Skip to main content

Full text of "History of Defiance County, Ohio : containing a history of the county ; its townships, towns, etc. ; military record ; portraits of early settlers and prominent men ; farm views ; personal reminiscences, etc"

See other formats




3 1833 02394 989 












-• T 







■ I 





- • 


'■''■- ' -,-.:. •... 





'....■■ I 

r. "* ' ^* V -Z- 



■ - 



. .. 







- '- - I© 



-<--. ■ 

/ ■ 

-■ ■'■ ■ 









H I S I ' O h Y 

j /~\ *r J" ~" K T ' 

. i 

V.> «0 X i J 

,,-,- y 


H I r 





- - 





1 l!!S-!-"> 


P K E F A ( J V 

''I'Mir. history of Defiance Count) Oh ■ dii i tia • bi m tinn c irsc of preparatioi is herewith 

-»- presented to the patrons of the work, in a. forn li it is coi : '- -.'■■.'. ■■< •.. ' , ■■ • isfact . > ali 

being in strict ai :ordaui > with the announcenients n : I prospectus i -• d •■■■•. tv r years 

The work was t in ; - i ■ ■■ i proper d I i ) lat< I • me 

early times should I , I ; | raianenl ;■ orcl tad with ivh I n to facts aud with n : i ■ ;n ■ ■ h 

we have accom I tin Lsk w< I a ■ the udgmenl ir p reus ti wl keeping the 1 id ions ol 

day remain, and for whom the w< rk was undertaken 1 i > of 01 rish a j . • • histon 

from meager pub documents, inaccurate privati n -, mdence and numberless < »nll ' "cradi! in« ■ ■■ 

no pretension of having prepared : levoid of blemish Kvci I tit fii i earch has h i 

scanned, and, wl ' we acknowledge tli exisl nee of un iid I en i clain to h i i ed o. work i'uilj 

up to the -;. i o mi prom ■ and as a& irate and eornpre ensive as could be i ■ '. a 


To the citizei lie ■ o inty for the co-operation we have at all times met with and to ai! who in an) »aj 

contributed t" the work or aided us in its preparation, we tender our thank-' ; we especially des ■ s to mention the 
names of Jacob J.Greene, William ('. Holgate, H. N. Prentice, William Carter and Alfred i' Edgert i). who 
furnished us with many facts and events of by -gone days. 

- . 

■ • 

■ -- , 



[J , i , ' < i NdilTHWK" '1 ' 

[i'\tst of filiiij ■ : ' 


,...:,- ! I ■ 

I . . . - ' ' 

• , ■ • i ■ v : 

h ■ I "tl>-Il-.ti 

01 ■ ■ I .''.<■■ I r i ' ■ ' ' M > 

111 . ■ : . , I ■ , ■ ' ' l<! ' 

HA 11 i iii;i>IJ I UT P '.■':■ 

■ '■■:. '.: . i.i - 

.',..■ ,:.,...■■; I .; 

I ■ I ■ ■ I 

I " ' |i] '<;■■■ HkFIaM'K 

I'tiiFii-'r. v.. . ■ [.- 1 i I 

I I ........ 

lil.Vi'TKK VI .,-.■■!:.■ '■■■•,. ' 

,...,: i ■ 'ill SatiiMi 

I - ■ 

U , , , iQKTIi:'.! of 


i'H.'.!-t>! !l, ..... , . , 

I I .,■.;. ■ 

. ;■ i,iTE>i ' .-..■,- - 

I! \ ' , I I ■ • ■ "',;.., 

.>:■-■ ! ■ ;.■,■.,■ -' uri I ■ i ' -'- 

I..,: ■ . 

! : [I , - ' I ' ■ 

< ; i \ v i ' ." i ■ ri-i.i i , ! ' . - 

■ .' v ! ..•■.'■; ■ ■ ..■.'" i\... I 

it ■ ' '..':.■:■ 

;.■',■- - n 

; I : . .'■-.■..• , ■ 

i i ■. , , i ., ■ Kjmill.iii I — • V. i 

!•■ IX-n-rii • I'. — n-i : Harff— William taitci ;H-!Q« 

CHAFIKK > ■ '■ ,1 , !"• I" : 

i ■ ; ' ' ■ \ . » 

I . . .'.,,.,,'. 

. • . - , ■ ■ ■ ■ I •-. ' i . 

iV.i L12-110 

: i ■, , v : . i • . ■ : i i -. i ' * i 

' :' ' '■ 

it'iini ■' ' ■ ! ■ ■ ■ '■ ' ' ' ■ ■ 

,■ . , . | 

, i i l ii l:i o 1 ' ' ( ' " ' ! 

. , | . \ • • 

|i.\i>r;;i l ti i ■■ ■ - i ,-■ ral m 

.... ; I . , | I ■ 

, ■,..:.■. inci ■ ■ ■ i - 
:■'.,'. . » i-'.-rs-Kiiil Skftohi - ...1 " ' ' 

■ ■■■•■■■ 

. ■ : . i ■ '. ! ' ■' 

, ; ■ • i i . ; i . : , . shenvood ' lj 

. . ...... - 

, | '.,.:,,'•- 

, ..;,.,..., 

; : V , r ' , . | ' . : , \ *- - ' I ' ' i II : 

..... - 

, ■ . ■ .. p ! I . . 



• i I'H-.i: 

ElT.I i\V.\\S!fl - ' ' ' ' — A ■ 

, .... , 

I ' . - - • ■ '. is - 


' L1X.3 

. ..!'.•; 

C'H A ' ' ' 

rHAt'.'KU XX! ' .■ i ' r.#wN-i«i 

., . ■ . . 

.■•,..,■■ ■ - ...... 

■ . ■ l I l ; ' V ■-. v _,■,;.■.•■.. 

! - !: .:' |..j,.,rl I ;:.' .:'■'''■ 1. 3!'i — CeWCilJ 

ences ■•• ' '' 

I :■, I' , R \ \ M --Wa-III V. ;-= . . . .'. ' '• ■ r 

isio — Pergonal ReroiDiacenciis .. . 


! : I i V.Ni I rowxsmp. 

A'l.itns N;il'! „:ln I !'■ 

Ashliaugb, - .':n!>-l > 

Ausli;.. Mrs. ;:'itli 

Brulmker, J"l.n 

Bruliakor, Mrs. Eliza.... 

Rauer, : ■- ph 'r 

Brown, Will tin \ 

Brousou, i;.- E 

Rlan'chiird, Ludgev.. 

har I, ' -, ii 

Kl.iii Im-.i ' ...' in 

1 -I (ill:. 

f 1} • iy r, " i j. ,, i : ii'j 






... JJ1 
... 211 

(joruian, Michael 

Gorman, Juhn W 

i .p. . ... Jacob .f 

i iraper, John l> 

i leiirer, t'hristian I 

II, it, i. Michael, St... 

j .laines li 

ltivelv. Juhn 

I' r, 

Harris. Uetiry B 
Hiu r >;ins, i\ illiain.. 
i rl 
■ v 

. .. . 
1 1 ■ , ■ 

1 ' ,■ 

H:i ■ I'hri ian 
Ki.« r, Mrs. luli l A. ... 

nring, i'.'t.-r 

1 ' ■ H 

i i J 

'-.■..- : ■ 
Lewis, WitlialU, I 
Liittlenl e n\ I ! 
I man 


com KS"i> 



■ • : •■:• 

. i ■ , 

■■ ' 
PO-H S .... 
■ ■ ' 



■ >■ 

:■ ■ 

- ■ 

- . V I....... 

. ■ 


-■ ii. ■ - 


- i : ' : ' ■ ■ 

fraitii ..... 

: f' ■ ■ i 

v* . ■ 



■ ■ 

Wida r. ■'. htj 

. . . 

t .■•' S -■ 


■ ■ 

, - . 


- ., . ., . i 

- ■. . 

V ' ■ | ■ : ■ ■ ■ , j ;-; 1 C 

.^ ■■:.-■■.'•■■' ■ 

I%la\y. Nat] M 

'■' ■ :. -• ...- 

' i It i ' .. ■ . 

"."" ",' ' .. . 

1 ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 

■ '.'.*." 

■'" i 

ri:.ti . • . 


Sp« '.-'•■'. : . ■ ■' '. . 

SniJta : 

. ' '...'■ „ 

■ I 

Smith, i ■ 


5h. , SiiH i 

Alexander, I 'fltimas M 

AHen,"*3£rs Harriet M 

Earl* ton, Stirs", >u- 1 inah 

Farmer^ Enoch 

i "i orley N 

(iardner, James \ 

Haller, Mrs. * nsaan-lra 

bl ■■•■r. W'i [i tia 1 .. 

fhil, Horace W 

HuVr, Anthony : 

Ifopktn*, < >-. t;i « - « 

Knight; Richard 

Lorn, [ran»taU 

I ''I iVi .ii>, . .. 

MHll r ' H I 

Ma . \1 '. ,u ™. 

■ i r, I ■■ .... 

: : ' tf 

!'<•-..:.' ....... 

l!(d« '■' ■■ . . 

n . •'•-.' ■ ■ , 

i ■ ;■ i ■ ■ " 

" ZZ'Z 

Woll ..■..■:.. 
WiWer :•■-... 

1 i ', ■ ■ • i 

! V : i - 
I ■ ■ 

■ ■ . .....■' 

' ■■ . 

I . 

. . ! ' ' 

■ I.. 


■ • 

.;: ' I- .. . ■• . . 
. . .. -■ i 

.... M'- 

.. ■ ■ 

.. , . . ' . - 






i ■ 


■ . 






■ . 


r • 


■ ■■ • - 


I .. . 



- .i >: • ■■ i ■■ .i ■ ; "u 

_'-... \stl .ii. irttK 

-j.ix t ISrecbAi . ileiirj 

.... 2ffJ ' frrechbi'l. Uirueo Troxefl 

■_ j ..... v A 

... .. >l»2 .:. . ■ nil 

&J Klt'l... \ 

... ■■■: | 11' '1, 'I I 

i '■ ' ' """ 

...... "' ;.'■:'■ >...... . 

' '.Vv-. ' .- ' 

.,-,, I r I'' . . : 

"'."" 270 


: ■ 



Skiver, An ^ust - 

?..'.m , .k: towxship. 

Crawford. Thoiii:w 

- I < ■ !i-v, I t Levi 

2*1 > * rilch " i'l. 1 vni'D 1;. 

•_■, : Di lore , II 

j; . : i r< i. : i' k. .1 >hu r 

!:'■.' ' ■ I'- '"' 

271 ri - 

-J71 [tut '■■'■' ' ' ' 


. .. . 2 _ ! ; 


. ...... 


L . ■ 



- ; - R.iit.T-:.. ii, i i i. 1. 

■ ' -' ■ « 


MILFoRU rnu\-:itll- 


- • . n ■ ■ . 
-' l j trri en, l>, J 


(*< JNTK.NTS. 

r'il . 

in! ■ 

. • 1 1 . 

, j . 

i . . i ' 1 1 ■ ■ 

-. tr, i';i ■ ■ ■ 

.1.. ... 

i ■ , 

■' S-lli 

Rriu ■ • '.:". 

Hi Ii - i-. j ;■ 


;■.' ur.r, j v: 

■'.-' I! 

1. , '. u 


i ■■:■■. ;• ". '. - 

' . I . ' I'U 1 

I . ; .'■.'.• 


i .1 


F.r f -v;> ,f< . 

I all. rti! , i :'i' ... 


1 UTI 

• ■ . - - i 

• i..; ' • : • ■ 

' ' ' ' . . . 


... . I 
, . • ... 

I ,..■.. . - . 

I ' ~ i !) 


• - -.. i- : -■ -• i. \ . 

I - 

I ..-. i. 

• . ■ Is ! '■ 

*.urv. irl!, • • • -■ 

' .Mi w IJ, Ma: :. . 

U I... ... 

Ill . .. . ' -H 

i .. . . 1 . . 

11/ ' :■ ,.,, 

.' . i 

• . , -"- 

. I, 



i . . 

I: ■ ■ i 

ha M...... . 

i... ' 

■-. ... 
.... - -■ , ' '... 

- .. . ■ ,;i»i: 

! . . '. - 

i , i . ■ 
'. - 

' _ . \ I. 



.. ■■ cy. 1 ... 

,. •• • | . '. . i , . . . .■.. :. 

.. ."■ • .::..■ i . .. . 

,•1 .' ... 
. -' ■• 

I .. ■ '. . ■■ 

- . - .. . 

I! '.''■'..■, . 

. . •- 

.. " '■. ■ .. 




:. ! 



Arnisl i>. ;-/ "i p .;. J Mrs. C < . 

Arro-o'i.ii . li, \1 .. 

UJei ' : an I . -• : ■ 

Ainsn >rth ■ . '• s-ul :ote.. . 

Babbfi .'...i'n, 

Beardsle*, b. t 

Beattie, > K 

BouteU, S« A 

Braueher, Isaac 

Brechbill, Mr m-i Mrs. A. 'J...., 
iiitchi.ill, Mr. and Mrs. John- .. 

Tlronsun. C. ]■; 

Cameron, John and Lyilia 

» asel.ier, J I 

Casehe^r, James 

(."uurt House and Jail 

< lemiuer, John 

< onrad Mrs. Mary 

( rool . i .. w ,, i evidence 

1 i i. :■ J. ! 

fclIJi tt, Mr. ami Aire. Albert ... 
1 *rli>w, -ii.i'.- ... . 

*-•':■■',!•-: i . ■ i 

J t- . ■ , . . 

I ■ I ■. V . 

...,-. \ ... 

' ■ ■ ■ • ■.-,,' . .. 

'...-- i i . . , ... 

•■:,.' :.'-•■■ 

Hii ' - 


r I .' ..,,.. 

, I | | ! . 

ii- : ■ 
.... ir.i cl lenee 

. ... facing '. 

.... !.■.;■■■ . 
... ra< : ■ . . l 

■ < tig I f H 


faeiug .-' '-i 

:.i. iDg 1 ■;»; 

— fa Idjj 2\* 

facing W2 

t'ai ing '.',11 


from Lspie< e 

. . 

. i 


' - i - 
■ ■ ■■ ii 

■ . ■■. 

-a- ■ n ■ i.' 
facing I?v4 

:... H. . as 

.... facing Tl 
facing 56 

tTarlftf,C ■im • 1:20 

tin^. Pr«S, residence ■ 

- ' ''!< I.. I . :■; ,. 

Uii-iinC .,, 

ii.- tzel,l\G 

UuU r, Mr. and Nfra A 

Kerr, K i , resi leuci ; -■ l-H 

KmJit, Ilichard 'nd fTarriet i; t , i 

Miller, Mr. and Mrs. !>arid, portraits and residence fo< U .. ' 

Mix, E. B fai I. 

Preisendorfer, J. M .* fac 

; . ■ , If V facing 1* 

Price, Mr. and Mi's. John fa i 

Price, Mr and Mr;*. William facia 

R ton, rosepfc facinij V2M 

' ■■■>■. George i >■ 

- T 

tioh« Mi i ::■( ■■. ■■ v..- ti .... r'-xi ■ ~ ■ 

'■■•■: v - ':' ','.:: 

■ ' i ■.■.■>.' -i ;-• ' •; ■ 

■ i . i .... 

' r . \t. ... 


W"ilh-!u., Adam 

r 1. Mr. ana Mr*. ( >. V • 

Map Defiance fonntv 

4 i 



- '. - . : - 







.- ! — . . . — - 









s ~. , 





* t 

■ * 



, - ■ - 
■ . - ■,,_., 

• / 

\ / ' ■■-.•■ s' - ■ 
- » ~ - 


. .. 


/ . 

((2w \l 

L c , .' - 






A HUNDRED years earries us back to Ohio in a 
XjL state of nntu>*e; its forests unbroken b} 
the labors of civilized man; its rich mines un- 
opened; its beautiful hikes and rivers free from 
all navigation save the Indian canoe. The si- 
lence of solitude rested over its whole extent, ex- 
cept where the Indian villages gathered the s| ; 
population, <>r the shonl of the !. ; * 01 battle 
broke the stillness. A hundred years ago the 
Northwestern Territory that now comprises the great 
and prosperous States f Ohio. Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and ft r iseousiu, with a population of 9,- 
000,000. was an almost unknown wilderness, with 
a few (■'(■••' ill settle! .ents scatl ered among large h i 
of roaming Indians. Great Britain had received this 
torriton b\ her traitj with France in 1703. but she 
did not encourage its settlement by the American 
colonists. I'e. policy was to leave the Indians in 
undisfcurl ed possession of it, and keep up a pr< titable 
commerce with ri- >m. Su - ; . was its condition on the 
4th of July, 1776. when our independence of Great 
Britain was declared. During the war of Indepen- 
dence, Great Britain used these Indian tribes against 
the "United States. By the treaty of 1783 between 
the United States and Great Britain, this territory 
west to the Mississippi and south to the Ohio was re- 
luctantly granted to the United States. It is said 
that it was only by the linn purpose of John Adams 
in negotiating that treaty that the Ohio River did not 
become the southern boundary of the British posses- 
sions, instead of the present Canada line. It is a 
matter of history that Great Britain maintained trail- 
ing posts and forts within this territory long aft. -r it 
was ceded to us. and is believed to have aided and sup 
ported the In Sian tribe3 in their di adiy hostility lo 
the first settlements of Ohio. During the Revolu- 
tionary war. New V. rk, Massachusetts, Virginia and 
Connecticut had each set in claims to this territorj 
under royal charters l to the other colonies 

their claims ssemed unjust, Lheii assertli as for a time 
seriously affected *he formation »T fcl e American Union. 

(: repaired all th'> patriotism and wisdom of the 
' thers of the rep iblio lo deal with this delicate que? 
tion, so as to secure for the common good this 
empire, md not alienate any of these powerful 
nies from the Uni a. The differences were linalh 
adjusted, Virginia ceded her rights in 17S5, reser; ii _: 
the territory between the Scioto and Little M 
Rive *. wl . ■ over 3. '' K>,000 ,-..■ > , 

Connecticut i led hes rights in 1780 reserving oui 
of her grant ail north of latitudi il., extending fo 
hundred and tw r.ty miles west ■•* Pennsylvania 
sinei known as tl ' i leeticut Western Reserve, 
amounting to a little less than 3.7(>0.000 acres. Mass 
achusetts m . N > « Tort tedod : ; : r rights with n 
other eonditi >rs than thai the territory should be held 
for the beno i( ..; ail r - ■ St ites of the ; nion. 

Large bounties f land bad been promised by 
Congn -- b r.hi offl i • an ! s li< re i' the line. \ 
gicia, who regarded herself as the owner of the un- 
limited territories of Tennessee and Kentucky and 
northwest of the Ohio, had also made magnifi i ; 
promises of bounties to her soldiers and officers. 
These bounties, incase of Brigadier Generals, were 
10,000 acres: and to Major Gpnerals, 15,000 acres; 
all other officers less, in proportion to their ni i] 
Those who were entitled to these bounties became im 
patient to receive them. By the war their business 
had been broken up, the commerce and manufactui 
of the country were of tittle value, and the small and 
sterile farms of Xew England and the Atlantic coa I 
offered small attractions for agriculture compared 
with the rich lands of Kentucky and the Ohio country, 
of which accounts found their way to these Eastern 
Stal >s Coi _ r : -'-ss ,v. i, pressed bv them to*provide for 
the settlement u these •• ■ ■ p rticalarlv 

great region northwest of the Ohic Rive.-. | . | 
that the Indian tribes who had been at war with the 
United States were to be treated as d rfeuted en 
with no absolute rights in the Inn Is they occupied. 
Congress made the tr if irtStanw s n Oo! iber. 

1784. with the Six Natii ns fixing thel ■ boundan an -. 


history of !>;:;■< vsce county. 

by the west lii -' : ' P oris; !• rria. and giving to the 
United S ates all i i ! and m -t of the Ohio i':- 
treat) of Fori Mcintosh was made on January 21, 
1785, with the Delaware* Wyaudots. Ottawa* and 
Chippewas, win wen tin ■ supposed to represent the 
Indians in actual oceii] ti <n of Ohio, fixing their 
boundary by the Cuyahoga River on the east, and a 
line from Ihi portage between the ( it) ihoga and Mus- 
kingum to Liu ii. id raters • •:' the Miami at the oJd 
French Fori thence along the easl side of the Mau- 
mee to Lake E 'ie as a s mthern boundary of the lands 
of the i Ldians oi Oh o, \- a as this was dvn<\ 
surveys were ordered by Congress, and preparations 
for immigration ■ be Ohio country were discussed. 
But northeast of the Ohio was ret unoccupied under 
authority of the Un t ] States. The Moravians had 
a successful mission on the Fusearawas River, where 
civilization had mad i its h >me. and white families 
aad Indians were enjoying comparat ve coinforl and 
prosperity This mission >vas in charge of Brothers 
Ziesburgen, John Eleekewelder, J engman, Senseinan 
and others. Mary Heckewi [di rwas born at this mis- 
son, April 16, L787, and is supposed to be the first 
white :hild born in Ohio The hist try of this mis- 
sion is iiiie o r " the most interesting and saddest in 
Ohio history IL would be pleasant, did space per- 
mit, to pay a deserving tribute to the love and faith- 
fulness of th sc lev ted tn q and women and recall 
that scene of peace nnd Christian civilization which 
found its temporary hoin • among those savages of the 
wilderness. Here they founded rl eir villages, beauti- 
fully called Shoenbrun, the beauti f ui spring; Guaden- 
hutten, tents of »race: and Salem, peace Hut the 
w«nt of space compels us to turn to other scenes, to 
leum frou them, it we may, 'he source of Ohio's 
strength and glory. 

On the 20th of May, 17S~>. Congress considering 
the United States to be the rightful owners and in 
possession of the lauds ceded by the treaty of Fort 
Mcintosh, passed an ordinance for ascertaining the 
mode of disposing of the land- in the "Western Ter- 
ritory." directing therein how surveys should be 
made. In these surveys, Section 16 was reserved for 
the use of schools, and four other sections were re- 
served for further disposal bv Congress. Although 
many changes were made in the laws relating to 
lands in Ohio, this policy of providing for schools 
was continued throughout. 

rev ordinance fob the government of the rERRnwjr 


This ordinance was passed on the 13th day of July. 
1787. A-' us ordinance is spoken of so of ten, and has 
so oft -n been enloc teed, it ia well for us to know exactly 
what it is and what part .if it is entitled to eulogy. 

For we w .: lind that parts of it became exceedingly 
listasteful i the eai h settlers Ohio and 

bitterlj denoun ed b) then: ■ . ■ i irh in our hisl >i v 
This ordii anci rirsi ; ro :• • eriaiu temporal*) rules 
of property, which were ;nbjool to future legisla- 
r. m, regulating descents, dowers, wills and deeds 
It provides for the rights .if the inhabitants of Kas- 
kaskia and Vincennes. or Port Vincents, as :i ;-, 
rein called, which were to be subject to the law • of 
\ irginia at the time. Then it pro\ ides for a temp >rary 
government this was to consist at Brstof a Governor, 
Secretan an I three Jn Iges, to be appointed b\ Con 
The Governor and Judges were to have the 
power to ad pt and publish in the district such laws 
.it the original States, criminal and civil, that might 
be necessj •> and best suited to the circumstances if 
the district, and not disapproved b\ Congress. A.11 
officers were, required to be residents for certain peri 
di of tim -. and all to b*- land owuere; the Govt rm r 
to own LOO) acres; the Secretan' and Judges each 
500 acres. When the district should contain 5,000 

free male tub ibitanta of full age they were t 

a House of Representatives . Its members were to 
i own each 200 acres '.:' land, and those only could vote 
for representatives who owned 50 acres of iand. 
these Ltepresentatives were elected for two v 
They were u. selecl ten names of citizens of the ter 
riiory each owning ■ acres >f land, out of which 
< ongress -. K-. >ted lire persons who composed the co 
oil, and whosi term was live years. The Governor, 

■ i i i> .■ ,,..:...- / i f u. i :.,.,. 

This Legislature had power to make knvs in ail eases 
for tiie good government of the Hstrics, nx repug- 
nant '<■ the principles and articles >f the ordinanci de- 
clared and established, an 1 to repeal and alter those 
made by the Governor and fudges All bills passed 
by a majority of the Council and the House bad t.o 
have the absent of (he Governor. He also had power 
to convene, prorogue and dissolve the asseml ly, wb >n 
in his opinion it should be expedient. He also had 
power to form counties, appoint all magistrates and. 
other officers, not otherwise directed by the ordi- 
nance, during the temporary government. The third 
division of this ordinance contains a declaration of 
certain fundamental principles of government and 
the rights of man. Among the^e are the rights to 
worship and to religious opinions. It also declares no law ought ever to be made that shall in any 
manner interfere with or effect private contracts, en- 
gagements bona fide, and without fraud, previously 
made. It declares that "religion, ■:.•!. and 
knowledge being necessary to good government and 
the happiness of mankind, schools and :!:►- means of 
educatiou shall forever be encouraged." It furth c 
declares that "the utmost sjood faith shall alv ■ - 



be observed toward th< Indians, fch< r lands and 
properU shall never be taken from theiu without their 
consent; and in tbeir ] ipertj rigbts and liberty they 
shall never h>- invaded or disturbed unless In jusl 
and lawful wars authorized bj Congress, but I 
founded in justice and hnmanih shall, from tim< to 
time, be made for preventing wrongs beingdone t., 
them and for preserving peac< and friendship with 
them. " 

Article 6 declares that u there stiall bo neither 
slavery nor involuntary servitude in said territory 
otherwise than in the punishment of crimes, whereof 
the party shall have lee;, duh convicted," to which 
a proviso was attached that fugitives from labor or 
service could be reclaimed I' is to this third part 
of the ordinance that the eulogies of many of inr 
statesmen and citizens have been given, and to-day, in 
the light of almost a century of Oh-''- history, can- 
not we unite in those eulogies? Mr. Webster, in 
his celebrated controversy with Elayne -a_\ -. that this 
ordinance war drawn by Nathan Dow, of Massachu- 
setts. "It wis adopted, as I think I have understood, 
without the slightest alteration, and certain!) it has 
happened to few men to be the author of a politic i 
measure of more large and enduring consequ&aee, 
It fixes forever the charscterof the population north 
west of the Ohio, by excluding from them involut tarj 
servitude. It impressed r.pon the soil itself, while it 
was yet a wilderness, an incapacity to bear up any 
other than free men. It laid the interdict against 
personal servitude o.ot only deeper ihcji al! local law, 
but deeper also than all local constitutions. fader 
the circumstances then existing. I look upon this 
original and reasonable provision as a real good at- 
tained. We see its consequences at this moment, and 
shall never cease to see tnem perhaps while the Ohio 
shall How." In another part of this discussion, he 
said r>i' ibis ordinance: " It need hardly h-< said that 
that paper expresses just sentiments on thegreat sub- 
ject of civil and religious liberty. Such sentiment? 
were common and abound in all our State papers of 
that day. But the ordinance did that which was not 
so common, and which is not even now universal : that 
is, it set forth and declared, as a high and binding 
duty of government itself, to encourage -ohools and 
advance the means of education, on the plain reason 
that religion, morality and knowledge are nece-sar\ 
to good government and the happiness of mankind." 
''One observation further. The important provis- 
ion incorporated in the Constitution of the United 
State , restraining legislative power in questions of 
private right, and from impairing the obligations of 
contracts, h first introduced and established, as far 
as I am informed, as matters of expressed written con- 
stitutional law in the ordinance of 17S7." 

Ie the sketches of ; he hi story of Ohio prefixed i 
Clare-. Statutes, md published in 1883, Gov. < 

"After establishing tbe freedom of conscience, the 
sacredness of per...,-: libertj the inviolal y of 
private contracts, and tl ■ secnritr prn te prop- 

erty; after recognizing the dun of the Government to 
foster schools and diffuse knowledge; and after en- 
joining the observance of *ood faith toward the an- 
t irtunat • and ignorant Indian, and the pert a a 
toward them of these offices of kindness and p i . 

which so adorn and gn 'he intercourse of the 

mighty with the weak, as if resolved to omit nothing 
which might <>i- thought justh t i belo ig i »an instru 
ment providing for tire erection of free States, the 
fmmers of the oi"dinance. in the last article, declare 
'there shall bi m ther slavery nor invohintan sen 
tude within the territory otherwise than in the [ 
ishment of crimes. whereof the party shall have been 
duiy convicted.' Well might he say of this ordi 
nance, never probably in the history of the worn] di.l 
a measure cf legi lation so accurately fulfill and 
so mightily exceed the anticipation of legislators 
The law has been described as having been a p 
of cloud by day and fire by ui^h* iti tb( jettle ■- r 
and government of the Northwestern Stat s. When 
the settlers went into the wilderness, they found (lie 
law already there. It was impressed upon the soil 
-.:.>.7if' while ■[ yet bore el) nothing but the forest 
rhe purchaser of land became by that act a part; 
the compact. aa»l bouutl bj> im perpetual covenants so 
far is it- provisions did not conflict with the t ■■• - 
of the cession of the States " 

"This remarkable instrument." he says agrun. "was 
the last gift of the old confederation of the country, 
and was a fit consummation of their glorious lab - 
At tue time of its promulgation the federal constitu- 
tion was under discussion m the convention and in a 
few months, upon the organization of the new 
national Government, that Congress was dissolved, 
never again to re- assemble. 

Some, and indeed most of tbe principles , 
lished by the iirticles of compact are to be found in 
the plan of 178-4. and in the various English and 
American hills of rights. Others, however, and 
those not the least important, are original. Of this 
number are the clauses in relation to contracts, t.. 
slavery and to the Indians. On the v | > | ■■ tl e arti- 
cles contain what they | ■■•• fess to contain, the true 
theory of American liberty. The great princ pies 
promulgated by it are wholly and purely Ameri 
They are. indeed, the general principles of freed 
unadulterated by compromise with circum •:•■-. 
the effect of which are visible in the Constitution ■ ■ I 
historv of the Union. " 



While Congress ha^i under consideration the 

measure for the oi-ganization of a territorial govern- 

and or '."'./ tons burden, and was placed under the 
maud of Capt. Dovol. "Her bows were raking, 

nient north west »f t-he Ohio River, the preliminary in- curve. 1 :;!>.■;'. galley, and strongly timbered ; her 

steps were taken in Massachusetts toward tin- forma sides were made ballet proof, and she was covered 

tion .of the Ohio Land Company, for the purpose of with a dock roof," .so a- to afford better protection 

making a purchase of a large tract of land in said against the hostile savages while floating down to- 

Territorj and settling upon it. On the passage of ward their Western Liorae, and during its occupancy 

the ordinance by Congress, the aforesaid 1.. ml com- there, before the completion of their cabins All 

pany perfected its organization, and by its agents, things being ready, they embarked at Simrall's 

Rev. Manasseh Cutler and Maj. Winthrop Sargent, Ferry, April 2. 1788, and passed down the Youghio- 

made application to the Board < t Treasury, Juh 27, ghemy into the Monongahela, and thence into the 

17 v >7, to become purchasers, said board having been Ohio, and down said river to the mouth of the Mask 

authorized four days before to make sales. The pur- ingnm. where fchej arrived April 7. and then and 

chase, which was perfected October 27, L7S7, em- there made the first permanent settlement of civilized 

braced a tract of land containing about a million ai^l men within the presonl limits of Ohio. These hold 

a half of acres, situated within the present counties adventurers were reinforced by another companv 

of Washington, Athens, Meigs and Gallia, subject to from Massachusetts who, after a nine weeks' jonr- 

the reservation .>f two townships of land six miles ney, arrived early in July, 1788. 

square, for the endowment of a college, since known Many of these Yankee colonists had beer, officers 

as Ohio University, at Athens; also every sixteenth and soldiers in the Revolutionary nrrny, and were, for 

section, set apart for the use of schools, as well also the most part, men of intelligence and character, and 

even twenty-ninth section, dedicated to the support of sound judgment and ability [n short, thev were 

of religious institutions; also Sections S, 11 ana 26, just the kind of men to found a State in the wilder- 

which were reserved by the United States for future ness. The\ possessed great energy of character, were 

sale. After these deductions were made, and that of enterprising, fondof adventure and daring, and were 

donation lands, there remained only 904,285 acres to not to be intimidated by the formidable forests nor 

be paid for by the Ohio Land Company, and for by the ferocious beasts sheltered therein, nor 1>\ 
which patents were issued. I the still more to be dreaded savages, who stealthily 
At a meeting of the directors of the company, j and with murderous intent roamed throughout their 

held November :2H. 17.^7. Gen. Rufus Putnam was length and breadth. Their army experience bad 

chosen Superintendent of thn company', and he ac- taught Lhem what haiusLipa aud . .i ■. .iiiicii ; w. ,v. c.^;\ 

cepted the position. Early in December, six boat they were quite willing to encounter them. Abetter 

builders and a number of ether mechanics were sent set of men could nol Lave been selected for pioneer 

forward to Simrall's Ferry (now West Newton), on settlers than were these New England colonists — 

the Youghiogheny River, under the command of Maj. those brave-hearted, courageous, hero emigrants N> 

Haffiekl White, where they arrived in January, and the great Northwest, who, having triumphantly -passed 
at once proceeded to build a boat for the use of the ', the fiery ordeal of the Revolution, volunteered to 

company Col. Ebenezer Sproat, of Rhode Island, found a State and to establish American laws. Ameri 

Anselm Tapper, and John Matthews, of Massachn- can institutions and American civilization in this : 

setts, and Col. Return J. Meigs, of Connecticut, were the wilderness of the uncivilized West. If any State 

appointed surveyors. Preliminary steps were also in our American Union ever had a better start in its 

taken at this meeting to secure a teacher and chap- incipient settlement than Ohio, I am not aware of it. 
lain, which resulted in the appointment of Rev. Dan- j Oeu. Washington, writing of the bold pioneers, said 

iel Story, who some time during the next year arrived that " no colony in America was ever settled under 

at the mouth of the Muskingum, in the capacity of such favorable auspices as that which has just coin- 

the first missonary and teacher from New England. menced at the Muskingum. Information, property 

Early in the winter the remainder of the pioneers, 
with the surveyors, left their New England homes and 
started on their toilsome journey to the Western 
wilderness They passed ou over the Alleghanies, 
and reached the Yoiiehioshemy about the middle of 
February, where they found their companions who 
had preceded them The boat, called the " May- 

and strength will be its characteristics. I know many 
of the 9 sttlers personally, and there never were men 
better calculated to promote the welfare of such a 
community." Having had a personal army acquaint- 
ance with (ieus. Putnam and Parsons, and with Col. 
Return Jonathan Meigs, and probably with snanj 
other leading members of this pioneer colony, his 

flower," that waste fcransp rt the pioneers to their favorable opinioD of tbera is entitled to great 
destination, was forty five feet long, twelve feet wide weight. 




Of course, no time was lost by the colonists in 
erecting their habitations, as well as in building a 
stockade fort, and ■■■ ring land foi tin prodiu : ■ iof 
vegetables and grain for their subsistence, tiftj a ires 
of corn having been planted the first year. Their 
settlement was established upon the point or land 
between the Ohio and Muskingum Rivers, jnst O] | 
mi tr and across the Muskingum from Fort Harmar, 
built in 17 v o. and at this time garrisoned b) . • 
military force under command of Maj. D nighty. At 
a meeting beld on the bai bs of the Muskiugum, July 
'J, 1788, it was voted that Marietta should be the 
name of thsir town, it being thus named in honor of 
Marie Antionette, Queen of France. 


The first survey of the public lands northwest of 
the Ohio River was the seven ranges of Congress 
lands, and was done pursuant to an act of Congress, 
of Ma\ 20, 17S5. This tract of the seven ranges is 
bounded by a line of forty-two miles in length, run- 
ningdue west from the point where the western bound- 
ary line of Pennsylvania crosses the Ohio River: 
thence duo south to the Ohio River, at the. 
southeast corner of Marietta Township, in Wash 
ington County; thence up said river to the place of 
beginnin ;. The present counties of Jefferson, Co- 
lumbiana, Carroll, Tuscarawas, Harrison, Guernsey, 
Belmont, Noble. Monroe and Washington are. in 
whole or in part, within the even ranges. 

The second survey was that of the Ohio Company's 
purchase, made in pursuance of au act of Congress, 
of July 13, 17S5, though the contract was not com- 
pleted with the Ohio Company until October 27, 1787. 
Mention of its extent, also the conditions, reserva- 
tions, and circumstances attending the purchase, have 
already been given; 100,000 acres of this tract, 
called donation lands, were reserved upon certain con- 
ditions as a free gift to actual settlers. Portions of 
the counties of Washington, Athens and Gallia are 
within this tract, also the entire county of Meigs. 
The donation lands were in Washington County. 

The next survey was the " Symmes Purchase " and 
contiguous lands, situated to the north and west of it, 
and was made soon after the foregoing. The 
" Symmes purchase" embraced the entire Ohio River 
front between the Big Miami and Little Miami 
Rivers. ■; distance of twenty-seven miles, and. reach- 
ing northward n iufficient distance to include an area 
of l,00t\0i l! acres. The contract with Judge Symmes, 
made ;.t October, 17 x 7. was subsequently modified by 
act of Congress bearing date of May 5, 1792, and by 
an authorized act of the President of the United 
States, of September 30, 170-1, as to amount to 

only3!l.')S2 ncres, exclusive of >i reservation of if 

teen acres around Fort Washington, of a s<{uar< 

at the mi nth of the Great Miami, of Sec' u i 

29 in eai '. ti i\i '.-hiii. the !' ii : ■ if vbj fa (.' >ugj — 

had reserved for educational ai I the! tfc t< 
ions purposes, exclusive also if a township dedic: ! tl 
to the i cr its of a o liege; nd Sec ions 8, 1 1 and 
20, which Congress reserved foj future sale. 

The tract of land situated between the Little Mi . . 
and Sci h Rivers, known as the Virginia Mi . 
Lands, was nevei regularly surveyed into townshij -. 
but patents were issued bi the President of tl • : uit 
ed States t such pes a >(S rginian)as had rendered 
service on the & i tim uta! establish neni in the arm 
the UnitedStates (hence tho name), and in the quanti- 
ties to which they were entitled, according I th< pro- 
visions of an act of Congress i August 1". i i 
•' It embraces a bodj of tf.oTO square miles, or 4.20 j 
sn:> acres of land. The following counties are siti 
ed in this tr;ict. namely: Adams, Brown. Clermont, 
Clinton. Fayette, 11 ghland, Madison, and I 
entirely: thi greutei Oi less portions ' I illov ng, 

to wit: Marion, Delaware, Franklin, Pickaway, Ross, 
Pike, Scioto, Warren, Greene, Clark, Champaign, 
Logan and Hardin." 

Connecticut ceded all lands in the Northwest to 
which she claimed title to the UnitedStates (excep 
the tract which has been 1 q >wn as the : ' Western Re 

aserve'*), by deed of cession bearing d&Tt of a a 

ber 1-t. 1780: s in Mai leW by -kt of Legisla- 
ture of - id Stat s, r. i ■ .•■■■ d ail jurisdiction or el 
to the "territi rj c lied the ,v . ■ t< r. li serve of Con- 
necticut." That tract if land was surveyed in 17'-.'* 
and lat< r into townships of live i tiles - ;nare; ai d in 
the aggregate contained atont 3,800,000 seres, b 
120 miles long, and lying west of the Pennsylvi 
State line, all situated between l\~ of north latit 
and 42° 2'. Half a million acres of the forego - 
ing lands were set apart by the State of Connecticut 
in 1792 as a donation to the sufferers or tire (during 
the Revolutionary war) of the residents of Greenwich 
New London, Norwalk, Fairtield, Danbury. New Hi 
ven. and other Connecticut villages whose property was 
burned by the British: hence the name •' Firelan 1.-, ' 
bj which this tract taken from the western portion 
of the reserve has been known. It is situated chiefly 
in Huron and Erie Couatii s, . small portion only 
being in Ottawa County. The entire Western R 
servo embraces the present counties of Ashtabula, 
Cuyahoga, Erie, Geauga, Huron. Lake, Lomin, 
Medina, Portage and Trumbull: also the greater 
portion of Mahoning and Summit, and very limi 
portions of Ashland and' >ttawa. 

French grant, is a tract of 24,000 acres of land 
bordering oa the Ohio River, within the present limits 



of Scioto County, granted b\ Congress in March, 
1795, '•• certain French settlers f Gallipolis, who, 
through invalid titles, bad '.■ •' their lands there. 
Twelve hur»Jred acres were added to this grant in 
1798, making a total if 25,200 acres Che United 
Staio> Military Lands were surveyed under the pro- 
visions of an act of Con •:■ - of June 1, 179(5, and 
contained 2,500,000 acres This tract was sot apart 
to satisfj certain claims "f the officers and soldiersof 
the Revolutionary war, hence the title by which it is 
known. It is bounded by the seven ranges on the 
eaet, by the Greenville treat) line on the north, by 
the Congress and refugee lands on the south, and by 
the Scioio River on the west, including the county 
of Coshocton entire, and portions f the counties of 
Tuscarawas. Guernsey, Muskingum, Licking, Frank- 
lin. Delaware, Marj on, -Morrow. Knox and Holmes. 

The Moravian Lands are three several- tracts of 
4,000 acre- ea< h, situated, respectively, at Shoenbruu, 
Gnadenhutti-n and Salem, al! on the Tuscarawas 
River now in Tuscarawas County. These lands 
were originally dedicated by an ordinance of Con- 
gress dated September 3. 17SS, to the use of the 
Christianized Indians at tho-e points, and by act of 
Congress of June 1. 1796, were surveyed and patents 
issued to the society of the United Brethren, for the 
purposes above specified. 

The Refugee Tract is a body of land containing 
100,000 acres, granted by Congress February is. 
1801, to persons who fled front the British provinces 
during the Revolutionary war and took up arms 
against the mother country and in behalf of the Col- 
onies, and thereby lost their property by confiscation. 
Thi^ tract is four and one-half miles wide, and ex- 
tends forty-eight miles eastward from* the Scioto 
River at Columbus into Muskingum County. It in- 
clude-, portions of the counties of Franklin, Fairfield, 
Perry. Licking and Muskingum. 

Dohrman's grant is a township of land sis miles 
square, containing 23,0-AO acres, situate,! in the south- 
eastern part of Tuscarawas County. It was given to 
Arnold Henry Dohrman, a Portuguese merchant, of 
Lisbon, by act of Congress of February 27. 1801," in 
consideration of his having. during the Revolutionary 
war. given shelter and aid to the American cruisers 
and vessels of war." The foregoing is a list of the 
principal land grants and surveys during our Terri- 
torial history, in that portion of the Northwest that 
now constitutes the State of Ohio. There were canal 
land grants, 'Manmee road grants, and various others, 
but they bel >ng to our State, and not to our Territo- 
rial history . 


Bv the i)eaui» of the treatv of Fort Stanwis con- 

cluded with the [roquois or Six Nati ms (M ihawks, 
On ndagas, Se uveas, Oayugas, Tuscaroras, and Onei- 
das), October 25!, !7s ; . the indefinite claim of said 
confederacy to the greater part of the valley of th< 
Ohio was extinguished, Pho Commissioners of Con 
gress were Oliver Wolcott, Richard Butler and Ar- 
thur Lee. C irnpianter and Rod Jacket represented 
flue Indians. 

This was followed in January. 1 ?S5, by the treaty 
of port Mcintosh, by which the Delawares, Wyaa- 
dots, Ottawas iind Chippewas relinquished all claim 
to the Ohio Valley, and established the boundary line 
betw ieu them and the United States to be the Cuya- 
hoga River, and along the main branch of the Tus- 
carawas to the forks of said river near Fort Laurens, 
thence westwardly to the portage between the head- 
waters of the Great Miami and the Maumee or Mi- 
ami of the Lakes, thence down said river to Lake 
Erie, and along said lake to the mouth of the Cuya 
hoga River. This treaty was negotiated by Gei .<• 
Rogers Clark, Richard Butler and Arthur Lee for the 
United Si , •-. md by the chiefs of the aforenamed 

A similar relinquishment was effected by the 
treaty of Fort Finney (at the mouth of the Great 

! Miami) concluded with the Shawnees January 31. 
17S6, the United States Commissi mers being the 
same- a~ the foregoing except the substitution of Sam- 
uel H. Parsons for Arthur Lee 

Th," tr. ..t .- f F it H. r:.-.. .r hoi ! '. v ' !c r St Clair 
Januan 9, 1789, whs mainiv conurmatorv of the 
treaties previously made. So also v. as the treaty of 

I Greenville, of August 3, 1795, made by (ion. Wayne 
on the part of the United States, and the chiefs of 
eleven , if the most powerful tribes of the Northwest- 
ern Indians, which re-established the Indian boundary 

j line through the present State of Ohio, and extended 

| it from* Loramie to Fort Recovery, and from thence 
to the Ohio River, opposite the mouth of the Kentucky 

The rights and titles acquired by the Indian 
tribes under the foregoing treaties were extinguished 
by the General Government, by purchase, in pursuance 
of treaties subsequently made. The Western Reserve 

, tract west of the Cuyahoga River was secured by a 
treaty formed at Fort Industry, in 1S03. The lands 

1 west of Richland and Huron Counties and north of 
the lionc lary line to the western limits of Ohio were 
purchased b\ the United State.-, in 1818. The last 

, possession of the Delawares was purchased in 1829; 
and by a treaty made at Upper Sandusky, March 17, 
183 1, by Colonel John Johnstoi and the Wyandot 
chiefs, that last remnant of the Indian tribe.- in Ohio 
sold the last acre the\ owned within the limits of 
our State to the General G ivernment, and retired, 



the next year, to the Ear West, settling ;.t and Dear 
the mouth of the Kansas River. 


Congress, in October, 17S7, appointed General 
Arthur So. Clair. Governor; M;*j. Winthrop Sargent, 
Secretary; anil James M. Varnum, Samuel H. Parsons 
and John Armstrong Judges of tlie Territory, the 
latter of whom, however, h.;\ ing declined the appoint- 
ment. John (.'loves Symmes >vas appointed in his 
6tead in February, 1788. On the '.'th of July. 178S, 
Gov. St. Clair arrived at Marietta, and finding the 
s.., retary and a majority of the Judges present, | . 
ceeded t'. organize lLo Territory. The Governor and 
Judges (or a majority of them) were the sole leg 
islative power during the existence of the fir>t, grade 
of Territorial ^uvernment. Such laws a.- were in 
force in any of the States, and were deemed applica- 
ble to the condition of the people of th" Territory, 
could be adopted by the Governor and Judges, and, 
after publication, became operative, unless disap- 
prove.! of by Congress^ to « hich b kIj cert itied c >pii 5 of 
all laws thus adopted had to l>e forwarded by the 
Secretary of the Territory. 

The further duty of the Judges, who were an 
pointed to serve during good behavior, was to hold 
court four times a year, whenever the business of the 
Territory required it. but not more than once a year 
in any one county. 


After it shall be ascertained that 5,000 free male 
inhabitants actually resided within the Territory, the 

second grade of Territorial government could. of ri_rt.t. 
be established, which provided for a Legislative Coun- 
cil and al>o an elective House of Representatives, 
the two composing the law-making power of the Ter- 
ritory, provided always that the Governor's a-sent to 
their acts was had. He po-sessed tho absolute veto 
power, and no act of the two Houses of the Legislature, 
even if passed by a unanimous vote in each branch 
could become a law without his consent. The condi- 
tions that authorized the second grade of Territorial 
government, however, did not exist until 1798, and it 
was not really put into operation until September, 
1799, after the first tirade of government had existed 
for eleven years. 


The first law wa^ proclaimed July 25, 178S, anil 
war entitled " An act for regulating and establishing 
the militia.'' Two days thereafter the Governor is- 
sued k proclamation establishing the county of 
Washington, which included all the territory east of 
the Scioto Rivei to which the Lndian title had been 

extio isl il bin ; nor . ivard to Lake Erie, tho 

Ohio \'l' ■ ; aid tl ■ -.-•!. ini being its 

.■in bound ii . rri< I . th< seat of the rerriti . 
becoming the county seat oJ W : i 

" ' '. 
Quite a number of laws were necessarily d ■ ted 
. I published during 1T S ^ and the following year. 
From 1790 to 1795 they published sixty four, ti . 

of them having been adopted at Cincinnati dur- 
ing the months of -I'me. July and August of the last 
named year, bj the Governor and Judges H} tin es and 
fumer. They are known as the "Maxwell C 

e of the publisher, and were intended, 
says rue author of "Western Annals," "to form a 
pretty complete body of stai utory provisions." Tn 179S, 
. I ■.. m >re vere adopted. Jr was the published opin- 
ion of the late Chief Justice Chase, "thai ! :;_•■ l>e 
d tl ted ■■■ (ther any colony, at so early a period 
its first establishment, ever had so good a code ©f 
laws." Among them was that "which provided that 
the common law of England, and all statutes in aid 
thereof, mad - . ■ v-i< ms to the fourth -•■ r of fames 
I, should be in full force within the Territory." Prob- 
ablj four fifths of the Saws a l pted vere selected from 
• b ■-• in force in Pennsylvania; the others were 
mainly taken from the statute: - Virginia ind Mass- 


Among the earliest laws ad pted was one which 
provide ! for 't:t institution oi a County Court of Com- 
mon Picas, to be •' imposed of ':" r less than three nor 
more than five Judges, commissioned by the Gov- 
ernor, who were tii hind two sessions in each year. 
Pursuant to its provision-, the first session f i ' 
court was held in and for Washington County. Sep- 
tember 2, 1788. The Judges of the court were I 
Rums Putnam, Gen. Benjamin Tupper and Col 
Archibald Crary. Col. Return Jonathan Meigs was 
Clerk, and Col. Ebenezer Sproat was Sheriff. Elabo- 
rate details of the opening of this, th'" first court 
held in the Northwest Territory, have come down to 
us, showing it to have been a stylish, dignified pro- 
ceeding. Briefly, "a procession was formed at the 
Point (the junction of the Muskingum with the Ohio 
River) of the inhabitants and the officers from Fort 
Harmar. who escorted the Judge of the court, the 
Governor of the Territory, and the Territorial Jndgi s 

to the hall appropriated r oi thai pur] in hen irth- 

wesl block-house in "Campus Marlins." " The pri ces- 
sion," says ilitchener, " was headed by the Sheriff, 
with drawn sword and baton ' f office." After prayer 
by Rev. Manasseh Cutler, the court was organized by 
reading the commissions of the Judges, Clerk 
Sheriff, after which the Sheriff proclaimed tha 



court wat open for the administration of even hah i 1 
justice to the poor • i:>l the rich, to the guilty and 
tin' innocent, without respect of persons: none to be 
punished without a trial by their peers, an."! (hen in 

pursuant E 'hi' laws and evidence in the case. 

On tli.' 23d day of August, 17S8, a law was pro- 
mulgated for establishing " < rem ral < oui ts of I Juarier 
SesMons of the Peace." This court was composed of 
not less than three nor m re thai; five Justices of the 
Peace, appointed by the Governor, who were ti hold 
four sessions in each year. l!." first -.'^i.>u of this 
court was held at "'Campus Martius" September '•'. 
1788. The commission appointing the Judges 
thereof was read. "Gen. Rufus Putnam and Gen. 
B« njamin Cupper," says Mit< rhener. "constituted the 
Justices of the quorum, and Isaac Pearce, Thomas 
Lord, and Return Jonathan Mei_'s. Jr., the assistant 
Justices; Col. Return Jonathan Meigs. Sr., was Clerk. 
Col. Ebenezei Sproat was Shenn' of Washington 
County fourteen years. The first grand jury of the 
Northwest Territory was impaneled by this court, and 
■■ ■ - si I ■ : the :' illowing gentlemen: William Stacy 
( foreman \. Nathaniel Cushing, Nathan Goodale, Charles 
Knowles, Anselm Tapper. Jonathan Stone, Olive 
Rice. Ezra Lunt. John Matthew.-. George Ingersoll, 
Jonathan Devol, Jethro Putnam, Samuel Stebbins 
and Jabez True." 


Washington Comity, embracing the eastern half 
of the present Mate of"Ohio, was the only organized 
count} of the Northwest Territory untilearlyin 1790, 
when the Governor proclaimed Hamilton Gounty, 
which included all the territory between the Big and 
Little Miami Rivers, and extended north to the 
" Standing Stone Forks" on the first-named stream. 

The following is a list of all the territorial coun- 
ties organized; also the date of organization, with 
their respective county seats: 






Hamilton. . . 


St. Clair... . 



Randolph . . 



■ . 



■Ti ,r i rson. . . 


I toss . , 


1 i IIIlllluU . . 


' 1 it ml . . 

1 ! 



July 27, IT88 

January -'. 17'.h>. . . . 
F. in wry, 1790 . . . 

la 179&. 

In 1795 

Ausnst 1"'. 1795 

.lulv 10, 1797 

July 29. 1797 

Auffust 2fl 17*7... 
July 1" ISM . . . 

I I , ■,■.., r ll :- ■!, 

December*) L? 
September 7. t&il 





VlDi .11-1. - 




N. v» Lam ister. 
st. Clairsville. 

1' will i„ ,,' served that Hamilton was the second 
count} organized. There were situated within its 
limits, wh ■:>. »evera] Hf>urishing villages, 

that h . had I ■ c ir ri di ring the closing months 
of IT' - ; ..v : i ■ •■ I) in I "SO. Columbia, situated at the 

month if • ' \! i was th" first .>f these l.ii.l 

out, its ear'iy settli - being '■ ' ■!. Benjamin Stites, .f 
" Redst. ni ' ' I Fort" (proprietor). William Go forth, 
John S. G;i " th (a Baptist minister, who 

afterward ' n one if Ohio's first United SI '.- 
Senators), and others, numbering in til! twenty five 
persons or more, though some of them arrived a I 

Cincinnati was the next iu jr.'.'i of time, having 
been laid out early in 1789. by Col Robert Fatter 
son, Matthias Denman and Israel Ludlow. Several 
uot very successful attempts had also been mail al 
various points between Cincinnati and the mouth of 
the Great Miami by Judge Symmes. 

The early si tilers of Hamilton County were prin 
cipally from New Jersey. Pennsylvania, Virginia and 
Kentucky. Judge Symmes and Burnet were repro 
sentative men in the Miami Valley from New Jersey. 
Jeremiah Morrow an.l Judge Dunlavy from Pennsyl- 
vania, William H. Harrison and William McM 
from Virginia, and Col. Robert Patterson and F--v 
James Rem] ei En K icki . 

The Seioto Valley, the ti"xr in u^'trr of time, was 

- ttleil chiefly by Virginians and Keiituckians, rep 

- • n-,1 by ''.'1 Thomas Worthington and Gen. V. 
thaniel Massie. two o r its prominent settlers 

Ami the early settlements along Lake Erie, dur 
ing the closing \. ars •• the eighteenth century. whose 
representative men sve-re Gov. Samuel Hunting 
ton and tf...u. Benjamin Tappan, were estal liahetl !.. 
men not h whit inferior to th - above name L And 
the o-ood that Gen. Washington said of the '•>■■■ Ku- 
gland Colony that settled Marietta could, with very 
siight modifications, be said, of most of the settlers 
an 1 pioneers of the aforesaid settlements. 


The following is a list of the principal villages 
and town- iu the Northwest Territory, started and 
built tip during Territorial rule, with the time of the 
first survey of lots, together with the names of their 

Marietta -Laid out in 1788 bj Rufus Putnam and 
the Ohio Lan.f Company. 

Columbia— Laid out in 17^8 by Benjamin Stites, 
Maj. Gano anil ethers. 

Cincinnati— Laid out in 1789 by Robert Patterson, 
Matthias Denman and Israel Ludlow. 

Gallipolis— Laid out in 1791 by the French set- 

Manchester— Laid out in 1791 by Nathaniel Mas 

Hamilton — Laid out in 1794 by Israel Ludlow. 

Davton — Laid out in 179-5 by Israel Ludlow and 
Gens. Davton and Wilkinson. 



Franklin —Laid . > i i •■ in 1795 by William C. 
SchouCk and Danii I 0. Cooper 

Chillicothe— Laid out in 179G by Nathaniel Mas- 

Cleveland -Laid out in 17'- ,; > by Job V. Styles. 

fcVanklinton -Laid out iii 1797 by Lucas Snllivant. 

Steubenville— Laid oui in L798 by Bazaliel 
Wells and rames Ri is - 

Williamsburg Laid out in 1799. 

Zanesvilie -Laid out in 17v"-i by Jonathan Zane 
and John Mdntire. 

New Lancaster— -Laid out in L80U by Kbenezer 

Warren - Laid out in 1S01 by Ephriaui Qninby. 

St. Clairsville— Laid ont in 1S<'1 by David New- 

Springfield — Laid out in L801 by James Demint. 

Newark Laidoutin 1802 by William C.Scheuck, 
(i. W. Burnet and John Oummings. 

Cincinnati, at the close of the Territorial govern- 
ment, was the largest town in the Territory, contain- 
in—- about LOCO inhabitauts it was incorporated in 
1802, with the following as its. tiist .fficors: 

President —David Zeigler. 

Recorder -Jacob Burnet. 

Trustees — William Ramsay, David E. Wade, 
Charles Avery, William Stanley, John Reily, Samuel 
Dick, V, illiam Ruffner. 

Assessor - Joseph Prince. 

Collector — Abraia '. V.ry. 

Town Marshal — lames Smith. 


The following exhibit gives a full list of the offi- 
cers of the Territory, with the date of service, in- 
cluding the delegates to Congress: 

Governor— Gen. Arthur St. Clair, served from 
1788 to 1802. 

Secretaries— Winthrop Sargent, served from \ T^S 
to 1798; William H. Harrison, served from 1798 to 
1799; Charles Willing Byrd, served from 1799 to 

The latter gentleman was also elected Governor 
during the closing months of the Territorial govern- 
ment. Gov. St. Clair having been removed from office 
in 1802 by President .Jefferson. 

Treasurer — John Armstrong, served from 1792 to 

Territorial Delegates in Congress-— William H 
Harrison, nerved from 1799 to 1800; William Mc- 
Millan, served from 1800 to 1801; Paul Fearing, 
served from 1803 i i IS03. 

Territorial Judges -Ja aes Mitchell Varnum, Sam- 
uel Holden Parsons and John Armstrong were ap- 
point-:! Judges for the Northwest Territory by Con- 

gress, in October. 1787; thf latter, however, declined 
and John Cleves Symmes was appointed to the 
vacancy it) February, 17S8, and ha accepted 

Judge Varnum died in Jannary, ITS'- 1 and Will 
iani Barton was i ppointed his successor, but declined 
the appointmenL; George Furaer, however, in 1789, 
accepted ii. On the 10th of November. 1789, Judge 
Parsons wis drowned in attempting to cross Dig 
Beaver Creek, and Rufus Putnam became his suc- 
cessor March 31, 1790. In r.'>'.. he resigned, anil 
Joseph Gilnaan succeeded him. The Territorial 
courl was composed of three Judges, two of whom 
constituted a quorum for judicial purposes, and also 
for the exercise of legislative functions in co-opera- 
tion with the Governor. 

Janu > M Vnroum, . 
Samuel II Parsous. 
John Armsttv »» . . . 
John C Symmes. . 

VVi li i;:. 13 i ton. . . . 
(', orge Turner 
Rul I'ttti ."•:- .... 
Jos< i«U( iiliuaa 

-.V"KN lITiJMI D, 

( >< tober, 1787. . 
. i, tober, 1787. . 
i (ctober, 1 rs7 
February, !i s s 

. 1780. . . 

March 81. !7!K). 
. L79C. 

F.Nli .11 ■ n'. '.. V. 

iarv. 17*9. 
November 10, I78« 
Rufuseil io serve. 

Refused to serve. 

Si n ■ tl unl il 17!)6: 

" Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr was appointed (says 
Judge Burnet) after the first session of the Territorial 
Legislature, of which he was a member. and probably 
continued in office to the close of the Territorial gov- 
ernment, but I have not been able i i verify said con- 


From the time of the organization of the govern- 
ment of the "Northwest Territory," in 17 V \ until 
the ratification of the "treaty of Greenville," some- 
times called "Wayne's treaty," in l7'.'.">. the attitude 
of many of the Western Indian tribes toward t,he 
white settlers in the Northwest Territory was that of 
extreme, unrelenting hostility. The military or- 
ganization which had marched against them, before 
the establishment] of civil government in the great 
Northwest, bad signally failed to subjugate them, or se- 
cure a permanent cessation of hostilities. The disas- 
trous expedition of Gen. Braddock in 1755, of Mai. 
Wilkins in 1763, of Col. Bradstreet in 1701, of Col. 
Lochry in 17^1, and of Col. Crawford in 17S"_!. and 
the disgraceful and murderous expedition against the 
Moravian Indians on the Tuscarawas, in the last 
named year, only fen led to inflame the hostile Indian 
tribes, anil inspire fhera with greater courage in their 
b stile movements and aggressive measures against 
the white settlers. The fruitless, if not abortive. 
campaigns of Col. McDonald in 177b of Gen Mc- 
intosh in 177s. and of Gen. Broadhead in 1781. of 
course, led to no salutary results. Even the success 
fui campaign', of Col. Boquet ic L7fJ3— 64, of Lord 



Dunmore and Gen Lewis in 177 1. and of Gen 
Geo .'•■ Rogers Cls k in 1778, failed to secure a per 
mane, it peace with th i Western Indian tribes. The 

inhabitants of Northwest Territory were, therefore, 

from the 7th of April, L7SS, when the first, immi 
grants arrived at the mouth of the Mnskingum, uunl 
the treaty of Greenville was concluded in August, 
1795, constantly liable to the stealthy but deadly al 
tack- of the perfidious, merciless savage tribes of the 
Northwest. But the} a;"! their dastardly, cruel, re- 
lent h>ss foe iu the spirit of genuine manhood —of true, 
determined, unJiinching heroism! They were men 
worthy of the heroic age of the West! Bravely <b'l 
they bear themselves during those years of i"il 
and privations, of dread and apprehension, of suffer- 
ing and sorrow, of blood and carnage. 

To secure the speed) termination of those savage 
atrocities the National Government early organized 
number of military expeditions, tne tirst of these be- 
ing that of Gen. Harmar. in 1790, who was then 
Commander-in-Chief of the military department of 
the West. Hi; had a few hundred regular troops un- 
der his command, stationed chiefly at Ft. Harmar and 
at Ft. Washington, which served as the nucleus of 
his army. The trreaf body of his troops, however, 
numbering in all above fourteen hundred, were Penn- 
sylvania and Kentucky volunteers, the former being 
under the immediate command of Col. John Hardin, 
and the latter of Col. Trotter. The expedition left 
Ft. Washington and marched to the junction of the 
St. Joseph and St. Mary's Rivers (now Ft. Wayne, 
Ind.j. where detachments of the army, under com- 
mand of Col. Hardin, on the 19th and '_'"2d days of 
October, encountered the enemy and suffered mortify 
ing defeats. Of course, the campaign failed to give 
peace or relief from apprehended barbarities. 

The next year Gen. St. Chair, the Governor of the 
Territory, who had a Revolutionary record of patriot- 
ism and ability, organized an expedition, whose 
strength somewhat exceeded that of Gen. Harmare. 
It met with a most disastrous defeat. November 4, 
1791, near the head-waters of the Wabash, now in 
Mercer County, Ohio, the battle-field being known as 
Ft. Recovery. Of l.oOO men in the battle, more than 
half of them were either killed or wounded, and it 
was indeed a great calamity to the disheartened and 
greatly harassed pioneers of the Northwest Territory. 

Inuuediately after the defeat of Gen. St. Clair, 
the Federal Government took the preliminary steps to 
raise a large army to operate against tie- hostile tribes, 
for the purpose <•! finally and permanently subjugating 
them. Military preparations, however, progressed 
slowly, and the ai -' . ■■■;' 179-4 had near lj passed before 
the confederated hn ■:.'.■ India tribes were met in bat- 
tle array by Gen. AYayn si rem Fne battle was fought 

at the Maumee Rapids, near Perrysburg, and Ft. 
Meigs, in Woo) County, Ohio, and ie known as the 
battle of "' Fallen Timbers," though sometimes called 
the battle of the Maumee, Wayne's army numbered 
more than three thousand men well disciplined, a i i 
ably officered, 1,600 of whom being mounted vol tm- 
t er troops from Kentucky, commanded hj Gen 
Charles Scott, of said Sta'toj whowas thesecond rank- 
ing officer in the army, and who, as well as Gen. 
Henry Lee (the "Light Horse Harry" of the Kevola 
tion) and Gen. William Darke, bad been favorably 
considered by President Washington in connection 
with the chief command of the expedition. The 
choice, however, fell upon Gen. Wayne, the old com- 
panion in arms of the President, ami to him is 
justh ascribed the honor of defei ting the Indian 
tribes commanded by the celebrated Shawnee chief, 
Blue Jacket, on the Maumee, August 20, 1794. and 
of permanently breaking the power of a very formid- 
able Indian confederacy. C< ssatv n of hostilities fol- 
lowed this victory, and a peace, which the General 
Government had vainly sought by friendly tiegofia 
tion, was secured— a peace which eontiniu I for many 
pears, even, until after the northwest territory had 
"ceased to be," and the important incidents and 
events connected therewith had passed into history 


The Governor having satisfactorily ascertained 
that the conditions existed entitling the territory to the 
second grade of government, thai is. that there were 
"5,000 free mate inhabitants, of full age." within the 
Territory, he. on the 29th day of October. 1798, took 
the preliminary steps toeffeet that object, by issuing 
his proclamation, directing the qualified voters to hold 
elections for Territorial Representatives on the third 
Monday of September, 1798. The election was held 
in pursuance of said proclamation, which resulted in 
the following gentlemen being chosen to constitute the 
popular branch of the Territorial Legislature for the 
ensuing two years: 


Return Jonathan Meigs. Washington County. 

Paul Fearing, Washington County. 

William Goforth, Hamilton County. 

William McMillan, Hamilton County. 

John Smith. Hamilton County. 

John Ludlow, Hamilton County. 

Robert Benham, Hamilton County. 

Aaron Caldwell, Hamilton County. 

Isaac Martin, Hamilton County. 

Shadrack Bond, St. Clair County. 

John Small. Knox County. 



John Edgar, Randolph County. 

Soloinou Sibley, Wayne County. 

Jacob Visgar, Wayno County. 

Charles I'. Chabe ' I ■ ■■■•:■ ;i«- Wayne County. 

Joseph I >arlinton, Adam; Com tj 

Nathaniel Massie, Adarus County. 

James Pritchard, Jefferson County. 

Thomas Worthington, R*i ss County. 

Blias Langham. Ross County. 

Samuel Pindkiy, Ross County. 

Edward Tiffin. Ross d linty. 

The above named gentlemen met at Cincinnati on 
the 22d of January, 1799 and nominated ten men, 
whose names they forwarded to the United States 
Congres a , five of whom were to be selected by that 
body to constitute the Legislative I louncil of the Ter- 
ritory. They then adjourned to meet on the 16th of 
September. 1790. 

On the 22d of 'March, .1799, either the United 
State.- Senate, the United States House of Represen- 
tativos or the President of the United States (author - 
ilies are no! agreed), chose from among those whose 
names had been suggested to them the following gen- 
tlemen, to compose the first Legislative Council of 
the Northwest Territory, their term of office to con 
tinue five years, any three of whom to form a quorum: 

Jacob Burner, of Cincinnati, Hamilton County. 

Henry Vandenburg, of Vincennes. Knox County. 

Robert Oliver, of Marietta, Washington County. 

James Findlay, of Cincinnati, Hamilton County. 

David Vance, of Vanceville, Jeffi rson County. 

The ordinance of 1787 named C igress as the au- 
thority in whom was vested the right to select rive 
from the list <>f t>'ti pers >ns to constitute the Territo- 
rial Council. But it will lie borne in mind that said 
ordinance was passed by a Congress that legislated 
in pursuance of the articles of confederation, while 
yet we had neither President nor United States Sen- 
ate, hence authority was given to Congress to make 
the selection. But it is highly probable that the 
aforesaid authority was subsequently transferred to 
the President, or to the Senate, or to them jointly. 


Both the Council and House of Representatives 
met at Cincinnati. September 16, 1799, and effected 
a permanent organization. The Council perfected its 
organization by the election of the following officers: 

President -Henry Vandenburg 

Secretary — William C. Sehenck. 

Door-keeper George Howard. 

Sergeant-at-Arnis —Abraham Cary. 

The House of Representatives completed its or- 
ganisation by electing, hi it-i officers, the following 
gentlemen : 

Speaker of the House- Edward Tiffin. 

Clerk — iohu Ril y. 

Door-keeper -Joshua Rowland. 

S« geanl ai Arms Abraham < ary. 

Thirtj bills were passed at the first session of t.he 
Territorial Legislature, but the Governor vet 
eleven of them J'hej also olectod William H. Har- 
rison, then Seoretary of the Territory, a Delegate to 
Congress. b\ a vote of eleven to ten that were cast 
for Arthur St Clair, Jr., son of the Governor, then 
a promising young lawyer of I nati, and who 

then held the office of Attorney GeDeral of the Terri 
torv. The first session of the Territorial Legisla 
was prorogued by the Governor December 19,1709, 
until the first Monday of November, 1800, at which 
they re-assembled and held i-hes< cond session at < Ih I 
licothe. which, by an act of Congress of .Ma;, 7. L800. 
was i:\-h\t- the seat of the Territorial government un- 
til otherwise ordered by the Legislature This, the 
second session of the Territorial Legislature, was of 
short duration, continuing only until Deeember 9, 

On May 9. L800, Co igress passed an act establish- 
ing the Indian Territory, with boundaries including 
th H present Stat ; s of Indiana and Illinois, and U ill 
iam H. Harrison having accepted the office of G 
nor of said devolve! upon the Territorial 
Legislature, at its sei on 1 sessi in, not only to elect a 
Delegate to till the vacancy oecasi' i I by hii resigna- 
tion, but also to elect a Delegate to sen during the 
succeeding Congress. William .McMillan, or Cin- 
cinnati, was elected to fill the vacancy, and Paul 
Fearing, of Marietta, was elected to serve from the 
tth of Man;h. 1801, to the Ith of March, 1803. 
They were both reputed to be men of ability. 

Bv the organization of the Indiana Territory, the 
counties of St. Clair. Knox and Randolph were taken 
out of the, jurisdiction of theNorthw -t Derritory,and 
with them of course, Henry Vandenborg, of Knos 
County, President of the Council; also. Shadrack 
Bond, of St. Clair County; John Small, of Knos 
County, and John Edgar, of Randolph County, mem- 
bers of the popular branch of the Legislature. 

On the 2od of November. IS01, the third session 
of the Territorial Legislature was commenced at Chil- 
licothe. pursuant to adjournment. The time for 
which the members of the House of Representatives 
were elected having espired. and an election having 
been held, quite a nnnibaroi new members appeared. 
The Council remained nearly as it was at the previ- 
ous ses-ions. there being not more than two changes, 
perhaps only one. that of Solomon Sibley, of Detroit, 
Wayne County, who took the place of Henry Van 
denburg, thrown into the new Territory. Robert Oli 
ver, of Marietta, Washington County, was chosen 



Presidi nt of the place of Henn Vandenburg. 

'['}■■■ House of Representatives a: the third ses 
sion of the Forritorial Legislature was compose*! of 
thi' followi i' ; gent letuen: 

Ephraiin Cutler, of Washington County. 

William Rufus Putnam, Washington County. 

Moses Miller,- Hamilton C< nnty. 

Francis Dunlavy, Hitm Iton County. 

Jeremiab Morrow, tlamilton County. 

John Ludlow, Hamilton County. 

John Smith. Hamilton County. 

Jacob White, Hamilton County. 

Daniel Reeder, Hamilton County 

Joseph Darlington, Adams Couuty. 

Nathaniel Massie. Adams County. 

Zenr-~ Kimberly. Jefferson County. 

John Milligan, Jefferson County. 

Thomas McCune, Jefferson County. 

Edward Tiffin, Ross Connfcy. 

Elias Langham, Ross Connty. 

Thomas Worthington. R ss County. 

Franoois Chabert de Joncaire . Wavne County. 

G>eorge McDongal, Wayne Connty. 

Jonathan Schieffelin, Wayne Connty. 

Edward Paine. Trumbull County. 

The officers of tli ■ House during its third session 
were as follows: 

Speaker of tin- Hntte— -Edward Tithn. 

Clerk — John Reily. 

Door-keeper — E Ivvard Sherlock. 

The third session of the Legislature continued 
from the -24th of November. 1801. until the 23d of 
January. 1802. when it adjourned to meet at Cincin- 
nati on the fourth Monday of November following, 
but that fourth sessii n was ''ever held, for reasons 
made obvious by sulweqnent events. 

Congress, on the 80th of April. 1802, had parsed 
an "act to enable the people of the eastern division 
of the territory northwest of the River Ohio f.i form 
a constitution and State 1 Government, and for the ad- 
mission of such State into the Union on an equal 
footing with the original States, and for other pur- 
poses." In pursuance '-f the aforesaid enactment, an 
election had been ordered and held thronghont the 
eastern portion of the territory, and members of a 
Constitutional Convention chosen, who met at Chilli- 
cothe on the 1st day of November, L802, to perform 
the duty assigned them. Edward Tiffin, Esq., of 
Ross Osrmfy, was ehos "i as President, and on taking 
his seat in the .-hair delivered the following address: 

" CriN-i Lemejj: I beg you to he assured that I duly 
appreciate the honor yon have conferred in selecting 
me to preside over your deliberations on this im- 
portant occasion; thedutiesof 'he ehair will. I pre- 
sume, l>? plea-ing and easy, for, from the known 

char; i t> r <£ the gentlemen who compose this conven- 
tion, there can be no doubt but that the utmost pi • 
priety and decorum will be observed, without I ie 
oi interference from ta > chair Whatever rules von 
may adopt fir th< government, of the convention. shall 

I be strictly observed; and in every decision which 
be reqtiired from the ehair the utmost impartiality 
shall be evinced." 

Thomas Scott, Esq., was chosen as Secretary and 
William McFarland Assistant Secretary. 

The convention continued in session twenty nine 
d.-us, adjourning on the 29th of November, 1802, 
having formed the first, constitution of the State, 
which met with the approbation of the people, and 
under which they lived and prospered till A D. 1S5.1. 

I when the new constitution was adopted 

When the time had arrived for commencing the 
fourth session of the Territorial Legislat;u-e. the 
aforesaid Constitutional Convention was in ses^i. n, 
and had evidently nearly completed its labors, a^ it 
adjourned on the 29th of said m mth. The members 
"f the Legislature (eight of wh ru being also members 
of the Convention), therefore, seeing that a spc-edy 
termination of the Territorial Government was in- 

! evitable, deemed it inexpedient and unnecessary to 
hold the proposed s< s?sion. 

The Territorial Government was tailed by the or- 
ganization of the State Government, March 3, 1803, 
pursuant to the provisions of a constitution formed 

1 at Chii'licothe, November 29, 1802, by the following' 

1 named gentlemen: Joseph Darlinton, Israel Don- 
alson and Thomas Kirker, of Adams County; James 
Caldwell and Elijah Woods, of Belmont County: 
Philip Gatch and James Sargent, of Clermont Conn 
tv: Henry Abrams and Emanuel Carpenter, of Fair- 
held County; John W. Browne. Charles Willing 
Bvrd. Francis Dunlavy. William Goforth, John Kit 
eh°l. Jeremiah Morrow. John Paul. Johu Roily, John 
Smith and John Wilson, of Hamilton County: Ru- 
dolph Bair, George Humphrey, John Milligan, Na- 
than Updegraff, and Ba/aliel Wells. Jefferson Couu- 
ty: Michael Baldwin, Edward Tittin. James Grubb, 
Thomas Worthington, and Nathaniel Massie, of Roes 
County: David Abbot and Samuel Huntington, of 
Trumbull County: Ephraim Cntler, Benjamin Ives 
Oilman, Rufns Putnam, anil John Mclntire, of 
Washington County. 

Joseph Darlinton, of Adams County, Francis 
Dnnia\ \ . Jer'-niiah Morrow and -i.'lm Srnith, of Ham 
llfon County; John Milligan, of Jefferson County; 
Edward Tiffin and Thomas Worthington, of Ross 
County; and Ephraim Cutler, of Washington Coun 
ty, were the eight gentlemen of in a last Uerritorial 
Legislature tha f were also elected otemhers or the 
C- mstitutional Convention. 






IN preparing this paper for theliisrory of Defiance furrow that is turned by the farmer's plow, develops 

County, if is beyond my hopes, as if is alxwe and set:.' new phase in our surface geology. Hence, our 

bevond my ability, to enrich the literature of our drift groups present a feature in our geology that is 

geology, or add much of interest or value to the bis- deserving of more than a passing notice. Indeed, 

tory of Defiance County. Moreover, tin- task seems from the fact of these groups being immediately Men 

the less necessary and the less encouraging, as cur tilled with the history of Defianc* County, and lx»- 

fields of geology have already been passed over by an cause they Form one of the most eventful and imp r 

able corps of engineers sent out by the State. tant chapters in the geological histon of our globe, 

made up of gentlemen of known ability, educated and thej are deserving a far better mention than my 

trained expressly for the work, and of win mi it may limited knowledge of our geology will allow me to 

in truth be said discharged. their responsible and im- bestow upon them. As i- well known, Defiance 

portant duties with the ability and fidelity common- ; County is embraced within the so-called drift dis- 

surate with the trust, conferring honor upon tb.-m- tricts-of the Maumee Valley. The coating of earth 

selves and (rendering a lasting and important service to that serves to . mceal and to level up aurl smooth 

the State; .aid I might be excused for mentioning, over the uneven surf aces of the older and deeply 

in this connection, that in view of the value of their eroded underlining locks of our valley, has, nu- 

reports, with their accompanying maps and charts, it I doubtedly, an ice origin, and made up— in part, at 
is to be regretted that so few of them to be fonnd 

in neat and conveniently arrange.! libraries, while so 
manv are left to gather dust and mold in the book 
room in the basement of the State capitol. 

cue SE.Di:.:r.:;T.'.r.v r.ocxs. 
Of this class of rocks our geologists give us but a 
meager complement on our side of Hie anticlinal arch. 

least—of materia] foreign to this locality, and trans- 
ported — drifted— hundreds of miles, from Northern 
New York the highlands of CanH I i and theLakeSupi r 
ior regions. Among our drift material we find sands. 
gravels — coarse and true— stones of all -hanes and 
sizes, bowlders of red and gray granites, quartz, 
itij.-' --. together with black gri lite bowldi its and ci r 
per-bearing rocks from Lake Superior. 'A bile these. 
It seems that one corner of the State has lost, by . for the most part, may be considered as foreign repre- 
erosion, all our carboniferous rocks, if, indeed, we sentatives, we may safely conclude that our own 
ever possessed any. Therefore, we have no coal meas- rocks, severally and collectively, have been drawn 
nres, no carboniferous limestones or conglomerates. upon for drift material, and. judging from the char - 
With these and the Waverly group, and the Erie ] aeter and preponderance of blue clay in their com 
shales gone, we are brought down to the Huron > position, one would sup. pose that the Huron shales 
shales, on which our drift beds rest Below the : had furnished their full quota. The general appear 
Huron shales, in a descending order, we have the j ance of these groups would indicate that they have 
Hamilton group, the ewboniferous limestones, the | been ground up, stirred together and worked into a 
Oriskauy sandstones, the water time, the Niagara, mass of mud. and dumped from some immense trans- 
the Clinton and the Cincinnati groups, which ends the ' port into a "higgledy-piggledy, pell-mell mass." as 
Upper Silurian system, and carries us down upon the : Mr.Geikie is pleasedto term it, with but little reference 
metamorphosed rocks — the Lanrentian and Huroniau to order or arrangement; and. if the stony record be 
— of the Eozoic a^e. But as our sedimentary rocks not deceptive, at different times, and at periods wide- 
are so ably and so thoroughly written up elsewhere, ly separated from each other. Hence. *bese drift 

it seems like a waste of space and a misapplica- 
tion of time again to go over the ground with them 
here. Not so. ' however, with 

ips have ever been an enigma to the geologist 
wherever found not only confounding the novice, 
but a puzzle even to old veterans in the field. Dr. 
Newberry says . .f the drift: " While it is true of other 
groups that a few words may suffice t > convey a clear. 
Every well that, is bored, every railroad cutting, I idea of them. or. at least, the few things we have 
every cellar that is eseavatod — in fact, almost every ' learned of them, the drift phenomena .ire too com- 




i ■ I . i .■;«-.!. too little known, to be ho summarily dis- 
missed." it; truth, if may bo said of the drift, that in 
many respects it is even yet an unsolved problem — 
Btrangeand intricatp Sow. the no le of layingdown 
the sediment an roeks that form the frame-woi 
our globe, is simple aud easily comprehended; the 
mechanical assorting of the materials, the manner of 
their deposition and tbeorderoi cueir superposil i 
ar^ ;d I in beeping ivi'b the known principles of cos- 
mical law, and in harmony with the geological idea, 
yet the drift presents a wide and strange departure 
Here the chain of sequence of .-•- nts seems to be 
broken — the order and hartnouj destroyed. 

But, after all, as our geologists would have us be 
lieve,. these seemingly incongruous appearances pre 
sented by the drift beds have much of reality 
about them, rheii confusiou becomes less and less 
confused the more they are studied and the betterwo 
become acquainted ~.v it It them; so that these seeming- 
ly disordered groups are, in reality, not so disorderly 
as a first sight would indicate. Our geologists grant 
them distinct groupings in a manner as other rocks. 
The first, 01 princijial, division sepai'ates them into 
two groups, denominated the upper aud lower drift. 
The low r drift goes by the name of tile or bowlder 
clay, and is characterized as the unmodified drift, and 
presents itself as a tough, waxy blue clay, inter- 
spersed, more or less, with limits and heaps of sand, 
gravels and bowlders— for travelers — with traces of 
coal, traces of wood, and occasionally bits of bone. 
Tiie bowlders being oiore or less rounded Mid 
polished and sometimes scratched and grooved, in- 
dicating the rough usage they have been subjected to 
as graving tools in graving the rock over which they 
were forced, while being iirmly held in the folds of 
the ice raft that transported them hither. 
When these clays form the surface soil —as in the 
absence of the upper ilrift — although possessing ail 
the elements of fertility, they are not in high favor 
with the farmer, as thev yield a reluctant submission 
to the plow and cultivation, and are not disposed to 
accept kindly the genial influences of sunshine and 
rain, and. withal, require a deal of labor aud much 
skillful handling to convert them into acceptable 
seed beds for farm crops. The lowest of the drift 
beds rest immediately upon the stratified rocks, some- 
times, however, with a layei of gravel beneath them. 
These gravel beds, wherever the} occur, are an accept- 
able find 1 > the well digger, as they are ever water- 

Typical of tue upper, or modified drift, is a belt 
oi layer of tin » sand, resting on the bowlder clay. 
These sands, so far as they extend. constitute tue res 
ervorrs for wells in common use for families, and, 
when not too much water-worn, and consequently 

; are rough > angular, serve a useful purpose for mor. 
tar for plastering houses and for stone and i< 
1 irk. But often thev occur as quicksands, aud much 
j too often, and much too quick, at times, for the con- 
venience or safety of the laborer: and so line, sc ■■• 
times, are tbey.and so ruuney, that some well d 
sa} of them that they will ran through a crevice 
• water would hardly make the attempt 
Above.and resting on this bell of sand, i-^ a heaw 
i rating of brown or yellow clay, denominated brick- 
clay, more oi less interspersed with sand and gravel, 
j and not un frequently a scattering of bowldors, some 
j of which are chiseled and scratched as those in the 
; lower beds. Tins description proximately, or in a 
general way, covers the whole ground oi the drift 
beds wherever found, for, they are characteristics! . 
alike the world over. Prof. Geikie, a Scotch geo i 
gist, who. probably, has given more time and a closer 
attention to the phenomena of the dri ft than anj i 
living, says, "After reading a description of the drift 
beds of New England, 1 was struck with their close 
resemblance toth iseol mj own country." 

If, however, we go into a minute description, or 
an ultimate analysis of the arrangement of the sur- 
face deposits of our Mamnee Valley, we will hardly 
rind any one description that will hold good even for 
the next farm. The borings of one well may differ 
materially from the bori ,-- E th aext well, although 
inclose proximity. Indeed, I have observed in De- 
fiance City a mark"! difference in two sides of the 
same cellar j on on. side oacu red belts of sand, and 
wedge-shaped beds of gravei that were entirely want- 
ing on the other side. No wonder, then, that >ur 
geologists gi.'e th. .-.- i hanges an. I alterations in won- 
derful profusion and variety. On the whole, the 
phenomena of the drift are exceedingly interesting, 
and our drift groups become more and more interest- 
ing to us the more we 1. ■arn of them; i;ot aloni ■ 

cause of their peculiar characteristics, or beci 

they form our farms and ! : .» Ids lands whereon we 
grow our crops, plant our orchards and build our 
homes — but they become interesting to us because of 
their antecedents aud associations; because thoT are 
involved in. and are identified with, tic great world 
change of which the rocks bear testimony everywhere 
It is from their records we read the story of the 
great ice age. when our summers had shortened and 
our winters had increased in length and severity, and 
our hemisphere pi teed uudej an Erebus of perpetual 
winter and ice and -., m had swathed the "■;• >uud 
as with a winding-sheet of death. Chen it was i 
great glaciers, snow- fed monsters, who make their 
homes in the bleat- regions of the north — <m>wn to 
continental dimensions bj the snow-accumulations of 
ages — came coursing down the frost-bound slopes and 



careered over our continent. Slowly but persistently 
pushing their waj onward— pausing for no obstacle 
— thei rasped down the summits of high mountains, 
and scraped out the basins of great Lakes and with 
the gathered fraguieuts, chips and rubbish, they in- 
vaded our v.-ti ii-y and further >n. till the warmth of 
the returning Bummer of the great year ended their 
career, and they were forced "■> la\ down their rich 
accumulation of earth and stones they could no 
longer hold, and retire forevei from our valley, and 
our rocks became clothed with a wealth of soil, from 
the fertility of whose element we, at the present day, 
are gathering the harvest of a profitable agriculture. 


During the last glacial period, according to Prof. 
Agassiz. our continent was glaciated from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific, ana from the extreme north to the lati- 
tudes of Cincinnati and New York. Moreover, ac- 
cording to statements, this ice-sheet must have been 
of enormous dimensions, a? were the glaciers that is- 
sued from it. The great mer d< ,: that occupied 
the divide between the St. Lawrence and Hudson's 
Bay, says Prof. Dana, was 12.000 feet, or more than 
two and a quarter miles in thickness; while the 
glacier that passed over tne New England States is 
estimated to have been from 6,000 tob\000 feet thick. 
Just bow thick or how broad those glaciers were that 
performed the drift work of our valley, our geologists 
have failed to give us any very definite idea. Judg- 
ing from indications, however, they wore no pig 
mies, even of their kind: and when we come 
to consider the fact that a -beet of ice 8,000 
feet in thickness exerts a pressure of more Than 
two hundred tons upon every square foot of surface, 
we need not be surprised to learn that the granite 
summits of the Lauroutian Hills were reduced 1,500 
feet by the eroding processses practiced upon them 
by the glacial ice, nor need we be astonished to find 
huge blocks — rounded and grooved— with lesser 
stones mixed up in the clays that form the drift 
groups of our valley; so that if the student finds 
small stones protruding from the sides of sonie rail 
road cuttiug. or a bowlder poised on the steeps of a 
river bank, or perched on some lofty summit, he is 
not to infer that they are growths, in situ, or that 
they were dropped from some passing iceberg, but 
rather that they were carried there by glaciers. For, 
as Mr. Croll sa_\ s. " If a glacier can pass >ver the 
tops of mountains more than two thousand feet high, 
it can carry stones and bowlders along with it." 

-B"si<las the deep, broad, rock excavations that hold 
the waters of our' great lakes, the tear and weai of 
our underlying rocks, the deep-wrought channels and 
depressions they present, together with the piles of 

rubbish and heaps of debris wiih which our valli \ 
ha- evidently been strewn, are ln:t the legitimate i 
suits ■ f glacier ■ ition. For 'he reader is not : 
fer from th< smooth and even tppearance om vallo> 
- ..:-. wiih hardly a hil! or hollow to relieve LL ■ 
eye or break the monotony, that its features were 
never roughened, or its surface never disturbed by 
moraine inuudati ens, or thrown into hills and le 
pressions by moving masses i f glacier ice. 


Now, as the forces of nature are never idle, iro 
sion, or waste of surface, becomes a part of our ge >i 
ogy, and as our valley has lost eighteen feet of her 
surface since the close of the last glacial period, and 
Lake Erie has gained a hundred feet of Bediment, it 
i- not hard to anticipate the time when our valley will 
be carried into the lake, and that basin will be tilled 
to its rim with sedimentary deposits; into dueiuor to 
*le- coming hammer-bearer a aew feature iu our 
ogy. The principal agents employed iu these Level- 
ing processes are frosts, rains, streams and currents, 
and although ages have been consumed by these 
leveling agents, yet everyday witnesses the altered 
outline or the eroded surface of some bluff or river 
bank, caused by the last hard freeze and subsequent 
thaw, or the last storm that broke against it^ brow or 
coursed down its sides. While the tiny stream, as 
well aa the swollen flood, is ever busy with 
loosened material- assorting md arranging them in 
mo Oit«er of their Sovei a: spoCihc gravities, aud hnrrv- 
ing them away to lower levels, to Hii «m> river chan- 
nel, or lake basin, or other depression, carrying far- 
thest the liner clays — held longest in suspension; 
leaving behind the coarser sort.-,— sands and gravels; 
while the grosser kinds — stones and bowlders — mav 
scarcely be moved at all — rolled over, perhaps, or 
made to occupy lower positions by the removal of the 
loose earth that served to hold them in position. Thus, 
for example, the Lower Maumee receives th" line - li 
merit of clay brought down by the upper branches of 
the stream; at Defiance rest> the sands and gravels; 
while th>' Upper Maumee,and the higher stretches ol 
the Auglaize, are largely tnontanic in manv loc;i!i 


Thou, again, as. according to theory, during the 
coll seasons of the glacial period >>ur valley had be 
come, to- some extent, submc cge 1. and the strong cur- 
rent set in motion by the increased streu^iu f the 
northern trades, would, in a like manner, serve to 
assort the sands from the clays a- they were washed 
front the surface of our soils, dropping the sauds 
tirst, in accordance with their gravities, reservins 
fine clay — held, longest Ln suspension —as an outer or 


HISTORY OF DEFI LS'CE COUNTY. covering Thus we can Bee, >>r think we can 
.-ee. just how thf Lm ad -.1 . ■:' sand, with its cover- 
ing of clay, was laid down over a large surface of 
Defiance Comity, stretching, as it does in some direc- 
tions. Ear over the territory of our neigh bors. But if 
is not alone with these stu face changes tbat the geolo 
gist is chiefly concerned, for these changes and molli- 
fying process* - ireg ing on in all depth? of our drift 
formations. Intercalated beds of sand and gravel 
become more and more pronounced year b\ year and 
day bj day, while gravel beds are continually form 
ing and increasing in thickness in the channefc and 
depressions of the underlying rocks. These occur- 
rences are due to the action of water. Uains that 

fall npon the snrfai f the ground find their way, 

by percolation, into these beds, carrying awav the 
lighter clay sediment and line sands, leaving the 
clean-washed, coarser gravel to accumulate aud in- 
crease ai the expense of the bedsof clay. "The 
trouble with our soils is," said a neighboring farmer 
to me one day. as Iip was trying to stir up his stub- 
born claj "they were not propei rred and 
thoroughly mixed." A bint for a more liberal nse of 
long manure and other tnechanieal appliances for light- 
ening the soils Beds of coarse and fine gravels are 
frequently found in a kind of pocket repositories, 
deep in the beds of clay, as in and about Bryan, 
forming excel lent repositories for water for wells, as 
do those gravel beds thai lie deep down in the depres- 
sions of our rocks. Experienced well-diggers t ♦ - 1 1 us 
that the farther down the bore is extended without 
striking the rock, the greater the chances for a drop 
and permanent reservoir of pure water 


The- wanderings of this great glacier — thanks .to 
the enduring rocks, whose hardened surfaces have 
bey n able to hold the imprint of its graving-tools - 
has been traced by British geologists, from the Scan- 
dinavian mountains, south over Norway and Sweden, 
thence in a curve to theright.sweeping westward over 
Denmark and the British islands, to its final plunge 
into the deep waters of the northern Atlantic. Prof. 
Geikie estimates this glacier to have been 2.000 feet 
thick, with a breadth of eighty miles, and, when 
coalesced with the Scottish glacier, its dimensions 
was such as, in passing over the bed of the German 
Ocean, to have displaced the entire waters of that 
sea. Besides, the work performed b\ tbe glac 
would seem to have been commensurate with its di- 
mensions; for ir i- said to have forced its way up the 
rugged steeps and over the tops of the Scottish hills, 
that were more than 2.000 feet high, and. in the 
meantime, performing for that country just what the 
North A,:i oiean glacier did for us. filled their valleys 

an I glens with drift material precisely in eharactei - 
our. differing in 1 1 tituenl material- with our own 
valley drifts. But bow far these glaciers are able to 
travel is not definitely known, a- their wandei 
1 mi never be very great in any direction till cut off 
by the heat of the sun, or broken in pieces \- the 
waters of some deep sea. Those geologists, however. 
who have given the subject of tiiese glaciers their 
greatest attention, are of the opinion tbat the* would 
go on indefinitely, if backed by material aid. however 
rough or uneven the grounds might be over wl 
the_\ had to travel. Sir. Geikie is of the opinion thai 
the waters of the German Ocean, with an avei 
depth of 160 feet, offered no olvdaclti to the move 
tnent of the great Scandinavian glacier, althonc. ii 
was effectually broken to pieces in the deep waters of 
the Atlantic. .Mr. doll says that " if the waters of 
Baffin's Ba\ and Davis Strait were as shallow as the 
North Sea. those Greenland glaciers would cross 
u[>oq and over the American continent" 

Now, the presence of these glacii rs upon our con- 
tinent would have the effect, as no imi need be I ild. 
to reduce the temperature of onr climate to that of 
Greenland, and condemn our valley to Arcti sterol 

These things being true, then anomalous as if 
may appear —we are indebted E< r the g( aiality of our 
1 lit 1 ite, and tb • product iveness of s, ids, to thai gre it 
• ■ 'an currenttlmi fiowsd< wn from the polar regie - 
and sweeps its waj through Baffin's Day and Daw.-. 
Strait into the North Atlantic, and wlueu we are ac 
customed to assoi iate in our mi ids with nothing be! 
ter than tleets of icebergs and frozen seas. For 
when we take into con ideration the vast amount of 
rubbish brought down by the Greenland glaciers and 
cast into these basins, we can hardly resist th o con 
elusion that long ago, had not thi^- channel been kept 
clear by the powerful and persistent efforts of this cur- 
rent, these basins would have been tilled up, permit- 
ting these glaciers, fed by the thirty foot, annua! 
snows that fall upon Greenland, " to pass upon and 
over the American continent." Mr. Geikie has this 
to say of Greenland and its glaciers: " The supersi- 
cial area of Greenland cannot be less than loO.O(W) 
square miles, so that the country is almost eontinen 
in its dimensions. Of this great region, only a little 
strip, extending toTt north latitude, along the west 
em shore, is sparseh colonized all the rest 
bleak « ilderj ess i - ■:■ ■ a 11 ml Chi I are 

deeplj indented with numerous bays and fiords or 
firths, which, when traced inland, are almosi inv.iri- 
ably found to terminate against glaci rs. Thiek 
frequently appears, too. crowni . I exposed 
dirt's, from the edges of which it droops in 1 
tongue-like and stalactitic pn ;• st.ions until its own 


/ kj&,*g^cTc<:<£ 




weigh! Eot - : r ' i break away and topple down the 
precipice into the sea.' Qie whole in erior of the 
country, iud : Id to buried under- 

neath a great deptL of snow and ice, which levels 
up the valleys and sweeps over the hills. The few 
daring men who have tried to penetrate a little way 
inland, dee sribe the scene as i - late in the extreme 
— far as the eye can reach, nothing save one dead, 
dreary expanse of white; no living creature fre- 
quents this wilderness- neither bird, nor beast, nor 
insect — not even a solitaiy moss or lichen can be 
seen. Over everything bi ods a silence deep as 
death, broken only when the roaring storm arises, to 
sweep before itpitiless, i ding snows. But even in 
the silent and pathless desolation of central Green 
land, the forces of nature are continuously at work. 
The vast masses of snow and ice thai seem to wrap 
the lull-; and valleys as with an everlasting garment, 
are, nevertheless, constantly wearing away, and being 
just as continuously repaired. The peculiar proper 
ties of tet that prevent it. accumulating upon the 
land to tin indefinite degree, are just as characteristic 
of Greenland as those of Alpine countries. Fast as 
the snows deepen and harden into ice upon the 
bleak hills of Greenland, the ice creeps away to the 
coast, and thus from the frozen reservoirs ol the inte- 
rior innumerable glaciers pour themselves down every 
fiord an I i pi oil o to the -ea. Only a narrow strip of 
land along the coast line is left uncovered by the per- 
manent snowiield or mer de glace — all else is snow 
and ice. Some oi the glaciers attain a vast size. 
The great Humboldt is s :; id by its discoverer. Dr. 
Kane, to have u breadth of sixty miles at its termina- 
tion. Its seaward face rises abruptly from the level 
of the water to the height of 300 feet, but to what 
depths it descends is unknown. Other glaciers of 
large size occur frequently along the whole extent of 
the northwestern shores of Greenland, among which 
is that of Eisblink, south of Goodhaab, which pro- 
ject? seaward so as to form a promontory some thir- 
teen miles in length. This immense glacier flows 
from an unknown distance in the interior, and buries 
its face to a great depth in these. 

A submarine bank of debris forms a kind of semicir- 
cle some little way in front of it. and may owe its ori- 
gin, in part, to the stream that issues from underneath 
the glacier, but a bank would, necessarily, gather in 
the same place, even although no water whatever cir- 
culated below the ice. When thi^ glacier, in its down- 
ward progress, first enters the sea at tlie head of a 
fiord, it must have towered, for many hundred feet, 
above the level of the waters; but. as it continued on 
its course, and crept onward over the deepening bed 
of the fiords, it gradually burled ita lofty face in the 
waves, until, when it reached the lower end of the 

fiord and entered the open sea, its front rose onlv a 
lit.;!-, height above the reach of the tides. Thus. 

oping platform of ice that faces thi sea, however 
lofty it may be, must bear only a small proportii ': to 
the much greater thickness of ice concealed bol w 
II is well known that ice is not, bj any means, 
heavj as water, but readily fioats upon its surface. 
Oonseqiu itly, whenever a glacier enters the sea, the 

lense salt water tends to buoy it up; but the great 
'i citj of the frozen mass enables it to tesisi for a 
time. By and-by, however, as the glacier reaches 
deep water, it.- cohesion is overcome, and I ar^e seg- 
ments are forced from its terminal front, and floated 
up from the bed of the sea to sail away as icebergs." 


Among (he man\- interesting features presented 
in the surface geology of our valley —involving, as it 
does, a problem difficult of solution— are our Lake 
Beaches, or Sand Etidges. as they are called. These 
ridges, of which th ire are mi ay, re too fan . 
the people of our valley to require any very extended 
lescription from me. Suffice it to say of these, 
they compose a series of broad, flat belts of sands, 
much denuded, apparently, by rains and streams- 
traversing • :.:' valley in a uniform direction, running 
parallel to each other, and conforming, in a .;. ■. 
way. to the present shore-line of Lake Erie. Now. 
while there js no difference of opinion amonc our 
geologists as to these ridges being thrown up by 
shore waves of some large bodv of water, vet there is 
a difference of opinion, and some uncertainty, mani- 
fested by our philosophers as to the primary cause of 
this phenomenon. What caused the and re- 
trocessional movements of these bodies of water, that 
they should cast their shore waves with the uniform 
ity and regularity required to form these ridges, one 
after another in the order of time, and with so rrood 
a degree of regularity in point.)! elevation one above 
another, and above the surf ace water of the lake? Our 
Ohio geologists claim, in their reports, that ti. se 
ridges are due to land upheaval; they tell as, in sub 
stance, that there was a time when our great lakes 
were all merged in one, and that their united waters 
stood at a much higher level than now: indeed they 
may have covered the whole country. In process of 
time, however, a change ensued. Those mysterious 
subterranean forces bj which the solid crust of our 
g], ;,,. is elevated and. depressed, began to act. XL" 
water gradually retired, and the higher pori i 
. f our valley began to appear. Step by step the I tnd 
rose out of the water, till at length the site of the 
upper, or first formed, of the ridges made its appear- 
ance above the wafer surface. There then occurred 



an ;■ ■ 'rest, lasl ing snfti ieul lj 1 ing f< i 

h • >■ wav< - to form t : • Ig ■ Then, agn i the 
forces ben) their back ■ and thi 

land began to ris - tii ac I to rise 

until the sit< I I . Lrtil i was above the water. 

Then there was another pause, and an ither interval of 
rest, lasting long enough io .. ad ridge to form. 

Then' another rise mdai therrest andsoon 
the radges were p iduced I : i tin Eorc - i > I ■ 1 
from their labors; the laud stoo I still and the waters 
retired to within their several lake basins, wl 're they 
still reinaiu Now, tli - ma> b a _ id enough 
theory, in aceountin ; : these ridges, and ma be 
the true theory, for aught we know to the contrary: 
for surely there is nothing more true than that land 
and water-— continent and ocean — are continually 
changing places. While in so le ■ i ces the laud is 
rising above the water, in otb< r places the water is ris 
ingoverthe land. Whatareour so-called rock forma- 
tions but so many proofs of elevations? \Ybai are 
our coal fields but evidences of a succession of de- 
pri isions and elevations* But what, anioj I 
f liia_;~. seems faulty in tliis theory, consists in be- 
stowing the fii acter of that uniformity of aeti .. 
and method of moveme t, necessary to £ rm these 
ridges, U| >xi those mysterious subterranean forces 
whose principal occupation seems to consist iu propa- 
gating volcan ■•- and earthquakes, and causing - ich 
like disturbances in the bosom of mother earth as are 
characterized by internal her,; in connection with ex- 
plosive gases, rhen, again, supposing these forces 
had acted thus circumspectly, and performed these 
upheavals after the manner ere. tired to them by our 
geologists, it is easily seen their efforts would have 
availed nothing in the way of the formation of these 
ridges. For, had this upheaval movement extended 
to any considerable portion of our continent, the !:. ;es 
themselves would have been involved in th" general 
rise. They, too, would have gone up with the land, 
and the relative position of land and water would 
have still remained the same. On the other hand. 
if this rise had been confined to a small sect 
of our valley, not including the lakes, ii is evident 
that, while such a limited rise might have answered 
the purpose of forming these tidges, it would have 
certainly and effectually destroyed our river system. 
But of this there ,- n ei li erica! evidence anvwhere 
to be found; on the contrary, our principal rivers 
and streams run- in the same direction, and 
over the sau.e channels ii>_\ occupied before the 
glacial period— as a general thing, they are older 
than the glacial period. A moment's reflection would 
satisfy any i tie that a . ■ v small rise at Toledo w nld 
cause the Maumee to abandon its channel, and turn 
its course upstream. But. instead of this, our staid 

old si i still ursues 1 < award course to the lake 
as if yore, ami by t.b.9 same route, only at ,. hundred 
or more of elevation, made necessary by the ac 
cumulations of drift material brought on by glacier 
aci ion. 

led.-, i. the facts go to sbovi that these ridges 
w re produced by the rise and fail of water, and no! 
by upheaval and depression oi land surfaces, and that 
they wen produced by the oscillation of sea 
level during the glacial period. That such an 

- illation would be produced by the 
of the earth's center of gravity from one side to the 
otl i rof th i present equat ir is evident, resulting from 
the enormous ice -cap that would be formed, first on 
• e be uisphere and then on th ■ other. Now, in ac- 
cordance with the | recessional movement of the equi 
noses, which brii _- around an en' ire cycle of the sea- 
si as in 21,000 years or thereabouts, a ridge would be 
formed in the interval of each of these cycles, of the 
winter of the great ■;• n\ as Sir Charles Lyell is 
pleased to term it. Now, as the last glacial period 
commenced 2-10,000 years ago, and ended 80,000 
years a^o — embracing a period of 160,000 years 

would give time, as easily seen, for some six or 
seven higb-water periods during the glacial epoch, 
which corresponds very nearly wi fa the number of 
our ridges. Mr. Croll n> of the opinion, however, 
that si 'in'' of these ridgi - n.o have been, and doubt- 
less were, formed by the beating waves of flood.-. 
caused by the su d . thawingof sn w and ice in 'he 
metier portion of ous continent Th< - suggest:; us 
are thrown in for what they are worth. The reader 
can draw from them his ov.i; com lusi ... 


The subject of glaciers and the manner of their 
movement have ever been a mystery among physi- 
cists; and, although theories innumerable have been 
advanced from time to time in explanation of the 
phenomena, yet how glaciers move still remain an open 
question. Yet, however diversified the opinions of 
scientists may be on the subject of glaciers and 
glacial ice. there is one point on which all are agreed; 
anil that is. that ice is the strangest and most pecu 
liar substance in nature. While a body of ice ever 
maintains itself as a har.l. obdurate substance, as un- 
yielding as glass to strain or tension, its behavior is 
unlike wax or tar. tee in a glacier accommo- 
dates its If to any and all inequalities of surface 

over which it travels, assuming a dil a mtial m 

merit: proceeding faster at the top and middle, and 
dower at the bottom and sides: spreading out where 
the channel is broad, and gathering itself in where 
the channel is contracted toa gorge; and all of these 
i . . ments without melting or breaking. 



Now, hi ■■.•■ 'I ii ' ■. I ai ier assume ali these 

Ions conditions* In 

■■'■ ■' I i ; -i _■ to answ. r thi; 

question in accordance with the ideas of modern 
a sie tee, we inu •; firsl ii ; a li I I ■ .. tto tin na- 

tui - e and properties of ice. In the riivi plao ci 
not a hard, compact mass, as its appearance Ludi :ai a 
— like a body whose particle ; upon 

each other— but n body if is n <■ up of angular 
crvst,-.!-. incap b!i ol cJ -•• tntacl bul iniug i 
other onlj at their points. Hence, ice is a porous 
body, exhibiting througho i! I - entire mass iuuuiner 
able cavities or interstices. STow, in this arrange 
nieut lies "the whole secrel of glacier motion- for, in 
virtue of this arrangement, a glacier avails itself of 
that potential agent heat, in propelling itself alo 
not bodily, but m ii icule by molecule A ns >lec 
ice. oil being attacked by a heat particle, instantly 
melts, am 1 in its liquid form gravitate- t.> lower 
levels, occupying an interstice lower down i>n the 
mass, where itinstantly freezes, and, in assuming the 
crystalline form parte with the beat energy by which 
it was melted. Thi.- energy becoming free, imi 
ately attacks a neighboring molecule, which 
melts, and falls into a still lower interstice: and - i 
on until the heat particle may p iss through ike entire 
mass of ice, melting its way molecule by molecule, 
and as the molecules of ice continue to gravitate from 
higher to lower levels, it follows as a consequence 

that the vortical dimensions of the ice sheet will 
dimini u I as the f u'ffi and of the ice cry 

ci >ii' Umi tie- lateral dimensions ol the ice -le . i 
increase so that, wliere ice forms on n i « ■ \ • - 1 surface, it 
spreads oui in a! 1 directions, like molasses ou a table. 
But an Upine glacier, in making its descent, seek 

ii n gi cge or channel in the sides of the mon n, 

_'i which it flows, and maint; ins it- en irety 
till, on reach g lower levels, it is arrested by the 
heat of the sun. A Greenland glacier, how i\ >r, 
where the temperature of the al losphere 
almosl continually below the freezing point 
thron :'i- it - Hi ird into the sea, wh ire its terminal fro i 
is 1 > ;■• > k . ■ 1 1 into fragments b\ the,buoyancy of the 
water, audit lioats away as icel irgs In this mac 
• ,-r ( Iri otilan ! gel • rid oi its surpl ts ice, and I '■•■• 

I mer rf< glace that envelops the country is main- 
tained in its norma] dimensions, i 1th ingh the eternal 
- i ws of rreenland fall almost continuously the year 
round. This, in brief is t : 6 philosophy of u' 1 
motion, and there is wisdom in its conception, for 
were do! tie 1 mouutn tis ; r ivided with thi- mode of 
getting quii of their iee. ev iry dr ip of water tb ; seas 
coiitain would be carried up in vapor by tin atm - 

■e and condensed inti snows, would fall upon 
summits to remain, and the whole earl !i would become 
dri.d no and frozen tta 



TJCH has been written heretofore by the geolo- 
gist, traveler and agriculturist concerning the 
famous black swamp region on the northerly edge of 
which lies Defiance County, Though cursing in 
former years the depth of water, which well-ni^h 
submerged the luckless traveler, and the adhesiveness 
of the soil hindering rapid transit, all have agreed 
that when the enterprise of man should make itself 
felt in the application of common sense to the nat- 
ural laws of drainage, the retiring waters would dis- 
close to the rapturous ;raze f the husbandman a 
laud of richness and fertility unequaled by that of 
the valley of the Nile. The prophecy has been ful- 
filled and though scarce sixty years havei lapsed since 
the forester's a.v first broke the prim< val stillness i i 
its f->r sts, t" day witnesses the wisdom of "iir Eathers 
in choosing •''■ r their home the land where plenty al- 
wtiys is. 

Defiance County.tbough one of the youngest coun- 

ties of the State, having been made a distinctive geo- 
graphical subdivision in 1845, had made rapid prog- 
ress as a county, in its productions and manufact- 
ures, because of thi-> fertility of soil and the abun- 
dant forest- of oak, hickory, ash, elm and oth< r valu- 
able varieties of timber which clothed its whole ex- 
panse. Gradually, year by year the encroai hi ■■ t- 
of progress 'nave laid bare the virgin soil and > .■:■ 
posed its surf ace to the ambitious husbandman, who 
has here as elsewhere beeu the pioneer of substan- 
tial enterprise and civilization. 

Defiance County h is an area of about t1 1- sqm re 
miles or nearly 250,Ot)t) acres. It is divided into 
twelve townships, viz.: Adams, Defiance, Delaware, 
Farmer. Hioksville, Highland, Mark, ililford. Soble, 
Richland, Tiffin and Washington Each of these 
townships is c< iprised of thirty square -"• 

or miles, except four— Defiance Highland N 
and Richland. has about i »'..'.<,•,;, acres; 



Noble about 13,795 acres; Richland, 22.108 acres, 
and Highland, it 2 $07 ••■- in all. 

The Maumee, : i ■ ' and St. Joe Rivera 

water and drain t1 • - I road acres. Nature has dons 
mneh for the count; through tb lei i .- sewers, and 
the convenience in the item ol transport tion alone 
has add,-.'! thousand- ■•* dollars to its permanent 

The Maumee River, the largest i E these streams, 
has its commencement in the northeastern portion i >f the 
State of Indi aa, and is Formed by ;. i ifluence of 
the St. Joseph and St. Mary's Rivers Its general 
course frou its source is in a northeasterly direct] n t 
entering D tfiance County at the southwest corner of 

Delaware Towi 1, mea dering through the 

south portion of that township, enters Defiance Town- 
ship on its northwest corner, Follows the lint- between 
Noble and Defiance Townships, flows almost due • -•. 
passes through Sections 23 and 2J f the latter town- 
ship and enters Richland Township; from thence, 
bearing in the same general northeasterly course it 
finds its outlet in Lake Erie At Defiance, the body 
of the Maumee is swollen by the waters of the Au- 
glaize Elver which is commonly known as a branch of 
the Maumee. The Auglaize ha- its source about a 
hundred miles southerly from the city of Defi- 
ance, and being supplied by the waters of a multitude 
of Bmall streams on its coarsi northward, forms at its 
emptying into the Maumee a stream of considerable 
magnitude— this stream enters the county near the 
southwesterly corner of Defiance Township, and bear- 
ing in a northeasterly direction forms a confluence 
with the Maumee River in Section 24 of the latter 

Tiffin River has its course in Southern Michigan, 
flows BOUth. entering Defiance County at the north- 
west corner of Tiffin Township, traverses the central 
and western portions of that township and enters the 
north side of Noble Township near the center thereof 
and flowing southeast empties into the Maumee near 
the city of Defiance; this stream is much smaller at 
its place of discharge either the Maumee or Au- 
glaize Rivers. 

The St. Joe River enters and leaves the county at 
the northwest corner of Milford Township, having 
scarcely four miles of its length therein. 

The soil of Defiance County is varied. Adams 
Township, one of the best farming regions of the 
county and the largest producer, is generally of a 
rich, black, sandy loam soil, and is famous for its 
production' of wheat, corn and tobacco. The general 
level of the town-hip is-higb and is well drained, its 
waters flowing southeasterly to the Maumee River. 

Tiffin Township, like its eeighbor, Adams Town- 
ship, has much the same soil, though if anything it 

has more of an admixture of strong, rich clav 
Its productions are uainly wheat, corn and oats. ! 

tmship is ''it by the Tiffin Riv r. and if in Ihe 
main well drained, its surplus waters flowing tin nigh 
numerous small creeks to the above named riv r 
The surface of this township i- undulating. 

Washington Township, which stands high as pro 
dneing large crops, has the rich, black, sand\ loam 
• nd claj for it- soil. S ime portions of the township 
are not yet thoroughly drained, and a considerable 
quantitj of timber is still stauding. Wheat, corn 
and Kits are its principal productions. Its waters 
tfov; to the Tiffin River, and there are a number of 
artesian wells in this township. 

Fanner T. svnship is one of the older townships. 
The soii i- mostly a rich, black sandy loam, and the 
high state of cultivation which it is under makes it one 
of the foremost in the county. In the northwest corner 
is a tamarack swamp, in part the head of Lost Creek. 
Near this for some distance the land is of a black 
muck formation. Its small streams How southeasterly 
and find an outlet in the swamps of Mark Township, 
whence it reaches the Maumee River. 

Milford Township has much waste, marshy land, 
but artificial drainage is fast reclaiming the land. 
which is of black, muck formation. Much of the land 
is strong clay and black, sandy loam. It has within 
its boundaries several small lakes— Ladd's Lake be 
ing the most not ible, it being the deepest. Around 
these lakes the land is quite rolling. The general sur- 
face of the township is unduiating. The cereal pro- 
ductions rank high. Lost Creek heads in part ia the 
t iwnship. The valley of the St Joe is celebrated for 
its fertility and its enormous yield of wheat. The 
water-shed of the township run.- flora the northeast to 
the southwest, the waters on the west thereof running 
to the St. Joe River and those on the east to the 

Hicksville Township. The easterly and south 
erly sides of this township are still quite heavily 
timbered with soft wo<r1 — mostly elm. The soil, more 
particularly in the north part of the township, is of 
black, sandy loam. and rich as any soil under the sua. 
In the southerly part of the township we find 
much of the black loam, but mingled with clay. 
There are on the south and east extensive marshy 
tracts which are being rapidly drained, exposing a 
black, mucky formation Platter Creek Marsh and 
Gordon Creek Marshes lie partly in thi- township. 
The natural drainage is ali in a southeasterly di- 
rection to the Maumee River. The wasterlv and 
northerly part- of the township are higher and nadu 
lating. while the southerly and easterly portions are 
somewhat llat. The productions of this township are 
extensive.and mainly ihe cereals —wheat, corn and oats 



Mark Township lies lower than any other I ■■ ■ 
Bhip of the county Flatter Creek Marsh and Gordon 
Creek Marshes being mainly in this township, the 
artificial drainage, is extensive and systemat :, aud 
man) thousands of acri - of the black initek land '• ■ ■ 
been reclaimed within the last decade. We find lit- 
tle clay in the township, and it is belies "1 that in 
time this totmship will In- iho most productive in the 
county. I'll streams and drainage all tend to the 
Maumee River. 

Delaware Township, while having much rich land, 
has much clay land unfit for large production, the 
bottom lands of the valley of the Ma im e, !s ■ • >tion 
ally rich and productive, being added to in strength 
each year b) the deposits which the freshets bring 
down. Thorn is still some low land which a little 
drainage will entirely reclaim. The waters on the 
north tier of sections drain to the Tiffin River, while t [im- 
balance all drain to the Mauinee, now on the southeast. 

Noble Township is the smallest inthe county, and 
has some hard clay and much strong, productive land. 
The land for a distance back from the Maumee and 
Ti'fin Rivers is rolliE£ and irregular, bui the river 
farms are fertile as well at most of those farther 
back. In the north of this township we tind a quan- 
tity of the ri"h 1 lack sandy loam. The waters drain 
mostly to the Tiffin River. 

Defiance Township, containing the city of Defi- 
ance, is one of the least productive of the county. How- 
ever, the strong clay soil of which most of its area is 
supplied, is excellent for wheat. We find some black 
sandy loam aud rich river bottomlands which here as 
elsewhere will grow anything requiring strength and 
richness of soil. The surface of the township is reg- 
ular except near the rivers. The waters of the south 
portion of the township flow to the Auglaize River; 
those on the north to the Maumee. Immediately 
south of the city of Defiance, on the, Auglaize River, 
there is an inexhaustible deposit of shah rock from 
which hydraulic cements are made. This rock crops 
out in and near this stream. aud extends far hack into 
the surface for miles. The river at and along tbese 
cropping* is paved with this natural flooring. Ge- 
ologists assert the large extent of this rock, and ere- 

long the leading industry of the city of Defiance will 
be the mauufacl iro of hydraulic cement, the principal 
outcroppiugs of which are about three miles soi 
the • itj X-'. .' this point is Blod ■• I - Island, in 
Anglai/.e River, on which is situated a large \ uc I 
probablj oftheeraof the mound builders. In height 
this mound i. about twenty-five feet, in circnmfc-rei 
about J 10 feet. lU location is near the center of the 
island, which is circular in form. Explorations 
into the si le of the pile indicate its use at some time 
as a place of interment of the' dead. 

