and Foxes, 
it was the first opened to actual settlement by the tide of emigration that flowed 
across the Mississippi as soon as the Indian title was extinguished. The treaty 
was ratified February 13, 1833, and took effect on the 1st of June following, 
when the Indians quietly removed fi'om the ceded territory, and this fertile and 
beautiful region was opened to white settlers. 

By the terms of the treaty, out of the Black Hawk Purchase was reserved for 
the Sacs and Foxes 400 s([uare miles of land situated on the Iowa River, and in- 
Icuding within its limits Keokuk's village, on the right bank of that river. This 
tract was known as " Keokuk's Reserve, ' and was occupied by the Indians until 
1836, when, by a treaty made in September betAveen them and Gov. Dodge, of 
Wisconsin Territory, it was ceded to the United States. The council was held 
on the banks of the Mississippi, above Davenport, and was the largest assem- 
blage of the kind ever held by the Sacs and Foxes to treat for the sale of lands. 
About one thousand of their chiefs and braves were present, and Keokuk was 
their leading spirit and principal speaker on the occasion. By the terms of the 
treaty, the Sacs and Foxes were removed to another reservation on the Des 
Moines River, where an agency was established for them at what is now the 
town of Agency City. 

Besides the Keokuk Reserve, the Government gave out of the Black HaAvk 
Purchase to Antoine Le Claire, interpreter, in fee simple, one section of land 
opposite Rock Island, and another at the head of the first rapids aboA^e the 
island, on the loAva side. This was the first land title granted by the United 
States to an individual in Iowa. 

Soon after the removal of the Sacs and Foxes to their ncAv reservation 
on the Des Moines River, Gen. Joseph M. Street Avas transferred from the 
agency of the Winnebagoes, at Prairie du Chien, to establish an agency 
among them. A farm Avas selected, on Avhich the necefesary buildings were 
erected, including a comfortable farm house for the agent and his family, at 
the expense of the Indian Fund. A salaried agent Avas employed to superin- 
tend the farm and dispose of the crops. Tavo mills Avere erected, one on Soap 
Creek and the other on Sugar Creek. The latter Avas soon sAvept aAvay by a 
flood, but the former remained and did good service for many years. Connected 
■with the agency were Joseph Smart and John Goodell, interpreters. The 
latter Avas interpreter for Hard Fish's band. Three of the Indian chiefs, Keo- 
kuk, AVapello and Appanoose, had each a large field improved, the -two former 
on the right bank of the Des Moines, back from tlie river, in Avhat is noAv 
"Keokuk's Prairie," and the latter on tiie present site of the city of OttuniAva. 
-Among the traders connected Avith the agency Avere the Messrs. EAving, from 
Ohio, and Phelps & Co., from Illinois, and also Mr. J. P. Eddy, Avho estab- 
lished his post at Avhat is now the site of Eddyville. 

The Indians at this agency became idle and listless in the absence of their 
natural and Avonted excitements, and many of them plunged into dissipation. 
Keokuk himself became dissipated in the latter years of his life, and it has 
been reported that he died of delirium tremens after his removal Avith his 
tribe to Kansas. 


In May^ 1843, most of the Indians were removed up the Des Moines River, 
•above the temporary line of Red Rock, having ceded the remnant of their 
lands in Iowa to the United States on tlie 21st of September, 1837, and on tlie 
11th of October, 1842. By the terms of the hitter treaty, they held possession 
■of the " New Purchase " till the Autumn of 1845, when the most of them 
■,vfere removed to their reservation in Kansas, the balance being removed in the 
Spring of 1846. 

1. Treat!/ icith the Sioux— Mm\q .Uily 19. \H\r)- ratified December 16, 181'.. This treaty 
■was made at Portage des Sioux, between the Sioux of Minnesota and Upper Iowa and the United 
States, by William Claris and Ninian Edwards, t'ommissioners, and was merely a treaty of peace 
and friendship on the part of those Indians toward the United States at the close of the war of 

2. Treat;! with the Sacs. — A similar treaty of peace was made at Portage des Sioux, between 
ihe United States and the Sacs, by William Clark, Ninian Edwards and Auguste Clioteau, on the 
13ih of September, 1815, and ratified at the same date as the above. Iq this, the treaty of 1804 
was re-affirmed, and the Sacs liere represented promised for themselves and their bands to keep 
entirely separate from the Sacs of Rock River, who, under Black Hawk, had joined the British 
in the war just then closed. 

3 . Treaty with the Foxes. — A separate treaty of peace was made with the Foxes at Portage 
■des Sioux, by the same Commissioners, on the 14th of September, 1815, and ratified the same as 
the above, wherein the Foxes re-affirmed the treaty of St. Louis, of November 3, 1804, and 
agreed to deliver up all their prisoners to the officer in command at Fort Clark, now Peoria, 

4. Treaty with the loiuas. — A treaty of peace and mutual good will was made between the 
United Slates and the Iowa tribe of Indians, at Portage des Sioux, by the same Commissioners 
as above, on the 16th of September, 1815, at the close of the war with Great Britain, and ratified 
M the same date as the others. 

6. Treaty with the Sacs of Rock River— M&de at St. Louis on the 13th of May, 1816, between 
the United States and the Sacs of Rock River, by the Commissioners, William Clark, Ninian 
Edwards and Auguste Choteau, and ratified December 30, 1810. In this treaty, that of 1804 
was reestablished and confirmed by twenty-two cliiefs and head men of the Sacs of Rock River, 
and Black Hawk himself attached to it his signature, or, as he said, " touched the goose quill." 

C. Treaty of ISSi — On the 4th of August, 1824, a treaty was made between the United 
St.atcs and the Sacs and Foxes, in the city of Washington, by William Clark, Commissioner, 
wherein the Sao and Fox nation relinquished their title to all lands in Missouri and that portion 
of the southeast corner of Iowa known as the " Half-Breed Tract" was set off and reserved for 
the use of the half-breeds of the Sacs and Foxes, they holding title in the same manner as In- 
dians. Ratified January 18, 1825, 

7. Treaty of August 19, IS'25. — At this date a treaty was made by William Clark and Lewis 
Cass, at Prairie du Chien, between the United States and the Chippewas, Sacs and Foxes, Me- 
nomonees, Winnebagoes and a portion of the Ottawas and Pottawatomies. In this tre.aty, in 
order to make peace between the contending tribes as to the limits of (heir respective hunting 

■ grounds in Iowa, it was agreed that the United States Government should run a boundary line 
between the Sioux, on the north, and the Sacs and Foxes, on the south, as follows : 

Commencing at'lhe mouth of the Upper Iowa River, on the west bank of the Mississippi, 
and ascending said Iowa River to its west fork ; thence up the fork to its source ; thence cross- 
ing the fork of Red Cedar River in a direct line to the second or upper fork of the Des Moines 
River ; thence in a direct line to the lower fork of the Calumet River, and down that river to its 
junction with the Missouri River. 

8. Treaty of JS30. — On the ]-5th of July, 1830, the confederate tribes of the Sacs and Foxes 
ceded to the United States a strip of country lying south of the above line, twenty miles in width, 
and extending along the line aforesaid from the Mississippi to the Des Moines River. The Sioux 
also, whose possessions were north of the line, ceded to the Government, in the same treaty, a 
like strip on the north side of the boundary. Thus the United States, at the ratification of tlii') 
treaty, February 24, 1831, came into possession of a portion of Iowa forty miles wide, extend 
ing along the Clark and Cass line of 1825, from liie Mississippi to the Des Moines River. Xhij 
territory was known as the " Neutral Ground," and the tribes on either side of the line were 
allowed to fish and hunt on it unmolested till it was made a Winnebago reservation, and tha 
Winneb.agoes were removed to it in 1841. 

9. Treaty wtih the Sues and F'lxes and other Tribes.— Ki the same time of the above treaty re- 
specting the " Neutral Ground" (July 15, 1830), the Sacs and Foxes, Western Sioux, Omahas, 
lowas and Missouris ceded to the United States a portion of the western slope of Iowa, the boun- 
daries of which were defined as follows: Beginning at the upper fork of the Des Moines River, 
and passing the sources of the Little Sioux and Floyd Rivers, to the fork of the first creek that 
falls into the Big Sioux, or Calumet, on the east side ; thence down said creek and the Calumel 


River to the Missouri River; thence down said Missouri River to the Missouri State line above 
the Kansas ; tlience along said line to the northwest corner of said State ; thence to the high lands 
between the waters falling into the Missouri and Des iMoines, passing to said high lands along 
the dividing ridge between the forks of tlie Grand River ; thence along said high lands or ridge 
separating the waters of tlie Missouri from those of tlie Des Moines, to a point opposite the source 
of the Rciyer River, and thence in a direct line to the upper fork of the Des Moines, the place of 

It was understood that the lands ceded and relinquished by this treaty were to be assigned 
and allotted, under the direction of the President of the United States, to the tribes then living 
thereon, or to such oilier tribes as the President might locale thereuii for hunting and other pur- 
poses. In consideration of three tracts of land ceded in this treaty, the United States agreed to 
pay to the Sacs three thnusand dollars ; to the Foxes, three thousand dollars; to the Sioux, 
two thousand dollars; to llic Vanklon and Santie bands of Sioux, three thousand dollars; to the 
Omalius, two thousand live huudi-ed dollars; and lo the Otioes and Missouris, two thousand five 
hundred dollars — to lie paid annuaily fur ten successive years. In addiiion to these annuities, 
the (jovernmeiit agreed to furnish some of the tribes with blacksmiths and agricultural imple- 
ments lo the amount of two hundred dollars, at the expense of tlie United States, and to set apart 
three thousand dollars annually for the education of the children of these tribes. It does not 
appear that any fort was erected iu this territory prior to the erection of Fort Atkinson on the 
Neutral Ground, in 184U-41. 

This treaiy was made by William Clark, Superintendent of Indian affairs, and Col. Willoughbjr 
Morgan, of the United States First Infantry, and came into effect by proclamation, February 
24, 1831. 

10. Treatri with the Wimebagoes. — Made at Fort Armstrong, Rock Island, September 1.5, 1832, 
by Gen. Wintield Scott and Hon. John Reynolds, Governor of Illinois. In this treaty the Win- 
nebagucs ceded lo the United States all their land lying on the east side of the Mississippi, and 
in part consideration therefor the United States granted to the Winnebagoes, to be held as other 
Indian lauds are held, that portion of Iowa known as the Neutral Ground. The exchange of the 
two tracts of country was to take place on or before the 1st day of June, 1833. In addition to 
the Neutral Ground, it was stipulated that the United States should give the Winnebagoes, begin- 
ning in September, 18;)3, and continuing for twenty-seven successive years, ten thousand dollars 
in specie, and establish a school among them, with a farm and garden, and provide other facili- 
ties for the education of their children, not to exceed in cost three thousand dollars a year, and 
to cohiinue the same for twenty-seven successive years. Six agriculturists, twelve yoke of oxen 
and plows and other farming tools were to be supplied by the Government. 

11. TmiUi of 1S3J will), tie Sacn and Foxe'. — Already mentioned as the Black Hawk purchase. 
VI. Treatij cf 1S3G, with the Sacs and Foxes, ceding Keokuk's Reserve to the United Slates; 

for which the Government stipulated to pay thirty thousand dollars, and an annuity often thou- 
sand dollars for ten successive years, together with other sums and debts of the Indians to 
various parties. > 

13. Tnaly of 1SS7 —On the 21st of October, 1837, a treaty was made at the city of Wash- 
ington, between Carey A. Harris, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and the confederate tribes of 
Sacs and Foxes, ratified February 21, 1838, wherein another slice of the soil of Iowa was obtained, 
described in the tredy as follows: "A tract of country containing 1,2-50,000 acres, lying west 
and adjoining the tract conveyed by them to the United States in the treaty of September 21, 
1832. It is understood that the points of termination for the present cession shall be the north- 
ern and southern points of said tract as fixed by the survey made under the authority of the 
United Stales, and that a line shall be drawn between them so as to intersect a line extended 
weaiwardly from the angle of said tract nearly opposite to Rock Island, as laid down in the above 
survey, so far as may be necessary to include the number of acres hereby ceded, which last 
mentioned line, it is estimated, will be about twenty-five miles," 

This piece of land was twenty-five miles wide in the middle, and ran off to a point at both 
ends, lying directly back of the Black Hawk Purchase, anil of the same length. 

14 Tr^aiij of RelinquhhmrnL — At the same date as the above treaty, in the city of Washing- 
ton, Carpy A. Harris, Commissioner, the Sacs and Foxes ceded to the United States all their 
right .anil interest in the country lying south of the boundary line between the Sacs and Foxes 
and Sioux,' .as described in the treaty of August 19, 1825, and between the Mississippi and Mis- 
souri Rivers, the United States p.aying.for the same one hundred and sixty thousand dollars. 
The Indians also gave up all claims and interests under the treaties previously made with them, 
for the satisfaction of which no appropriations had been made. 

15. Treiiiij of lS43.—T\\<i last treaty was made with the Sacs and Foxes October 11, 1842; 
ratified March 23, 1843. It was made at the Sac and Fox agency (.\gency City), by John 
Chambers, Commissioner on behalf of the United Stales. In this treaty the Sac and Fox Indians 
. " ceded to the United St.xtes all their lands west of the Mississippi to which they had any claim 
or title. " By the terms • f this treaty they were to be removed from the country at the expira- 
Uon of three years, and all wlio remained after that were to move at their own expense. Part 
of them were removed to Kansas in the Fall of 1845, and the rest the Spring following. 



Wliilc the territory now embraced in the State of Iowa was untlcr Spanish 
nile as a part of its province of Louisiana, certain claini.s to and grants of land 
were made by the Span ish authorities, with which, in addition to the extinguishment 
of Indian titles, the United States had to deal. It is proper that these should 
be hrielly reviewed. 

Dabuqtic — On the 22d day of September, 1788, Julion Dubuque, a French- 
man, from Prairie du Chicii, obtained from the Foxes a cession or lease of lands 
on the Mississippi River for mining purposes, on the site of the present city of 
Dubuque. Lead had been discovered here eight years before, in 1780, by the 
wife of Peosta Fox, a warrior, and Dubuque's claim embraced nearly all the lend 
bearing lands in that vicinity. lie immediately took possession of his claim and 
commenceil mining, at the same time making a settlement. Tlie place became 
known as the "Spanish Miners," or, more commonly, "Dubuque's Lead 

In 179(5, Dubuque filed a petitimi with Baron do Carondelet, the Spanish 
Governor of Louisiana, asking that the tract ceded to him by the Indians might 
be granted to him by patent from the Spanish Government. In this petition, 
Dubuque rather indefinitely set forth the boundaries of this claim as "about 
seven leagues along the Mississippi River, and three leagues in width from the 
river," intending to include, as is supjwsed, the river front between the Little 
Maquoketa and tlie Tete <les Mcrtz Rivers, embracing more than twenty thou- 
sand acres. Carondelet grantai the prayer of the petition, and the grant was 
subse(iuently confirmed by the Board of Land Commissioners of Louisiana. 

In October, 1804, Dubufjue transferred the larger part of his claim to 
Augustc (Jhoteau, of St. Louis, and on the 17th of May, 1805, he and Choteau 
jointly tiled their claims with the Board of Commissioners. On the 20th of 
September, 180(3, the Board decided in their favor, pronouncing the claim to be 
a regular Spanish grant, made and completed prior to the 1st day of October, 
1800, only one member, J. B. C. Lucas, dissenting. 

Dubu(|ue died March 24, 1810. The Indians, understanding that the claim 
of DnbuqiK! under their former act of cession was only a permit to occupy the 
tract and work the mines during his life, and that at his deatli they reverted to 
them, took possession and continued mining operations, and were sustained by 
tlie military authority of the United States, notwithstanding the decision of the 
Commissioners. When the Black Hawk purchase was consummated, the Du- 
bu([ue claim thus held by the Indians was absorbed by the United States, as the 
Sacs and Foxes made no reservation of it in the treaty of 1832. 

Tlie hcii's of Choteau, however, were not disposed to relin(juish their claim 
without a struggle. Late in 1832, they employed an agent to look after their 
interests, and authorized him to lease the right to dig lead on the lands. The 
miners who commenced work under this agent were compelled by the military to 
abandon their operations, and one of the claimants went to Galena to institute 
legal proceedings, but found no court of competent jurisdiction, although he did 
bring an action for the recovery of a quantity of lead dug at Dubuque, for the 
purpose of testing the title. Being unable to identify the lead, however, he was 
non-suited. , 

By act of Congress, approved July 2, 1836, the town of Dubuque was sur- 
veyed and TDlatted. After lets had been sold and occupied by the purchasers, 
Henry Choteau brouglit an action of ejectment against Patrick Malony, who 


iiekl land in Dubuque under a patent from the United States, for the reeoveiy 
of seven undivided eighth parts of the Dubuque claim, as purchased by Augusta 
Choteau in 1804. The case ■was tried in the District Court of tlie United States 
for the District of Iowa, and was decided adversely' to the plaintiff. The case was 
carried to the Supreme Court of the United States on a writ of error, when it 
was heard at the December term, 1853, and the decision of the lower court was 
affirmed, the court holding that the permit from Carondolet was merely a lease 
or permit to work the mines ; that Dubuque asked, and the Governor of Louisiana 
granted, nothing more than the "peaceable possession " of certain lands obtained 
li'oni tlie Indians ; that Carondelet harl no legal autliority to make snch a grant 
as claimed, and that, even if he had, this was but an " inchoate and imperfect 

Giard. — In 1795, the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Louisiana granted to 
Basil Giard five thousand eight hundred and sixty acres of land, in what is now 
Clayton County, known I as the "Giard Tract." He occupied the land during 
the time that Iowa passed from Spain to France, and from France to the United 
States, in consideration of which tlie Federal Government granted a patent of 
the same to Giard in his own right. His heirs sold the whole tract to James II. 
Lockwood and Thomas P. Burnett, of Prairie du Chien, for three hundred dollars. 

Honori. — March 30, 1799, Zenon Trudeau, Acting Lieutenant Governor of 
Upper Louisiana, granted to Louis Ilonoi'i a tract of land on the site of the 
present town of Montrose, as follows: " It is permitted to Mr. Louis (Fresson) 
Henori, or Louis Honore Fesson, to establish himself at the head of the rapids 
of the River Des Moines, and his establishment once formed, notice of it shall be 
given to the Governor General, in order to obtain for him a commission of a space 
sufficient to give value to such establishment, and at the same time to render it 
useful to the commerce of the peltries of this country, to watch the Indians and 
keep them in the fidelity which they owe to His Majesty." 

Honori took immediate possession of his claim, which he retained until 1805. 
While trading with the natives, he became indebted to Joseph Robetlonx, who 
obtained an execution on which the property was sold May 13, 1803, and was 
purchased by the creditor. In these proceedings the property was described as 
being " about six leagues above tlie River Des Moines." Robedoux died soon 
after he purchased the proprerty. Auguste Choteau, his executor, disposed of 
the Honori tract to Thomas F. Reddeck, in April, 1805, up to whicii time 
Honori continued to occupy it. The grant, as made by the Spanisii government, 
was a league square, but only one mile square was confirmed by the Uuited 
States. After the half-breeds sold their lands, in which the Honori grant was 
included, various claimants resorted to litigation in attempts to invalidate the 
title of the Reddeck heirs, but it was finally confirmed by a decision of the 
Su])reme Court of the United States in 1839, and is the oldest legal title to any 
laud in the State of Iowa. 


Before any permanent settlement had been made in the Territory of Iowa, 
white adventurers, trappers and traders, many of whom were scattered along 
the Mississippi and its tributaries, as agents and employes of the American Fur 
Company, intermarried with the females of the Sac and Fox Indians, producing 
a race of half-breeds, whose number was never definitely ascertamed. There 
were some respectable and excellent people among them, cliildren of men of 
some refinement and education. For instance : Dr. Muir, a gentleman educated 


at Edinburgh, Scotland, a surgeon in the United States Army, stationed at a 
military post located on tlic present site of Warsaw, married an Indian woman, 
and reared his family of three daughters in the city of Keokuk. Other exam- 
ples might he cited, but they are proljably exceptions to the general rule, and 
the race is now nearly or quite extinct in Iowa. 

A treaty was made at Wasliington, August 4, 1824, between the Sacs and 
Foxes and the United Stales, by which that portion of Lee County was reserved 
to the half breeds of those tribes, and wliich was afterward known as " The 
Half-Breed Tract." Tliis reservation is the triangular. piece of land, containing 
about 110,000 acres, lying between the Mississippi and Des Moines Rivers. It is 
bounded on the norlh by the prolongation of the northern line of Missouri. 
Tiiis line was intended to be a straight one, running due east, which would have 
caused it to strike the Mississippi River at or below Montrose ; but the surveyor who 
run it took no notice of the change in the variation of the needle as he proceeded 
eastward, and, in consecpience, the line he run was bent, deviating more and more 
to tlie northward of a direct line as he approached the Mississippi, so that it 
struck that river at (he lower edge of the town of Fort Madison. "This errone- 
ous line," says Judge Mason, "has been acquiesced in as well in fixing the 
northern limit of the Half-Breed Tract as in determining the northern boundary 
line of the State of Missouri." The line thus run included in the reservation 
a portion of the lower part of the city of Fort Madison, and all of the present 
townships of Yan Burcn, Charleston, Jeil'erson, Des Moines, Montrose and 

Under the treaty of 1824, the half-breeds had the right to occupy the soil, 
but could not convey it, the reversion being reserved to the United States. But 
on the 30th day of' January, 1834, by act of Congress, this reversionary right 
was relinquished, and tlie half-breeds acquired the lands in fee simple. This 
was no sooner done, than a horde of speculators rushed in to buy land of the 
half breed owners, and, in many instances, a gun, a blanket, a pony or a few 
<[uarts of whisky was suflicient for the purchase of large estates. There was 
a deal of sharp practice on both sides ; Indians would often claim ownership of 
land by virtue of being half-breeds, and had no difficulty in proving their mixed 
blood by the Indians, and they would then cheat the speculators by selling land 
to wliich they h;id no riglitful title. On the other hand, speculators often 
claimed land in which they had no ownership. It was diamond cut diamond, 
until at last things became badly mixed. There were no authorized surveys, 
and no boundary lines to claims, and, as a natural result, numerous conflicts and 
«£uarrels ensued. 

To settle these difficulties, to decide the validity of claims or sell them for 
the benefit of the real owners, by act of the Legislature of AVisconsin Territory, 
ap]iroved January 1(3, 1838, Edward Johnstone, Thomas S. Wilson and David 
Brigham were appointed Commissioners, and clotlied with power to effect these 
objects. The act provided that these Commissioners should be paid six dollars 
a day each. The commission entered upon its duties and continued until the 
next session of the Legislature, when the act creating it was repealed, invalidat- 
ing all that had been done and depriving the Commissioners of their pay. The 
repealing act, however, authorized the Commissioners to commence action against 
the owners of the Ilalf-Breed Tract, to receive pay for their services, in the Dis- 
trict Court of Lee County. Two judgments were obtained, and on execution 
the wluilo of the tract was sold to Hugh T. Raid, the Sheriff executing the 
deed. Mr. Reid sold portions of it to various parties, but his own title was 
questioned and he became involved in litigation. Decisions in favor of Reid 


and those liolding under him -were made by botli District and Supremo Courts, 
hut in December, 1S50, tliese decisions were finally reverseil liy tlie Supreme 
Court of tlie Unite<l States in the case of Joseph Webster, phiintiff in error, vs. 
Hugh T. Reid, and the judgment titles failed. About nine years before the 
"judgment titles " were finally abrogated as above, another class of titles were 
brought into competition with them, and in the conflict between the two, the 
final decision was obtained. These were the. titles based on the " decree of 
partition " issued by the United States District Court for the Territory of Iowa, 
on the 8th of May, 1S41, and certified to by the Clerk on the 2d day of June of 
tiiat year. Edward Johnstone and Hugh T. Reid, then law partners at Fort 
.Madison, filed the petition for the decree in behalf of the St. Louis claimants of 
half breed lands. Francis S. Key, author of the Star Spangled Banner, who 
was then attorney for the New York Land Company, which held heavy interests 
in thesG lands, took a leading part in the measure, and drew np the document in 
which it was presented to the court. Judge Charles Mason, of Burlington, pre- 
sided. The plan of partition divided the tract into one hundred and one shares 
and arranged that each claimant should draw his proportion by lot, and should 
abide the result, whatever it might be. The arrangement ivas entered into, the 
lots drawn, and the plat of the same filed in the Recorder's office, October (!, 
1841. L'pon this basis the titles to land in the Half-Breed Tract are now held. 


The first permanent settlement by the whites within the limits of Iowa was 
made by Julien Dubuijue, in 1788, when, with a small party of miners, he set- 
tled on the site of the city that now bears his name, where he lived until his 
death, in 1810. Louis Honori settled on the site of the present town of Mon- 
trose, probably in 1709. and resided there until 1805, when his property passed 
into other hands. Of the Giard settlement, opposite Prairie dii Cliion, little is 
known, except that it was occupied by some parties prior to the commencement 
of tl;e present century, and contained three cabins in 1805. Indian traders, 
although not strictly to" be considered settlers, had established themselves at 
various points at an early date. A Mr. Johnson, agent of the American Fur 
Company, had a trading post below Burlington, where he carried on traffic with 
the Indians some time before the L'nited States possessed the country In 
1820, Le Moliese, a French trader, had a station at what is now Sandusky, six 
miles above Keokuk, in Lee County. In 1829, Dr. Isaac Gallaiul made a set- 
tlement on the Lower Rapids, at what is now Nashville. 

The first settlement in Lee County was made in 1820, by Dr. Samuel C. 
Muir, a surgeon in the LTnited States army, who had been stationed at Fort 
Edwards, now Warsaw, 111., and who built a cabin where the city of Keokuk 
now stands. Dr. Muir was a man of strict integrity and irreproachable char- 
acter. While stationed at a military post on the LTpper Mississippi, he had 
married an Indian woman of the Fox nation. Of his marriage, the following 
romantic account is given : 

Thp post at which he wns st:itionccI was visituil by a beautiful Inrlian maiden — whose native 
nnnie, unfortunately, lias not been preserved — who, in her dreams, had seen a white brave un- 
moor his canoe, paddle it across Die river and come directly to her lodge. She felt assured, 
according to the superstitious belief of her race, that, in her dreams, she had seen her future 
liusband, and had come to the fort to find liim. Meeting Dr. Muir, she instantly recognized 
liini as the hero of her dream, wliicli, with chiMlike innocence and simplicity, she related to 
him. Her dream was, indeed, prophetic, (^harmed with Sophia's beauty, innocence and devo- 
tion, the doctor honorably married her; but after a while, the sneers and gibes of his brother 


officers — 1ps3 honorable than he, perhaps — m;i(Ie hiiu feel ashamed of his clark-skinneil wife, and 
when his regiment was ordered down the river, to Bellefoniaiae, it is said he embraced the 
opportunity to rid liimself of her, and left her, never expecting to see her again, ami little 
dreaming that she would have the courage to follow him. Uut, with her infant child, this in- 
trepiil wife and mother started alone in her canoe, and. after many days of weary labor and a 
lonely journey of nine huudrtd miles, she, at last, readied him. She afterward remarked, when 
speaking of this toilsome journey down the river in seaich of her husband, " When I got there 
1 wasall perished away — so thin ! " The doctor, touched by such unexampled devotion, took her 
to liis henrt, and ever after, until his death, treated her wilh marked respect. Slie always pre- 
sided lit his table witli grace and dignity, but never abandoned her native style of dress. In 
181 '.l-'iO, he was stationed at Fort Edward, but the senseless riilicule of some of his brother 
officers on account of his Indian wife induced him to resign his commission. 

After building his cabin, as above slated, he leased his claim for a term of years to Otis 
Reynolds and .Jolin Culver, of St. Louis, and went to La Pointe. afierward Galena, where he 
practiced his profession for ten years, when he returned to Keokuk. His Indian wife bore to 
him four children — Louise (married at Keokuk, since dead), James, (drowned at Keokukl, Mary 
and Sophia. Dr. Muir died suddenly of cholera, in 1S:!'2, but left his property in such condition 
that it was soon wasted in vexatious litigation, and his brave and faithful wile, left friendless and 
penniless, became discouraged, and, with her children, disappeared, and, it is said, returned to 
her people on the Upper Missouri. 

Messrs. Revnnlils & Culver, who htitl leased Dr. Muirs claim at Keokuk, 
.sulisequetitly employed as tlieir agent Mr. Moses Stilhvell. who arrived with 
liis family in 1828, and took possession of Muir's cabin. His brothers-in-law, 
Amos and Valencourt Vaji Anstlal, came with him and settled near. 

His daughter, Margaret Stillwell (afterward Mrs. Ford) was born in 1831, 
at the foot of the rapids, called by the Indians Pucli-a-she-tuck, where Keokuk 
now stands. She was probably the first white American child born in Iowa. 

In 1881, Mr. Johnson, Agent of the American Fur Company, who had a 
station at the foot of the rapid.«, removed to another location, and, Dr. Muir 
having returned from Galena, he and Isaac R. Campbell took the place and 
buildings vactxted by the Company and carried on trade witli the Indians and 
half-breeds. Campbell, who bad first visited and traveled througii the southern 
part of Iowa, in 1821, w;is an enterprising settler, and besides trading with the 
natives carried on a farm and kept a ttivern. 

Dr. Muir died of cholera in 1832. 

In 1830, James L. and Lucius H. Langworthy, brothers and natives of 
Vermont, visited the Territory for the purpose of working the lead mines ;it Du- 
butiue. They had been engaged in lead mining at Galena, Illinois, the former 
from ;is early as 1824. The lead mines in the Dubmjuc region were an object 
of great interest to the miners about Galena, for they were known to be rich in 
lead ore. To e.xplore these mines and to obtain permission to work them was 
therefore eminently desirable. 

In 1829, James L. Langworthy resolved to visit the Dubuque mines. Cross- 
ing the Mississi]ipi at a \)oiat now known as Dunleith, in a canoe, and swim- 
ming his horse by his si<le, he landed on the sjjot now known ;xs Jones Street 
Levee. Before him spread out a beautiful prairie, on which the city of Du- 
butjue now stands. Two miles south, at the mouth of Catfish Creek, was a vil- 
lage of Sacs and Foxes. Thither Mr. Langworthy proceeded, and was well re- 
ceived by the natives. He endeavored to obtain permission from them to mine 
in their hills, biit this they refused. He, however, succeeded in gaining the con- 
fidence of the chief to such an extent as to be allowed to travel in the interior 
for three weeks and e.xplore the country. He employed two young Indians as 
guides, and traversed in different directions the whole region lying between the 
Maipioketa and Turkey Rivers. He returned to the village, secured the good 
will of the Indians, and, returning to Galena, formed plans for future opera- 
tion.s, to be executed as soon as circumstances would permit. 


In 1830, with liis brothei-, Lucius H., and others, liaving obtained the con-' 
sent of the Indians, Mr. Laugwurthy crossed the Mississippi and commenced 
mining in the vicinity around Dubu(|ue. 

At tliis time, tlie lands were not in the actual possession of the United States. 
Although they had been purchased from France, the Indian title had not been 
extinguished, and these adventurous persons were beyond the limits of any State 
or Territorial government. The first settlers were therefore obliged to be their 
own law-makers, and to airree to such reo;ulations as the e-xisencics of the case 

o ..... . . ^ 

demanded. The first act resembling civil legislation within the limits of the 
present State of Iowa was done by the miners at this point, in June, 1830. They 
met on tlie bank of the river, by the side of an old cottonwood drift log, at 
what is now the Jones Street Levee, Dubuque, and elected a Committee, con- 
sisting of J. L. Langworthy, II. F. Lander, Jaines McPhetres, Samuel Scales, 
and E, M. Wren. This may be called the first Legislature in Iowa, the mem- 
bers of which gathered around that old cottonwood log, and agreed to and re- 
ported the following, written by Mr. Langworthy, on a half sheet, un- 
ruled paper, the old log being the writing desk : 

We, a Comniiltee having heen cliosen to draft certain rules an.'l regulations (laws) by 
whicli we as miners will be governed, and liaving duly considereil the subject, do unanimously 
agree that we will lie governeil by the regulations un the east side of the Mississippi River,* with 
the following exceptions, to wit ; 

Abticlu I. That each and every man shall hold 200 yards square of ground by working 
said ground one day in six. 

AiiTirL". ir. We further agree that there shall be chosen, by the majority of the miners 
present, .a person who shall hold this article, and who sljall grant letters of .arbitration on appli- 
cation having been made, and that said letters of arbitration shall be obligatory on the parties so 

The report was accepted by the miners present, who elected Dr. Jarote, in 
accoi dance with Article "2. Here, then, we liave, in 1830, a jirimitive Legisla- 
ture elected by the people, the law drafted by it being submitted to the people 
for approval, and under it Dr. Jarote was elected first Governor within the 
limits of the present State of Iowa. And it is to be saitl that the laws thus 
enacted were as promptly obeyed, and the acts of the executive officer thus 
elected as duly respected, as any have been since. 

Tlie miners who had thus erected an indcjieiident government of their own 
on the west s'de of the IMississippi River continued to work successfully for a 
long time, and the new settlement attracted considerable attention. But the 
west side of the Mississippi belonged to the Sac and Fox Indians, and the Gov- 
ernment, in order to preserve peace on the frontier, as well as to protect the 
Indians in their rights under the treaty, ordered the .settlers not only to stop 
mining, but to remove from the Indian territory. They were simply intruders. 
The execution of this order was entrusted to Col. Zachary Taylor, then in com- 
mand of the military post at Prairie dii Cliien, who, early in July, sent an officer 
to the miners with orders to forbid settlement, and to command the miners to 
remove within ten days to the east side of the Mississippi, or they would be 
driven off by armed force. The miners, however, were reluctant about leaving 
the rich "leads" they had already discovered and opened, and were not dis- 
po-ed to obey the order to remove with any ilegree of ahicrity. In 
due time. Col. Taylor despatched a detachment of troops to enforce his order. The 
miners, anticipating their arrivtil, had, excepting three, recrossed the river, and 
from the east bank saw the troops land on the western shore. The three who 
had lingered a little too long were, however, permitted to make their escape 

* Established by tl.e Superintendent of U. S. Lead lilines at Fever River. 


unmolosteil. From this time, a military force was stationed at Dubuque to 
prevent the settlers from returning, until June, 1832. The Indians returned, 
and were encouaged to operate the rich mines opened by the late white 

In June, 1832, the troops were ordered to the east side to assist in the 
anniliilation of the very Indians whose rights they had been protecting on the 
west side. Immediately after the close of the Black llawlc war, and the negotia- 
tions of the treaty in September, 1832, by which the Sacs and Foxes ceded to 
the United States the tract known as the "Black Hawk Purchase," the set- 
tlers, supposing that now they had a right to re-enter the territory, returned 
and took possession of their claims, built cabins, erected furnaces and prepared 
large ([uaiitities of lead for market. Dubuque was becoming a noted place on 
the ri\cr, but the prospects of the hardy and enterprising settlers and miners 
were again ruthlessly interfered with by the Government, on the ground that 
the treaty with the Indians would not go into force until June 1, 1833, although 
they liad withdrawn from the vicinity of the settlement. Col. Taylor was again 
ordered by tlie War Department to remove the miners, and in January, 1$33, 
troops wore again sent from Prairie du Chien to Dubuque for that purpose. 
This was a serious and perhaps unnecessary hardship imposed upon the settlers. 
Tliey were compelled to abandon their cabins and homes in mid-winter. It 
must now be said, simply, that "red tape" should be respected. The purchase 
had been made, the treaty ratified, or was sure to be ; tlie Indians had retired, 
and, after the lapse of nearly fifty years, no very satisfactory reason for this 
rigorous action of the Government can be given. 

But the orders had been given, and tliere was no alternative but to obey. 
Many of the settlers recrossed the river, and did not return ; a few, however, 
removed to an island near the east bank of the river, built rude cabins of poles, 
in wiiieh to store their lead until Spring, when they could float the fruits of 
their labor to 8t. Louis for sale, and where they could remain until the treaty 
went into force, when they could return. Among these were James L. Lang- 
worthy, and his brother Lucius, who had on hand about three hundred thousand 
pounds of lead. 

Lieut. Covington, who had been placed in command at Dubuque by Col. 
Taylor, ordered some of the cabins of the settlers to be torn down, and wagons 
and other property to be destroyed. This wanton and inexcusable action on 
the part of a subordinate clothed with a little brief authority was sternly 
rebukwl by Col. Taylor, and Covington w;is superseded by Lieut. George Wil- 
son, who pui-sued a just and friendly course with the pioneers, who were only 
waiting for the time when they could reposse-ss their claims. 

June 1, 1833, the treaty formally went into effect, the troops were withdrawn, 
and the Langworthy brothers and a few others at once returned and resumed 
possession of their home claims and mineral prospects, and from this time the 
first permanent settlement of tliLs portion of Iowa must date. Mr. John P. 
Sheldon was appointed Superintendent of the mines by the Government, and a 
system of permits to miners and licenses to smelters was adopted, similar to that 
which had been in operation at Galena, since 182.3, under Lieut. Martin Thomas 
and Capt. Thomas C. Legate. Substantially the primitive law enacted by the 
miners assembled around that old cottonwood drift log in 1830 was adopted and 
enforced by tlie L'nited States Government, except tliat miners were required to 
sell their mineral to licensed smelters and the smelter was required to give bonds 
for the payment of six per cent, of all lead manufactured to the Government. 
This was the same rule adopted in the United States mines on Fever River in 


Illinois, except that, until 1830, the Illinois miners -nfre C(]mpelk'il to pay 10 
per cent. tax. This tax upon the miners created much dissatisfaction among 
the miners on the Avest side as it had on tlie east side of the Mississippi. Thev 
tliought tlicy had sufi'ered hardsliips and privations enough in opening the Avay 
for civilization, without being subjected to tlie imposition of an odious Govern- 
ment tax upon their means of subsistence, ivhen the Federal Government could 
better afford to aid than to extort from them. The measure soon became unpop- 
ular. It was difficult to collect the taxas, and the whole system was abolished 
in about ton years. 

During l(S>5o, after the Indian title was fully extinguished, about five hun- 
dred i)e()ple arrived at the mining district, about one hundred and fifty of them 
from Galena. 

In the same year, Mr. Langworthy assisted in building the first school house 
in Iowa, and thus was formed the nucleus of the now populous and thriving 
City of Dubuque. Mr. Langworthy lived to see the naked prairie on which he 
first landed become the site of a city of fifteen thousand inliabitants, the small 
school house which he aided in constructing replaced by three substantial edifices, 
wherein two thousand children were being trained, churches erected in every 
part of the city, and railroads connecting the wilderness which he first explored 
with all the eastern world. He died suddenly on the 13th of March, 1865, 
while on a trip over the Dubuijue & Southwestern Railroad, at Monticello, 
and the evening train brought the news of his death and his remains. 

Lucius 11. Langworthy, his ]>rother, was one of the most worthy, gifted and 
influential of the old settlers of tjiis section of Iowa. He died, greatly lamented 
by many friends, in June, 1865. 

The name Dubuque was given to the settlement by the miners at a meeting 
held in 1834. 

In 1832, Captain James White made a claim on the present site of Montrose. 
In 1834, a military post was established at this point, and a garrison of cavalry 
was stationed here, under the command of Col. Stephen Vv'. Kearney. Tiie 
soldiers were removed from this post to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in 1837. 

During the same year, 1832, soon after the close of the Black Hawk War, 
Zacliariah Hawkins, Benjamin Jennings, Aaron White, Augustine Horton, 
Samuel Gooch, Daniel Thompson and Peter Williams m:',de claims at Fort 
Madison. In 1833, these claims were purchased by John and Nathaniel 
Knapp, upon which, in 1835, they laid out the town. The next Summer, lots 
were sold. The town was subsequently re-surveyed and platted by the United 
States Government. 

At the close of the Black Hawk War. parties Avho had been impatiently 
looking across upon "Flint Hills," now Burlitigton, came over from Illinois 
and made claims The first was Samuel S. White, in the Fall of LS32, who 
erected a cabin on the site of the city of Burlington. About the same time, 
David Tothero made a claim on the prairie about three miles back from the 
river, at a place since known as thefaim of Judge Morgan. In the Winter of 
that year, tliey were driven off by the military from Rock Island, as intruders 
upon the rights of the Indians, and White's cabin was burnt by the soldiers. 
He retired to Illinois, where he spent the Winter, and in the Summer, as soon 
as the Indian title was extinguished, returned and rebuilt his cabin. White 
was joined by his brother-in-law, Doolittle, and they laid out the original town 
of Burlington in 1834. 

All along the river borders of the Black Hawk Purchase settlers were flocking 
into Iowa. Immediately after the treaty with the Sacs and Foxes, in Septem- 


ber, 1832, Col. George Davenport made the first claim on the spot where the 
thriving city of Davenport now stands. As early as 1827, Col. Davenport had 
established a flatboat ferry, which ran between the island and the main shore of 
Iowa, by which he carried on a trade with the Indians west of the Mississippi. 
In 1833, Capt. Benjamin W. Clark moved across from Illinois, and laid the 
foundation of the town of Buffalo, in Scott County, which was the first actual 
settlement within the limits of tliat county. Among other early settlers in this 
part of the Territory were Adrian H. Davenport, Col. John Sullivan, Mulli- 
gan and Franklin Easly, Capt. John Coleman, J. M. Camp, William White, 
II. W. Higgins, Cornelius Harrold, Richard Harrison, E. H. Shepherd and 
Dr. E. S. Barrows. 

The first settlers of Davenport were Antoine LeClaire, Col. George D.iven- 
port. Major Tliomas Smith, Major William Gordon, Philip Hainbough, Alexan- 
der W. McGregor, Levi S. Colton, Capt. James May and others. Of Antoine 
LeClaire, as the representative of the two races of men who at this time occu' 
pied Iowa, Hon. C. C. Nourse, in his admirable Centennial Address, says : 
" Antoine LeClaire was born at St. Joseph, Michigan, in 1797. His father 
was French, his mother a granddaughter of a Pottowatomie chief. In 1818, 
he acted as official interpreter to Col. Davenport, at Fort Armstrong (now Rock 
Island). lie was well acquainted with a dozen Indian dialects, and was a man 
of strict integrity and great energy. In 1820, he married the granddaughter 
of a Sac chief. The Sac and Fox Indians reserved for him and his wife two 
sections of land in the treaty of 1833, one at the town of LeClaire and one at 
Davenport. The Pottawatomies, in the treaty at Prairie du Chien, also 
reserved for him two sections of land, at the present site of Moline, 111. He 
received the appointment of Postmaster and Justice of the Peace in the Black 
Hawk Purchase, at an early day. In 1833, he bought for $100 a claim on the 
land upon which the original town of Davenport was surveyed and platted in 
1836. In 1836, LeClaire built the hotel, known since, with its valuable addi- 
tion, as the LeClaire House. He died September 25, 1861." 

In Clayton County, the first settlement was made in the Spring of 1832, 
on Turkey River, by Robert Hatfield and William W. Wayman. No further 
settlement was made in this part of the State till the beginning of 1836. 

In that portion now known as Muscatine County, settlements were made in 
1834, by Benjamin Nye, John Vanater and G. W. Kasey, who were the first 
settlers. E. E. Fay, William St. John, N. Fullington, II. Reece, Jona Petti- 
bone, R. P. Lowe, Stephen Whicher, Abijah Whiting, J. E. Fletcher, W. D. 
Abernethy and Alexis Smith were early settlers of ^luscatine. 

During the Summer of 1835, William Bennett and his family, from Galena, 
built the first cabin within the present limits of Delaware County, in some 
timber since known as Eads' Grove. 

The first post office in Iowa was established at Dubuque in 1833. I\Iilo H. 
Prentice was appointed Postmaster. 

The first Justice of the Peace was Antoine Le Claire, appointed in 1833, as 
" a very suitable person to adjust the tliffieulties between the white settlers and 
the Indians still remaining there." 

The first Methodist Society in the Territory was formed at Dubuque on 
the 18th of May, 1834, and the first class meeting was held June 1st of that 

The first churcli bell brought into Iowa was in March. 1834. 

The first mass of the Roman Catholic Church in the Territory was celebrated 
at Dubuque, in tiie house of Patrick Quigley, in the Fall of 1833. 


The first school house in the Territory was erected by the Dubuque miners 
in 1833. 

The fii'st Sabbatli scliool was organized at Dubuque early in tlie Summer 
of 1834. 

The first woman who came to tliis part of the Territory with a view to per- 
manent residence was Mrs. Noble F. Dean, in the Fall of 1832. 

The first family that lived in this part of Iowa was that of Hosea T. Camp, 
in 1832. 

The first meeting house was built by the Methodist Episcopal Church, at 
Dubuque, in 1834. 

The first newspaper in Iowa was the Dubuque Visitor, issued May 11th, 1836. 
John King, afterward Judge King, was editor, and William C. Jones, printer. 

The pioneers of Iowa, as a class, were brave, hardy, intelligent and 
enterprising people. 

As early as 1824, a French trader named Hart had established a trading 
post, and built a cabin on the bluffs above the large spring now known as 
"Mynster Spring," within the limits of the present city of Council Bluff's, and 
had probably been there some time, as the post was known to the employes of 
the American Fur Company as Lacote de Hart, or " Hart's Bluff'." In 1827, 
an agent of tlie American Fur Company, Francis Guittar, with others, encamped 
in the timber at the foot of the bluff's, about on the present location of Broad- 
way, and afterward settled there. In 1839, a block house was built on the 
bluff" in the east part of the city. The Pottawatomie Indians occupied this part 
of the State until 1846-7, when they relinquished the territory and removed to 
Kansas. Billy Caldwell was then principal chief. There were no white settlers 
in that part of the State except Indian traders, until the arrival of tlie Mormons 
under the lead of Brigham Young. These people on their way westward halted 
for the Winter of 1846-7 on the west bank of the Missouri River, about five 
miles above Omaha, at a place now called Florence. Some of them had 
reached the eastern bank of the river the Spring before, in season to jilant a 
crop. In the Spring of 1847, Young and a portion of the colony pursued their 
journey to Salt Lake, but a large portion of them returned to the Iowa side and 
settled mainly within the limits of Pottawattamie County. The principal settle- 
ment of this strange community was at a place first called " Miller's .Hollow," 
on Indian Creek, and afterward named Kanesville, in honor of Col. Kane, of 
Pennsylvania, who visited them soon afterward. The Mormon settlement 
extended over tlie county and into neighboring counties, wherever timber and 
water furnished desirable locations. Orson Hyde, priest, lawyer and editor, was 
installed as President of the Quorum of Twelve, and all that part of the State 
remained under Mormon control for several years. In 1846, they raised a bat- 
talion, numbering some five hundred men, for the Mexican war. In 1848, Hyde 
started a paper called the Frontier Guardian, at Kanesville. In 1849, after 
many of the faithful had left to join Brigham Young at Salt Lake, the JSIormons 
in this section of Iowa numbered 6,552, and in 1850, 7,828, but they were not 
all within the limits of Pottawattamie County. This county was organized in 
1848, all the first officials being Mormons. In 1852, the order was promulgated 
that all the true believers should gather together at Salt Lake. Gentiles flocked 
in, and in a few years nearly all the first settlers were gone. 

May 9, 1843, Captain James Allen, with a small detachment of troops on 
board llie steamer lone, arrived at the present site of the capital of tlie State, 
Des Moines. The lone was the first steamer to ascend the Des Moines River 
to this point. The troops and stores were lauded at what is now the foot of 


Court avenue, Des Moines, ami Capt. Allen returned in tlie steamer to Fort 
Sanford to arrange for bringing up more soldiers and supj)lies. In due time 
they, too, arrived, and a fort was built near tlie mouth of Raccoon Fork, at its 
confluence with the Des Moines, and named Fort Des Moines. Soon after the 
arrival of the troops, a ti'ading post was e.stablished on the east side of the river, 
by two noted Indian traders named Ewing, from Ohio. 

Among the first settlers in this part of Iowa were Benjamin Bryant, J. B. 
Scott, James Drake (gunsmith), Jolin Sturtevant, Robert Kinzie, Alexander 
Turner, Peter Newcomer, and others. 

The Western States have been settled by many of the best and most enter- 
prising men of the older States, and a large immigration of the best blood of 
the Old World, who, removing to an arena of larger opportunities, in a more 
fertile soil and congenial climate, have developed a spirit and an energy 
peculiarly Western. In no country on the globe have enterprises of all kinds 
been puslied forward with such rajiidity, or has there been such independence 
and freedom of competition. Auiong those who have pioneered the civiliza- 
tion of the West, and been the founders of great States, none have ranked 
higher in tlie scale of intelligence and moral worth than the pioneers of Iowa, 
who came to tlie territory when it was an Indian country, and through hardship, 
privation and suffering, laid the foundations of the populous and prosperous 
commonwealth which to-day dispenses its blessings to a million and a quarter 
of people. From her firs^t settlement and from her first organization as a terri- 
tory to the present day, Iowa has had able men to manage her affairs, wise 
statesmen to shape her destiny and frame her laws, and intelligent and impartial 
jurists to administer justice to her citizens ; her bar, pulpit and press have been 
able and widely influential ; and in all the professions, arts, enterprises and 
industries which go to make up a great and prosperous commonwealth, she has 
taken and holds a front rank among her sister States of the West. 


By act of Congress, approved October 31, 1803, the President of the United 
States was authorized to take possession of the territory included in the 
Louisiana purchase, and provide for a temporary government. By another act 
of the same session, approved March 2^3, 1804, the newly acquired country was 
divided, October 1, 1804 into the Territory of Orleans, south of the thirty-third 
parallel of north latitude, and the district of Louisiana, which latter was placed 
under the authority of the officers of Indiana Territory. 

In 1805, the District of Louisiana was organized as a Territory with a gov- 
ernment of its own. Inl807, Iowa was included in the Territory of Illinois, 
and in 1812 in the Territory of Missouri. When Missouri was admitted as a 
State, March 2, 1821, " Iowa," says Hon. C. C. Nourse, "was left a political 
orphan," until by act of Congress, approved June 28, 1834, the Black Hawk 
l)urchase having been made, all tiie territory west of the Mississippi and north 
of the northern boundary of Missouri, was made a,part of Michigan Territory. 
Up to this time there had been no county or other organization in what is now 
the State of Iowa, although one or two Justices of the Peace had been appointed 
and a post office was established at Dubuque in 1833. In September, 1834, 
however, the Territorial Legislature of Michigan created two counties on the 
west side of the JMississippi River, viz. : Dubuque and Des Moines, separated 
by a line drawn westward from the foot of Rock Island. These counties were 


partially organized. John King was appointed Chief Justice of Dubuque 
County, and Isaac Lettier, of Burlington, of Des Moines County. Two 
Associate Justices, in each county, were appointed by the Governor. 

On the first Monday in October, 1835, Gen. George W. Jones, now a citi- 
zen of Dubuque, was elected a Delegate to Congress from this part of Michigan 
Territory. On the "2Uth of April, 1836, through the efforts of Gen. Jones, 
Congress passed a bill creating the Territory of Wisconsin, which went into 
operation, July 4, 1836, and Iowa was then included in 


of which Gen. Henry Dodge was appointed Governor; John S. Horner, Secre- 
tary of the Territory ; Charles Dunn, Chief Justice ; David Irwin and William 
C. Frazer, Associate Justices. 

September 9, 1836, Governor Dodge ordered the census of the new Territory 
to be taken. This census resulted in showing a population of 10,531 in the 
counties of Dubuque and Des Moines. Under the apportionment, these two 
counties were entitled to six members of the Council and thirteen of the House 
of Representatives. The Governor issued his proclamation for an election to be 
belli on the first Monday of Octobei', 1836, on which day the following members 
of the First Territorial Legislature of Wisconsin were elected from tlie two 
counties in the Black Hawk purchase : 

Dubuque County. — Council: John Fally. Thomas McKnight, Thomas Mc- 
Craney. House : Loring Wheeler, Hardin Nowlan, Peter Hill Engle, Patrick 
Quigley, Hosea T. Camp. 

jDes Moines Countij. — Council: Jeremiah Smith, Jr., Joseph B. Teas, 
Arthur B. Ingram. House: Isaac Lefher, Thomas Blair, W^arren L. Jenkins, 
John Box, George W. Teas, Eli Reyndlds, David R. Chance. 

The first Legislature assembled at Belmont, in the present State of Wiscon- 
sin, on the 25th day of October, 1836, and Avas organized by electing Henry T. 
Baird President of the Council, and Peter Hill Engle, of Dubuque, Speaker of 
the House. It adjourned December 9, 1836. 

The second Legislature assembled at Burlington, November 10, 1837. 
Adjourned January 20, 1838. The third session was at Burlington ; com- 
menced June 1st, and adjourned June 12, 1838. 

During the first session of the Wisconsin Territorial Legislature, in 1836, 
the county of Des Moines was divided into. Des Moines, Lee, Van Buren, Henry, 
Muscatine and Cook (the latter being subsequently changed to Scott) and defined 
their boundaries. During the second session, out of the territory embraced in 
Dubuque County, were created the counties of Dubuque, Clayton, Fayette, 
Delaware, Buchanan, Jackson, Jones, Linn, Clinton and Cedar, and their boun- 
daries defined, but the most of them were not organized until several years 
afterward, under the authority of the Territorial Legislature of Iowa. 

The question of a separate territorial organization for Iowa, which was then 
a part of Wisconsin Territory, began to be agitated early in the Autumn of 
1837. The wishes of the people found expression in a convention held at Bur- 
lington on the 1st of November, which memorialized Congress to organize a 
Territory west of the Mississippi, and to settle the boundary line between Wis- 
consin Territory and Missouri. The Territorial Legislature of Wisconsin, then 
in session at Burlington, joined in the petition. Gen. George W. Jones, of 
Dubuque, then residing at Sinsinawa Mound, in what is now Wisconsin, was 
Delegate to Congress from Wisconsin Territory, and labored so earnestly and 
successfully, that " An act to divide the Territory of Wisconsin, and to estab- 


lish the Territoriul Government of Iowa," was approved June 12, 1838, to take 
effect and be in force on and after July 3, 1838. The new Territory embraced 
"all that part of the present Territory of Wisconsin ■\vhich lies west of the Mis- 
sissippi River, and west of a line drawn due north from the head water or 
sources of the Mississippi to the territorial line." The organic act provided 
for a Governor, whose term of oifice should be three years, and for a Secretai-y, 
Chief Justice, two Associate Justices, and Attorney and Marshal, who sh(.)uld 
serve four years, to be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and 
consent of the Senate. The act also provided for the election, by the white 
male inhabitants, citizens of the United States, over twenty-one years of age, 
of a House of Representatives, consisting of twenty-six members, and a Council, 
to consist of thirteen members. It also a]>propriated $5,000 for a public library, 
and §20,000 fir the erection of public buildings. 

President Van Buren appointed Ex-Governor Robert Lucas, of Ohio, to be 
the first Governor of the new Territory. William B. Conway, of Pittsburgh, 
was appointed Secretary of the Territory; Charles Mason, of Burlington, 
Chief Justice, and Thomas S. Wilson, of Dubuque, and Joseph Williams, of 
Pennsylvania., Associate Judges of the Supreme and District Courts; JMr. Van 
Allen, of New York, Attorney; Francis Gehon, of Dubuque, Marshal; Au 
gustus C. Dodge, Register of the Land Office at Burlington, and Thomas Me- 
Knight, Receiver of the Land Office at Dubuque. Mr. Van Allen, the Distrid 
Attorney, died at Rockingham, soon after his appointment, and Col. Charleti 
Weston was appointed to fill his vacancy. Mr. Conway, the Secretary, alsu 
died at Burlingtun, during the second session of the Legislature, and Jameti 
Clarke, editor of the Guzctte, was appointed to succeed him. 

Immediately after his arrival. Governor Lucas issued a proclamation for thtt 
election of members of the first Territorial Legislature, to be held on the lOtk 
of September, dividing the Territory into election districts for that purpose, and 
appointing the 12th day of November for meeting of the Legislature to bo 
elected, at Burlington. 

The first Territorial Legislature was elected in September and assembled a1; 
Burlington on the 12th of November, and consisted of the following members: 

Cmincil^Jesse B. Brown, J. Keith, E. A. M. Swazey, Arthur Ingram, 
Robert Ralston, George Ilepner, Jesse J. Payne, D. B. Hughes, James M 
Clark, Charles Whittlesey, Jonathan W\ Parker, Warner Lewis, Stephen 

House. — William Patterson, Hawkins Taylor, Calvin J. Price, Jame« 
Brierly, James Hall, Gideon S. Bailey, Samuel Parker, James W. Grimes. 
George Temple, Van B. Delashmutt, Thomas Blair, George II. Beeler,'' 
William G. Coop, William H. Wallace, Asbury B. Porter, John Frierson, 
William L. Toole, Levi Thornton, S. C. Hastings, Robert G. Roberts, Laurel 
Summers,! Jabez A. Burchard, Jr., Chauncey Swan, Andrew Bankson, Thomas 
Cox and Hardin Nowlin. 

Notwithstanding a large majority of the members of both branches of the 
Legislature were Democrats, yet Gen. Jesse B. Browne (Whig), of Lee County, 
was elected President of the Council, and Hon. William H. Wallace (Whig), of 
Henry County, Speaker of the House of Representatives — the former unani- 
mously and the latter with but little opposition. At that time, national politics 

* Cynig S. Jacobf, ttIio \ra8 Mfctpd for Tps Moinea County, was killed in an unfortunate encounter at Burlington 
before the meeting ot tlio Legislature, and Mr, Beeler was elected to till the vacancy. 

fSiimuel v.. Murra;' W03 returued oa elected from Clinton County, but bic £eat wa« successfully contested iy 


were little heeded by the people of the new Territory, but in 1840, during the 
Presidential campaign, party lines were strongly drawn. 

At the election in September, 1838, for members of the Legislature, a Con- 
gressional Delegate wa.s also elected. There were four candidates, viz. : William 
W. Chapman and David Rohrer, of Des Moines County ; B. F. Wallace, of 
Henry County, and P. H. Engle, of DubiKjue County. Chapman was elected, 
receiving a majority of thirty-six over Engle. 