Richland Township has a great variety of soil 
along the river, the lands are rich and strong. U\> 
find black, sandy loam, clay aud yellow sand. On 
the north part of the township there is =-; ; 11 si li ding 
a quantity of timber, mostly soft wood. Along the 
river, particularly upon the north side thereof, the 
farms are of high productive quality, and f iie t tal 
area of the township under cultivation is well canned. 
The natural drainage is to the Maumee River. 

Highland Township has much rich, productive 
land, and some less productive. Its sand ridges are 
in the main very -ustainin^ to crops of cereals. 
There is some land off the ridges which is still in 
timber, both hard aud softwood; there is little poor 
land in the township. The southwest portion of the 
township drains to the Auglaize River, and the bal- 
ance to the, Maumee 

The productions of wheat, corn and oats for the 
."C'.r i >' i.,as reuurneit 


Adams 61,9 




Defiance . . 
Delaware. . 

Farmer . . . 
Hi. ksvillc . 

M • rd 23 

Noble ' 1" 

Richland j 2 

Tiffin I 45 

Washington oS 




1 136 









12 721 
27 107 
:i S!M3 
-/ llrt 
22 023 





ACCORDING to John B, Dillon, the mild and fer- 
- tile region dow iuchtd il within the boundaries 
of the State of Indiana was at I i : oi i discovery 
by Europeans, claimed and possessed '•' the Miami 
confederacy of Indians. The Miamis proper, who. in 
former times, bore the name of fwightw ies, formed 
the eastern and most pi w srful ' ranch of this c i tfed- 

eracy. "The dominion of tl onfederaey extended 

for a long period of time <iver that portion of Ohio 
which lies west of the Scioto River and over the 
whole of Indiana, over the • nitherc pari of Michigan 
and over the principal car; of the State of Illinuis. 
lying southeasi of Fox River and the River Illinois. 
The tribe have no tradition of their migration from 
any other part of the country, and the great extent i i 
the territory which was claimed by them may be re 
garded as some evidence of the high degree of na- 
tional importance which they formerly maintained 
among the Indian tribes of North America." 

Tim Miami tribe were of Algonquin lineage and 
spoke much the same ! inguage or dialect as the D da- 
wares, the Shawnees and Wyandots. In stature for 
the most part. ihe Miamis were of medium height, 
well built, heads rather round than oblong, eonnte 
nances agreeable, rather than sedate or morose, swift 
on foot and excessively fond of racing, b ith on foot 
and horse. Some of them were quite tall and yet 
retained tine forms, l'lny were noted for their clean 
ly habits and neatness of dress. 

The Miamis unlike most other t ril »<■-. were much 
whiter or fairer in color. Thi> peculiarity attracted 
the attention of the French and other foreigners. 
Their color partly arose from int. r-marriage with the 
French who frequently sought such alliances, and 
became quite influential with the tribe. The squaws 
cultivated the corn and other yegetables and per- 
formed most of tbe field labor. The warriors were 
regarded as hunters, and provided most of the game 
upon which the tribe subsisted. The\ went to war 
and were regarded as being above drudgery and toil. 
The men were proud ana" haughty, though generi 
evincing strong attachments for their - juaws and 
children.' The tribe for along period lived aloug the 
hanks of tho Wabash, the St Joseph and the Mau 
mce, formerly callei i by tho tribe the '"' Omee. " Here 
the Miami lived doubtli centuries before the tirst 
civi! t ... d settlement in \.n erica had begun; his s< piaws 
cultiv ited the mai; ■ ■ . : m I ; b< c mm i ba I- 

i I life, while the red hunted the buffalo, . ! e 
elk ; i:0 other . i ■_ i me; an! speared the lish in the 

I • ; ut fui M; miee or Bean Creek, as they basked in 
"he sunshine, or devotee! himsi If to plays and ■ imes, 
or weal forth to secure Lhi tn phies and honors of 
war. from his camp tires, upon the banks o£ the 
Maumee or th • grand Gluize. 

Ever eager to advance the interests of their re 
ive Governments, the French and English were 
always antagonists in their missionary enterprises 
i Trench Erora Canada were industrious in their 
efforts to propagate the Catholic faith among the 
Western tribes. In 1672, the Indians residing alo; g 
the Maumee and the southi rn shore of Lake Michi- 
gan were visited by the missionaries, Allouoz and 
Dablon, who opened a mission among the Miamis 
There followed, beUvoen 1072 and 1712, the follow- 
ing: Rebourde, Membra. Hennepin, Marquette 
Pinet, Beriueteau, Bosles, Periet, Berger, Meoniet, 

II rest. Gravier, DeYille and Chardon, who endured 
mam pri\ tions and danger.- to propagate thai r relig- 
ion among the various iril>es 

li >■ . ', Li . i ■ ■ " ' • ■ 

1 .'^ 1 >,, t l. N P| 

nois tribes, and. though peacefully heard, complains 
that the mission accomplished but little. The In- 
dian-, could n< • comprehend rlio mysteries of the 
Christian religion, but silently heard his story and 
suffered their children to be baj tized. When asked 

why they remained silent, they informed him that 
"their habit was always to heir the speaker t>-il his 
ston in a courteous manner without contradiction 
and at the same lime judging of its truth or falsit) " 
while white men declare the religion of the red man 
to be false! This they thought very rude and unjus- 
tifiable. The;, never disturb a man because of his 
religious belief. The result was that his mission pro- 
duced no lasting impression. 

About this time the Five Nations of New York 
' :am« involved in a war with the Colonists of Can- 
ada which :on in . i until th ■ treaty of Ryswick in 

1*51)7, which retarded he ambition of the French in 
planting coii nil - in the Northwest and the vail";, of 
the Mississippi. Between 16S0 and 17"". revera! 
efforts were mad' by French missionaries to establish 

tiss ma al m£ the southern shores of Lake Michigan 
for the purpose of converting the Indians of lllit 

Chese missions vere composed if a few Frenchmen 

and ■ the 1 ad i the celebrated En Salle, the mi 1 *- 



sionary and explorer, an i attracted the :itti ntion of 

many adventurers- to the [lii lountry, and abi il 

the year 1700 a small number of them settled on the 
banks of Kaskaskia River and became the toui 
of a village of that name. 

La Salle pushed hi-; discoveries in the new coun- 
try until the Mississippi, tb" great fiver of North 
America, was discovered and traced to its mouth, by 
this ambitious explorer and his followers in 106- 
The Government of France immediatelv took measures 
to plant a line of forts connecting their Canitd 
possessions with the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers 
By tlic efforts of La Si lie. a small fort was buill r> 
th>' lake shore.forming a missionary station and tra I 
in g post on the borders of the River St. Joseph of 
Lake Michigan. Hennepin, in his note-, states that 
the fort was situated at the m mth of the St. Joseph 
on an eminence, with a kiu.l of a platform naturally 
fortified. It was prett >• high and steep, of a triangu- 
lar form, defended on two sides by the river and on 
the other by a deep ditch, which the fall of the waters 
had made. We felled the trees that were on the top i f 
the hill: and having cleared 'he same from brashes 
for about two musket shot we began to build a re 
doubt of eighty feet long and forty feet broad, with 
great square pieces of timber laid one upon another, 
and prepared a L' r eat number of stakes of about 
twenty-live feet long to •hive into the ground, to 
make our fort the more inaccessible on the river side. 
We employed the whole month of November. 1679. 
about that work, which was very hard, though we 
had soother food but the bears' flesh our savage killed. 
These beasts are very common in this place, be 
cause of the great quantity of grapes they find there; 
but their flesh being too fat and luscious, our men 
b"''an to be wearv of it, and desired leave to go hunt- 
ing to kill some wild goats (deer). Mr. La Salle 
denied th-nn that liberty, which caused some mur- 
murs among them; and it was but unwillingly that 

O On 

they continued their work. "We made a cabin 
wherein we performed divine service every Sunday: 
and Father Gabriel and I. who preached alternately, 
took care to take such texts as were suitable to our 
present circumstances and tit to inspire us with cour- 
age, concord and brotherly love." This fort, when 
completed, was named "Fort Miami." and was with 
in the dominion of the Miami nation. This was the 
sixth fort erected by the French, and guarded the 
routes to the great father of waters, via the \Vi- 
sin and Illinois Rivers Another fort was built near 
the confluence of the St. Joseph and St. Mar;'-, 
Rivers, near the present site of Ft. Wayne, v 
settlements of French tra !< rs began t<> collect at an 
earlv period, which extended to Vincennes and other 
points. Time wore on. The church of Home was 

the church of the Frenchmen of the day; and hi: G i 
was not the God of the Englishman. rhe coi 
was for surpemacy, and destim I to be a bitter 
the vantage -ground seemed to be on the side of the 
French; but 1 7 1 ' < came, and the English b gan * 
make inroad: on the French dominion as trad 
this year La Jonquiere. then Governor of Canada, 

1 English traders at San lusky exertin - an ii 
.■■:••■ again t Eronch fcrn i rs ai i> . , the Wyandot*., 
ae.d encouraged by the Iro [uois of N"> w York, wh i 
had been unwii i _■ insulted by Champlain in [009 
by uniting w th n party i I Llg mquin [i dians. L'ke 
English hided with the Iroquois and encouraged 
their animosities against the French settlements 
This feeling among the New York tribes continued 
until the fall of French power in Canada i:i 1700 

Ke-ki ong-gay was the great capital of the Mi 
amis, and from th" importance exerted by the ti be 
was regarded the "'great gate'' of the tribe through 
which all great enterprises must pass before they wi re 
given the consent of the confederacy. If stood tvh 
the city of Ft. Wayne ( - \ tandi and at the 
tion of St Joa . I St. Mary's, near the he I 
the Maiunee rip which the French missionaries : [ 
Miami warriors anciently passed in their bark cauoes 
and pii c g les. 

From 1774 (Dunmore's war) to 1794, the viefci ry ■ f 
V ayn < on the Maume . the Miamis along Ihe upj r 
waters of the Scii ti . the Mad and Little M 
Rivers in Ohio, and the Wabash River and rhe Mi- 
ami village in Indiana, the Miamis, Shawnees, Wi 
andots, Delawares and other tribe.- gave the > d 
settlers of Virginia, Keniuckj and Pennsylvania 
much annoyance by their hostile rai I- along the ' ! i ■ 
River. The treaty of Ft. H .rmar was expected to 
quiet their hostility, but failed to pacify the Miamis, 
Shawnees. and others who were still anxious to reserve 
all the territory northwest of the Ohio, and still vis- 
ited the settlers of the borders and committed nx m 
murders and thefts. During this time, thehero Gen. 
George Rodgers Clark led an expedition into the ter- 
ritory of Southern Ohio and Indiana, to humbh he 
pride and cruelty of the Miamis and other tribes. 
The Indians were still treacherous and cruel. Sii 
Kenton visited the Shawnees with his fventucki 
to punish their horse-stealing, and was taken pris in 
er. The Indians continued hostile, contending for 
tin whole of Ohio. Boats wen frequently taken on 
the Ohio and the crews murdered and scalped bj 
Indians Li 3elf-defensa,it finally became necessary 
to sen 1 an expedition against them, command.',! by 
(Ten. Haruaar. This led to the war of 1791 to 17 •': 
when the Miami- and other tribes were completely 
humbled" by the great campaign of ton Wayn • 

"Tracing ; te h torv of the Miami Indians from 



the present time backward through a period of 150 
years, we must psis: painfully over a long and mourn 
ful picture ■! i jnoi ace uperstitiou, injustice, war, 
barbarity and the mos! debasing intemperance," says 
Dillon ".they fell int - deca\ froai habits i f indo- 
lence, idleness, drunkenness ind barbarism. Intem- 
perance is the bane >* the r d man, and undei its in- 
fluence the American Indians are rapidly disappear- 
in ;. At the present time a few small, mixed and mis 
erable. band- constitute the remnant of the once pow * 
erful Miami nation. Their misfortunes and vices 
which they learned from the whits race -till cling > 
them, with unabated power to degrade and destroy. 
Thus, with the light of civilization beaming around 
them, the last, fragments of one of the must powerful 
aboriginal nations in North America are rapidly pass 
ing away from the earth forever There are but a 
few remnants of this people ia Indiana, the rest hav- 
ing long since been transferred to reservations west 
of the Mississippi. 

The Miamis were less cruel in war than the New 
York tribes, but had many enstom3 that were revolt- 
ing in their nature. Gen Cass, in a speech delivered 
at Ft. Wayne July t, LSi-3, at the celebration of the 
opening of the canal, said: "For man j years during 
the frontier history of this place and region, the line 
of your canal was a bloody war-path, which has seen 
man; a deed of horror, and this peaceful town has 
had its Moloch, and the records of human depravity 
furnish no more terrible examples of cruelty than 
were offered at it- shrine. The Miami Indians, our 
predecessors, in the occupation of this district, had a 
terrible institution whose origin and object have 
been lost in the darkness of aboriginal history, but 
which was continued to a late period, and whose 
orgies were held upon the very spot where we now 
are. It was called the man-eating society, and it was 
thi^ duty of its associates to eat such prisoners as were 
preserved and delivered to them for that, purpose. 
The members of this society belonged to a particular 
family and the dreadful inheritance descended to all 
the children, male and female. The duties it imposed 
' could not be avoided, and the sanctions of religion 
were added to the obligations of immemorial usage. 
The feast was a solemn ceremony, at which the whole 
tribe was collected as actors or spectators. The mis- 
erable victim was bound to a stake and burned al a 
slow tire, with all the. refinements of cruelty which 
savage ingenuity could invent. There was a fcradi 
tiouary ritual which regulated with revolting precis- 
ion the whole course of procedure at those ceremonies. 
Latterly, the authority and obligations of the insti- 
tution has declined and I presume it has now 
wholly disappeared But I have seen aud conversed 
with the head if r h. f&milv, the chief of the society, 

whoso name was White Skin wi h what feeling of 
disgust I aeed not attempt to describe. I well know 

an intelligent Canadian who was present at ( >f 

the i as lices made at this horrible institution 

Th • victim was a you.-,:; \m- rican captured in Ken 
tuck} toward tie- close of our Revolutionary war 
lb'.' where wo "■ w are assembled, in peace and seeur 
ity, celebrating the triumph of art, and industry, 
within tie memory ol their present generation, our 
countrymen have been thus tortured and murdored 
and devoured. But, thank God, that council lire is 
extinguished. The impious feast is over; the war- 
ds nee is ended; the war -on; is mng; the war-drum 
; -. silent, and the Indian 1m- departed t" And, I hope, 
in the distant West, a comfortable residence, aud 1 
hope also to find, under the protection, and. if need 
i>e, under the power of the United States, a radical 
change in the institutions aud general improvement 
in his morals and condition. A feeble remnant of 
the once powerful tribe, which formerly won their 
way to the dominion >f this region, by blood, and by 
blood maintained i;. have today apj ■ ared among as 
like passing shadows, flitting round the place.- that 
know th •!.; no more. Their resurrection, if I may 
so speak, is not the least impressive spectacle, which 
marks the progress of this imposing ceremony. 
Thev are the broken column- which connect US with 
the past. lie- edifice is all in ruins, and the giant 
venation which covered and protected it lie- as low 
as the once mighty structure, which was shelved in 
its recesses. The} have come to wi I tess the first great 
a . if peace in our frontiei history, as their presenc i 
here is the ia- f in their own. The ceremonies upon 
which you heretofore gazed with interest, will never 
a^am be seen by the white man, in the seat of their 
former power. But thanks to our ascendancy, these 
representations are but a pageant; but a theatrical 
exhibition, which, with barbarous motions and sounds 
and contortion-, show how their ancestors conquered 
their enemies, and how they glutted their revenge in 
blood. To-day. this last of the race is here; to mor- 
row they will journey toward the setting sun, where 
their fathers, agreeable to their rude faith, have [ire- 
cede, 1 them, and where the red man will find rest and 

The tribe seems to have continued these barbar- 
isms almost to the last. Like ike Shawnees and Deia- 
wares. 'Lev burned prisoners and captives. 



This chief was of mixed origin—half Mohic- a 
an i half Miami, and sou of a chief; born at his vi't- 
•ao-e on Eel Riv,-r. about 1747, he verv early became 
the war chief of the Miamis In stature he was a 
short, well built, with svmmefcrieal form, prominent 


forehead, heavy eye-brows, keen, black eyes and a 
large chin. His Indian oamo was Me ctai kan i 
quah, and he was i led i" . > r his bravery and wisdom in 
the councils of the tribe with ivh ■•. he was allied. 
In leading his army oi braves to sura victory, one 
hour, it ts said, he was cutting and slashing with his 
tomahawk with the ferocit; of a tiger, and the next 
hoar was calm and | assive - . ■ ■ Id At the treaty 
of Greenville, he proved himself to be a full match 
for Wayne in the councils of the tribes, Eor shrewd- 
ness and far- ii- ■• to _' diplomacy. After the treaty- 
he returned to hi- pe >pJe and gave i is adherence to 
the United States, which ha freely supported as long 
as he lived. He, with his tribe, resisted the invasion 
of Harrnar in IT'-'" 91, and met Gen. St Clair with 
all his savage confederates, which resulted in the de 
feat of St. Clair's army at what was afterward Ft. 
Recovery. Upon the approach of the array of Wayne, 
he again prepared to meet that heroic commander at 
the battle of Fallen Timbers, in IT'Jt. But the 
Shawnee chief, Blue Jai ket, was made the command 
er of the Indian forces and led that army. The re- 
sult of that battle i^ well known. It was fought 
against the advice of Little Turtle, and resulted in 
disaster to the Indians. In all those battles, the Lit- 
tle Turtle proved himself a brave and discreet chief. 
In the war of 1812, though urged by Tecnmseh, he 
refused to take Bides with that wily leader of the 
Shawnees. He was conb nt with the treaty of Green- 
ville and zt-maiuuu near Ft. Wavne. He died on the 

1 Ith of July, 1812 al his lodge at the old orchard, a 

short distance north of the confluence of the St. 

Mary's and St. Joseph Rivers, in the yard 

the house of his brother-in law, Capt. William 


The chief had long suffiM ed with the gout and bad 
come there from his place of residence, at his • ill igo 
on Eel River, about twenty miles from Ft Wayne. 
to be treated by the L'nib -1 State- Surgeon at the t irt 
It was -i solemn and interesting occasion. After the 
tr.-atv of Greenville, he had remained the true 
friend of the Americans and the United States Go\ 
ernment and was much respected by all who knew 
him He was borni Lo the /rave with the highest 
honor-, by his great enemy, the white man. The 
muffled drum, the solemn march, the funeral salute, 
announced that a great soldier ha. I fallen, and even 
enemies paid tribute to his memory. Hi^ remains 
were interred about the center of the old orchard, 
with all his ad rnments. implements of war. and a 
sword presented to him by Gen. Washington, to- 
gether with a medal )f i;he likeness of Wash ingt d 
thereon— all laid by his side and hi Iden bene; th the 
sod in one common g] ■ This remarkable chief 

posse — i a gn r a h d. For many yean b >. was the 
leading chief among the Miami tribe, surpassed for 
bravery and inf Higem e by aone of ais race. He is 
said to have possessed a very inquiring mind and 
never lost an opportunity to gain sorae valuable in 



IN an address delivered before the New York His 
torical Society, December 6, L811, by Gov. De 
Witt Clinton, on the origin and history of the iri- 
quois Nation, he says: L ' There is a strong propensity 
in the human mind to trace up our ancestry to as 
high and as remote a source as possible, and if our 
pride and our ambition cannot be gratified by a real 
statement of facts, fable is substituted fur truth, and 
the imagination is taxed to supply the deficiency. 
This principle of our nature, although liable t< ° ■<' 
perversion, and frequently the source of well-founded 
ridicule, may, if rightly directed, become the parent 
of great actions. The oriiriu and progress of in- 
dividuals, of families and of nations, constitute biog- 
raphy and history— tw • of the most interesting de- 
partments of human knowledge. Allied to this 
principle, springing from the same causes, and pro- 

ducing the same benign effects, is that curiosity we 
feel in tracing the history of the nations which have 
occupied the same territory before us. although not con- 
nected with us in any other respect. To abstract th • 
mind from all local emotion would be impossible if it 
were endeavored, and it would be foolish if it wer 
possible. The places where great events have bei n 
performed, where great virtues have been exhibited 
where great i rim - have been parpecfal I, will tlways 
!■■>:•;;.• kindri I emotions fa Im ration or horror. 
And if that man is little t< be envied wl -■• ; 
ism would not gain force upon the plains of Mara 
th.-n. or whose piety would not grow warmer ami ag the 
ruins of Iona, we may with equal confidence as ' 
that morbid must be his sensibility and small i 
be his capacity for improvement who does not ad- 
vance in wisdom and ; " virtue from contempl; ing 



the state ami the history of the people who occupied 
this country before the tnan of Europe." 

It will be inten si ing to all ethnologists, and those 
engaged in the study of archaeology, to taken ^eueral 
geographical and historical view of the v; lawi ee Na- 
tion, which formerly owned and inhabited the valleys 
of the Ot-ta-wa and Auglaize, before thej came into 
the possession of th ■ present inhabitants of Alien 
Comity by treaty and sale. We enter upon this task 
the more cheerfully from the conviction that no part 
of Ohio contained a braver race, or one which fur 
nished a more interesting anil instructive history. 
The Shawnee* have, since their intercourse with the 
whit? man, been conspicuous for the possession of 
many remarkable chiefs and leaders of great military 
talent — men distinguished in war and in treaties for 
their shrewdness and far-seeing diplomacy. 

Originally, the nation was called Chaouanons by 
the French, and Shawanoes by the English. The 
English name Shawano changed to Shawanee, and 
recently to Shawnee. Chaouanon and Shawano are 
obviously attempts to represent the same sound by 
the orthography of the two languages, the French 
'ch' being the equivalent of the English 'sh.' The 
Shawnee nation originally migrated from the north. 
perhaps Canada, and used largely the dialect of the 
Wyandots or ancient Hurons. Their eccentric wan- 
dering*, their sudden appearances and disappear- 
ances, say-, a noted writer on Indian history, perplex 
the antiquary and defy research. In all history the 
Shawnees were noted for their restless disposition, 
frequently changing their residence and migrating 
hundreds of miles. 

The Shawnees. by permission of the Iroquois, or 
Five Nations, emigrated frutn the South, perhaps the 
coast of Florida, sometime prior to 1682, and located 
on the West Branch of the Susquehanna, in Pennsyl- 
vania. The Five Nations regarded them as inferiors, 
ami did not permit them any representation in the 
great Northern confederacy, but simply designated 
them as brothers and relations. We find, however, 
that when William Penn landed at Coaquannuck', the 
present site of Philadelphia, in 1 ' > S " J . and entered 
into a mutual understanding with the Iroquois, the 
Delawares and other Indian tribes inhabiting Penn- 
sylvania, concerning the purchase of lands and a 
league of peace, the Shawnees were sufficiently nu- 
merous and powerful to be present at the consultant u. 

In Jane. tfi82, a conference for ratifying the 
treaty appears to have bean held under a Iargt eim 
tree at Sliackamaven. near the Delaware River. The 
chiefs of tlie Five Nations, the Delawares. the Shaw- 
nees, the Mingoes and the Gan-aw-eese, from the 
Potomac River, were present, and received compensa- 
tion for lands, and the right to occupy the country 

by the colony of Penn, in cloth, blankets, strouda 
and other valuables. 

Tie' Sliaut et-s were of Aigi'inpdii •!• .-<•< lit. and 
spoke much the same dialect as the Iroqii ii . and it 
is i ilerably certain that they were of Sbrthurn or 
Canadian origin. If it be true, as suspected by 
some, that tin ;, were a romrnnt of theaneienl Fries, 
or Andastes, who fell under the fury of tb*e ri atl ■-■ 
Iroquois in 1055, who tied their country and became 
widely scattered in North and South Carolina, 
Florida and the wilds of Kentucky, the fact of tiieir 
return to the upper waters of the Susquehanna, 
some thirty or forty years after the conquest of Lheir 
country south of Lake Erie, seems easy of explana- 
tion. Certain it is, that at the conquest of the Fries 
by the Five Nations, great numbers of the fallen tribe 
were killed on the various fields of battle, while large 
numbers were captured and carried homo to grace th< 
triumph of the Iroquois, and, to carry out their sav- 
age customs, burned to the stake Tradition also 
dei lares that great numbers of the Eries were incor- 
porated into the body of the Iroquois nation, and 
thenceforward regarded as a part of that people; 
while, desiring to escape Iroquois vengeance great 
numbers of the fallen Eries Bed to the far South, and 
obtained a home among the Gr iks and the tribes in 
Georgia and Florida 

From the date of their contact with Europeans the 
Shawnees were regarded as" the most restless of all 
the Indian tribes. Like the Mohawks, thev were 
cruel to their enemies, rierce in war. and rare!;.- for- 
got or forgave an insult or injury. 

The Algonquin family, at one time, appears to 
have possessed all the territory fr, iu Cape Cause and 
the Fay of Oa.-pe. to tie- branches of Mississippi, 
from the Cumberland Rivei to Cape Fear, and p- 1 
ably from the Savannah to the laud of the Esqui- 
maux in the far North. 

As early as ltlS'j!. the integrity of the Shawnees 
was so far admitted by the Iroquois and other tribes 
in attendance upon the treaty of William Penn that 
a copy, in parchment, of the treaty, was deposited 
with them for safe keeping, and more than forty 
years afterward was produced at another conference 
by the chiefs of the Shawnees. 

After the conference of 1682, large bands of the 
Shawnees removed to Winchester, Va.j and from 
thence to fche Cunvherlp.nd River, in Kentucky, and 
thence to the head-waters of the Congaree, in Si ttL 
Carolina, theneeto the head wntersof the Mobile, ad- 
ting tlie Creeks, and thence b • tin- Wabash River, 
in Indiana, where La Salle found them in I'lSt^-aud 
was joined l>. thirty <.f their warriors in his expedi 
tion to discover the mouth of rhe Mississippi, after 
which we hear nomoreof these restless warriors, 




As early as 1608, over seven hundred warriors or 
fi&hiing meu of the Shawnees Lad returned md Io 
cated upon the head waters ■ f the Susquehanna, by 
permission of the Five S tious, then occupying 
Northern New Fort and Pennsylvania. 

For a. period of nearly forty years, Ray from L698 
to 174?, we nearly lose sight of this wandering and 
restle-- people. Between that time and 1755. large 
bands of the Shawnees settled on the Allegheny 
River, near the preseui siteof Pil burgh, the former 
home of the fallen Andastes and afterward removed to 
Cape Girardeau, between the Whitewater and the 
Mississippi. In L7D5. th( Shawnees aided the French 
in repelling the expedition of Gen. Braddock. 

In lTt >1 , forty-four years before the English in 
vasion of Fort Du Quesne, \\ apatha, a great chief of 
the Shawn — . held a conference with William Penn 
at Philadelphia, in which it was agreed that a g< orl 
understanding between the said Penn anil the several 
India-.: nations there assembled, should be forever 
maintained, and thenceforward they should be as one 
head and one heart, and live in peace, friendship and 
unity a- i me people. 

In 1 7 1 T> . Opes-sah, a great chief of the Shawnees, 
attended another council, held at Philadelphia, at 
which the pipe of peace was smoked. We are not 
informed of the location of the Shawnees repre- 
sented by him, but are told he came a great distance, 
possibly from the Cumberland River, or the wilds of 
the Scioto or the Little Miami, iu Ohio. 

We are unable to !is the exact date of the arrival 
and settlement of the Shawnees in Southern Ohio; 
but from certain statements of the Wyandots, who 
gave them permission to occupy that territory, their 
settlement must have occurred about 1751). 

The first treaty between the United States and the 
Shawnees, as a separate people, was held at the mouth 
of the great Miami', January 31, 17 s fi. In that treaty 
the limit.- of their lands and future hunting-grounds 
are defined, while they relinquish all title or pre- 
tence of title in their lands, to the United States. 
The Wyandots protested against this treaty, contend- 
ing that the lands ceded by the Shawnees to the 
United States belonged to then:, and that the restless 
disposition of the Shawnees caused so much trouble, 
both to them and the United States, that they felt it 
to be their duty to dispossess them entirely. 

It will be remembered that, from 17">, the Sh iw- 
nees were jealous of the encroachments of the colon- 
ists of Pennsylvania and Virginia, and met the 
pioneer settlements with gleaming tomahawks and 
scalping knives This hatred f the English was im- 
bibed from the French, who hud been expelled from 
the head- waters of the i >bio, and who. under the Entr 

■ ■■ traders and spies among the Ohio tribes as 
late as the close oi the Revolutionary war. 

The depredations of the Shawnees upon the si ttic 
ments in Virginia caused Goi Din lore in L77-! 
sen I an arm] . a the invasion of the Indian tribes on 
the Scioto and Little Miami, in Ohio. In Septem- 
ber. i".7*. a great battle v. a.- fought at the June!! n 
of the Great Kanawha with the Ohio, in which the 

nees and their allies were defeated, and © ■ 
peiled to beat a hast} retreat across the Ohio Uiver. 
Fhe Shawnees were led by Cornstalk, a greal chi if, 
assisted b} the celebrated chief and warrior, Black- 
hoof, equally distinguished for his bravery, oratory, 
shrewdness and generosity. 

In the fall of 1774. Gov. Dunmore heid a treaty, 

g the last English Governor of Virginia, with the 
Shawnees and their allies, not far from the present 
site of Circleville, Ohio, in which Cornstalk. Black- 
hoof. Logan, the Grenadier Squaw and other noted 
Indians participated. Peace was proclaimed, but was 
of short 1 n ttion. 

The arrival of Boone, the McAffees, the Harrods, 
the Hendersons, the Bullets. Hancocks. Floyd- and 
others in Kentucky, from 1 77- > to 177o, again intiamed 
the jealousy of the Shawnees, and repeated raids were 
made against the new settle!'- to ■ iteru mate them. 
British agents fomented the discontent of '.he Ohio 
Indians, and in some instances j lanced and heel d 
their expeditions a the rhite settlements. In 

1777. the Shawnees became somewhat divided on the 
policy of continuing the « r ar against the revolted 
e vinies. rh> n seeking independ' uce i'rom the mother 
country. Cornstalk, ceh brated a- a chief and leader, 
headed the anti-war party, and visited an American 
block-house, at the mouth i t the great Kanawha, to 
warn the Virginians of the approaching storm and, 
if possible, avert the calamity of border invasion. 
He was accompanied by another chief, called Red 
Hawk The-e messengers of peace were imme liatel} 
seized and confined in the block house, as hostages, 
to prevent the expected depredations of the Shaw 

While thus confined, his ,-<>n. Elllmpsico, who had 
also fought in the great battle at Point Pleasant in 
1774. came to the fort to learn the fate of Cornstalk, 
hi.- father. He had become uneasy at s his long ab- 
sence, and. prompted by filial affection, had come to 
seek him out in bis exile. While iu the fort, a few 
soldiers, who had crossed the Kanawha to hunt, were 
attacked by strange Indians, and a soldier by the 
name of Gilmore was killed. The re-uk was, th 
] arty of soldiers, in revenge for the death of Gil 
more, proceeded to the block-house and .-her Corn- 
stalk, Red Hawk and Ellimpsico! This act — barbar- 


ous and nnjn stjfial >] ■ terminated all uncertainty, 
and | i iripil ted th < Shawn >cs upon the I orders t 
Virginia and Kentucky, and was the occasion of re 
peated invasions from 1777 to tlio peace of 1795. 

undet l ri [i V\ i yne al ( rree . ■■ i lie 

The residence of the Shawnei s extended along the 
Scioto al various points, from its junction to it- head- 
waters. There was a large band at the preseni - •• 
of Chillicothe Circloville and Columbus. The band 
had villages near what is now London, Madison 
County, in Logan County, al >i ig Darby and Mad River, 
the Miami and other points, and finally at the Mack- 
ichae towns. The assaults upon emigrant boats aloi s 
the Ohio soon rendered it dangerous for emigrants to 
Kentucky and elsewhere. Frequent expeditions into 
the Kentucky settlements. risoners and steal 

horses, became so anno; ing, tl ; t Kenton and Lo 
and Clark, in self-defense, were compelled to ho, id 
large l'crcos to invade the Indian country, and finally 
the Indian war became so '.veil contested that the 
United States supported quite a Utile army at North 
Bend, the future residence of Gen. W. H. Harrison, 
under Gen. Harmar. The presence of these forces 
was soon discovered by the,Shawnees. As soon as the 
news reached the Indians, they began to move toward 
the scene of action, which it was supposed would he 
somewhere on the Miami or Maumee. Another vil- 
tage was established where Cincinnati now is. named 
Losantiville, which became the residence of ( lov. St. 
Clair and his; executive council. A fort, named after 
the father of his country, Washington, was erected 
in the new village, and the soldiers transferred from 
North Bend to it. By this demonstration the Shaw- 
nees. the Miami's, the Wyandots, the Delawares and 
other tribes were the more incensed, being already 
very jealous at the encroachments upon their hunting- 
grounds upon the north side of the Ohio. 

The conduct of Gov. St. Clair upon this occasion 
was rather anomalous. Under his construction of 
the treaty of Muskingum, he decided, if upon any 
occasion it became necessary for Virginia or Ken- 
tucky to repel the attack of an enemy within the 
limits of the territory of Ohio, it would be necessary 
to first obtain the consent of its Territorial authori- 
ties, who proposed to net under the treaty of amity 
(that of the Muskingum) with the United States. 
This was tantamount to surrendering the Western 
country to the Indians, for no effective exped ■■ n 
could be carri >d over the Ohio River. The result 
was. th'> people of Kentucky v. ere greatly harassed 
by the Ohio Indians, who were constantly sending 
over bands to steal horses, capture negroes an 1 take 
white scalps and prisoners, without the means of re- 
dress! The continuance of these aggressions at 
length aroused the ?ple of Kentucky, ami. relying 

upon their own energies, the) resolved to pursue 
their i\ily and fugitive enemy across the river into 
the river into their own forests and town.-. 

In April, 1790, Gen. Scott, with 230 volunteers, 
crossed the Ohio at [limestone, now Maysvillo, md 
was joined by Gen. Josiah Harmar and Id) regulars 
of the United States They invaded the Scioto vil 
lages, 1", t fourj 1 them deserted. In the fall ol 1790, 
Gov. St. (.'lair became convinced fchal more energetic 
measure- were necessary. An attempt had been made 
to treat with the Indians, but had failed. The Gov 
eminent then took more effective measures to make 
the Indians fo. ! the force of arms. Gen. Harmar had 
been appointed, under theold Congress, as Brigadier, 
and was now placed at the head of the United States 
troops, who amounted to 320 men. These were 
joined by about 1,300 Pennsylvania, Kentucky and 
\ irginia militia, and in September rendezvoused at 
Fort Washington, now Cincinnati, with a view of 
attacking the Miami towns, often called Omee by the 

After about seventeen days' march, the army 
reached the great Miami village, which they f' ni i 
set on lire by the Indians. The enemy. Parthian- 
like, kept out of the waj of the unwieldy movements 
of the main army, until an opportunity for effective 
fighting presented, when they made a stand. The 
Indians were concealed in thickets on each side of a 
large plain near the confluence of the St. Marv's and 
St. Joseph Rivers, and ambushed their pursuers. 
About 700 Indians were engaged, which put the 
militia to a disgraceful fight without firing a single 
shot! The noted Miami leader and chief. Little Tur- 
tle, commanded the Indians. The regulars made a 
stand, but were mercilessly shot down until nearly all 
the officers and men were killed. After a few ineffec- 
tive attempts to rally anil renew the light, we are in. 
formed that, after a few attempted surprises by the 
officers who accompanied Harmar, he returned, by 
easy marches, with all his artillery and baggage to 
Fort Washington by the 4th of December, 17'.'" 

Thus the Miamis and Shawnees, with their allies, 
were successful in repelling the invasion of Harmar. 
The soldiers left on the field wounded or dead, were 
scalped and barbarously mangled by the Indians, 
This triumph increased their courage and audacity. 
They boasted of their ability to repel the whit.'-, and 
became mor« relentless in their cruelties to prisot ra 
captured on the Ohio River. They w< re much 
affected by the destruction of their villages, and the 
loss of a large number of their braves in sk n 
with Harmar'B troops, all of which increase'! their 
ferocity toward the whites. The retreat of Harmar 
was construed hito a victory on 'he part of the In- 
dians, and did not in the least humble their leading 



chiefs. The Shawnees were commanded by Blu 
Jacket. ami Blackbcof, noted fur their courage and 
cunning. The Delaware*: were led by Boc . helas 
and Captain Pipe, relentless in their> toward the 
palefaces, the latter oi whom Lad caused the execu- 
tion, by burning, of Coi. William Crawford, on :;..• 
Tymochtee, eight years prior to this battle. 

Tin fierceness of the Shawnees remained unsub- 
dued, but. if anything, more revengeful, fh ■■ result 
was, that Gen Harmar had to snbmil to a court mar- 
tial, which gave him an honorable acquittal, when he 
resigned. Gov. Si Clair is:<.s ap(>oiuted to succeed 
Gen. Harmar in command of the army. He had bi en 
a General in the Revolutionary army, and bad a good 
deal of experience in the field. Large expectations 
were entertained concerning hin ability to outwit anil 
over-reach the furious red men of the forests of West- 
ern Ohio. Gens. Scott, Wilkinson, Innis, Shelby, 
Hardin and Logan crossed the Ohio River and in 
vaded the Indian country. Gov. tit. Clair at once 
began to organize a new expedition, which rendez- 
voused at Fort Washington. Many Revolutionary 
officers of distinction accepte 1 a command in the new 
army. The soldiers, however, were mostly raw mili- 
tia, and not noted for courage and disci [dine. 

During the summer of 1791, the forces were col 
lectiug at the fort, to march early in the fall. The 
preparations to meet the wily savages of the North- 
west were inadequate, and the troops were not reli- 
able^ many being from the haunts of towns, corrupt 
and lazy, and unwilling to submit to the hard disci- 
pline of regular* No general officer from Kentucky 
would accept command, and the General Government 
drafted 1,000 men, and Col. Oldham was given che 
command. By .September, St. Clair's army amounted 
to about two thousand regulars, a corps of artillery 
and several squadrons of cavalry. The militia, in 
the aggregate, amounted t<> 3.ti<K) men. 

The espediti in left Fort \\ ashiugton about the 
first of October, by the way of Fort Hamilton, now 
in Butler County. Ohio. The objective point was 
the Indian villages upon the Miami or Maumee of 
the lake. While these preparations for invasion were 
being made by Gen. St. Clair, the Indian chiefs were 
equally active. The Little Turtle of the Miamis. Blue 
Jacket aud Blaekhoof of the Shawnees. Boekong-a- 
helas and Pipe of the Delawares, and Crane of the 
Wyandots were actively engaged in an effort to or- 
ganize a confederacy of tribes sufficient!} powerful to 
drive the white settlers from the territory lying on 
the northwestern side of the Ohio River, receiving 
aid from Simon Girty, Alexander McGeeand Matthew 
Elliott (the latter two sub-agents in the British In- 
dian departments!, and from a number of British, 
French and American traders, who e-euerally resided 

among the Indians, and supplied them with anus, 
ammunition andc] thing in exchange for furs and pel 
tries. Cnder these influences, a confederation of Mi 
amis, Shawnees, Delawares. \\ yandots, Pottawatomies, 
Kickapoi is and t Manas was formed, and all the proper 
steps taken t confr mfc the invader.-, of their territory 
The British agents were particularly active in fome 
ing hate and revenge. Che British Government had 
failed to evacuate the ports of Niagara, Detroit, and 
Michilimackinac, according to the definitive treaty f 
1 7S3, under the pretence that a part of that treatj . relal 
ing to the collection and payment of debts contracted 
by Americans aud due to the King's subjects, had not 
been faithfully complied with by the Americans, to 
the detriment of the former, and, therefore, British 
;:_;.'iits justified themselves in stimulating Indian hos- 
tilities! These agents, also, enlisted the Mohawk 
Northern New York, under their greai chief. Joseph 
Brandt, who passed over British territory to aid the 
Little Turtle and Blue Jacket in repelling .he fouees 
of Gen. St. Clair. 

The main body of Sr. Clair's army, under Gen. 
Butler, took up its line of march from Fort Washing- 
ton, and. moving northward Bome twenty five miles, 
on the eastern bank of the Great Miami, erected, a 
post, which wa- called Fort Hamilton. On the 1th of 
<> I tber, the fort being completed, the army began it- 
further advance fur the Miami village, havina 
marched forty -two miles, and the work was erected 
within six miles of the present site of Greenville, 
Ohio, which was named Fort Jefferson. Here the 
army remained until the 24t.h of October, it again 
set forward, and. after marching nine da_\s, many of 
the militia deserted, and their provisions became 
short. Gen. St. Clair was a gouty old officer, ami 
sick much of the way. On the 3d of November, the 
army reached the present site of the town of Re- 
covery, Ohio, and encamped on the head-watei's of 
the Wabash. The weather was quite cold, and the 
snow covered the earth. The Indians, by spies, kept 
watch of the advance of St. Clair, and the confeder- 
ated tribes, inspired with great courage and determi- 
nation, were already resorting to their usual strategy, 
to draw the white army into an ambuscade. The} 
sometimes advanced, under their great loaders, the 
Little Turtle, Back-oug-a-he-las, Blue Jacket. Black- 
hoof, Pipe anil Simon Girty. to within a short dis- 
tance of St. Clair's advance, and then fell back. 
They had. under the Little Turtle, about 1.20U wai 

Gen. S:.. Clair was now within fifteen mill's of the 
Miami town As a means of safety for the knap 
of the soldiers, he ordered that a light Work should 
be thrown up, and then intended to move on and .it 
tack the enemy in the muramir A short time before 



day, the Indian whoop aad wild yell startled the 
army of St. Clair, aires ly under arms, and al once 
the Indians began a Fnri i attack upon the militia, 
which soon . ave way, and pell a ell. rushed nl the 
midst of th camp, through Alaj. butler's hattalion, 
creating the wildest disorder on even sid< closely 
pursued by the Indians The fronl ranks • ;' St. 
Clair's army, by a well-directed tire, checked the lu- 
dian advance. I'Ih artillery was brought to beai on 
the Indians, but produced little effect A bayonei 
charge was ordered, led on by Col Darke, which 
drove th. Indians back some distance, but the\ soon 
returned, and eompelle i Da 'k< to give way In the 
meantime, St. Clair's camp was attacked iu flank 
and the troops began f i huddle in the center. Butler 
aud Darke's battalions renewed the charge, but with 
great loss; many officers fell, Maj Butler himself 
bei tg dangerously wounded, and afterward killed in 
his tent. Die art) 11 iry was now silenced by the In- 
dian sharpshooters, and the army commenced a stam- 
pede to regain the trail, and everything became pre- 
cipitate. The panic assumed a terrible flight! The 
camp and artillery were abandoned — not a horse was 
left to remove the cannon — the soldiers threw a ■•■ 
their arms as they fan, strewing the road for miles 
with them. The retreat began about '.t. : J ,u o'clock, 
and continued a distance of twenty-nine miles, to Furt 
Jefferson, where they arrived about sunset, having 
lust 39 officers and 5 l j;J men. 22 officers and 242 men 
wounded, and a loss of public stores amounting to 
§32,810. After the flight of the army, th Indians 
began bo avenge their wrongs by perpetrating the 
most horrible acts of cruelty and brutality upon the 
bodies of the living and the dead who fell into their 
hands. Many of the Delaware-, from the villages of 
Mohican, Johnstown and Greentown, in what is now 
Ashland County, were iu the tight, ami it is stated 
that the chief Armstrong, Captain Pipe, and the 
noted Tom Lyon, often related their exploits on that 
bloody field. Pipe claimed to have tomahawked men 
until his arms were weary with the bloody work! 
Believing that the whites desired all the lands, the 
Indians crammed clay and sand into the eyes and 
down the throats of the dying and the dead! 

The remnant of St. Clan's army returned, as 
rapidly as possible, to Port Washington, the Indians 
failing to give pursuit. They were, doubtless, too 
busily employed in plundering St. Clair's camp, and 
in avenging their imaginary wrongs on the poor, nn- 
6 rii.u .'.• soldiers left on the field of battle. All 
efforts against the Miami village were, for the rime, 
brought to a close. The ne>vs of the defeat fell 
heavil upon the country, especially Ke d . 
Many of her bravest sous were left dead upon the 
battle-field, and her borders would be ajjain open h> 

the ravages of the red man. The Miami village, now 
Fort V ; ,!••. was looked upon as the gate of the 
West in i s I orl Dn Quesne, in 17-V,, was ti I ■ 
English, in their contest with the French and In- 
dians I'he defeat of St. Clair gr< aily depressed 
Gen. Washington, then President. He had hoped 
for s ieedy relief to the sparse and greatly expi seel 
settlements of the W> . in I relied largely upon 
St Clair to carry oul his designs and those of the 
Government to a successful termination. He seems 
i> have had considerable confidence in St Clair'" 
:apacity to carry out his wishes, though in his com- 
mands during the K. volution he was not a sucee fill 
icer. In his great depression, Washington said to 
his private secretary, " It'- all over; St. Clair's de- 
feated routed' ' And then those present were 
'" awed into breathless sileuce by the appalling t mes 
in which the torrent of invective was poured forth by 
Washington." But this depression aud invective 
were of short duration. The President resolved to 
send an army and a leader into the field to chastise, 
more effectually, the redinan of Ohio. The whole 
range of the frontier settlements on the Ohio was ex- 
posed to the fury of the Indians, aud the settlers 
were in danger of annihilation or expulsion, aud im- 
mediate action was necessary. 

In the selection of a suitable commander. Gen. 
Anthony Wayne, a Revolutionary officer of distinc- 
tion, atul a great favorite with the people, was pro 
posed as a proper man to take command of the We.-t- 
ex'n troops. tie i ■ ■ •• ■. iiic appointment, aiiu at 
once commenced to organize an army to penetrate the 
Indian country. A factions Congress delayed the 
equipment of the army nearly two years. He did cot 
advance until 1794. and. during the intermediate 
period, between the defeat of St. Clair and the ad- 
vanceof Wayne,the Indians, apprehensive of a renewed 
effort for their conquest, to some extent refrained from 
incursions on the border setttements, devoting all 
their energies in the formation of a confederation of 
Indian tribes, to drive the whites over the Ohio 

In the meantime the Government was making 
strenuous efforts to establish peace aud good will 
anions the hostile tribe--, by sending messengers with 
speeches and propositions to treat. The British were 
constantly inciting the Indians to acts of resentment 
and most of the messengers were captured as spies 
and murdered near the rapids of the Maumee; and 
propositions of peace were spurned by the Indi 
In these delays, Gen. Way r ne tarried one winter at 
Legionville, on the eastern border of Ohio. All hope 
of com dilation being abandoned, lie descended the 
Ohio, with his army, to " Hobson's Choice," near 
Port Washington, and on the tUh of October, 1793, 



commenced to advance in the directioi of Fort Jeffer- 
son, leaving a garrison at Fort Hamilton, bow But) r 
Countv, Ohio, cinder Mai. Jonathan C ss, Eatherjjof 
tin' late Gen. Lewis Cass, of Michigan, and, in al> 
n month subsequently, establishe : his headquarters ;.i 
Fort Greenville, which he built after his arrival. 
Hi> ordered the erection of a fort on the sit.' of St. 
Clair's defeat of 1791, which was called "Fort Re- 
covery." He then made .in ineffectual attempt to 
treat with the Indians. Che British interfered, and 
proposed to render the Indians sufncienl aid i" enable 
them to espel and destroy the Amercian settlers 
situated on the territory northwest of the Ohio. 

The expedition of Gen. Wayne remained in com- 
parative quiet, at the different posts— Jefferson" 
Greenville and Recovery — until the morning of the 
30th of June, 1704. when Msj ^AleMahon, command- 
ing an escort of ninety riflemen and fiffcv .Lrajjoons, 
was tiercel} ass ai led by a b< dy of si >me 1 . -** 1 H > Indians, 
under the walls of Fort Recovery, assisted, as was 
believed, by a number of British agents and a few 

French Canadian volunt ■s. The Indians, for a 

period of about twenty-four hours, continued the as- 
sault, and then retired. The garrison lost twenty-two 
in killed, and thirty wounded and three missing, 
Two hundred and twenty-one horses were killed, 
wounded or missing. The Indians carried away their 
dead and wounded. 

Jonathan Alder, who was then adopted and living 
with the Shawne.-s participated in a part of these 
engagements, and gives a very full h ; -*ory of the 
movements of the red men. He says: " I gathered 
up all my effects that I had not sold, and started for 
the Mack a-chack towns. I soon found that there 
would be a conlbet between the whites and Indians. 
The Indians had been so successful against St. Clair, 
that they were very sanguine of success. They talked 
as though it would be an easy victory, but it turned 
out very different. Gen. Wayne was not to be caught 
in any of the traps set for him. Little Turtle and 
one other chief were for making a treaty of peace. 
but they were a long way in the miuority. and conse- 
quently they were over- ruled. Preparations now 
began in earnest for the conrlict. The Indians never 
insisted on my taking up arui> against the whites. 
but left it for me to decide, and consequently I was 
never in a battle, except a short time in the first con- 
flict of the great campaign. They had flattered me 
that it was going to In. a v. ry easy victory, and that 
Wayne was rich in everything that an Indian desired 
— horses, blankets and clothing of ad kind.-, together 
with „ r uus and ammunition in abundance. They told 
me that if I did not wish to tight I need not do so. 
I studied it over some time, and thought I might 
as well have some of the good things he had as any 

en.' an'' when the army got ready to move I went 
GeD. Wayne had beer, gradually movin 
. 'i: u-. but verA si v; md cautiously. There 

was not a night, after he got within one hundred 
miles of us, that an In ban spy was ■:■•[ within his 
picket liues. They stud, when he was or; the march, 
he fortified ►very evening -< s icurely that i' waa next 
to impossible to got a horse out of his camp. Our 
runners and spies reported even day; thoy said thai 
at uight Wayne would cni il >wn great trees, and 
fence in a trad -if Ian 1 larg< enough to bold lbs en- 
tire army and baggage, and that these fences were 
built so high, with the-.- great trees and tons, that 
none could gel at them, and but few could get out 
But when they got into Fort Recovery, which they 
tu iught a sii- place, they relaxed some . £ the cau- 
tion used, in traveling. Blue Jacket was chief ana 
commander of the Shawnee force-. He moved upon 
Gen, Wayne's position, when he got within two or 
three miles of us, and the first thing I heard of any 
battle was the whites calling out ' Indians: Indians! ' 
We had i-i. n. e -uddeniy upon about two hundred of 
Wayne's Light Horse. Hie Indians, jn horseback, 
made a rush for them, and they, on foot, van as fast 
as they could. The Indians pressed the whites 
closely, that over fifty jumped off their horses and = t 
into the fort as fast as they could, leaving their 
horses to run around outside. These horses were fine- 
ly equipped, with sad''!-.-., bridles and a brace of pis. 
tols. The fort was soon surrounded, an,", a regular 
fire kept up on boih sides, for an horn- or so. As soon 
as the tine horses were seen runnfng around loose, 1 
thought it was my chance to get one aire dy equipped, 
if I could only catch it. I got within two hun- 
dred yards of the tort, behind a tree. The horses 
were running in every direction, very much fright- 
ened. Several times they passed cli se to me. almost 
near enough for me to reach their bridles; but when- 
ever I moved toward them they would be off as fast 
as they could run. I saw Indians running, half 
bent, within fifty yards of the fort, after the horses; 
then they would take a circle around and back. An 
Indian that stood behind a tree close to me asked why 
I did not shoot, he loading and shooting as fast as he 
could. I told him I saw nothing to shoot at. He 
said, ' Shoot at them holes in the front, and perhaps 
you will kill a man." I told him I did not want to 
shoot, and he replied that ' I had better get out of 
tb ire, then, for if I did not I would be killed. 'Did 
j a see the bark fly ; bi ■>• your he-id a few minutes 
ago.'' said he. I replied that I did. 'Well,' said. 
he. 'just fall back out of reach, if you will not shoot, 
or you will get killed.' All at once, us he passed 
head around the tree 1j shoot, I saw him drop uis 
gun and clap his hand *•'' his chin, and then sj,x,p and 



pick up the gun '.villi his other ham 

.1 start and 

run. half (>•-£:*. back as fai n 1 eoidd seehiua. They 
had -h"'i him in the chin and made a flesh wound. 

I st 1 where Iwaa a short time, looking about to see 

if any one was near me Just thou I heard what I 
supposed ixj be a cannon fire behind me, bnt, as I 
afterward learned, it was only h shell which burst. 
I now began to feel very badly frightened, and sup- 
posed we were surrounded! While I was thinkii 
what to do a cann >n (mortar) fired in the fort, an ( 
shell burs) righl over my head The horses fell all 
around toe. and then it was that 1 understood the 
eans<> of the report behind me. T started and ran 
back to the crowd; they held a council and concluded 
to give it up, as they were unable to take the fort by 
storm, but would try and take it by surprise. After 
nicht. we moved oil' down the river about a mile, and 
encamped. In meandering about to find some of my 
companions, i found one of Wayne's pack-horses. I 
haltered it. aud concluded I had a horse, anyway. 
We built our tires and laid down. There were about 
live hundred ludians at the time, all l\ ing it', a circle. 
A.bout midnight, 1 was awakened by the tiring of 
gun9. The tiring was so rapid that 1 could not teli 
one report from another. I arose and looked around, 
but could see but live or six Indians in the circle 
where I had lain. They had all gone to try to take 
the fort by surprise, as they hoped. In about one 
hour, the tiring began slacking up a little, so that 1 
could toll onegnn from another, and in about an hour 
more the Indian* !>e_;,ut to come in. The tiring final- • 
ly stopped altogether, ami I listened to their talk as 
the) came in. I learned that they had accomplished 
nothing, but a good many had been killed and a 
large number wounded. 

"'The rjrxt morning, the old chief (Blue Jacket) 
who was lying in the same circle with me, got up 
early and called for our attention. He said that 
'they were out last night to try to take the fort by 
surprise, but were not successful, and that they had 
left one of the men of our circle lying close to the 
fort unattended, and that he must be brought away.' 
He said ' It would be an everlasting shame to the na- 
tion to let the man lie there and be murdered, as he 
surely would be. by the whites. As -th°y had aban- 
doned the idea of whipping Wayne in the fort, all we 
could do was to wait, ami let Wayne come out and 
make an attack on us on the open ground.' He then 
said 'that some one who knew where our wounded 
brother lies would have to jjo, with others, am! bring 
him oil' tin- Held.' Big Turtle said he would go for 
one. as he knew exactly where the wounded man fell, 
so that there would be no need of wasting time hunt- 
ing for him. 'Who will be next?' said the chief. 

No one spoke, and the chief looked right a* me and 
said 'Young man, you will go, for another and 
and yon, for another.' said he. pointing to twi u ■• 
He then said, ' None of yon wore oul Ias< night, in 
the fight, so, men, go ami bring your comrade 
The brush and snail trees were cut off fo h\ ■ 
hundred yards around. As soon as we got inside 
the fort, the whites commenced tiring at ns, U i> rn 
along in single tile, one behind the other, si ■•• <•-,< • 

:j "Very tree that was iii our line large en i, I 
shelter us. Here we would stop bnt a moment and 
then run again. The bullet* were Hying like ha ! 
around us all the time. We had stopped behind 
large tree near the open ground, when Big Turtle 
said, ' Wb were doing ven wrong in stopping, as it 
gave them time to re-load. 'Now.' said he. 'whei 
we start again, 1 shall not stop until I have gotten to 
the man: and in order that there may bo no confu- 
sion in taking hold of him, we will go out in the same 
way we came in; that is. I will load going out. The 
one that is before going in. and the on ! behind going 
out, is in the most langer We will arrange it in 
this manner, and thus escape some of the Imllets.' 
When wo started, there was a perfect shower of bad 
lets flying around U3; but we ran for the man. dodg 
in;.;- from -i le to side. In this manner we ran. ai J it 
seemed to me, right up to the fort; for the man did 
not lay more than sixty yards from it. As soon as 
we came to him we took hold according to instruc 
tions. and in no very tender manner either, but just 

. . .d :.:..i a., ber.t wc could, sad started to rus, dodg 
ing about, just as we had c»me in When we picked 
him up his shirt was ;. little up, and I saw that he 
was shot in the bowels, and it had turned green 
around the bullet-hole, i thought how foolish it 
was for four live men to risk their lives for one dev ' 
one. But we had little time to think of such mat- 
ters, for as we picked him up it appeared to me as 
if the air was full of whistling balls, on either side 
and above us' How four men could pass through 
such a storm and come out safe, has always been a 
mystery to me; and now, after many years. I aha •- : 
shudder to think of this terrible ordeal. Biu; Turtle 
was the Only one touched by a bullet; one had grazed 
him in the thigh, and there were four or five bullet- 
holes in his hunting -shirt, which was swinging li 

ly about him. The wounded man groaned mournful- 
ly as we ran with him, but we had no time to -pare 
for his comfort. When we gnt to the woods the fir- 
ing ceased, and we laid the wounded man down, to 
rest ourselves Thanks, devout and sincere, went up 
t" the (treat Spirit for our safe deliverance from the 
great danger through which we had , assed. We car- 
ried the half-dead man to the Indian army, which wa= 














; •' 


y n^-g-0^- 






• . 





— T , _ ,. O l^/'r—j/- T /Is-, sf 



already on the move. When we got back, a litter 
was prepared tnd the poor fallow hoisted on the 
(shoulders of four men. 

"Before ' started on this perilous trip, I lashed 
my blanket and kettle on iny horse, and the) had loi 
him stray oft". There being no time to huut_him. I 
lost blanket, kettle and horse! VTe mo\ed down the 
river, and about noon the wounded man died. He 
was taken to a fallen tree, the loaves were scratched 
away, and he was buried scarcely deep enough to 
cover his bod}-. We then ".vent down to Fort Defi- 
ance, where we remained about two weeks, until we 
heard of tiie approach of Gen, Wayne, for he was 
closely watched. We now picked up everything and 
started for the old English fort, near the Mauinee 
Rapids. Here we prepared for battle, at the lower 
end of the long prairie."' 

We think it due to the memory of Mr. Alder to 
state, that his account supplies many things that have j 
heretofore been omitted, in the affair at Fort Be- 
covery and the strategy of the Shawnees. His notes 
have never appeared in print, and the only copy in 
existence is in the possession of the writer. 

Maj. Gen. Scott, with some sixteen hundred mounted 
volunteers, having arrived at Fort Greenville on the 
20th of July 1794, and joined the regulars under ; 
Wayne, the army began its march on the Indian towns 
along the Mauinee. After the arm) had 1 Fort 
Recovery, about twenty-four miles to the north, Gen. 
Wayne caused to be built and garrisoned a small 
post, which was called Fort Adams From this point, 
the army moved toward the confluence of the Au- 
glaize and Mauinee Hirers, where he arrived on the 
8th of August. At this point a strong stockade work, . 
with bastions, was erected, and called Fort Defiance. 
His arrival at that point was unanticipated by the 
Indians, who deserted their settlements, towns and 
villages with a good deal of precipitation, thus giv- 
ing evidence of apparent surprise. Wayne had made 
feints to the right and loft of his present position, 
striking the Auglaize some forty miles further up 
sonie days before, and the chiefs were really deceived 
at the actual route he intended to advance, and had 
given attention only to those points, while Wayne 
finally advanced by a centra! route, and thus gained 
the grand emporium of the Indians without loss of 
blood. While at Dehauce. he sent Christopher Mil- 
ler, a former Indian captive, with a speech, under a 
special flag, to the Indiana, proposing to treat, and 
thus spare the effusion of human blood. The speech 
was directed to the Delawares, Shawnees, Miamis, 
Wyandots, and. all other nations of Indians north- 
west of the Ohio. He proposed that the Indians 
should appoint deputies, to assemble, without delay, 
at the junction of th>- AtijHaize and the foot of the 

rapids, to settle the preliminaries of a lasting peace 
Millers answer proposed to Wayne a delay of ten 
lay,-, where he was, aDd then they would treat with 
him. In the meantime, an old captive, by the name 
"." Wells withdrew from the Miumis by their con- 
sent, and came into the camp of Wayne. This cir- 
cumstance greatly mortified Little Turtle, who 
deemed it ominous of the defeat of the confederated 
tribes. The slow movement of Wayne toward the 
Miami village had caused many Indians to feel no 
little distrust as to their ability to defeat fcho e-reat 
shief of the Americans, who was creeping like a huge 
anaconda upon their stronghol Is. 

On the 15th of August, Gen. Wayne moved his 
forces toward the rapids, and came to a halt a few 
miles above that point on the IJith, and the nest da> 
began the erection of a temporary garrison for the 
reception of stores and baggage, the better to recon- 
noiter the enemy's ground, which lay behind a thick, 
bushy woods, and the British fort which was at the 
foot of the rapids, called "Fort Miami," and seven 
miies in advance of the new work, which he called 
" Fort Deposit." The Miamis became more unde- 
cided as to the policy of attacking Wayne, notwith- 
standing the British had promised aid. At the 
general council of the tribes, held on the 19th of 
August, Little Turtle was earnest in his efforts to per- 
suade the Indians to make peace v, ith Wayne. He 
said, " We have beateu the enemy twice, under separ- 
ate commanders. We cannot expect the game good 
fortune always to attend us. The Americans aie rio»v 
led by a chief who never sleeps. The. night and the 
day are alike to him. During all the time that ho 
has been marching upon o'-ix villages, notwithstand- 
ing the watchfulness of our young men, we have 
never been able to surprise him. Think well of it. 
There is something whimpers me it would be prudent 
to listen to his offers of peace. " One of the chiefs 
derided Little Turtle for his advice, and intimated 
that it originated froni cowardice. The council broke 
up, and the Turtle, at the head of his braves, took 
his stand to meet and give battle to the invader, and 
the desires of Blue Jacket, head chief of the Shaw- 
nees, were assented to by a majority of the chiefs of 
the various tribes. Wayne could not assent to a fur- 
ther delay. 

On the morning of the "20th of August, the army 
tgain advanced in columns, agreeably to the stand- 
ing order of march; the legion on the right with 
fiank covered by the Mauinee; one brigade of 
mounted volunteers on the left, under Brig. Gen. 
Todd, and the other in the rear, under Brig. Gen. 
Barbee. A select battalion of mounted volunteers 
. moved in front of the legion, commanded by Maj. 
Price, who was directed to keep sufficiently advanced. 




bo aa to give timely notice to the troops to form in 
case if action, .t being r*el undetermined whetherthe 
Indians would decide !< >r peace or war. In thi8 
manner the army of Wayne advanced about five 

miles, when th. corps of llaj. Pr ce received a severe 
6re from the enemy, who wore secreted in the woods 
and high grass. The Legion immediately formed in 
two lines, in the close, thick woods, which extended 
for miles to the left and front, the ground being 
covered with fallen timber, the result of a tornado 
which made it impassable to cavalry, and afforded a 
fine covert for the Indian warrior. The Indians had 
formed in three lines, within supportiug distance of 
each other, and extending for nearly two miles at ri jhl 
angles with the river. The weight of the fire soon 
revealed the extent of their line?, and showed that the} 
were in full force in front and in possession of their 
favorite ground, and endeavoring to turn the left 
flank of Wayne. Wayne's second line advanced to 
support the first, and Maj. Gen. Scott was directed 
to gain and turn the light Hank of the Indian army, 
with the whole of the mom ted volunteers, by a cir- 
cuitous route. At the same time, Wayne ordered the 
front line to advance and charge with trailed arms, 
rouse the Indiana from their coverts at the point of 
the bayonet, and, when up. to deliver a close and 
well-directed fire on their backs, followed by a brisk- 
charge, so as not to give them time to load again. 
At the same time, the legionary cavalry moved to the 
left flank of the Indians, next to the river, and there 
was a general advance. All orders were obeyed with 
spirit and promptitude-, and the impetuosity of the 
charge by the first line was such, that the Indians, 
Canadian militia and volunteers were driven from 
their concealment in so short a time, that the second 
line of the legion of the mounted volunteers was un- 
able to participate in the action, the enemy having 
been routed and driven more than two miles through 
the woods by less than half their own number ( P). 
The Indians are supposed, by the officers of Wayne'-: 
army, to have numbered about two thousand, while 
the troops engaged against them were short of 
nine hundred. The Indians, with their allies, aban 
doned themselves to flight, and dispersed in terror 
and dismay , leaving the gallant forces of Wayne in 
quiet possession of the field of battle, which extended 
to the British fort. Wayne remained three days and 
nights on the banks of the Maumee. in front of the 
field of battle, during which time all the bouses and 
corn fields of the enemy were consumed and destroyed 
to a considerable distance above and below the 
British fort Among the houses destroyed was the 
store of Col. McKee, the British agent —the principal 
stimulator of the war between the United States and 

On the 27th, the army retarned to Fort D finn •••, 
laying waste, as it moved, villages and cornfields, 

for a. dista , f fifty miles all ng the Maumee. The 

fori was repaired and made substantial, and the 
remained th re until the 1 Ith of September, l7H4.wh< u 
the legion began its march for the Miami village, 
where it arrived on the 17th, when the army rented 
in a fortified c: tnp until the country was reconuoiten i 
and a proper sit.. -.- . . d to build ;. garrison, 
work was completed by the 22d of October, an i the 
garrison placed under the command of hi nt Col 
Etamtramck, when a salute of fifteen rounds of cau 
non was fired and the garrison named " Fort Wavno," 
the present .site of the city of that name. 

Gen. Wayne, with the man, body of the regulars, 
took up hi-t lino of march for Fort Greenville, where 
he arrived on the 2d of November. After the close 
of the battle on the 20th of August, he invited the 
Indians to 'a friendly meeting, but they, for some 
time refrained from entertaining a proposition to 
treat, in the hope that the Briti.-h would render them 
assistance. Gen. Simcoe, Alexander McKee, Simon 
Girty and other British officers, taking advantage of 
this uncertainty, invited Little Turtle. Bluejacket. 
Bock-ong-a-helas, Blackhoof and Tecumseh, then a 
young Shawnee warrior of great promise, to an In 
dian council to be held at the mouth of the Detroit 
River. In the meantime, a treaty of amity, com- 
merce and navigation was. through the efforts of 
John Jay. th" American Envoy, established between 
the United Stat'?? and Great Britain The news jf 
this treaty destroyed all hope of British aid tor tha 
Indians, and their chiefs began to assemble at Green- 
ville, with a view of arranging the preliminaries 
for a final treaty. 

Before giving the result of the campaign, it wiil 
be interesting to hear what Mr. Alder says concerning 
the great battle of " Fallen Timbers." He continues: 
" Our camping place was about two miles below the 
prairie. The women and children were sent down 
about three miles below the fort. and. as I did not 
wish to tight. I was sent to Upper Sandusky, to in- 
form some warriors thereof the great battle that was 
about to be fought. I remained at Sandusky until 
the fight was over. Although the camp was below 
the lower point of the prairie, the tight ing ground 
was to be just at the lower point of it. hoping to 
fight Wayne in the open ground, while th.. Indians 
would be in the timber. The Indians estimated their 
number at 3,5(K) I f), but perhaps it was not so large. 
If was, however, a large army, and much larger than 
the whites supposed: There were 400 friendly In- 
dians from New Fork, under Brant, that the whites 
kuew nothiDg of. They happened not to get in the 
fight, and as -*h>u as it was over they made their way 



bark to their tomes, and it was kept a secret by all 
the various tribes. 

Wayne came on down the river, aud halted at the 
upper end of the prairie, expecting the Indiana Wi il I 
attack him; bm in that be waa mistaken, if an In- 
dian expects to go into battle he eats nothing that 
morning, for the reason, that if a man is shot in the 
bowels, the internals are not so apt to I e severed as 
if i hey are full; so, when Wayne made bis appear- 
ance, the Indians were ordered not to eat any break- 
fast as they expected to tight that da)'. According- 
ly, ihe'. were all on the ground in good order and in 
good spirits, for they confidently expected another 
St. Clair defeat They stayed all day. but Wayne 
did not attack them. They feli back at night and ate 
their suppers and lay on their arms all night, expect 
ing a night attack, but all remained o,uiet. The 
nest morning they came out as before, eating no 
breakfast, and the result was the same — Wayne did 
not attack. Again they fell back, and then called a 
council of the chiefs. They said that this thing of 
eating one meal a day would weaken the men, so that 
they would not be lit for aet ; on, and there was no 
knowing how ! «g IVayne would bold off; and if this 
thing continued eight or ten ('.ays the men would be 
almost worthless. They thought that Wayne had 
learned from prisoners of their peculiarity in this re- 
spect, and no doubt that it was strategy on his part 
not to tight until the men were weakened. Hence, 
they concluded they would not be in such a hurry 
again, and so the order was given for the men to eat 
as usual the nest morning, before starting out. The 
next morning they went to cooking and eating, and as 
soon as they were through they started for the 
ground. Some were on the ground by daylight while 
others were in their beds. This was the third morn- 
ing that they had been on the ground, waiting for an 
attack. Just as the sun was rising, Wayne's army 
came down the prairie, in the direction expected, but 
sooner than the Indians anticipated, and they were 
not prepared for him. There was not, at this time, 
more than «ne- third of the army on the ground. 
Some were cooking-, some eating and some on their 
way to the grounds. The firing began before Wayne 
got in reach, in order to hold his men in check until 
the Indian forces could come up; but it had no 
effect. The old Genera) just moved right on, as 
though nothing was the matter. He had sent his 
light horse around ro the right of the Indians, -.o as 
to surround them. At the same time that he opened 
tire, the cavalry eomm»»nced blowing their bugles in 
the reai, and cut off the balance of the Indians from 
reaching the ground. The Indians who were on the 
way, aud those who were eating when the tiring com- 
menced, -tarted on the run to j in the arm'/ Those 

! who w« re on the way. when they came to the cavalry 
ling that they were cut off, raD back, bunting 
those who were behind, so that there were persons 
running both ways in great confusion. Some broke 
through the lines of the cavalry, and of those that 
wei ■ surrounded a great many broke for the timber, 
while others plunged into the river. Thoseof the ln- 

i dians who did not get shot or drowned in the 
rive)-, made their escape. Such an awful rout was 

: scarcely ever seen. Some stood their ground, and 

! were either killed or taken prisoners. The slaughter 
was very great, and the Indians were so terror- 
stricken that they never attempted to rally them- 
selves. As all the principal chiefs were either killed 

] or taken prisoners, the battle was very short aud 
dei isive. The Indians tied down the river to the 
British fort, but, when they got there, the soldiers 
stood, with bayonets charged, in the doorway and 
would not let them in. Wayne followed the fugi 
tives but a short distance, and then fell back The 
British commander at the fort told the Indians to 
push on, for if he let them in. Wayne would attack 
the fort and destroy all of them. This conduct of 
the British commander did more to make peace be- 
tween the Indians and Americans than any one 
. - during the war; for. before the war, the Indians 
had been promised aid and protection, and now, when 
they were in the worst possible condition, they had 
thus been rudely pushed from the doors of the fort 
and refused shelter! It was an act they never forgot; 
and. rather than apply again for British protection, 
tl • • made application to their victorious enemies, and 
obtained security upon a more solid foundation." 
Fhia inhuman act of Maj. Campbell was thrown into 
the teeth of Gen. Proctor by Tecumseh, in the war of 
lSl'J. just before the battle of the Thames. 

The statement of Mr. Alder overturns the whole 
theory of the battle. Wayne, and all those who have 
attempted to give an account of that wonderful vic- 
tory, go upon the presumption that he was contend- 
ing against the united forces of the confederated 
tribes, and that about one-half of his men had actu- 
ally met and routed the entire Indian army' If Mr. 
Alder be correct, the fact really was, that a part of 
Wayne's forces met a fraction of the aruiy, under the 
command of Little Turtle, and took it by surprise, 
and, before the chief could be re-entoreed. put the 
Indians into inextricable contusion, and a great rout 
and flight necessarily followed. 

About the 1st of June, L795, Indian deputations 
from the different tribes began to assemble at Green 
ville, with a view to the consummation of a treaty. 
H aving failed to obtain assistance and active co 
operation from the British Government, the Indians, 
became disheartened, and gradually yielded to a prop- 



osition to treat by <>••;. Wa - ne. The chiefs and 
deputation as '•■' I il fort Greenville, and entered 
into a council to form a treaty. The time occupied 
extended from the 10th of June to the 10th of \n 
gust, 1795. The point to be settled was a future 
line between the United Statea and the Indians. The 
real cause of this bloody and cruel war was the tre itj 
of Fort Harmar, better known as the "'Treaty of the 
Muskingujn," held at Marietta, in January. 1789. 
It was alleged, by Little Turtli an i other cine:'.-., that 
sv*'..\ treaty was a fra id, an ! eff< eted alt gether by the 
Six Nations (Iroquois of New York), who seduced 
some of 'heir young men to attend it. together with 
a few Chippeways, Wyandots, Ottawas, Delawares 
and Pottawafomies, and that most of the land cede..! 
belonged to the Hiarnis, which people were entirely 
ignorant of a treat}". The Delawares, Wyandots and 
Shawnees, who were permitted to occupy Ohio hunt- 
ing-grounds by the favor of the Miamia, Little Turtle 
contended, had no right to dispose of hib lauds. 
Gen. Wayne insisted upon the legality of the treaty 
of Muskingum, while the chiefs who opposed it in- 
sisted upon making the Ohio River the boundary of 
the Indian country. At the end of a long debate, 
the line was carried west, and extended in a Jir>- -t 
course from Fort Recovery to The mouth of the Ken- 
tucky River; and certain reservations, for forts, w^re 
made west of that line. The south line begau at the 
mouth of the Cuyahoga River, where it enters Lake 
Erie, and ran up to the portage between that and the 
Tuscarawas branch of Lhe Muskingum. Crossing the 
portage, it followed down the Tuscarawas to Fort 
Laurens, an important military station about half a 
mile below the present town of Bolivar. From that 
point it ran directly west to Lorarnies Creek, a tribu- 
tary of the Great Miami. Thence it followed a line 
almost due west of 1 ort Recovery, which point was 
very near the present eastern boundary of lucliana. 
It then ran in a southerly direction to the Ohio, strik- 
ing that stream near the mouth of the Kentucky 
River, as first stated. 

The Indians finally accepted the terms dictated b; 
their conquerors, and signed the treaty, which was to 
be sacredly observed as " long as the woods grow and 
waters run." No former treaty, perhaps, was at- 
tended by so many noted chiefs and orators. The 
Little Turtle, whose Indian name was Me-checun a- 
qua, displayed unusual ability as a diplomat, a thinker 
and orator. Indeed, it. must be admitted that he was 
a full match for Gen Wayne, who was an educated 
and experienced officer. The Little Turtle possessed 
many of Hie characteristics of the great Pontiac. 
His ability to organize and commaud was not infe- 
rior to any of the most distinguished chiefs of his 
raco. The defeats of Harmar and St. Clair were due 

to the shrewdness and military strategy of iLi* great 
chief; and a man of less caution and nerve than Gen. 
Wayne would have been defeated and crushed He 
I ■ ired to treat before the battle of " Fallen Timbers," 
and after that disaster, on learning the best terms to 
be given bj Wayne to the conquered, signed the 
treat) for his pe >ple, and faithfully kept its term to 
his decease, which occurred on the 14th of Jul}*, 
1812, at the age of sixty-live years. 

Tarhe. ur the Crane, a great Wyandot chief, took 
a leading pari at. the treaty, and was the orator for 
his people. He signed the treaty, and became a 
friend to the United State.-. He served, with a com- 
pany of Wyandots, in the war of 1812, iu the cam- 
paign of Gen. W. H. Harrison. He .lied at Crane- 
town, near Upper Sandusky, in 1818. 

The great Delaware chief Bock-on<j-a-he-las, who 
fought against Harmar. St. Clair and Wayne, was 
also at the treaty, and signed it. This great chief 
was [resent at the treaty of Fort Mcintosh in ITS"). 
He Ua-1 been a leading chief in Eastern Ohio in 
1781, and from thence, with other Delawares, had lo- 
cated on the Miami and White Rivers in Indiana. 
His name is attached to many treaties, down as late 
as 1817. He probably died on the Anglais... 

The great Shawnee chief Bluejacket, Wey-a-pier 
sen-wa, was also present at the treaty, and m.ula 
several speeches. He was more sanguinary and pre 
cipitate than Little Turtle, and possessed less dis- 
crimination and judgment. Hin combative qualities 
were undoubted. He was among the last cniets who 
came to treat. By his example, the Shawnees were 
slow to accept terms. He commanded about two 
thousand Shawnees 3nd others at, Wavne's creat bat 
tie. He died, most probably, at the Ottawa town, on 
Auglaize, prior to the treaty at the " Foot of the 
Rapids," in IS 17. 

Joseph Brandt. Thay-en da-neca, the great Mo- 
hawk chief, seems to have been present near the battle 
field, with 100 Mohawks. Authorities have disputed 
the accuracy of this statement, which was first made, 
we believe, by the Indian historian, Jlr. Stone, but 
the statement of Mr. Alder confirms that assertion, 
and we are persuaded of its accuracy. Brandt was 
the most brilliant and courageous chief of the Mo- 
hawks, and has left a personal history unequaled for 
bravery, eccentricity, cruelty and cunning. 

The speakers from among the .'shawnees were Blue 
Jacket, Red Pole, Puck-se-kaw, Black Wolf, Lame 
Hawk. Blackhoof, Kec-a-hah, Kekia-pil-athy and 
Captain Johnny. Among the Delawares. Bock-oug- 
a-he-las and three others. Captain Pipe, who cruelly 
caused the torture and death of Col. Crawford, on the 
Tymochtee, in 1782, is believed to have died just be- 
fore the treaty, though his death is a mystery. It is 



(•,.! i nded that he lived as late as the war of 1812, on 
the Mohean. 

The tribes at the treaty were the Miamis. Shaw- 
nees, Wyandots. Chippeways, Ottawas, Pottawato- 
mips. Weas, Eoi RiVera and i v ii I a] oos. 

At the conclusion of the treaty, Gen. Wayne ad 
dressed the assembled chiefs and deputies rw Eolh ws: 
"As it is probable, mj children, t liar we shall n<'t 
meet again in public council, I take this opportui it-y 
to bid you all an affectionate farewell, and wishing 
you a safe and happy return to your respective homes 
and families." After which the Indians quietly <!is- 

After the treaty, in the year- L807, 1808, 1 S 0'J and 
1810, the Shawnees began to fall back on their re- 
serves. Prior to the treaty of 1705. thej were - it- 
tered pretty much all over Ohio, and along the 
streams in Indiana. Up to that treaty, they had been 
induced to sell portions of their hunting-grounds, in 
exchange for lands in the We-t aud certain sums of 
money to be paid yearly. When the chiefs and war- 
riors attended such treaties, they were often made 
dniuk and badly cheated by the agents sent out by 
the Government. It was Basil} to be seen thai the 
Indian title to all their lands in Ohio would soon be 
■extinguished. Their Ohio hunting-grounds were the 
choicest upon the continent, and their leading chiefs 
found it necessary to take proper steps to prevent the 
whites from getting; all such lands. 

Tecumseh and the Prophet, his twin brother, were 
opposed to parting with their hunting-grounds. 
They had great influence among the Indians, and 
were both fine speakers, and could arouse the feel 
ings of their hearers and influence their jealousies 
and passions as they desired. They held meetings 
all over the West, speaking to large crowds, declar- 
ing that they were not for war I ?). but desired to 
unite the tribes into a kind of confederacy, to prevent 
the sale of their lands without a majority of all the 
chiefs of the confederacy consented to their sale, as 
they declared the white race was united State after 
State, and thus maintained their rights, while the 
Government, and the Great Father at Washing-ton. 
was chief over all. 

Such arguments were sensible and logical and 
had a powerful effect upon the Indian-. These meet- 
ings excited the fears of the white settlers, and the 
authorities of the Star- and Onited States began to 
take notice of the matter. 

About the year 1804, Tecumseh and his brother. 
the Prophet, oommenced to agitate the question of 
an Indian confederacy to prevent the purchase and 
occupancy of their lands bv the whites. Tecumseh 
visited the various tribes, and endeavored to enlist 
them in the combination, while the Prophet, who had. 

prior to this time, heen a drunken profligate, pro- 
claimed that he had b on commanded by the Great 
Spirit to inform his red children thai all their misfort- 
unes were the result of abandoning their for 
mode of life, aud that thi-ough him (the Prophet) 
the_\ were now commanded to return to their former 
habits, to lea 1 a ifl I ■■ use of whisky and clothe them- 
selves in si ins instead of blaukets. He fixed bis 
,i:;..' rs tit Greenville, and from that point his 
fame spread among the tribes, and he was soon sur- 
rounded by the most abandoned young men of the 
Shawnees, Delawares, Wyandots, Pottawatomies, 
Ottawas. Chippewas and Kickapoos. The leading 
chiefs of all the^e tribes, however, could not be in- 
duced to join his league, and the result was that many 
of them ware assassinated by the orders of the Proph- 
et, as mischievous men and witches, to get rid of 
their opposition and influence! Te-te-box-ke. a ven 
erable Delaware ehtet\ and man) of his friends, were 
mercilessly burned at the stake on the charge of 
beicir witches and dangerous person.-. 

In S ier, l s o!. a treaty was made at Fori 

Wayne, by which the tide t.;. p. large tract of land 
extending sixty miles up the Wabash above Yin- 
cenues. belonging to fhe Miamis, was extinguished. 
This again aroused Tecumseh and the Prophet to 
renewed efforts to prevent any more sales Tecum- 
seh had been at the treaty of Greenville as a warrior, 
in 1793, and, with Blue Jacket greatly regretted the 
loss of their lands, and while he was soliciting the 
Western and Southern trib< •• to help stop "the 
mighty water" that was about to sweep away all 
their lands, the Prophet was holding large meetings 
at Greenville and Tippecanoe. He was as cunning 
as he was fanatical and revengeful. 

About this time, the Prophet ordered the execu- 
tion of Loat.herlips, a noted Wyandot chief, for pre 
tended witchcraft, but really ti (get rid of his in- 
fluence. Six Wyandot warriors were sent to pat him 
to death. The warriors and their leader. Round- 
head, went directly from Tippecanoe to execute him. 
They found him encamped on a stream about twelve 
miles above the present city of Columbus. When the 
warriors arrived, aud their purpose was ascertained 
several white men made an ineffectual effort to save 
his life. A council took place, and the warriors re- 
solved to kill the chief, as ordered An Indian, with 
much warmth, accused him with magic or witchcraft; 
but Leatherlips denied the charge. When the sen 
teoca of death was passed upon him. he returned to 
hi.- camp, ate a dinner of jerked venison, washed, and 
dressed in his best Indian '-!,>thing, and painted his 
face. He was tall and dignified, and his hair , 
gray. When the tin.-- of his execution arrived, hi 
shook h.mis with those present, and turned from '.i- 



wigwam and eommei ced to chant his death song. He 
then moved toward i.ho point where the warriors had 
dug it grave. When be gut to the grave, he knelt 
down and prayed to tin- Great Spirit. When he 
finished, Roundhead also knelt and prayed. Leather- 
lips again knelt an i prayed n 1 when he ceased, one 
of tbo warriors drew from his skirt- a keen, new ton 
ahawk stepped up behind the chief, and struck him 
on the head with hi? whole strength. The chief fell 
forward in the agonies of death. The executioner 
struck him a^ain. once or twice, and finished his 
suffering:. The body was buried with all his Indian 
ornaments, and the warriors and whites disappeared. 
An attempt has been made t fix the responsibility of 
this great erime upon the Wyandot chief Crane. 
Crane wa= the friend nf the whites, and opposed to 
the schemes of the treacherous Prophet, and. it is 
clear, never could have authorized the execution of 
a fellow Wvanlot chief. 

Mr. Alder says '' I was very well acquainted 
with the Prophet He was not a warrior, but a low, 
cunning fellow. He prophesied many things that 
did not come to pass. He was a vain man, with a 
great amount of show, but with little sense. His 
powers of prophecy were not well sustained by the 
Indians in general; in fact. *'a^y had but very little 
faith in him." 

Col. John Johnston says: "He was the twin 
brother of Tecumseh. His Indian name was Elsqna- 
ta-wa. As a man. he was void of talent or merit, 
a brawling. mischievous, Indi m demagogue." 

While residing on Mad River, the Shawnees were 
divided into four tribes or bands— the Mequachake, 
the Chillicothe, the Kiskapocokeand the Piqua. The 
priesthood was confided to the Mequachake. and the 
office of chief was hereditary. In other tribes, the 
office of chief was bestowed from merit or achieve- 
ment in war. Their towns were scattered alon_r the 
banks of the Scioto, the Mad River and the Little 
Miami, in Southern Ohio. Cornstalk, the great chief 
so cruelly assassinated at. Point Pleasant, resided east 
of the Scioto River, on Sipp o Creek, in what is now 
Pickaway County, and his sister, the Cn-enadier 
Squaw, who was six feet hi^h. resided near him on 
the opposite side of the stream, in Squaw town. The 
principal town. Old Chillicothe. was located near the 
mouth of Massie's Creek, three miles north of the 
present site of Xenia Piqna, memorable as the 
birthplace of Tecumseh an 1 Elsqna t\-wa. was situat- 
ed on the north bank of .Med River, seven miles 
w>sf of the in-, ;ent site of the city of Springfield, in 
Clark County. T'nper and Lower Piqua. in Miami 
County, were not far fr <m the r '• sent site of the city 
of Piqua. 

After the destruction >f the Macachack towns on 

Mr 1 River, in what is now Logan County, Ohio, in 
17S6, by Gen. Logan ol Kentucky, the Shawnees 
aband >ned these towns, and gradually began a so Lie 
nt on the Ottawa or Hog Creek, and at VVapako 
uetta, in what is now Auglaize formerly Allen 
County. They also had a few other villages in what 
is now ('lark County, Ohio, and also along the 
streai - in Indiana [n the fall of 1811, a good. il»«al 
of uneasiness existed among the Shawnees. Dela 
wares. Wyandots and other Western tribes, .and Brit- 
ish agents were very active in their endeavors to 
seduce the Ohio Indians into the British service, in 

■ of i war with the United States. Tecumseh, 
Blue Jacket and the Prophet employed all th ir arts 
to induce the Little Turtle. Blackho if, Back ong_-a 
he-las and other noted chiefs to join the league; but 
the Turtle, having been overruled by the Blue Jacket 
in the battle of " Fallen Timbers," refused to follow 
the lead of the wily Shawnee again. 

In the spring of 1812, Gen Meigs convened a 
•ouncil at the village i f Urbana. Ohio, and through 
C ■! James McPherson, and the elder Walker, who 
had married a Wyandot, invited he Shawnee, Wyan 
dot and Delaware chiefs and braves to meet him. 
They assembled about the 1st of June. The result 
was very satisfactory, and ended in an exchange of 
wampum, and in smoking the pipe of peace. The 
chiefs agreed to take sides with the United States; 
and protection was guaranteed their families, and a 
block-house was erected near Zanesfield in what is 
now Logan County, for the protection of ■>" 
wo ion and children, where thoy were furnished, 
during the war. at the public expense with provis- 
ions and elothing 

During this excitement and ferment among the 
Indians, Brifi-.h agents were constantly engaged in 
fomenting ill-will between the Indians arc! the bol- 
der settlements. In fact, many English statesmen 
still entertained the opinion that the American colo 
nies were not wholly lost to the mother country, and 
hoped, when the proper time arrived, by the aid f 
the Indian tribes and the supposed disaffected col 
ies. to regain sovereignty over the Stat a To this 
end. as has been observed, the tribes on our borders 
«-ere secretly supplied with munitions of war. and 
instigated to commit depredations on the frontiers of 
lv ntucky and Southwest Ohio. McKee, Elliott and 
Girty fanm 1 the flame of hate and, revonge, .and, as 
the probabilities of war between the two countries 

irae stronger, the Indians, following the lead of 
Tecumseh, became more audacious In \;>:il. 1^)2- 
an 'ml irgo was laid, by Congr ;s, on all the ship- 

* in the port- and harbors of the United States; 
and soon after, an act authorizing the President to 
detach 1.00.000 militia, for six months, was passed 



and carried into execution, and a general declaration 
of war was expected. At this time, the war in 
Europe between France and the allied powers, con 
tinned to rage with unabated violence. England and 
France used nvery ertifico to involve all the nations 
of Europe in the ci ntest At the game time, the 
British naval officers were carrying out the detest- 
able doctrine of " impressing American seami re." in a 
manner so esteasive and vexatious as in cause great 
distress among our seafaring people, and much in- 
convenience and risk to our merchants. The Ameri- 
can Government repeatedlj protested against these 
outrages, but could neither obtain indemnity for the 
past nor security for the future. The alternative f 
arms alone was left, to vindicate our rights and pro- 
tect our maritime interests on the ocean, and hence, 
a formal declaration of war against Great Britain was 
made June 18, 1812. 

The forces of the United States and of Ohio were 
marshaled for the contest with all speed. Gov. 
Meigs obtained permissionof the friendly Wyandots, 
Shawnees, llingoes and Delawares to mareh through 
their country without opposition: th">e Indians 
agreeing to abide faithfully by the treaty of (ircen- 
ville, and remain neutral during the progress of the 
war. The forces of Gen. McArthur and Col. Ca.-.- in 
due time appeared on the Rivers Raisin and Huron, 
and thence ti Brownstown. and finally to Detroit, 
where Gen. Hull, without an effort, ingloriously sur- 
rendered his forces to Gen. Isaac Brock, of the Brit- 
ish Army This disaster sent a shudder through the 
poineer settlements of Ohio. Geu. \V. H. Harrison 
was appointed to the command, and a new army was 
levied and organized. We are unable, for want of 
space, to trace the history of his campaigns uuiil the 
close of the war. -It will be sufficient to state that 
he was ably seconded by Col. Richard II. Johnson, 
Col. John Logan and Col. W. S. Hunter as aids, 
while the troops of Kentucky. Pennsylvania, Virginia 
and Ohio, under his command, sustained the reputa- 
tion of their States by acts of valor and uncomplain- 
ing sacrifices until the declaration of peace. 

The Government of the United States made an 
attempt, as soon as war was declared, to soften the 
jealousies of the Indians on our border. The various 
tribes were invited to a general council, to be held at 
Piqua on the 15th of August. 1812. They were in- 
vited to bring their families, and kindle a great coun- 
cil tire. G-ov. Meigs, Thomas Worfchiagton and 
Jeremiah Morrow were appointed Commissioners to 
meet them. The conference failed: for only a few 
Shawnees. Wyandots, Mingoes, Delawares, Ofcta-was 
and Miamis attended. Those present professed great 
friendship for the Government; but little confidence 
could be placed in any but the Shawnees nod Wyan- 

dots Blackhoof Logan and the Crane appeared to 
be honest in then desires for peace, and wielded a 
good influence. The Government desired to provide 
f< r all peaceable Indians, and sent officers ti comlucl 
such to Urbana, Zanesville and Piqua, where thei 
could be under the eye of the Government agents. 
The Mohegans and Delawares of the villages of 
Greenstown and Jerometown, in what isuow Ashland 
County, were conducted to Drbana by Capt Doug 
lass, of Clinton. Knox County, where they remained, 
at Government expense, until peace was declared. 
The friendly Shawnee- and Wyandots were variously 
employed, some as scouts and others as guile-. 
While acting in the capacity of spy, a noted Shaw- 
nee half-blood, named Logan, was fatally wounded 
in a rencontre with the Pottawatomie chief Winemac 
and his braves. Logan will be remembered as hav- 
ing been taken a prisoner, when a boy. by Gen. 
Logan, of Kentucky, in ITS'}, and adopted and edu- 
cated, and received the name of his captor — Logan, 
ills in .!i:er was a sister of Tecumseh and the Proph- 
et. The family of Logan resided near Wapi 
netta. whither he was taken after his death and buried 
by United State- troops with the honors of war. 

In the spring of 1813, the policy of the Govern 
meat as to the employment of Indians as soldiers 
was, with some hesitancy, changed. Gen. Harri i n 
held a council at Franklinton with the friendly 
Wyandots, Delawares. Shawnees and Senec: s. in 
which it was agreed those tribes -h raid be enrolled and 
take un arms in defenseof the United States, as against 
the British and their Indian aides. larhe, the ven- 
erable Wyandot chief, for himself and people, and 
the chiefs of the other tribes, agreed to prevent their 
warriors from scalping prisoners and committing the 
barbaric acts which had characterised the Canadian 
Indians. With these stipulations, a corpsof Indians 
was armed, and fully demonstrated that they could 
be controlled by the rules of civilized warfare, and 
successfully restrained from committing acts charac- 
teristic of savages, notwithstanding the assertions of 
British officers. The Indian soldiers are said to have 
been " uniformly distinguished by orderly and 
humane conduct." 

The renegade young Shawnees. and those of other 
tribes, joined Tecumseh and fought desperately for 
the British at the battle of the Thames, where Col. 
R. M. Johnr-on was wounded in the thigh, hip and 
left hand, and is reputed to have killed Te- 
cumseh, then a Colonel in the British service. It 
was the belief of soldiers who were present, and saw 
the rencontre, that Johnson killed the chief with a 
horse pistol, in the attack, after his own hoi.— I a 1 
fallen, because Tecumseh fell a: the point where ••■ 
Colonel was down. 




A^ Tecumseh was a chief of undoubted talent an i 
of great courage, w ■ deem it proper, in givi 
sketch of the Shawnees b call th of the 

reader to his history. The following is compiled 
ft-- a Drake's life of the chief: " Puekeshinwa, the 
father of Tecumseh, was a member of the Kiscopoke, 
and Methoataske. the mother, of the Turtle tribe of 
the Shawnee nation. L'hej removed from Florida to 
Ohio about the mid lleof the last century 1 1 150). The 
father rose to the rank oi chief, and fell at the batt] 
of Point Pleasant, in 1774. Afti r his death, his wife 
returned South, whin- she died at an advanced ge 
Tecumseh was born at Piqua about the year 1768, 
and. like Napoleon, showed a passion for wur in bis 
youth. It is slated that the first battle in which he 
was engaged occurred on the present site of Dai ton, 
between the Kentuekians under O I. 1, igan and some 
Shawnees. When about seventeen years of age, he 
manifested great cousage in an attack i>u some boats 
on the Ohio River, near what is now Maysville, Ky. 
The prisoners were all killed but one. who was 
burned alive. Tecumseh. having witnessed the burn- 
ing of the prisoner, expressed his strong abhorrence 
of the net. and by his eloquence pi I 1 his party 

never to burn any more prisoners. He rose rapidly 
as a warrior, and gained srreat popularity among Li- 
tribe. He was in the attack on Fort Recovery. and 
the battle of Fallen Timbers, in Wayne'- campaign, 
and, in the summer of 1795, became a chief. He 
resided, in 1706. at Deer Creek, in the vicinity of the 
present site of Urbana, and afterward at Piqua. on 
the Great Miami. In 1 798, by invitation of the Dela- 
wares. he removed, with his followers, to White 
River. Ind. In 1S05, through the influence of Els- 
quatawa, his twin brother, a large number of Shtrw- 
nees established themselves at Greenville, and Els- 
quatawa assumed the office of a prophet, and com- 
menced a career of cunning and pretended sorcery 
that gave him great sway over the Indian mind. 
They remained at Greenvillt, in the year 1806. and 
were visited by many Indians from the different 
tril>es. The Prophet pretended to have dreamed 
many wonderful dreams, and claimed to have had 
many supernatural revelations, and by such stories 
convinced many that he was really the earthly agent 
of the Great Spirit. In 1V>7. Gov. W. H. Harrison 
sent a messenger to the head chiefs of the Shawnees. 
desiring them to disband their people at Greenville, 
as their conduct foreshadowed evil to the whil ■- 
The Prophet evaded the message and refused to go. 
In 1808, Teoumseh and the Prophet removed to T ip- 
pecanoe. and continued their efforts to induce the In- 
dian'- to forsake their vicious habit-, while Tecumseh 
visited th • neighboring tribes to increase the Proph- 
et's influence. In 1809 l<>. their conduct was such 

as to leave but little doubt that their intantionfi were 
hostile The Prophet seemed to be most prominent 
but Pecutnseh. b :ked lo British agents, was in 
reality th.< leader. In Angu t, 1810, 'i". • 
visited Vincenues, accompanied bv fortv >\ arri< • -. to 
have a talk with Gov. Harrison His manner <>m that 
i •■ sion was haughty and mena ing. lb declared h.> 
was riot Eor war, but desired t-> unite all the I ' m 
to prevent the sale of Their lauds. ]\t- v-ehe-menco of 
speech fully indicated the purpose of the brothers, 
and af tei h s lepart.ure Gov Harrison proceeded to 
in-. ■[,:)■»• the coininu contest. H'- sent n m 
to the Shawnees. bidding them to beware of hi 
ties: to which Tecumseh gave a brief replv, and 
visited the Governor with 300 warriors, in July. 
1M1. in which he exhibited the same haughty spirit 
that he evinced in the former meeting. Gov. Harri- 
- n prepared to disperse the uostiles at White Kivur. 
ami the battle ar Tippecanoe followed. The result of 
that battle deprived th^ Prophet of much of his influ- 
ence. In the spring of 181 .'. '!'•• i sob and his war- 
riors visited Maiden, ai 1 tei lered their services to 
the British, and he was subsequently made a Briga 
li >r I r »neral in th ■ British Army, an 1 was present at 
the ensuing battles against the Americans on land, 
until the battle of the Thames, in winch he Eell." 

Mr. Alder, in his narrative, states that he was 
personally ac inted with Tecun eh. and i hat he 
heard an Indian once boasting how many white scalps 
he had taken. Tecumseh, the gieat chief turned on him 
and sail "he was a low. mean Indian.; that more 
than half the number of scalps were those of women 
and children. Tecumseh said he had killed forty 
men with his own hands in single combat, but he had 
never taken the life of a woman or child."' Tecumseh 
seems to have possessed, for a savage, many tine 
traits. To save his country was bora rable and high- 
ly patriotic. He was a man of tine intellect, brave. 
fearless, and of pure integrity. He would ask nothing 
but his right, and won id submit to nothing that was 
wrong This great chief was born three-fourths of a 
centurv too late. With his talents for organization, 
seventy five years earlier he would have rivaled Pon- 
tiae, and have done much to keep the pale faces east 
of the Ohio It is n it definitely certain whether the 
projected Indian confederacy originated with him. 
Whether it did or not, it must be conceded that he 
evinced great talents in carrying it .'• rward: and the 
skill of Geu Harrison was more th u .<■ ■ bullied by 
the persistence of this *reat shief. When Proctoi 
was about to retreat to the Thames L'ecumsoh, hav- 
ing penetrated his designs. looked upon the British 
Commander with scorn The manner of th i 
of the chief will, probably, eve'- remain unseti 
The Prophet, who accompanied the renegade oi 



uees trader the lead of Tecnmseh to the British -••rv- 
ico in Canada, after the war re urn • 1 I • Wap . i 
Dmitri, and went W ■ ■- f the Mississippi, with a largo 
number of hip tribe, in 182S, ind died, in 1833, in 
Kansas, with vhoh ra 

By a treaty, held at the Maumee Rapids, in 1817, 
by Gen. Lewis Cass and Duncan McArthur, the 
Shawnees were given a reservation around Wnpako. 
netta, in the nameof Blackhoof, anil along Hog Creek 
often miles square.and in L81S. at the treaty of St. 
Mary's twenty five square miles, to be so Laid o it 
that Wapakonetta should be the center. At the same 
treaties, the Shawnees and Senecas in what is now 
Logan County, in and around Levvistown, received n 
reser\ati''ii of forty square D:iles. The founder of 
the latter village is believed to have been the chief 
John Lewis, who married Mary, the Indian sister of 
the captive Jonathan Alder. The Shawnees continued 
to reside on these reservations until their liual re- 
moval west of the Mississippi. X<>ne of the band of 
Tecnmseh was included in the sehedule of names ap- 
pealed in the treaty of 1817 at the Maumee Rapids, 
nor at St. Mary's. They had forfeited all right to 
protection by the- Government of the United States, 
having joined the British in 1812. 

As the Wapakonetta band was. at the time of re- 
moval, within the limits of Allen County, the names 
uf the Shawnees of that reservation are as follows: 
" Qua-tu-wa-pee, or Capt. Lewis, of Lewistown, forty 
square miles. Tracts at Wapakonetta divided among 
the following: Blaekhoof, Pam-thee or Walker, 
Pea seca or Wolf, Shem-an-itaor Snake, Athel-wak- 
e-se ca or Yellow Clouds, Pem-thew-tew or John 
Perry, Ca ca-lawa or End of the Tail. Quada-we War 
Chief, Sa-ca-ehew a, We-rew e-la. Wa-sa-we-tah or 
Bright Horn, Otha-ra-sa or Yellow. Tep-ete-seea 
New-a-he tuc-ca. Ca-awar icho, Wa-eat-ehew-a. Silo- 
cha-he-ca, Tapea or Sanders. Me-she-raw-ah. Todea- 
pea, Poe-he-eaw. Aiowe meta-huck or Lalloway or 
Perry, Wa-wel-atne. Ne-me-cashe, Ne-ru-pene-she- 
qnah or Cornstalk. Shi-she, She-a law-he, Xam-ska- 
ka, Wa-cas-ka or David McXair, Sha-pu-ka-ha. Qua- 
co-wuw-nee, Neco-sheou, Tku-cu-setl or Jim Blue 
Jacket, Cho-welas-eca, Qua -ha-ho, Kay-keteh he-ka 
or William Perry. Sew-a-pen, Peetah or Davy Baker, 
Ska-poa wah or George McDougal, Che-po ca-ra. 
She-ma or Sam. Che-a-has-ka or Captain Tommy. 
General Wayne. Tha-way, Ohawee, We arc eah. 
Captain Reed, Law-ay-tn cheh or John Wolf, Te-eu- 
tie or George, Ske-ka-cump-ske-kaw Wish-e maw, 
Muy-way-mano treka. Quas kee. Thos-wa, Bap tis-te, 
May we-ali-upo. Perea-Cumme, Chock-kedake oi 
Dam. Kewa-pea.Ega-ta oum-she-qua, Wal-upe, Aqua- : 
she qua, Pemata, Nepaho, Tap-e-3he-ka, La-tbo way- 
no ma. Saw a-co-tu or Yellow Clouds, Mem-his-he-ka 

Ash-. -In kah, hip w-ih. Tha-pae-ca, Chu-ca tub, 
Na-ka-ke ka, Thil hue cu In. Pe la oul he, Pe-!as-ke, 
She sho Ion. Qaan a co, Hal !. »o ba, Laugh-she-na, 
Cap a wah Ethe wa ca .-• Qn i he thu, Ca-pia, Th i a 
trou wah or i'i- Man Going Up Hill, Mag-a-thu, !'■• 
cum-te-qua, Tete-co patha, Kek-us-the, Sheat-wah, 
Sheale-war-son. Hagh-ke-la, Aka-pee i>v Heap Up 
Anything. Lamo-to-the, Kasha. Pan-hoar Poaitch 
tham tali or Peter Cornstalk, Capoa, Shua-gunme, 
Wa-wal-ep-es-shec-co, Cale-qua. Teto-tu, Tas ins bee. 
Nawe-bes-he co or White Feather, She-per kis co she 
no-te kah. She-makih, Pss-he-to Theat-she-ta, Mil- 
ham et ehe, Cha-cba, Lawath ska, Pa-che-tah, Away- 
baris-ke-caw, Hato-cuino, Tho-mas-hes-haw-kah, Pe- 
pa-co-she, Os-has-he, Quel-co-shu, Me-with-a-quin, 
Aguepoh, Qnellime." The foregoing contains the 
names of all males at Wapakonetta in I s 17. being 
120. Each person was allowed about rive hundred 
aeivs. and if the iribe had remained and 
ized farmers, and cultivated their lands, would have 
been a wealthy people by this time. 


In the year 1831, Hon. John McElvain. Indian 
Agent for the Shawnees and Senecas of Ohio, was 
instructed by the Department at Washington to ap- 
proach those tribes on the question of disposing of 
their reservations ana removal west of the Missouri, 
and it was done through fames B Gardneras Special 
Commissioner. The Shawnees had put little confi- 
dence in the integrity of Mr. Gardner, ana entered 
into the proposed consultation with reluctance. Col. 
John Johnston, of Piqua, the old agent, who had 
served the Shawnees and other tribes included in Lis 
agency for over thirty years, had been removed by 
the President in consequence of his political opin- 
ions. This greatly grieved the Shawnees. for they 
had formed a very warm attachment for the old agent. 
He had been an honest, faithful and conscientious 
officer, and managed his department, with strict econ- 
omy and uprightness. During his official career he 
had handled vast sums of Government money, and 
never applied a dollar to private uses above his regu- 
lar compensation. He did not speculate, as is the 
modern custom, in spoiled beef, nor submit to be sub- 
sidized by venal speculators in provisions, goods or 
furs, notwithstanding whi.-h, such was the heat of 
party rancor that t n< ■ President removed him ;,:,.'( ap- 
pointed a partisan in hi- place. 

The S cietj of Friends, at a very considerable ex- 
pense, introduced farming among the Shawnee-, 
built a grist and saw mill at Wapakonetta. when Col. 
Johnson was made the almoner of a female Friend in 
Ireland to the amonni if £100 sterling, to be ex 
pended in stock and implera ints of agriculture am >i / 



the Indians of hi- agency, which trust was faithfully 
executed. Vets such as the preceding, with the ac 
counts transmitted through the Delawares of the just 
ami humane government of the Quakers in i' i - . 
rani a toward the primitive I 3. had made them 

repose great confidence in personsof their society. By 
such acts the Shawnees were induced upon the paths 
of civilization, and had made fair progress in clear- 
ing, improving and cultivating their reservations. 

At that, time (1881) a large proportion of them 
were living in good log cabins, surrounded by culti- 
vated fields and orchards, and were in possession of 
horses, cattle and swine in large numbers. They 
were peaceful in their intercourse with the whites, 
and had commenced to educate their children in the 
Quaker schools. In the midst of their prosperity and 
peace, Commissioner Gardner sent a message to the 
Shawnees at Wapakonetta, informing them that he 
would be there in a few days to make proposals for 
the purchase of their lands. This was the first in- 
timation of the kind that had reached their ears since 
they had entered upon their reservations, which the 
Government and declared they should occupy fur an 
indefinite tenn of rears. The message greatly sur- 
prised and alarmed them, for they had always dreaded 
such a contingency, guided by the history of the 
past, though they did nor expect it so soon, having 
been so repeatedly assured by the Government that 
they should forever remain r.pon and own their 
lauds, without being molested by any one. Having 
full faith in the guarantees of the Government, they 
had been induced to improve their lands and change 
their mode and manner of life. The message of 
Gardner produced great confusion of mind and un- 
certainty of purpose. The chiefs consulted their 
Quaker friends, as to the proper steps to be taken. 
It seemed almost incredible that the Government in- 
tended to thrust aside the plighted faith of the 
nation, and dispossess this handful of helpless Indians 
of so small a tract of land. Their Quaker friends 
advised them to refuse to sell or part with their lands. 
In the meantime, the traders and others having 
claims on the Indians demanded immediate payment, 
and commenced offering the chiefs large bribes to 
induce them to sell, expecting to get their dues iu 
that way, regardless of the fate of the poor Indians. 
In this way, the advice of the Quakers was over- 
looked, and the Indians induced to part with their 
improvements and wild lands-. In a few days, 
Gardner notified the chiefs to meet him on a fixed 
day at Wapakonetta, and from that time until his ar- 
rival the utmost, confusion, grief and alarm prevailed 
among the Shawnees. The head men met him in 
general council, when, through a new interpreter. 
Gardner delivered a long harangue, "describing the 

! mlties in the way of taxati >n, making ro id and 
the like, that won' about to overtake fchein; advertii » 
to the fact, also, that mean white men would - n o 
ruin them with bad whisky; tb it white men ". >uld 
collect debts from them under their laws by sen Dg 
property, while an Indian's oath would amount to 
ing; that white men would turn their horses in 
the Indian's grain held, and Indians he beaten hy 
white men without remedy; and in this way continued 
to alarm their fears until he had produced a desire in 
hi.-, hearers to remove to the wilds of Kansas where 
they could feast on buffaio, elk and other wild game 
without working as the whites did. If they would 
consent to sell their lands and g> VVest the Great 
Father, President Jackson, would make th >m rich iu 
a new and splendid country, which would never be 
within the limits of any State, where they could live 
bv hunting! (How fallacious!) If they would sell 
their reservations in Ohio, the Government would 
wive them 100,000 acres of beautiful land, adjoin ng 
the tract of fifty miles square which Gov. Clark, of 
Missouri, had ceded to their Shawnee brethren in 
1825. and upon which th->y were now living, an i for 
which the Government would make them a gen rai 
warranty deed, in fee simple, forever; and forth r 
proposed that if they would part with their lands, 
thev should have all that they could be sold for. over 
and above the cost of surveying and selling them, 
and the cost of removing an 1 feeding 'hem at their 
new homes, for one year after their arrival in that 
country, and as their friend . the Quakers, had 
erected a grist mill and saw mill Tor them at Wapa- 
konetta. free of cost, the United States would build. 
at their own expense, good mills in their new coun- 
trv. in lieu of those they had iu Ohio, and pay the 
Indians in cash the amount of what good men mighl 
adjudge their improvements to be worth, to enable 
them to improve their new homes, and that they 
should have new guns, and tools of every description, 
and all their lands would tiring over lb cents per acre 
the Indians should have, which would be placed in 
the United Stages Treasury, and five per cent interest 
paid them annually until they desired to draw the 
whole sum. " 

This address greatly divided the Shawnees; tho*e 
having improvements desired to remain, while the 
idle and dissipated, influenced by the bribes a id 
whisky of the trader?, desired to setfl and remove, i 1 
were largely in the majority. After considering bha 
matter a few days. word, was conveyed, by a few of 
the chiefs to the Commissioner at Columbus, to 
on and dose the contract. He attended, as requested, 
and renewed the sameoffer as before, and urge 1 I 
to sell, saying they should listi n to the white pe 
because thev were wiser than the red people, ae 'hoy 



were wiser than the blacks. Way-wel-eap; a noted 
chief and orator of the Shawnees, replied to Mr. 
Gardner on the difference of the races in mental cs 
citv. and " denied thai the Gre t Spirit had made 
anv mental distinction between thi white, the red and 
the black people. He thought the Great Spirit had 

create.! all men alike, of the same M 1; bnt ii be 

did, as his friend, Mr Gardner had said, create them 
so very different that one race was so much superior 
to the others, how had he found out thai it was his 
own race that was so much wiser than others? He 
thought, if there was any difference it was very likely 
that it was the Indians who had the m - r -<m-H given 
them." He then said the Shawnees had agreed to 
sell their lands if he (Gardner') would give the 
amount offered at the former council, and. in addi- 
tion, would pav their debts — which was common in 
Indian treaties. The Commissioner -aid he would 
have an additional clause attached to the sale, " bind- 
ing thp Government to pay ill their debts.'''' and leave 
the chiefs to determine the ju-t amount of their in 
debtedness, and *' 'I" Gov< rnn ' vnuld pay it out of 
its own money." Th^ chiefs then formally signed the 
treaty, without having it read prior to doing so. 

In interpreting the new sale, they were terribly 
deceived. Gardner had refused to employ the old 
French interpreter, Francis DuChequate, who under- 
stood the Shawnee tongue perfectly, and had long 
been an employe of Col. John Johnston. What 
motives actuated the new Commissioner it is difficult 
to determine. When the Indians finally obtained a 
copy from the department at Washington, they found 
that they had been grossly deceived and wronged. 

While these consultations were being held at 
Wapakouetta. the L.-wistown Shawnees became great- 
ly troubled and confused. Th >y were tilled with ap- 
prehensions for the future, and sent for their old 
friend and adopted son. Jonathan Alder. They sent 
him special word, and desired him to come up ini- 
mediatelv. " He rode to the village, and they said 
they were about to sell their reserve, and. if he 
wished. they would give him a portion of the land. 
The Indians thought, perhaps, they could give him 
about one mile square. They had offered him land a 
number of times before that, pr vide 1 he would come 
and live on it: but. as he had lived a long 1 time with 
them and thought he would rather live among his 
white neighbors, anil did \\<^ wish to raise his family 
in their midst. be had declined their offeTs: but now, 
as they were going to sell, they thought they would 
give him s.,me land, to which they thought he was 
justly entitled They had always contended that he 
was entitled to a portion of the reserve, as the Gov- 
ernment had failed to give hire any land. They said 
that in two weeks thev would have a meeting to 

.act btwiness, and there would be a motion to 
strike off a part "i the reserve for him. and that, i > 
this end, all the male Shawnees would be perraitti i 
to v ! . and tin ; desired him to be present. He re- 

ned a few days, visiting with his old friends, and 
then returned home. In the course of a month he 

in visited th.> village, and was informed th il a 
moti a to strike off a pori-ion of land to him had 
been put, and failed. The Indians had debated and 
parleyed over it for two weeks, and the young men 
who had grown up since he had left the Shawnee.,, 
and knew nothing about him. had nearly all voted 
against the measure, and defeated it. Old Shawnees 
Boated, however, that a resolution to give him laud 
beyond the Missouri had been adopted unanimously 
on the condition that he would go with them our. but 
they did not ask him to settle it until it suited him 
self and children. He reflected over the matter, and 
concluded that their reserve was so distant it would 
never do himself or children any jood, and declined 
to go as proposed." 

In this manner, the tail and winter of 1831-32 
were spent in fruitless parleys. Gardner, in the 

g of 1832, pressed the sale of their lands \- 
hasty issue. The chiefs hesitated to sign thetransfer 
(desiring to pay all their just debts) until Gardner 
attached a special provision for that purpose to the 
treaty. In the meantime, the tra lers secured a rec >g 
a: - on of all their pretended and just debts, and a 
bond for §20,000 was drawn up an 1 signed, acknowl- 
ed 'incr the justness of their claims against the 
nation (?), which bond was indorsed by the Commis- 
sioner, and the books containing their claims were 
publicly burned. Almost as soon as the treaty was 
closed, it was rumored that they hail been badly 
cheated, and that the bond just given would be pai 1 
out of the result of the sales of their reserve, instead 
of. as they supposed, by the Government. Upi m 
learning the truth concerning the matter. John 
Perry, an aged and influential chief, wept like a 
child, and declared that his people " were ruined." 

A delegation immediately visited Washington 
City, to see Gen. Lewis Cass, then at the head of the 
department, concerning the sale. Upon procuring a 
copy of the treaty, their fear- were fully realized. 
The debts due the traders, the charge of erecting new 
mills and other expenses were all to be deducted < ; i 
from the proceeds of the sales of their lands, and the 
President declined to rescind the treaty and feci ;■ 
the 'wrong that had been perpetrated! An estimate 
of the value of their property was made, and it was 
shown that Gardner had actually wronged them nit 
of §120.000. <Teu. Vance, then a Member of G u 
gress. npon the refusal of the department to grant 
redress, made application to Congress, stating the r 



losses at 8100,000; but finally McDuffy. of South 
Carolina, reported a bill for §30.000 in fifteen annual 
payments, for their Ohio lands. The amount oi 
lands ceded about Wapakonetta, 06.000 acres, and 
40,300 acres at (jewistown, which, at §2 per acre, 
would amount to the sum of $212,600; but including 
their improvements, mills, etc., were probably worth 
double that amount. Yot, we are gravely told flint 
the United States has fully pain for every foot of 
land purchased of the Indians in Ohio! Is thereto 
be no day of retribution'; no day of settlement? 

At that time, the Shawnees had large numl — of 
cattle, horses, hogs and other property, which they 
could not take with them. They sold most of their 
cattle, hogs and other property, and purchased cloth 
ing. wagons, guns and provisions, and settled their 
private debts with their neighbors and got ready to 
leave: but their annuity of §3,000 was not paid until 
November, l'83'J, and the consequence war. that they 
suffered greatlv for food during the winter of 1831— 


The time for their removal arrived, and David 
Robb and D. XL Workman were appointed Sub- j 
agents for their removal. For some months before ! 
their tiual departure, the young men of the Shawnees, i 
and the middle-aged who had not abandoned theii j 
old customs, were engaged in a round of dissipation 
brought on by the mean tricks of wicked traders to i 
cheat the Indians out of every dollar's worth of prop- I 
erty they could obtain Whisky, that bane of the j 
Indian, was largely distributed among the Indians by j 
traders: in fact, all decency was violated by the I 
wretches who dealt in tire- water. The better portion : 
of the Shawnees were engaged, for weeks, in relit:- : 
ions ceremonies, dances aud amusements prepara- j 
tory to their departure. They carefully leveled the ! 
graves of their dead, and removed all traces of the j 

Hon. John Mellvain accompanied the Lewistown 
Indians, and James B. Gardner those of Wapakonetta. 
The route was by way of Greenville, Richmond and , 
Indianapolis. The Indians commenced to assemble 
in September, 1S32, and mount -1 their horses, and 
such as had wagons seated themselves, while the Gov- I 
ernment teams hauled their provisions and clothing. 
Many of them bade a sad adieu to the hunting- 
grounds and graves of their fathers. It was a country 
dear to the Shawnee. Then- braves had me* Harmar. 
St. Clair and Wayne, and fought bravely to retain it. 
Now. the pale face was to be the owner, and cared not 
at. their departure. They could only look to the 
Great Spirit for preservation and future protection. 
Al! things being ready, their "High Priest" in 
front, like the Leaders in ancient Israel, "bearing the 

ark of the iovenant," consistingof a large gourd 
<'.'■ '^ '.: is of a deer's leg tied to his neck, led the wav 
Just as they started, the priest gave a " blasl of Ins 
trumpet." again indicative of the ori fin of the Sh ■, 
nees, and then moved slowly and solemnly nl<>r>", 
while the whole nation followed in like manner until 
they were ordered to halt and encamp in the &v> aing; 
when the priest gave another blast, as a signal to 
stop, erect tents and cook supper The same course 
was observed throughout the entire journey. The 
Shawnees who emigrated numbered 700 souls and 
the Senecas who emigrated at the same time. .:."■<> 
When they arrived at Greenville, the) encamped at 
Tecumseh's point, and remained a da or two to take 
a final farewell of that place, so dear to tkwr me - 
ries as the home of their fathers and the scene of no 
many Indian assemblies and heroic exploits They 
had before them a journey of over eight hundred 
miles, across the open prairies, in an uninhabited 

About one-fifth" of the tribe remained at Wttpali 
netta and among the Wyandot- at Upper Sandus 
until the spring of IS: 1 ,:! The Indians arrived -it 
their new home about Christmas, IS32. Gardner 
accompanied them to the Mississippi and turned back 
when JosephParks, a half-blood Quaker, who lnd tin- 
job of removing them, conducted then: safely to their 

new home. They at once pr led ' raise cabins, 

split rails and make fence-,, but were very short of 
provisions, and had to depend largely upon such 
zame as thev could find. The bcffaio. so glo'winglv 
described by Gardner, were not there! What a sad 
joke to the poor Indian! How faithless have tricky 
white men always been toward the red man! Is ir a 
matter of surprise that the Indian should resent it ? 
Tbeir first crops- were raised in 1S33-IV4, prior to 
which they -uttered a good deal with cholera and the 
diseases of the country. New mills were erected, but 
not. as promised, at the Government expeDse <'.). but 
out of their money! In these troubles they were 
greatlv relieved by the good Quakers, win. again 
established schools among them, and endeavored ' • 
teach them the arts of civilized life: in which they 
made rapid progress, and soon became rtirrouEi+ed 
with the comforts resulting from an agricultural lite 
Just prior to and at the time of the removal of 
the Shawnees. a number of very noted chiefs resided 
at their principal towns —Wapakonetta Shawneetown 
and Lewistown — and ir will be interesting to give a 
short sketch of each. 


The most notedchief was the venerable Blackhi of, 

Cut the we-ka-snw. in the raid-, upon Kentucky some 
tii ies called Blackfoot. He is believed So have been 



b-.rn in Florida, and. at the period r,f the removal of 
a portion of the Shawnees to Ohio and Pei nsylvania, 

was old enough to recoil* i having 1 o bathed in 

the sail water. He was present, with others of his 

tribe, at the defeat of (tea. Braddock, near Pitts- 
burgh iu 1755. and was engaged in all the war-- in 
Ohio from that time until the treaty of Greenville, 
in 1795. He was known, far and wide, as the great 
Shawnee warrior, whose cunning, sagacitj and ex- 
perience were only equaled by the force an t desper- 
ate bravery with which he carried into operation his 
military plans. He was the inveterate foe of the 
white man. and held that no peace should be made, 
nor negotiation attempted, except on the condition 
that the whites should repass the mountains, and 
leave the great plains of the West to the sole oo 
cupancy of the red men. "He was the orator of the 
tribe during the greater part of his long life, and is 
said to have been an excellent speaker. Col. John 
Johnston says he was probably in more battles than 
any living man 'it his day. and was the most grace- 
ful Indian he had ever seen, and possessed the most 
natural and happy faculty of expressing his ideas. 
He was well versed in the traditions of his pa i .■■ 
and no one understood '>etter their relations to the 
whites, whose settlements were gradually pressing 
them back, and could detail, with minuteness, the 
wrongs indicted by the whites on his people. He 
remembered having talked with some of the aged 
chiefs who had been present at the treaty with Will- 
iam Peuu in iu>_. He fought the battles against 
Harmar. St. Clair and Wayne, hoping to retain their 
country, but when Unally defeated, in 17 l J4. he tie- 
cided that further resistance was useless, and signed 
the treaty of Greenville, in 1795, and continued 
faithful to its stipulations until his decease, which 
occurred in the summer of 1831, at Wapakonetta, at 
the advanced age of one hundred and twenty years. 
In an interview with the late Col. George C. John- 
ston, of Piqua, Ohio, in 137-4. he informed the writer 
that he was in Wapakonetta at the time of his death 
and attended his burial, which he describes as fol- 
lows: " The Shawnees never bury their dead until 
the sun is in the tree tops, iate in the afternoon. On 
such occasions, they generally select s;x pall-bearers, 
who carry the corpse to the grave and place it there- 
in, the grave being two and a half or three feet deep. 
"When the chief Blaekhoof was buried, in 1831, it 
was m the Indian maauei-. Tie corpse was wraoped 
in a clean, new Indian blanket, and a large quantity 
of new fine goods, consisting of calico, belts and rib- 
bons, were placed about the deceased, who was laid 
upon a new, clean slab, prepared for the purpose; 
his gun, tomahawk, knife ancl pipe- were bv his side. 
All the Indians present were in .ie"p distress, having 

tl sit cloaks hanging Loosely about them, their hair 
d wn on their sh >uld >re, and were painted after the 
. ient manner. Hie chiefs sat about smoking, look 
ing in solemn silence upon the remains of the gri 
chief, who had led the tribe for nearly one hundred 
years, had been their faithful counselor in peace and 
war; had been present at Braddock's defeat, seventy- 
six years before, and for nearly a century had been 
in all the expeditions against the 'Long Knives.' 
In front of his wigwam was a large quantity of mi i I 
from wild animals, the result of a two daj s' chase bj 
the young warriors selected for that purpose. It was 
in a pile, handsomely stacked and guarded. When 
the time came to proceed to the grave, six young 
warriors stepped Eorward and arranged the cloths 
neatly about the body, then placing large straps be- 
neath ;t. took hold of the ends and started directly 
to the grave. The family of Blaekhoof preceded the 
reaoiii.s. then can. e the chiefs who were- to succeed 
him. and then the warriors and others. The grave 
was about three feet deep, a puncheon being placed 
in the bottom and one on each side, twelve or four- 
teen inches wide, constituting a sort of rude coffin 
The body was placed in it, and the clothing which 
bad last been worn by him was laid upon the body 
and his old moccasins, cut in;o snips, were thrown 
down also. No arms or implements were placed in 
the grave. An ither puncheon, some three or four 
inches thick, was placed over him as a lid to the 
coflin. John Perry, a venerable and leading chief, 
took some smaij seeds or vegetable powder ir<m a 
cloth, and, beginning at the left shoulder of the 
corpse and walking carefully around the grave, 
sprinkled the same as he went until he reached the 
place of beginning. When tai> was .lone, he started 
on the path leading to the wigwam, and was folio". . .1 
by all present, except those who were left to clo^e the 
grave. They all moved off in single tile, one after 
another, none looking back. Upon their return, 
smoking and conversation commenced, after which 
the feast began. The meats were consumed, and all 
the warriors returned to the wigwam or cabins, 
Blaekhoof is said to have been opposed to poiygamv 
and the practice of burning prisoners. He lived 
forty years with one wife, raising a large familv of 
children, who both los-ed and respected him. He was 
small iu stature — not more than five feet eight inches 
in height. He was favored with good health and 
!;i' ; :up'.:ivd eyesight to thy period of his death."' 

Quasky, his eldest son, was the saoetssor to Black 
hoof. He possessed many of the qualities of his dis 
tinguisbed father He went West with his people in 
1832, and was living in lSo3, He like his father, 
was a line speaker. 

Blue Jacket. This rhief. it will be remembered, 


commanded the Indian army at the battle of " Fallen 
Timber," in 1794, and with mucdi reluctance signed the 
treaty with Wayne, at Greenville, in 1795. Howas 
very bitter in !.;• feelings toward the " Long Ki ives." 
who were rapidly settling upon the lands that Con . ir- 
ly belonged to the red man. His feelings were quite 
as intense as those of Tecumseh. though he did not 
possess his abilities for org n As a matterof 

prudence, he did not join Teeninseb in the war of 
1812. He i- supposed to have died at the Ottawa 
village, down th>' Atiglaize, just prior to the treaty of 
Maumee Rapids io. 1817. It appears that Gens. Cass 
and JIcArthur, in that treaty made provision for ins 
family at Wapakonetta, in which James, George and 
Charles Bluejacket received each about one thousand 
acres in the reservation. 

Bock-ong-a-he-las. This noted old Delaware 
chief mixed much with the Shawnees. He is sup- 
posed to have been born aeaa Philadelphia. Penn . a 
few years' after the treaties with Penn, and when he 
lived on the Auglaize was well advanced in age, In 
colonial days with Jae ibs and otlier leading Delawares, 
he resided in Western Pennsylvania, and is believed 
to have been identified with the " Shingess," who en- 
tertained Washington, when a youngtnan, in 17":; 
Shingess was an active warrior when Fort Du Quesne 
was taken in 175'J. Heekewelder speaks of meeting 
him at the Tosearora town on the Muskingum as 
early as 1760. As early as 1704. Kin:: Beaver, who 
was a brother of Bock-ong a-ke-Ias, was met by Gen. 
Gibson, at the mouth of Big Beaver. Just what time 
he settled in Western Ohio is not kuown. At die 
capture of Col. Hardin. ftlaj. Truman and others, in 
1792, as bearers of a flag of truce from Washington. 
after having treacherously murdered Hardin, the In- 
dians arrived near the Indian town of Auglaize and 
reported to the old chief, " who was very sorry they 
had killed the men, and said, instead of so doing they 
should have brought them alon;j to the Indian towns, 
and then, if what they had to say had not been liked, 
it would have been time enough to have killed them. 
Nothing could justify them for putting them to 
death, as there was no chance for them to escape." 
This chief fought against Harmar, St. Clair and 
Wayne. He signed the treaty of 1795. He must 
have been over one hundred years old. He died at 
the Ottawa village on the Auglaize in 1804. 

The next noted chief was Way-wel ea-py, who was 
the principal speaker among the Shawnee^ at the 
period of their removal. He was an eloquent orator, 
grave, gay or humorous us occasion required. At 
times his manner i-. said, to have been quite fascinat 
ing, his countenance u o full of varied expression, 
and his voice so musical, that surveyors and other 
strangers passing through theconntry listened to him 

with delight, although the words fell upon their ears 
in an unknown language. During the negotiation 
for the sale of their reserve, be addressed his people 
• .i Mr. Gardner several times. His refutation of 
Gardner's assumed superiority over the Indian race 
was complete, and full of irony. Col. George C. 
.Johnston often met this chief it hi-- trading post in 
Wapakonetta, and says he was fine-looking and cul 
tivated tic- friendship of the pioneers. He was tin 
principal speaker of the Shawnees, and delivered the 
opinions of the tribe at treaties and public assem- 
blies. Ho removed West with his tribe, whore he 
died in L843. 

Lollaway, John Perry, head chief of the Shaw- 
nees, often traded af the station of Col. Johnston 
Ho signed the treaty of 1'831, at Wapakonetta. He 
could converse fluently in English. He was a man 
of influence witb his tribe, and of good habits. He 
was much priced when he learned that the Shawnees 
had been deceived as to the value of their reserva 
tious. He went West in 1.832, anil died in 1S43 

Va tho-the-we-Ia, or Bright Hem. was another 
noted chief, who was present when Logan was mortal 
ly wounded in the contest with Winemae in 1812, and 
was severely wounded in the thigh in the same tight, 
but recovered, and lived at Wapakonetta. He was, 
with Bluckhoof. the especial friend of Gen, Harrison 
in the war of 1812. He was a brave man, and of 
sound integrity. He fought like a hero for our cans • 
in the war- of 1812. He was a large and commanding 
iiLOian in appearance, and »!-.» quit* >LicwJ iuu ..■ 
teiligent. He died in 1826, at Wapakonetta. 

La-wa tucheh, John Wolf, was a Shawnee of 
some note. Col. John Johnston, hired of him a trad- 
ing hcuse at Wapakonetta and he often accompanied 
the Colonel on his trading trips in the forest, among 
the different tribes He died at Wapakonetta. 

Henry Clay, son of Capt. Wolf, was educated, un- 
der the supervision of Col. John Johnston, at Upper 
Piqua, at the expense of the Quaker Friends. Ho 
afterward became a leading chief, and married the 
daughter of Hon. Jeremiah JIcLain, formerly a mem- 
ber of Congress from the Columbus district, in 183!} 
He was named after the Hon. Henry Clay, of Ken 
tucky. and was a man of considerable talent, and lived 
many years after his removal to Kansas. 

Peter Cornstalk was a chief of some distinction. 
He i? believed to have been a son of the celebrated 
chief Cora talk of Chillicothe, who was assassinated 
at Point Pleasant, Va His home was down the Au 
glaize. He was a large, fine-looking Indian, an 1 a 
man of honor. He often visited the trading post, 
and became a warm friend of the whits. He was 
married, and went W est with Elsquatawa, the Proph 
et. in 1828. He had a brother named Neru-pen-ea- 


he quah, who went West in 1832. Died about 1843. 

i ; ,. older stock of Shawn i i have nearly all been 
called tothe happy hunting-grounds Ihej were a 
l>r:i-. e race. 

T; is proper to observe that th" Hog Creek, or 
Ottawa band, did not rem >ve i:i \^'-'l. They removed 
in th'- summer of 1833, and escaped many of the 
hardships the Wapakouetta and Lewisl >wn bands en 
dured the first winter, in erecting cabins and in pre- 
paring fields for crop? in the spring if 1833. Jo 
Park?, of Shawneetown, where the ild council house 
yet stands, got the contract for removing this people. 
The band is given in Shawnee Township. They ar- 
rived in safety, undei bis lead, in 1833. Tiie Shaw- 
nees raised but l'ttle in 1833, and suffered much the 
first winter. The good Quakers were active in their 
efforts to furnish all necessary aid. 

In 1854, the Shawm as numbered about 900 souls; 
thi- included the white men who have intermarried 
with the nation, and are adopted as Indians. Tho 
Shawuees own about 1,600,000 acres of laud, which 
gives about 1,700 acres each. The\ now have good 
dwelling houses, provided with good furniture, which 
is kept in good order by their females. They live in 
the same manner as the whites, and quite as well. 
They have stables, corn-cribs, barns and other build- 
ings; horses, cattle, ho^'s aud sheep; wagons and oseu, 
carriages and buggies: farm implements, plows, har- 
rows and hoes. There is abundance of wheat, corn, 
oats aud hay raised, and all are contented and happy. 

Still, the white man craves their lands! In iMI, 
after mueh intrigue and cunning, they were asked by 
the Department to part with 1,000,000 acres of their 
reserve! "Forever," by the pale faces, means until 
the white man can again wrong the rod man! 
Treaties last just that long, and no longer. 

The home of the Shawnee:, is in Southern Kansas, 
along Mill Creek, Bull Creek. Wakarusa and tb< r 
tributaries. The settlements are along the Blue .- l 
Osage Rivers, and are made up of splendid lands, and 
make very desirable homes. They sow a large 
amount of grain each year, and spare a large surplus, 
after supplying their own wants. They raise large 
numbers of cattle, and are quite successful as farmers. 
It will be seen, then, that these red men have fully- 
adopted th" white man's ideas of civilization. M.r, 
they ever prosper. 

With these reflections, we conclude the history of 
the Shawnees and their residence in Ohio. In a few 
years, there will be no more Shawnees, and, we fear, 
very few red men left on the continent. 

" Did we not own this glorious land, 

Each mountain, lake and river ? 
Were they not from fli> sat red hand 

Our heritage forever? 
Where torabs arise and harvests wave, 

Our children used to -Tray ; 
We cannot rind our fathers' grave* — 

Our fathers ! where are they '! 
Like snow before His fiery glance, 

Our tribes ire swept away." 



DURING the Revolutionary war, an expedition 
was fitted out at Detroit, under command of Col. 
Byrd. consisting of 600 men, including Indians and 
Canadians, with two pieces of artillery, to attack 
Louisville and drive back the white settlers from 
Kentucky. The artillery aud baggage were trans- 
ported by water up the Mauruee and .St. .Marys, across 
the portage, and thence down the .Miami to the Ohio. 
On arriving at the Ohio, the contemplated attack on 
Louisville was abandoned, and the expedition crossed 
over into Kentucky, and proceeded up the Licking 
River, and on tho morning of the 22d or June, I^m), 
appeared ,before "Ruddles Station," a stockaded 
fort, announcing their arrival by disci arge of cannon 
and summons to surrender. The formidable and un 
expected force which they presented intimidated the 
garrison, and it immediately surrendered under the 

promises of being protected from the Indians. This 
promise, however, was shamefully violated, and the 
prisoners were all massacred. A small stockade, 
twenty miles distant, called " Bryant's Station,"' was 
likewise taken by the same force, and the whole re- 
gion thrown into the utmost consternation. On ac- 
count of a disagreement between the British and lu- 
dians. the force disbanded before the summer wa-> 
over, and each returned their own way to the lakes 
— the Indians well laden with spoil. 

A similar force underc unmandof Gen. Hamilton, 
passed up the Maumee, and on down the Wabash, the 
same season, with the design of preventing the 
French posts on the Lower "Wabash aud Southern Illi- 
nois from falling into the hands of the Americans, This 
force was unlucky, having been surrendered to Gen. 
Clark, of Kentucky, at \ incennes. The British 



troops were suffered to return to Detroit, but thoir 
co '.-lit: I as placed .;i irons, and sent to V'irgiaia, 
charged with >'. "• ng instigated the Indiana to the 
greates( b charities agaiust the whites. 

The British retained their p >sts and command in 
Michigan I d the Maumee, disregarding the 

treatv of lT s : J ,. until after Wayne's victory. wheD they 
withdrew b yon 1 the takes. 

The transportation business on the e streams was. 
even in that earh day. an organized balling, p ssibly 
after a rude fashion, and we ma} suppose that these 
troops, their munitions and supplies, were passed 
alon^ the rivers and ovei portages by contract or ar- 
rangement with associations or local tribes much as 
Buch transactions are accomplished l>y the Vander- 
bilts, Fisks and Garretts of our advanced civilization 

At Defiance was then a stockade in the intere-t of 
the British, for protection of their traders and as a 
relay for messengers and places of rest and refresh- 
ment of troops on the march. The ex| 'edition above 
mentioned while passing out and back, doubtless 
halted at the ** Point " to admire, to rest and partake 
of the abundance which tradition ever ascribed to i 
this locality. 


A.u Glaive, and Grand Glaize were names given 
by'the French to this place; and it is known by these 
names in all written and historical ace >unts relating j 
to it, prior to the erection of Fort Defiance, by An- 
thony Wayne, in August, 179-1. 

One E these early historical accounts speaks ot a 
great council of all the Indian tribes being heid at 
Au Glaize. in ! »ctober, 1792, and says it was the 
largest Indian council of the times That the chiefs 
of all the tribes of the Northwest were hi-re. and rep- 
resentatives of the Seven Nations of Canada, and of ' 
Twenty-seven Nations beyond Canada, that Corn- 
planter and forty-eight chiefs of the Six Nations of j 
New York repaired thither. That three men of the 
Gora Nat'ions were in attendance, whom it took a 
whole season to get there. "Besides these," says I 
Curnplanter, "there were so many nations we cannot 
tell the names of them." 

The question of peace or. war was long and ear- 
nestly discussed, the chiefs of the Shawnees being 
for war, and Red Jacket, the Seneca chief, for peace. 

This convention represented a larger territory 
than any convention we have an account of before 
or since, being held ou the American Continent. It 
seems to have been a natural intuition that led the red 
men of the forest to see that this was the strategic 
center of North America. And when the " .Monroe 
Doctrine" shall extend our National Domain from 
the Arctic Circle to the Isthmus of Darien, we will ex- 
pect a like appreciation by the modern white men of generation In the year 1782, a remnant of the 
Moravian Christian Indians took refuge at 1>> dance 
liter ihe massacre on the Muskingum. The good 

i- s.wn In th^s,. christians at that early 

day may in pari account for thf estimable habits and 
character of those Delawares, with whom yoi 
Bricked made In?, home, whilst in captivity; as 
well as for the Christian virtues that afterward dis 
fcinguished so many living in that vicinity. 

Bluejacket, a noted war chief of the Shawnees, 
who held a commission as Brigadier General in the 
English Army, with a village of his people, was living 
on the east side of the Auglaize, and one mile from 
its mouth, in 1794. But Wayne's triumphal march 
here and victory, on the 20th of August, 1794, gave 
the knell to all the villages clustered here, and the} 
soon went to ruin. "The one continued village for 
miles above and below this place." of winch Anthony 
Wayne writes, in a sery few year's is all gone, n t 
one stone of its habitation-' remaining upon the other. 
Its site and us extol sively cleared uplands adjacent 
dl abundo u 1 I a in forest except 

the few acres immediately at the point needed for the 
accommodation of the fort. It is dull times now at 
Detiance; no extensive fields of growing crops sur- 
round the town; and the oracles, the feasts, the ath 
letic games, and great . continental conventions are 
gone. Its garrison, like all garrisons in times of 
peace on our frontier towns, becomes wearied for want 
of business excitement. 


In an address delivered by William C. Efqlgate, 

at Defiance, before the Pioneer and Historical Asso- 
ciation cf the Maumee Valley, he gavt- the following 
description of Defiance, while yet in the possession of 
the Indian^: 

Defiance occupies the .site of the ancient Tu-en 
da-wie of the Wyandot and En-sii-woc-sa of the 
Shawnee. It has a history, unwritteu though it be, 
that reach"-, bitck of modern ages when other r 
and peoples dwelt upon its grounds, and possessed all 
its pleasant places, whose blackened dust and bones 
are found near the surface of every beautiful spi t 
Untutored though they may have been, they appre 
ciated natural beauty, and reverenced the hereafter, 
as is evidenced by their ever selecting the most 
loveh spol for the burial of their dead. But win 
vcas D ■!!. nee, th mgh then known b, other name-, a 
_- •■ it center, where fch< .-<• ancient races came together 
to live, and trade, and couDsei? ■ 

The topography of the Maumee V'alle) proper will 
answer. This valley i- the territory drained by the 
Maumee River, and its tributaries, which consists of 
ibout twelve counties in Ohio, au 1 a portion of Mich- 







- J - 












^^<£&^^'$We*4A&v-'i, , 



igan a I Indiana —it was the same of old, save coun- 
ti and " lined were tle-n unknown. The M. u 

River proper begins u I : i a, nd bearing north 
easte 1} b comes lost in Lake Erie. It traverses a 
coimtn 1'"' miles i >xtent, with Defiance as it cen- 
ter, and Toledo and Fort Wayne at its terminal 
points. The chief tributary streams are the Little 
Sfc. .!■>- iph, the Ciffj i, St. Mar;. -. a:. 1 the Auglaize 
Rivers. Whilst the two former have their sources in 
cl so proximity in Hillsdale County, .Mich., about 
<ift. miles north of Defiance, the remaining two h tve 

theirs about tl i listance to the south; and it 

is a strange freak that the I «rs of the Little 
St. Joseph should flow southwesterly to Fort Wayne, 
whilst those of the Tiffin, originating at nearly the 
same spot, should flow south to Defiance. But more 
remarkable -till is it that the identical peculiarities 
governing the flow of these northern waters govern 
aJbjq those coming from the south. Whilst the head- 
waters of St. Mary pass northwesterly to unite with 
those of the Little St. Joseph at Fort Wayne, and 
begin the Mauniee, those of the Auglaize, close by, 
flow northerly to Defiance. Again we find the same 
summit at the north from which come one half of 
the waters of the Mauniee. originating also the Big 
St. Joseph and the Kal mazoo of Lake- Michigan and 
the River Rasin. that goes to Lake Erie — and the 
summit at the south from which come the other half 
gives rise also to the Wabash, running southwesterly, 
that forms the boundary line between Illinois and 

it Auami, 

goes soUbU, anti 

bounds the southwest corner of our State below Cin- 
cinnati, and to the Scioto, that runs southeasterly 
through Columbus and Chillicothe, and like the 
other two, feeds the Ohio. Here we have the Mau- 
niee Valley extended 100 miles east and west and 100 
miles north and south, with Defiance as its center, a 
rich, productive territory, with the rivers we name, 
all navigable to a certain extent, and with numeral* 
smaller streams to water and to dram. It is true 
there is some " black swamp " in the territory, but 
this now only means a fertility that cannot be beat. 
It is also true there is much of the most beautiful 
dry and rolling land, and numerous and extensive 
ridges. These ridges, it has been found, are in the 
main ancient beaches of Lake Erie, aud they have 
governed in a great measure the obliquitous conrs s 
of the tributary streams. One of the aucient beaches 

running imperfectly parallel with the shot £ Lake 

Erie. Li«e but two miles easterly of Defiance. As we 
view the indications showing the antiquity of this 
place as a great center of trade in time* long past, 
in imagination we bear a^ it were the dashing waves 
of the great lake, and picture a busy city two miles 
from the mouth of the same oid Maumee, possessing 

a* now her old tributary streams. Thiswasa long time 
ago, but I rng th ._ ] > it was, as true as we liv< now, a 
:'•• ' ' then, onh two miles awa\ from the 

is if a great inland sea These people ato and 
drank, had their merry makings, married wives, 
died, and were born, and i ages n lied 

this sea receded aw ay aud may be the lights oi this 
people went out; but when they died, others cam s in 
with new lights and tires and sounds. We I 
this as our ancestors discovered them here, and saw 
the lights, and heard the sounds. The first discov- 
erers were very unwilling ones Venturing too far 
i the settlements of friends, they were unexpect- 
edly seized b) st rung red hands, and forced off and 
away through dense forests, whither they knew not, 
for long and weary days. But they cam.' at length to 
where the -moke of Tu-en-da-wie, and En-sa-woc-sa 
went up. They saw the beautiful rivers all eon 
trating. here, and in one grand trunk passing u 
northeasterly. They saw. too, the extensive fields of 
growing crops and a numerous people of the red race, 
nevei yet vanquished in battle, living here in - 
and power. Prisoners though our first discoverers 
were, so sure did their masters feel thej had i 
aud could hold them in their remote but powerful 
Lome, they were allowed unrestrained to ru 
Large. Out of the long misty past through the eyes 
of these poor captives we first behold the place new 
known as Defiance. 

Though numbers were made prisoners and forced 
to make this place a home for a season, but two have 
left a written account of their captivity. The^e two 
were boys when captured but nine and eleven years 
of age, and represent two ci the principal cities of 
the West— Pittsburgh and Cincinnati, then but small 
frontier settlements — John Brickell was the Pitts- 
burgh, and Oliver M. Spencer the Cincinatti boy. 
The first was captured February 9, 1791, but it was 
not till the following May that he reached with his 
captor the Auglaize and Mauniee towns near its 
mouth, hhvmg undergone many aud severe trials 
hardships. Here he was given to a Delaware In 
into whose family he was adopted, and with whom he 
lived till IT'Jo. On his return from captivity. Brick 
ell settled at Columbus. Ohio, beiug one of its old 
and esteemed Eitizens, Being the lirst white person 
that ever lived at Defiance, who has left any written 
account of its earlier inhabitants, we will in brief 
give it, interesting as it ought to be to its present peo 
pie in exhibiting one of the ancient races here pos 
sessing many customs and virtues that reflect h i. r 
on any people. In his narrative, he says n»- was 
fcr ited \- j kindly whilst ia the family of Wli 



Pooshies, and every way as one of themselves, ami had 
every opportunity of learning their manners, custi ■<•- 
and religion: and thinks he has been inrtuenced to 

g I more from what tie learned among thesi I id 

than from what he has learned from amongst people, 
of his own color. Honesty, bravery and hospitaiit\ 
were cardinal virtues with them. \\ hen a coi ipau\ 
.jf strangers come to a town . d encamp, the) are not 
asked if the\ want an? thii nner starts out 

proclaiming " strangers have arrived ' On this every 
family provides of the best they have, and I • '. it to 
the strangers, for which aot a thought is had oi 
thing lining receive 1 in return, and when they start 
out they are helped on their journey. Worshiping 
the Great Spirit, whom the) call Manitou. "never" 
says Brickell "even on one occasion, did 1 know of 
their using that name irreverently," and they had no 
term in their language by which they could swear 
profaneh. Their young ho&or the as»ed-; the rirnt 
corn t i- lit to use is made a feast offering: the first 
game that is taken on a hunting expedition is dress *1 
whole without the r > E a bon ritli the head 

ears and hoofs on. and being cooked whole, all eat of 
it. and if any is left it is entirely burnt up; and in 
respect to things clean and noclean. they follow th>> 
Jewish customs. They have no public worship except 
the feasts, but frequently i bserve family worship, in 
which they sing and pray rhey believe in a resur- 
rection after death, and in future rewards and ••■\n 
ishments. Their cruel treatment o£ their enemies in 
war seem-, but the acting out of tht precepts, "an 
for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, and blood for blood." 

Yonng Brickell was trained to hunt, and much of 
his time was out on hunting expeditions. These 
were generally to the streams of the Maumee in sum- 
mer, but in winter extended t, , the Scioto, the Hock- 
ing and Licking Rivers. 

During his four years' sojourn here, two very im- 
portant events occurred— St. Clair's defeat, in 1791, 
and Wayne's victory, August 20, 17V* i. 

As to St- Clair's defeat, he says: ''The first fall 
after my adoption, there was a great stir in the town 
about an army of white men coming to fight the In- 
dians; the squaws and hoys were moved with the 
goods down the Maumee, there to await the result I 
of the battle, whilst the men went to war. They 
met St. Clair, were victorious, and returned loaded 
with spoils, when we felt we were a rich pe pie." 

In reference to IVayne's victory, he says: "In 
the month of Inn.-. 17'.' t, two Indian men, a boy and 
myself started on a candle-light hunting expedition, 
to Blanchtird's fork of the Auglaize. We had been 
out two months, when an returning to the towns in i 
August, we found, them entireh evacuated; but 
we gave ourselves little uneasiness, supposing the | 

Indi in- had :: me to the fo >i of the Maui ■•■•• Rapids 
to receive their presents from the British, as f,he> 
wero anuualh in the habit of doing. We eticaini d 

•n the '< si island in the mid lie of ;i < rn field. 

> .1 ni< ruing an Indian runner came down the river 
aud gave the alarm whoop, which is a kind of yell 
they use for no other purpi se. The Indians answered. 
and at once were told the white men were upon 
us and wo must run for our lives. We scatter d like 
a flock >f partridges, leaving our breakfast cookiii" 
on t ho tire. The Kentucky riflemen saw oui smoke 
and came to it, and just missed me as i passed them 
in my flight through the corn rhe) took- all our 
two months' work-, breakfast, jerk, skins ud all. 

Anthony Wayne was then only four miles from 
us, and the van guard was rC;iit among us, ) 
and the boy kept on the trail of the In liaus till 
we overtook them. Two or three days after we n 
rived at the Rapids, Wayne's spies carae right in) i 
camp boldly, and fired upon the Indians, Their 
names were Miller. McClelland, .May. Wells, Wdtatlv 

and ■ ine • I hi r « I ■-.- name i forgot Willi I 

wounded in the shoulder; May was chased by the 
Indians to the smooth rock in the bed of the river, 
where his horse fell and he was taken prisoner: the 
rest escaped rhey then took May to camp, He 
had formerly been a prisoner among them, and ran 

away. Thej told him, " We know you. T rrow 

we tak you to that tree (pointing to a large burr 
oak near the British fort); we will tie you up a id 
make a mark t>n your breast, and will try what 
Indian can shoot the nearest to it." It ~o turned 
out. The next day. the very day before the battle, 
they tied him up, made a murk on his breast, 
and riddled his body with fifty bull, ts. On the day 
of the battle, I was about six miles- below with the 
squaws, and went out hunting. The day being 
windy, I heard nothing of the firing of the battle, 
but, saw some Indians on the retreat, one of '.vhoin told 
mo the Indiana were beaten. 

Many Delawares were killed and wounded. Tha 
Indian who took May was killed. He was much 
missed, being the only gunsmith among the Dela 
wares. Our crops and every means of support bt*ing 
cut off above, we had t,> winter at the mouth of Swan 
Creek, perhaps wiiere Toledo now stands. We were 
entirely dependent upon the British, and they did 
d it half stij ph as. The starving and si ! I) condi- 
tion of the Indian- an i their animals made them i >rj 
impatient, and fchey became exasperated at the Brit 
ish. It was finally concluded I i send a flag to Fort 
Defiance in order to make a treaty with the i.meri- 
cans. This was successful Our men found 'h,- 
Americans ready to treat, and thin agreed upon an 
exchange of prisoners. I saw nine .vhite prisoners 



exchanged for nine Indians. 1 was left, there bei ig 
no Indian to give Sor me. Patton, Johnston, Sloan 
and Mrs Baker, were four of the nine; tun names of 
(h • others 1 do no1 recolh ct. 

Ou the breaking ap of -- ; • r i ^ ^r we 'ill went to Fort 
Defiance, and arriving npon the shore opposite we 
saluted the fort with a round of rifles, and the) sLot 
a cannon thirteen times. We then encamped on the 
spot. On the same day U'hingv Poos! es 1 me 
I must go over to the fort. The children Lung 
around me, crying, and asked rae it I was g <ing to 
leave them^ 1 to! 1 them I 'lid not kno.v. 'A I . q we 
got -over to the fort and were seated with the officers, 
Whingy Pooshies told me to stand up. which i did. 
He then arose arid addressed me in about these 
words: "' My son, these are men the same color with 
yourself, and some of your kin may be k. re, or thej 
may be a great way off. You have lived a long time 
with 'is. I call oil you to say if I have not been a 
father to you? If I have not used you as a father 
would a son ?" I said. '" You have used me as well 
as a father could use a son " He said " I am glad 
you say so. You have lived long with me; you have 
bunted forme.; but yovn treab says you must be free. 
If you choose to go with the people of your own color 
I have no right to say ;■. word: but if you choose t.- 
stay with me your people have no right to speak. 
Now reflect on U and take your choice and tell us 
as soon as you make up your mind." 

I was silent tor a few minutes, in which time I 
seemed to think oT most every thing. I thought of 
the children I had ju^t left crying. I thought of the 
Indians I was attached to. and I thought of my peo- 
ple, whom I remembered; and this latter thought 
predominated, and I said. "'I will go with my kin.'' 
The old man then said, " I have raised yon. I have 
learned you to hunt; you are a good hunter. You 
have been better to me than my own sons. I am now 
getting old and I cannot hnnt I thought you would 
be a support to my old age. I leaned on you as on a 
staff. Now it is broken — vou are going to leave me 
and I have no right to say a word, but I am ruined." 
He then sank back in tears to his seat. I heartily 
joined him in his tears, parted >vitb him. and have 
never seen or heard of him since. 


O. M. Spencer, a Cincinnati boy of eleven years, 
was taken whilst a little way from his home on the 
~th day of July, 1792, and also having undergone 
many hard-hips, reached the mouth of the Gran i 
Glaize, with his two Indian captors, in six days, be- 
ing about fourteen months later than Brickell's ar- 
rival. Kis eautor was a Shawnee, but he shortly 
transferred his rights to his companion, Waw-paw- 

waw-qna, or White Loon, the son of a Mohawk 
At their arrival at the confluence of the Au- 
glaize and Maumee, after disposing of their furs to 
I : tish Indian trader, they crossed over to a small 
bark cabin neat it- banks, and directly opposite the 
point; and leaving him in charge of its occupant, an 
old widow, the mother-in-law of Waw-paw-waw-qua, 
departed for their homes, a Shawnee village, on the 
river about one mile below. 

(Jooh-coo-che, the widow in whose charge young 
Spencer had been left, was a princess '>t the Iroquois 
tribe. She was a priestess to whom the Indians ap 
plied bet 1 '. re going on any important war expedition. 
She was esteemed a great medicine woman. Het 
husband had been a distinguished war chief of the 
Mohawks, who after their disastrous defeat by the 
■ ilonists, 1770, removed from the St. Lawrence, and 
settled witii his family at the Shawnee village one 
mils below the mouth of the Auglaize. He was killed 
m battle in 17'J0, at the time of Hardin's defeat. 
After his death, his widow chose her residence and 
erected her cabin immediately opposite the point, on 
the north bank of the Maumee; and soon thereafter, 
at the- " feast of the dead." with pious affection re- 
moved the remains of her late husband from their 
first resting [dace and interred them only a few rods 
above the dwelling near to the war path. Buried in 
I a sitting posture, facing west, by his side had been 
placed his rihe. tomahawk, knife, blanket, moccasins, 
and everything necessary for hunter and warrior: and 
his friendshad, besides, thrown many little articles us 
presents into the grave. 

The site of her cabin was truly pleasant. It stood 
a few rods from the northern bank of the Maumee, 
with its side fronting that river, on aa elevated s; ot. 
On the south side of the Maumee, for some distance 
below its mouth, and extending more than a mile up 
' the Auglaize to an Indian village, the low. rich bot- 
tom was one entire field of corn, which being in tas- 
set, presented a beautiful appearance. 

And this was young Spencer's home during the 
eight months of his captivity. 

His full narrative in brief exhibits a little frontier 

opening at Cincinnati; a dense wilderess at the north 

i filled with Indians, with their villages occasionally 

i along the streams until, coming to the Maumee at its 

! junction with the Auglaize, we find numerous towns 

of these [i Jiang clustered about. A town of the 

Shawm es .v,..s o:i the east side of the Auglaize, a mile 

from its mouth; another on the north side of the 

Maumee a mile below. And not far away was Snake 

town (Florida), and Oc-co-nox-ees village (Charloe), 

and one at Delaware B ind. On the point where,;! few 

years later, Anthony Wayne erected his Fort Defiance, 

i was. however, ttu principal village, and here were 



located the Indian traders Thi priucij I «■"' rl. — <- 
was George Ironsides, whose wife was the daughter 
of the In lian wid iw with whom young Spencer made 
his home. Ann here we find the renegade, Simon 
Girty. and iome brothers, and English [udian agents; 
aiso other American prisoners running at large 
Among these are William Moore, a fellow-townsman 
of Spencer's, who bad be< d taken a few months ear- 
tier, and i ii-rjry Bali, a soldier of St < ' lr. i r"~ unfort- 
unate army; also Bail's wife, and .Mr. Welsh, a pris- 
oner at large, who gave such information to the 
commandant of Fort Viaceunes of Spencers a ndition 
and whereabouts as led to his redemption and return 
to his friends and home. 

Whilst hunting and war seem to have been the 
chief employment of these Indians, they, bad exten- 
sive fields of rich bottom lands in cultivation, from 
which they raised large quantities of corn. They 
also manufactured maple sugar, and gathered grapes 
and wild honey. Like the ancient Greeks, they bad 
their "Oracles," and their athletic games aud sports, 
and like the Jews, their " feasts," and rightly may 
we think they bad a common ancestry witb these an- 
cient people. 

It was on the last day of February, 1793, that 
young Spencer was redeemed from his captivity by 
Col. Elliot, British Indian agent acting under direc- 
tions of the Governor of Canada, on the solicitation 
of Gen. Washington, who had been appealed to by 
his friends. The route chosen for him to reach his 
home with the time occupied, and scenes passed 
through equals in interest, aud affords more for 
thought and reflection tban the account of his cap- 

His journey commenced in an open pirogue down 
the Maumee to the lake: thence he'was paddled alont' 
the shore to Detroit by two Indian squaws, where he 
was detained a month waiting for the sailing of a ves- 
sel easterly. It was on the 30th of March he suc- 
ceeded in securing passage on a vessel called the 
Felicity, for Fort Erie. Arriving the middle of the 
next day at Put- in-Bay Island, they remained over 
night, and early Friday morning, the 1st day of 
April, sailed down the lake; but during the ensuing 
night were driven by head-winds that became almost 
a tempest, back, and again and again, four successive 
efforts were made, and each time the vessel was driven 
far back to its But in-Bay asylnm. In this way two 
weeks were consume i ere the desired haven was 
reached. From Erie, some soldiers rowed him to 
Fort Chippewa, thence to Fort Niagara He re- 
mained here a week, when ( Governor Simcoe sent him 
over to Newark, where Thomas Morris, Esq.. of Can- 
andaigua kindly proffered to take him along with him 
on his return home, the ensuing day. They set out 

earh th( next morning on hoi-,, back Traveling 
rapidly, and stopping only an hour at noon, I 
rested at night at an Indian village, and on the next 
day arrived at Canandaigua. Here be remained til! 
the middle of June, waiting an opportunity to no 
to New York, at which time Mr. Chapin, Indian 
agent for the Senecas, having collected a hirife i| • i 
tity of furs, bear and deer skins sufficient to load a 
pretty large bateau ben,,; ready to setout to re] leuish 
bis slock of goods, at the request of .Mr. Morris, con- 
sented to take him along. 

Mr. Chapin's bateau lay in the outlet, Hbmit three 
miles north of the north end of Canandaigua Luko, 
to which point there was sufficient watei fornuvi ;ai 
From here, having loaded with peltries cotiwved in 
wagons from the village, they proceeded slowly down 

the narrow winding outlet, so times |>oing obliged 

to -top and cut away trees that had fallen across it. 
and sometimes to get out and drag th • flat bottomed 
boat over the riffles. In this way they proceeded for 
nearly four days, passing, however, the several out 
lets of the Seneca, and Cayuga, tin; Owasca, and 
other lakes, the streams gra lualh became larger, and 
the obstruction^ Eewer. On the fourth Jay the) - arrived 
at the mouth of the Oneida outlet, distant from Can 
aDdaigua by land sixty miles, but not less than one 
hundred by water. Ascending the outlet, they 
crossed the Oneida Lake, aboul thirty miles m length 
to the mouth of Wood Creel: up which small crooked 
3tream with much difficulty thej forced their bateau 
to within a mile of the Mohawk whence transporting 
it across the ground where Borne dow stands, they 
proceeded down the river to Schenectady. From 
this place they rode in wagons to Albany; whence 
having stayed a day or two, they embarked on a 
Dutch sloop for New York, where they arrived on the 
2d of July. Here youny Spencer took leave of Mr. 
Chapin, and on the next day, taking passage in an 
open ferry boat across the bay arrived at Elizabeth 
town, N. J., where he remained witb friends until the 
14th of September, 1795. At this time, in company 
with a Mr. Crane and the late Gen. set out 
on horseback for Pittsburgh, where he .arrived in ten 
days, and there putting their horses on a flat boat, 
descended the Ohio, and arrived I t hi-- jjium lb Co 
lumbia, now Cincinnati, about the middle of October. 
To reach Cincinnati, less thae 2UU mjles away, a 
trip is c.."> made in s-vea hours, a journey is here un- 
dertaken of 2,000 miles, anil a period of two years 
consumed in its accomplishment, though under the 
protecting auspices of the President of the t oited 
St ites and the Governor of Canada, aud the leading 
Statesmen and Generals of our Nation. And except 
for this united protecting care the journey proba- 
bly could not have been made at all. 





THE destructive expedition of Go:>>. Scott and 
Wilkinson into the Lower Wabash region dur- 
ing the summer of 1791, added t the efforts of Gen. 
Hat-mar in 1790, had inspired the Northwestern In- 
dians with the belief, stimulated by the British, that 
the Government policy was to exterminate the race and 
sei/.e their lands. This belief was fully confirmed 
by the campaign of St Clair Inflamed with jeal- 
ousy and hatred, and elated by the r>>ult of this last 
fierce victory, Indian dopred-ation and barbarities 
threatened the terrified frontier settler,-. The inhab- 
itants proceeded to provide every possible mean- of 
defense, while the Government adopted the earliest 
practicable measures for recruiting a military f< rer- 
adequate to the successful encounter of any poss hie 
combined Indian fore*--, and sufficient for the e^tab- 
lishment of the proposed military stronghold at the 
Miami villages. After deliberately balancing the 
peculiar military qualifications necessary in such an 
expedition, and the abilities of Gen. Wayne, Wash- 
ington assigned him the command. 

In June, 1792, Gen. Wayne proceeded to Pitts- 
burgh to organize his army, and in December. :he 
"Legion of the United States" was assembled at. Le- 
gionsville. about twenty miles below Pittsburgh. 
Here they encamped till April, 1793, when, 
down the Ohio, it landed at ■'Hobson"s Choice" tthe 
only point passable in consequence of high waters), 
near Ft. Washington, where, remaining until the 
7th of October, the legi 'ti left Cincinnati. 

Below is given, with the editor's comments a jour- 
nal of the march, taken from Cist's Cincinnati Mis- 

Aside from the freshness of this species of narra- 
tion, written down on the spur of the moment, which, 
in the hands of an intelligent writer, is sure to inter- 
est, there are some points worthy of notice. 

The first is, that distances are described by the 
"five mile spring." ''seventeen mile" anil "twentv-nine 
mile tree." which serves i i point out the little im- 
provement which :h. Miami country at that period 
afforded, as waymarks on the march. But the latter 
is especially valuable, as a testimony from beginning 
to end of the untiring vigilance, and press forward 
spirit of Anthony Wayne, which afforded a presage 
from the first day'-; march oi his peculiar fitness for 

the hazardous and responsible service on ^hich he 
was del ached by government. 

Camp, Sbr/THWEST Branch Miami, October 22 1793. 

Dear 8m Alt ibly te promise, I have s*izeil the h>^t 

ippi tunny of writing you. and to be methodical in the busi- 
ness, I shall givi ii te you by way of journal. 

October 7. — Our r"i r - 1 day's march was great,, considering 
thai Mir army had not got properly in their gears. 1 Mi ink it 
was about ten miles Our second, the 8th, was greater— it 
reached Fort Hamilton. Many of the men were > s ei dingly 
fatigued, and it was pretty generally believed haul marching, 
though the General thought otherwise, and it must be so. 

October 9. — Our third day's march was to the Five-mile 
Spring, advanceof Hamilton. Observe, we fortified our camp 
i very night, and were very viv n! - night to hi 

October 1". — 'Mir fourth day's march we encamped about 
tin- Seventeen-mile Tree, and nothing extraordinary happened 
excepting that our line of march extended for near fiv< miles, 
owing to thi rapidity of the marching and the badness oi the 
road- for our transportation, superadding the straggling sol- 
diers worn down with fatigue and sickness, broughl up by 
the rear guard, whom they retarded considerably 

October 11.— We proceeded on to tin- Tweniy-nine-niile 
Tree, fortified as usual, and occupied a tine comn 
ground, and nothing of consequence happened here 

October i- — The roads were very oad and some of our 
n igons broke down; but as the General's orders decla i I 
there should be no interstices, the line of march was not im- 
peded, and we made, say, ten miles thi- day. 

October 13. — We advanced by ti lerably quick movements 
until we came \\ thin a mile or so >!' Fort Jefferson, and this 
day furnished a good deal of -port, for as the devil would 
have it. Col. ilamtramek was maneuvering his troop-, and 
had a sham fight, which was construed by the whole army is 
■m attack upon our advance canard^ or flankers. It really 
frightened a good many; but wc all said let them come, for 
nre are ready for them. We had marched bard this day, and, 
I think, not ^o well prepared. However, it was at li ngthdis 
covered to be a sham fight, and everybody knew it then 
it was Ilamtramek' s usual practice, said they. Butitwas II 
in my eye, they never thought of Ilamtramek. 

October 1-t. — We marched past Fort Jefferson without even 
desiring to look at it : indeed. «ome of us turned our In ads 
the other way with disdain, and it has been threatened 
report says) to he demolished entirely. This day's march 
brought us to where 1 am now sitting, writing to my friend. 
We fortified our encampment very strong »nd feel very se- 

October 15.— The wagons were >ent back to Fort St. Clair 
for stores provisions, etc., wirh an escort of two subalterns 
and lietwei n eighty and ninety men. And nothing happened 
extra thi- day. 

October t6.—Th devil's to pay. Col. Blue, with neaT 

twentv of the eavalrv, weal out to graze the horses of me 

troop- and if. r some time Bhu discovered something crawl- 

t iag hi the grass, which ne at first thought was Uirkej but 



imri"-.' • I unf] them to be two Indians, .-m ■'. • 
charge; her-, if. two Si I tie 

-. .1 ran away; thi ci ijuunci was, i In- two Indians fc 
the two Sergeants- Bh rate •--.•:• I The 

leadei of the rascals who behaved so cownrdh ' - iraim 
dintrly tra ii and ci nd< mncd but p n lo d the ne: I day. 

October 17.— Lieut Lowry, Ensign, formerly Dr. Boyd, 
with the escort o1 ninety men ;\ irdin-r.thc « 50ns were at- 
tacked by a party of iTiirtj or forty [m Lans, who rushed on 
with sava e fury - icU the « 

party \. pting thi two < Beers nnd fifteen or twenty men. 
who fell a sacrirtc< I - arbnrity). and they all lied, ind 

have been coming into Fori 5 C'laii md threes, 

ever since. Th< [nd ■ ■ _ 1- and carried 

off with, them sixty Fo f the est rn 01 horses in the army, 
killing six horses at ' >ns iii the Mr. Hun I 1 

been •• considerable loser his wagon was plundered also. 
Col. Adair pursued the Indians and founi several >rsi 
dead, which he sup] 1 red and them, 

a proof thai then flight v.. is very rapid. In thi- ittack we 
have 1"-' fwo promising, worthy and brave officers and about 
twenty men, mostly of C pt Shaylor's company, for his and 
c.'ij't. Prior's fenced the escort and are both now 'rather in 

We have been !i-'l to believe that thi- place would have 
been made th< _'•■ md ' ;-<>-i : unril thi- day. We now learn 
that there t> .-'<}': ' e n f irwaTd mov< in the 1 wrse of ten ■: 
nine miles further into the Ind in "."try to a place called 
Still Water ti isi n I is say they are 

very cog-em one-. I have no busini - to pry. hut if I should 
accidentally find it out, you shall be informed, la the mean 
time believe me to be. very sincerely, 

Your friend. J0H5 M Scott. 

Late in October, Gen. Wayne established his win- 
ter headquarters about six miles north of Ft. Jeffer- 
son, and there erected F r Greenville, th? pre:?"t site 
of the town of that name in Dark" County. 

On Christmas Day, 1793. a detachment rf-occupied 
the ground which had been rendered memorable by 
the disastrous defeat of St. Clair three years before, 
and there built a stockade work, which was signifi- 
cantly called Ft. Recovery. During the progress of 
this work, he offered a reward for every hitman skull 
found on the battle ground. Six hundred of these 
relics of carnage were collected and entombed be- 
neath one of the blockhouses. 

Providing an adequate garrison. Gen. Wayne 
placed the fort in charge of Cant. Alexander Gibson, 
and during the early months of 17'.'4 actively engaged 
in preparations for the anticipated blow. He had 
already been admonished by incidents of the march, 
and the vigilance of his numerous spies, that an a« 
tive. dexterous and powerful enemy wore in the wil- 
derness surrounding him. 

The Government, always anxious to avoid the car- 
nage of war. had exhausted every means to obtain an 
amicable adjustment of the difficulties, although the 
fact thai five differenl were sent, offering 

most generous termaof peace to the hostile tribes, at- 
tests the sincerity of the expressed design on the part 
of the United States authorities to render full justice 

•I.- iborigines. But the Indian sue n ith 

promised British at:'! French Canadian assistance, 
rendered them insensible t > ; iciric overtures ,!1 ..f 
which were more or ;-'^ directly rejected, and thre< 
if tl e ambassadors Freemen, Truman and Co! Har- 
din— were mind. ued. 

On the morning of the 30th lay of June, 1794, .,, 
escort consisting ■'.' ninety riflemen and tiff h;a 
goons, commanded by Maj McMahon. was .1 

by a "numerous body of [ndians under the ... U of 
Ft. Recovery.* The Indians, who were pr I ly as 
sisted by a small number of British agents and 
French Canadian volunteers, made several attacks on 
the fort within the space of about twenty f liir .'1 an 
when they retired. In these attacks, r 1 v- - A iwricans 
lost twenty-two men killed, thirty wounded, and 
three missing. They alsp lost 225 horses, killed 
wounded and missing. .V:ii<c:_,' the officer killed were 
Maj. McMahon, Capt. Hartshorne, L:e,ir Craig and 
Cornet Torry. Capt. Alexander Gibson (who was 
commandant al Ft, Recovery). Cap1 Taylor, of the 
dragoi - ■.•'. Lieut. Drake of the infantry, were 
distinguished for their gallant conduct. The Indians 
left eiirhf or tea warriors dead on the held; although 
they were employed during the night, which was 
dark and foggy, in carrying off their dead and 
wounded by torchlight, "i" 

It would also appear that the British and savages 
expected to find the artillery that was lost n the 4th 
of November, L791. and hid by th Indians in the bode 
of old fallen timber, or logs which they turned over 
and laid the cannon in. and then turned the logs 
back, in their former berth. It was in this artful 
manner that we found them irenerally deposited. 
The hostile Indians turned over a greHt number of 
logs- during the assault, in search of the-e cannon. 
and other pbmder, which they had probably hid in 
this manner, after the action of November r. L791. 
I therefore have reason to believe that the British 
and Indians depended much upon this artillery to as- 
sist in the reduction of the fort: fortunately, they 
served in its defense." 

On the 2Gth of July. 1794, Maj. G^n. Scott, with 
about sixteen hundred mounted voluuteers from !*.'• d 
tncky, arrived at Ft Greenville and j >ined tin- !■••_ . 
troops under the command of Wayne; and on the 2 s th 
of July the united forces commenced their march for 
tii- Indian towns on the Maumee River; On the 
3 of St. Mary's River, at a point about twonty. 
four no'es northward of Ft.Recovery, Wayne ere< ted 
and garrisoned a small post which he named Ft. 
Adam.--. The , jved for this position on the 

*Amrriain « — hidittn Aflj»in» I 1-7 TLc number I 

* ■ ■ .. ; Liinck ■ .i ITi>ri Rccmvrj Itna t>p*-n .- 

m .1"'. a f: ...■!■ 7 -■ ' 1,5 i nif-n. 

rLoa-T fr.iu W.ejt? i.j tha — cretary ■' War Iftte4.4raeiirilk«, Ve' T 



4th of August, an 1 arrived on the s, i: of the - 
month, f.t the confluence of Maumee tnd i\\ 
Rivers. Efirlj on the morning of thii 'dth. work was 
commenced On the 17th the fort was finis] □ d 

after surveying its block-house, pickets, dit - : 

fagots, the General exclaimed: "I defy the Eng- 
lish, Indians, and all tli - in hell to take it." 
Gen. Scott who had joined him on the 28th of July, 
and 'who at that instant happened to be standing al 
his fide, remarked: "Then call it Ft D . i " aud 
it was so. 

Though constructed in eight days, and with such 
rude implements and materials as were at hand, en- 
gineers have pronounced it by far the strongest i >rt 
built dtiring th« many years of Indian warfare. 
The annexed description is found in the memorai 
of Benjamin Van Cleve, having been communicated 
to the American pioneer by his son, John W, \ r.n 
Cleve, i>f Dayton. "At each angle of the f>>rt was a 
block-house. The one next the Maumee had p 
h iles on the three exterior side*, and ad lor and chim- 
ney on the side facing to the interior. There was a 
lice of pickets on each side of the fort, connecting 
the block houses by their nearest angles. Outside 
the pickets, and around the block-houses was a glaci-.. 
a wall of earth eight feet thick, sloping upward from 
the foot of the pickets, supported by a log wall on 
the side of the ditch, and by fascines, a wall of fag- 
ots, or, the side next thm Auglaize. The ir :h. fifteen 
feet wide and eieht feet deep, surrounded the whole 
work except on the side toward the Auglaize; and 
diagonal pickets. eleven feet long anil one foot apart, 
were secured to the log wall, and projected over the 
ditch There were two gateways; there was ,\ falling 
gate or draw bridge, across the ditch, which was 
raided and lowered by pulleys. Two line> of pickets 
converged toward a ditch eight feet deep, by which 
water was procured from the river without exposing 
the carrier to the enemy. Within the fort were ofii 
cers' quarters and store-houses." In a letter dated at 

this place on the 1 )th of August, IT'.U. and addrt 1 

to the Secretary of War. Gen. Wayne said: " I 
have the honor to inform you that the army under my 
command took possession of this very important post 
on the morning of the Nth instant— the enemy on f he 
preceding evening having abandoned all their settle- 
ments, towns and villages with such apparent marks 
of surprise and precipitation as t ■ amount to a posi- 
tive proof thai our approach was not discovered by 
them until the arrival of a Mr. Newman, of the 
Quarter-master General's Department, vho deserted 
from the army near St. Mary's. * * * I 
had made such demonstrations for a length of 
time previously to taking up our line of march, 
as to induce the savages to expect our advajp.ce 

by the route of the Miami Villages, to the left, 
or toward Roche di Bout bj the right which 
feints appear to have produced the desired • fi >i by 
drawing the attention of the enemy to those i 
and gave an opening for the enemy to approach un 
discovered by a devious, i. e., in a central direction. 
Thus. sir. we have trained possession of the ! 

emporium of the hostile Indians of the West, wil 
loss of blood. The very extensive and highly culbi- 
vated fields and gardens, show the work of manv 
hands. The margin of those beautiful rivers, the 
Miamis of the lake (or Maumee) and Auglaize,app iar 
like one i I village for a number of miles both 

above and below this place; nor have I ever befi re 
beheld such fields of corn, iu any part of America, 
from Canada to Florida. VVe are now employed in 
completing a strong stockade fort with four good 
block-houses bj way of bastions, at the confluence 
of- Auglaiae and the (Maumee). which I Lave >• il d 
Defiance. * * Everything is now prepared torn 
forward move to-morrow morning toward Roche do 
Bout, or foot of the rapids. * * * Yet i have 
thought proper to offer the enemy a last overture of 
peace: and as they have everything that is dear and 
ii teresfciiig now at stake, I have reason to expect that 
tl ey will listen to the proposition mentioned in the 
inclosed copy of an address ► dispatched yesterday b\ a 
•special tiag (Christopher Miller), whom I sent under 
circumstances that will insure his safe return, and 
which may eventually spare the effusion of mu< n hu- 
man blood. But should war be their choice, that hi tod 
be upon their own head-. A . shall no longer be 

insulted with impunity. To an ail powerful and 
just God I therefore commit myself and gallant 

(Ten. Wayne moved with his forces from Ft. 
Defiance on the 15th of August, IT'.* 4, and directed 
his march toward the British fort at the foot of the 
rapids of the River Maumee. On the 2<>th of August. 
he gained a decisive victory over the army of the In- 
dians. The battle was fought on the left bank of the 
Maumee. almost within the reach of the truns of the 
British fort. The following account of this engage- 
ment was transmitted by Gen. Wayne to the Secretary 
of War: 

*Thia tetttr was ulilreased to the Delaware, Shawneea, aliamis an«l Wvari- 

•: >t». an ■ I ■ - ■. - I rvrry me of 'hum; inti to All ■ ther nations of T'l-'om 

Lv,.»t of the fthio. whom ii j < . [r contained the 1 

B ritEsa Be "" r '-'.'-■ v 

_- ■ 

- . n to protect i'oi So i'-nc M 

ft . ,-.--,.■- 1 - 

■ II ■ . . 1 |ll '. ' : I i 

• ir I I I i ; 1 1 rieuci ' ..''--■-:''' 

I - - (America inii i i i ■ i ' - i i 

i . ■ i tribe I ■ - ' 

. i ■ >■ t i : - ■ \\'j 1 II I Ai'" 

- ii. the I uf SI i ■ 10 la ortier to a 

fin 'i trip* >t i i ■-: n i " ■■■■ ' Mi Hi r. , ■ ■ , - | , | . , ., . : ■ 

auc* at 4 o'clock P H n the 13tb of August. On the I6tu, ho hi - ■' ' 

innwer I ■ mi I > : '—,,.', . . ■> W . . n«, .■ ■ ■ . ( < i liri 

" 'u.t : ■ ■ v ■ i a re he wae tun (luj tnd i len I M II : -r i i hi. ihey 

m u.-i treat with hinj - t if lie aUranced they woujd „ <■ ' • 



GtCA.VJ] CrLA i AUGUST 38, l?'J4. I 

StR — It is witliinfiniti pleasure that I now ann men to 
you the brilliant success of the Federal army under my com 

mand in a general action with lie combined fi I the hos 

tile Indians, and a con • lumber of the volunteers and 

militia of Detroit, on the 20th instant, on the banks of 1 1 »-• 
Maumee, in the vicinity of the British post and garrisi n - 
the foot of the rapids Tin armj advani d from this ■ 
iF'irt Defiance mi the loth, and arrived at Itoche de Bout on 
the lMh The 19th was employed ii! making :i tempo- 
rary post for the reception of our stores and baggage, and 
in reeounoitering tin position of the enemv who were en 
camped behind a thick, brushy wood and 'In- British forr. 

At 8 ii '■•!i« k. on the mornin j of tin 20th, the army again 
advanced in columns.'agrei bly to tin t; ndinsr order of march, 
the legion on the i"-. r ht, its flank covered by the .Maumee . one' 
brigade of mounted volunteers on the left, under Brig. Gen 
Todd, and-theother in the ri w under Brig Gen Barbee. A 
select battalion of mounted • luntcers moved in front of the 
legion, commanded by Mai Price, who was directed to keep 
sufficiently advanced, so as to give timelj notice for the 
troops to form in cs i i I rLon, it being yet undetermined 
whether the Indians would deci le for peace or war. 

Aft"r advancing about five miles. Maj. Price's corps 
received so severe a Sre from rbe enemy, who were sei reted 
in the woods an.! high - r r:o- a* to compel ihem to retreat. 
The 1< gion was immediately formed iu two lines, principally 
in a close, thick wood, which extended for mill - on our left, 
and for a considerable distance in front, 'he ground I ■ . n _ 
covered with old fallen timber, probably occasioned by a 
tornado, which rendered ; t impracticable for cavalry to act 
with effect, and afforded theenemythe most favorable covert 
for their mode of warfare. The savagi 3 were formed in three 
lini s, within si -.pp. irt in, distance of each othi r and ( xtending 
for near two miles at right angli - with the river. I -onn dis- 
covered from the weight of the fire am! extent of their lines. 
that the enemy were : n full force in front, in possession of 
their fav.rite around, and endeavoring to turn our left lank. 

1 therefore gave order;; for the - ml line to advance and 

support the tir~t . and direct 1 Maj Gen Scott to gain and 
turn the right flank of the savages, with the whole of the 
mounted volunteers, by a circuitous route : at the same time. 
I ordered the front line to advance and charge with trailed 
arm*, and rouse th*' Indians from their coverts at the point of 
the bayonet, and when up. to deliver a close and well-directed 
fire on their hacks, followed by a brisk charge, so as not to 
give them time to load again. 

I also ordered Captain MisCampbell, who commanded 
the legion cavalry, to turn the left flank of the enemy next 
the river, and which afforded a favorable field for that corps 
to act in. All these orders were obeyed with spirit and 
promptitude ; but, such win the impetuosity of the charge by 
the first line of infantry, that the Indians and Canadian mi- 
litia and volunteer- were driven from all their co' »rts in so 
short a time, that, although ev< ry possible exertion was used 
by the officers of the second line of the legion, and hy Gens 
Scott. Told and Barbee, of the mounted volunteers to gain 
their proper positions, but part of each could get up n season 
to participate in the acti >n : the enemv being driven, : n the 
course of one hour, more than two miles m 1) tie' thick 
woods already mentioned bi less than one-half their numbers, 
From every account tin eneirrj amounted to 3.000 combat- 
ants. The troops actually engaged against rhem were short 
of 300.* This horde ol stages with their allies, abandoned 

• The exact number f tn.'l thiis * ion against Wayne's 

armv his nev i been iwct ,'.<•< '.'L t- *v , hon ver e .<' 15< Delaware 

ITS SItamU, 275 Sbawnees, 225 Ottiwus .' Wj»nioM and a email number©? 

themselves to flight and dispersed with terror and dismay, 
li .vine our vi< torious irrai in full an I quiet possession of the 
Ii o| bat lie, which terminated under the hitlucnci of thi 
guns of the British garrison, tis you will observe In the in 
cd < len between Via j ' 'ampbell, tin ( ommand- 

ant, and myself upon the oci asion. 

The bravery and conduct of every officer belonging to 
thi army, from the Generals down to the Ensigns, merit my 
highest approbation. There were, however, some, whose 
u»d situation placed their conduct, in l' conspicuous 
point of view, anil which I observed with pleasure an I hi 
most lively gratitude. Among whom. 1 must beg have to 

mention Brig Gen. Wilkinson and Col Hamtramck ti m 

mandanls of tin right and lift wings of the legion, whose 
brave example inspired the troops To those, I must add the 
• of my faithful and gallant Aids-de-catnp, Capts. Dc 
Butt and T- Lewis oil Le tit Harrison, who. with the Adju 
tant General. Maj Mills, rendered the most essential service 
by communicating my nders in every direction, ami h\ Li 
conduct and bravi ry exciting the troops ro press for victory, 
Lieut Covington upon whom the command of the ea\ .,]r\ 
now devolved, cut down two savages with his own hand 
and Lieut. Webb one, in turning the enemy's left flank The 
wound- received by Capts Slough md Prior, and Lieut. 
Campbell Smith, an extra aid de-camp to Gen. Wilkinson, of 
thi legionary infantry ind Ca >t \'an Rensselaer, of fh< 
dragoons. C'apt. Rawlins. Lieut McKennj and Ensign Dnn- 
i an if the mounted volunteers, bear honorable testimony of 
their bravery and • ondui ' 

Capts. H. Lewis and Brock, with their companies of 
!iL r ht infantry, had to sustain an unequal lire for some ! 
which they supported with fortitude In fact, every officer 
and soldier who had an opportunity to come into ai ' ] ^n. dis- 
played that true bravery which will always insun su cess 

V d here permit me to de iar ■, that 1 ri v< r discovered more 
true spirit and anxiet3 r for action than appeared to perva le 
tbe whole of th mou: .d '."oluateeMi; and 1 am well per- 

uaded that, had tl nemy maintained their favorite ground 

for one-halt hoar longer they would have most severely felt 
the prowess of that corps. l>,n. while I pay this tribute to 
the living. I must not neglect the gallant dead, among whom 
we have to lament th" early death of th >•• worthy and brave 
officer-, '.'apt. MisCampbell, of the dragoons, and Lieut. 
Towles. of the hu'iit infantry of the legion, who fell in the 
first charge 

Em losed i- a particular return of the killed and 
wounded. + The loss of the enemy was more than double to 
that of th'' Federal irmy The wood- ware strewed for i 
considerable distance with the dead bodies of Indians,! and 
thi ir white auxiliaries— the latter armed with British muski ts 
and bayonets. 

Wi remained three days and night- on the banks of the 
Maumee, in front of the field of battle, during which tin i ill 
the houses and corn-fields ware consumed and destroyi d for t 
considerable distance, both above and below Fort Miai 
well as within pistol -hot of the an is in, « ho wen compi II' d 

to remain tacit spectators to this general devastation and con- 
flagration, among which were the ho .-• - stores and property 
of Col MeKee. the British Indian il md principal stiuiii 

1 oi ■:' the war now existing between thi United States and 

th' - 1\ tges.£ 

• ■•;-.-, c i' ,w. a. r.i ..,, I • liippewus The number «f wh.ii 

rcn3»nftli- [n.ltuHi i II - - ■ .-ik" in -ii' wan •'.,,.■ , .,v, ly iuclinling a 
. [is of volunteers from Detruil imlerih- ■ mini I if-Oanl I'alJwell 

- \.-,.., _■ ! H : i ....-,--•■':"', . : I 

._!,. ...,.,.,.,:: i- i .- ; i Kentui-ky Volunteers was seven 

, r a w ,un I ■ ■■ i il • I ' uut«»rs i.. a •( tbeii » 'imls 

| f i the -•''■• ol k ■ - . i" i4. 

;Sn; " Dnilj Joiiin il "i Wayne's Campaign " 

;it it iald Ilia'. Vi nrr-'- i>.n ■• iveri uirti r. • til the Britfah *ubor«J imte 



The :inn\ returned to this place (Fort Defiance on the 
27th I v casj marches laying iste the villji ■- ind corn- 
nd.lsfoi nbou fifty mile on each side of tin \\ unii There 
remain yet a great number of vil I . nd i great quantity 

irn. to be consumi .1 or d. upon .A 1 the 

Slniunee thove this place, which vill b' effected in thi course 
of a few days. In the interim, we shall improvi Fort Defi- 
ance; and. as soon as the escort returns with th necessary 
supplies from Greenv li nd F rl Recovery, the irmj will 
proceed to the Miami villages, in order to . imp h the 
object of the campaign it is bowi . •; ■ 
the enemy may make me desperati effort against the army, 

n s it i- Raid that a ri enforcement was I rh expected at 

Fort Miami* from Ndagn is well 5 nil) ro ics of 

Indians living on tin margin and islands of the lakes. This 
is a business rather to he wished for than dreaded while the 
army remains in force. Their numhers will mm tend to con- 
fuse lie savages, and the victory will be the more com] h te 
and decisive, and which may eventually insure a permanent 
and bappj peace. 

Under the«- rmprt "ions. I have the honor to be your 
most obedient and very humble servant. 

Anthony Wayne. 
The Hon. Major-General H. Knox. Sei retary of War. 

Imnvaiateh- after the action of the 20th of Au- 
gust, the American troops continued their nif-rch 
down the northwestern banks of the Maumee. and en- 
camped within view of the British fort.T While the 
American Army occupied this po-ition (from the af- 
ternoon of the 20th to the forenoon of the 23d) five 
letters; passed between Gen. Wayne and llaj. Camp 
bell, the Commandant of Ft. lliami, as follows: 

(NUMBER 1. 1 

Miami (MacmeeI River. August Cist. 1704. 

Sir — An army of the I niteci St ites 01 America, said to 
be under your command, having taken post on the bank- of 
the Miami fMaumee) for upward of the last twenty-four 
hours, almost within the reach of the suns of this fort, being 
a post belonging to !i i- majesty the king of Great Britain, 
occupied by his majesty s troops, and which I have the honor 
to command, it becomes my duty to inform myself, as speedily 
as possible, in what light I am to view your making such 
near approaches to this garrison. I have no hesitation, on my 
part, to say, that I know of no war existing between Gn at 
Britain and America. 

I have the honor to b,:. sir, with great respect, your 
most obedient and very humble servant. 

William Campbell, 
Major Twenty-fourth Regiment, commanding a British post 

on the hanks of the Miami. 
To Major-General Wayne, etc. 

Camp on the Bank of the Mi on | M vumee i, ) 

August 21, 1794. ) 
Sir — I have received your letter of this date, requiring 
from me the motive- whi v : have moved the army und< r my 
command tcrthi position fhej at present occupy, far ui-tiin rh» 

• - . ■ • ' r ■ -s ! - - . . . J . . .. .. , . 

HvrutfM snch an irieultiii*; pirud* under hie nmjHsty'a puns; .'-it lout .-ftV>»r 
chided him with the ti'tiuuitttmi, " B* a ;, 'emtia' be < 

*At tb- tim ■ ■> tl. . . ■ . , ,| tl ■ ' -t. tli-- .: ire. ■ ■ . ■ ■ 

natal t of al it . "i0 r .:,..■, , a. ■ .- , . ; . : . r . 

... i.v.. large 1, witzera, e. i - l six-poundera mminred ia the fort, *dJ 

t*v-. BWtvelil." — : to ±-^-t Papers. 

TThi<« furt wm called ■ F rt M *rai," and stood ->o tti» aorlhwerteni bants 
ofiLu Maumee River, tl or ueir ihe site ou which Sa&utnpe Oitj (LncasConatj. 

ObiO. QAV 1i.l. lid. 

acknowledged jurisdiction of the United States nf \.m 
Without questioning the authority or propriety, -.r ol you; 
interrogatory, 1 think ! may, without breach ol dei ram, 
i| erve to you, that \\e:e you entitled to an answer, the 

■ full and satisfactory one was announo . to 
the muzzles of my .-malt am.- yesterday morning, in the 
action against the horde of savages in the vicinity ot . , 
post, which terminal d gloriously to thi American arms ; 
had !' 10: tinued until the Indians, etc. were driven under 
the inrlui uce of the post and guns you mention, th y would 
not 'nave much impeded 'lie progress of the victorious army 
under my command, as no 9uch post Mas established at ihe 
commencement of the present tvai between the Indians tnd 
the L nited States. 

I have the honor to i.e. <ir. with groat respect, \<.'ir 
obed 'lit and very humble si rvant. 

Anthony Wayne 
Major-General .and Commander-in-Chief of the Federal 

To Major William Campbell, etc. 

.Number III.) 

Fort Mumt. August 22d*, 17.14. 
Sir — Although your letter of yesterday's date fully 
authorizes me to any act of hostility against the army of 
the United States of America in 'hi- neighborhood, under 
■ 1 yet, it ill anxious to prevent that dreadful de- 

cision, which, perhaps, is not intended to he appeal.:! to bj 
ei'h.-r of our countries, I have forborne, for these two lays 
past to resent those insults you have offered to the British 
flag flying at this fort, by approaching it within pistol shol of 
my works, nor only singly, but iu numhers, with arms in their 
hands. Neither is it my wish to wage war with individuals 
but. should you. aftei this, continue to approach my post in 
the threatening manner you are at this moment doing, my 
indispensable duty to my king arid country, and the honor 
of mv profession, will oblige me to frav? recourse to f ho?e 
which thousands of either nation may hereafter 
havi cause to regret, and which, I -■ lemnly appeal to God 
I have used my utmost endeavors to arrest- 

I have the honor to he. sir, with much respect, your 
most obedient and very humble servant, 

William Campbell, 
Major 21th Regiment, Commanding at Fort Miami. 
Major-General Wayne, etc. 

(Number IV. 1 
Camp, Banks of the Mumt. 2?d August, 1 794. 
Sir — In your letter 2!st instant you declare. "I have no 
hesitation on my part, to say, that I know of no war existing 
hetween Great Britain and America." I. on mv part, declare 
the same, and that the only cause I have to entertain ,1 con 
trary idea at present, is the hostile act you are now in com- 
mission of. i. *■., by recently taking post far within the well- 
known and acknowledged limits of the United States, and 
erecting a fortification in the heart of the settlements of the 
Inrlian trihes now -it war with the United States. This, -ir 
appear- tohean art of the hi rrhest aggression, and destructive 
of the peace and interest of the Vaion. Hence, it becomes 
mv luty to desire, I do hereby desire and demand-, h 
o mi.- of 'in- President of the Ui ited Si l1 3, that yon in 

iisl fn m any further act of hostility or aggression 
b\ forbearing to fortify, and by ui: lidr.-.-vitig the troops 
artillery and stores, nailer your orders and direction, I irth 
with, and removing to the nearest post occupied bj I - 
Britannic majesty's I j- I the peace of 1783, and which 
you will be permitted ro do unm ilested by the troops, und. r 
. v . mrnand. 



I am, with gn at - >p ct. sir, your most obedient and 

vety humble servant. 

Axthony VVayse. 
Major Wu .1.1 am Campbell i tc. 

S i MB El! V. ) 

Fori Miami, i'-id August, 17SM. 

Sir— I havi this moment the honor to acknowledgi the 
receipt of pour letter of thi« d: fe in answi r I - whi< 1 I have 
only to say, that, hein;> placed here in i >i id of a British 
post, .ii>il actine in a militan ■ apai ii , on ; i i anm I eotei 
into any discussion, i ith -r on tin right or impropriety uf :uv 
occupying my present portion. These are n titers that Icon 
ceive ri] best left to thi im idoi iur different 

nations. Havine said thu msi p rmit me to inform you 
that i certainly w il! nut abandon ' his pi st it t he summons of 
any po\v c r whatever, until I reci ive ordei to that purpose 
from those I have the honor to sen and r or the fortune ot 
war should oblige me. I must still id to thi purpoi 

of my letter this morning, to di ?ir< rh it yi ur army, or indi 
viduals belonging to it m I] lot ippro.i h within reach of ray 
cannon, without expecting the consequences attending it. 
Although I have said, in tin former part ot my letter, that 
m\ situation here i^ totally military y f, I I me add, sir. that 
I am much deceived, if his majesty, the king of Great Britain, 
had not a post on this river at and prior to the period you 

I have the honor to l>e, sir with tin greatest respect, 
your most obedienl and >'ery humbli servant, 

Willi vm ( ampbell. 
Major 34th R' iriment. Commanding at Fort Miami 
To >Iajor-G( m ral VVayxe, etc. 

McDonald, in his sketches, thus describes some of 
tho daring exploits of Wayne's faithful spies: 

Gen. Wayne, having a bold, vigilant and dexter- 
ous enemy to contend with, found it indispensably 
necessary to use the utmost cantionin his movements 
to guard against. To secure his army against the 
possibility of being ambuscaded, he employed a num- 
ber of the best woodsmen the frontier afforded to act 
as spies. Capt. Ephraim Kibby. one of the tirst set- 
tlors at Columbia, who had distinguished himself as 
a bold and intrepid soldier, commanded the principal 
part of this corps. 

A very effective division of the spies was com- 
manded by Capt. William Wells. Attached to Wells' 
command wore the following men: Robert MoClel- 
lan. one of the most active men on foot that ever 
lived. Next to him was Henry Miller, who deserves 
here a passing notice. He and a younger brother 
named Christopher, had been made captives by the 
Indians while quite young, and adopted into an In- 
dian family. Ho lived with them until about twenty- 
four years of age. when, although he had adopted dl 
their customs, he began to chink of returning to his 
relative.- among tho whites. His resolution continu- 
ally gaining strength by reflection, lie determined to 
make the attempt, and endeavored to induce his 
brother to accom] any him in his flight, bur to no pur- 
pose. Christopher was young when captured, he was 
now a good hunter, an expert woodsman ;;nd a fre« 

and independent Indian. Henry Miller, however, 
escaped through the woods and arrived safe among 
his friends in Kentucky. Can! Wells was familiar 
with Miller dnring his captivity, and knew that he 
possessed that firm intrepidity which would ren !cr 
him a valuable companion in time of need To these 
ivere ad led Hickman, May and Thorp, all men of 
t; ied worth i n I ndian warfare. 

Capt, Wells and ln> Four companions were <-< >t i ti - 
dential and privileged gentlemen in camp, who were 
onlj callednpon to do duty upon very particular and 
interesting occasions. They were permitted a rarte 
> ■ among the horses of the dragoons, and. when 
on duty always wont well mounted; while the spies 
commanded by Capt. Kibby went on foot, and were 
kept constantly on the alert, scouring the country in 
even direction. 

In June, 1704. while the headquarters of the army 
were at Greenville, Wayne dispatched W efls, with his 
corps, with orders to bring an Indian into camp as 
prisoner. Accordingly, he proceeded cautiously with 
his part} through the Indian country. They crossed 
the St Mary's and thence to the Auglaize, without 
meeting with any straggling party of Indians. En 
passing up the latter, they discovered a smoke, dis- 
mounted, tied their horses and cautiously reconnoi- 
tered. They found three Indians encamped on a high, 
open piece of ground, clear of brush or an\ under- 
growth, rendering it difficult to approach them with- 
out being discovered. While reconnoitering, the} 
saw not very far distant from th - camp, a fallen tree. 
They returned and wont round, so as to get i be- 
tween them and the Indians. Tho tree top being full 
of leaves would serve to screen them from observa- 
tion. They crept forward on their hands and knees 
with the caution of a cat, until they reached it. when 
they were within seventy or eighty yard.- of the camp. 
The Indians wore sitting or standing around tho tire, 
roasting their venison, laughing and making merry 
antics, little dreaming that death was about stealing 
a march upon them. Arrived at the fallen tree, their 
plans were settled. McClellan. who was almost as 
swift of foot as a doer, was to catch the center In 
dian. while Wells and Miller were to kill the other 
two, on^ shooting to the right and the other to the 
left Resting tho muzzles of their ritb-s on a log of 
the fallon tree, they aimed for the Indians' hear'-. 
Whiz went the balls, and both Indians fell Before 
the smoke had risen two feet, McClellan was running 
with uplifted tomahawk for the remaining Indian, 
who bounded down the river, but finding himself 
likely to be headed if he continued in that din-ctiot 
he turned and ma le forth • river, which at that : I ice 
had a bluff bank aboat twent} feet high. On reach- 
ing it he sprang off into the stream and sun 1 -' to his 



middle in the- soft mud at it.- bottom McClellan 
camp after and instantly sprang upon him as ha 
w;m wallowing and endeavoring to extricate himself 
from the mire. The Indian drew his knife; the other 
raised his tomahawk and bade him throw down his 
knife or he would kill him instantly. He did so.and 
surrendered without further opposition. 

By this time. Wells and his companion came to 
the b^nk and discovered the two quietly sticking in 
the mud. Their prisoner being secure, they selected 
a place where the bank wa- less i recipl ous. went 
down, dragged the captive out and tied him He was 
sulky and refused to speak either Indian or 1 Dgiis i 
Some of the party went hack for the horses, while ihe 
others washed the mud and paint from the prisoner. 
When cleaned, he turned out to he a white man. but 
still refused to speak or give any account of himself 
The party scalped the two Indians whom they had 
shot, and then set off for headquarters. Henry Miller 
having some suspicions that their prisoner might pos 
sibly be his brother. Christopher, wh un he had left 
with the Indian.- years previous, rode up alongside of 
him and called him by his Indian name. At the 
sound he started, stared around, and eagerly inquired 
bow ho came to knew his name. The mystery was 
soon explained Their prisoner was indeed Christo- 
pher Miller' A mysterious providence appeared to 
have placed him in a situation in the camp by which 
his life wa= preserved. Had he been standing 
either to the right or to the left, he would inevitably 
have been killed, and an even chance if not by bis 
own brother. But that fate which appears to have 
doomed the Indian race to extinction, permitted the 
white man to live. 

When they arrived at Greenville their prisoner 
was placed in the guard house. Wayne often inter- 
rogated him as to what he knew of the future inteu 
tions of the Indians. Capt. "Wells and his brother 
Henry wore almost constantly with him. urging him 
to abandon the idea of ever again joining the In 
dians. and to unite with the whites. For some time 
he was reserved and sulky, but at length became more 
cheerful, and agreed that if they would release him 
from his confinement, he would remain anion,' them. 
Capt. Wells and Henry Miller urged Wayne to reli -■■ 
him. who did so. with the observation that should he 
deceive them and return to the enemy tfiey would be 
one the stronger. He appeared pleased with h - 
change of situation and was mounted on a fine hors >, 
and otherwise equipped for war. He joined the com- 
pany of Wells and continued through the war a brave 
and intrepid soldier. 

As soon as Wells and his company had rested 
themselves, they were anxious for another bout with 
the red men. Time without action was irksome to 

bui h stirring spirits. Accordingly, in July, thej lefl 
Greenville, their number strengthened by the addi- 
tion of Christopher Miller, with orders to bring in 
prisoners When on thesi excursions, they were al- 
ways mounted on elegant horses and dressed and 
painted in Indian style. They arrived in the country 
near the Auglaize, when they met a single India i 
and called upon mm to surrei t< r. Notwithstanding 
there were six against him. he refused, levelled i. ■ 
rifle, and as they approached him on horseback, fired, 
missed his mark and 'hen ran. The thick underbrush 
enabling horn to gain up >n them. Christopher Mill >r 
and McClellan dismounted and pursued and the lat- 
ter soon overtook him. Upon this h? turned and 
made a blow at McClellan with his rifle, which was 
parried As it was McClellan - ii ten tion not to kill 
he kept him at bay until Christopher eai te np. when 
thev closed in. and made him prisoner without re. 
ceivin^ injury. They then turned about and arri\ 1 
with him at Greenville He was reported to be a 
Pottawatomie chief of s equaled courage and 

prowess. As Christopher Miller had performei 
nart on this occasion to the entire satisfaction of the 
brave spirits with whom, he acted, he had. as he mer- 
ited, their entire confidence. 

On one of Capt. Wells" peregrinations through 
the Indian country, as he came to the bank o' the 
St. Mary's, he discovered a family of Indians coming 
up the river in a canoe. He dismounted from his 
horse and concealed his men, while he went to the 
bank of the river, in open view, and called to the In 
dians to come over. Ashe was dressed in Indian 
costume and spoke in that language, they erossed to 
him. unsuspicious of danger. The moment the canoe, 
struck the shore, Wells heard the nicking of the c •■.- 
of his comrades' rifles, is they prepared to shoot the 
Indians: but who should be in the canoe but his In 
dian father and mother, with their children. The 
others were not coming forward with their ride- cocked 
and ready to pour in a deadly tire upon his fam 
ily. Wells shouted to them to desist, informing 
them who the Indians were, solemnly declaring that 
the first man who attempted to injure one of them 
should receive a ball in his head. "That family." said 
he to his men. "had fed him when hungry, clothed him 
when naked, and nursed him when sick, and had 
treated him as affectionately as their own children." 
The short speech moved the sympathetic hearts of his 
leather-hunting shirt comrades, who eatered at once 
into his feelings and approved of his lenity. Dropping 
their tomahawks and rifles, they went to the canoe 
and shook hand- with the trembling Indians in th ■■ 
most friendly manner. Wells assured them tic- 
had nothing to fear: and after talking with 
si in Lime, to dispel thm: anxiety, he told them t but 



"Geu. Wayne was approaching with an overwh dining 
force; that the best thing the Indians could lo was 
to make peace, and that the whites did not wish bo 
continue the war. He urged his Indian father to 
keep. Eor the future, out of danger:" he th «n bade 
them farewell. They appeared grateful foi his clem- 
ency, pushed off their canoe and paddled with their 
utmost rapidity down the stream, (.'apt. Wells anil 
hi.- comrades, though perfect desperadoes in fight, 
upon this occasion proved that they largely possessed 
that gratitude and benevolence which does honor to 
human kind. 

While Wayne's army laid at the Indian village at 
the continence of the Auglaize and Maumee, building 
Ft. Defiance, the General, wishing to be informedof 
the intentions of the enemy, dispatched Capt. Wells' 
party to bring in another prisoner. They consisted 
of Wells, McClellan. the Millers. May an.l Mahaffy. 
They proceeded cautiously down the Maumee until 
opposite the site of Ft. Meigs, where was an Indian 
village. This was on the 11th of August, nine days 
before the battle. Wells and his party boldly rod.' 
into this town, as if they had came from the British 
fort, and occasionally stopped and talked with the 
Indians in their language. The savages believed 
them to be Indians from a distance, who had come to 
take part in the expected battle. After passing 
through the village, they met. some distance from it. 
an Indian man and woman on horseback, who were 
returning to town from hunting. They made them 
captives without resistance, and set off for Defiance. 
A little after dark, they came near a large en- 
campment of Indians, merrily amusing themselves 
around their camp tires. Ordering their prisoners 
to be silent, under pain of instant death, they went 
around the camp until they got about, half a mile 
above it. They then held a consultation, tied and 
gagged their prisoners, and rode into the Indian camp 
with their rifles lying across the pommels of their 
saddles. They inquired when they had heard last of 
Gen. Wayne aud the movements of his army, and 
how soon and where the expected battle would be 
fought. The Indians standing about Wells and his 
party were very communicative, and answered the 
questions without any suspicions of deceit in their 
visitors. At length, an Indian who was sitting at 
some distance, said in an undertone in another tongue 
to some who were near him. that he suspected these 
strangers had some mischief in their heads. Wells 
overheard it. gave the preconcerted signal and each 
tired his ride into the body of an Indian, at not more 
than six feet distance. The moment the Indian had 
made <he remark, he and his companions rose up with 
their rifles in hand, but not before each of the others 
had shot their man. The moment after Wells and 

party had fired, they put spurs to their horses, li-ino; 
with their breasts on their animal's nooks, so as to 
lessen the mark to tire at, and before they had got 
out of the light of the camp fires, the Indians had 
tired upon thom. As McClellan lay in this position, 
a ball entered beneath his shoulder blade, and came 
out at the top of his shoulder: Weils' arm was 
broken by a ball, and his rifle dropped to the rround; 
May was chased to the -month rock in the Maumee, 
where, his horse falling, he was taken prisoner. 

The rest of the party escaped without injury and 
rode full -nee,] to where their prisoners were con- 
fined, and mounting them upon horses continued their 
route. Wells and McClellan being severely wound- 
ed, and their march slow and painful to Defiance a 
distance of about thirty miles, ere they could receive 
surgical aid, a messenger was dispatched to hasten to 
that post for a surgeon and a guard As soon as he 
arrived with the tidings of the wounds and perilous 
situation of those heroic and faithful spies, very 
great sympathy was manifested. Wayne's feeling 
■ the suffering soldier was at all times quick and 
sensitive. We can. then, imagine the intensity of his 
solicitude when informed of the Bufferings and perils 
of hi- confidential and chosen band. He instantly 
dispatched a surgeon and a company of the swiftest 
drago( ns to meet, assist and guard these brave fel- 
lows to headquarters, where they arrived safe, and 

the WOUnded in due time recovered. 

May. who was taken prisoner, having formerly 
lived with and ran away from the Indians, was re- 
cognized. They told him the second daj before the 
battle. ''We know you — you speak Indian language— 
yon not content to live with us: to morrow we take you 
to that tree" — pointing to a larjre burr oak at. the 
edge of the clearing near the British fort — " we will 
tie you up and make a mark on your breast, and we 
will try what Indian can shoot nearest it." Accord- 
ingly, next day he was tied to that tree, a mark made 
on his breast, and his body riddled with at least fifty 
bullets. Thus ended poor May! 

This little band of spies, during the campaign, 
performed more real service than any other corps of 
equal number belonging to the army. They brought 
in. at different times, not less than twenty jiri.-on.-r-. 
and killed more than an e.pial number. As thuy had 
no rivals in tjie army, they aimed in each excursion 
to outdo their former exploits. What confidence! 
what self possession was displayed by these men in 
rhi-ir terrific encounters' To ride boldly into the 
enemv's camp, in full view of their blazing .'amp fires, 
and enter into conversation with them without bel 
in^the least appearance of trepidation or confusion, and 
openly commence the work of death, proves how « ' : 1 
their .souls were steeled against fear. They had 



come off unscathed in so many desperate conflicts 
that they became calL us to danger. 

The following anecdotes of the battle are taken 
from a reliable si mrce: 

At the time Capt. Campbell was endeaToring to the left flank of the enemy, three Indians, be- 
ing hemmed in by (he cavalry and infantry, plunged 
into the river and endeavored to swim to the opposite 
side. Two negroes of th< army, on the oppo 
bank, concealed themselves behind ;• log to intercept 
them. When within shooting distance, one of them 
shot the foremost through the head. The ether two 
took hold of him to drag him to shore, when the sec- 
ond negro fired and killed another. The remaining 
Indian being now in shoal water, endeavored to tow 
the dead bodies to the bank. In the meantime the 
first negro had reloaded, and tiring upon the surviv- 
or, mortally wounded him. On approaching them, 
the negroes judged from their striking resemblance 
and devotion, that they were brothers. After scalp- 
ing them they let their bodies float down stream. 

Another circumstance goes to show with what ob- 
stinacy the conflict was maintained by individuals 
in both armies. A soldier who had got detached a 
short distance from the army met a single Indian in 
the woods, when they attacked each other— -the sol- 
dier with his bayonet, the Indian with his tomahawk. 
Two days after, they were found dead; the soldier 
with his bayonet in the body of the Indian — the In- 
dian with his tomahawk in the head of the soldier. 

Several months after the battle of Fallen Timbers, 
a number of Pottawatomie Indians at Ft. Wayne, 
where they expressed a desire to see "'The Wind," as 
they called Gen. Wayne. On being asked for an ex- 
planation of the name, they replied that at the battle 
of the 20th of August, he was exactly like a hurri- 
cane, which drives and tears everything before it. 

Gen. Wayne was a man of most ardent impulses, 
and in the heat of action apt to forget that he was 
the General — not the soldier. When the attack on 
the Indians who were concealed behind the fallen tim- 
bers, was commencing by ordering the regulars up, 
the late Gen. Harrison, then aid to Wayne, being 
Lieutenant with the title of Major, addressed his su- 
perior — "Gen. Wayne. I am afraid you will get into 
the tight yourself, and forget to give me the neces- 
sary held orders." '"Perhaps I may," replied Wayne, 
"and if I do. recollect the standing order of the day 
is, charge the d — d rascals with the bayonets." 

To show that this Indian war was m a great meas- 
ure sustained by British influence, and that they 
lent their aid in this campaign and battle, we give an 
extract from a letter from lieu. Harrison, to Hon. 
Tin. mas Chilton, dated North Bend, February 17, 

" That the Northwestern and Indian war wa- a 
continuation of the Revolutionary contest is suscepti 
ble of proof. The Indians in that quarter had been 
engaged in the first seven years of the war, as allies 
of Great Britain, and tho) had no inclination to con- 
tinue it after the peace of 1788. It is to British in 
duenee that their subsequent hostilities are to be al 
tributed The agents of that Government never ceased 
to stimulate their enmity against the Government of 
the United States, and to represent the peace which 
had been made as a temporary trace, at the expiration 
of which " their fathers would unite with them in 
the war, and drive the long knives from the land 
which they had so unjustly usurped from his red 
children." This was the cause of the detention of 
tho posts of Detroit, .Mackinaw and Niagara, so long 
after the treaty of 1 783, The reasons assigned for 
so doing deceived nobody, after the failure of the ne- 
gotiation attempted by Gen. Lincoln. Gov. Randolph 
and Col. Pickering, under British mediation volun- 
tarily tendered. 

The bare suggestion of ;■. wish by the British au- 
thorities, would have been sufficient to induce the In- 
dians to accept the terms proposed by the American 
Commissioners. Bat at any rate, the withholding the 
supplier with which the Indians had been previously 
furnished, would have left no other alternative but to 
make peace. From that period, however, the war was 
no longer carried on "'in disguise." Acts of open 
hostility were committed. In June, 1794, the In- 
diaus assembled at the Miami of the Lake, aiiii were 
completely equipped out of the King's srore. from the 
fort la large and regularly fortified work; which h:-. .1 
been buiit there in the preceding spring, for the pur- 
pose of supporting the operations of the Indians 
against Gen. Wayne. Nor was the assistance limited 
to the supply of provisions and munitions of war. 
On the advance of the Indians, thev are attended l>_, 
a captain of the British Army, a Sergeant and six 
matrosses, provided with Axed ammunition, suited to 
the caliber of two tield pieces, which had been taken 
from St. Clair and deposited in a creek near the scene 
of his defeat in 1791. Thus attended, they appeared 
before Ft. Recovery (the advanced post of our arm) I, 
on the 4th of July. 17 ( J4, and having defeated a large 
detachment of our troops, encamped under its wails, 
would probably have succeeded iu inking the 
fort if the guns which they expected to And ha I 
not been previously discovered and removed. In this 
action. Capt. Hartshorn, of the First sub-legion, was 
wounded by the Indians and afterward killed iu a 
struggle with Capt. McKee of the British Army.* 
Upon the advance of the American Army in the fol 

• It Is proper to state that* i-pl Sic Kee asserted that he ru-rf-r-.l to save 

. Hrtrt^bnrii, but th a bn refused r;u;u*tur and Attempted to kill liiui M.-'v ■ *ii I 

would have succeeded, if hehaduotheeu snticipatad by hi- (tfcKsB'sJ seir aat. 



lowing • mtfa, the British fort af the rapids was again 
the point <>> n-n lezvous foi Hi- Indians There the 
deficiencies iu arms, ammunition and equipments wore 
again supplied; and there the} were fed with regular. 
rations from the King's stores, consisting i f flour and 
Irish beef, until the arrival of Lien. Wayne with his 
army on the 20th of August. In the general action 
of that day, there were two militia companies from 
Ainherstburg and Detroit. The Captain of thecuttei 
I w ho was als i the cha k of the c >urt at that pi,-. re •. was 
found among the killed, and oue of his privates 
taken prisoner. These unequivocal acts of hostility 
on the part of Great Britain did not pass unnotice I 
bv our Government, and although anxious to avoid a 
t'enerat war, the President determined that the a _•- 
gressiou on our territory, by the erection of a fortress 
so far within our acknowledged limits, required sum." 
decisive measure. Authority was therefore given to 
Gen. Wayne to dispossess tin- intruders, if in hi6 
opinion it was necessary to the success of his opera- 
tions against the Indians. Although the qualilica- 
tiou of this order, iu its literal sense, might be op- 
posed to its execution after the entire defeat of the 
Indians — the daring violation of neutrality which was 
professed, by the supply of food, arms and ammuni- 
tion to the enemy ou the very morning of the action, 
afforded, in the opinion of Gen. Wayne, a sufficient 
justification for its being carried into effect. An ac- 
curate examination, however, of the defenses of the 
fort, made by the General at great, personal hazard, 
showed but too clearly that our small howitzors, 
which had been transported on the backs of horse>, 
our only artillery, could make no impression upon its 
massive earthen parapet, while the deep fosse and 
fascine by which it was surrounded, afforded no 
prospect of the success of an escalade, but at an ex- 
pense of valuable lives, which the occasion did not 
seem to call for. 

"From my situation as aid-de-camp to the General 
in-chief. I mention these things from personal knowl- 
edge. If. then, the relation I have v given is correct, 
it must be admitted that the war of the Revolution 
continued in the Western country until the peace of j 
Greenville, in 1793." 


Fort Greenville. Wher" Gen. Wayne arrived with 
his army late in October, 1793. 

Htnry House, of Greenville, who was in 
Wayne's campaign, said that the soldiers proceeded 
to build lo^j huts, arranged in rows, each regiment 
occupying on» row and each hut — of which there 
were many hundred -occupied by six soldiers. 

In December, Wayne erected his fort, which he 
called Ft, Greenville, where he remained until the 

-Sth day of July, 171)4, when he took up the lii i ■ ■' 
march £i >r I he Maumeo rapids 

Che following is a daily journal kept by him fi >m 
the time he left until his return on the - 1 .lav of No- 
vember, after an absence of three months and sis 
via;, s: 

Camp at Stillwater. 28th July, 1794. Agreeable to 
the general order of yesterday, the legion took up 
their line of march at Vj o'clock, and encamped .,; 
balf-pasi :i on the bank .if Stillwater, twelve mile 
from Greenville The weather extremely warm 
water very bad. Nothing occurred worth noticing. 

Camp one mile in advai E Fort Recover} 

July, 179-4. — At o o'clock left the camp; arrived on 
tins ground at I o clock, being fifteen miles. Noth 
ing took placo worth reciting 

I am now informed that tracks were perceived on 
our ri^h' tiank, supposed to be runners from the 
< >glaize. 

Camp Beaver Swamp, eleven miles in advance of 
Fort Recovery. 30th July, 1794. — This morning the 
legion took up the line of march and arrived here at 
3 o'clock. The ii ad was to cut, as will be r 'e- case i a 
every new route we take in this country. Th:-- wealh 
er still warm; no water except in ponds, which aoth 
ing but excessive thirst would induce us to drink 
The mosquitoes are very troublesome, and larger than 
I ever saw. The most of this country is covered with 
beech, the land of a wet soil intermixed with rich 
tracts, but no running water to be found. A bridge 
!o be built ovei thi^ swamp to-moiToW, wliien prevents 
the inarch of the legion till the day after. We art' 
informed tnere is no water foi twelve miles. 

July 31, 1794. — Commenced building tha bridge, 
being seventy yards iu length, which will require in- 
finite labor; it will be five feet deep, with loose mud 
and water. 

One hundred pioneers set out this morning, 
strongly escorted, to cut a road to the St. Mary's 
River, twelve miles. I expect the bridge wiil bo 
completed so as to inarch early in the morning 

Camp St. Mary's River. 1st August, 1794. — Fro 
ceed m our way before sunrise, and arrived at this 
place at 3 o'clock, beiui,' twelve miles, as aforesaid. 
Our encampment is on the largest and most beautiful 
prairie I ever beheld, the land rich and well timbered; 
the water plenty but very bad —the river :- from 
forty-five to fifty yards wide, in which I bathed. I 
am told ther« is plenty of ii-h in it. 

Auerust 2, IT'.M. ["be lesion detained here for the 
purpose of erecting a garrison, which will take up 
three days. This day one of the Deputy Quartermas- 
ters was taken up by the Indians. Cur spies diseov 
ered where four of the enemy had retreated precipi- 
tately with a horse, and eupposnd to be the part) the 



above person had been taken by. Ii is hoped lie 
will not give accurate informath u "I' our strength. 

August 'J, IT'.' i . An :.' ideni took place tiii-- Jay 
by a tree falling on the Commander in-chief ami 
nearh putting an end to his existence; we expeel i 
to be detained here some time in consequence of it, 
bat fortunately he is not so much hurt as to prevent 
him from riding at a slow pace 

No appearance of the euei to lay, and tl 
they are preparing for ;i warm attack The weather and dry, without mi appearance of rain 

Camp thirty one miles in ad\ moe of E'ort Keco'v 
ery, 4th August, 1794. — The aforesaid garrison be- 
ing completed, Lieut. Underbill, with LOO men, left 
to protect iti departe 1 at o'clock and arrived here 
at 3 o'clock, being ten miles. The land we march**! 
through is rich and well timbered, but the water 
scarce and bad: obliged to dig holes in boggy places 
and let it settle. 

Camp forty-four miles in advance of Fort Recov- 
ery, -"th August, 1794. — We arrived at this place at 
4 o'clock, nothing particular occurring. The land 
and water as above described; had some rain to-day. 

Camp fifty-six miles from Fort Recovery. 6th Au 
gust. 1704. — Encamped on this ground at 2 o'clock. 
In the course "four march, perceived the track of 
twenty Indians. I am informed we are within six 
mih's of oue of their towns on the ( Iglaize River, sup. 
po^ed to be the Upper Delaware town, if so. I ex- 
pect to eat green corn to-morrow. 

Out march this 

has been through 

. ■ id 

ing tine country; the water stiil bad: the day cooler 
than heretofore. 

Camp sixty-eight miles from Fort Recovery. 7th 
August, 17U4. — Thin day passed the upper town on 
the Oglaize, which the Indians evacuated . some time 
ago. I expect to see one of their new town.-., where 
I am told there are all sorts of vegetables, which will be 
very acceptable to the troops. We have had no ap- 
pearance of Indians to-day. 

Camp Grand Ondaize. Sth August, L794.— Pro- 
ceeded on our march to this place at 5 o'clock this 
morning, and arrived here at the continence of the 
Miami and Oglaize Rivers at half-past 10, being sev- 
enty-seven miles from Fort Recovery. This place far 
excels in beauty any of the Western country, and be- 
lieved equaled by none in the Atlantic States. Here 
are vegetables of every kind in abundance, and we 
have marched f nir ur rive miles in corn-fields down the 
Oglaize, and there is not less than one thousand icres 
of corn»around the town. The land in general of the 
fir nature. 

This country appears well adapted for the enjoy- 
ment of industrious people, who cannot avoid liviug 
in as great luxury n?> i:i any other place throughout 

the States, nature having lent a most bountiful hand 
in the arrangement of the position, that a man can 
send the produce to market in hi- own boat. i! • 
land level and river navigable not more than sixty 
mil ■ from the lake The British have buiit a large 
garrison about fifty miles from this place, and our 
.--pies inform us that the enemy are encamped about 
two ne les ab. ive it on the river. 

Grand Oglaize, 9th August, 1794. — We remain 
here. The Commander-in-Chief has ordered a i, r ar- 
rison to be erected at the confluence of the Miami and 
Oglaize Rivers, which was begun this morning, and 
will take up some time; by this means the troops will 
be much refreshed, as well as the horses and cattle. 
the latter being much wearied and in need of a recess 
of labor. Xo appearance of au enemy. 

Grand Oglaize, LOth August, 1794.— The troops 
in good spirits. No interruption from, or account of. 
the enemy. We have plenty of vegetables. One of 
our militia officers wounded by his own sentinel by 

Grand Oglaize, 11th August. 1794. —Nothing oc 
cuts to prevent the completion of our work. 

| Here were a few leaves lo-t out "f the manu- 
script, | 

On the 13th of August, true to the spirit of | lac - 
advised by Washington, Oeu. Wayne sent Christian 
.Miller, who had been naturalized among the Shaw 
ii' s, as a special messenger to offer terms of friend 

. . ..» ,L^> iua. Iti*..- ^.t ai„,Lli u.1 . CbU V-'liv.V :tlll>CU 

on this ground without any occurrence. Our camp is 
situated in sigut of Snaketown, of the Miami of the 
Lake. Vegetables in abundance. 

Camp nineteen miles from Oglaize 16th Augi -'. 
1 ?94. — Our march this day was through a i <:.-!. s 
ground, and the road generally bad. Miller !the tiagi 
returned this Jay from the enemy wnfi information 
from the tribes, that if the Commander-in-Chief 
would remain at Grand Oglaize ten days they would 
let him know whether they would be for pi ice n war. 

Camp thirty-one miles from Camp Oglaize 17: h 
August, 17 l .i4. — Tiiis day a small party of the enemy's 
spies fell in with ours; both parties being for dis 
coveries, they retreated, at which time the enemy 
tired and wounded one of our horses. Our camp, 
head of the rapids. 

Camp forty -one miles from Grand Oglaize, IVh 
August L 70 4. —The legion arrived on this ground, 
; nothing ['articular taking place. Five of our spies 
were sent out at '■> o'clock, they fell in with an a t 
va need body of the enemy, and obliged to retreat; 
but May, one of our spies, fell under the enemy's 
hold. What his faie may be must be left to future 



Camp Deposit, lOth August, 17U4. The legion still 
continued in enes mpmeni und are throwing up works 
to secure and deposit the beav\ baggage oi the 

troops so that the men may be light for action, ; • 
viding the enemy have presumption to favor us with 
an interview, which if they should think proper to 
do. the troop- are in sach high spirits that we will 
make an easy victory of them. 

Hy this morning's order the iegion is to march ;t 
o o'clock. 

Camp in sight of a Bnti-h garrison on the Miami 
of the Lake. August ->K IV.'.. —One hundred and fifty 
miles from Greenville. This day. the legion, after 
depositing every kind of baggage, took up the line of 
march at 7 o'clock, and continued their route down 
the margin of the river without making any discovery, 

had taken sotne refreshment, the ) '_;iou continued 
their route down the river and encamped m sight of 
the British garrison. One Canadian fell into our 
hands whom we loaded with irons. 

Camp. Foot of the ttapids, 21st August, 1 I'M. - 
'A e are now lying within half a mile of a British gar 
rison. A Hag came to the Commander-in-Chief, the 
purport of which was that he. tie' commanding officer 
of the British fort, was surprised to see an Amenc m 
army so far advanced in this country; and why they, 
had the assurance Lo encamp under the mouths of His 
Majesty's cannons! The Commander in Chief an 
swered, that the affairof yesterday might well inform 
him why this army was encamped in its present posi- 
tion, and had the flying savages taken shelter under 
the walls of tie- fort, his Majesty's cannons should 

until 11 o'clock, when the front guard, which was not have protected them. 

composed of mounted volunteers, were fired on by the 
enemy. The guard retreated in the utmost confusion 
through the front guard of the regulars, commanded 
byCapt. Cook and Lieut. Steele, who, inspite of their 
utmost exertion, made a retreat These fell in with 
the left of Capt. Howell Lewis' company of light in- 
fantry and threw that part of the men into confusion, 
which Capt. Lewis observing, he ordered the left of 
his company to retreat about forty yards, where he 
formed them and joined the right, which had stood 
their ground. They continued in this position until 
they were joined by part of Capt Springer's battal- 
ion of rirlemeu. which was nearly fifteen minutes 
after the firing commenced, who drove tho enemy that 
had attempted to dank us on the right. Nearly at the 
same time, the right column came up. and the charge 
was sounded — the enemy gave way and tired scatter- 
ing shots as they ran off'. 

About the time the right column came up. a 
heavy tiring took place on the left, which lasted but 
a short time, the enemy giving way in all quarters, 
which left us in possession of their dead to the num- 
ber of forty. Our loss was thirty killed and 100 
wounded. Among the former we have to lament the 
loss of Capt. MisCauipbell of the dragoons, and 
Lieut. Henry B. Fowles of the Fourth sub-legion, 
and of the latter. Capts. Prior of the First. 
Slough of the Fourth, and Van Pienssolaer of the 
dragoons, also Lieut. Campbell Smith of the Fourth 
Bab-legion. The whole loss of the enemy cannot at 
present be ascertained, but it is more than probable 
it must have been considerable, for we pursued them 
with rapidity for nearly two miles. As to the num- 
ber of the enemy engaged in this action, opinions are 
so various 'hat I am at a loss to kuow what to say. 
The most general opinion is 1,500, one-third of which 
are supposed to be Canadians; I am led to believe 
this number is not over the mark- After the troops 

Camp, Foot of the Rapids, 22d August, 170b — 
We have destroyed all the property within 100 yards 
of tho garrison. The volunteers were sent down eight, 
miles below the fort, anil have destroyed and burnt 
all tin- possessions belonging to the Canadians and 
savages. The Commander-in-Chief led his light in- 
fantry within pistol shot of the garrison to find out 
the strength and situation of tho place, and in ho ( .es 
of bringing a shot from our inveterate but silent eu- 
emies. .They were too cowardly to come up to our 
expectations, and all we got by insulting the colors 
of Britain was a flag, the amount of which was, that 
the commanding officer of the fort felt himself as a 
soldier much injured by seeing His JlajwsU'o colors 
insulted, and if such conduct was continued he would 
be under the necessity of making a proper resent- 
ment; upon which the Commander-in-Chief demanded 
the post, it being the right of the Unite,! States, 
which he was refused. A small party of dragoons 
were sent over the river to burn and destroy ad the 
houses, corn. etc.. that were under cover of the fort, 
which was effected. 

Camp Deposit. 23d August, 170 1. — Having burned 
and destroyed everything contiguous to the fort 
without any opposition, the legion took up the line 
of march, and in the evening encamped on this 
"round. being the same they marched from the 'J"ti, 
It may be proper to remark that we have heard noth 
nif from the savazes, or their allies, the Canadians, 
since the action. The honors of war have been paid 
to the remains of those brave fellows who fell on th • 
20th, by a discharge of three rounds from sixteen 
pieces of ordnance, charged with shells. The cere 
mony was performed with the greatest ceremony. 

Camp Thirty-two Mile Tree. 24th August, 1794. 
— The wounded being well provided for with car- 
riages, etc.. the legion took up the line ,,{ march and 
halted iu their old camp about 2 o'clock in the even- 



-. .'. 




j 7 '■ 



— '- ■ 




L ' - 


. -.- 





: > 

i ' 

■* ■ ' 










J J 











ing without any accident In this Jay's march, we 
destroyed -••II the corn and burnt all the houses we 
met with, which were wary© iderable 

Camp Fifteen Mile '■ ■ 25th August, 1794. 

ThS'legion continued their march ami encamped on 
this ground at 3 o'clock P. M. This morning a few 
of the volunteers remained in the rear of the army 
and poon after the legion took up the line of march 
fcheysaw eight Indians coming into our camp; they 
fell in with them, killed one and wounded two. 

Camp Nine Mile Creek. 20th August, 1794.— The 
legion continued their m i -eh, • burning and 

destroying all the houses and corn on their rout", ar- 
rived on this ground at 2 o'clock, being one of our 
encamping places when on our advance. 

All the wounded that were carried on litters and 
borsebackwere Bent forward to Ft. Defiance. Dr. Car- 
michael, through neglect, had the wounded men of 
the artillery ami cavalrj thrown into wagons, among 
spades, axes, picks, etc., in consequence of which the 
wounded are now lying in extreme pain, besides the 
frequent shocks of a wagon on the worst i E roads. 
The wounded of the Third sub-legion are under obli- 
gafcions to Dr. Haywood for hi, attention and human- 
ity to them in their distress. 

Camp Ft. Defiance. 27th August, 1794.— The le- 
gion continued their route, and at 3 o'clock were en- 
camped on the Miami, one mile above the garrison. 
On this day's march, we destroyed ail the corn and 
burnt all the houses on our route: the wounded ar« 
happily fixed in the garrison, and the doctors say 
there is uo great danger of any of them dying. 

Fort Defiance, 28th August. 1794.— The Com- 
mander-in-Chief thinks proper to continue on this 
ground for some time to refresh the troops and send 
for supplies. There is corn, beans, pumpkins, etc., 
within four miles of this place, to furnish the troops 
three weeks. 

General Orders. —The Quartermaster General will 
issue one gill of whisky to every man belonging to 
the Federal army this morning, as a small compen- 
sation for the fatigues they have undergone for sev- 
eral days past. Maj. General Scott will direct his 
Quartermasters to attend accordingly with their re- 
spective returns. The Chief wishes it 
to be fairly understood that when he mentioned or 
may mention the Federal army in general orders, 
that term comprehends and includes the legion and 
mounted volunteers as one compound army, and I 
the term legion comprehends the regular troops, 
agreeable to the 'organization by the President , f the 
United States, and by which appellation they are 
known and recognized on ail occasions, when acting 
by themselves, and separate from the mounted volun- 
teers. As the army will probablj remain on this 

ground for some time, vaults must be dug cud every 
precaution taken to keep the encampment clean and 
healthy. Th i legion wi-11 be reviewed the day after 
to-morrow atlO o'clock. In the interim, the amL musl 
be clean and varnished and the clothing of the - I 
dier repaired and washed, to appear in the mos i iili 
tary condition possible; but in these necessary prop- 
arations for a review, great caution must be use! K 
the commanding officers of wings, not to permit too 
many men at one time to take their locks off, or to be 
engaged in washing. 

All the horses belonging to the Quartermaster and 
contractor's department, in possession of the legion 
must be returned this afternoon. 

This is the first fair day that wo have had since 
we began to return to this having rained 
nearly constantly for five days, which was the , .- ,-.,- ioc 
of fatiguing the troops very much. 

Ft. Defiance, 29th August, 1794.— We are as yet 
encamped on this ground; all the pack-horses be] 
ing to the Quartermaster and contractor's department 
moved this morning for Ft. Recovery, escorted by 
Brig. Gen. Todd's brigade of mounted volun- 
teers, for the purpose of bringing supplies tc I 
place. It is eaid the legion will continue in theii 
• - nt camp until the return of this escort. Our 
spies were yesterday twelve miles up this river, and 
they bring information that the corn-fields continue 
as far as they were up the river. 

Ft. Defiance, 30th August, J ?94.— This dav at 10 
o'clock the Commander-in-Chief began t , review 
troops at the posts occupied by the different corps, 
and I am led to believe that he was well plea.-,-; • 
their appearance. Maj. Hughes, Capt. Slough, Oapt. 
\ an Rensselaer and Lieut. Younghusband, obtained 
a furlough to go home to repair their health, being, 
as they pretended, very much injured by the service. 
I believe the two first and the last mentioned, if 
they never return will not be lamented by the major- 
ity of the army. The out-gnards were much alarmed 
this morning at the mounted volunteers tiring off all 
their arms without our having any notice. 

Headquarters, 31st August, 1794, general orders 
—A general court martial to consist of five members, 
will set to-morrow morning at 10 o'clock for the trial of 
such prisoner, as may he brought before them. Maj. 
Shaylor, President, Lieut. Wade, Judge Advocate 

The disorderly and dangerous practice of permit 
ting the soldiery to pass the chain of sentinels, on 
pretest of going after vegetable,, can no longer be 
suffered. in future on issuing day, only one man 
from each mess, properly ari d md commanded bv 
the respective sub-legionary quartermasters, will be 
sent as a detachment for vegetables, to march ai 7 
o'clock in f he morning. 



The pack-horses shall forage daily under the pro- 
tection of a squadron of dragoons; every precaution 
must be taken to guard tgainsl surprise. Anj non- 
commissioned officer or soldier found half a mile 
without the chain of s< utinels. without a pass signed 
by tho comma; ling offi •> r of wings or - tb li gion, or 
from headquarters, shall be deemed a deserter, and 
punished accordingly Every sentinel suffering a 
non-commissioned officer or private to pass without 
such written permit, except a party or command, 
shall receive fifty lashes for each and every violation 
of this order. A fatigue party of 300 non-commis- 
sioned officers and privates, with a proportion of com- 
missioned officers will parade at 7 o'clock to-morrow 
morning, furnished with LOO axes, 100 picks and 100 
spades and shovels, with arms, commanded by Maj. 

A part of this order was iu const" pienco of three 
men of the first sub-legion being either killed or 
taken by the enemy when out a foraging, which was 
done some time since in a very disorderly manner, at 
the same time liabie to attacks of the enemy, without 
having it in their power to make the smallest resist- 

Fort Defiance, 1st September, 1794. — This morn- 
ing the fatigue party ordered yesterday began to 
fortify and strengthen the fort and make it of suffi- 
cient strength to be proof against heavy metal; the 
work now on hand is a glacis with fascines, and a 
ditch twelve feet wide and eight feet deep; the block- 
houses are to bo made b 'inb proof. 

Fort Defiance. 2d September. 1794. — Every effect- 
ive man of the light troops m the redoubts round the 
camp were ordered this morning to make three fas- 

The foraging party that went out this day brought 
in as much corn, dry enough to grate, as will suffice 
the troops three days. The soldier) gets sick very 
fast with the fever and ague, and have it severely. 