The first session of the Iowa Territorial Legislature was a stormy and excit- 
ing one. By the organic law, the Governor was clothed with almost unlimited 
veto power. Governor Lucas seemed disposed to make free use of it, and tlie 
independent Hawkeyes could not quietly submit to arbitrary and absolute rule, 
and the result was an unpleasant controversy between the Executive and Legis- 
lative departments. Congress, however, by act approved March 3, 1830, 
amended the organic law by restricting the veto power of the Governor to the 
two-thirds rule, and took from him the power to appoint Sherifls and Magistrates. 

Among tlie first important matters demanding attention was the location of 
the seat of government and provision for the erection of public buildings, for 
which Congress had appropriated $:iO,0U0. Governor Lucas, in his message, 
had recommended the appointment of Commissioners, with a view to making a 
central location. The extent of the future State of Iowa was not known or 
thought of. Only on a strip of land fifty miles wide, bordering on the Missis- 
sippi River, was the Indian title extinguislied, and a central location meant some 
central point in the Black Hawk Purchase. The friends of a central location 
supported the Governor's suggestion. The southern members were divided 
between Burlington and Mount Pleasant, but finally united on the latter as the 
proper location for the seat of government. The central and southern parties 
were very nearly equal, and, in consequence, much excitement prevailed. The 
central party at last triumphed, and on the 21st day of January, 1839, an act 
was passed, appointing Chauncey Swan, of Dubuque County ; John Ronalds, 
of Louisa County, and Robert Ralston, of Des Moines County, Commissioners, 
to select a site for a permanent seat of Government within the limits of John- 
son County. 

Johnson County had been created by act of the Territorial Legislature of 
Wisconsin, approved December 21, 1837, and organized by act passed at the 
special session at Burlington in June, 1838, the organization to date from July 
4th, following. Napoleon, on the Iowa River, a few miles below the future 
Iowa City, was designated as the county seat, temporarily. 

Then there existed good reason for locating the capital in the county. The 
Territory of Iowa was bounded on the north by the British Possessions ; east, by 
the Mississippi River to its source; thence by a line drawn duo north to the 
northern boundary of the LTnited States; south, by the State of Missouri, and west, 
by the Missouri and White Earth Rivers. But this immense territory was in un- 
disputed po.ssession of the Indians, except a strip on the Mississippi, known as 
the Black Hawk Purchase. Johnson County was, from north to south, in the 
geographical center of this purchase, and as near the east and west geographical 
center of tlie future State of Iowa as could then be made, as the boundary line 
between the lands of the LTnited States and the Indians, esUiblished by the 
treaty of October 21, 1837, was immediately west of the county limits. 

The Commissioners, after selecting the site, were directed to lay out 640 
acres into a town, to be called Iowa City, and to proceed to sell lots and erect 
public buildings thereon. Congress having granted a section of land to be 
selected by the Territory for this purpose. The Commissioners met at Napo- 


leon, Johnson County, May 1, 1839, selected for a site Section 10, in Town- 
ship 79 North of Range 6 West of the Fifth Principal iNIoridian, and immedi- 
ately surveyed it and laid off the town. The first sale of lots took place August 
16, 1839. The site selected for the public buildings was a little west of the 
■geographical center of the section, where a square of ten acres on the elevated 
grounds overlooking the river was reserved for the purpose. Tlie capitol is 
located in the center of this square. The second Territorial Legislature, which 
assembled in November, 1839, passed an act requiring the Commissioners to 
adopt such plan for the building that the aggregate cost when complete should 
not exceed $51,000, and if they had already adopted a plan involving a greater 
expenditure they were directed to abandon it. Plans for the building were designed 
and drawn by Mr. John F. Rague, of Springfield, 111., and on the 4th day of July, 
1840, the corner stone of the edifice was laid with appropriate ceremonies. 
Samuel C. Trowbridge was Marshal of the day, and Gov. Luca* delivered the 
address on that occasion. 

When the Legislature assembled at Burlington in special session, Jidy 13, 
1840, Gov. Lucas announced that on the 4th of that month he had visited Iowa 
City, and found the basement of the capitol nearly completed. A bill author- 
izing a loan of ^20,000 for the building was passed, January 15, 1841, the 
unsold lots of Iowa City being the security offered, but only $5,500 was 
obtained under the act. 


The boundary line between the Territory of Iowa and the State of Missouri 
was a difficult question to settle in 1838, in consequence of claims arising from 
taxes and titles, and at one time civil war was imminent. In defining the 
boundaries of the counties bordering on Missouri, the Iowa authorities had fixed 
a line that has since been established as the boundary between Iowa and Mis- 
souri. The Constitution of Missouri defined her northern boundary to be the 
p.irallel of latitude which passes through the rapids of the Des Moines River 
The lower rapids of the Mississippi immediately above the mouth of the Des 
Moines River had always been known as the Des Moines Rapids, or "the 
rapids of the Des Moines River." The Missourians (evidently not will versed 
in history or geography) insisted on running the northern boundary line from 
tiie rapids in the Des Moines River, just below Keosau(|ua, thus taking from 
Iowa a strip of territory eight or ten miles wide. Assuming this as her 
northern boundary line, Missouri attempted to exercise jurisdiction over the 
disputed territory by assessing taxes, and sending her Sheriffs to collect them by 
distraining the personal property of the settlers. The lowans, however, were 
not disposed to submit, and the Missouri ofiRcials were arrested by the Sheriffs 
of Davis and Van Buren Counties and confined in jail. Gov. Boggs, of 
Missouri, called out his mihtia to enforce the claim and sustain the officers of 
Missouri. Gov. Lucas called out the militia of Iowa, and both parties made 
active preparations for war. In Iowa, about 1,200 men were enlisted, and 
500 were actually armed and encamped in Van Buren ('ounty, ready to defend 
the integrity of the Territory. Subsequently, Gen. A. C. Dodge, of Burlington, 
Gen. Churchman, of Dubuque, and Dr. Clark, of Fort Madison, were sent to 
Missouri as envoys plenipotentiary, to effect, if possible, a peaceable adjustment 
of the difficulty. Upon their arrival, they found that the County Commissioners 
ofClarke County, Missouri, had rescinded their order for the collection of the taxes, 
and that Gov. Boggs had despatched messengers to the Governor of Iowa proposing 


to submit an agreed case to tlie Supreme Court of the United States for the 
final settlement of the boundary (juestion. This proposition was declined, but 
afterward Congress authorized a suit to settle the controversy, which was insti- 
tuted, and which resulted in a judgment for Iowa. Under this decision, 
William G. Miner, of Missouri, and Henry B. Hcnder.shott were appointed 
Commissioners to survey and establish the boundary. Mr. Nourse remarks 
that " the expenses of the war on the part of Iowa were never paid, either by 
the United States or the Territorial Government. The patriots who furnished 
supplies to the troops had to bear the cost and charges of the struggle." 

The first legislative assembly laid the broad foundation of civil equality, on 
which has been constructed one of the most liberal governments in the Union. 
Its first act was to recognize the equality of woman with nuin before the law by 
providing that " no action commenced by a single woman, who intermaiTies 
during the perKlency thereof, shall abate on account of such marriage." This prin- 
ciple has been adopted by all subsequent legislation in Iowa, and to-day woman 
has full and equal civil rights witli man, except only the right of the ballot. 

Religious toleration was also secured to all, personal liberty strictly guarded, 
the rights and privileges of citizenship extended to all white persons, and the 
purity of elections secured by Iieavy penalties against bribery and corruption. 
The judiciary power was vested in a Supreme Court, District Court, Probate 
Court, and Justices of the Peace. Real estate was made divisible by will, and 
intestate property divided equitably among heirs. Murder was made punishable 
by death, and proportionate penalties fixed for lesser crimes. A system of free 
schools, open for every class of white citizens, was established. Provision was 
made for a system of roads and iiighways. Thus under the territorial organi- 
zation, the country began to emerge from a savage wilderness, and take on the 
forms of civil government. 

By act of Congress of June 12, 1838, the lands which had been purchased 
of the Indians were brought into market, and land offices opened in Dubuque 
and Burlington. Congress provided for military roads and bridges, which 
greatly aided the settlers, who were now coming in by thousands, to make their 
homes on the fertile prairies of Iowa--" the Beautiful Land." The fame of the 
country had spread far and wide; even before the Indian title was extinguished, 
many were crowding the borders, impatient to cross over and stake out their 
claims on the choicest spots they could find in the new Territpry. As 
soon as the country was open for settlement, the borders, the Black Hawk 
Purchase, all along the Mississipi, and up the principal rivers and streams, and 
out over the broad and rolling prairies, began to be thronged with eager land 
hunters and immigrants, seeking homes in Iowa. It was a sight to delight the 
eyes of all comers from every land — its noble streams, beautiful and picturesque 
hills and valleys, broad and fertile prairies extending as far as the eye could 
reach, with a soil surpassing in richness anything which they had ever seen. It 
is not to be wondered at that immigration into Iowa was rapid, and that Avithin 
less than a decade from the organization of the Territory, it contained a hundred 
and fifty thousand people. 

As rapidly as the Indian titles were extinguished and the original owners 
removed, the resistless tide of emigration flowed westward. The following extract 
from Judge Nourse's Centennial Address shows how the immigrants gathered 
on the Indian boundary, ready for the removal of the barrier : 

In obedience to our progressiTe and aggressive spirit, the Government of the United States 
made another treaty with the Sac and Fox Indians, on the llth day of August, 1842, lOr thi 
remaining, portion of their ;and in Iowa. The treaty provided tnat the Indians should reitin 


possession of all the lands (bus ceilcil until May 1, 184", ami sbouM occupy tliat portion of the 
ceded territory west of a line runnins north and south through Kedrociv, until October 11, 1845. 
These tribes, at this time, bad tlieir principal village at Ot-tum-wa-no, now called Ottumwa. As 
soon as it became known that tlje treaty bad been concluded, there was a ru>h of immigration to 
Iowa, and a great number of temporary settlements were made near the Indian boundary, wait- 
ing for the 1st day of M ly. As tlie day approached, hundreds of £:xmilies encamped along the 
line, and tlieir tents and wagons gave the scene the appearance of a military expedition. The 
country beyond bad been thoroughly explored, but the United States military authorities had 
prevented any .settlement or even tlie making out of claims by any monuments whatever. 

To aid them in making out their claims when the hour sliould arrive, the settlers had placed 
piles of dry wood on tlie rising ground, at convenient distances, and a short time before twelve 
o'clock of the night of the iWih of April, these were lighted, and when the midnight hour arrived, 
it was announced by the discharge of firearms. The niglit was dark, but this army of occupa- 
tion pressed forward, torch in band, with axe and hatchet, blazing lines with all manner of 
curves and angles. When daylight came and revealed the confusion of wonderful surveys, 
numerous disputes arose, seliled generally by compromise, but sometimes by violence Between 
midnight of the .jOth of April and sundown of the 1st of May, over one thousand families had 
settled on their new purchase. 

While this scene was transpiring, the retreating Indians were enacting one more impressive 
and melancholy. The Winter of 1842-43 was one of unusual severity, and the Indian prophet, 
who had disapproved of the treaty, attributed the severity of the Winter to the anger of the Great 
Spirit, because tliey had sold their country. Many religious rites were performed to atone for 
the crime. When the lime for leaving Ot-tum-wa-no arrived, a solemn silence pervaded the Indian 
camp, and the faces of tlieir stoutest men were bathed in tears; and when their cavalcade was 
put in motion, toward the setting sun, there was a spontaneous outburst of frantic grief from the 
entire procession. ' 

The Indians remained the appointed time beyond the line running north and south through 
Redrock. Tlie government established a trading post and military encampment at the Raccoon 
Fork of the Des Moines Kiver, then and for many years known as Fort Ites Moines. Here the 
red man lingered until the 11th of October, 184'), when the same scene that we have before 
described was re-enacted, and the wave of immigration swept over the remainder of the *' New 
Purchase." The lands thus occupied and claimed by the settlers still belonged in fee to the Gen- 
eral Government. The surveys were not completed until some time after the Indian title was 
extinguished. After their survey, the lands were publicly proclaimed or advertised for sale at 
public auction. Under the laws of the United States, a pre-emption orexclusive right to purchase 
public lands could net be ac(|uired until after the lands had thus been publicly oft'ered and not 
sold for want of bidders. Then, and not until then, an occupant making improvements in good 
faith might acquire a right over others to enter the land at the minimum price of $1.2.5 per 
acre. The " claim laws" were unknown to the United States statutes. They originated in the 
" eternal fitness of things." and were enforced, probaljly, as belonging to that class of natural 
rights not enumerated in the constitution, and not impaired or dispar.aged by its enumeration. 

The settlers oi-ganized in every settlement prior to the public land sales, appointed officers, 
and adopled their own rules and regulations. Each man's claim was duly ascertained and 
recorded by tlie Secretary. It was the duty of all to attend the sales. The Secretary bid off the 
lands of each settler at §1.2-5 per .acre. The others were there, to see, first, that he did his duty 
and bid in the land, and, secondly, to see that no one else bid. This, of course, sometimes led to 
trouble, but it saved the excitement of competition, and gave a formalily and degree of order 
and regularity to the proceedings they would not otherwise have attained. As far as practicable, 
the Territorial Legislature recognized the validity of these " claims " ujion the public lands, and 
in 1839 passed an act legalizing their sale and making their transfer a valid consideration to sup- 
port a promise to pay for the same. (Acts of 1843, p. 4-56). The Supreme Territorial Court 
held Ibis law to be valid. (See Hill v. Smith, 1st Morris Rep. 70). The opinion not only con- 
tains a decision of the question involved, but also contains much valuable erudition upon that 
" spirit of Anglo-Saxon liberty" which the Iowa seltlers unquestionably inherited in a direct 
line of descent from the said " Anglo-Saxons." But the early settler was not always able to pay 
even this dollar and twenty-five cents per acre for his land. 

Many of the settlers had nothing to begin with, save their hands, health and 
courage and their family jewels, "the pledges of love," and the "consumers of 
bread." It was not so to accumulate money in the early days of the State, 
and the "beautiful prairies," the "noble streams," and all that sort of poetic 
imagery, did not prevent the early settlers from becoming discouraged. 

An old settler, in speaking of the privations and trials of those early days, 
says : 

Well do the "old settlers ' of Iowa remember the days from the first settlement to 1840. . 
Those were days of sadness and distress. The endearments of home in another land had beea 


broken up ; and all that was hallowed on earth, the home of childhood and the scenes of youth, 
we severed ; and we sat down by the gentle waters of our noble river, and often " hung our harps 
on the willows." 

Another, from another part of the State, testifies : 

There was no such thing as getting money for any kind of labor. I laid brick at f .3.00 
per thousand, and took my pay in anything I could eat or wear. I built the first Methodist 
Church at Keokuk, 42x60 feet, of brick, for ijiOOO, and took ray pay in a subscription paper, part 
of which I never collected, and upon which I only received $-50 00 in money. Wheat was hauled 
100 miles from the interior, and sold for 37J cents per bushel. 

Another old settler, speaking of a later period, 1843, says : 

Land and everything had gone down in value to almost nominal prices. Corn and oats 
could be bought for six or ten cents a bushel ; pork, $1.00 per hundred ; and the best horse a 
man could raise sold lor $.J0.0O, Nearly all were in debt, and the Sheriff and Constable, with 
legal processes, were common visitors at almost every man's door. These were indeed " the times 
that tried men's souls." 

""A few," says Mr. Nourse, "who were not equal to the trial, returned to 
their old homes, but such as had the courage and faith to be the worthy founders 
of a great State remained, to more than realize the fruition of their hopes, and 
the reward of their self-denial." 

On Monday, December 6, 1841, the fourth Legislative Assembly met, at 
the new capital, Iowa City, but the capitol building could not be used, and the 
Legislature occupied a temporary frame house, that had been erected for that 
purpose, during the session of 1841-2. At this session, the Superintendent of 
Public Buildings (who, with the Territorial Agent, had superseded the Commis- 
sioners first appointed), estimated the expense of completing the building at 
$33,330, and that rooms for the use of the Legislature could be completed for 

During 1842, the Superintendent commenced obtaining stone from a new 
quarry, about ten miles northeast of the city. This is now known as the " Old 
Capitol Quarry," and contains, it is thought, an immense quantity of excellent 
building stone. Here all the stone for completing the building was obtained, 
and it was so far completed, that on the 5th day of December, 1842, the Legis- 
lature assembled in the new capitol. At this session, the Superintendent esti- 
mated that it would cost $39,143 to finish the building. This was nearly 
$6,000 higher than the estimate of the previous year, notwithstanding a large 
sum had been expended in the meantime. This rather discouraging discrep- 
ancy was accounted for by the fact that the officers in charge of the work were 
constantly short of funds. Except the congressional appropriation of $20,000 
and the loan of $5,500, obtained from the Miners' Bank, of Dubuque, all the 
funds for the prosecution of the work were derived from the sale of the city 
lots (which did not sell very rapidly), from certificates of indebtedness, and from 
scrip, based upon unsold lots, which was to be received in payment for such lots 
when they were sold. At one time, the Superintendent made a requisition for 
bills of iron and glass, which could not be obtained nearer than St. Louis. To 
meet this, the Agent sold some lots for a draft, payable at Pittsburgh, Pa., for 
which he was compelled to pay twenty-five per cent, exchange. This draft, 
amounting to $507, that officer reported to be more than one-half the cash 
actually handled by him during the entire season, when the disbursements 
amounted to very nearly $24,000. 

With such uncertainty, it could not be expected that estimates could be very 
accurate. With all these disadvantages, however, the work appears to have 
been prudently prosecuted, and as rapidly as circumstances would permit. 


Iowa remained a Territory from 1838 to 1846, during which the ofiBce of 
^Governor was held by Robert Lucas, John Chambers and James Clarke. 


By an act of the Territorial Legislature of Iowa, approved February 12, 

1844, the question of the formation of a State Constitution and providing for 
the election of Delegates to a convention to be convened for that purpose was 
submitted to the people, to be voted upon at their township elections in April 
following. The vote was largely in favor of the measure, and the Delegates 
elected assembled in convention at Iowa City, on the 7th of October, 1844. 
On the first day of November following, the convention completed its work and 
adopted the first State Constitution. 

The President of the convention, Hon. Shepherd Leffler, was instructed to 
transmit a certified copy of this Constitution to the Delegate in Congress, to be 
by him submitted to that body at the earliest practicable day. It was also pro- 
vided that it should be submitted, together with any conditions or changes that 
■might be made by Congress, to the people of the Territory, for their approval 
•or rejection, at the township election in April, 1845. 

The boundai'ies of the State, as defined by this Constitution, were as fol- 
lows : 

Beginning in the middle of the channel of the Mississippi River, opposite mouth of the 
Dea Moines River, thence up the said river Des Moines, in the middle of the main channel 
■thereof, to a point where it is intersected by the Old Indian Boundary line, or line run by John 
C. Sullivan, in the year 1816 ; thence westwardly along said line to the " old " northwest corner 
of Missouri ; thence due west to the middle of the main channel of the Missouri River ; thence 
up in the middle of the main channel of the river last mentioned to the mouth of the vSioux or 
Calumet River ; thence in a direct line to the middle of the main channel of the St. Peters River, 
where tlie Watonwan River — according to Nicollet's map — enters the same ; thence down the 
middle of the main channel of said river to the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi 
River ; thence down the middle of the main channel of said river to the place of beginning. 

These boundaries were rejected by Congress, but by act approved March 3, 

1845, a State called Iowa was admitted into the Union, provided the people 
accepted the act, bounded as follows : 

Beginning at the mouth of the Des Moines River, at the middle of the Mississippi, thence 
by the middle of the channel of that river to a parallel of latitude passing through the mouth of 
the Mankato or Blue Earth River; thence west, along said parallel of latitude, to a point where 
it is intersected by a meridian line seventeen degrees and thirty minutes west of the meridian 
■of W.ashington City ; thence due south, to the northern boundary line of the State of Missouri ; 
thence eastwardly, following that boundary to the point at which the same intersects the Des 
Moines River ; thence by the middle of the channel of that river to the place of beginning. 

These boundaries, had they been accepted, would have placed the northern 
boundary of the State about thirty miles north of its present location, and would 
have deprived it of the Missouri slope and the boundary of that river. The 
western boundary would have been near the west line of what is now Kossuth 
County. But it was not so to be. In consequence of this radical and unwel- 
come change in the boundaries, the people refused to accept the act of Congress 
and rejected the Constitution at the election, held August 4, 1845, by a vote of 
7,656 to 7,235. 

A second Constitutional Convention assembled at Iowa City on the 4th day 
of May, 1846, and on the 18th of the same month another Constitution for the 
new State with the present boundaries, was adopted and submitted to the people 
for ratification on the 3d day of August following, when it was accepted ; 9,492 
votes were cast "for the Constitution," and 9,036 "against the Constitution." 


The Constitution was approved by Congress, and by act of Congress approved' 
December 28, 1846, Iowa Avas admitted as a sovereign State in the American 

Prior to tliis action of Congress, however, the people of the new State held 
an election under the new Constitution on the 26th day of October, and elected 
Oresel Briggs, Governor ; Elisha Cutler, Jr., Secretary of State ; Joseph T. 
Fales, Auditor ; Morgan Reno, Treasurer ; and members of the Senate and 
House of Representatives. 

At this time tliere were twenty-seven organized counties in the State, with 
a population of nearly 100,000, and the frontier settlements were rapidly push- 
ing toward the Missouri River. The Mormons had already reached there. 

The first General Assembly of the State of Iowa was composed of nineteen 
Senators and forty Representatives. It assembled at Iowa City, November 30, 
1846, about a month bifore tlie State was admitted into the Union. 

At the first session of tlie State Legislature, the Treasurer of State reported 
that the capitol building was in a very exposed condition, liable to injury from 
storms, and e.xpressed the hope that some provision would be made to complete 
it, at least sufficiently to protect it from the weather. The General Assembly 
responded by appropriating $2,500 for the completion of the public buildings. 
At the first session also arose the question of the re-location of the capital. The 
western boundary of the State, as now determined, left Iowa City too for toward 
the eastern and southern boundary of tlie State ; this was conceded. Congress 
had appropriated five sections of land for the erection of public buildings, and 
toward the close of the session a bill was introduced providing for the re-location 
of the seat of government, involving to some extent the location of the State 
University, which had already been discussed. This bill gave rise to a deal of 
discussion and pnirliamentary maneuvering, almost purely sectional in its character. 
It provided for the appointment of three Commissioners, who were authorized to 
make a location as near the geographical center of the State as a healthy and 
eligible site could be obtained ; to select the five sections of land donated by 
Congress ; to survey and plat into town lots not exceeding one section of the 
land so selected ; to sell lots at public sale, not to exceed two in each block. 
Having done this, they were then required to suspend further operations, and 
make a report of their proceedings to the Governor. The bill passed both 
Houses by decisive votes, received the signature of the Governor, and became a 
law. Soon after, by "An act to locate and establish a State University," 
approved February 25, 1847, the unfinished public buildings at Iowa City, 
together with the ten acres of land on whicli they were situated, were granted 
for the use of the University, reserving their use, however, by the General 
Assembly and the State officers, until other provisions were made by law. 

The Commissioners forthwith entered upon their duties, and selected four 
sections and two half sections in Jasper County. Two of these sections are in 
what is now Des Moines Township, and the others in Fairview Township, in the 
southern part of that county. These lands are situated between Prairie City 
and Monroe, on the Keokuk & Des Moines Railroad, which runs diagonally 
through them. Here a town was platted, called Monroe City, and a sale of 
lots took place. Four hundred and fifteen lots were sold, at prices that were 
not considered remarkably remunerative. The cash payments (one-fourth) 
amounted to |!1,797.43, while tlie expenses of the sale and the claims of the 
Commissioners for services amounted to $2,206.57. The Commissioners made 
a report of tlieir proceedings to the Governor, as required by law, but the loca- 
tion was generally condemned. 


When tlie report of the Commissioners, showing tliis brilliant financial ope- 
ration, had been read in the House of Representatives, at the next session, and 
while it was under consideration, an indignant member, afterward known as 
the eccentric Judge McFarland, moved to refer tlie report to a select Committee 
of Five, with instructions to report '' how much of said city of Monroe was under 
water and how much was burned." The report was referred, without the 
instructions, however, but Monroe City never became the seat of government. 
By an act approved January 15, 1849, the law by which the location had been 
made was repealed and the new town was vacated, the money paid by purchas- 
ers of lots being refunded to them. Tliis, of course, retained the seat of govern- 
ment at Iowa City, and precluded, for the time, the occupation of the building 
and grounds by the University. 

At the same session, $3,000 more were appropriated for completing the 
State building at Iowa City. In 1852, the further sum of $5,000, and in 1854 
$4,000 more were apppropriated for the same purpose, making the whole cost 
$123,000, paid partly by the General Government and partly by the State, but 
principally from the proceeils of tlie sale of lots in Iowa City. 

But the question of the permanent location of the seat of government was 
not settled, and in 1851 bills were introduced for the removal of the capital to 
Pelhi and to Fort Des Moines. The latter appeared to have the support of the 
majority, but was finally lost in the House on the question of ordering it to its 
third reading. 

At the next session, in 1853, a bill was introduced in the Senate for the 
removal of the seat of government to Fort Des Moines, and, on final vote, 
was just barely defeated. At the next session, however, the eifort was more 
successful, and on the 15th day of January, 1855, a bill re-locating the capital 
within two miles of the Raccoon Fork of the Des Moines, and for the appoint- 
ment of Commissioners, was appi-oved by Gov. Grimes. Tlie site was selected 
in 1856, in accordance with the provisions of this act, the land being donated 
to the State by citizens and property-holders of Des Moines. An association of 
•citizens erected a building for a temporary capitol, and leased it to the State at 
a nominal rent. 

The third Constitutional Convention to revise the Constitution of the State 
assembled at Iowa City, January 19, 1857. The new Constitution framed by 
this convention was submitted to the people at an election held August 3, 1857, 
when it was approved and adopted by a vote of 40,311 "for" to 38,681 
"against," and on the od day of September following was declared by a procla- 
mation of the Governor to be the supreme law of the State of Iowa. 

Advised of the completion of the temporary State House at Des Moines, on 
the 19th of October following, Governor Grimes issued another proclamation, 
declaring the City of Des Moines to be the capital of the State of Iowa. 

The removal of the archives and offices was commenced at once and con- 
tinued throuirli the Fall. It was an undertakinc; of no small magnitude ; there 
was not a mile of railroad to facilitate the work, and the season was unusually 
disagreeable. Rain, snow and other accompaniments increased the difficulties; 
and it was not until December, that the last of the effects — the safe of the State 
Treasurer, loaded on two large " bob-sleds " — drawn by ten yoke of oxen was de- 
posited in the new capital. It is not imprudent now to remark that, during this 
passage over hills and prairies, across rivers, through bottom lands and timber, 
the safes belonging to the several departments contained large sums of money, 
mostly individual funds, however. Thus, Iowa City ceased to be the capital of 
the State, after four Territorial Legislatures, six State Legislatures and three 


Constitutional Conventions had held their sessions there. By the exchange^ 
the old capitol at Iowa City became the seat of the University, and, except the 
rooms occupied by the United States District Court, passed under the immedi- 
ate and direct control of the Trustees of that institution. 

Des Moines was now the permanent seat of government, made so by the 
fundamental law of the State, and on the 11th day of January, 1858, the 
seventh General Assembly convened at the new capital. The building used 
for governmental purposes was purchased in 186-4. It soon became inadequate- 
for tlie purposes for which it was designed, and it became apparent that a new, 
large and permanent State House must be erected. In 1870, the General; 
Assembly made an appropriation and provided for the appointment of a Board 
of Commissioners to commence tlie work. The board consisted of Gov. Samuel. 
Merrill, ex officio. President; Grenville M. Dodge, Council Bluffs; James F. 
Wilson, Fairfield; James Dawson, Washington; Simon G. Stein, Muscatine ; 
James 0. Crosby, Gainsville ; Charles Dudley, Agency City ; John N. Dewey, 
Des Moines ; William L. Joy, Sioux City ; Alexander R. Fulton, Des Moines, 

The act of 1870 provided that the building should be constructed of the 
best material and should be fire proof; to be heated and ventilated in the most 
approved manner; should contain suitable legislative halls, rooms for State 
officers, the judiciary, library, committees, archives and the collections of the 
State Agricultural Society, and for all purpoees of State Government, and 
should be erected on grounds held by the State for that purpose. The sum first 
appropriated was $150,000 ; and the law provided that no contract should be 
made, either for constructing or furnishing the building, which should bind the 
State for larger sums than those at the time appropriated. A design was drawn 
and plans and specifications furnished by Cochrane & Piquenard, architects, 
which were accepted by the board, and on the 23d of November, 1871, the cor- 
ner stone was laid with appropriate ceremonies. The estimated cost and present . 
value of the capitol is fixed at $2,000,000. 

From 1858 to 1860, the Sioux became troublesome in the north westerm 
part of the State. These warlike Indians made frequent plundering raids upon 
the settlers, and murdered several families. In 1861, .several companies of 
militia were ordered to that portion of the State to iiunt down and punish the 
murderous thieves. No battles were fought, liowever, for the Indians fled 
when they ascertained that systematic and adequate measures had been adopted, 
to protect the settlers. 

"The year 185G marked a new era in the history of Iowa. In 1854, the-i 
Chicago & Rock Island Railroad had been completed to the east bank of the- 
Mississippi River, opposite Davenport. In 1854, the corner stone of a railroads 
bridge, that was to be the first to span the "Father of Waters," was laid with; 
appropriate ceremonies at this point. St. Louis had resolved that the enter- 
prise was unconstitutional, and by writs of injunction made an unsuccessful'! 
effort to prevent its completion. Twenty years later in her history, St. Louis 
repented her folly, and made atonement for her sin by imitating our example. 
On the 1st day of -January, 1856, this railroad was completed to Iowa City. 
In the meantime, two other railroads had reaiched the east bank of the Missis- 
sippi — one opposite Burlington, and one opposite Dubuque — and these were 
being extended into the interior of the State. Indeed, four lines of failroad 
had been- projected across the State from the Mississippi to the Missouri, hav- 
ing eastern connections. On the 15th of May, 1856, the Congress of the 
United States passed an act granting to the State, to aid in the construction of 



railroads, the public lands in alternate sections, six miles on either side of the 
proposed lines. An extra session of the General Assembly was called in July 
of this year, that disposed of the grant to the several companies tliat proposed 
to complete these enterprises. The population of our State at this time had 
increased to 500,000. Public attention had been called to the necessity of a 
railroad across the continent. The position of Iowa, in the very heart and 
center of the Republic, on the route of this great higtiway across the continent, 
began to attract attention Cities and towns sprang up through the State as 
if by magic. Capital began to pour into the State, and had it been employed 
in developing our -vast coal measures and establishing manufactories among us, 
or if it had been expended in improving our lands, and building houses and 
barns, it would have been well. But all were in haste to get rich, and the 
spirit of speculation ruled the hour. 

" In the meantime, every effort was made to help 'the speedy completion of 
the railroads. Nearly every county and city on the Mississippi, and many in 
the interior, voted large corporate subscriptions to the stock of the railroad 
companies, and issued their negotiable bonds for the amount." Thus enormous 
county and city debts were incurred, the payment of which these municipalities 
tried to avoid upon the plea that they had exceeded the constitutional limit- 
ation of their powers. The Supreme Court of the United States held these 
bonds to be valid ; and the courts by mandamus compelled the city and county 
authorities to levy taxes to pay the judgments. These debts are not all paid 
even yet, but the worst is over and ultimately the burden will be entirely 

The first railroad across the State was completed to Council Bluffs in Jan- 
uary, 1871. The others were completed soon after. In 1854, there was not 
a mile of railroad in the State. In 1874, twenty years after, there were 3,765 
miles in successful operation. 


When Wisconsin Territory was organized, in 1836, the entire population of 
that portion of the Territory now embraced in the State of Iowa was 10,531. 
The Territory then embraced two counties, Dubuque and Des Moines, erected 
by the Territory of Michigan, in 1834. From 1836 to 1838, the Territorial 
Legislature of Wisconsin increased the number of counties to sixteen, and the 
population had increased to 22,859. Since then, the counties have increased 
to ninety-nine, and the population, in 1875, was 1,366,000. The following 
table will show the population at different periods since the erection of Iowa 

Year. Population. 

1852 230,713 

1854 .•i2fi,013 

1856 519,055 

1859 0,38,775 

1860 074,913 

1863 701,732 

1865 754,699 

1867 902,040 

The most populous county in the State is Dubuque. Not only in popula- 
tion, but in everything contributing to the growth and greatness of a State has 
Iowa made rapid progress. In a little more than thirty years, its wild but 
beautiful prairies have advanced from the home of the savage to a highly civ- 
ilized commonwealth, embracing all the elements of progress which characterize 
the older States. 


22 589 


43 115 


.s. 75,152 

1846 97,588 

1847 116,651 

1849 152,988 

1850 191,982 

1851 204.774 

Year. Population. 

1869 1,040,819 

1870 1,191.727 

1873 1,251,3.33 

1875 1,366,000 




Thriving cities and towns clot its fnir siivface ; an iron net-work of tliou- 
sands of miles of railroads is woven over its broad acres ; ten thousand school 
houses, in Avhich more than five hundred thousand children are being taught 
the rudiments of education, testify to the culture and liberality of the people; 
high schools, colleges and universities are generously endowed by the State ; 
manufactories spring up on all her water courses, and in most of her cities 
and towns. 

Whether measured from the date of her first settlement, her organization as 
a Territory or admission as a State, Iowa has thus far shown a growth unsur- 
passed, in a similar period, by any commonwealth on the face of the earth ; 
and, with her vast extent of fertile soil, with her inexhaustible treasures of 
mineral wealth, with a healthful, invigorating climate; an intelligent, liberty- 
loving people; with equal, just and liberal laws, and her free schools, the 
future of Iowa may be expected to surpass the most hopeful anticipations of her 
present citizens. 

Looking upon Iowa as she is to-day — populous, prosperous and happy — it 
is hard to realize the wonderful changes that have occurred since the first white 
settlements were made within her borders. When the number of States was 
only twenty-six, and their total population about twenty millions, our repub- 
lican form of government was hardly more than an experiment, just fairly put 
upon trial. The development of our agricultural resources and inexhaustible 
mineral wealth had hardly commenced. Westward the " Star of Empire " 
had scarcely started on its way. West of the great Mississippi was a mighty 
empire, but almost unknown, and marked on the maps of the period as " The 
Great American Desert." 

Now, thirty-eight stars glitter on our national escutcheon, and forty-five 
millions of people, who know their rights and dare maintain them, tread 
American soil, and the grand sisterhood of States extends from the Gulf of 
Mexico to the Canadian border, and from the rocky coast of the Atlantic to 
the golden shores of ihe Pacific. 


Ames, Story County. 

The Iowa State Agricultural College and Farm were established by au act 
of the General Assembly, approved March 22, 1858. A Board of Trustees was 
appointed, consisting of Governor R. P. Lowe, John D. Wright, William Duane 
Wilson, M. W. Robinson, Timothy Day, Richard Gaines, John Pattee, G. W. 
F. Sherwin, Suel Foster, S. W. Henderson, Clement Coffin and E. G. Day ; 
the Governors of the State and President of the College being ex officio mem- 
bers. Subsequently the number of Trustees was reduced to five. The Board 
met in June, 1859, and received propositions for the location of the College and 
Farm from Hardin, Polk, Story and Boone, Marshall, Jeft'erson and Tama 
Counties. In July, the proposition of Story County and some of its citizens 
and by the citizens of Boone County was accepted, and the farm and the site 
for the buildings were located. In 1860-01, the farm-house and barn were 
erected. In 1S62, Congress granted to the State 240.000 acres of land for the 
endowment of schools of agriculture and the meclianical arts, and 11)5,000 acres 
were located by Peter Melendy, Commissioner, in 1862-3. George W. Bassett 
was appointed Land Agent' for the institution. In 1864, the General Assem- 
bly appropriated §20,000 for the erection of the college building. 


In June of that year, the Building Committee, consisting of Suel Foster, 
Peter Melendy and A. J. Bronson, proceeded to let the contract. John Browne, 
of Des Moines, was employed as architect, and furnished the plans of the build- 
ing, but -was superseded in its construction by C. A. Dunham. The f 20,000 
appropriated by the General Assembly were expended in putting in the foun- 
dations and making the brick for the structure. An additional appropriation 
of $91,000 was made in 18G6, and the building was completed in 1868. 

Tuition m this college is made by law forever free to pupils from the State 
over sixteen years of age, who have been resident of the State six months pre- 
vious to their admission. Each county in the State has a prior right of tuition 
for three scholars from each county ; the remainder, equal to the capacity of the 
college, are by the Trustees distributed among the counties in proportion to the 
population, and subject to the above rule. All sale of ardent spirits, wine or 
beer are prohibited by law within a distance of three miles from the college, 
except for sacramental, mechanical or medical purposes. 

The course of instruction in the Agricultural College embraces the following 
branches: Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, Botany, Horticulture, Fruit Growing, 
Forestry, Animal and Vegetable Anatomy, Geology, Mineralogy, Meteorology, 
Entomology, Zoology, the Veterinary Art, Plane Mensuration, Leveling, Sur- 
veying, Bookkeeping, and such jMechanical Arts as are directly connected 
with agriculture ; also such, other studies as the Trustees may from time to time 
prescribe, not inconsistent with the purposes of the institution. 

The funds arising from the lease and sale of lands and interest on invest- 
ments are sufficient for the support of the institution. Several College Societies 
are maintained among the students, who publish a monthly paper. There is 
also an " out-law " called the " A TA, Chapter Omega." 

The Board of Trustees in 1877 was composed of C. W. Warden, Ottumwa, 
Chairman ; Hon. Samuel J. Kirkwood, Iowa City ; William B. Treadway, 
Sioux City; Buel Sherman, Fredericksburg, and Laurel Summers, Le Claire. 
E. W. Starten, Secretary ; William D. Lucas, Treasurer. 

Board of Instruction. — A. S. Welch, LL. D., President and Professor of 
Psychology and Philosophy of Science ; Gon. J. L. Geddes, Professor of INiili- 
tary Tactics and Engineering; W. 11. Wynn, A. M., Ph. D., Professor of 
English Literature; C. E. Bessey, M. S., Professor of Botany, Zoology, Ento- 
mology ; A. Thompson, C. E., Mechanical Engineering and Superintendent of 
Workshops; F. E. L. Beal, B. S., Civil Engineering; T. E. Pope, A. M., 
Chemistry; M. Stalker, Agricultural and Veterinary Science; J. L. Budd, 
Horticulture ; J. K. Macomber, Physics ; E. W. Stanton, Mathematics and 
Political Economy ; Mrs. Margaret P. Stanton, Preceptress, Instructor in 
French and Mathematics. 


Iowa City, Johnson County. 

In the famous Ordinance of 1787, enacted by Congress before the Territory 
of the L^nited States extended beyond the Mississippi River, it was declared 
that in all the territory northwest of the Ohio River, " Schools and the means 
of education shall forever be encouraged." By act of Congress, approved July 
20, 18-10, the Secretary of the Treasury was authorized " to set apart and re- 
serve from sale, out of any of the public lands within the Territory of Iowa, to 
which the Indian title has beenor may be extinguished, and not otherwise ap- 
propriated, a quantity of land, not exceeding the entire townships, for the use 


and support of a university within said Territorry when it becomes a State, and 
for no other use or purpose whatever ; to be located in tracts of not less than an 
entire section, corresponding with any of the large divisions into which the pub- 
lic land are authorized to be surveyed." 

AVilliam W. Dodge, of Scott County, was appointed by the Secretary of the- 
Treasury to make the selections. He selected Section 5 in Township 78, north 
of Range 3, east of the Fifth Principal Meridian, and then removed from the 
Territory. No more lands were selected until 1846, when, at the request of the 
Assembly, John M. Whitaker of Van Buren County, was appointed, who selected, 
the remainder of the grant except about 122 acres. 

In the first Constitution, under which Iowa was admitted to the Union, the 
people directed the disposition of the proceeds of this munificent grant in ac- 
cordance with its terms, and instructed the General Assembly to provide, as soon 
as may be, effectual means for the improvement and permanent security of the 
funds of the university derived from the lands. 

The first General Assembly, by act approved February 25, 1847, established 
the " State University of Iowa " at Iowa City, then the capital of the State,, 
"with such other branches as public convenience may hereafter require." 
The " public buildings at Iowa City, together with the ten acres of land in which 
they are situated," were granted for the use of said university, pj-ovided, how- 
ever, that tlie sessions of the Legislature and State offices should be held in the 
capitol until otherwise provided by law. The control and management of the 
University were committed to a board of fifteen Trustees, to be appointed by the 
Legislature, five of whom were to be chosen bienially. The Superintendent 
of Public Instruction was made President of this Board. Provisions were made 
for the disposal of the two townships of land, and for the investment of the funds 
arising therefrom. The act further provides that the University shall never be 
under the exclusive control of any religious denomination whatever," and as 
soon as the revenue for the grant and donations amounts to $2,000 a year, the 
University should commence and continue the instruction, free of charge, of fifty 
students annually. The General Assembly retained full supervision over the 
University, its officers and the grants and donations made and to be made to it 
by the State. 

Section 5 of the act appointed James P. Carleton, H. D. Downey, Thomas. 
Snyder, Samuel McCrory, Curtis Bates, Silas Foster, E. C. Lyon, James H. 
Gower, George G. Vincent, Wm. G. Woodward, Theodore S. Parvin, George 
Atchinson, S. G. Matson, H. W. Starr and Ansel Briggs, the first Board of 

The organization of the University at Iowa City was impracticable, how- 
ever, so long as the seat of government was retained there. 

In January, 1849, two branches of the University and three Normal 
Schools were established. The branches were located — one at Fairfield, and 
the other at Dubuque, and were placed upon an equal footing, in respect to 
funds and all other matters, with the University established at Iowa City. 
"This act," says Col. Benton, "created three State Universities, with equal 
rights and powers, instead of a 'University with such branches as public conven- 
ience ma]! hereafter demand,' as provided by the Constitution." 

The Board of Directors of the Fairfield Branch consisted of Barnet Ris- 
tine. Christian W. Slagle, Daniel Rider, Horace Gaylord, Bernhart Henn and 
Samuel S. Bayard. At the first meeting of the Board, Mr. Henn was elected 
President, Mr. Slagle Secretary, and Mr. Gaylord Treasurer. Twenty acres 
of land were purchased, and a building erected thereon, costing $2,500. 


This building was nearly destroyed by a hurricane, in 1850, but was rebuilt 
more substantially, all by contributions of the citizens of Fairfield. This 
branch never received any aid from the State or from the University Fund, 
and by act approved January 24, 1853, at the request of the Board, the Gen- 
eral Assembly terminated its relation to the State. 

The branch at Dubuque was placed under the control of the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, and John King, Caleb H. Booth, James M. Emerson, 
Michael J. Sullivan, Richard Benson and the Governor of the State as 
Trustees. The Trustees never organized, and its existence was only nominal. 

The Normal Schools were located at Andrew, Oskaloosa and Mount 
Pleasant, respectively. Each was to be governed by a board of seven Trustees, to 
be appointed by the Trustees of the University. Each was to receive $500 annu- 
ally Xrom the income of the University Fund, upon condition that they should ed- 
ucate eight common school teachers, free of charge for tuition, and that the citizens 
should contribute an equal sum for the erection of the requisite buildings. 
The eeveral Boards of Trustees were appointed. At Andrew, the school was 
organized Nov. 21, 1849; Samuel Ray, Principal; Miss J. S. Dorr, Assist- 
ant. A building was commenced and over $1,000 expended on it, but it was 
never completed. At Oskaloosa, the Trustees organized in April, 1852.' This 
school was opened in the Court House, September 13, 1852, under the charge 
of Prof. G. M. Drake and wife. A two story brick building was completed in 
1853, costing $2,473. The school at Mount Pleasant was never organized. 
Neither of these schools received any aid from the University Fund, but in 
1857 the Legislature appropriated $1,000 each for those at Oskaloosa and 
Andrew, and repealed the law authorizing the payment of money to them from 
the University Fund. From that time they made no further effort to 
continue in operation. 

At a special meeting of the Board of Trustees, held February 21, 1850, 
the " College of Physicians and Surgeons of the Upper Mississippi," established 
at Davenport, was recognized as the " College of Physicians and Surgeons of 
the State University of Iowa," expressly stipulating, however, that such recog- 
nition should not render the University liable for any pecuniary aid, nor was 
the Board to have any control over the property or management of the Medical 
Association. ■ Soon after, this College was removed to Keokuk, its second ses- 
sion being opened there in November, 1850. In 1851, the General Assembly 
confirmed the action of the Board, and by act approved January 22, 1855, 
placed the Medical College under the supervision of the Board of Trustees of 
the University, and it continued in operation until this arrangement was termi- 
nated by the new Constitution, September 3, 1857. 

From 1847 to 1855, the Board of Trustees was kept full by regular elec- 
tions by the Legislature, and the Trustees held frequent meetings, but there was 
no effectual organization of the University. In March, 1855, it was partially 
opened for a term of sixteen weeks. July 16, 1855, Amos Dean, of Albany, 
N. Y., was elected President, but he never entered fully upon its duties. The 
University was again opened in September, 1855, and continued in operation 
until June, 1856, under Professors Johnson, Wclton, Van Valkenburg and 

In the Spring of 1856, the capital of the State was located at Des Moines; 
but there were no buildings there, and the capitol at Iowa City was not vacated 
by the State until December, 1857. 

In June, 1856, the faculty was re-organized, with some changes, and the 
University was again opened on the third Wednesday of September, 1856^ 


There were one hundred and twenty-four students — eighty-three males and 
forty-one females — in attendance during the year 1856-7, and the first regular 
catalogue was published. 

At a special meeting of the Board, September 22, 1857, the honorary de- 
gree of Bachelor of Arts was conferrei on D. Franklin Wells. This was the 
first degree conferred by the Board. 

Article IX, Section 11, of the new State Constitution, which went into force 
September 3, 1857, provided as follows : 

The State University shall be established at one place, without branches at any other place ; 
and the University fund shall be applied to tjiat institution, and no other. 

Article XI, Section 8, provided that 

The seat of Government is hereby permanently established, as now fixed by law, at the city 
of Dea Bloiues, in the county of Polk ; and the State University at Iowa City, in the county of 

The new Constitution created the Board of Education, consisting of the 
Lieutenant Governor, who was ex officio President, and one member to be elected 
from each judicial district in the State. This Board was endowed with 
"full power and authority to legislate and make all needful rules and regula- 
tions in relation to common schools and other educational institutions," subject 
to alteration, amendment or repeal by the General Assembly, which was vested 
with authority to abolish or re-organize the Board at any time after 18G3. 

In December, 1857, the old capitol building, now known as Central Hall of 
the University, except the rooms occupied by the United States District Court, 
and the property, with that exception, passed under the control of the Trustees, 
and became tlie seat of the University. The old building had had hard usage, 
and its arrangement was illy adapted for University purposes. Extensive repairs 
and changes were necessary, but the Board was without funds for these pur- 

Tiie last meeting of the Board, under the old law, was held in January, 
1858. At this meeting, a resolution was introduced, and seriously considered, 
to exclude females from the University ; but it finally failed. 

March 12, 1858, the first Legislature under the new Constitution enacted 
a new law in relation to the University, but it was not materially different from 
the former- March 11, 1858, the Legislature appropriated $3,0(.)0 for the re- 
pair and modification of the old capitol building, and $10,000 for the erection 
of a boarding house, now known as South Hall. 

The Board of Trustees created by the new law met and duly organized 
April 27, 1858, and determined to close the University until the income from its 
fund .should be adequate to meet the current expenses, and the buildings should 
be ready for occupation. Until this term, the building known as the " INIechan- 
ics' Academy" had been used for the school. The Faculty, except the Chan- 
cellor (Dean), was dismissed, and all further instruction suspended, from the close 
of the term then in progress until September, 1859. At this meeting, a reso- 
lution was adopted excluding females from the University after the close of the 
existing term ; but this was aiterward, in August, modified, so as to admit them 
to the Normal Department. 

At the meeting of the Board, August 4, 1858, the degree of Bachelor of 
Science was conferred upon Dexter Edson Smith, being the first degree con- 
^'•rcd upon a student of the University. Diplomas were awarded to the mem- 
bers of the first graduating class of the Normal Department as follows : Levi 
?- Aylworth, Cellina II. Aylworth, Elizabeth L. Humphrey, Annie A. Pinney 
and Sylvia M. Thompson. 


An " Act for the Government and Regulation of the State University of 
Iowa," approved December 25, 1858, was mainly a re-enactment of the law of 
March 12, 1858, except that changes were made in the Board of Trustees, and 
manner of their appointment. This law provided that both sexes were to be 
admitted on equal terms to all departments of the institution, leaving the Board 
no discretion in the matter. 

The new Board met and organized, February 2, 1859, and decided to con- 
tinue the Normal Department only to the end of the current term, and that it 
was unwise to re-open the University at that time; but at the annual meeting 
of the Board, in June of the same year, it was resolved to continue the Normal 
Department in operation ; and at a special meeting, October 25, 1859, it was 
decided to re-open the University in September, IStJO. Mr. Dean had resigned 
as Chancellor prior to this meeting, and Silas Totten, D. D., LL. D., was elected 
President, at a salary of §2,000, and his term commenced June, 1860. 

At the annual meeting, June 28, 1860, a full Faculty was appointed, and 
the University re-opened, under this new organization, September 19, 1860 
(third Wednesday) ; and at this date the actual existence of the University may 
be said to commence. 

August 19, 1862, Dr. Totten having resigned. Prof. Oliver M. Spencer 
was elected President and the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws was conferred 
upon Judge Samuel F. Miller, of Keokuk. 

At the commencement, in June, 1863, was the first class of graduates in 
the Collegiate Department. 

The Board of Education was abolished March 19, 1864, and the office of 
Superintendent of Public Instruction was restored ; the General Assembly 
resumed control of the subject of education, and on March 21, an act was ap- 
proved for the government ,of the University. It was substantially the same as 
the former law, but provided that the Governor should be ex officio President of 
the Board of Trustees. Until 1858, the Superintendent of Public Instruction 
had been ex officio Piesident. During the period of the Board of Education, 
the University Trustees were elected by it, and elected their own President. 

President Spencer was granted leave of absence from April 10, 1866, for 
fifteen months, to visit Europe; and Prof. Nathan R. Leonard was elected 
President pro tern. 

The North Hall was completed late in 1866. 

At the annual meeting in June, 1867, the resignation of President Spencer 
(absent in Europe) was accepted, and Prof. Leonard continued as President pro 
tern., until March 4, 1868, when James Black, D. D., Vice President of Wash- 
ington and Jefferson College, Penn., was elected President. Dr. Black entered 
upon his duties in September, 1868. 

The Law Department was established in June, 1868, and, in September fol- 
lowing, an arrangement was perfected with the Iowa Law School, at Des Moines, 
which had been in successful operation for three years, under the management 
of Messrs. George G. Wright, Chester C. Cole and William G. Hammond, by 
which that institution was transferred to Iowa City and merged in the Law De- 
partment of the L^niversity. The Faculty of this department consisted of the 
President of the University, Hon. Wm. G. Hammond, Resident Professor and 
Principal of the Department, and Professors G. G. Wright and C. C. Cole. 

Nine students entered at the commencement of the first term, and during 
the year ending June, 1877, there were 103 students in this department. 

At a special meeting of the Board, on the 17th of September, 1868, a Com- 
mittee was appointed to consider the expediency of establishing a Medical De- 


partmcnt. This Committee reported at once in favor of the proposition, the 
Faculty to consist of the President of the University and seven Professors, and 
recommended tliat, if practicable, the new department should be opened at the 
commencement of the University year, in 18o9-70. At this meeting, Hon. 
Ezekiel Clark was elected Treasurer of the University. 

By an act of the General Assembly, approved April 11, 1870, the "Board 
•of Regents " was instituted as the governing power of the University, and since 
that time it has been the fundamental law of the institution. The Board of 
Regents held its first meeting June 28, 1870. Wm. J. Haddock was elected 
Secretary, and Mr. Clark, Treasurer. 

Dr. Black tendered his resignation as President, at a special meeting of the 
Board, held August 18, 1870, to take effect on the 1st of December following. 
His resignation was accepted. 

The South Hall having been fitted up for the purpose, the first term, of the 
Medical Department was opened October '21, 1870, and continued until March, 
1871, at which time there were three graduates and thirtj'-nine students. 

March 1, 1871, Rev. George Thacher was elected President of the Univer- 
sity. Mr. Thacher accepted, entered upon his duties April 1st, and was form- 
ally inaugurated at the annual meeting in June, 1861. 

In June, 1874, the " Chair of Military Instruction" was established, and 
the President of the United States was requested to detail an officer to perform 
its duties. In compliance with this request, Lieut. A. D. Schenck, Second Artil- 
lery, U. S. A., was detailed as " Professor of Military Science and Tactics," 
at Iowa State University, by order of the War Department, August 26, 1874, 
who reported for duty on the 10th of September following. Lieut. Schenck 
•was relieved by Lieut. James Chester, Third Artillery, January 1, 1877. 

Treasurer Clark resigned November 3, 1875, and John N. Coldren elected 
in his stead. 

At the annual meeting, in 1876, a Department of Homoeopathy was 

In March, 1877, a resolution was adopted affiliating the High Schools of 
the State with the University. 

In June, 1877, Dr. Thacher's connection with the University was termi- 
nated, and C. W. Slagle, a member of the Board of Regents, was elected Pres- 

In 1872, the ex officio membership of the Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion was abolished ; but it was restored in 1876. Following is a catalogue of 
the officers of this important institution, from 1847 to 1878 : 




James Harlan, Superintendent Public Instruction, ex officio 1847 1848 

Thomas H. Benton, Jr,, Superintendent Public Instruction, ex oiBcio 1848 1854 

James D. Eads, Superintendent Public Instruction, ex officio 1864 1857 

Maturin L. Fisher, Superintendent Public Instruction, ex officio 1857 1858 

Amos Dean, Chancellor, ex officio 1858 1859 

Thomas H. Benton, Jr 1859 18f;3 

Francis Springer 1863 1864 

William M. Stone, Governor, ex officio 1864 1868 

Samuel Merrill, Governor, ex officio 1868 1872 

Cyrus C. Carpenter, Governor, ex officio 1872 1876 

Samuel J. Kirkwond, Governor, ex officio 1S76 1877 

Joshua G. Newbold, Governor, ex officio 1877 1878 

John H. Gear 1878 




fiilas Foster 1847 1851 

Robert Lucas 1851 1853 

Edward Connelly 1854 1855 

Moses J. Morsman 1855 1858 


Hugh 1). Downey 1847 1851 

Anson Hart 1851 1857 

Elijali Sells 1857 1858 

Anson Hart 1858 1864 

Williani J. Haddock 1864 


Morgan Reno, State Treasurer, ex officio 1847 1850 

Israel Kister, Slate Treasurer, ex officio 1850 1852 

Martin L. Morris, State Treasurer, ex officio 1852 1855 

Henry W. Lathrop 1855 1862 

William Crum 1862 1868 

Ezekiel Clark 1868 1876 

John N. Coldren 1876 


Amos Dean, LL. D 1855 1858 

Silas Totten, D. D., LL. D 1860 1862 

Oliver M. Spencer, D. D.* 1862 1867 

James Black, D. D 1868 1870 

George Thacher, D. D 1871 1877 

C. W. Slagle 1877 

The present educational corps of the University consists of the President, 
nine Professors in the Collegiate Department, one Professor and six Instructors 
in Military Science ; Chancellor, three Professors and four Lecturers in the 
Law Department ; eight Profes.sor Demonstrators of Anatomy ; Prosector of 
Surgery and two Lecturers in the Medical Department, and two Professors in 
the Homoeopathic Medical Department. 


By act of the General Assembly, approved January 28, 1857, a State His- 
torical Society was provided for in connection with the University. At the 
commencement, an appropriation of $250 was made, to be expended in collecting, 
embodying, and preserving in an authentic form a library of books, pamphlets, 
•charts, maps, manuscripts, papers, paintings, statuary, and other materials illus- 
trative of the history of Iowa; and with the further object to rescue from 
oblivion the memory of the early pioneers ; to obtain and preserve various 
accounts of their exploits, perils and hardy adventures ; to secure facts and 
statements relative to the history and genius, and progress and decay of the 
Indian tribes of Iowa; to exhibit faithfully the antiquities and past and present 
resources of the State ; to aid in the publication of such collections of the Society 
as shall from time to time be deemed of value and interest; to aid in binding 
its books, pamphlets, manuscripts and papers, and in defraying other necessary 
incidental expenses of the Society. 

There was appropriated by law to this institution, till the General Assembly 
shall otherwise direct, the sum of $500 per annum. The Society is under the 
management of a Board of Curators, consisting of eighteen persons, nine of 
whom are appointed by the Governor, and nine elected by the members of the 
Society. The Curators receive no compensation for their services. The annual 


meeting is provided for by law, to be held at Iowa City on Monday preceding- 
the last Wednesday in June of each year. 

The State Historical Society has published a series of very valuable collec- 
tions, including history, biography, sketches, reminiscences, etc., with quite a 
large number of finely engraved portraits of prominent and early settlers, under 
the title of '• Annals of Iowa." 


Located at Fort Madison, Lee County. 

The first act of the Territorial Legislature, relating to a Penitentiary in 
Iowa, was approved January 25, 1839, the fifth section of which authorized the 
Governor to draw the sum of $20,000 appropriated by an act of Congress ap- 
proved July 7, 1838, for public buildings in the Territory of Iowa. It provided 
for a Board of Directors of three persons elected by the Legislature, who should 
direct the building of the Penitentiary, which should be located within one mile 
of the public square, in the town of Fort Madison, Lee County, provided Fort 
Madison should deed to the directors a tract of land suitable for a site, and assign 
them, by contract, a spring or stream of water for the use of the Penitentiary. 
To the Directors was also given the power of appointing the Warden ; the latter 
to appoint his own assistants. 

The first Directors appointed were John S. David and John Claypole. They 
made their first report to the Legislative Council November 9, 1839. The citi- 
zens of the town of Fort Madison had executed a deed conveying ten acres of 
land for the building site. Amos Ladd was appointed Superintendent of the 
building June 5, 1839. The buihling was designed of sufficient capacity to con- 
tain one hundred and thirty-eight convicts, and estimated to cost $.55,933.90. 
It was begun on the 9th of July, 1839 ; the main building and Warden's house 
were completed in the Fall of 1841. Other additions were made from time to 
time till the building and arrangements were all complete according to the plan 
of the Directors. It has answered the purpose of the State as a Penitentiary 
for more than thirty years, and during that period many items of practical ex- 
perience in prison management have been gained. 