Fort Defiance, 3d September. L794 — Nothing 
but hard fatigues going forward in all quarters. Tin- 
garrison begins to put on the appearance of 
strength, and will in a few days be able to stand the 
shock of heavy cannon; the troops ;;re very sickly. 
and 1 believe the longer we continue in this place 
tho worse it will be. 

Fort Defiance 4-th September. 1794. — The num- 
ber of our sick increases daily, provision is nearly 
exhausted; the whisky has been out for some time, 
which makes the hours pass heavily to the tune of 
Roslin Gastle, when in our present situation thej 
ought to go to the quickstep of '* the merry mandown 
to his grave." Hard dutj and scant\ allowance will 
cause an army to be low spirited, particularly the 
want of a little of the wet. 

If it was nut for the forage we get from tht i a < 
uiy's fields, the rations would n.<t suffice to keep - 
and body ti igether. 

Fort Defiance, 5th September. 1794. — No news of 
the escort; this day the troops drew no flour: and i 
fear will shortly draw no beef; however, a.- long as tho 
issuing of beef continues the troops will not suffer, 
as there is --till corn iu abundance on the river. 

Fort Defiance. 6th September, 1794. --The x ek 
>>n tho garri&on g'>es on with life, and will bo e 
pleted in a few days. The wepther very wet -.iU-if ; ' 
this morning there is a small frost. 

Fort Defiance, 7th September, 1 704-. — Nothing < F 
consequence took place this day. Our sick are get 
ting better. 

Fort Defiance, Sth September, I7 l . j 4. — This day 
brings us information of the escort; by express we 
learn that it will be with a 3 to-morrow. It will be fort 
unate for us should provisions arrive, as we have not 
drawn any flour since the 7th inst. ; nevertheless, we 
have the greatest abundance }f vegetables. 

Fort Defiance, 9th September. 1794. — The escort 
has icr yet arrived, but will be in to-morrow. Gen. 
Scott, with the residue, is ordered to march to-morrow 
morning at reveille. The Commander-in-Chief i i 
erased with the volunteers to bring on the flour from 
Greenvillfi on their own horses, for which they are to 
receive i'-' per hundred, delivered at the Miami vil- 

Fort Defiance. 10th September, 1794. — Theesc irt 
arrived this dav about 8 o'clock »T><\ bf<«JH"W with them 
200 kegs of flour and nearly 200 head of cattle 

Capt Preston and Ensigns Strother, Bowyer and 
Lewis, joined us this day with the. escort. We receive.'. 
no liquor by this command, and I fancy we shall 
not receive any until we get into winter quarter-. 
which will make the fatigues of tho campaign appear 
double, as I am persuaded the troops wonld much 
rather live on half lations of beef and bread, provided 
they could get their full rations of whisky. The 
vegetables are as vet in the greatest abundance. 
Th> soldiers of Capt William Lewis" company are in 
perfect health, the wounded excepted. 

Fort Defiance, llth September, 1794.— This day 
Gen. Barber's brigade of mounted volunteers march' <: 
for Ft. Recovery for provisions, to meet u- at the Mi 
ami villages by the 20th. 

Fort Defiance. 12th September. !7 ( .U. — This day 
the pioneers were ordered to cut the road up the Mi- 
ami under the direction of the sub-legionary Quarter 
master; they are to commence at 7 o'clock to-morrow 

Fort Defiance, 1 3th September, 1794. — This day 
a general order was issued, setting forth that tb. i le- 
gion would march to-morrow morning precisely a: . 


o'clock, ©very department to prepare themselves ac- 

The squaw that Wells captured on the llth Au- 
gust was this daj liberated and sent home rhree 
soldiers of the First and three of Hie Third sub !•■ 
gious deserted last night; sixteen volunteers pursued 
them; they are to receive $20 if they bring them in 
dead or alive. 

Camp Eleven-and-a-half Mile Tree. 1 tth Septem 
ber. 1794. — The legion began their march for the 
Miami villages at 7 o'clock ;his morning and encamped 
on this ground at 3 o'clock, after marching in the 
rain eight hours. 

Camp Twenty-three .'Mile Tree. 1 r> 1 1 1 September. 
1794. — The legion inarched at 6 and encamped at 4 
o'clock. Capt Preston, who commanded the light 
troops in the rear, got 1 at an 1 lay out from the army 
all night with a large part of the baggage. 

Camp Thirty -three Mile Tree. I6tb September, 
1794. — V\"e encamped on this ground at 4 o'clock, 
after passing over very rough roads and woods thick 
with brush, the timbervery loft} and the laud gener- 
ally rich and well watered. 

Camp Miami Villages, 17th September. 1794. — 
The a- my halted on this ground at 5 o'clock P. 51., be- 
ing forty-seven miles from Fort Defiance and fourteen 
from our last encampment; there are nearly five hun- 
dred acres of cleared land lying in one body on the 
Rivers St Joseph, St. Mary's and the Miami: theie 
are fine points of land contiguous to those rivers ad- 
joining tiie cleared land. The rivers are navigable 
for small craft in the summer, and in the winter theie 
is water sufficient for large boats; the land adjacent 
fertile aud well timbered, and from every appearance 
it has been one of the largest settlements made by 
the Indians in this country. 

Camp Miami Villages. 18th September. 1794 — 
This day the Commander in-Chief reconnoitered the 
ground and determined >n a spot to build the garri- 
son on. The troop? fortified their camps, as they 
halted too late yesterday to cover themselves. Four 
deserters from the British came to us this day: tbey 
bring information that the Indians are encamped 
eight miles below the British fort to the number of 

Camp Miami Villages, 19th September, 1794. — 
This day we hear that Gen. Barber's brigade of 
mounted volunteers are within twelve miles of this 
place and will be in early to-morrow with large sup- 
plies of flour; we have had heavy rains, the wind 
northwest, and the > louds have the appe irance of emp- 
tying large quantities on this western world 

Camp Miami Villages, 20th September. 1794. — 
Last uight it rained violently, and the wind blew from 
the northwest harder than I ever knew heretofore 

Gen. Barber with his command arrived in camp about 
9 o'clock this morning with 553 kegs of dour, each 
containing 100 lbs. 

C mp Miami Villages, '.'1st September, !7'.»b — 
The Commander-in-Chief reviewed the legion thus 
d iy at 1 o'clock. 

All the Quartermaster's horses set oft' this morning 
escorted by the mounted volunteers for Greenville, and 
are to return the soonest possible: we have not one 
quart of salt on this ground, which occasions bad and 
disagreeable living, until the arrival of the next es- 

Camp Miami Villages, 22d September, 1794.— 
Nothing of consequence took place .his day, ex >pt 
that the troops drew no salt with their fresh provis 

Camp Miami Villages, '23d September, 1794. — 
Four deserters from the British garrison arrived at 
our camp; they mention that the Indians are still 
embodied on the Miami, nine miles I elowthe British 
fort; that they are somewhat divided iu opinion, 
some are for peace aud others are for war. 

Camp Miami Villages. '24th September, 17'.' 1. 
This day the work commenced on the garrison, which 
I am apprehensive will take some time to complete it 
A keg of whisky containing ten gallons, .w- pur- 
chased this day for §80, a sheep for ebb •-'•-; for one 
pint of salt, but it could not be obtained for less 
than rj. 

Camp Miami Villages, '2"ith September, 1794.— 
Lieut. Blue of the dragoons was this day arrested 
by Ensign Johnson of the Fourth S. L., but a number 
of their friends interfering, the dispute was settled 
upon Lieut. Bine's asking Ensign Johnson's pardon. 

Camp Miami Villages. 26th September, 1794.— 
McCleland. one of our spies, with a small party, 
came in this evening from Ft. Defiance, who brings 
information that the enemy are troublesome about 
the garrison, and that they have killed some of our 
men under the walls of the fort. Sixteen Indians 
were seen to day near this place, a small party went 
in pursuit of them. I have not heard what discoveries 
they have made. 

Camp Miami Villages. 27th September. 1794. — 
No intellig mce of the enemy; the rain fell consider 
ably last night; this morning the wind i3 southwest. 

Camp Miami Villages. 28th September, i 704. — 
The weather proves colder. 

Camp Miami Villages, 30th September, 1794. 
Salt and whisky were drawn by the troops this day 
and a number of the soldiery became much intoxi 
cated, they having stolen a quantity of liquor from 
the Quartermaster. 

Camp Miami Villages, 1st October, 1794. - The 
volunteers appear to be uneasy, aud have refused '■• 



duty; tbey are ordered by the Commandei'-in-Chief to 
march to-morrow for Greenville to assist the pack- 
horses, which I an. told thf y are d >tei lined oot todo 

Camp Miami '> liases, 2d October, 1794 —This 
morning the vohmte ra refused to go on command, 
aud demanded of Gen. Scott to conduct them home; 
he ordered them to start with Gen. Barber, or if they 
made the smallest delay they should lose all their 
pay and be reported to the war office as revolters; this 
bad the desired effect, and they went off not in good 

Camp Miami Villages, 3d October, 1794. — Every 
officer, non-commissioned officer and soldier belong- 
ing to the square are on fatigue this day, hauling 
trees on the hind wheels of wagons; the first day we 
got an extra gill per man. which appears to be all the 
compensation at this time in the power of the Com- 
mander-in-Chief to make the troops. 

Camp Miami Villages, itli October, 1794. — This 
morning we had the hardest frost I ever saw in the 
middle of December: it was like a small snow: there 
wa.-> ico in our camp k- ttlos three quarters of an inch 
thick; the fatigues go on with velocity, considering 
the rations the troops are obliged to live on. 

Carnp Miami "Villages, oth October, 17y4. — The 
weatlier extremely cold and hard frosts: the wind 
northwest; everything quiet and nothing but harmony 
and peace throughout the camp, which is something 

Camp Miami Villages.6th October, 179-L — Plenty 

and ^uictup-n (lie saiuB da \ esiei'ii; :\ ; • he volunteers 
engaged to work on the garrison, for which they are 
to receive three gills of whisky per man per day, 
when their employment is digging the ditch and till- 
ing up the parapet. 

Camp Miami Villages, Tth October, 1794. — The 
volunteers are soon tired of work and refuse to labor 
any longer; the\ have stolen and killed seventeen 
beeves in the course of these two days past. 

Camp Miami Villages, 8th October, 1794. — The 
troops drew but half rations of Hour this day. The 
cavalry and other horses die very fast, not less than 
four or five per day. 

Camp Miami Villages, 9th October, 1794.— The 
volunteers have agreed to build a block-house in front 
of the garrison. 

Camp Miami Villages, J lth October. 1794. -A 
Canadian (RozelLe) arrived with a nag this evening; 
his business was to deliver up three prisoners Id ex- 
change for his brother, who was taken the 'JUtu Au 
gust; to brings information that the Indians are in 
council with Girty and McKee,. near the fort of De- 
troit, that all the tribes are for peace except the 
Shawnees-, who are determined to prosecute the war. 

Camp Miami Vilhtgaa, 12th October, 1794. -The 

mounted volunteers of Kentucky marched for Green 
ville, to be mustered and lismissed the service of the 
United SI ites Army, : ii-y being of no further service 

Camp Miami Villages, 13th October, 1794. -Capl 
Gibson inarch"! this day and took with him a number 
of horses for ft. Recovery to receive supplies of pro 

Camp Miami Villages. 14th October, 1791 —No- 
thing particular this day. 

Camp Miami Villages, loth October. 1.794. — The 
Canadian that came in on the 11th left us tin-, day, 
accompanied by his brother; they have promised to 
furnish the garrison at Ft. Defiance with stores at ,i 
moderate price, which, if performed, will be a groat 
advantage to the officers and soldiers of that posl 

Camp Miami Villages, 16th October, 1791. — Noth- 
ing new; weather wet and cold; wind from north 
west. The troops healthy in geneial. 

Camp Miami Villages, 17th October. 1794. —This 
day Capt. Gibson arrived with a kirge quantity of 
Hour, beef and sheep. 

Camp Miami Villages, ISth October, 1794. — Capt 
Springer and Brock with all the pack-horse-, mar'!: ••! 
with the cavalry this morning for Greenville, 
aud the foot for Recovery, the latter to return with the 
smallest delay with a supply of provisions for this 
j post and Defiance. 

Camp Miami Villages, 19th October. 1794.— This 
day the troops were not ordered for labor, being the 
first day for four weeks, and accordingly attended 
divine service. 

Camp Miami Villages. 20th October, 1794. — An 
express arrived this day with dispatches to the Com- 
mander-in-Chief; the contents are kept secret. 

A court-martial to sit. this day for the trial of 
Lieut. Charles Hyde. 

Camp Miami Villages. 21st October, 1794. — This 
day were read the proceedings of a general court 
martial, held on Lieut. Charles Hyde .yesterday), 
was found not guilty of the charges exhibited against 
him, and was therefore acquitted. 

Camp Miami Villages, 22d October. 1794. -This 
morning at 7 o'clock the following companies, un 
der the command of Lieut. Col. Commandant Ham- 
trauick. of the First Sub-legion, took possession 
of this place, viz. : Capt. Kiugsbury'- First; Captain 
Greaton's Second, Capt Spark's aud Capt. R •■ I - 
Third, Capt. Preston's Fourth, and Capt. Porter's of 
artillery, and after tiring fifteen rounds of cannon, 
Col. Eamtramck gave it the uame of Ft. Wayne 

Camp Miami Villages, 23d October, 1794. —The 
general fatigue of the garrison ended this day. and 
Col. Hamtramck. with the troops under his command, 
to furnish it as he mav think ht. 



All the sol Iters' hilts are completed except cover- 
ing, and the weather is favorable for that work 

Camp Miami Villages. 24th October, 17'.'!. - 
Thin day the troops drew bnt half radons of beef 
nn'l flour, the beef very Had. 

Camp Miami Villages, 25th October, I7U4. — Noth- 
ing extraordinary, the same as yesterday. 

This evening Capt. Springer, with the escort, ar- 
rived with a supply of flour and salt. A French- 
man and a half Indian came to headquarters, but 
where they are from or their business we cannot 
learn, but that it is of a secret nature. 

Camp Miami Villages, 26th October, 1794.— Noth- 
ing occurring to day except an expectation- to march 
the day after to-morrow. 

Camp Miami Villages, 27th October. 1794. — Agree- 
able to general orders of this day. we will march 
for Greenville to-morrow morning at 8 o'clock 

Camp nine miles from Ft. Wayne. 28th October, 
1794. — The legion took up the line of march at 9 
o'clock, and arrived here without anything particu- 
lar occurring. 

(.'amp twenty-one miles from Ft. Wayne, 29th 
October. 1794. — The troops proceeded on their march 
at sunrise, and arrived on this ground at 3:30 o'clock; 
onr way was through rich arid well-timbered land: the 
weather cold and much like for rain. 

Camp southwest side of St. Mary's River. 30th 
October, 1794. The legion proceeded on their march 
at 7 o'clock and arrived here at sunset; continual heavy 
rain nil day. 

Camp Girty's Town 3 1st October. 1794.— The 
troops took up their line of march at sunrise, and 
arrived here three hours after night, through heavy 

Greenville, 2d November, 1794 .- — This evening 
the legion arrived here, where they marched from. 
28th July. 1794. 

We were saluted with twenty- four rounds from a 
six-pounder. Our absence from this ground amount- 
ed to three months and six days. And so ends the 
expedition of Gen. Wayne's campaign. 


Gen Anthony Wayne was born in Chester Coun- 
ty, Fenu.. January 1, 1745. After leaving school, he 
became a surveyor, and paid some attention to phi- 
losophy and engineering, by which he obtained the 
friendship of Dr Franklin, who became hi^ patron. 
He entered the army of the Revolution in 1775, and 
was made' Brigadier Genera! in 1777. He was' in the 
army through the war. and particularly distinguished 
himself in the battles of Brandywine, Germaatown 
and Monmouth. His attack upon Stony Point in 
July. 1779. an almost inaccessible height, defended 

by 600 men an.! a strong battery of artillery, waa the 
most brilliant exploit of the war. At midnight he 
led his troops with unloaded muskets, flints out, an 1 
fixed bayonets and without firing a single gun, 
ried the fort by storm and took 543 ; risoners. !{.• 
was struck in the attack by a musket ball in the head, 
which was momentarily supposed to be a mortal 
wound; he called to his aids to carry him for. m I 
ami let him die in the fort. The crowning acs of : ;:< 
life were his victory over the Indians on the Maumee, 
and the treaty of Greenville iu August. 1795. 

On his return to Philadelphia, Wayne was. re 
ceived by the people with open arms, and by thanks 
both public and private. His entry into the city was 
triumphant; business was suspended and he was met 
on his approach by the militia, and conducted 
through the streets amid martial music, the ringing 
of bells, the filing of cannon and the acclamations ■ >f 
a grateful people. And Congress then in session. 
passed resolution of thanks highly complimentary to 
him and his victorious array. 

The following; year Wayne was appointed sole 
Commissioner on the part with the United St i r *-- to 
treat with the Indian tribes of the Northwest, arid to 
receive from the British the forts they had now con- 
sented to give up. After promptly and efficiently 
discharging this last and important duty for his 
country, in whose service his manhood had been sp 
he started to return by the way of Lake Erie, but it 
was not granted him to again cee his home. He died 
at Erie. Penn., ami was buried on tir.-' shore oC the 
lake, December, 179H. 

Thus ended the career cf one of our country's 
bravest and most successful Generals — one to whom 
fortune had assigned difficult and laborious taskn. but 
whom she never abandoned in the hour of trial. 
Here a life of peri! and of glory was ended. He took 
up arms in his country's defense iu the beginning of 
her struggle for independence, and bravely fought in 
nearly every battle of that long and doubtful contest 
against a superior power until the final triumph. If a 
difficult or hazardous enterprise was commenced, 
Wayne was ordered to execute it. or if an op- 
portunity was afforded ho volunteered to do it. Of 
this, his campaign in Georgia, in which he delivered 
that State from t ■ r* double affliction of British suprem- 
acy and Indian cruelty ; his brilliant attack on 
the army of Cornwallis at James River : the holding 
of Chadsford at the battle of Brandywine ; the 
successof the division under his command at Ger 
mantown, and the never to be surpassed assault and 
capture of Stony Point, are incontestable evidences. 
But the last and crowning glory of his illustrious 
career was preparing the way for the settlement of 
the Maumee Valley, and liberating the frontier from 



the murderous tomahawk, and the bloody scalping 
knife ■which the savages were using indiscriminately 
against men, women and children, and w! re I 
cries of murdered infancy mingled with the dying 
shrieks oi age arose with the smoke of a thousand 
burning houses called to heaven for protection and re- 

His public services began in the infancy and pov- 
erty of his country. He aided to raiso her to an 
equality with the other nations of the earth, and died 
leaving her happily in the enjoyment of peace — rich 
in the arts, and triumphant in arms. 


Onthe2d'of November, IT'.'!. Gen. Wayne re- 
turned with his legion to Ft. Recovery, after an ab- 
sence in the Indian country of nearly four mouths. 
In that raid, the most successful ever undertaken. 
Wayne bumbled the pride of the Indians, broke their 
power, asserted the authority of the United States, 
and assured security to the scattered settlements. 
During the succeeding winter, the Indians made pro 
posals for a general peace, and. after conferring with 
Gen. Washington, a treaty was authorized and con 
eluded at Greenville, Darke County, between Gen. 
Wayne.on the part of the United States and the rep- 
resentatives of tribes known as the Wyandors. Dela- 
wares. Shawnees, Ottawas, Chippewas, P ittawato- 
mies. Mianiis. Kaskaskias. Piankeshaws, Kickapoi 3, 
Weas and Eel Rivers — signed August 5. 1795. 

AH matters in dispute ward comprehended in the 
terms of the treaty and all c mtroversies settled. The 
boundary line was established, ceding without re- 
serve to the United States all lands east of the Cuya- 
hoga River and south of a line extending from the 
head-waters of that stream westwardly to the State 
line at Ft. Recovery, in Mercer County, and thence 
south to the Ohio River. In the remainder of the In- 
dian Territory, ever .vLieh the United States cl timed 
jurisdiction, extending f .o the Mississippi River, sis- 
teen grants for military or commercial purposes were 
made by the Indians, varying from one to twelve 
miles square. The fourth in the list is thus described 
" One piece six miles square, at the conlluence of 

the Auglaize and Miami River, where Ft. Defiance 

now stands." 

This reservation was never specially surveyed i 
Mere many of the others. It remained until the title 
to the whole Slate was acquired, aud was then ■"run 
out" uniform with the other lands. Tha f of t ■ 
miles scpiare at the foot '^f the rapids was Burve ■• ! 
and sold separately from the ether lands of the Gov- 
ernment, as possibly were others. 

"Free passage 1>\ land or by water." was by this 
treaty allowed to the people of the United Star - .. 1 
the right to use certain streams and portages particu- 
larly mentioned; among these are "St. Man'.- ind 
down the same to Ft. Wayne, and then down the Mi- 
ami to Lake Erie. Again from the commencement of 
the portage at Loramie'a store (Sheib; Count 
the portage to the Auglaize River anil '(own the same 
to its junction with the Miami at Ft. Defiance " 

In 1 M '7. Gen. William Hull, afterward so un- 
fortunate at Detroit, made a treaty for the session ro 
the General Government of five millions of acres, 
i prising all the lands not previously acquired 
east of the Auglaize River and of a line drawn due 
north from the mouth ol that stream to Lake Huron. 
This line is the meridian of surveys in Michigan — 
townships reckoned east and west therefrom. Sur- 
veys in Ohio, being reckoned from the Indiana State 
line east, do not quite correspond with this line — 
those in Ohio being easterly of the Michigan lines 
about one mile. The lands in this region wesl of 
that line were acquired airer the war >t L812, at ti e 
time the Indian title to North Indiana w,-is extin- 

In this purchase Gen. Hull said he was annoyed 
by the opposition of the British, the squatters on the 
lands without titles or persons who had purchased 
from the Indians unlawfully. The negotiation lasted 
from July until November. It was declared a most 
advantageous purchase for the United States, the 
land ben:.: of excellent quality and ail capable of im- 
provement, besides giving control of several lakes and 
rivers indispensable to the commerce and develop- 
ment of the resources of the country. 

Jp f^- 



i*" d * 

- \ .. 

2* £ ' ' 

7 '-"X "T^'i'O- 'V^ji^!/ "Cif* 4 '* 






THE opening scenes nf the war of 1812 were 
enacted in the Northwest, of which the Maumee 
Valley was a conspicuous part Prior to the declara- 
tion uf war. the border on the northwest had wit- 
nessed the repeated i 95 rts of British agents to provoke 
hostilities between the Indians andtheUniti I States. 
In order to secure the neutrality or favor of the In- 
dian tribes, one of th>- first measures taken bv the | 

I have the honor to be, with high consideration, your 

obedient servant, J Winchester, 

Brigadier General U S. Army. 
To His Excellency R. J. Meigs, Governor of the > r 
i »hio. 

From his headquarters at Fort Wayne he ad : 
dressed the following: 

Headquarters, Fori iYatki 

Sep i mber 22 1812 
Sir: I bad the honor lasl night o! receiving Vol- . 
lency's dispatch of the 16th instant, covering a communica- 
tion from Gi ; ''• .. Iswerth, for which i beg you will ccpi 
my sincere thanks. With you, I rejoii ai thi pros] ci > 

Government in anticipation of war w b I Ire if Britain 
was to arrange for the conquest of Upper Canada and ' 
the consequent command of the Upper Lakes. The 

disastrous opening of the warfare by the disgraceful | regaining lost territory, and at the determination of the Pn 
surrender of Hull's army gave the p< issession of Mich idem on a vigorous course oi measures; and I -till hope to 
igan and Canada to the British, and shifted the winter in Detroit or its vicinity the ensuing tv inter 
scene of hostility Eor a timi t io soil Gen. Hull 
had been Governor of Michigan Territory, and se- 
cured the command of the Northwest army He left 
Dayton. Ohio, with 2.000 troops, Tune 1. 1812 bo- 
fore war was declared, marched through the Maumee 
country, and reached Detroit. His weak invasion of 
Canada, and immediate retreat without striking a blow, 
and his surrender at Detroit. August 16, 1812, followed 
in quick succession. 

Before the surrender of Hull took place, extensive 
preparations had been made in Ohio. Kentucky. Vir- 
ginia and Pennsylvania to bring inU> service a large 
and efficient army. Three points needed defense — 
Fort Wayne, the Maumee Valley and the Wabash and 
the Illinois country. The troops destined for the I 
Maumee were to be under command of Gen. Winches- i 
ter, a Revolutionary officer, resident in Tenne-see, 
and but little known to the frontier m.-n. 

Reaching Cincinnati, he addressed Gov. Meigs 
the following letter: 

Cincinnati. September 9, 1812. 

Sin: I am thus far on my way to tssume the command 
of the army on your Northwestern frontier. I shall leave 
this place to-morrow for Pinna, when T ;h il! be extremely 
glad to see you, in order to i hi nil with you rela ive to the 
best possible means of protecting thi ■ ; 1 front r ol the 
State of Ohio, without losing sight at th same turn of Up 
per Canada. I am authorized by tin - cretaryof W 
call on Tour Excellency for re-enforceiw nts of militia I 'n 
this subject also a personal iutei ievi is di siruble. 

Should it. howevi i be inconvenient to you, >ir. t.. i. el 
me at Piqua, or u »i me othi t pku e on my route, you will he 
good enough to communicate to mi i iritiug your i : is i n 
the subject of the protection of youi hitants. a- 

wel! as the extent of militia you can furnish upon my requi- 

one in part to purpi 

self of the authoi . _: • t me ry the Secretary of War to i 
upon Your Excelli y for such re-enf on ments as I may d 

i - ry You will pit ase to 1 twi :■:- .■, . 

fantry, to ioia me at the rapids of the Miami of thi 
about the 10th or 15th of i (ctobi r n xl well clothed for a fall 
campaign. Arms and ammuniuou can bi drawn from Now 
port, Ky. It is extremely desirous to me 'liar no timi 

t in supplying this requisition. Th< old ason i fas; 
approaching, and the stain on the American char 
Detroit not yet wiped away. 

If you ould furnish on: "h " - gin: r.t ' rend :v •. 
at Piqua, and proceed to open as 
ways etc . to Defiance, it would greatly faciiitati the 

ition of supplies to this army, which is irn] 
requisite to its welfare. This latter regiment might re- 
turn, or proceed on after the army, as circumstances -h i 
dii tate 

[ have the honor to be, with high respect, your obedient 
servant. J. Winchester, 

Brigadier General U S. Army. 
To His Excellency Return - .1. Meigs, Governor of the Stati 

of Ohio. 

Gen. Winchester proceeded with his army to De- 
fiance and there erected a fort, as the following letter 

Camp Defiance, Mouth of the Auglaize, I 
October 15, 1812. 
Sir: Capt. Wood, cornmandinj! o =mall party of 
cami into this camp yesterday, and reports thai he was 
t ached from Crbana to visit the ra] Is ti thai he ell 
with other spies, who had just return d from that place, i 

■ ed all the iiii'orniati n ihat hi possibly could, 1 
tin n Fore hav< directed him to return and report di nina 
unni essary that he should proceed as the information re- 
: i id h - ii i il tin< d. and too, to commu 

nicate to Your Excellency that thisarmv could imi 
:• ind taki pe. -■ ssion of the rapids ii -a; | 

ions, etc.. ■r<nl<; certain!) rea h us a few days aftei 
arrival Many days prov ild not be i Ti< : 

because it is not here Neither have we the means of ti 



port at ion, and it is important that the corn at that place 
should 'i saved if it could be done 

At this plan 1 , a picketed post with four block-houses, two 
store houses and a hou e In -i k will li finished this 
Then I shall turn my att< ntion to b lildinsr pirojrues, for the 
purpose of transportins heavj baggagi and p ovisions down 
the river, and anxiously await your answer with relation to 
supplies. I shall remain in readiness to march as soon as it 
is received. 

If Gen. Harrison is at Urbana, you will communicate the 
contents of this letter to him. If I knew -where he could be 
found I should address a tatter to him on the same subject. 

I have the honor to be, with great respect. Your Excel- 
lency's obedient servant, 

J. Winchester, 
Brigadier General V. 8. Ar?ny. 

To His Excellency Retcmt J. Meigs, Urbana. 

Gen. Harrison was appointed Commander-in- 
Chief of all the forces in the West and Northwest. 
September 17. 1S12, and the appointment was offi- 
cially ratified on the 24th of that month. His entire 
force was 10,000 men. consisting of the regular troops 
and rangers of the Northwest, the volunteers and 
militia of Ohio and Kentucky and 3.000 detached 
militia from Pennsylvania and Virginia. He was 
instructed to retake Detroit and penetrate Upper 
Canada. Fort Wayne hud already been relieved and 
the line of the Maumee secured. The main objects of 
Gen. Harrison were to drive the hostile Indians from 
the western side of the Detroit River: second, to take 
Maiden: and then, having secured his communica- 
tions, to recapture the Michigan Territory and its de- 

The plr.n adopted by Gen. Harrison was to coKeet 
troops at four points — Wooster. Urbana. Fort Defiance 
and St. Marys — and then concentrate them at the Rap- 
ids of the Maumee. The forced expedition at first 
adopted against Detroit was abandoned becanse the 
infantry was not in readiness to secure and return the 
acquisition should it be made. The base line of the 
new campaign was one drawn from Upper Sandusky 
along the southerly side of the swampy district to 
St. Marys. These two places, with Fort McArthur 
between them, were intended as the depots for provis- 
ions, artillery and military stores. The troops at 
Defiance were intended to act as a corps of observa- 
tion, and when th v artillery should bo brought to 
Upper Sandusky they svere to advance f<-> th» rapids. 
At Lower Sandusky, a corps of observation was also 
stationed, which, with thai at Defiance, would form 
the extremities of the new military base when the 
army should havereache 1 the advanced position on the 
Maumee. These aFNsageraents covered the frontiers 
by the different corps, •• nd k pt th - troops within the 
bounds df the ordinary contractors, while the Quarter 
masters were accumulating provisions farther in ad- 
vance, and procuring means of transportation across 
the difficult district of country so well t srmed the 

Black Swamp. Gen. Winchester was in command >' 
the troops at Fort Wayne, and Gen. Harrison pro- 
ceeded to SI Marys, where iboni 3,000 men were col 
iected. for the purpose of the ? i"\k abandoned ■•.' li 
tion against Detroit While here, he was informed 
that a large force of British and Indians with artil 
lery was passing up the left bank of the Maumee 
toward Fort Wayne. Knowing thai it would be met 
in front by Gen. Winchester on his way to Fort !>.■- 
fiance, he determined by a forced march to the cot 
fluence of the iuglaiz > with the Maumee to intercept 
them with two regiments and some cavalry. He set 
out. but after one day's march, finding that the in- 
fantry would greatly retard his progress, he ordered 
the two regiments to return, and proceeded with the 
cavalry only. The rain fell in torrents: beech 
woods were covered with water and were so swampy 
that the horses sank half leg deep at every step. At 
the close of the second lay's march, the troops en- 
camped in a bottom of the Auglaize. By daybreak 
the next morning, the march was resumed. In the 
course of the next day, the General was met by an 
officer from Gen Winchester, who informed him of 
the latter's arrival at Fort Defiance and of th > retreat 
of the British down the Maumee With a small es 
cort. (Jen. Harris, n continued on to Winchester camp, 
arriving late that night, leaving his troops to come 
up more at leisure. 

At Fort Defiance, a revolt in the Kentucky regi- 
ment of Col. Allen took place, which from its honor- 
able it-ruiiuation as well as u'oin motives of historical 
fidelity requires to be mentioned: 

Soon after Gen. Harrison arrived in eamp and 
after he had retired to enjoy some little repose so 
welcome to any one who had been exposed on the 
preceding comfortless and forced expedition, he 
found himself suddenly awakened by Col. Allen and 
Maj. M. D. Hardin. These officers were the bearers 
of the mollifying new-- that Allen's regimen;. < . 
hnusted by the hard fare of the campaign and disap- 
pointed in the expectation of an immediate engage- 
ment with the enemy, had. in defiance to their duty 
to their country and ill the earnest, impassioned re- 
monstrances of their officers, determined to return 
home. Fhese officers assured Gen HaiTison that thej 
could do nothing with their men; that their >••■; re 
sentat'v— were answered by insults alone. die) 
begced the General to rise and int< rfere, as the oi !j 
officer who had any pr •-; vt of bri iging ; be n n iners 
back to their duty. He refused to interfere • 
time, but-assured thegentlemen that he would atti I 
to the serious object of their request in his own 
and at bis own time. rhe officers retired. In the 
meantime Gen. Harris a sent one of his v. •.- to di- 
rest Gen. Winchester to order the alarm or point of 

HI'TOKY of defiance county. 


war to be beat on the following morning instead of 
the reveille. This adroit expedient brought ail the 
troops to their anus the first thing in the morning. 
It diverted the pirits of I u ■ :■ :< itented troops mi" 
a now channel of feeling ami prepared them for the 
subsequent event. 

On the parading of the troops at their post.-, Gen. 
Winchester was ordered to form them into a hollow- 
square. Gen. Harrison now appeared upon parade, 
much to the surprise oi the troops, who from his late 
arrival were unapprised of In- presence. If the sud- 
den and unexpected an ival of their favorite command- 
er had so visible an effect upon his men, his immediate 
^nnSess to thorn fully pre^ervfd the impression. He 
lamented that there was, as he was informed, eonsid 
erable discontent in one of the Kentucky regiments: 
this, although a source of mortiticatiou to himself. 
on their account, was happily of little consequence to 
the Govern/neat. He had more troops than he now 
well what co do with at the present stage of the cam- 
paign: he was expecting daiiy the arrival 'if Pennsyl- 
vania and Virginia quotas It is fortunate, said this 
officer, with the ready oratory for which his native 
Virginia is so famed, that he had found out this dis- 
satisfaction before the campaign was further advanced 
when the discovery might have been mischievous to 
the public interests as well as disgraceful t0 the par- 
ties concerned. Now. so far as the Government was 
intere-ted, the discontented troops who had come in 
to the woods with the expectation of finding all the 
'aiuries of home and of peai e, h id full lihertj to i-- 
turn. He would, he continued, order facilities to be 
furnished for their immediate accommodation. But 
he could not refain from expressing the mortification 
he anticipated for the reception they would moot 
from the old and the young who had tn-eeted them on 
their march to the seat of war as their gallant neigh- 

What must be their feelmsrs. said the General. 
to see those whom they had hailed as their generous 
defenders, now returning without striking a blow and 
before their term of plighted -erviee had expired. 
But if this would be state of public sentiment in 
Ohio, what would it be in Kentucky? If their fathers 
did not drive their degenei ate sons to the field of 
battle tc recover their wounded honor, their mothers 
and sisters would Ivss them from their presence. If. 
however, the discontented men were disposed to put 
up with ail the taunts and disdain which awaited the a 
wherever they went, they were. Gen. Harrison again 
assured them, at full liberty to go ba :k. 

Th" influence of this animated address whs in- 
stantaneous. This was evidenced in a manner most 
ri:uteriag to thotict ana management of the command- 
er. Col. J. M. Se.jtt. the senior Colonel of Ken- 

tucky, and who bad served in the armies of Harmar, 
.St. Clair and Wayne, in the medical staff, now ad- 
ressed Ins men. These were well known ■■. the 
army as the " Iron Works," from the neighborhood 
from which they came. " You, my boys,'' sa d che 
generous veteran, "will prove your attachment tor 
the service of your country and your General, by gh 
in^' him three cheers." The address was attended 
with immediate success, and the air resounded with 
the shouts of both officers and men. 

Col. Lewis next took up the same course and 
with the same effect, 

It now became the turn of the noble Allen again 
to try the temper of hi- men. He begged leave of 
the General to address them, but excess of emotion 
choked his utterance; at Length he tjave vent to the 
contending feelings of his heart, in a broken, but for 
cible address, breathing the fire which had ever burned 
so ardently in his breast. At the close of it, however, 
he conjured the soldiers of hi.- regiment to. give the 
General the same manifest at iou of their patriotism 
and returning sensi if luty, which the other Ken- 
tucky regiments ha 1 so freely done. Th< wishes of 
that high spirited officer wore coruplie I with; and a 
mutiny was nipped in the bud. which mi^ht. if pi r 
Btsted in. have spread dissatisfaction through the 

Kentucky troops, to the disgrai i that jalia il State 

and the la-tin^ injury of the public ea ise. No 
troi ips, however, behaved more faithfully or zealouslv 
through the remainder of their service, tillthegre I 

country on the fatal held of Raisin 

Gen. Harrison at once made arrangements with 
Gen. Winchester for the full command of the left 
wing, assigning him the regulars under Col. Wells, the 
regiment* of Scott, Lewis and Allen, already alluded 
to. and the three regiments under Cols Poague, Bar- 
ber and Jennings, which had assembled at St. Marys. 


While (Ten. Winchester was encamped at Fort 
Defiance. Capt. Logan, a noted Indian spy and scout 
in the Ameriean service, was placed in charge of a 
small party of scouts by Gen. Harrison, with insrruc 
tions to reeonnoiter in *he direction of the Mi rniee 
Rapids. Near this point they met a sn orior force 
of the enemy and were compelled to retreat. Logan, 
in company with his favorite companions, Capt. 
Johnny and Bright Horn, escaped to the left of the 
army under Gen Winchester and recounted their ad 
venture. A subordinate officer without provocation 
charged L igan with infidelitj to the American i mse 
and sympathy with the enemy. Stung with in ii ■ 
nat >n, the chief called a friend to witness thai he 
would refute the foal charge the uext dav bv- either 



bringing back a scalp or Losing his life. Accordingly 
on tin 1 22d of November, I8l"2, with his two friends, 
Capt Johnny and Brig] ! Horn, he started down the 
Maumee. About noon they were surprised by •■ i 
savages, among whom were the Pottawatomie e 
Wirmemac, and young Elliot, bearing a British com- 
mission. Seeing they were outnumbered, I. 
professed friendship. Thi suspicions of Winnemac, 
however, worn aroused, and he disarmed his prison- 
ers, but subsequently restored them, having confidence 
in their story of deserting the Americans. Tn tin 1 
evening they encamp • i on Turkey Foot Greek, about 
twenty miles from the American rami' At a given 
signal, Login's party fired and two of the enemy fe! 1 
dead and a third mortally founded. At 'he second 
lire two of the surviving four were wounded, but 
Capt. Logan and Bright Horn had also been pierced 
by the enemy's bails. Capt. Johnny hastily mounted 
his comrades ontwoof the enemy's horses and started 
them for Winchester's samp, where they arrived ab at 
midnight. After securing the scalp of Winnemac, he 
proceeded on foot, and reached the camp by daylight. 
Logan's wound proved mortal. He lived two •lays in 
agony, which he bore with uncommi a fortitude and 
died at the camp below Defiance with the utmost com- 
posure and resignation. ".More tnmness andconsum- 
ato bravery,'" said Winchester, in his letter to the 
commanding General, "has seldom appeared on the 
military theater." There was but one horse in the 
entire camp at that time, and a rude sled was con 

pen v, iiiCii utie ,•«■.,» 

.1 1> >8;an \> as i iidi eu 

and dragged over the snow by six officers to i ■ ri 
Defiance, where " he was buried with all the honors due 
to his rank, and with sorrow as sincerely and gener- 
ally displayed as I ever witnessed," wrote Maj. Har- 
din in a letter to Gov. Shelby. 

gen. Winchester's order book. 

The following is reproduced from Kuapp's His- 
tory of the Maumee Valley, where it appeared as a 
newspaper communication from Monroe, Mich.: 

Amoug the many interesting documents bearing 
on early history, which have been brought to light 
recently, is the original record of - General Orders." 
issued by Gen. Winchester during the march from 
Kentucky to the Rivei Raisin, from early in Septem- 
ber, 1^1'J to Jiiuuarv '-'. 1813, and which was i, 
doubt left behind when the army retreated. It was 
found, and for many years remained in the family 
of Col. John Anderson It is a weather-stained \"1 
ume, bearing unrnis'akable signs of frequent battles 
with the elements. The paper is yellow with age, 
but the writing is perfectly '■ 'gible, the ink, in most 
places, being as black and brilliant ;>s though written 
yesterday. Through the courtesy of Mr. Anderson 

Wing, the present p esessor, I .on snabl ■ i bo make a t. w 

extracts. The nrmy left Kentucks in August. ISli 

i t of the men were clothed in their iinen hi u 

shirts and very few provided with woolen cl - n 

as a consequence, suffered severely with cold : re 

their supplies reached them. Gen. Harrison joined 

the army October •!. as will be seen by the following 

order : 

Camp at Defiance, October 3, I8f2. 


I havi the honor of announcing to this army tin arrival 
of Gen Harrison, who is duly authorized by the Ex ru e of 
tlie Fi deral Government to take i ommand of the North l 
rm; This officer is enjoying the implicit conj ience <>l 
the States from whose citizens this army is and will tie i| 
■ led. and possessing himself great military ski] i Li pula- 
The General is confident in the belief that bis presence 
in the army, in the character of its iiief fill bi hailed with 
unusual approbation. J. Winchester. 

Brigadier General U. S. An 
The narrative of the march of the army through 
Ohio is very int iresting and contains many details of 
the hardships and privations of the little army. 
through woods and streams, snow, ice and mud, the sleds 
and i _ vans often being drawn by the men. 
Occ i desertions took place, and these offences 

severely punished. Om ; mg man, Frederick 

■ 1 to be shot for sleeping upon 

his post while on sentry. An order was '-- : ; by 

Gen. Winchester, dated at Cam] Deiiance on the 9th 

of October, I s ! I. instructing thi Officer of the Day in 

: all necessary preparations f i I tecution of Jacoby, 

which were duly made, and the army drawn up to 

witness the first scene of the kind. The young i tan 

was placed a; the distance of abo i* r verity p i ■• - from 

the platoon of men constituting the firing party. 

I They were waiting in painful suspi nse for the order 

I to tire, when a reprieve from the General was received 

| and the fortunate young man released. The effect 

' was not lost upon the a mmand, and no further cases 

: of a similar kind ever were known. 

The weather began to be very cold I November) 

and the supplies which were ordered from Philadel- 

: phia, had not made their appearance. The General 

endeavored to appease the < lamors of the soldiers by 

issuing the following order: 

Fort Winchester, November!, 181:2 


With groat plei'sure the Gencn - Bounces to the army 
the prospect of an early supply of winter clothing, 
whi< li are in I 11 ■ ■ ing artii [i hip] d from I" 
on thi ''■' if s pti mher last : 10.000 ] -'■ 

pair of ;,' mkel ,,0.000 V m of p mla 

loons, wool n cloth to be mad up, b ides the unden I i hii c 
• for Col. Wells' . -in. nt, lOD - al I ■ ■ • it >,< 00 bl inki 

in. i yard? of flannel, 10.000 pair shoes, 10,000 paii wool 

0,000 i li io! h >si 
Tfiis bountiful supply e^ constant attentiou of 

be G it to thi i on forts of i - irmi ?, >l hi u 

immense distance thi:- iving hath been ri( ta< hed into the wil- 



. real thosi comforts in dm 

son, owin,- to causes noi witUin (lie control of human I 
sigh) yet i few Jays and thi General rou - inself with 
th idea of seeing those whon he has the honoi ti 
, lad in warm i >len. ea] • i _ North n bl ists 

; ,f Cni ■'■!.' . ither from I ■ ■■■■ s. ol Bop is >r the muzzh 3 
of British cannon 

.) Wi •< hi -1 1 k. Brig 1 :cr Oeneral 
Commanding Left H" \ l r '"i/- 

The records close at a date when they begin to lie 
the most interesting, jnst before the arrival of the 
army at the River Ri isin, the last entry being as fol- 
lows : 

Camp Miami Rapids, Hull's Road, i 
January, 1313. f 

geseral okm rs 
Sis ordei d yesterday the line of march shall b k , 
closed, every officer in his proper place, and no noncom- 
missioned officer or private sufferi d to straggle from the . 
except from urgent ne< — ty. and then with leave to return 
to his place. Perfect sileti e is enjoined during the march, 
being in th<. immediate neighborhoi .i of the enemy. 
J. Winchester. Brigadier General 
C imanding Left Wing Northwestern Army. 


Early in January, 1813, Gen. Winchester left 
Fort Defiance, or Fort Winchester, as it had b°en 
renamed, with his troops, and on the LOth of that 
month reached the Rapids. Here, learning the dan- 
ger of the inhabitants of E en htown on the Raisin 
River, on the 17th instant Winchester sent Col. Lewis 
with 550 men to their relief, followed bv Col. Allen 

with 110 men. Ihej 1 tutored and rapid • 

my, .rain.- 1 po 1 1 of tue I \n and w ■■ . • • >r 
re-en 1 ots, as thi wh >le ish 

lighteen miles distant n •! Id Q. Wiacht ■ - >n 
the ' OtI marched with 259 men, 11 he c-nki ■,■■'• 
from tli' 1 Rapids, and reached French I m I 
lowing evening. lie suffered his troops to rem dn in 
open ground, and during the night of the 21 t 
entire British force erected abatterywithi ' ■ yards 
of the American camp and early in the morning 
. pen -d upon W inchesfcer a destructive lire; his tr 
broke and fled, but the force of Lev, , •. 
posted behind pickets, stood firm'. Col. L - him- 
self had gone to Winchester's assistan • ■ 
these officers were taken prisoners. Th tri 
Col, Lewis did not surrender tntil the} received an 
order from the captured Winch ster to do so. - 
Proctor, the British General, induced him to i 
der threats ,.f an Indian m ssaore in tase of con tin 
ued resistance and a promise of 1 n if his wishes 

were complied with. Efis Eaith was infamous! 
broken, for the f"' : >wing r _ ■.'' \ .-. the Ir.di \ 
perpetrated horrible outrag 3 the .-•- 

■ Mors. Of the American Army of about SOU men. 
one-third were killed in the b ittle and m; ssacr< rhi< b 
followed, and bur thirty-three escaped. 

t'ot't Defiance was se\ rai times threatened bv 
the British forces during t u struggle for po 

sion of Northwestern Oaio, bat no attack wj - avc-r 
made upon it . 



'"""I^llE lands now embraced within Defiance County 
J- were ceded to the I oil 1 States by the Indians 
by a treaty made September 29, 1 S 1T. at the Rapids of 
the Miami of Lake Erie, between Lewis Cass tud 
Duncan McArthur, Commissioners, and the chief s and 
warriors of the vari ats Indian tribes. Surveys were 
made five . the Indiana line east to the line of the 
Westevn Reserve, scd south to the Greenville treaty 
line Th. base line of this survey is the tlst degree 
of north la itud ind it .- also the south Lint of th 
Connecticut Western Res i^e Ti 1 ' sin ••. 

of the lands originated with Jared Ma ''''.Sur- 
veyor Genera! of i ■ I States From the 
line the tot nshi] s are numbered ;outh, a of tha 
Indiana line, our meridian. Each township is six 
miles square and is sal livi led into th rty -,2 sec- 
tions, parallel ivitb. the township lines, ■ i ■ ae mile 

square each, containing 640 acres, so thai ev< : rs .: 
ular land township contains 23,040 teres 
Each section can be legally subdivided into quarter 
sections of I 1 "." acres; tied each quarter cti □ into 
quarters of 4i : acres; and. each !'' a \t -. I ■■• >nven- 
ience of sale caube divided into quarters, also of 
[0 aero-, so that an exact and legalh correel le- 
scription of ton aero- of I in 1 ' ol a whole -■■■ 
can be without a ^wn^y. and the lin •■ 
■Yard be exactly detern at ' by any compel u1 sur 

The townships were surveyed ia 1820. In De 
fiance County Eficksville. Milford Farmer, Mark 
u 1 1 v.~ hiuo '" ro s irvi y< i I >y 

Wat lpier: Delia ic< tti land, Adams and 

K . md - : ;hland and Dela ? -' - 

i i> lames Po r< II 

m roin of dkki v.i'i; coi n 

Hie ' : i office was lo« led at Piqua, and was Mr. A. J'. 1 • .. I ilicksville, agent toi this 

opened in IS21, in which year sonieof the b land ;incl tin Aim iean I . ■■ I I impany inNorihwi 

. ' ig the rivers was gutered Uniil I II. rory lit- ' ' ! ,'Oi 1 07, 00! I acres. Thi-se- o\t<Mi i i pur- 

tlc was taken, but during the yi irs 1SX5 30 and !S37 rl bowever. proved di The expected 

the greater portion was entered, principally by spec- speedy incro a iu value did not occur, and mi 

ulator.saiuTlandconip.-iiiios. The Ilieks Land Company, j land was sold in four oj live years lor less than the 

in Hicksvillo Township alone, owned 14,000 acres. ; original mice paid. 



A X act was pawned in the Ohio Legislature. Feb- this being the county Beat. Others, too, hettled in 

JTx. rnary 12, 1S1?0 providing " that a] . I . i and about the town, and invested their tdvt 

lands lately coded by the Iudiaus to the United States under this e\p citation. 

which lies wil liiu the State of Oiiio .-hall be and the The firs! court in Williams Comity ai I ; 

same is hereb; electa I into fourteen separate at 1 di s- was held April o, LS21, with Ebenezer Land, Pi 

tinct countie , lo be bounded and ■ follows." d'ng Jud ,•. . and llol ert SI irli •.join I '■ rkins aud 

Oi (he countie t! - ; . [i fined. Williams occupied, as Pierce Evans, Associate Judges. Jcfhn Evans was 

now, the northwest cornci of the State, but embraced appointed Clerk, pro torn., by the court, and Folio 

most of the territory now included in Defiance County Evans was appoin d Recorder. Apri v , IS! !. and 

There were as yet but fevi settlors iu this vj i .- : pe of gave ! >nds ;> the sum of £2.000. Foreman Evans, 

country, and for judicial purposes Williams and soy- Pierce Eva::- and Moses Rice wore bis sureties, 

era! other adjoining counties wore attached to Wood William Pre Ion was Sheriff. May 8. the ci .:■■■ 

County, Maumeu City beinj the seat ol justice. In granted Benjamin Leave 1 a license to vend mvrchan- 

April. lS2-LWil!iams County wfi or< iu dlieury. dise at his place of residence in Defiance for one year 

Paulding and Putnam Counti were attached to ii ; upon his pay i tig into the ci mt\ tre sury v ! >. : bi 

f^r civil purposes. The nucleus of the early settle Cannon wa« Hi fii t pers n to declare hi in i 

ment of these countie was al Deli > and was io hi :orne ; cili en of the United States. The Jud jes 

chiefly settlers, in what now constitutes Defiance of Williams County were ippointed by the Govcri 

County, who were active in the early ofticia! life of February 4. l c _l. Charles W. Ewing was appointed 

Williams County. i Prosecuting Attorney October ■>. 1S2-1. and was al- 

January 13, 1S25, the following resolution was lowed ?10 fees. The tirst grand jury was William 

passed by the Ohio Legislature: Hunter, Timothy T. Smith, Arthur Burras. Georg e 

"Fesotced, By the General Asseniby of the State Lantz, -John Hill >n, Foreman Evans, Montgomery 

of Ohio, that Joseph C. Has! in . of the county of Evans. Thomas Driver. Benjamin Mulligan. Jan 

Preble, Forest Meeker, of the county of Delaware, and Shi rely. Jonathan Merithan. Thomas Warren, Tin 

Robert Morrison, of the county of Miami, be and ophilns Ifilton, Hutjh Evans and Daniel Brannaa. 

they are hereby appointed commissioners to Io- The first cause in court, Timothy T.Smith, plain- 

cate and establish the permanent seat of justice, in tiff, iu certiorari, against Montgomery Evans. The 

and for the county of Williams." "firs. State case. Slate of Ohio agaiust Enoch Buck, 

Pursuant to this resolution, the Commissioners indicted for keeping a ferry across the Ohio without 

proceeded to the County of Williams, and proposed, a lir-^u-^, 

that if the proprietors would deed to the county one- The tirst County Auditor was Tim >thy T. Smith. 

third of all the lots in the town of Defiance, and The first Sheriff was William Preston. 

build a jail, the Commissioner?, agreeably to the. res- The first Asses jr war- Samuel Vance, appointed 

olution above recited, would ;■ -ri i: n tnly establish the bv the Court. March 7, 1-S25. 

seat of justice at- the town of Di The propo- The iirst will submitted to Probate was James 

sition the Commissioners was accepted by the pro- Jollv's. 

prietors. A deed in fees made >' the ! The first license for marriage to Carver Gunn 

to the county, and a jail was erecu-d b\ them. h ii- and Mary Ana Seribnor. married December 21, 1S24, 

viduals bought them at high pric« •. with the view of bv Char! 's Gunn. 



The first Road Viewers appointed wore John Evans, 
Arthur Burras and William Preston, appointed 
December 6, L824 John PerkinB, Surveyor. 

The first deed made by Jacob Brown to James 
McCloskie, recorded March 10, IS24. 

Lot No. 4. to William Preston, for $80; Lot 12, to 
Samuel Vance, for §41; Lot. 58, to John Perkins, for 
§40; Lot 64, to Samuel Vance, for $85; Lot 1-1. t<- 
John Perkins, for §71; Lot 107. to JohnOliver, for 
$36; Lot 61, to Robert and Nathan Shirley, for $77. 


The first Commissioners of Williams County were \ 
Benjamin Leavell, Charles Gunn and Cyrus Hunter. 
Their first -.ession was held December 0, IMG. at tbe 
house of Benjamin Leavell. The only business trans- 
acted related to the establishment of county roads. At 
the June session, 1825, it was ordered that a hewed- 
log jail be erected, its dimensions " to be twenty-six 
by eighteen feet, nine feet beween floors, with a 
partition of the same dimensions as the walls and 
two grate windows, eighteen by ten inches, with five 
iron bars to each window;" 329 was ordered to be paid 
to the Auditor as his annual allowance, and the Listers 
or Assessors of the several townships were each al- 
lowed from SI "2 tu Sl.ST^. At the October session 
of the same year, it appears that Isaiah Hughes had 
been appointed by the Court of Common Pleas, Com- 
missioner in place of 'Benjamin Leavell, resigned. 
George Lautz was appointed Auditor, vice Thomas . 
Philbrick. The proprietors of the town of Defiance 
having deeded forty town lots to the county, the 
Commissioners offered them for sale at auction, Feb- 
ruary 1, 1826. Only seven were sold, as follows: 


After the organization of Williams County, the 
courts were held in the second story of Mr. Loavell's 
storeroom, which stood on the banks of the Mauuiee, 
just north of the fort grounds, until about 3828, when 
a brick court house was built on the lot just north of 
the pre-ent Presbyterian Church. It served its pur- 
pose until the county seat was removed to Bryen, 
shortly after which event the old court house was sold 
by the County Commissioners. It is still standing, 
and for many years has been used as a dwelling 


At the first election for county officers, hold April 
3, 1824, Timothy T. Smith received 37 votes, '•;■; H 
Jerome 26 for Auditor: for Cor iner, Arthur Burras 6 
votes. John Oliver. 40. anil Thomas Warren, L7: for 
Sheriff, James Shirley had 14 votes and William 
Preston, 4S: for Commissioners, Jesse Hilton, 58, 
Cyrus Hunter, 37. Charles Gunn. 31, Montgomerj 
Evans, 2b, Benjamin Leavell, 26, William Hunter, 4, 
and John Oliver, 1. 



IT was not until the years 1835 -36 and 1837 that the, 
Kreat bodies of land in Williams County were en- 
tered, and these entries were made mostly by specu- 
lators in large quantities. In 1836, by the settle 
ment of the Michigan boundary question, about 150 
square miles were added to the north end of Will- 
iams, and the village of Defiance became more a bor- 
der town than it was before. Various speculators 
owning large tracts of land began to agitate the ques- 
tion of removing the count} seat. A large number of 
villages were platted about this time, and the aspi- 
rants for the possession of the county .-eat were 
many, among which may be mentioned W;,,hington, _ 
Union'. Texas, Brunersburg, Freedom, Center, La- 
fayette and Evansporf. March 13, 1839, a resolution 
was passed by the Legislature, submitting to th« 
voters of Williams County the question of reviewing 
the seat of justice. It received a lartre majority vote 

and three Commissioners, consisting of Joseph Burns 
of Coshocton County. Joseph McCutcheu. of Crawford 
County, and Jarues Curtis, of Perry County, were ap 
pointed to locate the county seat. In July. iS46, 
Bryan, which was then covered with a dense wilder- 
ness, but at or near the center of the county, was se- 
lected. The dissatisfaction of Defiance was great, 
and projects of a new county with it as a county seat 
were talked of. It was a Democratic {Legislature 
that removed the county seat and the members oi thai 
party were usually averse to the organization of new 
counties. In 1864, when the Whigs obtained con 
trol of the Legislature, several of the prominent citi- 
:ens of Defiance, but ehietiy W illiam C. Holgate aad 
Horace Sessions, determined to make the effort to -> 
cure anew county. December 4, IS44, a petition 
was drawn up and presented to the citizens for -sig- 
natures, and a remonstrance was also extensively" Oif 



culated by the enemies of the project. Tho opposi- 
tion was carried to thn halls of the Legislature after 
a short struggle, but the bill was passed, March 4, 
lot", just threw months after the petition was first 
circulated, l-i the House the majority for the bill 
was twelve votes, in the Senate, two votes. 

The full text of the bill organizing Defiance 
County is herewith given: 


Section 1. Be. it enacted by tin General Assembly 

of the State of Ohio, That such part- of the counties 
of William.-. Henry and Paulding, as are embraced 
iu the boundaries hereafter described, be and the 
same are hereby erected into a separate and distinct 
county, which shall be known by the name of Defi- 
ance, to wit: Beginning on the Indiana State line 
where the line between Townships 5 and 6 north, i'n 
Williams County, intersects said State line; thence 
east on said township line to the east line of Range 
5; thence south on said . • :•■ line to the north line 
of Putnam County; thence west on said Putnam 
County line to the east line of Paulding County; 
thence north on said Paulding County line to the 
point where the section line, between Sections 13 and 
24. Township 3 north. Range 4 east, int •'- i ts said 
county line; thence west on section lines to the west 
line of said township: thence north on said township 
line to the present south line of Williams County: 
thence west on said Williams County line to the 
Indiana State line; thence north on the Indiana line 
to the place of beginning. 

Sec. 2. The seat of justice within and for said 
county of Defiance shall be and is hereby fixed and 
permanently established at the town of Defiance. 

Sec. 3. That all suits, whether of a civil or 
criminal nature, which shall be pending within those 
parts of the counties of Williams, Henry and Pauld- 
ing, so set off and erected into a new county, previous 
to the first Monday of April, 1845, shall be prose- 
cuted to final judgment and execution within the 
counties of Williams, Henry and Paulding, respect- 
ively, in the same manner as thongh the said county 
of Defiance had not been: and the officers of said 
counties, respectively, shall execute all such process 
as shall be necessary to carry into effect stich suits, 
prosecutions and judgments, and the collectors of 
taxes for the said counties, respectively, shall col- 
lect all taxes that shall be levied and unpaid, within 
the aforesaid portions of their respective counties, 
at the time of the passage of this act. 

Sec 4. That all Justices of the Peace and 
other township officers within those parts of the coun- 
ties of Williams, Henry and Pauling, which by this 
act ara erected into the entity of Defiance, shall 

continue to exercise the functions and discharge ti; • 
duties of their respective offices, until theu tiru 
service shall expire, and until their success i - iall be 
i li cted and qualified, in the same manner as if 
had been elected or commissioned foi the count) if 
Defiance; ami till writs and other legal process within 
the territory hereby erected into the county of Deli 
ance, shall he styled as of the county of Defit ■■ - 
and after the first Monday of April. L845. 

Sec. 5. That the Commissioners of Pauldit _ 
County shall have power, immediately upon the p 
sa^e of this act. lo attach tiie south half of Auglaize 
Town-hip to any adjacent township of said comity, 
or to organize said half township into ;; separate 
township, and to add any adjacent territory to the 
same, if they shall deem it expedient, just and pro; in- 
to do so: which power shall extend to the Commis- 
sioners of Defiance for the purpos< of disposing of 
the north half of Auglaize Towaship. 

Sec 6. That the Associate Judges of Defiance 
County shall have power to appoint a time for the 
holding of an election to till such count) offici - in - ii 
county as they shall deem necessary, which election 
shall be notified and conducted in the same m 
prescribed in the act to regulate elections; and the. 
count} officers, so elected. -hall hold their offici - until 
the next annual election, and until their successors 
are elected and qualified. 

Sec 7. That such portion of the territory »f 
Williams County as is by this act included in 
county of Defiance, shall stand charged and be liable 
to said county of Williams, for the debts of said 
Williams County, in the proportion the total vol la 
tion of the taxable property, as charged upon the tax 
duplicate of said county at the time of tho passage 
of this act. in said territory so included in Defiance 
Countv, bears to the valuation of the taxable pr ; ■ 
erty left in said Williams County; provided said ter- 
ritory shall not be liable for the payment of any por 
tion of said debt of Williams County, that has been 
contracted or incurred b\ the removal, location or 
establishment of the -seat of justice of said \\ nl. i.-us 
County at Bryan, or by the erection of. or preparati- n 
to erect, public buildings at Bryan. 

Sec. y That for the purpose of ascertai 
the just and true amount of said del t, chargeable in 
the manner specified in the preceding section, r,',.-.<:\ 
said territory, taken from Williams County, the 
i ivinty Auditor of Williams Couuty is berebi • 
.pure,! f> furnish the County Commissioners of th< 
county of Defiance a full and true statement of the 
debt of Williams County, specifying the time i 
the manner in which and the object ft i vhh : - > 
debt was contracted or incurred; also a ststetueui >l 
the amount of taxes of said territory which have <•-■'>, 



used, or appropriated, to the expenses of removal or 
establishment of the seal of justice at Bryan or in 
the erection of or preparation to erect public build 
ing6, and also a statement of the total valuation if 
the taxable property of said territory as taken from 
Williams County and of that remaining in Williams 
County respectively, winch said statement the said 
Auditor shall furnish said Commissioners on or lie- 
fore the first Mon lay of August next, verified b\ his 
oath; and the County Commissioners of said count} 
of Defiance, upon the receipt of the said statement and 
upon-being satisfied of their correctness, are hereby 
authorized, from year to year, to levy upon the tax 
able property within said territory so taken from 
Williams County, such taxes as may be necessary for 
tbe payment of the indebtedness of said territory, so 
ascertained; and in anticipation of the said payment. 
to issue orders upon the treasurer of the county of 
Defiance, payable with interest to the order of the 
Commissioners of Williams, within ten years from 
the passage of this act to the full amount of such 
proportion of said debt. 

Sec. 9. The territory by this act, taken from 
Henry and Paulding Counties, and included in said 
county of Defiance shall stand charged and be liable 
to the" respective counties from which said territon 
is taken for the debts of said counties, in the same 
proportion, upon the same terms, and under the same 
provision- as by the seventh section of this act, the 
territory taken from Wjlliams County is made liable 
to said Williams County: and the same regulations 
and provisions, provided in the eighth section of this 
act, for ascertaining and liquidating the proportion of 
the debt of said Williams County, charged upon the 
territory taken from said county, shall extend and 
apply with equal force and effect to the counties and 
county officers respectively of Henry and Paulding 


The citizens of Defiance, having been deprived 
of the county seat of Williams a few years previous, 
were greatly rejoiced to again become the residents 
of the seat of justice. A celebration of the erection 
of Detianco County was heid at "Old Fort Defiance" 
on the afternoon of Thursday. March 13, L8-to. Not- 
withstanding high waters and bad roads, the people 
of the new county thronged to Defiance in large 
numbers to rejoice with each other over the fortunate 
event. In the evening the shops and stores were 
illuminated and bonfires were kindled in public 

places by enthusiastic and happy citizens. At 8 
o'clock a vast concourse repaired to the Exchange 
Elotel and, partook of a sumptuous banquet which 
there awaited them. Judgi Pierce Evans was made 
President of the assembly Dr, Jonas Colbj Vice 
President, and Horace Sessions. Secretary Appropri- 
ate resolutions were dratted and read, and the exul- 
tation of the assemblage found expression in the ] 
sponse to many toasts. Music, gayety and dancing 
terminated the joyous occasion at 2 o'clock in the 

At the next session of the Legislature, tin |Y ', ,„l, 
oi Williauis County made strenuous but unsuccessful 
efforts to have the acti >n of the Legislature organiz- 
ing Defiance County repealed. 

Milford, Hicksville, Farmer, Mark, Washington 
Delaware, Tiffin, Noble and the upper par' of 
Defiance Townships were taken from Williams C tun 
ty; Adams, Richland and Highland Townships from 
Henry County, and tbe lower part of Defiance Town- 
ship from Paulding County. 


Aft -r the erection of Defiance County. th< first 
term of court within the newly made county op in I 

April _. 1,8'iD, ia a brick sckcolho.i -•- svhieh - Ion 

Lot 2. Block 5. in the Firsi Addition of Defiance on 
Wayne street Proceedings were at once instil te 
to erect a court house, and in a short time a brick .-o 
ifice was completed on the site of the present c urt 
house. It cost about 87, >00, and in its daj was c in 
sidered as a handsome and very creditable structure. 
The court room was on the first door, with the c liu 
ty offices above. The building* wi s considered defec- 
tive, and during the years 1871-72-73 the present 
court house was constructed at a cost of about 872, 
000. It is a handsome s] i eimen of Franco-American 
architecture, and reflects credit alike upon its build 
era and architects, it fronts west, has an entrance 
on the south, and is three stories high, with the Mansard 
roof. The building is made of Philadelphia pressed 
brick, with iron and stone trimmings. From the 
tower, which rises to the height of 125 feet, the view 
presented is worth the effort made to obtain it. 

The present brick jail was erected shortly bef ire 
the court house. The jail it replaced was also of 
brick and occupied the same site. For a time after 
the erection of Defiance County, its prisoners were con 
fined :n the Henry County Jail until uue could be 





A T the first term of court in Defiance County, April 
_ZrA '_'. 1845, Patrick Goode was Presiding Judge. 
Andrew C. Bigelow, William O. Ensign and 
James S. Greer. Associate Judges; and Orlando 

Evans, Clerk. April 3, 1845, the court ap- 
pointed as County Commissioners, Lyman Langdon 
and Jonas Colby, who were sworn in b} Israel P. E. 
Wheden, Justice of the Peace, and held their first 
session April 5, 1845. Edwin Phelps was appointed 
Auditor. The first school examiners were G. W. B. 
Ev; ns, Edwin Phelps and Horace Sessions. The 
first papers filed for naturalization were by David 
Kawerman. Samuel ('. Sullivan and Elizabeth 
Williams were the first couple married in the new 
County. June 12, 1645. 

A special election for county officers was held 
April 15, 1845, and October 14, following, "and officers 
were elected for full terms. 

Complete lists of the county oiricers from the date 
of its organization are herewith given. 


Auditors— 1845. William A. Brown; 1845, Will- 
iam A. Brown; 1847, Miller Arrowsmith; 1849. Mil- 
ler Arrowsmith: 1851, Finlay Strong; 1853, Finlay 
Strong; 1855, George Moss; 1S57. George Moss; 
1S59, John C. Arrrowsinith; lb^l. John C. Arrow 
smith; 1863, Charles P. Tittle; 1865, Charles P. 
Tittle; 1S67, George Moss; 1869, John M. Seweil: 
1872, John H. Conkle; 1874, John H. Conkle: 1676. 
William A. Slough; 1678. William A. Slough; 
1881, Charies P. Tittle. 

Recorders — 1845, Sanderson M. Huyck; 1845, 
Samuel S. Case: 13-iS. John M. Stilwill; 1851, 
James B. Heath ■>-; 165 4. James B. Heatley; 1857. 
Henry Hardy; I860, Henry Hardy; 1863, Samuel W. 
Wilson; 1866, Samuel W. Wilson; 1869, Lewis Neill; 
1872, Lewis Neill; 1875, WilliainE. Carpenter; 1676. 
William E Carpenter; 1881, .loan C. Woods. 

Prosecuting Attorneys— 1845, John M. Stilwill; 
1845, John M. Stilwill: 1847, Samuel M McCorJ; 
1849, William !'. Bacon; 1851, Samuel M. McCord; 
1853, Patrick s SleviD: 1855, David Taylor; 1857, 
Sidney S. Spragne; LS59, Thomas McBride; 1861, 
Thomas McBride; 1863, Henry Hardy; 1865. Henry- 
Hardy; 1867, Silas T. Sutphen; 1869 Silas T. 
Sutpheu; 1871, Sila3 T. Sutphen: lS7:s, Charles E. 
Brons.,u. 1875, Ch .1,- K Broason; i677. Charles 

E. Bronson, 1879, Benjamin F. Enos; 1881, Benja 
min F. Enos. 

Treasurers — 1845, John H. Riser; 1845, John H. 
Riser; 1M7, John Tuttle; 1849, David \V. Marcel 
Ins. 1851, David \V. Marcellus; 1853. Shadrach K. 
Hudson; 1855. Horace Hilton; l s *'7. John A Gar. 
ber; 1859. John A. Garber; 1861, John H. Beving- 
ton; IS63, John H. Bevington; L865, Abraham B. 
Krunkilton; 1^07. Abraham B. Kruukilton; 1869, 
Asa Toberin; 1871. Asa Toberin; 1873, Harrison 
Sbaw; 1675, Harrison Shaw: 1677, Adam Minsel; 
1879, Adam Minsel; 1881, Pete- William Lauster. 

Sheriffs— 1845, Calvin L. Noble; 1645, Calvin L 
Noble; 1847. Calvin L. Noble; 1849, William S. 
Langdon; 1S51, William S. Langdon 1853, Byron 
Bunnell; 1855, Byron Bunnell, died August 19, 1856 
1858, Virgil H. Moats; I860, Virgil H Moats: 1 362 
John M. Seweil; 1863, John W. Slough 1866. John 
W.Slough; 1868, Jacob Karst; 1870, Jacob Ka ! 
1872, John B. Hootman: iS74, John B. Hootman; 
lis 76, Henry Sehmick; 1878, Eenry Schmick; 1880, 
John A. Foust; 1882, J.jhn A. Foust. 

Coroners— L-io. Jehu P. Downs; 1845. Jehu P. 
Downs; 1847, Jehu P. Downs; 1649, Jehu t. Dowj -. 
1651, Jehu P. Downs; 1853, Thomas Garrett; 1855 
Jehu P. Downs: t>57. Jehi P. Downs; 1859, Elias 
Churchman; 1861. Aaron Bennett; 1863, Henry 
Beader.-tadt: 1865, Heury Beaderstadt; L867, Henry 
Beaderstadt; 1869, Henry H. Kiser; 1871, John 
H Kiser; 1S73, Emory VV. Downs: 1?75. H*»nry 
Kuhl: 1877, Henry Kuhl; 1679, Emory W Down-. 
1881, John J. Finn, who refused to serve: 1881, Dr. 
D. P. Aldrich was appointed for the term. 

Surveyors — 1845, Miller Arrowsmith; 1645, John 

Wisler; I s 16, Finlay Strong; 185L, 

Townsend; 1854, Miller Arrowsmith; 1857, 
Arrowsmith. who served to 1859, when be waselect ■ i 
Auditor andJohn W.Wilson was appointed to till his 
unexpired term; i860, Johu W. Wilson, was elected, 
and in 16 : >1 he enlisted in the United States sarvico 
and th.' county w ao without a surveyor; 1863, D'jvi ! 
Hunter was elected: 18U6. DavidH inter; 1869.J »hu 
Phillips, who served ;bou1 two years and died, and 
David Hunter was appointed to till out his unexpired 
time; 1872, D H English was elected; 1675. D. H 
English; 1878, Thomas S. Wight; i v 6l. Chomas S 

Clerks- At the April term. A. D 1845, Orlando 












Evans. In May following he was appointed for a term 
of seven jrears, to L852. In October, 1851, William 
Uiohards was elected and Berved from 1852 to 1858; 
October, 1857, Edward Phelps was elected and served 
from 1858 to 1867; F. VV. Graper from 18(57 to Feb- 
ruary '-it, l v 73, at which time he died, and Edwin 
Phelps succeeded him, commencing March 3, 1872, and 
served to 1879. He was Clerk of Williams County 
from 1839 to 1S44-, Defiance being the county seat at 
that time; October. 1878, John D. Lamb was elected 
and served from 1879 to 1882; October, 1881, J P. 
Cameron was elected and entered upon the dutii • of 
the office February 9, 1882; his term will expire Feb- 
ruary 9, 1885. 

Probate Judges — John M. Stilwill, February, 1852, 
to January, 18 54; Jacob J. Green. from January 4, l v ">4. 

Commissioners- -The tirst Commissioners of De- 
fiance County were Jorias Colby and Lyman Lang- 
don, who were appointed by the Court of Common 
PJeas April 3, 1845. ami served until the 1st day of 
December, 1845. 

The tirst Commissioners elected were John A. 
Garber, Kobert M. Kells and Ira Freeman, and hav- 
ing drawn lots. Ira Freeman drew for the term of one 
year, Robert M. Kells for the term of two jears and 
John A. Garber for the terra of three years. 

Since then the following have served: Henry 
Breckbill. 1846-49; Ira W. Ladd. 1847-50: John A. 
Garber, 184S-54; John A. Cheney, 1849-54 (re- 
signed): B. B. Able. 1854-55 (by appointment); John 
31 Sanford, 1855-58; Jacob Conkey, 1850-53; Airs 
Knight, 1853-59; Peter Conkle, 1857-66; Samuel S. 
Case, 1858-64; Samuel Hill, 1859-64 (resigned); 
Merill Otis, 1864-65 ih\ appointment), ami 1865-67. 
when he resigned; W, R Maxwell, 1867-68 by ap- 
pointment and 1868-74 by election: Joseph Sewell, 
1864-70; John Elliott. 1866-72; Abraham B. Crunk- 
leton, 1870-71 (resigned); Charles Speaker. 1871-72 
(by appointment); died in office; Isaac Garver, 1872 
-73 (by appointment); Adam Wilhelm. 1872-78; 
Peter Gares, 1873-79; F. X. Horton, 1874-80; Town- 
send Newton, 1878-80 (resigned); David Travis, 
18S0-S1 (by appointment); Levi Colin-. 1879; Martin 
Struble, 1880--83; David Travis, 1881-82 (deceased); 
Henry Ort. 1882-83; Michael Gorman. 1882. The 
present Board is composed of Messrs. Struble, Colby 
and Gorman. 

Infirrmry- Directors-— This Board was organized 
in 1868, with the following me;nbers: Peter Gares, 
for one year; G. C. A. Greenler, for two years; Rich- 
ard Knight, for three years. 

Subsequent members have been Peter Gares, 
1869-72; F. N. Horton, 1870-7), vice Knight re 

;>.!: G. C. A. Greenler, 1870-73; 1'. N. Hi 
1871-74; J. Y. Gitrwell, 1872-78; William Will- 
iams, 1873-79; John Dow, 1874-78 (died in office); 
John English, L878-83; John P. Frederick, 1876 84; 
Abram Raisor, 1879-85. 

Levi Mock was appointed Superintendent of the 
Infirmary in 1869 and served live years. J. H. Smith 
was appointed in 1875 and served four years, when 
J. M. Phillips received the appointment and is now 
acting in that capacity. 

Defiance Infirmary Farm — The farm contains 
about 2 1 ' 1 ^ acres and is partly in Tiffin and partly in 
Noble Townships. It is a good farm and finely lo- 
cated. Mr. James Phillips is the Superintendent. 
The farm cost about §13,000, and the buildings 
about §4,000, making the entire cost about 817,000. 
The labor of the paupers makes the farm nearly- 
self -supporting. 

State Reprosentati ves— Since the creation of De- 
fiance County, the. districts of which it has formed a 
part have been represented in the Srate Ho is ■ if 
Representatives as follows: 1845-46, Horace 3 
Knopp, of Putnam; 1846-47, Benjamin F. Metcalf, 
of Putnam; 1847—48; Nathan M. Landis, of De- 
fiance; 1848-49, Charles P. Edson, of Van Wort: 
1849-50, Sidney S. Sprague, of Defiance; 1850-51 
William H Snook, of Paulding; 1552-54, Thomas 
S. C. Morrison, of Williams; 1354 SO, Erdsius 
H. Leland, of Defiance; 1856-58, Schuyler E. 
Blakeslee, of Williams; 1853-60, W. D. Haymaker, of 
Defiance: 1860-62, Calvin L. Noble, of Paulding; 
1862-61. Philetus W. Norris, of Williams; 1364-66. 
John W. Ayres, of Paulding; 1866-70, ElishaG. Den- 
man, of Williams, and William D. Hill. ofDefiaDce; 
1870-74, Levi Colby, of Paulding; 1571-76, Henry 
Hardy, of Defiance; 1876-78, Asa Toberen, of De- 
fiance 1878-80, Henry Hardy, of Defiance; 1880-82, 
Benjamin Pattou, of Defiance; 1882-84, Lewis S 
Gordon, of Paulding. 

Senators— A. P. Edgerton was State Senator 
from Defiance fr jm 1845-47, two terms; John Tay- 
lor, for two terms from 1852-56; William' Carter, 
1868-70; ind Elmer White at present represents 
this district. 

Congressman — A. P. Edgerton was a member of 
the Thirty-second Congress from 1851-55. William 
D. Hill was elected to the Forty-seventh Congress in 
1^7.8. ana in 1^82 to the present Congress. 





CONCERNING the early courts at Detiance, 
Th(>mas W. Powell wrote in 1867: "Judge 
Lane's circuit of tbe Common Pleas then included 
the whole of blie northwestern part of the State, in- 
cluding the counties of Huron. Richland, Delaware 
and Union, being fully one-fourth of the State. He 
was very punctual in attending tho court-; of 
Perrysburg and Defiance. Gage and myself alwaya 
accompanied him; and they were frequently at- 
tended by other lawyers from other parts of the 
country. Those excursions from Perrysburg to Defi- 
ance in attending the courts there were enjoyed 
with rare pleasure and attended with considerable 
excitement. We usually made the tripon horseback, 
but frequently when the river was in a high stage of 
water we would procure a canoe at Defiance and 
make our way hack by water. Wo frequently took 
two days to make the trip, and then would make 
Prairie Damasque our half-way stopping place over 
night, at the house of Judge Vance, a brother of Gov. 
Vance, of Ohio. * * * At that time Defiance 
consisted only of a few houses, such as would he 
found at a new town of the smaller dimensions. A 
warehouse on the bank of the river afforded a court 
house, and the house of Mr. Leavell afforded us a hotel 
yet the term there was attended with interest and 
pleasure. Frequently the cases tried were of a highly 
interesting character — creating considerable excite- 
ment. Many lawyers were frequently congregated 
there from various parts of Ohio — sometimes Judge 
Ewiug and a Mr. Cooper, from Fort Wayne. At 
those times our social meetings were often animate.! 
and highly interesting, Judge Lane, so distiu 
guished for his learning and intelligence, and who 
afterward became one of the oldest of the distin- 
guished Judges of the Supreme Court of Ohio, 
and forms a brilliant figure in its judicial his- 
tory, would be our leader in learning, science 
and literature; Gage, in anecdotes, jokes and 
eccentricities; and all would contribute what to 
any country or society would render the gathering 
marked and highly interesting. Nor was the jour- 
upy devoid of many interesting incidents; among 
which is that of Gage getting a man at Prairie Dam- 
asque so far entangled in the meshes of the law, as 
to secure him under the promise of professional as 
sistanee to eivj;,!^* to take us up the Defiance la a 

canoe by water. Our horses were loft at the Prairie 
and we were relieved by a voyage instead of a ride. 
When we arrived at Defiance, Gage made a now en 
gagement with his client, that, in case b< should 
clear him from his legal restraints, he should I :.. i 
all back again to tbe prairie at the end of th • term. 
Gage soon procured a writ of habeas corpus, upon 
which his client was released: and as a compensation 
for which we were taken back h\ .vater. and Gage had 
a long standing credit of killing two birds with one 
stono — engaging the man to take us up by getting 
him into difficulty and then to take us back again by- 
getting him out In return from court at Detiuuca 
i ' spring, Gage and myself came down the rivei ic 
a canoe. The rivor was extremely high at that rime. 

t we made our way down rapidly and pi 
until we were below Roche de Boeuf. So far we had 
passed the dangers of the rapids without difficulty . 
but when we were uear the island, oppi iiti V. iter 
ville. a person on the south shore, near which ve 
were keeping and intended to keep, called out to us 
a? though he intended to give us some important in- 
structions, which we took (.'keep close to the is- 
land, 1 but it possibly may have been as we iutendi 1 
to do, to keep close to the shi re The river was high. 
and the rolling -urge, of the water on the rapids just 
below the island v.-as truly terrific. It was much 
more like the frightful waves of the ocean in a 
boisterous storm than anything else it can be com- 
pared to In accordance with what we took to be the 
i directions of the stranger, we turned our canoe to 
- ward the island, along the shore of -,vh:ch we passed 
forward without difficulty. But immediately upon 
leaving the foot of the island, we found ourselves in 
a frail canoe in tLe j midst of the frightful wn\ 's ate) 
br-akei-- of the rapids, and by them tossed so thni it 
seemed impassible for us to live a. moment . I turned 
my sight toward Gage andboheld the most frigid 
eiied face I ever saw upon man; and perhaps mine 
was uo better. We immediately made for the - i 
again and our perils were soon over. It was it; I 
| the most providential escape from the most i 
nent danger. I have seen man;,' perils, but I look 
upon that moment as the most critical of m\ >■ 

The first court at Defiance wasattended by ; 
therosCooke, of Sandusky City, Rodolphus Di 




son, of Lower Sandusky (now Fremont), James L. I we should probably have been swainped had w< qo 

Ga>*e and Thomas W Powell, from Porrysburg, 
Charles and William (J. Ewing, from Fort \\ ayue, and 
one or two from Dayton. 

been hailed from theshoreand warned of our danger." 

At the expiration of his term. Judge Higgin 
succeeded by Ozias Bowen. Iu 1880, the Thirteonth 
Judicial Circuit was established, embracing the fol 
■ran bench. i lowing ten counties : Lucas, Wood, Henry, Williams, 

Judge Ebenezer Lane continued to preside at the Paulding, Putnam, Van Wert. Allen, Hardin and 

courts of William-? County until the appointment of 
his successor, David Higgins, of Norwalk, iu Febru- 
ary, 1830, to the Second Judicial Circuit of Ohio, 
which then included Huron, Richland, Delaware, San- 
dusky. Senpca, Crawford, Marion, Wood. Hancock, 
Henry, TV illiams. Putnam, Paulding and Van Wert 

Hancock. Emory D. Potter was elected Presidium 
Judge of this circuit and held the office until I s il. 
when he resigned to take a seat in Congress. He was 
succeeded on the bench by Hon. Myron H. Tilden, 
who resigned eighteen months later. February 19 
the Sixteenth Judicial District, embracing the 

Counties. Of the voyage to Defiance in the pirogue counties of Shelby, Mercer. Allen. Hardin, Hancock. 

"Jurisprudence," Judge Higgins wrote: " We had 
been attending court at Findlay. Our circuit route 
from that town was first to Defiance and from there 
to Perrysburg. A countryman agreed to take our 
horses directly through the black swamp to Perrys- 
burg, and we purchased a canoe, and taking with us 
our saddles, bridles and baggage proposed to descend 
to Blanchard's Fork and the Auglaize Rivers to Defi- 
ance and then to Perrysburg. Our company consist,-. 1 
of Rodolphus Dickinson, J. C. Spink, Count Coflin- 
berry, myself and a countryman whose name I for- 
get. The voyage was a dismal one to Defiance, 
through an unsettled wilderness of some sixty miles. 
Its loneliness was only broken by the intervening set- 
tlement at Ottawa Village, where we were hailed and 

Putnam, Paulding, Van Wert and- Willams tvas 
erected, and Patrick G. Goode, of Sidney, elected 
Presiding Judge. The county of Defiance, erected 
the following month, was attached to this circuit. He 
served until lb-15. and was succeeded by George 13. 
Way, of Defiance, who served until 1557. Judge 
Alexander S. Latty was then elected and remained on 
the bench twenty years At the time of his election 
he was a citizen of Paulding, but during his service 
he removed to Defiance. He was succeeded in 1877 
by Judge Selwyn N. Owen, of Bryon. who is 
serving his second term. Defiance County, with 
Paulding and Williams, composed the seconds,.' 
division of the Third Judicial District of Ohio. 

The Associate Judges of Defiance County, from its 

cheered lustily by the Tahwa Indians as would be a I organization to the adoption of the present constitu- 
foreign war ship in the port of New York. From turn, were Andrew Bigelow, William O. Ensign. 
Defiance we descended the Maumee to Perrysburg. ; and James S. Greer, 18-15; Jesse Haller, 1850; Na- 
where we found all well. In descending the Man- than M. Landis, 1851. 
mw, we came near running into the rapids, where I 



FOR many years after the organization of Williams 
County, the seat of which was at Defiance, the 
legal services required in the newly settled country 
were rendered chiefly by an army of legal luminaries, 
who were accustomed to travel from county to county 
at the heels of the Presiding Judge. Business was 
then transacted much more expeditiously than at pres- 
ent, and a few days would suffice to complete the 
business in one town. ;>nd the journey would then 
begin to the next. Probably almost as much time 
was consumed on the roa 1 as in court, so large were 
the circuits traversed, and so tedious the journeys. 
.Many of *he foreign practitioners already have been 

mentioned. The first intimation we have of a local 
attorney at Defiance is given in a letter written March 
24, 1802, by James L. Gage and published in the 
Union Press, of Bryan, Ohio, iu which he says: " In 
the winter of 1826,1 opened a law office in De- 
fiance, W illiams County - 1 th;ak the first in the 
county. It was iu an upper room in the inn 
of Beujamin Leavell, an upright man, in whose ex 
cellent family I boarded, My office was also my bed- 
room, and on public days it was ai- . the bi I ro^m of 
many others." Mr Gage came to the Mamnee conn 
try in 182-1, settling first in Maumee. lie did not. 
remain long at Defiance, but movod from place to. 



place and finally settled in McCounellsville, Ohio, 
where he atta tied distinction a- an able lawyer. 

The first lawyer to settle permanent!) at Defi- 
ance, was probably Horace Sessions, a full sketch of 
whom is given further on. He located at l>e'i 
in 1833, and maintained a practice there for many 

William Seamans, a biography of whom also ap- 
pears hereafter, was admil the bar at Defiance 
in 1835, and at once commenced practice. 

In 1836 or 1837, Curtis Bates located at Defiance 
and commenced practice at the liar. He was soon 
after elected State Senator. His election was suc- 
cessfully contested by his opponent on the ground 
that Mr. Bates had not been a resident of Ohio for 
the prescribed period. A new election was ordered, 
but tlin required period of residence having elapsed, 
Mr. Bates was placed in nomination again by his 
Democratic friends and re-elected his own successor 
by an increased majority. He afterward removed to 

once. The former came from roledo. was a. 
scholar and brillant speaker and was elected : id 
served as Judge of the Common Pleas Court. He 
afterward received an official app al andrei i >ved 

to Wa Uington, 1). C. Mr. Sheffield was fi m N'a 
poleon. Ite became Receiver of the United State-. 
Land Office at Defiance. 

David Taylor came to Detiunce about 1 s."> I md 
was clerk fur his father. John Taylor, who was K • 
ceiver in the laud othee. He read law. was admit! ' 
and became a successful politician and lawyer. lie, 
about I Sdi l. received an appointment as Paymaster in 
the service, and was afterward paymaster in the re-' 
alar army. He died in Leavenworth, Kan. 


The attorne\s now in practice at Defiance are as 
follows: S. S. Ashbaugk, C. E. Bronswu, William 
Carter. J. F. Deatrick. B. F. Enos, E. H. Gleason, 
Hardy i Johnson, Harris & Cameron. Sherrod 

Des Moines, Iowa, where he became a prominent at- Heacock, W. C. Holgate, S A Justice. G. W. Killey, 
torney and politician. He was at one time the Dem- 
ocratic candidate for Governor of Iowa. 

William C. Holgate. who is still an active practi- 
tioner of Defiance, was the next attorney. He came 
to Defiance in 1836, and two year> later was admit- 
ted to the bar, and at once entered upon the labors 
and duties of his profession. 

John B. Seamans practiced at Dntiance from 1839 
to 1S41. Samuel H Greenlee was an early practi- 
tioner, and died in 1852. Erastus H. Leland came 
to Defiance in 1841, but soon after removed to Bryan 
and became a prominent attorney. He afterward 
returned to Defiance. Hamilton Davison removed to 
Defiance in 1S4-V and was received in the land "ifiee. 
He had previously been admitted to the bar and been 
engaged in practice, but subsequent to coining here 
has given his attention chiefly to other pursuits. 

George W. B. Evans was a practicing attorney at 
Defiance in IS 15, and rendered efficient service in or- 
ganizing Defiance County. He was a social and 
promising young attorney, 'out left the county before 
establishing a practice He emigrated to California at 
the commencement of the gold excitement and died 
at San Francisco. 

John M Stilwill came to Defiance and began 
practice about 1846. He served as Justice of the 
Peace for a number of years. After a practice of 
some time he removed to Bloomingtou. 111. 

Wo !sey VS ells came to Defiance as Commissioner 
for the sale of Western Reserve School Lands. After 
a practice here of some years Le removed to Fort 
Dodge, Iowa. 

The firm of George B. Way and William Sheffield 
was one of the earliest and mo-t successful at Defi- 

Knapp & Scott, Latty, Hill i P aslee. Abijah 
Miller. Xewbegiu & Kingsberry, M. E. Orcutt, W 
M. Randall, John W. Slough S, I. Sutpheu, Will 
iam C. Travis. 


This gentleman, whose moral social and profes 
signal qualities were widely known iml high!) \ 
throughout the Maumee Valley, v a- born in Paine>vill< , 
Ohio, April ltl 1812, and removed to Defiance in IS '■■'■ 
He was married to Miss Lucia <_ Oandee, Januan ■■ 
1854. at Watertown, N. V., and died at Adrian. Mich . 
June ii, 1868. Mr. Sessions left a > • Luldren living 
— two having died in infancy and one laughter at 
the age of five or sii years. After his his 
widow returned to her former home at Watertown, 
N. Y., but afterward removed t.> Pamesville, when 
within the last two years sue married Mr. Gc>r_:e \\ 
Steele, a prominent capitalist of that place, who ha* 
since about April 4. 1881, died. 

We will crive the proceedings of a meeting of the 
bar held at the court house in Defiance on the ! 51 . 
June. lSiJS, at which William C. Holgate, who i iriug 
a period of more thai.' a quarter of a century was his 
intimate associate and friend— was made chain, 
and Edwin Phelps, secretary, which will convey n 
idea of th>' esteem in which Mi' Sessions w is he) I 
his professional br< thren- Upon 1 1 • pting the ;>■ *i 
tion tendered Mr. Holgate addressed the meeting us 

Brethren - of the Bab: Horace Sessions ■ i 
The All wist- Being who rules and governs the affairs of 
men has taken him to Himself:. He died at Adrian. 
Mich., on tbeuthin-t. . where he ha 1 stopped i ffl visit, 
a friend as he was retr.ruiug from the K.-: 



National Convention at Chicago, which he had been 
attending as a delegate. I was present at his death, 
and with other friend.'- and citizens of our town ac- 
companied his remains to PainesviHe, in t li is. State, 
where on the 9th they were interred in a beautiful 
cemetery near the tomb of a loved little daughter an 1 
of a father and mother and other relative s. 

Our relations with him and his worth require 
something more than the usual resoluti >ns of re- 
spect and sympathy. Being the first lawyer that ever 
settled and stayed here, he may truly be called the 
father of the Defiance bar. He was also a pioneer of 
our valley, and the son of a noble patriot of our coun- 
try and pioneer of our State. In 17'';. under An- 
thony Wayne, his father was in the great battle that 
first secured the white man possession of and title to 
the lands we occupy, and he helped to construct the 
fort which gives our town its name. In 1800, he 
settled on a farm near PainesviHe, and there on the 
lftth day of April, 1S1'2, Horace Sessions was born. 
He was a vigorous, stout boy, delighting in agricnlt. 
. ural pursuits and iu watching the habits and caring 
for the animals reared upon the farru. But at the 
age of twelve years a great misfortune befell him. 
He was taken down with a severe sickness, resulting 
in a fever sore that racked his constitution, shattered 
his nervous system, producing untold pain and crip 
pling him through his whole life His father dying 
in 1827 left him a poor, crippled boy, and a widowed 
mother and sisters in destitute circumstances. His 
bodih infirmities incapacitating him for farm work, 
he reluctantly relinquished his favorite calling and 
cast about to see what else ho conld do to make a liv- 
ing for himself and his destitute relations. This re- 
sulted in his choice of the law for a profession. 

Being admitted to the bar at the age of twenty- 
one, he first went down the Ohio and Mississippi Riv- 
ers as far as Vicksburg without finding a satisfactory 
location, when returning he came to the Maumee 
Valley and settling at Defiance in 1833, he began the 
first practice of his profession. Defiance at that 
time was the county seat of Williams County, and to 
it was attached several other counties for judicial 
purposes. Though the field was entirely open, there 
being no other lawyer here, professional business 
was very limited. But Horace Sessions was poor: he 
had a mis-ion to fulfill and he would not be idle. In 
addition to his professional duties, he wrote in the 
county offices and taught in the district school. I 
seeseveral present here who, like myself, havea life- 
long business acquaintance with him. Mine, perhaps, 
has been of the longest and of the most intimate charac- 
ter. Thirty-three years ago, accompanying my 
father from f he State of New York, on a tour of ex- 
ploration to the Wabash, with an eye to a settlement 

at Fort Wayne, we spent a week or more as we were 
passingat DefiaDce. Duringthat week. I first be< 
acquainted with Horace Sessions and T have of 
since thought that acquaintance fixed my destiny *in 
iv.\ choice of a future home, and brought me n year 
later to come here to live. At the time Mr. Soss 
was occupying a room in the second story of a brick 
building en Lot r>S of the original plat of Defiai 
which building was the court house, and I may add 
the schoolhouse and also the "meeting house" of the 
village In the same room were kept most of the 
offices of the county. He invited me to occupy the 
room with him aud continue the study of the : 
which I had before begun. His bed was in the same 
room, and this we occupied together. From that 
time to the time of his decease, whilst a generation 
of men have passed from earth, we continuously have 
occupied an office together. From the time he came 
here, each summer be would go to the home of his 
agi 1 mother, consoling and comforting her with his 
presence and giving that material aid that relieved 
the wants of herself and family. And glad was T the 
' itber day whilst assisting at PainesviLe in the last iu 
ties to thedead on earth to hear an aged and eminent 
statesman of that place say. Mr. Sessions nas been very 
generous with his father's family; he has ever 
bountifully supplied them. And here let me sa his 
generositj was not confined to his relatives alone. In 
all hi.- dealings he was liberal Every charitable in.- 
terprise and good cause he helped on. He was in- 
dustrious, temperate and fru^pl ;>-. »ii his habits, He 
cut his own wood at hi- office for years; he built bis 
own tires at home. He sought property only to make 
himself independent and to do good, and in this 
God bountifully blessed him. as he will ever Mess 
any man of like industry, temperance, carefulness, 
frugality and honesty of purpose. As a lawyer, to 
understand, digest and to bring to a successful issue 
delicate, intricate and complicated business njatt* rs, 
Horace Sessions had few or no superiors, and I believe 
no party selecting him as their counsel or ever had 
occasion to regret their choice. He was warm in his 
friendships, social in disposition, hospitable, unos- 
tentatious and mild in his manners. He was uni- 
formly the same unruffled Horace Sessions yesterday. 
to day and to-morrow. Though unobtrusive and mild, 
within him wrs ; t heart: be has said to me. that never 
had a sensation of fear, which statement his truth- 
fulness leave me no reason to doubt. Ir i- a part of 
the history of that county that his father was the 
bravest man tint ever lived on Grand itiver. Truly 
can we say as we look back on the battle of life h« 
has fought, Horace Sessions was a brave son of that 
brave man. To him the summons came sudd, i 
His sickness was brief and severe Loving hi 



ar ; il willing hands did all that could bo done to stay 
the dreaded approach of the destroyer. Contiden! 
that the trying hoar had come, he calmly approached 
the grave like one who wraps the drapery of his 
conch about him and lies down to pleasant dreams. 

On motion, a committee of live, consisting of Will- 
iam Carter, Edwin Phelps, Hamilton Davison, Will- 
iam D Hill and Henry Newbogin, were appointed, to 
draft resolutions expressive of the feelings of the 
members of this bar which committee, through their 
chairman. Hon. William Carter, reported the follow- 
ing: "Whereas, by a dispensation of an All-wise 
Providence, our late associate and brother, Horace 
Sessions, has been removed from our midst by death, 
it is, by the bar of Defiance County, as expressive of 
the great loss they have sustained, Resolved. That in 
the death of Horace Sessions the bar of Defiance 
County has [ st one of its oldest, ablest, most useful 
and worthy members, and this community one of its 
most worthy citizens. Resolved. That we sincerely 
deplore'the loss of our departed brother and associate, 
and shall revere his memory as one whose professional 
life was without blemish and worthy of imitation. 

Resolved, That our heartfelt sympathies are ex- 
tended to the widow and relatives of the deceased. 

Resolved, That these resolutions, together with the 
proceedings of this meeting, be published in the De- 
fiance papers, with the request that the same be 
copied in the several papers published in the Mau- 
mee Valley, anil at Painesville. Ohio. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be fur- 
nished by the Secretary to the widow of the deceased. 
On motion, the resolutions were received, and 
unanimously adopted. 

It was also resolved that the proceedings of this 
meeting be presented by the Chairman to the Honor- 
able Judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Defiance 
County at its next session, with the request that the 
same be entered upon the journal of said court. 
William C. Holgate, Chairman. 
E. Thelps. Secretary. 


•John Beaston Semans. brother of William Semans, 
was born in. Monroe County. Ohio, December 16. 
ISOt. His parents had moved for a short time to the 
Ohio side of the Ohio River. He worked upon his 
father's farm in Highland County until old enough 
to be apprenticed to a trade, when he entered the 
office of the Hillsboro Gazette, to learn printing In 
1825, shortly after he had closed hi- ■:■ preni eship, 
he went to Wilmington, Ohio, anil I ] eaprie- 

tor of the Wilmington Argus. In August, 1S29, 
having sold the Argus, he removed to La Fayette, 
Ind., then a small village, nud commenced the publi- 

cation of the La Fayette Free Press, the onlj | m or in 
Northern Indiana. In 1830, having disposed of tho 
f-'rrr Press,he removed to Defiance, and for tw i -> 
was engaged in mercantile pursuits, in company with 
his bn ither William. Lie then published tho Di i u c • 
Barometer, and afterward the Defiance linnnrr, for a 
short time small, yet sturdy and independent pa;- i . 
meantime he studied law with Curtice Bates, and wiw 
admitted to practice in LS39. He engaged in the 
active practice oE law in Williams (Defiance] County 
and the surrounding counties until 1MI. when he 
was solicited by his friends to return to La Favetto. 
Ind.. and repurchase the Free Pr *s. He bis-, 
changing its name to the La Fayette Journal. 'U: his 
return to La Fayette, he was admitted to practice'in 
the Tippecanoe County Court, but the care of his 
paper so engrossed his attention that he neglected to 
work up any law practice, lie was fearless in his 
adv icacy of what he deemed the right, being an anti- 
slavery Whig. He was ;, momborof the national con- 
vention of 1844, which Dominated Henry Clay for 
President, and he most can idvocatod hi- - 

tion. He, too, had inherited an unquencb ble op 
position to slavery, and when, in l^i s . the Whig 
party nominated Zachan Taylor ;'s candidate for 
President, he believed it had sold itself to th< slave 
power, and refused toadvocate Taylor's election. A' 
the solicitation of leading Whigs, and at 
sacrifice, he sold his paper an 1 retired from ixlil rial 
life; he continued, however, advocating tie ,-■■..•-• ._? 
libertv bv frequent contribu ions to unti -! . 
journals. In 1S47, he was ppointed Collector of 
Tolls on the "W abash A: Erie Canal, wl -:• n 

he held at the time of his death. August -'.'. IS53. 
John B Semans was pre-eminently a philanthropist. 
The motto which he adopted for his taper was 
" While I have Liberty to write, I will writ.- for 
Liberty." In politics, nothing is right tl at v ! not 
meet the sanction of morality. Even human 
he regarded as his brother. He was a lloval Vr.'li 
Mason, and was buried with Masonic honors. He 
had' long been a consistent, active memtjer ■ ■ tic- 
Methodist Episcopal Church, a member of th 
body and a teacher in the Sundae school: th« ■. 
during the last four years of his life, be was a pro- 
nounced believer in the doctrines of the [Chun 
the New Jerusalem. He was of medium height, in 
clined to full habits and of a reu>arkabl\ b. ■ • 
pleasant countenance, a man whomone wonl I alw - 
choose as his. friend. He was thrive times murrie.1, 
and was the father of ten children, -it (daaghl 
are now living. 


William Semans was born in Ohio County, \ ■• . 
October 11, 1S00. His father, Simon Seraana, 



bom in Cecil County, MM. •. his mother, Sinai (Mc- 
Kay) Senians, was born in the State of Delaw r 
They were married in Delaware, and moved to the 
Virginia side of the Ohio River, near Wheeling, at 
the close of the last century. For a time they moved 
to the Ohio side, and then returned to Virginia. 
When William was about ton years '>1<1. his father 
settled in Highland County. Ohio. The father of 
Simon was a farmer, and lived and died the owner of 
slaves, but his son early became an uncompromising 
enemy to slavery, a trait much developed in his son-. 
and so he sought a horue for himself and family in a 
free State. William, with his brothers.- of whom he 
had four, he being eldest, worked upon his fathers 
farm, attending such- schools as they had in the 
neighborhood until he was about sixteen years old. 
when he determined to lit himself for the practice of 
law. The better to do this, and that he might have 
his winters for study, he apprenticed himself to his 
brother-in law, Robert Wason, who had married an 
older sister and who lived in Hillsboro. to learn brick- 
making and brick-laying. With Mr. Wason he 
worked summers and lived at home in winter, clear- 
ing land, making rails and attending a school taught 
by a paternal uncle, Benjamin Hill, who could cipher 
through the rule of three and was thought to have a 
wonderful education. Through his assistance and his 
own studious habits, he got -.1 far advanced that, he 
was soon enabled himself to teach the winter schools 
in the neighborhood. The first slate he owned he 
purchased by cutting several cords of wood for a mer- 
chant of Hillsboro. He continued, after learning'his 
trade, to work at it in summer through that region, 
making the brick and building houses, and as the 
demand was limited he was compelled to travel over a 
large extent of country seeking business. He was now 
about twenty- four years of age. had saved up - 
money, and was about titted to enter Miami University. 
at Oxford, which had about this time opened its doors 
to students, when, by «<'me unfortunate venture, he 
lost all his money. He was now thrown back on his 
labor. His brother-in-law, Robert Wason, had. about 
the year 1842, removed to Defiance, some two years 
after the laying-out of the town by Phillips and Leavel, 
and was engaged in working at his trade when he 
could Hud employment. In the summer of 182(5, 
William went to Defiance to visit his sister. Elizabeth 
Wason, and her husband. They prevailed upon him 
to stay, and teach a winter school. During the sum- 
mer he helped Mr. Wason make brick, build chimneys 

and lay hearths for the cabins in the neighbors I. 

The brick was made and burned on a plot of gr< 1M I 
northwest of the old burying ground near the An 
glaize. He continued his work for several years. 
teaching school during the winters. He helped make. 

burn and lay the brick of the old court hous 

Wayne street, near the Presbyterian Church and •■ st 
oi count) buildings. Meantime, he commenced acting 
as Deputy County Clerk foi Dr. -John Evans, a 1 1 
was in his office for several years. He was Auditor 
of old Williams County tor a time, and served a- Jus- 
tice of the Peace for many years. He, during this 
time, studied law with Amos Evans, a brother of Dr. 
John Evans. a nd cousin of Pierce Evans, and was ad- 
mitted to practice some time in 1S35. He imuiedi 
ately commenced active practice in the counties of 
Williams. Henry, Paulding, Putnam and Van Wert, 
following the Circuit Judges in their rounds from 
■ iinty to canity on horseback, with the required 
books and papers in a portmanteau, the roads being 
sometimes but blazed paths through the Eorests of 
the black swamp. In 1836, he entered into pari terskip 
with his brother. John B. Semans, who had removed 
to Defiance from La Fayette. Ind., in a general mer 
cantile business, and continued for two years. The 
store room was in his residence, on the northeast ci r 
ner of Jetferson and First, streets, the present resi- 
dence of Mr. Davidson. This house he built in 
1834, the first brick dwelling nous in the towu. In 
1838, the store was closed, and he devoted his entire 
time to the practice of law. About this time, he en- 
tered into partnership with Andrew Coflinbury, of 
Maiimee City. Mr. Coflinbury, usually called Count 
Coffiubury, practiced in the same judicial district; a 
man of strange talents, full of humor and of a ; 
icai temperament. Many a time has the writerof this 
sketch, in boyhood days, listened in rapt atteu 
tion to the weird stories, the improvised verse ami the 
comical oddities of this remarkable man. while he 
was in attendance at the Defiance (Williams) County 
Court. He was the life of the jolly band of meu that 
went from county seat to county seat during all those 
long years. A volume of poems was the result. 
printed, in 1 ^ 12. through the subscription of his fel- 
low-attorneys, entitled " The Forest Hanger: a Pi et 
icai Tale of the Wilderness in L79i." The scene is 
laid in and about the plateau of Defiance, at Girty's 
Point, ami near the battle-field of Fallen Timbers, 
during Wavue's campaign. When mesmerism came 
in vogue, the Count became wonderfully skilled in tie' 
ait. and many are the sittings he used to have with us 
children, showing his wonderful power in controlling 
our wills, and through his mesmeric influence c< u-i.i_ r 
us tM do all sorts of ludicrous things. It was the 
children's holiday when the Count came, around. 
I" return to \'-.i" subject of our sketch. We find *'. > f 
close attention to business and a constitutional ien- 
dencv to dyspepsia had seriously' affected his health, 
.- 1 in IS 4-4- he withdrew from all law practice for a 
time. In L8i6, tie commence 1 building the L) (fiance 



Mills, at the apper lock of the canal; this he fin- 
ished, in connection with Frederick F Stevens, a 
brother-in-law. In IS47, he resumed the practice of 
the Law, En 1850, he sold iii^ residence ai the corner 
of Jefferson and First streets to H. Davidson, and. 
with Ephraim A. Greenlee, a Defiance art irnoy, he re- 
moved to La Fayette. Ind., and formed a partnership 
in the practice of law. When the territories of Kan- 
sas and Nebraska were opened for settlement, he be- 
came interested in the making of them free States. 
and determined to change his home to Kansas. In 
1855, he temporarily remove. 1 to Defiance, and. for the 
time being, entered into the practice of law with 
Edward H. Phelps. In 1859, his plans being per- 
fected, be removed to Kansas, settling in Leaven- 
worth, his unfinished business, however, frequently- 
recalling him to Defiance. The summer of 1860 was 
spent in Defiance. The latter part of the summer he 
left for his home, not being in good health; after 
reaching home, his disease, a complicated trouble 
with stomach and brain, rapidly prostrated him. and 
he soon yielded tti its power, dying the 11th of Sep- 
tember, 1860. He was a man of excellent judgment, 
conscientious and painstaking in the preparation of 
his cases, cautious to a fault, but firm in his belief 
and aggressive to offensiveness when he thought the 
right in peril. He believed every criminal, no mat- 
ter how vicious, should have a fair and reasonable 
defense, lest justice be too severe; but many is the 
time that the writer has seen him put to his wits'. end 
when he had fouud himself on ihe wrong side of the 
case, and his client demanding what seemed, by de- 
velopment of testimony, an unjust claim. A maxim 
he always impressed on his children, which he said 
he had learned in active law practice, is never to 
judge any cause until the other side had been neard. 
There are two sides to every case, he would frequent- 
ly say. He was above medium height, of full 
weight, powerful in frame and of good presence. 
Not fluent in speech, he did not excel when address- 
ing a jury, unless in a case where his feelings became 
deeply stirred, but in the preparation of a case, in 
examining witnesses and in discovering the weak 
points of an adversary, he had but few superiors at 
the bar in which he practiced. He early became a 
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and 
aft^r Iip settled in Defiance, before any regular church 
organization was formed, tie helped form, and was the 
Superintendent of a Union Sunday school. He and 
an old colored woman ware the tir-t membra* of the 
fir^t class of th» Methodist Episcopal Church in Deti- 
ance. and through his instrumentality Defiance first 
became a preaching place for Methodist preachers. 
It was through his means that the nM frame Methodist 
Church was built: he for some years carried the entire 

indebtedness of its building, imperiling thereby his 
own property interests. While residing in Defia 
he was always a Class Leader, Steward aud Tru 
His borne was always known as the home of the 
Methodist preacher. When a Masonic lodge sv; 3 con 
stituted m Detiance. be was raude a Mason, tnkiri" 
his degrees in Tuendawie Lodge. In early life, 
through ancestral influence, he inclined to federalism, 
and when the Whig party was formed he was an 
active member. He was a pronounced Protectionist 
of American labor, and intensely American in bis 
feelings. Born in a Slave State, of slave-holdic ; he had the good fortune to have a slavery 
hating father, from whom he learned to hate slavery 
with intense hatred. Being of a judicial mind, and 
of conservative tendencies, he did not rush into ex 
tremes in anything, and so belonged to the Emanci- 
pation rather than the Abolition wing of the Whig 
party, and was always a warm advocate of emancipa- 
tion. He aided in forming the Republican party. 
and was always reap to advocate its principles, 
either in public or in private. 

He was married in Defiance on the 19th of No- 
vember, '. 834, to Mrs. Mary W. Wells, widow of 
Joshua W. Wells, of Piqua, Ohio, and daughter of 
John Oliver, who was then living on the south side 
of the Maumee, east of the Auglaize, on a farm. 
Four children were born of this anion, two boys and 
two girls. Two >iied iu infancy and two are now \i\ 
ing — William Oliver, born August 23. 1835. who is 
Professorof Che mi. -try in the Ohio Wesleyan Univer- 
sity, Delaware, Ohio, and Anna E-, born June i. 
1848, wife of Rev. Orville J Nave, of th« Ohio Con- 
ference of the Methodist Episc ipal Church, and Post 
Chaplain in the United States army. 

< From the I »eii j:i. e Ban let 

"Died, on the 23d day of February, 1852, at the 
residence of his brother-in-law, J. P. Avers, in High 
land Township. Samuel H. Greenlee, Esq., of Defi- 
ance, iu the thirty-fifth year of his age. Mr. Green- 
lee had been declining Eor the last twelve months 
with consumption of the lungs, hut. with the natural 
buoyancy of his nature, he hoped eventually to over 
come his disease: especially did he look forward to 
the returning spring a.s a time when he should reeovei 
at least a portion of his lost health; but, alas, his 
friend* too plainly saw, by the progress of the insid- 
ious destroyer that had fastened itself on hi 
bevond remedial power, that this was but the delusive 
syren voice of hope. Mr. Greenlee, although but a 
\ ning man. has always since bis c lining to this place 
hel i an enviable ;> isition among our most promii 
citizens. He wa9 noted for his public spirit, bis 


/ - 











liberality and his unflinching devotion to those princi- 
ples which be deemed promotive of the public good. 
He was also distinguished for the exactitude of his 
business habits, and above all f'> r the probity of his 
character; it has been the fortune of but few ninn. to 
have their word, in matters of business, more implicit- 
ly confided in than was his. Mr. Greenlee was a 
self- made man: he had neither the advantages of a 
goixl education, nor pecuniary means to start himself 
in the world. By improving the leisure moments 
afforded him in hi- daily avocations in studying the 
law, he attained to a reputable standing in the legal 
profession. By economy, industry and application to 
business, he acquired a competence for his family. 
By bis public and private virtues lie obtained esteem 
and consideration among his fellow-men. The ab- 
sence of his example and influence is truly a public 
loss to this community. During hi.- residence 
among us, he was frequently commissioned with 
important public trusts, by both State and local 
authority, which he invariably executed in the most 
satisfactory manner. But in private life, that 
little world where the heart reigns supreme, hi.- 
many virtues proved the goodness of his nature. 
They who knew him best loved him most. Warm- 
hearted, affectionate, generous and hospitable, his 
intimate friends will cherish his memory among the 
most sacred recollections of the past." 

At. a meeting of the members of the bar of De- 
fiance County, held on the evening of February 2-1. 
1852, pursuant tc public notice, at the office* of Davi- 
son & Welles. Hamilton Davison. Esq.. was appointed 
Chairman, and Woolsey Welles, Esq., Secretary. 
Whereupon it was 

Rctolrrd, That a committee be appointed by the 
Chairman to prepare and report resolutions in refer- 
ence to the recent decease of Samuel H. Greenlee, 
Esq. , a member of the profession, late of Defiance. 

The Chairman thereupon appointed William 
Sheffield an 1 William Carter. Esqs., upon said com- 
mittee, who reported the following preamble and re- 

Whereas. It has pleased the Almighty disposer of 
human events to remove, by death, from our midst, 
and from scenes of activity and usefulness, our pro 
fessional brother, Samuel H. Greenlee, Esq., late of 
Defiance, and his brief professional career has been 
marked by fidelity, industry and an upright and hon- 
orable bearing: therefore 

/;. aoleed. That we deeply sympathize with his 
afflicted family and friends in that recent bereave- 
ment which has deprived his . panion of an affec- 
tionate, provident and faithful husband, his children 
of a kind and prudent father, 'his community of an 
en°rgetic, efficient business man. and the members of 

the Defiance bar of an honorable and fair practitioner 
of the- legal profession. 

/.'. ?o/«'i '. That we ten ler to his afflicted family 
and relations our sympathies in this their painful be 
reavement, and in testimony of respect foi our de- 
ceased brother, the members of the bar will ..< rid 
his funeral, and wear the usual badge of mournin ; 
for a period of thirty day-. 

Resoh'pd. That the proceedings of this meeting be 
presented t.> the widow of the deceased, and be pub- 
lished in the newspapers in the town of Defiance 

On motion of William Carter, Esq., said report 
was received and adopted. 

H. Davison, Chairman. 
Woolsey Welles. Secretary. 


died at Defiance. December 28, 1880, in the prime of 
manhood; one of the leading attorneys of Defiance, 
a citizen whom everybody respected, and whose death 
all mourn. In early life. Mr. Myers learned prii t- 
ing. under Judge Greene, in the Democrat office At 
the breaking-out of the rebellion. lie enlisted in tit 1 ' 
Sixty-eighth Regiment Oh : o Volunteer lufantry. and 
served his country faithfully. At the close of the war, 
he returned to Defiance, studied law. and for many 
years was partner of Hon. W D. Hill. His ! >gal at- 
tainments were of a hi gb order.and as .such were rec- 
ognized in all the courts of this section. Dropping 
off in the height of his usefulness, bis death was a 
*oss to tbc community. iu.r. elvers r&cimeci ii-tta. 
eldest daughter of H. S. Hunter, of Defiance. May I, 
1875; to them was born one daughter. Carrie Ger- 

The following are the resolutions of the Defiance 

County Bar, on the occasion of Mr. Myers" decease: 

Weeaeas, Gilbert L. Myers, who for many years 

was an honored member of this bar. having departed 

this life since the last term of this court, and we. as 

I members of the same profession, desiring to express 

i our high regard for the memory of the deceased, do 
Resolve, That in the death of Bro. Gilbert L. 
Myers, our profession has lost one of its most indus- 
trious, honest and useful members. Being an inde- 
fatigable worker and thorough and careful student, 
and fearless in the discharge of his professional duty, 
,ve have long since learned to admire him for his 

< profession rA worth, and shall ever love to remember 
him for his good qualities and gentlemanly deport- 

' ment in the practice of his profession, and. while re- 
gretting, jour own greaf loss, we are not forgetful of 

i the afflicted family of the deceased, each of whom wo 
beg to assure ha\o our beartfelt sympathy in th ■ loss 

| of a dear c >mp mion and father. 

Resolved, That it is the wish of this bar thai the 



foregoing resolutions be spread upon the records of 
this court. 


" Hod. Erastus II. Leland, a prominent and lead- 
ing law} prof Northwestern » mio, died at his n sidenee, 
in Defiance, March i'_\ 1S03, of consumption, aged 
abo; t forty-eight years. The deceased was a native 
of Vermont, read law in Ashtabula County, Ohio. 
and immigrated to Williams County about the year 
1841, whore he continued to reside until 1849, at 
which time he remove! to Defiance. He represented 
the Defiance District in the Legislature during the 
session of 1854, of which body he was a leading and 
prominent member. Ho was an able and accom- 
plished lawyer, standing second to no member >>f the 
profession in the Maumee Valley, ^\"h^•ll the Thirty- 
eight Regiment was organized, in the fall of 18(51, 
he was appointed Adjutant, and remained with the 
regiment through its Kentucky campaign, and until 
his failing health compelled him to retire from the 
service. " — Northwestern. 