It has long been a problem how to conduct prisons, and deal with what are 
called the criminal classes generally, so as to secure their best good and best 
subserve the interests of the State. Both objects must be taken into considera- 
tion in any humaritarian view of the subject. This problem is not yet solved, 
but Iowa has adopted the progressive and enlightened policy of humane treat- 
ment of prisoners and the utilization of their labor for their own support. The 
labor of the convicts in the Iowa Penitentiary, as in most others in the United 
States, is let out to contractors, who pay the State a certain stipulated amount 
therefor, the State furnishing the shops, tools and machinery, as well as the 
supervision necessary to preserve order and discipline in the prison. 

While this is an improvement upon the old solitary confinement system, it 
still fiills short of an enlightened reformatory system that in the future will 
treat the criminal for mental disease and endeavor to restore him to usefulness 
in the community. The objections urged against the contract system of dis- 
posing of the labor of prisoners, that it brings the labor of honest citizens into 
competition with convict labor at reduced prices, and is disadvantageous to the 
State, are not without force, and the system will have no place in the prisons of 
the future. 



It is right that the convict shouM labor. He should not be allowed to live 
in idleness at public expense. Honest men labor ; why should not they? Hon- 
est men are entitled to the fruits of thetir toil ; why should not the convict as 
well ? The convict is sent to the Penitentiary to secure public safety. The 
State deprives him of his liberty to accomplish this purpose and to punish him 
for violations of law, but, having done this, the State wrongs both itself and the 
criminal by confiscating his earnings; because it deprives his family of what 
justly belongs to them, and an enlightened civilization will ere long demand 
that the prisoner in the penitentiary, after paying a fair price for his board, is 
as justly entitled to his net earnings as the good citizen outside its walls, and 
his family, if he has one, should be entitled to draw his earnings or stated portion 
of them at stated periods. If he has no family, then if his net earnings should 
be set aside to his credit and paid over to him at the expiration of his term of 
imprisonment, he would notbe turned out upon the cold charities of a somewhat 
Pharisaical world, penniless, with the brand of the convict upon his brow, with 
no resource save to sink still deeper in crime. Let Iowa, " The Beautiful Land," 
be first to recognize the rights of its convicts to the fruits of their labor ; keep 
their children from the alms-house, and. place a powerful incentive before them 
to become good citizens when they return to the busy world again. 


Located at Anamosa, Jones County. 

By an act of the Fourteenth General Assembly, approved April 23, 1872, 
William Ure, Foster L. Downing and Martin Heisey were constituted Commis- 
sioners to locate and provide for the erection and control of an additional 
Penitentiary for the State of Iowa. These Commissioners met on the 4th of 
the following June, at Anamosa, Jones County, and selected a site donated by 
the citizens, within the limits of the city. L. W. Foster & Co., architects, of 
Des Moines, furnished the plan, drawings and specifications, and work was 
commenced on the building on the 28th day of September, 1872. INIay 13, 
1873, twenty convicts were transferred to Anamosa from the Fort Madison 
Penitentiary. The entire enclosure includes fifteen acres, with a frontage of 
663 feet. 


Mount Pleasant, Henry County. 

By an act of the General Assembly of Iowa, approved January 24, 1855, 
$4,425 were appropriated for the purchase of a site, and $50,000 for building 
an Insane Hospital, and the Governor (Grimes), Edward Johnston, of Lee 
County, and Charles S. Blake, of Henry County, were appointed to locate the 
institution and superintend the erection of the building. These Commission- 
ers located the institution at Mt. Pleasant, Henry County. A plan for a 
building designed to accommodate 300 patients, drawn by Dr. Bell, of Massa- 
chusetts, was accepted, and in October work was commenced under the superin- 
tendence of Mr. Henry Winslow. Up to February 25, 1858, and including an 
appropriation made on that date, the Legislature had appropriated $258,555.67 
to this institution, but the building was not finished ready for occupancy by 
patients until March 1, 1861. The Trustees were Maturin L. Fisher, Presi- 
dent, Farmersburg; Samuel McFarland, Secretary, Mt. Pleasant; D. L. 


McGu^in, Keokuk; G. W. Kincaid, Muscatine; J. D. Elbert, Keosauqua; 
John B. Lash and Daipin Riggs, Mt. Pleasant. Richard J. Patterson, M. D., 
of Oliio, was elected Superintendent; 'Dwight C. Dewey, M. D., Assistant 
Physician; Henry Winslow, Steward; Mrs. Catharine Winslow, Matron. 
The Hospital was formally opened March 6, 1861, and one hundred patients 
were admitted within three months. About 1865, Dr. Mai-k Ranney became 
Superintendent. April 18, 1876, a portion of the hospital building was 
destroyed by fire. From the opening of the Hospital to the close of October, 
1877, 3,584 patients had been admitted. Of these, 1,141 were discharged 
recovered, 505 discharged improved, 589 discharged unimproved, and 1 died ; 
total discharged, 2,976, leaving 608 inmates. During this period, there were 
1,384 females admitted, whose occupation was registered "domestic duties ;" 
122, no occupation; 25, female teachers; 11, seamstresses; and 25, servants. 
Among the males were 916 farmers, 394 laborers, 205 without occupation, 39 
cabinet makers, 23 brewers, 31 clerks, 26 merchants, 12 preachers, 18 shoe- 
makers, 13 students, 14 tailors, 13 teachers, 14 agents, 17 masons, 7 lawyers, 
7 physicians, 4 saloon keepers, 3 salesmen, 2 artists, and 1 editor. The pro- 
ducts of the farm and garden, in 1876, amounted to §il3,721.26. 

Trustees, 1S77 :—'!:. Whiting, President, Mt. Pleasant; Mrs. E. M. Elliott, 
Secretary, Mt. Pleasant; William C. Evans, West Liberty; L. E. Fellows, 
Lansing ; and Samuel Klein, Keokuk ; Treasurer, M. Edwards, Mt. Pleasant. 

Resident Officers: — Mark Ranney, M. D., Medical Superintendent; H. M. 
Bassett, M. D.. First Assistant Physician; M. Riordan, M. D., Second Assistant 
Physician; Jennie McCowen, M. D., Third Assistant Physician ; J. W. Hender- 
son, Steward ; Mrs. Martha W. Ranney, Matron ; Rev. Milton Sutton, 


Independence, Buchanan County. 

In the Winter of 1867-8, a bill providing for an additional Hospital for the 
Insane was passed by the Legislature, and an appropriation of $125,000 was 
made for that purpose. Maturin L. Fisher, of Clayton County ; E. G. Morgan, 
of Webster County, and Albert Clark, of Buchanan County, were appointed 
Commissioners to locate and supervise the erection of the Building. IMr. Clark 
died about a year after his appointment, and Hon. G. W. Bemis, of Indepen- 
dence, was appointed to fill the vacancy. 

The Commissioners met and commenced their labors on the 8th day of 
June, 1868, at Independence. The act under which they were appointed 
required them to select the most eligible and desirable location, of not less than 
320 acres, within two miles of the city of Independence, that might be offered 
by the citizens free of charge to the State. Several such tracts were offered, 
but the Commissioners finally selected the south half of southwest quarter of 
Section 5 ; the north half of northeast quarter of Section 7 ; the north half of 
northwest quarter of Section 8, and the north half of northeast quarter of Sec- 
tion 8, all in Township 88 north. Range 9 west of the Fifth Principal Meridian. 
This location is on the west side of the Wapsipinicon River, and about a mile 
from its banks, and about the same distance from Independence. 

Col. S. V. Shipman, of Madison, Wis., was employed to prepare plans, 
specifications and drawings of the building, which, when completed, were sub- 
mitted to Dr. M. Ranney, Superintendent of the Hospital at Mount Pleasant, 
who suggested several improvements. The contract for erecting the building 


■was awarJcJ to Mr. David Armstrong, of Dubuque, for $38,114. The con- 
tract was signed November 7, 1SG8, and Mr. Armstrong at once commenced 
work. Mr. George Josselyn was appointed to superintend the work. The 
main buildings Avere constructed of dressed limestone, from the quarries at 
Anamosa anrl Farley. The basements are of the local granite worked from the 
immense boulders found in large quantities in this portion of the State. 

In 1872, the building was so far completed that (he Commissioners called 
the first meeting of the Trustees, on the lUth day of July of that year. These 
Trustees were Maturin L. Fisher, Mrs. P. A. Appleman, T. W. Fawcett, C. 
C. Parker, E. G. Morjian, George W. Bemls and John M. Botrars. This board 
was organized, on the day above mentioned, by the election of Hon. M. L. 
Fisher, President; Rev. J. G. Boggs, Secretary, and George W. Bemis, Treas- 
urer, and, after adopting preliminary measures for organizing the local govern- 
ment of the hospital, adjourned to the first Wednesday of the following Septem- 
ber. A few days before this meeting, Mr. Boggs died of malignant fever, 
and Dr. John G. House was appointed to fill the vacancy. Dr. House was 
elected Secretary. At this meeting, Albert Reynolds, M.' D., was elected 
Superintendent; George Josselyn, Steward, and Mrs. Anna B. Josselyn, 
Matron. September 4, 1873, Dr. Willis Butterfield was elected Assistant 
Physician. The building was ready for occupancy April 21, 1873. 

In the Spring of 1876, a contract was made with Messrs. Mackay & Lundy, 
of Independence, for furnishing materials for building the outside walls of the 
two first sections of the south wing, next to the ctnter building, for $5,250. 
T'he carpenter work on the fourth and fifth stories of the center buihling was 
completed during the same year, and the wards were furnished and occupied by 
patients in the Fall. 

In 1877, the south wing was built, but it will not be completed ready for 
occupancy until next Spring or Summer (1878). 

October 1, 1877, the Superintendent reported 322 patients in this hospital, 
and it is now overcrowded. 

The Board of Trustees at present (1878) are as follows : Maturin L. 
Fisher, President, Farmersburg; John G. House, M. D., Secretary, Indepen- 
dence ; Wm. G. Donnan, Treasurer, Independence ; Erastus G. Morgan, Fort 
Dodge; Mrs. Prudence A. Appleman, Clermont; a;.d Stephen E. Robinson, 
M. b., West Union. 


Albert Reynolds, M. D., Superintendent ; G. II. Hill, M. D., Assistant 
Physician; Noyes Appleman, Steward; Mrs. Lucy M. Gray, Matron. 

> « 


Vinton, Benton County. 

In August, lSr)2, Prof Samuel Bacon, himself blind, established an Insti- 
tution for the Instruction of the Blind of Iowa, at Keokuk. 

By act of the General Assembly, entitled " An act to establish an Asylum 
for the Blind," approved January 18, 1853, the institution was adopted by the 
State, removed to Iowa City, February 3d, and opened for the reception of pupils 
April 4, 1853, free to all the blind in the State. 

The first Board of Trustees were James D. Eads, President ; George W. 
McClary, Secretary; James II. Gower, Treasurer; Martin L. Morris, Stephen 
Hempstead, Morgan Reno and John McCaddon. The Board appointed Prof. 


Samuel Bacon, Principal; T. J. McGittigen, Teacher of Music, and Mis. Sarah 
K. Bacon, Matron. Twenty-three pupils were admitted during the first term. 

In his first report, made in 18.'34, Prof. Bacon suggested tliat the name 
should be clianged from " x\sylum for the Blind," to tiiat of " Institution for 
the Instruction of the Blind." This was done in 1855, wlien the General As- 
sembly made an annual appropriation for the College of $55 per quarter for 
each pupil. This was subsequently changed to $3,000 per annum, and a charge 
of $25 as an admission fee for each pupil, which sum, with the amounts realized 
from the sale of articles manufactured by the blind pupils, proved sufficient for 
the expenses of the institution during Mr. Bacon's administration. Although 
Mr. Bacon was blind, he was a fine scholar and an economical manager, and 
had founded the Blind Asylum at Jacksonville, Illinois. As a mathematician 
he had few superiors. 

On the 8th of May, 1858, the Trustees mot at Vinton, and made arrange- 
ments for securing the donation of $5,000 made by the citizens of that town. 

In June of that year, a quarter section of hind was donated for tlie College, 
by John W. 0. Webb and others, and the Trustees adopted a plan for the 
erection of a suitable building. In 1800, the plan was modified, and the con- 
tract for enclosing let to Messrs. Finkbine & Lovelace, for $10,420. 

In August, 1862, the building was so far completed that the goods and fur- 
niture of the institution were removed from Iowa City to Vinton, and early in 
October, the school was opened there with twenty-four pupils. At this time, 
Rev. Orlando Chirk was Principal. 

In August, 18G4, a new Board of Trustees were appointed by the Legisla- 
ture, consisting of James McQuin, President; Reed Wilkinson, Secretary; Jas. 
Cliapin, Treasurer; Robert Gilchrist, Elijah Sells and Joseph Dysart, organized 
and made important changes. Rev. Reed Wilkinson succeeded Mr. Clark as 
Principal. Mrs. L. S. B. Wilkinson and IMiss Amelia Butler were appointed 
Assistant Teachers ; Mrs. N. A. Morton, Matron. 

Mr. Wilkinson resigned in June, 18G7, and Gen. James L. Geddes was 
appointed in his place. In September, 1869, Mr. Geddes retired, and was 
.succeeded by Prof S. A.Knapp. Mrs. S. C. Lawton was appointed Matron, 
and was succeeded by Mrs. ]\I. A. Knapp. Prof. Knapp resigned July 1, 

1875, and Prof. Orlando Clark was elected Principal, who died April 2, 

1876, and was succeeded by John B. Parmalee, who retired in July, 1877, 
when tlie present incumbent. Rev. Robert Carothers, was elected. 

Trustees, 1S77-8. — Jeremiah L. Gay, President ; S. H. Watson, Treasurer; 
H. C. Piatt, Jacob Springer, C. L. Flint and P. F. Sturgis. 

Faculty. — Principal, Rev. Robert Carothers, A. M. ; Matron, Mrs. Emeline 
E. Carothers; Teachers, Thomas F. McCune, A. B., Miss Grace A. Hill, 
Mrs. C. A. Spencer, iNIiss Mary Baker, Miss C. R. Mdler, Miss Lorana Mat- 
tice. Miss A. M. McCutcheon ; Musical I)irector, S. 0. Spencer. 

The Legislative Committee who visited this institution in 1878 expressed 
their astonishment at the vast expenditure of money in proportion to the needs 
of the State. The structure is well built, and the money properly expended ; 
yet it was enormously beyond the nece.ssities of the State, and shows an utter 
disregard of the fitness of things. The Committee could not understand why 
5282,000 should have been expended for a massive building covering about two 
and a half acres for the accommodation of 130 people, costing over eight thou- 
sand dollars a year to heat it, and costing the State about five hundred dollars 
a year/for each pupil. 




Council Bluffs, Pottawattoviie County. 

The Iowa Institution for the Denf and Dumb was establislieJ at Iowa City 
by an act of tlie General Assembly, approved January 24, l(Sr)5. The number 
of deaf miUes then in the State was 301 ; tlie number attending the Institution, 
50. Tlie first Bo^ird of Trustees were: Hon. Samuel J. Kirkwood, Hon. E. 
Sells, W. Penn Clarke, J. P. Wojd, H. D. Downey, William Crum, W. E. 
Ijanis, Princijial. On the resignation of Mr. Ijams, in 1SG2, the Board 
appointed in his ster.d Mr. Benjamin Talbot, fir nine yc;irs a teacher in tiio 
Ohio Institution for tlie Deaf and Dtunb. Mr. 1'albot was ardently dovoted to 
the interests of the institution and a faithful worker for the unfortunate cUiss 
under his charge. 

A strong eifort was made, in 186G, to remove this important institiitlon to 
Des Moines, but it was located permanently at Council Bluffs, and a building 
rented for its use. In 18GS, Commissioners were appointed to locate a site for, 
and to superintend tlie erection of a new building, for which the Legislature 
appropriated $1"25,000 to commence the work of construction. The Commis- 
sioners selected ninety acres of land about two miles south of the city of Coun- 
cil Bluffs. The main building and one wing were completed October 1, 1870, 
and immediately occupied by the Institution. February 25, 1877, the main 
building and wing were destroyed by fire; and August 6 following, the 
roof of the new west wing was blown off and the walls partially demolished by 
a tornado. At the time of the fire, about one hundred and fifty pupils were in 
attendance. After the fire, half the classes were dismissed and the number of 
scholars reduced to about seventy, and in a week Or two the school was in run- 
ning order. 

The Legislative Committee which visited this Institution in the Winter of 
1857-8 was not well pleased with the condition of affairs, and reported tliat the 
building (west wing) was a disgrace to the State and a monument of unskillful 
workmanship, and intimated rather strongly that some reforms in management 
were very essential. 

Trustees, 1877-S. — Thomas Officer, President ; N. P. Dodge, Treasurer ; 
Paul Lange, William Orr, J. W^ Cattell. 

Superintendent, Benjamin Talbot, M. A. Teachers, Edwin Southwiek, 
Conrad S. Zorbaikgh, John A. Gillespie, John A. Kennedy, Ellen J. Israel, 
Ella J. Brown, Mrs. H. 11. Gillespie; Physician, II. W. Hart, M. D.; Steward, 
N. A. Taylor; Matron, Mary B. SAvan. 


Davenport, Cedar Falls, Glenwood. 

The movement which culminated in the establishment of this beneficent in- 
stitution was originated by Mi-s. Annie Wittcnmeyer, during the civil war of 
1861-t:!5. This noble and patriotic lady called a convention at Muscatine, on 
the 7th of October 1803, for the purpose of devising measures for the support 
and education of the orphan children of the brave sons of Iowa, who had fallen 
in defense of national honor and integrity. So great was the public interest in 
the movement that there was a large representation from all parts of the State 
on the day named, and an association was organized called the Iowa State Or- 
phan Asylum. 


The first officers were : President, William M. Stone ; A^ice Presidents, Mrs. 
G. G. Wright, Mrs. R. L. Cadle, Mrs. J. T. Hancock, Jchn R. Needhani, J. W. 
Cattell, Mrs. Mary M. Bagg ; Recording Secretary, Miss Mary Kibben ; Cor- 
responding Secretary, Miss M. E. Shelton ; Treasurer, N. H. Erainerd; Board 
of Trustees, Mrs. Annie Wittenineyer, Mrs. C. B. Darwin, Mrs. D. T. Newcomb. 
Mrs. L. B. Stephens, O. Fayville, E. II. Williams, T. S. Parvin, Mrs. Shields, 
Caleb Baldwin, C. C. Cole, Isaac Pendleton, H. C. Henderson. 

The first meeting of the Trustees was held February 14, 1864, in the Repre- 
sentative Hall, at Des Moines. Committees from both branches of the General 
Assembly were present and were invited to participate in their deliberations. 
Gov. Kirkwood suggested that a home for disabled soldiers should be connected 
with the Asylum. Arrangements were made for raising funds. 

At the next meeting, in Davenport, in March, 1864, the Trustees decided to 
commence operations at once, and a committee, of which Mr. Howell, of Keo- 
kuk, was Chairman, was appointed to lease a suitable building, solicit donations, 
and procure suitable furniture. This committee secured a large brick building 
in Lawrence, Van Buren County, and engaged Mr. Fuller, of Mt. Pleasant, as 

At the annual meeting, in Des Moines, in June, 1864, Mrs. C. B. Baldwin, 
Mrs. G. G. Wright, Mrs. Dr. Horton, Miss Mary E. Shelton and Mr. George 
Sherman were appointed a committee to furnish the building and take all neces- 
sary steps for opening the "Home," and notice was given that at the next 
meeting of the Association, a motion Avould be made to change the name of the 
Institution to Iowa Orphans' Home. 

Tlic work of preparation was conducted so vigorously that on the 13th day 
of July following, the Executive Committee announced that they were ready to 
receive the children. In three weeks twenty-one were admitted, and the num- 
ber constantly increased, so that, in a little mOre than six months from the time 
of opening, there were seventy children admitted, and twenty more applica- 
tions, which the Committee had not acted upon — all orphans of soldiers. 

Miss M. Elliott, of Washington, was appointed Matron. She resigned, 
in February, 1865, and was succeeded by Mrs. E. G. Piatt, of Fremont 

The " Home " was sustained by the voluntary contributions of the people, 
until 1866, when it was assumed by the State. In that year, the (jeneral 
Assembly provided fir the location of several such "Homes" in the different 
counties, and wliich were established at Davenport, Scott County ; Cedar Falls, 
Black Hawk County, and at Glenwood, Mills County. 

The Board of Trustees elected by the General Assembly had the oversight 
and management of the Soldiers' Orphans' Homes of the State, and consisted 
of one person from each county in which such Home was located, and one for 
the State at large, who held their office two years, or until their successors were 
elected and qualified. An appropriation of $10 per month for each orphan 
actually supported was made by the General Assembly. 

Tiie Home in Cedar Falls was organized in 1865, and an old hotel building 
was fitted up for it. Rufus C, Mary L. and Emma L. Bauer were the first 
chddren received, in October, and by January, 1866, there were ninety-six in- 

October 12, 1869, the Home was removed to a large brick building, about 
two miles west of Cedar Falls, and was very prosperous for several years, but 
in 1876, the General Assembly established a State Normal School at Cedar 
Falls and appropriated the buildings and grounds for that purpose. 


By " An act to provide for the organization and sn])pnrt of an asvlum at 
Glenwood, in Mills County, for feeble minded children," approved March 17. 
187G, the buildings and grounds used by the Soldiers' Orphans' Home at tbat 
place were appropriated for this purpose. By another act, approved Marcli ]■'). 
1876, the soldiers' orphans, then at the Homes at Glenwood and Cedar Falls, 
were to bo removed to the Home at Davenport within ninety days thereafter, 
and the Board of Trustees of the Home were authorized to receive other indigent 
children into that institution, and provide for their education in industrial 


Cedar Falls, Black Hawk County. 

Chapter 129 of the laws of the Sixteenth General Assembly, in 1876, estab- 
lished a State Normal School at Cedar Falls, Black Hawk County, and required 
the Trustees of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home to turn over the property in their 
charge to the Directors of tbe new institution. 

The Board of Directors met at Cedar Falls June 7, 1876, and duly organ- 
ized by the election of H. C. Henienway, President ; J. J. Toleston, Secretary, 
and E. Townsend, Treasurer. The Board of Trustees of the Soldiers' Orphans' 
Home met at the same time for the purpose of turning over to the Directors the 
property of that institution, which was satisfactorily done and properly receipted 
for as rcipiired by law. At this meeting, Prof. J. C. Gilchrist was elected 
Principal of the School. 

On the 12th of July, 1S76, the Board again met, when executive and 
teachers' committees were appointed and their duties assigned. A Steward 
and a Matron were elected, and their respective duties defined. 

The buildings and grounds were repaired and fitted up as well as the appro- 
priation would admit, and the first term of the school opened September 6, 1876, 
commencing with twenty-seven and closing with eighty-seven students. The 
second term closed with eighty-six, and one hundred and six attended during 
the third term. 

The following are the Board of Directors, Board of Officers and Faculty : 

Board of Directors. — H. C. Hemenway, Cedar Falls, President, term 
expires 1882 ; L: D. Lewelling, Salem, Henry County, 1878 ; W. A. Stow, 
Hamburg, Fremont County, 1878 ; S. G. Smith, Newton, Jasper County, 
1880; E. H. Thayer, Clinton, Clinton County, 1880; G. S. Robinson, Storm 
Lake, Buena Vista County, 1882. 

Board of Officers. — J. J- Toleston, Secretary ; E. Townsend, Treasurer ; 
William Pattes, Steward; Mrs. P. A. Schermerhorn, Matron — all of Cedar 

FarnJli/. — J. C. Gilchrist, A. M., Principal, Profes-:er of Mental and 
Moral Philosophy and Didactics ; M. W. Bartlett, A. M., Professor of Lan- 
guages and Natural Science ; D. S. Wright, A. M., Professor of Mathematics ; 
Miss Frances L. Webster, Teacher of Geography and History ; E. W. Burnham. 
Professor of JIusic. 


Glenwood, Mills County. 

Chapter 152 of the laws of the Sixteenth General Assembly, approved 
March 17, 1876, proviiled for the establishment of an asylum for feeble minded 
children at Glenwood, Mills County, and the buildings and grounds of the 


Soldiers' Orphans' Home at that place were to be used for that purpose. Tlie 
asylum was placed under the management of three Trustees, one at least of 
whom should be a resident of Mills County. Children between the ages of 7 
and 18 years are admitted. Ten dollars per month for each child actually sup- 
ported by the State was appropriated by the act, and §2,000 for salaries of 
officers and teachers for two years. 

Hon. J. W. Cattell, of Polk County ; A. J. Russell, of Mills County, and 
W. S. Robertson, were appointed Trustees, who held their first meeting at 
Glenwood, April 26, 1876. Mr. Robertson was elected President; Mr. Russell, 
Treasurer, and Mr. Cattell, Secretary. The Trustees found the house and farm 
wliich had been turned over to them in a shamefully dilapidated condition. The 
i'cnces were broken down and tlie lumber destroyed or carried away ; the win- 
dows broken, doors off their hinges, iloors broken and filthy in the extreme, 
cellars reeking with offensive odors from decayed vegetables, and every conceiv- 
able variety of filth and garbage ; drains obstructed, cisterns broken, pump 
demoralized, wind-mill brolcen, roof leaky, and the whole property in the worst 
possible condition. It was the first work of the Trustees to make the house 
tenable. This was done under the direction of Mr. Russell. At the request 
of" the Trustees, Dr. Charles T. ^Vilbur, Superintendent of the Illinois Asjdum, 
visited Glenwood, and made many valuable suggestions, and gave them much 

0. W. Archibald, M. D., of Glenwood, was appointed Superintendent, 
and soon after was appointed Secretary of the Board, vice Cattell, resigned. 
Mrs. S. A. Archibald was appointed Matron, and Miss Maud M. Archibald, 

The Institution was opened September 1, 1876; the first pupil admitted 
September 4, and the school was organized September 10, with only five pupils, 
wliich number had, in November, 1877, increased to eighty-seven. December 
1, 1876, Miss Jennie Van Dorin, of Fairfield, was employed as a teacher and 
iu the Spring of 1877, Miss Sabina J. Archibald was also employed. 

Eldora, Hardin County. 

By "An act to establish and organize a State Reform School for Juvenile 
Offenders," approved March 31, 1868, the General Assembly established a 
State Reform School at Salem, Lee (Henry) County; provided for a Board of 
Trustees, to consist of one person from each Congressional District. For the 
purpose of immediately opening the school, the Trustees were directed to accept 
the proposition of the Trustees of White's Iowa Manual Labor Institute, at 
Salem, and lease, for not more than ten years, the lands, buildings, etc., of the 
Listitute, and at once proceed to prepare for and open a reform school as a 
temporary establishment. 

The contract for fitting up the buildings was let to Clark & Haddock, Sep- 
tember 21, 1868, and on the 7th of October following, the first inmate was 
received from Jasper County. The law provided for the admission of children 
of both sexes under 18 years of age. In 1876, this was amended, so that they 
are now received at ages over 7 and under 16 years. 

April 19, 1872, the Trustees were directed to make a permanent location 
for the school, and $45,000 was appropriated for the erection of the necessary 
buildings. The Trustees were further directed, as soon as practicable, to 
organize a school for girls in the buildings where the boys were then kept. 


Tlio Trustees located the scliool at Elilora, Hardin County, and in the Code 
of iSTo, it is permanently located there by law. 

The institution is managed by five Trustees, who are paid mileage, but no 
compensation for their services. 

The object is the reformation of the children of both sexes, under the age 
of 16 years and over 7 years of age, and the law requires that the Trustees 
shall rcijuire tlie boys and girls under their charge to be instructed in piety and 
mi)r;ility, and in sucli branches of useful knowledge as are adapted to their age 
and capacity, and in some regular course of labor, either mechanical, manufac- 
turing or agricultural, as is best suited to their age, strength, disposition and 
c!\pacity, and as may seem best adapted to secure the reformation and future 
benefit of the boys and girls. 

A boy or girl committed to the State Reform School is there kept, disci- 
plined, instructed, employed and governed, under the direction of the Trustees, 
until he or she arrives at the age of majority, or is bound out, reformed or 
legally discharged. The binding out or discharge of a boy or girl as reformed, 
or having arrived at the age of majority, is a complete release from all penalties 
incurred by conviction of the offense for which he or she was committed. 

Tiiis is one step in the right direction. In tlie future, however, still further 
advances wdl be made, and the right of every individual to the fruits of their 
hibiji', even while restrained fur the public good, will be recognized. 


Near Anamosa, Jones County. 

The Fifteenth General Assembly, in 1874, passed " An act to provide for 
the appointment of a Board of Fish Commissioners for the construction of 
Fishways for the protection and propagatioti of Fish," also "An act to provide 
for furnishing the rivers and lakes witli fish and fish spawn." This act appro- 
piiated §:>,0U0 for the purpose. In accordance with the provisions of the first 
act above mentioned, on the 0th of April, 1874, S. B. Evans of Ottumwa, 
Wapello County ; B. F. Shaw of Jones County, and Charles A. Haines, of 
iJhick Hawk County, were appointed to l.)e Fish Commissioners by the Governor. 
These Commissioners met at Des Moines, May 10, 1874, and organized by the 
el ction of Mr. Evans, President ; Mr. Shaw, Secretary and Superintendent, 
and Mr. Haines, Treasurer. 

Tlie State was partitioned into tliree districts or divisions to enable the 
(Commissioners to better superintend tlie construction of fishways as required by 
law. That part of the State lying south of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific 
Railroad was placed under the especial supervision of Mr. Evans ; that part be- 
tween that railroad and the Iowa Division of the Illinois Central Railroad, Mr. 
Shaw, and all north of the Illinois Central Railroad, Mr. Haines. At this 
meeting, the Superintendent was authorized to build a State Hatching House ; 
lo procure the spawn of valuable fish adapted to the waters of Iowa ; hatch and 
prepare the young fish for distribution, and assist in putting them into the waters 
of the State. 

In compliance with these instructions, Mr. Shaw at once commenced work, 
and in the Summer of 1874, erected a " State Hatching House" near Anamosa, 
'20x40 feet, two stories; the second story being designed for a tenement; the 
first story being the '-hatching room." The hatching troughs are supplied 
with water from a magnificent spring four feet deep and about ten feet in diam- 
eter, aftording an abundant and unfailing supply of pure running water. During 


the first year, from May 10, 1874, to May 10, 1875, the Commissioners distributed 
within the State 100,000 Shad, 300,000 Cahfornia Sahnon, 10,000 Bass, 
80,000 Penobscot (Maine) Sahnon, 5,000 hxnd-locked Sahnon, 20,000 of 
other species. 

By act approved JIarch 10, 1876, tlie hiw was amended so that there should 
be but one instead of tiiree Fish Commissioners, and B. F. Shaw was apjjointed, 
and the Commissioner was autliorized to purchase twenty acres of laud, on 
which the State Hatching House was located near Ananiosa. 

In the Fall of 1876, Commissioner Shaw gathered from the sloughs of the 
Mississippi, where they would have been destroyed, over a million and a half of 
small fisli, which were distributed in the various rivers of the State and turned 
into the Mississippi. 

In 1875-6, 533,000 California Salmon, and in 1877, 303,500 Lake Trout 
were distributed in various rivers and lakes in the State. The experiment of 
stocking the small streams with brook trout is being tried, and 81,000 of the 
speckled beauties were distributed in 1877. In 187G, 100,000 young eels were 
distribited. These came from New York and they are increasing rapidly. 

At the close of 1877, there were at least a dozen private fish farms in suc- 
cessful operation in various parts of the State. Commissioner Shaw is en- 
thusiastically devoted to the duties of his office and has performed an important 
service for the people of the State by his intelligent and successful operations. 

The Sixteenth General Assembly passed an act in 1878, prohibiting the 
catching of any kind of fish except Brook Trout from March until Juno of each 
year. Some varieties are fit for food only during this period. 


The grants of public lands made in the State of Iowa, for various purposes, 
are as follows : 

1. The 500,000 Acre Grant. 

2. Tlie 16tU Section Grant. 

3. Tlie Mortgage Scliool Lands. 

4. TUe University Gram. 

5. The Saline Grant. 

6. The Des Moines lUver Grant. 

7. The lies Moines liiver School Lands. 

8. The Swamp Land Grant. 

9. The Kailroad Grant. 

10. The Agricultural College Grant. 


■yVhen the State was admitted into the LTnion, she became entitled to 
500,000 acres of land by virtue of an act of Congress, approved September 4, 
1841, which granted to each State therein specified 500,000 acres of public land 
for internal improvements ; to each State admitted subsequently to the passage 
of the act, an amount of land which, with the amount that might have been 
granted to her as a Territory, would amount to 500,000 acres. All these lands 
were required to be selected within the limits of the State to which they were 

Tlie Constitution cf Iowa declares that the proceeds of this grant, together 
witli all lands then granted or to he granted by Congress for the benefit of 
schools, shall constitute a perpetual fund for the support of schools throughout 
the State. By an act approved January 15, 1849, the Legislature established 


a board of School Fund Commissioners, and to that board was confided the 
selection, care and sale of these lands for the benefit of the Scliool Fund. Until 
1855, these Commissioners were subordinate to the Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, but on the 15th of January of that year, they were clothed with 
exclusive authority in the management and sale of school hinds. The office of 
Scliool Fund Commissioner was abolished March 23, 1858, and that officer in 
each county was required to transfer all papers to and make full settlement with 
the County Judge. By this act, County Judges and Township Trustees wei-e 
made the agents of the State to control and sell the sixteenth sections; but no 
further provision was made for the sale of the 500,000 acre grant until April 
3d, 1860, when the entire management of the school lands was committed to 
the Boards of Supervisors of the several counties. 


By the provisions of the act of Congress admitting Iowa to the Union, there 
was granted to the new State the sixteenth section in every towi;sh;p, or wliere 
that section had been sold, other lands of like amount for the use of scliools. 
The Constitution of the State provides tliat the proceeds arising from tlie sale 
of these sections sliall constitute a part of tlie permanent School Fund. The 
control and sale of these lands were vested in tlie School Fund Commissioners 
of the several counties until March 23, 1858, when they were transferred to the 
County Judges and Township Trustees, and were finally placed under the 
supervision of the County Boards of Supervisors in January, 1861. 


These do not belong to any of the grants of land proper. They are lands 
that have been mortgaged to the school fund, and became school lands when bid 
off by the State by virtue of a law passed in 1.S62. Under the provisions of the 
law regulating the management and investment of the permanent scliool fund, 
persons desiring loans from that fund are required to secure the payment thereof 
witii interest at ten per cent, per annum, by promissory notes endorsed by two 
good su:eties and by mortgage on unincumbered real estate, which must be 
situated in the county where the loan is made, and which must be valued by 
three appraisers. Making these loans and taking the required securities was 
made tlie duty of the County Auditor, wlio was required to report to the Board 
of Supervisors at each meeting thereof, all notes, mortgages and abstracts of 
title connected with the school fund, for examination. 

When defiiult was made of payment of money so secured by mortgage,- and 
no arrangement made for extension of time as the law provides, the Board of 
Supervisors were authorized to bring suit and prosecute it with diligence to 
secure said fund; and in action in favor of the county for the use of the school 
fund, an injunction may issue without bonds, and in any such action, when 
service is made by publication, default and judgment may be entered and 
enforced without bonds. In case of sale of land on execution founded on any 
such mortgage, the attorney of the board, or other person duly authorized, shall, 
on behalf of the State or county for the use of said fund, bid such sum as the 
intere-'ts of said fund may require, and if struck off to the State the land shall 
be held and disposed of as the other lands belonging to the fnnd. Tliese lands 
are known as the Mortgage Scliool Lands, and reports of them, including 
description and amount, are required to be made to the State Land Office. 



By act of Congress, July 20, 1840, a quantity of land not exceeding two 
f ntire townships was reserved in the Territory of Iowa for the use and support 
')f a university within said Territory when it shoukl beccfme a State. Tliis land 
was to be located in tracts of not less- than an entire section, and could be used 
for no other purpose than that designated in the grant. In an act supplemental 
to that for the admission of Iowa, March 3, 1845, the grant was renewed, and it 
was provided that the lands should be ui^ed "solely for the purpose of such 
university, in such manner as the Legislature may prescribe." 

Under this grant there were set apart and approved by the Secretary of the 
Treasury, for the use of the State, the following lands : 


In the Iowa City Land District, Fel.. 26. 1849 20,150.49 

In tlie Fairliel.l Land District, Oct. 17, 1S49 9,085.20 

In tlie Iowa City Land Distnet,.Tan. 28, 1850 2, .071. 81 

In the Fairlield Land District, Sept. 10, 1S50 8,198.20 

In the Dubuque Land District, May 19, 1852 10,-5.52.24 

Total 45,957.94 

These lands were certified to the State November 19, 1859. The University 
lands are placed by law under the control and management of the Board of 
Trustees of the Iowa State University. Prior to 1865, there had been selected 
and located untlor 282 patents, 22,W92 acres in sixteen counties, and 23,036 
acres unpatented, making a total of 45,928 acres. 


By act of Congress, approved March 3, 1845, the State of Iowa was 
granted the use of the salt springs within her limits, not exceeding twelve. 
By a subsequent act, approved May 27, 1852, Congress granted the springs 
to the State in fee simple, together with six sections of land contiguous to each, 
to be disposed of as the Legislature might direct. In 1861, the proceeds of 
these lands then to be sold were constituted a fund for founding and support- 
ing a lunatic asylum, but no sales were made. In 1856, the proceeds of the 
saline lands were appropriated to the Insane A.sylum, repealed in 1858. In 
1860, the stiline lands and funds were made a part of the permanent fund of 
the State University. Tliese lands were located in Appanoose, Davis, Decatur, 
Lucas, Monroe, Van Buren and Wayne Counties. 


By act of Congress, approved August 8, 1846, a grant of land was made 
for the improvement of the navigation of Des Moines River, as follows : 

B'l it enac'ed by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in 
Congress assembled. That there be, and liereby is, granted to said Territory of Iowa, for the 
purpose of aiding said Territory to improve the navigation of the Des Moines River from its 
mouth to the Raccoon Fork (so called) in said Territory, one equal moiety, in alternate seciions, 
of the public lands (remaining unsold and not otherwise disposed of, incumbered or appropri- 
ated), in a strip five miles in width on each side of said river, to be selected within said Terri- 
tory liy an agent or atjents to be appointed by the Governor thereof, subject to the approval of 
the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States. 

Sec. 2. A'ld be it farther enacted, Thvt the Lands hereby granted shall not be conveyed 
or disposed of by said Territory, nor by any State to be formed out of the same, e.xcept as said 
improvement shall progress ; that i*, I lie said Territory or State may sell so much of said lands 
as sh.all produce the sum of thirty thousand dollars, and then the sales shall cease until the Gov- 
ernor of said Territory or State shall certify the fact to the President of the United Slates that 
one-half of said sum has been expended upon said improvements, when the said Territory or 


State m!iy sell and convey a quantity of the residue of said lauds sufficient to replace the amount 
expended, and tlius the S;ile9 sliall progress as the proceeds thereof shall be expended, and the 
fact of such expenditure shall be certitied as aforesaid. 

Sec. '!. And be it further enacted. That the said River Des Moines shall be and forever 
remain a public highway tor the use of the Government of the United States, free from any toll 
or other cliarge whatever, for any property of the United Slates or persons in their service 
passing through or along the same: Provided altvaya, That it sh.all not be competent for the said 
Territory or future State of Iowa to dispose of said lands, or any of them, at a price lower than, 
for the time being, shall be the minimum price of o'hcr public lands. » 

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, Tiiat whenevertlie Territory of Iowa shall be admitted 
into the Union as a State, the lands hereby granted for the above purpose shall be and become 
the property of s.aid Stale for tlio purpose contempl.ated in this .act, and for no other: Provided 
Ihe Legislature of the State of Iowa shall accept the said grant for the said purpose." Approved 
-•Vug. S, 1845. 

Ey joint resolution of tlie General Assembly of Iowa, approved January 0, 
1847, the grant was acceptetl for the purpose specified. By another act, ap- 
proved February 24, 1847, entited "An act creating the Board of Public 
Works, and providing for the improvement of the Des Moines River," the 
Legislature provided for a Board consisting of a President, Secretary and 
Treasurer, to be elected by the people. This Board was elected August 2, 
1847, and was organized on the 22(1 of September following. The same act 
defined the nature of the improvement to be made, and provided that the work 
should be paid for from the funds to be derived from the sale of lands to be 
sold by the Board. 

Agents appointed by the Governor selected the sections designated by "odd 
numbers" throughout the whole exten*; of the grant, and this selection was ap- 
proved by the Secretary of the Treasury. But there was a conflict of opinion 
as to the extent of the grant. It was held by some that it extended from the 
mouth of the Des Moines only to the Raccoon Forks ; others held, as the 
agents to make selection evidently did, that it extended from the mouth to the 
head waters of the river. Richard M. Young, Commissioner of the General 
Land Office, on the 23d of February, 1848, construed the grant to mean that 
" the State is entitled to the altoraate sections within five miles of the Des 
Moines River, throughout the whole extent of that river within the limits of 
Iowa." Under this construction, the alternate sections above the Rticcoon 
Forks wouli], of course, belong to the State; but on the VJth of June, 1848, 
some of tliese lands were, by proclamation, thrown into market. On the 18th 
of September, the Board of Pul)lic Works filed a remonstrance with the Com- 
missioner of the General Land Office. The Board also sent in a protest to the 
State Land Office, at which the sale was ordered to take place. On the 8th of 
January, 1849, the Senators and Representatives in Congress from Iowa also 
protestetl against the sale, in a communication to Hon. Robert J. Walker, Sec- 
retary of the Treasury,- to which the Secretary replied, concurring in the 
opinion that the grant extended the whole length of the Des Moines River in 

On the 1st of June, 1849, the Commissioner of the General Land Office 
directed the Register and Receiver of the Land Office at Iowa City '' to with- 
hold from sale all lands situated in the odd numbered sections within five miles 
on each side of the Des Moines River abuve the Raccoon Forks." March 13, 
18.50, the Commissioner of the General Land Office submitted to the Secretary 
of the Interior a list "showing the tracts falling within the limits of the Des 
Moines River grant, above the Raccoon Forks, etc., under the decision of the 
Secretary of the Treasury, of March 2, 1849," and on the 6th of April 
following, Mr. Ewing, then Secretary of tiie Interior, reversed the decision of 
Secretary Walker, but ordered the lands to be withheld from sale until Con- 


gress could have an opportunity to pass an explanatory act. The Iowa author- 
ities appealed from this decision to the President (Taylor), who referred the 
matter to the Attorney General (Mr. Johnson). On the 19th of July, Mr. 
Johnson submitted as his opinion, that by the terms of the grant itself, it ex- 
tended to the very source of the Des Moines, but before his opinion was pub- 
lished President Taylor died. When Mr. Tyler's cabinet was formed, the 
question was submitted to the new Attorney General (Mr. Crittenden), who, on 
the 80th of June, 1851, reported that in his opinion the grant did not extend 
above the Eaccoon Forks. Mr. Stewart, Secretary of the Interior, concurred 
with Mr. Ciittenden at first, but subsequently consented to lay the whole sub- 
ject before the President and Cabinet, who decided in favor of the State. 

October 29, 1851, Mr. Stewart directed the Commissioner of the General 
Land Office to " submit for his approval such lists as had been prepared, and to 
proceed to report for like approval lists of the alternate sections clanned by the 
State of Iowa above the Raccoon Forks, as far as the surveys have progressed, 
or may hereafter be completed and returned." And on the following day, three 
lists of these lands were prepared in the General Land Office. 

The lands approved and certified to the State of Iowa under this grant, and 
all lying above the Raccoon Forks, are as follows : 

By Secrelary Stewart, Oct. 30, 1851 81,707.93 acres. 

JLirch 10, 1852 1-4:5,008.37 " 

By Secretary McLellan, Dec. 17, 1853 33,142.43 " 

Dec. 30, 1853 12,813.51 " 

Total 271, 572.24 acres. 

The Commissioners and Register of the Des Moines River Improvement, in 
their report to the Governor, November .30, 1852, estimates the total amount of 
lands then available for the work, including those in possession of the State and 
those to be surveyed and approved, at nearly a million acres. The indebtedness 
then standing against the fund was about ^108,000, and the Commissioners 
estimated the work to be done would cost about $1,200,000. 

January 19, 1853, the Legislature authorized the Commissioners to sell 
" any or all the lands which have or may hereafter be granted, for not less than 

On the 24th of January, 1858, the General Assembly provided for the elec- 
tion of a Commissioner by the people, and appointed two Assistant Commission- 
ers, with authority to make a contract, selling the lands of the Improvement 
for $1,300,000. "^This new Board made a contract, June 9, 1855, with the Des 
Moines Navigation & Railroad Company, agreeing to sell all the lands donated 
to the State by Act of Congress of August 8, 1846, which the State had not 
sold prior to December 28, 1853, for $1,300,000, to be expended on the im- 
provement of the river, and in paying the indebtedness then due. This con- 
tract was duly reported to the Governor and General Assembly. 

By an act approved January 25, 1855, the Commissioner and Register of 
the Des Moines River Improvement were authorized to negotiate with the Des 
Moines Navigation & Railroad Company for the purchase of lands in Webster 
County which had been sold by the School Fund Commi.ssioner as school lands, 
but which had been certified to the State as Des Moines River lands, and had, 
therefore, become the property of the Company, under the provisions of its 
contract with the State. 

March 21, 1856, the old question of the extent of the was again raised 
and the Commissioner of the General Land Office decided thc^ it was limited to 


the Raccoon Fork. Appciil was made to tlic Secretary of tlic Interior, and bv 
liim the matter was referred to the Attorney General, who decided that the grant 
extended to the northern boundary of tlie State ; the State relinquished its 
claim to lands lying along the river in Minnesota, and the vexed question was 
supposed to bo finally settled. 

The land whicii had been certified, as well as those extending to the north- 
ern boundary witiiin the limits of the grant, were reserved from pre-emption 
and sale by the General Land Commissioner, to satisfy the grant of August 8, 
1846, and they were treated as having passed to tiie State, which from time to 
time sold portions of them prior to their final transfer to the Des JMoines Navi- 
igation & Railroad Company, applying the proceeds thereof to the improve- 
ment of the river in compliance witli the terms of the grant. Prior to the final 
sale to the Company, June 9, 18.54, the State had sold about 827,000 acres, of 
which amount r)8,8-30 acres were located above the Raccoon Fork. The last 
certificate of the Genei'al Land Office bears date December 30, 185-3. 

"■After June 9th, 1854, the Des Moines Navigation & Railroad Company 
carried on the work under its contract with the State. As the improvement 
progressed, the State, from time to time, by its authorized otficcrs, issued to the 
Company, in payment for said work, certificates for lands. But the General 
Land Office ceased to certify lands under the grant of 1846. The State 
had made no other provision for paying for the improvements, and disagree- 
ments and misunderstanding arose between the State authorities and the 

March 22, 1858, a joint resolution was passed by the Legislature submitting 
a proposition for final settlement to the Company, whicli was accepted. The Com- 
pany paid to the State .?20,000 in cash, and i-eleased and conveyed the dredge boat 
and materials named in the resolution ; and the State, on the 3d of Ma}^ 1858, 
executed to the Des Moines Navigation & Railroad Company fourteen deeds 
or patents to the lands, amounting to 256,703.64 acres. These deeds were 
intended to convey all the lands of this grant certified to the State by the Gen- 
eral Government not previously sold; but, as if for the purpose of covering any 
tract or parcel that might have been omitted, the State made another deed of 
conveyance on the 18th day of May, 1858. These fifteen deeds, it is claimed, 
by the Company, convey 266,108 acres, of which about 53,367 are below the 
Raccoon Fork, and the balance, 212,741 acres, are above that point. 

Besides the lands deeded to the Coinj)any, the State had deeded to individual 
j)urchasers 58,830 acres above the Raccoon Fork, making an aggregate of 271,- 
571 acres, deeded above the Fork, all of which had been certified to the State 
by the Federal Government. 

By act approved March 28, 1858, the Legislature donated the remainder of 
the grant to the Keokuk, Fort Des Moines & Minnesota Railroad Company, 
upon condition that said Company assumed all liabilities resulting from the Des 
Moines River improvement operations, reserving 50,000 acres of the land in 
security for the payment thereof, and for the completion of the locks and dams 
at Bentonsport, Croton, Keosauqua and Plymouth. For every three thousand 
dollars' worth of work done on the locks and dams, and for every three thousand 
dollars paid by the Company of the liabilities above mentioned, the Register of 
the State Land Office was instructed to certify to the Company 1,000 acres of 
(he 50,000 acres reserved for these purposes. Up to 1865, there had been pre- 
sented liy the Company, under the provisions of the act of 1858, and allowed, 
claims amounting to $109,579.37, about seventy-five per cent, of which had 
been settled. 


Aftei' the passage of the Act above noticed, the question of the extent of the 
original grant Avus again mooted, and at the December Term of the Supremo (Jourt 
of the United States, in 1859-60, a decision vas rendered dechiring that the 
grant did not extend above Raccoon Fork, and that all certificates of land abo-"c 
the Fork had been issued without authority of law and were, therefore, void 
(see 23 IIow., 66). 

The State of Iowa had disposed of a large amount of land without authority, 
according to this decision, and appeal was made to Congress for relief, whicli 
was granted on tlie 3d day of March, 1861, in a joint resolution relintjuishing 
to the State all tlie title whicli tlie United States then still retained in tiie tracts 
of land along the Des Moines River above Raccoon Fork, that had been im- 
properly certified to the State by the Department of the Interior, and which is 
now held by bona fide purchasers under the State of Iowa. 

In confirmation of this relinquislimcnt, by act approved July 12, 1862, 
Congress enacted : 

Tliat the grant of lands to tlie then Territory of Iowa for tlie improvement of the Des AIoine3 
Kiver, made by (he act of August 8, 18-tG, is hereby extended so as to include the alternate sec- 
tions (designaled by odd nuraliers) lying within tive miles of said river, between the Raccoon 
Fork and the northern boundary of said State ; such lands are to be held and applied in accord- 
ance with the provisions of the original grant, except that theconseiit of Congress is hereby given 
to the application of a pnrtion thereof to aid in the construction of the Keokuk, Fort Des Moines 
& Minnesota Railroad, in accordance with the provisions of the act of the General Assembly of 
the State of Iowa, approved March 2'J, 1858. And if any of the said lands shall have been sold 
or otherwise disposed of liy the United States before the passage of this act, except those released 
by the United States to the grantees of the Slate of Iowa, under joint resoluiion of March M, 
1801, the Secretary of the Interior is hereby directed to set apart an e^ual amount of lands within 
said Slate to be certified in lieu thereof; I'romdeii, that if the State shall have sold and conveyed 
any portion of tlie lands lying within the limits of the grant the title of wdiich has proved invalid, 
any lands wliich shall be certified to said State in lieu thereof by virtue of tlio provisions of this 
act, shall inure to and be held as a trust fund for the beneht of the person or persons, respect- 
ively, whose titles shall have failed as aforesaid. 

The grant of lands by the above act of Congress was accepted by a jpint 
resolution of the General Assembly, September 11, 1862, in extra session. On 
the same day, the Governor was authorized to appoint one or more Commis- 
sioners to select the lands in accordance with the grant. These Commissioners 
were instructed to report their selections to the Registrar of the State Land 
Office. The lands so selected were to be held for the purposes of the grant, and 
were not to be disposed of until further legislation sliould be had. D. W. Kil- 
bunie, of Lee County, was appointed Commi.ssioner, and, on the 2oth day of 
April, 1864, the General Lanii Officer authorized the selection of 300,000 acres 
from the vacant public lands as a part of the grant of July 12, 1862, and the 
selections were made in the Fort Dodge and Sioux City Land Districts. 

Many difficulties, controversies and conflicts, in relation to claims and titles, 
grew out of this grant, and these difficulties were enhanced by the uncertainty 
of its limits until the act of Congress of July, 1862. But the Greneral Assem- 
bly sought, by wise and appropriate legislation, to protect the integrity of titles 
derived fron- the State. Especially was the determintition to protect the actual 
settlers, who had paid their money and made improvements prior to the final 
settlement of the limits of the grant by Congress. 


These lands constituted a part of the 500,000 acre grant made by Congress 
in 1841; including 28,878.46 acres in Webster County, selected by the Agent of 
*:he Sttite under tliat grant, and approved by the Commissioner of the General 
L;ind Office February 20, 1851. They were ordered into the market June 6, 


1853, by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, who authorized John Tol- 
man, School Fund Commissioner for Webster County, to sell them as scliool 
lands. Subsequently, when the act of 1846 was construed to extend the Des 
Moines River grant above Raccoon Fork, it was held that the odd numbered 
sections of these lands within five miles of the river were appropriated by that 
act, and on the 30th day of December, 1853, 12,813.51 acres were set apart 
and approved to the State by the Secretary of tlie Interior, as a part of the 
Des Moines River grant. January 6, 1854, the Commissioner of the General 
Land Oflice transmitted to the Superintendent of Public Instruction a certified 
copy of the lists of these lands, indorsed by the Secretary of the Interior. 
Prior to this action of the Department, however, Mr. Tolman had sold to indi- 
vidual purchasers 3,194.28 acres as school lands, and their titles were, of course, 
killed. For their relief, an act, approved April 2, 1860, provide<l that, upon 
application and proper showing, these purchasers should be entitled to draw 
from the State Treasury the amount they had paid, with 10 per cent, interest, 
on the contract to purchase made with Mr. Tolman. Under this act, five appli- 
cations were made prior to 1864, and the applicants received, in the aggregate, 

By an act approved April 7, 1862, the Governor was forbidden to issue to 
the Dubuque & Sioux City Railroad Company any certificate of the completion 
of any part of said road, or any conveyance of lands, until the company should 
execute and file, in the State Land Office, a release of its claim — first, to cer- 
tain swamp lands ; second, to the Des Moines River Lands sold by Tolman ; 
third, to certain other river lands. Tliat act provided tliat "the said company 
shall transfer their interest in those tracts of land in Webster and Hamilton 
Counties heretofore sold by John Tolman, School Fund Commissioner, to the 
Register of the State Land Oifice in trust, to enable said Register to carry out 
and perform said contracts in all cases when he is called upon by the parties 
interested to do so, before the 1st day of January, A. D. 1864. 

The company filed its i-elease to tlie Tolman lands, in the Land Oflice, Feb- 
ruary 27, 1864, at the same time entered its protest that it had no claim upon 
them, never had pretended to have, and had never sought to claim them. The 
Register of the State Land Office, under the advice of the Attorney General, 
decided that patents would be issued to the Tolman purchasers in all cases 
where contracts had been made prior to December 23, 1853, and remaining 
uncanceled under the act of 1860. But before any were issued, on the 27th of 
August, 1864, the Des Moines Navigation & Railroad Company commenced a 
suit in chancery, in the District Court of Polk County, to enjoin the issue of 
such patents. On the 30tli of August, an ex parte injunction was issued. In 
January, 1868, Mr. J. A. Harvey, Register of the Land Office, filed in the 
court an elaborate answer to plaintiff's' petition, denying that the company had 
any right to or title in the lands. Mr. Harvey's successor, Mr. C. C. Carpen- 
ter, filed a still more exhaustive answer February 10, 1868. August 3, 1868, 
the District Court dissolved the injunction. The company appealed to the 
Supreme Court, where the decision of the lower court was affirmed in December, 


By an act of Congress, approved March 28, 1850, to enable Arkansas and 
other States to reclaim swampy lands within their limits, granted all the swamp 
and overflowed lands remaining unsold within their respective limits to the 
several States. Although the total amount claimed by Iowa under this act 


does not exceed 4,000,000 acres, it has, like the Des Moines River and some 
of the land grants, cost tiie State considerable trouble and expense, and required 
a deal of legislation. The State expended large sums of money in making the 
selections, securing proofs, etc., but the General Guvernment appeared to be 
laboring under the impression that Iowa was not acting in good faith ; that she 
had selected a large amount of lands under the swamp land grant, transferred 
her interest to counties, and counties to private speculators, and the General 
Land Office permitted contests as to the character of the lands already selected 
by the Agents of the State as "swamp lands." Congress, by joint resolution 
Dec. 18, 1856, and by act March 3, 1837, saved the State from the fatal result 
of this ruinous policy. Many of these lands were selected in 1854 and 1855, 
immediately after several remarkably wet seasons, and it was but natural that 
some portions of the selections would not appear swampy after a few dry seasons. 
Some time after these first selections were made, persons desired to enter 
parcels of the so-called swamp lands and offering to prove them to be dry. In 
such cases the General Land Office ordered hearing before the local land officers, 
and if they decided the land to be dry, it was permitted to be entered and the 
claim of the State rejected. Speculators took advantage of this. Affidavits 
were bought of irresponsible and reckless men, who, for a few dollars, would 
confidently testify to the character of lands they never saw. These applica- 
tions multiplied until they covered 3,000,000 acres. It was necessary that 
Congress should confirm all those selections to the State, that this gigantic 
scheme of fraud and plunder might be stopped. The act of Congress of- 
March 3, 1857, was designed to accomplish this purpose. But the Commis- 
sioner of the General Land Office held that it w^as only a qualified confirma- 
tion, and under this construction sought to sustain the action of the Department 
in rejecting the claim of the State, and certifying them under act of May 15, 
1856, under which the railroad companies claimed all swamp land in odd num- 
bered sections within the limits of their respective roads. This action led to 
serious complications. When the railroad grant was made, it was not intended 
nor was it understood that it included any of the swamp lands. These were 
already disposed of by previous grant. Nor did the companies expect to 
receive any of them, but under the decisions of the Departn'ient adverse to the 
State the way was opened, and they were not slow to enter their claims. March 
4, 1862, the Attorney General of the State submitted to the General Assembly 
an opinion that the railroad companies Avere not entitled even to contest the 
right of the State to these lands, under the swamp land grant. A letter from 
the Acting Commissioner of the General Land Office expressed the same 
opinion, and the General Assembly by joint resolution, approved Ajiril 7, 1862, 
expressly repudiated the acts of the railroad companies, and disclaimed any 
intention to claim these lands under any other than the act of Congress of 
Sept. 28, 1850. A great deal of legislation has been found necessary in rela- 
tion to these swamp lands. 