(From the Defiance Democrat 

Died, on Friday last (September 22, 1865), in this 
place. Samuel A- Strong, aged thirty-five years. Maj. 
Strong was a native of Vermont, and he resided in 
Defiance about fourteen years, and possessed the con- 
fidence and esteem of the citizens generally. Maj. S. 
was a Captain in the Twenty-first Regiment Ohio 
Volunteer Infantrv in the three months' service, and. 
on the re-organization of the regiment for three years, 
was appointed its Major, which he was furred tore- 
sign on account of ill health, after something over a 
year's service. Mr. Strong married Emma G., only 
daughter of Hamilton Davison, of this place, by 
whom he had a family of rive children, three boys and 
two girls. vi z . ; Charles H.. William H. Frances. 
Edward A. and Marion. Charles H. graduated at 
Wooster University. Ohio, in June. 1879, and died at 
Defiance April 0. 1880, aged twenty-two years. 

At a meeting of the Defiance County bar. held in 
the court house September '-!•'>. 1805, Horace Sessions 
was chosen Chairman anil S. T. Sutpheu Secretary. 
William Carter and J. Y. Deatrick were- appointed a 
committee to draft resolutions expressive of the senti- 
ments of the bar on the much-regretted death of 
Brother Strong. Said committee reported the follow- 
ing preamble and resolutions, which, on tnotioQ, were 

Whereas, By a dispensation of an All-wise Provi- 
dence, our late associate and brother. Samuel A. 
Strong, has l>een removed from oiu midst bj death, 
and the bar of Defiance County, as expressive of their 
great loss they have sustained, do 

Resolre, That in the death of Samuel A Strong 
he bar of Del inco Countj has lost one of its abl -t, 
useful anl worthy members, and this communit) 
of its most energetic and enterprising citizens 

Resolved. Thai we sincerely depl >ro the luss of 
our departed brother and associate, and shall re 
hismemon asono whose professional life was without 
a blemish and worthy of imitation; 

Resolved, That our heartfelt sympathies are h •;-, 
by extended to the family id the deceased. 

/.' solved, That the members of the bar attend his 
funeral in a body. 

Resolved. That these resolutions be published in 
the Defiance Democrat and Paulding Press, and copies 
of the same be presented to the family of the de- 
ceased. Also, on motion, it was 

Resolved, That a copv of these resolutions be pre- 
sented to the Court of Common Pleas of Defiance 
County, at the nest term thereof with a request that 
they be copied into the record of said court. 

Horace Sessions. Chairman. 

R. T. SrTFHEX, Secretary. 


In presenting a sketch of the life and character of 
Thomas Cowen t" the readers of the history of Defi 
ance County, we cannot do better than to introduce 
the subjoined obituan notice, published at the time 
of his death in the Bryan newspaper: 

Thomas T. Cowen was born in the city of Dublin, 
Ireland. February 10. 1886. l!is father Benjamin 
Cowen. was an Irish gentleman, noted for hi^ cuiti 
vated manners and superior business capacity. He 
was Clerk of the Royal Canal C unpany for a period 
of tweniv-tive years, during which time it is said that 
no blot, erasure or stain marred the records intrusted 
to him. While in the canal company's service, the 
elder Cowen acquired a competency, amounting to 
several thousand dollars, ■•• part of which he proposed 
to set aside for the benefit of his children Thorn ts, 
his eldest son. was the especial object of his regard, 
an, 1 he spared neither pains nor expense in giving 
him the rudiments of a first-class education. Thomas 
manifested a treat fondness for bo..ks. and at an un- 
usually early age he was wont to learn and declaim 
the speeoh'-s and arguments ■ f learned statesmen and 
lawyers. In l s 44. when Thomas was eight years of 
age. his father's health failed him..-., that he was un- 
able to do any k^id of business. The care of the 
family and business n anagernenl of '):.- estate ■!'• 
volved tvpoD Mrs. Cowen, who did the best that e)w 
could-, but being a lady of retiring habits and u: ...•- 
customed to the ways of business, the means ac- 
quired gradually dwindled until 184S, when »b< 
deemed it expedient to emigrate to America, hoping 



that a change would bem lit her husband's health, and 
enable her to obtain a home aud bring up her chil- 
dren in comparative comfort. Thoy ani\ d at Net\ 
York in August, 1848, and immediately came to Deti 
once, where thoy halted for a few week-, and moved 
thence to Butler. Ind., whe e Benjamin Cowendied in 
September, 1849. The mother, never a strong 
woman, broke down under the accumulated weight of 
affliction and sorrow, and Thomas became the main 
stay and Bupport of the family. Ir is related by those 
who knew the family, that Thomas, at that time but 
thirteen years of age. was manly beyond his years. 
industrious and frugal; that he labored diligently 
ami faithfully to support his widowed mother and six 
orphan sisters. About 1851, Thomas removed the 
family to Defiance, and did such labor as a boy could 
rind to do. He was for a time in the employ of the 
Wabash Railroad Company, and assisted in the pre- 
liminary surveys of that road. About IS55-56, he 
went into the law office of Phelps >v Leland. first as a 
clerk and afterward as a student. He soon attracted 
the attention of prominent members of the bar by his 
close application to study, his admirably drawn legal 
papers and his rare business capacity. When ad- 
mitted to the bar, brilliant success was predicted for 
him. but the war breaking out soon thereafter. 
changed, for a time, his plans and purposes. He was 
an earnest advocate of coercion, and in furtherance of 
his opinions offered his services in behalt of his coun- 
try. On the 4th of October. 1861, he was appointed 
Second Lieutenant, was soon after as ■_-:, .'. to the 
Sixty-eighth Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and, 
on the 21st of December following, went into camp 
at Napoleon. In January, 1862, the regiment moved 
to Camp Chase, and soon afterward to Fort Donel 
son. where itarrived in time to participate in the capt- 
ure of that stronghold. It is unnecessary to follow 
the regiment in all its marches, skirmishes, battles 
and sieges during the war: suffice to say that its his 
tory is part of the history of the war, and its battle 
flatus are inscribed with the evidences of the prominent 
part it bore in the conflict. Soon after the capture of 
Donelson, Lieut.. Cowen was promoted to First 
Lieutenant, and his superior qualifications and gen- 
eral deportment commending themselves to his supe- 
rior officers, he was appointed Adjutant of the regi- 
ment, and afterward Adjutant General of Brigade, 
which position he held until some time after reaching 
Chattanooga, when, declining further promotion, lie 
was mustered out of service. The trite saying that a 
good citizen always makes a good soldier was Eally 
exaiuplitied in the case of Lieut. Cowen. His com- 
rades bear willing testimony to his valor, "and his offi- 
cial reports were regarded as models of promptness 
and efficiency. Soon after his return to Defiance, he 

formed a partnership with Maj. Strong, and resnmod 
his profession. The partnership was c mtinned until 
the death of Mr. Stro;:^. when Mi'. Cowen became 
partner of Hon \V. D. Hill, with whom ho remaiu»>d 
several years. Many important cases were intrusted 
to their management, and the law firm of Hill & 
Cowen acquired a name in the district, to which we 
may say without disparagement to Mr. Hill, the jun- 
ior member contributed no small share. During hif 
residence in Defiance, Mr. Cowen was elected Mayor 
of the village, an office he filled to his own hon >r Mid 
the satisfaction of his friends. In 1S66, March - hi 
married. Miss Georgiana Richards, of Defianci ; : 
them were born threp children on,, daughter. Man 
A., and two .-on-. Benjamin < >. and William R. 
Mrs. Cowen was born in Xenia. Ohio, Febmari S, 
1S3T : move.! to Defiance with her parents in Nove a 
ber. 1846. In 1870,Mr. Cowen came to Bryan, and 
became the law partner of Hon. A M. Pratt. It was 
a new era for him it brought him into closer contact 
with abler legal minds than he had before contended 
with: the field was worthy his labor:he applied him 
self with renewed energy, an ' ■ ipi lly won his way to 
the front, and took rank with the leadiug lawyers at 
the Williams County bar. He was on thi high road 
to prosperity and renown when death claimed him. 
Never, perhaps, in its history, has 'hi- ■ n unity 
been so profoundly shocked as it was ,>. last Sabbath 
(January 10. 1873), by th -1 sudden and wholly unex 
pected death of Mr. Thomas T. Cowen. For two 
years and more Mr. Cowen had lived and moved 
among us, the irery picture >r h alth, and with every 
prospect, to all human appearance, of a long life. L*p 
to the very momentof his death he had appeared well 
and hearty, and >vhen it was announced that he had 
fallen before the great destroyer, death, without a 
moment's warning, the announcement fell upon the 
community like a clap of thunder from a cloudless 
sky. The circumstances attending his death are as 
follows: He arose Sabbath morning, apparently as 
well as usual, except that he complained of a pain in 
his head. About 10 o'clock he started down street, 
saying to his wife that he would not go to church, 
but would go down to his office and write a letter to 
hin sister in Kansas. Mrs. Cowen proceeded to 
church and, after service, started home. Passing by 
Mr. Cowen' s office, she stepped in, when there sat her 
husband in his chair- dead. His head was thrown 
back and it was evident, from the fact that the ink 
was not yet dry in the pen with which he h id ' e< d 
writing, that he had been dead but a few momi nts 
Terribly shocked, Mrs Cowen sprang to the door ind 
called for assistance whon persons who ivere passing 
by from church rushed in. Medical aid wa- at onci 
summoned, but it was too late, i Che im o ' 



cause of the death of Mr. Cowen was undoubtedly 
due to heart disease. — Ed.] Tie- news of the death 
soon drew a crowd about the office, and as one after 
anotbi-i' passed into gaze at the inanimate form so 
suddenly and unexpectedly stricken down, strong men 
wpre Knved with grief, eyes unused to weep were 
suffused with tears, and one and all stood almost 
speechless, feeling that they were in the presence of 
death and realizing h w impotent is man when the 
hand of the destroyer is upon him. As soon as possi- 
ble the body was removed to the house ><( the family. 
where it was dressed For the grave. During the after- 
noon and evening, many of our leading citizens called 
to "tier their assistance, to speak a word of comfort to 
the bereaved ones, or to shed, with the almost dis- 
tracted widow, the sympathizing tear. The personal 
character of Mr. Cowen was endowed with all those 
high qualities that contribute to the formation of an 
almost perfect man. Invariably courteous, alike to 
friends, acquaintances and strangers, at all times 
manifesting a respect for their opinions, yet not. for- 
getting to exact what was due to himself: a been per- 
ception of the right, and a strong, unyielding devo- 
tion to principle: a courage unquestioned, hut con- 
trolled by temper, kind and respectful to others, and 
honor intact, he wmi troops' of friends and admirers 
from all ranks and conditions of people, and became 
one of the recognized leading spirits in community, 
county and district. In early life. Mr. Cowen was a 
Fippublican, and voted for Abraham Lincoln in 1860; 
"out soon after entering the military service, his polit- 
ical opinions underwent a change, and he became a 
Democrat, of the conservative school. He recognized 
party only as far as its aims tended to serve the great- 
est good to the greatest number. Personally, he had 
no ambition for political distinction. He sought to 
aid rather than direct in the counsels of his political 
friends, and his advice was always well received, be- 
cause he seldom yielded to the impulse of the moment. 
but made his tongue wait upon his judgment, which 
was always marked with strong, practical good sense. 
Once, since he came among us, he yielded to earnest 
solicitation, and stood for the office of Village Solicit- 
or. His election, in a precinct quite evenly divided, 
is a fair criterion of the estimation in which he was 
held by his fellow-citizens. Last season he was re- 
peatedly solicited to allow his name to be used in con- 
nection with the office of Judge of Common Pleas, 
but he invariably declined, alleging, as a reason for 
his declination, that he was ton young and inexperi 
eneed to occupy a positionso honorable and responsi 
ble. Tn'the more intimate and tender relations which 
bound him to kindred and family, he was all that 
friendship could claim or affection enjoin — an affec- 
tionate son, a kind brother, a most devoted husband 

and indulgi at father; his every effort was devoted in 
their comfort and welfare. Indeed, 

'* His life was -' m:!<\ "','1 t!i< i leu 

So mixed in him, tli n nature misrhi stand up 
Am: say to all tie world, ' This was ;i man.' 

The following resolutions were passed by the 
Bryan and Defiance Bar at Bryan. Ohio, January 21, 
1873, on the death of Thomas T. Cowen: 

The Willams and Defiance County Bar met at the 
court house, pursuant to call, and organized by ftp- 
pointing the Hon. S E. Blakeslee, Chairman, an 1 L 
E. Brewster, Esq., Secretary. 

On motion. Mr. Selwin, X. Owen nnd John A. 
Pinion, of Williams, and William D. Hill, of Defiance 
County, were appointed a Committee '>n resolutions. 
The committee reported the following preamble and 
resolutions, which, on motion, were adopted, towit: 

Whereas, By the decree of a mysterious Provi- 
dence, death, without a note of warning or premoni- 
tion, has come into our midst and taken from us our 
honored brother and professional associate. Th •:■■ aa 
T. Cowen, in the very bloom of his manh lod and 
usefulness, and 

Whereas, It is due to his memory that we give 
some expression to our appreciation of his worth, 
and our keen sense of our Loss, therefore be it 

Besoh-ed, li\ this meeting of his late professional 
associates, that words are too weak to bear to tne 
world an adequate expression of the deep sense of 
sadness at our Loss, the warm personal affection tor 
our dead brother, the many tender recollections of 
his busy and useful life and the profound and sad 
solicitude for his strickec family, which rill oirr 
hearts at this moment and -pem struggling for utter- 
ance, but nevertheless, as an inadequate ^xpiv-sionof 
our feelings on 'his occasion, be it further 

Resolved, That in the death of Thomas T. Cowen 
the legal profession has iost an able, honored and dis- 
tinguished member, as well h< an eminently genial 
and social companion; society an exemplary citizen. 
and an upright man; the cause of justice a fearless 
champion: his bereaved family a faithful and an affec 
tionate husband and father, and humanity a steadfast 
friend, and that we regard in- startling event as not 
only a sad personal bereavement but a serious public 

Besolced, That to his family we tender the pro- 
found sympathy and solicitude of those who knew 
him better —and hence esteemed him higher— than 
all others save those to whose hearts he was endeared 
by the nearer ties of wife and kindred, and by He— • 
- Lemn presents we say to them that, should they ever 
be in need of earthly friends, they shall come to lis. 
and it shall never be in vain. 

Besolced, That we do, by these presents, assm 



his more immediate professional associate and late 
partner in business, Brother A. II. Pratt, that we are 
deeply sensible of Lis irreparable loss, in being thus 
bereft of tLe valuable aid and c (-operation of an hon- 
es! and eminently caj able business associate, as well 
as the society of a genial and gifted friend, whose 
confidence was ever the safe repository of the most 
sacred and secret trusts. 

Resolved. That the Secretary of this meeting be 
and he is hereby instructed to furnish a copy of these 
resolutions respectively to the widow of thedeceased; 
to his late partner in business, to each newspaper 
published in this subjudicial district, and that such 
further appropriate action be taken as may be neces- 
sary to spread these resolutions upon the respective 
journals of the several courts in this sub-judicial dis- 

On motion of W. D. Hill, the meeting adjourned. 
S. E. Blakeslf.e, Chairman. 
L. E. Brewster. Secretary. 

(From the Defiance D^njcrat.* 

The death of this gentleman occurred at Bryan, 
on Sunday, January 19, 1873. The supposed cause, 
heart disease. He. was found lead, sitting in a chair 
in his office about noon, having left home in his ap- 
parent usual health but two hours before. The new- 
cast a gloom over our community, where Mr. Cowen 
has been a resident for many years. He leaves a wife 
and three children, and his loss will be sincerely 
mourned. A rising lawyer, he baile fair to take :-. front 
rank in his profession. He had resided at Bryan but 
about three years, where he was a partner in the law 
firm of Pratt & Cowen. His funeral took place on 
Tuesday, and was largely attended, over two hundred 
of his Masonic brethren and nearly all of the attor- 
neys of Williams and Defiance Counties being pres- i 


Hamilton Davison was born in the town of Hart- 
wick. Otsego Co., X Y., on the 5th of .March. 1806. 
His ancestors were of English descent, and imrai 
grated at an early date to America, settling in the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts. His parent- were 
married ia Monson, Mas-... in 17"-'.'. and soon after 
moved to Otsego County, N. Y. . and cleared up a 
farm on land purchased of Judge Cooper, the father 
of Fenrnmore Cooper, tue novelist, on the head-waters , 
of the Susquehanna River, near to Cooperstown, the 
county seat of said County of Otsego, where they 
lived until the times of their death. His mother dy- 
ing when he was eleven rears old, his father, a few- 
years after, married Matilda Spalding, whose first 
husband was the Rev. Mr. Spalding, the reputed 

author of the Mormon Bible. Ho was the yonn ;o I 
of a family of eight children a id I rought i i 
farm, employed at manual labor till the •._-•• of sir- 
teen, when he became a Btudent in the Hartwick 
Academy, a Lutheran i in erected in l v;, i, ad 

joining his father's farm, and placed imdei 
charge of the Rev. Ernest Lewis Hazslins. a Prussian 
bv birth and a very able and accomplished scholar am i 
teacher, and who afterward became one of the Profess- 
ors in the Lutheran University at Gettysburg. Penn. 
After his preparatory studies in the aforesaid academy, 

the subject of this sketch entered the sophom class 

in Hamilton College, X. Y.. where he graduated in 
1820. Immediately after his graduation, he wei I ; 
New Jersey, and became tutor in the family of a Mr. 
Taylor, a prominent citizen and^slave-holder in sai I 
State, where he became acquainted with the work- 
ings of the system of shivery, but in the mildest and 
most beui^naut form, for a kinder master and a more 
happy, contented and jovial set of domestics and 
work hands were surely not found elsewhere. In the 
summer of 1828, having caught the Western fever, 
then prevalent in the Eastern States, he emigrated : 
Ohio in company with the family of one Maj. Hunt, 
and located in the town of Crbana. CI pi gn 
County, where he taught school, studied law w,rh 
John H. James, who is still living: was admitted r - 
the practice under the jurisdiction of the venen bl ■ 
Reuben Wood. Married, rnly 1. 1830, Miss Louisiana 
Gibler, two years his junior, and with whom he is 
now living. Five children have been born to them, 
\\/..: Frances M., born June V. 1 85 1, and who died 
when nearly sixteen years old: Emma G. . born Feb 

ruary 1-1, 1833, and now living in Delia the 

widow of Samuel A. Strong, deceased. William Li., 
born July 13, IS36, and died at the age of five (,■ '- 
John H.. bora August o. 1842. and Lewellyn O. bom 
November 13. lS-t-4. and both now liviDgand engi 
in business together in Defiance. In the fall of i- 
he moved to Lima, Allen Co, Ohio, then a hew town, 
but recently laid out in the dense forest. Here the drst 
thiut: to do was to buy a lot for about §10 and build 
a beech-log cabin, which he did to be iu unisoc wicb 
the other twelve or fourteen citizens of the place, 
there being but one small frame buildingthen on the 
town plat. In this then sylvan village, and long be- 
fore it could be said 

" 111 fares the laud, to hastening ills a pre}'. 
Where wealth tt< cumulates and men decay.' 

hi spent the happiest years of his life — all friendly, 
all sociable and on a common level: all anxior,- 
enj ly life and to see others enjoy it. Here he 
mi need the practice of his profession, and soon found 
enough to do, if not in the office in out door exerc - h 



in leveling the tall trees surrounding Lis c ibin. Ap- 
pointed Prosecuting A I >ri soon after his arrival, 
ho belli the office for several years, adding much to 
the then slim business of the courts The signing 
commissions for Notaries Pul lie was not then one of 
the chief duties of the Governor i>f Ohio. as Gov. 
Corwin said it was in his time, as the subject of thi 
sketch was. for about three years in Urbana and for a 
longer period in Liu-' the only official of that char- 
acter in the place. I': < letobi r. ! v :l-*. he was elected 
by the people Surveyor of Allen County, which office 
he held for the tenu of three years. In .January. 
1839, he received, from the Hon. Wilson Shannon; 
then Governor of Ohio, a commission as Captain of the 
First Artillery Company .of the Fi i -' 1 legiment, Second 
Brigade, of the Twelfth Division in the militia of the 
State, a newly organized company, of which he was 
chosen Captain. The only exploit performed during 
it- term of service, worthy of note, was the procur- 
ing from the officials of Columbus, a nine-pounder 
iron cannon, which in a short time became, as 
all such implements of war usually do in small 
villages,* both an annoyance and a nuisance. But 
this one. fortunately, soon after "1 listed,'" without in- 
jury to any one. and with it the said Artillery Com- 
pany, as well as the military aspirations f the Cap- 
tain. During the exciting campaign of l s 44. a 
political paper, called the Lima Reporter, was -railed 
in Lima, to advance the cause of the great commoner 
and statesman. Henry Clay, and Mr. Davison war 
selected as editor, the duties ol which position so 
agreeable to his feelings, he discharged with all the 
energy and ability of which he was capable. He con- 
tinued as editor for about two years, and left the 
paper in a flourishing condition. In 1S43, he was 
chosen by the Northwestern Congressional Dis- 
trict of Ohio a Delegate to the Philadelphia 
National Convention, in which Gen. Zachary Taylor 
was nominated as the Whig candidate for the Presi- 
dency. In 1 84?. he was chosen by the Legislature 
of Ohio Receiver of Public Moneys in the State Land 
Office, then hehl at Lima, with Julius C. Curtis as 
Register. He was re-elected in I s I s and again in 
1851. In the winter of 1849. the Legislature or- 
dered the Stat" Laud Office to be removed to Defi- 
ance, Defiance County, the Cnited Sf ites Laud Ofi 
formerly at Lima having been recently moved to that 
place, and the greater body of the lands owned by the 
State and yet vacant being in that county. Conse- 
quently, in obedience to the order of the Legislature, 
the Receiver moved, in April. I s *}'. 1 . the Lima State 
Office to Defiance, as well as lb the Id at 

Perrysburg, as the Legislature hail directed the two 
offices to Iw united, the lands in the Perrysburg Dis- 
trict having been nearly all sold. As Mr.Cnrti" ft, e 

Register, did not move his family to Defiance a; 
Receiver did, consequently the latter had the whole 
duties of tli, office ! > attend to, the former oulj • w 
iuu' at the end of each quarter i i assist in making and 

ifyiug the official returns to Columbus. Ail the 
land.- bel >nging to the State, in former years, had i een 
appraised at prices varyingfrom sl.'.'o to §3 per acre, 
and. as the sales Were rather dull at these price.-, the 
Legislature, a short time before the offices were re 

red to Defiance, at the suggestion of the officers in 
the same, reduced, very wisely, the price of all 
State lands 33 per cent fco actual settlers, in quantity 
not to exceed 100 acres to each purchaser, which 
Drought the price down, especially the $1.25 I 
within the reach of almost any one having ambit • 
and energy enough to gel any land at all. C. se 
quently, the sales of the State lauds, for a couple of 
years after the office was removed to Defiance were 
very rapid, and the northwestern portion of Ohio, 
especially the county of Defi mce, >wes its present pros 
perous condition, in a great me sure, to the happ.i r >- 
ductionby the State in the ! hei lands. The 

United States and State Land Offices wore held in the 

e building, that t] I on the "round - 

the Maiunee bridge, where '/barley Krotz' busiin — ! 
block now stands. Before daylight on the morui / 
of the 10th of April. 1851, while the Register of the 
United States Office, Abner Root, who nsnallj 
in the office, was away, the building was mysteri >ns 
ly fired and entirely consumed with uearh ail it- cou 
tents. The Receiver oi the State Osiiee saved in- 
different plats of the vacant land in the district 
which he was enabled to continue I he sale ol 
same, but every plat, book and paper belonging to the 
United States Office were consumed, conr-equei l\ .- 
.pending sales in that office until the Register •• 
on to Washington and procured a list of the vacant 
land, and afterward made sales from that lis! In 
■(52, the Legislature abolished the offices of Register 
and Receiver of the State ' Iffice, after the groat bulk 

of the State lands had i n -.1. and directed the 

office to be in charge of a " Laud Agent." Ueu. 
U. uben H. Gilson was appointed such and in 

the course of a couple of years di>| ed of 

thai were still vacant, when, in I s "'!. Levin Purler 
was elected said agent, and in l"v">i, after all bad 
been sold all the books, papers, etc., belonging to 
said office were returned to the office of Uiu Si ■■ 
Auditor at Columbus. * »hio. The Cnited States I 
was also removed, a few years afti rthe fire, t" • 
cothe. Ohio. The subject o£ this sketch. Mr. H 
Davison, did a seek to renew the pracl 
after he cam,' t ■ Defiance, uor did ho become • ■<■._ 
in any steady business Being the owner of a > ■ < 
able stone quarry, near Charloe, in Paulding >' 



he, in connection with Calvin L. Noble and Samuel 
H. Steadmau, took the contract for building the 
stone-work, piers and abutments of the [bridge orei 
tli. ITaumee River for the Wabash Railway, which 
was completed in 1853 54. He afterward became 
engaged in the lumber business, in consequence of 
the death of his son-in-law, Samuel A. Strong, in 
1865, who had started the planing mill business, and 
in 1866 built the planing miii and s a >h factory now 
owned by Messrs. Strong & Cheney, and for a few 
years carried on the business in connection with his 
sons. John H. and Lewellyn C. Davison, but since he 
has sold the .same, be has lived in blessed retirement 
from the turmoil and trouble of business, and L 
so to live the short remnant of his day?, and then 
die in peace with God and man. 


George W. Killey, son of Daniel H. and M. A. 
(Billings) Killey. was born November 15, 1848, 
near Bellevue, in the county of Huron, State of 
Ohio, and was the eldest of a family of seven 
children <six sons and one daughter), and the 
only one now living of the seven,-.the others having 
died in infancy. His father having served in 
the Mexican war. after the close, of the war lo- 
cated his land warrant of 160 acres of laud in Put 
nam County. Ohio, and shortly after removed with 
his family, consisting of himself, wife and George 
(then an infant i on the saw*'. Here his father re- 
mained with his family for about a year, when he re- 
moved with his family to Defiance, Ohio, then but a 
small place, and soon after his father commenced to 
work in the Defiance Mills. Here George spenf .. - 
youth and commenced his education in the common 
"schools of Defiance. In the year I860, his father re- 
moved to Florida. Ohio, and remained in this place 
for perhaps a year, thence removed to Napoleon, 
Ohio. Here George remained, and went to school 
till the loth day of January. I s 'i4. when he enlisted 
in the Ninth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, and was mus- 
tered in the service at Columbus on the 10th da\ of 
February, 1864, and remained in the service and with 
this regiment until he was discharged on the Liith 
day of July, 1865, at Columbus. Ohio. Thence he 
returned to Henn C iruty, Ohio, and assisted his 
father on a farm till the fall of 1867. In the fall and 
winter of 1866 and spring of 1867, he taught school 
iu the district where he then resided, and then re- 
turned to assist his father on the farm until August. 
lStJS, when lie went to Republic, Seneca Co., Ohi.., 
to attend academy, and remained at the aeademj for 
one year, when he came to D< ian and attended 
school under the instruction of Mr. Wallace, an i in 
the fall and winter of 1869 and spring of 1870 he 

taught 9chool. In the spring of 1870, he entered the 
law office of Messrs. Hill & Myers, attorneys, Deii 
ance, Ohi ■, and commenced the study of law, and 
was admitted I i pr; rice aa an attorney and cou 
or a: ! w ou the 18th day of July. 1872. On the 1th 
day of August. 1871, he was married to Maim. 
Greenlee, daughtei of the late Samuel Greenlee, Esq 
She was born on the I5ih day of November, I s !'.", at 
Defiance, and was raised in D. ■fiance, Ohio. He then 
removed, with her to Kansas, on the 6th day of No- 
vember, 1&72. and had by her one child. Daniel H., 
born June, 1873 He resided in Kansas until the 
20th day of August, 1874 when, his wife's health 
failing, he returned with her and child to Defiance. 
In September of this year his child died, and in April 
of the nest year his wife died. In this year, hi i 
cated himself at Defiance and commenced the practice 
of law. In the year l>7'i. he was married r i Abbie 
F. Mason, daughter of L. and E. Mason, who came 
from Vermont State a number of years ago. She was 
born in Eaton Township, Lorain Co., Ohio, on bin 
.•1st day of April, 1854. He has by her three chil- 
dren - .1 lighter, to wit, George H. 
Killey. born December 27, 1876; Edgar V. Killey, 
born April 24. 137'.', and Mattie E. Killey. born 
April 20, 18S1. George isnow a practicing attorney 
at Defiance. 

■Ton.-; F. deaTKK k, mavok an:; attorney »t l\w. 
was born in the old Arcade Building, Chan hers 
burg, Franklin County. Penn., November 'J'), i.829 
and is a son of J. J. N. and Eli i (Boyen Deat- 

rick, natives of Pennsylvania. I b if whom were 
of Geroaan descent. When four years of age, his 
parents removed to Fredericksburg. Wayne County. 
Ohio, where he grew to maturity, and in the village 
school received a good practical education. la ! v ".'> 
he went alone tn St. Paul. Minn., where he resided 
until 1852, when he returned to Wayne County and 
located in li>53. at Defiance, with the intention of 
establishing a woolen factory. But future prosp el 
noi proving sufficiently end mragiug.he aban lone 1 the 
en; irprise. His qualificati ms , s a scholar • rainentJy 
fitted lmn to reach and during one Aimer he .v.- i 
gaged in that honorable calling, and for the t« i 
eeding years was employed in agricultural pur 
suits. Tiring ol the inconveniences of farming . i 
n< v country, and the mi notony that accompan es a 
rural life in a land yet vested in it- primitive wilder 
nest?, lie move, I into Defiance and entered ."he law 

■ of his wife's brothei - , David Taylor, and began 
the study of the law. Mr. Taylor being his preceptor. 
After completing tic necessary tagai course, ie was 
admitted to the bar in 1856. after successfully pas i 
an examination by a committee of lawyers who 



appointed by the District Court In 1857,he became 
connected with the Phoenix Insurance Company of 
Hartfurd, Conn., as their special ;i^' > iit. ami is yot 
activeh engaged in the business — representing all of 
the best companies and has full control of the busi- 
ness in this city. His superior qualifications iu this 
particular employment, combined with strong nat 
nral forces and great reserve power, have won forhim- 
a deserved popularity. In 1861, bo was appointed 
Deputy United Stat.- Marshal, and as such continued 
until 1880, when he resigned and was elected to the 
mayoralty of Defiance, and was re T elected in. 1882 
Iu 1865, at Cleveland. Ohio, he was admitted to 
practice at the bar of the United States Courts. 
Although he is well [nested iii legal lore, he never en- 
tered fully into the practice. having acquired the knowl- 
edge more particularly for the benefit of his tndivid- 
ual business. His broad range of knowledge, ad- 
mirable tact, liberal and progressive views, have tended 
to keep him in pace with the spirit of the age. He 
has been the nominee of the Republican party for 
Representative and Probate Judge, but at the present 
time Mr. Dea trick affiliates with the Democratic 
party —the party of power in Defiance County. He is 
an acceptable member in the Am ient Order of Ma- 
sonry, holding membership iu Tuendawie Lodge. 
No. 19o. Defiance Commandery, No. 71, and in 
the Consistory, which is inclusive of eighteen de- 
grees in the order. The effort he has made in life 
has been justly rewarded, and although he began his 
career a pur boy. he has laid by a competency, besides 
suffering financial losses aggregating 835,000. He 
was married, December 28, 1853, to Miss Nancy, a 
daughter of the Hon. John Taylor, ex member of the 
Ohio Senate. Eight children have been born to them, 
five of whom are now living, viz. : Frances M. . now 
Mrs. Milton Sumner, of Defiance; Claude T., asso- 
ciated with his father in the. insurance office: Fred 
L., Charles and Ralph M. The deceased were Edith 
May. aged four years; Nettie May. aged eight mouths, 
and Nannie Kate, aged four years. 


The gentleman whose uame introduces this sketch 
was born in Liberty Township. Fairfield Count}. 
Ohio, August 28. 1838. At the age of ten years, he 
removed with his parents on a farm near the village 
of Baltimore, in the above named township, where 
the succeeding ten years were -pent in assisting Li- 
father and brothers in the arduous labor of the farm, 
and their united efforts resulted in producing one of 
the Quest, best titled and mosl profitable farms in 
that legion of country. During fh,- winter mouths 
of the period spoken of above, he regularly attended 
the union schools at Baltimore, and by diligently ap- 

plying his mind, completed the course of study 
afforded and was prepared to enter college. In 
the spring of IS"' 1 .', he entered the Heidelberg 
College, at Tiffin, Ohio, and became a member 
of the Freshman Class. From this institution lie 
graduated in 1862, with the second honors of his 
class, and as a reward for his excellent deport- 
ment and the great proficiency he had mad" in 
his studies, he was awarded the valedictory add:, ss 
at the commencement exercise of the college for that 
year. Immediately thereafter, he commenced 
study of the law with Judge James Pillars, at Tiffin 
and was admitted to the liar of Ohio by tin: District 
Court at Fremont, Ohio. June, 1863, and in the same 
mouth located and entered upon the practice of 
profession at Defiance. In October of the same year, 
he married Miss Sarah, the daughter of David lad 
Sarah Huss. pioneers of Seneca County, Ohio, who 
came from Virginia and located upon the present site 
of the beautiful city of Tiffin, which theu could on b 
boast of two or three log hou-es of the primitive 
kind. Mr. Sutphen first opened an office in 
now the bar room of the Empire House, and bad his 
residence in the same building on the upper fl I 
Persistent and determined were his efforts to acq 
Buccess and standing anioug the attorneys at the bar 
before which he practiced, and it was not long before 
his popularity assumed . prominence that an < 
disciple of Blackstoue might well have envied. In 
L865, he was elected to the mayoralty of Defiance, 
position he held two years, and it. L807 was elected 
Prosecuting Attorney of Befiance County which 
office he held six consecutive years, and dischargi I 
the duties that pertained thereto fearlessly and to the 
entire satisfaction of all, irre-peeti > _ e of party. Dur- 
ing his terms of office, he encountered several impor 
tant cases that involved great interests, aud in i o 

: sequence of which was brought into direct conflict 
with the best legal talent in Northwestern Ohio 

' But. without any assistance whatever. he managed all 
State cases in a manner highly creditable, aud proved 
himself an adversary worthy the mettle or the best a.i 
vocates at the 'oar. Always cautious in his m >ve 
ments, and extremely careful in the preparation of 
hi- cases, he was able generally to bring about results 
favorable to the great tnmonwealth he represented. 
His tact and ability 1 et arm noticeable, and he verj 
soon attained to such a .- anding in his profession th tl 
he had no lack of clients, and for more than twelve 
Tears he has enjoyed an unusually lucrative pracl ce, 
and during the tiua- there has scarcely been an im- 
portant case tuied in the county that he has not b.-^.'L 
an jaged in. And as a result of this uniformly good 
practice, be possesses tangible proof of having a< a 
mulated a handsome competency, likewise evidencing 






- •-. . ........ ■, $&%^t^f*$m&&& &£££&& 

Village Res. of R. F. Kerr, u'Gksville. Defiance Co. Ohio. 



- ' 

■ - J 




-2-.., *i*^F 

• . r e 

•- - & J* •.-••■ 


■ ^ . ■ . - '. ^ 

■> ■ 




:. f ! — 


^2i-r^^~ : 

i/ntArtf Ri . o r J. M. ^Nriwo^iri frc »!»i. Derange Co. Ortio 



the t'\ct lb: t he has been no drone in the bee-hr/e of 
industry. In 1879, he erected a commodious brick 
residence, in whieh he now resides, on the corner of 
Jefferson anil First streets, and it is said to be the 
finest, most elegantly furnished and conveniently ar- 
ranged residence in the county. It is located on one 
of the most beautiful sites in tbe city, and commands 
an unobstructed view of the Auglaize and Maumee 
Rivers. Old Fort Defiance, and other more oi less pic- 
turesque scenery. Ti_i Mr. and Mrs Sntphen have been 
born four children, viz. : Mary, who died in infancy. 
Minnie G., born June 30, 1872; Richard H.. born 
August. 1875; Robert, burn September 9, i VS|1 
The latter was a bright and promising littl» fellow, 
who died in 1881. Col. R. D. Sutphen, father 
of our subject, was born in New Jersey and settled 
in Fairfield County. Ohio, in an early day. He 
held several important offices of trust and confi- 
dence, and in the palmy days of the Ohio militia was 
Colonel of one t.>f the finest and. best disciplined reg- 
iments in the State. In person he was tall and erect, 
of dignified and commanding appearance, tirm and res- 
olute, yet perfectly courteous to all; he won the esteem 
and confidence of his superiors in rank, and the re- 
spect and obedience of his subordinates. Col. Sut- 
phen was married to Sarah Zerkle. a daughter of 
David Zerkle. one of the pioneers of Fairfield County, 
Ohio, by whom he had seven children, viz. : Cathe- 
rine C, who married the late Henry Houk, of Carey. 
Ohio; Mary Jane, who married Noah Blosser, pf 
Licking County, Ohio, she died in l v 02; James Z. 
and Edward G. , successful merchants at Carey. Ohio; 
Charles M. , an ad\ocate at the Van 'Wert bar. and 
David C. a merchant at Pleasantville, Fail-field 
County, Ohio. 


was born in Troy, N. Y.. June 28, 1831, and im- 
migrated to Ohio with his parents. William ar_d 
Mary Hardy, when about eleven years of age. This 
removal interfered with his course of study and de- 
prived him nf the opportunity of enjoying the advan 
tages of the higher branches of an English education. 
His parents settled in Oxford Township. Tuscarawas 
County, where he completed hi- course of study in 
the common schools of that district. At the age of 
seventeen years, he became an apprentice to his 
brother, who was carrying on at the time a tailoring 
establishment. He completed his trade in eighteen 
months, and with a new ambition awakened in his 
breast, he went to Defiance County and settled on a 
farm in Delaware Town-trip. Here he was married, 
A. D. 1853, to Mi-. Man A. Platter, daughter of 
George and Elizabeth Flatter, of Paulding County, 
Ohio. To them was born one son. George P., who 
now is married and resides in the village of Pauld- 

ing. Mrs. Hardy died in May. 18oo. For his 
ond wife Mr. Hard} married Miss >th Hamil- 

ton, in 1838, a daughter of Gavin \V. Hamilton, of 
Orangeville, De Kalb County, Ind.. a lineal d i I 
ant of Gavin Han ken of by the poet i' 

in his "Holy Willie's Prayei\" Of this union two 
children have been born to them, John. who is a toleg 
rapher, and resides in Idaho Territory: Mary, i- a 
teacher in the Union School of Defiance City, resiii i » 
with her father. No. 28 Wayne street, the old court 
house in which Chief Justice M. R. Wait dclivi-red 
his first legal speech. In October, 1857. Mr. H 
was elected Recorder of the eounly and served I 
terms, six years, and during this time he was made 
Mayor of this town and studied law, and was admit- 
ted to the bar in 1860. In October. ] v 'i::, he 
elected Prosecuting Attorney of the county and 
served two terms (four yeai - 1 In 1873, he was elected 
a member of the House of Representatives of the 
Sixty-first General Assembly, and in 1877 he was re 
turned to the same body. He is now, 1882, dev 
his whole time to hi> profession; office :t V 
Block. Defiance, Ohio. 


was burn at Columbus, Chenango County. N. Y.. 
December 15, 1812. He was one of six children. 
In the year 1818, the family moved to the township 
of Florence, in Erie County, Ohio, where they set- 
tled upon a new farm, two miles from Birmiugh 
Here he followed the usual life of a farmer's 
and probably acquired that love of nature winch in 
later years ied him to seek rel ef from the cares and 
perplexities of professional life in the supervision of 
his farm near Defiance. He devoted his spare time 
to books, and obtained much knowledge of histori 
and the classic-. Si i >n after reaching majority, he left 
the paternal home to seek his fort;'..;. injong his 
early ventures was that of shipping lumber to Perrys- 
burg. the head of navigation for sailing vessels on 
the Maumee. Several loads of lumber were lispo I 
of there; and it was upon one of these trips, in the 
vear hoi. that he was induced to visit Fort Defiance. 
Being pleased with the place, he determined to locate 
there, and. did so the following year. Soon i ft >r I - 
arrival, he invested in a toll bridge across '! 
River, at Brunersburg. About that time he engi 
in keeping a country store at the -ame place. Tl e 
store was not remunerative and the bridge was car- 
ried away by a freshet. These were severe blows, 
and Mr. Carter gathered i gether the remnants of 
his property, left Brunersburg for Defiance, where he 
has since resided. Here he was at . iil lu •'■■ 

until being elected C instable, in 1S39, he determi d 
to study law, and commenced a course ofjreadinj . 



himself, and later entered the office of Curtis Bates, sider a proposition. He had a varied and lucrative 

then practicing law in Defiance. As ;i student he business, extending over Northwestern ()hii>, until 

was more than ordinarily iudustrious. It was a res- 1868, when lie was elected to the Ohio Senate, and 

olution firmly adhered to through his business life, withdrew from active practice; though he was 

to learn each day some maxim of law, and as a con- siorially consulted and uuga important cawa 

sequence, he became well grounded in the principles j miti! within a few months of his death, which occurred 

of law. On July 19, 18-41, he was admitted to the bar January '".K 1S81. With a thorough knowledge 

at Napoleon. Ohio, and at once entered practice at 
Defiance. On October i i. 1S55, he was licene<*d I ■ 
practice in the Federal C rurt at Cincinnati. Among 
his first cases, was oue iu behalf of some contractors 
on the canal, against the late Pierce Evans. It wis 
a ease which excite,! much public interest, and being 
prosecuted to a successful termination by -Mr. Curler, 
gave him a wide notoriety as a careful and discriminat- 

of law, he united a strong sense of justice and ster- 
ling integrity. In politics. .Mr. Carter was an unflinch- 
ing Democrat, and labored in season and out of sea- 
son for the success of principles he cherished dearly. 
In lbTfj, ho was a delegate from this <li>trict to the 
National Democratic Convention at St. Louis. In 
the fall of 1839, Mr. Carter married Miss Elizabeth 
A. Dagget, daughter of Gardner Dagget, os.e of 

ing lawyer — a reputation which he retained through the early pioneers of Defiance County. His wife 

life. He was much consulted in matters of mtn- and four children survive him. Of the latter, the 

cacy, and seldom failed to unravel the discouraging ' eldest, Emma, resides with her husband. Judge 

and perplexing entanglements, in the interest of jus Hooker, at Charlotte, Mich. Tho others are Florence 

tice. He was a man of few words, but many thoughts, A. Carter, William Carter, Esq., a lawyer of Defiance, 

and as a consequence, he was, in style, terse and and Elbert E. Carter, connected with the Derianee 

pointed. Everything said was well considered before National Bank, ail reside at Defiance, 

it was spoken, and he was seldom obliged to recon- j 



r~I">HE canal system of Northwestern Ohio has 
_L played a important part in the development of 
Defiance County. Its two important canals, the 
Miami & Erie, and the Wabash & Erie, unite a 
few miles above Defiance and thence proceed by a 
common trunk to Maumee Bay. In the early days, 
canil projects received the attention which has .since 
been given to railroads, but their greater expense 
made legislative action necessary to secure their con- 
struction. As early as L822, a bill passed the Ohio 
Legislature, authorizing an examination into the 
practicability of connecting Lake Erie and the Ohio 
River by canal, by various routes, among them, by 
way of the Maumee River. In 1821, a survey was 
made under the direction of M. X. Williams, of Cin- 
cinnati, for many years Acting Canal Commissioner. 
The survey north to Defiance was for a long distance 
through an unbroken forest. It was, not until June, 
1^4o, that this canal was open for business to Defi- 
ance, where it connected with the Wabash & Erie, 
already e< instructed. 

Th" construction of the Wabash & Erie Canal 
was commenced in Indiana. The survey was com- 
menced at Fort Wayne in 182G, and completed to 

! Maumee Bay in 1S2S. In 1827, Congress granted to 
I the State of Indiana cue-half of five miles in width 
of the public lands on each side of the proposed 
I canal from Lake Frio to the navigable waters of the 
! Wabash River. This was tho iirst grani of any mag- 
nitude made by Congress for the promotion ox pub- 
lic works. In 1828, by another act of Congress, a 
similar cession of land was made to Ohio for extend- 
ing the Miami Canal from Dayton to the Maumee 
River at the mouth of the Auglaize, on condition that 
the work of construction be commenced within five 
and completed within twenty years. By tho same 
act, Indiana was authorized to relinquish to Ohio her 
right to lands in Ohio ceded to her for canal pur- 
poses, which was afterward done. The breaking of 
ground was performed at Fort Wayne, March 1, 
1882, and completed to the Ohio line in 18-10. The 
State of Ohio, realizing less than Indiana the m ed 
of this channel of navig Ltion through her sparse 5ei 
tlement in her northwestern territory was more tardy 
in providing for its • instruction. In the spring of 
I s '.7. proposals vere received at Maumee for con- 
structing the canal from its eastern terminus, near 
Manhattan, to the " Head of the Rapid.-. ,; and Octo 



ber 25, 1837, proposals wore received at Defiance for 
the construction of the remaining part of the line 
to the Indiana line. Tli<' remote situation of the 
line from well-settled portions of the State, the high 
price of labor, caused partially by the sickness which 
prevailed along the course, and the poor prospect for 
payment retarded the work, which was not completed 
till the summer of IS 13. The completion was duly 
celebrated at Fort Wayne by the citizens of both 
States. July 4, 1843, to whom Gen. Lewis Cuss de- 
livered an able and classic oration. 

Prior to the construction of the canals, the chief 
mode of travel through the country was afoot oi n 
horseback, and goods and produce were transported 
on the rivers chiefly by pirogues and flai I 
The merchants of Defiance villained theii goods 
from the mouth of tne Maumee, whence th< y had b m 
brought by boat from Buffalo. Sumptuous packets 
and numerous line boats were then placed on the ca- 
nals, but their benefits to the country had hardly 
been realized before the pioueer railroads on all 
sides diminished the canal trade. 



DEFIANCE COUNTY is now sup] lied with two 
railroads, the Baltimore & Ohio & Chicago, 
and the Wabash. St. Louis .v Pacific, intersecting 
at Defiance, the latter completed in 1856, the former 
in 1874. 

Early projects for roads through Defiance County- 
were numerous. The first was for a road between 
Hicksville and Brunersburg. In 1836, a bill was in- 
troduced into the ( Senate 1>_\ Gen. John E. Hunt, 
Senator. " To incorporate The Brunersburg *& 
Hicksville Railroad Company. " William D. Hay- 
maker, Oilman C. Mudgett, Rufus Kibber, Samuel 
Mapes and Ephraim Burwell, were appointed com- 
missioners to receive stock subscriptions. The capi- 
tal was $100,000, with liberty to increase as required, 
the road to run " from Brunersburg to Hicksville, 
and to the Indiana line, and to be completed in live 
years." This project, however, was too stupendous 
for the undeveloped resources of the country and had 
to be abandoned. 

The Wabash, St. Louis A: Pacific Railroad was 
intended by its projectors to form a direct and contin- 
uous rout.-, under one official management, from To- 
ledo to the Mississippi, through Ohio, Indiana and 
Illinois, but a distinct ci rporation was organized in 
each of these States. The Toledo & Illinois Rail- 
road Company tiled a certificate of incorporation with 
the Secretary of the State of Ohio. April "Jo, 1853, 
for the purpose of building a railroad from Toledo to 
the western boundary line of the State in Harrison 
Township. Paulding County. The Lake Erie, 

Wabash & St. Lotus Railroad Company built the 
road through Indiana, and these two companies con- 
solidated June 25, 1856, faking the name of th? To- 
ledo. Wabash & Western Railroad Company. The 
road was subsequently sold by its mortgagees and 
several times changed possession. It received its 
present name in November, 1879, by its consolidation 
with the St. Louis. Kansas City ic Northern Rail- 
road. The road crosses the souther, tern portion of 
Defiance County obliquely through Adams, Richland, 
Noble, and Defiance Town-hips 

The Baltimore, Ohio & Chicago toad crosses 
the southern portion of Defiance County nearly east 
and west through Richland, Defiance, Delaware, Mark 
and Hicksville Townships, March 13, 1872. the Bal- 
timore. Pittsburgh & Chicago Railroad Company 
tiled its certificate of organization at Columbus to 
construct a railroad from a point on the boundary line 
between Ohio and Pennsylvania in Mahoning County 
to a point on the Indiana line either in Hicksville or 
Milford Townships. Defiance County. The con- 
struction was commenced at Chicago Junction, west- 
ward, with means furnished by the Baltimore & 
Ohio Railroad. June 10, 1874, the road was com- 
pleted as far as Defiance, a distance of 878 miles, and 
by the following December, through trains were run- 
ning to Chicago. .Much credit is due to the citizens 
of Defiance and other parts of the county for their 
efforts to secure these roads, for it was largely owing 
to the tabor and exertions put forth by them that th • 
roada were obtained through the countv. 








THE town of Defiance itself has never been the 
theater "of wild speculation in real estate. The 
lots were hold hi;,'h and sold only as wanted by actual 
settlers. During the timo the location of the canals 
was discussed and an open question in this vicinity, 
and dependant upon that issu>'. the town-site specula- 
tion was somewhat rife and several efforts made to 
raise the wind from corner loLs and wharfage grouad. 
As. for instance, when it was proposed to lock the 
Miami Canal into the Auglaize River and the Wabash 
into the Maumee at the head of the slack-water, and 
use the broad sheet of water made by the slack-water 
as a commercial basin, John Hollister, who then 
owned the Lewis bottom, opposite Detiance to the 
east, platted a city named " East Defiance " on a 
large scale, designing his town for the business point. 
The location of the canal the next year on the high 
level dispelled his foul hopes, and the hue bottom 
has since been vigorously worked for wheat and corn 
and few know the glories in design for it. Holiis- 
ter's agent to make ready for the platting, summarily 
dispossessed a tenant for years, which resulted in a 
law suit (Braucher vs. Hollister) which has been dis- 
posed in the State Supreme Court only within a few 

During the same unsettled times, speculators im- 
agined, or had reason to expect, that the junction of 
the canals would be made on the hi'_ r h grounds, just 
above Defiance, and an extensive survey of lots was 
made there, covering a quarter section and extend- 
ing along the Maumee some distance and back toward 
where Hudson's lock now is, comprising the property 
known as "beeswax." The Evanses ami Taylor Web- 
ster were the managers of this job. The town was 
named " West Defiance," and has in every particular 
entirely been lost sight of. 

The town of " North Defiance" was about the 
same time laid out, a part of which is yet upon the 
duplicate. This is on the north side of the .Maumee 
and just above the railroad. 

Brnnersburg, on the Tiffin River, and two miles 
above Defiance, about those days — say from I s 30 to 
lS4u — was an ambitious rival to Defiance The only 
grist mill in Northwestern Ohio waa located there, 

and being also at the head of the proposed slack-water, 
great anticipations promised a happy and prosper- 
ous future to several daring- operator-: in real estate 
and mill property. A second dam was built and 
power for grist and other mills offered; a steamboat 
built, bridges erected, and the lands on either si J" of 
Tiffin River for miles platted iufo prospective De- 
troits, Lowells and Manchesters. The speculators 
failed, leaving laborers and farmers much the losers, 
the steamboat in a freshet and ice- jam went over the 
rapids and could not be brought back, and s< arcely a 
vestige remains of the grand things then under way. 
The toll bridge fell years ago, the Mudgetfc dam 
yet remains only as an obstruction to canal boats ud 
pirogue navigation. Lowell, with its thousand lots 
and streets with high sounding names, has been long 
since vacated and turned out to incipient hoop-poies. 
Detroit (save a half dozen lots) likewise; even the 
town of Brunersburg has been sadly encroached on 
by the meadows and corn-fields, and the wild vaga 

lies oi Commercial aud iiiiiiiuia-jluiiii^ gteauaeSS tneu 

entertained are only now spoken of as a jest. More 
money was wasted in the vicinity of Brunersburg about 
that time in these wild speculations than at any other 

point on the Maumee above the foot of the Rapids. 

Brunersburg is now only known as the location of an 

excellent grist mill and the residence of a few me- 

The air was at one time beaten with a project to 
found a great city on the Maumee at the mouth of 
Tiffin River (Bean Creek), about one mile above De- 
fiance, but as the elder Phillips owned the land at 
the confluence, and was opposed to the speculation 
as likely to injure Defiance, of which he was the 
proprietor, and also to speculation generally, his 
hind could nor tie bought or he induced to take an 
interest, anil the design failed. This city would have 
been directly opposite ' West Defiance," above noted. 
And as a part of the wind in its sails was a side cul 
into the Maumee from the canal, to enter the river 
directly opposite the mouth of the Tiffin. That 
river was then to be slack-watered and improved to 
Evansport, and possibly to Lockport, for which pur- 
pose we believe a company was at one time formed 
Hud aid Bought from the State. Thi.-, prospective iin- 



provernent also gave rise to a ilozen or more paper 
towns along the baukJ of Bean Creek, all which, e^en 
the name-, are now cli an gone out of mind. 

The dam to make the slack-wat< r was located four 
miles below : ' I . native minds sup- 

posed that this would afford immense water power. 

The town-site s] ulators could not let so favorable 

a chance escape, and an extensive city was platt I 
comprising over a tb tisand lots. .VII that now remains 
is the small village of Independence. 

River fraction- along tho slack-water of a few- 
feet width were in those balmy 'lays held at fabulous 
prices. Now they have scarcely any value at all. and 
some of them, on account of the washing of the banks, 
no existence. Thai kind of speculative property is 
now, therefore, entirely out of marker. 

A. Philadelphia company, in the days of specula- 
tion, bought a large tract of land on the Auglaize 
about four miles above Defiance, and spent a large 
amount of money. Their plan comprehended mills 
and a manufacturing town. A. dam was constructed 
and also a saw mill to furnish lumber for further im- 
provements. In 1840, the project was abandoned, as 
thousands of other similar schemes were about those 
days, for want of money. The mill frame has retted 
down . and the substantial dam is mostly there yet, 
though a rift was made in it for the benefit of the 
pirogue trade between Blanchard and Defiance. The 
heavy double logcabins. built for boarding houses, for 
years afforded free tenements to squatters, and the 
acres of sawed logs rotted on the banks. The prop- 
erty is dow all comprehended in the farms of Nathan 
Shirley and William H. Dils. Dr. Dewees, the man- 
ager of the company, was in early days a conspicuous 
character in this section, and hundreds of our now 
old men tell of the hard days' work put in thirty or 
forty years ago under his superintendence in the 
river and on their adjacent lands. 

"johnny appleseed." 

Jonathan Chapman, better known as Johnny Ap- 
pleseed, was born in Boston, Mass., A. D. J7T3. He 
had imbibed a remarkable passion for the rearing 
and cultivation of apple trees from the seed. He first 
made his appearance in Western Pennsylvania abou 
the year 1800, and from thence made his way into 
Ohio, keeping on the outskirts of the settlements, 
and following his favorite pursuit. He was accus- 
tomed to clear spot- in the loamy lands on the bank 
of the steams, plant bis seeds, inc gi ■_!. 

and then leave the place until the trees had in a 
measure grown. 

Wh n the settl rs began to dock in and open, their 
" clearings," Johnny was ready for them with his 
young trees. From those who were in good cireuin- 

stances he would receive their money, from others he 
would take their notes or exchange for some artic 
• tb ng or any other article of which he i ■ Id make 
'-•■.and to the poof and hopeless and helples? he 
would give without money and without price. 

About the year A. D. 1S2S, he started a nursery 
in this county, Defiance, at the mouth of Tiffin liiver, 
about one mile above Defiance, on lauds now owned 
by Charles Krotz, by sowing the seed. Tho y< ung 
trees to the number of several thousand, in a year or 
two after, he took up and set out again on a piece of 
cleared land opposite Snaketown mow Florida) where 
they remained until sold out by a residi nt agent. 

Thomas Warren. Nathan Shirley, Lewis Platter 
and Samuel Hughs, of Delaware Township, set out 
orchards from this nursery. Most of the early or- 
chards on the Maumee and Auglaize bottoms in De- 
fiance. Paulding and Henry Counties were started 
from- Johnny Appleseed's nursery. He had another 
nursery at Mount Blanchard, Hancock County, and 
cithers at Fort Wayne, Ind. He gathered most of his 
seed from cider presses in Western Pennsylvania, 
and thus he continued his business for many years, 
until the whole country was iu a measure settled and 
supplied wiib apple tree-, deriving self-satisfaction 
amounting almost to delight, in the indulgence of 
his engrossing passion. 

His personal appearance was as singular as his 
character. He was a small " chunked " man, quick 
and restless in his motions and conversation; his 
beard and hair were long and dark, and his eye '• k 
and sparkling. He lived the roughest life, and often 
slept in the woods. His clothing was mostly old. 
being given him in exchange for apple trees. He 
went bare-footed and often traveled miles through 
the snow in that way. " In doctrine he was a fol- 
lower of Swedenborg, leading a moral, blameless 

, life, likening himself to the primitive Christians, 
literally taking no thought of the morrow. Wherever 

l he went, he circulated Swedenborgian works, anil if 
short of them would tear a book in two and give each 
part to different persons. He was careful not to in- 
jure any animal, and thought hunting morally wrong. 
He was welcome everywhere ami ng the settlers, and 
ited with great kindness even by the Indians. We 
give a few anecdotes illustrative of his character and 
eccentricities. On one cool, autumnal night, while 
lying by his camp-fire i i the woods, he observed that 
the mosquitoes flew into the blaze and were burnt. 
Johnny, who wore on his head a tin ute:j;;l 
which answered both as a cap and a mush pot. filled 
it with '•■ ted the tire, and after I 

remarked, "God forbid that J should 1 uild a fire ' * 
my comfort that should be the means of destroying 
any of His creatures." Another time he made his 



catnp tire at the cud of a hollow log in which ho in- 
tended to pass the i*igbt, l>ut finding it occupii 1 by a 
bear aud her cut >s. be removed his tire to th • other 
end, and slept on the snow in the open air. rather 
than to disturb the bear. Ele was one morning in a 
prairie aud was bitten by a rattlesnake. Some ti • ■■ 
after a friend inquired of him about the matter. He 
drew a long sigh, and replied, " I') >r fellow! he only 
just touched me, when I iu an ungodly passion pat 
the heel of my scythe <m him aud went home. Some 
time after T went there for ray scythe, and there lay 
the poor follow d >ad " R- b night a coffee-bag. made 
a hole ic the bottom, through which he thrust his 
head ami wore it as a cloak, saying it was as good -as 
anything. He died at the house of William Worth, 
in St. Joseph Township. Adieu Comity. Ind.. March 
11, 1S4-5, and was buried there, aged seventy two 


The advance of this county was necessarily slow 
for the forests were gigantic. Almost the whole 
surface was covered with trees of the largest size. 
The labor and patience that have been expended in 
felling these trees and preparing the fields for the 
plow, the reaper and the mower, will never be ap- 
preciated except by those who have performed the 
labor, or seen its slow progress. Years of this toil 
have been already expended, and the work is yet far 
from being completed. The first habitations of the 
people were [qot cHbins: nor such a !"g cabin a.- was 
seen on the Centennial grounds, where the roof was 
of pine shingles nailed in. the gutter of pine boards 
and the doors neatly made, and the windows tilled 
with sash full of glass. The cabins of our pi 'ii'-ers 
were made of round logs, cut only at the corners, 
their roofs of chipboards as they were split from the 
tree, held to their places by poles built into the end 
logs. The openings for doors and windows were not 
closed except at night, and then by a quilt or skin. 
The fire-place was built of logs and the chimney of 
sticks, all liDed with clay, the whole chinked, that is. 
the cracks between the logs fille I in with wood daubed 
with clay. Such a house was built by the neighbors 
gathering together, and was often finished in a day. 
The floors were of puncheon, split from tree* When 
all was done, a 'puncheon scouring took place. The 
young people and ild gathered at the house for a 
dance, if a fiddle could be procured and, with more 
relish than at a modern ball, they lanced all night in 
this new cabin. 


A. wedding engaged then as now the attention of 
the wholfl u "ighborhood, and the Erolic was anticipat 
ed by old and young vi ; j eag r expectation. Id 

the morning the groom and his attendants started 
from his father's house to reach the bride's before 
no hi. for the wedding by the inexorable law of f tsh- 
ion, must take place before dinner, There were no 
tailors or mantua-makors in those days. Th • men 
dressed in shoepacks, moccasins, and leather breech* s, 
leggings, linsey-woolsey or buckskin hunting shirts, all 
home made. The women were dressed in linsej 
petticoats, and linsey or linen gowns, coarse shoes, 
stockings, handkerchiefs and buckskin gloves, if any. 
If there was jewelry, it was the relic of old tune-. 
The nor-,-- ifor all cime on horseback), were capari- 
soned with old saddles, old bridles or halters, pack 
saddles, with blankets thrown over them: and a r >pe 
or a string for girth or reins as often as leather. 
They formed a procession as well as they could along 
the narrow roads. Sometimes an ambuscade of mis- 
chievous young men was formed, who fired oil their 
guns and frightened the horses and caused the girls 
to shriek. A. race for the bottle took place by two or 
more of the young men racing over this rough road 
to the bride's house, the victor to rei ive a bottle of 
whisky, which he bore back in triumph, and passed 
it along the procession for each one to take a drink 
in turn. Then came the arrival at the bride's house, 
the ceremony, thedinnerand thedauce. all conducted 
with the greatest fun and frolic till morning. 

Sometimes those who were not invited would re- 
venge themselves by cutting off tin mane, foretop and 
tails of the horses of the wedding party. The log- 
rolling, harvesting and husking b •■• for the men and 
the quilting and apple-butter making for the women, 
furnished frequent occasions for social intercourse, 
and gave ample opportunity for any neighl orhoo I to 
know and appreciate the good and bad qualities of 
each other. The rifle-shooting was a pastime which 
men Lived, as it give them an opportunity of testing 
their skill with the necessary weapons of defense, and 
means often of subsistence. When a beef was the 
prize, it wa.- divided into six quarters, by this queer 
arrangement The two hindquarters were the highest 
prizes, the two forequartors the next, tho hide and 
iw the fifth, an 1 the lead shot into the mark was 
the sixth. 


When the new settlers on the Mauinee raised a 
surplus of grain it whs sometimes shipped down the 
Maumee River in pirogues. Dr. T>hu Evans, who 
was engaged in tradi at Defiance at that time had 
taken in quite an amount of corn, which he concluded 
to ship, in l Li'vd Thomas V» arren, Isaac Perkins and 
James Shirley to ship it to market. It was loaded into 
a pirogue and started down the river, arriving at the 
head of the rapids (Providence) whi re they landed for 
a rest. Eighte >n miles of rapid current and intricate 



channels were I efore tliem. None of them knett the 
channels androck; neither ->f them had ever passed 
over the rapids, and in prospect was not a pleasant 
ride; after this short re»: they m >ved on and into the 
whirling rapids through which they passed iu safi 
and in due time arrived at Maumee City, where they 
sold their c irn For 50 cents per bushel t.> Col. John 
E. Haul. The measure upon unloading overrun twelve 
bushels, caused by the plashing of the water in the 
rapids, which swelled the corn. This the boatmen 
claimed, giving them $2 each, which they proposed 
to expend on their home journey in high living. 
Being now ready to return. .Mr. Thomas Garrett, a 
blacksmith, was cm his tvay to Defiance to locate, and 
proposed to take passage with them. He treated the 
boys and thanked them from being th'i> relieved from 
the journey on foot. They new had to run the river 
against the current, and they made but sis miles tho 
Mr' t day. with the aid of Mr. Garrett (their passen- 
ger), who towed manfully on the cordelle. Next 
moraine-, Mr. Garrett again treated the beys, thanked 
them for their kindness, but proposed to continue 
his journey on foot. 


The first annual fair of the Agricultural Society 
for this county was held i >ctober 7 and 8, 1851. The 
cattle, horses, hogs, fowls, etc.. were on exhibition 
in a lot owned by Dr. Colby, ou the north side of the 
Mauinee River. The fruit and other articles were ar- 
ranged for inspection in the court house, vv'iliiam i 
C. Holgate was Secretary. 


The Jewish nation is represented in Defiance 
County by about fifty-seven souls, independent of the 
class denominated "roving Jews " Of the adult por- I 
tion of resident Jews of the county, there are twenty- 
seven males, and twelve families, with eighteen chil- 
dreu under thirteen years of age. The most of these 
live in Defiance. Thirteen, however, live iu Hicks- ; 

The Jews commenced their history in this coun- 
ty with the Wirtheimer family, Eol lowed by Kittner, 
Kugie and Levy*; afterward Ginsburg and family 
settled here. Thefamilli - .. entioned above. and others 
perhaps, are classed am m ■ < rr best citizens. They 
are well thought of ;■ the G> i tile ! rethren, and fra- j 
ternize freely with other classes of citizens irrespec- 
tive of religious opinions [n their religious beliefs. 

thev are firm, and we mi - strict, in the observance 


of all rules and -■• i - pertaining 1 1 their anei< nt 

religion. In addition to their religious - 
tion, they have a Hebrew relief association. 1'h < 
officers of this society are H. It. Ginsburg, Presi- 
\ Schlossburg, Wee President; M. Kittn r, 
Freasurer, and A. Liosenbaum, Secretary- This ■■.-- 
social. , was called into being here by the shameful 
outrages perpetrated by tho Russian Government 
upon the defenseless Jews, and has for its object the 
relief of the persecuted brethren in that country. 
The religious congregation, while it meet-, for relig- 
ious purposes only, is not observed with that faith 
fulness, perhaps, which is characteristic of this peo- 
ple in large cities where the congregations are larger, 
and where they have their own synagogue or build- 
ing for worship. Here they meet but twice a year, 
except in case of a death or a marriage or an occa- 
sion of that nature. The first meeting is that of Jew- 
ish New Year, which usually comes in the latter part 
of September or the tir~t of October. The second 
meeting is that of the day of atonement, which is 
commonly known as the long day. and occurs one 
week after the New Year. This day being a fast vlay 
is usually observed by the most liberal of the 
Hebrews. For these two occasions referred to they 
generally bring here a regular Rabbi, or minister. 
Thev also hold religious meetings at weddings and 
deaths. At all religions meetings it requires the at- 
tendance of at least ten males over thirteen years of 
age. Their meetings are presided over in the ab- 
sence of a Rabbi by a senior member, and as Mr. 
Joseph Kngle is the oldest member here, this gen- 
tleman is chosen by common consent for this office. 
The Jewi.-h women, not uuiike their Gentile sisters, 
are the most religious of the two sexes. Inasmuch 
as their mode of worship like their race is the most. 
ancient, their services are always conducted in the 
Hebrew language, of which ail members are readers. 


1S40 to ISSO 














7 , ,, 






























Di ice 

Delav are 


; ville 


■ 096 





! 127 





1 526 

Toi il 






In 1840 Noble is n Deiiancc, Richland in High- 

land, and, in LS4! i id 1850, Mark in Farmer Township 





A5JOMPA.NY was raised for the Mexican war, in 
the Mauniee Valley, known as Company B, Fif- 
teenth Regiment United States Infantry. This regi- 
ment was familiarly known as " New Regulars." and 
was mustered out at tin- close of the war. The com- 
missioned officers of Company B. appointed by the 
President, were Daniel Chase, of Mauhattan. Cap- 
tain; Goodloe, First Lieutenant, and J. \V. 

Wiley, of Defiance. Second Lieutenant. Wiley was 
court marshaled and dismissed from the service for 
fighting a duel with a brother officer in Mexico. He 
went themv to Olympia, in Washington Territory, 
where. he published a paper for several years, but is 
now dead. Goodloe was killed in battle. The Cap- 
tain returned home. The company participated in 
all the battles about the City of Mexico, and suffered 
terribly in killed and wounded, quite a number also 
dying in hospital. 

We are not able to furnish a roll of the men en- 
listed, but we here give, from the tiles of the Defi- 
ance D< mocrat, of March 0. 1848, a list of deaths. 

The following is a list of deceased soldiers former- 
ly belonging to Company B. Fifteenth United States 
IiifauLx^ . 

Chester G. Andrews, killed in battle near City of 
Mexico, August 20. 1847. 

Joseph T. Clark, died of wounds received in same 

Jonas G. Anglemyer, died of wounds received at 
the storming of Chapultepec. 

John Ball, died in i iovernruent Hospital in New 
Orleans, August '20. IS 17. 

Solomon Blubaugh, died in hospital, Mexico, 
October 6, 1847. 

Chauncy Crago. died at San Borgia, September 3, 

Robert Graves, killed in City of Mexico, Septem- 
ber 14, 1847. 

Isaac Huyck, died in hospital in Chapultepec, 
November 10. 1S47. 

Joseph Hickory, died in hospital in Vera Cruz. 
June '22, IS 17. 

Samuel Jennings, died near Jalapa, Mexico, ■June 
26, IS 47. ' 

Thomas L. Kollock died in hospital in Chapulte- 
pec, December 15, I s 17 

Thomas Marks, died near Santa Fe\ June 19, 

John McMillen, died in Puebla, July 20, 1847. 

Jacob Reid. died in Perote Castle, July, 18^7. 

David Robinson, died in Chapultepec, November 
19, 1847. 

Noble Robinson, died in hospital in Perote. July 
3, 1547. 

G^orgo W. Slough, died in hospital in Perote, 
I July 15, 1847. 

John Sleath, killed in battle near the City of 
Mexico, August 20, 1817. 

William Strain, died in hospital in Chapultepec, 
December 11, 1847. 

James M. Skean, died in hospital in Mexico, Sep- 
tember ~7, 1 ^47. 

Calvin Waggint, died in hospital in Puebla, Au- 
gust 9, 1S47. 

Charles Carrol, died in hospital in Puebla. 

Edward Bennett, died in hospital in Puebla. 

Joseph Cumniings, died in hospital, Puebla. 

William Davis, 'tied in hospital. Puebla. 

Samuel Garrison, died in hospital, Puebla. 

William Gee, died in hospital, Puebla. 

Otho Ham, died in hospital, Puebla. 

George Holden, died in 

1 T)--l-lr 

sit&i. r 

Robert Hinkley, died in hospital, Puebla. 

William Russel. died in hospital, Puebla. 

Ephraim Smith, died in hospital, Puel la. 

Anson Strever, died in hospital, Puebla. 

Leander P. Stoddard, died in hospital, Puebla. 

Charles Tupel, died in hospital, Puebla. 

Charles Smith, died in hospital, Puebla. 

The following is an extract from a letter of Lieut. 
James W. Wiley, in which he make-- honorable men- 
tion of officers and soldiers who went from the Mau- 
niee Yalley: 

" I take this occasion to remark that the Defiance 
and Williams County boys deserve particular notice 
for the gallant manner in which the;, acted in every 
action. All that were able were always present, and 
there has never been an instance that has come to my 
knowledge i f one of them flinching. Sergt. John 
Davis and Sergt Maybe deserve particular mention 
the former loading and firing more shots at Chuxubu6co 
than any other nierol er of the company, cheering up 
and encom iging his comrades, etc.; and the latter 
for his deliberate coolness and gallantry throughout 
the action. He was shot through the hand while 
carrying an order from v. 'apt.. Chase to a portion of ths 



men. to have them cease firing, which entirely dis- 
abled it. Corp. John Daly. James Skean, David 
Robinson Sanford \V. Smith, William Strain, James 
Black anil others, deserve much praise for the manner 
in which thr\ conducted themselves. Mr. Jason 
Dame was on detached service at the time of the bat- 
tle of Ohurubnsco, and was not in that action, but at 
Chapuito] ■•• he disti iguished himself for his bravery 
and good conduct. In fact, the whole company, with 
one or two exceptions, did their duty manfully, and I 
think the li.-t of killed and wounded will show that 
they were not slow in walking up to the work, as we 
were the second company ou the list iu our regiment 
in point of loss. 

"It now becomes my painful duty to rehearse the 
casualties which have happened to the brave little 
band I enlisted at Defiance, including, also, those 
who went to Toledo and joined the service there. 
Thomas Marks died at the close of the second day's 
march, and the nest evening, while the companies 
were drilling, exercising in loading and firing, 
GeorgeSlougb was struck in the leg with a hall, from 
the effects of which ho died with the lockjaw at 

Perote. Jacob Smith, of Williams County, and 
Noble Robinson, from Evansport, were both attack* 1 
with diarrhoea on tie' march, :•■■ 1 were left ' 
hospital at Perote both since died. At Puebla, Mr. 
McMillan, Williams County, died from the 
effects of a violent fever. Ou leaving Puebla,! re 
were detained in the hospital at that place, Corp. 
Rogers, Corp. Garrison (brother-in-law to Henry 
Brubacher), Simon Smith, of Williams County, 
Anson Strever.of the same county, and Dutch Charley, 
or Charles Tuber. C. G. Andrews was killed l>\ apo 
of Mexican lancers while engaged with Joseph CI irk 
in caring for a wounded comrade; Clark was badly 
cut up by the lancers, being badly wounded in the 
hand, arm and head; was left for dead, but came to 
and was picked up and conveyed to his regimi nt, 
where he partly recovered from his wounds, but was 
attacked with diarrhoea, which terminated his exist- 
ence, and. in a few days afterward., James Skeen 
died with the same disease. Our Orderly Sergeant 
Mace, was left sick at Vera Cruz, and Sergt. Ward at 
Puebla; neither of whom have yet arrived." 




AT a meeting of the citizens of Defiance, held at 
the court house on the evening of April 16, 1S6T. 
in pursuance of a call made by manv of the leading 
citizens of the towu. S. S. Sprague was chosen chair- 
man and S. A. Strong, Secretary. The chair briefly 
stated the object for which the meeting was called. 

On motion, a committee of three was appointed by 
the chair t.i draft resolutions expressive of the senti- 
ments of the meeting. E. H. Leland, Dr. Perry and 
J. P. Euffmgton were appointed as the committee. 

Dr. Paul. William A. Brown. T. Fitzpatrick, E. 
H. Leland. Dr. Ruhl and others addressed the meet- 
ing in stirring anil patiotic remark-. The Committee 
on Eesolutious. through their chairman, reported the 
following resolution^, which were unanimously 

Resolved, That we view the recent attack upon 
the National flag at Fort Sumter, while the Gov- 
ernment was engaged in the peacable and neces- 
sary duty of supplying our soldiers with provisions, 
as one of the mo^r abominable of crimes — a crime 
against the Government and a direct and unpardon- 
able insult to every loyal citizen of the United States. 

Hcsolred, That the treasonable band of cocspir 
ators who are organized under the name of Confeder- 
ate States, nave by .Le^ir crimes again- 1 the (", ivern- 
ment extending through a series of years, and finally 
culminating in frequent overt acts of treason, forfeit- 
ed all the political rights which they have heretofore 
enjoyed. That they are entitled to ii" respect or con- 
sideration from the civilized world, and by the exer- 
cise of all pow^r of men or money, it has become 
necessary to inflict upon them the just and speedy 
punishment which their crimes deserve. 

Resolved, That to such an extent has treason 1 i 

permitted to walk abroad, unpunished in our land, 
that it has now become a question of self-preserva- 
tion; and all parry feelings, and all party issues as 
heretofore existing shi uld be entirely losi sight of; an 1 
until the question of the preservation of the Govern- 
ment shall be settled, we recognize no two classes of 
people, but two parties— Patriots and Traitors. 

lived, That it is the imperative duty of • r 
good citizen to uphold the President of the United 
States in his efforts to execute the laws of the United 
States in every portion of the Government and against 



all its enemies. All of which is respectfully sub- 

Ou motion it was ordered that the proceedings of 
the meeting be published in the village newspapers. 
Party differences were ignored by common consent 
and sentiments of a determination to support the 
Government at all hazards were freely expressed. 
S. S. Sprague, Chairman. 
S. A. Strong, Secretary. 



The Fourteenth Obio Regiment was raised in the 
Tenth Congressional District of Ohio. Ton companies 
from Toledo, Bryan. Defiance, Stryker, Napoleon, 
Antwerp, Wauseon and WTaterville were organized 
into the Fourteenth Regiment at Toledo, on the 'J 4th of 
April. 1S ( 51. James B. Steedman being elected Colonel ; 
George P. EstelL Lieutenant Colonel; Paul Ed- 
wards. Major. The President's proclamation for 
75,000 men was promptly responded to, and in less 
than three days the Fourteenth Ohio was ready for 
the tield, and on the 25th day of April, 1861 (just 
twelve days alter th« firms; on Fort Sumter), it started 
from Toledo for Camp Taylor, near Cleveland, where 
it was thoroughly drilled and its organization com- 
pleted. Ou the 18th of May. the regiment was trans- 
ferred from the State to the Genera! Government. 

The regiment left Cleveland on the 22d day of 
May for Columbus, there received their arms and ac- 
couterments. and on the same day started for Zanes- 
ville, Ohio; arrived at 1 P. M. on the 23d and imme- 
diately embarked for Marietta. Occupied Camp 
Putnam until the 27th of May, then was ordered to 
embark for Parkersburg, Va.. at which place it 
landed without opposition, and for the tirst time the 
regimental flag of the Fourteenth was unfurled in the 
enemy's country. 

Immediately on its arrival, one company was 
double-quicked along the line of the Baltimore & 
Ohio Railroad, the bridges of which were being tired 
by retreating rebels, as a signal uf the arrival of 
National troops in Western Virginia. Guards were 
then posted alon^ the mad to prevent further destruc- 
tion, and on the 20th the raiment moved forward 
until Clarksburg was y- ached, having repaired all the 
burnt bridges and culverts up to that point. At 
Clarksburg, some impi riant arrests were made and the 
trains were put to running for supplies. 

On the 2d of June, the regiment started by rail for 
the town of Webster, supplied with rations sufficient 
for a march to Philippi.a distance of thirteen miles. 
This march was performed b a dark, dismal, rainy 
night, to surprise a force of about two thousand rebel 
cavalry in camp near that place. Fne march 
brought the regiment in front of the town at 5 A. M.. 

when a battery belonging to the force opened upon 
the surprised rebels, who were badly frightened, and 
scattered to the bushes and hills as fast as their bore 
could carry them, some leaving 'heir clothing and 
ba ts behind an I i taking off almost in the Georgia 
costume of "a shir; and a o.'.ir of -purs " A few pris 
oners, all the rebel stores and live wagon loads of 
arms and munitions fell into the hands of the Nation- 
al force. On the National side, there were but four 
men wounded, including Col. Kelly, afterward Major 
General. One of the rebel cavalry had his leg taken 
off by a cannon ball. On the nest day, the Four- 
teenth, in company with the Sixteenth and Seven 
teenth Ohio, Sixth and Seventh Indiana and First 
Virginia Infantry went into camp on the hills in the 
rear of the town of Philippi. On the 2d of July, 
1 SH 1 , the regiment received its first pay in gold and 
Ohio currency. Ou the 7th of July, the rebels began 
to show themselves in force at Laurel Hill, and works 
were thrown up at Bealington to repel then attacks. 
S.-veral cavalry charges made by the enemy -Tore 
handsomely repulsed. On the Pith, Gen. Garnett, 
having suddenly retreated, the National forces mo? id 
out of their works; the fourteenth taking the advun • , 
took possession of a fort; vac .• i by the enemy and 
pressed on after the retreating column. The rel 
were closely pressed, the road being strewed with 
trunks.boxes, touts, stalled baggage wagons aud*'tiv 1; 
ered-out" rebels. In crossing Carri tk's ford, the ene \ 
was obliged to make a stand to save their trains 
Taking a strong position, they awaited the coming of 
the National forces. The advance guard of the 
Fourteenth was under the rebel g;ois before they were 
aware of it. The rebel flag was flaunted in their 
face-, and wic'u shouts '.'or Jeff Davis came a shower 
of balls from the bluff above and opposite the stream. 
The Fourteenth closed up to its advance guard and 
answered the enemy's tirst volley before the see,,,,,! 
had been tired. In twenty minutes, and just as the 
first regiment of the main column came up for ac 
tion, tiie enemy gave way in great confusion, casting 
offeverything that could retard escape. Over thirty 
well -laden baggage wagons, one battery, three stand 
of colors and '-~> l Ipri oners were the fruits of this '. ic- 
tory. The next morning the regiment return d to 
ward Philippi with the prisoners and captured tram, 
fording at least six rivers and. creeks sw illen by the 
heavy rain--, arriving at Philippi on the Loth uf 
July. The Fourteenth remained in camp at Laurel 
Hill until the 22d, svhen ii moved t<. and cr issed the 
Ohio it Bellaire, and there took cars on the Central 
'. >hi<: Eoi i"' do and home. The wounded received 
grea on from the pop 5 " along the road, and 

the regiment was •■■ idered ovations *nd kind;:': - - 



July, where it was hailed by the ringing of bells <md 
firing of cannon. A - : . a king of a sumptuous 
feast, prepared by the ciiizi us at the Oliver House, 
the regiment dispers d 

After a few days' rest at home the men re- 
assembled, and again volunteered in a body for 
three years, or during the war. On the 23d of 
August, 1810, the Fourteenth received orders, and 
moved from Toledo to Cincinnati on the same day, 
reaching there in the evening, It was here sup- 
plied with arms and accouterments, and on the morn- 
ing of- the 25th crossed the Ohio to Covington, Ivy.. 
and took cars for Lexington and Fraukfort. Re- 
maining in Frankfort two days, the regiment moved 
by curs to Nicholasville, and established a camp of 
rendezvous, where tor three weeks it was engaged in 
daily drill and was thoroughly disciplined. Camp 
Dick Robinson was its next stopping place, and was 
reached on the eveniii.' of October 2. While there, 
a regiment of loyal East Tennesseans arrived, hav- 
ing, as the men said, crawled in all fours through h? 
rebel lines Amoug these brave and self-sacrificing 
luyal mountaineers were the then Tennessee "United 
States Senator, Andrew Johnson, and Horace May- 
nard. Congressman, on their way to Washington, D. C. 
Col. Steedman, of the Fourteenth, invited Johnson to 
share his tent for the night. The rough attire and 
begrimed appearance of Johnson caased "the hoys" 
of the regiment to remark that "old Jim Steedman" 
would invite "Andy" to a freo use of soap before he 
would allow him to bunk with him. The East Ten- 
nesseans being without arms, discipline or drill, a 
detail was made from the Fourteenth for the purpose 
of perfecting them in drill. About this time rumors 
were rife that the National forces stationed at i r 
near Wild Cat, a desolate region sixty miles south- 
east of Camp Dick Robinson, were surrounded by the 
rebels. The Fourteenth, with Barnet's First Ohio 
Artillen, started at once for Wild Cat, making 
forced marches through the deep mud and driving 
rain, and reached th< re at 9 A. M. of the "Jlst of Oc- 
tober. On uearing the battle-field the crash of mus- 
ketry and artillery was heard. rhis spurred the ex- 
cited troops, who were g ing into their first engag 
meut, and they double-quicked t-> the point of attack. 
Earnett's artillery was placed in position and the 
enemy shelled. Five companies of the Thirty third 
Indiana were on a wild kn T. almost completely sur- 
rounded by the rebels, Under cover of a brisk tire 
from Barnet's battery, two companies of the Four- 
teenth, with picks and shovels crawled through the 
b tshed over a rctviae, and j ■ ich 1 the knob, fortifi< i 
it in such a manner th . ij short!} abando . 1 

the siege and retreated toward London, Ky. The 
rebels left on the ground about thirty of their nu a- 

bor kiile.i and wounded. The forces pur 
Eiied the rebels under a point near 1. 
don, and then went into camp fur some two weeks. 
Orders >vore received ho march back toward Lancas- 
ter, passing through Crab Orchard and lit. Vernon. 
The next point was Lebanon, at which place the 
troops went into winter quarters. 

On the '51st of December, the camp at Lebanon 
was abandoned and the march resumed, taking the 
route toward Somerset or Mill Springs. At Logan's 
t !ross Roads, the rebels under Zollicoffel were met and 
defeated. Only one company of the Fourteenth par 
ticipated in this — Company C, Capt. J. W. Brown, 
of Toledo. 

Following up their success, the National troops 
pursued and drove the rebel- into their fortifications 
at Mill Springs. The night of the 19th of January- 
was consumed in cannonading the enemy's works. 
Early on the morning of the '20tb. a general assault 
was ordered and executed, the rebel works carried, 
twenty pieces of artillery, all the camp equipage and 
one regiment of men captured, The main body of 
rebels crossed the Cumberland River in asteamerand 
escaped,, burning the steamer as they left. In the 
charge which carried the works, the Fourteenth was 
the tirst regiment to enter. Pushing on after the dy- 
ing enemy, the regiment reached the bank of the river 
in time to tire into the rear of the retreating column 
as it was boarding the steal ) >r The Nati mal forces 
remained at Mill Springs until the 11th of February. 
Then with live days' rations the line of march was 
resumed toward Louisville, passing through Stan- 
ford, Somerset, Danville and intermediate places, ar- 
riving at Louisville on the 26th. Marching through 
the city the Fourteenth was placed on board of trans- 
ports, and in company with 20,000 other troops left 
for Nashville, arriving there on the 4th of March. 
Remaining in and around Nashville, building fort: 
iications and perfecting the drill of the men. until 
the 20th of March, the necessity of re-enforcing (Jon. 
Grant's forces at Pittsburg Landing being apparent, 
Gen. Bueil marched with the greater part of hi^ 
army, reaching Savannah on the Oth of April. Tak- 
ing steamers, a portion of the troo] s were landed on 
the field at Pittsburg Landing, on the morning of the 
7th of April in time to participate in the engage 
ment of that day, turning the tide of battle in favor 
of the National army. The Fourteenth did noi 
come up in time to participate. On the night of the 
12th of April, the regiment was sent on an expedition 
to Chickasaw Landing, in the vicinity of whi :h 
&r six bridges were destroyed, thus preventing the 
enemy from being r j enforced. In effe t ng tuts I 
Btruction several severe skirmishes were had. 
regiment was taken back to Pittsburg Landing on a 



steamer, on board of which was Gen. Sherman, who 
publicly thanked the men for the service they had 
performed. The Fourteenth rejoined its brig! 
and with the vast arm\ then concentrated under Gen 
Halleck, shared in the Blow advance on Corinth. 
The only death in the regiment during the siege 
was that of fifer Frank Caller n, of heart disease. 
The regiment joined in pursuing the enemy to the 
vicinity of Booneville, Miss, where the chase was 
abandoned, the National troops returning to Corinth. 
On the 23d of June, i sr '_. the Fourteenth with other 
troops was sent to Iuka, Miss., and from there marched 
to Tnscumb'ia, Ala. After toil r duty of various 
kinds in and aroun 1 this place, the line of march was 
resumed toward Nashville, Tenn., par-sing through 
Florence, Fayetteville, Pulaski, etc. Ou this march. 
Gen. Robert L. McCook was murdered by guerrillas 
ne;ir Waynesburg, Tenn. Nashville was reached on 
the 7th of September. On the 1 t-th . marching orders 
were received for Bowling Green. Ky. This march 
was made in pursuit of Bragg'B army, which was then 
moving on to Louisville, Ivy., which was reached on 
the 26th day of September. 1862. On this march, the 
Fourteenth Ohio was under command of Maj. Paul 
Edwards. Col Steedman having been assigned to Gen 
Robert L. MeCook's late command, and Lieut Col. 
Este being absent on furlough. The march from Nash- 
ville to Louisville was one of great hardship, the 
weather being intensely hot. the roads very dusty and 
water almost unattainable. On the 1st of October, 
the National army, under Gen. Buell, moved out of 
Louisville and resumed the pursuit of Bragg's rebel 
array Marching by the Bardstown road, the Four- 
teenth in the pdvance. Springfield, Ky., was reached 
on the second day and Bardstown on the third. On 
the Oth day of October, the brigade in which the 
Fourteenth was acting, was detailed as headquarter 
and ammunition tram guard, and for that reason did 
not participate in the battle of Perryville fought on 
that day. Gen. BuelPs army moved in pursuit of the 
rebels, marching through Danville and Crab Orchard, 
where the pursuit was abandoned and the National 
forces commenced a retrograde movement toward 
Nashville. Gallatin was reached on the l~ith of No- 
vember, where the brigade, in which the Fourteenth 
Ohio was acting, wen' into winter quarters. "While 
at this place, the regiment was frequently detailed 
on scouting duty against the guerrilla (Gen. John 
Morgan's) cavalry, with which it had several severe 
skirmishes, los ng - ime men. At Rolling Fork, Mor- 
gan was badly whipped and driven off, thus; prevent- 
ing a contemplated raid against Louisville. The re« 
inient remained at Gallatin until January 1.3, 1S63, 
engaged in similar duty. Leaving Gallatin, Nash- 
ville was reached on the 15th day of Januarv, and 

after a day's rest in that city the regiment marched 
to Murfreesboro as guard to an ammunition and ,■ 
vision train, returning the same night to Lavergne, 
where the brigu le was engaged in fortifying ag 
the enemy. On the3dday of June, 'he regiment and 
brigade left Lavergne and took up th- line i I 
march for Triune, Tenn., forming a portion of 
Rosecrans' advance on Tullahoma and Chattanooga. 
At Triune, twenty days were consumed in rigid 
drill, giving time to allow the necessary supplies 
to come up. The march being resumed, Hoover's 
Gap was reached on the night of the 26th of 
June, a brisk engagement coming off at that 
point, in which the Fourteenth participated with its 
brigade. Thirty men were lost in killed and 
wounded in this affair. The vicinity of Tullahi ma 
was readied ou the evening of the 'i'Mh of June, and 
the enemy's videttes driven in. That night. Capt. 
Neubert's picket detail, of the Fourteenth Ohio, drove 
in the enemy's line of pickets ami reached a point 6 • 
near the town as to enable him to discover that the 
rebel- were evacuating the \ iace This important 
information was immediately sent t) headquarters by 
Capt. Neubert, and caused the advance, early the next 
morning, of the National forces. Elk R-iver was 
crossed with great difficulty, that stream being quite 
deep with a swift current, and a number of men were 
drowned. A spur of the Cumberland Mountains was 
crossed and the National forces encamped in Seq 
chie Vallej on the L8th of August, near Sw< lei 
Covo. On the 3l? r of An«n>st the armv crossed the 
Tennessee River by means ct* rafts, ihe pontoons nut 
being on hand. On the 19th of September, the 
enemy was discovered in force on Chickamauga '.reek. 
The Fourteenth Ohio, under command of Lieut. Col. 
Kingsbury, was immediately deployed in line of bat- 
tle. The men were not in the best trim ro engage 
in a fatiguing day's work, having marched incessantly 
all of the previous day and night, but they were ready 
and willing to perform their whole duty, and did it 
nobly. The regiment was engaged in hot and close 
contest from '.' A. M. to 4 P. M. : being then relieved, 
it. replenished its ammunition boxes, and again en- 
tered the tight, continuing it until sundown. That 
night it fell back one mile and went into camp. The 
next morning at d o'clock the r< giment again entered 
the held and had a desperate encounter with a por- 
tion of Longstreet's rebel division. An unfortunate 
<?M, being left oi en bvmistake in Thomas' line, the 
whole National force was compelled to fall back to 
prevent being overwh 'lmed. The village, of 1 
ville was its slopping point. On the 21st of 5 'ptem- 

ber, thi •■; • ■ it with its brigade and division, was 

in line of battle all day, but was again pelled to 

give ground and fall baok into hastily -constructed in 



trenohmonts near Chattanooga, the enemy following 
closely. The regiment went .into the battle frith 

449 meu. Out of that number it lo9t 233, killed, 
wounded and missing. Fourteen enlisted men were 
captured by the enemy. of fourteen officers, eight 
were severely wounded; among them Capts. Albert 
Moore, Company A: H. W. Bigelow, Company 1; 
Dan Pomeroy, Company D; W. B. Fugh, Company 
H; J. J. Clark. Company C; and Lieut. James E. 
McBride, Company F. Col. Croxton, of the Tenth 
Kentucky, commanding the brigade, was also severe- 
ly wounded. To procure rations on one occasion 
during the ensuing beleaguerment at Chattanooga, 
a detail of 100 men from the Fourteenth, under Capt. 
Neubert, war sent to Stevenson. Ala., crossing the 
rugged mountain between that place and Chatta- 
nooga. This detail started on a march of eleven 
days' duratii »n w ith only one day's rations. After en- 
countering terrible hardships, subsisting on parched 
corn, leaving along the roads the wrecks of more than 
half their wagons and the dead bodies of twenty 
mules, Stevenson was reached; ten wagons out of the 
sixty they started with were loaded with "hard-tack" 
and the return journey commenced. After twenty- 
five days' absence, this detail reached Chattanooga 
(9th of November) and distributed their precious 
freight among the famished troops. 

In the brilliant assault on Mission Ridge, the 
Fourteenth Ohio bore a gallant part, charging and 
capturing a rebel battery of three guns, which Gen. 
Hardee in person was superintending, loosing si;drcu 
killed, ninety-one wounded and three missing. On 
the 20th of November, the National forces started in 
pursuit of the rebel army toward Ringgold, at which 
point the enemy made a stand on the 28th. Gen. 
Hooker's forces beiug in the advance, made a charge 
on the rebels, but were driven back. The Fourteenth 
corps coining up, formed a line of battle and charged 
the rebel position, but the enemy had tied toward 
Buzzard's Roost. The Fourteenth Ohio returned to 
Chattanooga on the 29th of November and was re- 
viewed by Gen. Grant on the 1st of December, 1863. 
Of those that were eligible, all but thirty men of the 
entire regiment re-enlisted for another term of three 
years. This occurred on the 17th of December. On 
Christmas Day. the mustering of the men commenced, 
andby working hard all day raid through the night 
the rolle'were completed. Marching to Bridgeport 
on the 31st of December, the Fourteenth Ohio then 
took the cars and reached Nashville on the 2d day of 
January, 1864. On this trip the cold was so intense 
as to freeze the feet of several colored isrvants, belong- 
ing to the regiment, so badly as to make amputation 
necessary. From Nashville the regiment went by 
cars to Louisville, and thence bv boat to Cincinnati. 

arriving at that city on the morning of iho it u " f 
January. Cars were at once taken for Toledo, the 
home of the regiment where ii was warmly received 
by the citizens, and addressed in their behalf by the 
Hon. M. K. VVaite. On the 6th lay of February, 
the thirty days' furlough having expired, the regi- 
ment moved by rail to Cleveland and there went into 
camp. Remaining there about a week, it started for 
Cincinnati and the front, reaching Nashville on the 
'-41 of February and Chattanooga on the 29th. 

On the 5th day of March, the regiment move'! to 
Ringgold, where it performed hard duty in building 
corduroy roads between that place and Chattanooga, 
picketing outposts, etc. 

On the 9th day of May, it move,] w ;th its brigade 
on Dalton, driving in the enemy's videttesto the vicin- 
ity of Tunnel Hill, there encountering the enemy in 
force. At this point commenced that long, fatiguing 
campaign for the possession of Atlanta, the "Gate 
City" of the extreme South. The Fourteenth, in all 
the inarches and the almost incessant skirmishes and 
flanking move i ents of th if campaign, bore an honor- 
able part. It lost heavily in men and officers. While 
lying in front of Atlanta, the regiment lost iwent\ 
men killed and wounded. 

On the 26th of August, a flanking movement wis 
commenced toward Jonesboro, and on the 81st, the 
Atlanta it W.estern Railroad was struck five miles 
north of Jonesboro, where 200 prisoners were capt- 
ured. On the 1st. of September, the Third Division of 
the Fourteenth Army Corps, iu which wua brigaded 
the Fourteenth Ohio, c >ntiuu d the movement in the 
direction of Jonesboro. destroying the track of the 
railroad as it marched. At 4:30 P. M. of that day, 
the Third Division (Gen. Baird) confronted the enemy's 
works surrounding Jonesboro. The Third Brigade, 
in command of Col. Esto. of the Fourteenth Ohio, of 
Daird's division, was drawn u;> in line of battle in the 
immediate rear of a regular brigade of G-'b. Carlia's 
divisiou, which had just made an unsuccessful charge 
on the rebel works ; n the edge of the woods on the 
opposite side of a large corn-field. Col. Este, with 
his brigade, consisting of the Fourteenth and Thirty 
eighth Ohio, Tenth Kentucky and Seventy fourth 
Indiana stood ready for the fight. Col. Este gave the 
order. "Battallions, forward!-— guide center!" and 
Gen. Baird waved his hand for the "forward." The 
lines moved steadily forward amid a shower of balK 
A battery opened with grape and canister, but the 
brigade moved steadily ou. The edge of the timber 
was gained, and, with a yell and a charge, the rebel 
' works were gained, and a haui-to hand conflict . 
sued. The rebels belonged to Gen. Pat Cleburne's 
division, and contested the ground with great stub- 
bornness and braverv. ft was not until many of them 



were killed with the cold steel that they would sur- 
render. They finally succumbed and were marched 
to the re;ir as prisoners. The Fourteenth took nearly 
as many prisoners as ihe regiment numbered, a bat- 
tery of four guns, several stands of colors and two 
linos of trenches full of men. All this was not ae 
complished without sad cost. The brigade lost 
thirty-three per cent of its number. One hundred 
members of the Fourteenth, whose time had expired, 
went willingly into the tight, some of whom were 
killed and many wounded. After theJonesboro ti_ r ht, 
the brigade in which the Fourteenth was acting, 
marched back to Atlanta, leaving the pursuit of the 
eneniy to other troops. The Fourteenth next followed 
in pursuit of Hood's troops, on their advance into, as far up as Rome, where the chase was 
abandoned and the brigade returned to Kingston, Ga., 
reaching there ou the 6th of November. It next 
joined Gen. Sherman's force* at Atlanta, and partici 
pated in the " march to the sea;" then came the march 
through the Carolinas to Goldsboroand Raleigh. At 
Raleigh the surrender of Lee aud his army near 
Richmond was promulgated to the National forces. 
The surrender of Johnston quickly followed, and then 
the march up to the capital of the nation, where the 
grand armies of the republic passed in review before 
the President and Cabinet. On the 15th of June, 
the Fourteenth Ohio started from Washington by rail 
for Parkersburg, on the Ohio Kiwr. arriving there ou 
the 18th of June. It immediately embarked on 
boats and was taken to Louisville. Ky. Remaining 
in camp at that place until the llth day of July, 
when the regiment v. as mustered out cf the service 
and returned to its home, reaching Toledo on the 
13th of July. 1865, after over four years of as honor- 
able and active a career as that of any regiment in 
the army. 


April 2Q, 1861, Sidney S. Sprague commenced en- 
rolling a company, which was speedily filled and 
another started. April 23, the first company elected 
officers as follows: Sidney S. Sprague, Captain; Will- 
iam J. Irvine, First Lieutenant; and Charles KahJo, 
Second Lieutenant. A farewell meeting was held that 
night at which a silk flag, prepared by the ladies, 
was presented, and thecompany, numbering 105, left 
in the ears that evening for Cleveland. 


Sidney S. Sprague, William J. Irvine. Charles 
Kah-lo. Henry II D. Bell, Christian It. Graham, 
John W. Wilson, William Graham, McCartney Todd, 
Charles A. Smith. E'rancis M. Hums, William M. 
Burn.-, William M. Bagan, John Dillon. Jeremiah 
Hall. Lewis Colman, Charles Colman, Aquilla 

Masters, Adam Menzel, Adin Burt, L-.i Michelson, 
Jedufhau Barnum, Joseph Shulte. Jonas Bixby 
William M. Rosjera, George EI. Block, Aaron ( 
Alexander H. Brilton, Charles Oden, Lewis Watt< r 
man, Samuel Toops. Edward Smith, Daniel Whit- 
more, David Uuckmastur, Llden Keazer. Samuel 
Vanvlerah, Henry Lazenby, Jonathan Warwick, 
Daniel Bishop, Bailey Fleming. Elijah Karnes, 
Ferdinand Messmann, Jacob Warwick, Edmond 
Metz, Casper Sirolff, William Hershberger, Fraukl q 
J. Block. Amiel Feachin, William Wheeler, Napo- 
leon Peaehin, Clark Bailey, Israel Elton, John 
Weippert, James Allen. Henry Gengrich, Orlando 
('"'well. Abraham Vanvlerah,. Frederic W. Hoeltzel, 
Cyrus M Witherill, Demetrius L. Bell, Pet r 
Sieren, James Oden, Robert McGaffick, Jacob Gils, 
Joseph Murphy. Franklin M. B. Winans, David A. 
Gleason, Ransom P. Osborn, William H. Palmor, 
Joshua Harper, Michael Franklin, Morgan Rees 
John W. Davis, William Demland. Solomon H. Cur- 
tis, Solomon Deamer, Nicholas Buckmaster, Charles 
Martiilius, James Hoy, Philip Holm. Peter Mi gg, 
Jonas Waldner, Henry Miller. William H V> 
li Lry R. Randall, Samuel Kyle, Hoary Hendj 
Edward Col well. John Poorman, J-_tcob Poorman, 
Augustus Wearn. William Davis. Aaron Dixou, 
Michael Carl. John Moll, James Kochei, Michael 
Rath. Philip Rath, Isaiah F. Alexander, Franklin 
Duck. C. J. \\ oodcox, Alvah Mallory, Benjamin 
Corwin, Frank Young. Aden Koch David B 
July 26, 1861, Capfc. Sprague's i <mpam avri sd 
huiue without the loss of s man, notwithstanding th« 
dangerous service in which they had been engaged. 


This company was also mostly from Defiance 

John W, Wilson, Captain. 

David A. Gleason, First Lieutenant. 

Promoted — William T. Bennett. Second Lieu- 

William T. Bennett. Firs. Sergeant. 

Davi.i Trine. Second Sergeant. 

David V\ . Mettler, Third S. rgeanfc. 

James S. Eckles, Fourth Sergeant. 

William \\ . Moats, Fifth S< rg< ant 

Philip Rath. Firsl Corporal. 

John Cam. Second Corporal. 

Elijah Collins, Third Corporal. 

El; Knapp, Fourth Corporal. 

Lquilla Masters, Fifth Corporal. 

Alv..ra Partee, Sixth Corporal; missing at Chiek- 

John B. Partoe, Seventh Corporal; killed at 



Johnson Miller, Eighth Corporal. 
William Luce, Wagoner. 


William C. Adair, Daniel Beard, John M. Burlew, 
Charles Black, George I! lack, Joseph E. Brendle, 
Jeremiah Brown, John Beehtolt, John N. Crist, 
David Crick. William R. Cosgrave, S. G. Cosgrave 
(enlisted December 10, IS63), Michael W. Campbell, 
Elza Dnsh (enlisted January 25, 180-1), John W. 
Davis. Hiram Farlee, Joseph IT. Forest (died of dis- 
ease at Nashville, June6, I S62). Alfred Gregg, Ben- 
jamin F. Gibbs, Jacob Gilts, Heniy Genrick, Abra- 
ham Gilts, Daniel Gilts, Jess© O. G. Gavel, Will- 
iam Graham, Erasus Gleason (enlisted February," 
1864), Weeden H. Han-is. William Hall (enlisted 
December I 1. IS(53), Chauncey Karris. Jacob C. Hall 
(enlisted February, IS04), Jacob Hols tzel, Solomon 
Hall (enlisted February 10, 1864). John Haver 
(enlisted February 28, 1863, died at Ringgold, Ga.), 
James H. Haver (enlisted February 24, 1804), .James 
Haver (enlisted January 14, iS'U), Samuel A. Kezor, 
Oliver I. Kiaft. Reazon C. Livingston, John Long, 
Joseph Murphy, Davidson Millhouse (enlisted Jan- 
uary 17, 1864), George Murphy. Samuel Noffsinger, 
Barnard O'Callagan, George Partee, Nicholas Parry. 
Emanuel Potterf, Henry B. Randall (died of wounds 
at. Chickamagua, October. 1863), John P. Rath (en- 
listed December L4, 1863, died at Chattanooga, 
May, LS64), Michael Bath (enlisted December, 14, 

1 yr*°\ O* ■> TT T ~* i 1 ' ■» i r> ^ t . - - 1 o,- ! . .. 

lOOO), kDUilum 11. J-iOOi, i.UiiL.'uiiiiu'JU, 'j (ILuU . :'|.palitri . 

William C. Sponsler (wounded at Chickamauga and 
Atlanta). Hugh S. Sfceen, James A. Stoner (enlisted 
February 10, 18641, Lyman S. Sager, Louis Swartz, 
Anthony Shindler. John Th mas. Nicholas Thomas, 
Samuel Toop, Franklin M. F>. Winance. John Wag- 
ner,Alvin Wilcox, Henry C. White, Gabriel Yanser. 


The Twenty-first Ohio was organized at Camp 
Taylor, near Cleveland, on the 27th day of April, 
1801, with the follbwing officers: 

Jesse S. Norton. Colonel. 

James M. Neibling, Lieutenant Colonel. 

A. J. Taylor, Major. 

It moved on the 23d of May, passing through 
Coliunbus. where it received its arms, to Gallipolis 
It went into camp at that place and remained there 
until ihe 3d of July, when ;t moved to Ravenswi »od, 
by order of Gen McCIollan, to re-enforce the Seven- 
teenth Ohio, then ex] ting an attack from 0. Jen- 
nings Wise, whose forces Lay at a little town called 
Ripley, twelve or fifteen miles from the river. The 
National forces under Col Norton, of the Twenty- 
first Ohio, disembarked at 11 o'clock at night, made 

a forced march to Ripley, surprised the rebels and 
drove them from the place. The expedition then 
returned by steamer to Gallipolis. A day or two 
after this, Col. Norton made a reconuoissance up the 
Kanawha River, and captured forty prominent rebel 
citizens as hostages for the good treatment and safe 
return of some loyal Virginians captured by the no 
torious Jenkins. Col. Norton also led an expedition 
to Jenkins* farm, just below Guyandotte, consisting 
of Company F, Capt. George F. Walker, and Com- 
pany C. Lieut. A. McMahan, and captured a steam- 
boat load of cattle, horses, corn, etc., for the use of 
the army, and once more returned to their camp at 
Gallipolis. On the 11th of July, Gen. Cos took com- 
mand of tii? brigade, "consisting of the Eleventh, 
Twelfth and Twenty-first Ohio, the First and Second 
Kentucky, Cotter's First Ohio Battery of two guns, 
and Capt. George's Cavalry, and marched to Pied 
House, on the Kenawha River At this point Col. 
Norton was ordered to make a reconnoissauce for the 
purpose of discovering the rebel position. Company 
F, Capt. George F. Walker. Company H, Capt. A. 
M. Blackman, and Company G, Cap' Lovell, wi b a 
portion of Capt. George's Cavalry, started under 
command of Col. Norton, early on Sunday morning, 
the 14th of July, moving on three different roads, 
all terminating at a little village on Scarey Creek, 
where it empties into the Kanawha River. After 
marching some eight miles, tb • neiny's pickets .vere 
encountered in achurch. from which they fired and fell 

' ■ ■ -.' . '1, .•..-...-:. I. ,l.- to-- . . ■ i ,..,..... »i . 

i^nx n. Oil CLltTll llxO.111 i."-AlT. ultotiui o .,u;u lurJ^u Lu. 

by Col. Norton, which developed the enemy in force on 

the opposite bank of the creek, occupying a strong posi- 
tion, with a full battery. After developing toe 
strength of the rebels, the Nat'onal troops fell back 
two miles, and at 12 o'clock that night were re-en- 
forced by the remaining companies of the Twenty- 
first Ohio and part of the Second Kentucky, under 
Lieut, Col. Enyart; but lacking artillery. Col. Norton 
thought it best to fall back and await the arrival of the 
main body. On the loth the main ]>-x\y, under Gen. 
Cox, arrived, and on the morning of the 17th Col. Lowe 
was placed in command of a force consisting of his 
own regiment, Company K, Capt. S. A. Strong, and 
Company D. Capt. 1'h unas G. Alien, of the Twenty 
first, Capt. Cotter's two rifle guns, arid a portion of 
Capt. George's Cavalry, as an attacking column, and 
ordered to drivo the enemy from his position The 
fight opened at great disadvantage to the Nationals, 
from the fact that theiroid United States smooth bore 
muskets did not carry far enough to reach the enemy, 
who were stationed in tho bed of the creek and i . < 
tooted b;> its hiidi banks. Ool. Norton, seeing the 
disadvantage, determined to drive the enemy out of 
the creek with the bayonet, and as a preliminary 



movement, sent ;i flanking force to turn the enemy's 
left and divert his attention from the conti oiplated 
charge in front. The charge was snccessfally made 
fay Col. Norton, with two companies of the Twelfth 
Ohio, under Lieut Col. White, and two companies 
of the Twenty- first Ohio, the enemy being lifted out 
of the creek and thf> whole rebel force driven back, 
Col. Norton was severely wounded through the hips 
in this affair, but remained on the field. Imping to l>e 
supported l>y Col. Lowe. Three messengers were 
dispatched to Col. Lowe, none of whom was killed, 
but the needed support was not giveu. In the mean- 
time, the enemy received re-enforcements; and dis. 
covering that tho National force was not properly 
supported, again abandoned their column, and in 
turn drove them, capturing Col. Norton, and Lieut. 
Browu. of the Twelfth Ohio, who had remained with 
Col. Norton and the other wounded. The loss in this 
engagement was nine killed, including Capt. Allen 
and Lieut. Pomeroy, of Company D, and seventeen 
wounded. On the evening of the battle. Col. Wood- 
ruff. >>f the Second Kentucky; Col. De Villiers, .if 
the Eleventh Ohio, and Lieut. Col. George W. Neff, 
of the Fir-.t Kentucky, rode up to the battle-ground 
by a different road from that on which the 
troops were retreating, and were instantly made pris- 
oners by the rebels. Che Twenty "first Ohio remained 
in the field, under command of Lieut. Col. Neibling, 
until ordered home to be mustered out. which oe- 
cnrred on the 12th of August, 1861, at Columbus, 
Ohi'\ Tt wis again re-organized on the l'Jth of Sep- 
tember. 1861, for the three years' campaign, and 
mustered into the service at Findlay, Ohio. It re- 
ceived marching orders a few days thereafter, was sup- 
plied with arms at Camp Dennison on the 2d of Oc- 
tober, and marched the same day for Nicholasville, 
Ky. It remained there ten days, and was then or- 
dered to march to McCormick's Gap to join Gen. Nel- 
son, then in command at that point. During that 
campaign, no engagement occurred, excepting that 
at Ivy Mountain, in which the rebels attempted au am- 
bush but were foiled and whipped, mainly through a 
think movement executed by the Twenty-first Ohio, 
The rebels were driven from that line and the whole 
command returned to Louisville, reaching that city 
in November. The National army was re-organized 
in the following December under Gen. Buell, and 
moved to Bacon Creek and Green River, where it re- 
mained in winter quarters up to late in B'ebruary. 
In Gen. O M. Mitchel's division, the Twenty-firsj 
marched on Bowling Green, driving the rebels from 
that strong position. Then moving direct on Nash 
ville, (Jen. Mitchel summoned the city authorities to 
surrender, which demand was promptly acceded to. 
Col. Keunett. of the Fourth Ohio Cavalry, took r-,5u 

session of the city on the 13th of March. On :! o 
1 i ill, Gen. Mitchel's column mi ived out on Mm fr. ,.-, 
boro Turnpike, occupied Murfreesboro on tin 10th 
and remained there until the lib of April, when it 
moved on Huntsville. At this point the Fa mo 
pedition under Andrews, a citizen of Keutu I 
sent out tn sever the rebel communication with Uioh 
mond, so as to prevent re enforcements from roachim* 
Beauregard. This was made up from the Twenti 
first. Thirty third, and Second Ohio, and consisted of 
twenty four men. It failed by reason of meeting 
trains on the road not specified in the time table in 
possession of Andrews. From Fayetteville. the com 
mand moved, on the morning of the 10th of April, 
f .'■ Huntsville and reached that place on the morn- 
ing of the 11th, drove the rebels out, captured 300 
prisoners, sixteen locomotives, and a lavge number 
of freight and passenger ears. The most vigorous 
measures were then inaugurated by Gen Mif 
Expeditions were sent in every direction, railroad 
bridges burned, and every precaution taken against 
surprise. One of these, which consisted of Corapam 
C, Capt. McMahan, and Company F, Capt H. H, 
All. an. of the Twenty-first, and. a portion of the 
Twenty-third Ohio, all under corm land of Col. < >scar 
F. Moore, of the Thirty-third, was sent to Stevenson, 
Ala . to burn an important bridge spanning the 
Tennessee River. It was completely successful, and 
returned to Huntsville. About the 20th of April, 
Capt. Milo Caton. Company H, of the Twenty first 
Ohio, was sent in charge of rebel prisoners to Nash- 
ville. On his return he was surrounded by V 
Cavalry, and after a hard tight the Captain and his 
company were ibliged to surrender. The wholo 
party were sent to Richmond. Capt. Caton remained 
in rebel prisons over a year. On the 28th of May, 
the regiment moved to Athens to relieve Col. Tur- 
chin. and remained there up to the 28th of August, 
While the Twenty-first Ohio was at Athens, the nu- 
cleus of the First Alabama loyal regiment was formed, 
mainly through the efforts of Capt. McMahan. The 
regiment returned from Athens. Ala., to Nashville on 
the 29th of August. 1862, and arrived on the 2d of 
S< ptember. It remained with its division, undei 
the command of Brig. Gen. James S. Neglev, and 
was besieged in the city until the 7th of Novem- 
ber, when the siege was raised by the approach of 
the army under Gen. Rosecrans. During the siege, the 
Twenty-first Ohio was engaged in the sallies of La 
vergne, White's Creek, Wilson's Bend and Franklin 
Pike. At Lavergne, the regiment captured ; ; part of 
the Third Alabama Hide Regiment, with their colo - 
and cam]! and garrison equipage, and fifty-four 
horses. On the I9th of November, Gen. Rosecraus 
issued a special order, complimenting this regiment 








cLytxU,\v^vLw£\\ ft^vvx/ 






- I 








s, ■ 





' •-,. 




t "' 

4 j> J £ 




for its efficiency on the grand guard around Nash- 
ville. On the -'''ili of Decern! Br, the Twenty-first Ohio 
moved with the urraj against the enemj ai Murfrees- 
boro. Skirmishing continued incessantly until De- 
cember 31, when a general battle commenced and a i 
tinned until Januarj : '. The Twenty first Ohio 
was engaged every day— first in tin- center, ami. Jan- 
iiai'v 2. on the left of the army. In the battle "f 
January 2, with the rebels under Breckenridge, the 
Twenty-first charged across Stone [liver, the water be- 
ing waist-deep, and captured three brass field pieces, 
the only artillery captured in the battle before Mur- 
freesboro. After the battle Capt. MeMahan, of 
Company C, was recommended to the Governor of 
Ohio for promotion by (leu. .Jam'-- S. Nogley, and" 
wassoon afterward appointed Major of hi.- regiment. 
On the 4th of January, t Li-- Twenty-first entered Mur- 
freesboro, having the advance of its division. In 
the battle of Sti no River, the regiment lost one officer, 
Lieut. Enoch 1J. Wiley, of C rapany <J. and forty-six 
men killed, and Lieut. J. \V. Knagga and sevonty-five 
menwounded. Seventeen men were captured. During 
the occupation of Murfreesboro, From January 1 to 
June 24. 1S03, the Twenty-first was engaged in -"\- 
eral expeditious and skirmishes. On the 24th of 
June, .it moved with the army upon the enemy at Tul- 
lahoma, the enemy having reared upon Chatta- 
nooga, the Twenty-first went into camp with the army 
at Dec-herd Station on the 7th of July. On the 16th 
of August, it crossed the Tennessee River near Stev- 
enson, and drao'o'inir it? artillerv and trains over Lock- enemy was f •-••-.! I :. •: 
out Mountain by hand, it found the enemy at Dug 
Gap, Ga. , on the 11th of September. Heavy skir- 
mishing continued until the 19th, when the enemy 
was found in force on the line of Chickamauga Creek. 
The regiment immediately deployed into line .if bat- 
tle, tinder command of Lieut. Col. P. M. Sto ighton, 
and opened a brisk fire upon the rebels, which con- 
tinued uiiiil night. Early the nest morning (Sunday, 
September 20) the battle was resumed. At ! 1 o'clock, 
the Twenty-first was posted on Horseshoe Ridge, 
upon the earnest request of Brig. Gen. J. M. Bran- 
non, who retired with his troops to another part of 
the field soon afterward. Immediately after forming 
into this new position, the Twenty-first became fully 
engaged, and a severe contest resulted in the re- 
pulse of the enemy, not, however, without -ever us 

to the Twenty-first. Lieut. Col. Stoughton had an 
arm fractured and soon after died. The command 
now devolved upon Maj. A. MeMahan. The result 
of the battle by 3 o'cl ck in the afternoon demon 
strated the inability of the National army to meel 
successfully the immensely superior numbers under 

being armed with Colt's revolving rifles, continued to 
hold its position. The rebels charged upon the r. r. 
inient in this position five times without success, re- 
tiring each time with severe loss. An hour before 
sundown a full battery was broughl to bearupon it, 
inflicting severe damage. Under cover of the smoke 
of this battery, the rebel- charged again, but were mot 
with a volley and a counter-charge and the Twenty- 
first continued to hold its position. The seen e at 
this time was horrible; the battory had set tire to the 
leave.- and dry brush and the dead and wounded were 
consumed by the lire. To remedy this was out of the 
question. To detain the rebels, if possible, was 
all that could be expected, while the troops of Mc- 
Cook's corps, which had been so severely crushed, 
could effect s retreat. The ammunition was now 
nearly exhausted, and a further supply could not be 
found nearer than Chattanooga, nearly a day's march 
distant. The cartridge boxes of the dead were 
searched, and also the hospitals, for any that niighr 
be carried there in the cartridge boxes of the 
wounded. By economy i lie ■• ■■ rl conti ued to 
fire until dark, when its last shot was expended. \t 
this time the enemy had appeared upon the right 
and rear, and the regiment, now greatly reduced in 
numbers, was formed for one more deperate effort to 
hold the ridge and give time for our shattered columns 
to effect a retreat. A charge was ordered by Maj. Me- 
Mahan, and though entirely without ammunition, 
the bayonet was applied with entire success. The 

i\ :.g c;n;J pri..:.r;c7; with 
the Twenty-first Ohio. The helpless condition of the 
regiment was discovered by the enemy in its inability 
to return their lire. It was now after dark, and, in 
a second attempt to push back the enemy with the 
bayonet, the Twenty-first Ohio was overwhelmed, and 
Maj. MeMahan and 115 of the officers and men of the 
command were captured. The Twenty-first Ohio ei- 
pended in this battle 43,550 rounds of Colt's fixed 
ammunition, and sustained a loss of one officer and 
fifty men killed and three officers and ninety eight 
men wounded, and twelve officers and 104 men capt- 
ured. The survivors of the regiment retired with 
the army to Chattanooga, where it arrived September 
'2'1. and remained until January 1, 1864, when it 
re-onlistod as a veteran organization, mainly through 
the efforts of Quartermaster Daniel Lewis. Quar- 
termaster Sergeant George Sheets, and the noi 
commissioned officers of the regiment, and returned 
to Ohio upon veteran furlough. It had in the 
meantime, bowever, been present at the battle of 
Mission Ridge. The regiment returned to Chat- 
tanooga the 6th of March and moved forwar .i to 

command of Gen. Bragg. The National troops were | Ringgold, Ga., from which point it moved, May r, 
forced back on the right and left; but the Twenty -first with Sherman's grand army upon the campaign to 



Atlanta, Ga. Fighting so >n o mi iem d and the reg 
iment opened its veti ran campaign with the battle of 
Buzzard's Roost May 9, and Kosaca May 15. 
Moving forward, the regiment was presenl at the i>at- 
tie of New Hope Church, and on the morning of May 
28, while the regiment was moving to a position in 
reserve a piece of stray shell fractured the right ana 
of Col. James M. Neibling, and the command of the 
regiment again dwvolved upon Maj. V. McMahan, 
who had just returned from Libby Prison. The reg- 
iment was immediately ordered to the front, and in 
capturing a ridge which was abandoned without a 
tight on the" evening before, Company K sustained a 
loss of four men killed and two wounded. The posi- 
tion thn-v captured ci mmanded that of the enemy, and 
was held by the Twenty-first Ohio until the enemy 
withdrew. .Skirmishing continued daily until the* 
enemy presented front at Kenesaw Mountain, June 
17. The Twenty-first was engaged at this point every 
day, holding the front line at Bald Knob, twelve 
nights and days in succession, at which point Lieut. 
Roberts. Dilworth, of Company G, and two men 
were killed and ten men wounded. On the 4th of 
July, the regiment marched through Marietta in pur- 
suit of the enemy, who had retired toward the t'hat- 
tahoochie River a previous night. Skirmishing con- 
tinued until the 9th of July, when the regiment was 
ordered forward to learn the position of the enemy, 
with orders to attack and drive in his outposts. A 
severe engagement at Yining's Station was the re- 
sult Two regiments of the enemy, the Fourth Mis- 
sissippi and Fifty -fourth Louisiana Infantry, were 
encountered in their ritie pits. A charge was or- 
dered by Maj. McMahan, the ritle pits captured, with 
seventeen prisoners and thirty- three stands of new 
English ritles. The enemy was driven into his main 
works after a desperate struggle, in which the Twen- 
ty-first Ohio lost fifteen men killed, and tw > officers 
and thirty-seven men wounded, and one officer rm.-s- 
ing. The regiment continued to hold the riiie-pits 
and annoy the enemy in his main works. Corporal 
William Waltman, of Company G, upon this occasii a 
led his company in the charge, and would have been 
promoted had not his term of enlistment expired lie- 
fore his commission could be obtained. Early on 
the. morning of July 10, the enemy withdrew, and the 
regiment advanced by daylight to the Chattahoochie 
River. No other troops besides the Twenty dirst Ohio 
were engaged on this occasion. Having crossed the 
river, the regiment again engaged the enemy at 
Nancy'-^ Creel;, July 19, and continued to engage him 
until Jul) 20, when the battle of Peach Ire Creek 
was fought. In this battle Capt. Daniel Lewis, 
Company C, was killed, Sergt. Maj. Earll VV. Merry 
was wounded and had ;; leg amputated, On the 

22d of July, the siege of Atlanta was commenced, 
and continued until the [light of September 1. '•<• :. 
the defense of that city was abandoned by the enemy 
in consequence of his defeat at Jonesboro, thirty- ive 
miles south of Atlanta. The rwentj lirst Ohio, dur 
iug the siege of Atlanta, was engaged with theenei »y 
on several occasions, and was tinder his fire everyday. 
At the battle of Jonesboro, Ga.. September 1, which 
won Atlanta, the regiment was again engaged, and 
again added new laurels to its character as a lighting 
regiment. Its loss in this battle was five men killed, 
thirty men wounded, and one man missing. After 
the battle of Jonesboro, the Twenty-first returned 
with the army to Atlanta, ami went into camp on the 
Sth of September. The total loss of ti.e regiment in 
this campaign, from May 7 to the occupation of 
Atlanta, September 2, was two officers and thirty two 
men killed, and five officers and 11',' men wounded, 
many of whom subsequently died. On the third of- 
October, the regiment moved with the army in pursuit 
of Hood toward Chattanooga, .and arrived at Gales- 
ville, Ala... Ootobor 20. From this point it returned 
to Atlanta, where it again arrived on the 15th of 
November. On the 16th, it moved with the army in 
the direction of Savannah, Ga. On the dthof Decem- 
ber, it, aras engaged with the enemy uoar Lumpkin 
Station, on theAugusta & Savannah Bailroad. From 
the 12th to thi night of the 20th of December, it was 
engaged with the enemy's outposts before Savannah, 
and -entered the city the following morning at '•.' 
o'clock A. M., in advanco cf its army corps. During 
this campaign, the regiment destroyed three miles of 
railroad and captured eight thousand rations for its 
own use. It also captured forage to supply twenty - 
one head of horses and mules attached to the regi- 
ment during the campaign. Six prisoners of war 
were also captured. The regiment lost one man 
wounded, and fourteen were " bushwhacked " by the 
enemy. The regiment moved again from Savannah. 
Ga. . un.lei command of Lieut. Col. McMahan upon 
the campaign through North and South Carolina. It 
was engaged at Rocky Mount, S. C, and subsequently 
at Averysboro, N. C. and participated in the battle 
of Bentonville, N. C:,on the 10th of March. In this 
battle it sustained a loss of one man killed and one 
officer, Capt. \y-. B. Wicker, of Company £, and four 
men wounded and ten men missing. On this cam- 
paign, a large amount of railroad was destroyed by 
this regiment, and it drew its subsistence entirely 
from th-_couutry through which it passed, and also 
supplied the liorsi and niuies which belonged to it 
with sufficient forage, Ewenty-one rebel prisoners 
were capture i b) the regiment during this campaign. 
During the battle on the 19th of Harsh at Benton- 
ville, Lieut. Coi. McMahati was assigned to the com 



maud of his brigade and Capt Samuel F. Cheney, of 
Company B. to the command of the Twenty fir I 
Oliio. This was the last hostile meeting of this regi- 
ment with tho enemy Tho rebels retired rapid!] 
from Goldsboro through ttaleigh, X. C, the 1 
ment marching through that city on the FJth of 
April, L8G5, and to ived forward to Martha's Vine 
yard, whore it remained nut : 1 the confederate forces 
trader Gen. J iseph E. J ihnston laid down their arms 
and dispersed. The regiment then returnedto Wash- 
ington via Richmond, Va., and was present at tho 
grand review on tho 26th day of May, LSG5. It then 
proceeded to Louisville, ivy., where it was mustered 
out of service, and from there returned to Oolunibus, 
Ohio, where it. was finally discharged and paid on the 
28th day of July. 