One of the most important grants of public lands to Iowa for purposes of 
internal improvement was that known as the "Railroad Grant," by act of 
Congress approved May 15, 1856. This act granted to the State of Iowa, for 
the purpose of aiding in the construction of i-ailroads from Burlington, on the 
Mississippi River, to a point on the Missouri River, near the mouth of Platte 
River; from the city of Davenport, via Iowa City and Fort Des Moines to 


'Council Bluffs ; from Lyons City northwesterly to a point of intersection with 
the main line of the Iowa Central Air Line Railroad, near Maquoketa ; thence 
•on said main line, running as near as practicable to the Forty-second Parallel ; 
across the said State of Iowa to the Missouri River; fi-om the city of Dubuque 
to a point on the Missouri River, near Sioux City, with a branch from the 
mouth of the Tete des Morts, to the nearest point on said road, to be com- 
pleted as soon as the main road is completed to that point, every alternate section 
•of land, designated by odd numbers, for six sections in width on each side of 
:8aid roads. It was also provided that if it should appear, Avhen the lines of those 
roads were definitely fixed, that the United States had sold, or right of pre- 
emption had attached to any portion of said land, the State was authorized to 
select a quantity equal thereto, in alternate sections, or parts of sections, within 
fifteen miles of the lines so located. The lands remaining to the United States 
"within six miles on each side of said roads were not to be sold for less than the 
double minimum price of the public lands when sold, nor were any of said lands 
to become subject to private entry until they had been first offered at public 
3ale at tlie increased price. 

Section -4 of the act provided that the lands granted to said State shall be 
■disposed of by said State only in the manner following, that is to say: that a 
quantity of land not exceeding one hundred and twenty sections for each of said 
roads, and included within a continuous length of twenty miles of each of said 
roads, may be sold ; and when the Covernor of said State shall certify to the 
•Secretary of the Interior that any twenty continuous miles of any of said roads 
is completed, then another quantity of land hereby granted, not to exceed one 
hundred and twenty sections for each of said roads having twenty continuous 
miles completed as aforesaid, and included within a continuous length of twenty 
oiiles of each of such roads, may be sold ; and so from time to time until said 
roads are conqjleted, and if any of said roads are not completed within ten 
years, no further sale shall be made, and the lands unsold shall revert to the 
United States." 

At a special session of the General Assembly of Iowa, by act approved July 
14, 1856, the grant was accepted and the lands were granted by the State to 
the several railrcjad companies named, provided that the lines of their respective 
roads should be definitely fixed and located before April 1, 1857 ; and pro- 
vided further, that if either of said companies should fail to have seventy-five 
miles of road completed and equipped by the 1st day of December, 1859, and 
its entire road completed by December 1, 1865, it should be competent for the 
State of Iowa to resume all rights to lands remaining undisposed of by the 
company so failing. 

The railroad companies, with the single exception of the Iowa Central Air 
Line, accepted the several grants in accordance with the provisions of the above 
act, located their respective roads and selected their lands. The grant to the 
Iowa Central was again granted to the Cedar Rapids & IMissouri River Railroad 
Company, which accepted them. 

By act, approved April 7, 1862, the Dubuque & Sioux City Railroad Com- 
pany was required to execute a release to the State of certain swamp and school 
lands, included within the limits of its grant, in compensation for an extension 
of the time fixed for the completion of its road. 

A careful examination of the act of Congress does not reveal any special 
reference to railroad companies. The lands were granted to the State, and the 
act evidently contemplate the sale of them ht/ the State, and the appropriation 
of the proceeds to aid in the construction of certain lines of railroad within its 


limits. Section 4 of the act clearly defines the authority of the State in dis- 
posing of the lands. 

Lists of all the lands embraced by the grant were made, and certified to the' 
State by the proper authorities. Under an act of Congress approved August 3, 
1854, entitled "!Aw. act to vest in the several States and Territories the title in- 
fee of the lands which have been or may be certified to them" these certified lists, 
the originals of which are filed in the General Land Office, conveyed to the State 
"the fee simple title to all the lands embraced in such lists that are of the char- 
acter contemplated " by the terms of the act making the grant, and "intended 
to be granted thereby ; but where lands embraced in such lists are not of the 
character embraced by such act of Congress, and were not intended to be granted 
thereby, said lists, so far as these lands are concerned, shall be perfectly null 
and void; and no right, title, claim or interest shall be conveyed thereby." 
Those certified lists made under the act of May 15, 1856, were forty-three in 
number, viz.: For the Burlington & Missouri River Railroad, nine ; for the- 
Mississippi & Missouri Railroad, 11 ; for the Iowa Central Air Line, thirteen; 
and for the Dubuque & Sioux City Railroad, ten. The lands thus approved to- 
the State were as follows : 

Burlington & Missouri River R. R 287,035.34 acres. 

Mississippi & Missouri River R. R 774,674.36 " 

Cedar Rapids & Missouri River R. R 775,454.19 " 

Dubuque & ISioux City R. R 1,226,558.32 " 

A portion of these had been selected as swamp lands by the State, under 
the act of September 28, 1850, and these, by the terms of the act of August 3, 
1854, could not be turned over to the railroads unless the claim of the State to 
them as swamp was first rejected. It was not possible to determine from the 
records of the State Land Office the extent of the conflicting claims arising under" 
the two grants, as copies of the swamp land selections in some of the counties 
were not filed of record. The Commissioner of the General Land Office, however, 
prepared lists of the lands claimed by the State as swamp under act of September 
28, 1850, and also claimed by the railroad companies under act of May 15,. 
1856, amounting to 553,293.33 acres, the claim to which as swamp had been 
rejected by the Department. These were consequently certified to the State as 
railroad lands. There was no mode other than the act of July, 1856, prescribed 
for transferring the title to these lands from the State to the companies. The 
courts had decided that, for the purposes of the grant, the lands belonged to the 
State, and to her the companies should look for their titles. It was generally 
accepted that the act of the Legislature of July, 1856, was all that was neces- 
sary to complete the transfer of title. It was assumed that all the rights and 
powers conferred upon the State by the act of Congress of May 14, 1856, were 
by the act of the General Assembly transferred to the companies ; in other 
words, that it was designed to put the companies in the place of the State as the 
grantees from Congress — and, therefore, that which perfected the title thereto- 
to the State perfected the title to the companies by virtue of the act of July, 
1856. One of the companies, however, the Burlington & Missouri River Rail- 
road Company, was not entirely satisfied with this construction. Its managers 
thought that some further and specific action of the State authorities in addition 
to the act of the Legislature was necessary to complete their title. This induced 
Gov. Lowe to attach to the certified lists his official certificate, under the broad 
seal of the State. On the 9th of November, 1859, the Governor thus certified 
to them (commencing at the Missouri River) 187,207.44 acres, and December 
27th, 43,775.70 acres, an aggregate of 231,073.14 acres. These were the only 


lands under the grant that were certified by the State authorities with any 
•design of perfecting the title uh-eady vested in the company by the act of July, 
1856. The lists which were afterward furnished to the company were simply 
•certified by the Governor as being correct copies of the lists received by the 
State from the United States General Land Office. These subsequent lists 
eml)raced lands that had been claimed by the State under the Swamp Land 

It was urged against the claim of the Companies that the effect of the act 
■of the Legislature was simply to substitute them for the State as parties to the 
grant. 1st. That the lands were granted to the State to be held in trust for the 
accomplishment of a specific purpose, and therefore the State could not part 
with the title until that purpose should have been accomplished. 2d. That it 
was not the intention of the act of July 14, 1856, to deprive the State of the con- 
trol of the lands, but on the contrary that she should retain supervision of them 
and the right to withdraw all rights and powers and resume tlie title condition- 
ally conferred by that act upon the companies in the event of their failure to 
■complete their part of the contract. 3d. That the certified lists from the Gen- 
eral Land Office vested the title in the State only by virtue of the act of Con- 
gress approved August 3, 1854. The State Land Office held that the proper 
construction of the act of July 14, 1856, when accepted by the companies, was 
that it became a conditional contract that might ripen into a positive sale of the 
lands as from time to time the work should progress, and as the State thereby 
became authorized by the express terms of the grant to sell them. 

Tiiis appears to have been the correct construction of the act, but by a sub- 
sequent act of Congress, approved June 2, 1864, amending the act of 1856, the 
terms of the grant were changed, and numerous controversies arose between the 
companies and the State. 

The ostensible purpose of this additional act was to allow the Davenport & 
Council Bluffs Railroad "to modify or change the location of the uncompleted 
portion of its line," to run through the town of Newton, Jasper County, or as 
nearly as practicable to that point. The original grant had been made to the 
State to aid in the construction of railroads within its limits and not to the com- 
panies, but Congress, in 1864, appears to have been utterly ignorant of what 
had been done under the act of 1856, or, if not, to have utterly disregarded it. 
The State had accepted the original grant. The Secretary of the Interior had 
already certified to the State all the lands intended to be included in the grant 
within fifteen miles of the lines of the several railroads. It will be remembered 
that Section 4, of the act of May 15, 1856, specifies tlie manner of sale of 
these lands from time to time as wyrk on the railroads should progress, and also 
provided that " if any of said roads are not completed within ten years, no fur- 
ther sale shall be made, and the lands unsold shall revert to the United States." 
Having vested the title to these lands in trust, in the State of Iowa, it is plain 
that until the expiration of the ten years there could be no reversion, and the 
State, not the United States, must control them until the grant should expire 
by limitation. The United States authorities could not rightfully require the 
Secretary of the Interior to certify directly to the companies any portion of 
the lands already certified to the State. And yet Congress, by its act of June 
2, 1864, provided that whenever the Davenport & Council Bluffs Railroad Com- 
pany should file in the General Land Office at AVashington a map definitely 
showing such new location, the Secretary of tlie Interior should cause to be cer- 
tified and conveyed to said Company, from time to time, as the road progressed, 
■out of anv of the lands belonging to the United States, not sold, reserved, or 


otherwise disposed of, or to which a pre-emption claim or right of homestead had 
not attached, and on which a bona fide settlement and improvement had not 
been mafle under color of title derived from the United States or from the State 
of Iowa, within six miles of such newly located line, an amount of land per 
mile e([ual to that originally authorized to be granted to aid in the construction 
of said road by the act to which this was an amendment. 

The terra " out of any lands belonging to the United States, not sold, re- 
served or otherwise disposed of, etc.," would seem to indicate that Congress did 
intend to grant lands already granted, but when it declared that the Company 
should have an amount per mile equal to that originally authorized to be granted,. 
it is plain that the framers of the bill were ignorant of the real terms of the- 
original grant, or that they designed that the United States should resume the 
title it had already parted with two years before the lands could revert to the' 
United States under the original act, which was not repealed. 

A similar change was made in relation to the Cedar Rapids & Missouri- 
Railroad, and dictated the conveyance of lands in a similar manner. 

Like provision was made for the Dubui[ue & Sioux City Railroad, and the 
Company was permitted to change the location of its line between Fort Dodge 
and Sioux City, so as to secure the best route between those points ; but this 
change of location was not to impair the right to the land granted in the orig- 
inal act, nor did it change the location of those lands. 

By the same act, the Mississippi & Missouri Railroad Company was author- 
ized to transfer and assign all or any part of the grant to any other company or 
person, " if, in the opinion of said Company, the construction of said railroad 
across the State of Iowa would be thereby sooner and more satisfactorily com- 
pleted ; but such assignee should not in any case be released from the liabilities 
and conditions accompanying this grant, nor acquire perfect title in any other 
manner than the same would have been acquired by the original grantee." 

Still further, the Burlington & Missouri River Railroad was not forgotten,- 
and was, by the same act, empowered to receive an amount of land per mile; 
equal to that mentioned in the original act, and if that could not be found within 
the limits of six miles from the line of said road, then such selection might 
be made along such line within twenty miles thereof out of any public lands- 
belonging to the United States, not sold, reserved or otherwise disposed of, or- 
to which a pre-emption claim or right of homestead had not attached. 

Those acts of Congress, which evidently originated in the "lobby," occa- 
sioned much controversy and trouble. The Department of the Interior, how- 
ever, recognizing the fact that when the Secretary had certified the lands to the 
State, under the act of 1856, that act divested the United States of title, under- 
the vesting act of August, 1854, refused to review its action, and also refused 
to order any and all investigations for establishing adverse claims (except in 
pre-emption cases), on the ground that the United States had parted with the 
title, and, therefore, could exercise no control over the land. 

May 12, 1864, before the passage of the amendatory act above described, 
Congress granted to the State of Iowa, to aid in the construction of a railroad 
from McGregor to Sioux City, and for the benefit of the McGregor Western 
Railroad Company, every alternate section of land, designated by odd numbers, 
for ten sections in width on each side of the proposed road, reserving the right 
to substitute other lands whenever it was found that the grant infringed upon 
pre-empted lands, or on lands that had been reserved or disposed of for any other 
purpose. In such cases, the Secretary of the Interior was instructed to select, in 
lieu, lands belonging to the United States lying nearest to the limits specified. 



An Agricultural College and Model Farm was established by act of the 
General Assembly, approved March 22, 1858. By the eleventh section of the 
act, the proceeds of the five-section grant made for the purpose of aiding in the 
erection of public buildings was appropriated, subject to the approval of Con- 
gress, together with all lands that Congress might thereafter grant to the State 
for the purpose, for the benefit of the institution. On the 23d of March, by 
joint resolution, the Legislature asked the consent of Congress to the proposed 
transfer. By act approved July 11, 1862, Congress removed the restrictions 
imposed in the "five-section grant," and authorized the General Assembly to 
make such disposition of the lands as should be deemed best for the interests of 
the State. By these several acts, the five sections of land in Jasper County 
certified to the State to aid in the erection of public buildings under the act of 
March 3, 1845, entitled " An act supplemental to the act for the admission of 
the States of Iowa and Florida into the Union," were fully appropriated for 
the benefit of the Iowa Agricultural College and Farm. The institution is 
located in Story County. Seven hundred and twenty-one acres in that and 
two hundred in Boone County were donated to it by individuals interested in 
the success of the enterprise. 

By act of Congress approved July 2, 1862, an appropriation was made to 
each State and Territory of 30,000 acres for each Senator and Representative 
in Congress, to which, by the apportionment under the census of 1860, thev 
were respectively entitled. This grant was made for the purpose of endowing 
colleges of aorriculture and mechanic arts. 

Iowa accepted this grant by an act passed at an extra session of its Legis- 
lature, approved September 11, 1862, entitled "An act to accept of the grant, 
and carry into execution the trust conferred upon the State of Iowa by an act 
of Congress entitled ' An act granting public lands to the several States and 
Territories which may pi'ovide colleges for the benefit of agricultui'e and the 
mechanic arts,' approved July 2, 1862." This act made it the duty of the 
Governor to appoint an agent to select and locate the lands, and provided 
that none should be selected that were claimed by any county as swamp 
lands. The agent was required to make report of his doings to the Governor, 
who was instructed to submit the list of selections to the Board of Trustees of 
the Agricultural College for their approval. One thousand dollars were appro- 
priated to cairy the law into eft'ect. The State, having two Senators and six 
Representatives in Congress, was entitled to 2-40,000 acres of land under this 
grant, for the purpose of establishing and maintaining an Agricultural College. 
Peter Melendy, Esq., of Black Hawk County, was appointed to make the selec- 
tions, and during August, September and December, 1863, located them in the 
Fort Dodge, Des Moines and Sioux City Land Districts. December 8, 1864, 
these selections were certified by the Commissioner of the General Land Office, 
and were approved to the State by the Secretary of the Interior December 13, 
1864. The title to these lands was vested in the State in fee simple, and con- 
flicted with no other claims under other grants. 

The agricultural lands were approved to the State as 240,000.96 acres ; but 
as 35,691.60 acres were located within railroad limits, which were computed at 
the rate of two acres for one, the actual amount of land approved to the State 
under this grant was only 204,309.30 acres, located as follows: 

In Des Moines LnnJ District 6,804.96 acres. 

In Sioux ('ity Land Dislricl .50,025.37 " 

In Fort Dodge Land District 138,478.97 " 


By act of tlie General Assembly, approved March 29, 1864, entitled, ''An 
act authorizing the Trustees of the Iowa State Agricultural College and Farm 
to sell all lands acquired, granted, donated or appropriated for the benefit of 
said college, and to make an investment of the proceeds thereof," all these lands 
were granted to the Agricultural College and Farm, and the Trustees were au- 
thorized to take possession, and sell or lease them. They were then, under the 
control of the Trustees, lands as follows : 

Under the .act of July 2, 1852 204,.'503.30 acres. 

Of the five-section grant .-. 3,200.00 " 

Lands donated in Story County 721.00 " 

Lands donated in Boone County 200.00 " 

Total 208,430..30 acres. 

The Trustees opened an oiSce at Fort Dodge, and appointed Hon. G. W- 
Bassett their agent for the sale of these lands. 


The germ of the free public school system of Iowa, which now ranks sec- 
ond to none in the United States, was planted by the first settlers. They had 
migrated to the " The Beautiful Land" from other and older States, where the 
common school system had been tested by many years' experience, bringing 
with them some knowledge of its advantages, which they determined should be 
enjoyed by the cliildren of the land of tlieir adoption. The system thus planted 
was expanded and improved in the broad fields of the West, until now it is 
justly considered one of tlte most complete, comprehensive and liberal in the 

I^or is this to be wondered at when it is remembered humble log school 
houses were built almost as soon as the log cabin of the earliest settlers were 
occupied by their brave builders. In the lead mining regions of the State, the 
first to be occupied by the white race, the hardy pioneers provided the means 
for the education of their children even before they had comfortable dwellings 
for their families. School teachers were among the first immigrants to Iowa. 
Wherever a little settlement was made, the school house was the first united 
public act of the settlers; and the rude, primitive structures of the early time 
only disappeared when the communities had increased in population and wealth, 
and were able to replace them with more commodious and comfortable buildings. 
Perhaps in no single instance has the magnificent progress of tlie State of Iowa 
been more marked and rapid than in her common school system and in her school 
houses, which, long since, superseded the log cabins of the first settlers. To- 
day, the school houses which everywhere dot the broad and fertile prairies of 
Iowa are umsurpassed by those of any other State in the great Union. More 
especially is this true in all her cities and villages, whore liberal and lavish 
appropriations have been voted, by a generous people, for the erection of large, 
commodious and elegant buildings, furnished with all the modern improvements, 
and costing from $10,000 to §60,000 each. The people of the State have ex- 
pended more than $10,000,000 for the erection of public school buildings. 

The first house erected in Iowa w:is a log cabin at Dubuque, built by James 
L. Langworthy and a few other miners, in the Autumn of 1833. When it was 
completed, George Ctibbage was employed as teacher during the Winter of 
1833-4, and thirty-five pupils attended his school. Barrett Whittemore taught 
the second term with t^venty-five pupils in attendance. Mrs. Caroline Dexter 


commenced teaching in Dubuque in Marcli, 1836. She wms the first female 
teacher there, and probably the first in Iowa. In ISS'J, Thomas H. Benton, 
Jr., afterward for ten year.s Superintendent of Public Instruction, opened an 
English and classical school in Dubuque. The first tax for the support of 
schools at Dubuque was levied in 1840. 

Amonir tlie first buildiuffs erected at Burlington was a i-onnuodious log school 
house in 1834, in which Mr. Johnson Piersou taught the first school in the 
Winter of 1834-5. 

The first school in Muscatine County was taught by George Bumgardner, 
in the Sj)ring of 1837, and in 1839, a, log school house was erected in Musca- 
tine, which served for a long time for school house, church and public hall. 
The first school in Davenport was taught in 1838. In Fairfield, Miss Clarissa 
Sawyer, James F. Chambers and Mrs. Reed taught school in 1839. 

When the site of Iowa City was selected as the capital of the Territory of 
Iowa, in May, 1839, it was a perfect wilderness. The first sale of lots took 
place August 18, 1839, and befoi-e January 1, 1840, about twenty famdies had 
settled within the limits of the town; and during the same year, Mr. Jesse 
Berry opened a school in a small frame building he had erected, on what is now 
College .street. 

The first settlement in Monroe County was made in 1843, by Mr. John R. 
Gray, about two miles from the present site of Eddyville; and in the Summer 
of 1844, a log scliool house was built by Gray, William V. Beedle, C. Renfro, 
Joseph McMullen and Willoughljy Randolph, and the first school was opened 
by Miss Urania Adams. The building was occupied for school purposes for 
nearly ten years. About a year after the first cabin was built at Oskaloosa, a 
log school house was built, in which school was opened by Samuel W. Caldwell 
in 1844. 

At Fort Des Moines, now the capital of the State, the first school was 
taught by Lewis Whitten, Clerk of the District Court in the Winter of 1846-7, 
in one of the rooms on " Coon Row," built for barracks. 

The first school in Pottawattomie County was opened by George Green, a 
Mormon, at Council Point, prior to 1849 ; ami until about 1854, nearly, if not 
quite, all the teacliers in tjiat vicinity were Mormons. 

The first school in Decorah was tauglit in 1853, by T. W. Burdiek, then a 
young man of seventeen. In Osceola, the first school was opened by Mr. D. 
W. Scoville. The first school at Fort Dodge was taught in 1855, by Cyrus C. 
Carpenter, since Governor of the State. In Crawfonl County, the first scIiool 
house was built in Mason's Grove, in 1856, and Morris McIIenry first occupied 
it as teacher. 

During the first twenty years of the history of Iowa, the log school house pre- 
vailed, and in 1861, there were 893 of these ])rimitive structures in use for 
school purposes in the State. Since that time they have been gradually dis- 
appearing. In 1865, there were 796; in 1870, 836, and in 1875, 121. 

Iowa Territory was created July 3, 1838. January 1, 1839, the Territorial 
Legislature passerl an act providing that " there shall be established a common 
school, or schools in each of the counties in this Territory, which shall be 
open and free for every class of white citizens between the ages of five and 
twenty-one years." The second section of the act provided that " the County 
Boarcl shall, from time to time, form such districts in their respective counties 
"whenever a petition may be presented for the purpose liy a majority of the 
voters resident within such contemplated district." These districts were gov- 
erned by boards of trustees, usually of three persons ; each district was required 


to maintain school at least three months in every year ; and later, laws were- 
enacted providing for county school taxes for the payment of teachers, and that 
■whatever additional sum might be required should be assessed upon the parents- 
sending, in proportion to the length of time sent. 

When Iowa Territory became a State, in 1846, witli a population of 100,- 
000, and with 20,000 scholars within its limits, about four hundred school dis- 
tricts had been organized. In 1850, there were 1,200, and in 1857, the 
number had increased to 3,265. 

In March, 1858, upon the recommendation of Hon. M. L. Fisher, then Su- 
perintendent of Public Instruction, the Seventh General Assembly enacted that 
" each civil townsliip is declared a school district," and provided that these shouli 
be divided into sub-districts. This law went into force March 20, 1858, and 
reduced the number of school districts fi-om about 3,500 to less than 900. 

This change of school organization resulted in a very material reduction of 
the expenditures for the compensation of District Secretaries and Treasurers. 
An effort was made for several years, from 1867 to 1872, to abolish the sub- 
district system. Mr. Kisscll, Superintendent, recommended, in his report of 
January 1, 1872, and Governor Merrill forcibly endorsed his views in his annual 
message. But the Legislature of that year provided for the formation of inde- 
pendent districts from the sub-districts of district townships. 

The system of graded schools was inaugurated in 1849 ; and new schools, in 
which more than one teacher is employed, are universally graded. 

The first official mention of Teachers' Institutes in the educational records 
of Iowa occurs in the annual report of Hon. Tliomas H. Benton, Jr., made 
December 2, 1850, who said, "An institution of this character was organized a 
few years ago, composed of tlie teachers of the mineral regions of Illinois, 
Wisconsin and Iowa. An association of teachers has, also, been formed in the 
county of Henry, and an effort was made in October last to organize a regular 
institute in the county of Jones." At that time — although the beneficial 
influence of these institutes was admitted, it was urged that the expenses of 
attending them was greater than teachers with limited compensation were able 
to bear. To obviate this objection, Mr. Benton recommended that " the sum of 
$150 should be appropriated annually for three years, to be drawn in install- 
ments of $50 each by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, and expended 
for these institutions." He proposed that three institutes should be held annu- 
ally at points to be designated by the Superintendent. 

No legislation in this direction, however, was had until March, 1858, when 
an act was passed authorizing the holding of teachers' institutes for periods not 
less than six working days, whenever not less than thirty teachers should desire. 
The Superintendent was authorized to expend not exceeding ?fl00 for any one 
institute, to be paid out by the County Superintendent as the institute might 
direct for teachers and lecturers, and one thousand dollars was appropriated to 
defray the expenses of these institutes. 

December 6, 1858, Mr. Fisher reported to the Board of Education that 
institutes had been appointed in twenty counties within the preceding six months, 
and more would have been, but tlie appropriation had been exhausted. 

Tlie Board of Education at its first session, commencing December 6, 1858, 
enacted a code of school laws which retained the existing provisions for teachers' 

In March, 1860, the General Assembly amended the act of the Board by 
appropriating " a sum not exceeding fifty dollars annually for one such institute,, 
held as provided by law in each county." 


In 1865, Mr. Faville reported that " tlie provision made by the State for the 
benefit of teachers' institutes has never been so fully appreciated, both by the 
people and the teachers, as during the last two years." 

By act approved March 19, 1874, Normal Institutes were established in 
each county, to be held annually by the County Superintendent. This was 
regarded as a very decided step in advance by Mr. Abernethy, and in 1876 the 
Sixteenth General Assembly established the first permanent State Normal 
School at Cedar Falls, Black Hawk County, appropriating the building and 
property of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home at that place for that purpose. This 
school is now " in the full tide of successful experiment." 

The public school system of Iowa is admirably organized, and if the various 
oflBcers ■who are entrusted with the educational interests of the commonwealth 
are faithful and competent, should and will constantly improve. 

" The public schools are supported by funds arising from several sources.- 
The sixteenth section of every Congressional Township was set apart by the 
General Government for school purposes, being one-thirty-sixtli part of all the. 
lands of the State. The minimum price of these lands was fixed at one dollar; 
and twenty-five cents per acre. Congress also made an additional donation to 
the State of five hundred thousand acres, and an appropriation of five per cent.. 
on all the sales of public lands to the school fund. The State gives to this 
fund the proceeds of the sales of all lands which escheat to it ; the proceeds of 
all fines for the violation of the liquor and criminal laws. The money derived 
from these sources constitutes the jjermanent scliool fund of the State, which 
cannot be diverted to any other purpose. The penalties collected by the courtsi 
for fines and forfeitures go to the school fund in the counties wliere collected. 
The proceeds of the sale of lands and tiie five per cent, fund go into the State 
Treasury, and the State distributes these proceeds to the several counties accord- 
ing to their request, and the counties loan the money to individuals for long 
terms at eight per cent, interest, on security of land valued at three times the. 
amount of the loan, exclusive of all buildings and improvements thereon. ^ The 
interest on these loans is paid into the State Treasury, and becomes the avail- 
able school fund of the State. The counties are responsible to the State for all 
money so loaned, and the State is likewise responsible to the school fund for all 
moneys transferred to the counties. The interest on these loans is apportioned 
by the State Auditor semi-annually to the several counties of the State, in pro- 
portion to the number of persons between the ages of five and twenty-one years. 
The counties also levy an annual tax for school purposes, which is apportioned 
to the several district townships in the same way. A district tax is alsO' 
levied for the same purpose. The money arising from these several sources, 
constitutes the support of the public schools, and is sufficient to enable 
every sub-district in the State to afford from six to nine months' school 
each year." 

The taxes levied for the support of schools are self-imposed. Under the 
admirable sc:]^!©! laws of the State, no taxes can be legally assessed or collected 
for the erection of school houses until they have been ordered by the election of 
the district at a school meeting legally called. The school houses of Iowa are 
the pride of the State and an honor to the people. If they have been some- 
times built at a prodigal expense, the tax payers have no one to blame but 
themselves. The teachers' and contingent funds tire determined by the Board of 
Directors under certain legal restrictions. These boards are elected annually, 
except in the independent districts, in which the boanl may be entirely changed 
every three years. The only exception to this mode of levying taxes for support 


■of schools is the county school tax, which is determined by the County Board 
of Supervisors. The tax is from one to tliree mills on the dollar ; usually, 
however, but one. Mr. Abernethy, who was Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion from 1872 to 1877, said in one of his reports : 

There is but little opposition to the levy of taxes for the support of schools, and there 
would be still less if the funds were always properly guantej and judiciously expended. How- 
ever much our people disagree upon other subjects, they are practically united upon this. 
The opposition of wealth has long since ceased to exist, and our wealthy men are usually the 
most lilieral in their views and the most active friends of popular education. They are often 
found upon our school bo.ards, and usually make the best of school officers. It is not uncammon 
for Boards of Directors, especially in the larger towns and cities, to be composed wholly of men 
who represent the enterprise, wealth and business of their cities. 

At the close of 1877, there were 1,086 township districts, 3,138 indepen- 
dent districts and 7,015 sub-districts. There were 9,948 ungraded and 476 
graded schools, with an average annual session of seven months and five days. 
There were 7,348 male teachers employed, whose average compensation was 
$34.88 per month, and 12,518 female teachers, with an average compensation 
of $28.69 per month. 

The number of persons between the ages 5 and 21 years, in 1877, was 
567,859; number enrolled in public schools, 421,163; total average attendance, 
251,372 ; average cost of tuition per month, $1.62. There are 9,279 frame, 
671 brick, 257 stone and 89 log school houses, making a grand total of 10,296, 
valued at $9,044,973. The public school libraries number 17,329 volumes. 
Ninety-nine teachers' institutes were held during 1877. Teachers' salaries 
amounted to $2,953,645. There was expended for school houses, grounds, 
libraries and apparatus, $1,106,788, and for fuel and other contingencies, 
$1,136,995, making the grand total of $5,197,428 expended by the generous 
people of Iowa for the support of their magnificent public schools in a single 
year. The amount of the permanent school fund, at the close of 1877, was 
$3,462,000. Annual interest, $276,960. 

In 1857, there were 3,265 independent districts, 2,708 ungraded schools, 
and 1,572 male and 1,424 female teachers. Teachers' salaries amounted to 
$198,142, and the total expenditures for schools was only $364,515. Six hun- 
dred and twenty-three volumes were the extent of the public scliool libraries 
twenty years ago, and there were only 1,686 school houses, valued at $571,064. 

In twenty years, teachers' salaries have increased from $198,142, in 1857, 
to $2,953,645 in 1877. Total school expenditures, from $364,515 to 

The significance of such facts as these is unmistakable. Such lavish expen- 
ditures can only be accounted for by the liberality and puldic spirit of the 
people, all of whom manifest their love of popular education and their faith in 
the public schools by the annual dedication to their support of more thtm one 
per cent, of their entire taxable property; this, too, uninterruptedly through a 
series of years, commencing in the midst of a war which taxed their energies and 
resources to the extreme, and continuing through years of general depression in 
business — years of moderate yield of produce, of discouragingly low prices, and 
even amid the scanty surroundings and privations of pioneer life. Few human 
enterprises have a grander significance or give evidence of a more noble purpose 
than the generous contributions from the scanty resources of the pioneer for the 
purposes of public education. 




Governors — Robert Lucas, 1838-41 ; John Chambers, 1841-45 ; James 
Clarke, 1845. 

Secretaries — William B. Conway, 1838, died 1839 ; James Clarke, 1839 ; 
0. H. W. StuU, 1841 ; Samuel J. Burr, 1843 ; Jesse Williams, 1845. 

Auditors— Jesse Williams, 1840; Wm. L. Gilbert, 1843- Robert M. 
Secrest, 1845. 

Treasurers — Thornton Bayliss, 1839 ; Morgan Reno, 1840. 

Judges — Charles Mason, Chief Justice, 1838 ; Joseph Williams, 1838 ; 
Thomas' S. Wilson, 1838. 

Presidents of Council — Jesse B. Browne, 1838-9 ; Stephen Hempstead,-. 
1839-40; M. kainridge, 1840-1; Jonathan W. Parker, 1841-2; John D. 
Elbert, 1842-3; Thomas Cox, 1843-4; S. Clinton Hastings, 1845; Stephen 
Hempstead, 1845-6. 

Speakci-s of the House — William H. Wallace, 1838-9 ; Edward Jolmston, 
1839-40 ; Thomas Cox, 1840-1 ; Warner Lewis, 1841-2 ; James M. Morgan, 
1842-3 ; James P. Carleton, 1843-4 ; James M. Morgan, 1845 ; George W. 
McCleary, 1845-6. 

First Constitutional Convention, IS4.4. — Shepherd LeffleV, President ; Geo. 
S. Hampton, Secretary. 

Second Constitutional Convention, 184-6 — Enos Lowe, President ; William 
Thompson, Secretary. 


Governors — Ansel Briggs, 1846 to 1850 ; Stephen Hempstead, 1850 to 
1854; James W. Grimes, 1854 to 1858 ; Ralph P. Lowe, 1858 to 1860; Sam- 
uel J. Kirkwood, 1860 to 1864 ; William M. Stone, 1864 to 1868 ; Samuel 
Morrill, 1868 to 1872 ; Cyrus C. Carpenter, 1872 to 1876 ; Samuel J. Kirk- 
wood, 1876 to 1877; Joshua G. Newbold, Acting, 1877 to 1878; John H. 
Gear, 1878 to . 

Lieutenant Governor — Office created by the new Constitution September 3, 
1857— Oran Faville, 1858-9 ; Nicholas J.' Ru^5ch, 1860-1 ; John R. Needham, 
1862-3: Enoch W. Eastman, 1864-5; Benjamin F. Gue, 1866-7; John 
Scott, 1868-9; M. M. Walden, 1870-1; H. C. Bulis, 1872-3; Joseph Dy- 
sart, 1874-5 ; Joshua G. Newbold, 1876-7 ; Frank T. Campbell, 1878-9. 

Secretaries of State — Elisha Cutler, Jr., Dec. 5, 1846, to Dec. 4, 1848 ; 
Josiah H. Bonnev, Dec. 4, 1848, to Dec. 2, 1850; George W. McCleary, Dec. 
2, 1850, to Dec'l, 1856; Elijah Sells, Dec. 1, 1856, to Jan. 5, 1863; James 
Wright, Jan. 5, 1863, to Jan. 7, 1867 ; Ed. Wright, Jan. 7, 1867, to Jan. 6, 
1873; Josiah T. Young, Jan. 6, 1873, to . 

Auditors of (State— Joseph T. Fales, Dec. 5, 1846, to Dec. 2, 1850 ; Will- 
iam Pattee, Dec. 2, 1850, to Dec. 4, 1854 ; Andrew J. Stevens, Dec. 4, 1854, 
resigned in 1855 ; John Pattee, Sept. 22, 1855, to Jan. 3, 1859 ; Jonathan 
W. Cattell, 1859 to 1865 ; John A. Elliot, 1865 to 1871 ; John Russell, 1871 
to 1875 ; Buren R. Sherman, 1875 to . 

Treasurers of State— llorgan Reno, Dec. 18, 1846, to Dec. 2, 1850 ; 
Israel Kister, Dec. 2, 1850, to Dec. 4, 1852 ; Martin L. Morris, Dec. 4, 1852, 
to Jan. 2, 1859 ; John W. Jones, 1859 to 1863 ; William H. Holmes, 1863 to 


1867 ; Samuel E. Rankin, 1867 to 1873 ; William Christy, 1873 to 1877 ; 
George W. Bemis, 1877 to . 

Superintendents of PuhUe Instruction — Office created in 1847 — James Harlan, 
June 5, 1845 (Supreme Court decided election void) ; Thomas H. Benton, Jr., 
May 23, 1844, to June 7, 1854 ; James D. Eads, 1854-7 ; Joseph C. Stone, 
March to June, 1857 ; Maturin L. Fisher, 1857 to Dec, 1858, when the office 
•was abolished and the duties of the office devolved upon the Secretary of the 
Board of Education. 

Secretaries of Board of Education — Thomas H. Benton, Jr., 1859-1863; 
Oran Faville, Jan. 1, 1864. Board abolished March 23, 1864. 

Superintendents of Public Instruction — Office re-created March 28, 1864 — 
■Oran Faville, March 28, 1864, resigned March 1, 1867; D. Franklin Wells, 
March 4, 1867, to Jan., 1870 ; A. S. Kissell, 1870 to 1872 ; Alonzo Abernethy, 
1872 to 1877 ; Carl W. You Coelln, 1877 to . 

State Binders — Office created February 21, 1855 — William M. Coles, May 
1, 1855, to May 1, 1859; Frank M. Mills, 1859 to 1867; James S. Carter, 
1867 to 1870; J. J. Smart, 1870 to 1874; H. A. Perkins, 1874 to 1875; 
James J. Smart, 1875 to 1876 ; H. A. Perkins, 1876 to . 

Registers of the State Land Office — Anson Hart, May 5, 1855, to May 
13, 1857 ; Theodore S. Parvin, May 13, 1857, to Jan. 3, 1859 ; Amos B. 
Miller, Jan. 3, 1859, to October, 1862 ; Edwin Mitchell, Oct. 31, 1862, to 
Jan 5, 1863 ; Josiah A. Harvey, Jan. 5, 1863, to Jan. 7, 1867 ; Cyrus C. 
Carpenter, Jan. 7, 1867, to January, 1871 ; Aaron Brown, January, 1871, to 
to January, 1875 ; David Secor, January, 1875, to . 

State Printers — Office created Jan. 3, 1840 — Garrett D. Palmer and 
George Paul, 1849; William H. Merritt, 1851 to 1853; William A. Hornish, 
1853 (resigned May 16, 1853); Mahoney & Dorr, 1853 to 1855; Peter 
Moriarty, 1855 to 1857; John Teesdale, 1857 to 1861; Francis W. Palmer, 
1861 to 1869 ; Frank M. Mills, 1869 to 1870 ; G. W. Edwards, 1870 to 
1872 ; R. P. Clarkson, 1872 to . 

Adjutants General — Daniel S. Lee, 1851-5 ; Geo. W. McCleary, 1855-7 ; 
Elijah Sells, 1857 ; Jesse Bowen, 1857-61 ; Nathaniel Baker, 1861 to 1877 ; 
John H. Looby, 1877 to . 

Attorneys General — David C. Cloud, 1853-56 ; Samuel A. Rice, 1856-60; 
Charles C. Nourse, 1861-4; Isaac L. Allen, 1865 (resigned January, 1866); 
Frederick E. Bissell, 1866 (died June 12, 1867); Henry O'Connor, 1867-72; 
Marsena E. Cutts, 1872-6 ; John F. McJunkin, 1877. 

Presidents of the Senate — Thomas Baker, 1846-7 ; Thomas Hughes, 
1848; John J. "Selman, 1848-9; Enos Lowe, 1850-1; William E. Leffing- 
well, 1852-3; Maturin L. Fisher, 1854-5; William W. Hamilton, 1856-7. 
Under the new Constitution, the Lieutenant Governor is President of the 

Speakers of the House — Jesse B. Brown, 1847-8 ; Smiley H. Bonhan, 
1849-50; George Temple, 1851-2; James Grant, 1853-4 ; Reuben Noble, 
1855-6 ; Samuel McFarland, 1856-7 ; Stephen B. Sheledy, 1858-9 ; John 
Edwards, 1860-1 ; Rush Clark, 1862-3 ; Jacob Butler, 1864-5 ; Ed. Wright, 
1866-7 ; John Russell, 1868-9 ; Aylett R. Cotton, 1870-1 ; James Wilson, 
1872-3; John H. Gear, 1874-7; John Y. Stone, 1878. ^ 

New Constitutional Convention, 1859 — Francis Springer, President ; Thos. 
J. Saunders, Secretary. 



John H. Gear, Governor ; Frank T. Campbell, Lieutenant Governor ; Josiah 
T. Young, Secretary of State; Buren R. Sherman, Auditor of State; George 
W. Bemis, Treasurer of State; David Secor, Register of State Land Office; 
John H. Looby, Adjutant General; John F. McJunken, Attorney General; 
Mrs. Ada North, State Librarian; Edward J. Holmes, Clerk Supreme Court; 
John S. Runnells, Reporter Supreme Court; Carl W. Von Coelln, Superintend- 
ent Public Instruction; Richard P. Clarkson, State Printer; Henry A. Pei-kins, 
State Binder; Prof. Nathan R. Leonard, Superintendent of Weights and 
Measures; William H. Fleming, Governor's Private Secretary; Fletcher W. 
Young, Deputy Secretary of State; John C. Parish, Deputy Auditor of State; 
Erastus G. Morgan, Deputy Treasurer of State; John M. Davis, Deputy Reg- 
ister Land Office; Ira C. Kling, Deputy Superintendent Public Instruction. 



Chief Justices. — Charles Mason, resigned in June, 1847 ; Joseph Williams, 
Jan., 1847, to Jan., 1848; S. Clinton Hastings, Jan., 1848, to Jan., 1849; Joseph 
Williams, Jan., 1849, to Jan. 11, 1855; Geo. G. Wright, Jan. 11, 1855, to Jan., 
1860 ; Ralph P. Lowe, Jan., 1860, to Jan. 1, 1862 ; Caleb Baldwin, Jan., 1862, to 
Jan., 1864 ; Geo. G. Wright, Jan., 1864, to Jan., 1866; Ralph P. Lowe, Jan. ,1866, 
to Jan., 1868 ; John F. Dillon, Jan., 1868, to Jan., 1870 ; Chester C. Cole, Jan. 
1, 1870, to Jan. 1, 1871; James G. Day, Jan. 1, 1871, to Jan. 1, 1872; Joseph 
M. Beck, Jan. 1, 1872, to Jan. 1, 1874; W. E. Miller, Jan. 1, 1874, to Jan. 1, 
1876; Chester C. Cole, Jan. 1, 1876, to Jan. 1, 1877; James G. Day, Jan. 1, 
1877, to Jan. 1, 1878; James H. Rothrock, Jan. 1, 1878. 

Associate Judges. — Joseph Williams; Thomas S. Wilson, resigned Oct., 
1847; John F. Kinney, June 12, 1847, resigned Feb. 15, 1854; George 
Greene, Nov. 1, 1847, to Jan. 9, 1855; Jonathan C. Hall, Feb. 15, 1854, to 
succeed Kinney, resigned, to Jan., 1855; William G. Woodward, Jan. 9, 1855; 
Norman W. Isbell, Jan. 16, 1855, resigned 1856; Lacen D. Stockton, June 3, 
1856, to succeed Isbell, resigned, died June 9, 1860; Caleb Baldwin, Jan. 11, 
1860, to 1864; Ralph P. Lowe, Jan. 12, 1860; George G. Wright, June 26, 
1860, to succeed Stockton, deceased; elected U. S. Senator, 1870; John F. Dil- 
lon, Jan. 1, 1864, to succeed Baldwin, resigned, 1870; Chester C. Cole, March 
1, 1864, to 1877; Joseph M. Beck, Jan. 1, 1868; W. E. Miller, October 11, 
1864, to succeed Dillon, resigned; James G. Day, Jan. 1, 1871, to succeed 


James H. Rothrock, Cedar County, Chief Justice; Joseph M. Beck, Lee 
County, Associate Justice ; Austin Adams, Dubuque County, Associate Justice ; 
W^illiam H. Seevers, Oskaloosa County, Associate Justice; James G. Day, Fre- 
mont County, Associate Justice. 



(The first General Assembly failed to elect Senators.) 

George W. Jones, Dubuque, Dec. 7, 1848-1858 ; Augustus C. Dodge, Bur- 
lington, Dec. 7, 1848-1855; James Harlan, Mt. Pleasant, Jan. 6, 1855-1865; 
James W. Grimes, Burlington, Jan. 26, 1858-died 1870 ; Samuel J. Kirkwood, 
Iowa City, elected Jan. 13, 1866, to fill vacancy caused by resignation of James 


Harlan ; James Harlan, Mt. Pleasant, March 4, 1866-1872 ; James B. Howell^ 
Keokuk, elected Jan. 20, 1870, to fill vacancy caused by the death of J. W. 
Grimes — term expired March 3d ; George G. Wright, Des Moines, Mai-ch 4,. 
1871-1877; William B. Allison, Dubuque, March 4, 1872; Samuel J. Kirk- 
wood, March 4, 1877. 


T'wenty-nmth Congress — 184-6 to 184-7. — S. Clinton Hastings ; Shepherd 

Thirtieth Coniiress—1847 to 1849.— First District, William Thompson; 
Second District, Shepherd Leffler. 

Thirtij-first Congress — 1849 to 1851. — First District, First Session, Wm. 
Thompson ; unseated by the House of Repi-esentatives on a contest, and election 
remanded to the people. First District, Second Session, Daniel F. Miller. 
Second District, Shepherd Leffler. 

TJiirtij-second Congress — 1851 to 1853. — First District, Bcrnhart Henn. 
Second District, Lincoln Clark. 

Thirty-third Congress — 1853 to 1855. — First District, Bernhart Henn. 
Second District, John P. Cook. 

Thirty-fourth Congress — 1855 to 1857. — First District, Augustus Hall. 
Second District, James Thorington. 

Thirty-fifth Congress — 1857 to 1859. — First District, Samuel R. Curtis. 
Second District, Timothy Davis. 

Thirty-siith Congress — 1859 to 1861. — First District, Samuel R. Curtis. 
Second District, William Vandever. 

Thirty-seventh Congress — 1861 to 1863. — First District, First Session^ 
Samuel R. Cui-tis.* First District, Second and Third Sessions, James F. Wil- 
son. Second District, William Vandever. 

Thirty-eighth Congress — 1863 to 1865. — First District, James F. Wilson. 
Second District, Hiram Price. Third District, William B. Allison. Fourth 
District, Josiah B. Grinnell. Fifth District, John A. Kasson. Sixth District, 
Asahel W. Hubbard. 

Thirty-ninth Congress — 1865 to 1867. — First District, James F. Wilson ; 
Second District, Hiram Price; Third District, William B. Allison; Fourth 
District, Josiah B. Grinnell ; Fifth District, John A. Kasson ; Sixth District, 
Asahel W. Hubbard. 

Fortieth Congress — 1867 to 1869. — First District, James F. Wilson ; Sec- 
ond District, Hiram Price ; Third District, William B. Allison, Fourth District, 
William Lougliridge; Fifth District, Grenville M. Dodge; Sixth District, 
Asahel W. Hubbard. 

Forty-first Congress — 1869 to 1871. — First District, George W. McCrary ; 
Second District, William Smyth; Third District, William B. Allison; Fourth. 
District, William Loughridge ; Fifth District, Frank W. Palmer ; Sixth Dis- 
trict, Charles Pomeroy. 

Forty-second Congress— 1871 to 1873. — First District, George W. Mc- 
Crary ; Second District, Aylett R. Cotton ; Third District, W. G. Donnan ;, 
Fourth District, Madison M. Waldon ; Fifth District, Frank W. Palmer ; Sixth 
District, Jackson Orr. 

Forty-third Congress — 1873 to 1875. — First District, George W. McCrary; 
Second District, Aylett R. Cotton ; Third District, William Y. Donnan ; Fourth 
District, Henry 0. Pratt ; Fifth District, James Wilson ; Sixth District, 

* Vacated seat by acceptance of commisalon as Brigadier General, and J. F. Wilson chosen his flUcceBflor. 




William Loughridgc; Seventh District, John A, Kussoii ; Eighth Dlstricc, 
Jame3 \V. McDill ; Ninth District, Jackson Orr. 

Forty-fourth Congress — 1875 to 1S77. — First District, George W. Mo 
Crary ; Second District, John Q. Tufts ; Third District, L. L. Ainsworth ; 
Fourth District, Henry 0. Pratt; Fifth District, James Wilson ; Sixth District, 
Ezckiel S. Sampson ; Seventh District, John A. Kasson ; Eighth District, 
James W. McDill ; Fifth District, Addison Oliver. 

Forty-fifth Congress — 1877 to 1S79. — First District, .J. C. Stone; Second 
District, Ilirara Price ; Third District, T. W. Burdick ; Fourth District, H. C. 
Deering ; Fifth District, Rush Clark ; Sixth District, E. S. Sampson ; 
Seventh District, H. J. B. Curamings ; Eighth District, W. F. Sapp ; Ninth 
District, Addison Oliver. 


The State of Iowa may ivell be proud of her record during the War of the 
Rebellion, from 1861 to ISOf). The following brief but comprehensive sketch of 
the history she made during that trying period is largely from the pen of Col. A. 
P. Wood, of Dubuque, the author of " The History of Iowa and the War," one 
of the best works of the kind yet written. 

" Whether in the promptitude of her responses to the calls made on her by 
the General Government, in the courage and constancy of her soldiery in the 
field, or in the wisdom and efficiency with wliich her civil administration was 
condiicted during the trying period covered by the War of the Rebellion, Iowa 
proved herself the peer of any loyal State. The proclamation of her Governor, 
responsive to that of the President, calling for volunteers to compose her First 
Regiment, was issued on the fourth day after the fall of Sumter. At the end 
of only a single week, men enough were reported to be in quarters (mostly in 
the vicinity of their own homes) to fill the regiment. These, however, were 
harilly more than a tithe of tli.e number who had been offered by company com- 
manders for acceptance under the President's call. So urgent were these oSers 
that the Governor requested (on the 24th of April) permission to organize an 
additional regiment. While awaiting an answer to this request, ho conditionally 
accepted a sufficient number of companies to compose two additional regiments. 
In a short time, he was notified that both of these would be accepted. Soon 
after the comjdction of the Second and Third Regiments (which was near the 
close of May), the Adjutant General of the State reported that upward of one 
hundred and seventy companies had been tendered to tlie Governor to serve 
against the enemies of the Union. 

" Much difficulty and considerable delay occured in fitting these regiments 
for the field. For the First Infantry a complete outfit (not uniform) of clothing 
was extemporized — principally by the volunteered labor of loyal women in the 
diHerent towns — from material of various colors and qualities, obtained within 
the limits of the State. The same was done in part ior the Second Infantry. 
Meantime, an extra session of the General Assemblv had been called by the 
Governor, to convene on the 15th of May. W^ith but little delay, that body 
authorized a loan of $800,000, to meet the extraordinary expenses incurred, and 
to be incurred, by the Executive Department, in consequence of the new emer- 
gency. A wealthy merchant of the State (Ex-Governor Merrill, then a resident 
of McGregor) immediately took from the Governor a contract to supply a com- 
plete outfit of clothing for the three regiments organized, agreeing to receive, 
should the Governor so elect, his pay therefor in State bonds at par. 'This con- 



tract ho executed to tlie letter, and a portion of the clothing (which was manu- 
factured in Boston, to liis order) was delivered at Keokuk, the place at which 
the troops had rendezvoused, in exactly one month from the day on which the 
contract had been entered into. The remainder arrived only a few days later. 
This clotliing was delivered to the regiment, but was subsequently condemned 
by the Government, for the reason that its color was gray, and blue had been 
adopted as the color to be worn by the national troops." 

Other States also clothed their troops, sent forward under the first call of 
President Lincoln, with gray uniforms, but it was soon found that the con- 
federate forces were also clothed in gray, and that color was at once abandoned 
by the Union troops. If both armies were clotiied alike, anno^'ing if not fatal 
mistakes were liable to be made. 

But while engaged in these efforts to discharge her whole duty in common with 
all the other Union-loving States in the great emergency, Iowa was compelled 
to make immediate and ample provision for the protection of her own borders, 
from threatened invasion on the south by the Secessionists of Missouri, and 
from danger of incursions from the west and northwest by bands of hostile 
Indians, who were freed from the usual restraint imposed upon them by the 
presence of regular troops stationed at the frontier posts. These troops were 
withdrawn to meet the greater and more pressing danger threatening the life of 
the nation at its very heart. 

To provide for the ade(iuate defense of her borders from the ravages of both 
rebels in arms against the Government and of the more irresistible foes from 
the Western plains, the Governor of the State was authorized to raise and equip 
two regiments of infantry, a squadron of cavalry (not less than five companies) 
and a battalion of artillei'y (not less than three companies.) Only cavalry were 
enlisted for home defense, however, "but," says Col. Wood, "in times of special 
danger, or when calls were made by the Unionists of Northern Missouri for 
assistance against their disloyal enemies, large nundjers of militia on foot often 
turned out, and remained in the field until the necessity for their services had 

" The first order for the Iowa volunteers to move to the field was received 
on the 13th of June. It was issued by Gen. Lyon, then commanding the 
United States forces in Missouri. The First and Second Infantry immediately 
embarked in steamboats, and moved to Hannibal. Some two weeks later, tlie 
Third Infantry was ordered to the same point. These three, together with 
many other of the earlier organized Iowa regiments, rendered their first field 
service in Missouri. The First Infantry formed a [)art of the little army with 
wliich Gen. Lyon moved on Springfield, and fought the bloody battle of Wilson's 
Creek. It received unqualified praise for its gallant bearing on the field. In 
the following month (September), the Third Iowa, with hut very slight support, 
fought with honor the sanguinary engagement of Blue Mills Landing; and in 
November, the Seventh Iowa, as a part of a force commanded by Gen. Grant, 
greatly distinguished itself in the battle of Belmont, where it poured out its 
blood like water — losing more than half of the men it took into action. 

" The initial operations in which the battles referred to took place were fol- 
lowed by the more important movements led by Gen. Grant, Gen. Curtis, of 
this State, and other commanders, which resulted in defeating the armies 
defending the chief strategic lines held by the Confederates in Kentucky, Tenn- 
nesseel^Missouri and Arkansas, and compelling their withdrawal from mucli of 
the territory previously controlled by them in those States. In these and other 
movements, down to the grand culminating campaign by which Vicksburg was 


captured and tlie Confederacy permanently severed on the line of the Mississippi 
River, Iowa troops took part in steadily increasing numbers. In the investment 
and siege of Vicksburg, the State Avas lepresented by thirty regiments and two 
batteries, in addition to which, eight regiments and one battery were employed 
on the outposts of the besieging ;irmy. The brilliancy of their exploits on the 
many fields where they served won for them tlie highest meed of praise, butli 
in military and civil circles. Multiplied were the terms in which expression 
was given to this sentiment, but these words of one of the journals of a neigh- 
lioring State, 'The Iowa troops have been heroes among heroes,' embody the 
spirit of all. 

" In the veteran re-enlistments that distinguished the closing months of ISOS 
nbove all other periods in tlie history of re-enlistments for the national armies', 
tlie Iowa three years' men (who were relatively more numerous than tiiosc of any 
other State) were prompt to set the example of volunteering for another term of 
equal length, thereby adding many thousands to the great army of those wlio 
gave tliis renewed and piactical assurance that the cause of the Union should 
not be left without defenders. 

", In all the important movements of 1S04-65, by which the Confedenicy 
was penetrated in every quarter, and its military power finally overthrown, the 
Iowa troops took part. Their drum-beat was heard on the banks of every great 
river of the South, from the Potomac to the Rio Grande, and everywhere they 
rendered the same f lithful and devoted service, maintaining on all occasions their 
wonted reputation for valor in the field and endurance on the mai'ch. 

" Two Iowa tiiree-year cavalry regiments were employed during their whole 
term of service in the operations that were in progress from 180-3 to 18GG 
against the hostile Indians of the western plains. A portion of these men were 
among the last of the volunteer troops to be mustered out of service. The State 
al.-o supplied a considerable number of men to the navy, who took part in most 
of the naval operations prosecuted against the Confederate power on the Atlantic 
and (julf coasts, and the rivers of the West. 

" The people of Iowa were eai'ly and constant workers in tlie sanitary field, 
and by their liberal gifts and personal efforts for the benefit of the soldiery, 
placed their State in the front rank of those who became distinguished for their 
cxiiibitions of patriotic benevolence during the period covered by the war. 
Agents appointed by the Governor were stationed at points convenient for ren- 
dering assistance to the sick and needy soldiers of the State, while others were 
employed in visiting, from time to time, hospitals, camps and armies in tlie field, 
aii(l doing whatever the circumstances rendered possible for the health and 
comfort of such of the Iowa soldiery as might be found there. 

•• Some of the benevolent people of the State early conceived the idea of 
ostahlishing a Home for such of the children of deceased soldiers as might be 
left in destitute circumstances. This idea first took form in 1863, and in the 
fulli)wing vear a Home was opened at Farmington, Van Buren County, in a 
building leased for that purpose, and which soon became filled to its utmost 
capacity. The institution received liberal donations from the general public, 
and also from the soldiers in the field. In ISGo, it became necessary to pro- 
vide increased accommodations for the large number of children who were 
seeking the benefits of its care. This was done by establishing a branch 
at Cellar Falls, in Black Hawk County, and by securing, during the same 
year, for the use of the parent Home, Camp Kinsman near the City of 
Davenport. This property was soon afterward donated to the institution, by 
act of Congress. 


" In 18(36, in pursuance of a law enacted for tliat purpose, the Soldiers' 
Orphans' Home (which then contained about four hundred and fifty inmates) 
became a State institution, and thereafter the sums necessary for its support were 
appropriated from the State treasury. A second branch was established at 
Glenwood, Mills County. Convenient tracts were secured, and valuable improve- 
ments made at all the different points. Schools were also established, and em- 
ployments provided for such of the children as were of suitable age. In all 
ways the provision nnide for tliese wards of the State has been such as to chal- 
lenge the approval of every benevolent mind. The numiier of children who 
have been inmates of the Home from its foundation to tlie present time is 
considerably more than two thousand. 

" At the beginning of the war, the population of Iowa included about one 
hundred and fifty tliousand men presumably lialjle to render military service. 
Tlie State raised, for general service, thirty-nine regiments of infantry, nine 
regiments of cavalry, and four companies of artillery, composed of tliree years' 
men ; one regiment of infantry, composed of three months' men : andfiur regi- 
ments and one battalion of infantry, composed of one hundred days' men. The 
origin;il enlistments in these various organizations, including seventeen hundred 
and twenty-seven men raised by draft, numbered a little more than si.\ty-nine 
thousand. The re-enlistments, including upward of seven thousand veterans, 
numbered very nearly eiglit thousand. The enlistments in tlie regular army 
and navy, and organizations of other States, will, if added, raise the total to 
upward of eighty thousand. The number of men who, under special enlistments, 
and as militia, took part at diflerent times in the operations on the e.xposed 
borders of the State, was probaldy as many as five thousand. 

'■ Iowa paid no bounty on account of the men she placed in the field. In 
some instances, toward the close of the war, bounty to a comparatively small 
amount was paid by cities and towns. On only one occasion — that of the call 
of July 18, 1864 — was a draft made in Iowa. This did not occur on account of 
her proper liability, as established by previous rulings of the War Department, 
to supply men under that call, but grew out of the great necessity that there 
existed for raising men. Tlie Government insisted on tcmiiorarily setting aside, 
in part, the former rule of settlements, and enforcing a draft in all cases where 
subdistricts in any of the States should be found deficient in their supply of 
men. In no instance was Iowa, as a whole, found to be indebted to the General 
Government for men, on a settlement of her quola accounts." 

It is to be said to the honor and credit of loAva that while many of the loyal 
States, older and larger in population and wealth, incurred heavy State debts 
for the purpose of fulfilling their obligations to the General Government, Iowa, 
while she was foremost in duty, while she promptly discharged all lier obligations 
to her sister States and the Union, found herself at the close of the war without 
any material addition to her pecuniary liabilities incurred before the war com- 
menced. Upon final settlement after the restoration of peace, her claims upon 
the Federal Government werefiund to be fully equal to the amount of her bottds 
issued and sold during the war to provide the means for raising and equipping 
her troops sent into the field, and to meet the inevitable demands upon her 
treasury in consequence of the war. 




was organized under the President's first proclamation for volunteers for three 
nioiitlis, with John Francis Bates, of Dubuque, as Colonel ; William II. Mer- 
ritt, of Cedar Rapids, as Lieutenant Colonel, and A. B. Porter, of Mt. Pleas- 
ant, af, Major. Companies A and C were from Muscatine County; Company 
B, from Johnson County; Companies D and E, from Des Moines County, 
Company F, from Henry County; Company G, from Davenport; Companies 
H and I, from Dubuque, and Company K, from Linn County, and were mus- 
tereii into United Stat-es service May 14, 1861, at Keokuk. The above com- 
panies were independent military organizations before the war, and tendered 
their services before breaking-out of hostilities. The First was engaged at the 
battle of Wilson's Creek, under Gen. Lyon, where it lost ten killed and fifty 
wounded. Was mustered out at St. Louis Aug. 25, 1861. 


was organized, with Samuel R. Curtis, of Keokuk, as Colonel ; Jas. M. Tuttlc, 
of Keosauqua, as Lieutenant Colonel, and M. M. Crocker, of Des Moines, as 
M;ijo)', and was mustered into the United States service at Keokuk in May, 
1861. Company A was from Keokuk; Company B, from Scott County; Com- 
pany C, from Scott County ; Company D, from Des Moines; Company E, from 
Fairfield, Jefferson Co. ; Company F, from Van Buren County ; Company G, 
from Davis County ; Company II, from Washington County ; Company I, from 
Clinton County ; and Company K, from Wapello County. It participated in the 
following engagements: Fort Donelson, Shiloh, advance on Corinth, Corinth, 
Little Bear Creek, Ala.; Tunnel Creek, Ahi.; Kesaca, Ga.; Rome Cross Roads, 
Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, Nick-a-Jack Creek, in front of Atlanta, January 22, 
1864 ; siege of Atlanta, Jonesboro, Eden Station, Little Ogeechee, Savannah, 
Columbia. S. C. ; Lj^nch's Creek, and Bentonsville. Was on Sherman's march 
to the sea, and through the Carolinas home. The Second Reariment of Iowa 
Infantry Veteran Volunteers was formed by the consolidation of the battalions 
of tlio Second and Third Veteran Infantry, and was mustered out at Louisville, 
Ky., July 12, 1865. 


was organized with N. G. Williams, of Dubuque County, as Colonel ; John 
Scott, of Story County, Lieutenant Colonel ; Wm. N. Stone, of Marion County, 
Major, and was mustered into the United States service in May, 1861, at 
Keokuk. Company A was from Dubuque County ; Company B, from Marion 
County ; Company C, from Clayton County ; Company D, from Winneshiek 
(/ounty ; Company E, from Boone, Story, Marshall and Jasper Counties ; Com- 
pany F, from Fayette County ; Company G, from Warren County ; Company H, 
from Mahaska County ; Company I, from Floyd, Butler Black Hawk and 
^Ltchell Counties, and Company K from Cedar Falls. It was engaged atBlu* 
Mills, Mo. ; Shiloh, Tenn. ; Hatchie River, Matamoras, Vicksburg, Johnson, 
Miss., Meridian expedition, and Atlanta, Atlanta campaign and Sherman's 
march to Savannah, and through the Carolinas to Richmond and Washington. 
The veterans of the Third Iowa Infantry were consolidated with the Second, 
and mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July 12, 1864. 



■wns organized with G. M. Dodge, of Council Bluffs, as Colonel ; Jolin 
Galligan, of Davenport, as Lieutenant Colonel ; Wm. R. English, Glenwood, 
as Major. Company A, fiom Mills County, was mustered in at Jefferson Bar- 
racks, Missouri, August 15, 1861 ; Company B, Pottawattamie County, was 
mustered in at Council Bluffs, August 8, 1861 ; Company C, Guthrie County, 
mustered in at Jefferson Barracks, Mo., May 3, 1861 ; Company D, Decatur 
' County, at St. Louis, August IGth ; Company E, Polk County, at Council 
Bluff's, August 8th; Company F, Madison County, Jefferson Barracks, August 
15th ; Company G, Ringgold County, at Jefferson BaiTacks, August loth ; 
Company H, Adams County, Jefferson Barracks, August 15th; Company I. 
Wayne County, at St. Louis, August 31st; Company K, Taylor and Page 
Counties, at St. Louis, August 31st. Was engaged at Pea Ridge, Chickasaw 
Bayou, Arkansas Post, Vicksburg, Jackson, Lookout Mountain, Missionary 
Ridge, Ringgold, Resaca, Taylor's Ridge; came home on veteran furlougli 
February 26, 1864. Returned in April, and was in the campaign against 
Atlanta, and Sherman's march to the sea, and thence through the Carolinas 
to Washington and home. Was mustered out at Louisville, Kentucky, July 
24, 1865. 


was organizeil with Wm. H. Wortliington, of Keokuk, as Colonel ; C Z. Mat- 
thias, of Burlington, as Lieutenant Colonel; W. S. Robertson, of Columbus City, 
as Major, and was mustered into the United States service, at Burlington, July 
15, 1861. Company A was from Cedar County; Company B, fiom Jasper 
County ; Company C, from Louisa County ; Company D, from Marshall County ; 
Company E, from Buchanan County; Company F, from Keokuk County; Com- 
pany G, from Benton County ; Company H, from Van Buren County ; Company 
I, from Jackson County ; Company K, from Allamakee County ; was engaged at 
New Madrid, siege of Corinth, luka, Corinth, Champion Hills, siege of Vicks- 
burg, Chickamauga: went home on veteran furlongh, April, 1864. The non- 
veterans went home July, 1864, leaving 180 veterans who were transferred to 
the Fifth Iowa Cavalry. The Fifth Cavalry was mustered out at Nashville, 
Tennessee, Aug. 11, 1865. 


was mustered into the service July 6, 1861, at Burlington, with John A. 
McDowell, of Keokuk, as Colonel ; Markoe Cummins, of Muscatine, Lieuten- 
ant Colonel ; John M. Corse, of Burlington, Major. Company A was from 
Linn County ; Company B, from Lucas and Clarke Counties; Company C, 
from Hardin County; Company D, from Appanoose County; Company E, 
from Monroe County ; Company F, from Clarke County ; Company G, from 
Johnson County ; Company H, from Lee County ; Company I, from Des 
Moines County ; Company K, from Henry County. It was engaged at Shiloh, 
Mission Ridge, Resaca, Dallas, Big Shanty, Kenesaw Mountain, Jackson, Black 
River Bridge, Jones' Ford, etc., etc. The Sixth lost 7 officers killed in action, 18 
wounded ; of enlisted men 102 were' killed in action, 30 died of wounds, 124 of 
disease, 211 were discharged for disability and 301 were wounded in action, 
which was the largest list of casualties, of both officers and men, of any reg- 
iment from Iowa. Was mustered out at Louisville, Kentucky, July 21, 1865. 



was mustered into the United States service at Biulington, July 24, 1861, 
with J. G. Launian, of Burlington, as Colonel ; Augustus Wentz, of Daven- 
port, as Lieutenant Colonel, and E. W. Rice, of Oskaloosa, as Major. Com- 
pany A was from Muscatine County ; Company B, from Chickasaw and Floyd 
Counties ; Company C, from Mahaska County ; Companies D and E, from Lee 
County ; Company F, from Wapello County ; Company G, from Iowa County ; 
Company. H, from Wa.shington County; Company I, from Wapello County; 
Company K, from Keokuk. Was engaged at the battles of Belmont (in which 
it lost in killed, wounded and missing 287 men), Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, 
Shiloh, siege of Corinth, Corinth, Rome Cross Roads, Dallas, New Hope 
Church, Big Shanty, Kenesaw Mountain, Nick-a-Jack Creek, siege of Atlanta, 
battle on 22d of July in front of Atlanta, Sherman's campaign to the ocean, 
through the Carolinas to Richmond, and thence to Louisville. Was mustered 
out at Louisville, Kentucky, July 12, 1865. 


was nnistered into the United States service Sept. 12, 18G1, at Davenport, 
Iowa, with Frederick Steele, of the regular array, as Colonel : James L. Ged<les. 
of Vinton, as Lieutenant Colonel, and J. C. Ferguson, of Knoxville, as Major. 
Company A was from Clinton County ; Company B, from Scott County ; 
Company C, from Washington County ; Company D, from Benton and Linn 
Counties : Company E, from Marion County ; Company F, from Keokuk 
County; Company G, from Iowa and Johnson Counties; Company H. from 
Mahaska County ; Company I, from Monroe County ; Company K, from Lou- 
isa County. Was engaged at the following battles : Shiloh (where most of the 
regiment were taken prisoners of war), Corinth, Vicksburg, Jackson and Span- 
ish Fort. Was mustered out of the United States service at Selma, Alabama, 
April 20, 1806. 


was mustered into the L'nited States service September 24, 1861, at Dubuque, 
with Wm. Vandever, of Dubutjue, Colonel ; Frank G. Herron, of Dubuque, 
Lieutenant Colonel; Wm. H. Coyle, of Decorah. Major. Company A was 
from Jackson County ; Company B, from -Tones County ; Company C, fr)m Bu- 
chanan County; Company D, from Jones County; Company E, from Clayton 
County; Company F, from Fayette County; Company G, from Black Hawk 
Coutity ; Company II, from Winneshiek County; Company I, from Howard 
County and Company K, from Linn County. Was in the following engage- 
ments : Pea Ridge, Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, siege of Vicksburg, 
Ringgold, Dallas, Lookout Mountain, Atlanta campaign, Sherman's march to 
the sea, and through North and South Carolina to Richmond. Was mustered 
out at Louisville, July 18, 1805. 


was mustered into the LniteJ States service at Iowa City September 6, 1861, 
with Nicholas Perczel, of Davenport, as Colonel ; W. E. Small, of Iowa City, 
as Lieutenant Colonel ; and John C. Bennett, of Polk County, as Major. Com- 
pany A was from Polk County; Company B, from Warren County ; Company 
C, from Tama County; Company D, from Bnone County; Company E, from 
Washington County ; Company F, from Poweshiek County ; Company G, from 


Warren County ; Company H, from Gieene County ; Company I, from Jasper 
County ; Company K, from Polk and Madison Counties. Participa'ed in llic 
following engagements : Siege of Corinth, luka. Corinth, Port Gibson, Ray- 
mond, Jackson, Champion Hills, Vicksburg and Mission Ridge. In Septem- 
ber, 1864, the non-veterans being mustered out, the veterans were transferred 
to the Fifth Iowa Cavalry, where will be found their future operations. 


was mustered into the United States service at Davenport, Iowa, in Septembes 
and October, 1861, with A. M. Hare, of Muscatine, as Colonel ; Jno. C. Abei- 
crombie, as Lieutenant Colonel ; Wm. Hall, of Davenport, as Major. Com- 
pany A was from Muscatine ; Company B, from ^larshall and Hardin Counties ; 
Company C, from Louisa County ; Company D, from Muscatine County ; Com- 
pany E, from Cedar County ; Company ¥, from AVashington County ; Company 
G, from Henry County ; Company II, from Muscatine County ; Company I 
from Muscatine County ; Company K, from Linn County. Was engaged in the 
battle of Shiloh, siege of Corinth, battles of Corinth, Vicksburg, Atlanta cam- 
naign, battle of Atlanta, July 22, 1864. Was mustered out at Louisville, Ky., 
July 15, 1865. 


was mustered into the United States service November 25, 1861, at Dubuque, 
with J. J. Wood, of Maqnoketa, as Colonel ; John P. Coulter, of Cedar Rapids, 
Lieuter;aut Colonel; Samuel D. Brodtbeck, of Duliuque, as Major. Company 
A was from Hardin County ; Company B, from Allamakee County ; Company C. 
from Fayette County; Company D, from Linn County ; Company E, from Black 
Hawk County ; Company F, from Delaware County ; Company G, from Winne- 
shiek County ; Company H, from Dubuque and Delaware Counties ; Company 
I, from Dubuque and Jackson Counties ; Company K, from Delaware County. 
It was engaged at Fort Donelson, Shiloh, where most of the regiment was 
captured, and those not captured were organized in what was called the Union 
Brigade, and were in the battle of Corinth ; the prisoners were exchanged 
November 10, 1862, and the regiment re-organized, and then participating in 
the siege of Vicksburg, battle of Tupelo, ]\Iiss.; White River, Nashville and 
Spanish Fort. The regiment was mustered out at Memphis, January 20, 1866. 


was mustered in November 1, 1861, at Davenport, with M. M. Crocker, of Des 
Moines, as Colonel ; M. M. Price, of Davenport, Lieutenant Colonel ; John 
Shane, Vinton, Major. Company A was from Mt. Vernon ; Company B, from 
Jasper County ; Company C, from Lucas County ; Company D, from Keokuk 
County; Company E, from Scott County ; Company F, from Scott and Linn 
Counties ; Company G, from Benton County ; Company II, from Marahall County ; 
Company I, from Washington County ; Company K, from Washington County. 
It participated in the following engagements : Shiloh, siege of Corinth, Corinth, 
Kenesaw Mountain, siege of Vicksburg, Campaign against Atlanta. Was on 
Sherman's march to the sea, and through North and South Carolina. Was 
mustered out at Louisville July 21, 1865. 


was mustered in the United States service October, 1861, at Davenport, with 
Wm. T. Shaw, of Anamosa, as Colonel; Edward W. Lucas, of Iowa City, as 


Lieutenant Colonel; Hiram Leonard, of Des Moines County, as Major. Com- 
))any A was from Scott County ; Company B, from Bremer County ; Company 
I), from Henry and Van Buren Counties; Company E, from Jasper County; 
Company F, from Van Buren and Henry Counties ; Company G, from Tama and 
Scott Counties; Company II, from Linn County; Company I, from Henry 
County ; Company K, from Des Moines County. Participated in the follow- 
ing engagements : Ft. Donelson, Shiloh, Corinth (where most of the regiment 
were taken prisoners of war), Pleasant Hill, Meridian, Ft. De Kussey, Tupelo, 
Town Creek, Tallahatchie, Pilot Knob, Old Town, Yellow Bayou, etc., etc., 
anil was mustered out, e.xcept veterans and recruits, at Davenport, Iowa, No- 
vember IG, 1864. 


was mustered into the LTnited States service March 19, 1802, at Keokuk, with 
Hugh T. Reid, of Keokuk, as Colonel ; Wm. Dewey, of Fremont County, as 
Lieutenmt Colonel ; W. W. Belknap, of Keokuk, as Major. Company A was 
from Linn County; Company B, from Polk County; Company C, from Mahaska 
County ; Company D, from Wapello County ; Company E, from Van Buren 
County; Company F, from Fremont and Mills Counties ; Company G, from 
Marion and Warren Counties ; Company II, from Pottawattamie and Harrison 
Counties; Company I, from Lee, Van Buren and Clark Counties; Company K, 
from Wapello, Van Buren and Warren Counties. Participated in the battle of 
Shiloh, siege of Corinth, battles of Corinth, Vicksburg, campaign against At- 
lanta, battle in front of Atlanta, July 22, 1864, and was under fire during 
the siege of Atlanta eighty-one days; was on Sherman's march to the sea, and 
through the Carolinas to Richmond, Washington and Louisville, where it was 
mustered out, August 1, 1864. 


was mustered into the United States service at Davenport, Iowa, December 10, 

1861, with Ale.xander Chambers, of the regular army, as Colonel; A. H. 
Sanders, of Davenport, Lieutenant Colonel ; W^m. Purcell, of Muscatine, 
Major. Company A was from Clinton County ; Company B. from Scott 
County; Company C, from Muscatine County ; Company D,from Boone County; 
Company E, from Muscatine (]!ounty ; Company F, from Muscatine, Clinton and 
Scott Counties; Company G, from Dubutiue County; Company H, from Du- 
buque and Clayton Counties; Company I, from Black Hawk and Linn Counties; 
Company K, from Lee ai d Muscatine Counties. Was in the battles of Shiloh, 
siege of Corinth, luka, Corinth, Kenesaw Mountain, Nick-a-Jack Creek, battles 
around Atlanta; was in Sherman's campaigns, and the Carolina campaigns. 
Was mustered out at Louisville, Ky., July I'J, 1865. 


was mustered into the United States service at Keokuk, in March and April, 

1862, with Jno. W. Rankin, of Keokuk, Colonel ; D. B. Hillis, of Keokuk, 
as Lientenant Colonel; Samuel M. Wise, of Mt. Pleasant, Major. Company 
A was from Decatur County; Company B, from Lee County; Company C, 
from Van Buren, Wapello and Lee Counties; Company D, from Des Moines, 
Van Buren and Jefferson Counties; Company E, from Wapello County; Com- 
pany F, from Appanoose County; Company G, from Marion County; Com- 
pany H, from Marion and Pottawattamie Counties; Company I, from Jefferson 
and Lee Counties; Company K, from Lee and Polk Counties. They were in 


the following engagements: Siege of Corinth, luka, Corinth, Jackson, Cham- 
pion Hills, Fort Hill, siege of Vicksburg, Mission Ridge, and at Tilton, Ga., 
Oct. 13, 1864, most of the regiment were taken prisoners of war. Was mus- 
tered out at Louisville, Ky., July 25, 1865. 


was mustered into the United States service August 5, 6 and 7, 1862, at Clin- 
ton, with John Edwards, of Chariton, Colonel ; T. Z. Cook, of Cedar Rapids, 
Lieutenant Colonel ; Hugh J. Campbell, of Muscatine, as Major. Company 
A, was from Linn and various other counties ; Company B, from Clark County : 
Company C, from Lucas County; Company D, from Keokuk and Wapello 
Counties; Company E, from Muscatine County; Company F, from Appanoose 
County; Company G, from Marion and Warren Counties; Company H, from 
Fayette and Benton Counties; Comj)any I, from Washington County; Com- 
pany K, from Wapello, Muscatine and Henry Counties, and was engaged in 
the battles of Springfield, INIoscow, Poison Spring, Ark., r.nd was mustei'cd out 
at Little Rock, Ark., July 20, 1865. 


was mustered into the United States service August 17, 1862, at Keokuk, with 
Benjamin Crabb, of Washington, as Colonel ; Samuel McFarland, of Mt. Pleas- 
ant, Lieutenant Colonel, and Daniel Kent, of Ohio, Major. Company A was 
from Lee and Van Buren Counties; Company B, from Jefferson County; Com- 
pany C, from Washington County; Company D, from Jefferson County; Com- 
pany E, from Lee County; Company F, from Louisa County; Company G, 
from Louisa County; Company H, from Van Buren County; Company I, from 
Van Buren County; Company K, from Henry County. Was engaged a Prairie 
Grove, Vicksburg, Yazoo River expedition. Sterling Farm, September 29, 1863, 
at Avhich place they surrendered ; three officers and eight enlisted men were 
killed, sixteen enlisted men were woun-^ed, and eleven officers and two hundred 
and three enlisted men taken prisoners out of five hundred engaged; they 
were exchanged July 22d, and joined their regiment August 7th, at New Or- 
leans. Was engaged at Spanish Fort. Was mustered out at Mobile, Ala., July 
10, 1865. 


was mustered into the United States service August 25, 1862, at Clinton, with 
Wm. McE. Dye, of Marion, Linn Co., as Colonel ; J. B. Leek, of Davenport, as 
Lieutenant Colonel, and Wm. G. Thompson, of Marion, Linn Co., as Major. 
Companies A, B, F, II and I were from Linn County ; Companies C, D, E, G 
and K, from Scott County, and was engaged in the following battles: Prairie 
Grove, and assault on Fort Blakely. Was mustered out at Mobile, Ala., July 
8, 1865. 


was mustered into the service at Clinton in June and August, 1862, with 
Samuel Merrill (late Governor of Iowa) as Colonel ; Charles W. Dunlap, of 
Mitchell, as Lieutenant Colonel ; S. G. VanAnda, of Delhi, as Major. Com- 
pany A was from Mitchell and Black Hawk Counties ; Company B, from 
Clayton County ; Company C, from Dubuque County ; Company D, from 
Clayton County ; Company E, from Dubuque County ; Company F, from Du- 
buque County ; Company G, from Clayton County ; Company II, from Dela- 


ware County ; Company I, from Dubuque County ; Company K, from Delaware 
County, and was in the following engagements : Ilartsville, Mo. ; Black River 
Bridge, Fort Beauregard, was at the .siege of Vicksburg, Mobile, Fort Blakcly, 
and was mustered out at Baton Rouge, La., July 15, 1865. 


was mustered into the United States service Sept. 10, 18G2, at Iowa City, with 
Wm. M. Stone, of KnoxviUe (since Governor of Iowa), as Colonel ; Jno. A. 
Garrett, of Newton, Lieutenant Colonel ; and Harvey Graham, of Iowa City, 
as Major. Company A was from Johnson County ; Company B, Johnson 
County ; Company C, Jasper County; Company D, Monroe County ; Company 
E, Wapello County ; Company F, Johnson Countv ; Company G, Johnson 
County ; Company H, Johnson County ; Company I, Johnson County ; Com- 
pany K, Johnson County. Was engaged at Vicksburg, Thompson's Hill, Cham- 
pifin Hills, Shermans campaign to Jackson, at Winchestsr, in Shenandoah Val- 
ley, losing lO'J men, Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek. Mustered out at Savannah, 
Ga., July 25, 1865. 


was mustered into United States service at Des Moines, Sept. 19, 1862, with 
William Dewey, of Sidney, as Colonel ; W. H. Kinsman, of Council Bluffs, as 
Lieutenant Colonel, and S. L. Glasgow, of Corydon, as Major. Companies 
A, B and C, were from Polk County; Company D, from Wayne County; Com- 
pany E, from Pottawattamie County; Company F, from Montgomery County; 
Company G, from Jasper County; Company H, from Madison County; Com- 
pany I, from Cass County, and Company K, from Marshall County. Was in 
Vicksburg, and engaged at Port Gibson, Black River, Champion Hills, Vicks- 
burg, Jackson, Milliken's Bend, Fort Blakely, and was mustered out at Harris- 
burg, Texas, July 26, 1865 


was mustered into United States service at Muscatine, September 18, 1862, 
with Eber C. Byam, of Mount Vernon, as Colonel; John Q. Wilds, of Mount 
Vernon, as Lieutenant Colonel, and Ed. Wright, of Springdale, as Major. 
Company A was from Jackson and Clinton Counties; Companies B and C, 
from Cedar County; Company D, from Washington, Johnson and Cedar 
Counties; Company E, from Tama County; Companies F, G and 11, from 
Linn County; Company I, from Jackson County, and Company K, from Jones 
County. \Vas engaged at Port Gibson, Champion Hills, Gen. Banks' Red 
River expedition, Winchester and Cedar Creek. Was mustered out at Savan- 
nah, Ga., July 17, 1865. 


was organized with George A. Stone, of Mount Pleasant, as Colonel ; Fabian 
Brydolf as Lieutenant Colonel, and Calom Taylor, of Bloomfield, as Major, 
and was mustered into United States service at Mount Pleasant, September 27, 
1862. Companies A and I were from Washington County; Companies B and 
IT, from Henry County ; Company C, from Henry and Lee Counties ; Com- 
panies D, E and G, 'from Des Moines County ; Company F, from Louisa 
County, and Company K, from Des Moines and Lee Counties. Was engnged 
at Arkansas Post, Vicksburg, Walnut Bluff, Chattanooga, Campain, Ring- 


gold, Ga., Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, battles around Atlanta, Love- 
joy Station, Jonesboro, Ship's Gap, Bentonville, and on Sherman's march 
through Georgia and the Carolinas, to Richmond and Washington. Was 
mustered out at Washington, D. C., June 6, 1865. 


was organized and muster.d in at Clinton, in August, 1802, with Milo Smith, 
of Clinton, as Colonel ; S. G. Magill^ of Lyons, as Lieutenant Colonel, and 
Samuel Clark, of De Witt, as Major. Company A was from Clinton and 
Jackson Counties; Company B, from Jackson County; Companies C, D, E, 
F, G, H, I and K, from Clinton County. Was engaged at Arkansas Post, 
Vicksburg, Snake Creek Gap, Ga., Resaca, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, De- 
catur, siege of Atlanta, Ezra Church, Jonesboro, Lovejoy Station, Ship's Gap, 
Sherman's campaign to Savannah, went through the Carolinas, and was mus- 
tered out of service at Washington, D. C, June 6, 18G5. 


was mustered into United States service at Dubuque, Oct. 3, 1862, with James 
I. Gilbert, of Lansing, as Colonel ; Jed Lake, of Independence, as Lieutenant 
Colonel ; and G. W. Howard, of Bradford, as Major. Companies A, B and I 
were from Allamakee County; Companies C and H, from Buchanan County; 
Companies D and E, from Clayton County; Company F, from Delaware 
County ; Company G, from Floyd and Chickasaw Counties, and Company K, 
from Mitchell County. Engaged at Little Rock, Ark., was on Red River ex- 
pedition. Fort De Russey, Pleasant Hill, Yellow Bayou, Tupelo, Old Town 
Creek and Fort Blakely. Was mustered out at Clinton, lov/a, Aug. 8, 18G5. 


was organized at Iowa City, and mustered in Nov. 10, 1862, with William E. 
Miller, of Iowa City, as Colonel ; John Connell, of Toledo, as Lieutenant Colonel, 
and H. B. Lynch, of Millersburg, as Major. Companies A and D were 
from Benton County ; Companies B and G, from Iowa County ; Companies 
C, H and I, from Poweshiek County; Company E, from Johnson County; 
Company F, from Tama County, and Company K, from Jasper County. Was 
engaged at Port Gibson, Jackson and siege of Vicksburg; was on Banks' Red 
River expedition, and engaged at Sabine Cross Roads; was engaged in Slien- 
andoah Valley, Va., and engaged at Winchester, Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek. 
Was mustered out of service at Savannah, Ga., July 31, 186.5. 


was organized at Council Bluffs, and mustered into the United States service 
December 1, 1862, with Tliomas II. Benton, Jr., of Council Bluffs, as Colonel; 
R. F. Patterson, of Keokuk, as Lieutenant Colonel; and Charles B. Siioe- 
maker, of Clarinda, as Major. Company A was from Pottawattamie County; 
Company B, from Pottawattamie and JNIills Counties; Comnany C, from Harrison 
County; Company D, from Adair and Adams Counties, Company E, from 
Fremont County; Company F, from Taylor County; Company G, i'rom Ring- 
gold County. Was engaged at Helena, Arkansas and Spanish Fort. Was 
mustered out at New Orleans August 15, 1865. 



was organized at Keokuk, and mustered into tlie United States service September 
23, 1862, with Cliarlfs B. Abbott, of Louisa County, a.s Colonel ; Wra. INI. G. Tor- 
rance, of Keokuk, as Lieutenant Colonel ; and Lauren Dewey, of Mt. Pleasant, as 
Major. Companies A and I were from Lee County; Company B, from Davis 
County; Company C, from Des Moines County ; Company D, from A"an Buren 
County ; Companies E and K from Washington County ; Company F, from 
Davis County ; and Companies G and II, from Jefferson County. Was 
engaged at Arkansas Post, Yazoo City, Vicksburg, Cherokee, Ala., Kinggold, 
Rcsaca, Konesaw Mountain, Atlanta, Lovejoy Station, Jonesboro, Taylor's 
Riilge; was in Sherman's campaigns to Savannah and through the Carolinas to 
Richmond ; was in the grand review at Washington, D. C, where it was mus- 
tered out June 5, 186-5. 


was mustered into the service at Davenport October 13, 1862, with William 
Smyth, of Marion, as Colonel ; J. W. Jenkins, of Maquoketa, as Lieutenant 
Colonel ; and Ezekiel Cutler, of Anamosa, as Major. Company A was from 
Linn County; Companies B, C and D, from Black Hawk County; Companies 
E, G and H, from Jones County; Companies F, 1 and K, from Jackson County. 
Was engaged at Chickasaw Bayou, Arkansas Post, Raymond, Jackson, Black 
River, Vicksburg, Cherokee, Lookout Mountain, Mission Ridge, Ringgold, 
Taylor's Hills, Snake Creek Gap, Resaca, Dallas, New Hope Cluuch, Big 
Shanty, Kencsaw Mountain, Atlanta, Jonesboro; was in Sherman's campaign 
through Georgia and the Carolinas, and was mustered out at Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, June 27, 1865 


was organized at Dubuque, with John Scott, of Nevada, as Colonel ; E. H. 
Mi.x, of Shell Rock, as Lieutenant Colonel, and G. A. Eberhart, of Waterloo, 
as Major. Company A was from Hamilton, Hardin and Wright Counties; 
Compsmy B, from Cerro Gordo County ; Company C, from Black Hawk 
County ; Company D, from Boone County; Company E, from Butler County: 
Company F, from Hardin County; Company G, from Butler and Floyd Coun- 
ties ; Company H, from Franklin County; Company I, from Webster County, 
and Company K, from Marshall and Polk Counties, and was mustered into 
the United States service October .5, 1862. Was engaged at Fort De Russey, 
Pleasant Hill, Tupelo, Old Town Creek, Nashville, etc., and was mustered out 
of the United States service at Clinton, Iowa, Aug. 24, 1865. 


was organized at Oskaloosa, with Samuel A. Rice, of O.skaloosa, as Colonel ; 
Cyrus H. Maskey, of Sigourney, as Lieutenant Colonel, and Hiram D. Gibson, 
of Kno.xville, as Major. Companies A and I were from ^Marion County; Com- 
panies B, F and H, from Keokuk County; Companies C, D, E and K, from 
Makaska County, and Company G, from JLirion. Makaska and Polk Counties, 
and mustered in October 1, LS62. "=■ Was engaged at Little Rock, Helena, Sa- 
line River, Spanish Fort and Yazoo Pass. VVas mustered out at New Orleans, 
Jidy 17, 1865. 



was organized with George W. Clark, of ImTianola, as Colonel ; W. S. Dungan, 
of Cliarjtoii, as Lieutenant Colonel, and R. D. Kellogg, of Decatur County, as 
Major, and mustered in at Burlington, October 15, 18(J2. Companies A and I 
were from Decatur County ; Companies B, C and D, from Warren County ; Com- 
pany E, from Lucas County; Company F, from Wayne County; Company G, 
from Lucas and Clark Counties; Company H, from Madison and Warren 
Counties, and Company K, from Lucas County. Was engaged at Arkansas 
Post, Ft. Ga-ines, etc., etc. Was consolidated with the Thirty-eighth Infantry, 
January 1, 1865, and mustered out at Houston, Texas, August 15, 1865. 


was organized at Muscatine, and mustered in the United States service Sep- 
tember 18; 1862, with S. G. Hill, of Muscatine, as Colonel ; James H. Roth- 
rock, as Lieutenant Colonel, and Henry O'Conner, of Muscatine, as Major. 
Companies A, B, C, D and E, were from Muscatine County; Company F, 
from Muscatine and Louisa Counties; Companies G, H and I, from Muscatine 
and Cedar Counties, and Company K, from Cedar County. Participated in 
the battles of Jackson, siege of Vicksburg, Bayou Rapids, Bayou de Glaze, 
Pleasant Hill, Old River Lake, Tupelo, Nashville, etc. Was mustered out at 
Davenport, August 10, 1865. 


was organized at Keokuk, witli Cliarles W. Kittredge, of Ottumwa, as Colonel ; 
F. M. Drake, of Unionville, Appanoose County, as Lieutenant Colonel, and T. 

C. Woodward, of Ottumwa, as Major, and mustered in October 4, 1862 ; Com- 
pany A was from Monroe County ; Companies B, D, E, H and K, from 
Wapello County, and Companies C, F, G and I, from Appanoose County. 
Was engaged in the following battles : Mark's Mills, Ark. ; Elkins' Ford, 
Camden, Helena, Jenkins' Ferry, etc. At Mark's Mills, April 25, 1864, out 
of 500 engaged, lost 200 killed and wounded, the balance being taken prisoners 
of war ; was exchanged October 6, 1864. Was mustered out at Duvall's Bluff, 
Ark., August 24, 1865. 


was organized with Geo. W. Kincaid, of Muscatine, as Colonel ; Geo. R. West, 
of Dubuque, as Lieutenant Colonel, and Lyman Allen, of Iowa City, as Major, 
and was mustered into LTnited States service at Muscatine December 15, 1862. 
Company A was from Black Hawk and Linn Counties ; Company B, from 
Muscatine County ; Company C, from Van Buren and Lee Counties ; Company 

D, from Johnson and Iowa Counties ; Company E, from Wapello and Mahaska 
Counties ; Company F, from Dubuipie County ; Company G, from Appanoose, 
Des Moines, Henry and Washington Counties ; Company H, from Henry and 
Jeff'erson Counties; Company I, from Jasper, Linn and other counties, and 
Company K, from Scott and Fayette Counties. The object of the Thirty- 
seventh was to do garrison duty and let the young men go to the front. It was 
mustered out at Davenport on expiration of three years' service. 



was organized at Dubuque, and mustered in November 4, 1862, with D. 11. 
Hughes, of Decorah, as Colonel; J. 0. Hudnutt, of Waverly, as Lieutenan, 
Colonel, and Charles Chadwick, of West Union, as Major. Companies A, Ft 
Gr and [I were from Fayette County ; Company B, from Bremer County ; Com- 
pany C, from Chickasaw County ; Companies D, E and K, from Winneshiek 
County, and Company I, from Howard County. Participated in the siege of 
Vicksburg, Banks' Red River expedition, and on December 12, 1864, was 
consolidated with the Thirty-fourth Infantry. Mustered out at Houston, Texas, 
August 15, 1865. 


was organized with H. J. B. Cummings, of Winterset, as Colonel; James Red- 
field, of Redfield, Dallas County, as Lieutenunt Colonel ; and J. M. Griffiths, 
of Des Moines, as Major. Companies A and F were from Madison County ; 
Companies B and I, from Polk Couuty ; Companies C and H, from Dallas 
County; Company D, from Clark County; Company E, from Greene County; 
Company G, from Des Moines and Henry Counties; and Company K, from 
Clark and Decatur Counties. Was engaged at Parker's Cross Roads, Tenn.; 
Corinth, AUatoona, Ga.; Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, Atlanta, Sherman's march 
to Savannah and through the Carolinas to Richmond, and was mustered out at 
Washington June 5, 1865. 


was organized at Iowa City November 15, 1862, with John A. Garrett, of 
Newton, as Colonel; S. F. Cooper, of Grinnell, as Lieutenant Colonel; and 
S. G. Smith, of Newton, as Major. Companies A and H were from Marion 
County; Company B, from Poweshiek County; Company C, from Mahaska 
County ; Companies D and E, from Jasper County ; Company F, from Ma- 
haska and Marion Counties ; Company G, from Marion County ; Company I, 
from Keokuk County; and Company K, from Benton and other counties. Par- 
ticipated in the siege of Vicksburg, Steele's expedition, Banks' Red River 
expedition, Jenkins' Ferry, etc. Was mustered out at Port Gibson August 2, 


formerly Companies A, B and C of the Fourteenth Infantry, became Compa- 
nies K, L and M of the Seventh Cavalry, under authority of the War Depart- 
ment. Its infantry organization was under command of John Pattee, of Iowa 
City. Company A was from Black Hawk, Johnson and other counties; Com- 
pany B, from Johnson County ; and Company C, from Des Moines and various 


was organized at Davenport, and mustered in June 1, 1864. Company A was 
from Dubuque County; Company B, Muscatine County; Company C, Jones, 
Linn and Dubuque Counties ; Company D, Johnson and Linn Counties ; Com- 
pany E, Bremer and Butler Counties ; Company F, Clinton and Jackson 
Counties ; Company G, Marshall and Hardin Counties ; Company II, Boone 
and Polk Counties; Companies I and K, Scott County. The Forty-fourth 
did garrison duty at Memphis and La Grange, Tenn. Mustered out at Daven- 
port, September 15, 1864. 


■ *!> 


was mustered in at Keokuk, May 2;j, 1804, with A. IT. Bereinan, of ]\Iount 
Pleasant, as Colonel ; S. A. Mooic, of Bloomfield, as Lieutenant Colonel, and 
J. B. Hope, of Washington, as Major. The companies were from the following 
counties : A, Henry ; B, Washington ; C, Lee ; D, Davis ; E, Henry and 
Lee ; F, Des Moines ; G, Des Moines and Henry ; H, Henry ; I, Jefferson, 
and K, Van Buren. Was mustered out at Keokuk, September 16, 1864. 


was organized with D. B. Henderson, of Clermont, as Colonel; L. D. Durbin, 
of Tipton, as Lieutenant Colonel, and G. L. Tarljet, as Major, and was mus- 
tered in at Dubuque, June 10, 1864. Company A was from Dubuque; Com- 
pany B, from Poweshiek ; C, from Dallas and Guthrie ; D, from Taylor and 
Fayette; E, from Ringgold and Linn ; F, from Winneshiek and Delaware ; G, 
froai Appanoose and Delaware ; H, from Wayne ; I, from Cedar, and K, from 
Lucas. Was mustered out at Davenport, September 23, 1864. 


was mustered into United States service at Davenport, June 4, 1864, with 
James P. Sanford,. of Oskaloosa, as Colonel; John Williams, of Iowa City, as 
Lieutenant Colonel, and G. J. Wright, of Des Moines, as Major. Company 
A was from Marion and Clayton Counties; Company B, from Appanoose 
County; Company C, from Wapello and Benton Counties; Company B, from 
Buchanan and Linn Counties; Company E, from Madison County; Company 
F, from Polk County; Company G, from Johnson County; Company H, from 
Keokuk County; Company I, from Mahaska County, and Company K, from 


was organized at Davenport, and mustered in July 13, 1864, with 0. H. P. 
Scott, of Farmington, as Lieutenant Colonel. Company A was from Warren 
County; Company B, from Jasper County ; Company C, from Decatur County, 
and Company D, from Des Moines and Lee Counties, and was mustered out at 
Hock Island Barracks Oct. 21, 1864. 



was organized at Burlington, and mustered into the United States service May 
3, 1861, with Fitz Henry Warren, of Burlington, as Colonel; Chas. E. Moss, 
of Keokuk, as Lieutenant Colonel ; and E. W. Chamberlain, of Burlington, 
James 0. Gower, of Iowa City, and W. M. G. Torrence, of Keokuk, as Majors. 
Company A was from Lee, Van Buren and Wapello Counties; Company B, 
from Clinton County ; Company C, from Des Moines and Lee Counties ; Com-^ 
pany D, from Madison and \Varren Counties ; Company E, fmm Henry^ 
County ; Company F, from Johnson and Linn Counties ; Company G, from 
Dubuque and Black Hawk Counties; Company H, from Lucas and Morrison 
Counties ; Company I, from Wapello and Des Moines Counties ; Company K, 
from Allamakee and Clayton Counties ; Company L, from Dubuque and other 


counties; Company M, from Clinton County. It was engaged at -Pleasant 
Hill, Mo.; Rolla, New Lexington, Elkins' Ford, Little Rock, Bayou Metoe. 
Warrensburg, Big Creek Bluffs, Antwineville, Clear Creek, etc. Was mustered 
out at AusUu, Texas, February 15, 1866. 


•was organized with W. L. Elliott, of the regular army, as Colonel ; Edward 
Hatch, of Muscatine, as Lieutenant Colonel; and N. P. Hepburn, of Marshall- 
town, D. E. Coon, of Mason City, and H. W. Love, of Iowa City, as Majors, 
and was mustered into the United States service at Davenport September 1. 
1861. Company A was from Muscatine County ; Company B, from Marshall 
County ; Company C, from Scott County ; Company D, from Polk County ; 
Company E, from Scott County; Company F, from Hamilton and Franklin 
Counties; Company G, from Muscatine County; Company H, from Johnson 
County ; Company I, from Cerro Gordo, Delaware and other counties ;■ Com- 
pany K, from Des Moines County ; Company L, from Jackson County, and 
Company M, from Jackson County. „ The Second Cavalry participated in the 
following military movements : Siege of Corinth, battles of Farmington, Boone- 
viUe, Piienzi, luka, Corinth, Coffeeville, Palo Alto, Birmingham, Jackson. 
Grenada, CoJlierville, Moscow, Pontotoc, Tupelo, Old Town, Oxford, and en- 
gagements against Hood's march on Nashville, battle of Nashville, etc. ft Was 
mustered out at Selma, Ala., September 19, 1865. 


was organized and mustered into the United States service at Keokuk, in Au- 
gust and September, 1861, with Cyrus Bussey, of Bloomfield, as Colonel; H. 
H. Bussey, of Bloomfield, as Lieutenant Colonel, and C. H. Perry, H. C. Cald- 
well and W. C. Drake, of Cory<lon, as Majors. Companies A and E were from 
Davis County; Company B, from Van Buren and Lee Counties; Company C. 
from Lee and Keokuk Counties; Company D, from Davis and Van Buren 
Counties ; Company F, from Jefferson County ; Company G, from Van Buren 
County; Company H, from Van Buren and Jefferson Counties; Company I, 
from Appanoose County; Company K, from Wapello and Marion Counties; 
Company L, from Decatur County, and Company M, from Appanoose and De- 
catur Counties. It was engaged in the following battles and skirmishes : 
Pea Ridge, La Grange, Sycamore, near Little Rock, Columbus, Pope's Farm, 
Big Blue, Ripley, Coldwater, Osage, Tallahatchie, Moore's Mill, near Monte- 
viillo, near Independence, Pine Bluff, Botts' Farm, Gun Town, White's Station, 
Tupelo, Village Creek. AVas mustered out of United States service at Atlanta, 
Ga., August y, 1865. 


was organized with Asbury B. Porter, of Mount Pleasant, as Colonel ; Thomas 
Drummond, of Vinton, as Lieutenant Colonel ; S. D. Swan, of Mount Pleas- 
ant, J. E. Jewett, of Des Moines, and G. A. Stone, of Moo>nt Pleasant, as 
Majors, and mustered into United States service at Mount Pleasant November 
21, 1861. Company A was from Delaware County; Company C, from Jef- 
ferson and Henry Counties ; Company D, from Henry County ; Company E, 


from Jasper and Poweshiek Counties ; Company F, from Wcapello Connty ; 
Company G, from Lee and Henry Counties ; Company H, from Chickasaw 
County ; Company I, from Matlison County ; Company K, from Henry 
County ; Company L, from Des Moines and other counties ; and Company M, 
from Jeiferson County. The Fourth Cavalry lost men in the following engage- 
ments : Guntown, Miss.; Helena, Ark.; near Bear Creek, Miss.; near Mem- 
phis, Tenn.; Town Creek, Miss.; Columbus, Ga.; Mechaniesburg, Miss.; Little 
Blue Biver, Ark.; Brownsville, Miss.; Ripley, Miss.; Black River Bridge, 
Miss.; Grenada, Miss.; Little Red River, Ark.; Tupelo, Miss.; Yazoo River, 
Miss.; White River, Ark.; Osage, Kan.; Lick Creek, Ark.; Oknlona, Miss.; 
St. Francis River, Ark. VVas mustered out at Atlanta, Ga., August 10, 18G5. 


was organized at Omaha with Wm. W. Lowe, of the regular anijy, as Colo- 
nel ; M. T. Patrick, of Omaha, as Lieutenant Colonel ; and C. S. Bernstein, 
of Dubuque, as Major, and mustered in September 21, 1801. Companies A, 
B, C and D were mostly from Nebraska; Company E, from Dubuque County ; 
Company F, from Des Moines, Dubuque and Lee Counties; Company G, from 
Minnesota; Company H, from Jackson and other counties ; Companies I and 
K were from Minnesota; Company L, from Minnesota and Missouri; Com- 
pany M, from Missouri ; Companies G, I and K were transferred to Minnesota 
Volunteers Feb. 25, 1864. The new Company G was organized from veterans 
and recruits and Companies C, E, F and 1 of Fifth Iowa Infantry, and trans- 
ferred to Fifth Cavalry August 8, 1864. The second Company 1 was organ- 
ized from veterans and recruits and Companies A, B, D, G, H and K of the 
Fifth Iowa Infimtry, and transferred to Fifth Iowa Cavalry August 18, 1864. 
Was engaged at second battle of Fort Donelson, Wartrace, Duck River Bridge, 
Sugar Creek, Xewnan, Camp Creek, Cumberland Works, Tenn.; Jonesb'uo, 
Ebenezer Church, Lockbridge's Mills, Pulaski, Cheraw, and mustered out at 
Nashville, Tenn., August 11, 1865. 


was organized with D. S. Wilson, of Dubuque, as Colonel; S. M. Pollock, of 
Dubuque, as Lieutenant Colonel ; T. H. Shephard, of Iowa City, E. P. Tcn- 
Broeck, of Clinton, and A. E. House, of Delhi, as Majors, and was mustered 
in at Davenport, January 31, 1863. Company A was from Scott and other 
counties; Company B, from Dubuque and other counties; Company C, from 
Fayette County; Company D, from Winneshiek County; Company E, from 
Southwest counties of the State ; Company F, from Allamakee and other 
counties; Company G, from Delawfire and Buchanan Counties; Company H. 
from Linn County; Company I, from Johnson and other counties; Company 
K, from Linn County; Company Tj, from Clayton County; Company M, from 
Johnson and Dubuque Counties. The Sixth Cavalry operated on the frontier 
against the Indians. Was mustered out at Sioux City, October 17, 1865, 


was organized at Davenport, and mustered into the United States service Apcil 
27, 18(53, with S. W. Summers, of Ottumwa, as Colonel ; John Pattee, of Iowa 
City, as Lieutenant Colonel; H. H. Heath and G. M. O'Brien, of Dubuque, 


and John S. Wood, of Ottumwa, as M:ijors. Companies A, B, C and D, Avere 
from Wapello and other counties in innnediate vieinity; Companies E, F, G 
and H, were from all parts of the State ; Company I, from Sioux City and 
known as Sioux City Cavalry; Company K was originally Company A of the 
Fourteenth Infantry and afterward Company A of the Forty-first Infantry, was 
from Johnson and other .ounties; Company L was originally Company B, of 

the Forty-first Infantry and afterward Company B, of the Forty , and 

was from Jolinson County; Company M was originally Company C, of the 
Fourteenth Infantry, and afterward Company C, of the Forty-first and from Des 
Moines and otlier counties. The Seventh Cavalry operated against the Indi- 
ans. E.xcepting the Lieutenant Colonel ami Companies K, L and M, the regi- 
ment was mustered out at Leavenworth, Kansas, May 17, 1866. Companies 
K, L, anil M were mustered out at Sioux City, June -2, 1866. 


was organized with J. B. Dorr, of Dubuque, as Colonel ; H. G. Earner, of 
Sidney, as Lieutenant Colonel : .John J. Bowen, of Hopkinton, J. D. Thompson, 
of Eldora, and A. J. Price, of Guttenburg, as Majors, and were mustered in at 
Davenport September 30, 1863. Tne companies were mostly from the follow- 
ing counties: Company A, Page; B. Wapello; C, Van Buren; D, Ring- 
gold; E, Henry; F, Appanoose; G, Clayton ; II, Appanoose; I, Marshall; 
K, Muscatine; L, Wapello; M, Polk. The Eighth did a large amount of duty 
guarding Sherman's comuuinications, in which it had many small engagements. 
It was in the battles of Lost Mountain, Lovejoy's Station, Newnan, Nashville, 
etc. Was on Stoneman's cavalry raid around Atlanta, and Wilson's raid 
through Alabama. Was mustered out at Macon, Ga., August 13, 1865. 


was mustered in at Davenport, November 30, 1863, with M. M. Trumbull, of 
Cedar Falls, as Colonel ; J. P. Knight, of Mitchell, as Lieutenant Colonel ; E. 
T. Ensign, of Des Moines, Willis Drummond, of McGregor, and William Had- 
dock, of Waterloo, as Majors. Company A was from Muscatine County; 
Company B,.Linn County; Company C, Wapello and Decatur Counties ; Com- 
pany D, Washington County ; Company E, Fayette County ; Company F, 
Clayton County ; Companies G and II, Viirious counties ; Company I, Wapello 
and Jefferson Counties; Company K, Keokuk County; Company L, Jasper 
and Marion Counties ; Company M, Wapello and Lee Counties. Was mustered 
out at Little Rock, Ark., February 28, 1866. 



was enrolled in the counties of Wapello, Des Moines, Dubuque, Jefferson, 
Black Hawk, etc., and was mustered in at Burlington, Aug. 17, 1861, with C. H. 
Fletcher, of Burlington, as Captain. Was engaged at Pea Ridge, Port Gibson, 
in Atlanta campaign, Chickasaw Bayou, Lookout Mountain, etc. Was mus- 
tered out at Davenport July 5, 1865. 



was enrolled in the counties of Dallas, Polk, Harrison, Fremont and Pottawat- 
tamie, and mustered into United States service at Council Bluffs and St. Louis, 
Mo , Aug. 8 and 31, 1861, with Nelson T. Spear, of Council Bluffs, as 
Captain. Was engaged at Farmington, Corinth, etc. Was mustered out at 
Davenport, Aug. 7, 1865. 


was enrolled in the counties of Dubuque, Black Hawk, Butler and Floyd, and 
mustered into United States service at Dubuque, September, 1861, with M. 
M. Hayden, of Dubuque, as Captain. Was at battle of Pea Ridge, etc., etc. 
Was mustered out at Davenport, Oct. 23, 1865. 


was enrolled in Mahaska, Henry, Mills and Fremont Counties, and was mus- 
tered in at Davenport, Nov. 23, 1863, with P. H. Goode, of Glenwood, Cap- 
tain. Was mustered out at Davenport, July 14, 1865. 



Company A, from Fremont County, W. Hoyt, Captain; Company B, from 
Taylor County, John Flick, Captain ; Company C, from Page County, J. 
Whitcomb, Captain. 


was organized by the State of Iowa to protect the Northwestern frontier, 
James A. Sawyer, of Sioux City, was elected Colonel. It had Companies A, 
B, C, D and E, all enlisted from the Northwestern counties. 


was organized by the State for the purpose of protecting the Southern border 
of the State, and was organized in counties on the border of Missouri. Com- 
pany A, First Battalion, was from Lee County, Wm. Sole, Captain ; Company B, 
First Battalion, Joseph Dickey, Captain, from Van Buren County; Company 
A, Second Battalion, from Davis County, Capt. H. B. Horn; Company B, Sec- 
ond Battalion, from Appanoose County, E. B. Skinner, Captain; Company A, 
Third Battalion, from Decatur County, J. II. Simmons, Captain; Company B, 
Third Battalion, from Wayne County, E. F. Estel, Captain; Company C, 
Third Battalion, from Ringgold County, N. Miller, Captain. 


was organized with John G. Hudson, Captain Company B, Thirty-third Mis- 
souri, as Colonel; M. F. Collins, of Keokuk, as Lieutenant Colonel, and J. L. 
Murphy, of Keokuk, as Major. Had ten companies, and were mustered in at 
various places in tlio Fall of 1863. The men were from all parts of the State 
and some from Missouri. 


During the war, the following promotions were made by the United States 
Government from Iowa regiments:* 


Samuel R. Curtis, Brigadier General, from March 21, 1862. 
Frederick Steele, Brigadier (General, from November 2!), 1863. 
Frank J. Herron, Brigadier General, from November 29, 1862. 
Grenville M. Dodge, Brigadier General, from June 7, 1864. 


Samuel R. Curtis, Colonel 3d Infantry, from May 17, 1861. 

Frederick Steele, Colonel 8tli Infantry, from February 6, 1862. 

Jacob G. Lauman, Colonel 7th Infantry, from March 21, 1863. 

Grenville '^L Dodge, Colonel 4th Infantry, from March 31, 1862. 

James M. Tuttle, Colonel 2d Infantry, from June 9, 1863. 

Wiishington L. Elliott, Colonel 2d Cavalry, from June 11, 1862. 

Fitz Henry Warren, Colonel 1st Cavalry , from July 6, 1863. 

Frank J. Herron, Lieutenant Colonel t)th Infantry, from July 30, 1863. 

Charles L. Matthies, Colonel 5th Infantry, from November 29, 1863. 

William Vandever, Colonel 9th Infantry, from November 29, 1863. 

Marcellus ^I. Crocker, Colonel 13th Infantry, from Nov. 29, 1863. (Since died.) 

Hugh T. Reid, Colonel 15th Infantry from March 13, 1863. 

Samuel A. Rice, Colonel 33d Infantry, from August 4, 1863. 

John M. Corse, Colonel 6th Infantry, from August 11, 1863. 

Cyrus Bussey, Colonel 3d Cavalry, from January 5, 1864. 

Edward Hatch, Colonel 3d Cavalry, from April 37, 1864. 

Elliott W. Rice, Colonel 7th Infantry, from June 30, 1864. 

Wm. W. Belknap, Colonel 15th Infantry, from July 30, 1864. 

John Edwards, Colonel 18th Infantry, from September 26, 1864. 

James A. AVilliamson, Colonel 4th Infantry, from January 13, 1864. 

James I. Gilbert, Colonel 27th Infantry, from February 9, 1865. 


John M. Corse, Brigadier General from October 5, 1864. 
Edward Hatch, Brigadier General, from December 15, 1864. 
Wm. W. Belknap, Brigadier General, from March 13, 1865. 
W. L. Elliott, Brigadier General, from March 13, 1865. 
Wm, Vandever, Brigadier General, from June 7, 1865. 


Wm. T. Clark, A. A. G., late of 13th Infantry, from July 22, 1864. 

Edward F. Wiuslow, Colonel 4th Cavalry, from December 13, 1864. 

S. G. Hill, Colonel 35th Infantry, from December 15, 1864. (Since died.) 

Thos. II. Benton, Colonel 39th Infantry, from December 15, 1864. 

Samuel L. Glasgow, Colonel 23d Infantiy, from December 19, 1864. 

Clark R. Wever, Colonel 17th Infantry, from February 9, 186.5. 

Francis M. Drake, Lieutenant Colonel 36th Infantry, from February 23, 1865. 

George A. Stone, Colonel 35th Infantry, from IMarch 13, 1865. 

Datus E. Coon, Colonel 2d Cavalry, from March 8, 1865. 

George W. Clark, Colonel 34th Infantry, from March 13, 1865. 

Herman 11. Heath, Colonel 7th Cavalry, from March 13, 1865. 

J. M. Iledrick, Colonel 15th Infantry, from March 13, 1865. 

W. W. Lowe, Colonel 5th Cavalry, from March 13, 1865. 

♦Thomas .T. McKean waa appointed Paymaster in U. S. A. from Iowa, and subsequently promoted Brigadier General 
W date from Kov. 21, ItjGl. 





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TO JANUARY 1, 18G5. 

No. Recrimcnt. 

1st Iowa 

2d " 

3d " 

4th " 

5lh " 

6th " 

7th " 

8th " 

9th " 

10th " 

nth " 

12th " 

13th " 

14th " 

15th " 

16th " 

17th " 

18th " 

19th " 

20th " 

21st " 

22d " 

23d " 

24ih " 

25th " 

26th " 

27th " 

28th •' 

29th " 

30th " 

Slat " 

32d " 

33d " 

34th " 

35th " 

36th " 

37th " 

38th " 


No. of 







































No. Regiment. 

o9th Iowa Infantry 

40th ■' " 

41st Battalion low.a Infantry 

44th Infantry (lOO-days men) 

45th '■ " " 

46th " " " 

47lh •' " " 

48fh Battalion " " 

1st Inwa Cavalry 

2a '• " 

3d " " 

4th " " 

5th " " 

6th " " 

7th " " 

8ih " " 

9th " " 

Sioux City Cavalry* 

Co. A, 11th Penn. Cavalry 

1st Battery Artillery 

2d ■' " 

3d " " 

4th " " 

1st Iowa African Infantry, 60th U. Sf.. 

Dodge's Brigade Band 

Band of 2d Iowa Infantry 

Enlistments as far as reported to Jan. 1, 

1864, for the older Iowa regiments 

Enlistments of Iowa men in regiments 
of other States, over , 

Re-enlisted Veterans for ilitferent Regi- 

Additional enlistments 

Grand total as far as reported up to Jan, 
1, 1865 .■; , 

No. of 


91 '0 






























This does not include those Iowa men who veteranized in the regiments of other States, nor 
the names of men who enlisted during 1864, in regiments of other Slates. 
* Afterward consolidated with Seventh Cavalry, 
•j- Only a portion of this regiment was credited to the State. 





By Counties. 







































Black Hawk 









Buena \'ista 











































































































Cerro Gordo 



























































































* In 1862, nume chaaged to Lyon. 





























21 023 
























































































































































Villa Alto 























































* Formerly Buncombe. 


I !> L I N O I S . 