James P. Arrants, Captain; resigned. 

Lewis E. Brewster, first Lieutenant 

Samuel F. Cheney. Second Lieutenant. 

Osgood Crary, First Sergeant. 

John Berry. Second Sergeant. 

Finlay Britton, Third Sergeant 

John Mercer. Fourth S, rgeant. 

George T. Squire. Fifth Sergeant. 
James Knight, First Corporal; died in Anderson - 
ville Prison, 1864. 

William Henry. Second ( poral. 

Samuel Hull. Third . -poral; died in Anderson- 
ville Prison in ISO t 

Isaac Douafin, Fourth Corporal; io^i on the Sul- 
tana, 1865. 

P. L. Gingery, Fifth Corporal; died in prison. 

John Kaufman, Sixth Corporal. 

E. M. Brown. Seventh Corporal. 

Mat B. Scott. Eighth Corporal. 

Peter Huffman, Corporal; enlisted February. 

L. B. Wort Musician" 


HeDrv Amidon, James Burton, Levi Bron- 
son, Joseph Beerbower, Joseph Battershell, Ed- 
ward Crawford, Washington Clemmer (enlisted Jan- ; 
nary, 1864), JeiTy Crawford, George Crawford, 
H. Cory (died in Andersonville Prison. IS04), Myr a 
L. Cory, Leonidas N. Crossland, William Dumedd, 
Levi Dutter (died at Louisville, Ivy. June 19. 1364), 
Charles H. Davis, Jacob W. Dowell, John W. Doty, 
James Evans, Benton Fisher. Simon Fligle (killed at 
Chickaulauga), Anson Fields, George Ferry, William i 
Freedline, William Forbv\ (enli : I 1863), Peter 
Foust, William Forlan (enlisted February 6, 1864), 
Joseph Fellnugle. Simon W Fish (enlisted January ! 

4, 1884), Heniy Gilbert, George Gilbert, Samuel E. 
Grear (died at Stone River. 1863), Horace Gi 
Henry Gingery (died in Kentucky |, Charles Godfn ,. 
John F. Gallagher, Reuben Headley, George H ■;■ 
kins, Lucius Hop <■ . Appeton Hopkins, Reuben C. 
Hide, Robert Hutchinson (died from wounds, 1864), 
Samuel Hnl, -hiii-on, Wesley Johnson, Thomas R 
Jacobs, Josiah Kile. Cornelius Kile, Rinaldo Kim 
me), William Knight, Benjamin F. Lord. II 
Lowery, Washington Logan, Shannon Mussor (killed 
at Stone River, December 31, 1S62), Anthony Miller, 
Henry Mo, .re, Alexander McConkey, Charles McCon- 
key, Andrew McConkey, Samuel Marshall (died in 
Andersonville prison, 1864), John Merrihugh, Wil- 
son Mnsser, Joshua Mullinick, Thomas Mullinick, 
J. G. Norrick (enlisted February 25, 1864, died at 
Nashville, Tenn., September 22, 1864), Charles 
Palmer (died in Andersonville Prison, 1864), William 
C. Powell, William Ranles, Nathaniel Smith, Solo- 
mon Smith (killed 1862), Hiram Sweet, John Saltz- 
man (enlisted January 1. 1864), David Spindler (en- 
listed February 25, 1864), Milton Sheen (enlisted 
February 11, I.S64), Emanuel Schamp, William A. 
Shatto (enlisted February 6, 1864), John P. Sj 
David Thornton .'killed in Tennessee in 1862), Ji 
Tracy, Martin B. Tnsteson, John W. Young, Newton 
Van Nimon (died in prison, 1864), Nathan Wartenbee 
(killed' in 1864), Nelson Wise. 


The Dennison Guards (Capt. Strong), left Defi- 
ance for Cam). Taylor, Cleveland, May 13, 1861. On 
Sunday evening preceding, a farewell meeting was 
held at the Methodist Church, wher appropriate ad- 
dresses were made and a beautiful flag made and pre- 
sented by the ladies of Defiance, and acknowledged 
by Capt. Strong in a few well-chosen remarks. Hun- 
dreds of relatives and friends accompanied the com- 
pany to the depot, indicating kindly feelings toward 
its members as well a3 a hearty sympathy for their 
success. Hearty cheers sped them on their way. 

Samuel A. Strong, Captain. 

John Paul, -U:, First Lieutenant. 

James l J . Arrants, Second Lieutenant 

Lewis E. Brewster, S< rgeant 

Frank G. Brown. Sergeant. 

B. B. Woodcox, Sergeant 

S. F. Cheney, Sergi ant 

William H. Thacker, Corporal. 

William Bishop, Corporal. 

L. R. Hutchinson, Corporal. 

John 11. Davison, Corporal. 

Benton Mason. Drummer. 

John C. Smith, Fifer. 




William H. Thackor, William H. Ralston Will 
iam A. Stevens, William Marcellius, William R. 
Lisetor, William Bishop, William E. I rood li 

William H. Smith, William Banyan, David Butler, 
Samnt'l A. Strong, Samuel F. Cheney, Joshua E. 
Mellen, John Paul, Jr., John B. Houtz, \'< ajamin F, 
Warren. Benjamin B. Woodcox. Luther H. Robinson, 
Josiab B. Cox, John li. Davison, Henry Yanvlerah, 
George Watson, Frank G. Brown. Isaac T.Slough, 
James Keesberry, Jacob Benner, Thomas Palmer, 
Nicholas A. Robbins, Dewalt Reefer, John Kraft, 
James M. Richards, Jacob Weller, Barney O'Calla- 
hati. Thomas Wallace, Washington Logan,William J. 
Shirley, William Dufiield John Mercer, Myron L. 
Cory, Amos II. Cory, Joseph Rath, Jos, 'phus 
Saunders, James M. Miller. Thomas C. Kinmont, 
Charles Kinmont, Peter Foust, Charles P. Palmer, 
Lyman R. Critchfield, David K. Critchfield, Lean- 
der R. Hutchinson, Levi Heminger, John E. Boland- 
er, Peleg L Gingery, James P. Arrants, Samuel 
Hull, Edward M. Brown, Henn 1 osc, Williai i Kauf- 
marm, Joseph Bot< ; ■ j i i I ■ r. Mai hias Schwab, Lewis E. 
Brewster, Benjamin C. Bondee. >■ a < Smith, Owen 
Foster, John Young, John Sunday, Albert Deselms, 
George W. C. Blue, Fre lerick Helm, Barton Smith, 
Billings O. P. Cronk, Sylvester Donley, Albert L. 
Doud. Isaac Ridenour, Moses H Haver, George T. 
Sheldon, Franklin Barnes, Benton Mason, Samuel 
Justice, John P. Kellogg, William Luce, Wiliam Mc- 
Feeters, William X. Bowles. 

Company K arrivedhoi teAugust 15, 1861. Will- 
iam Bishop was wounded, and remained at Gallipolis 
for awhile, not being able tocomeatthe time. Bar- 
ton Smith died from wounds, and G. W. Blue was 
killed at the battle at Searcy, on Kanawha. With 
these exceptions, the company returned entire. 


This regiment was organized at Defiance. Ohio, 
on the 1st of September, 1 V, '>1. under the President's 
call for 300,000 men for three sears. 

The following were tun regimental and staff 
officer* : 

E. D. Bradley, Colonel, of Stryker, Ohio. 

E. II. Phelps, Lieut< cant Colonel, of Defiance, 

E. L. Barber. M tjor, of Wauseon, Ohio. 

Rev. J Poucher, Chaplain, of La Fayette. Ohio 

E. H. Leland, Vdjutant, of Defiance. Ohio 

C. L. Can-,'. Quartern! ter, of Stryker, Ohio. 

H. C. Bonton, Wagou Master, of Defiance 

M. D. L. Biiel, Sergeant Major, of Stryker, 

On the 22d of September, it w: - I red to 

('■mi' Dennison, where it was arini I equipped and. 
to a considerable extent, drilled and disciplined I 
then ordered into active service in Kentucky on the 
1st of October. At sunrise on the morning of the 2d. 
the regiment passed through and encamped ueaj lie- 
town of Nicholasville. Remaining here aboui two 
weeks, it was ordered to the relief of the garrison at 
Wild Cat, Ky. . and after a forced march of sixty 
miles, reached its destination on the 19th of October, 
1S61. Afterward, it pursued the enemy to Loudon 
and Barbonrsville. marching on all the subsequent 
campaigns during tb<> fall of 1861, and Christinas 
f md the army encamped near Somerset. Ky. Dnr- 

; ' liter ol 1861 and 1802, the men. being 

almost ci ■ ■;; tith on duty, and not accustorne I to the 
rough usages cf camp life, became sickly, and in a 
short time, out of 900 men, loss than three hundred 
were fit lor duty. The regiment participated in the 
campaign of Mill Springs, after which it marched to 
Louisville, vhere it arrived February 28, 1862. On 
March I, the regimenl embarked on transp its, des- 
I ed for Nashville, Tenn., where it arrived on tb 
of th •■ ; i mo th, and went into camp to ] 
the coming a mpaign in the spring of 1S62. On the 
19th of March, it left Nashville with the Army of the 
Ohio, marched tbr< >ugh Middle I • im< --<■•■. and, d 
th< month of Apri en< amped on the h itl ie .1- I 1 of 
Pittsb trg Landing; m ir ted with the army m 1, i Hal- 
leek, toward Corinth. Mi-s.. and took an active part in 
the siege ot that place. After the evacuation ot C > 
inth, .May '27, 1862, the Thirty-eighth marched with the 
army in pursuit of Beauregard as far a* Boouevilie, 
and, on its return, encamped near Corinth until the 
20th of June. 1S62 when, with the Array of the Ohio, 
it marched in the direction of Tuscumbia, Ala , where 
it arrived on the 28th of June. Rem, ini ig there un 
til July 21, it marched, via Decatur and Huntsville, 
to Winchester, Tenn.. where it arrived A.n<nist 7, 

n - 

1862. During this month, several reconn itering 
parties made extensive detours through the mountain 
spurs, in the direction of Chattanooga, then the L- ..1 
quarters of the re! »larmy. In these reconnoissam es, 
no regiment took a more active part, than the Thirty- 
eighth Ohio. A party of eighty men made a forced 
march of thirty-six miles, captured Tracy City, and 
after destroying a large amount of tobacco, whisky, 
leather and articles of less value, returned to camp, 
having marched seventy-two miles and destroyed a 
large a int of pr rty with ■ .;aman. This 

march was performed in less than twenty-four hours. 
On September 1, 1862, I . a tin reti gf.rade march 
from the vicinity of Chattanooga, which terminal d 
only when the army reached the Ohio. The Thirty - 
eighth Ohio endured all the bardshibs and shared all 



the trials of that campaign. Remaining bui a short 
t inn ;d Louisville, on the 1st of October the t i iment 
marched southward with the army, and, on the v !n. 
fon mi '.he enemy in position at Chaplin Hills, near 
Perryville, Ky. The Thirty- eighth participated in 
that battle, and afterward in the campaign in Ken- 
tucky, until, on the 27th of October, it went into 
camp on Rolling Fork, near Lebanon, Ky. Remain- 
ing here but a short time, during which a detachment 
of recruits was received, it again took up the line of 
march in the direction of Nashville, Tenn. During 
the months of November and December, 1802, the 
regiment was guarding railroads between Gallatin 
and Nashville. In the latter part of December, the 
regiment marched to Nashville, and prepared for the 
approaching campaign, which terminated with the 
battle of Stone River. The Thirty eighth acted a 
very conspicu as pari in that battle, losing but few 
men, however, and. after the battle, went into camp 
near the city, where it remained until March 13, 
when it joined the forces then at Triune. While 
there, it built the earth fortress known as Fori 
Phelps. On the 23d of Juno. ib63. the Thirty-eighth 
marched with the Army of the Cumberland, ami t ok 
an active part in the Tullahoma campaign. After 
resting a short time at Winchester, Tenn.. on the 
17th oT August th.' march of Chattanooga began. 
The Thirty-eighth moved with the center corps, en - 
ing the Cumberland .Mountain-, and finally halted ou 
the banks of the Tennessee, opposite Shell Mound, 
where rafts of logs were constructed, preparatory to 
crossing the river. Crossing the river on the night of 
September '_'. 1S63, the march was resumed across 
Lookout and Raccoon Mountains, and the middle of 
September found the army in Lookout Valley. Pre- 
parations were made for battle, by sending every- 
thing to the rear that would encumber the army. 
The large train belonging to the entire army was sent 
to Chattanooga, and rhe Thirty-eighth Ohio, detailed 
by a special order from Gen. Thomas, was charged 
with the safe transit of the immense train. Accord 
ingly, on the evening of the 18th of September, the 
train starved, and ere the morningof the L'th of Sep 
tember dawned 'he train was within sis miles of 
Chattanooga. The Thirty ei_d,th did not participate 
in the struggle on the field of Chickamauga, but it 
performed the tttsk which the vicissitudes •<( war as- 
signed it. On the 2r>thof November, 1863, the rlivis 
on to which the Thirty eighth belonged assaulted 
the fortifications ai the foot of Mission Ridge, as 
cended the hill and carried the works, driving the reb- 
els from them. The '1! ivt i ighth was on the ex 
treme left of the irm) and although Bragg had pro 
nounced the slope inaccessible, yet they moved up, 
up, up, until the summit was reached. The tire from 

the rebel batteries was terrific, yet comparath 
harmless, and but few '-.ere injured. lu this charge 
the regiment lest seven men killed and forty 
wounded After pm-suing the enemy as far as i. 
gold, Ga., tl;e Thirty-eighth returned to camp near 
Chattanooga, where it re enlisted as a veteran organi- 
zation, and was furloughed home-. At the expiration 
of the furlough, the regiment joined the army, then 
at Ringgold, Ga. Recruits were sent forward, and 
when Sherman started for Atlanta, the regiment num- 
red 741 men. On the oth of May, 1864. the regi- 
ment broke camp at Ringgold, and marched to Buz- 
zard's Roost Gap, where it was brought into action. 
After skirmishing two days, a tiauk movement was 
commenced, via Villanow and Smoke Creek Gap, 
nearly in rear of Resaca. Hero the Thirty-eighth 

I erected field-works, and skirmished continually, and, 
thou"h no general engagement took place, —jveral 

j men were killed and wounded. Aiter the evacuation 
of that place, the regiment participated in the cam- 

I paign which followed; took an active part in the sioge 
f Kenesaw, fortifying and skirmishing, and on the 
5th of July. 1S64, reached the banks of the Chatta- 
hoochie River. Remaining here until' -Tidy 17, the 
advance was again sounded, and the river was 
crossed. On the 22d day of .July, the Thirty-eighth 
had the honor of establishing the picket-line of the 
Fourteenth Army Corps, i .r the City of Atlanta. It 
remained there some ' t; ', hi . lina its place in line, 
until August 3, when it moved to CJtoy Creek, lb re, 
on the 5th of August, a portion i the regiment " >m 
panies A, C and K) charged the enemy's skirmish 
line, and was successful. Out of the .120 men ivho 
charged, nine were killed and forty-two wounded. 

! On the night of the 25th of August, the regiment 
marched with the arm) on a flanking expedition, and, 

! on the 27th. struck the Atlanta & West Point Rail- 
road. Remaining there until the 31st. it again ad- 
vanced, and that night took- possession of the Macon 
r ad, near Red Oak Stati >n. Remaining there .hir- 
ing the night of September 1, it was ascertained that 
the enemy was then fortifying Jonesboro, and the 
army was put in motion for that place, and about 4 
o'clock 1'. M. came upon the pickets of Hardee's 
corps. Este's brigade (to which the Thirty eighth 
belonged), of Baird's divish . - brought forward 
and assaulted the works. In this charge, the regi 
ment I st,out of 360 men, 12 killed and 108 wounded; 
making a total loss of 150 men Corporal O. P. Ran- 
dall had the colors at the onset: he fell lifeless, 
pierced b) a minLe ball. Corporal Br.ird uiextftooli 
them, and he. to >, ''" ; 1 dead Corporal Strawser next 

toi . tl, ■:... iu I he fell sevi rely w jliuded. O r i : l] 

g then took the flag, and bore it to the works. 
Of the live who had in charge the colors, but one 



(Corporal H. K. Brooks) escaped unharmed, although 
not untouched, for five balls passed through hiscloth- 
ing. The dead were buried on a little knoll near the 
battle-field, and the regiment encamped near the town 
of Jbnesboro. On r 1 1 • ■ ; .'ili of September, the id >p- 
f ell back to Vtlanta, and those who were not veterans 
were 'discharged. On the 3d of October, l v *il. the 
army broke camp, and retraced it.- recent line of 
operations as far north as Dalton.Ga., Hood having. 
in the meantime marched to the rear of Gen. Sher- 
man. The Thirty eighth accompanied the expedition 
thus far, moved thence, via Gaylesville. Ala., to 
Rome, and. on the 5th of November, marched to 
Kingston. Ga. On the 12th of November, communi- 
cation was severed, and the army started for Savan- 
nah, marching along the line of the Georgia State 
Railroad, destroying it as they went, until theyreached 
Atlanta a second and hist time. During the march 
from Atlanta to Milledgeville, there was nothing to 
mar the progress of the army. Arriving at the cap- 
ital on the 24th of November, the Thirty eighth was 
ordered into the city as a provost-guard, where it re- 
mained until the 25th, when Ihe army 'moved on in 
the direction of Louisville. Just before reaching 
Louisville, the army left the road it had been moving 
on (the Augusta pike), and inarched directly east. 
It became necessary that the bridge across the Big 
Ogeoehee should he destroyed, and the Thirty-eighth 
was designated to perform that duly. This regiment 
had already marched fifteen miles that day, and it was 
yet ten miles to the bridge. After marching ten 
miles, and burning the bridge, it was then thirteen 
miles to where the army went into camp. Misfort- 
une being the guide, the regiment took the wrong 
road, and marched six miles out of the way, and it 
was 1'2 o'clock P. M. when it arrived inside the 
picket-line, having marched that day forty-four miles 
and destroyed the bridge. From Louisville to Savan- 
nahYne march was an agreeable "tie. and. on the 
morning of 'December 21, the Thirty-eighth Ohio 
went into cam;) near the conquered city, the enemy 
having evacuated the 1 night before. During the stay 
of the Thirty- eighth here, 200 drafted men and sub- 
stitutes were received. Un the 30th of January, 
1865, the Thirty-eighth left Savannah with the army, 
and participated in the " campaign of the Carolinas," 
and. after forty days, came to Goldsboro, N. C. 
From there it followed the retirii g army as far as 
Holly Springs, \. C, where it remained until after 
the snrrender o* Johnston's army. From Holly- 
Springs, the regiment marched back to Raleigh, and 
thence to Richmond, a ■: • ilh ( i Alexandria, Va.. 
where it remained until aft< s the grand review at the 
national capital, when if encamped near the city of 
Washington. Remaining ther< in a state of inactiv- 

ity until the !5th "f June, orders were received to 
proceed 1>_\ rail to Louisville, Ky. Meantime, .-. 
tion of the drafted men were mustered out. On the 
15th of June, the regimen! boot the cars for Parkei 
burg, Va., and from there proceeded by i ; it to 
Louisville, Ky., where if arrived on the 23d of Ju i 
Soon after arriving, orders were received for the 
muster out of the regiment, and, on tin- 12th of July, 
the muster-out was completed, and th.' regiment pro- 
ceeded immediately to Cleveland, Ohio, where it was 
hually discharged on the 22d of July. LS65. 


On the morning of September 1. 1864, when the 
battle-line was formed, the color-guard for the 
Thirty eighth Regiment consisted of Oscar Randall, 
George Strawser, Charles Doazo, Darius Baird, 
Hiram Brooker and Charles " The enemy 
were fortified with two lines of earthworks, the outer 
line of which was further protected with a heavy 
abatfis. After the repulse of the regulars, the ad- 
vance was sounde I ! Este's brigade, of which ^the 

Thirty eighth was a part, moved up to the atta'fek, the 
colors of the brigade being borne by Corporal Ran 
dall. The enemy's tire was terribl •, and many of the 
Thirty-eighth boys went down, Corporal Randall 
being among that number. fhe colors were im- 
mediately taken by Corporal Cord, who also fell dead. 
Corporal Strawser nest raised t lie Hag, and was almost 
immediately struck by a bullet. Col. Choate, seeing 
the colors go down, made an effort to reach them, and 
while in the act if seiziug the Hag. received a mortal 
wound. The regiment was now close up to tiieabattis, 
and at this point Capt. Stafford, the Adjutant General 
of the brigade, fell severely wounded. As Corpora! 
Donze was pressing forward, Capt. Stafford seized 
hold of him, and begged him to carry him back. E. 
if McDonald, of Company H. being close at 'nan'!, 
came to Corporal Donze" s assistance, but thej had 
hardly raised Stafford from the .-round when they 
heard a ball strike, and, Capt. Stafford relaxed his 
hold— his life having gone out amid the rattle of 
musketry and the clash of ana.-,, in the service of his 
country. Corporal Donze, turning away from Capt. 
Stafford, discovered the colors ly'ng ou the ground, 
picked them up, and, forcing his way through the 
abattis, planted the colors on the worko. The 
remnant of the brave Thirty-eighth Regiment, who 
had ii I g as down in that t -rrible " 1 aptistn of fire." 
closed up to their ei iors, captured man) prisoners and 
held their position. The old flag is held in -i >d 



remembrance by 1 1 . . - boys who followed it through so 
many buttles, and though but a small .-mil tattered 
portion remains, which is faded and blood-stained, it 
is to thorn more beautiful than on the da) when t] i 
received it with its bright colors and silken Colds. It 
is the sacred memories th;it cluster round it that 
make it beautiful. 


Benjamin Miller. Ca] tain. 

Samuel Donaldson, i"ir^ Lieutenant. 

Jacob C. Donaldson, Second Leiutenant. 

William Boyers, Sergeant. 

H. Lichty. Sergeant 

M. Aurberger, Sergeant. 

T. H. Kintigh, Sergeant. 

Samuel Shuter, Corporal. 

E. J. Deals, Corporal. 
Lewis Tehlimern, Corporal. 
M. J. Grimes, Corporal. 

JRobert B. Hannnm, CorporaL 
J. E. Kintigh, Corporal. 
L. N. Boa!.--, Corporal. 

John B. Murray. Corporal; discharged from dis- 
ability December 11, 1^61. 
John. E. Evans, Corporal. 


A. J. Bostater, Solomon Snider, William W. 
Cameron (died at Lebanon, Ivy.. March 1". 1862), 
James Moore, Nathaniel Grogg (killed at Jonesboro', 
Ga.), Samuel Priest Facob C Hal), Thomas SI usser. 
William C. Hall. Andrew J. Will, Matthias Thirston, 
William H. Taylor, Daniel Hanua, John Season, 
Henry G Hurd, William A. Clark, Elijah E, G iod- 
speed, Rolla C. Hudson, Jacob Mannerla, Frederick 
Percy, Jesse M. Benner, H. Huycke, Frederick Stever, 
Conrad Percy, Christopher Percy. Levi Yeagley, 
Lewis Miller, Ira Dawson, John Dull, John Stinger, 
Hugh Foster. John Strawser, William Brace, John 13. 
Brace, L'lias Churchman, Samuel Motter, Hu_rh 
Davis, Jacob Schartzer, George Strawser, Anson 
Umstead, William Churchman. John S. Cameron, 
Efferson Towle, Henry ^Kimble, William Mapcs, 
Henry A Slough, Washington Meek, Levi Deitrick, 
Ludwig Krowmiller, William Russell. 


Isaac Donafin, Captain. 
J. W. Berry, 1 ieutenant. 
John Mercer, E'irsl Sergeant. 

F. Britton, Sergeant 

E. M Brown, C >r] oval. 
Hiram Sweet, Corporal. 


A. W\ Miller, John H. BriUen, Henry Moore, 

Robert Hutchinson, AsaCorey, racob Dowell. Nathan 
\V r arteubee. freeman Ferry, William Duffield A.J. 
Beerbower, Charles W. Cornwell, George Ferry, C. 
R. McConkey, S. Hull, Edward Crawford, A. P. Me- 
ey, Aii-i n Field, J. P. Spears, L. T. Hopkins. 
J. K. Kaufi'man, S. S. Fligle, R. Headley, G. Crowell, 
S. Smith. VV. J. Henry, Eli Kaser, Solomon Wilier. 


William Lving, Captain: promoted Colonel. 

Jonah W. White, Captain. 

Ransom P. Osborn, First Lieutenant. 

Alphonzo L. Braucher, Second Lieutenant; died 
at Somers t. Ky., January 23, 1862. 

Elbridge G. Willey. First Sergeant: promoted 
First Lieutenant. 

William H. Adams, Second Sergeant. 

David Renton, Third Sergeant. 

Josiah W. White, Fourth Sergeant. 

David W. Lazenby, Fifth Sergeant. 

William Renton, First Corporal. 

Bishop E. Fuller, Second Corporal. 

Frederick E. Weymeyer, Third 'Corporal. 

George Hall. Fourth Corporal. 

Charles W. Morse, Fifth Corporal. 

Jacob Warwicl Sixth Corporal. 

Edmund Metz, Seventh Corporal. 

William W. Ashton, Eighth Corporal. 

Dewa It Ki " ; - , Music an. 

William Dren ing, Musician. 

George Korn, Wagoner. 


Caleb Adams, James K. Andrews, Simpson Ben- 
nett, Benjamin F. Braucher (died on furlough, 
August 6, LS62), Daniel Bishop, David Buekmaster, 
Robert Balking, Charles Burns, Peter Corzillius, 
Hiram D. Coleman, David Campbell, Edward Col- 
well (died in service), Orlando Colwell, Isaac Core, 
Wesley Camp (enlisted 1863), James Dillon. John 
Dillon. Reason C. Dillon, Resolvo Dunn, John De- 
fosse, Aaron Dixon. Daniel Duvall, John Erlston 
(enlisted February, 1865), Martin Edwards, J. B. 
Elliott (enlisted October 1. 1863), Luke Fahey. Henry 
Genrich, Alfred Henry. Alexander Hanover, John 
Hill, Philander Hill, Ransom Holibert, James W. 
Henderson, Charles H. Henderson. Henry Hayiies, 
John Hess, Ni ah Hull. John Heim 'enlisted February 
10. 1S64) Jeremiah Hall William H: Hughes (ej 
listed January, 1863), John Keating, Robert Kyle, 
•Tame- Kyi-'. John Kesler, David Kimberly (killed at 
Jonesboro'), James Kimberly, William Kimberlv, 
John Kayton. Francis Kahlo, Benjamin I-'. Kniss (en 
lifted February I, 180-t) Wiiiiam Lewis, John SV. 
Lewis (died in Kentu ky) Si uiuei Limenstall. Joi 
Langley (died -.' Somerset, Ky., 1861), James C. 



Langley, Benjamin F. Myers, Ferdinand Mesaman, 
Horace M. Morse, Peter Monsoll, Robert McGaflick, 
Edward MeHugh, William Mareellus, Henry Miller 
( enlisted January 29, 1864), John J. Miller (enlisted 
January 29, 1804). Jacob C. Ott Francis Nolan I 
listed October4, 1862), Amos Peachen, Joseph Relyea 
(enlisted January 1. 1864: killed at Atlanta, August 
4, 1864) John Relyea (enlisted January I, 1864), 
John Roever. Jasper J. R issell, Henry Ricka, Joseph 
W. Scott, David Shoup, Joseph Shultz, Joseph 
Slaghel, Andrew Slaghel, Phillip Schwope, George 
Stephens. Daniel Stevens, Lewis Shasteen, Andrew S. 
Shubert, John H. Smith (enlisted February 15, 1869), 
Levi Shoup, Henry Schinick (enlisted December 4, 
1863), Andrew Wauk, Sylvester Ward. William P. 
Wilson (enlisted Febmary J7, IS65), John Widen- 
hamer, Thomas Welch, AiTance W ood, Luke Whitney 
(died in service), John Weippart, William Yoang. 

The following is a list of casualties in the Thirty- 
eighth Begiinent Ohio Volunteer Infantry, at the 
battle of Chattanooga. October, 1863: 


Col. Edward H. Phelps. 

Company A — Lieut. John Lewis; H. P. Dell- 


Company F — Samuel Caskey, J. Cress. 


Sergt. Maj. Brice H. Jay. 

Chief -Mus. J. H. Crall." 

Company A — Ser^t. J. L. Pool, Sergt. J. L . 
Stevens, Sergt. W. A. Slaughter, Sergt. — . Mavis. 

Company C — Joseph Fisher, John Wibist. 

Company D — Eoila C. Hudson, H. Huyeke. 

Company E — Capt. E. M. Durchar, Lieut. A. W. 
Burgoyne, D. McQuilkin, Lewis Cleveland. 

Company F— Orderly Sergt, C. Hakes.G. H. Ward. 
Samuel Alexander, Isaac Robbins. 

Company G — Sergt. Daniel Bishop, Joseph 

Company H -Lieut. Joseph Newman. G. W. 

Company I — John Q. Fashbaugh. 

Company K— Sergt. J. F. Russell, Ser^t. L. 
Showers. — . Murray, William McCutchen. 


Edward Herrick Phelps was born in iliqhville, St. 
Lawrence Co., N. Y., December 17, L827 Choosins 
law as his profession, he aommeaced reading prepar 
atory thereto with Judge -Tame-, o! Ogdeusburg. 
In ISol, h« moveii to Defiance, Ohio, where he com- 
pleted his reading in the iffieeof Wolsey Welles, ; .nd 

was admitted to the bar in I s "''.'. He afterward mar- 
ried Han nt Welles. 

At tho breaking-out of the civil war Col. !": tips 
was enjoying a lucrative practice in Defiance and 
adjoining counties On President Lincoln's call for 
three months' men, he issued the Srst .'all for troops 
made in Northwestern (-'Li", but soon received the 
appointment of Paymaster General of the State, from 
G>>v. Dennison, which position he accepted, and as 
sisted the Governor and Ail jt. Gen. Carrington in 
organizing anil equipping the three months' men, and 
afterward paid those of them in service in Western 

His first commission in the army was that of 
Lieutenant Colonel of the Thirty-eighth Eegiment, 
and dated June 10, 1S61, and on the resignation of 
Col. Bradley, he was promoted to the command of 
the regiment, March 6, 1V>2. At the time >.f his 
death he was in command of the Third Division. 
Fourteenth Army Corps. His regiment took part in 
all the movement- of the Army of the Cumberland, 
under Gens. Buell, Grant, Roseerans and Thomas. 
Although not actively engaged in many battles, it.-, 
service was among the most severe, and its standing 
highly honorable. At Wild Cat it arrived at the 
close of the battle, and pursue'! the enemy to Lon- 
don. It was unable to reach Mill ^-printr. until the 
fighting was over. It took part in the siege of Cor- 
inth, and pursued the enemy to ; ' ■ tivilie, ind acted 
in reserve at Stone River. It bore an honorable part 
in the severe engagements of Chickamauga. having 
charge of ordnance and supply train-, bringin ' t ! :- m 
safely off. The Thirty-eighth Regiment formed par: 
of the gallant force that stormed and captured Mis 

sion Ridge on Wednesday, November 

« hieb 

closed the series of brilliant victories which will 
make Chattanooga memorable in our national history, 
and give the thousands of gallant men who achieved 
them a stronghold on the admiration of the world 
and gratitude of every true American. 

Col. Phelps was killed at the battle of Mission 
Ridge. He had been quite unwell before the battle — 
so much so. indeed, that on the night preceding his 
dea:h he called in two surgeons for consultation; but 
when the order was .riven for the grand advance on 
j the rebel str >nghold. he eouldnot think of remaining 
I behind, and moved as usual at the head of his com- 
'. : 1. When the) charged up the hill, he found him- 
self to., weak to climb, and being unable to ride his 
horse, owing to "the steepness of the ascent, he was 
I- rue al >ag h\ four of his men. Thus he continued 
^it! i his 1' iga : i i th it daring assault, until the sum- 
mit was attained ai I rhile organizing bis men to be 
prepari i for any attempt of the enemy to re take the 
stronghold thus valiantly graspe 1 from rliem, he was 



shot by n sharpshooter concealed only fifteen or 
twenty rods from him, the ball entering his breast 
and ki J Iililt him instantly. 

Col. Phelps from his boyhood took adeep interest 
in military matters, having iu his youth acted as 
Lieutenant and Captain in the New York Volunteer 
Militia. Before ho was Twenty one years old, and 
during the Mexican war, he enlisted a company, and 
started tii join the federal army in Mexico, but peace 
was declared befcrre he reached the field. As a law- 
yer, he was very industrious, energetic and persever- 
ing, qualities which he carried into military service. 
A strict disciplinarian, he carried out ever} order to 
the letter. Ho was particularly neat iu his own pet 
son and dies-, and was careful to see that attention 
was given to the same objects by his men. especially 
about their camps and quarters The sanitary con- 
dition and wants of his command were always prom- 
inent in his thoughts, and he was renowned for his 
kindness and care of the sick and disabled. He was 
strictly temperate in his habits, never using intoxicat- 
ing liquors, or tobacco in any form. 

Thus passed away another of the true men— the 
jewels of the nation. Col. Phelps' body was interred 
at Toledo, on Saturday, December 5, 1863. 

This regiment was organized at Camp Dennison 
on the 17th of February, 1802, and soon after departed 
to Gen. W. T. Sherman, at Padncah, Ky. After a 
short rest 't f Padncah, it moved up the Tennessee 
River, on the steamer Express, and on the 19th of 
March disembarked at Pittsburg Landing. On the 
4fh of April, while the regiment was on drill, a firing 
was heard, and tbe Forty-eighth, at once moved in 
the direction of the sound; but the enemy fell back, 
and at nightfall the regiment returned to its quarters. 
About 7 o'clock on the morning of th'- 6th, the regi- 
ment advanced upon the enemy, and was soon warmly 
engaged. Charge after charge was repulsed, and 
though the rebel tire wa-i making fearful gaps in the 
line, the men stood firm. A battery was s>-nt to their 
aid, but after firing four shots it retired. The rebels 
then advanced, eonndentl} expecting to capture the 
regiment, hut they were driven back, and the Forty- 
eighth withdrew to its supports, having b len oa lered 
three times by Gen. Sherman to fall hack. It is 
claimed that Gen. Johnston, of the rebel army, was 
killed iu this portion of the battle by some meml er of 
the Forty eighth. The regiment was actively en- 
gaged during the remainder of the da v. and, late iu 
the afternoon, iu connection with the Twenty- foxirth 
Ohio and Thirty-sixth Indiana, it participated in a 
decisive attack on th" rebel lines, [j acted through- 
out iu B.uqk-laiuVs brigade of Sherman's division — a 
brigade which had no share in the earlvrout of a p irt 

..if that division. Ou the second day of the battle, 
about 10 o'clock A. M, the regiment wen! into 
action across an open field, under a galling fire, and 
continued constantly es posed until the close of the 
engagement. The Forty-eighth losl about one third 
of its members in this battle. From this time until 
after the close of the rebellion, the regiment engaged 
continually iu active duty. In the attack upon 
Corinth, the Forty-eighth was among the firot organ- 
ized troops to enter the rebel works. Iu Gen. Sher- 
man's first expedition to Vieksburg, it occupied, 
with credit, a position on the right iu the assault: 
and it was in Sherman's expedition up the Arkansas 
River, and distinguished itself in the battle of Arkan- 
sas Post. It was with Grant during his Vieksburg 
campaign; fought at Magnolia Hills and Champion 
Hi'dn; and participated in a general assault on the 
rebel works in the rear of Vieksburg, May 23. 1S63. 
On the Hoth of June following, another general as. 
sault was made upon the same works, and the Forty- 
eigh h was ordered to cross au open field, exposed to 
t»vo enfilading batteries, to take position in the ad- 
vance line of rifle-pits and to ] ick off the enemy's 
gunners. This order was successfully executed. It 
took a prominent part in the battle of Jackson. 
Miss., and soon after engaged in the fight at Bayou 
Teehe. At Sabine Cross Roads, the Forty-eighth, 
then a mere remnant of its former self, severely pun- 
ished the '•Crescent Regiment," but, in tarn it was 
overpowered and captured. It was not exchange I 
until October, 1! Si. The majority of T '"e men iu the 
regiment re-enlisted, but, on account of the capture, 
they never received their veteran furlough. After its 
exchange, the regiment shared in rite capture of Mo- 
bile. After the surrender of the rebel armies, the re 
maining 165 men of this regiment were ordered to 
Texas. The regiment was at last mustered out of the 
service in May, 1806, arriving at Columbus, Ohio, 
May 21, 1866, having been in the service over four 
years, and traveled, during that time, through eight 
Southern States, a distance by laud and water 11,500 
miles, aud being next to the last Otiio infantry regi- 
ment discharge!, from the service. 


Virgil H. Moats, Captain; promoted Major; died 
at Cincinnati from wounds received at Vieksburg. 

Aquilla Conrad. First Lieutenant. 

Daniel Guusaullus. Second Lieutenant. 

William H. Smith. First Sergeant; nromoted First 

Frederick VV. Roeltzel, Second Sergeant. 

Homer VV. Moats, Third Sergeant; died 1862. 

Joseph Rath, Fourth Sergeant; died at Defiance, 
on his way homo, December, 1864. 

George VV. Laser, Fifth Sergeant. 



Edward J. Todd, Wagoner. 
William H. Doud, First Corporal. 
John E. Richardson, Secon 1 Corporal. 
James Elliott, Third Corporal. 
Demetrius L. Bell, Fourth Corporal. 
Robert Cosgrave, Fifth Corporal. 
Frederick Speaker, Sixth Corporal. 
Philip Roberts, Seventh Corporal. 
Charles Marfilius, Eighth Corporal. 
"William W. Russell and George A. Williams, 

priv* res 

J. Arast. H. Arnold, Metcalf A. Bell, Charles Bam- 
ler, E. Byers, George Byers. Charles Burger, Georg • 
Blair, Eugene Bran t,D. M. Bell. Thomas Brannan,John 

Butler, F. G. Bridenbaugh, William J. Cole, William 
E. Carpenter, Cornel iuE Conard, Edwin Cary, Michael 
Charl (enlisted 1864), Michael Carroll, William Don- 
ley.Edward Doud, William Ellis,Mathew Elliott/Will- 
iam Kdwards, Levis Ferris, Benjamin Gripps, Nelson 
D Grogg, George G. Hopkins, David Hollibaugh, 
Daniel Hannah. Frederick h 'Imick.Harmac Kockman, 
Frederick Hoeltzel, John M. Johnson, G. W. Janes, Paul 
Jones. Joseph Kibble. John J. Kane (killed at Vicks- 
burg. May, 1863), ,Robert Kibble (died at Shiloh 
March, 1S'">H>, Samuel Kochel, Isaac E. Kintigh, 
Patrick Kearney, John Kead. C. Lowry, William 
Lawrence, James Lawrence. Emanuel Miller, 
Philip Miller, F. R. Miller, George Morrison, James 
Myers (died in hospital November, 1863), George 
Minsel. James McFeeters, Edward McViekers, Philip 
McGuire. Joseph McKillips. Charles McHugh, H. 
Nolan, Christopher Nagle. Dennis L. 1'itts. Obadiah 
W. Partee, Joseph Partee, John E. Partee, John 
Rhinehart, Isaac Randall (died of disease at Bolivar, 
Tenn., August 0. 1862), Thomas O'Rourk, Rudy 
Ruler, S. F. Roush (died at Shiloh March 26. 1862). 
Rhoda Ryan. Emanuel Reisch, Isaac Ridenour, 
Elias Ridenour, Jacob Snyder, ivter Smith ('tied in 
hospital at Shiloh, 1862), Andrew Smith, Francis M. 
Smith, Andrew Schmidt, James Sanders (died in 
hospital at Albany, 1862), Robert Sauders, Wentlin 
Shiels, Abraham Spitler, Matthias Shellinberger, 
George Trestle (enlisted 1864), Jacob Taylor, Alvara 
Vanskiver (enlisted January 17 1S64), William 
Wright, Alfred Winters, Charles E. Williams, A W. 
Whipple, David E. Welker. 


When the Forty-eighth Regiment, to winch Com- 
pany F belonged, was overpowered and captured at 
the battle of Sabine Cross Roads, La., April 8, 
1S64, the color-bearer, Isaac Scott, in the midst of 
the excitement threw down the regimental dag, but 
an old man sprang forward and tore the old flag 

from its staff and slipped it into his haversack He 
was left sick on his way to prison, ami did not arrive 
for some time after; but through all his sickness he 
clung to tin flag, and upon arriving at ('an.;. Ford, 
Tox.. to which place the regiment had pn ceded him, 
delivered it t<> the officers of the regiment for 
keeping, and it was sewed tip in Capt. Gunsauilus' 
blouse (he then being Captain of Company Fi. insidi 
of the lining, where he wore it in safety up to the time 
of their being exchanged, at the mouth of Red River, 
on the Mississippi, October 23, 1864. after an im- 
prisonment of sis months and fifteen days. Parsing 
down tin- Mississippi a short distance, they left the 
rebel craft ami were turned over to Col. DwigLt, 
Commissioner of Exchange. He ordered them on 
board the St. Mary's, where a band of music from 
New Orleans, and a number of ladies — wives of. 
Union officers — were awaiting their arrival. Upon 
boarding the vessel, they proceeded immediately t « ■ 
the upper deck. The old dag was then torn from it.-^ 
place of concealment G.'s blouse), and hastily 
tied to :: stall" prepared for the oi it this sig- 

nal, the band --truck up the " Star Sp.ingled Banner," 
and the old flag of the Forty-eighth was unfurled < 
the breeze, with waving of handkerchief-, and amid 
the wild shouts and deafening cheers of the released 

The flag vwis afterward placed in the flag room of 
the State House at Columbus, Ohio, where it now 

The rebel Assistant Agent of Exchange. Cant. 
Birchett (who accompanied the prisoners), on his re- 
turn t" Camp Ford related to the remaining prisoners 
how Hie flag of the Forty eighth Ohio, in his pres- 
ence, was torn from the coat of one of the officers, 
after they were exchanged at the mouth of Red River. 
He said it was one of the most exciting scenes he ever 
witnessed, and that the regiment deserved a great 
deal of credit for preserving their colors dining their 

>i.\tv-;:ii;iit:i oiiio infantry. 

This regiment commenced to rendezvous at Camp 
Latta, Napoleon, Henry County, on the 21st of No- 
vember, 1861. Defiance, Paulding. Williams ami 
Pulton Counties each furnished one company, fnd 
Henry County furnished the majority of the men in 
the other .• mpauies. The regiment was quartered 
in Sibley tents and furnished with stoves, and the 
men were rendered very comfortable. Rations were 
abundant, and of an excellent quality; and sup] 
of poultry, vegetables, fruit and cakes from home 
were received frequently. All these things made tee 
campaign in the winter of LS61 62, in Henry County, 
the most pleasant campaign through whioh the regi- 



ment ever passed. On t Ia. - 21st of January. 1862, t he 
regiment moved to Camp Chase, where it remained 

until the 7th of February, when it removed to Fort 
Donelson, Teun., arriving on the 1 1th. The regi- 
ment was assigned to Go i. Charles F. Smith's ■livis- 
ion, ami was constantly engaged in skirmishing on 
the left of the lines during both days" operations. 
After the surrender, the regiment encamped near 
Dover until the loth of March, when it moved to 
Metal Landing, on the Tennessee, and from there by 
boat to Pittsburg Lai, ding. The health of the regi- 
ment, until this time, had been remarkably good: but 
now bad weather, bad water and bad rations reduced 
the regiment's strength from 1,000 to less than two 
hundred and fifty men. The regiment was assigned 
to Gen. Lew Wallace's division, and during the battle 
of Pittsburg Landing, was engaged in guarding 
ordnance and supply trains. Lieut. Col. Scott and 
Capt. Richards, finding that the regiment was not 
likely to be engaged, went as volunteer aids to Gen. 
Thayer, and in his official report were mentioned for 
gallant and efficient service. During the operations 
around Corinth, the regiment was constantly engaged 
in building roads, bridges and intrenchments. After 
the evacuation, the Sixty-eighth, with the Twenty- 
third Indiana, was stationed at Bolivar, where they 
re-built the bridge across the Hatchie, and formed 
the guard along the railroad for a number of miles. 
The regiment participated in the battles of Iuka and 
Metamora, and for gallantry in the latter engage- 
ment was complimented in general orders. It closed 
the campaign of 1.802 by f< rating the advance of an 
expedition, which attempted to [penetrate the interior 
of Mississippi to Vicksburg. The design was frus- 
trated by the surrender of Holly Springs, arid the 
regiment returned to Memphis. Disasters in different 
portions of the army, and the influence of the traitor- 
ous press North tended to depress the -pints of the 
Western army, and some regiments lost heavily by 
desertion; but, during this time, only one man in the 
Sixty eighth was reported as a deserter. During the 
campaign in Mississippi, the regiment was assigned 
to the Second Brigade, Third Division, Seventeenth 
Army Corps, and it continued to serve with the same 
until the close of the v. ar. 

The spring campaign of LS63 found the regiment 
at Lake Providence, La., where it worked hard on the 
Luke Providence Canal, and in a fruitless attempt to 
clear a passage for boats through Bayou Ten- is. It 
was engaged, also, on a similar work at Walnut 
Bayou, in the vicinity of Eagle Bend. About the 
10th of April, 1863, the regiment moved down to 
Milliken's Bend, and was for some -time engaged in 
working on the military road toward Richmond, La. 
While here, Lieut. •!. C. Banks, of Compan , C, and 

Private John Sny dor, of Company A. Joseph Long 
bury and William Barnhart, of Company O, volun- 
teered to take one of the transports, a common river 
steamer, past the Vicksburg batteries. They accom 
plished tl eir undertaking successfully on the nighi of 
the 21st uf April. On the 23d of April, the regiment 
began its march for the rear of Vicksburg. It 
marched more than seventy miles over low bottom 
lands, still partly submerged, crossed innumerable 
bayous on bridges hastily constructed of timber from 
neighboring houses and cotton gins, and reached the 
Mississippi at Grand Gulf. The regiment moved 
down to Brunersbnrg, where it crossed the river, and 
by a forced march, was able to participate in the bat- 
tle of Thompson's Hill, May 1, 1S63. The regiment 
followed closely after the retreating rebels, and was 
engage! in the battles of Raymond, Jackson. May 1 !, 
Champion Hills and Big Black. The regiment sus- 
tained considerable loss in all these engagements, and 
especiallv at Champion Hills. The regiment engaged 
in an attack on the rebel works in the rear of Vicks- 
burg on the 18th of May, and it participated in the 
assault on Fort Hill on the 22d. During the early 
part of the siege, the regiment was almost constantly 
in the trenches, and it also furnished large details of 
sharpshooters; but during the latter part of the siege 
it was placed in the Army of Observation, rear Dig 
Black. It was on the reconnoissance toward Yazoo 
City, in the latter par 1 ; of June, and it participated 
in the engagement at Jackson on the 12th of July. 
After the battle, it guarded about six hundred prison - 
ers into vicksburg. The regiment was quartered 
comfortably in the suburbs of Vicksburg until the 
middle of August, when it moved on an expedition to 
Monroe, La., and returned with one-third of its men 
either in the hospital or on the sick-list. In Octo- 
ber, the regiment moved on a reconnoissance with 
the Seventeenth Corps, and was engaged in a skirmish 
at Bogue Chitta Creek, and on the oth of February. 
LS64, it participated in the tight at Baker's Creek, 
while moving on the Meridian raid. This expedition 
prevented the regiment from going North, on veteran 
furlough, a.s promptly as it otherwise would have 
gone. It was cnt' of the first regiments in the Seven 
teenth Corps to report three-fourths of its men re- 
eniisted. it having done so on December 15, 1863. 
Upon its return from the Meridian raid, the men 
were supplied with clothing, and the regiment em 
barked for the North, leaving 170 recruits at Vicks- 
burg, who arrived just as the regiment was moving 
d fwn to the landing. The regiment arrived at Cair i 
on the 23d of March and embarked on the cars. 
moved by way of Indianapolis, Bellefontaine an 1 
Columbus to Cleveland, wher;' it arrived on the 26th. 
Through Illinois and Indiana the regiment wa« wel- 



corned every whore with banners and flags. It wasen- 
tertained substantially at t Iil- Soldiers' Home in In- 
dianapolis, on the, morning of tli<> 'J lib. and was 
feasted bountifully by the citizens of Muucie, [nd., 
on the evening of the same. The regiment was de- 
tained ten days at Cleveland, before a Paymaster 
could be obtained, and soon after payment the regir 
ment started for Toledo, where it arrived at 3 o'clock 
P. M., on the * '► 1 1 1 of April. It was met by a delega- 
tion- of citizens, headed by the Mayor. of the >.-i ty. with 
bauds of music, and after marching through the 
principal streets it was escorted to tbe Island House, 
where a splendid dinner was in waiting. This was 
the first welcome the regiment had received since en- 
tering the State. Special trains were made up on the 
different roads, and by night all tbe men were where 
they felt sure of a welcome — at home. On tbe 7th 
of May, the regiment again took the cars at Cleve- 
land, and proceeded to Cairo by way of Cincinnati. 
At Cairo it was joined by the recruits left at Vicks 
burg, and these, with those obtained during the fur- 
lough, numbered over three hundred. Here, too, the 
regiment turned over its old arms, and drew new 
Springfield muskets. On the 12th of .May. the regi- 
ment, with more than seven hundred men for duty. 
embarked for Clifton. Tenn., and thence it marched, 
by way of Huntsville, Decatur and Rome, to Ac- 
worth, Ga., where it joined the main army under 
Sherman on the 1 ' 'tLi of June. During tbe remainder 
of tbe Atlanta campaign tbe Sixty-eighth was under tire 
almost constantly. It was on the advance line for 
fiixty-fivedaysandnights, and it was engaged at Kene- 
saw, Nicojack. Atlanta, July '_'.! and 28, Jonesboro 
and Lovejoy. On the 22d of July, the regiment was 
engaged very heavily. It bad been selected to go to 
the rear, and to picket the roads in the vicinity of 
army and corps headquarters; but upon reaching its 
position, it discovered in its front, instead of caval- 
ry, a corps of rebel infantry, while at the same time 
another line of rebel troops was forming across the 
road in its rear - . Thus, tbe Sixty-eighth was sand- 
wiched between the enemy's advance and rear lines. 
The rebels were totally unaware of the position of 
this little Buckeye band. The commands of the rebel 
officers could be heard distinctly, and prisoners were 
captured almost from the rebel line of file-closers. 
As the rebel Hue moved forward, the Sixty-eighth 
advanced, cheering, on the double quick, and drop- 
ping behind a fence poured a volley into the rebels. 
who were jn the open held. The batteries of Will 
ler's brigade, Sixteenth Corps, responded to the 
alarm thus given, and the light opened in earnest. 
The Sixteenth Corps engaged the enemy so promptly 
that the regiment was enal led by a rapid movement 
by the iiank and a wide detour, to pass around the 

enemy's right and re join its brigade, which it i • 
warmly engaged. The attack came from front and 
rear, and ihe men fought tirul on one side of tin 
- and then on the other. At one time, a 

of the brigade was on one side of the ks, firing 

heavily in one direction, while a little nay lo 
down the Hue. the remainder of the brigade was on 
the other side of the works, tiring heavily in the other 
direction. The l< i'l of the brigade swung back to the 
crest of a small hill, the right still resting on the old 
works, and a few rails were thrown together, forri 
a barricade, perhapsa foot high, when the last charge 
of the day was made by two rebel divisions. On they 
came, in splendid style, not tiring a shot, arms at 
"right moulder shift." officers in front, lines - li 
dressed, following each other in quick succession. 
Tie- brigade held firm until the first line had crossed 
a ravine in its front, and the second line of reserve 
could be seen coining down the opposite slope. Then 
came a terrific crash of musketry, ana then volley 
after volley. The rebels fell back, leaving the 
ground thicklv strewn with the dead and dving 

After tbe engagement at Lovejoy. the regi 
was stationed on the Rough and Readv Road, 
East Point. for two weeks, when it moved in pursuit of 
Hood The regiment advanci ! i - far as Ga< lesviile, 
Ala., aod here quite a number of men were mustered 
out by reason of expiration of term of service. The 
regiment commenced its return march about the 1st 
of X ■■ ber, at d n ved \\\ way of CavoS] rings and 
Lost Mountain to Smyrna Camp Meetii ; Ground, 
where the men were supplied with clothing, and 
everything was thoroughly overhi tiled. The railroad 
was destroyed, and on tbe 14th the regiment moved 
to Atlanta, and at daylight on the loth commenced 
the march to the sea. With the exception of an en- 
gagement with the Georgia militia at the crossing of 
the Oconee, and the destruction of the railroad 
building- at Milieu, the regiment experienced no 
variation froin the easy marches and pleasant bivi n 
which all enjoyed. On the 10th of December, the 
regiment reached the works around Savannah. On 
the I2th,the Seventeenth Corpsnioved well around to 
the right of the main road running from the city to 
King's Bridge. Here the regiment assistedin throw- 
in" up a heavy line of works, and furnished two 
companies .holy, as sharpshooters. During the oper- 
ations around Savanniih, the regiment .-'.insisted 
almost entirely upon rice, which was found in large 
quantities near the camp, and which the men hull I 
and ground in rude hand mills. Upon the occupation 
of the city, the regiment was ordered on guard duty 
in the town, and was ruarterod comfortably in War 
ren and Oglethorpe Parks, H re t o, the regiin n( 
lost some valuabh men. who were mustered out by 



reason of expiration of term of service. A lai 
number of commissions were received, and the regi- 
ment was supplied with a fine corps of young and 
enthusiastic officers. On the ">th of January. 1865, 
the regiment embarked at Thunderbolt Bay for 13 
fort, and from there it formed the advauce of the 
corps for most of the way to Pocotaligo. Here some 
heavy works were thrown up, and after resting about 
two weeks the troop moved >>n the campaign of the 
Carolinas. The regiment iu i relied by way of Orange- 
burg, Columbia, Winnsboro and Cheraw, destroying 
property, both public and private; but upon entering 
the State of North Carolina, this destruction of prop- 
erty was forbidden by orders from superior head 
quarters. The march was continued through Fayette- 
ville to Goldsboi >, where the regiment arrived rag- 
ged, barefooted and bareheaded, and blackened and 
begrimed with the smoke of pine-knots. On the 
morning after its arrival, the Adjutant's report 
showed forty-two men barefooted, thirty-six bare 
headed, and 200 wearing some article of citizen's 
clothing The regiment rested ten days, and then 
moved • ut to Raleigh. After the surrender of John- 
ston, the regiment marched, by way of Dinwiddie' 
Court House, Petersburg, Richmond, Fredericksburg 
and Alexandria, to Washington City, where it partic- 
ipated in the grand review on the 24th of May. 
After the review, the Sixty-eighth camped at Tenal- £ r a v.. . k, wh< q if was ordered to Louis ville 
Ky. It went info camp about two miles from the 
city, and a regular sysb m of chill and discipline was 
maintained until the 10th of July, when the muster- 
out rolls were signed, and the regiment was ordered 
to report to Camp Taylor, mar Cleveland, for pay- 
ment and discharge. Upon arriving at Cleveland, 
the Sixty-eighth was met at the depot by a delegation 
of citizens, and was escorted to Monument Square, 
where a splendid breakfast was served. After this 
the regiment marched to camp, where it remained 
until the 18th of July, 1S65, when it was paid and 

During its terms of service, the regiment was on 
the "sacred soil" of every rebel State except Florida 
and Texas. It marched over seven thousand miles, 
and traveled by railroad and steamboat over sis 
thousand miles. Betvi ■ nineteen hundred and 
two thousand men belonged to the regiment, and 
of these, ninety per centum were native Americans, 
the other- being Germans, [rish, or English, the 
Germans predominating. Col. R. K. Scott com- 
manded the regiment in all its engagements ex- 
cept Metamora, when Lieut. CoL J. S. Snook com- 
manded until after the Vicksburg campaign, when 
the command devolved upon Lieut; Col. George E. 
Well-, and he continued to h< Id the commaud iu all 

the subsequent engagements, skirmishes and man 
until the close of the war. The regiment was pre 
sented with a beautiful banner, by the citizens of 
Henry County, just before it- muster-out, it h 
been impractii nbli to send the flag to the regiment at 
Atlanta, as « is intended The flag was returned by- 
Col. Wells, on behalf of the regiment, to the citizens 
of Henry County, and is now in the possession of Mr. 
Joseph Stout, of Napoleon, one of the principal 
donors, and always a stanch friend to the Sixtv- 
eighth. The regimental colors were turned over to 
the Adjutant General of the State, and were deposited 
in the archives. Upon these flags, by authority from 
cups and department headquarters, were inscribe. t 
the names of the following battles: Fort Donelson. 
Pittsburg Landing, siege of Corinth, luka, Metam- 
ora, Thompson's Hills. Raymond, Jackson, Champion 
Hills. Big Black. Vicksburg, May 22 and siege Jack- 
son, July 12, Monroe raid, Bogue Chitta, Meridian 
raid. Kenesaw, June 27 and siege, Nicojack, Atlanta, 
July 21. '2'2 and 28 and siege. Jonesboro, Low 
Oc nee, Savannah, Pocotaligo, Salkehatchie, Orange- 
burg, Columbia, Cheraw, Bentonville and Raleigh 


Sidney S. Sprague, Captain. 
John C. Harman, First Lieutenant. 
Thomas T. Cowan, Second Lieutenant; promoted 
\.d j ut 

"William Palmer. First Lieutenant 
Isaac lee. First Sergeant. 
Jonas E. Bixby. Second Sergeant 
Jacob Poorman, Third Sergeant 
Joseph Brown. Fourth Sergeant. 
Samuel Hooper. Fifth Sergeant. 
Jo=hua Harper. First Corporal. 
Henry Shoemaker, Second Corporal. 
Levi A. Allegar, Third Corporal. 
Abraham Sponsler, Fourth Corporal. 
Henry Force. Fifth Corporal. 
James B. Reaser, Sixth Corporal. 
Lewis P. Derby. Musician. 
John Smith, "Wagoner, 


Joseph Aukney, Michael Aukney, Joshua Auknev, 
Frederick Aldinger, George F. Bohn, Christopher 
Bable, John Berryhill, Martin Bentley, Jacob Bosl 
. d< zander R. Britten, William Brown, George Bai 
John A. Bolander, John !'. Bean, William Brown. 
Charles Bailey, Nicholas Buckmaster, William Buck- 
master, David Bucko later, in Cuddy, James Cot- 
• S.Gcsb< Peter Gilts, Ge< rge Good, 
John Gibson. Daniel Howard, Hugh Houston, John 
M. Barman, David Hoy Martin Efalstentall, August 



Heineman, Harvey J. Hill. Jr. (died at Rome, Ga.. 
Jane 16, IS64), Minor Ice, Andrew J. [Ce died from 
wounds at Vicksburg, Oliver L. Jones, Lewis Jaynes, 
Ebenezer Jaynes, Levi Jaynes. -I >bu B Jackman, 
Eber Jaynes, Elijah Ke !er, Jacob Killion, James 
Kelly, Frederick Klamuier, William P. Kleinhenn, 
John M. Kleinhenn, John Killion, William A. Kraft. 
John H. Kraft. Columbus Keudig, Christian Klotz, 
John Coom, John Colwell, Francis M. Deerwester, 
Erastue H. Derby, Freeman E. Derby, Hiram Davis, 
John B. Etehiu, Edward Fredericks, Henry H. Fer- 
guson, John D. Fornay, Charles H. Keselmyor, John 
Lewis. Jonathan Lewis, Columbus D. Lewis, John 
Lindemann, Edward Levan, Michael Lary, John 
Larev. William Lake Thomas Lang, Thomas Lee. 
Simeon Mansfield, Feter Moog, .Jacob Miller, JohnL. 
Miller, Peter Miller. Jamps McCnllough (enlisted 
January. 1S64), Joseph McKillips, Thomas Palmer, 
John W. Prowant, Galen Peters. Enos M. Partee, 
Joab C. Prickett, Edward Pefteperry, Luther H. 
Piobinson, George Raney, Andrew Roush, Joseph 
Richards, John Ripley, Henry Relnu, Isaac Randall. 
Andrew J. Sanford, Cornelius Seiver, Enoch Shoe- 
maker, David Shoemaker, Oregon Shaffer, Amos 
Spangler, Jacob Sponsler. David Sundy, Christian 
Spieth, John J. Sutter, Adam Steams. Edward 
Smith, McCartney Todd, William E. Todd. Alvaro 
Vansciver, Samuel Yanolerah, Anion Vanolerah, Will- 
am Vanolerah, Isaac B, ^ ansciver, Michael Wall, 
Otto Waltz, Andrew Wilson, Thomas Ward, Thomas 
Wallace, Joseph Wall, George Watson, William 


This regiment was organized at Toledo during 
the mouths of July and August, 1>02. and was mus- 
tered into the service on the 1st of September follow- 
ing. On the Sth of September, the regiment moved 
to Cincinnati, for the defense of that city. On the 
9th. it went into position on Covington Heights, a 
few rods in front and to the left of Fort Mitchel. 
The regiment marched for Lexington, Ky., on the 
Sth of October, a'id remained there, undergoing 
a thorough course of instruction, until about the 
1st of December, when it moved to Richmond. It 
was engaged in work on the fortifications until 
the 26th of December, when it moved to Dan- 
ville, and on the 3d of January. 1863, it moved to 
Frankfort. Toward the last of February, it marched 
to Lexington, to intercept a rebel raid, and from that 
point it marched to Crab Orchard, Mount Vernon, 
Somerset arid to various other points, where the pres- 
ence of the enemy rend ! it necessary. On the 13th 

of August, the regiment went into camp at Danville, 
preparatory to the march of F-iat Tennessee. Upon 

arriving at Knoxville, a portion of tl egin • ni 

nt up t i the Virginia State line, to gu -.. I he rail- 
road. The detachment 240 strong, was captured by 
the enomy on the 1th of September, an I was -••>.■ 

R I n I, Vh The regiment participated i'i thi de 

fense of Knoxville, and was on active duty luring 
it- stay m East Tennessee. Marl;, in the spring of 
1 V> |. the regiment marched in the Twenty-third Army 
Corps to join Gen. Sherman, then at Tunnel Hill. Ga. 
It moved on the Atlanta campaign, and was present 
at almost even- battle from Rocky Face Ridgo to '■ i 
lanta. On the 6th of August, it was engaged in an 
assault on the rebel works in front of Atlanta, with a 
loss of 103 men out of 300. Thirty six men were 
killed .in the fii Id and eight more died Erora wotmds 
within the noxt thirty days. The Colonel was dis- 
abled for life. After the evacuation of Atlanta. it 
joined in the pursuit of Hood, and participated in 
the battle- of Franklin and Nashville. It moved 
with the Twenty-third Corps to Washington, N. C, 
and was there actively engaged, ft marched into the 
interi >r, and moved from (i ildsboro to Raleigh with 
Sherman's army, li next moved to Greensboro, and 
front there to Cleveland, Ohio, where it was muster d 
out of Lhe service on the 1st of July. 1805, having 
served two Near-* and ten months from muster-in to 
muster out. The One Hundredth lost, during its term 
of service, 65 men killed in act on, 1 i-2 wounded, 27 
died of wound-, 108 died of disease, 325 captured by 
the enemy and 85 died in rebel prisons. tt partici- 
pated in ih>- battles of Leuoir Station, Knosville, 
Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Dallas, Etowah Creek, 
Atlanta, Columbus, Franklin. Nashville, Town Creek 
and Wilmington. 

Co MP AX Y V, 

William H. Thornton, Captain, 
William Bishop, Jr., First Lieutenant. 
James U. Blue, Second Lieutenant. 
A. K. Tate. First Sergeant. 
L. G. Thacker, Second Sergeant. 
Henry Oboe. Third Sergeant 
Bailey Fleming, Fourth Sergeant. 
Dar.iel W. Smead, Fifth Sergeant. 
Gilbert White, First Corporal. 
Otho Collier, Second Corporal. 
Jehu K. Bucklew, Third C< rporal. 
John Meek. Fourth Corporal. 
Solomon Deamer. Fifth Corporal. 
Martin Neuhausel. Sixth Corporal. 
Peter Marcellns, Seventh Corporal. 
Isaac S. Miller, Eighth Corporal; promoted First 
Lieutenant, afterw rd Q larfermaster. 

( rge i Yedericks, .\i usic 

Frederick Mar* b. Musician. 


l: j ,5 


Sidney Anson. George Adams, Isadore Arlinger, 
D. W. Anderson, Lewis D. Blue, John F. Book- 
waiter, A. T. Brechbill, James M Britton William 
VI. Bridenbaugh, William Brown, Francis M. limn-. 
Avery Burnett, John Barringer, George Clemmor, 
William Cheney, Oliver Oassleman. L. 1!. Critcbiield, 
John R. Cram (killed at Atlanta), Aaron Clark. 
Daniel Dunlap. Henry Dunlap, Franklin Duck. John 
Davis, Ephraim I>. -t h_t, Albert A. Estell, John Ful- 
mar, James A. Fleming, Simou W. Figley, Alexan 
dor Granstaff, John Geiselman. Aaron Hopkins, Ben- 
jamin Hutchinson, John W. Hyers, Edward lluleti, 
John 1J. Houtz, George Hall. Samuel (limes, G or 
Hill,. Wilson S. Hufford, William Hilbert, Uriah W. 
Hosack, Hiram Hopkins. David Harper, Myron 
Johnson, Asa Johnson, Albert King, Samuel Kyle, 
Valmore Lambert, Charles J. Lewis, Samuel Logan, 
Andrew Minsel, Isaac N. Miller (died in service), 
Levi Miller, Martin Miller, William Miller. Enoch 
Meek, John W. .Myers. William Morris, Harvey 
Manstii Id. Job Mansfield, Gideon Mnlni-x, George 
Ohliger. John 01 Mark B. Page, Thomas Peter- 
son, L'riah W. Shasteen, F. W. Shultz, Jacob 
Schmidt, Henrj Shoemaker, Augustus Tarbbert, 
Frederick Wiler, Martin G. Worden, John Wells, 
Ludwig Wiles, William Wheeler, William Warlenbee, 
Joseph Wiley, Frank Weismantel. John Wessel, 
George Wo dward, Edward Woodring, John K. Wil- 
son, Joseph Young, Franklin L> Zigler, Henry Zig- 


This regiment was composed almost wholly of 
Germans. It was re-organized August 25, lSG'J, at 
Camp Taylor, near Cleveland. It lay in camp at 
this place drilling ami preparing for the field, until 
the latter part of September, when it moved under 
orders to Covington, Ky . opposite Cincinnati. This 
move was made with reference to an anticipated at- 
tack on Cincinnati by a rebel force under Gen. Kirby 
Smith, then operating within a few miles of Coving- 
ton. The regiment lay at Covington about one week, 
when it returned to Delaware, Ohio, but >t was shortly 
thereafter taken by rail to Washington, where it was 
engaged for nearly a month constructing breastworks 
and fortifications- around and i?j the vicinity of the 
city. In the early part of November, the regiment 
marched to Fairfax C. H. , \'i . where if remained two 
.weeks. Stafford C. H. was its next stopping place. 
At this point it was assigned to the Second Brigade, 
First Division, Elovonth Army Corps, Mij. Gen. Sigel 
commanding Remaining at Stafford C. H. only two 
weeks, it marched on a flanking expedition to : ..-' left 
and rear of Fredericksburg, with the purpose of co- 
operating with Gen. Burnside's army in a second at- 

tack. This plan was frustrated by the wretched 
dition ..ft In roads, and the whole army foil bacl 
and around Brook's Station, where it went into winter 
quarters. On April 29, ISG3, the One Hundred and 
Seventh Ohio, with its brigade and division, moved 
across the Rappahannock to < fhancellorsville; here, on 
the 2d and 3d of May, it took part in the battle of 
that name. The regiment was under the command of 
CoL Meyer, and went into the engagement with the 
Eleventh Army Corps, under Gen. Howard. The 
Eleventh Corps was completely Hanked bj Stonewall 
Jackson, and its lines were broken. In this disas- 
trous affair the One Hundred and Seventh Ohio suf 
fered terribly, losing 220 officers and men killed, 
wounded and prisoners. The surgeon of the regi- 
ment, Dr. Hartman. of Cleveland, Ohio, and several 
other officers, were killed. On May 6, the regiment 
returned to its former camp at Brook's Station, where 
it remained until June 12. It then marched to Cal 
left's Station, Manassas Junction and Centerville, 
on its way to Gettysburg, Penn., the rebel army un- 
der Gen. Lee having invaded that State. Passim* 
through Frederick City and Emmi ttsburg, it reached 
Gettysburg on the morning • f the 1--. of July It wa< 
at once engaged with the enemy, taking position on 
the right v ing. In the first day's Sght, the regiment 
and the Eleventh Corp- were compelled to fail back 
through the town of Gettysburg to Cemetery Hill, 
when a new line was form< d and held daring the re- 
mainder of the battle. In falling back to thisplace, 
the regiment lost in killed, wounded and prisoners 
250 officers and men. In the second day's tisfht, in 
a charge made about 5 o'clock in the afternoon, it 
again lost heavily in killed and wounded. In this 
affair the regiment captured a rebel riag from the 
Eighth Louisiana Tigers. Aside from light skir 
mishing, it was not engaged in the third day's fioht. 
Its total loss in the battle of Gettysburg — killed. 
wounded and prisoners, was over four hundred, out 
of about five hundred and lift;., rank and file, with 
which it entered. A number of officers of the regiment 
were killed. Lieut. Col. Mueller was wounded in 
the arm, Capt. Vignos, of Company H, had his ri^ht 
arm shot off; Capt, Steiner, of Company D, was snot 
through the bowels, from the effects of which he sub- 
sequently died; C.M't Speyer, of Company I, was 
shot through the right shoulder; Capt. Fischer, of 
Company F, was shot tbroagb ti breast and ■ 
Adjt. Young, who captured the rebel Hag, was als ■ -•• 
verely wounded; Lieut. John Fischer ,of Company G. 
was shot through the thigh A numb r of other officers 
wer< wounded. who?e tames cannot now be procured. 
With ill guns, all tl :. ! ''f of the regiment, it 

joined in the pursuit of the rebel army, following it 
to Hagerstown, and thence into Virginia, to Catlett's 



station. On Augnst 1 the regiment sailed in trans' 
ports n> Folly [sland.S. (.'., whore it performed pick< ! 
duty until January, 1864. In that was 
taken in boats to Kiowah Island, and from there wad- 
ed over to Seabrook Island, and drove the uneiuj 
from that point. It returned to I lb Island ml! 
remained there until the Tih of February, when it 
made a similar expedition across Seabrook Island to 
Jones' Island. This last movement was made to cover 
the operations of Gen. Gilmore at Olustee, Fla. On 
February 11. the regiment again returned to Follj 
Island, and on the 23d of the same month was taken 
on transports to Jacksonville, Fla. At this place it had 
a few skirmishes with the enemy, aside from which 
nothing of moment occurred.' 'In duly it was taken 
to Fernandino, when, aft r remaining about one 
month it returned to Jacksonville. On December 29, 
the regiment was taken on transports to 1 >evos Neck.'S. 
C. While here it had several skirmishes with the 
enemy, and lost live men killed and some fifteen 
wounded. From this point it marched to Poc fc; ligo 
Station, on the Savannah & ( harleston Railroad: 
thence to Gardner's Corner, whore, for some seven 
days, it did picket duty. It then marched through 
(with some days detention in building bridges, roads, 
etc.) to Charleston-, S-. C. Stopping at Charleston 
one day it joined an expedition, under command of 
Gen. Potter.for the pin-pose of ridding the vicinity of 
rebel bands of guerrillas. Returning to Charleston, it 
was placed on a gunboat and taken to Georgetown, 
S. C. It thi :c did picket duty until the 23d of 
March, then marched to Sumterville, met the enemy, 
defeated him, and captured three pieces of artill- 
ery, six horses and fifteen prisoners. In this affair 
the regiment lost four men wounded. Marching to 
Singleton Plantation, it met and skirmished with the 
enemy, losing two men wounded. A few days later, 
near the same place, it captured a train of era's, which 
was destroyed, with thirteen locomotives and a luvm* 
amount of provisions and ammunition. On April 16, 
1865,news was received of the surrender of Lee's and 
Johnston s armies: and, amid great rejoicings over the 
auspicious event, the regiment marched back to 
Georgetown. S. C. Three weeks thereafter, it was 
taken by steamer to Charleston, where it did provost 
duty until July 10. when it was mustered oui of the 
service and sent home to Cleveland, where it was paid 
off and discharged. 


Capo. Martin Viebach, resigned November 16, 

('apt Samuel Surbrug, discharged December 16, 

First Lieutenant, William Spreier, promoted to 
Captain and transferred to Company 1. -lime 2, 186 : 

Second Lieutenant. Willam Martin, died February 
6. 181 

First Sergeant, Burkart Gentner, promoted Se 
Lieutenant February 6, 1863, and First Lieut 
I ebruan 6. I Sl > 1. 

Second Sergeant, Jacob Debusman, transferred to 
invalid Corps. 

Third Sergeant Frederick Boiling, deserted Janu- 
ary 1. 1863. 

Fourth Sergeant, Henry A. Keihl. 

Fifth Sergeant, Jacques Cerman, promoted to 
Second S-<r^e:mt. February 21, 1864 


First Corporal, Franz Seinsoth, promoted to Third 
Sergeant November 27. 1863. 

• Second Corporal, Henry Kolbe, promoted to First 
Sergeant November 27, 1863. 

Third Corporal, Carl Gebauer, killed at Gettys- 

Fourth Corporal, •lac.;',) Mann, died. luly 19, 
1863. ai Washington, D. C. 

Fifth Corporal, .Michael Schlorath, promoted to 
Third Corporal September !, LS63. 

Sixth Corporal, Jacob Wolf, promoted to First 
Corporal January I, 1863; taken i risoner at Chanci ! 

Seventh Corporal, William Hockman, promoted to 
Second Corporal January 1. 1863; captured at Gettys- 

Eighth Corporal, Christopher Bodenschatz, pro 
moted to Fourth Corporal, September 1, 186H; 
wounded at i i. tr j sb irg. 

Musicians — John Roedel and Werner Wrede 

Wagoner — Henry Distel. 


Batis X. Arada, John Aeigle (killed at Gettysburg), 
Ludwig Bockelmann, August Bockolmann) died May 
24, I s '':;!. Jacob Bise (killed at Gettysburg), George 
Buntz, Adam Bormnsch, Christian Behnfeltd (killed 
at Gettysburg), John Behnfeltd Henry Bernard, 
George < i 1 iftin (transferred to Company D Dei 
ber 1. 1863), Frederick Debusman (pr loted to Fifth 
Sergeant February '21, 1864), Nicholas Dioterick 
(wounded at Gettysburg), John Dauwe (discharged 
March 24, 1864), John Eisler (wounded at Gettys 
burg), Frederick Fellemann (deserted December 26, 
1803), Peter Fisher. John C G ' Frederick Gi 
senbachor, Joseph Ga«ler (killed at Gettysburg), Phil- 
lip Gnillaume (transferred to Invalid Corps July 21, 
1863) •>• I | .: (promoted to Sixth Cor] 
Ft i ruari 10. 1863, taken pris mer al Chancel'* 
Moses Hoatz, John I! (itermann, Jacob Hayes Ge< 
Hasa Joseph Hasenboeler, David Hasenboeler, Ja 








Mrs. Albert Elliott 

Albert Elliott 



■ -■ 










cob Heise (transferred to Invalid Corps). George 
Himes (discharged April 27, 1803) Andrew Hoplingei 
(discharged August lit, 18(53), Martin Hoplinger, 
Christopher Horg< nroether) discharged November II. 
1862), Gustavus, Iheodon Krause (wound 
ed at Chancellorsville), Christian Riskier, Chris 
topher Eline, John Kainp, William Kundig (deserted 
February 15, 18(54), Basil iu.s Lantz (discharged 
March 15, 1863), Christian Lindau, Henry Linde- 
brink, William Lindebrink, John Laux, Jacob Menzer, 
Gottlieb Muntz, George 1. Neher (transferred to In 
valid Corps July 21, 1863), Frederick Renter (trans- 
ferred to Invalid Corps July 2K L863), Fridolin 
Kontz, Joseph Stadelbauer, Edward Stadelbauer 
(transferred to Invalid Corps November 7, 1863), 
Henry Shafer (taken prisoner at Gettysburg), Chris 
tiau Speiser [wounded at Chancellorsville), Joseph 
ScLlosser (promoted to Sixth Corporal September 1. 
1863), Casper Schlosser (killed at Chancellorsviille), 
John Schees (prom* 'ted to S.-venth Corporal September 
1, 1863), John Sehlei-'sor (transferred to Invalid 
Corps, July 21. 1863), John Stucke (discharged March 
20, 1863), Christian Stucke (discharged March 20, 
1863), Flory Slegel (taken prisoner at Gettysburg), 
Louis Sitterly (taken prisoner at Chancellorsville), 
Frederick Sehweinhngen.. Louis Schoneweg (dis- 
charged August 18, 1863), John Stephen, John Schorr 
(discharged), Ansehn Snider, Frank Thalmaun, John 
Wolf (deserted October 20, 1862) George Wolf, 
Frederck W rede (discharged April 15, 1S63), Michael 
Welter, Daniel Young (wounded at Gettysburg), 
George Zuern (captured at Gettysburg, discharged 
February 28, 1864), Jacob Zuern, Conrad Zwicky 
(transferred to Invalid Corps July 21, 1863. 


Chancellorsville.. V;l, May 2, 3 and 1. 1863; Get- 
tysburg, Penn., July 1, 2 and 3, 1S63; Hagerstown, 
Md., July 7. 1863; Ft. Wagner, S. ('.. September 7, 
1863; Johns Island. S. C, February 9, 10, 11. 1864. 

Organized at Camp Cleveland, Ohio; mustered 
into the I'nited States service for three years. Sep- 
tember 10, 1862. 


This regiment was organized in the month of Au- 
gust, 1862, and was mustered into the Bervice on the 
5th and 6th of September. It was a Northwestern 
Ohio regiment, having beei raised in Sandusky, Lu- 
cas, Wood, Fulton, Williams and Defiance Counties. 
It took the tie!.! atCovington, Ky., on the 1 1th of S< p 
tember, 1862. The regiment remained in front of 
Covington until the L8th uf Sept mber, when in 
company with tour regiments and a battery, it 
made a reconnoissance tc Crittenden. Kv. After 

driving out the cavalry of Kirby Smith from that 
place, the regimpni returned to Covington. It re 
main ed at Covington until the 25th, when it took 
transports for Louisville, where it was assigned to 
Gen Buell's anny, being in the Thirt) eighth Bri- 
gade, twelfth Division, under command of Geu. Du 
mont. The regiment, moved on Shelbyville Octo 
ber 3. On the Sih of October, it took the advance in 
tin! movement on Frankfort, where a slight skirmish 
took place. It moved on Lawrenceburg October 11, 
and camped at Crab Orchard, where it joined with 
Gen. Buell's whole army. Viler (Jen. Bragg' s army 
had escaped through Cumberland (bap, the One Hun 
dredand Eleventh moved by rapid marches to Bowling 
Green, Ky., where it remained garrisoning forts and 
guardingthe railroad from that place to Nashville. On 
the 29th of May, 1863, the regiment was ordered to 
Glasgow, Ky. At this place the One Hundred and 
Eleventh was assigned to the Second Brigade, Second 
Division, Twenty third Army Corps, and remained in 
this brigade, division and corps until mustered out 
of the service From Glasgow it. took part in the 
tnovi incut, on Scottsville and Tompkinsville. Ab il 
this time John Morgan's cavalry made a raid into In 
diana and Ohio. The regiment took part in the pur 
suit. On the 4th of July, 1863, it marched _from 
Tompkinsville to Glasgow, a distance of thirty-two 
miles, in one day, carrying* guns, equipments and 
forty rounds of ammunition. On the 6th of July, the 
regiment matched to Munfordsville, and remaining 
tlu ee days, it took the ears for Louisville. Morgan 
having crossed the Ohio River, the One Hundred and 
Eleventh was ordered to New Albany, Ind. Ii then 
marched to Jeft'ersonviile and took transports for Cin- 
cinnati. On an island ten miles above Louisville the 
regiment was landed, and a detachment of Morgan's 
command was captured. It arrived at Cincinnati on 
the 13th. From this city it proceeded to Portsmouth, 
arriving at that place on the 18th. After the capture 
of Morgan trie regiment returned to Kentucky. Ar- 
riving at Lebanon, Ky, it marched to New Market, 
where the Second Division. Twenty third Arm) Corps 
rendezvoused preparatory to the march to East Ten 
nessee. On the 19th of August, this movement com- 
menced. The command arrived at Jamestown, 
Term, on the Cumberland Mountains, eighty-five 
miles distant from Knoxville, on tiie 26th. From tins 
point the command moved bv rapid marches through 
Yarmau's Gap, and arrived on the 30th of August at 
Montgomery. On the 2d of September, it forded the 
Big Emerj liner, and arrived at. Loudon, Tenn., 
on the Tennessee River, on the tth. The regiment re- 
mained at Loudon until Noveii ber 1-1. and took part 
in the movement north of New Market to check the 
rebel advance from Virginia. It also took part in 



novum] forced marches, scouts and skirmishes along 
tlm Tennessee and Holston Kivers. The advance of 
• >. ti. Longstreet's army appeared in front of Loudon 
on (he 22d of October, and considerable skirmishing 
wiw kept up between the two armies. On the Ll.h of 
October, the command marched to Lenoir; l>ut meet 
in ; ; ru enforcements here a counter- march was ordered, 
and the Second Brigade was 1 ordered to inarch to 
UiiIT'm Ferry, three miles below Loudon, and prevent 
tho crossing of Gen. Longstreet's troops. OwdiL; to 
tin' almost impassable condition of the roads, it was 
Hourly dark before arriving at the ferry. On a high 
btull", about halt' a mile from the river, a brigade of 
robnlu was encountered. The Second Brigade was 
immediately formed in single lino and ordered to 
olrnrgo The charge was successful! In it the One 
Hundred and Eleventh only lost a few wounded, and 
it was on the right dank of the brigade and partially 
under cover of dense woods. The brigade stood to arms 
all night in the pelting rain, without food or shelter. 
At .lay light the entire division fell back, and the One 
Hundred and Eleventh covered the retreat. At 
Lou. Ion Creek, a brisk skirmish took place between 
the rogiment and the Sixth South ^Carolina Sharp 
shooters, composing Gen. Longstreet' 3 advance. The 
.stau.l was made to enable Henshaw's Illinois Battery 
to got its caissons up a hill above the creek. In this 
engagement the One Hundred andEloventh lost four 
killed and twelve wounded. After this skirmish, the 
command marched rapidly to Lenoir unmolested. 
On this night, all camp and garrison equipage and 
transportation were destroyed, and on the morning of 
the liith. at 3 A. M. . it moved out for Knoxville. 
Tonn. At daylight on this morning Lieutenant O. 
1'- Norris and fifty-two men of Company B. of thereg- 
iinent were captured by the rebels while on picket. 
Of those fifty -two stalwart men, thirty-six diedof star- 
vation and exposure at Andersonville Prison. Camp 
bell's Station was selected by Gen. Burnside as the 
p 'in; to which to give battle to Gen. Longstreet. In 
thi* engagement the One Hundred and Eleventh ocou- 
pied the front line, directly in front of two batteries 
of robot artillery, and was for six bonis exposed to the 
shelis of the enemy's concentrated tire. The los- in 
kiUod and wounded was only eight, as the enemy used 
ptuvtission shells, which mostly fell in the rear of the 
tir>i liue. rhe regiment marched with the command 
in:.> Knoxville, a distance of six miles, having been 
tluvo njghts without sleep, rood or rest, and having 
| ioipated iu three separate engagements Itpassed 
tm\Mjgh th.. siege oJ Knoxville, occupying the fori on 
1 ..■ Hill, and lost six men killed and wi uuded 

After (ren Longstreet's retreat, it took part in the 
skirmishes at Blain's Crossing, Danville and Straw- 
'viry Plains, and occupied an outpost, six miles in front 

of tha city when Gen. Schoheld fell baci the second 
time on Knoxville. li protected the crossing of the 
Sec md Division at Strawberry Plains on the 21s( 
January, t SO t, losing one man killed. On tin Stli 
February, Gen. Schotleld arrived at Knoxville and 
took command of the department On the 'Jlth of 
Fi bruary, the Second Division marched to St rawben 
Plains; >u the 27th crossed the Holston River, and 
marched some distance; counter marchi i at night as 
far back as Mossy < Ireek. ( >n the 14th of March, the 
regiment moved to Morristown, East Tenu. On 
the following dayiit was on the picket line, and had 
a brisk skirmish with the rebeJ cavalry. The One 
Huudred aud Eleventh was moved back to M 
Creek, where it remained until the 26th of April, 
when it was marched to Chariest n, on the Hiawas- 
see River, a distance of 1"0 miles. This it accom- 
plished in four da\ s,arrh ing at < Iharleston on the 30th, 
From this point it marched to fled Clay. Ga., arriv 
ing on the 6th of May. At this place, the Army of 
the Ohio united with the left wingof Gen. Sherman - 
army to participate in the Atlanta campaign. Tr 
marched to Tunnel Hill ou the 7th of May. and on 
the following da) skirmished into a position in front 
of Buzzard's Roost On the 9th, in the advance i n 
Rocky Face Mountain, the regiment was assigned the 
front line of the skirmishers, and during an advance of 
three- quarters of a mile, lost uine men, killed and 
wound.' I. On the 12th of May. 'he ' me Hundred : □ 1 
Eleventh marched through Snake Creek Gap, and ar- 
rived u; front oi Resuua on the evening of the 15th 
The brigade made a charge on the enemy's works on 
the following day. Being unsupported by artillery, 
the charge was unsuccessful and the los.- heavy. The 
One Hundred and Eleventh had but seven compai ■•- 
engaged. thre" companies being in the rear, guarding 
transportation. Out of the number engaged, seven 
men were killed aud thirty wounded. The regiment 
took part in the second .lay's fight ;■; Ue.-nea, but be 
ing in the suppi rting column, it sustained no loss. 
\,'i r an unsuccessful assault at midnight upon the 
National lines, th.. rebels evacuated. On the 16th of 
May, the regiment participated in the pursuit) had n. 
skirmish with the rebel cavalry on the 20th, and 
ure. 1 six prisoners On the 27th. a brigade f rebels 
made an advance on the Nation. ti lines. The One 
Hundred and Eleventh was ordered on the 
double-quick, made a charge and broke the rebel 
lines. In this engagement, the regiment lost fifteen 
men killed and wounded. It took part in the entire 
campaign against Atlanta. It was actively en- 
gaged in the siege of Kenesaw, the battles of Pi 
Mountain, Lost Mountain. Dallas, on the Ch 
hooch ie River, near Nicojack Creek, Decatur, Peach 
T-ree Creek, and in tha siege oi Atlanta and the skir- 



mishes at Rough-and-Roady, Lovejoy's Station and 
Utoy Creek. It started on tho Atlanta campaign with 
380 men, and of this number, lost, in killed and 
wounded, 212. On the 8th of September, the regi 
ment went into camp at Decatur, Ga., and remained 
there until the morning of the Ul> of October, when 
the movement against Gen Hood's forces commenced. 
During the staj at Decatur, the regiment made a re- 
oonnoissanee i. . S: ine M luntain, where it encountered 
rebel cavalry and lost a few of its men. The One 
Hundred and Eleventh marched rapidl) to Allatoona 
Pass, and to within eighteen miles of Chattanooga, 
where the corps was ordered into Alabama iu pursuit 
of Gen. Hood's army. Et marched south as far as 
Cedar Bluffs, on tho Coosa River, where, in a skir- 
mish with rebel cavalry, one officer and three men of 
the One Hundred and Eleventh w<-re captured oil pick- 
et. From tins point, the regiment marched to Rome, 
Ga., where a brisk skirmish took place. From thence 
it moved to Resaca, where it arrived on (he 1st of No- 
vember, 1864. At Resaea, rhe regiment took the cars 
and was moved to Johnsonville, on the Tennessee 
River, eighty-five miles west of Nashville, to protect 
that place against a rebel raid. It remained at John- 
sonville until the 20th of November, when it was 
again moved by rail to Columbia, Term., t> assist in 
checking Gen. Hood's advance. It participated in 
the skirmishes at Columbia, and was detailed to re- 
main in the rear to guard the fords of Duck River 
while Gen. Thomas' army fell back on Franklin. The 
regiment guarded a wagon train to Franklin, and was 
twice attacked. Each time it repulsed the enemy. 
The regiment at niedit marched by the outposts of 
Gen. Hood's army in bringing up the rear. It arrived 
at Franklin on the morning of the 30th of November, 
and was immediately assigned to the front line of 
works, on the left Hank of the Second, Division, 
Twenty-third Army Corps, to the right of the Franks 
lin Turnpike. In the fight of that day. the regiment. 
out of ISO men engaged, lost twenty two men killed 
on the tield and forty wounded. Many were killed by 
rebel bayonets. The contest was s close that once 
the flag of the regiment was anatched from the hands 
of the Color Sergeant, but the bold rebel was killed 
instantly. The troops on the immediate left of the 
One Hundred and Eleventh fell back during the 
charge, and the rebels, holding this part of the hue 
for an hour, poured an enfilading tire along the line 
of the whole brigade Owing to the large loss of 
officers in this and previous engagements, a detail 
from other regiments was necessary to command the 
companies. On the morning of the 1st of December, 
the One Hundred and Eleventh marched Lack to 
Nashville, where it was assigned a position in the 
line of defenses on the left. It was severely engaged 

during both days of fighting in front of Nashville 
In a charge it captured three rebel battle-flags and a 
huge number of prisoners. The loss was seven killed 
aud fifteen wounded. The regiment took part in 
pursuit after Gen. Hood. It was inarched to Clifton, 
Tenn., where, on the 17th of January. iStio, it took 
transports to make the campaign of North Carolina. 
It passed through Cincinnati ■January 2.5, and arrived 
at Washington, D. ('., ou tho Jilst. From Alexandria 
the regiment took an ocean steamer for Fort Fisher, 
where it joined the army under (Jen. Ferry, and 
took an active part in the capture of Fort Anderson 
aud in the skirmishes at Moseb} Hall and Goldsboro. 
After the surrender of Gen. Johnston, the regiment 
was moved to Salisbury, N. G, where it remained on 
garrison duty until ordered home for muster tut. 
It arrived at Cleveland on the 5th of July, 1865, and 
was mustered out on the 12th. The One Hundred 
and Eleventh re-enlisted as veterans in February. 
1864, in Eabi Tennessee, but, owing to the demand 
for troops in the field, the veteran furlough could not 
be granted. Again (in October, 1864), aftei the At- 
lanta campaign, more than two-thirds of the regiment 
re-enlisted as veterans, but, after Gen. Hood s cam- 
paign to the rear, the order to furlough it was re- 
voked. The One Hundred and Eleventh numbered 
1,050 men when it entered the service, and received 
eighty-five recruits- Of th< e men. 'S- J A were dis- 
charged for disability, disease and wound-; 200 died 
of disease contracted in the service, 252 were killed 
in battle or died of wounds, and 4nl were mustered 


John R Bond, Colonel. 

Mose R Brailey, Lieutenant Colonel. 

I. R. Sherwood. Major. 

H. T. Bissell, Adjutant. 

Lyman Brewer, First Surgeon. 

E. Silvers. Assistant Surgeou. 
J. S. Hollington, Chaplain. 

F. Strong, Quarter-Master. 


Benjamin F. Southworth, Captain. 

Daniel P. Waltz, First Lieutenant 

Elijah Carnea, Second Lieutenant 'resigned No- 
vember 26, 1862). 

L. Hutchinson, Lieutenant (killed at Besaca, Ga., 
May 12, 1864). 

Benjamin B. Woodcox, First Sergeant 'promoted 
to Second Lieutenant April, 1863). 

Isaac E Kintigh, Second Sergeant. 

JosiahM. Kepler. Third Sergeant (killed at Love- 
joy Station, September, 1804). 

Nathan F. Crown. Fourth Sergeant 



Leopold Taubitz, Fifth Sergeant. 

Nathaniel Vandusen. First Corporal. 

William Miller, Second Corporal. 

William Taylor, Third Corporal. 

George Woods, Fourth Corporal. 

Chauncey S. Fulton. Fifth Corporal. 

Alfred S. Tubbs, Sixth Corporal (died at Dan- 
ville, Ky.). 

Peter Dickman, Seventh Corporal (enlisted in. Ma- 
rine Brigade). 

Ja^ob Benner, Eighth Corporal. 

David Westerman, Fifer. 

Francis Miller, Musician. 

John H. Mapes, Wagoner. 


Charles Andrews, George Andrews. Conrad 
Bunch, August Burde, Melcher Bauer. Joseph Bode- 
ruiller, Joseph Bell, Orlando Bennett, Thomas J. 
Baker (died January 10, 1863), Erastus Briggs, Levi 
J Barringer, Charles M. Brown. Martin M. Berrier 
(died at Bowling Gre< n, by., February 28. 1863), Mar- 
tin Conrad, Josiah B. Cox (died at Bowling Green, 
Ky., Febraarj L, 1863), lonathan Craig, John W. 
Detrick, Albert Dickman (died near Murfreesboro, 
Tenn., March 23, 1863), Gustave Dimke (enlisted in 
Marine Brigade). Jacob Eltiug. Clarence H. Filmore, 
George Fnrtmiller, CI rainens Farber, James Gorrell 
(died at Gallipolis, January 18, 1863), Irwin 0. 
Goodenough (died March 3, 1863), Jonah M. Grubb, 
Isaac V Grubb, r.zra Gibbs, Jacob Hannah. Joseph 
Hannah, James Hughes (died at Washington -June, 
1865), Melviu J. Hill (died it Bowling Green. Ky., 
January U. 1863), Michael Joseph, William Knospe, 
Frederick Kimmerlau. Rheinbart Koechle. Frederick 
Kowanazki, John Krontz, Jacob Krontz (wounded at 
Buzzard's Boost, Ga), Frank Ludwick, Michael Lech 
(died at Bowling Green, Ky., February 17. 1863), 
John Mace. Henry Miller. Michael Mock, John Masch, 
Johile Mansfield, Amos Marihugh (died at Bowling 
Green, Ky., September 3, 1862), Henry Marihugh, 
George Myers (promoted to Corporal;, Henry Nicely, 
George W. Nicely (died of disease at King-ton. Ga., 
i June, 1864;. Aaron Nicely. Charles len (discharged 
March 13, 1863), Solomon Rummei, William Rep- 
rogle, Jefferson Robinson. James Rollins, Madison 
Rhodes, Henry Schreyer, ' isperSir< If, George Silor. 
Arnold Sebmelta. George Stahl, Julius Shoemakor, 
Phillip Strawser, John Sollenberger (discharged Jan- 
uary 13, L863). Andrew S prowl, Samuel Shasteon, De- 
catur Stoner oiied L r Bowling Green, Ivy.. December 
23, 1SG2}, Franklin Sidling, r, Jae ib Craxler, Henry E. 
Thomas, Louis Trotter, •) hnA l llrich (promoted to 
Fifth Sergeant), Henn >\ i Us, Ji hn W ells, John Wag- 
ner, John M. White. < ml" iel Watson (disch ir»< d March 

2, 1863), Phillip Webb (died at Louisville, Ky., No- 
vember 'J. 1862), Creorge W. Whitehead. Charles Wil 
son, Munson L, Whitney (promoted to Corporal), 

Mustered into United States service Septi .' 
5, 1862, by Capt, Howard, United States Army. 


John E. Hill, Captain. 

Solomon Callender, First Lieutenant. 

Hiram Weeks. Second Lieutenant. 

Ezra S. Crary, First Se geant (died at Fort Baker, 
Ky., March 5, LS63). 

Oscar Work, Secoud Sergeant (killed at Dallas, 
Ga., May 27, 1864). 

Lewis G. Bowker, Third Sergeant (died at Bowl- 
ing Green. Ivy. . January 17, I 1 -' '> 

Harry Sweet. Fourth Sergeant 

Hiram F. Rice, Fifth Serjreanl 

John E. Hays. First Corporal (discharged at 
Bowling Green i. 

Bela B. Beobe, Second Corporal. 

John W, Cleland. Third Corporal 

Albert Farnsworth, Fourth Corporal. 

Albert Clapsaddle, Fifth Corporal. 

Clinton Gibbs. Sixth Corporal. 
"Cornelius Reaser, Seventh Corporal (discha • ■'. 
at Bowling Green). 

•John B. Farlow, Eighth Corporal (discharged ia 

Johnson O. Foot, Musician (promoted to Se i 

Samuel S. Hughs, Musician 'promoted to H>- 
pital Steward). 

F. N. Horton, Wagoner (discharged in 18G3 or 
1 B64 1. 

T. H. Hines. Chaplain. 


Franklin Atkins, Daniel Bear (died from wounds 
received at Franklin. Tenn.), Williaru E. Bassett. 
Emanuel Byers, Jason li Burbie, George L. Brown 
(died at Andersonville iugnsf 20, 1864), Rollin K. 
Crossland (discharged at Bowling Green, 1863), Rob- 
ert B. Crossland, David M Callender, Lyman H 
Coe, CL.unce, E. Curtis. Charles P. Curtis. William 
H. Crow, Andrew Growl, Daniel Dickerhocf (died of 
uouruis June 24, 1S64), Ebza E. Evans. David 
Earlston (died at Bowling Green February 16; 1863), 
Cb nles H Farnsworth I lii ai Mur] areesboro, 1863), 
George W. Fields (died at Nashville, fenn., June 24. 
1861), Samuel Fritz, bnos B'ariow. PhineasA. Gale, 
William P. Gilbert (dischnrg I n Bowline Green, 
, 13), John L. Ginter (disci urged at Bowling G 

' ■'.). Wesley C Harris. Delos 11 stings. H. C 
Kootnian, William Hopkins, John A. Huffman, Hi 


i n 

Hopkins (died ;it New Albany, Ind., December 1"'. 
1862), Lucitia V. Ha!!, Edwin E. Hale. George \Y. 
Hartz, Martin A. Hulbert, William Heramenwa\ 
(killed ai Franklin, Tcnn., 1864"), Miller W. Holler, 
Clinton Hutchins, George Hi ney, Samuel Keller, Aaron 
Kole (died at Bowling Green, Ivy., March 12. 1863), 
Lysander Kimball (died at Bowling Green March 12, 
1863), Charles Lacost, John Lawson (died at Knox- 
ville, Tenn ., April, 1861), Oscar Lowry, William H. 
Larribee (died near Nashville, 1864). John Lafer 
(killed at Franklin. Tenn., 1864), James Lafferty 
(died near Chattanooga, 1864), William Lord. Thil- 
ip Miller, Jonas Miliar. George Miller, Calvin Mns- 
ser, Houston Mavis. Henry Miser, Christian Muely, 
Thomas Marsha] (taken prisoner near Stone Mottnt- 
ain September 1. 1864), Robert Mann, Francis Olds, 
Lafayette Olds. George Otis (discharged at Bowling 
Green. 1863), William D. Otis Joseph Oxenrider, 
Thomas Potts Andrew Potts, James R. Pollock, Os- 
car A. Palmer, Robert Richardson, William Roan, 
Washington C. Ryan, Enoch Randall (taken prisoner 
at Knoxvillc, Tenn., February, IS6-1 . i - V Rich- 
ardson, Marshall Reed (discharged tit Louisville, Ky.. 
January 13, 1863), JarVis P. Reed (died at Chatta 
nooga, Tenn.. June. IStVl). Simon Ridenour, Samuel 
Snyder, John Snyder, Richard Snyder, W arren Shaw, 
George Scott, Milton J. Siscoe, -John Sleesman, Ony Z. 
Smith. William H. Selders (died at Louisville, Ky., 
Septembers, L862) George Strolea (diei at Knox- 
ville, Tenn., 1864), Noah Schatzer, Samuel D. Thomp- 
son, Ohio Tracy (died at Grafton, Va., LS65), Miiion 
E. Sharp (taken prisoner at* Loudon Creek, November 
14. 1863), A. B. Thrall. John Wagoner(died at Cincin- 
nati July. 1863), Charles W. Walden, John Ward, J. 
R. Weidenhamer. 

This company was raised in Milford, Mark. For- 
mer and Hicksville -Townships, within the space of 
four days, and was taken to the field immediately 

and marched over four hundred miles in the spa< t 

thirty >i\ >l;iy s The enlistment of Company F dates 
from August 13. 1862; it was mustered into service 
Septembei 5, 1862s discharged June 27. 1S65, and 
mustered out Jul \ 12, 1865. 


The following is an additional list of Defiance 
County soldiers not included in the companies abjve. 
Most of these soldiers enlisted in Defiance County, 
but the h-t contains a few present residents of the 
county who entered 'hi- service in other localities. 

Benjamin Abbott, Co. C. 66th O. N. G., e July 
13. 1S63; disc September I8t>4. 

James H. Abel. Co. I", tlth O. V. L, e. Septem- 
ber 23, 1861; disc. September 7. 1865, 

First Lieut. A. B. Ackerman, Co. B. 17th led. V 

1. e. April 1861; taken prisoner April 24. 1864; 
exchanged Ma\ 1 7. 1 is65. 

L> us vckerman. Co. I. 1 Itli V. i'. C, e. Sep- 
tember 2, 1861: di c Septet tber 19, 1861 

H. H. Ackloy, Co. P.. I29tb It:. I. V. P. e. De- 
ceniber 18, L863; Use. A'tL'ust 29. 1865. 

Jacob Vdams, Co. P.. 21st O. \. L, e February 

2. 1862; disc. August, 1865. 

D.S.Alexander, Co. C. P28th 0. V.I., e. May 

7, 1862; disc. June 5. 1865. 

Silas Allen, Co. C, 38th O. V. I.; died at Leba- 
non. Ky., February 22. 1862. 

George Allison. Co. C. 38th O. V. I. 

Brice M. Allshore, Co. P. 86th 0. V. I., e. June 
24, 1863; disc February 10, 1864 

Sergt. C. H. Allpress, Co. I, 25th Conn. V. I. 
e. 1862; disc .Inly. 1864. 

Henry Axuaden, Co. E, 21st O. V. I., e. August 
29, 1861; disc. July 20. 1865. 

Nehemiah Ames. Co. E. 21st O. V. P. e. Febru- 
arv 2-"', 1864; diedat Nashville, Tenn., June 27, 1864. 

Corporal George Andrews, 61st V R. C, e. Au- 
gust 22, K62; disc. Se] '■ tnber S. 1 S| P>. 

Israel Andrews. Co. A. 25th O. V. V. P. e. Octo- 
ber 7, ! V 'U; disc. October 6, 1865. 

William Andrews, Co. C. 22 I Mich. V. P. e. July. 
1862; disc. July. 1865 

il ■••;-■. Ankney, Co. P. 25th O. V. P. e. August 
31. 1864: disc. July 15, 1865 

Thomas Armstrong, Co. A. Slsi O. V. V. P. e. 
February 12, 186-1: disc. July 28, 1565. 

J. M* Ashton, Co. B. 169th (>. N. G., e. May 2. 
l^tip. disc. September 6. 1S64. 

Thomas H. Ashton. Co. 0, SSth O. V. P,e. May. 
1 S 'V2: disc. September. 1862. 

Da.vid Atkinson. Co. G, 51st O. V. P. e. October 

8, 1862: disc. August 5. 1863. 

William Aurand, Co. B, 21st O. V P. e. August 
26, 1861; disc. September 19. L864, 

P. S. Babbitt. 

Lewis Baird. Co. P. llt'ti O. V. P. e. September 
22, 1861; disc. November 29, 1S84. 

Charles Baker. Co. p. 6Sth O. V. I., e December. 
1861; died at Middle Landing March 7. 1862. 

Sergt Frank Baker. Co. B, 17s t h N. Y.V.I. . 
e. May 15, 1863; disc. August 18, 1865. 

P. M. Baker, Independent. 

H ury Baker. Pith P. S. I., e. 1863: disc. 1866. 

Henry Baker, Co. G, 139th O. V. L. e. February 
20. 1865: disc. Maj 29. 1865. 

Edward A. Baldwin. Co. V. 39th N; J. V I ,e. 
September, 1864: disc. June 29, 1865. 

William Balske, Co. G, 38th O. V. V. L, e. Feb- 
ruary 1, L865; disc July 12. L865. 

John Banl'irt. 



Henry Balske, Co. C, 71st O. V. I., e. October 5, 
1864; disc. December 5, 1865. 

Vangildor Banghart, Co. D, 20tb O. V. I., o. 
April 22, 1861; disc. September 23, IS61. 

Vangilder Banghart, Co. (i. 2d O. V. I., e. Sep- 
tember 5, 1861; disc. October 15, 1864. 

Sylvester Barnes, Co. B. 12th 111. V. I., e. Au- 
gust 1, 1861; disc. April 7. IS63. 

Nicholas Barnhart, Co B. 100th O. V. I., Sep- 
tember 1, 1862; disc. June 20, 1865. 

George N. Barns. Co. B. 137th Penn. V. I., e. 
August, 1862; disc. June. 1863. 

Lewis W. Barr. Co. I. 121st O. V. I., e. Febru- 
ary, 1865; disc. May, 1865. 

William I. Barr, Co. A. 68ft O. V. I., e. October, 
1861; disc. July 2, 1865. 

Barton Bartlett. 

Jacob Bash. 

Thomas B. Bassett, Co. E. 86th O. V. I., e. June 
17, 1863; disc. February 10, 1864. 

Sergt. John Baumaun, Co. B. 100th O. V. I., 
e. September 1, 1S62; disc. June*20, 1865 

James Bayes. 

James Baylis. Co. B, 17th O. V. I., e. September 
27, 1864; disc. July. 1865. 

John Becbiolt, Co. E. I tth O. V. I., e August 21, 
1S61; disc September 22, 1864. 

John Co. K, 107th O. V. I., e. Sep- 
tember 10, 1862; disc. June 20, 1864. 

George Behrands, Co. E, 67th O. V. I., e. 1864; 
disc. lStjo. 

Jacob Benner. II lth O. V, I, e. 1861; disc. 1864; 
died in service. 

Simon Benner, Co. E. 86th O. V. I., e. June 24, 
1863; disc. February 10, 1864. 

Ira Bennett. Co. E, 192d O. V. I., e. February 
14 , 1865; disc. September. 1865. 

Sergt, John II Benton, Co. G, 81st O. V. I., 
e. August 14, 1862. 

Sergt J. T. Bereaw, Co. G. 124th O. V. L, e 
August y. 1862: disc. July 15, 1865. 

Corporal M. F Bereaw, Co. D. 124th O. V. I., e. 
August 9. 1862 disc. July 15. 1865. 

Eli Berriet, Co. I.. 190th O. V. t.. e. March 29, 
1865; disc. July 18. 1865 

Lieut J. W. Berry, Co. K. 21st O. V. I., e. Au- 
gust 19. 1861; disc. January 5, IS65. 

Capt. Harvey S. Bevington. Co. E. 123d O. V. I., 
e. September, 1862; disc. 1865; eleven mouths in 
Libby Prison. 

James H. Bevington, Co. C, 152d Ind. V. I., e. 
February 15, 1865; disc. August 30, IS65. 

John H Biderwell. 
James B. Bigham, Co. B, 3d O. V. L, e. November 
29. 1863: disc. Julv 12, 1865. 

A. C. Biglow, Co. A. 38th O. V. I., e. February 

27, 1st'.;); disc. July 12, 1865. 

George W. Bird. Co. D. 2d Ind. V. C, e. Octo 
bar 22. 1862; disc. July 23. 1865 

Christian Bish >p, Co C. 121th Ind. V. C, a No 
vember, 1864; lisc August 31, 1865. 

David Bishop. 

J. L. Bishop, Co. C, 17th O. V. I., e. November 
2, 1863; disc. July 16. 1865. 

Charles Bixby, 14th O. V. I., e. 1861; died in 

Peter Blair. 

FraDk Blesser, Co. K. 13 tth N. Y. V. I., e. July 
7, 1862; disc June 10. 1S65. 

Corporal Otis Blood, Co. F. 11th Ind. V. I., e. 
September 23, 1861; disc. November 23, 1864. 

L. S. Bloom, Co. B, 121st Ind. V. I., e. May, 
1861; di.-e. July. 1865. 

Sergt. David Blosser. Co. K, 101st Ind. V. I., 
e. August 12, 1862; disc June. 1865. 

Jacob Blesser. Co. K, 101st Ind. V. I., e. August 
12, l^' - >2; killed at Kenesaw Mountain, June 20 

John Blosser, Co. K, lOlsl Ind V. I., e. August 
12, 1862; disc. June. 1865. 

John W. Blue. ^o. B, 86th Ind V. I., e. July 20. 
1862; disc. June 6, 1865. 

J. W. Blythe, Co. G. HUth O. V. I., o. August 
16. 1862; disc. June 25, 1865. 

Nicholas Boath. Co. D. 121th O. V. I.,o. Septem- 
ber 21, 1862; disc. Jul) 9, 1865. 

Ludwig Bockelman, Co K. 107th O. V. L, e. Sep- 
tember 9, 1862; disc Julv It). 1865. 

Corpora! Christian Boclenschatz, Co. K. 107th O. 
V. I., e August 22. 1862; disc. July 10, 1865. 

Jesse Bogert 

John Bohn, Co. I. 125th O. V. I., e. June 6, 
1863; disc, October 17, IS65. 

Wagon-maker, Emanuel Boor. 27th 111. V. I.; 
e. September, 1863; disc. November 2, 1864. 

James A. Bounds Co. G., 12th Ind, V. I., e. 
April 19. 1861; disc. May 19, 1 362. 