Length, 380 miles, mean width about 156 miles. Area, 55,410 sciuara 
miles, or 35,462,400 acres. Illinois, as regards its surface, constitutes a 
table-land at a varying elevation ranging between 850 and 800 feet above 
the sea level ; composed of extensive and highly fertile prairies and plains. 
Much of the south division of the State, especially the river-bottoms, are 
thickly wooded. The prairies, too, have oasis-like clumps of trees 
scattered here and there at intervals. The chief rivers irrigating the 
State are the Mississippi — dividing it from Iowa and Missouri — the Oliio 
(forming its south barrier), the Illinois, Wabash, Kaskaslvia, and San- 
gamon, with their numerous affluents. The total extent of navigable 
streams is calculated at 4,000 miles. Small lakes are scattered over vari- 
ous parts of the State. Illinois is extremely prolific in minerals, chiefly 
coal, iron, copper, and zinc ores, suljiliur and limestone. The coal-field 
alone is estimated to absorb a full third of the entire coal-deposit of North 
America. Climate tolerably equable and healthy ; the mean temperature 
standing at about 51' P'ahrenheit As an agricultural region, Illinois takes 
a competitive rank with neighboring States, the cereals, fruits, and root- 
crops yielding plentiful returns ; in fact, as a grain-growing State, Illinois 
may be deemed, in proportion to her size, to possess a greater area of 
lands suitable for its production than any other State in the Union. Stock- 
raising is also largely carried on, while her manufacturing interests in 
regard of woolen fabrics, etc., are on a very extensive and yearly expand- 
hig scale. The lines of railroad in the State are among the most exten- 
sive of the Union. Inland water-carriage is facilitated by a canal 
connecting the Illinois River with Lake Michigan, and thence with the 
St. Lawrence and Atlantic. Illinois is divided into 102 counties ; the 
chief towns being Chicago, Springfield (capital), Alton, Quincy, Peoria, 
Galena, Bloomington, Rock Island, Vandalia, etc. By the new Consti- 
tution, established in 1870, the State Legislature consists of 61 Senators, 
elected for four years, and 153 Representatives, for two years ; which 
numbers were to be decennially increased thereafter to the number of 
six per every additional half-million of inhabitants. Religious and 
educational institutions are largely diffused throughout, and are in a very 
floTirishing condition. Illinois has a State Lunatic and a Deaf and Dumb 
Asylum at .lacksonville ; a State Penitentiary at Joliet ; and a Home for 


Soldiers' Orphans at Normal. On November 30, 1870, the public debt of 
the State was returned at $4,870,937, with a balance of |il,808,833 
unprovided for. At the same period the value of assessed and equalized 
property presented the following totals: assessed, #840,031,703 ; equal- 
ized #480,664,058. The name of Illinois, through nearly th. whole of 
the eighteenth century, embraced most of the known regions north and 
west of Ohio. French colonists established themselves in 1673, at 
Cahokia and Kaskaskia, and the territory of which these settlements 
formed the nucleus was, in 1763, ceded to Great Britain in conjunction 
with Canada, and ultimately resigned to the United States in 1787. 
Illinois entered the Union as a State, December 3, 1818 ; and now sends 
19 Representatives to Congress. Population, 2,539,891, in 1870. 



Tlie profile of Indiana forms a nearly exact parallelogram, occupy- 
ing one of the most fertile portions of the great Mississippi Valley. The 
greater extent of the surface embraced within its limits consists of gentle 
undulations rising into hilly tracts toward the Ohio bottom. The chief 
rivers of the State are the Ohio and Wabasii, with their numerous 
affluents. The soil is highly productive of the cereals and grasses — most 
particularly so in the valleys of the Ohio, Wabash, Whitewater, and 
White Rivers. The northeast and central portions are well timbered 
with virgin forests, and the west section is notably rich in coal, constitut- 
ing an offshoot of the great Illinois carboniferous field. Iron, copper, 
marble, slate, gypsum, and various clays are also abundant. From an 
agricultural point of view, the staple products are maize and wheat, with 
the other cereals in lesser yields •, and besides these, flax, hemp, sorghum, 
liops, etc., are extensively raised. Indiana is divided into 92 counties, 
and counts among her principal cities and towns, those of Indianapolis 
(the capital). Fort Wayne, Evansville, Terre Haute, Madison, Jefferson- 
ville, Columbus, Vincennes, South Bend, etc. The public institutions of 
tiie State are many and various, and on a scale of magnitude and 
efficiency commensurate with her important political and industrial status. 
Upward of two thousand miles of railroads permeate the State in all 
directions, and greatly conduce to the development of her expanding 
manufacturing interests. Statistics for the fiscal year terminating 
October 31, 1870, exhibited a total of receipts, $3,890,541 as against dis- 
bursements, $3,532,406, leaving a balance, $364,135 in favor of the State 
Treasury. The entire public debt, January 5, 1871, $3,971,000. This 
State was first settled by Canadian voyageurs in 1702, who erected a fort 
at Vincennes ; in 17G3 it passed into the hands of the English, and was 
by the latter ceded to the United States in 1783. From 1788 till 1791, 
an Indian warefare prevailed. In 1800, all the region west and north of 
Ohio (then formed into a distinct territory) became merged iu Indiana. 
In 1809, the present limits of the State were defined, Michigan and 
Illinois having previously been withdrawn. In 1811, Indiana was the 
theater of the Indian War of Tecumseh, ending with the decisive battle 
of Tippecanoe. In 1816 (December 11), Indiana became enrolled among 
the States of the American Union. In 1834, the State passed through a 
monetary crisis owing to its having become mixed up with railroad, 
canal, and other speculations on a gigantic scale, which ended, for the 
tmie being, in a general collapse of public credit, and consequent Ijank- 
ruptcy.*" Since that time, however, the greater number of the public 


works which had brought ubout that imbroglio — especially the great 
Wabash and Erie Canal — have been completed, to the great benefit of 
the State, whose subsequent progress has year bj' year been marked by 
rapid strides in the paths of wealth, commerce, and general social and 
political prosperity. The constitution now in force was adopted iu 1851. 
Population, 1,680,637. 


In shape, Iowa presents an almost perfect parallelogram ; has a 
length, north to south, of about 300 miles, by a pretty even width of 208 
miles, and embraces an area of 55,045 square miles, or 35,228,800 acres. 
The surface of the State is generally undulating, rising toward the 
middle into an elevated plateau which forms the " divide " of the 
Missouri and Mississippi basins. Rolling prairies, especially in the south 
section, constitute a regnant feature, and the river bottoms, belted with 
woodlands, present a soil of the richest alluvion. Iowa is well watered ; 
the principal rivers being the Mississippi and Missoui'i, which form 
respectively its east and west limits, and the Cedar, Iowa, and Des 
Moines, affluents of the first named. Mineralogically, Iowa is important 
as occupying a section of the great Northwest coal field, to the extent of 
an area estimated at 25,000 square miles. Lead, cojiper, zinc, and iron, 
are also mined in considerable quantities. The soil is well adapted to 
the production of wheat, maize, and the other cereals ; fruits, vegetables, 
and esculent roots; maize, wheat, and oats forming the chief staples. 
Wine, tobacco, hops, and wax, are other noticeable items of the agricul- 
tural yield. Cattle-raising, too, is a branch of rural industry largely 
engaged in. The climate is healthy, although liable to extremes of heat 
and cold. The annual gross product of the various manufactures carried 
on in this State approximate, in round numbers, a sum of $20,000,000. 
Iowa has an immense railroad system, besides over 500 miles of water- 
communication by means of its navigable rivers. The State is politically 
divided into 99 counties, with the following centers of population : Des 
Moines (capital), Iowa City (former capital), Dubuque, Davenport, Bur- 
lington, Council Bluffs, Keokuk, Muscatine, and Cedar Rapids. Thei 
State institutions of Iowa — religious, scholastic, and philanthropic — arej 
on a par, as regards number and perfection of organization and operation, 
with those of her Northwest sister States, and education is especially] 
well cared for, and largely diffused. Iowa formed a portion of the] 
American territorial acquisitions from France, by the so-called Louisiana] 
purchase in 1803, and was politically identified with Louisiana till 1812,] 

'i lis? 

'1V V 


H ^^ 

'^.z e^/\ u^ -J) y-^ffZ 


when it merged into the Missouri Territory; in 1834 it came under the 
Michigan organization, and, in 1836, under that of Wisconsin. Finall}', 
after being constituted an independent Territory, it became a State of 
the Union, December 28, 1846. Population in 1860, 674,913 ; in 1870, 
1,191,792, and in 1875, 1,353,118. 


United area, 56,243 square miles, or 35,995,520 acres. Extent of the 
Upper and smaller Peninsula — length, 316 miles; breadth, fluctuating 

] between 86 and 120 miles. The south division is 416 miles long, by from 

1 50 to 300 miles wide. Aggregate lake-shore line, 1,400 miles. The 
Upper, or North, Peninsula consists chiefly of an elevated plateau, 
expanding into the Porcupine mountain-system, attaining a maximum 
height of some 2,000 feet. Its shores along Lake Superior are eminently 

' bold and picturesque, and its area is rich in minerals, its product of 
copper constituting an important source of industry. Both divisions are 
heavily wooded, and the South one, in addition, boasts of a deep, rich, 
loamy soil, throwing up excellent crops of cereals and other agricultural 
produce. The climate is generally mild and humid, though the Winter 

I colds are severe. The chief staples of farm husbandry include the cereals, 
grasses, maple sugar, sorghum, tobacco, fruits, and dairy-stuffs. In 1870, 
the acres of land in farms were : improved, 5,096,939 ; unimproved 
woodland, 4,080,146 ; other unimproved land, 842,057. The cash value 
of land was $398,240,578 ; of farming implements and machinery, 
$13,711,979. In 1869, there were shipped from the Lake Superior ports, 

u 874,582 tons of iron ore, and 45,762 of smelted pig, along with 14,188 
tons of copper (ore and ingot). Coal is another article largely mined. 
Jnland communication is provided for by an admirably organized railroad 
sjstem, and by the St. Mary's Ship Canal, connecting Lakes Huron and 
Superior. Michigan is politically divided into 78 counties ; its chief 

> urban centers are Detroit, Lansing (capital), Ann Arbor, Marquette, 
Bay City, Niles, Ypsilanti, Grand Haven, etc. The Governor of the 
State is elected biennially. On November 30, 1870, the aggregate bonded 
debt of Michigan amounted to $2,385,028, and the assessed valuation of 
land to 1266,929,278, representing an estimated cash value of $800,000,000. 
Education is largely diffused and most excellently conducted and pro- 
vided for. The State University at Ann Arbor, the colleges of Detroit 
and Kalamazoo, the Albion Female College, the State Normal School at 

I Ypsilanti, and the State Agricultural College at Lansing, are chief among 
the academic institutions. Michigan (a term of Chippeway origin, and 


signifying " Great Lake), was discovered and first settled by French 
Canadians, who, in 1G70, founded Detroit, the pioneer of a series of trad- 
ing-posts on the Indian frontier. During the " Conspiracy of Pontiac," 
following the French loss of Canada, Michigan became the scene of a 
sanguinary struggle between the whites and aborigines. In 1796, it 
became annexed to tiie United States, which incorporated this region 
with the Northwest Territory, and tlien with Indiana Territory, till 1803, 
when it became territorially independent. Michigan was the theater of 
warlike operations during the war of 1812 with Great Britain, and in 
1819 Avas authorized to be represented by one delegate in Congress ; in 
1837 she was admitted into the Union as a State, and in 1869 ratified the 
15th Amendment to the Federal Constitution. Population, 1,184,059. 


It has a mean length of 260 miles, and a maximum breadth of 215. 
Land area, 53,924 square miles, or 34,511,360 acres. Wisconsin lies at a 
considerable altitude above sea-level, and consists for the most part of an 
upland plateau, the surface of which is undulating and verj^ generally 
diversified. Numerous local eminences called mounds are interspersed 
over the State, and the Lake Michigan coast-line is in many parts char- 
acterized by lofty escarped cliffs, even as on the west side the banks of 
the Mississippi form a series of high and picturesque bluffs. A group of 
islands known as The Apostles lie off the extreme north j^oint of the 
State in Lake Superior, and the great estuary of Green Bay, running far 
inland, gives formation to a long, narrow peninsula between its waters 
and those of Lake Michigan. The river-system of Wisconsin has three 
outlets — those of Lake Superior, Green Bay, and the Mississippi, whichi 
latter stream forms the entire southwest frontier, widening at one point] 
into the large watery expanse called Lake Pepin. Lake Superior receives! 
the St. Louis, Burnt Wood, and Montreal Rivers ; Green Bay, thej 
Menomouee, Peshtigo, Oconto, and Fox ; while into the Mississippi 
empty the St. Croix, Chippewa, Blacli, Wisconsin, and Rock Rivers. 
The chief interior lakes are those of Winnebago, Horicon, and Court 
Oreilles, and smaller sheets of water stud a great part of the surface. 
The climate is healthful, with cold Winters and brief but very warm 
Summers. Mean annual rainfall 31 inches. The geological system 
represented by the State, embraces those rocks included between the 
primary and the Devonian series, the former containing extensive 
deposits of copper and iron ore. Besides these minerals, lead and zinc 
are found in great quantities, together with kaolin, plumbago, gypsum, 


and various clays. Mining, consequently, forms a prominent industry, 
and one of yearly increasing dimensions. The soil of Wisconsin is of 
varying quality, but fertile on the whole, and in the north parts of the 
State heavily timbered. The agricultural yield comprises the cereals, 
together with flax, hemp, tobacco, pulse, sorgum, and all kinds of vege- 
tables, and of the hardier fruits. In 1870, the State had a total number 
of 102,904 farms, occup3'ing 11,715,321 acres, of which 5,899,343 con- 
sisted of improved land, and 3,437,442 were timbered. Cash value of 
farms, $300,414,064 ; of farm implements and machinery, $14,239,364. 
Total estimated value of all farm products, including betterments and 
additions to stock, $78,027,032 ; of orchard and dairy stuffs, $1,045,933 ; 
of lumber, $1,327,618 ; of home manufactures, $338,423 ; of all live-stock, 
$45,310,882. Number of manufacturing establishments, 7,136, employ- 
ing 39,055 hands, and turning out productions valued at $85,624,966. 
The political divisions of the State form 61 counties, and the chief places 
of wealth, trade, and population, are Madison (the capital), Milwaukee, 
Fond du Lac, Oshkosh, Prairie du Chien, Janesville, Portage City, 
Racine, Kenosha, and La Crosse. In 1870, the total assessed valuation 
reached $333,209,838, as against a true valuation of both real and personal 
€state aggregating $602,207,329. Treasury receipts during 1870, $886,- 
696 ; disbursements, $906,329. Value of church property, $4,749,983. 
Education is amply provided for. Independently of the State University 
at Madison, and those of Galesville and of Lawrence at Appleton, and 
the colleges of Beloit, Racine, and Milton, there are Normal Schools at 
Platteville and Whitewater. The State is divided into 4,802 common 
school districts, maintained at a cost, in 1870, of $2,094,160. The chari- 
table institutions of Wisconsin include a Deaf and Dumb Asylum, an 
Institute for the Education of the Blind, and a Soldiers' Orphans' School. 
In January, 1870, the railroad sj^stem ramified throughout the State 
totalized 2,779 miles of track, including several lines far advanced toward, 
completion. Immigration is successfully encouraged by the State author- 
ities, the larger number of yearly new-comers being of Scandinavian and 
German origin. The territory now occupied within the limits of the 
State of Wisconsin was explored by French missionaries and ti-aders in 
1639, and it remained under French jurisdiction until 1703, when it 
became annexed to the British North American possessions. In 1796, it 
reverted to the United States, the government of which latter admitted 
it within the limits of the Northwest Territory, and in 1809, attached it 
to that of Illinois, and to Michigan in 1818. Wisconsin became independ- 
ently territorially organized in 1836, and became a State of the Union, 
March 3, 1847. Population in 1870, 1,064,985, of which 2,113 were of 
the colored race, and 11,521 Indians, 1,206 of the latter being out of 
tribal relations. 



Its length, north to south, embraces an extent of 380 miles; its; 
oreadtli one of 250 miles at a maximum. Area, 84,000 square miles, or 
54,700,000 acres. The surface of Minnesota, generally speaking, con- 
sists of a succession of gently undulating plains and prairies, drained by^ 
an admirable water-system, and with here and there heavily- timbered 
bottoms and belts of virgin forest. Tlie soil, corresponding with such a 
superfices, is exceptionally rich, consisting for the most part of a dark, 
calcareous sandy drift intermixed with loam. A distinguishing pliysical 
feature of this State is its riverine ramifications, expanding in nearly 
every part of it into almost innumerable lakes — the whole presenting an 
aggregate of water-power having hardly a rival in the Union. Besides, 
the Mississippi — which here has its rise, and drains a basin of 800 miles 
of country — the principal streams are the Minnesota (334 miles long), 
the Red River of the North, the St. Croix, St. Louis, and many others of 
lesser importance ; the chief lakes are those called Red, Cass, Leech, 
Mille Lacs, Vermillion, and Winibigosh. Quite a concatenation of sheets 
of water fringe the frontier line where Minnesota joins British America, 
culminating in the Lake of the Woods. It has been estimated, that of 
an area of 1,200,000 acres of surface between the St. Croix and Mis- 
sissippi Rivers, not less than 73,000 aex'es are of lacustrine formation. In 
point of minerals, the resources of Minnesota have as yet been very 
imperfectly developed; iron, copper, coal, lead — all these are known to 
exist in considerable deposits ; together with salt, limestone, and potter's, 
clay. The agricultural outlook of the State is in a high degree satis- 
factory ; wheat constitutes the leading cereal in cultivation, with Indian 
corn and oats in next order. Fruits and vegetables are gi'own in great 
plenty and of excellent quality. The lumber resources of Minnesota are 
important ; the pine forests in the north region alone occui^ying an area 
of some 21,000 square miles, which in 1870 produced a return of scaled 
logs amounting to 313,116,416 feet. The natural industrial advantages 
possessed by Minnesota are largely improved upon by a railroad system. 
The political divisions of this State number 78 counties; of which the 
chief cities and towns are : St. Paul (the capital), Stillwater, Red Wing, 
St. Anthony, Fort Snelling, Minneapolis, and Mankato. Minnesota has- 
already assumed an attitude of high importance as a manufacturing State ; 
this is mainly due to the wonderful command of water-power she pos- 
sesses, as before spoken of. Besides her timber-trade, the milling of 
flour, the distillation of whisky, and the tanning of leather, are prominent 
interests, which in 1869, gave returns to the amount of 114,831,043.- 


Education is notably provided for on a broad and catholic scale, the 
fcocne amount expended scliolastically during the year 1870 being $857,- 
816 ; while on November 30 of the preceding year the permanent school 
fund stood at $2,476,222. Besides a University and Agricultural College, 
Normal and Reform Schools flourish, and with these may be mentioned 
.sucli various philanthropic and religious institutions as befit the needs of 
an intelligent and prosperous community. The finances of the State for 
the fiscal year terminating December 1, 1870, exhibited a balance on the 
xight side to the amount of $136,164, being a gain of $44,000 over the 
previous j'ear's figures. The earliest exploration of Minnesota by the 
whites was made in 1680 by a French Franciscan, Father Hennepin, who 
gave the name of St. Antony to the Great Falls on the Upper Missisippi. 
In 1763, the Treaty of Versailles ceded this region to England. 
Twenty years later, Minnesota formed part of tlie Northwest Territory 
transferred to the United States, and became herself territorialized inde- 
pendently in 1849. Indian cessions in 1851 enlarged her boundaries, and, 
May 11, 1857, Minnesota became a unit of the great American federation 
of States. Population, 439,706. 


Maximum length, 412 miles ; extreme breadth, 208 miles. Area, 
75,905 square miles, or 48,636,800 acres. The surface of this State is 
almost entirely undulating prairie, and forms part of the west slope of 
the great central basin of the North American Continent. In its west 
division, near the base of the Rocky Mountains, is a sandy belt of 
country, irregularly defined. In this part, too, are the " dunes," resem- 
bling a wavy sea of sandy billows, as well as the Mauvaises Terres, a tract 
of singular formation, produced by eccentric disintegrations and denuda- 
tions of the land. The cliief rivers are the Missouri, constituting its en- 
tire east line of demarcation ; the Nebraska or Platte, the Niobrara, the 
Republican Fork of the Kansas, the Elkhorn, and the Loup Fork of the 
Platte. The soil is very various, but consisting chiefly of rich, bottomy 
loam, admirably adapted to the raising of heavy crops of cereals. All 
the vegetables and fruits of the temperate zone are produced in great 
size and plenty. For grazing purposes Nebraska is a State exceptionally 
well-fitted, a region of not less tlian 23,000,000 acres being adaptable to 
this branch of husbandry. It is believed that the, as yet, comparatively 
infertile tracts of land found in various parts of the State are susceptible 
of productivity by means of a properly conducted system of irrigation. 
Few minerals of moment have so far been found within the limits of 


Nebraska, if we may except important saline deposits at the head of Salfc 
Creek in its southeast section. The State is divided into 57 counties, 
independent of the Pawnee and Winnebago Indians, and of unorganized 
territory in the northwest part. The principal towns are Omaha, Lincoln 
(State capital), Nebraska City, Columbus, Grand Island, etc. In 1870, 
the total assessed value of property amounted to 'S^OiOOOjOOO, being au 
increase of $11,000,000 over the previous year's returns. The total 
amount received from the school-fund during the year 1869-70 was 
$77,999. Education is making great onward strides, the State University 
and an Agricultural College being far advanced toward completion. In 
the matter of railroad communication, Nebraska bids fair to soon place 
herself on a par with her neighbors to the east. Besides being inter- 
sected by the Union Pacific line, with its off-shoot, the Fremont and Blair, 
other tracks are in course of rapid construction. Organized by Con- 
gressional Act into a Territory, May 30, 1854, Nebraska entered the 
Union as a full State, March 1, 1867. Population, 122,993, 



We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, 
establish Justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common 
defense, promote the general loelfare, and secme the blessings of liberty 
to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution 
for the United States of America. 

Article I. 

Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in 
a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and 
House of Representatives. 

Sec. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of mem- 
bers chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the 
electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of 
the most numerous branch of the State Legislature. 

No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the 
age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United 
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in 
which he shall be chosen. 

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the sev- 
eral states which may be included within this Union, according to their 
respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole 
number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of 
years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. 
The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first 
meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subse- 
quent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The 
number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, 
but each state shall have at least one Representative ; and until such 
enumeration shall be made the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled 
to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plan- 
tations one, Connecticut five. New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylva- 
nia eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, 
and Georgia three. 

When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the 
Executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such 

The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other 
officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment. 

Sec. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two 
Senators from each state, chosen by the Legislature thereof for six years ; 
and each Senator siiall have one vote. 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first 
election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. 
The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expira- 


tion of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth 
year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that 
one-third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by 
resignation or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any state, 
the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next 
meeting of the Legislature, which sliall then fill such vacajcies. 

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age 
of thirty years and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and 
who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he 
shall be chosen. 

The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the 
Senate, but shall liave no vote unless they be equally divided. 

The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President jsro 
tempore, in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall exercise 
the office of President of the United States. 

The Senate shall have the sole joower to try all impeachments. When 
sitting for that purpose they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the 
President of the United States is tried the Chief Justice shall preside. 
And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds 
of the members present. 

Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further than to 
removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of 
honor, trust, or profit under the United States ; but the party convicted 
shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, 
and punishment according to law. 

Sec. 4. The times, places and manner of holding elections for Sen- 
ators and Rejjresentatives shall be prescribed in each state by the Legis- 
lature thereof ; but the Congress ma}- at any time by law make or alter 
such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such 
meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by 
law appoint a different day. 

Sec. 5. Each house shall be the judge of the election, returns, and 
qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute 
a quorum to do business ; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to 
day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members 
in such manner and under such penalties as each Jiouse may provide. 

Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, jiunish its 
members f^r disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, 
expel a member. 

Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to 
time publish the same, exce[)ting such jiarts as may, in their judgment, 
require secrecy ; and tlie yeas and nays of the members of either house 
on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered 
on tlie journal. 

Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without the 
consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other 
place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. 

Sec. 6. Tlie Senators and Representatives shall receive a compen- 
sation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the 
treasury of tlie United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, 



felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their 
attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and 
returning from the same ; and for any speecli or debate in either house 
they shall not be questioned in any other jilace. 

No Senator or Repi'esentative shall, during the time for which he was 
elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United 
States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof shall 
have been increased during sucli time ; and no person liolding any office 
under the United States, shall be a member of either house during his 
continuance in office. 

Sec. 7. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of 
Representatives ; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments 
as on other bills. 

Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and 
the Senate, shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the President 
- the United States ; if hs approve he shall sign it ; but if not he shall 
return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have origi- 
nated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and 
proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration two-thirds of that 
house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objec- 
tions, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if 
approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all 
such cases the votes of both liouses shall be determined by 3 eas and nays, 
and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill sluill be entered 
■on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not Ije returned 
by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted), after it shall have 
been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he 
had signed it, unless the Congress, b}' their adjournment, prevent its 
return, in which case it shall not be a law. 

Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the 
Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a 
question of adjournment), shall be presented to the President of the 
United States, and before the same shall take effect shall be approved by 
him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed liy two-thirds of 
the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and lim- 
itatlons prescribed in the case of a bill. 

Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power — 

To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts, 
and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United 
Gtates ; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be uniform throughout 
the United States ; 

To borrow money on the credit of the United States ; 

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several 
St."tes, and with the Indian tribes ; 

To estaljlish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on 
the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States ; 

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and 
fix the standard of weights and measures ; 

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and 
current coin of the United States; 

To establish post offices and post roads ; 


To promote the progress of sciences and useful arts, by securing^ 
for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their 
respective writings and discoveries ; 

To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court ; 

To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high 
seas, and offenses against the law of nations ; 

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules 
concerning captures on land and water ; 

To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that 
use shall be for a longer term than two years ; 

To provide and maintain a navy ; 

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and 
naval forces ; 

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the 
Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions ; 

To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and 
for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the 
United States, reserving to the states respectively tlie appointment of the 
officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discr- 
pline prescribed by Congress ; 

To exercise legislation in all cases whatsoever over such district (not 
exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the 
acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United 
States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the 
consent of the Legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for 
the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock yards, and other needful 
buildings ; and 

To make all laws whicli shall be necessary and proper for carrying 
into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this 
Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any depart- 
ment or officer thereof. 

Sec. 9. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the 
states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited 
by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, 
but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten 
dollars for each person. 

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, 
unless when in cases of rebellion or inviision the public safety may 
require it. 

No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. 

No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion 
to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken. 

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. 

No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or rev- 
enue to the ports of one state over those of another; nor shall vessels 
bound to or from one state be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in 

No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in consequence of 
appropriations made by law ; and a regular statement and account of 
the receipts and expeditures of all public money shall be published from 
time to time. 


No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States : and no 
person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the 
consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title 
of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state. 

Sec. 10. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confeder- 
ation ; grant letters of marque and reprisal ; coin money ; emit bills of 
credit ; make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of 
debts ; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the- 
obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. 

No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts 
or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary 
for executing its inspection laws, and the net produce of all duties and 
imposts laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the 
Treasury of the United States ; and all such laws shall be subject to the 
revision and control of the Congress. 

No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty on^ 
tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any 
agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or 
engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will 
not admit of delay. 

Article II. 

Section 1. The Executive power shall be vested in a President of 
the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term 
of four years, and, together with the Vice-President chosen for the same 
term, be elected as follows : 

Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof 
may direct, a number of Electors, equal to the whole number of Senators 
and Representatives to which the state may be entitled in the Congress; 
but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or 
profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector. 

[ * The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by- 
ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of 
the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the 
persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each ; which list they 
shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the government 
of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The Pres- 
ident of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted.. 
The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President^ 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors aj)pointed ; 
and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal 
number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately 
choose by ballot one of them for President ; and if no person have a ma- 
jority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like 
manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the vote 
shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one 
vote ; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members, 
from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be 
necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President,, 

•This clause between .brackets has been supeisetlcd and annulled by the Twelfth amendment. 


the person having the greatest number of votes of the Electors shall be 
the Vice-President. But if there should remain two or more who have 
equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice-Presi- 

The Congress may determine the time of choosing the Electors, and 
the da}'^ on which they shall give their votes ; which day shall be the same 
throughout the United States. 

No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United 
States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible 
to the ofHce of President ; neither shall any person be eligible to that 
■office who shall not have attained the age of thirty-five years, and been 
fourteen years a resident within the United States. 

In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, 
resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said 
office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-Piiesident, and the Congress 
may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inabil- 
ity, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what officer shall 
then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the dis- 
ability be removed, or a President shall be elected. 

The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a com- 
pensation which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the 
period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive 
within that period any other emolument from the United States or any of 

Before he enters on the execution of his office, he shall take the fol- 
lowing oath or affirmation: 

" I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the 
office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, 
preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States." 

Sec. 2. The President shall be commander in chief of the army and 
navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when 
called into the actual service of the United States ; he may require the 
opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive 
departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their resjiective 
offices, and he shall have powei' to grant reprieves and pardon for offenses 
.against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. 

He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present con- 
cur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice of the Senate, 
shall appoint aml)asaadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of 
the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States whose 
appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be 
established by law ; but the Congress may by law vest the appointment 
of such inferior officers as they think proper in the President alone, in 
the courts of law, or in the heads of departments. 

The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may 
happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which 
shall expire at the end of their next session. 

Sec. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress information 
of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such mea- 
sures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may on extraordinary 


occasions convene both houses, or either of thera. and in case of disagree- 
ment between thera, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may 
adjourn them to sucli time as lie shall think proper ; he shall receive 
ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be 
faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United 

Sec. -1. The Pi-esident, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the 
United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and con- 
viction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. 

Article III. 

Section I. . The judicial power of the United States shall be vested 
in one Supreme Court, and such inferior courts as the Congress may from 
time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the Supreme and 
inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behavior, and shall, at 
stated times, receive for their services a compensation, wliich shall not be 
diminished during their continuance in office. 

Sec. 2. The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and 
equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and 
treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority ; to all cases 
affecting ambassadors, otlier public ministers, and consuls ; to all cases of 
admiralty and maritime jurisdiction ; to controversies to which the United 
States shall be a party ; to controversies between two or more states ; 
between a state and citizens of another state ; between citizens of differ- 
ent states ; between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants 
of different- states, and between a state or the citizens thereof, and foreign 
states, citizens, or subjects. 

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, 
and those in which a state shall be a party, the Supreme Court shall have 
original jurisdiction. 

In all the other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall 
have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions 
and under such regulations as the Congress shall make. 

The trial of all Crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by 
jury ; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shali 
have been committed ; but when not committed within anj^ state, the 
trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have 

Sec. 3. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levy- 
ing war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid 
and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the tes- 
timony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open 

The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, 
but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture^ 
except during the life of the person attainted. 

Article IV. 

Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the 
public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. And 


the Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such 
acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof. 

Sec. 2. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges 
and immunities of citizens in the several states. 

A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, 
■who shall flee from justice and be found in another state, shall, on demand 
■of the executive authorit}' of the state from which he fled, be delivered 
up, to be removed to the state having jurisdict'on of the crime. 

No person held to service or labor in one state, under the laws thereof 
escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation 
therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered 
up on the claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due. 

Sec. 3. New states may be admitted by the Congress into this Union ; 
but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any 
other state ; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, 
or parts of states, without the consent of the Legislatures of the states 
concerned, as well as of the Congress. 

The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful 
rules and regulations I'especting the territory' or other property belonging 
to the United States ; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed 
as to prejudice any claims of the United States or of any particular state. 

Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every state in this 
Union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them 
against invasion, and on application of the Legislature, or of the Execu- 
tive (when the Legislature can not be convened), against domestic vio- 

Article V. 

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it 
necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the ap- 
plication of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call 
a convention for projjosing amendments, which, in either case, shall be 
valid to all intents and purposes as part of this Constitution, when rati- 
fied by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several states, or by con- 
ventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or tlie other mode of ratifi- 
eation may be proposed by the Congress. Provided that no amendment 
which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and 
eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth 
section of the first article ; and that no state, without its consent, shall 
be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. 

Aeticle VI. 

All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adop- 
tion of this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States under | 
this Constitution as under the Confederation. 

This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be 
made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, 
under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the 
land ; and the Judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in 
the Constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding. 

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the mem- 



bers of the several state Legislatures, and all executive and judicial offi- 
cers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound 
by oath or affirmation to support this Constitution ; but no religious test 
shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under 
the United States. 

Article VII. 

The ratification of the Conventions of nine states shall be sufficient 
for the establishment of this Constitution between the states so ratifying 
the same. 

Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the states present, the 
seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the independence of the 
United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have 
hereunto subscribed our names. 

President and Deputy from Virginia. 

New Hampshire. 
John Langdon, 
Nicholas Gilman. 

ITathaniel Gokham, 
RuFus King. 

Wm. Sam'l Johnson, 
Roger Sherman. 

Geo. Read, 
John Dickinson, 
Jaco. Broom, 
Gunning Bedford, Jr., 
Richard Bassett. 

James M'Henry, 
Danl. Carroll, 
Dan. of St. Thos. Jenifer. 

Netv York. 
Alexander Hamilton. 

New Jersey. 
"WiL. Livingston, 
Wm. Paterson, 
David Brearley, 
Jon A. Dayton. 

John Blair, 
James Madison, Jr. 

North Carolina. 
Wm. Blount, 
Hu. Williamson, 
Rich'd Dobbs Spaight. 

B. Franklin, 
Robt. Morris, 
Thos. Fitzsimons, 
James Wilson, 
Thos. Mifflin, 
Geo. Clymer, 
Jared Ingersoll, 
Gouv. Morris. 

South Carolina. 
j. rutledge, 
Charles Pinckney, 
Chas. Cotesworth Pinckney, 
Pierce Butler. 

William Few, 
Abb. Baldwin. 



Articles in Addition to and Amendatory of the Constitution 
OF THE United States of America. 

Proposed hy Congress and ratified hy the Legislatures of the several states, 
pursuant to the fifth article of the original Constitution. 

Article I. 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion^ 
or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of 
speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble^ 
and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. 

Article II. 

A well regnlated militia being necessary to the security of a fre© 
state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. 

Article III. 

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without 
the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be pre- 
scribed by law. 

Article IV. 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers,, 
and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be vio- 
lated ; and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by 
oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched 
and the persons or things to be seized. 

Article V. 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamoua 
crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in 
cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia when in actual 
service in time of war or public danger ; nor shall any person be subject 
for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb ; nor shall 
be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be 
deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor 
shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. 

Article VI. 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a 
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district 
wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have 
been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and 
cause of the accusation ; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; 
to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor ; and to 
have the assistance of counsel for his defense. 

Article VII. 

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed 
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact 








tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United 
States than according to the rules of the common law. 

Article VIII. 

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, 
nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 

Article IX. 

The enumeration, in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be 
construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 

Article X. 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, 
nor prohibited by it to tlie states, are reserved to the states respectively, 
or to the people. 

Artic:.e XI. 

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to 
extend to any suit in hxw or equity con;menced or prosecuted against one 
of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or sub- 
jects of any foreign state. 

Article XII. 

The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot 
for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an 
inhabitant of the same state with themselves ; they shall name in their 
ballots the person to he voted for as president, and in distinct ballots the 
person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of 
all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice- 
President, and of the number of votes for each, wiiich list they shall sign 
and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United 
States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the 
Senate shall, in presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, 
open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person 
having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed ; 
and if no person have such majority, then fi'om the persons having the 
highest number not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as 
President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by 
ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be 
taken by States, tlie representation from each state having one vote; a 
quorum for this pui'pose shall consist of a member or members from two- 
thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to 
a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not clioose a Presi- 
dent wlienever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the 
fourth day of March next following, tlien the Vice-President shall act as 
President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of 
the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice- 
President, shall l)e the Vice-President, if such number be the majority 
of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a major- 


ity then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose 
the Vice-President ; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds 
of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number 
shall l)e necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible 
to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the 
United States. 

Article XIII. 

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a 
punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, 
shall exi&t within the United States, or any place subject to their juris- 

Sec. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appro- 
priate legislation. 

Article XIV. 

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and 
suljject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States, and 
of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law 
which shall alu'idge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United 
States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, 
without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction 
the equal protection of the laws. 

Sec. 2. Representatives shall be appointed among the several states 
according to their respective numbers, counting the wliole number of per- 
sons in each state, excluding Indians not taxed ; but when the right to 
vote at any election for the choice of Electors for President and Vice- 
President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the execu- 
tive and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the Legislature 
thereof, is denied to any of the mule inhabitants of such state, being 
twenty-one years of age and citizens of tlie United States, or in any way 
abridged except for participation in rebellion or other crimes, the basis of 
representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the num- 
ber of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens 
twenty-one years of age in such state. 

Sec. 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, 
or Elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or 
military, under the United States, or under any state, who, having previ- 
ously taken an oath as a Member of Congress, or as an officer of the 
United States, or as a member of any state Legislature, or as an execu- 
tive or judicial officer of any state to support the Constitution of the 
United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the 
same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress mav 
by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such disability. 

Sec. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States author- 
ized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and boun- 
ties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be ques- 
tioned. But neither the United States nor any state shall pay any debt 
or obligation incurred in the aid of insurrection or rebellion against the 
United States, or any loss or emancipation of any slave, but such debts, 
obligations, and claims shall be held illegal and void. 



Article XV. 

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote siiall not 
be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any State, on account of 
race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 





AUiiDtakee .... 
.\ppanoose .... 



HUck Uawk.. 




Buena Vista... 






Cerro Go'-do... 


Chickasaw .... 








D -catur 


DeJ* Moines ... 













Ilui lin 







.T.ickson ... 




Rep. Dem. Gr. Pro. 




































Rep. Dem 































222 f 







21 1434 
87 1187 


154 2152 

19 15.57 

140 2809 

519 1194 
































448i Monroe 

175j Montgomery . 

l(l9o| M'lscatine 

810; O'Brien 

94, (Jsceola 

2621! Page 

33981 Palo Alto 

038l Plymouth 

752| Pocahontas ... 







iSh Iby 






4l7|,Van Buren 

0291 Wapello 

425j Warren 

99| Washington 

9S0| Wayne 

13«0i Webster 

14s."i Winnebago 

000 Winneshiek 

1S3' Woodbury 





Wright . 



Total vote, 1877, 245,760 , 1870 (includiugj949 Greenback), 292,943. 


Rep. Dem. Gr. 








































































































































Rep. Dem. 

































































































171311 11212) 





R. Maj. 


Maj. '74. 




R. Maj. 


Maj '74. 






n. 1803 
K. 657 
D. 63 
n. 3824 
R. 6243 


19496 11688 
19358 15230 




R 23(10 



R 2127 








U. 2724 

Total vote, 1874, 1S4.G40 ; aggregate Republican majority, 24,524. ^Including 0,406 Grceaback votes. 

Practical Rules for Every Day Use. 

Hoiv to find the gain or loss per cent, when the cost and selling price 
are given. 

Rule. — Find the difference between the cost and selling price, which 
wi'l be the gain or loss. 

Annex two ciphei'S to the gain or loss, and divide it by the cost 
price ; the result will be the gain or loss per cent. 

Hozv to change gold into currency. 

Rule. — Multiply the given sura of gold by the price of gold. 

Hotv to change currency into gold. 

Divide the amount in currency by the price of gold. 

ILnv to find each partner s share of the gain or loss in a copartnership 

Rule. — Divide the whole gain or loss by the entire stock, the quo- 
tient will be the gain or loss per cent. 

Multiply each partner's stock by this per cent., the result will be 
each one's share of the gain or loss. 

Hoiv to find gross and net weight and price of hogs. 

A short and simple method for finding the net weight, or price of hogs, 
when the gross tveight or price is given, and vice versa. 

Note.— It is generally assumed that the gross weight (if Hogs diininislied liy 1-5 or 20 per cent 
or itself gives the net weight, auil the net weight increased by K or 25 per cent, of itself equals the 
gross weight. 

To find the net weight or gross price. 

Multiply the given number by .8 (tenths.) 

To find the gross weight or net price. 

Divide the given number by .8 (tenths.) 

How to find the capacity of a granary, bin, or wagon-hed. 

Rule. — Multiply (by short method) the number of cubic feet by 

6308, and point off one decimal place — the result will be the correct 

nswer in bushels and tenths of a bushel. 

For only an approximate answer, multiply the cubic feet by 8, and 
point off one decimal place. 

How to find the contents of a corn-crib. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of cubic feet by 54, short method, or ' 



by 4J ordinary method, and point off one decimal place — the result will 
be the answer in bushels. 

NOTK.— In estimating corn in the ear, tlie quality and the time it has been cribbed must be takea 
into consideration, since corn wiil shrinlt considerabiy during the Winter and Spring. Tliis rule generaliy holds 
good for corn measured at the time it is cribbed, provided It is sound and clean. 

How to find the contents of a cistern or tank. 

Rule. — Multiply the square of the mean diameter by the depth (all 
111 feet) and this product by 5681 (short method), and point off one 
decimal place — the result will be the contents in barrels of 31 J gallons. 

How to find the contents of a barrel or cask. 

Rule. — Under the square of the mean diameter, write the length 
(all in inches) in EEVERf j;d order, so that its units will fall under the 
TENS ; multiply by short method, and this product again by 430 ; point 
off one decimal place, and the result will be the answer in wine gallons. 

Hatv to measure boards. 

Rule. — Multiply the length (in feet) by the width (in inches) and 
divide the product by 12 — the result will be the contents in square feet. 

How to measure scantlings, joists, planks, sills, etc. 

Rule. — Multiply the width, the thickness, and the length together 
(the width and thickness in inches, and the length in feet), and divide 
the product by 12 — the result will be square feet. 

How to find the number of acres in a body of land. 

Rule. — Multiply the length by the width (in rods), and divide the 
product by 160 (carrying the division to 2 decimal jjlaces if there is a 
remainder) ; the result will be the answer in acres and hundredths. 

When the opjiosite sides of a piece of land are of unequal length, 
add them together and take one-half for the mean length or width. 

How to find the number of square yards iji a floor or wall. 

Rule. — Multiply the length by the width or height (in fee(), and 
divide the product by 9, the result will be square yards. 

Hotv to find the number of bricks required in a building. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of cubic feet by 22J. 

The number of cubic feet is found by multijilying the length, height 
nd thickness (in feet) together. 

Bricks are usually made 8 inches long, 4 inclies wide, and two inches 
thick ; hence, it requires 27 bricks to make a cubic foot without mortar, 
but it is generally assumed that the mortar fills 1-6 of the space. 

Hno to find the number of shingles required in a roof. 

Rule. — j\lultiply the numlier of squiire feet in the roof by 8, if tho 
shingles are exi^osed 4i inches, or by 7 1-5 if exposed 5 inches. 

To find the number of square feet, multiply the length of the roof by 
twice the length of the rafters. 


To find the length of the rafters, at one-fourth pitch, multiply the 
width of the building hy .56 (hundredths) ; at one-third pitch, by .6 
(tenths) ; at two-fifths pitch, by .64 (hundredths) ; at one-half 
pitch, by .71 (hundredths). This gives the length of the rafters from 
the apex to the end of the wall, and whatever they are to project must be 
taken into consideration. 

Note.— By H or }i pitch is meant that tlic apex or comb of the roof is to be K or K the width of the 
huiklinp higrher lliari tlie walls or base of the rafters. 

Sow to reckon the cost of hay. 

Rule. — Multiply the number of pounds by half the price per ton, 
and remove the decimal point three places to the left. 

How to measure grain. 

lluLE. — Level tlie grain ; ascertain the space it occupies in cubic 
feet ; multiply the numljer of cubic feet by 8, and point off one place to 
the left. 

Note.— Exactness requires the addition to every three hundred Ijnshels of one extra bnshel. 

The foregoing rule may be used for finding the number of gallons, by 
multiplying the number of bushels by 8. 

If the corn in the box is in the ear, divide the answer bj' 2, to find 
the number of bushels of shelled corn, because it requires 2 bushels of ear 
corn to make 1 of shelled corn. 

Rapid rules for measuring land without instruments. 

Ill measuring land, the first thing to ascertain is the contents of any 
given plot in square j-ards ; then, given the number of yards, find out the 
number of rods and acres. 

The most ancient and simplest measure of distance is a step. Now, 
an ordinary -sized man can train himself to cover one yard at a stride, on 
the average, with sufficient accuracy for ordinary purposes. 

To make use of this means of measuring distances, it is essential to 
walk in a straight line ; to do this, fix the e3-e on two objects in a line 
straight ahead, one comparatively near, the other remote ; and, in walk- 
ing, keep these objects constantly in line. 

Farmers and others hy adopting the following simple and ingenious con- 
trivance, may always carry with them the scale to construct a correct yard 

Take a foot rule, and commencing at the base of the little finger oJ 
the left hand, mark the quarters of the foot on the outer borders of the 
left arm, pricking in the marks with indelible ink. 

To find how many rods in length will make an acre, the toidtli being given. 
HuLE. — Divide IGO by the width, and the quotient will be the answer. 


Hoiv to find the number of acres in any plot of land, the number of rods 
being given. 

Rule. — Divide the number of rods by 8, multiply the quotient by .5, 
and remove the decimal point two places to the left. 

The diameter being given, to find the circumference. 

Rule. — Multiply the diameter by 3 1-7. 

Hoiv to find the diameter, when the circumference is given. 

Rule. — Divide the circumference by 3 1-7. 

To find hoio many solid feet a round stick of timber of the same thick- 
ness throughout ivill contain when squared. 

Rule. — Square half the diameter in inches, multiply by 2, multiply 
by the length in feet, and divide the product by 144. 

General rule for measuring timber, to find the solid contents in feet. 

Rule. — Multiply the depth in inches by the breadth in inches, and 
then multiply by the length in feet, and divide by 144. 

To find the number of feet of timber in trees with the hark on. 

Rule. — Multiply the square of one-fifth of the circumference in 
inches, by twice the length, in feet, and divide by !'44. Deduct 1-10 to 
1-15 according to the thickness of the bark. 

Soward s new rule for computing interest. 

Rule. — The reciprocal of the rate is the time for which tbe interest 
on any sum of money will be shown by simply removing the decimal 
point two places to the left ; for ten times that time, remove the point 
one place to the left ; for 1-10 of the same time, remove the point three 
places to the left. 

Increase or diminish the results to suit the time given. 

Note.— The reeiprwal of the rate is found by invertins the rate ; thus 3 per cent, per month, In- 
verted, liecomes ii of a month, or 10 days. 

When the rate is expressed by one figure, always write it thus : 3-1, 
three ones. 

Itulefor converting English into American currency. 

Multiply the pounds, with the shillings and pence stated in decimals, 
by 400 plus the premium in fourths, and divide the pi-oduct by 90. 


A township — 36 sections each a mile square. 
A section — 640 acres. 

A quarter section, half a mile square — 160 acres. 
An eighth section, half a mile long, north and south, and a quarter 
of a mile wide — 80 acres. 

A sixteenth section, a quarter of a mile square — 10 acres. 


The sections are all numbered 1 to C6, commencing at the north-east 

The sections are divided into quarters, which are named by the 
cardinal points. The quarters are divided in the same way. The de- 
scription of a forty acre lot would read : The soiitli half of the west half of 
the south-west quarter of section 1 in township 24, north of range 7 west, 
or as the case might be ; and sometimes will fall short and sometimes 
oveiTun the number of acres it is supposed to contain. 

The nautical mile is 795 4-5 feet longer than the common mile. 


7 92-100 inches _ make 1 link. 

25 links " 1 rod. 

4 rods " 1 chain. 

80 chains " 1 mile. 

Note. — A chain is 100 links, equal to 4 rods or 06 feet. 

Shoemakers formerly used a subdivision of the inch called a barley- 
corn ; three of which made an inch. 

Horses are measured directly over the fore feet, and the standard of 
measure is four inches — called a hand. 

In Biblical and other old measurements, the term span is sometimes 
used, which is a length of nine inches. 

The sacred cubit of the Jews was 24.024 inches in length. 

The common cubit of the Jews was 21.704 inches iu length. 

A pace is equal to a j^ard or 86 inches. 

A fathom is equal to 6 feet. 

A league is three miles, but its length is variable, for it is strictly 
speaking a nautical term, and should be three geographical miles, equal 
to 3.45 statute miles, but when used on land, three statute miles are said 
to be a league. 

Iu cloth measure an aune is equal to li yards, or 45 inches. 

An Amsterdam ell is equal to 26.790 inches. 

A Trieste ell is equal to 25.284 inches.' 

A Brabant cU is equal to 27.116 inches. 


Every farmer and mechanic, whether he does muck or little business, 
should keep a record of his transactions in a clear and systematic man- 
ner. For the benefit of those who have not had the opportunitj' of ac- 
quiring a primary knowledge of the jirinciples of book-keeping, we here 
present a simple form of keeping accounts which is easily comprehended, 
and well adapted to record the business transactions of farmers, mechanics 
and laborers. 













To 7 bushels Wheat 

By shoeinsT' span of Horses 

at §1 

















To 14 bushels Oats 

To 5 lbs. Butter 

By new Harrow 

at S 






By sharpeninii: 2 Plows .. 



By new Double-Treo 



To Cow and Calf 


To half ton of Hav 

By Cash ". 


By repairing Corn-Planter ._ 


To one Sow with Pigs .. 


Bv Cash, to balance account 


^ ' 






















Fjv 3 dnvs' lal'>or 

at $1.25 







at 3.00 




To 18 bushels Corn 

By 1 month's Labor 

at .45 


To Cash ._ . . - - 

10 00 

2 75 


By 8 days' Mowing . _. 

_ at $1,50 



To 50 lbs. Flour 


To 27 lbs. Meat... 

By 9 days' Harvesting 

By 6 days' Labor 

To Cash .. . ._ 

at $ .10 

at 2.00 

at 1.50 





To Cash to balance account. . . 

18 20 






A Simple Bulk fok AoctrcATELr Compotino interest at a>-t Givex Tkh Cent. i-or. Any 

Length of Time. 

Multiply the principal (amount of money at interest) by the time reduced to days', then divide this proditct 
by tlie quotient obtaineii l)y dividing 360 (the nuraljer of days in the interest year) by llie per cent, of interest, 
andt/ie qttotient thits obtained will be the required interest. 


Require the Interest ofS462. 50 for one month and elRhteen davs at 6 per eent. An $402.50 
interest month is 30 days; one month and eighteen days equal 48 days. S4b3.50 multl. .48 
plied bv .48 Hives S'33'2 0000; 360dividi>d bv 6 (the i^er cent, of interest i Rives BO, and • 

?i2a'10U00 divided l>v HO w^ll i;ive von tli^e.Ki'^t intereil, wliii- i is !53.7d. irtliera'-of 370000 

merest in the a'lov. .^[impl • were 12 per rent., we would divide the S222.O')0O by 30 6)300 \ 135)00 

(heeause 3fi0 divided l.v 1-.; Kives 30); If 4 per eent.. we would divide by 90; If 8 per I 

cent., by 45: and In like manner for any otbcr per cent. 00/5203.0000(53.70 




12 units, or things, 1 Dozen. 1 196 pounds, 1 Barrel of Flour, [ 24 sheets of paper, 1 Quire. 

12 dozen. 1 Gross. 200 pounds. 1 Barrel of I'ork. 20 quires paper 1 Re:im. 

80 things, 1 Score. 56 pounds, 1 Firkin of Butter. 4 ft. wide, 4 n. high, and 8 ft. loug, 1 Cord Wood. 



Virginia. — The oldest of the States, was so called in honor of Queen 
Elizabeth, the "Virgin Queen," in whose reign Sir Walter Raleigh made 
his first attempt to colonize that region. 

Florida. — Ponce de Leon landed on the coast of Floi'ida on Easter 
Sunday, and called the country in commemoration of the day, which was 
the Pasqua Florida of the Spaniards, or " Feast of Flowers." 

Louisiana was called after Louis the Fourteenth, who at one time 
owned that section of the country. 

Alabama was so named by the Indians, and signifies " Here we Rest." 

Mississippi is likewise an Indian name, meaning " Long River." 

Arkansas, from Kansas, the Indian word for " smoky water." Its 
prefix was really aro, the French word for " bow." 

The Carolinas were originally one tract, and were called "Carolana," 
after Charles the Ninth of France. 

Creorgia owes its name to George the Second of England, who first 
established a colony there in 1732. 

Tennessee is the Indian name for the " River of the Bend," i. e., the 
Mississippi which forms its western boundary. 

Kentucky is the Indian name for " at the head of the river." 

Ohio means '* beautiful ; " Iowa, " drowsy ones ; " llinnesota, " cloudy 
water," and Wisco7isin, "wild-rushing channel." 

Illinois is derived from the Indian word illini, men, and the French 
suffix ois, together signifying " tribe of men." 

Michigan was called by the name given the lake, fish-weir, which was 
so stj-led from its fancied resemblance to a fish trap. 

Missouri is from the Indian word " muddy," which more properly 
applies to the river that flows through it. 

Oregon owes its Indian name also to its jarincipal river. 

Cortes named California. 

Massachusetts I?, the Indian for " The country around the great hills." 

Connecticut, from the Indian Quon-ch-ta-Cut, signifying " Long 

Maryland, after Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles the First, of 

Netv York was named by the Duke of York. 

Pennsylvania means " Penn's woods," and was so called after William 
Penn, its orignal owner. 



Delaware after Lord De La Ware. 

New Jersey, so called in honor of Sir George Carteret, who was 
Governor of the Island of Jersey, in the British Channel. 

Maine was called after the jirovince of Maine in France, in compli- 
ment of Queen Henrietta of England, who owned that province. 

Vermont, from the French word Vert Mont, signifying Green 

Neio Hampshire, from Hampshire county in England. It was 
formerly called Laconia. 

The little State of Rhode Island owes its name to the Island of 
Rliodes in the Mediterranean, which domain it is said to greatly 

Texas is the American word for the Mexican name by which all that 
section of the country was called before it was ceded to the United States. 


States and Territories. 



California , 













Massafluisetls — 




Missmni , 

Nebraska , 


New Hampshire.. 

New Jersey 

New York 

Noith Carolina ... 



Rhode I.slanU .... 
Snuth Carolina... 





West Virginia 


Total States.. 


^.'olorada , 

Dakota , 

District of Columbia., 



New Mexico 

Ufih , 



Total Territories.. 

Total United States 38. 555, 983 





New York, N. T 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Broolclvn, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

Chicago, 111 

Baltimore, Md 

IJostoTi, Mass 

Cincititiati, Oliio 

New Orleans, La. .. 
San Francisco, Cal.. 

Buffalo, N. Y 

Washington, D. C... 

Newark. N. J 

Lonisville, Ky 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Pittsburp, Pa 

Jersey City, N, J ... 

Detroit, Mich 

Milw.nukee, Wis 

Alhany, N. Y 

Providence, R. I 

Rochester, N. Y 

Allegheny, Pa 

Rrchinond. Va 

New Haven, Conn,, 

Charleston. S. C 

Indianapolis, Ind... 

Troy, N. Y 

•Syracuse, N. Y 

Worcester, Mass 

Lowell, Mass 

Memphis, Tenn 

Camliridge, Mass... 

Hartford, Conn 

Scranton, Pa 

Reading, Pa 

Paterson, N.J 

Kansas City, Mo 

Mobile, Ala 

Toledo. Ohio 

Portland. Me 

Columbus, Ohio 

Wilmington, Del 

Dayton, Ohio 

Lawrence, Mass 

Utica, N, Y 

Charlestown, Mass 

Savannah, Ga 

Lynn. Mass 

Fall River, Mass... 






















































Area ill 
States and square 
Territories, aiiles. 

















Massachusetts.. . 

■ Michigan* 






New Hampshire. 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina.. 





' Last Census of 

3-1 li 


1875. 18 


Hon: 1. own, 637 
l)l."> 1,11(1.7112 
818 3111.399 
Will l.SJl.dll 


Michigan taken In 1874. 






























States and 



Rhode Island 

South Carolina... 





West Virginia 


Total Slates. 





Dlst. of Ciilumbiu. 



New Mexico 




Totat Territories. 

Area ill 






















R. R. 









Aggregate of n, S,. 2,915,203 38,555,983 60,852 

* Included in the Railroad Mileage of Maryland, 





Date of 

Area in 


to Sfiuare 




Kritish Kmpire 


United States with Alaska. 


Austria and Hungary 


Great Britain and Ireland. 

German Empire 






.Sweden and Norway 






> ew Grenada 





Argentine Republic 











San Salvador 





San Domingo 

Costa Rica 























,8 18, ,500 

833. 13N 
























































48. 6 














St. Petersburg. . 









Kio .laneiro 

I'onstanlinople . 













Buenos Ayres... 











Sal Salvador... 
Port au Prince 


Monte V.deo... 


San lloiningo... 

San Jose 















































L^pon negotiable bills, and notes payable in this State, grace shall be allowed 
according to the law merchant. All the above mentioned paper falling due on 
Sunday, New Year's Day, the Fourth of July, Christmas, or any day appointed 
or recommended by the President of the United States or the Governor of the 
State, as a day of fast or thanksgiving, shall be deemed as due on the day pre- 
vious. No defense can be made against a negotiable instrument (assigned before 
due) in the hands of the assignee without notice, except fraud was used in 
obtaining the same. To hold an indorser, due diligence must be used by suit 
against the maker or his representative. Notes payable to person named or to 
order, in order to absolutely transfer title, must be indorsed by the payee. 
Notes payable to bearer may be transferred by delivery, and when so payable, 
every indorser thereon is held as a guarantor of payment, unless otherwise 

In computing interest or discount on negotiable instruments, a month shall 
be considered a calendar month or twelfth of a year, and for less than a month, 
a day shall be figured a thirtieth part of a month. Notes only bear interest 
when so expressed ; but after due, they draw the legal interest, even if not 


The legal rate of interest is six per cent. Parties may agree, in writing. 
on a rate not exceeding ten per cent. If a rate of interest greater than ten 
per cent, is contracted for, it works a forfeiture of ten per cent, to the school 
fund, and only the principal sum can be recovered. 


The personal property of the deceased (except (1) that necessary for pay- 
ment of debts and expenses of administration ; (2) property set apart to widow, 
as exempt from execution ; (3) allowance by court, if necessary, of twelve 
months' support to widow, and to children under fifteen years of age), including 
life insurance, descends as does real estate. 

One-third in value (absolutely) of all estates in real pi-operty, possessed by 
husband at any time during marriage, which have not been sold on execution 
or other judicial sale, and to which the wife has made no relinquishment of her 
right, shall be set apart as her property, in fee simple, if she survive him. 