Charles H. Bowers, Co. K, 1 5th O. V. I. , e. v^y 
30, 1861. 

Charles H. Bowers. Co. C, 52d O, V. I., Maj 30, 
1862; disc. July 15, 1865. 

John Boyd. Co. I, 3.i O. V. C, e. November 3. 
1863; dis.v September !. 1865. 

William Boyer, Co. H, 85 th lad V. I., o. Au- 
gust 7, 1862; disc. June 10, 18(55. 

George \V. Boyles, Co E 21st O. V. V. I., e. 
February 1. 1 V <W; disc. Jul\ 25, 1865. 

Musician. Theodore W. Brake, Co. F, 18th TJ S. 
L,e. August 21. 1861; disc February 13, L>05. 
Eugene Brant. 



Ernest Branning, Co. *■. 80th In 1. V. C, e. Jan 
uary 1*>. 1362; disc. February 20, L883. 

George Breckbill, Co. I. 9th O. V. C, e. Oc 
17. 1863; disc Aug ist 20, 1S65. 

A. F. Breckbill, 7th End. 0. V. C, e. August If), 
1863; disc. October, 1865 

Abraham Breckbill, Union Light Guards. O. V. 
C, e. December 11, 1863; disc. September 9, 1805. 

D. W. Bricker, oth Ind. Bat., e. October, 1861; 
disc. November, 1864. 

Sergt. Henry Bricker, 5th Ind Bat., e. Sep- 
tember V'. 1861; disc. November IS64. 

S. P. Brinker, Co. B. I42d Penn. V. I., e. Au- 
gust 18, 1862; disc. Ma) 29, , - 

Monroe E. Bristol. 5th O Lnd'p't Ba f ., e. Septem 
ber 10, 1S64; disc, June 22. 1S65. 

Musician, William Britton. 38th <>. V. I . e. Au- 
gust 26, 1661: disc September 9. 1862, 

Chester Bronson, Co. E, S6th O. V. I.. June 17 
1803; disc. February 10, 1864. 

Edward Brooks engineer on boat Naiard, disc. 
June. 1865. 

Barney Browne. Co. B, 66th O. V. I., e. June 9, 
1863; disc. July 15, 1S65. 

Charles M. Brown, Co. C, 128th O. V. I., e. 
March 17. 1863; d • IS05 

George R. Brown, Co. A. 38th O. V. I. ; e. August 
20. 1861; disc. September 8, 1S64. 

William Brown, Co. L (59th O. V. I., e. October 

5. 1864; disc- September 28, 1S65. 

Corporal J. H. Brnbaker, Co. F, 6Sth O. V. I., 
e. October, 1861; disc, July. 1865. 

M. W. Brush, Co. A, I32d O. N. G. e. May, 
1864; disc. September, 1864. 

Joseph Bucher. i lo. G. ISth O. V. I., October 23, 
1861; disc. January 2. 1863. 

James W. Budd, Co. EL- 52d O. V. L, e. April, 
1861; disc. June, 1865. 

Obadiah Budd. Co. G, 169th O. N. G., e. May 2, 
1S64; disc. September 1, 1S64 

Obadiah Budd. Co. H. 43d O. V. I. e September 
27, 1864; disc June I. ; • ' 

Henry Bungard, Co. C, 12d Ind. V. I. e. October, 

13, l v 0l: disc July 21, IS05 

George Btuitz, Co. K. 107th O V. I., e. August 

14. 1862; disc. July 10, IS . 

G. W. Bur.!. Co. D, 2d Ind. V. C, e. November 
10, 1862; disc. July 28, IS65. 

John Burger, Co. I, 7Sth O. V. L, e. September 

6, 1861; disc. June 5, 1S65 

John Burk. Co. E. 6lst O. V. I., e. October 22. 
1861; disc. July 18, 1862. 

Corpora] Harl. w Burr. Co. C, 3d O. V. C. e. 
November 18, 1861; disc. August 4, 1865. 

Hiram livers. 

Corporal Joseph T. Bushong, Co ' ; . M-iD V. 
I., August 26, l v -' , .2: disc. Jul) 13, IS65. 

Go rge Butler. Co A, 25th D. S. R., e. March 
31, 1804; disc. March 31, L867. 

John Butli r, Co. E, 83d O. V.I.. e. February 20,; disc. Jul) 19, 1865. 

Andrew J. Byers, Co. K. 25th <>. V. V. I., e. Sep 
temper 1". 1861; disc. July 15, 1865. 
Corp. John Byers. C I. 57th O. V. I . e. January 
16, 1S62, ,1 S ( August 13. 1862. 

John Byers, Co. F. 103d O. N. G.. e. April 12, 
IS63, disc. September 22, 1863. 

Corp A. O. Calvin. Co I. 111th O. V. I., e. Au- 
gust is. 1S62, disc May 13. 1865. 

William Camp. 3d O. V. I., e. 1863, disc. 1.S65. 

Lyman Carpenter. Co. H. 11th O. V. I., e. Sep- 
tember 18, 1861, disc. March 8. 1864. 

Corp. Frank B. Carr, Co. D, Filth O. V. I. 

F. M. Can-, Co. K, 71st O. V. L, e. September 
12, 1861, disc. December 4, 1864 

John Carter. Co. A, 38th O. V. I., e. August, 
1861, disc. January, 1862. 

Daniel Cary, Co. E, SOth Q. V. I., e. June. 188 I, 
disc. February 10. 1864 

John Cary. 

Robert Cary. Co. I. 99th O. V. I., e. August S. 
1862, .liso. October 26, 1864 

Sidney Cary, Co. B. 2d O. V. C, e. iugustl3, 
1S61, disc. March 21. 1863. 

Sidney Cary. Co. I, 9th O. V. C. e. October 10, 
;■ ' ). di="e June 10, 1865. 

Edwin Case, 10th O. V. C. 

James Case. Co. D, 169th O. V. G.. e. May 2, 
1864, disc. September 6, 1864. 

William E. Case, Co. I, 9th O. V. I., e. October 
5, 1863, disc. July 20, 1865. 

First Lieut. John E. Caselieer, Co. D. 11th Ind. 
V. I., e. October, IS61, disc. September 25, 1865. 

Cor;.. William H. Casel e r. Co. D, 41th Ind. V. 
V. I., e. 1S6L killed at Shiloh April n, 1862. 

Sergt-. Francis Cassil, Co. I. 125th O. V. I., e. 
June IS. 1883, disc. Septorabei 25, L865. 

Eli E. Castor, Co. G., 128th 0. V. I., e. Decem- 
ber 3, 1862. disc Jul) L3, 1865. 

John Cavanaugh. 

Asst. Surg. C. M. Chalfant, Co. F, 111th O. V. 
I., e. August 17. 1862, disc 1865 

EH-Chaney, Co. F, 49th O. V. I., e. Augusi 16, 
1801, disc. January. 1803. 

Capt. Samnei F. Chaney, ( o. B, 21st O V. I., e. 
April. 1861, disc; July 28, 1865. 

Frederick Chase C 1. 157th 0. V. I., e. March 
27, 1885, disc. July 31, 1865. 

Anson Christian. 

Frederick Christ) 



Corp. Robert L. Christy. Co. E, 36th O. V. L, e. 
June 17. 1863, disc Febraarj 10, 1864. 

Wagoner Uriah 15. Chirk. Co F, 25th 0. V. I., e- 
June 20, 1861, disc. Jannan 13, 186-1 

James K. Clear, Co. D, 7th Ind. C, e. Au 
20, 1863, disc. February is. 1866. 

Corp. Ferris \V. Colby, Co. H. 87th 0. V. 1 . e. 
June. 1 >>tV2. disc September, 1 S >''L\ 

I. K Cole. Co. C. 195th I ). V. I., e. March. 1864, 
disc. 1865. 

Musician. Seth R. Cole. Co. E, 86th 0. V. I., e. 
June 21, 1863, disc. February 10. 1864. 

Musician Seth R. Cole. Co. B, 182d O. V. I., e. 
October 6, 1864, disc. July 7, 1865. 

Warren Cole, Co. H. Miss. Marine Brigade, e. 
August 3, 1863, ilisc. January. 1865. 

Hiram D. Coleman. Co. I. 9th O. V. L, e. Octo- 
ber 5. 1863, disc. July 20, 1865. 

Elijah Collins. Co. E, 14th O. V. I., e. September 
1, 1861, disc. September 12, 1864. 

First Capt. J. N. Collins, Co. I. Miss. Marine 
Reg., e. August 3, l s t>-j. disc, February 25, 1865. 

Surg. John M. Combs. U. S. R., e. April 1. l v, '"> 
disc. September 1. 1865. 

Sergt. G. W. Conkle, e. 1861, disc. 1864. 

Silas Conkright, Co. H, 110th O. V. I., e. August 
14. 1862. 

A. H. Connolly. Co. E. 68th O. V. V. I, e. No- 
vember 30, 1861, disc. July, 1865. 

Frederick Conrad. Co. K. 25th O. V I., e. Feb- 
ruary IS. 1864, disc. Mrfy 26, 1865. 

Thomas Conrad. Co. I. 3d O. V. C, e. September 
26, 1861, disc. January. 1864. 

Thomas Conrad. Co. I. 3d O. V. C, e. January 4, 
1864, disc. August 4, 1865. 

John M. Cook. Co D. 171st O. N. G.. e. May. 
1864. disc September, 1864. 

Henry Cornish, Co. K. 9th Ind. V. I., e. April 
1S61. disc. September, 1865. 

Capt. T. H B. Correll, Co. D. 1st U. S. Art., e. 
August 6. 1862. disc. October 20, 1865. 

Musician, Henry Gosgrave, 3d V. O., e. De- 
cember 1. 1861, disc. October 2fi, 1862. 

Sergt. C. Coughanonr. Co. K. s "rh Penn. V. 

Peter Countryman, Co. F. I tth Ind. V. I . e. 
October. 1SH ! . disc November, 1864. 

William Coup. Co. E, 2d O. Heavy Art., e. July 
17. 1863. disc. August 23, 1865. 

Christopher Coats. 

Peter Couts. 

Loren G. Cox, Co. G. 14th O. V. I., e. August, 
1861, disc. November, 1862. 

Corp. Albert Coy. Co. C, I93rh O. V. I., e. March 
6. 1865, disc. December 18, 1865. 

John Crenz, 7th O. V. I C, e March 6, 1863, 
disc. -July 12, 1861 

Lyman Et. Critchfield, Co. B, 21st O. V. I., e. 
April 24. 1861, disc August L2, 1861. 

Jacob Cronk. Co A, 38tb O V. I., e. 1881, died 
on furlough Jul) . 1 V| ".'. 

Rollins E. Crossbond llltb O. V. I., e. August 
is. LS62, disc. Jul) 1865. 

William 11. i'r->w. Co. K. r>th Regt.V. Res., e. 
August 15, 1862, disc Jul) 5, 1865. 

Corp. Frank (' Culley, Co. F, 8th O. V. I.,e. 
May, 1861. disc. February, 1863. 

G. Dabner, Co. L>. 2d O. V. C. e. December 22. 
1^63. disc. June 12, 1865. 

E. K. Dains. Co. G, 1st U S. I. 

Elias Dart, Co. L, 2d O. V. C , e. August 17, 
1S63, disc. October 12, L865. 

Sergt. Baxter Davis. Co. I, 2d O. V. C. e. 
November 12. 1862, disc. October 3. 1865. 

James Davis. 121st O. V. I., e. February, 1864, 
died in hospital. Nashville. Tenn. 

John Davis. Co. K, tSth Ind V., e. August, 
1864, .lis,- 1865. 

John Davis. Co.A 100th O.V. I., disc May 20,1865. 

Corp. Oliver Davis, Co. I. 178th O. V. I. 

Oliver Davis, Co. B. 5th O. V. C, e. September 
18. 1862. killed at Davis 1 Camp Corinth, Miss., Sep- 
tember 18, 1863. 

Zedekiah Dawson, Co. E. 86th 0. Y. I., e. June 
IS. 1863, disc. August 10, IS63 

John Dauwe, ( o. I, 78th 0. V. I., «. October 1. 
1864. disc. May 12. 1865. 

Sergt. J. T. Dean, Co. C, 90th Ind. V. C, e. Au- 
gust 2". 1862, lost on Sultana, 1865. 

Sergt. George W. Deatrick, Co H, 102d O. V. I . 
e. July 31, 1862, disc, .rune 30, 1865. 

Thomsvs J. Deivtrt, Co. V, 38th 0. V. I., e. Feb 
ruary 16. 1863, iliac. July 12, 1865 

William H. Dei vert, Co. A. 38th O. V. I., e. Au 
gust 21, 1861, disc. July. lS6. r >. 

John Delarber, Co. G. !28th O. V. I., e. Decem- 
ber 20. 1863, disc. Jul) 5. 1865. 

James W. Dellefct, Co. G, 3d V. C, e. 1S63, 
disc. 1805. 

Amos Densmore, Co F. I82d 0. V. I., e. October 
1, 1864, disc. J:; 1 )- 17. 1865 

Sergt. Moses W. Dickey. Co. H, 118th O. V. I., s. 
August 6, 1862 disc. June 24. 1865. 

Albert P. Dickman. 

Christ. Dieknifin, Co. F. 6Sth O. V. I., e. Octo- 
ber 10, 1861. 

John Dickman. Co F. 68th O. V. I. , e. October 
10, 1881. 

Peter Dickman, Co. A, Maine V., e. March 30. 
1863, disc. January IS, 1S85. 

[■ -st Lieut. William Dilworth. Co. H. 88th Ind. 
V. !S e August !2, I $62 disc lune 21, 1865. 

Christopher Dichl. 


1 15 

A. N. Dinsmiro Co C, 57tli Penn. V. I., e. Fol> 


1SG4, disc. J me 29, IS65. 

Aaron Dixon, Co. C, 7th R. V. R, e. September 

1. 1861, disc. Soptombi r 10, LS64. 

Isaac Di matin. 

Hugh Donly, Co. I, 125th O. V. I., e. October 1, 
1864, disc. May 31, 1S65. 

Sylvester Donly. Co. D. 124th O. V. I., e. August 
22, 1862, disc. July 9. 1865. 

Frederick Donze, Co. D, I82d 0. V.I., e. August, 
1864, disc. July, LSG5. 

John Dowe, Sr., Co. C, 107th O. V. I. 

Alexander Dowell. 

Franklin Duck. Co. D. LOOth O. V. I., e. July 2fi, 
1862, disc. June 20, 1865. 

Edgar Dunham, Co. E. 9tb O. A". C, e. August 
22, 1S63, disc. July 20, 1865. 

George Dunlap, Co. B, 169th O. N. G., May 2, 
1864, disc September 6. 1864 

Henry Dunlap, Co. K. 100th O. V. I., a July 1, 
1862, disc. June ! 1. 1865. 

Oliver Durham, Co. A. Z^ih O. V. I.,o. August 31, 
1861, disc. July 12. 1865. 

Daniel Duvale, Co. G, i:; s th O.V.V. I.,e. Decem- 
ber 2'''. lSG 13, disc. June 2. 1865. 

B. F. Davinell. Co. E. 17th O. V. V. I., e. August 
31, 1861, .Use. July 16, 1865. 

Sergt. Orlando Dyarruan, e. March 23, 1863. disc. 
Eebruary 23, IS65. 

Sergt. Orlando Dyarman, Co. E, 4th O. V. I., e. 
April 16. 1S6L disc. June 1. 1864. 

Henry Dysinger, Co. V. lS9tb 9. V. I., e. Feb- 
ruary. 1S65. died al Huntsville. Ala.. May 9, i860. 

Isaac Dysinger, Co. A, lS9th 0. V. I., e. Febru- 
ary, 1S65. il i < •< I at Huntsville, Ala., May 7. 1 

Levi Dysinger, Co A. 189th 0. V. I., e. February, 
lS0t">, disc, September 25, 1865. 

Samuel Far!;.. Co. F, '"> Itlx 0. V. I., e. September 

2, 1862, disc. September 2. 1863. 

Corps's lliam Ebright. Co. E. 58th 0. V. V. I., e. 
December 11, 1861. disc, Sept< Tiber i ( '.. 1865. 

TJioiuhs W. E.'kc-.. 78th (). V. I.,e. Soptember 
27, 1864, disc. May 17, 18*>5, 

Curtis S, Elder. Co. K, 9th O. V. C, e. Novem- 
ber 5, 1S6.5, disc. July 25. 1S65. 

Peter M. Eldridge, Co G. 30th Ind. V. e. Au- 
gust 23, 1861, disc. April 21. 1S62 

Peter M. Eldridge, Co. G, I th Mich. V., e. January 
12. IS64, disc July 19. 1865 

Sergt. Albert Elliott. Co. G, 12th O. V. C. e. No- 
vember 2. 1863. disc. November 2">. 1865. 

S. VT. Elliott, Co. H, 169th O. X. G., e. May 2, 
[S64, disc. September 4. 1864. 

Simon Elliott, Co. F. 17th 0. V. I., e. September 
26, 1864. disc. June L3. 1865. 

Bugler John P. Emery. Co. <!. 12th O. V. C, e. 
September. L863, disc November 25, 1865. 

H. L. Ensign. 

Corp. Oscar F. Ensign, Co. C, 128th O. V. L. ?. 
July 7. LS63, disc July 13, 1865. 

Alexander Erlston, Co. A. 3Sth V. L, e. Au- 
gust, IS61, disc, IS62. 

Campbell Erlston. Co. A, 38th O. V. I, e. August 
10, 1861. disc. January, 1862. 

James Erlston. 

First Lieut. A. A. Evans, 38th O. V. L, e. 1881, 
disc. 1865. 

[si ac M. Evans, Co. C. 152d Ind. V.. e. Febru- 
ary 15. 1865, disc. August 30, 1865. 
" John Fair. 

Quincy Fairbank, Co. C. 21st O. V. I., e. May 5, 
1861, disc. August 15. 1861. 

Ira W. Fai:chilL Co. G. 118th O. V. I., e. August 
21. 1862, disc. May 15, 1865. 

" Samuel Fee. Co. F. 67th O. V. I., e. October 1, 
18'64, disc. June 20, 1865. 

Daniel Feeney, Co. B. 184th O. V. I., e. F bruary 
13, 1865, disc. May 1865. 

Michael Feeney, Co. F. 68th 0. V. I., e. October, 
1861, disc. November, 1864. 

Chauncey Felton. 

C. M. Ferguson. Co. K, 25th O. V. I. 

George S. Fickle. Co. G, 180th O. V. I, e Octo- 
ber 27. 1864, disc. July 27. 1865. 

Isaac F. Fickle. Co. H 9tb O. V. C, e. Septem- 
ber. 1863, disc July. 1865. 

Simon Figley, war of 1812, e. February 1, 1813, 
disc. August 6, 1S13. 

Simon W. Figley, Co. D, LOOth 0. V. L, e. Au- 
gust 2. 1862, January 6, 1863. 

Corp. Simon -W. Figiey, Co. I. 125th O. V. I„ e 
July 6, 1863. 

Adam Finch. 38th O. V. C, e. 1863, disc. L864. 

John B. Fisher. Co. C, 44th O. V. I., e. Septem- 
ber 14. 1S61. 

First Sergt. John B. Fisher, Co. C 8th O. V 7. 
O. e. January 5, 1 Q 'H. disc. July 30, IS >5. 

Sergt. RollinC. Fisher, Co. B, e. November 19, 
1861, disc .lime 7. [865. 

Jiicob Fitzcharles, Co. D. 55th O. V. C . e. Sep 
temper 22, IS64, disc. June 9, LS65. 

Harmon Fleming, Co. M. 8th O. V. C, 8. May, 
ISJ52, disc. Oct ber . 1862. 

Harmon Fleming, 7th Indep. O. C, disc. Octo- 
ber. 1865. 

George W. Forder, Co. C. 68th O. V. I. e. 1861, 
disc. 1864 

George Farlow, 16th R tg . • 1864 

5! llliam Farlow, Co E, 21s1 0. V V. 1, e. Feb- 
ruary 6. LS64, disc. Jalv 25. 1865. 



William Foster, Co. I. 100th 0, V. I. e. August 
11, 1862, .Use. May 29, 1865. 

George Foust, Co. B, 182d O. V. I., e. October 7. 
1864 disc. July 7. 1S65. 

John Fowler. Co. K. 100th O. V. I., e. August T, 
1S6-, di^c. June 18, 1865. 

William H. Francisco. Co. F, 148th N. Y. Y., 
e. August 29, 1862, disc. June 17, 1865. 

William Frederick. 

John Freese, Co. C, 195th O. V 7 . C, e. March 7. 
1865, disc. December IS. 1865. 

Sergt. Elias Feeger. 3d .V. C . e. 1861, disc. 

Josiah Freger, 3d O. V. C. e. 1861, disc. 1864. 

Leander Freger. Co. F, I82d O.V.I., e. 1864, 
disc July 7, 1S05. 

Julius C. French. Co. D. 1st N. Y. Yet. C . e. 
August 17. 1863, disc. March 20, 1865. 

J. A. Fry, Co. E, 16th O. Y. I. 

L. Fryar. Co. B, 42d O. V. L. e. July, 1862, 
disc. July 1, 1865. 

Abraham Fulmer, 81st O. V. I., e. 1861, killed 
near Corinth, Miss. 

Daniel Fulton. 

Samuel Fulton. Co. I, 137th O. V. L, e March 25. 
1S65, disc. July 81, IS65. 

John F. Fm-man. Co. E. 86th O. V. I., e. July 
20, 1863, disc. February 10, 1864. 

Thomas Gallantine, Co. I. 74th Penn. Y.. e. July 
16, 1863, disc. August 29, 1865. 

Francis Garlow. 

Corp. Franklin Garlow. Co. -I, 125th O. V. I., e. 
June 1, 1803, killed at Buzzard's Roost. May 8, 

J. C. Garvey, Co. I. 9th O. V. C. , e. November, 
1863, disc. August, 1865. 

W. J. Gathen, Co. A, 1st O. V. C, e. February. 
1SG4, disc. IStio. 

S. Gaylord, Jr., Co. E. 188th O. V. I., e. February 
22. 1865, disc. October. 1865. 

George Getner. died at Xa c hville, Tenn. 

Corp. Clinton Gibbs. 67th Y. R. C. e. August 
13, 1862, disc. August 14, 1865. 

Ezra Gibbs. 

Henry Gier. Co. E. 39th O. V. I., disc. May 27, 

Lewis Gillet, Co. E, 177th O.Y. I., e. August 25. 

Charles Gillespie. Co. B. 38th O. V. I., e. 1861, 
disc. 1S05. 

Corp. Thomas Gillespie. Co. B. lith C S. L, e. 
February 5, 1803. 

William Goe, Co. M. 3d O. V. V. C. e. Novem- 
ber 6. 1863, disc. August 1. 1865. 

L. H. Goefea, Co. H. 107th Pecn. Y.. e. May. 
1SG2, disc. May, 1863. 

V., e. Au- 

. June 20, 

Jacob Goller, Co. B. 0th (>. Y. C, e. November 

19. 1S62, disc. June 27. 1865. 

Martin 11. Gorman, Co. H. ^7ih O. Y. I. 

George E. Graves, 87th Penn. Vol., e. Aug' I 
1861, disc. July 5. 1863. 

A. P. Green, Co, I. 3d O. V C, e. September 21. 
1861, disc Aoril 12. 1863. 

Frederick Grim, Co. F, 6Sth O. Y. I. e. October 
7. 1861, died at Fort Donelson February. 1S02. 

William L. Gulcbrist. Co. B. lS2d O. Y. I., e. 
October 13. 1864, disc. July 7, 1865. 

Sergt Paul Hagen, Co. G. 1st V. R. V., e. 
July 28, 1862, disc. July 11. 1865. 

Sergt. Paul Hagen. Co. E. 1 19th N. Y. Y.. e. 
July 15, 1862, disc. July 25, 1885. 

Corp. .1. I. Hale, Co. K. 1th O. Y. I., e. April 9. 
1861, disc. March 12. 1863 

Adam C. Hall, Co. D, 30th O. V. I., e. August 15, 

Corp. Adam C. Hall. Co. E. 86th O. Y. I., e. June 
21. 1863. disc. February 10. 1864. 

E. J. Hail. Co. D. 169th o. \. G..e. May 2. 1864, 

disc. September'). 1864. 

George Hail. Co. D, 7 Kh V. 11. 
gust 1. 1862. disc June 7, 1865. 

Jacob Hall. Co. K. 86th O. Y. I., e. 
1863, disc. February In. 1864. 

Jeremiah D. Hill. Co. 1. 3d O. Y. Y. G, e. 
October 17. 1863. disc. August t. 1865. 

Martin Hall. Co. E. 86th O Y. I., e. June L8, 
1863, disc. February 10, 1SG4. 

William C. Hall. Co E. 86th O. V. I , e. June 

20. 1863, disc. February 10, 1864. 

H. K. Haller, Co. G. 47th O. Y. I. 

Charles N. Hamilton, Co. I. 125th 0. V. I.e. 
June 19, 1863, disc May 22. 1865. 

Corp. Daniel Hanna, Co. D, 48th O. V. Y. I., e. 
February 27. 1864, disc. May .». LS66. 

Oliver Hauna, Co. P.. tTth 0. V, Y. I ., e. Septem- 
ber 27, 1864, disc. June 17. 1865. 

William H. Hardy. 82d V R.. e. August 30, 
1861, disc. September 19, 1864. 

William Harper, killed in servic<-. 

Sergt. John S. Hart. Co. D. 21st O. V. I., e. Au- 
gust 1^. 1861. disc. June 20, 1865 

William A. Hart. Co. I. loth O. Y. I. 

Joseph L. Hartman. Co. D. »'>Mh 0. Y. [., e. Octo- 
ber 18, 1861. disc Dece aber 6, 1864. 

Sergt. Charles Hastings, Co. G, 25th 0. V. I., e. 
1863, disc. July. 1865. 

George Hastings, Co. G, 25th O. V. I., e. 1803. 
disc. July, 1 365. 

Edward Hatfield. Co. 1. 125th O. Y. I., e. June 
2. LS63, disc. September 25, 1865. 

Moses M Haver, Co. T, '-lis 1 : O. V. I. 
1861, disc August 20, 1861. 

e. Apr 

1 o- 



Sergt Sloses M. Haver, Co. I, 100th O. V. I , e. 
August 9, 1862, disc. Fune 20, 1865. 

Thomas W. Haver. 

Alfred Hawk, Co. F. 3Sth O. V. V I., e. Febru- 
ary 10, 1864, disc. July 12, IS65. 

Hiram Hawk, Co F, 38th O. V. V. I..e. February 
10, 1864, disc. Jul} 12, 1865 

W D. Haynes, Co. J'.. 1 1th O. V. I., e. February 
4, 1864, disc. June 1 l. LS65. 

John Heim, Co. H. 72d O. V. I., e. October 2, 
1S62. disc. July 30, 1863. 

Edward Heller, Co D. lSOth O. V. I., e. Febru 
ary. 1865, disc. September 25, 1865. 

Henry Heller, Co. A, e. December 1, 1863, disc. 
September 9, 1865. 

Henry Heller, Co. A. 66th O. V. I., a October 20, 

1861, disc. December 22, 1864. 

Fred Helmick, Co."D. 4Mb O. V. V. L, e. Feb- 
ruary 27. 1S64, disc. May 9. 1866. 

Alexander Henderson, Co. B, 39th O. V. I . e. 
May 11. 1864; disc. December 4, 1865. 

J. F. Henderson, Co. H. I69tb O N". G, e. May 
2. 1864, disc. September 12. 1S64. 

Henry Hendricks, Co. G, : J .«1 O. V. V. I., e. No- 
vember 17. 1861. disc December 24. 1864. 

Abram Henry, Co. H. 123d O. V. I., e. August 22, 

1862, disc. June 12, 1865. 

John Harrington. Co. K, 25th O. V. V. I., e. Sep; 
tember 12, 1864, disc. June 15, 1^05. 

Lemuel P. Hibbard. Light Squad. O. V. C. e. 
December 11, LS03. dibC. September 9, 1865. 

William Higby, died in service. 

Alfred Hilbert. Co. D, 29th O. V. V. I., e. Octo- 
ber 13, 1864, disc. July 13, 1865. 

Capt. W. T. Hill, Co- A, l9thPenn. Y.. e. April 15, 

1862, disc, at Lee's surrender. 

W. L Hill, Ca K. 122d O. V, I., e. June 30, 
1864, disc. February 17. 1865. 

Joseph J. Hilton, Co. C, Huffman's Battalion, e. 
May 6. 1862. died November 19, 1863. 

Corp. Walter Hilton, Co. D. 140tb 111. V. I. e. 
May 5. 18G4, disc October 27, 1864. 

Sergt. Jacob Hiner, Co. < '•, 128th O. V. I., e. De- 
cember S. l v, '>:i. disc. July 13, 1865. 

Henry Hiner. Co V, 38th O. V. I., e. January, 

1863, disc. July 22, 1865. 

Charles A. Hinsch. Co. C, 2d Heavy Art. V., e. 
August 6, 1S63, disc. August 23, L865. 

Capt. Adam Hively, Co. D, 55th 111. Y., e. 1862, 
disc, July, 1865. 

Corp. Frederick Hively, 74th Ind . V. 

Corp. Jehu Hively. Co. '.. 12th O. V. C, e. No- 
vember 2, 1862, died at Si merset, Kv.. l^':'-\ 

Corp. David J. Hoffman, Co. I, 20th Mich Y., 
e. August 1, 1862, disc May 20, 1865. 

William Hockman. Co. K. L24th O. V. I. 

Charles Hollenger, Co. F, 55th O. V. I., e. Janu- 
ary, 1864, disc. July, 1865 

George Holton, Indepen. C, e. Jul}', 1864, disc. 
March. 1868 

George Honker, Co. H. 1st O. Lt. Art., .e Augusi 
6, 1862, disc. June 15, 1S65. 

Corp. Lemuel H. Hooker, Co. H. 1st O. Lt. Art, 
e. August 6, 1862, disc. June 15, 1865. 

Charles B. Hopkins. 

Charles M. Hopkins. Co. B. 5 1st O. V. V. L, e. 
October 12, 1864, disc. October 3, 1865. 

Darius A. Hopkins, Co. B. 5th Indepen. O. Sharp- 
shooters, e. October 24, 1862, disc. July 19, 1865. 

Corp. Homer P. Hopkins. Co. H. 1st. Mich I., 
e. July 25, 1861, disc .July. 1865. 

Lewis C. Hopkins. Co. I. 9th O. V. O, e. August, 

1863, disc. August, 1S65. 

Musician. S. S. Hopkins. Co. F. 8th O. Y. I., e. 
April. 1861, disc. August, 1861. 

William Hopkins. Co. C. 41»fc O. V. I., e. Novem- 
ber 6, 1S64, disc. December 6, LS65. 

George W. Horn. Co. F, 17th Y. R., e. Octo- 
ber 20, 1861, .Use. October 18, 1864. 

George AY. Horn, Co. F, 31st O. V. I., e. Novem- 
ber 6. 1861. 

George W. Horn. Co. F, 121st O. V, I. , e. Febru- 
ary, 1864, disc. July. 1S65. 

T. A. Horn. Co.'h. 82d O. V. I., e. November 26, 
1861, disc. July 31, 1S65. 

Tames W. Horn, 6th O. V. 
disc, from invalid corps 1S65. 

Sergt. Peter J. Hosier, Co. 
May, 1861, disc. July 14, 1864. 

Ephraim Hought, Co. K. 3d O. Y. V. C, e. Janu- 
ary 12, 1864, disc. August 1, 1865. 

Michael Howck, Co. H, L23d O. Y. I., e . August 
19, 1862, disc. June 20, 1865. 

B. F. Howck. 1st Bat. O. Sharpshooters, e. 1862, 
disc. May 27. 1865. 

Barney Hubbard. Co. E, 3 L T . S. C. , e. July 6, 
1863. disc. October 31, 1S65. 

Bayard Hubbard, Co. B., 39th U. S. C, e. April 16, 

1864, disc. December 4, 1865. 

Charles Huff, Co. E, 67th O.Y.I ,e.l864,disc. 1865- 

Cyrus Hughes, Co. F, SSth O. Y. I.,e. 1863, disc" 

James Hughes, Co. F, 6bth O. V. I., e. 1863, 
disc. 1865. 

James Hughes, Jr.. Co. F, 68th O. V. I., e. 1863, 
disc. 1865. 

William (i. Hughes, Co. G, 14th 0. V. L, e. 
1861, disability 

Orin S. Hulbert. Co K , I82d O. V. L e. Octobei 
21, L864, disc Julj 21. 1865. 

I., e. October. IS'31 , 
A, 8th O. V. I., e. 



Sergfc. Samuel Hill. Co. E, 21st O. V. I., e. April, 

G dlip Hunt;:. Co. K, 25th O. V. V. I., e. October 
2, 1862, disc. October 1, 1865. 

James O. Hutchinson, 124th O. V. I., e. Septem 
her 30, 1S63, disc. April 9, 1864 

Samuel Hutchinson Co. K, 21st O. V. I.e. Octo- 
ber 2. 1863, disc. July 25, 1865. 

Capt. Joseph Ice. Co. A. 68th O. V. I . e. 1861, 
disc. 1865. 

John W. Ingle, Co. H,80th O. V. I., e. February 
2'.'. 1864, disc. August 13, 1865. 

Lieut. Col. William [rviug, 86th O. V. I., e. No- 
vember 3, 18*34, disc. July 25, 1865 

Albert Jackson, Co. D. Hth Ind, V. . e. Novem- 
ber i, 1861, di-c. November 1. IS04. 

J. B. Jackman, Co. B. 68th O. V. I., e. October 
14. 1861, disc. I. LS64. 

Corp. Augustus Jacoby, Co. I, 125th O. V. I., e. 
June 2-1. 1863, disc. September 25, 1865. 

Lewis Jaynes. Co. B, 68th O. V. I., e. October In, 

Lewis Jaynes, Co. B, (3Mh O. V. V. I., e. Decem- 
ber 10, IS63 disc. July 10. 1865. 

William Joe, Co. M, 3d O. V. V. C. e. November 
6, 18(33. disc. August 4, 1865 

Philip Johns. Co. A. 14th Mich. V., e. April 27. 
1861, disc. July 28, I Mil. 

Sergt. Philip Johns. Co. E. 179th N. Y. V., e. 
August 5, 1861, disc. June 2*?, 1865. 

F. A. Johnson, Co. F, 44th Ind. V., e. 1863. 

Sergt. John Johnson. Co. D, 48th O. V. V. I., e. 
February 27. 1864, disc. May 9, 1866." 

George W. Jones, Co H, 3d O. V. C, e. March 
1. 1861, disc. August 10. 1865. 

Washington Jones, Co. F, ^th I. V. I., e. Feb- 
ruary 20, 1864, disc. June 3, 1865. 

Josiah Jordan. Co. D, 19th O. N. G., e. May 3, 
1864, disc. August. 1864. 

Samuel A. Justice, Co. I, 125th O. V. I., e. April 
27-, 1861, disc. October 17. 1S(35. 

Casper Kahl. Co. (i. 3d O. V. C. e. November 
29, 1861, disc. December 24, 1864. 

Aaron Kale. 

John Karnes, Co. K. 169th O. N. G., e. May 2, 
18(34, died August 12. LS64. 

John Kampe. Co. K. 107th O. V. I., e. August 
22, 1862, disc. July 10 1865. 

Anthony Kappler. Co. I, 3d O. V. Y. C, c. Octo- 
ber 17, 1863, disc, August 1. 1865. 

Augustus Kehuast Co F. 6Sth O. V. V. C, e. 
January. 15, 1864, disc. July 10, 1865. 

Sergt. I). B. Keller. SSth Ind. Y. 

Corp. William N. Kelly, Co. F. 2d O. V. I., e. 
April IS. 1-861, disc June 12. 1864 

Jacob Kencig, Co. 15, 25th U. S. A., e. March 31, 

1864, disc expiration of term. 
•I. F. Kennedy, Co. C 25th N' Y. C.,e. February 

4. 1864, disc. Jannar 27, 1S65. 

Noah Ken/, Co. E, 67tb, o. IS64, died a« Peters- 
l burg, Va., 1865. 

Robert Kepler, Co. H, L69th O. N. G., e. May 2, 
ISO 4. disc. September 6, 1864. 

Franklin L. Key, Co. E, S6th O. V. I., e. June 
17, 1863, disc. February 10, 1864. 

Daniel H. Killey, Co. F, Mexican war. e. 1848. 
disc 1849. 

Daniel H. Killey, Co. H. 3d O V. C. , e. Fi bru 
ary, 1864, disc. E'ebruary 2 f >, 1865. 

George vV. Killey. Co. F, 9th O. Y. C. e. Febru- 
ary 10, 1864. disc. July IS, 1865 

Jacob KillioD, Co. B, 68th O. V. I., e. 1861, disc. 

Jacob Killiou. Co. B, 25th U. S. I., e. March 

26, 1864, dir-c. March 26, 1867. 
C. Kimmell, Co. K. n7th O. N. G., e. December, 

IS64, disc. December, 1 S65 

R. Kimmell, Co. F, 21st O. V. I., e. September 

19, 1861, disc. May 6, I'm;-.. 
Capt. T. C. Kimmont, Co. F. 44th Ind. Y.. e, 

September. 1861; disc. June. I Si 3, 

W. F. Kimraont, Co. F, L29th Ind. Y., e. De- 
cember 14, 1863, disc. Jul\ 31, 1-05. 

Levi Kinnaman. 

Columbus Kintieh. Co. G. 68th O. V. I. 

Isaac Kintigu. 

First Lieut. I E. Kintigh, Co. C, lllth O. V. I.. 
e. April. 1861, disc. July 12, 1865. 

Alexander Kintner, Ind. Y. e. September. 1863 
disc. July. 1805. 

Perry W. Kintz, Co. F, 197th O. V. I., e. March. 

1865, disc. July. 1865. 
James R. Kitfcredge, Co. A. 177th O. Y. I. 
Christian Kline, Co. K, 107th O. V. I., e. August 

20. 1^62, disc July III. IS65. 
Charles Klinefelter. Co. A, 144th 111. Y. , e. 

February I. 1S65, disc. September 22. ISO.".. 

William Knight, Co. G, 115th O. V. I., e. Sep- 
tember 1, LS61, disc. September 25, 1*64. 

John E. Knox. Co. F. 38th O. V. V. I., e. Janu- 
ary 27. 1864, .li.-c. July 12. 1865. 

Tillman Koch. Co. B. 47th O. Y. I., e. September 

27, 1864. disc May 31, 1865. 
James Iv-cuei. 
Samuel W. Kosier, Co. B. 2d Indepen. Lt. Art., 

e. August 30. 1861, disc. Oi tober 12. 1865. 

Frederick Krabi. Co. B. 37th O. V. Y. I., e. Sep- 
tember 30, 1862, disc August 7. 1865 

Joseph Kronk, Co. A, 38th O. N. G. e. August. 
1861, died it, service, L862. 



Henry Kuhl, Co. E, 10th O. V. L, e. April 24, 
1861, disc. August 28, 1861. 

Adam Kunkle. Co. C, 88th 0. V. L, e. August 
15, 1861, disc. July 25, 1865. 

David Kunkle, Co. *'. 38fch 0. V. I., e. August 
15, 1861, disc. .Tuly 25, 1865. 

H. Kurnian, Co. A, 38th 0. V. I., e. August, 

JosiaL Kyle, Co. B, 182d 0. V. I., e. October 13, 
1804, disc. July 7, 1865. 

George VV. Lacer, Co. E. 33d O. V. V. I.,e. Feb- 
ruary 27, 1S64, disc. May 21, L865. 

F. D. La Cost. Co. E, 86th 0. V. I., e. June 19, 
1863, disc. February 10, 1864. 

Lieut. Jacob Lane, Co. t\ 38th O. V. I., e. Au- 
gust. 1861; disc. 1865. 

M. Lang, 17tb Bat. Ind. V., e. March 30, 1862, 
disc. August 15. 1862. 

Emanuel Laws. in, O. V. I., e. 1862. 

George Lawson, III. V.. e. Io05. disc. July, 1805. 

Joseph Lawson, 111. C.,disc. July 8, 1865. 

John C. Lawrence. 

W. Lawrence. 

Sergt. J. W. Leach, Co. F. 88th O V. V. I., 
e. October 10. 1S61 disc. July 19, 1865 

Perry Loary, Co; D, 124th O. V. I., e. August 
10, ISO'.', disc. June 13, 1865. 

Francis I). Least, Co. A, 38th O. V. I. 

Charles Lembaugh. 

Second Sergt. W: H. Lemhart, Co. F, 1st Del. C. 

James Lett, Co. C, 72.1 O. V. I., c. October 1, 
1802. disc. July 30, LS63. 

James Lett, Co. F, 6th O. V. I., e. September 29, 
1804, disc. June 10, 1865. 

Benjamin Lewis, Co. D, 124th O. V. I., e. Au- 
gust, lSOi', disc. 1863. 

Charles J. Lewis. Co. D, 100th O. V. I., e. Au- 
gust 4, 1802, disc. June 20, 1865. 

Sergt. Edmund N. Lewis, Co. C, l c t Indepen. O. 
V. I., e. October 24, 1801, disc. March 1. L867. 

Joseph J. Lewis. Co. F, 68th O. V. I., e. October 
1. 1801, disc. Juno 17. 1865. 

John Lewis, Co. I. yd O. Y. C. e. October 8, 
1863, disc. July. IS65. 

Joseph Lichty, Co. G, 14th O. V. I., e. February 
11, 1864, disc. July. 1865 

Joseph Limenstall, Co. F, 63th O. V. I., e. Jan- 
uary 1, 1864, killed at Atlanta, Ga., August 4. 1864. 

John Linderman, Co. F. 10th I'. S. I., e. March 
26, 18(54, disc. 1865 

J. Linders, Co. H. 72d O. V. I., e. October 1, 
1862, disc. August IS, 1863. 

Henry Linebrink, Co. K, 124th O. V. i. 

Lewis Lin-b nnk, Co. D. 195th O. V. I., e. Feb- 
ruary 17, ISO!, disc. December I 1 *.. 1804. 

William Linebrink, Co. K. 124th O. Y. I. 

H. Livingston, Co, E, 86th O. V. I., e. Juno 21. 
1803; died at Cumberland Gap. October 7. 1863 

Washington I Logan, Co. I. 3d < >. V. I. 

Henry 1a ngsmith, 125th <). Y. 1. 

Samuel Lorah, 38th 0. V. I., e. September, 1861, 
killed in service. • 

U. P. Love, Htth (). Y. I., e. May, 1804, disc. 
September, 1864. 

John Lovejoy, Co. A. 38th O. Y. I., e. August 
10. 1861, disc. July, 1865. 

Henry Lowry. 61-2 Batt. Y. R. C, e. September 
; 2, 1861, disc. September 20, 1864. 

Frank Loyd, Co. E. 86th O. Y. 
1803, disc. February 10, ISO). 

Thomas Lovd. 

W. Malcom, Co. K. 08th O. V 
; 1861, disc. July 14, 1865. 

Alexander Mangel. Co. F, 14th O 
1861. disc. July 5, 1805. 

I. M. Manor, Co. C, 85th O. Y. I 
1802, disc. October, IS62 

Enoch B. Mapes. 

Samuel K. Mapes. 

Fred March, Co. E. 07th O. Y. 
ber 1, 1V34. disc. October 31, IS65. 

Abraham Maris, Co. A. 38th O. \ 
1861, disc. July. [865. 

George R. Maris, Co. F. I82d O. 
ber 20, 1804, disc. July 7. 1865. 

Abraham Markley, Co. D, 12ith O. V 
gust 15, 1802, disc. July 9. 1865. 

Conrad Marquardt, Co. K. 130th O. Y. I., e. May 
31, 1804. disc. September 22, 1864, 

Thomas Martin, Co. I. 13th Penn. Y 
14, 1861, disc. August. 1801. 

Thomas Martm, Co. E. 70th Penn. V 
ber 18, 1801. disc. December 1, 1S04. 

A. B. Mason. 
W. A. Maxwell. Co. A, 166th O. 
1864, disc. September 10. 1S04. 

T. Harrison May, Co. F, 68th O. 
ber 8, 1861, disc. Jul} 10, 1865 

W. S. McClary, Co. C, 99th O. Y 
■| 1. 1802. disc. January 20. 1^05. 

Corp. David McColliBter, Co. G, 81st O. Y. I., e. 
August 28. 1N02. disc. July 21, 1865. 

John McCoIlister, Co. K. 196th O. X. 
tember, 1862, disc. August. 1864. 

Harvey MeConkey. Co. E. 20th Mich 
gust 4. 1862, disc. April L0, 1863. 

Hiram McDaniel, Co E. 86th O. Y. 
17. 1863, disc 1 ebruary L0, L&G4. 

Wilson McDowell, Co C, 21st O.Y. I. 
1, 1802, disc. Mar< li, IS63. 

I., e. June 19, 

I., e. October, 
Y. I., e. April, 

July 5, 

I., e. Novem- 

L, e. August, 
e. Octo- 

Y. 1. 



e. April 


V. I., May 2, 
V. I. , o. Octo- 

1., e. AiUHtst 


• 8- 



. e 

. An 




, o. 





Patrick McDonald 

Josiah McElroy, Co. F. 2-tth Iowa V., e. Septem- 
ber 26, l^i >2, lis? August, 1805. 

W. W. McFeters, Co. D. 3d O. V. C, e. October, 
1862, disc. August 15, 1865 

J. P. McGlasson, Co. D, 33d 111. V., e. March 
1, 1862, disc. April 3, 1863. 

John W. Meek, Co. A, l'.'thO. V. I., e. April 
21, 1861, disc. August -'7, 1861. 

Sergt. John \V. Meek, Co. D. 19th O. V. L, e. 
September 10, 1861, disc. December 31, 1863. 

Sergt. John VV. Meek, Co. 1>. 19th O. V. I., e. 
January I, 1864, disc. October 24. 1865. 

Simon McHoily. 

Capt. Hiram Meek, Co. D. 195tii 0. V. I., e. 
March 16, 1865, disc. December 22, 1865 

Almon G. Meese, Co. D, 142d Ind. V.. e. 
October 3, 1864, disc. August, 1865. 

Corp. Jacob Mercer. Co. K, 182d 0. V. I., e 
October 20, 1864, disc. July 7. 1865. 

Sergt.. John Mercer. Co. E, 21st O. V. I., e. 
September 19, 1861, disc. 1864. 

Henry Merryhue. 

Robert Merryhue; Co. D, 29th O. V. I., e. Octo- 
ber 13, 1864, disc. June 6, 1865. 

Dr. B. E. Miller, Co. C, 128th O. V. I., e. Octo- 
ber 29, 1863, disc. July 6, 1865. 

Edward L. Miller. 23d Ind. Bat., e. September 
28, 1862, disc. July 3, 1865. 

Henry Miller. 16th N. Y. R., e. March. 1S63, 
died at Chattanooga May 2. 1865. 

Henry Miller, Co. G, 88th O. V. I., e. January 
28, 1863, disc. July 21, 1865. 

John F. Miller. Fenu. Militia, e. August 7, 1863, 
disc. May 7, 1864. 

J. H. Miller, Co. A, 189th O V. I., e. January 
21, 1S65, disc. August, 1865. 

Philip Miller, Co. D. O. V. I., e. February 27, 
1864, disc. May 9, 1866. 

Samuel H. Miller. Co. C, 51st O. V. V. I., e. Jan- 
uary 1, 1864, disc. October 3, 1865. 

Samuel B. Miller, Co. E, 100th O. V. I., August, 
1SG2, disc. 1865. 

William Miller, Co. D, 100th O. V. I., e July 13, 
1S62, disc. June 20, 18*55. 

William A. Miller. Co. I. 94th X. Y. V., e. No-. 
vember 14. 1861, disc. June 23, 1865. 

WilliamH. Miller, Co. H. 38th O. V. I., e. Janu- 
ary 28, 1863, disc. July 10, 1865. 

George Mincel, Co. F, 18th O; V. I., e. 1861, died 
on Mississippi River. 1862. 

Corp. Washington Miser, Co. A. 38th O. V I . 
e. August 13. 1862, disc 1865. 

David Mitz,Co. K, 62d O. V. I.e. September 27, 
1861, disc. June 20, 1865. 

E. B. Mis. Co. [., 1st R Art. Mexican war, e. 
September 15, 1847, disc. September 10, 1848 

Homer W. Moats. 

G. W. Mock. 63d O. V. I., e. September27, 1864; 
disc. May 1 5, 1 3( \l . 

Isaac \. Mock, Co. H, 6th O. V. C, e. October 
17, 1862; disc. July 27. 1863. 

John W. Mock, Co. A. 189th O. V. I., e. January 
21, 1865; disc. September 28, [865. 

Mohart. Co. (', 111th O. V. 1. 

George Moilenkopp, Co. F, 9th O. V. I., e. De- 
cember 15, 1863; disc. July 15, 1865. 

G. W.Moon Co. B, 38th O. V. I. 

Peter Moo-. Co. B, 68th O. V. I., e. October 22, 
1861; disc July 1865. 

John Moon. Co. A. 9th O. S. S, 

William Moon, Co. D. 38th O. V. I. 
— Moore, Co. B. 2d West Va. V. I , e. May 20, 
1861; disc. June. 1864. 

S. J. Moo,-,.. Co D, BOth O. V. V. I., e. Novem 
i ber, 1861; disc. Angusi 31. i860. 

John E. Morrow. Co. K, 182d O. V. I., e. Oct » 
J ber 4, 1864; disc. July 7. 1865 

a L Morse, Co. F. 6Sth 0. V. I., e. February, 
1865; di-c. July. 1865. 

C. W. Morse. Co. G, 12th O. V. C, e. Septeml er 
I 15. 1863; disc. July 21. 1865. 

Sergt Samuel J. Morse Co A. 68tb O. V. L, 0. 
i September, 1861; died al Vicksburg, Miss., Dec< 1 
j 16, 1862. 

Sylvester Morse, Co D, 124th o. V. 1., e. 1862; 
died at Madison. lud.. June 5, 1864 

Zelotes Morse. Co. A, 68th O. V. I.. 9. October, 
1861; died at Vicksburg, December, 1863 

Lewis Muntie; died at Columbus, Ohio, 1865. 

Corp Isaiah Musser, Co. G, li2d O. V. I. e. Octo- 
ber 21. 1864; disc. July 14. 1865. 

Jacob Musser, Co. 1, 125th O. V. I., e. July 5, 
1863; disc. May 25, 1865. 

Adam Myers, Co. D. 14th O. V. I., disc. 1865. 

John Myers, Co. D. 47th 0. V. I. 

J. H. Myers, Co C, 101st O. V. I., e. August 7, 
1862: disc. June, !-■ >. 

.1. K. Myers, Co. D, 169th O. N. G. e. May 2, 
1864; disc. September 6, 1864. 

Corp. George Meyers, Co. K. 64th 0. V. I., e. 1861 ; 
died at Lebanon. Ky.. March 3, 1862. 

Sergt. Gilbert L. Myers, Co. C, 68th 0. V. I., e. 
October. 1861; disc. July 18. 1865. 

Peter Myers, Co. D, 14th O. V. L; killed at 

David Navew, Co. E, 130th 0. N. G.. e. May 2, 
1864; disc. September 23, 1864 

John G, Neher, Co. B, 3d V. R., e. August 9, 
1862; disc. February 20, 186V 



Ira Newill, 97th V. R. I. Battery, e. Ooto 
ber 18, 1861; disc. November 9, 1864 

Corp. James Newill, Co. K. 3d O. V. C, e. Jan- 
uary 15, 1 S 'U: disc. August 1, 1864. 

'.lame- Newill, Co D, U. S. A., e. March 13,1867; 
disc. March 18, 1870. 

Andrew Newland, Co. E. S2d O. V. I., e. Novem- 
ber 12, 1861; disc. December 29, 1863. 

First Sergt. Isaac Newton. Co. F>. 6*h 0. V. C , e. 
August 1". 1862; died August 18. 1864. 

Sergt. W. Nicholls, Co. F. 41th Ind. V. I., e. 
November, 1861; disc. November, l v, ii 

Carl Nogle, Co. B, 37th O. V. V. I. e. Septem-- 
ber8, 1862; disc. May 28, 1865. 

Sergt. Thomas S. Nutter, Co K. 10th West \'a. 
V., e. February 2'.'. 1864; disc. April 27, 1865. 

John M. Ochsenreiter, Co. H. 47th O. V. I.e. 
October 3, 1864; disc. August 11, 1865. 

Joseph M. Osborn, 1 1th O. V. I.; killed in the bat- 
tle of Mission Ridge. September 18, 1S03. 

Capt. Ransom Osborn, Co. G, 163d O. V. I., e. 
May 11, 1864; diso September 1". 1864. 

William D. Otis. Co. G. 11th O. V. I., e. August 
16. 1862; disc. July 16, 1865: 

Samuel Palmer, Co. G. 10th 111. V. I., e. May 24. 
1861; disc. May 14. 1862. 

J. G. Park. Co. D. 3d Wis. V. C, e. August 13, 
1802; disc. May 19, 1865. 

George Parker, Co. A. 111th O. Y. I., e. August 
13, 1862; disc. July, 1865." 

Anthony Partee. Co. l. 125th O. Y. I. 

George Partee, Co. G, 3d O. Y. C. e. December, 
1861; disc December 30, I s '"-; 

George VV. Partee, Co. D. I24tb O. V. I., e. Aug- 
ust 21, 1S61-; missing. 

John E. Partee. Co. I. 125th O. V. I. 

Joseph Partee. Co D. 4Sth O. V. I., e. November 
16. 1861; disc. May i». 1864 

Elijah Patten. Co. H. 4th O. V. C, e. September, 
1862; disc. July 5, 1865. 

Corp. Conrad Pfizer. Co. F. 1 30th O. N. G. e. 
May 2. 1864; disc September 22, 1864. 

SamuelS. Pearsons, Co. P. 3d O. V. I., e. Novem- 
ber 3, 1863; disc. August 4, 1865. 

John Peeper. 

Ebberly Perry. 16th U. S. I. e. LS63; disc. 1866. 

John Perry. Co F,68th 111 V.I..e.l861; disc.1864. 

James Peterson. Co. E, 195th O. V. I., e. Febru- 
ary 14, 1865; disc. September J, 1865 

John C. Phiiliio. Co. C, 100th Ind. V, e. 1862; 
disc. June 1, 1805. 

J. D. Phillips, O. N. G., e. May, 1S04; disc. Sep. 
teniber. 1864 

Hiram Pierce. W is. C. 

William N. Pierce, Iowa Y., e. 1863. 

D. anis Pitts. Co. F. 18th O. V. I., o. October 24, 
L861; disi Decei il ei 2, 1864. 

R. L. Pollock Co. i». 124th O. V. I., e. Ocl i ei 
!. 1862; disc. July 9. 1365 

Samuel M. Pollock, Co. K, 17th V. R C. -. 
September 25. 1864; disc. July 28, 1865. 

Andrew Pontious, seaman, Gun Boat Carondelet, 
e. August 10, 1862'; disc. September 10. 1863. 

John Poorman, Co. A, 183d O. V. I., e. Decem- 
ber 1, 1864; disc. July 17, 1865. 

William Poorman, Co. A. 38th O. Y. I., e. Au- 
gust 26, 1861; disc. September 13, 1864 

James A. Price, c. [[. S2d o. Y. I., e. February, 
1864; disc July 31. C 3 

GilbertL. Rruser.sailor.steamerTJ. S. N. ,Mt Ver 
non, e. September 10. L862; disc. June 6, 1865. 

Herman Pruser, Co, P. 1st O. Y. I.; died at An- 

Frederick Pump, Co. K. 37th O. Y. I., e. August 
26, 1861: disc. February ( J, 1864. 

Frederick I'm,.!,, Co. K, 37th O Y. Y. I., e. Feb- 
ruary 10. LS64; disc Angus! 7. 1865. 

William H. Ralston. 

Sergt W. H. H. Ramsey, Co. I, 49th O. Y. I., e. 
Augu-t 22 1861; disc. December 31, 1SG5. 

Alexander Randal, Co. G. 125th O. Y. I., e. Octo- 
ber 1 "v IS62; disc. September 25, 1865. 

Felix Randal, 3d O- Y. I., e. November. 18 S3; 
disc. August, 1864. 

John P. Ranuci. Co. H, 197th O. Y. I., e. March 
II. 1S65; disc. July 31, L56 i 

Perry Rarrick, wagoner, Co. K, 12th O. Y. I., m. 
September 1^. 1863; disc. November 14, 1865. 

Corp. Geor^ Rath, Co. I. 125th O. Y. I., e. Au- 
gust 2. 1S63; dis6. September 25, 1SG5. 

George W. Rath, Co. I. 125th O. Y. I. 

•John Rath. 

Joseph Rath 

C. A Reaser, Co. F. 111th O. V. I, e. August 16, 
1882; disc. January 29, 1MJ3. 

John T. Reaser, Co. A. 63th O. Y. I., e. 1862. 

Seawell \Y. Reaser, Co K, 38th O Y. I., e. Sep- 
tember 1. 1861; disc December 10, 1863. 

Sterling Reed, Co. F. 

E. P. Eeeder, i_ • D. H5tLO. Y. I. 9. August 
17, 1862; <lis.e. June 22. 1865. 

Lewis D Renolet, Co. B, I82d O. V.I.. e. Jan- 
uary 22. 1865; disc. July, 1S65. 

Aaron 13. Replogle, Co. E, 86th O. Y. L, e. June 
17. 1863; disc. February L0, 1864. 

James VY. Replogie 

Eusebius Reyff, Co. K. 7th Minn. Y., e. Sep 
tomber 16, 5862; disc. March 25. 1365. 

John VY. llhany, Co. G. 99th O V. I., s. August 
11, 1862; disc. July 17. 1865. 



F. M. Rice, 66th O. V V.I. e. October, 1851; 
disc July. IS65. 

Sergt. G. N. Rice, Co. H, S2d O. V. I., e. No- 
vember 16, 1861; disc. January, 1865. 

W. H. Richard, 3d 0. Ind Battery, e. September 
11, 1S61; disc. February, 1863. 

G. W. Richardson, Co. K, 3dO. V. C, e. January 

15, 1864; disc. August t. LS65. 

First Lieut, Lay W Richardson, Co. G, t',sth O. 
V. I., e. April 22; IS61; disc. Jauuarj 3, L865. 

Sergt. John Richolt, Co. K. 2d O. V. C, e. No 
vember 14, 1862; disc. May 12. 1865. 

Corp.- Simon Ridernonr Co. C. 183d O. Y. I., e. 
November 14, 1803; disc. July IT. 1865. 

D. Rittenour, Co. A. Oth Michigan V. 

M G. Rittenhonse, Co. C, 169th O. N. G., e. 
May 2. 1864. 

Henry Rock, Co. ('. 40th O. V. I., e. October, 
1S02; disc. August, 1863. 

William Roehrs, Co. G. 144th O. N. G.. e. May 
11, 1864j disc. August 27, 1864. 

C. M. Rogers, Co. A, 38th O. V I., e January 
2, 1864; disc. July 22, 1865. 

— Root. Co. E. 14th 0. V. I., e. 1861. 

Gilbert Root, Co. I, 8th 0. V. I., e. August 16, 
1861; disc. March 6, 1863 

Heury J. Root, Co. I. 4th 0. V. V. I., e. April 

16, 1S61; disc. July I. 1865 

First Lieut. J. O. Rose, Co. E, 86th O. V. I., e. 
April 22. 1861; disc. February 14. L864. 

AilL. Rojsa, Co. A. 11 Ith O. V. I., e. August 28, 
1862; disc July 31, ISO-".. 

Sol. Rurnrael, Co. E, 111th O. Y. I., e. August. 
1862: disc. July. 1865. 

William w" Russel, Co. B, 12th Ind. Y, e. 
January 4. 1S64; disc. June 23, 1865. 

Charles Kusset. Co. G, 101st O. V. I., e. July. 
1862; disc. June 29. 18 15. 

Josephus Sanders. 

J. M. Sanders, Co. C, nth Mich. Cav. , e. March 
6. 1865; disc. September. 1865. 

A, F. Saner. Co. E, 151st N". Y. Vol.. e. August 
22. ISO J; disc. June 30, 1865. 

Yolney Sanford. 10thMo.V. I., e. 1862; disc. 1864 

Peter Seharff. Co. F, 6bth O. V. I . e. October 7. 
1861; disc. July L9 ; 1805. 

John P. Scliew, Co. I. 125th O. V. I., e. January 
IS. 1863; disc. May 19, 1865. 

Emil Schick. Co. A. 192d O. V. I., e. February 
24, lSGo: di^c. September 1. 1865. 

Sergt Otto Schick. Co. H. 107th O. V. I., e: Sep- 
tember 2, 1862; disc June 2-1. 1865. 

Ezra Schlosser, Co, < 64th O. V. I. 

John Schlcsser. Co. A. 6th Vet. Res. e. August 

17, 1862: disc. July 6. 1865. 

Sergt. George M. Schmidt, 3d Indep. Cav., p. 
July 1. 1861; disc. August 28, 1862 

Sergt. George Schull. Co. C. Cah 0. V. I. e 
November, 1861; disc. June, L865. 

'"■" i .:<■ John Schuerman, Co. i\. 9th O. V. I., e. 
Maj 27. L861; disc. July 14, 1864. 

First Sergt. VV. <i. Scott, Co. F, 68 th 0. V. I. e. 
November, 1861; '\\^\ July 20. 1S65. 

W. Scott. C. ! . 68th O. V. I., e. November. 
1861; promotedt (Second Lieut.; disc. July 20. 18*55. 

A. Siebert, Co. 1'. 68th 0. V. I., e. Octobor 10, 
1861; killed June 22. 1864. 

Heury Shaffer, Co. K, 107th O. V. I., e. August 
15, IS62; disc. July 10, 1865. 

Henry Schaffer, Go. K. SOtli O. V. I., e. June is. 
1863; disc. July 27. 1863. 

Henry B Schaffer, Co. G, 68th 0. V I., e Jan- 
uary ::. 1864; .Use July lit. 1865. 

Sergt. John Schaffer, Co. F, 3Sth O. V. V. I., e. 
December 11, 1S63: disc. July 12. 1865. 

Simon Shank, Co. D, 29th O. V. V. I., e. October 
13. 1S64: disc. July 22. 1865. 

W. M. Shanklin, Co. D, 120th O.Y. V. I., ... lug 
ust 13, 1862; disc. November L3, 1865 

George Sharp, Co. E, S6th 0. V. I., e. June IS. 
IS63: disc. February 10, 1864. 

E. Shatto, Co. 1'. 33th O. V. I., e. October 7. 
1862; disc. July 27. 1863. 

E. Shatto, Co. C. 195th 0. V. J., e. March 7. 
1865; disc. December 18, 1865. 

Lorin Shead, 4th Wis. Art e. October 13, 1862: 
disc. January. 1863. 

John A. Sheffield, Co A. 2 tth 0. V. I. 

Mathias Shellberger. 

J. W. Shepard, Co. E. 13th Ind. Vol., e. Sep- 
tember. 1864: disc. September, 1865, 

Richard Shepmire, Co. K, 2d I. C, e. June 30, 
1863; disc. March S, 1864. 

Richard Shepmire, Co. D, 195th O. V. I., e. 
February 20. 1865; .Use December 18, 1865. 

Stephen M Shirley, Co. K. 25th O. V. V. I., e. 
September 12. 1^01; disc. August 15, 1865. 

William Shirley. Co. V. 38th 0. V. I., e. Augusl 
10, 1861; disc December 28, 1861. 

Henry Sh taker, 100th O V. I. 

Corp George Sboles, Co G, 106th N. Y. V., ■■ 
August 7. 1862; disc. June 22. 1865. 

Uriah Shorteen, Co. II. 1 69th O. V. I., e. May 
2, 1864; disc. Septeuibei 12, COi 

Andrew Shubert, Co. 1), 7th Vet. Res., e. Sep. 
teniber 1. 1861; disc. September 10, 1864. 

Sergt. A. W Sigourney.Co D. 8th O. V. I. , e April 
17. 1861; disc. October, 186-1 

Sergt. Al u,. i 3im ris, Co. G, Tth Cav.. e. Sep- 
tember 15, 1876; disc. Sept< nber 14, 1881. 




■ In-.i.ttr;— is**""* 






j si: 

; 1 

• ■ : - 

■" ' • ' era ' Wi V 



if. i 




, e. September 26, 
\ V. I., e. Febrn- 

,1: sepb Siin.ii,-. Co. B, 7th (>. V. 1., <■. September 

27, 1801; ,1. c. Octobei 1. 1804. 

Samuel Siscoe, Co. 1. 60th O. V. I., e. April 5, 
1864; disc July 28, 1863. 

Lewie Sitterly, Co. K. 108th O. V. I., o. August 
15. 1862; (lis.:. July H'. 1865. 

Corp. Leonard Slater, Co C, 111th O. V. I., e. Au- 
gust 12, 18(52; disc January 27. 1865. 

Sergt Isaac T. Slough, Co. 1>. 124th O. V .1.. e. 
August 9, 1862; disc. J-uh 15 1865 

Henry Shonp, Perm. Militia. 

A. Smith. Co. F, 2d Ind. Vo 
1864; disc. July 13. 1805. 

Andrew Smith, Co. I>. 18th O 
ary 28, 1864; disc. May 9, 1866. 

Bartholomew F. Smith, Co. K. 100th Ind Vol., 
e. August 13, 1 S 'VJ: disc! May 121), ls05. 

Barton Smith. 

E. F. Smith, Co. I. 17th O. V 

28, 1864; disc. Juno 13, 1865 
E. T. Smith. 6th < >. Lt Bat., e. 

disc. S, ptember 1. 1805. 

James Smith. Co. B, I82d O. V 
1864; disc. July 7. L865. 

J. W. Smith, Co. B, 184th O. V. I., e. February 
1865; disc. 1865. 

John Smith. Co. F. 3d O. V. 
1861; disc. September 29, 1864. 

L. Smith. Co. D. 55th O. V. I. 
1864; disc. 1865. 

Peter Smith, Co. B, 2Sth O. V. 
at Pittsburg Landing, 1861. 

Samuel I. Smith, Co. E, 6th Mich. V. C 
tember 16, 1862: disc. November 24, 1865 

William H. Smith. Co. K. 21s< O. V. I., e. April, 
1S01; disc. September 16, 1861. 

John J. Snider, Co. A. 110th Ind. Vol., e. April, 
1862; disc. March 2, 1864. 

Abraham Snyder, e. 1S62; .lied in service. 1S63. 

A. L. Snyder, Co. B, 16th Penn. Cav., e. Sep- 
tember 10, 1S62; disc. June 20, 1865. 

Chris. Snyder, Co. D. 53tL O. V. I., e. September 
27, 1S64; disc July 7, 1865. 

Richard Snyder, Co. D, 183d O. V. I., e. Febru 
ary 20, IS65: disc. July 17. 1865. 

John Solenberger. Co. C ;'.,! O. V. C. e. Decem- 
ber 29, 1863; disc. August 1. 1865. 

Will. am F. S. lea, Co. H, 8th O. V. I., e. April, 
1861; disc. June. 1863 

William L. Soles. Co. I, 1-t O. Lt. Art., e. Au- 
gust 2'.'. 1864; disc. May IS, 1865. 

Emanuel Spangler, Co \'.. SOtb <>. V. I . .• June 
18. 1863; disc. February 10, 1864. 

John C. Spangler, Co i), 86th O. V. I., e June 
IS, 1863. 


e. Octo 

I., e. September 

Febrnary 2. 1864; 

I., e. August 23, 

I., e. August 25, 

e. September 27, 
I., e. 1861; .lied 


Jacob F. Spiudler, Co. C, 08th O. \. I. 
ber 1'-'. 1861; disc. Maj 12, 1865. 

Joe Spoon. 11th <). V. I.. ... 1861. died at Nash- 
ville, 1863. 

Orin Sprague, Co. K, lS2d O. V. I., e. Oct. b. i 
22, 1864; disc. July 18, 1865. 

George 1'. Sprow, Co. C. 17th <>. V. I., e. Octo- 
ber 25, 1864; disc. May 12, 1865. 

Corp. S. Spurgeon, Co. 11, 23d O. V. I., o. April 
30, 1861; disc. June 30, 1864. 

( leorge T. Squire. 

James F. Stafford, Co. A. Kith Ind. V. I., e. Sep 
tember 20, 1864; disc. Ma) 30, IS65. 

Daniel M. Stair, Co. I, 1 00th O. V. I., o August, 
1862; disc. July. 1865. 

Parker Starliffer, Co. C, 111th O. V. F 

Alison S. Steadman, Co. E, SOth O. V. I., e. June 
20, 1863; disc. February 10, 1864. 

George Streadman. 

David Steehsmitb, Co. 1'., lS9th O. V. I., e. 
March. 1803; disc. August, 1805. 

John G. Stefrlo, Co. A. 13d < >. V. I., o. November, 
1863; disc. June. 1864. 

Samuel Steinaker, Co. 15, 8th Vet. Res., e. July 
22. 1862; die July 2. 1SI 

Corp. M. 1'.. Stevens, 18th X. V. V.. p. December 
21', 1863; disc. June 30, 1865. 

Corp. I. L. Stout. Co. D, 124th O. Y. I., e. An 
gust, 1802; died at Franklin, Tenn., 1863. 

Henry Stover, Co. I. 49th O. Y. I., e. August. 
LS61; disc. December 31. 1865. 

George Strahl, 38th O. V. I., e. 1861; died Au- 
gust 9, 1865. 

John W. Stratton, Co. D, I43d0. X. G.. e. May, 
1864; disc October. 1864. 

David Strawser; died in service. 1804. 

George Strawser. 

Philip Strawser, Co. E. 111th O. V. I., e. August 
22, 1801: disc. July, 1865. 

John Sturky, Co. K. ]<>7thO. V. I., e. August 20. 
1862; disc. March 13, 1865. 

W. 1'. Sullinger.Go. E, B6th O. Y. I., o. June 18, 
1863; disc. February J, 1864. 

Daniel Sunday, Co. E, 86th O. V. I., e. June 18, 
1863; disc. February 10. 1864 

Alfred Swager, ">th Indep. O. V. Sharpshooters 
e. October 24, 1862; disc. Jul.. 1'.'. 1865. 

Jeremiah Swinehart, Co. J. 125th O V. I. 

First Lieut. J. W. Tate, U5th O. X. G.; e. May, 
1864; disc. September, 1864. 

Asst Surg. William H. Thacker, LOOth O. V. I 
.- August, 1862: resigned, 1S64. 

J cob R. Thomas. Co. A. L52d Ii d Vol., e Feb 
ruary 15, 1805; disc. August 30, 1865 
Calvin Todd. 125th O, V. I 




John Th >uias C ». D, 2d Vet Res., e. August 1. 
1861; disc. Xovembcr2, 1S04 

Augustus B. Thrall, Co D, L83d O. V. I , e. I 
nary 31, IS05; disc. July L7, 1805. 

Edward J. Todd. Co. D, ISth O. V. I., e. Febru- 
ary 27. 1864; disc, Maj 9, 1804. 

D. O. Tomlinson, Co C, LI lth O. V. i T . o. August 
17, 1862; disc. Jul} L6, l s ''<"' 

Corp. W. S. Tomlinson, Co. A. 38th O. V. I„ e. 
August 26, 1861; disc. July 22, 1865. 

'Sergt. Albert Towle, C >. K, S6th 0. V. [., e. June 
17, 1863; disc. February 10, 1864. 

G. W. Towle, Co. C, 3SthO. V. I. e, August 15, 

Michael Tracht, Co. K. 81st O. V. I., e. August 
20, 1862; disc. May 20, 1S65. 

First Lieut. William C. Travis. Co. D, 124th O. 
V. I., e. August 22, 1862; disc. March. 1863. 

Jacob P. Trailer, 92d Res Civ. 2d Bat, e. Au- 
gust IS. 1862; disc. June 30, 1S65. 

A J Tr< ister, Co. II. 68 th O. V. V. I., e 1861; 
disc. July, 1 

T. J. Treaster, Co. K, 68th O. V. I., e. February, 
1802; killed at Atlanta, Ga., July 2':. 1S65. 

Leonard Tricker, Co. G, 1st Mich. Art., e. Febru- 
ary 12, 1864; disc Augusl 22, 1865. 

George Trostle, Co. E, 48th O. V. I, e. 1861; 
disc. 1865. 

Andrew Tuttle, 48th O. V. I.; disc. 1865. 

Jacob B. Ulrich, Co. K, 163d O. V. I., e. May 2, 
1864; disc. November, LS65. 

Sergt. M. H. L'rquhart, Co. E. 86th O. V. I., e. 
June 21, 1S63; disc. February 10, ! S| >4." 

Corp. Samuel Cry, Co D, 30th O V. I.; died. 

Lewis L. Lry: killed by bushwhackers. 

Nathaniel Yaudusen, Co. B, 3d O. V. [., Mexican 
War, e. Ma\ 6, 1846; disc. July 1. 1847. 

P. H Vanmeter, Co. D, L89th O. V. I.,e. Febru- 
ary 11. 1S05: disc. September 25, 1865. 

Michael Vanvlearah, Co. 1, 80th O. V. I., e. De- 
cember 6, 1861; disc, January 4. 1864. 

Michael Vanvlearah, Co. I. 80th O. V. V. I., e. 
January 5. 1864; disc. August 13, IS05. 

Benjamin Yiall, Co K. LOth O. V. I., e. Aprii, 
22. 1861; disc. August 20, 1861. 

Benjamin Viall, Co 1", st Ith O. V. I., e. Decern 
ber 12, 1861: disc. January 24, L864. 

Corp. Benjamin Viall, C >. F, SOth O. V. V I., e 
January 25. 1804; disc. August 13. 1865. 

Ca;>t. Martin Viebach, 107 h. 

Corp. rhoiaasB. Wade, Co D, 54th O. V. I., e. 
September 10, 1861; disc January 13, l v| ^. 

William Walker. < .. EL 17th O. V. L,e. Septem 
ber 16, 1804; disc. July, 1805 

Sergt. Thomas Wallace. Co. B. OSth O. V. T. 

Sergt. John H. Ward, Co. K. 93d P< i i Vol. 

John L. Ward ... C D, 14 M (). V. I., e. O 
ber 12. LS01; disc. !>iiy 1 I. 1865. 

r, Co. E, l s ;h hi.i V I . e. January 
6, L801; disc F. luuan 6, 1862. 

T. J. Warren, 68th 111. V. I ,e. 1861; disc. L865. 

E Wat,.,--. Co. B, 184th O. V. I., e. February 

12, 1865; died, 1805. 

Horace Waters, Co. A, 68th O. V. I. e. 1861; 

disc. 1865. 

Corp. Horace Waters, Co. A, 6Sth O. V. I. 

Tobias Watson, Co. D, 109th O. X. G., e May 2. 
1804; disc September 0, 1S64. 

Geoi -■ Watts. Co. I. 2d N. J. Vol., e. May 29, 
1861; disc. February 28, 1863. 

John \\ eaver; ( olonol in the war of 1812. 

L. F. Weldj, Co. C, 1 Hth O. N. G., e. May 1. 
l y 'il; disc. September, !8o4. 

Philip Webb. 

Corp. Peter J. Weismantle, Co. 13. 12th Ind. Vol., 
c July 1. 1S02; disc. June S, 1865 

Davi i I. Wi Ik : C ». !». 18th V. V. I.,e Feb 
ruary 27. 1*04: disc. May '■>. IS60. 

Daniel V. th O. V. I., e. S< pi ' 

13, 1S61; disc, disability, 1862. 

Daniel Wells. 55th O. V. I. e. 1862; disc. IS64 

Second Lieut. Henry Welty, Co. F. 68th O. V. I. 
e. Oi i ibi r, 1801 il -e. July 1865. 

Anth my Weyershausen, Co. G, 10th Iowa V. I., 
e. October 5, 1861; disc. January '-'. 1864. 

Corp. Anthony Weyershau en, Co. (r. 16th Vet« 
e. January 6, IS64; disc. July 19. 1865. 

Corp. Jonathan T. Whaley, Co. E, S6th O. V [.. 
e. June 21, 1863; disc. February 10. 1S64. 

Joint Whetst -. i . E, 1 Itiil.). V. I., e Novem- 
ber. 1862; died in service, IS03. 

Samuel Whetstone, Co. B. tTtli * >. V I., e. Sep- 
tember 27. 1804; disc. Ma) 31, 1805 

Daniel W. White. Co. K. 33th O. V. V. I.e. Feb 
ruary 17, ISO t ; disc. July 12. 1805 

Amos M. Whitney. Co. A. 25th O. V. V. I., e. 
October 8, 1805; disc December 31. 1869. 

John Wibert. (',, C, 3d O. V. V. I., e Augusl 25, 
1861; disc. September 13 180 1. 

T. (r. \\ ickershai .. 10'Jth O. V. I. 

J. R. Widenh nor, Co. D, 7th Vet Res. Ci ; 
e. September 1, 1861: disc. September 10, l v,; l 

J, un \\ idner, Co. G. 38th O. V. [.. e. January 
24, 1804; disc. Jul) 12. 1 

<;• orge Williams, Co. D, 1 tth O. V. I., e. I8< i . 
disc. IS05, 

Jolui \\ illiams. Co. D, 1 lth O. V. [., o 1863: 
disc. L865. 

Corp J. D. Williamson, ( ... II. 110th Penu. Vol., 
e April 27. 1.801; disc. Juui 10, 1805. 



Co istantine iVilftian, Co C, 1 3th Mo. V. 1 . e 
June, 1801; disc - er, 1801. 

Vet Surg -I isepb \\ ilsou, Co C, I'.'th 111. V. C, 
a Juno, 1861 : ilisc. Di ••• i iber, 1 S61, 

Lyman \Vilaon, Co C, 21st V. L, e. August, 
1801; disc, July. 1805 

William E. Wih ,n, Co. < '. 21sl (). V. I., e. Au- 
gust 4, 1862; disc. October 31, 1802. 

George Wines, Co. k. IS2il O. V. I., e. Septem- 
ber, 1864; died in service, 1805. 

P. AT. B. Wii ans 

John M. Wiues, Co I'. I s . M 0. V. I., e, Septem 
ber 24, 1864; disc, Julj 7, 1865. 

Martin Wines, Co. !'. I82d O. V. I., e. Septem- 
ber 24, 1864; disc. Jul) 7, l s 'l~>. 

William Wines, Co. A, 38th O V.I...-. 1863. 
killed iu 1865. 

Francis M. Wing, Co. C, 87th 0. V. I., .-. May. 
1862, disc. October, 18152. 

George Winkelpleck, (Jo. E, 55th 0. V. I., e. 
September 16, 1861; disc. July, 1865. 

John Winkelpleck, Co. E, 55th O. \. L, •-. Sep- 
tember 16, 1861; disc. April L6, 18'">5. 

Samuel Winkelpleck, 2Uth lial . e. 1862; died 
at Nashville, Tenn., February, 180 I. 

William Winkelpleck. Co. B, 101st <). V. I., e. 
1862; disc. May, 1865. 

James Winterstein, Co. B. 35th O. V. I.. e. Au- 
gust 9, 1861; wounded at Chickamauga, Tenn.; disc 
September 20, 186 

Harm an Wisemiller, Co. I. l'.'Tth O. V. I., e. 
March 20, 1805; disc July 31, 1865. 

John Wissler, war of 1812, .-. Febru.ary 1, 1813; 
disc. August 12, 1813. 

Surg. Gideon Wonsetler, loth lud. Vol., o. Octo- 
ber, 1862; disc. 1864. 

Capt Asa Wood, in the war oi 1S12. 

Efarvej V\ 1. Co. A, 25th (). V. I., e. October 6, 

186 1: disc December 1 5, 1865. 

~ ; h ■; V. K. Wood, Co \. 25th O. V. I., .- <> 
b k r 6, 1861; disc. 1 >ecoinber 15, 1 S65. 

Coonrad W< » >dc< • ■. 
Abijah B. V druff, Co L, 3d 0. V. I., e. August 
•J''), 1862; disc. March 6, 1863. 

Gardner Works, Co. C, I52d Ind. Vol., e. Feb™ 
ary 15, 1865; disc. August 30, 1865. 

L. B. Wort. 

G. R. Worthington. Co. I. 38th O. V. I., e. Feb 
ruarj 9, 1864; disc. July 12, 1865. 

Musician Warren Wredo, Co. K, 107th O. V. I.. 
• -. August '.'. 1S62; disc July 1.' 1863; 

ChristianWr inkier, Co. A. 30th Ind. Vol., »>. Sep 
tember 24, 1S61; killed at Stone Kiver, Tenn., Do 
cember 'il, 1862. 

Capt. Thomas Yager, Co. E, 86th. e. June 17, 
1863; disc. February in. 1864 

Qavid Yarl itt . Co. i> 18th V T . .- February 
14, 1865; disc. Februan 13, 1 - ! 

S>>i\'t, William Yagley, Co II. 88th Ind V. I., o. 
August 1_'. 1862; disc. March 29, !805. 

Corp. Gustave Young, Co. H, L69th O. V. I., e 
May 2. IS64; disc. - ; en ber I 2, I •>;(. 

Reuben Young, Co. F, 68th O. V. I. >- October 
in, 1S61; a c. April. LS62 

William Young, Co. lv IDOthOi V. I., e. August 
7. 1862; disc July 1, 1865. 

John Vv". Zimmerman, Co. A. 38th O. V. V. I., p. 
February 28, 1805; disc. July ili. IS05. 

William H. Zimmerman, Co A. 38th O. V. I. 

John Zook. Co. < '•. 68th O. V. I., e. January 13, 
1864; disc. July lit, 1865 

' 1 l 








DEFIANCE was laid out in November, 1822. by 
Benjamin Loavell, of Piqua, and Horatio G. 
Phillips, oi Dayton. The plat was acknowledged 
AprillS, 1823. and recorded April28, 1823, bj II, 
R.MeKnight, Recorder of A'ood County. Theoriginal 
plat embraced I DO lots, and was located at the con- 
fluence of the Maumee and Auglaize, with Jackson 
street uii tLe west and Fourth street on the south. 
The square in which the court house now stands 
was reserved by the proprietors to be laid out into 
town lots, unless the town became a county seat, 
"and forever contin i • to be." when it was to be used 
for public buildings. The "Old F< rtGrounds" was 
a public donation on thesame condition. The square 
between Jackson and Perry streets, and -oath of 
Fourth was- a donation for a Methodist Church and 
burying-ground. an i the square betweeu Washington 
street and the Auglaize Rh r .1 s< uth of Fourth. 
for a Presbyterian Church. II. <i. Phillips, one of 
the proprietors, never resided at Defiance. He was a 
son (jf a Revolutionary officer, an 1 one of t! e earliest 
settlers of Dayton. <*hiu, an extensive land-holder 
and s man of unblemished character. He died at his 
home in Dayton, November 10, 1859. Benjamin 
Leavell became a resid -at of Defiance, and was its 
first innkeeper; he also kept the tirst store to supply 
white settlers. The store was located on the banks 
of the Mamnee, a! the foot of Jefferson street. H;s 
dwelling, the first frame building in -the village, was 
a one and a half story, erected in December, 1822 on 
the northwest corner of Water and Jefferson stn fcs 
opposite the fort grounds ih- lumber for if was 
sawed at the Brunerslmrg Mill, which had been built 
the winter previous. Mr. LeavelPs residence is still 
standing. In a t'e.v years, he sold his interest in the 
town to Curtis Holgate, of It: -a, N. Y.. and returned 
with his family to Piqua 

'Hi.- sitei of Deli ance was already occupied when 
the village was platted. Situated as it was in the 
heart of a populous Indian nation, it was the location. 
of many a t ronch trader long before permaueut set- 
tlements were made b\ • I men Oliver M 
Spencer,.!' * who -as held a pi ..- . i< r here 

in 17'.)J, thus desci i ■■■• • i as it appeared: 

"On the high ground extending from the Ma 
a quarter of a mile up be Auglaize, about two bun 

dred yards in width, is an open space, on the west 
and south of which are oak woods, with hazel under- 
growth. Within this opening, a few hundred yards 
above the point, on the stoi p, high bank of the Au- 

live or six cabins and log houses, inh il 
principally I>\ Indian traders. The most northerly, 
a large hewed-Jog hotise, divided U low into ' 
apartments is" occupied as a warehouse, store and 
dwelling bv George Ironsides,' the most wealthv and 
influential of the trader-, on the point. Next to his 
an the houses of Pirault (Pero), . French baker. : d 
McKenzie, a Scot, who, in addition to merchandising, 
follows the occupation of a silversmith, >'\ 
witli the Indians bis brooches, ir-d ops aud other 
silver ornaments at an enormous pn n *. f r skins and 
furs. Still further up are several other families of 
French and English, and tw American prisoners, 
Henry Ball, a soldier taken at St. Clair's defeat, and 
wife, and P illy Meadows:, captured at the same ti 
are allowed to live here and b_< labor to pat tlieir 
masters the price of their ransom, ho bj boating to 
fbe Ranids of the Maumee, and she ! ■;, washing and 
sewing. Fronting tho house ji Ire nside», an i about 
fifty yard- from tho bank, is a small stockade, h < ios 
ing two heweddog bouses, one of whicli is occupied 
by Tames Girty (brother of Simou), the other, oc- 
casionally, by McKee and Elliott, British Indian 
\l;' ots, living at i >etr it 

Defiance: was. before Gen. iVayne's tim< . and for 
some time after, a place for Indian consult! Sions and 
payments, and was to them a place of great impor- 
tance. Itwasheld bj the British down nearly to the 
war of 1812, and it was here thai they made much 
mischief by tampering ■■ th the semi-hostile tribes 
It i- stated that at one of the Indian »atheri 
about 1810, as mam as fifty traders were her». ha« 
ing temporary stores or b '< , ing tr< in Del 

or Canada. 

Broken at intervals, by the erection of Fort Defi- 
ance 'it IV. -4 by Gen Wayne, and /by the erection of 
Fort Winchester it; 1812, tho French and In 
•■ ,.-••• inued to dwell i re. and barter 

with t] ■ red ni"u. ti 1 ti • tn .; tide of emigration 
drove tl ■ . nd tin ■ . net farther 

Li 1819, William Travis, a pioneer if Nobh Town 
shin, visit ■! For* 0e1 ance, and found here 

- .. ■ ied bv French traders V rVi>. Ameri 



cans \vi ro al o here In old Fort Winchester, John 
and William Preston were living The former had 
married a daughter oJ Judge Kwing, of Croy, Mia 
Co., Oliio, and died soon after Mr. Travis came. 
John Driver, a silversmith, and family were here: 
his brother Thomas was also an earh resident. Both 
moved farther vvesl as emigrants began to people this 
vicinity. John Perkins, in LS19, lived at "Camp No. 
3," a short distance below Independence Of the 
French cabins, three stood in the point near the old 
fort, two where the canal enters the Maumee. and 
two on the . pposite side of the river. Peter Lumbard 
kept one of the trading houses on the point L. A. 
Clair and Peter Bellaire occupied the cabins on the 
hill. In 1822, two Indian trading stores were kept, 
one north of the Maumee, on the hill owned by the 
Hollisters, of Perrysburg, and operated by Peter Bel- 
laire and George Lance: the other owned by the 
FerryB, of Michigan. It stood m the banks of the 
Maumee near the foot of Clinton street. Both these 
stores were removed from Defiance about 1823. 

William Preston, who wan a soldier at Fort Win- 
chester in 1812 is regarded as the first white per- 
manent settler at Fort Defiance. He married a Hiss 
Butler, whose brothers lived abouteight mile? below, 
on the Maumee. He was a fanner by occupation, in- 
telligent, sober and industrious. He removed to St 
Joseph Township. \\ illiams County, where he died 
about 1S28. Arthur Burris was the tirst blacksmith; 
his shop stood near the old apple tree north of the 
Maumee. Robert Shirley, with his family, came to 
Fort Defiance in the spri.ig of 1821. The recollec- 
tions of his daughter, Mrs. Rich Austin, may be 
found in this volume. Dr. John Evans came in 1S23. 
In 1824, he brought a large stock of goods from 
Maumee City, and opened the first extensive store 
Foreman and Albert Evans also came that year. The 
village grew slowly. In l s '_">. it contained a small 
store, a tavern and live or sis families. Among these 
were those of Robert VVasson, James Craig Timothy 
S. Smith and Isaac and David Hull. Isaac Huli 
kept a store ou the norths ide i E the Maumee, and did 
an extensive trade. with the Indians. P. C.Parker 
came in 1^27; he kept a trading house on the Maumee 
bank. In 1829, a Mr. Waterhouse occupied the 
Pavilion House. In 1S33, beside thf> foregoing. 
William Semans, Peter Bridenbaugh. Frederick 
Bridenbaugb, Walter Davis and Pierce Taylor were 
here. A Mr. Kniss is said to have been the first - 1 
maker. Walter Davis was the first cooper. Jolly 
is: Craig started the first tannery, nearly opp site the 
Russell Hon 

The following incident is related of one of the 
relics of the war of 1812: There were lyin<* aboui 
the 'iiia. sundry omptj bombshells and a few • 

non balls. When the fort here was evacuat I 
of the ammunition, bombshells and cannon-balls were 
thrown into the river. A part of these balls and si 
were discovered bj tho pjirlj settlers and fished out. 
Thej were thrown upon the bank at Dofiance, ' 
every one who wanted one took it. and the remaindei 
were kicked about as things of no value and as mat- 
ters of idle euriositx and remark. Cue day, a loa ■ ■■ ; 
party amused themselves in picking the fuse out of 
three shells, when one of them thought it would lie a 
j id speculation to apply a coal of fire to it. He did 
so, and the fierceness with which it commenced burn- 
ing -i' gi -t-i to them that they did not occupy an 
eminently safe place from which to witness the final 
result; so they took a short recess, someoverthe bank 
and others behind stumps, fhey put' off, pretty badh 
scared, and had barely reached their places of retreat 
before the shell exploded, manifesting a verj destr i 
five power. One piece struck Air. Leavell's house, 

son ight or ten rods distant, leaving an indentation 

' that demanded the aid of the carpenter; another 
-truck a stoi tearer the place of explosion, with 
still greater force, but no person was hurt. 

At an earl} day. when D< ! anc ci aid boast 
having a log jail and the Sheriff lived in a double 
loa cabin' in East Deftanc?, where now stands the 
1 ck residence lately owned andoccupied by William 
Lewis, one of our earlv pion rs His Honor the 
Sheriff, William Preston, had an Indian in the lock- 
up for stealing a watch. The custom of the Sheriff 
| was to ban/ thi key to the jail at the entrance of his 
1 double loo- cabin, and as court convene'! but once a 
, year, several young men, thinking it rather cpen- 
j sive to the count} to keep the Indian until next term 
| of court, proceeded to the SheritFs residence, took the 
key from the porch and let the Indian out. Several 
young men being staiioned at a convenient distance, 
1 with whips in hand, whipped the Indian out of town 
Tiie nr>xt morning, the Sheriff took down the key 
as usual, and started for the jail v.ith tb : breakfast 
for his prisoner, but found no Indian. The boys had 
locked the door, and returned the key to its proper 
place. B'rederick BrideiiDaxiah. Allen Brocher, James 
Spofford and others were the boys who bad the fun. 


In 184<t the population was les- than three hun - 
■ Ire t. In this year, the c mnty - 'at was rem • ■■ d to 
Bryan, and the future of Defiance was not encourag- 
ing. Brunersburg. a thriving little village frn 

north, threatened t itstrip it in growth, Prior to 

1836, the • te of Defiance was -t : !< almost wholly 
covered with the ••■•. nd for I growth to which it had 
been abandoned iu 1794 I f dwellings, houses and 
stores were frame bnildings set on wooden blocks, 



and for tho most pari w >re Inintios Its business 
was mostly tradiu ■ with the I ml i and hunters for 
pelts, which wen? then disposed of to traders who 
came this way. In iSlti, tin ci ; < built 
trade increased. Three ye^irs later, tho comity seat 
was ohtained, ;uid n new growth commenced. Iij. 
1848, the village contained two churches, five 
tile houses ana about seven hundred inhabitants. In 
1850, it Lad reached 890 but the increase during tho 
next decade was only fifty-two. In 1870, Defi 
contained 2,750 inhabitants, and in I8S0, 5,907. 


The first post ofliue at Defiance was established 
May L9, 1821, and located on the north side of tho 
Maumee tiiver, and kept by Timothy S. Smith in the 
sane building in which he lived. In the fall of 1^22, 
a small frame building, about ten or twelve feet square, 
was erected at or near the fort grounds, expressly for 
a post office on the south side of the Maumee. and 
still kepi - ter. Th > mail ite at 

that time ixtended from Piqua to Perrysburg, a dis- 
tance of about two hundred miles, running via St. 
Mary's (Auglaize County ), Fort Wayne (Ind.), thence 
to Defiance, and from Delianct to SVati rvi lie (distant 
about forty-two miles/, and from there to the end of 
the route — Perrysburg. 

The name of the carrier at that time was Thomas 
Driver, who made the round trip every two weeks. 

Fort Defiance was the name of the office until 
March 10, 1824, when it was changed to Defiance. 
The first bondsmen of Mr. Smith were Peter G. 
O'Hara and Samuel E»ving, for §700. 

After Mr. Smith, the following have been the 
Postmasters of Defiance, anil dates of appointment: 

Isaac Hull, Jr.. appointed September 22, 1S25; 
Benjamin Leavell, June 30, 1826; Joseph Hull, 
January 13, 1830; Foreman Evans, March 12, 1S31; 
Jonas Colby, October 2, 1837; Sereno Lyman, July 
6, 1841; Orlando Evans, March 18, IS42; Samue -. 
Case, February 13, 1845; William Richards, Oc «r 
5, IS 17; Henry C. Bouton, June 20, 1851; William 
Moore, May 18, 1853; William E. Enos, October 15, 
1860; Charles W. Evans, March 26 LS61; Charles 
W. Evans. March 11. i860; Joseph Ralst m (spa 
agent acting), August 4, I 568; T seph Ralston, 
March 3, 1869; Francis Brooks, February 20, 1871; 
George W. Beatrick, February 26. 1875; George W. 
Deatrick, February 22, 1879; George W.-Deatrick, 
February, 1883. 


The village of Defiance was incorporated Janu- 
ary, 1836. At the lirst ei< <i. on the second 

1 v in April. 1830, John Lewis was elec 
Mayor, and .lames Hudson, Jonas Colby, An 

Ho i Ji b Knb •- Tru tei 

Tho 1 ton the '■ • i; if minute is n fic.ito, 

signed by Foreman Evans, Associate Judge, setti 
forth that i ihn i.< wis had appeared before him 

, * e oath of office as Mayor. The Trustees 
qualified before the Mayor on the 16th of April, ex- 
cept Mr Sessii ns, wh leclined bi - serve. 

On tho 7th of May. the Council : ■■ ! its first 
meeting. John Oliver was appointed ti till thi va 
cancy. E. S. Perkins, who had been elected Recorder, 
being found not to be eligible (not having been 
resi lent sufficient time), George W. Crawford was ap 
pointed in his \ laa \r,i >s Evans actii ; as Recorder 
for thai meeting. The Council app linted John Hil- 
ton the Village Marsha! luly i. the Council mot 
and appointed E. C. Case Assessor. July 17, Conn 
cil met. Alfred Pnrcell was appointed Tri asurer, and 
tho Recorder's fees fixed at "ten cents for every 
hundred word- of writing I for the Council 

[>t for transc i1 'opies. where h -'. uld re- 

ceive only eigbt cents." The Town Treasurer was 
ri I in the of S1.200 with 

" two freehold securities." Th t ordi -■ i th 

town was 01 — ! at this mi ting ; ' whic! the ( ■!.! 

Fort Grounds wi r ire I For in providing "that any 

persi in 1 r pi rsi ti ] I 

in the junction of the Maumee and Auglaize Riv 
either by shooting, chopping or diggi ig, or in any 
way or manner whatever, upon conviction of which 
before the Mayor, shall be subject to a fine.' 1 De 
comber 30, Mayor Lewis resigned and Dr. Cvawf 
was appointed in his stead, and C. C. Waterhouse 
became Recorder. Ten feet on each side of the 
streets of the town were set off fi r sidt walks. 

The expenses for the year 1836 were §1.75 i • : 
Record book, 18 cents for paper, §10.50 to the Re 
corder, §5.58 to the Assessor. There seems to have 

1 a settli men e with thi Marshal. 

Th tax - f 1 >36 : n 1 ui ted I §244.98 on the lots. 
The town -•• 1 mly 150 tots and a portion of 

these belonged to the county and were not ta 
and comprised within the Auglaize and Mam 
Rive - and Harrison street on tho Fourth 

treet 1 - nith. 

The next regular election tvas held April 4. 1837 
in the court house, ros ' of C C. 

xhouse i ' Mayo)-, George T Hickox, Recorder, 
S. S. S irague, John Oli> r i.mos Evan-, face! 
Eniss, B . ■' ; :• I 1 stee: At the first 

meeting of the Council, William A. Bj wi >' 
pointed Marsl Erskine S. Perkins. Treasurer, and 
William C Ho : -. ri 

At the electii q o1 1838, Charles '•' Rovce was 



elected Mayor, dor ■ T Hiekox, Recorder, ami 
Lyman ] i Ion, Uenjumin LJrubachor, Hora :e Sc - 
sions, John i'>. Set lans ami William I '. Holg 
Trustees politicall; N ii;} B rd. \oril 1 1 , 

O mueil np| ■ ii qI i I - ■ ■■ ird. Mar bal, Ainos 

S. Evans, rroasnrer, V' i ■-/ II >rs Assessor, and David 
I'.. Knoop, Supervisor. 

April 'Jo. .Mr Sanfoi 1 having declined to surve as 
Marshal, James M. Heed minted to fill tho 

vacancy. At this meeting, the rule of taxation was 
changed, a > as to in I iv] • " .ill pr >perty ma le taxable 
by the State ol Ohio, for I and count) purposes," 
the assessment to I ■•• made between the 1st day of 
April and the 1st day of .May in each year. 

May 2'i 'i ■ third of one per cent was levied f >r 

town pnr| 3. An ap] made for the 

pur; se of draining the low grounds lying between 
the court house square and the Methodist Church. 
In many places thir. has sin < en filled five and sis 
feet, to reach the present grade. Amos S. Evans hav- 
ing removed from the corpoi ition, Robert Wasson 
was ..!•]■ anted Tr ; H having died 

during the summer, William Semans was made Re- 
corder for the balance of the yi 

In 1S39, C. V Royce was re-elected Mayor, Or- 
lando Evans elected Recorder, and Jacob Kniss, 
Lyman Langdon, Sydney S Sprague, David C. Kno >p 
and Jonas : • rjrustees i [ii livide betw -mi 

the parties. 

At a meeting of the board on the 'JTtb of July, 
sixteen and a half feet wore set apart for sidewalks 
on all streets of the town except on Front street, 
where the width was to be but twelve feet. During 
this year, the records show the appointment of John 
Kniss, James B Laughlin and William Carter as 

In February. 1840, the first sidewalks were or-' 
dered, " commencing at the corner of Jefferson and 
Third streets, and running north on the west side I 
Jefferson street until it intersects Fr >ni stri et, thence 
west, on the south side . •' Front street, to the .s 5l 
side of Clinton sti i i .. on the west - do 

of Clinton street, to the south side i S >i street; 
thence east, to the east side of Clinton stre 
thence south, to the u-th side of Third streel 
Also, commeni ing i . he - iu b side of From street, 
at the east side of Wayne street and running south 
to thee west corner of the court house." T 
were not half a dozen h msesin town then not aci 
modated by this ronte. The work was finished the 
next year, W. D. ' t furnishing the lumber at 

§10 ".7 per tl I - \ Royce laying the 

(valL at 10 cents ] r rot! Che walks wen bui three 
' el in width. 

&.1 theannualel ction of the spring of 1S40, John 

B. Semans was chosen Mayor, William C. Ii I ite, 
Recorder, and Horace Sessions, Orlando \&\ ins, James 
S, Greer, William Semans and Jonas Colby, Tr tstees. 
One per centum tas was levied, ai I also 
tions rui ; i aid in paying for the sidewalks or 
dered. The collections of the .car aumuuted to 
$ I s -. .-»5, and the disbursements to §1S'J.05. Various 
ordinances and regulations were adopt I tl is year 
for the protection of tho new sidewalks. 

I s 1 1 —Curtis Bates was chosen Mayor, Levi Col 
by, Rocordor, and Jonas Colby. James B. McLaugh 
lin, Jacob Kniss, Ji hn H. Riser and Edwin Ph< 
Trustees— a Democratic Board. F. F. Stevens was 
appi anted Marshal. 

LN42— C. V Royce was chosen Mayor, I. P. E. 
Whedon, Recorder, and Amos Zellers, James U. 
Langhlin, Jacob Kniss, Z H. Davis and Elias Shir- 
ley, Trustees, Mr. Stevens c »ntinuing Marshal. 

No election was held in 1843, the old officers hold- 
ing over. 

In 1841, tin addition, known as the First Additi m 
of Deti i, was laii I off ' ■■ H. 

( r. Phillip; and Curti- H iding ar id the 

old town plat on thi i I i - ■ -• •'■•■ n tl Au- 

glaize a id '•' inmee. including the blocks hi rack- 

son and H it. -on streets, was, by a special ic! of the 
Legislature, annexed to the corp >ration in It 14. In 
l'~ IT, after th< • - 'he new count) of 

1 (efianco, a tax of SI .' M 'it. by a levied 

in the town, to aid the county in the construction of 
the first free bridgi a< ross the Maumee River. 

1844— G rge W. B. Evans was chosen Mayer, 
M. C. Canfield, Recorder, and I. P. E. Whedon, 
Angus L. Downs. James Cheney, Orlando Evans and 
Willi: m A. Brown, rrustees. 

1845 — John M Stilwill, Mayor; Jonas Colby, 
Recorder, and William A. Brown, Edwin Phol] 
•Jac.b Kniss. D. IV. Marcellus and John Wells, 

1 v . ;i'«— William Carter, Mayor; Jonas Colby, j;.' 
corder, and William.',. Brown, Angus L. Downs, D 
W. Marcellus, Edwin Phelps and Sidney S. S 

1847— William Carter, Mayor; Jonas Colby, Re- 
corder, and William A. Brown. Angus L. Downs, 
John Stilwill, S. S. Sprague and F. J. Weisi nbergt ■:. 
Trust' - 

LS4S— William Carter, Ma; or: William Teats. 
Rec rder. and F. J. Weisonl>erger, S. S. Sprague, 
' lis L. D >wns, William A. Brown and J. M. S ii- 
will, Trust — 

18 LJ) V than M.J " ; or- William Rid 

ards Rec rder, and Timothy ' cz] trick, Senei 

Sanford, J, W P! :! ...... H 

J. Weisenburgi r, 2 rustoes. 

Marcellus and F. 



1850— Henry ('. Bouton, Mayor; William Rich- 
ards, Recorder, and Jonas Colby, Edwin Phelps, J. 
M. Sti i will, D. 1>. Love joy and Peter Zinimernian, 

1851- -Sidney S Sprague, Mayor; William Rich 
ards, Recorder, .and William 0'Conn«ll, William E. 
Enos, F. J. Weisenburger, S. M. McCord and Jacob 
J. Greene, Trastees. 

1852— John M. Stilwill, Mayor; William Rich: i Is, 
Recorder, and D. W. Marcellns, Henry C. Bouton, 
James B. Kimball, Levi Rider an. I F. J. Weisenbur- 
ger, Trustees. 

1853 — "William Moore, Mayor: William Richards, 
Recorder, and Alexander Backus, Jacob J. Greene, 
Angus L. Downs, F. J. Weisenburger and Amos 
Zellers. Trustees. 

1854 — Alexander Backus, Mayor William Kieh- 
ards, Recorder, and William Moore, Angus L. 
Downs, John M. Stilwill, Jacob J. Greene and "Will- 
iam A. Brown. Trustees. 

1855— Charles Parsons. Mayor; William Richards, 
Recorder, and Thomas D.Harris.Ira Richards iu,James 
L. Olney, David W. Marcellus and Edward F. Lin- 
denburger. Trustees. 

1850 — Angus L. Downs, Mayor; William Rich- 
ards, Recorder, and Jonas Colby, Edwin Phelps, 
William Carter, James B. Heatley and William 
Moore, Trastees. 

1857 — William Carter, Mayor; James B. Heatley, 
Recorder, and Edwin Phelps. Jonas Colby, S. It. 
Hudson, A. A. Downs and J. W. McKim Trustees. 

1858 — David Taylor, Mayor; William E. Kintigh, 

Recorder, and J. W. McKim. J. P. Burlington, L. E. 

Myers, Benjamin Myers and E. Shipley, Trustees. 

November 29, 1858, David Taylor resigned as 

Mayor, and Trustees appointed Horace Sessions. 

W. E. Kintigh also resigned as Recorder, and 
David Greenlee was appointed. 

1850 — William -Carter, Mayor; Edwin Phelps, 
Recorder; William Moore, Treasurer, and Jonas 
Colby, F. J. Weisenburger, F. Wolsiffer, William 
E. Enos and R. H. Gilson, Trustees. March 0, 
1860, Henry Hardy was appointed Trustee in place 

of F. J. Weisenburger, dt ased. 

1860— William Carter. Mayor: Edwin Phelps, 
Recorder, and Jonas Colby, A. Wilhelm, W. E. 
Enos, F. Wolsiffer and Henry Hardy, Trustees. 

1861— J. J. Greene. Mayor; Henry Hardy, Re- 
corder; Thomas McBride, Treasurer, and Adam Wil- 
helm, Edwin Phelps, J. B. Weisenburger, H. W. 
Pauck and J. B. Heatley, Trastees. 

1862— J. J. Green, Mayor; J. B. Heatley, Job 
English. Frederick Schult/, Levi Rider .mil Martin 
Viebach, Couneilmen. 

I8tj3 — Henrv Hardy, Mayor; E. H. Gleason, Re- 

corder, ami Martin Viebach, William Higgins, Mar- 
tin Shondal, J. E Heatley and Frederick Scl 

186-1- William Hi - ;ins, Maj >v; E. H. Gl 
Recorder; A. )',. CrunkhiH ■. Civi urer; M. A. Per 
kins. E. Phelps, -I Karst, John Rub) and Mich;- 1 
Roorke. Council. Jul\ 5. M. A. Perkins resigned, 
and J. H. Bevington appointed. 

1865— S. T. Sutphen, Mayor; E. 11 Gleason, Re- 
corder; A. Wilhelm, Treasiu-or; J. S. Haller, M. 
Gorman, J. H. Kiser, J. J. Greene, L. Romas, Coun- 

1866— S. T. Sutphen. Mayor; E. H. Gleason, Re- 
corder; A Wilhelm, Treasurer; J. Karst, F. Trompe, 
Job English J. H Kiser, A. Dolke, Council. 

1S67 Thomas T. Cowen, Mayor; E. H. Glea on, 
Recorder: A. Wilhelm, Treasurer: Henry Kuhl, 
Marshal; J. H. Bevington, J. Karst, J. S. Haller, 
John C. Schult/;, Isaac T. Bowman, Council. 

IS6S -Tb aas T. Cowen, Mayor: E. H. Gleason, 
Recorder: \. Minsel, Treasurer; Henry Kuhl, Mar- 
shal: J. F. Harmcmng, Supervisor; J. H. Be\ 
F. W. Graper, J. J. Greene, William Fergus >n 
i ; r g e J!, .-, ( '. iuncil. 

1869— Thomas T. Cowen, Mayor; F. Wolfram, 
Recorder; A. Minsel, Treasurer; Samuel Palmer, 
Marshal; J. F. Harmening, Supervisor; C. C. Tuttle, 
J. H. Bevington, •' W Graper, J. J. Greeue, Will- 
iam Ferguson. Council. 

1S70— J. W. Slough, Mayor, two years; Abijah 
Miller, Cierk. two years; ■). M. Prei rfer, Treas- 

urer, two years; Conrad .Moo'. Marshal, two | 
Peter Moore. Street Commissioner, ijvo years. Coun 
cil — J. J. Greene, two years; F. W. Graper, two 
year.-; C. C. Tuttle, two years; Thomas T. Cowen, 
one year; J. It. Bevington, one year; William Fer- 
' guson, one year. 

1871 — Council, two years, William Ferguson, A. 
Wilhelm. M. Gorman. 

IS72— J. W. SI jb Mayor; J. M. Preisendorfer, 
Treasurer: F. Wolfram, Clerk; Samuel Palmer, 
Marshal; P. Moore, Streel Commissioner; Council. 
two years, -J. J Gi . < Minsel, C C. Tuttle. 

1873— Council, two years. A. Wilhelm, William 
Ferguson, M. Co: man. 

187-i— J. W. Sloilgb, Ma;, or; J. W. Preisendorfer. 

Treasurer; Elmer 'A Lit->. Clerk; G M. Weisenber- 

- '-. Si ■■• r; John Hepler, Marshal. 

Council, two years, J. J. Greene, A. Minsel, John 

i ■[-, we. 

' " -Council, two years. J. Karst, E. l' : 
Michael Schultz. 

1S76 J. W. SI u'.e'i. Mayor; J. W. Pri iaender/er. 
Treasurer Elmer While, Clerk: John Hepler, Mar 
shal; G. M. Wei enberger Street Commissioner; 



Council, two years. J. J. Greene, A. Minsel, .J.'h'.i 
Scl neidi •". 

l^iT Council, two yours, Josopli Blauchard M. 
Sehultz, Daniel Widiuer. 

1S7^ William C Holgato, Mayer; •!. M. K ng 
stler, Treasurer; II. B. Gorman, < lerk; rohn Hoplor, 
Marshal; I». \Y. Marcellus, Street Commissi 
Council, two years, -J. -I. Greene, fetor Schlosser, J. 
S. Haller. 

1879— Council, two year-. I. Corwin, William 
Ferguson, George Mallotl 

L880 -J. ]•'. Deairrck, Mayor; J. M. Hengstler, 
Treasurer; M. B. Gorman, Clerk; John Hepler, Mar- 
shal; 1». \V. Marcellus. Street Commissioner; C 
oil, two years. P. Schlosser, •). S. Haller, John 

1881— -Council, two years. \V. E. Carpenter, 
George Mallett, J. S. Groenlee. 

Y T ote f or advancement to City, second class. 557 

1882 — ). F. Deatrick. .Mayor: John Hepler, Mar- 
shal: N. '"'. Johnston, Solicitor: John W. Wisler, 
Street Commissioner; ( . B. Stpvire, City Clerk; A. 
Minsel, Treasurer. Council: Firsl Ward— D. F. 
Holston, two years: G. VV. Bechi i. '-;;•■ year. Second 
Ward — H. B. Teuzer, two wars: R A. Houghton. 
one year. Third Want — B. 1''. Southworth. two 
years; George Miller, one year. Fourth Ward — 
Joseph Kahlo, two veal's; J. N. Myers, one ; i-ar. 
George W. Bechel, President City Council. 


In the summer of 1823, Dr. John Evans built on 
the opposite corner of Front and Jefferson streets, 
into which he moved his family in November of that 
year. To this he soon afterward built a large two- 
story adlition, of a sufficient capacity for a store and 
hotel, which he ran for a number of years, and r- ild 
>uit t'i Thomas Warren ami William Travis, who oc- 
cupied it fur a time. 

C. C. Waterhouse nest became proprietor, and 
connected therewith a four-horse stau'e. running 
to Manniee City. At this time, the hotel took the 

name of Pavilion. «'jn, ted with this hotel at an 

early day (says John L). Graper), wis a barn suffi- 
ciently largo to accommodate over night fourteen to 
sixteen horses, in which there was not a nail or scrap 
of iron used in ir« const ruction. Wood pins were 

used in plat f nails, hinges and latches of wi ■•':. 

and the <•! ipboards were weighted dawn by poles 

In later year-. A. 1). I S5S, Virgil Squire (de 
ceased) purchase* I the ol«l Pavilion property His 
widow. Rebecca A. Squire now owns and stke 

same Che y ounces) son. Edward, who all upi - 

with his mother, says he weil recollects of a portion 

of the old Pavilion and also the old barn stand 
wi d his father bought the pr»»mi s, and which ho 
ted in pulling down and clearing up 
the grounds, and the corner of L<'rout and JeftV] >n, 
ad <<ld Psn ilion, now foj i • 
a portiou of the door yard to Mis. Squire's residence, 
with here ami there a bowldi t scatti red through b 
yard, once the corner-stone of "ye old Pavilion." 

Exchawje Hotel. -About 1827 or 1S28, Paym C. 
Parker built on the corner of Front and t'i 
streets, where the furniture store of Hoffmuu .v 
Geiger now stands, Eor a store ami hotel, in which he 
carried on business Cor several years Then he rente I 
it to Blac < . Stoddard, in IS34 or 1S35. John 
W. Moore kept it about one year. Lyman Langd ui 
next occupied and went in 1836 or 1837, and rat: a 
five or six years, and under his administration it h ol 
the name of Exchange. Next followed C. J. Freedy 
and Samuel Rohn in 1S41. Rohn remained bui i 
short time, and sold his interest to Allen Braucher. 
Next was Samuel Greenlee, who took possession in 
1847 or 1848. C. L. Noble next occupied, and con 
tinned until it burned down iu Jun< ''. 1852, in ac- 
count of ■ re clip from the Defiance Banner of 
June 10. IS52. as follows: 

"The old and well-known Exchange buildings 
lesti ■ ■ "it Sun la.;, morning 1; si Che 

fire was discovered about 1 o'clock in thi hotel stables, 
iu which eleven i. - - ere burn 1. The I uildii _■ 
were the propert; if t L.J D. Phillips, of Daj 
Ohio, who had no insurance. The a. tel was ocou] i d 
by C. L. Noble, partly insured; D. Taylor's law 
office, furniture, etc., mostly saveil. A M. Richards 
saddler shop, loss about $150: and William Fergu 
son's tin and stove store, loss about S500. The E in- 
ner building was partly saved, by great exertion of 
the citizens Dr Aliens drug store was in immi- 
nent danger. P. Evans and Linde iberger had thi ir 
goods considerably damaged in rem iving them. 

Clinton Hou&e— The next hotel in Defiance was 
built by Amos Evans on the coiner of Clinton and 
Second streets, v. here now stands; the finest business 
block of Defiance, the three story 'tone front built 
e\ C. A. Flickinger and J. B. Weisenburger. 

The hotel was built in A. D. 1835 or 1836, and kept 
as a boarding bouse b; Conrad Slagle dining the time 
of thebuildingof thi •■anal \\ a ope e I up as a hotel 
in 1844, and kept b\ Norman King, who also sarri I 
on the gunsmith business, and the hotel took the 
name of Clinton House Just bow loi : M '. King car- 
ried on thi ! we have not bee . able to as i r 

hut prohabb aboul ir six years, for the next 

• : . ind is. i Ler I of American House, 

in the spring of LS5L and kepi bi Charles W. Caruy. 

About five month: thereafter, August 21, IS51, we 


HISTORY 1)1? !'i;i I \.\cr. COUNTY. 

find B B. Sonthworth an proprietor On March 6, 
! 85 I. 1 rkin Heac idi « t>nt in, and i an il i\ • \ ears, 
and •' : him, a n ar as .■»■■ ci d leai 

Daly, and v as called "Daly' i.'' Foil 

him was J. 1'. Mellon, L\ under Williams, '. . 
Cosgrove, Dr. Bonn, Aaron Bennett and Samuel Kin- 

The Grey,. comer of Third and I 
streets, was built in 1830 or I s 1*7 '■; John L. Grey. 
In 1854, when the cholera rage] budlj in I iwn, 

there were several c .-• - if ch ilera in this honse, and 
by aecidei t or i : botel 1 mrned I >w a th< 

latter part of July, 1351 and thai was the end if the 
Grej House It stood on the corner of Jefferson i nd 
Third -tr. ••■'-. where William Carter's residenci now 
stands. • 

.1 hotel on the north side of the Manmee, stand- 
ing near the "Big Apple tree," was built in I s :::!, 
and kept by Alfred Powell; nest by Mr. Ames, as a 
grocery and store, and used as a packing h mse; next 
by Benjamin Weidenhamer; afterward by Mr Stone,as 
a hotel and marble s • Tio- I came to an end 
by tire, the same as the Gre\ House, in the summer or 
fall of 1854, "ch ilera ti a is." 

Washington Hotel, on the bill, North Defiance, 
wa? built first for 1 ., tlinghou ; . 1840, bj ine Mr. 
Moore. Afterward ivas bought, enlarged and o] ai • 
to the public, in I s ' I". byH. R. '1 |or who kept it as 
a hotel up to February, 1852. He thou rented the 
property to John B istater for three years, who after- 
ward assigned his lease to Burk & Struble, who dis 
solved partnership soon after. The Louse was kept 
by James Burk up to Septembei of same year, when 
Mr. Struble " — ssion, and remained its land- 

lord up to February, 1855. The property was then 
bought by Aar^u Cary, of Crawford County, 
who kept it for two or three years longer. After- 
ward, it wi t; . 1 and sold several times, and fatal- 
ly came into p --> - siohof F. Wolsiffer. who convert! d 
it into a private residence. 