The same share shall be set apart to the surviving Iiusband of a deceased 

The widow's share cannot be affected by any will of her liusband's, unless 
she consents, in writing thereto, within six months after notice to her of pro- 
visions of the will. 

The provisions of the statutes of descent apply alike to surviving husband 
or surviving wife. 

Subject to the above, the remaining estate of which the decedent died 
siezcd, shall in absence of other arrangements by will, descend 

First. To his or her children and tlieir descendants in equal parts ; tlie 
descendants of the deceased child or grandchild taking the share of their 
deceased parents in equal shares among them. 

Serond. Where there is no child, nor descendant of such child, and no 
widow or surviving husband, then to the parents of the deceased in equal parts; 
the surviving parent, if either be dead, taking the whole ; and if there is no 
parent living, then to the brothers and sisters of the intestate and their descend- 

Third. When there is a widow or surviving husband, and no child or chil- 
dren, or descendants of the same, then one-half of the estate shall descend to 
such widow or surviving husband, absolutely ; and the other half of the estate 
shall descend as in other cases where there is no widow or surviving husband, 
or child or children, or descendants of the same. 

Fourth. If there is no child, parent, brother or sister, or descendants of 
either of them, tlien to wife of intestate, or to her heirs, if dead, according to 
like rules. 

Fifth. If any intestate leaves no child, parent, brother or sister, or de- 
scendants of either of them, and no widow or surviving husband, and no child, 
parent, brother or sister (or descendant of either of them) of such widow or 
surviving husband, it shall escheat to the State. 


No exact form of words are necessary in order to make a will good at law. 
Every male person of the age of twenty-one years, and every female of the age 
of eighteen years, of sound mind and memory, can make a valid will ; it must 
be in writing, signed by the testator, or by some one in his or her presence, and 
by his or her express direction, and attested by two or more competent wit- 
nesses. Care should be taken that the witnesses are not interested in the will. 
Inventory to be made by executor or administrator witliin fifteen days from 
date of letters testamentary or of administration. Executors' and administra- 
tors' compensation on amount of personal estate distributed, and for proceeds of 
sale of real estate, five per cent, for first one thousand dollars, two and one-half 
per cent, on overplus up to five thousand dollars, and one per cent, on overplus 
above five thousand dollars, with such additional allowance as shall be reasona- 
ble for extra services. 

Within ten days after the receipt of letters of administration, the executor 
or administrator shall give such notice of appointment as the court or clerk shall 

Claims (other than preferred) must be filed within one year thereafter, are 
forever barred, unless the claim is pending in the District or Supreme Court, or 
unless peculiar circumstances entitle the claimant to equitable relief. 


Claims are classed and payable in the following order : 

1. Expenses of administration. 

2. E.x'penses of last sickness and funeral. 

3. Allowance to widow and children, if made by the court. 

4. Debts preferred under laws of the United States. 

5. Public rates and taxes. 

6. Claims filed within §ix months after the first publication of the notice 
given by the executors of their appointment. 

7. All other debts. 

8. Legacies. 

The award, or property which must be set apart to the widoiv, in her own 
right, by the executor, includes all personal property which, in the hands of thn 
deceased, as head of a family, would have been exempt from execution. 


The owners of personal property, on the first day of January of each year, 
and tlie owners of real property on the first day of November of each year, are 
liable for the taxes thereon. 

The following property is exempt from taxation, viz. : 

1. The property of the United States and of this State, including univer- 
sity, agricultural, college and school lands and all property leased to the State ; 
property of a county, township, city, incorporated town or school district when 
devoted entirely to the public use and not held for pecuniary profit ; public 
grounds, including all places for the burial of the dead; fire engines and all 
implements for extinguishing fires, with the grounds used exclusively for their 
buildings and for the meetings of the fire companies ; all public libraries, 
grounds and buildings of literary, scientific, benevolent, agricultural and reli- 
gious institutions, and societies devoted solely to the appropriate objects of these 
institutions, not exceeding G40 acres in extent, and not leased or otlierwise used 
with a view of pecuniary profit ; and all property lea.sed to agricultural, charit- 
able institutions and benevolent societies, and so devoted during the term of such 
lease ; provided, that all deeds, by which such property is held, sliall be duly 
filed for record before the property tlierein described shall be omitted from the 

2. The books, papers and apparatus belonging to the above institutions; 
used solely for the purposes above contemplated, and the like property of stu- 
dents in any such institution, used for their education. 

3. Money and credits belonging exclusively to such institutions and devoted 
solely to sustaining them, but not exceeding in amount or income the sum pre- 
scribed by their charter. 

4. Animals not hereafter specified, the wool shorn from sheep, belonging to 
-the person giving the list, his farm produce harvested within one year previous 
to the listing ; private libraries not exceeding three hundred dollars in value ; 
family pictures, kitchen furniture, beds and bedding requisite for each family, 
nil wearing apparel in actual use, and all food provided for the family ; but no 
person from whom a compensation for board or lodging is received or expected, 
is to be considered a member of the family within the intent of this clause. 

" 5. Tlie polls or estates or both of persons who, by reason of age or infirm- 
ity, may, in the opinion of the Assessor, be unable to contribute to the public 


revenue; such opinion and the fact upon wliich it is based being in all cases 
reported to the Board of Equalization by the Assessor or any other person, and 
subject to reversal by them. 

6. The farming utensils of any person who makes his livelihood by farming, 
and the tools of any mechanic, not in either case to exceed three hundred dollars 
in value. 

7. Government lands entered or located or lands purchased from this State, 
should not be taxed for the year in which the entry, location or purchase is 

There is also a suitable exemption, in amount, for planting fruit trees or 
forest trees or hedges. 

Where buildings are destroyed by fire, tornado or other unavoidable casu- 
alty, after being assessed for the year, the Board of Supervisors may rebate 
taxes fur that year on the property destroyed, if same has not been sold for 
taxes, and if said tares have not been deh'nqvc7it for tliirty days at the time of 
destruction of the property, and the rebate shall be allowed for such loss only 
as is not covered by insurance. 

All other property is subject to taxation. Every inhabitant of full age and 
sound mind shall assist the Assessor in listing all taxable property of which 
he is the owner, or which he controls or manages, either as agent, gunrdian, 
father, husband, trustee, executor, accounting officer, partner, mortgagor or 
lessor, mortgagee or lessee. 

Road beds of railway corporations shall not be assessed to owners of adja- 
cent property, but shall be considered the property of the companies for pur- 
poses of taxation ; nor shall real estate used as a public highway be assessed 
and taxed as part of adjacent lands whence the same was taken for such public 

The property of railway, telegraph and express companies shall be listed 
and assessed for taxation as the property of an individual would be listed and 
assessed for taxation. Collection of taxes made as in the case of an individual. 

The Township Board of Equalization shall meet first Monday in April of 
each year. Appeal lies to the Circuit Court. 

The County Board of Eqalization (the Board of Supervisors) meet at their 
regular session in June of each year. Appeal lies to the Circuit Court. 

Taxes become delinquent February 1st of each year, payable, without 
interest or penalty, at any time before March 1st of each year. 

Tax sale is held on first Monday in October of each year. 

Redemption may be made at any time within three years after date of sale, 
by paving to the County Auditor the amount of sale, and twenty "per centum of 
such amount immediately added as 'penalty, with ten per cent, interest per 
annum on the whole amount thus made from the day of sale, and also all sub- 
sequent taxes, interest and costs paid by purchaser after March 1st of each 
year, and a similar penalty of twenty per centum added as before, with ten per 
cent, interest as before. 

If 7iotice has been given, by purchaser, of the date at which the redemption 
is limited, the cost of same is added to the redemption money. Ninety days' 
notice is required, by the statute, to be published by the purchaser or holder of 
certificate, to terminate the right of reelemption. 




have jurisdiction, general and original, both civil and criminal, except in such 
cases where Circuit Courts have exclusive jurisdiction. District Courts have 
exclusive supervision over courts of Justices of the Peace and Magistrates, in 
criminal matters, on appeal and writs of error. 


have jurisdiction, general and original, with the District Courts, in all civil 
actions and special proceedings, and exclusive jurisdiction in all appeals and 
writs of error from inferior courts, in civil matters. And exclusive jurisdiction 
in matters of estates and general probate business. 


have jurisdiction in civil matters where $100 or less is involved. By consent 
of parties, tlie jurisdiction may be extended to an amount not exceeding $300. 
Tliey have jurisdiction to try and determine all public offense less than felony, 
committed witiiin their respective counties, in which the fine, by law, does not 
exceed §>100 or tlie imprisonment thirty days. 


Action for injuries to the person or reputation ; for a stutute penalty ; and 
to enforce a mechanics' lien, must be brought in two (2) years. 

Those against a public officer witliin three (3) years. 

Those founded on unwritten contracts; for injuries to property; for relief 
on tiie ground of fraud; and all Other actions not otherwise provided for, within 
five (5) years. 

Those founded on written contracts; on judgments of any court (except 
those provided for in next section), and for the recovery of real property, within 
ten (10) years. 

Those founded on judgment of any court of rscord in the United States, 
within twenty (20) years. 

All above limits, except those for penalties and forfeitures, are extended in 
favor of minors and insane persons, until one year after the disability is removed 
— time during which defendant is a non-resident of the State shall not be 
included in computing any of tlie above periods. 

Actions for the recovery of real property, sold for non-payment of taxes, 
Tnust be brought within five years after the Treasurer's Deed is executed 
and recorded, except where a minor or convict or insane person is the owner, 
and they shall be allowed five years after disability is removed, in which to 

bring action. 


All qualified electors of the State, of good moral character, sound judgment, 
and in full possession of the senses of liearing and seeing, are competent jurors 
in their respective counties. 

United States officers, practicing attorneys, physicians nnd clergymen, 
acting professors or teachers in institutions of learning, and persons disabled by 


bodily infirmity or over sixty-five years of age, are exempt from liability to act 
as jurors. 

Any person may be excused from serving on a jury when liis own interests 
or the public's will be materially injured by his attendance, or when the state of 
his health or the death, or sickness of his family requires his absence. 


was restored by the Seventeenth General Assembly, making it optional with 
the jury to inflict it or not. 


may convey or incumber real estate, or interest therein, belonging to her ; may 
control the same or contract with reference thereto, as other persons may con- 
vey, encumber, control or contract. 

She may own, acquire, hold, convey and devise property, as her husband 

Her husband is not liable for civil injuries committeil by her. 

She may convey property to her husband, and he may convey to her. 

She may constitute her husband her attorney in fact. 


A resident of the State and head of a fixmily may hold the following prop- 
erty exempt from execution : All wearing apparel of himself and family kept for 
actual use and suitable to the condition, and the trunks or other receptacles nec- 
essary to contain the same ; one musket or rifle and shot-gun ; all privafe 
libraries, family Bibles, portraits, pictures, musical instruments, and paintings 
not kept for the purpose of sale; a seat or pew occupied by the debtor or his 
family in any house of public worship ; an interest in a public or private burying 
ground not exceeding one acre; two cows and a calf; one horse, unless a horse 
is exempt as hereinafter provided ; fifty sheep and the wool therefrom, and the 
materials manufactured from said wool ; six stands of bees ; five hogs and all 
pigs under six months ; the necessary food for exempted animals for six months ; 
all flax raised from one acre of ground, and manufactures therefrom; one bed- 
stead and necessary bedding for every two in the family ; all cloth manufactured 
by the defendant not exceeding one hundred yards ; household and kitchen fur- 
niture not exceeding two hundred dollars in value; all spinning wheels and 
looms ; one sewing machine and other instruments of domestic laber kept for 
actual use ; the necessary provisions and fuel for the use of the family for six 
months ; the proper tools, instruments, or books of the debtor, if a farmer, 
mechanic, surveyor, clergyman, lawyer, physician, teacher or professor; the 
horse or the team, consisting of not more than two horses or mules, or two yokes 
of cattle, and the wagon or other vehicle, with the proper harness or tackle, by 
the use of which the debtor, if a physician, public officer, farmer, teamsler or 
other laborer, habitually earns his living ; and to the debtor, if a printer, there 
shall also be exempt a printing press and the types, furniture and material nec- 
essary for the use of such printing press, and a newspaper office to the value of 
twelve hundred dollars ; the earnings of such debtor, or those of his family, at 
any time within ninety days next preceding the levy. 

Persons unmarried and not the head of a fomily, and non-residents, have 
exempt their own ordinary wearing apparel and trunks to contain the same. 


Tliere is also exempt, to a head of a family, a homestead, not exceeding forty 
acres ; or, if inside city limits, one-half acre with improvements, value not 
limited. The homestead is liable for all debts contracted prior to its acquisition as 
such, and is subject to mechanics' liens for work or material furnished for the same. 

An article, otherwise exempt, is liable, on execution, for the purchase 
money thereof. 

Where a debtor, if a head of a family, has started to leave the State, he shall 
have exempt only the ordinary wearing apparel of Iiimsolf and family, and 
other property in addition, as he may select, in all not exceeding seventy-five 
dollars in value. 

A policy of life insurance shall inure to the separate use of the husband or 
wife and childi-en, entirely independent of his or her creditors. 


An unbroken animal shall not be taken up as an estray between May 1st 
and November 1st, of each year, unless the same l)e found within the lawful 
enclo.sure of a householder, who alone can take up such animal, unless some 
other person gives him notice of the fact of such animal coming on his place ; 
and if he fiiils, within five days thereafter, to take up sucii estray, any other 
householder of tiie township may take up such estray and proceed with it as if 
taken on his own premises, provided he shall prove to the Justice of the Peace 
such notice, and shall make affidavit where such estray was taken up. 

Any swine, sheep, goat, horse, neat cattle or other animal distrained (for 
damage done to one's enclosure), when the owner is not known, shall be treated 
as an estray. 

Within five days after taking up an estray, notice, containing a full descrip- 
tion thereof, shall be posted up in three of the most public places in the town- 
ship ; and in ten days, the person taking up such estray shall go before a Justice 
of the Peace in the township and make oath as to where such estray was taken 
up, and that the marks or bran<ls have not been altered, to his knowledge. 1 he 
estray shall then be appraised, by order of the Justice, and the appraisement, 
description of the size, age, color, sex, marks and brands of the estray shall be 
entered by the Justice in a book kept for that purpose, and he shall, within ten 
days thereafter, send a certified copy thereof to the County Auditor. 

When the appraised value of an estray does not exceed five dollars, the 
Justice need not proceed further than to ^nter the description of the estray on 
his book, and if no owner appears within six months, the property shall vest in 
the finder, if he has complied with the law and paid all costs. 

Where appraised value of estray exceeds five and is less than ten dollars, if 
no owner appears in nine months, the finder has the property, if he has com- 
plied with the law and paid costs. 

An estray, legally taken up, may be used or worked with care and 

If any person unlawfully take up an estray, or take up an estray and fail to 
comply with the law regarding estrays, or or work it contrary to above, or 
work it before having it appraised, or keep such estray out of the county more 
than five days at one time, before acquiring ownership, such offender shall foifeit 
to the county twenty dollars, and the owner may recover double damages with 

If the owner of any estray fail to claim and prove his title for one year after 
the taking up, and the finder shall have complied with the law, a comolete title 
vests in the finder. 


But if the owner appear within eighteen months from the taking up, prove 
his ownership and pay all costs and expenses, the finder shall pay him the 
appraised value of such estray, or may, at his option, deliver up the estray. 


A bounty of one dollar is paid for wolf scalps. 


Any person may adopt his own mark or brand for his domestic animals, and 
have a description tliereof recorded by the Township Clerk. 

No person shall adopt the recorded mark or brand of any other person 
residing in his township. 


When any person's lands are enclosed by a lawful fence, tlie owner of any 
domestic animal injuring said lands is liable for the damages, and the damages 
may be recovered by suit against the owner, or may be made by distraining the 
animals doing tlie diunage ; and if the party injured elects to recover by action 
against the owner, no appraisement need be made by the Trustees, as in case of 

When trespassing animals are distrained within twenty-four hours, Sunday 
not included, the party injured shall notify the owner of said animals, if known ; 
and if tlic owner fails to satisfy the party within twenty-four hours thcreaftei'. 
the party shall have the township Trustees assess the damage, and notice shall 
be posted up in three conspicuous places in the township, that the stock, or part 
thereof, shall, on the tenth dajj after ponting the notice, between the hours of 1 
and 3 P. M., be sold to the iiighest bidder, to satisfy said damages, with costs. 

Appeal lies, witlun twenty days, from the action of the Trustees to the Cir- 
cuit Court. 

Where stock is restrained, by police regulation or by law, from running at 
large, any person injureil in his improved or cultivated binds by any domestic 
animal, may, by action against the owner of such animal, or by distraining such 
animal, recover his damages, whether the lands whereon the injury was done 
were inclosed by a lawful fence or not. 


A lawful fence is fifty-four inches high, made of rails, wire or boards, with 
posts not more than ten feet apart where rails are used, and eight feet where 
boards are used, substantially built and kept in good repair; or any other fence; 
which, in the opinion of the Fence Viewers, shall be declared a lawful fence—, 
provided the lower rail, wire or board be not more that twenty nor less than six-} 
teen inches from the ground. 

• The respective owners of lands enclosed with fences shall maintain paititiom 
fences between their own and next adjoining enclosure so long as th(y improve 
them in equal shares, unless otherwise agreed between them. 

If any party neglect to maintain such partition fence as he should maintain, 
the Fence Viewers (the township Trustees), upon complaint of aggrieved party, 
may, upon due notice to both parties, examine the fence, and. if found insuf- 


ficient, notify the delinquent party, in writing, to repair or re-build the same 
uitliin such time as tliey judge reasonable. 

If tiie fence be not repaired or rebuilt accordingly, the complainant may do 
so, and the same being adjudged sufficient by the Fence Viewers, and the 
value thereof, with their fees, being ascertained and certified under their hands, 
the complainant may demand of the delinquent the sum so ascertained, and if 
the same be not paid in one month after demand, may recover it with one per 
cent a month interest, by action. 

Ill case of disputes, the Fence Viewers may decide as to who shall erect or 
maintain partition fences, and in what time the same shall be done ; and in case 
any party neglect to maintain or erect such part as may be assigned to him, 
the aggrieved party may erect and maintain the same, and recover double 

No person, not wishing his land inclosed, and not using it otherwise than in 
common, shall be compelled to maintain any partition fence ; but when he uses 
or incloses his land otherwise than in common, he shall contribute to the parti- 
tion fences. 

Where parties have had their lands inclosed in common, and one of the 
owners desires to occupy his separate and apart from the other, and the other 
refuses to divide the line or build a sufficient fence on the line when divided, 
the Fence A'^iewers may divide and assign, and upon neglect of the other to 
build as ordered by the Viewers, the one may build the other's part and 
recover as above. 

And when one incloses land which has lain unincloscd, he must pay for 
one-half of each partition fence between himself and his neighbors. 

Who'e one desires to lay not less than twenty feet of his lands, adjoining 
liis neighbor, out to the public to be used in common, he must give his neighbor 
si.v montlis' notice thereof. 

Where a fence has been built on the land of another through mistake, tha 
owner may enter upon such premises and remove his fence and material withn 
.six months after the division line has been ascertained. Where the material to 
build such a fence has been taken from the land on which it was built, then, 
before it can be removed, the person claiming must first pay for such material 
to the owner of the land from which it was taken, nor shall such a fence be 
removed at a time when the removal will throw open or expose the crops of the 
other party; a reasonable time must be given bcj'ond the six montlis to remove 


Every mechanic, or other person who shall do any labor upon, or furnish 
any materials, machinery or fi.xtures for any building, erection or other improve- 
ment upon land, including those engaged in the construction or repair of any 
work of internal improvement, by virtue of any contract with the owner, his 
agent, trustee, contractor, or sub-contractor, shall have a lien, on complying 
with the forms of law, upon the building or other impi'ovement for his labor 
done or materials furnished. 

It would take too large a space to detail the manner in which a sub- 
contractor secures his lien. He should file, within thirty days after the last of 
the labor was performed, or the last of the material shall have been furnished, 
with the Clerk of the District Court a true account of the amount due him, after 
allowing all credits, setting forth the time when such material was furnished or 
labor performed, and wlien completed, and containing a correct description of 


the property sought to be charged with the lien, and the whole verified by 

A principal contractor must file such an affidavit within ninety daj's, as 

Ordinarily, there are so many points to be examined in order to secure a 
meciianics' lien, that it is much better, unless one is accustomed to managing 
such liens, to consult at once with an attorney. 

Remember that the proper time to file tlie claim is ninety days for a princi- 
pal contractor, thirty days fi3r a sub-contractor, as above; and that actions to 
en force these liens must he commenced within two years, and the rest can much 
better be done with an attorney. 


Persons meeting each other on the public highways, shall give one half of 
the same by turning to the right. All persons failing to observe this rule shall 
be liable to pay all damages resulting therefrom, together with a fine, not exceed- 
ing five dollars. 

The prosecution must be instituted on the complaint of the person wronged. 

Any person guilty of racing horses, or driving upon the public highway, in 
a manner likely to endanger the persons or the lives of others, shall, on convic- 
tion, be fined not exceeding one hundred dollars or imprisoned not exceeding 
thirty days. 

It is a misdemeanor, without authority from the proper Road Supervisor, to 
break upon, plow or dig within the boundary lines of any public higinvay. 

The money tax levied upon the property in each road district in each town- 
ship (except the general Township Fund, set apart for purchasing tools, machin- 
ery and guide boards), whether collected by the Road Supervisor or County 
Treasurer, shall be expended for highway purposes in that district, and no part 
thereof shall be paid out or expended for the benefit of another district. 

The Road Supervisor of each district, is bound to keep the roads and bridges 
therein, in as good condition as the funds at his disposal will permit; to put 
guide boards at cross roads and forks of highways in his district; and when noti- 
fied in writing that any portion of the public highway, or any bridge is unsafe, 
must in a reasonable time repair the same, and for this purpose may call out 
any or all the able bodied men in the district, but not more than two days at 
one time, without their consent. 

Also, when notified in writing, of the growth of any Canada thistles upon 
vacant or non-resident lands or lots, within his district, the owner, lessee or 
agent thereof being unknown, shall cause the same to be destroyed. 

Bridges when erected or maintained by the public, are parts of the highway, 
and must not be less than sixteen feet wide. 

A penalty is imposed upon any one who rides or drives fiister than a walk 
across any such bridge. 

The manner of establishing, vacating or altering roads, etc., is so well known 
to all township officers, that it is sufficient here to say that the first step is by 
petition, filed in the Auditor's office, addressed in substance as follows : 

The Board of Supervisors of County: The undersigned asks that 

a highway, commencing at and running thence and terminating 

at , be established, vacated or altered (as the case may be.) 

When the petition is filed, ?11 necessary and succeeding steps will be shown 
and explained to the petitioners by the Auditor. 



Any person competent to make a will can adopt as his own the minor child 
of another. The consent of both parents, if living and not divorced or separ- 
ated, and if divorced or separated, or if unmarried, the consent of the parent 
lawfully having the custody of the child ; or if either parent is dead, then the 
consent of the survivor, or if both parents be dead, or the child have been and 
remain abandoned by them, then the consent of the Mayor of the city where 
the child is living, or if not in the city, then of the Clerk of the Circuit Court 
of the county shall be given to such adoption by an instrument in writing, 
signed by party or parties consenting, and stating the names of the parties, if 
known, the name of the child, if known, the name of the person adopting such 
child, and the residence of all, if known, and declaring the name by which the 
child is thereafter to be called and known, and stating, also, that such child is 
given to the person adopting, for the purpose of adoption as his own child. 

The person adopting shall also sign said instrument, and all the parties shall 
acknowledge the same in the manner that deeds conveying lands shall be 
acknowledged. 1> 

The instrumeat shall be recorded in the office of the County Recorder. 


There is in every county elected a Surveyor known as County Surveyor, 
who has power to appoint deputies, for whose official acts he is responsible. It 
is the duty of the County Surveyor, either by himself or liis Duputy, to make 
all surveys that he may be called upon to make within his county as soon as 
may be after application is made. The necessary chainmon and other assist- 
ance must be employed by the person requiring the same to be done, and to bo 
by him paid, unless otherwise agreed ; but the chainmen must be disinterested 
persons and approved by the Surveyor and swcrn by him to measui-e justly and 
impartially. Previous to any survey, he shall furnish himself with a copy of 
the field notes of the original survey of the same land, if there be any in the 
office of the County Auditor, and his survey shall be made in accordance there- 

Their fees are three dollars per day. For certified copies of field notes, 
twenty-five cents. 


The father, mother and children of any poor person who has applied for aid, 
and who is unable to maintain himself by work, shall, jointly or severally, 
maintain such poor person in such manner as may be approved by the Town- 
ship Trustees. 

In the absence or inability of nearer relatives, the same liability shall e.xtend 
to the grandparents, if of ability without personal labor, and to the male grand- 
children who are of ability, by personal labor or otherwise. 

The Township Trustees may, upon the failure of such relatives to maintain 
a poor person, who has made application for relief, apply to the Circuit Court 
for an order to compel the same. 

Upon ten days' notice, in writing, to the parties sought to be charged, a 
hearing may be had, and an order made for entire or partial support of the poor 


Appeal may be taken from such judgment as from other judgments of the 
Circuit Court. 

When any person, having any estate, abandons eitlier cliihh-en, wife or hus- 
band, leaving them chargeable, or likely to become chargeable, upon the public for 
support, upon proof of above fact, an order may be had from the Clerk of the 
Circuit Court, or Judge, authorizing the Trustees or the Sheriff to take into 
possession such estate. 

The Court may direct such personal estate to be sold, to be applied, as well 
as the rents and profits of the real estate, if any, to the su]iport of children, 
wife or husband. 

If the party against whom the order is issued return and support the per- 
son abandoned, or give security for the same, the order shall be discharged, and 
the property taken returned. 

The mode of relief for the poor, througli the action of the Township 
Trustees, or the action of the Board of Supervisors, is so well known to every 
township officer, and the circumstances attending applications for relief are so 
varied, that it need now only be said that it is the duty of each county to pro- 
vide for its poor, no matter at what place they may be. 


A tenant giving notice to quit demised premises at a time named, and after- 
ward holding over, and a tenant or his assignee willfully holding over the prem- 
ises after the term, and after notice to quit, shall pay double rent. 

Any person in possession of real property, with the assent of the owner, is 
presumed to be a tenant at will until the contrary is shown. 

Thirty days' notice, in writing, is necessai-y to be given by either party 
before he can terminate a tenancy at will ; but when, in any case, a rent is 
reserved payable at intervals of less than thirty days, the length of notice need 
not be greater than such interval between the days of payment. In case of 
tenants occupying and cultivating farms, the notice jnust fix the termination of 
the tenancy to take place on the 1st day of March, except in cases of field 
tenants or croppers, whose leases shall be held to expire wlicn tJie crop is har- 
vested ; provided, that in case of a crop of corn, it sliall not be later than the 
1st day of December, unless otherwise agreed upon. But when an express 
agreement is made, whether the same has been reduced to writing or not, 
the tenancy shall cease at the time agreed upon, without notice. 

But where an express agreement is made, wliether reduced to writing or 
not, the tenancy sliall cease at the time agreed upon, without notice. 

If such tenant cannot be found in the county, the notices above required 
may be given to any sub-tenant or other person in pos.session of the premises ; 
or, if the premises be vacant, by affixing tlie notice to the principal door of the 
building or in some conspicuous position on the land, if there be no building. 

The landlord shall have a lien for his rent upon all the crops grown on the 
premises, and upon any otlier personal property of the tenant used on the 
premises during the term, and not exempt from execution, for the period of one 
year after a year's rent or the rent of a shorter period claimed foils due ; but 
such lien shall not continue more than six months after the expiration of the 

The lien may be effected by the commencement of an action, witliin the 
period above prescribed, for the rent alone ; and the landlord is entitled to a writ 


of attachment, upon filing an affidavit that the action is commenced to rcover 
rent accrued within one year previous thereto upon the premises described in the 


Whenever any of the following articles sliall bo contracted for, or sold or 
delivered, and no special contract or agreement shall be made to the contrary, 
the weight per bushel shall be as follows, to-wit: 

Apples, Penches or Quinces 48 

Clierries, Gnipcs, Ciirrniits or Gooseberiies, 40 
Strawhori'ics, liasphei'iies or Blackberries, 32 

Os.ige Oraiigo Seed 32 

.Millet Seed 45 

SloneCoal 80 

Lime 80 

Corn in the ear .-. 70 

Wheat 60 

Potatoes tiO 

Beans 60 

(Jlover Seed 60 

Onions fi7 

Shelled Corn 56 

Rye 56 

Flax Seeil f>6 

Sweet Potatoes 46 

Sand 130 

Sorghum Seed 30 

Broom Cnrn Seed 30 

Bucicwheat 62 

Salt 50 

Barley 48 

Corn Meal 48 

Castor Beans 46 

Timothy Seed : i^ 

Hemp Seed 44 

Dried Peaches 33 

Gals 33 

Dried Apples 24 

Bran 20 

Blue Grass .Seed 14 

Hungarian Grass Seed 45 

Penalty for giving less than the above standard is treble damages and costs 
and five dollars addition thereto as a fine. 


$ means dollars, being a contraction of U. S., which was formerly placed 

before any denomination of money, and meant, as it means now, United States 

£-■ means ^->OMnc?s, English money. 

@ stands for at or to ; lb for pounds, and bbl. for barrels ; '^ for per or bt/ 
the. Thus, Butter sells at 20(« 30c f lb, and Flour at $8(5 $12 '^ bbl. 

% for per cent., and J for number. 

^IMay 1. Wheat sells at $1.20(«j$l. 25, " seller June." Seller June means 
that the person who sells the wheat has the privilege of delivering it at any 
time durinsT the month of June. 

Polling sliort, is contracting to deliver a certain aiuount of grain or stock, 
at a fixed price, within a certain length of time, when the seller has not the 
stock on hand. It is for the interest of the person selling "short" to depress 
the market as much as possible, in order that he may buy and fill his contract 
at a profit. Ilence the "i-horts" are termed "bears." 

Buying Ion;/, is to contract to purchase a certain amount of grain or shares 
of stock at a fixed price, deliverable within a stipulated time, expecting to make 
a profit by the rise in prices. The "longs" are termed "bulls." as it is for 
their interest to "operate" so as to "toss" the prices upward as much as 



Form of note is legal, worded in the simplest way, so that the amount and 
•EJiie of payment are mentioned : 

$100. Chicago, 111., Sept. 15, 1876. 

Sixty days from date I promise to pay to E. F. Brown or order, one hun- 
dred dollars, for value received. L. D. Lowry. 

A note to bo payable in anything else than money needs only the facts sub- 
stituted for money in the above form. 


Orders should be worded simply, thus : 
Mr. F. H. Coats : Chicago, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Please pay to H. Birdsall twenty-five dollars, and charge to 

F. D. SiLVA. 


Receipts should always state when received and what for, thus : 

$100. ' Chicago, Sept. 15, 1876. 

Received of J. W. Davis, one liundred dollars, for services 
rendered in grading his lot in Fort Madison, on account. 

Thomas Brady. 
If receipt is in full, it should be so stated. 


W. N. Mason, Salem, Illinois, Sept. 18, 1876. 

Bought of A. A. Graham. 

4 Bushels of Seed Wheat, at ^1.50 $0 00 

2 Seamless Sacks ■ " 30 60 

Received payment, $6 60 

A. A. Graham. 



$ . , Iowa, , 18 — . 

after date — promises to pay to the order of , dollar) 

at , for value received, with interest at ten per cent, per annum afte; 

until paid. Interest payable , and on interest not paid when due, 

inteiest at same rate and conditions. 

A lailiire to [iny saiil interest, or any part thereof, within 20 days after due, sliall cause the 
whole note to become due and collectable at once. 

Ir this note is sued, or judgment is confessed hei'con, § shall be allowed as attorney fees. 

No. — . P. 0. , . 

vs. — . In Court of County, Iowa, , of 

County, Iowa, do hereby confess that justly indebted to , in the 


sum of dollars, and the furtlier sum of .? as attorney fees, with 

interest thereon at ten per cent, from , and — • hereby confess judgment 

against as defendant in favor of said , for said sum of $ , 

ami Ij? as attorney fees, hereby authorizing the Clerk of the Court of 

said county to enter up judgment for said sum against with costs, and 

interest at 10 per cent, from , the interest to be paid . 

Said debt and judgment bei'.ig for . 

It is especially agreed, however, That if this judgment is paid within twenty 

days after due, no attorney fees need be paid. And hereby sell, convey 

and release all right of homestead we now occupy in favor of said so 

far as this judgment is concerned, and agree that it shall be liable on execution 
for this judgment. 

Dated , 18—. . 

The St.we of Iowa, "I 

• County. J 

being duly sworn according to law, depose and say that the forego- 
ing statement and Confession of Judgment was read over to , and tliat -- 

understood the contents thereof, and that the statements contained therein ar^ 

true, and that the sums therein mentioned are justly to become due said 

as aforesaid. 

Sworn to and subscribed before rae and in my presence by the said 

this day of , 18 — . , Notary Public. 


An agreement is where one party promises to another to do a certain thing 
in a certain time for a stipulated sum. Good business men always reduce an 
agreement to writing, which nearly always saves misunderstandings and trouble. 
No particular form is necessary, but the facts must be clearly and explicitly 
stated, and there must, to make it valid, be a reasonable consideration. 


Tins Agreement, made the Second day of June, 1878, between John 
Jones, of Keokuk, County of Lee, State of Iowa, of the first part, and Thomas 
Whiteside, of the same place, of the second part — 

WITNESSETH, that the said John Jones, in consideration of the agreement 
of the party of the second part, hereinafter contained, contracts and agrees to 
and with the said Thomas Whiteside, that he will deliver in good and market 
able condition, at the Village of Melrose, Iowa, during the month of November, 
of this year. One Hundred Tons of Prairie Hay, in the following lots, and at 
the following specified times ; namely, twenty-five tons by the seventh of Nov- 
ember, twenty-five tons additional by the fourteenth of the month, twenty-five 
tons more by the twenty-first, and the entii'e one hundred tons to be all delivered 
by the thirtieth of November. 

And the said Thomas Whiteside, in consideration of the prompt fulfillment 
of this contract, on the part of the party of the first part, contracts to and agrees 
with the said John Jones, to pay for said hay five dollars per ton, for each ton 
as soon as delivered. 


In case of ftiiluro of agreement by eitlier of the parties hereto, it is hereby 
stipulated and agreed that the party sofaihng shall pay to the other, One Hun- 
dred dollars, as lixed and settled damages. 

Ill witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands the day and year first 
above written. John Joxes, 

Thomas Whiteside. 

agreement with clerk for services. 

This Agreement, made the first day of May, one thousand eight hundred 
and seventy-eight, between Ileuben Stone, of Dubuque, County of Dubuque, 
State of Liwa, party of the first part, and George Barclay, of JlcGregor, 
County of Clayton, State of Iowa, party of the second part— 

WITNESSETH, that Said George Barclay agrees faithfully and diligently to 
work as clerk and salesman for the said Reuben Stone, for and during the space 
of one year from the date hercot, shoulil both live such length of time, witliout 
absenting himself from his occupation ; dui'iiig which time lie, the said Barclay, in 
the store of said Si one, of Dubuque, will carefully and honestly attend, doing 
and performing all duties as clerk and salesman aforesaid, in accordance and in 
all respects as directed and desired by the .--aid Stone. 

In consideration of which services, so to be rendered by the said Barclay, the 
said Stone agrees to pay to said Barclay the annual sum of one thousand dol- 
lars, payable in twelve equal monthly payments, each upon the last day of each 
month ; provided that all dues lor days of absence from business by said Barclay, 
shall be deducted from the .sum otherwise by the agreement due and payable by 
the said Stone to the .said Barclay. 

Witness our hands. Reuben Stone. 

George Barclay. 


A bill of sale is a written agreement to another party, for a consideration to 
convey his right and interest in the personal property. The jnirchaser must 
take, actual possession of the proiycrtij, or the bill of sale must be acknowledged 
and recorded. 


Xnow all Men by this instrument, that I, Louis Clay, of Burlington, 
Iowa, of the first part, for and in consideration of Five Hundred and Ten 
Dollars, to me paid by John Floyd, of the same place, of the second part, the 
receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, have sold, and by this instrument do 
convey unto the said Floyd, party of the second part, his executors, administra- 
tors and assigns, my undivided half of ten acres of corn, now growing on the 
arm of Thomas Tyrell, in the town above mentioned ; one pair of horses, 
sixteen sheep, and JRve cows, belonging to me and in my possession at the farm 
aforesaid ; to have and to hold the same unto the party of the second part, his 
executors and assigns forever. And I do, for myself and legal representatives, 
agree with the said party of the second part, and his legal representatives, to 
warrant and defend the sale of the afore-mentioned property and chattels unto 
the said party of the secon.d part, and his legal representatives, against all and 
every person whatsoever. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto affixed my hand, this tenth day of 
October, one thousand eight hundred and seventy-six. 

Louis Clay. 


[To -John Wontpay : 

You are hereby notified to quit the possession of the premises you now 
occupy to Avit : 

[^Insert Description.^ 
on or before thirty clays from the date of this notice. 

Dated January 1, 1878. Landlord. 

[Rtiverse for Notice to Landlord.^ 



I, Charles Mansfield, of the Town of Bellevue, County of Jackson, State 
of Iowa, being aware of tlio uncertainty of life, and in failing health, but of 
sound mind and memory, do make and declare this to be my last will and tes- 
tament, in manner followinji;, to-wit : 

First. I give, devise and bequeatli unto my eldest son, Sidney H. Mans- 
field, the sum of Two Thousand Dollars, of bank stock, now in the Third 
National Bank, of Cincinnati, Ohio, and the farm owned by myself, in the 
Township of Iowa, consisting of one Iiundred and sixty acres, with all the 
houses, tenements and improvements thereunto belonging; to have and to hold 
unto my said son, his heirs and assigns, forever. 

Second. I give, devise and bequeath to each of my two daughters, Anna 
Louise Mansfield and Ida Clara Mansfield, each Two Thousand Dollars in bank 
stock in the Third National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio ; and also, each one 
quarter section of land, owned by myself, situated in theTownship of Fairfield, 
and recorded in my name in tlie Recorder's ofiice, in the county where such land 
is located. Tiie north one hundred and sixty acres of said half section is 
devised to my eldest daughter, Anna Louise. 

T'drd. I give, devise and bequeath to my son, Frank Alfred Mansfield, five 
shares of railroad stock in the Baltimore & Oliio Railroad, and my one hundred 
and sixty acres of land, and saw-mill thereon, situated in Manistee, Michigan, 
with all the improvements and appurtenances thereunto belonging, which said 
real estate is recorded in my name, in the county where situated. 

Fourth. I give to my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, all my household 
furniture, goods, chattels and personal projierty, about my home, not hitherto 
disposed of, including Eight Thousand Dollars of bank stock in the Third 
National Bank of Cincinnati, Ohio, fifteen shares in the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad, and the free and unrestricted use, possession and benefit of the home 
farm so long as she may live, in lieu of dower, to whicli she is entitled by law 
— said farm being my present place of residence. 

F(f/h. I bequeath to my invalid father, Elijah H. Mansfield, the income 
from rents of ray store building at 145 Jackson street, Chicago. Illinois, during 
the term of his natural life. Said building and land therewith to revert to 
my said sons and daughters in equal proportion, upon tiie demise of my said 

<SV,r^/;. It is also my will and desire that, at the death of my wife, A''ictoria 
Elizabeth iNIansfield, or at any time when she may arrange to relinquish her 


life interest in the above mentioned homestead, the same may revert to my 
above named children, or to the lawfid heirs of each. 

And lastly. I nominate and appoint as the executors of this, my last will 
and testament, my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, and my eldest son, Sidney 
H. Mansfield. 

I further direct that my debts and necessary funeral expenses shall be paid 
from moneys now on depo.sit in the Savings Bank of Bellevue, the residue of 
such moneys to revert to my wife, Victoria Elizabeth Mansfield, for her use for- 

In witness whereof, I, Charles Mansfield, to this my last will and testament, 
have hereunto set my hand and seal, this fourth day of April, eighteen hundred 
and seventy-two. 

Charles Mansfield. 
Signed, and declared by Charles Mansfield, as and for his last will and tes- 
ment, in the presence of us, who, at his request, and in his presence, and in 
the presence of each other, have subscribed our names hereunto as witnesses 
thereof. Peter A. Sciienck, Dubuque, Iowa, 

Frank E. Dent, Bellevue, Iowa. 


Whereas I, Charles Mansfield, did, on the fourth day of April, one thousand 
eight hundred and seventy-two, make my hist will and testament, I do now, by 
this writing, add this codicil to my said will, to be taken as a part thereof. 

Whereas, by the dispensation of Providence, my daughter, Anna Louise, 
has deceased, November fifth, eighteen hundred and seventy-three ; and whereas, 
a son has been born to me, which son is now christened Richard Albert Mans- 
field, I give and bequeath unto him my gold watch, and all right, interest and 
title in lands and bank stock and chattels bequeathed to my deceased daughter, 
Anna Louise, in the body of this will. 

In witness whereof, I hereunto place my hand and seal, this tenth day of 
March, eighteen hundred and seventy-five. Charles Mansfield. 

' Signed, sealed, published and declared to us by the testator, Charles ]\Ians- 
field, as and for a codicil to be annexed to his last will and testament. And 
we, at his request, and in his presence, and in the presence of each other, have 
subscribed our names as witnesses thereto, at the date hereof. 

Frank E. Dent, Bellevue, Iowa, 
John C. Shay, Bellevue, Iowa. 

{Form No. 1.) 


I^tate op Iowa, \ 

County, j 

I, , of the County of , State of Iowa, do hereby acknowledge 

■chat a certain Indenture of , bearing date the day of , A. D. 

18 — , made and executed by and , his wife, to said on 

che following described Real Estate, in the County of , and State of 

lowa, to-wit : (here insert description) and filed for record in the office of the 
Recorder of the County of , and State of Iowa, on the day of 


A. D. 18 — , at o'clock . M. ; and recorded in Book of Mortgage 

Records, on page , is redeemed, paid off, satisfied and discharged in full. 

. [seal.] 

State of Iowa, "1 

n * / SS. 

County, J 

Be it Remembered, That on this day of , A. D. 18 — , before 

me the undersigned, a in and for said county, personally appeared , 

to me personally known to be the identical ])erson ■who executed the above 

(satisfaction of mortgage) as grantor, and acknowledged signature 

thereto to be voluntary act and deed. 

Witness my hand and seal, the day and year last above 

■written. . 


Know all Mex by these Presents : That , of County, and 

State of , in consideration of dollars, in hand paid by — of 

County, and State of , do hereby sell and convey unto the said 

the following described premises, situated in the County , and State of 

, to wit : (here insert description,) and do hereby covenant with the 

said that lawfully seized of said premises, that they are free from 

incumbrance, that have good right and lawful authority to sell and convey 

the same ; and do hereby covenant to warrant and defend the same against 

the lawful claims of all persons whomsoever. To be void upon condition that 

tlie said shall pay the full amount of principal and interest at the time 

tlierein specified, of certain promissory note for the sura of dollars. 

One note for .^ , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for ^ , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for § , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

And the said Mortgagor agrees to pay all ta.xes that may be levied upon the 
above described premises. It is also agreed by the Mortgagor that if it becomes 
necessary to foreclose this mortgage, a reasonable amount sliall be allowed as an 

attorney's fee for foreclosing. And the said hereby relinquishes all her 

right of dower and homestead in and to the above described premises. 
Signed to day of , A. D. 18 — . 

[Acknowledge as in Form No. 1.] 


This Indenture, made and executed by and between of the 

county of and State of , part of the first part, and of the 

county of and State of pai'ty of the second part, Witnesseth, that the 

said part of the first part, for and in consideration of the sura of dollars, 

paid by the said party of the second part, the receipt of which is hereby 
acknowledged, ha','e granted and sold, and do by these presents, grant, bargain, 
sell, convey and confirm, unto the said party of the second part, heirs and 


assigns forever, the certain tract or parcel of real estate situated in the county 
of and State of , described as follows, to-wit: 

[Here insert description.) 

The said part of the first part represent to and covenant with the part of 
the second part, that he have good right to sell and convey said premises, 
that they are free from encumbrance and that he will warrant and defend 
them against the lawful claims of all persons whomsoever, and do expressly 
hereby release all rights of dower in and to said premises, and relinquish and 
convey all rights of homestead therein. 

This Instrument is made, executed and delivered upon the following con- 
ditions, to-wit : 

First. Said first part agree to pay said or order 

Second. Said first part further agree as is stipulated in said note, that if 
he shall fail to pay any of said interest when due, it shall bear interest at the 
rate often per cent, per annum, from the time the same becomes due, and this 
mortgage shall stand as security for the same. 

Third. Said first part further agree that he will pay all taxes and 
assessments levied upon said real estate before the same become delinquent, and 
if not paid the holder of this mortgage may declare the whole sum of money 
herein secured due and collectable qX once, or he may elect to pay such taxes or 
assessments, and be entitled to interest on the same at the rate of ten per cent. 
per annum, and this mortgage shall stand as security for the amount so paid. 
Fourth. Said first part further agree that if .he fail to pay any of said 

money, either principal or interest, within days after the same becomes 

due ; or fad to conform or comply with any of the foregoing conditions or agree- 
ments, the whole sum herein secured shall become due and payable at once, and 
this mortgage may thereupon be foreclosed immediately for the whole of said 
money, interest and costs. j 

Fifth. Said part further agree that inthe event of the non-payment of either ' 
principal, interest or taxes when due, and upon tlie filing of a bill of foreclosure 
of this mortgage, an attorney's fee of dollars shall become due and pay- 
able, and shall be by the court taxed, and this mortgage shall stand as security 
therefor, and the same shall be included in the decree of foreclosure and shall 
be made by the Sherilf on general or special execution with the other money, 
interest and costs, and the contract embodied in this mortgage and tlie note 
described herein, shall in all respects be governed, constructed and adjudged 

by the laws of , where the same is made. The foregoing conditions 

being performed, this conveyance to bo void, otherwise of full force and virtue. 

[Acknowledge as in form No. l.J 


This Article of Agreement, Made and entered into on this day of ■ 

A. D. 187-, by and between , of the county of -, and 

State of Iowa, of the first part, and — ■ , of the county of :, 

and State of Iowa, of the second part, witnesseth that the said party of the fir^t 


part has this day leased unto the party of the second part the following described 
premises, to wit : , 

[//er« insert description.'] 

for the term of from and after the — day of , A. D. 187-, a:^ 

the rent of dollars, to be paid as follows, to wit : 

\_neTe insert Terms.] 

And it is further agreed that if any rent shall be due and unpaid, or if 
default be made in any of the covenants herein contained, it shall then be law- 
ful for tlie said party of the first part to re-enter the said premises, or to destrain 
for such rent; or he may recover possession thereof, by action of forcible entry 
and detainer, notwithstanding the provision of Section 3,612 of the Code of 
1873 ; or he may use any or all of said remedies. ^ 

And the said party of the second part agrees to pay to the party of the first 
part the rent as above stated, except when said premises are untenantable by 
reason of fire, or from any other cause than the carelessness of the party of the 

second part, or persons family, or in " employ, or by superior force 

and inevitable necessity. And tiie said party of the second part covenants 

that will use the said premises as a , and for no other purposes 

whatever ; and that especially will not use said premises, or permit the 

same to be used, for any unlawful business or purpose whatever ; that will 

not sell, assign, underlet or relinquish said premises without the wi'itten consent 

of the lessor, under penalty of a forfeiture of all rights under this lease, at 

the election of the party of the first part ; and that will use all due care 

and diligence in guarding said property, with the buildings, gates, fences, trees, 
vines, shrubbery, etc., from damage by fire, and tiie depredations of animals; 

that will keep buildings, gates, fences, etc., in as good repair as they now 

are, or may at any time be placed by the lessor, damages by superior force, 
inevitable necessity, or fire from any other cause than from the carelessness of 

the lessee, or persons of- fiimily, or in employ, excepted ; and that 

at the expiration of this lease, or upon a breach by said lessee of any of the said 

covenants herein contained, will, without further notice of any kind, c^uit 

and surrender the possession and occupancy of said premises in as good condi- 
tion as reasonable use, natural wear and decay thereof will permit, clamages by 
fire as afoi-esaid, superior force, or inevitable necessity, only excepted. 

In witness whereof, the said parties have subscribed their names on the date 
first above written. 

In presence of 


■ ,18— ■ 

On or before the — day of , 18 — , fcr value received, I promise to 

pay or order, dollars, with interest from date until paid, 

at ten per cent, per annum, payable annually, at . Unpaid interest 

shall bear interest at ten per cent, per annum. On failure to pay interest 

within days after due, the whole sum, priiicipal and interest, shall become 

due at once. 



Know all Men by these Presents : Tliat of County, and 

State of in consideration of dollars, in hand paid by , of 

County and State of do hereby sell and convey unto the said the 

following described personal property, now in the possession of in the 

county and State of , to wit : 

\_Here insert Description.'] 

And do hereby warrant the title of said property, and that it is free from 

any incumbrance or lien. The only right or interest retained by grantor in 
and to said property being the right of redemption as herein provided. This 
conveyance to be void upon condition that the said grantor shall pay to said 
grantee, or his assigns, the full amount of principal and interest at the time 

therein specified, of certain promissory notes of even date herewith, for 

the sum of dollars, 

One note for $ , due , 18^ — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for f , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ , due , 18 — , with interest annually at per cent. 

One note for $ , due , 18 — , Avith interest annually at per cent. 

The grantor to pay all taxes on said property, and if at any time any part 
or portion of said notes should be due and unpaid, said grantee may proceed by 
sale or foreclosure to collect and pay himself the unpaid balance of said notes, 
whether due or not, the grantor to pay all necessary expense of such foreclosure, 

including $ Attorney's fees, and whatever remains after paying off said 

notes and expenses, to be paid over to said grantor. 

Signed the day of' , 18 — . . 

[Acknowledged as in form No. 1.] . 


Know all Men by these Presents : That of County and 

S'tate of , in consideration of the sum of Dollars, in hand paid by 

of , County and State of , do hereby sell and convey unto 

the said and to heirs and assigns, the following described premises, 

situated in the County of , State of Iowa, to-wit : 

[Ilerc insert description.'] 

And I do hereby covenant with the said that — lawfully seized in fee 

simple, of said premises, that they are free from incumbrance ; that — ha good 
right and lawful authority to sell the same, and — do hereby covenant to war- 
rant and defend the said premises and appurtenances thereto belonging, against 
the lawful claims of all persons whomsoever; and the said hereby re- 
linquishes all her right of dower and of homestead in and to the above described, 

Signed the day of , A. D. 18—. 

IN presence op 

[Acknowledged as in Form No. 1.] 



Know^ all Men by these Presents: That , of County, 

State of , in consideration of the sum of dollars, to — in hand 

paid by , of County, State of , the receipt whereof — do 

hereby acknowledge, have bargained, sold and quit-claimed, and by these presents 

do bargain, sell and quit-claim unto the said and to — heirs and assigns 

forever, all — right, title, interest, estate, claim and demand, both at law and 
in equity, and as well in possession as in expectancy, of, in and to the following 
described premises, to wit : [here insert description] with all and singular the 
hereditaments and appurtenances thereto belonging. 

Signed this day of , A. D. 18—. 

Signed in Presence of 

f Acknowledged as in form No. 1.] 


Know all Men by these Presents: That of County, 

and State of am held and firmly bound unto of County, and 

State of , in the sum of Dollars, to be paid to the said , his 

executors or assigns, for which payment well and truly to be made, I bind myself 
firmly by these presents. Signed the day of A. D. 18 — . 

The condition of this obligation is such, that if the said obligee shall pay to 
said obligor, or his assigns, the full amount of principal and interest at the time 
therein specified, of — certain promissory note of even date herewith, for the 
sum of Dollars, 

One note for $ , due , 18 — , with interest annually at — per cent. 

One note for $ , due , 18 — , with interest annually at — per cent. 

One note for $ , due , 18 — . with interest annually at — per cent. 

and pay all taxes accruing upon the lands herein described, then said obligor 
shall convey to the said obligee, or his assigns, that certain tract or parcel of 
real estate, situated in the County of and State of Iowa, described as fol- 
lows, to wit: [here insert description,] by a Warranty Deed, with the usual 
covenants, duly executed and acknowledged. 

If said obligee should fail to make the payments as above stipulated, or any 
part thereof, as the same becomes due, said obligor may at his option, by notice 
to the obligee terminate his liability under the bond and resume the posses- 
sion and absolute control of said premises, time being the essence of this 

On the fulfillment of the above conditions this obligation to become void, 
otherwise to remain in full force and virtue; uidess terminated by the obligor 
as above stipulated. 

[Acknowledge as in form No. 1.] 



Any three or more persons of full age, citizens of the United States, 
a majority of whom shall be citizens of this State, who desire to associate 
themselves for benevolent, charitable, scientific, religious or missionary pur^ 
poses, may make, sign and acknowledge, before any officer authorized to take 
the acknowledgments of deeds in this State, and have recorded in the office of 
the Recorder of the county in which the business of such society is to be con- 
ducted, a certificate in writing, in which shall be stated the name or title by 
which such society shall be known, the partisular business and objects of such 
society, the number of Trustees, Directors or Managers to conduct the same, and 
the names of the Trustees, Directors or Managers of such society for the first 
year of its existence. 

Upon filing for record the certificate, as aforesaid, the persons who shall 
have signed and acknowledged such certificate, and their associates and success- 
ors, shall, by virtue hereof, be a body politic and corporate by the name 
stated in such certificate, and by that they and their successors shall and may 
have succession, and shall be persons capable of suing and being sued, and may 
have and use a common seal, which they may alter or change at pleasure ; and 
they and their successors, by their corporate name, shall be capable of taking, 
receiving, purchasing and holding real and personal estate, and of making by- 
laws for the management of its affairs, not inconsistent with law. 

The society so incorporated may, annually or oftener, elect from its members 
its Trustees, Directors or Managers at such time and place, and in such manner 
as may be specified in its by-laws, who shall have the control and management 
of the affairs and funds of the societj', a majority of whom shall be a quorum 
for the transaction of business, and whenever any vacancy shall happen among 
such Trustees, Directors or Managers, by death, resignation or neglect to serve, 
such vacancy shall be filled in such manner as shall be provided by the by-laivs 
of such society. When the body corporate consists of the Trustees, Directors or 
Managers of any benevolent, charitable, literary, scientific, religious or mis- 
sionary institution, which is or may be established in the State, and which is or 
may be under the patronage, control, direction or supervision of any synod, con- 
ference, association or other ecclesiastical body in such State, established 
agreeably to the laws thereof, such ecclesiastical body may nominate and 
appoint such Trustees, Directors or Managers, according to usages of the appoint- 
ing body, and may fill any vacancy which may occur among such Trustees, 
Directors or Managers ; and when any such institution may he under the 
patronage, control, direction or supervi^on of two or more of such synods, con- 
ferences, associations or other ecclesiastical bodies, such bodies may severally 
nominate and appoint such proportion of such Trustees, Directors or Managers 
as shall be agreed upon by those bodies immediately concerned. And any 
vacancy occurring among such appointees last named, shall bo filled by the 
synod, conference, association or body having appointed the last incumbent. 

In case any election of Trustees, Directors or Managers shall not bo made 
on the day designated by the by-laws, said society for that cause shall not be 
dissolved, but such election may take place on any other day directed by such 

' Any corporation formed under this chapter shall be capable of taking, hold- 
ing or receiving property by virtue of any devise or bequest contained in any 
last will or testament of any person whatsoever; but no person Jeaving a wife, 


•child or parent, shall devise or bequeath to such institution or corporation more 
than one-fourth of his estate after the payment of his debts, and such device or 
betjuest shall be valid only to the extent of such one-fourth. 

Any corporation in tliis State of an academical character, the memberships 
of which shall consist of lay members and pastors of churches, delegates to any 
synod, conference or council holding its annual meetings alternately in this and 
one or more adjoining States, may hold its annual meetings for the election of 
officers and the transaction of business in any adjoining State to this, at such 
place therein as the said synod, conference or council shall hold its annual meet- 
inijs; and the elections so held and business so transacted shall be as legal and 
binding as if held and transacted at tlie place of business of the corporation in 
this State. 

The provisions of this chapter shall not extend or apply to any association 
or individual wlio shall, in the certificate filed with the Recorder, use or specify 
41 name or style the same as that of any previously existing incorporated society 
in the county. 

The Trustees, Directors or stockholders of any existing benevolent, char- 
itable, scientific, missionary or religious corporation, may, by conforming to the 
requirements of Section 1095 of this chapter, re-incorporate themselves or con- 
tinue their existing corporate powers, and all the property and effects of such 
existing corporation shall vest in and belong to the corporation so re-incorporated 
■or continued. 


No intoxicating liquors (alcohol, spirituous and vinous liquors), except wine 
manufactured from grapes, currants or other fruit grown in the State, shall be 
manufactured or sold, except for mechanical, medicinal, culinary or sacramental 
purposes ; and even such sale is limited as follows : 

Any citizen of the State, except hotel keepers, keepers of saloons, eating 
houses, grocery keepers and confectioners, is permitted to buy and sell, within 
the county of his residence, such liquors for such mechanical, etc., purposes 
only, provided he shall obtain the consent of the Board of Supervisors. In 
order to get that consent, he must get a certificate from a majority of the elec- 
•tors of the town or township or ward in which he desires to sell, that he is of 
good moral character, and a proper person to sell such liquors. 

If the Board of Supervisors grant liim permission to sell such liquors, he 
must give bonds, and shall not sell such liquors at a greater profit tlian thirty- 
three per cent, on tlie cost of the same. Any person having a permit to sell, 
shall make, on the last Saturday of every month, a return in writing to the 
Auditor of the county, showing the kind and quantity of the liquors purchased 
by him since the date of his last report, the price paid, and the amount of 
freights paid on the same ; also the kind and quantity of li(juors sold by him 
since the date of his last report; to whom sold; for what purpose and at what 
price; also the kind and quantity of licjuors on hand; which report shall be 
fiworn to by the person having the permit, and shall be kept by the Auditor, 
subject at all times to the inspection of the public. 

No person shall sell or give away any intoxicating liquors, including wine or 
iTjcer, to any minor, for any purpose whatever, except upon written order of 
parent, guardian or family i)hysician ; or sell the same to an intoxicated person 
or a person in the habit of becoming intoxicated. 


Any person wlio shall mix any intoxicating liquor with any beer, wine or 
cider, by him sold, and siiall sell or keep for sale, as a beverage, such mixture, 
shall be punished as for sale of intoxicating liquor. 

But nothing in the chapter containing the laws governing the sale or pro- 
hibiting the sale of intoxicating liquors, shall be construed to forbid the sale by 
the importer thereof of foreign intoxicating li(]^uor, imported under the author- 
ity of the laws of the United States, regarding the importation of such liquors, 
and in accordance with such laws ; provided that such liquor, at the time of the 
sale by the importer, remains in the original casks or packages in which it was 
by him imported, and in quantities not less than the quantities in which the 
laws of the United States require such liquors to be imported, and is sold by 
him in sucli original casks or packages, and in said quantities only. 

All payment or compensation for intoxicating liquor sold in violation of the- 
laws of this State, wdiether such payments or compensation be in money, goods,- 
lands, labor, or any thing else whatsoever, shall be held to have been received in viola- 
tion of law and e(iuity and good conscience, and to have been received upon a 
valid promise and agreement of the receiver, in consideration of the receipt 
thereof, to pay on demand, to the person furnishing such consideration, the 
amount of the money on the just value of the goods or other things. 

All sales, transfers, conveyances, mortgages, liens, attachments, pledges and 
securities of every kind, which, either in whole or in part, shall have been made 
on account of intoxicating li(|uors sold contrary to law, shall be utterly null and 

Negotiable paper in the hands of holders thereof, in good faith, for valuable 
consideration, without notice of any illegality in its inception or transfer, how- 
ever, shall not be affected by the above provisions. Neither shall the holder of 
land or other property who may have taken the same in good faith, without 
notice of any defect in the title of the person from whom the same was- 
taken, growing out of a violation of the liquor law, be afi'ected by the above 

Every wife, child, parent, guardian, employer, or other person, who shall be 
injured in person or property or means of support, by an intoxicated person, or 
in consequence of the intoxication, has a right of action against any person who 
shall, by selling intoxicating liquors, cause the intoxication of such person, for 
all damages actually sustained as well as exemplary damages. 

For any damages recovered, the personal and real property (except home- 
stead, as now provided) of the person against whom the damages are recovered, 
as well as the premises or property, personal or real, occupied and used by him, 
with consent and knowledge of owner, either for manufacturing or selling intox- 
icating li(iuors cimtrary to law, shall be liable. 

The only other exemption, besides the homestead, from tl^is sweeping liability, 
is that the defendant may have enough for the support of his family for six 
months, to be determined by the Township Trustee. 

No ale, wine, beer or other malt or vinous li([uors shall be sold within two 
miles of the corporate limits of any municipal corporation, except at wholesale, 
for the purpose of shipment to places outside of such corporation and such two- 
mile limits. The power of the corporation to prohibit or license sale of liquors 
not prohibited by law is extended over the two miles. 

No aie, wine, beer or other malt or vinous liquors shall be sold on the day 
on which any election is held under the laws of this State, within two miles of 
the place where said election is held; except only that any person holding a 
permit may sell upon the prescription of a practicing physician. 



The business of publishing hooks bij subscription, having so often been 
brought into disrepute by agents making representations and declarations not 
authorized by the publisher, in order to prevent that asmuch as possible, and 
that there may be more general knowledge of the relation such agents bear to 
their principal, and the law governing such cases, the following statement is 
made : 

A subscription is in the nature of a contract of mutual promises, by which 
the subscriber agrees to pay a certain sum for the work described ; the consid- 
eration is concurrent that the publisher shall publish the booh named, and 
deliver the same, for which the subscriber is to pay the price named. Tlie 
nature and character of the work is described by the ji'rospectus and sample 
shown. These should be carefully examined before subscribing, as they are 
the basis and consideration of the promise to pay, and not the too often exag- 
gerated statements of the agent, who is merely employed to solicit subscriptions, 
for which he is usually paid a commission for each subscriber, and has no 
authority to change or alter the conditions upon which the subscriptions are 
authorized to be made by the publisher. Should the agent assume to agree to 
make the subscription conditional or modify or change the agreement of the 
jiublisher, as set out by the prospectus and sample, in order to bind the princi- 
jpal, the subscriber should sec that such condition or changes are stated over or 
in connection with his signature, so that the publisher may have notice of the 

All persons making contracts in reference to matters of this kind, or any 
other business, should remember that the law as ivritten is, that they can not be 
altered, varied or rescinded verbally, but if done at all, must be done in writing. 
It is therefoi'e important that all persoyis contemplating subscribing should 
distinctly understand that all talk before or after the subscription is made, is not 
admissible as evidence, and is no part of the contract. 

Persons employed to solicit subseripitions are known to the trade as can- 
vassers. They are agents appointed to do a particular business in a prescribed 
mode, and have no authority to do it any other way to the prejudice of their 
principal, nor can they bind their principal in any other matter. They caymot 
collect money, or agree that ]iayment may be made in anything else but money. 
They can not extend the time of payment beyond the time of delivery, nor bind 
their principal for the payment of expenses incurred in their business. 

It would save a great deal of trouble, and often serious loss, if persons, 
lefore signing their names to any subscription book, or any written instrument, 
would examine carefully what it is ; if they can not read themselves call on 
some one disinterested who can. 


No. of 
of Im- 

No. of 

No. of 
n 1874. 

Spring Wheat, 

Winter -Wlieat. 

Indian Corn. 


Value of 
of Farm 



No, of 

No, of 

No. of 

No. of 1 

No. of 

No. of 

No. of 

No. of 










83 182 




















































10895 J 




























































43 46 



















































23551 E 














■ 45412 









161 S37 























































333 If 
















21 COO 




















































































. 47022 











































181 1250 
18(11 '20 


11 ■ 
































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SI 9071 













Buena Vista . . 




Black Hawk... 


1 898424 












Cerro Gordo... 































Des MoineB 

: )elaware 






























































































Palo Alto 













Van Buren 










Woodbury — 


Washtni^ton .. 


Wian'-ba^o... . 











) 841043 


) 3690711 













History of Davis County. 


! A Nation grows, and from its central points its population spreads itself 

I and forms new civic communities. Whatever may be tlie incentives or 
motives that prompt this movement, and the outcome of man's attempt to 
turn the wild domain to his advantage, they are themes for the fruitful 
reflection of interested persons — themes which increase in interest the more 

i they are earnestly and carefully examined. These movements of uieii, as 
thej develop themselves, create the material for history. But history, as 
such, cannot rejiroduce the life of a people in all its various details. It 
must be content with exhibiting the develojmient of that life as a whole. 
The thoughts, imaginings, dealings and doings of the individuals, however 
strongly they may reflect the characteristics of the national mind, form no 
essential ])art of history. While it may be correctly said, however, that the 
life of the individual is intimatel}' bound up in that of the State or Nation, 
it may also be said on the other hand, that the State or Nation exists only 
through the unity of their individual membership, that it is not the coun- 
terpart of individual views, but the results of an intelligent and harmonious 
combination of opinions, though wliicli are often conflicting when first 
advanced. Human tliought and action must harmonize when fruitful results 
are aciiieved in any civic or otlier department of State or Nation. Change 
— far-reaching and radical — is written on the face of opposing elements 
— a change that afl'ects not the individual, nor a class of individuals, 
merely, but the uiiited whole. Hei-e is where history becomes possible — 
where it reaches bevond the scope of mere biograph}', admits of those 
broader generalizations which are the very foundation stones of the philos- 

'' ophy of history, and without which there can be no intelligent comprehen- 
sion of the development and sequence of events, and the results to which 
they lead. 

What is thus true of a State, is equally true of its component parts. 

! Laws are not limited in their application; but are so general in their philo- 
sopiiical deduction, that they warrant liroad inferences, and are specific 
enough to apply to the minutla of the smallest civic division. 


While, it is true, the liistory of a single county — embracing, as it does, 
but a limited territory and a meager population — nia}' present none ot 
those grander laws in obedience to which nations exist and flourish, and by 
which their power is felt, nevertheless, those principles which make history 
possible, are found in every community, and find a harbor in every heart. 
Then there is tlie added fact, that, the history of the county comes nearer 
to the individual life and character of its citizens, than does that of the 
State or of the Nation of which the State forms a ]iart. 

The spread of population merely, the political progress of a people and 
the military annals, are a part only of our history, and that part which is 
most easily discerned. The American of the present day wants to know 
how his ancestors lived, how they looked, what clothes they wore, on what 
they fed, what were their daily tasks and conversation, and how life dealt 
witli them. This is the most difficult part of history to reproduce accurately ; 
but it is, after all, that which gives us the clearest and most vivid insight 
into the spirit of the past. This important element sliould never be over- 
looked, for in no other manner can the intellectual growth of the people, 
the amelioration of manners, the changes in habits and customs, the ad- 
vance in science and art, the progress of invention, tlie relation of classes, 
the increase of prosperity, or the want of it, the moral condition of society, 
and the every-day life of the people, be understood and made to subserve 
the interests of the present. The events that are recorded, are such as oc- 
curred at our very doors, were compassed by men whom we know, and 
which affect our individual interests for weal or for woe. It is not only 
while these events are fresh in the memory that one may form accurate esti- 
mates of their relative importance, and be impartial and candid in forming 
his judgments; but he may also, from present circumstances which have an 
origin in remote times, and which are historical in the largest, fullest, truest 
sense, freed from myth, or conjecture, or uncertain tradition, read the 
promise of the future. It is beyond doubt true, tliat those Jiiost closely 
identified with great or sudden revolutions in opinion or in government, are 
least competent to decide on their value; they make history; the student 
of after years decides the correctness of their theories, or the justice of their 
cause, and decides, too, under circumstances which preclude the bias of 
partisan feeling. There is that entire originality of work, that subtlety of 
thought, that carefulness of conversation, that catholicity of views, that 
honest, kind, perhaps keen criticism of events and men, in the work of those 
who write years after events have transpired, which they who lived at the 
time, and contributed to them, are unable to exercise. 

The history of a county exhibits a much more limited series of facts in i 


tlieir proper connections, of wliicli, indeed, each individual one is interest- 
ing iu its proper place — doiiijly interesting, perhaps, because it marks the 
progress of tliinking, toiling men, in our very presence; men who have 
lived in the same moral and social atmosphere, struggled for the same ends 
for which we have struggled, acquired their experience and reputation in 
the same manner, and exhibited the same loves and hates, the same pro- 
clivities and sympatiiies. Tliis is tlie purely biograjihical element of his- 
tory — that element which o[)ens to us tiie sources of iiuman activity, and 
enables us to read how far and in what manner the views of individuals 
became impressed on public life and morals. It enables us to know the 
i kind of men who become leaders, to note the conditions and results of their 
successes or defeats. Tliis is the part of history directly affecting the indi- 
vidual man, because from it does he select his type of character, of thougiit 
and of conduct. The remark of Plutarch is most applicable to the reali- 
zation of individual hopes and wishes, for it depicts the true conditions of 

He says: " Whenever we begin an enterprise, or take possession of a 
charge, or experience a calamity, we place before our eyes the example of 
the greatest men of our own or bygone ages, and we ask ourselves how 
Plato or Epaminondas, Lycurgus or Agesilaus would have acted. Look- 
ing into those personages as into a faithful mirror, we can remedy our de- 
fects in word or deed. Wlienever any perplexity arrives, or any passion 
disturbes the mind, the student of philo.sophy pictures to himself some of 
those who have been celebrated for their virtue, and the recollection sus- 
tains his tottering steps and jirevents his fall." Such inspiring examples 
as these are the kind that have given to the world names in every walk of 
life that will never die. 



Davis county was named i!i honor of Garret Davis, at the time a repre- 
sentative in Congress from the Lexington, Kentuckey, district; and later a 
United States senator from that State, who became somewhat distinguished 
in National affairs. The evidence of this fact is contained in an extract 
ifrona a letter addressed by Dr. John G. Elbert, of Van Buren county, to 
('apt: Tlosea B. Horn, then an old and prominent citizen of Davis county; 
who, by the way, had given much attention to the traditional history of its 
early settlements, which he contributed, in 1866, to the Annals of Iowa, 


the publication of tlie State Historical Society. The following is the 
extract referred to and explains itself: 

" Ml' James Jenkins and myself were members of the Territorial Council at the time Davis 
county was organized. The name was adopted at the suggestion of some of us Kentuckians, 
who wanted to honor a distinguished politician and Congressman, by the name of Gakiiet 
Davis, of the Lexington, Kentucky, district, who had endeared himself to the West, and 
was thought worthy of the honoi'." 

In addition to this fact it appears from the testimony of Capt. J. H. 

Bonney, wlio, at that time, was a citizen of Yan Buren county, and at the 

Territorial capital when the act was passed giving to the connt}' the name 

of Davis, and defining its boundaries; and from David Ferguson, James 

M. Wray, and otlier pioneer citizens of this county, that soon after the 

termination of the conflict between the State of Missouri and the Territorj- 

of Iowa over the strip of territory lying along our southern border, which 

the former sought to steal from the latter; that those citizens of Iowa who 

were called out by the Governor of the Territory, and the United States 

Marshal as militia, to serve in maintaining the rights of Iowa, and in 

defense of their homes against the unwarranted attempt of Missouri to 

seize territory which it well knew did not belong to her; thought the 

General Government should comj^ensate them for the time spent and 

expenses incurred; and therefore forwarded an application to their delegate 

iti Congress, wiiich was presented in the House, and referred to the 

Committee on Claims, of which Garret Davis was chairman, who reported 

it favorably to the House, accompanied with a bill providing for the 

allowance of the claims. During the ])endency of this bill in Congress, the 

Iowa Territorial Legislature was in session, and passed the act of February 

17, 18i3, defining the boundaries of the new countj^ to which it gave the 

name of Davis, in honor of the distinguished Kentuckian, not more for 

his statesmanship than for liis kindly regard for the pioneer militia who 

rallied to the service of the General Government when a portion of its 

territory was imperiled by a sovereign State. Whether the name of Davis 

was given to this county upon the suggestion of Dr. John D. Elbert and 

James Jenkins, members of the Tej-ritorial Council at the time it was given, 

or, because of Mr. Davis' kindly offices as chairman of the Committee on 

Claims in the National House of Representatives, in championing the 

claims of the jiioneer militia who were called into service, does not clearly 

appear. Whichever may have been- the prevailing reason, one thing appears 

quite certain, that Mr. Davis' bill never passed into a law. Neither did 

the Territorial militiamen ever receive any pay for their services and 

expenses from either the General or Territorial governments, however just^ 

this may appear to have been. 



Davis county is situated in the sonliiern tien if counties bordering on tlie 
north line of tiie State of Missouri, and tlie third west from the Mississippi 
River. It is surrounded by the counties of Wapello on the north, Van Bu- 
ren on the east, Schuyler, Missouri, on the south, and Appanoose on the 
west. It contains fourteen cono-ressioual townships, with an area of about 
322,560 acres, being four townships, twenty-four miles, in length from east to 
west, and three and a half townships, twenty-one miles, in width, from north 
to south; the four half congressional townships are those bordering along 
the Missouri State line. 

By act of the Territorial Legislature, approved February 17, 18i3, the 
boundaries of Davis count}' were defined as follows: 

"Sec'I'idx 1. lie it eiirirteel hi/ the Ciiiiiicil ami lloiisi' of Reprefentatires of the Terrifori/ 
of Iowa, That the following shall be the boiiiularies of a new county which shall be called 
'Davis," to-wit: Beginning at the northeast corner of township seventy, north of range 
twelve west; thence west on the township line dividing townships seventy and seventy-one, 
to range sixteen west; thence south on said range line to the'Missouri State line; thence east 
on said State line to the southwest corner of Van Buren county; thence north with the west 
line of said county of Van Buren, to the place of beginning." 

The first white men to view the beautiful landscape now covered by Iowa, 
of which Davis county forms a prominent part, were, two Frenchmen — one 
■A Franciscan friar — James Marquette; the other, a French explorer, 
Louis Juliette. On their way from the straits of the upper lakes, in their 
frail canoes, "to find out and explore the great river lying to the west of 
them, of which they had heard marvelous accounts from the Indians about 
Lake Michigan," says Marquette, they reached and ascended Green Bay and 
Fox River to Lake AVinnebago to a village of the Kickapoo and Miami In- 
dians. Here the Franciscan priest assembled the chiefs and old men of the 
village; and, pointing to Joliette, said: " My friend is an envoy of France, 
to discover new countries, and I am an Embassador from God to enlighten 
them with the truths of the Gospel." On the 10th of June, 1673, they 
pushed (.n from tiiis Indian village toward the great river. Tliey launched 
their canoes on the Wisconsin, not far from the present Portage City, and 
descending tl'.ey reached the bosom of that great and mysterious river of 
which they had heard so much, on the following 17th of June. (_)n the 25th 
they landed on tiie west bank near the present town of Montrose, in Lee 
county; and thus, so far as known, theirs were the foot prints of the first 
white persons ever made upon Iowa soil. Then, and there, in the name of 
Prance, they |)roclaimed jurisdiction over the vast domain watered by the 


Mississippi and its tributaries, by right of this discovery; to wliich the 
name of " Louisiana " was subsequently given, in lienor of Louis XIV, 
King of France. This vast possession France retained until 1763, when she 
ceded it to spain; and in ISOl, Spain ceded it back to Fi'ance; and by treaty 
dated April ;!0, 1803, the United States acquired this vast domain of Louis- 
iana, for which she paid fifteen mUlion dollars. This acquisition extended 
the domain of our young republic from the Atlantic to the PaciSc. and from 
the Gulf of Mexico to British America on the nortii. 

When the United States government had thus secured the " right, title 
and interest " of all foreign nations to the vast domain overed by the " Lou- 
isiana Purchase," it seemed to lia\e lost sight of the fact that it was, during 
all the period from the year that Marquette and Joliette discovered it, 
1673, to the year the Territory of Ljwa was created, 1838, in the possession 
of its original owners — the red men — a race of ])eople, or the decendents of 
a race of people existing here centuries before tiie Anglo-Saxon Puritans 
settled upon the coast of New England, or before Columbus first visited 
the continent. Of this people, and the acquisition of the soil of Iowa from 
them b}' the government of the United States, more will be said in the 
chapter entitled " The Red Man," i'arther on. 


The surface character of Davis county is somewhat irregnlar, the result 
of its natural and ample drainage system; though its general surface is 
level. While no large rivers course through it, every township is traversed 
by living streams. The Des Moines river passes across the northeast 
corner of the county, from the northwest to the southeast, severing 
something over a thousand acres, or about two sections of land, in the 
corner, which has become historic as the home and burial place of Black 
Hawk, the celebrated chief of the Sac and Fox Indians. 

The general course of the sti-eams north of Blooretield, the county seat, 
is from west to east, and that of those south of the center of the county — 
Bloomfield — is from northwest to southeast— all falling into the Des Moines 
and Mississippi rivers. The streams which so thoroughly water this county 
are Loaf Creek, Fox River, Wyacondah Creek, Fabius Creek, Carter's Creek, 
Lick Creek, besides various minor tributaries to these. Of these, Soap 
Creek is the largest. It rises in the northeast pai't of Appanoose county, 
and courses its way through the northern tier of townships of Davis county, 
and em])ties into the Des Moines in the southeast corner of Wapello county. 
It has several tributaries like Little Soap Creek, rising in Wapello county, 


and emptying into the main stream in section one, Lick Creek townsliip; 
besides Bear Creek, in Marion township, two or three nameless tributaries 
in Soap Creek township, Lick Creek, in Lick Creek township, and Salt 
Creek in Salt Creek township. The next in size and importance is Fox 
-River, which also rises, in two branches, north and south, in Appanoose 
county, which form a junction in Fox River township, Davis county, and 
thus it courses its way in an easterly direction through Drakeville, Bloom- 
field, Perry, Union, and Prairie townships, entering Van Buren county 
near the line between Union and Prairie, and thus in a southeastern 
direction into Missouri, and so on to the Mississippi, near Alexandria, Mis- 
souri. This river, like Soap Creek, is fed with numerous small tributaries in 
all the townships through which it passes. The next stream, in point of size, 
is Wyacondah, an Indian name pronounced Waii kin-daw. There are two 
branches of this stream rising in this county; the south, or main branch, 
rises in West Grove township, near the west side, and courses in a south- 
eastern direction, touching the townships of Bloomfield on the south, 
crossing the northeast corner of Wyacondah township, thence thi-ough Grove 
township, from the northwest corner to near the southeast corner thereof, 
thence into Missouri from the southeast corner of Koseo township. The 
north branch of this stream, called Little Wyacondah, rises in Bloomfield 
township, and courses parallel on the northeast with the south branch, 
across the northeast corner of Grove township, through Rosco township 
from the northwest corner to near the southeast corner thereof, where it 
passes into Missouri in which the two branches form a junction in Clark 
county, thence on to the Mississippi, at La Grange, Missouri. Numerous 
small tributaries How into both branches, as well as the main stream of the 
Wyacondah. Fabius is the next stream in size, and has its rise in 
Appanoose county, and enters Davis in section thirty, Fabius township; 
thence coursing in an easterly direction to the east line of that township: 
thence it bears southeautward, through Wyacondah township, to the middle 
of its southern line, where it flows into Missouri. A branch of this stream 
also rises' near the north line of Fabius township, and courses southwest 
until it joins the main stream a short distance before it passes into 
Wyacondah township. The branches and main stream are joined by minor 
streams from various directions. Chequest Creek is the next in size and 
importance, and is formed near the east- line of the county by two main 
branches, called " North Chequest Creek " and '-South Chequest Creek." 
The largest of these is the North Chequest, which has its rise in section 
thirty-three, in Soaji Creek township, west of Belknap, and coui'ses across 
the northeast corner of Bloomfield township, and along the north side of 


Perrj township for some three miles, then bearing northeastward crosses 
tlie southeast corner of Lick Creek township, entering Salt Creek township 
some two miles from its southwest corner, thence bearing southeastward 
across the northeast corner of Union township, to near the west line of Van 
Buren county where it forms a junction with the South Chequest Creek. 
Among other tributaries of the North Chequest is a branch rising in section 
twenty-seven, Soap Creek township, north of the main branch, near Belknap, 
and this, coursing eastward through Lick Creek township, joins the main 
north branch near the east line of this township, in section twenty-five. 
The South Chequest Creek rises in section sixteen. Perry township, and 
courses its way eastwardly, in an irregular direction through the northern 
portion of Union township to near the. east line of the county, where it 
forms a junction with the main creek which enters Van Buren county and 
falls into Des Moines River at Pittsburg, on the great bend near Keosauqua. 
The Bur Oak branch is the largest among several tributaries of the South 
Chequest. It rises in section twenty-five. Perry township, and passing 
northeastward into Union township, it continues in a northeast course to 
section fifteen, where it joins the South Chequest. Carter's Creek is a branch 
oftheFabius, and ranks next in size to the Chequest. It rises in section 
eighteen. West Grove township, near the west line of tl>e county, and 
coursing in an eastern direction through the south eide of this township, 
it bears in a southeastern direction from near its southeast corner, through 
Wyacondah, crossing the southwest corner of Grrove township into 
Missonri. It forms a junction with the main Fabius at the town of Fabius, 
Scotland county, Missouri, and from thence it falls info the Mississippi 
River below Qnincy. Hickory Branch rises in section thirty, west side of 
Grove township, and courses southeast to section fifteen, from whence it 
passes into Missouri, and unites with the Fabius Creek in its course to the 
Mississippi. The Little Fox Creek is the last and least of the streams of, 
the county. It rises in section eighteen, west side of Prairie township, and 
southwest of the main Fox River, and flows eastward through the southern 
part thereof into Van Buren county, and thence into Missouri, where it 
joins the main stream in Clark county, which, thus united, fi^ows on to the 
Mississippi at Alexandria. 

As before noted, the general surface of Davis county is comparatively 
level, broken only by the vallies of the various water courses and ravines. 
The vallies of some of the larger streams extend deep below the general 
upland surface, which thus presents various configurations in the general 
contour of the county — from the level surface of the flood bottoms of the 
vallies, to the more rolling formation of the uplands between them. Of 


these, tlie valley of Soap Creek is about a iuindred feet deep along some 
portions of it; while the valley of Fox lliver is some ninety feet deep along 
some portions of it; each with flood lands extending from a quarter to a 
mile in width, at intervals along their course. The depth of the vallies ot 
the other streams are comparatively slight, not generally extending beyond 
the channels they themselves have made. 

Thus, it will be seen that the natural drainage system of Davis county is 
excellent — wholly ample to carry off the surplus water from its surface, and 
thus prevent its remaining in localities here and there to the injury of 
crops; and to create miasmatic cess-pools as breeders of disease. 

Along all these streams, the various species of timber indigenous to this 
latitude, given in abundance, such as the white, black, burr, and jack oak, 
red and white elm, bass wood, cotton wood, soft maple, black walnut, hickory, 
ash and some other varieties. Along Soap Creek in the northern part of 
the county hard, or sugar maple is found, which is, to some extent, utilized 
for sugar-making purposes. In addition to the generous growth of forest 
trees and brushwood, along the various water courses of the county, about 
one-third of its surface is quite heavily covered with excellent forest timber, 
extending mainly from the north side southward, which is abundantly ample 
for all the economic uses of the people for generations to come. The soil 
of this portion of the county thus covered with forest timber, is of a clayey 
nature, and is not so warm and prolific as that of a loamy formation. The 
remaining portion of the county is gently rolling prairie, of rich, black, 
loamy soil and beautiful surface. 

Besides the abundant timber grown in Davis county, it has a generous 
supply of good coal underlying a large scope of its surface; and inexaust- 
ible (jualities of sand stone in the northern part of the county, which is 
used tor building and other economic uses; and besides good brick, pottery 
and tile clay abounds to a large extent in the timbered portion of the 
count}'. Of these economic products, coal, stone, clay, etc., more will be 
said in the chapter entitled "Geological Outline," further on in this work. 
And, too, of the productive character of the soil of the county, in its rela- 
tion to agricultural products and industries, will be more elaliorately refered 
to in the chapter further on, entitled "Agricultural Interests." 

Davis county contains no lakes within its borders. Its general elevation 
is high and healthy. It lies one hundred and twenty-five feet above low- 
water mark in the Mississippi liiver at Burlington, and about seven hun- 
dred and eleven feet above the level of the sea. A straight line drawn from 
Burlington westward, passes through Davis countv less than a mile south 
of Belknap. It also lies one hundred and seventy-five feet above low water 


mark in tbe Mississippi Iliver ;it Keokuk, which low water mark in the 
river at Keokuk is four hundred and forty-four feet above tlie level of the 
sea, which is the lowest point in the State; and low water mark in the river 
at Burlinorton is four hundred and eitjlitv-six feet above the level of the sea. 
It will thus be seen that Davis county lies within the draitiage system com- 
prising the tributaries of the Mississippi. The general descent of the 
connty is east and south-east, as will be observed by the course of its 
streams, but this descent is slight, not exceeding an average of two feet to 
the mile. 

The surface deposits, which forms the soil of Davis county, as we see it 
to-day, are classified by geologists as Drift, Bluff, and Alluvium deposits, 
all resting upon the stratified rocks for their foundation. Of these, the 
"drift deposits" form a wider and deeper distribution over the surface than 
any other. We see it everywhere forming the sufrace of the earth, and 
hiding its foundation — the stratified rocks — from view, except where the 
action of water has exposed them. It forms the soil and subsoil of the 
county, as it does the greater portion of the State; and in it, the crops are 
planted, and the fruits, and vegetation generally, take root therein. The 
drift deposit is composed of sand, clay, gravel and boulders promiscuously 
intermixed, without stratification or other regular arrangement of its mate- 
rials, which have been transported froiTi high places at the north, over the 
continent, by glacial movements, or other natural agencies, sufficiently 
powerful to carry rocks and other material suljstances imbeded in immense 
masses of ice, over the surface; and which were not always dependent for 
their motion to the declivity of the slopes, but more generally to glacial 
currents similar to the currents of the streams. 

The Alluvium deposit is that which has accumulated in the valleys of 
rivers and streams by the action of their own currents; and the material 
composing it is derived from the rocks or deposits which the water courses 
erode or wash out fVoni their vallej' slopes and distribute over the flood 
plains or bottoms, as well as on some ui' the terraces of their valleys. It 
forms a rich and productive soil. 

The Bluff deposit is a fine yellowish ash colored species of sand, and is very 
adhesive in its cotnposition, as shown in the high blufi's along rivers, in their 
finely i-ojmded summits, cut here and there with shar]) ridges, smooth and 
abruptly retreating slopes; configurations which not unfrequently rise from 
one to two and three hundred feet above the flood bottoms of the larger 

This glacial, or whatever natural agencj' it was that caused these various 
drift deposits over the general surface, and along the flood bottoms and 


bluflFy sides of the valle.ys of the rivei'S, had, doubtless, much to do with the 
formation of the present surface changes of tliis continent — in its mountains 
and hills, its valleys and bluffs, its lakes and rivers. 

Beneatli the deep, rich vegetable mould of the prairie uplands of Davis 
county, is the drift formation. In many localities along the valleys and 
broken border lands of the streams the vegetable mould, and more or less 
of the drift deposit, are carried from their slopes into the valleys. 

As before noted, the general surface of the upland of the county is gently 
undulating prairie, except the timbered portion of the northern part. The 
rich productive prairie land is the delight of the western husbandman. The 
term "prairie" means ■uieadoius. which was first applied to the broad scopes 
■of treeless land bordering the two great rivers of the continent, by its early 
French explorers, and included in the vast central plain, the largest not only 
in North America, but in the world. The natural meadow lands, covered 
mainly with grass and plants, and presenting in the growing season, the 
grandest display of floral beauty the sun ever illumined, are included in 
three divisions — husjiij prairies, loet or swampy prairies, and rolling prairies. 
The latter mainly forms the surface of Davis county; and the English 
anguage cannot be worded in a description of the beauty, nor of the tra- 
ditions they suggest, finer than the following production by America's 
grandest poet, William Cullen Bryant: 


These are the g-ardens of the desert, these 

The unshorn fields, boundless and beautiful, 

For which the sjipech of Enfjland has no name — 

The prairies. 1 Ijehold them lor the first. 

And my heart swells, while the dilated sight 

Takes in the encircling vastness. Lo! they stretch 

In airy undulations far away. 

As if the ocean, in his gentlest swell. 

Stood still, with all his rounded billows fixed, 

And motionless forever Motionless y 

No — they are all unchained again. The clouds 

Sweep over with their shadows, and, beneath. 

The surface rolls and fluctuates to the eye; 

Dark hollows seem to glide along and chase 

The sunny ridges. Breezes of the South! 

Who toss the golden and flame-like flowers. 

And pass the prairie-hawk that, poised on high. 

Flaps his broad wings, yet moves not— ye have played 

Among the palms of iMexico and vines 

Of Texas, and have crisped the limped brooks 


That from the fountains of Sonora glide 

Into the ealra Pacific — have ye tanned 

A noljler or loveUer scene than this ? 

Man hath no part in this glorious work; 

The hand that built the firmament hath heaved 

And smoothed these verdant swells, and sown their slopes 

With herbage, planted them with Island groves. 

And hedged them 'round with forests. Fitting floor 

For this magnificent temple of the sky — 

With flowers whose glory and whose multitude 

Rival the constellation ! The great heavens 

Seem to stoop down upon the scene in love — 

A nearer vault, and of tenderer blue. 

Than that which bends above the eastern hills. 

As o'er the verdant vast I guide my steed. 

Among the high, rank grass that sweeps his sides. 

The hollow beating of his footsteps seems 

A sacrilegious sound. I think of those 

Upon whose rest he tramples. Are they here — 

The dead of otlier days? — and did the dust 

Of those fair solitudes once stir with life 

And burn with passion? Let the mighty mounds 

That overlook the rivers, or that rise 

In the dim forest, crowded with old oaks. 

Answer. A race that long has passed away 

Built them; a disciplined and populous race 

Heaped, with long toil, the earth, while yet the Greek 

Was hewing the Pentelicus to forms 

Of symmetry, and rearing on its rock 

The glittering Parthenon. These ample fields 

Nourished their harvests; here their herds were fed, 

When haply by their stalls the bison lowed. 

And Ijowed his maned shoulder to the yoke. 

All day this desert murmured with their toils; 

Till twilight blushed, and lovers walked and wooed 

In a forgotten language, and old tunes. 

From instruments of unremerabered form, 

txave the soft winds a voice. 

The valleys and the unbroken horder-hinds, are usually thickly covered 
with forest trees and brushwood, which are fairly distributed along the 
numerous water courses throughout the county. 

An English traveler* in this country, several years ago, published an 
interesting description of the prairie, and its forest borders, from which we; 

•'The charm of a prairie consists in its extension, its green, flowery carpet, its undulating 
surface and the spirit of the forest whereby it is surrounded; the latte r being of all others th) 

♦Captain Basil Hall. 


most significant and expressive, since it characterizes the landscape and defines the form and 
boundary of the plain. The eye sometimes surveys the green prairie without discovering on 
the illimitable plain a tree or bush or any object, save the wilderness of flower and grass, 
while on other occasions the view is enlivened by the groves, dispersed, like islands, over the 
plain; or by a solitary tree rising above the wilderness. The resemblance to the sea., which 
some of these prairies exhibited, was really most striking. 1 had lieaid of this before, but 
always supposed the account exaggei-ated. * * * 

" In spring, when the young grass has just clothed the soil with a soddy carpet of the most 
delicate green, especially when the sun, rising behind a distant elevation of the ground, its 
rays reflected by myriads ot dew-drops, a more pleasing and more eye- benefitting view can- 
not be imagined. You see the fallow deer quietly feeding on the herbage; the bee flies hum- 
ming through the air; the wolf, with lowered tail, sneaks away to its distant lair, with the 
timorous pace of a creature only too conscious of having disturbed the peace of Nature; prai- 
rie-fowls, either in entire tribes, like our own domestic fowls, or in couples, cover the surface; 
the males rambling, and, like turkeys and peacocks, inflating their plumage, make the air 
resound with a drawled, loud and melancholy cry, resembling the cooing of a wood-pigeon, 
or still more, the sound produced by rapidly rubbing a tambourine with the finger. 

***** ***:.^** 

"On turning from the verdant plain to the forests or groups of high-grown timber, the eye, 
at the said season, will find them clad also in the most lively colors. The rich under or 
brushwood stands out in full blossom. The andromedas, the dog-wood, the wood-apple, the 
wild plum and cherry, grow exuberantly in the rich soil, and the invisible blossom of the wild 
vine impergnates the air with its delicious perfume. The variety of the wild fruit trees, and 
of blooming bushes is so great, and so immense the abundance of the blossoms they are cov- 
ered with, that the branches seem to break down under their weight. 

"The delightful aspect of the prairies, its amenities, and the absence of that sombre awe, 
inspired by forests, contribute to forcing away that sentiment of loneliness which usually 
.steals upon the mind of the solitary wanderer in the wilderness, for, although he espies no 
habitation, and sees no human being, and knows himself to be far ott'from any settlement of 
man, he can .scarcely defend himself from believing that he is traveling through a landscape 
embelished by human art. The flowers are so delicate and elegant as appai-ently to be 
distributed for mere ornament over the plain; the groves and groups of trees seem to be dis- 
persed over the prairie to enliven the land.scape, and we can scarcely get rid of the impression 
invading our imagination of the whole scene being flung out and cieated for the satisfaction 
of the sentiment of beauty in refined man." 

The origin of prairies is a problem not yet clearly solved. It is 

estimated that about seven-eighths of Iowa was prairie when it was first 

settled, though very much of this area is now covered with forest trees. 

The prairies are not always of level surface, but are frequently quite broken 

and hill}', even, as some portious of Davis county verities, and so arc the 

forest surfaces; and, as already shown in this chapter, the soil of the 

i prairies varies in variet}-, as do the soil of the timber surfaces. The Drift, 

tiie Alluvial, and the Bluif soils undei-lie the jjrairie surfaces; and not 

(infrequently all these soils are found to compose a single scope; a portion 

I of wliich may be clayey, another gravelly, another sandy, and still another 

loamy. Geologists tell us that the prairies of Iowa are not confined to 

336 nisTOKY OF davis county. 

regions which are underlaid with any formations especially peculiar to 
them, but extend over various furniations, from those of Azoic to those of 
Cretaceous age. inclusive, which embraces nearly all kinds of rock, such as 
the common lime stone, friable limestone, magnesian limestone, clay, clayey 
and sandy shales, quartzite, etc. 

Thus, it seems clear, that whatever the origin of the praires of Iowa may 
have been, their present existence is not attributable to the influence of 
climate, the character or composition of the soil, nor the peculiar character 
of any of the underlying formations. Hence we are left but one conclusion, 
that the prairies — "these gardens of the desert, these unshorn fields, 
boundless and beautiful " — were once, ages agone, the cultivated plains of 
a civilization, of which the red man is the degenerate relic; and at whose 
hands the torch was applied to these vast and " unshorn fields " each 
autumn before the " chase," until the white man's advent, who stayed 
these annual ravages of fire which prevented the growth of forests. In the 
language of a State geologist: "It remains to say, without the least 
hesitation, that the real cause of the existence of the prairies in Iowa is 
the prevalence of the annual fires. If these had been prevented fifty 
years ago, Iowa would now be a timbered instead of a prairie State." 

In the earlier years of the settlements of our prairie states, much fear 
was expressed lest the prairie portions of them would not become generally 
settled, because of the absence of forest timber thereon, for fuel and other 
economic uses; there being a prevailing conviction that forest trees would 
not grow in that kiud of soil. But subsequent investigations have shown 
that this apprehension is erroneous. A former State geologist* who had 
given the subject of soil, climate, and forestry much careful study, thus 
concludes: "If there is really an unfitness of prairie soil for the growth 
of forest trees, then, at least one-third of our State is worthless indeed. 
But this is not the case, for personal observation in all parts of the State, 
extending through a period of thirty years, has established a knowledg of 
the fact that all varieties of our indigenous forest trees will grow thriftily 
upon all varieties of our soil; even those whose most congenial hahitat is 
upon the alluvial soil of our river valleys, or vpon the riigged slopes of 
the valley sides.'''' It has been thus demonstrated, that throughout the State i 
very many varieties of forest trees will grow rapidly and thrive on our 
prairie soils. Orchards and planted groves of forest trees which have for 
years tested the prairie soil and climate of Iowa, afBrm the assertions of the 
above quotation. "While there are some species of forest trees, as well as 
plants and cereals, indigenous to Iowa, that flourish in some sections of the 

*Prof. White, then of Iowa State University. 


State better than in others; yet tliei'e is a marked iiniibrmity in the compo- 
sition of the soils tlirongliout the Statu; and their variableness in different 
localities and latitudes is the result of climatic influences, and their barren- 
nes or fertility, which is noticeable in the bottom or tlood- plains of the valleys 
in contrast with those npon the uplands and hills. 

The general surface of Davis county being undulating, its U]iland soil, as 
before noted, is of the drift deposit, varying in depth according to the 
altitude of its highlands, thus also varying in its productive force, whether 
of forest trees, ])lants, or cereals. Hence, for agricultural purposes, the county 
is well adapted. The products best adapted to its soil are corn and grass. 
Wheat is not a certain staple crop. Oats, flax, and Hungarian grass yield 
profitably. But the profitable and staple products of the soil of this county 
are corn and grass. The former yields bountifully; and among the grasses 
which are grown and yield bountifully are timothy, clover, and blue grass. 
The latter is a grand success upon the soil of this county, equal to the blue 
grass regions of Kentucky, and is extensively grown for stock growing and 
dairy purposes. Timothy and clover also yield finely. In the early days 
of farming upon the prairie soil of the State, it was proclaimed that tame' 
grasses would never flourish in it; but subsequent experience has long since 
exploded this erroneously conceived idea; and, to-day, timothy and clover 
are among the most profltable products of the soil, not only in this county, 
but throughout the State. A fuller elaboration of these agricultural topics- 
will be made in tlie chapter on "Agricultural Interests," further on. 


Climate is a condition of the atmosphere — a temperature of the air — an 
ethereal substance that floats over the earth. It varies in different locali- 
ties, to a greater or less degree, in obedience to fixed natural laws — laws 
which govern the heat and cold, the rain and drouth, the wind and storm. 
Scientists have learned, in a measure, something of these laws, which, at 
this day, enables them to foretell with a great degree of accuracy, the 
chances which will, from day to day, occur in the climatic elements through- 
out the various parts of the country. It is therefore important that every 
one should have a knowledge of these laws; not ou]y because the)' are ad- 
vantageous in the aftairs of life, but also because they indicate to us the at- 
mospheric conditions of localities through the difterent seasons of the year. 
These climatic conditions may be healthful in some localities, and unhealth- 
ful in others. 

The elevation of Davis county is so great, and its general surface is so 


J'ree from swamps, and otlier miastnatic generators, that its atmosplieric sur- 
roundings are wholesome — are not hreedei's of disease and pestilence. Iowa, 
as a State, lies between tlie two climatic extremes of the continent, nortii and 
south; not subject to tlie excessive heat of Missouri in the summer, nor to 
the extreme cold of Minnesota in the winter. Tims, atmosplieric extremes 
in this county are not cliai-actei-istie. The abundant and continuous fall of 
snow, the winter of 1880-81, is an exception in this county; and while the 
annual fall of rain is not usuall}' as large here as it is in the same latitude 
farther eastward, the ground rarely suffers from drouth. Tiie winds of the 
winter are frequently merry; the prevailing ones being the " Manitoba 
Waves," which lose much of their ''blizzard" character befoi'e they reach 
this latitude. Those of spring are tempered as they glide under the warmer 
sun rays from a southerly direction; and as the seasons change, so do the 
atmospheric currents. 

There are no preserved meteorological abservations made in this county, 
showing a continuous record, for any considerable length of time, from 
which can be ascertained its precise climatic conditions. We therefore 
avail ourselves of the observations made by Prof T. S. Parvin at Musca- 
tine and Iowa City, covering a period of thirty* years — from 1839 to 1869, 
both inclusive. These observations were made at the former place until 
1860, and at the latter point from 1860 until 1870. Of the difference in 
latitude and longitude between these two points, Prof. Parvin in his pub- 
lislietl reports, says: "The difference in latitude is about one tenth degrees, 
and longitude about five-tenths degrees. I have calculated the means of 
observation at Muscatine for twenty years, and at Iowa Cit}- for ten years, 
and find that the difference is so very slight that I have not hesitated to re- 
gard the observations as taken at one point, and use them accordingly." 
The distance between these two points is some thirty-five miles; While thci 
distance from Bloomfield to Muscatitie and Iowa City is nearly the same, 
about seventy-five miles northeast, or a little more than double the distance 
between Muscatine and Iowa City. Hence, the difterence between Davis 
county and Muscatine in latitude, is about one-fifth of a degree, and in lon- 
gitude about two-thirds of a degree, or thirty-six miles nortli, and sixty-five 
miles east, while the difi'erence between Davis county and Iowa City, is 
eighteen miles farther north, and twenty-five miles less east. Therefore, if 
the difterence in latitude and longitude between Muscatine and Iowa City 
" is so very slight," double that distance between Davis county and the two 
latter points, is only a little more than sliyld, and will give a close approx- 
imation, to the climatic conditions which prevailed in this county during 
the period covered by the following obseivations, which gives the maximum, 



minimum, and mean temperature of each, Jaiuiarv and Julv, and tlie mean 
temperature of each vear as well: 











































29 96 
21 3 v. 
20. (■,7 










94 50 



95 56 
94 49 
91 55 


CS t- t; 

0) s ^ 


Tlie greatest mean temperature of any one year was 52.14. 

The least mean temperature of any one year was 44.18. 

The average temperature of the whole period of tiiirty years was 47.56. 



The following are the number of days of rain and snow, for the same 
period of thirty years: 




Quantity of rain 
and snow, re- 
duced to water 
in inches. 
























1853 . 














1862 • • 











1869.... •••• 

The average number of clays of rain per year for the whole period of thirty years, 74.8. 

The average number of days of snow per year, for the whole period of thirty years, 19.4 

The average quantity of rain and snow, reduced to water per year, for the whole period,, 
in inches, 44.27. 

The average quantity of snow per year, not reduced to water, in inches, 33.23. 

The greatest quantity of snow was in 1867, 61.97 inches. 

The least quantity of snow was in 1850, 7.90 inches. 

The greatest rainfall in the history of the State, was on August 10 and 11, 1851, from 11 
p. M., to 3 A. M., or 4 hours, there fell 10.71 inches. 



The earliest snow, ever known in the State, until 1881, was October 17, 1859. 
The latest snow fall was April 29, 1851. 

The greatest fall of snow in any one day, was 20}4 inches, December 21st, 1848. 
In 1863, there was frost every montli in the year. 

In 1858, the Mississippi River did not freeze over at Muscatine. It remained closed, on 
an average, 67 days in each year, din-ing the freezing period of thirty years. 

Through the courtesy of Miss Mary Hamilton, observer for the Iowa 
Weatlier Service at the Biooiiiiield Station, we obiain the observations from 
her reports of the rainfall, and climatic temperature in Davis county for the 
years 1879, 1880 and 1881, as follows: 

Rainfall at Bloomtield, from April 1, 1879, to January 1, 1880: 





August 5 

September . . , ... 

October 4 























Rainfall, and the highest, lowest and average temperature, each month, for the year 1880: 

Latitude, 41 degrees, — minutes. 

Longitude, 95 degrees, — minutes. 

Elevation in feet above low water mark of the Mississippi River, 130 feet. 










































— 8 



40 84 " 






79 16 


J u ne 









Xi ivem ber '. 








For The Yfab 1881. 







Jiiimary. . 
Marcli. . . 
April. . . . 


J line 


Aiienst. . . 


.1 3! 

September 51 

2 69 
. 32 


— 6^ 























The average climate temperature, as noted by Prof. Parvin, at Muscatine and Iowa City, 
for the period of thirty years, ending with 1869, was 57.59 degrees; and the average tem- 
perature at Bloomfield, for the years 1880, 1801, as noted by Miss Hamilton, was 47,%'% de- 
grees, making 10.03 degrees difference. 

The foregoing tables will afl'ord an interesting study of the rain and 
snow fall during the years they cover. Climate has so much to do with the 
health and prosperity of a country or civic locality, that it is an important: 
study. It is a frequent observation that ague, malarial fevers and other 
pestilential diseases tind their source in low, malarial and unhealthy local- 
ities, which generate the seeds of disease and death in those who dwell 
within them. Hence, the importance of escaping such localities, which the 
people of Davis county have so effectually done. These considerations are 
important, not only in their eSect upon the bodj', but upon the mind as 
well. "Health and intelligence, intelligence and good morals, good morals 
and e.xcellent government, are sisters three, without which neither nations 
nor men may live and prosper." 

There are but few days in the year that the movements of the winds an 
not observed in this locality. Their healthful importance cannot be over- , 
estimated. They serve to modify the atmosphere, and distribute its heat I 
and moisture. The malaria whicii escapes from the decayed vegetation ot I 
the prairie — a vegetation which has accumulated for ages upon its wild sur-' 
face and produced the rich black mould overlaying it, is swept away by the 
winds; thus keeping the atmosphere in a healthy- condition. The prevail- 
ing winds during the summer are froiji the south; while the winter windf^ 
are from the west and northwest; and during the spring and autumn seasons 
they are more ciiangeable, coining from all points of the compass, which is 
likely caused by tlie equinoctial periods occurring during those seasons 
East winds are quite certain breeders of rain or snow. 


The rainfall, too, is another health preserving agent in absorbing, and neu- 
tralizing the noxious gasses generated from decaying vegetation, sinks of 
lilth, and various other sources. 

Upon the question of climatic localities, Dr. Farr, in 1852, presented a 
very interesting and instructive report to the Register-general of England, 
in relation to the dugeuerating and destructive results to those of the 
human race who dwell in the low malarial localities of the world. In 
speaking of the destruction of the hum;in I'ace through these causes, Dr. 
Farr says: 

"It is destroyed now periodically by five pestilences — cholera, remittent fever, yellow 
fever, glandular plagues and influenza. The origin or chief seat of the is the Delta of 
the Ganges. Of the second, the African and other tropical coasts. Of the third, the low- 
west coast around the Gulf of Mexico, or the Delta of the Mississippi, and the West India 
Islands. Of the fourth, the Delta of the Nile and the low sea-side cities of the Mediterran- 
ean. Of the generating field of influenza nothing certain is known ; but * * » 
the four great pestilential diseases — cholera, yellow fever, remittent fever and plagne--have 
this property in common; that they begin and are most fatal in low grounds; that their fatal- 
ity diminishes in ascending the rivers, and is inconsiderable around the river sources, ex- 
cept under such peculiar circumstances as are met with at Erzeroum, where the features of a 
marshy, sea-side city are .'■een at the foot of the luouutain cliain of Ararat. Safety is found 
in flight to the hills. « * » As the power of the Egyptians descended 

from the Thebaid to Memphis, from Memphis to Sais, they gradually degenerated, notwith- 
standing the elevation of their towns above the high waters of the Nile, their hygenic laws 
and the hydrographical and other sanitary arrangements which made the country renowned, 
justlj' or unjustly, for its salubrity in the days of Herodotus, the poison of the Delta in every 
time of and successful invasion, gradually gained the ascendency, and as the cities 
declined, the canals and the embalments of the dead were neglected, and the plague gained 
ground. The people, sub.iugated by Persians, (iieeks, Romans, Turks. Mamelukes, became 
what they have been for centuries, and what they are at the present day. Every race that 
settled in the Delta degenerated, and was only sustained by immigration. So, likewise, the 
population on the sites of all the city-states of antiquity, on the coast of Syria, Asia Minor, 
Africa, Italy, seated like the people of Rome on low ground under the ruin-clad hills of their 
imcestors, within reach of fever and plague, are enervated and debased apparently beyond 

"'I'he history of the nations on the Mediterranean, on the plains of the Euphrates and 
the Tigris, the Deltas of the Indus and the Ganges, and the rivers of China, exhibit this 
great fact: the gradual descent of races from the highlands, their establishment on the 
coasts in cities sustained and refresherl for a season by immigration from the interior, their 
degradation in successive generations under the influence of the unhealthy earth, and their 
final ruin, eft'aceuient or subjugation by new races of coiiquerers. The causes that destroy 
individual men, lay cities waste, in their nature, are immortal, and silently undermine 
eternal onipires. 

"On the higlilands men feel the lofliest emotions. Every tradition places their origin there. 
The first nations worshipped there; high on the Indian Causasus, on Olympus, and on other 
lofty mountains the Indians and the Greeks imagined the abodes of their highest gods, while 
they peopled the low undei-grouu<l regions, the grave-land of mortality, with infernal deities. 
Their myths have deep signification. Man feels his immortality in the hills." 


There comes to this locality — in fact, to all the western country— in the 
autumn, a spell of the most delightful weather, one of the most charming 
periods of the year, known as " Indian Summer." The mellow rays of the 
Bun, and the soft gentle breezes, as they commingle with the golden or cop- 
per colored haze of the atmosphere, awaken dreams, fairy and delusive. 
Here this period bears the name of Indian Summer, from the fact that 
early settlers ascribed this peculiar haze to the burning of the prairies 
by the Indians at that time. This, however is not the cause, as a similar 
spell of fine weather prevails in various other countries at this season of the 
year. In England it is known as " Martinmas Summer," (from St. Mar- 
tin); in France it is known as ^"^ V ete de St. Martini (Summer of St. 
Martin); in Germany, as '■'■Alte Weiier Sommer," (Old Woman's Sum- 
mer); and along the western coast of South America, as " St. Jolin's Sum- 
mer." In no portion of the world, however, do we believe this period of I 
the year to be grander tiian in our own. It "laps all the landscape in its 
silvery fold" for weeks; and finally marks the changing season — blends 
autumn into winter. The splendor of the forest is brief, its gorgeous colors 
are fleeting, but there is joy in the period and the scene, which awakens 
file purest communings of the soul with this nature's holiday. 

One who has lived a quarter of a century' in Iowa, and passed from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific, says that nowhere between the two oceans can be 
observed so iriany magnificent spectacles at the risings and settings of the 
sun, as in an Iowa autumn: " Golden clouds, 'dark clouds with silver lining,' 
atmosphere full of delicious, haze — sometimes like floating gold and silver 
dust — great bands of rosy light shooting upward to the zenith, mark these 
grand panoramas and make them so beautiful and brilliant that no one wlio 
has been entranced by their grandeur can ever forget them! It is seldom 
that these free exhibitions of tiie sublimities of nature are ever equalled in 
any land, and we doubt wlicther they are ever sur|iassed in Italy." 
This is the " Red Man's Summer," of vvliich the poet * sings: 

When was the red uirtii's suinmerV 

When the rose 
Huncf it.s first banner out? When the gray rook, 
Or the Ijrowii heath, the radiant Kalmia clothed? 
Or when the loiterer, by the reedy brooks. 
Startled to see the proud lobelia glow 
Like living flame? When through the gleara'd 
The ihododendron? Or the fragrant breath 
Of the magnolia swept deliciously 
O'er the half laden nerve? 

*jVrrs. Sigourney. 


No. When the groves 
In fleeting colors wrote theu' own decay, 
And leaves fell eddying on the sharpen'd blast 
That sang their dii-ge; when o'er their rustling bed 
The red deer sprang, or fled the shrill-voiced quail. 
Heavy of wing and fearful ; when, with heart 
Foreboding or depress'd, the white man mark'd 
The signs of coming winter: then began 
The Indian's joyous season. Then the haze, 
Soft and delusive as a fairy dream, 
Lapp'd all the landscape in its silvery fold. 

The quiet rivers that were wont to hide 

'Neath shelving banks, behold their course betrayed 

By the white mists that o'er their foreheads crept, 

'While wrapped in morning dreams, the sea and s!iy 

Slept 'neath one curtain, as if both were merged 

In the same element. Slowly the sun. 

And all reluct-intly, the spell dissolved, 

And then it took upon its parting wing 

A rainbow glory. 

Gorgeous was the time, 
Yet brief as gorgeous. Beautil'ul to thee. 
Our brother hunter, but to us replete 
With musing thoughts in melancholy train. 
Omjoj/s, alas! too oft were woe to thee; 
Yet ah! poor Indian, whom we fain would drive 
Both from our hearts and from thy father's lands, 
The perfect year doth bear thee on its crown. 
And when we would forget, repeat thy name. 


They are compartively few who pause to question Nature; and fewer still 
are they who stay to question tlie inanimate rock. Ou the landscapes and 
beneath tlie surface are indications of a history that challenge investigation; 
on ever\' hill ami in every valley are facts waiting to be noticed and inter- 
preted, and whether the mass of men notice them or not, the story they il- 
lustrate still has its charm. Tlie hills were here when men came; the rills 
and creeks bulibled as merrily on their way to the sea then as now; the 
broad rich acres of prairie land were as fruitful tlien as now, and the prom- 
ise as great. Why then stay to study these familiar rocks? or why pause 
to discuss their origin? Let the following facts answer these questions, 
and answering arouse iutelliB:ent interest. 


Ihe geological history of Davis connty is one of peculiar moment, and 
affords some very suggestive tacts relative to its past vicissitudes. It ex- 
tends in point of time over many thousands of years, and embraces periods 
ol repose and periods of remarkable change. Its history, climatologicall'y, 
has been one of deep interest, and embraces changes so radical and so 
directly at variance with one another as to be almost incredible. There 
have been long ages when it basked under a torrid sun; and then these 
ages gave place to others; remarkable for polar frosts. Life, in all the lux- 
uriance and variety of a tropical climate, gave place to the desert wastes of 
an Artie zone. Nor were these changes sudden. They are there; stamped 
in the very rocks at your doors, or limned upon the landscape of your val- 
leys, not as great and far-reaching catastrophies, but as gradual transitions, 
indisputably marked as such by the fossil forms that roll out from the rock 
you crush, or see traced with a delicacy no draughtsman can imitate. 

There have been times when Old Ocean, heedless of his doings, dashed 
against the rocky barrier that dared dispute bis way, or rolled in solemn 
conscious might above its highest point; tiTiies when a beautiful and varied 
flora thrived upon its surface, and times when there was naught save a 
waste of desert water. We strike our pick in the shales on the hillsides, 
and behold! there in the coal that gives us warmth and drives our engines, 
are the fairy forms that made the fern paradise of the coal period — 
beautiful arguments those of changes that thousands of years, as we measure 
them, would not compass. 

In presenting the following princijial facts in the geology of Davis 
county, enough only has been given of the lithological characters of the 
various rock strata to enable the interested reader to identify them. Many 
points of interest from a geological stand-point, have necessaril}' been omit- 
ted; their introduction would have unduly lengthened the chapter, and 
scarcely possessed any general interest. To trace, briefly, the changes that 
have occurred, and to note their probable causes are the main purposes of 
this sketch. There has been given a detailed account uf the various strata 
from above downwards, hence each formation is to be considered later than 
the one next succeeding it. Cronologically, this method of treatment takes 
us backward in time, and as we reach successively the older strata, we are 
gradually approaching earth's morning; geographically we thus deal first 
with the entire surface of the county; subsequently, and with particular 
reference to the Lower Coal Measures, we have to do with local outcrops of 
rock strata. 

The entire surface of Davis county, except in the very valieys where the 
surface soil is called alluvium^ is covered with the drift, a formation which 


derives its name from tlie manner of its introduction over tlie surface, a 
method hereafter to be explained. The term "'drift," as it is commonly 
employed in geology, "includes the sand, gravel, clay, and boulders occur- 
ring over some ]iarts of the continent, which are without stratification or 
order of arrangement, and have been transplanted from places in higher 
latitudes by some agency which (1) could carry masses of rock hundreds of 
tons in weight, ami which (2) was not always dependent for motion on the 
slopes of the surtace." — Hall . This agency was ice either in the form of an 
extensive glacier, or detached masses called ice-bergs. The whole surface 
of North America, to the thirty-ninth parallel, bears evidence of the denud- 
ing and transforming power. It requires not a little stretch of the imagina- 
tion to conceive all the streams of Davis county tied to their banks by bands 
of ice. The ice-locked rill ceases to babble over its rocky bed, the forests 
have gone like a vision, and ail is one mass of moving ice, a veritable pala- 
eocrystic sea. In its progress onward old valleys were filled and new ones