Exchange Hotel Oi the north side of the Man- 
mee River, was built, by Henn B. Hall, contr ct i 
and builder, in 1840 cr 1850, for Renben Straight, 
for a hotel, and was kept by him for several years; 
then followed Frederick Cox, Samuel Kintigh, Lo- 
renzo Thomas George Th rupson, and last, G li 
Yarlot, who now owns -and occupies the same as a 

The C <by House was built for a dwellii - h 
I860 or 1S70, I Mike Shnltz. Mr. Crosby, however, 
had the : averted into a hotel, and con- 

ducted it for [our or five years; i Mr 

Shnltz acl I i tb double i j of owni - 

prietor. While in his pos • n the buikli f_- =vas 
burned, but was itninediati lyj it, ami .!. E. ('a-, 

beer became proprietor, who ran it till June, 1S88, 

] i : ds of Mr. S3 ■ 

Mr. Casebeei moved to Folcdo, and re-opened the 
American Housi in that city, under the name of the 
Merchants' II, tel. 

Tin : ' House This commodious hotel was 
amenced by Sidney S. Sprague, but his affairs 
be( iming involved ii was completed under the di 
rection of a receiver, R. H. Gilsou, in 1858. Charles 
Russell was the first proprietor, from 1858 to 1863 
and from him the house received its name, which it 
has ever since retained. After Mr. Russell severed 
his connection with tins house, ho was proprietor Eor 
a time of the Forest City House, Cleveland, and ai 
the time of his death, Jnno I. 1874, was proprietor 
of the Lake House, Sandusky. Larkin Hoacock ran 
the Russell House from Vprii, I SOS, to April. 1800, 
and was succeeded by Elij h Shipley, who remi h ed 
in possession until May. \^~,'.\. William C. Hutchin- 
son and Mi. Jar!.- each successively proprie- 
tors for a short time, and in February, 1S77, Si] 
P. Moon becan I ■ iwner ai ■ tor. He dis- 
posed of th" property to I Bn thers, and un- 
der their ov S 11 Webb*" took possession. 
June i. l v 77, continuing until Dec mber, 1880, 
when it passed ini i tnds of Mr. R. H. Harri 
Luenst 15 LSS2, h < ■' I with him Mr. "William 
Kirtley, Jr.. becai I with the honse, and 
it is now run under the firm name of Harrison a. 


The present system of banking was instituted by 
Ahira Cobb and Virgil Squire These gentlemen 
wero c in In tii g a dry .; ids store here at the time of 
the failure of the banking Loo-oof R. H. Gilson & 
c The village being left without any banking 
facilities whatever, they con mi nee i selling exchange 
U pon Eastern points to the I" tit mercantile es 
tablishments here, but receive ' no d -, osits. 

In th" year 1861, the o • tl a disposed of 

their stock of dn goods i i ian Hai ley, who had 

been clerkin ; f r them Eoi me ime previous, and 
opened up an excit ■■ b ; nd exchangee 

The Lank was open d under the nan of the Bank- 
•L4 It ise ol C bb (S Squir«, who wore Ahira < 
and Virgil Squire. Mr. Cobb living in Cleveland, 
Ohio, and giving i attention to the bn 

ness Mr. Squire lived Let ■ tnd personal!} managed 
the business of the bank. The banking room was 
what is now the rear ''*■'■■■■ of he '■'.<: sell House, with 
an entran ■ on First si En 3 in ■. I s '•■'. E I 

Sqti'r - t of Mr. SijViire, returning from cu 

us iriven apl in the offi ■ is i ter I his i artner 

ship cont d uulil ! ) <■>. when Mr Cobb withdrew 



entirel) from the business, Mr. Squire remaining. 
H.v then ii social 'd himself wit li James A. Orcutt and 
Joseph Balston. These three, gentl tl >n opened 

the Defiance County Bank, wil ital paid in f 

about $20,0(10. with Virgil Squire as I' Ion I and 
Edward Squire as Cashier The banking room was 
at this time rem ived from the location in the tin I 
House to th<> corner of Clinton and Second streets 
into a build in;; just upleted and owned by M.. 
George Brmior of Duncannon, Penn. The incri • 
ing population of Defiance and it-- expanding busi- 
ness enterpriser were taxing tli limited banking 
capital of thi bank ft >r a* o " un >dal is. M. in 
iral was added and other parties admitted ;i - pari i - 
until, in IS71, there was paid in a capital of $50,- 
000 D iriu ; tb ■ summer of this year, it was c i - 
eluded best by the proprietors o£ this bank to m 
the same into a National Bank Thej were successful 
in their application to the Government for a charter, 
and on January 1. i v T'J. the Defiance Sati inal Bank 
was ; I for 1 --. with a pai l-up ■ ■ •• 1 of 

$100 Hi '- [iiire as Presi I it, H nry 

Kah'lo, Vice Pr< -' tent, rind Edv rd Squi , C shier, 
and tl E » Board of Directors: \.\ Squire, 

James A. Orcutt II nry Eahlo Job i Ci wo, J ishua 
P. Ottley Will • . I. uster and Edward Squire. 

Their statement of conditi in at the close of 1 
first /ear was as follows: Capita] stock, $100,000) 
surplus fund, §1,500; circulation, $00,000; deposit, 
$60,006.44: loans and discounts, $112,861 10; bonds 
on hand. $100,000; cash fund, $48,000. Tl u 
statement at the close of 'heir tenth year was as fol- 
low-- Capital stock, $100,000; irplus fund, $43,- 
000; circulation, $90,000; deposits. $227,187.06; 
loans and discounts, $303 114.26; bonds on hand. 
$100,000; cash fund, $57,760.84 

By the death of Virgil Squire, in May. 1874, the 

Presidenej ol tin bank I ae \ i :ant, and w is filled 

by tli- el ■ tion i f James A. Orcutt. Henry Kahlo 
retiring. Joshua P. Ottley was elected Vice Presi- 

The Bi ardof Directors at this time, A. D. 1883, 
are James A. Orcutt. Joshua P. Ottley, Edward 
Squire, Joseph lialst n. Benjamin 1 . Southworth, 
Charles E. Slocura and >. W Slagle. James A. 
Orcutt. President; Edward Squire, Cashier; F. J. 
Sheah, A--!- - at Cashier. 

Tin .'.' ■ l\ ttional Bank of Defiant ■. — 
Durin > the f .:! of 1875, the idea of a secon 1 b ink in 
Defiance was agitated by some of its citizens, and on 

the 24th oi Di iber, of that year, the "Deii 

Savings Bank" was chartered, with the following- 
named gentlemen as ineorp irators. to wit: >Vil 
C. Holgate Edward P. Hooker, John S. ' 
Alexander S. Latty and Adam Wilhelm, wh 

coi -;lf itod its Jirsl Boi rd of Di • •' irs. Thi - ' 
was opened for busiuess. March 1, 1370, with a 
scribed c tal of $5( ' i the following as 

ofli is: i : ■ ■ • . Presid it; Ad 

i, Vice Pies 1 nt; Benjamin L Lbuil, Cashier, 1 
latter for several years an employe, and latterl) \ 
sistant Cashiei Dofiance National Bank, 

bank did a constantly increasing business until Mai :h 
lS81,whon itsc.apital was increased to $100 000, and 
in, April of the same \ ear it re-i uganized as " The 5Ier 
chants' National Bank of D :'. ■ ■■■ " The following 
was its c >u litem as reported to tho C impt.r dler 
(''.'• • ■;>-. January 1, 1883, to wit: Liabilities - 
Capil tl si --' '• i 10,000; :m-| ins fund id undivided 
profits, §1,599:73; circulation $90,000; dividends 
unpai.l, 84,000; deposits, §161,084 18; due to other 
banks, $400.97; unpaid taxes, $1,719.51; total, 

R — urces— -Loans and discounts, $16:1 '27'-!. 71 : 

United States 1 ids, § I other bonds. $2,000: 

cash funds, $87,601.58; furniture $1,430.40; re- 
>; total, $358,804 

rhe foil i itlem titul 

its Board of Direc rs to wit William C. Holgate, 
Henry N ivbeg i Ldam Wilhelm, Lewis Ceidn m, J. 
P. Buffington, Edward P. H ■■- i :> i Benj 
Abell, and its officers are William C. Holgate, Presi 
dent; Benjamin Abell, Cashier. 


Furnbull Wagon Company is the most extensive 
manufacturing .interest of Defiance, the works of 
which are located in the northeastern portion of 
city. They were erected in l x 7''>. by D. B. Turnbull 
and Lis sons, F. A. and David H. rurnbull !' 
several ye: rs the business of 'he firm was confined to 
the manufacture of various kinds of agricnltiu'al 
wheels. About four years ago, tho manufacture of 
wagons was commenced, and, quite • c t. r iy. of b i 
gies and carriages. In October, 1882, a -;tock com 
■ q\ consisting of the original proprietors and a 
number of Toledo capitalists, was organized, with a 
capital stock of $300,000 all paid up. 0. P. Cu 
i- President: A. H Wood, Seci tary and It Neer 
ing. Tre isnrer. The value ' uildi js < cee ! 

$< 5,000, and the grou ! - and lory togel 

rt] more. From four to five hundred 

i ind the wi irks ran -i f . their E 

■ i "> I ii uighout the yea Che 

Is aud iif >en wag >i - 
Pianiv ; '■! '• — The first planing mill at Defiau 
» is start I 18" i ! I niton Davison & S-on, 

and operated by them until 1872, when tbej ;old r to 
< buries C Sti mg and Samuel F. Uheney. A gene, al 

it; i 


Hue of planing mill business is transacted, including 
the manufacture of sash, doors, blinds, etc. Two 
years ago. a machine shop was added to the establish- 
ment, where, in addition to tin -eiipral repair work, 
lathes and the vaj i uis machinists' tools ire manufact- 
ured. Of the other two planing mills now iu opera- 
tion in Defiance, thai of Karat <S Tonzer was started 
by Peter Kuntz in 1 •<!-. and that of Kuhn & Ulrich 
subsequently. Tin' latter firm has also been engaged 
for several years iu the manufacture of tobacco 

Hoop inn! Slave Factories. — Defiance in unex- 
celled as a place for the manufacture of wo< >den art idea 
from native timber. Its three rivers and two canals 
afford it the means of bringing logs and timber from 
a wide scope of country at a trifling cost, and one of 
tin* industries thus fostered is the making of hoops 
and staves. 

The Defiance Hoop and Stave Company, of which 
John Marshall, John S. Greenlee and Louis Marshall 
are the members, started in business at Defiance ia 
June. 1SS2, in the northeast portion of the city, on 
the banks of the Maumee. When running at full 
force, s< venty-ei r ht menare en .< : ived; 18,000 patent 
coiled elm hoops, for kegs and half barrels, and 25,- 
000 staves ure daily produced. The former find a 
market chiefly in New York, Philadelphia and Bos- 
ton; the latter in St Louis. 

D. F. Holston's hoop factory is located at the 
junction of the Wabash and B. & O. Railroads, and 
turns out daily, when running at full capacity, 32, 
000 patent steam coiled barrel and keg hoops, which 
are used principally for nail kegs, sugar, lime and 
salt barrels; 10.000 feet of elm timber is consumed 
daily, ami forty men and boys are employed. The 
buildings are ample, and a large business transacted. 
The first coil of hoops was made at the factory April 
17, 1879. 

Crow & Hooker and Trowbridge & Eddy are 
each engaged in the manufacture of staves on an ex- 
tensive scale. The former firm began business in 
June, 1882; the latter has been in operation for 
several years. Each employs about twenty-five 
hands, and each turns out about 25,000 staves per 
day. A few years ago, it was thought that the man- 
ufacture of staves and hi • ps had reached the maxi- 
mum point at Defia ice. but more art being made in 
this city at pre; >nt -;r, ever bef re 

Huh*, Sjtoken, Forks. IVagonsi, etc. — The Defiance 
Manufacturing Company, with a c ipital of SI 00,000, 
is incorpi >riited, ui I I as \\ illiam C. Hi Igat • as Presi- 
dent and E. J'. J r << kor Secretary. It i- one "f the 
chief manufacture • st ' lishu • ats of Defiance, and 
annually send- forth from its factory a vast quai fcity 
of hubs and spokes. 

Auothei factory is that of Hallor iV Gibson, re 
coatly set in operation. it manufactures ; 
wo "l.-n forks, and i ■ making preparal ii 
ifactnre i f extensive agricultural worl 

Johu Marshall is proprietor of a faci ere 

single-trees, felloes and wagon srearing are made. 
The timber used is hickory, ash and oak. 

Peter Dickmau is engaged in the manufactun ol 
wacons, and does alar:;" business annually. 

The American Wood Presoiving Compauy. which 
has extensive works in several cities, owns and oper- 
ates a branch at Defiance, where the principal busi 
ness is the hardi niugof elm railroad ' ies by Croatia _•; 
them to a prepared si lution. 

Other manufactories of wood, on a somewhat 
smaller scale, are in "operation, and. taken all in all, 
Defiance is. perhaps, unecjualed in the State as a 
manufacturing city of this kind. 

Furniture. — William Hoffman and C. Geiger, 
under the firm name of Hoffman & Geiger, have a 
furniture factory on Perry street, where the;, started 
in 1 .-■,■-- it: i ba' 1 and b ce contii I. About 

fifteen men are employed, and the furniture manu- 
factured both supplies their retail home ' de and 
also finds its way to foreign markets. 

The Deflano McvMni IVorks. one of the largest 
manufacturing institutions, has been in operation 
since 1872. They are successors of a foundry whi< h 
was operati I for man) ye; rs al the same place. The 
foundry and machine shop was built in l s --0. and 
leased to Kimball & Frank, tl e f inner a molder and 
the latter a machinist,. Peter Kettenring, a young 
man who had learned the molder's trade with thi3 
firm, in 1856 leased the shop. Two years later, 
Strong Bi bhers & Orcutt became its operators. It 
was burned in 1864, but rebuilt by Kettenring <V 
Strong, who in 1S69 admitted William Lauster as a 
partner. In l v 7'_'. b I ick company was organized 
and chartered. Mr. Kettenring has been its Presi- 
dent to the present time. The works manufacture 
wood-working machinery, engines, boilers, shafting, 
etc.. together with ■■■ ]] kinds of castings, In l - --.. 
an extensive brick addition was made to the build 
ings About one hundred and twenty-five menare 
em] loy*d. 


i!i n ifills are situated on the Miami 

& Erie (anal, and derive their power from the canal 
They were first built by William Gibson, of St. 
Mary's Ohio, it; 1 801, and operated for him bj 
m -• ler Bruner, of Defiance, until .destroyed by 
tire in July, 1804. After the fire, the walls i sii 
were purchased I Francis Jarvis,'of Piqua, B C Gib 
son, of St. Mary's, ■ r -^ Alexander Bruner, of 1 '■>• 
who at once proceeded to pet the presei mills 
The firm name was Gib.ion, Bruper & Co tad 



the mills did a variety of work, manufacturing eas 
simerea, satinets, jeans, tlannels, blankets and yarn, 
besides tii. in,' a largo am mut of custom work for the 
farmers and wool- growers of this and adjoining 
counties. In the early history of tin' mills, ft. < 
(mI>- u sohl his interest to James Johnson, of Piqua, 
who in turn sold to Francis Jarvis, and the firm 
name became Jarvis a: Bruner, with Mr. I3runer as 
Superintendent " I 1 1 were run under this name for 
three years, when Francis Jan i- purchased the interest 
of Alexander I!' nner. and the firm name was changed to 
Francis Jarvis A S m. at: I p irated b\ I uues J. Jarvis, 
who lias since been owner and sole proprietor, and 
..under whose able management the mills ha e i hie veil 
a reputation Sfcoii I to ue in the West. The pro- 
duction for tii" past three years has been princip il 
in knitting yarns, and the goods are always sold 
ahead of production in Michigan, \\ iscousin, Illinois. 
Indiana and Ohio The} annually Consume L00,000 
pounds of wool, which is 1. night principally in Ohio 
market-. The capacity of the mill will be increased 
with the demands of trade 

The Gu.f \l'ork* were built in I875,and manufact- 
ure gas from petroleum, under patents granted to J. 
D. Patton, a citizen of Defiance County. The works 
are located nearly midway between the business cen- 
ter of the city and the B. & 0. depot. The works 
and appurtenances occupj the point oE land betw 
the Baltimore a ' Utio Railroad and Clinton street, from 
which point the distributing pipes extend in all di- 
rections, reaching all the principal streets and bridges 
of the city and crossing the river at three different 
points. The aggregate length of these iron pipes is 
between four and live miles. The original cost of 
the works was £23,000, represented by that amount 
of paid-up stock, which is nearly all owned by citi- 
zens of Defiance County. Hon Alexanders. Latty is 
President of the company. and John \\ . Strattou Sec- 
retary. The down-town ofiici of the company is on 
Clinton street, opposite the court house. 

The Defame* Mills were erected by William Se- 
mans. in LSJA and then c unpiised two run of stone. 
Two years later, Frederick F. Stevens became his 
partner and the mills were completed, two run of 
stone being added, tn L838. Mr. Seraaus sold his 
interest to William A. Brown, and in 1839 Mr. 
Stevens disposed of his to David Taylor. Mr A. 
Wilhelm. the present proprietor, purchased a half- 
interest from Mrs. Sessi •-. of Painesville, Ohio. 
and afterward rented, then purchased .Mr. Brown's 
interest. He admitted his son, -I dm K. Wilbelm, as 
a partner, and the style of the firm is now A. U'ii- 
heim a Son. The mill was then doing a business of 
about m [i year. Lasl year it amounted to 
§96,000, and will be increased this vear. About 

1875, Mr. Wilhelm replaced the old overshot wheel 
with u turbiue. and added an elevator with a etoi 
capacity >f about 20,000 bushels. Extensive iru 
pri vements have since been i lade, and a 135-b.ovso 
power Corliss engine has recently been purchased 
The capacity of the mill is L50 barrels per lay. 

/ 'ill i ma .1/ ills are situated on the canal, from 
which it derives its power; were built by Judge Pal- 
mer in 1832; sold to Edwin Phelps, who in 1871 
sold to Davi i Boor. The last-named gentleman, in 
■January. 1873, added steam power, the engine being 
sixty -five horse- power; but finding this uie:it. 
returned to water-power, grinding about 1"25 bushels 
per day employing five or six hands. In l v >7:'i. L. 1>. 
Itenolctt bought a half-interest, but retired January. 
ls s l. since which time David I'm, or a Son have run 
it, adding recently a 100-horse power engine and four 
run of stone. 

Tlif A.sheri) and l'i arl-Aj>h Business was es- 
tablished in Defiance by PI F. Lindenberger about 
thirt; years ago, who had previously had experience irj 
this a Ei ispi irl in coi on w ith liis i ither i icen i 

tens. The business prospered and grew larger until 
l s .7n, when Loitis Ciedeman was taken in to partner 
ship. In 1875, the partnership was dissolved, and the 
firm was known for ; short time as Lindenberger & 
Hardy, but owing to the death of senior partner in 
the fall of that year, Mr. Teideman repurchased the 
business and has sir.,-,, continue i the suae up to date 
The factory is located on Clint >a stree . 9 iuth of the 
schoolhouse, and is said to be the largest factory of 
its kind in the United States, shipments being ma le 
to Boston, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia. Cincinnati, 
St. Louis and other points. Mr. Teideinan a few- 
years ago took into partnership Mr !). Diedneek, 
whose factory is locate, I on the north side of the 
Maumee. and. whose capacity is LOO casks of pearl ash 
per annum. The products of these factories are used 
in the manufacture of chemicals and of flint glass. 
The business consists in the conversion of lye into 
pearl ash. The first process i-- to convert the lye 
into black salts. This is done by evaporation in 
shallow pans. Five hundred bushels oE ashes are 
used, from which one ton of black salts is >btained. 
The borne supph of ashe.^ nor being sufficient, black 
sabs are purchased at various points in the neighbor- 
ing States. The black salfe i e pul into a scorching 
oven, having a capacity of 2 000 pounds. Ten hours' 
brisk fire a invert the black salts into" scorehings,' - 
■ impure white salt, which is put into the settler and 
dissolved in hot water, then run into a vat, from 
which, after settling, I paid (or salts dissolved) 

is drawn -:i into kettles and boiled about ten hour.-. 
by which pnvess it i- converted into pure white salts 
From this the salts g< to the pearling oven, which 



is similar to I hi • > ng oven, and also ha a • a- 
pacity of ono ton per day. After ten hours, this 
process 1- completed, when IV mi the rear of fin- oven 

is taken the j rl ash, which is now tine, pure n 

and free from grit The business of i 
ment averages about ?75,00 ■■ r, an amount 

known to be larger than any other factorv in the 
United jtutas, not even excepting the large factories 
• in New York and Boston. In i N . : 1, its rpi itatioi 
prices wero knowu to control the markets of the Unit- 
ed States. 


The first five )iar;igi;ipli.s of this history of the press are extracted 
from i 1 "' '■'•'' ic at >l M i rch '2, [80i\ 

The Deiiance Ban ler, a Whig paper, whs pub- 
lished and edited by John 1? Seamans, Esq., an at- 
torney as well as printer, during 1S38 89 The tirsl 
number was issued August the 5th, 1833. The pub- 
lication was continued about nine months, when it 
was forced to | d, tltli mgh it had the p 
printing and other patronage of sever .1 counties. The 
Bannei was an imperial sheet, with six columns of 
long primer type, new or nearly so. with brevier for 
advertisements. This was the first newspaper in 
this region of Ohio, was ably edited and merited a 
better fate. 

"The Barom< f< r, much reduced in size, having 
but four column-., the first number of which appeared 
September "J 1. 1889, was neutral as to politics, and 
was issued from the same otHce by Haj. Seamans, 
who was also editor. The publication of the Barom- 
eter was continued nine months, when it was sold to 
(Jr. W. Wood, of Fort Wayne, who had then just sold 
the Sentinel office to Nelson, and with the materials 
bought here commenced the publication of the Times 
where the 3ame materials and editor are to this day. 
The neutrality of this nine-months affair was with 
difficulty sustained during the excitement of the 

spring of 1840, for th lit. • i- himself says in his 

number of Mi " '. that it was by an effort, nay by 
a constant i mcession of efforts. We e ;ul "t and we 
shan't publish a neutral paper any longei'.' 

" The next in order was the Voiih- Western, the 
first number of which was issued June t. 1843, by 
J. B Stoolman & Go., and edited by U.S. Kna 
at 'hat time also connected with the Kai In 'Venti 
The Western was Democratic in politics, 
printed on long primer type, entirely n also svere 
the press and other materials Phe publication was 

disc intiniT 1 ?uta hi r .if [sit. an I the pre s 

and material* removed to Loganspmt, 1 til . having; 
been purchased b\ S. \ Hall, who has since pub 
lished at that place the . ■'•■ nocratif Pluiros 

This was succeed ilbj b p • tl Defiance Dan 
ocrut, the tirsl □ ti iber o£ which was issued -July !7. 
1 ' i •- by A H Palmer, Esq., , m ,l 1 \ him i litod. 

« tii Li were very extensive for a 
r -' -ifi offi ■ i, had beeii [ revi m h use I al 
in the publi • i if the Register, Mr. Palmer sold 
• ■ the sue see ling sprin j to S tmuol Year 
ick, whoso connection as editor and proprietor Cjui 
menced with thethirtj E imb if Vol. I, March 

6, IS45. An interest was purchased by J. W. V. 
a i ."■ ir May 28, 1840, Vol. It. No. 42, it was edited 
and published by Yearick & Wiley. In the spring ■ " 
I s ! i. Mr. Wiley having been appointed to a Lieu 
tenancy in the Fifteenth Regimoal United States 
Army, his interest was bought back in Mav by Ye ■■ 
ick. The publication of the /' locrat was continue 1 
by Mr. Yearick until the office was disposed of, on 
; March :;. 1849, to Hm ■). J. Greene, who continu >d 
its publication until December 3, 1873, when is was 
purchased by Elmer While and W. G. Blymyer. 
In July. 1878, these mtJ men sold the office to 
1 >■■ i -■ P 1 1 rdy, who condn eJ til April, 1879 

in White & Blymyer again assumed control 
July, 1 vv i. Mr. Blymyer retired from th tee, 1 
ing disp isi i of his in1 Frank J. Mains. ] he 

:eis now managed by White & M ins. t f will i ■ •■ 
i for itself as to size, type, etc., and is and has been Dem- 
ocratic in ] 

"A second Defiance Banner, Whig also in p i 
was started and pu shed by K R. Thrall The first 
nambor was issue I ( let >b " 1 L8l f, a i m an imperial 
sheet, with bourgeois and brevier type. The press 
and materials are those used by Blaker in the pnbli 
cation of the Standard at Bryan, in 1846-47." 

Che i mi ty seat was removed to Bryan in 1841, 
and the new c mnty of Defiance was created at the 
sessi m of 1844-45, and commenced April 7. Isf-Y 

The last number of the Defiance Banner was dated 
September 23, 1852. From that time until 1850, 
Defiance published no Whig paper. Some time in 
that year (1856) a paper callled the Deiiance Star 
was Parted. What time in the year I am unable to 
find any record, and a copy of the Star cannot be 
found in the county. It was a six column folio, Re- 
publican in politics, and eai tly advocated the elec 

tio'a of Gen. John C. Fremont for President t'he 
-v 5cripl m pri ■ was >l per year. It waspublis . I 
itit a year and then sold I think to George Wea 
in. a-, who coutinued its publication in the same size 
and price, only ch the name to Defiance /.'< 

••■'■ In ■}>• I, rt iamer sold it to N. C. A. Ray 
publ hel it about a year and sold it to 
'■' ' I ■ Mil ■ IS62, Carr ' e publica 

ti. >n • >f the Delianc ■ Con ititm a -• ven i I uinn 

i ' . at >i per year, Republican it: politics, i .,, 



soon reduced it. in sizo to fi six-eolnmu Polio. In 
1803, A. -I. Warwick purchased it. and puhli lied it 
several years, raising the subscription p :i I ■ i>1.50 
per ye ir. .1. 1) I! ik r tin a purchase'] ii I ■ 
lished it until 18(57, and sold ii I i Francis Brooks. 

December 7, 18IV7, Francis Brooks began the pub 
licatiou of the Delia lcu We kly E.rpn -. a >ven-col- 
umn folio, al j>2 per year, Republican in politics. 
In 1869, Brooks oul; cgod ii to an eight c dnmn folio, 
and in a short time changed it to a fiwcolumn 
quarto. In 1872, he again chang J I I a seven 
column folio, and in the latl sr part of thu .same year 
to an eight-colum i folio In tho suinmor of : 
he changed it to i a ill th s-columin quart), and in 
the latter pari of tl tin? year enlarged ii t i a sis 
column quarto. lu 1 S 7I be sold it to Frank B. 
Ainger, of Bryan. Ohio, who, in connection with Lee 
K. Rudisill (for a time), published it until 1877, 
when it was sold to thu present proprietor, Mr. Frank 
C. Culley. Mr. Culley published it as a sis c ilumn 
quarto until February, 1 X 7S. when he enlarged ir to 
a nino-co n i - >lio. In the fall of 1882, t e paper 
was enlarge I to a seven column quarto 

Tho / 'n 'o; -•'■ h nA ( "< onich . a small fmi col 
folio, monthly, edited by the teachers of the Defi- 
ance Union School, was published during 1" - o 
ten numbers beiutx issued. The subscription price 
was ?1 per year. It was printed at the Den 
Democrat office. * 

March 23, 1878, the Defiance National, a sis. col- 
umn folio, Greenback in politics, was first published. 
The editor was William M. Randall, bis assistants 
were John J. Smith. Heniy G. Baker, George Al- 
press and Charles T. Hayes. The subscription price 
was s 1 per year. Tho last number of the National 
was published May 1!. 1878 

•fnly 5, !^Ts, Francis Brooks began the publica- 
tion of the Greenback Era, an eight-column folio. 
January 1. l^T'J, the name was changed to tin- Dol- 
lar Era, anil the form of the paper was soon changed 
to a five-column quarto. March 12, 1879, Mr. Brooks 
began publishing the Daily Era, a six-eoluum f 
which, however, was onh printed twice a week: it 
was published three or four weeks, when the pul li- 
ation of the Dolln • Era was again resumed. The 
last number of the Era was date I June 20, 1879. 

Fel mar 20, ! S T'.>. the Mains brothers (Frank J. 
and Charles \V.) began publishing the Democratic 
Ledger, a nine-column folio, mbscriptiou price 3-1.50 
per year. It was published eight weeks, when it was 
purchased bj White >'c Blymyer and was m rged into 
tho D< mocrat. The last number was dated April 17. 

The Monthly Herald, a small four column folio, 
was publish. vl during a portion of the year l v 7'.' . i 

was edited by J. F. Deatrick. II was au insurance 
| ; ■: .vas published at th ■• office of the 1 ejiai, 

•■,-■ is. 
nnci Daily Democrat, n small four-col 
ttmn folio, was published from March 3. 1879, I • 
April 9, 1879; twenty-eight numbers were issued 
i i, i price was 2 cents per copy. It w:is printed at 
the Daily Democrat office, and was edited by S. Ray 
W illiams 

DasKirchen Blatt, asixteen pago paper, threi 1 

umns to th>- pago, German-Lutheran paper, §1.50 
per year, first appeared in 1879. if Deindorfor - - 

■ -. it was published at the Defiance County Ex- 

■ office. It is sti 1 i published, but at. tho Demo 

The Kirchliche 7. itschrift, a Lutheran magazine, 
§1.50 per year, H. Deindorfor, editor, appeared in 
l s 7'.t. published at same office as tho Kirche.n Bit ft, 
is still published and at the Democrat office. 

The Weekly Herald, a (!• rinan eight- colnmn f iur- 
page paper, H. and J. Deindorfer, Jr., proprietors, 

1 \\ . dnesday, May l. 1881. 1 : 

pendent in politics; subscription I "■' ! per year. In 
\-. 1,1882 the H< n Id was pnrcha ■ I by \\ bate 8, 
Mains, proprietors of the Democrat, who c averted 
it into a Dem< icratic paper. 

The Democratic Times, a four page eight col 

umns to the paper. : ppeared in '.>>- T \ ! s >'_, W. (t 

Blymyer, publisher; subscription,? 1.50 per -j 

Tin- Barometer, first issue September 21, 183 ■ 
Defiance, Ohio, at 50 cents pei .- rter or fi cents 
per copy, published weekly, C. \ . B. Martin, prii • ■ 
This paper introduced itself to tho public as follows: 

Well, we are fairly bi t. i tin pul \ . No flaming p os 
pectus— no pompous parade — an flourish of trumpets, heralded 
our approach-, still we are here— what th reisofnsi There- 
may be those who will turn ip it >ur Liliputian 
hi idomadal ; l>ut do matter. They would probably do 
he good B> >k itself, .••■■■ i i >py of it pr< :ni ed 
• - i posse iug less p mdi - - . piavto over 
which their arraudsii - ised lo pore. Some tlierc -ire. .ve 
know, who e,?timati the value of i very-thins according to tin 
less of is- bulk— and to --.■ Ii 1 ol sol i is worth 

. ban iin imai maai - tid! Wil [i i in 

. : r to do, \V. neither i , dship tun 

•■ '•■ Let them 1 tntl we'll 

■ : ,, ■ . ; lal! iui im to ii ; ■ • - ■ popu 

! , ie rijiht sort of i i i I in this, u 

fi _ for what othi rs may m oi think ' 

■ p pise no iie I E small thin --■ " V\ ■ thou hi il 
1 -• in>! to attempt too much a! ■ I ipal reason 

:....,.- ... iard is because 

tors arc too - [tit cull iral phraseology, 

', I, , more tjrri and ' lian the} in nbl to i all r ate Wi 

: . , i . -, , oi ■ ' i i Ii ■ >rtof brusli 

if circa tan h : - mi t will in due time b 

, n roved if i Uerwisi there'll not be mm Ii 

ml teut 

n n intbs is the terra for wli'nh we lveeive sub 



tii qs. If a subscriber don' I lik< lis after a fair trial, he o 
to be allowi <! to 

Whigs anil Democrats — nbom i lit< 01 twenty m 
since, u prospectus was put in circulation fi i tin i iblish 
ment of a Democratic paper in Defiance, but il Little 

more than twelve months have elapsci! ce tin I) ' ince 
Banner was unfurled; bul the Whi •■'■ red il to be furled 
in death. On the first of last month, in the hopi of obtain- 
ing the support of both parties, Messrs. Semans and I'll 
(the first u Whig and tin second a D i issued propi lis 

forth, revival of the Bn ■ ■ supervision: 

but the thing wouldn't lake. What then tli] the 

Barometer pursue to avoid being shattered into a thou I 
atoms? < : 1 1 1 : 1 1 1 ■- one tell us? We've been thinking of form 
ing a part} - ol our own. a i ■_ ipfn ilunteers! 
say you, g< til [emeu 

As tiii- paper i- eomnn need without a list of subscrib u - 
it isjiopod thai gentlemen lo whom the present mirnbei is 
si nt will interest themselves in our favor; remembering 
ever, that each lisl of names must be accompanied by the 

We understand, then one reason why the proposition of 
Messrs. Semans A Phelps, for the revival of th< Ba ter did 
not meet with more favor in some parts of the county, .vas 
because it was feared the papi rs would go full tilt against the 

removal of tli mil) seat To avoid any difficult) on th I 

we explii illy i Inn; that cili toiilil say 

nothing either pro or con upon tbi question of removal; 

Extract from B • I ' Sej ■ ■ iber 21, ItStiO 

To the distant reader, it may not be uninteresting 
for us to drop a remark or two touching the position 
and history 'if this villaga The ground on which it 
stands ought to be regarded, in some sort, as hal- 
lowed. It is now just forty-five years since the in- 
domitable Wayne penetrated into the- heart of the 
Indian country, and on this very spot planted the 
stars and stripes; of liberty. It was here th it having 
erected a strong fortification, immediately at the 
continence of the two rivers, in the emphatic lan- 
guage for which he was distinguished, ho declared 
that he "' defied hell and all her emissaries." Hence 
its name— Fort Defiance. Upon the completion of 
this work, feeling that he was now fully prepared 
for either pea e or war, " he mady a last attempt at 
conciliation.'" "I have tho't [ ropt r," said he, in one 
of his dispatches, " to offer the enemy a last overture 
of peace; and as fchey have everything that is dear 
and interestii ce. I have n ason to expect that 

they will listen to the proposition. Bui sh iuld war 
be their choice the blood be upon their own heads. 
America shall no longer be insulted with impunity 
To tin all-powerful and just Go i. I therefore commit 
myself and gallaut army." " Thi overture," says 
the historian, "was rejected against the advice of 
the distinguished chief, Little Turtle, a tuan of great 
capacity and an impeached courage, who, in a coun- 

cil of the combined Indians on the night provioi - to 
the battle, held the following language: 'We have 
ifttcn the enentj twice under separate commanders 
Wecanuote ; ct the same go< I fortune to atteud us al- 
ways. The Americans are now led by a chief who 
never sleeps; the night and the day are alike to him. 
Ami during till the time lie has been marching ipon 
our villages, notwithstanding the watchfulness of out 
voting men, wo have never been able to surprise him. 
Think well of it. There is something whispers roe 
it would bo prudent to li-ten to its offers of peaco 

On the day following, which was the 20th of 
August, 1704, the sanguinary but decisive battle of 
t'resque i ■!•• ivas fought, iu which the most consummate 
skill and braver) were exhibited by the \ i 
Goneral and his gallant troops. At the time of 
which we are speaking, the Mamnee and Auglaize 
\ alleys presented loss the appearance of a wild and 
uncultivated region than we of this day are apt to 

Che American General, writing to the Secretary 

E war, remarks: "The very extensive aad highly 
cultivated fields and gardens show the work of mam 
hands. I rgiris of < ; beautiful rivers, tb 

Miami of the Lake and the Auglaize, appear like one 
continued village for a numbei of miles above and 
below this place: nor have I ever before beheld su h iiu 
mense fields of 'orn in any part of America, from 
Canada to Florida. " Tl*is picture was drawn fort; 
five years ago, at that time when this vast regii n was 
in possession oi the savage; when the presence of 
the white man carried with it desolation and death. 
who. till his approach, happiness and pl< nty n igned 
undisturbed. Lit us, of 1839, now that the redman 
lies his council tiro farbeyon t the Father of Waters 
blush for the little improvement with which we are 
surrounded. This position was again occupied by 
the American tn ops during the war of 1812. The 
remains of the palisades which protected the army of 
Winchester while here are to be seen; and the em" 
bankments and trenches of Wayne, constructed in 
lT'.'L are still more visible. The advantages as to local 
situation possessed b\ Defianc i are at once command 
ing and important: and despite the barriers wh 
have hitherto tended to retard her onward march she 
must eventually assume that rank among the c turner- 
cial towns of thin beautiful valley, assigned her hi 
the intelligenl md liscerning. She stands in the 
very heart of a rich, fertile country, with no less than 
Eour natural channels of communication b) water, 
two ' mals find numerous roads, radiating toward 
every point of the compass But notwiti i ling a! 

t . the prospect to him we i cares not to <. ■ 
trate the vista -'f futurity, is gloomy and dis- 






^ heartening. Business is almost at a dead stand. 
Operations upon the public works bore and in oiu - 
vicinity have noarly eeasod. Money is scarce, and 
although provisons are plontv iu the hands <>i' the 
producer, the mere consumer tiuds il to fur- 
nish himself with many of the comforts of life. 
These things will in time regulate themselves; bul 

not until we shall have 1 rne thoroughly sobered. 

When we shall learn to throw aside Aladdius lamp, 
and, relying no longer on enchantment ur chance, 
shall follow the dictates or reason and c immon sense, 
we shall move steadily forward in tin- road to opu- 
lence and wealth, pretty much as did our fathers and 
uncles in the days of our boyhood. 


In September, 1839, wc find advertisements in the 
Barometer, from the following: 

John B. Semaus and William Semans, attorneys; 
Israel Sioddard, as administrator of the estate of Sam- 
uel Holton, deceased; J. J'>. Semans, administrator of 
(1. T. Hickox's estate; S. Lyman ,v Co., last call to 
their debtors; H. Sessions, admin is trator for Friend 
Hall's estate, insolvent; Montgomery Evans notifies 
the public of two horses appraised by J. D. McAnally 
and B. Mullican at >'■''>: notice of attachment isn i le 
by Charles V. Royce, Mayor of Defiance, against 
Edward Tuttle, an absent debtor, at the instance of 
Lyman Mudge, signed Sidnej S. Sprague, agent; 
Israel P. \\ hedon advertises hats, for which, "as cash 
is badly wanted, the best, kind of bargains .nil be 
given;" on December I, S. Hinkle advertises as a 
blacksmith, at Hicksville; and A. P. Kdgerton has a 
long advertisement for 30,000 acres of land in Will- 
iams County, also the grist mills being in operation 
in Hicksville, also dry goods, etc. An advertisement 
also appeal's, giving tho people of Williams County 
notice that at the next annual election (Octob< r, 1839), 
they should designate on their ballots f' ir or against ap- 
pointment of a Com m is- ion to remove the seat of justice; 
M. Young. Chief Engineer of Wabash A. Erie Canal, 
publishes, as residt of recent letting, that certain 
named sections have been let to K. P. Harryinan, J. 
G. Butruau, Charles Bucklin. W. 1>. Barry. P. Dono- 
van. B. Barker. S. .V. D. Harley, H. Doran, P. Mur- 
phy, Hall A. Cheney, Gabriel Manning, E. P. Con- 
reck, N. Demorest, F. Lyon. The death i>f Henry 
Zellers, aged thirty-four, of Brunersburg, Septem- 
ber 29, 1839, is announced. If.' had been seven years 
a resident, and left a widow and three small chil- 
dren. ■ 


As showing, to some extent, the residents ■>:' l>e 
fiance in 1839, we append the list of letters remain 
ing in the post office ou October 1, of that year: 

John Allen. Simeon Aldrieh, William Atkinson 
Miller Arrowsmith, J. Ackley, Phineas Adams Era 
Brown, John Batteutiold, John Boyles, Kliaa Basset, 
Aimer L. Backus, John I'. Baker, Joseph Barney, 
Daniel I'. Brown, William Bolls, Silas Bartlet, Will- 
iam Boucher, -lames C. Baker '_'. Curtis Bates :!. John 
11. Crowell 2, A. Cornwall, Joel Crane, Abraham 
Cramer. Henry Campbell, Rev. Samuel Cleland 
Thomas !•' Campbell, Esq., Samuel C Cole, Samuel 
Croker, John Cameron. Thomas Cronnen, Robert 
Champion, Mary Crago, Harriet Carter. John Drake, 
Daniel Dunkleberger, Uriah Drake, Mrs. Nancv 
Donely William Everham, Reuben Eddv. George W 

* r> 

B.Evans, AlonzoF. Kastabrook, Daniel Fitch, Vanren- 
saeler Fiaton, Jonathan Guin, James S. Grear, Sam 
uel Graham 2, Curtis HoUrate 2, Mrs. Nancy Herrin 
2, William B. Hurd, Fetor Kooning, John Holland, 
John H. Horsey,Esq., Onej R. Hopkins, Mrs. Henn 
Beten, Mrs. Nancy Haller, Absalom Hays. David E 
Johnson, Col. L. G. Jones, Adam Koch, L. Knight, 
Esq., John Lowry, William Lewis. Esq., Chauneey 
Lowrey, Francis L Lowrew. William Lewis. John 
Lewis. Joseph Laudis, Esq., Hiram B. Leo. Stephen 
Major, William Mosher, Esq., William Mecurah, 
Owin McCarty, James McKinly, A. .! >. Mease, Ben- 
jamin Mallet, B X. Mudge, Esq., Henry Marcelius, 
Sylvester Osborne '.'. Peter Prestage, W illiam Powell 
Solomon Palmer. Alfred Purcell, Olive Pero, Oris C. 
Rice, John James lvesan, W. Rover, Miss Louisa 
Robinson. Seth Stinson, James Shorthill, Nathan 
Smith, Ephraim Smith, Alford Smith, Hugh Strain 
2, William Street-. Elizabeth Simon. Michael Sean 
nell, James Scullen. Wilery Stegall, Lucius 0. 
Thomas, William Travis. Mr. Teliger, Joseph Van- 
derline, George Waggoner, J. M. Waire, John 


German fetters — George Dirr, Neidhard Jacques, 
Jacob Lacher, Heinrich Hauckman. Jonas Colby, 
P. M. 

The following extracts from the first issue of tue 
Banner will be read with interest: 


[From the lirst issue of the Defiance Banner, October 4, ISt'.l 

We tliner oiu' Banner to the breeze, with the fond 

hope that it will meet with a hearty welcome from 

the people of Defiance and surrounding counties. 

That a Whig paper has long 1 n needed, we believe 

all will agree: therefore we anticipate they will 
cheerfully put their shoulders to the wheel, and give 
Us such a start, as to send us on our way rejoicing. 

The Banner will advocate the well-known Whig 
principles under which our Slate has nourished and 
advanced so much beyond her sisters in wealth, com- 
merce, agriculture and manufactures. ft willadvo- 



cate all measures necessar} for the continued advance- 
ment and prosperity of our Union and State, b 
Legislative enactment or otherwise: it will give to 
the present administration a liberal support, so Ear 
as it is conducted in strict accordance with right and 
equity; it will keep posted up with the news of the 
day. ami carefully notice all local and general mat- 
ters that are calculated to advance the interests and 
growth of this portion of our state; it will have some 
carefully selected literary and agricultural matter in 
each number. It will be the endeavor of the pub 
lisher to add to the mechanical department, from time 
to time, such improvements as the increased demands 
of our patrons will justify. The location of our town 
will justify us in saying that it is bound to be a great 
mart for the produce and manufactures of the coun- 
try around. Its almost unequaled beauty of scenery 
marks it as the place where families will resort for 
the purpose of finding residences, in which every 
comfort may be enjoyed, and homes which it will be 
their pride to adorn and beautify. 

" DEI IAN' E." 
Iti first issue of Banner. 

The citizens of Defiance c-,n\ safely boast that 
their town has the most beautiful location of anj in 
the West. Located as it is upon the high banks of 
the Maumee and the " Wild Auglaize," and at the 
confluence of the two rivers, almost every variety of 
natural scenery is afforded which is pleasing and 
agreeable. To one standing upon the ^M grei n 
forts Defiance or Winchester — and casting his eyes 
down upon the broad expanse of the two rivers, as 
they "flow gently on and mingle into one,'* a feeling 
of grandeur and sublimity insensibly steals over him, 
and to whichever direction he turns his eyes from 
this wonted spot, the view is pleasant and beautiful 
to behold. There are a number of beautiful groves 
back of the town, which afford delightful places of 
resort to visitors. The town now numbers about 
eight hundred inhabitants, and is steadily increasing; 
its growth to its present size, we are informed, has 
principally been within the last four or live years. 
With ode or two exceptions, the town is destitute of 
any very splendid edifices. The court house is a tine 
building, and would do honor to any count) in t 
State. The Defiance Exchange is the principal hotel, 
and it will, doubtless, remain so (at least, as long as 
it is kept by the present proprietor). There ar. 
or six large warehouse*, seven or eight stores, and 
other stord buildings in the progress of completion 
The fall of water from the oaual to the river affords 
an extensive wat< r power, and ample facilities for the 
establishment of manufactories. Situated as the 
place i.-. in the heart of an immense agricultural 

and possessing as il does manufacturing and 
commercial advantages to a great extent, it cam I I 
to increase for a number of years to come. Wit! 

manife '•'! ■ fa little more liberality on the pari of 

i>ne or two of the principal proprietors of the t 
it would probably receive such an impetus to its 
growth, that the citizens could bid defiance to any 
town it: the West, in point of rapidity of growth, as 
well as beauty of scenery and healthiness and hand- 
someness of location; and they might look forward 
with the fond anticipation that Defiance.' erelong, 
would become a place of no small magnitude. 

A. Solol RNER. 

Mr. Sojourner was a far-seeing personage, and 
Defiance is now all that he predicted. 


From the best sources of information at our com 
maud, back and beyond any written and authentic rec 
ords, wo find that the first sehool in Defiance com- 
menced about the year lfc>25. The tirst. Bohoolhouse 
"f which we can train any information was a hewed 
log building, erected on kinds now occupied bj 
Strong & Cheney ns a lumber factory, north of First 
street, between the canal and the Maumee River 

The tirst teacher- were \\ illiam Semans; s nd 

William Edmondson, aud. third. William A. Brown. 
In ! v '-' s . a school was taught by Brice Hiit.>u. about 
two n iles - nthi ust ol Defiance, on Cole's Run. 

Following along down to I V -'T. or thereabouts, we 
find schools were kept in th< old brick •..;::* 
housebuilding, occupying Lot 58, next north of the 

Presbyterian Church, and .■. lupied by Heurj 

Hardy, Esq.. as a dwelling. The in-st written records 
■ if the schools of Defiance (then Williams) Counti 
bear date June 1'.), 1S41; ; n which we find Jonas 
Colby, Edwin Phelps and James S. Greer were the 
Directors of School District No. 1. and Levi Colby 
was the Clerk of said district. 

There were four schools taught during the school 
year, the first commencing November -!i», 1840, and 
ending February 20, isfi: whole number of scholars 
ir attendance 100; average number per day, 39; 
males, '7; females, 53. Branches taught, o thog- 
oraphy, i\ ading. writing, English _o avumar, gei igraphi 
and ariti aetic. E C. Botts, teachei Salary, §105. 

Cue second commencing December 2y, 1810, and 
ending February 20, 1S41; whole uumhei of scholars, 
35; average per day. 2t'>; males. 14; females, 21. 
Branches taught, as above. Catharine Colby, 
' icher. Salary, $32. The third, commencing March 
1 5. I •s 1 1 . ending June ! i. 1841. Amouut paid 
teacher, male, ?>120. Whole number of scholars in 

• nda 7'i; average number, 32 per day males, 

16. The fourth school commenced Mwvoh 



25, 1841, ami ended Jun< I. 1841. Amount paid 
teacbor (female), §47.73. VVIiole number of schol- 
ars, 51; average linniber, '25; males, 23: females, 28. 

In tli^ forepart of tbe year 1MI, Benjamin I' 
Lieed taught at £40 per montb; Catharine, Colby 
taught al §20 per month. MariaAllen was employed 
for a short time. In November. 1841, John H. 
Crowell as employed for six months for S35 per 
month, and Cat ha i ine Colby for throe months, at 820 
per month. 

At that time, there being an insufficient am 
of money in the treusurj to pny tbe teachers, a tax 
was assessed upon each scholar, according t.> the 
number of days m attendance, to make ap the defi- 

The following is a list of the names of scholars 
who were in general attendance about the year l s l" 
41, together with the names of the parents and guard ' 

From a daily register, as kept by William A. Brown 
teacher in School District No, 1. Defiance Township, 
1830 and l?4U, ive copy tbe I' llowing lis! of sell us 
who attended tbe school during tbe quarter commenc- 
ing December J, 1S3!>, and ending February 28 1840, 
and adding the name of parent or guardian. 


William Sen] hi j. 
William Semans, 
S S Spragtie 
3. 8. Sprague, 
S. S. Sprague, 
Ji iui W. Mo ire, 
Juliii W. Moore, 
Thomas Lewis, 
Thomas Lewis, 
Thomas Lewis, 
A. Cornwall, 
Waller Davis, 
Waller Davis, 
Walter Davis, 
Walter D us, 
Walter i » i -. i ~ . 
Florae - sv--i ,n-, 
D. <jr.i|n i 
Juliii II. ki-'-r. 
. I nun's S. i iieer, 
J liui s s. i ireer . 
Epa Si nth a rili. 
Eps. Sotithwurth, 

F.j'.s. S 111 :■ ii 

Eps Souihworth, 
Philip Billinger, 
Philip Billinger, 

Doctor Allen, 

i'i; ii thj Filzpatriclc 
I lei i • - milh. 
George Sraitl 
George Smith, 
George Smith 

William Semans. 
Mary It. Wells. 
F. S. Spi iguo. 
Caroline S] rague 
M .... Sprag::e. 

D. A. Moore. 
Min Moore. 
Peter Lewis. 
Louisa Lewis. 
V. 1 1. II. Lewis. 
Baldwin Cornwall. 
Z.-ph mi Ji Davis. 
Thomas Davis. 
John 1 1 1\ i -. 
Elizabeth Davis 
Sir i!i Davis. 
Andrew Davis. 
L' Grnper. 
II ■' ' ■ i iper. 

i 'rvilir i Ireer. 
Nancy (ireer. 
F Sou I Ii worth . 

E. M .- hi i rth 
Mary S uihwi rlh 
I! F. So ithworth. 
\. Billinger. 

(1 irisstt Billin ?er, 
Stephen Pratt. 
' 'harles Allen. 

1 nve. 

iingion Smith 
< . IV Smith 
s \\ . Smith. 
B. C Smi 


Josiali Suyland, 
■lohn B. Semans, 
John B. Semans, 
0. II. Alien, 
Jacob Knisi. 
\ in,,- Zclli i ■ 
Blij i Holgate, 
Eliza Holgate, 
Eliza Holgate, 
William rlofrichter, 
I les V. Iloyi e, 

'I i as W irren, 

Thomas Warren, 
Tl omas Warren, 
Thomas Warren, 
Thorn is Warren. 
David Travis, 
David Travis, 
David Travis. 
David Travis, 
William Travis, 
William Travis, 
E. D. Cliuger, 

E. D. dinger, 

I Ifud 

James II.. i - n, 
.1 lines Hu<ls n 
James llu.lsi u, 
Samuel Case, 
Benjamin Brubacher, 
Dr. J Colby, 
Eiias Shirty, 
Elias Shirly, 
Elias Shirly, 


Benjamin F.lkins, 
Benjamin Eikins, 

F. A. Boons, 
F. A. Boon?. 
Montgomery Evans, 
Frederick Bridenbaugh 
Frederick Bridenbaugh 

! lus Suyl mil 

F. S. Semans. 
Margarel Si in iu j 
s ii ah I'alhert. 
Marianna Kniss. 

I me i 

i'i in, is [[nlgate. 
Hopkins Hoi ;ate 
\lariha Gardener. 
Mence Lysh. 
Mellen Royce 
H esli v Warren. 
Pcrmclia Warren 
Aiizi'i' Warren. 
Thomas W arrcn 
Sarah Warren. 

R. Travis. 
Eli Travis. 
Dils.m Travis 
C, Travis 
John Travis, 
Permelia Travis 
Jane ' '1 inger. 

Lewis Clinger. 

i II 

Lewis Hudson 
Austin Hudson. 

lai : 1 1 a 1-on. 
S imucl ' ' i-e. 
Anna M B 
Mary M. Hull. 

ih shirly. 

G. Shirly. 

W. R. Shirly. 
Willard Hoglo 

i . ! ; i - 

William Eikins 

Peter Ii i 
Mary I Rooi 
1'iii i" t Evans. 

, F. Bridenhaiij h. 

, Manlia Gardner. 

Again in 134C the same plan was pursued to make 
up sue!; deficiency. 

The following is a list of names that appeared on 
the books at that time. These lists are not given be- 
cause of any great amount ni' history they contain, but 
the\ give the names of matij of the early pioneers oi 
this county and their descendants which at this writing, 
18S2, we' could not obtain from any othei source, and 
we think thej should appear in this work for future 
reference : 


C. J. Andrews, 
Peter Bridenbaugh, 
Peter Bi idenbaugh, 
Peter BriiU nbaugh, 
Millard P. Bell 
Milliard P Bell, 
Phillip Bellenger, 
Phillip Bellengcr, 
r : ■ is CI irk, 

Helen Andrews, 
Merica Bri lenbaugu, 
Eleanor Bi idenl augh 
Elij ib'h Bri lenbaugh 
VI ilissa Bel!, 

rin- !'.,■' I 
Clari i Belle 
Arti nas Belienger, 
Minerva C'ark, 



Thomas i 'lark, 
Thomas Clark, 
William Clark, 
i n i 'urter. 
VVil iani Carter, 
Timothy Dame, 
Timothy Dame, 
Timothy Dame, 
N alter Davis, 
Walter Davis, 
U alter Davis, 
Walter Davis, 
Walter D wis, 
Walter Davis, 
Timothv Fitz] . 
Timothy Fitzpalrick, 
Timothy Fitzpalrick, 
John Fairfield, 
John FairfieM, 
John Fairfield, 
Eliza Holgate, 
Eliza [lolgate, 
Eliza Holgate, 
Emery Houghton. 
Jefferson J 
Jefferson Jouea, 
Jefferson Jones, 
Jacob Kniss, 
Jacob Kni-s, 
Jacob Kniss, 
Jacob Kuiss, 
N rman King, 
Norman King, 
Norman King, 
John H. Kizer, 
John H. Kizer. 
John H. Kizer, 
A lam Ketrin, 
AJam Ketrin, 
Thomas. Lm - 
Thomas Lewis. 
Thorn is Lewis, 
Thomas Lewis, 
Thomas Lewis, 
Ens Southwortb, 
Eps Sou ..worth, 
Eps South worth, 


Mary Ann i ". irk. 
.Mary J. Gri 
Elizabeth CI irk. 

Harriet Dag 
Almira Datue, 
Anna Dame, 
Didama Dame, 
Josh Davis, 
Thomas liayis, 
Zi phaniah I). .vis. 
Sarah Davis, 
l.liz ibel h ! I 
Eliza Davis. 

i ( 
I. t . . i trick. 

Ellen Filzp it rick 
A. J. Fairfield, 
Harrison Fai el I 
e Fairfield, 
Frances Holgate, 
Ar ibella II Ig ae, 
A. H. Holgate, 
Rolland II i ghl >n, 

n .1 I'.i.'S. 

Polly .! tics 
S i j .Lines. 
Minerva Kn'ss. 
G. W Kniss, 
J. 1'. Kniss, 
Samuel Taylor, 
Elrazur King, 
John King, 
E. C. King, 
John 11. Kizer, Jr., 
Victoria Kiz°r, 
Daniel Haverstaek, 
Teier Ketrin. 
Catharine Ketrin, 
Charle.- Lewis, 
Lucin ia Lewis, 
William Lewis. 
M. L. Lewis, 
Peter Lewis. 
M try Southwortb, 
Martiia Soul : 
Thomas Lai 

Frederick (■"..■"evens, Mary E. Stevens, 

K. L. Taylor, Eliza Farnswi rth, 

Washington, Weaver, Ilimsey, 

I. P. E. Whedon, A. M. Whe.Ii n, 

I. P. E. Whedon, E B. Whedon. 

Thomas Warren, Thomas Warren. 

Thomas Warren, Isaac Warren, 

Thomas Warren, Benj imin Warren, 

Thomas Warren, Sarah Warren, 

In the season of 1841, agreeable to a resolution 
adopted by the Hoar' 1 of Directors School District 
No. 1. the same consisting of 11 In in Phelps ■! inn - 3 
Greer and Jonas Colby, with Levi Colly as I , 
nails of a brick sc . tse were erei --'l mi the west 

side of Wayne Street, between Fourth ami Fifth and 
the building parti v finished by Timothy Dame run!: 

and builder at a cost of SSOO which was raised by tax 
upon the taxable property of the district, it: Septem- 
ber, 18-12. mi additional tax was levied Lor the finishing 
up of the lower pari ol .aid school building, and was 
continued in the use of I 1 strict No. 1. till the adoption 
of the Uniou school system in 1851, when il was 
up and iisi I as ti union school building 

We append a list of the names of the Directors. 
Teachers, Clerks and Tr< asnrors, from 1340 to 1851, at 
which time the I nion or graded school sj-stera 
adopted, as will appear by reference to a letter from I-'. 
Holleubeck, of Perrysburg. Ohio, which appears in con 
nection with this sketch. 

James S. Greer, Edwin Phi • lonas Colby, Will 
ia.i! Semans, Orlando Evans, William A. Brown, Israel I'. E. 
Whedon, Calvin 1 Sol ■• Horace - -- ins, Jacob J. Greene, Jehu 
P. Downs facob Kniss, MilUrd 1 n M. SiiUill, Tii 

Fitzp .trick, John II. Kizer, Francis Wisi iherger, • • 1'. Warren 
- Levi Coihy, I. I'. ['. whedon i t irtei - 8 

Case, .lot, as t >Iby, William Teals. 

/' ters. — E. C. Belts Catharine Coiby Maria Allen, B F 
Reed, John 1! Orowel, John I-.. - Calvin B. West, B B 

Southworth, Robert Evans, R. Taylor. It. F. South worth, S. VI. 
Mi i W.1, I'. V. lit — 

.:.- Jonas I 
Charles \ . Iloyce, M. P. Bell. 

The following letter from the • - teacher who 
grad -.1 the sch i • iance is given i ntire: 

Perrysbcrr, Ohio. January 22, 1882 
S. H. E 

Dear Sir — Yours r>C iiie l'.'ih insta ! [o mis 

to your inquiries will su} that it is so Ion:; [ was 

-. i.r.i i at Del that I have rtt a cd lo 

cut " recoi hat tit tul thet irred— general 

impressions tain. Of these, I will ch as occur 

to me while ".riling. 

It may not be amiss I ■ - ■ ts and inei- 

- which led itnmedi ifc ... I'nion 

School at that L lively hit' r si 

. ■■■ li ition from tn\ Brsl arrival iti Hie \l n . s tlli 
Mauinec City, in D tnber, :-l'-', md 1 subject 

wherever I ivent, whenever 1 could. Tl 
establish, il in ■ b ■■ i w as at 31 >.. :. st at 

Perrysl tra th d at Waterville and To! lo Byl slit 
p iblic mi'; 1 had becon general] cened to the stilijc 

B'-i: . ' 1 ' lianitc in die 
spring of t s ~>l on business, [learned the i . . 

ions of ihe t. wn for I ■ ttL 1 su« 

jested toson [i m< ml, or Wolsey 

■\. i . - Dr Ji in Pa ■ . \ . rii k -• i 

• is. William ( irter, K-ij 

. , ■ ■ I 1 . : . : ... . • ■ ■ 

I n tidy 

and cordial roponse. A ty however, stood in 

y . A> the 1 ■ I 

could bit established the d 

eared Shut could not be i l\> 

i 1 • . hers I provided 1 

hict it. 1 recall 

only one of them, M £ titcnd. I tuc 

and u ' liv. ! I it - 

■ - 



faciei -\ , and mm li i iithusiHsm « as awaki nod throughout the 
town upon the su iji i i ol education. 

Soon lis iln required notice could be given, tii vote was 
taken and the graded system adopt i il by a satisfai lory m 

I was i In- ii n quested to organize the si liool. ! consi nted 
to "assume the pressure," my engagemei 01 year. 

'I'll' n- was mi material for ;i high si hnol and the grades i -ta!e 

lished urn- pi iniai \ . I - ■ _ mmar 

schools, myself taking immediate charge of the latter, to 
gethcr with supervision nl the o hers M\ assistants were 
Mil Millie Woods in the primary department, and she v - . 
superior teacher of that grade. Miss Maria Welles taught 
the secondary, and succeeded very well. The intermediati 
was taught bj n young woman ivhosi name I cannot now re 
call Shi ici ■ ii"- schoolhousi on the west side of ill - 

canal, near the Catholic < burch building Perhaps some oue 
of the "I'! citizens, or of my pupil remaining there, could 
givi you her name. t »f the latter, there remains, as lam 
informed il give the names n- I knen them) l-'annie [lol- 
gate, Belli Uolgate, Ocorgiana Richards, Mary Stevens, 
Ami lia Uowland. now Mrs. Peterson, Frank Brown, .Inhn 
Crowe, Cicorge Ferguson and John Kiscr. There may be 

The common school branches onh were taught, viz., 
spelling, rending writing irei -n.!., grammar, arithmetic, 
and I recollect I had a ver i tit en ting chi in natural phil- 
osophy. As to efficiency ol tin si hool, 1 n fer you to my old 
pupils and their parents. 

I must, however, be permitted to -o this, that I do not 
believe there Was ever in the Stati il Ohio a more pleasant 
ami agreeable school than tin department of which I had' ilia;_ r i reacher and pupils constituted a family 
which was in perfect sympathy anil accord from the enni 
meucement to the close. Each uded it as 

and was sensitively alivi to tli maintenance of it good name 
aud character. Winn I think "f m\ connection with that 
school, it. is with unalloyed satisfaction, and I hold my old 
pupils in very dear and cherished remembrance. May bless- 
ings attend them during their lives. 

When my year expired, the Board "f Education bad not 
succeeded in finding my successor, and I remained until the 
commencement of the summer vacation. 

I lieiieve [ have answered all your inquiries, but in haste, 
and perhaps in an unsatisfactory manner. If of service to 
you I shall be pleased. Make ivli it use of it you deem best. 


FRAXcrs H"i i.iM-.t.i -, 


The Teachers' Institute of Northwestern Ohio 
helil it.-: tir-t session in Defiance County, in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, May 5, 1851. The 
Committee of Arraiigemontti were S S. Sprague, W. 
P. Bacon. W. Welles, H. Sessions, M. Arrowstnithi 
W. Sheffield. W. C. Hol<jate, W. A. Brown. William 
Carte,-, J. il. Stiiwill and C. L. Noble, rho Board 
of Instruction was composed "f the following per- 
sons, viz.: Elon G. L' Way, of Defiance, Francis 
Hollenbeck, A H Drummond, Maurice Paige (Super- 
intendent of the Man a Schools), Edward Olnev, 

Mrs. Mary A Webb, M:-, Mitchell and Miss F. 
Drummond— all from Maumee City and Perrysb 
as near as the writer bereof has been, able to ascer 

tain. There were in attendance over seventy teachers, 
about two-thirds of whom were young ladies. V 

half of this number were of Defiance County, 

and the remainder from the counties of Williams, In I 
i 11, Henry and Paulding. 

At n meeting of the qualified elect, rs ' f Sohoi I 
Districts No, 1 and 5. in the town of Defiance, held 
in pursuance of legal notice, for the purpose of 
adoptiug or rejecting the act Eor the better regulation 
of public .-chmils in cities, towns, etc., passed Feb- 
ruary 21, 1840, by the Legislature of the State of 
Ohio, held at the court house in the town of Di fiance, 
on the 8th day of March, 1851, George B. \\ ay was 
chosen Chairman, Miller Arrowsmith, Assistant Chair- 
man, and William A. Brown, Secretary of said meet 
ing. A vote was then cast by the elector- of said 
School Districts 1 and 5. for and against the u loption 
of said act aforesaid, and the whole number of votes 

j cast was v ''_'. For the adoption of, 44; against. 38; 

j majority in favor of. 6. 

At an election hi Id in the court house March 25, 

IS5 1, by the electors of the united School Districts 

No. 1 and •">. for the election of Directors, John M. 

Stiiwill acting as Chairman, Miller Arrowsmith as 

Assistant Chairman, and William A. Brown, Clerk. 

the following per-' ins were duly elected as the first 

Board of Directors under his now organization: 

Woolsey Welles and Calvin L. Noble, for one year; 

•John II. Kizer and J. B. Kimball, for two years; 

Hamilton Davison and John M. Stiiwill, for three 


The Board thus elected assembled at the office of 
1 Woolsey Welles, and organized IheBoardof Educa- 
; tion of the united School Districts No. 1 and 5, in 
Defiance. Defiance Co.. Ohio, by electing Hamilton 
Davison. President, Woolsey Welles, Secretary, and 
John M. Stiiwill. Treasurer, The Board thus organ- 
; ized proceeded to levy a tax of four milis on the 
dollar ,in the taxable property of the united districts 
for the support of teachers and other expenditures. 
It now became necessan t" provide suitable buildings 
for the different departments and teachers foi the 
same. It was therefore ordered by file said board 
that the old two-story brick schoolhouse of 1841, 
heretofore mentioned, be repaired and finished u] for 
the Union School, and was known as the High School 
Building. The contract for the same was awarded to 
Henry B. Hall, .-it §421, to be completed by the 1st 
da} of June, ! s *.'l. The services of Francis Hollen- 
beck, of Perrysburg. Ohio, were secured as their first 
St erinti ndent, at a salary of §500 per annum, school 
i" uommi nee 3 nne '-'. 1" "' i . 

The building in which the Intermediate was 
taught is still standing, west of the canal, ami i th 
third building svestof St. John's Evangelical German 



Oatholre Church and now used as ;i dwelling ii use. 
The first teacher in this department was Mrs. Arietta 
Hutchinson, who consented to till the positi 
"briefly," until a suitable person could be fom ' ' 
fill her place. Mrs. Hutchinson taught three weeks, 
when Miss Marietta Knapp took her place, at a salary 
o.f §150 per annum. Miss Knapp taught several 
terms, and then followed Miss Emetine Shead. 

Miss Maria Welles taught the Secondary in the 
building still standing on the coin.'! ,,t Water and 
Jefferson streets, at a salary of £150 j er annum. 

The Primary occupied a room iu the High School 
Building, and was taught ly Miss Permelia Woods, 
at a salary ol §150 per annum. The next teacher in 
this department was Miss Susannah Myers. At i 

S] ial election held at the court house May 22, 

i860, by the qualified voters of the 1 •< fiance United 
School District, for the purpose of voting for or 
against levying a tax of §18,000 upon said district, 
for the purpose of purchasing a site and erecting 
suitable school buildings for said district, the whole 
number of votes cast was 107, of which S9 were in 
favor of and ! v against levying the tax. 

The matter now being in the hands of the board 
of the district, it was unanimously voted by them at 
a meeting of the board, held May "_*< >. that the sum 
of SIS. 01 >0 be levied according to the voteof the peo- 
ple of said district. Thar £6,000 be levied in 1865, 
$6,000 in 1866, and §6,000 in 1S67. 

A beautiful selection for a site, tit the head of 
Clinton street, commanding a tine view of the entire 
city, was purchas td, upon which the buildings were 

August *24. 1866, the contract for building the 
same was awarded to William McCreath, at §1 t,999, 
he being the lowest bidder. 

In July, A. D. 1874, the Board of Union Schools 
purchased a lot on the hill on the north side of the 
Maumee, for a building site, of William C. Holgate, 
for $700. A contract was entered into with C. H. 
Franz, to put up a two-storj 1 rick, with slate roof, 
at 82,370, to be completed by the 15th day of < >cto- 
ber, 1^74. Miss R A. Langdon was the first teacher 
within its walls, commencing with November 9, 
1S74. In June, 1875, the board purchased of Sarah 
Kepler an acre of land for a site, at §1,800, in the 
Warren neighborhood, on the west side of the canal, 
and in the same mouth and year another lot. from J. 
S. Greenlee, at §1 ; 000, in Ei -t Di fiance. The build- 
ing of the two school a was let to K. ■). V . 

at §5,350, to b.' completed October 15, 1875, to be of 
brick, two stories high, and -late roof, i" was >rder- 
ed by tl.e Board that the several school bu 1 lings 
within the United School Districts be hereafter de- 
signated as follows: The buildimr east of the An- 

e River, "East Sehoolhouse;" north of the 
Maumee River, "North Sehoolhouse;" on the Warren 
road, " West Sehoolhouse," and the so-called High 
■jcho' I tuilding, " Central Sehoolhouse." 

An enumeration of tlm youth iu the United Dis 
tricts No. 1 and.", iu the town of Don a nee, between 
the ages of four and twenty-one years old, as taken 
bv Woolsey Welles, in October following tho organ 
i/.at ion, was as follows: 

In District No. L- Male-. 100, female.. 125; 225, 
In District No. ."Male-, 57, female-. 66; 123 
Total. 348. 

Woolsev Welles, having served tho board as 
Secretary for two years, resigned the ofhee, and Jacob 
J. Greene (who became one of tho Directors of the 
Board at its second annual meeting in March, 1852) 
was elected Secretary, and has been an active m :n 
ber of the board most of the time since — a period of 
thirtv years. Mr. Hollenbeck's service as Superintend 
ent, of the school closed with the summer vacation 
of 1852, and we learn that Mr. Enoch Blanchard 
took the supervision, although the records 
no mei ' sn of it until we find, at a meeting of the 
board held February 24, 1S53, - /.■ that Mr. 

Blanchard be continued for a term of eleven weeks." 
In July or August, arrangements were perfect cl 
under which D. C. Pierson, of Columbus, ("hi", was 
to take charge of the 3cl I as S .;•■ 1 ntei I nl and 
B. F. Sonthworth was employed to teach the gram- 
mar school department. Mr. Pierson, from soine 
cause or other, remained but a short time, and Mr. 

R. Fauroot was employed for the bali e of the school 

year as Superintendent. April 3, 1854, Mr. J. R. 
Kinney, of Toledo. Ohio, took charge of tho school 
as Superintedent at a .-alary of §500 per annum, and 
in July following his salary was raised to §600 per 
annum. Mrs. "Kinney wr:3 also employed to take 
charge of the secondary at a -alary of §225 per 

At the expiration of the school year, July 'A. 1855, 
Mr. Kinney resigned as Superintendent, and the 
school was to have a vacation of two months Sep 
tember 3 being the da\ for opening the schools, and 
as Hi Superintendent had its yet I n secured, a fur- 
ther vacation was had until the latter part of Novi m- 
ber, when Mr John R Kiuuej was again placed in 
chargeof the schools as Superintemh at, at an annual 
salary of §7<>0, and lJ F. So a th worth was continued 
in the grammar department at an annual salary of 
§400. Mrs. Kinney was again employed in the 

idarj as before, and at tho same -alary: Mrs. E. 

S Brown in the primary, at a -alary per annum 
?225, and Miss Maria B. Welles a assistant at a 
salary of §1 75 per annum. 

At the close of the term ending with December, 


i .'.-. 

1858, Mr. Kiiuh^ banded in bis resignati m isSupor 
intend, ni, and I'mlay Strong, of this town (Defiance) 
was employed as Superintendent for the remainder of 

tin' sclux)] year, and to r< ive tho same salary as 

Mr. Kinuoy, resigned. 

March 2S, 1859, Michael \V. Smith was employed 
to till the place of Superintendent of said schools for 
the last term of the current year, to <■ it of twelve 
weeks consecutively, etc., at tho same salary of §700 
per annum. 

September i L86-1, Henry Nowbegin was em- 
ployed to take charge of the schools as Superintend- 
ent, and was in charge but a I uths and then 
resigned, and on the 19th day of December, 1803, 
Mr. E. M. Moercb was appointod to take his place; 
but the length of time he may bave served is not n - 
corded, and we only tind that an ordi r was issued by 
the board April 2, 1601, for twelve weeks' services, 
and tho next record we find an order from the board, 
bearing date January 2, 1 St',5. to William 1£. H. Jack- 
son, §24)0, for sixteen weeks' teaching High School, 

consequently he must have 1 n employed in Si 

ber, 1S04; arid again. we tind. Juno -'-'. IJSO't. an or- 
der in favor of J. C MeKercher, for $210. Septem 
ber 4, 1866, Charles K. Smoyer was elected Superin- 

June 27. L867, James J. McBride was elected 
Superintendent; salary, §05"; and at a meeting of 
the board May 22, l v '> s . he was continued in office at 
a salary of S1,000 per annum. 

June 2.">. lV; 1 .!, VV. C. Barnhart was employed as 

July 29, l s 7'i, A. S. Moore was chosen ^superin- 
tend the schools. 

In August following, there was a German depart 
ment established in connection with the Union 
Schools, and Miss Phceba Detzer was employed as 
teacher in this department, at a salary of §350 per 

Leiu T. Clark, of Delaware, Ohio, was chosen as 
the nest Superintendent of the Union School-, at a 
salary of § 1,001) perai num. for the year commencing 
the first Monday of September, 1871. At a meeting 
of the board, held May 11. 1>72. his salary was in- 
crease.! i. >1."'«) for i hi- coming year. 

July 17. 1874, H. H Wright was duly elected as 
Superintendent, at a salary of SI, 100 per annum, and 
on the 25th 'lay of Juno, 1875, his -alary was raised 
to SI, 200. [n May. IS77, arrangements were made 
with him at §1.100, and continued thus till thi i 
of his year, in June. 1*79, at which time S. S. \>h- 
buugh, of Hillsdale Mich., vas elected m his place 
as Superinti ndent. at a salary of §1,0<H) per am 
The schools opened the first Mondav in September, 
1879, in a flourishing condition, and with the rapid 

increase of population in i- anil with the 

emont of her business, came a greal 
ii her school interests. The demands made ujhhi the 
oorp- of te;.e| : • greater than over h 'fore, 

atul the) were cheej full; mot. 

Phi departments were sixteen in uumber; oue for 
the High Soh. ol; five for tho ( rrammar grades, and ten 
for the priman grades. 

Although the school was now carefully graded, 
and the departments as even in number as possible, 
s.ene of the rooms were overcrowded, and tho Board 
of Education began investigating the subject of en 
larging the capacity for seating and bettering the 
general ace. am,., dations. 

There was at this time a building of two rooms, 
with a seating capacity for about a hundred and 
twenty pupils, in each of the four wards of tin city. 
accommodating, however, only the primary pup 
A' tic head of Clinton street wa3 situated the Central 
building, having eight school rooms and a Superin 
tendent's office, used also as a recitation room for the 
High Schi 

Mr Ashbaugh was earl} re-elected as Superintend- 
ent for tb ng ;• ear, i I i sal :ry ,c ~ 1 .200. 

On the 26th day -if February 1880, the contract 
wa- let to Jacob Karst. of Defiance, for the sum of 
£10,800, for repairing aim 6nlargiQg the Central 
building, and the work was begun assoon as the b-rai 
clos i I in Juno. Che - hools in tht Second, Third and 
Fourth Wards of the city opened as usual on the first 
Monday of September, or,; r...- r entral building was 
not r"ad) for occupancy until the 1st of December. 
It now contained twelve rooms, with a seating capac- 
ity for sixty pupils each, recitation room, Superintend- 
ent's office, public hail, hoi !in_ r about six hundred 
persons and occupying the third story, and two base- 
ments, which are warmed and seated for the general 

The Board spared no reasonable expense in fitting 
up the new department- The hall was seated with 
chairs, and furnished with large and elegant chande- 
liers; the stage was carpeted, and provided with a tine 
Hal let t .v; Davis piano. Most of the room- were sup- 
plied with the new and perfect furniture manufactured 
at Battle Creek, Mich. 

The building was warmed by four large furnaces. 
and ventilated bj the Rnttan system; thi whole cost- 
ing about §18,000. 

Two new department- were now added, making 
eighteen in all; thi janitor using the old Primary 
building as a residence The High School depart- 
ment had no w increased in numbers, so that at th< 
holiday vacation it was necessary to sec ire an assist 
ant during half the .lay; and at the annual commence 
ment in, the largest class since the organization 



(if the school, graduated, consisting of eight muni: 

During the yeara l s M and 1882, the school was 

very prosperous, the assistant h • tained for 

tli; whole day, and the Superintendent still teaching 
jne v-i m >re classes. There had been but Eewchai 
in the corps of teachers, and at. the close of the year, 
iu June, 1 882, the teachers and their respective de- 
partments wore as follows: 

Superintendent, S. S. Ashbaxtgh, A. M.; High 
School, Miss Gi ra M. McDonald; High School (As 
sistant Teacher), Miss Nettie Hooker; A Grammar, 
Miss Emma Richardson; B Grammar. Miss Nora 
Stevens; B ;m<l C Granm ir. Miss Hattie A. Doa- 
trick; C Grammar, Miss Lottie E Ward; I> Gram- 
mar, Miss Mary E. Hardy; I» Grammar, Miss Mary 
E. Plattor; A Primary, Miss Mabel E. Carroll: B 
Primary. Miss Alvira Bevington; C Primary. Miss 
Ella C. Mooney; D Primary, Miss Ids M. Briden- 
bangh; D Primary, Miss Jessie E. Dunn. 

Second Ward — A and B Primary, Miss JLiJri 
Henry; C and D Primary, Miss Isabelle F. Hough 

Third Ward— A and B Primary, Miss Kate 
Backus; C and D Primary. Mrs. Mary E. Ashton. 

Fourth 'W ard — A and B Primary, .Miss Rel ■cca 
C. Heatley; C and D Primary, Miss Crnma T. Massa. 

Mr. Ashbaugh declined an elecMon : r the fourth 
year, choosing rather to enter the profession of law., 
to which Lo had been admitted three years before. 
His resignation was reluctantly accepted by the Board 
of Education, and caused deep regret among the 
parents and pupils alike. The schools had made per- 
ceptible advancement during his connection with 
them, and were found in excellent condition by his 
successor, Mr. C. W. Butler, of Bellefontaine. 

The Board of Education no\v consisted of •!. J. 
Greene. President; J. P. Burlington, Clerk: Adam 
Minsell, Treasurer; Isaac Corwin, M. B. Gorman. E. 
P. Hooker. 

The Board of Examiners was composed "f S. T. 
Sutphen. C. E. Bronson and C. W. Khapp. 

From the Superintendent's report for the year wo 
take the following interesting table of figures: 

foj&'tke vi:\r kxdim, 23, I88d 

Populutinu of Defiance in 1881 6.110 

Property valuation $1,645,126 i fj 

Rate of taxation for support oi ehoi - 007 

Rati of t: pur] ■ 002 

Rcci ived from duplicate $14,650 52 

Received from State common school 

fund ' 2,850 00 

Received from various sources *51 63 

i ■ r m [i bi ' i •■ six and l\vi ntj one 


Numbi r of I I etwecn six and Uvenlj on 

years of agi 

i ation 

Xumbci ■ urolli .I in private and pal 

. .. . 
Number of boys in I iu public schools 651 
Number of girls enrolled in public schoi Is 

Total enrollmenl 

Avei i i number of boys belonging. . 
Average mimbi • A lli S- ■ 

. 151 I 
. 129 5 

T Mi 

Avera ;c daily si u of boys. 

Averagi daily attendanci of girls... 

413 ; 


i I 

1 ' . en! ■■' atli nd it i boys. 

Per cent ol ittel 


. . .92.2 


Number hi ion-; e of the ) ear 

Numbi r of i us. - ol tardiness of boys 275 

ill': lini -- I ! -Hi- I s " 


I 'I'M 



809 ? 




Number of i ises of truancy of boys 
Number of eases of truauev of girls.. . . 



Numboi of visits. , 

I High Si hi."!. . 
er of teachers emp etl > ■ mimar 

s hools 

Number oi i mployedii r i .Schools 





Total rei 'ipts for the year. . . 

Paid for tea< Iters " 

Paid for incidentals 

f 7 57<i 00 

: 801 '•'. 

Total expenditure? for the year, exel 

building fund 

|18 352 15 

|9,3T1 96 


In the year 1878, an Alumni Association was or 
"■anized by the graduates of the High School, admit 
ting Henry il. Harris and Rolla II. Gleason, who had 
completed the course of study bofi re graduating . 
ercises were instituted. 

Thi association now consists of forty-three mem- 
bers, whoso names are as follows, given by classes: 

1872— Alvira Bevington, Willis D. Colby. 

1873 — Mary Colby (Ingram), Rosa Crosson (de 
ceased). Frank Ferguson, Alice Moore (deceased!. 

! ST 1— Alice M. Bridenbaugh, E lorence Buflington 
{Lamb), May Fisher W. Curtis Holgate, Charles H. 
Strong (dec • -■-■'■ I 

1S75— Alice Downs (Monis), Rebecca C. Heal 
Jessie I. Oliver. 

187t3— Delia Gleason. 

1877— Ida M. Britl baugh. Mary F. Hardy, Nellie 
Moore, Mary E. Plattor, William Lauster 

1ST- ■.•■: I. Ayers. M. Uice BufSington, F. 
Nettie H r, Isabelle F. Houghton, Fannie Wisler, 
Frank O. Graper. 

1879— Ida J. Branson, Alva (' Flickinger, Alice 
A. Gleason, Julia E. Kreukle, Lucj C Sli d 

18S0 -Berta Ayers, Emma L Brown,LidaB. Gor 
rell, Gilbert Mallett 

IS81 Lila E. M. Br ■ ■ ' • Mattie C Squire, 
Emm:-. Try. William H. Plattor, Annie M Harris. 
Frances Sti mg, Karl A Flicl inger, J Lincoln Tate. 

1882 -Bertha H Dittmer, Irena E. Moll, Bessie 




1 'K. KIIIS E\ \Ss. 

The fiim ily of thin gentleman was widely known 
to the old citizens of the Up] c Maumee Valley. He 
studied bis profession under the instruction of Dr 
Spencer, of Kentucky, and L)r. Rush, of Philadelphia, 
and commenced practice at Washington, Fayette 
County, Ohio, about the \ ear 1^1 I and also conducted 
in separate rooms of tho same building the mercan- 
tile business and an ap< t.hecarj tore. On the 27th 
of May, 1818, ho married Miss Elizabeth Taylor, of 
Bainbridge, Ross Comity, Ohio. 

The Evans family were among the early ettlers of 
Kentucky. Siimuel Evans (father of Dr. John), re- 
moved to Ohio from Bourbon County, Ky.. when the 
latter was about seventeen years old. William Tav- 
lor (father of Elizabeth, who married J>r. Evans), the 
first settler between the Ohi ■> River and Chillicothe, 
moved from Pennsylvania to Kentucky when his 
daughter Elizabeth was about three months old, and 
from Kentucky to neat Bainbridge, Ross County, 
Obio, when she was six or s< ven yean >f age. Dr. 
Evans and family (now consisting of his wife and 
two daughters) removed from Washington, Fa; itte 
County, to Defiance, in February. 1823. They 
started in a large double sleigh, but the snow failii g, 
they were compelled to abandon their sleigh and re- 
sort to wagons. The family reached Judge Nathan 
Shirley's, on the Auglaize River, one mileabove De- 
fiance, on the last day of February. Their first loca- 
tion was at Camp No. 3, live miles below Del I 
the north side of the Mauinee in a double-log cabin, 
and here Samuel Cary Evans, their first son, was 
born April 10, 1823. During the summer, the Di ctor 
built a frame house at Defiance, into which he re- 
moved his family in the oi"nth of November of that 
year. He made the first brick and the first lime that 
was manufactured in Defiance, a part of which was 
used in the construction of his own house and the 
proceeds of the sale of the surplus lime ami brick 
netted an amount that paid the entire cost of his 
house. In the sa 10 year, Foreman Evans, his brother, 
also removed to Defiance. The lata Judge Pierce 
Evans (cousin "f Dr. John) removed to the head of 
the rapids of the Maumee and resided i here during 
the year 1822 and in 1823, and then removed to the 
farm below Defiance now occupied by his son, Ri- 
naldo Evans. When Dr. Evans reached Defiance, 
there were no physicians on the river nearer than 
Fort Wayne above, and Maumee City below, and his 
professional visits often extended to the first named 
place, to St. Marys, on the St. .Mars-, and to the head 
of the Maumee rapids. There being no good roads, 
no bridges over the >m ams and facilities for fei i 
were at points remote from each other, it is diffi- 

cult to convey to the mind of ■!,.• medical practiti .• 

of this day an adequate view of the f md of! 

en dangerous obstacles thai, Dr. Evans was comp 
to encounter in the discharge of his pr -■ -- ■ nal dn 
ties. The first relief from this e: ug toil was 

afforded !>> the arrival at Defiance if Dr. Tom 
Colby, in 1822. In 1824, ho purchased the stock of 
goods of Hunt ,V Forsyth, of Maumee City, which 
were brought up on pirogues. T. - the first 

st< ire of c msiderahlo importance that contained go ■ i 
adapted to the wants of the whito settlers, although 
staple Indian goods (except whisky) wore included 
in his general stock. When the fan il) removed to 
Di fiance, there were no regular church services, ami. 
until the court house w;e- erect 'd. no suitable h 
for worship. The Methodists, however, held =ervi 
at short intervals, sometimes in private houses, and, 
when the' weather was favorable, in the adjac it 
groves. The first Presbyterian clergyman was Rev. 
Mr. Stowe (father of Mrs. William A. Brown, a 
living at Defiance). During his residence in Deli 

>, Dr. E ■ fi lly th c< >nfi I 

of the Indians than the majority of those who had 

ngs ■'■ ( h them. ; . [uired this confii I a 
professional ministrations, by fairness in trade 
refusing their ap inl i ating -1: . 

When the Indian men and women would visit town 
and the former obtain liquor froiu mercenary tni I r 
and become drunken ami crazed, and 'leer brutal 
nature aroused, the latter would gather up the toma 
hawks and knives of their lords and deposit I 
about the premises of their friend, Dr. Evans. On 
■me occasion the chief, Oc c i nox-ee, of Oc-co-nox ee 
town, on the Auglaize mow Charloe, Paulding Conn- 
1 v >, brought one of his clan I i the Doctor to be 

treated for some malady which had baffled the skill 
of the Indian "medicine man.'" She was received 
iuto the Doctor's household and in due time restored 
to health. As an equivalent forthis service the chief 
made the Doctor a present of an Indian pony. In 
1838, with a view of affording his children oppor 
tunities for obtaining better educational facilith . 
he temporarily removed to Troy, Ohio, and continued 
thereuntil the fall of ! s l". when he removed to 
F irt Wayne and engaged actively in commercial pur 
suits in partnership with his son in-law, John F. 
Hill. During his residence in Troy, ho had contin- 
ued business in D< fiance, and n >w fn an tho two si 

. supplied the contractors, who were constructing 
the Paulding County Reservoir, with goods to 
cute their work. In 18-10, he removed the D< i •■■ 
stock to Fort Wayne and concentrated his business 
i haf point. En the summer of 18*2 business 
called Dr. Evans to Defiance, and while here he 
seized wire an illness that would have induced an 



ordinar) person to remain and receive medical tit I 
in out, lint his indomitable will had determined him 
id make an effort to roach hi- family at Fori 
Wayne. Leaving Defiance on horseback, bo 
bad traveled only about a mile and reached the 
house of Tin unas Warren, when the intensity 
of his sufferings arrested hi- progress, and he 
remained al the house of Warren tun or three 
days. Meanwhile, believing himself, doubtless, that 
his case was critical, he dispatched a messenger to 
Fort Wayne to notify his family of his condition. 
Ou the message beiny ted to his family. 

his son, Sam: ' Evans, immediately started to 

meet his father, and, reaching the bedside, discovered 
the alarming symptoms of the case, and at once dis- 
patched a second messenger to Fort \Y ay ne to sum- 
mon Dr. S. (r. Thompson, and also to notify his 
mother and other members of hi:- family of bis fa- 
ther's condition. The intelligence being communi- 
cated, Dr. Thompson and Miss Merica Evans, seci nd 
daughter of the Doctor, at once set out on horseback, 
and notwithstanding the i>.' 1 eonditi of the roads 
reached Mrs. Hilton's, mother of Brice Hilton (to 
whose house, in order to secure more comfortable 
quarters, Dr. Evans had been removed), within eight 
hour:-, after leaving Forr Wayne. 

Dr. Evans, by this time becoming fully con- 
that he could only survive a few hour-, dictated the 
following as hi- la-t will and testament i Dr. Thomp- 
son acting as amannensisl and which embodied a 
distribution of his estate adjusted upon such nice 
principles of justice and affection that no word of 
complaint or discord was oyer uttered by the parties 
affected by it: 

L John Evans being weak it. body, but sound n mind 
ami memory, knowing tin- uncertainty of life and the cer- 
tainty of death, do make and publish this my last will and 
testament, hereby revoking nil former wills First — I coi 
mit my soul to God who gave it, and my body to t hi earth, 
to be buried at Fort Wayne, in such m nnor as my family 
may direct. And I hereby appoint my daughter Mi ric;i and 
my sons Carey and Rush, together with Allen Hamilton. 
Hugh McCuliocli nd Piero Evans 5 m} exei - . nd it 

is my desir thai the three last-nann i ■ ■ irors shall pi I 
my -"a- Carey and Rush to i mitinue the mere intile bu> 
until all my just tl bts are paid: tfter wliich it i- nru desire 
that my bi I >vi d wi1 shall 1 tl inl of all m\ 

and real t- s t : 1 1 ■ thn ii lial m\ daughter, 

Eliza Hill, shall reci ve nothing mere until nrj tli • ./Inn 
have received one thousand dollars Vfti I [wish 

the balam e of m; propi ro, i 1 among my 

children. Ami [ further desire that tic. children -hall pro- 
vidi foi A' Cm , ■ hful colored servant o! tin 

family 1 so long as sin may live; and it is mj special mmes! mj friends, i In thn f }:i-=t n.-u , w Ml not 

make any public sale ot properly, but permit my 
;it private -al.- to the best 
liver-. I. tlii- lOtli day ol August, \ I). 1-1'.' 

s i; TlIOMfSO.V, Johs i'\ v&"s 

A a E\ \< s, Witn we* 

Having performed this la-t earthly duty, his re 
maining moments were consecrated to the service of 
his Maker, and in • tidi ai iug expressions of aff cl on 

: iv. . tueuil is fetiiih whi j were in ■■ out 


;i!iil in messages to those who were unavoidably ab- 

On I he following day, August 11. is 1'2. his death 
occurred. Ami thus at the age of forty-eight years 
tie honorable career of Dr. John Evans was brought 

to ti close in the very prime of his manh 1. X" 

death that occurred in the valley during that year 

hn-e.l ;i more general or profound regret The 
physicist u wl use skill hail proli aged the lives of mul- 
titudes was ;t nab!,- to hesil himself. A.nobituar\ of the 
Fort Wayne Times, of September 17th, 1842, appears 


" On the evening of the 11th alt, near Deti e, 

Ohio, Dr. John Evans, of this city breathed his la-t. 
in his forty-ninth \ ear. 

" The removal of this highly respectable and en- 
terprising citizen from the sphere of his earthly la- 
bors has excited the deepest sympathy and rim sin- 
in -t regrets among a numerous circleof Eri< i : 

[uaintances: an.' has cast a deep shade over the 
hope and happiness of a disconsolate wife and be- 
reaved fsimily. He is now no more- all that 
mortal rests within the portals of the tomb; but his 
memory will ever live in tie- hearts of all who 
him. His weight of character, his great moral worth, 
and exemplary deportment, to each and ever) rela- 
tion of life, will b.- remembered, his virtues adi i red, 
and his memory cherished, as long as the qualities that 
adorn human nature shall be held in proper estima 

" At a very early period in the settlement of North 
western - Ohio, Dr. Evans located at Defiance. The 
extended practice anil the extraordinary degree of 
favor which ho then obtained, are sufficient evidences 
of his eminent merit. It may bo said with rruih in 
the beautiful language of the j t. 

" 'N'.i liini 1m ■' i ••■ ■ him; 

Noin named i,' 1 i in'!' to pi dse 

•' After having passed the meridian of life in the 
practice of a laborious profession, ho removed hi- 
famil; E * i hort peril ■■! to Tr >y, ' >hio, and tl, 
to this citv, with a view of establishing Ins sons in 
the mercantile business, and reposing during the 
remainder of bis lays in the ruidst of his beloved 
family, and in the enjoyment of an honorabh ac 
(piired ce. He went to Defiance .about the 

iiii nencemi :r ol the i lonth I \ no ist) foi I he pui 
of transacting - ■ While there he felt 

unw.-i I. .uiij.f. .: ;i: j- .-.., attack of disease, he-: 
for hi i ■■ but before proceeding fi r his progress was 
arrested -f re attack of bilious pneu 



tuonia, which terminated tiis earthly existei n the 

seventh day follov icg. During Lis short but painful 
illness he was composed ami resigned, hu expr< — -1 
a desire to live only <>u account of his family. He 
aroused froru the stupor of approaching di- ilntiun 
to assure them of Lus entire willingness r • meet his 
Maker As his life had been honorable and useful. 
his death was peaceful and happy." 

Mrs. Elizabeth Evans (wid \ . Dr J hn Evans), 
survived her husband upward of thirty years, re- 
maining at her home in Fori Wayne, keeping house 
most of the time up in the time of her death, but dii I 
at her sou in law's, Henry -I. lludisill, March, 1^71 
or I8"i5, at Fort Wayne, Ind. 


The subject of this sketch was born in Henni- 
ker, N". H , December 20, 18(1(5. His parents were of 
English descent, aud his early life was spent on his 
father's farm. The New England farmer of that day 
was able to give his children hut few educational ad- 
vantages be} md those of the ordinary district sch I 
consequently 'Alien Dr. Colby, :.i the age of eightei i 
entered the medical department of Dartmouth College 
he was obliged to support himself by teaching, Hut by 
pei severance and economy he succeeded by his own 
efforts in fitting him>elf for his profession. Not con- 
tent with merely fulfilling the r rements i 
to obtain a diploma which only necessitated his at- 
tendance at two courses of lectures, he took a third 
course in order the lietter to prepar ■ himself tor the 
work of his life. After practicing medicine three 
years in his native State. he removed to I>-rionce. 
Ohio, in 1S32. For many years after his location in 
Defiance, his life wa - on- of an isual hardship, even 
for a pioneer physician. The country was new and 
sparsely settled, making long rides necessary, where 
streams had no bridges, and roads were only trails. 

the nearest pla at which there were physicians 

being Fort Wayne and Manmee, and his practice ex- 
tending over several counties, running north lot'., 
ette, near the Michigan lino and south to Fort Jen- 
nings. On oi e occasion he rode 11^ miles in twen- 
ty four hoars, and at another time had no sleep for 
three nights and four days, except what he could 
catch on horseback In times of hi.^h water, lie « - 
obliged to swim his horse across the streams in cold 
weather or warm. But being blessed with a g od 
constitution and an iron will, he was able to endure 
such hardships as most men nowadays would shrink 
from. In 1 S M7, he was apointed Postmaster o* 
Defiance, and held the orH.ce several years. In 18#U 
he was appointed by the Cuited States (iovemment 
to accompany as physician a tribe of Indians that 
were being sent from Northwestern Ohio to the. 

intry 1 ad tho Missouri River. Starting oat from 
tici . they went down the Maumee IJiver to V m 
City, tie; i took lake vessels from th ire to Clove 
fn m there by canal lx>ats down the Ohio Canal 
to the Ohio Itiver, thence down tho Ohii lliver to 
Mississippi, thence up the Mississippi and Missouri 
Rivers, taking several weeks to make the trip, which 
can now be made in twenty four hours. About tic 
- it ie time, he was appointed Associate Judge of Will- 
iams County, this being before the organization of 
Defiance County, and he discharged the-duties of 

Sice for live years. During the hit" civil war, "he 
earnestly espoused the cause of th" I nion. serving as 
Chairman of a- Military Committee, -.til as Examin- 
ing Surgeon for Defiance County, u [ding a commis 
-ion as Military Surgeon with the rank of Major; for 
a number of years after the war he was examining 
Surgeon for pensions. Five years after settling 
tit Defiance, he was married to Altai. a Hull (firsl white 
■ child born in the Maumee Talley), of Maumee City 
Ohio, who is still living at Defiance. Co them were 
i era six cl and girls < r 

a E.. who married Charles Kahlo, of Logansport, 
Ind. State Senator from Ca.s? v: George F., 

who died in infancy: Alice A., marrie I J. S. Alexan- 
der, attorney at law. Indianapolis, Ink; Mary ('.. 
married John C, Ingram, cashier of Logansport Bank 
i.'._' Company. Logansport, Ind. Of the two boys 
■ i ■.- living in this citv. Ferris W .. tho oldest, i- en 
raged in the real estate business. He was married 
September It. 1870, to Miss Anna L.. daughter of 
J. P. Ottley, of this city. They have two children. 
Hnttie C. and Flora M. ; Willi- D. ied, of the 

firm of Colby & Scott, i- engaged in tee wholesale 
md retail drug business. The boy-. Ferris W a ; 
Willis D. , tire graduates of the New York College of 
Pharmacy of New York City 

U:i" who knew Dr. Colly many years says he 
c aid never be induced to turn aside from his profes- 
sion for the purpose of making money. He had no 
ambition to be called a rich man !>;■ his neighbors and 
never desired more than a comf rtable :■._'. Bui 

the good judgment. ipled with caution delibera 

tion and method, which eh I im in the prac- 

tice of medicine was so manifest in all his business 
Ie lings, it ma be said of him that ho a aid not help 
acquiring a handsome property. H< made no vent- 
ur -s. he incurred no debts. The profits of a lucra- 
tive practice and of an economical life, were simply 
carefiUly invi -• I, rouerally in real ">tate. and he 
reali/ed it surely by the enhancement of iis 

value. But what tier I riches > c real ea 

[eaves as a legai \ to his family the name ,.. ', .. 
- , honest and honorable in all his bus 

iness affairs. He t •.. only to- hi" li:-. word was 



as H""l as his note. ;md the lattnr t<quival< at to the 
money. Although a man of l'< . vonl and one with 
whom strangers found il difficult to become readil} 
acquainted, he p> >ssesi eel :i kind L -vi an ! bail a k> h I 
of encouragement for all who ought his advice. As 
a physician, ho was prompt and attentive. As a sur 
geon, he was bold and self .possessed, and. in either 
place bo was successful to ua unusual dogree. He 
continued the active practice of his profession up to 
the day of his death. May 28, 1S76. 


This association was organized in INSO, and i.> at 
presont composed of the following members: L. ii. 
Tb acker, M. B. Stevens, A. Berchtold, \V. T. Harris, 
W. S. Powell, J. J. Lteynolds, R. W. Finch. J. V. 
Lesnet, H. H. Zeigler. 

This association is auxiliary to the State Medical 
Society, to which it sends delegates, as well as to the 
American Medical Association, with which it is in 
harmony, being governedj by- the same rules and re- 

A physician, to become a member of this associa- 
tion, must be a graduate of some rec gnized medical 
college, which teaches the science and art of medicine 
in its entirety, am! does not confine its instructions to 
the limits of any exclusive dogma-or pathy. This as- 
sociation meets on the first Tuesday of each month, 
and has for its object the advancement of medical 
knowledge among ils members by discussions, essays 
and free interchange of thought on subjects relating to 
the science of medicine. 



The institutions of Masonry are well established 
in Defiance, working the degrees and orders up to 
Knights Templar. The "disinterested friendship," 
" unbounded hospitality," and " k good, square work" 
of the Defiance brethren, arc " known of all men." 


At the session of the Grand Lodge of Free and 
Accepted Masons in Ohio, held ai Steubenville. Octo 
her, IS-19, dispensation was granted to -lames M. El 
der. Ephraim A.Greenlee, Jacob J. Greene. James 
Cheney. Peter Zimi rm ■ .. M. H. Curtis, Joram \i 
leu and David Taylor for a lodge of Masons at the 
town of Defiance arid naming therein James M. 
Elder as the Master; !'.. V. Greenlee, Senior H irden; 
and J. J Greene, Jnnio] V\ t \ i oi the new 
Not having any near nei hbors to assisl in instruction 
and work, a Lecturer was engaged and ''■-<■ whole of 
tiiat winter was devoted to learning the work-lect- 

ures. The lirsl work was •].•<<< March 23, IS50 when 
John M. Stilvvoll and William Semans wore initiated 
Since that time the records show that degi os have 
been c inferred ou more than three 1 tin Ired br< fehri n 

\i the ■ sion of tho Grand Lodge held October, 
1850, at Cincinnati, the work and proceedings of the 

i lodgi were approved, and a charter issued, with 

the name Tn en-da wie (signifying in the language 
of the Wyandot-, the junction of two river-), and 
numbered 11)5. The charter named (at request of the 
lodge) as first officers thereunder, David Taylor, V. 
M.; ErastusH. Loland, S. W.; and John VV. Sti] 
will, J. W. 

Masters who have been elected to preside since 
are: Chauncy Coston, ErastusH Loland, Jac > I 
Greene, John \V. McKini, Henry Handy, Lake E 
Myers. Isaac Corwin. Charh s M Thrall, Henry 
Newbegin, Joseph Ralston, \V. G. Blymyer, Elmer 
White, Livingston E. Beavdslej and E. Squires. 

The number of memlx rs, as repi irted to the ( rrand 
Lodge last October, was 127. and the dues then p i I 
amounted to ^57.50 -not more than ten iodges oul of 
520 on tii" roll paying in a larger sum. 

The first funeral attended bj the fraternity was 
that of James M. Elhr. Pasl Master, who was buried 
with Masonic honors June 13, 1855 

The anniversary of St rohn the Evangelist, Dec. 
LS59, was observed b} pnblii procession, installation 
of officers, and the deliver} of an address by Judge 
Dunlap, "f Toledo, with n re-union of Masons and. 
then- families in the evening at the Russell House, 
but then recently opened. 

The lodge rooms are spacious, and in the various 
equipments, conveniences aud adornments not often 

The present officers of the lodge are: Edward 
Squire, W. M,; I . G. Brown. S.W.; George Mallett. 
J. \V.; r. P. Ottley. Treas. ; W. T. Hill, Sec , 0. F. 
Ensigu, S. If, M.S. Kolston. J. D. , F. W. Ditt- 
mer, Tiler. 


In the annual communication i E Grand Higb 
Priest Tli >mas J. Larsh, to the Grand Chapter of 
Royal Arch Masons, held at Columbus, October, i'^U. 
b< says: ; ' On the 1 3 th da} of January last, 1 issued 
a dispensation to Companions Jacob J. Greene. Isaac 
Corwin, Lake E. Myers, John Paul, Henry Hardy, 
Henry ('. Bouton, James G. Haley, William J. Jack- 
son and Jacob t'egtley, Eor tl e < tab] ihiuent i f a 
ch pter al Dehanee, in Defiance County, to be cs 

vd woc-sh CI No. — , and appointed the 

first naim I - lions to be the first High Priesi 

King and Scribe of ;aid Chapter;" and in the] 
cee< lings of said grand body, page IS th< Commiii 



ou Charters and Dispensati ms r< [>or( thai "-they have 
examined the dispensation records and bylaw- of 
Kn-sawoc-sa Chapter, U. D., located at Defiance 
Ohio. Their records are ver\ well kept. We rec in 
mend thai the bj laws be approved and that a charter 
"be issued to said Chapter;" which recommendation 
was adopted, and lit-- tmmber given to the new Chap- 
ter was 89. The name selected was the Pottawato 
mie name for the locality, and said to have the same 
signification as lii-en-da-wie. The High Priests of 

the Chapter have I u I. J.Greene, Ifenn New- 

■beyiu, Joseph Ralston, VV. G. BIymyer and Frank 
G. Brown. 


On the 20th day of February, ISO'.), Puissant 
Grand Master Charles Brown, issued a dispensation 
to Companions Jacob J. Greene, Joshua P. Ottley, 
Louis Degginger, Isaac Corwin, John L. Scott, 
Henrv Newbegin, George \V. Deatrick, F. \\ . Ditt- 
mer and Lake E. Myers, for a Council of Koyal and Se 
left Masters at Defiance, Ohio, and at the grand coun- 
cil held at ( 'level;, ml. in October of that year, a charter 
was granted to said Companions affixing the num- 
ber 55. 

The name selected for the new Ooitncil was Oc co 
nox-eo, the name of the Chief of the Ottawa tribe of 
Indians resident in this vicinity, removed west of 
the Mississippi in 18:52. The new Council was con- 
stituted and officers installed the succeeding Decem- 
ber, by Deputy Grand Master Calvin Hallidav. of 

The Thr. III. Grand Mastersof Oc-co-nox-ee Coun- 
cil, No. 55, since its organization have been Jacob J. 
Greene, Henry Sewbegin, Isaac Corwin, Joseph Ral- 
ston, Elmer White and Henry Hardy. 


At the annual conclave of the Grand Cornniandery 
of Knights Templar, held at Cleveland in August, 
1S77. a dispensation was granted to Sirs Jacob J. 
Greene, Joseph Ralston, foshua P. Ottley, Henry 
Hardy, Elmer White, W. G. BIymyer, James J. Jar- 
vis, George W. Bechel, Alexander Bruner, L mis 
Degginger, Isaac Corwin, George W Deatrick, Will- 
iam A. Kchnast, F. William Dittmer, E. F. Ahlrich. 
Edwai'd Squire, Peter Kettenring, Lake Erie Myers, 
John L. Scotf and John F. Deatrick, for a new Com- 
mandery, at Defiance, to be called "Defiance Com- 
mandery"— naming J. .i. Greene as the -first Eminent 
Commander, Joseph Ralston first Gen ralissimo, and 
John L. Scott, the first Captain General. At the 
nest meeting of the Gi n i Commandery held at Put- 
in-Bay, August 28, 1878, a charter was granted to 
Defiance Commandery No. 3'.). U. appointment of 

the Grand Commander, Past Eminent Com Walker, 
of Toled i, constituted the new Commandery and in 
stalled its officers, "ii which occasion were present 
officers of the General Grand Commandery with 

j other \ isiti tig Kn ights. 

Grand Commander Babcock also visited the Cot i 
mandery in July in IS78, and inspected the work, 
commending all, particularly that of the Prelate. 

The Commandery participated in the parade and 
reception at the triennial meeting of the Grand En 
campmout held at Chicago in lSeiO. 

The number of members reported to the Grand 
Commandery October, 1880. was seventy- oven. 

The present officers of Defiance Commandery are: 
Joseph Ralston, E. C. : John L. Scott, Gen. ; George 
W. Bechel U. G.: J. J. Greene. Prelati ; L R Beards- 

ley. S. \\ ; 1'. ( i. BrOWn, J. W. J Joshua P. Ottley. 

Treas ; Rdward Squire, ReC; W. E. Carpenter. St. 
B.:G. W. Deatrick, Sw. B.; W. A Kehnast Warden; 
F. W. Dittmer, Guard. 

I. O. O. F. 

F irt Defiance Lodge, No. \?A. I. 0. O. F.,was or- 
ganized in J. H. Kiser.Sr.'s, saddler shop then lo 
cated in the burnt district opposite the Russell House, 
and was instituted September 0, 184'.). Its chartei 
members were J. B. Laughlin, A. M. Richards, S S. 
Sprague, J. W. Phillips and H. C. Bouton. Che 
lodge rente:! this room about four or five years, and 
among the many members initiated in that room rj • 
found the names of L. C. Nobie, fhoinas Garnett, Ed- 
ward H. Phelps, Edwin Phelps, R. R, Thrall, Josi [>h 
Rogers. B. F. Deamer, E. A. Greenlee, John Finn, 
William E. Enos, O. Evans, -I ihn Tnttle, William Shef 
held, C. W Evans, J. i >. Graper and F. D. Harris; but 
of all these including the chartei members, two onh 
remain as active members, viz.: Edwin Phelps and 
J. D. Graper. The lodge removed from this room to 
the room over the store in the frame bail, line; near 
the Maumee bridge, at the foot of Clinton street, 
where Krotz's brick building now stands. They re 
mained there about six years, when the} moved into 
Petersen's block, remaining there until about 1871 
72. when they moved to their present location in 
Weisenborger's building. Their night of meeting 
is I'i i' la;, . 

The records show 280 names on t'u sir books. Of 
these, eighty-live have taken final cards, forty-five i 

d. ami forty-seven were dropped for non-pavmenl 
of dm--, leaving besides those whose membership was 
severed from other causes, an active membership of 
nin stj live. 

The following are the officers f- . i- the present 
term: O. \. Prick, N". G ; George Miller, V. G.- <:. 
H. Liiidentmrgar. It. S. ; J. D. Kirk, P. S. : •). P. 



Buffington, Treas.: J. D. Graper, \V.; William J. 
W arneke, (J. 

The following is a list of the Noble Grands from 
its institution to the presi 'if time: 

September 6, 1849, J. li Laugblin; January, 
1850, A. M. Richards; July, 1850, H ('. Bouton: 
January. 1851, J. W. Phillips; July, 1851, Will 
F. Eldredge; January. L852, G. K Hendle: July. 
1852,H.C. Bouton;Oet her 2, is:.'.', William E. Enos: 
January, 1853, J. W.rhillips; -July. 1853, M. Houtz; 
January, 1854, Edwin Phelps; July, 1854, Ales 
ander Backus; January, 1855, J. D. Graper: July. 
1855, H. A. Townsend: January, 1856, William E. 
Enos; July, • 1856, H. B. Hall; January, 1857, P. 
Slevin; July. 1857, D. Greenlee; January, i s -7\. 
Joseph Ralston; July, 1858, Charles B. Kline; Jan- 
oary, 1859, C. W. Evans; July. 1859, F. "W. Graper; 
January, i860, P. Kettenring; July. 1S60. Thomas 
McBride; January, IS61, D. M. Marcellus; July, 
1861, J. D. Graper; January. 1862, G. P. Ro- 
gers; July, 1862, S. K. Hudson; January, 1S63, 
Henry Mai ly; July, 1863. J. F. Dcatrick; January. 
1864, John Ruhl; July. 1864, J. P. Buffington; Jan- 
uary, 1865, Thomas McBride; July. 1865, J. F. Bow- 
man; January, 1866, 15. B. Woodeox: July. 1866, P 
W. Dunn; January, 1867, Enos Blair: July. l s 7 7. 
E. H. Gleason; January, 1868, Joseph Ralston: July, 
1868, J. D. Kirk; January, 1869 F. It Ensign; 
July. 1869, J. F Deatrick; January, 1 870, John Roe- 
del; July. 1870, William D Hill; January. 1871, J. 
O. Heatley; July. 1871, F. Wolfram; January. 1S72. 
John Houtz; July. 1872, John H. Kiser; January, 
1ST?., G. L. Myers; July, 1873, H. B. Hall; January, 
1874, V. G. Blaokman; July, 1874, E. W. Downs; 
January, 1875, (J. L. Myers; July, l s 7o. J. I. Miller; 
January. l s 7(>, B. F. Switzer; July. 1876, A. Viers; 
January, i S 7 7 . A. J. Brown; July, 1877, C. H. Liud- 
enberger; January, 1878. C. Pfister; July, 1 S 7 S , E 
\. Lewis: January. 1879, Phillip Kells; July. ] V -T-'. 
William H. Miller; January. IS80, F. H. B. Co- 
lumbia; July. 18S0, J. L Levy; January, 1881, O. A. 
Friek; July, 1881. Geoi'ge Miller; January, l xv '_'. 
William J. Warnieke; July, 1882, A. Viers; January, 
! vS ->, John Theine; July, 1883, James Corbin. 


This Encampment was instituted Jul) 16, 1862. 
Its charter members were Joseph Ralston, F. W. 
Graper, H. B. Hall; J. D. Graper. J. W. Phillips and 
M. Houtz. Its membership i> small, being only 
twenty-two, and almost all it- older members have 
passed the chair anil are entitl •<! to P. C P. hon >rs 
Its night of meeting is the hrst and third Tuesdays 
of each month. 

Its present officers are J. A Ketchell. C. P. ; George 

ck, S. \\ : C. Pfister, J. W.; F. A. B. Lane, H. I' . 
J. D Graper. <;.; P. Switzer, Treas ; C H. Linden 
berger. Scribe. 


On the evening of January I' 1 . 1875, the follow 
ing gentlemen met in the lodjie room of the Sons of 
Temperance in Peterson's block, for the purpose of 
organizing a lodge of Knights of Honor of the' 
World Elmer White. W. G. Blymyer, John F. Dea- 
trick. -John B. Hootman, John H Conkle, G< 
W Beehel, J. P. Buffington, Charles E. Slocum, 
Frank Kahlo, Lake E. Myers, Charles I" Switzer, A. 
M. Shead, L. W. Richardson, R. Brown, A. Baiun. 
Charles B. Squire. Henry Crosby, L. E. Crandall. 
James p. Crandall and Henry Kuiii. A ballot was 
then taken to ascertain if all the gentlemen present 
were willing to become members and was found ileal 
Dr. A. E. Keys, of Mansfield, Ohio., acting as Deputy 
Grand Dictator, instituted Defiance Lodge, No. 71. K. 
of H. and installed the following officers: Past Die 
' or, J. F. Deatrick; Dictator, Elmer White: Vice 
Dictator, J. P. Buffington; Assistant Dictator, A M. 
Shead; Guide, John B. Hootman; Reporter, L. E 
Crandall: Finance Reporter, Lake E. Myers; rreastir 
er. George A. Beehel; Sentinel. I.. F. Switzer. 

The Knights of Jrlonor is a corporation formed to 
promote beuovolence. morality, science and industry. 
The object is to unite all white men between the age 
of twenty one and fifty-five years in "Tie com 
brotherhood, for mutual protect ii a both iu life and at 
death — in life to assist each other to obtain employ- 
ment; in death, to assist the widows and orphan- In, 
establishing a fund of §2,000, payable to a brother's 
family, or as he may direct at his death. 

The lodge has gradually increased until it has a 
membership of forty- live members. Its present offi- 
cers at this dare (March III, l^ s li areas follows: 
Past Dictator, P. Dickman; Dictator, J. P. Parlee; 
Vice Dictator, A. B. Woodruff; Assistant Dictator. T. 
J. Rose; Reporter. J. F. Crandall; Financial Re- 
porter, A. Viers; Treasurer, R. Brown. 

They meet >ec 1 and fourth Monday of each 
month in their nicely furnished rooms in what is 
kno'.'ii as the -' me front Flickingor and Weisenber- 
ger Block, and on third door over Flickinger ^v 
Blair's dry goods store. The societj is in a flourish 
ing condition and i^ prompt Id meeting ail its de- 


Defiance Couucil, No. 07. Royal Arcanum, was 
instituted at Defiance, <)!,:,.. on the 28th day of 
March. A. D. 1878, by P. (.. T.-ople, D. G. It., with 
forr.) live charter members and the following - -Hi 
cers: Elmer White, Rngout; M ii. Orcutt, Vice Re 


1- . 

gent; 1" <1 Brown. Orator; Joseph Ralston, Past R< 
gent; J. J Jarvis, Secretary: George W. Deatrick, I ii- 
Iector; J. 1'. Ottley, Treasurer; finos Blair, Chaplain; 
Fihnoro Switzer, Guide; Peter Dickraan, Warden; 
R. C. Fisher, Sentry. 

Since that rime there have been no deaths in this 
Council, but some of the members have dropped their 
connection with the organization. The present num 
ber is forty-one. The Council elects officers twice a 
year, and now has the following officers: F. 1. 
Shead, Regent; E. P. Hooker, Vice Regent; 
F. G. Brown, Orator: J. I. Levy. Past Regent; 
Enos Blair, Secretary: Thomas T, Hilton, C Elector; 
William Kehnast, Treasurer; P. Dickmau, Chaplain; 
John H. Kiser, Guide; G. Brown, Warden: A. V'iers, 

The object nf the order is Life insurance, with sick 
benefits and social improvements, the insurance-feat- 
ure is purely mutual", and the fund is raised by as- 
sessments by members, according to age at adi li q 

in such a manner thai one assessment is always in the 
hands of the Treasurer as near as can be i iued. 
The total number of members is 27,1)00. The order 
has the usual amount of unwritten work. 


port Defiance Council American Legion of Honor 
was instituted March 2o. 1881, by P. L. Teeple, D. G, 
commander, with sixty-eight charter members and 
served by the following officers: Commander, Elmer 
White; Vice Commander. H. U. Harris; Past Com- 
mander, Hon. W. D. Hill; Orator. Walter Hill: Sec 
retary, M. E. Orcutt; Collector. Charles J. Chene- 
vert: Guide, J. P. Cameron: Chaplain, R. H. Glea- 
son: Treasurer. W. Curtis Hoi gate: Warden, Frank 
Ferguson; Sentry. George Miller. The society has 
for its object mutual, social, sick and funeral benefits. 
To pay the benefits, assessments are levied upon the 
members according to sige and amount of benefit" 
they expect to receive. The plan of assessment is 
the same as Royal Arcanum. Meetings are held 
tri -monthly. While the society is yet young, it is in 
a vigorous and healthy condition. 

The present officers are J. W. Childs. Com- 
mander; Walter Hilton, Vice Commander; L. P.. 
Beardsley, Past Commander; S. F. Cheney. Orator: 
J. W. Strattou, Secretary; W. K. Moll. Collector; 
Theodore Ensign, Guide; Thomas Hilton. Treasurer: 
H. W. Myers, Warder; and Henry Brichbill, Sentry. 

C K OF A. 

Catholic Knights of America, St. John the Evan- 
gelist's branch, No. i 12, at Defiance, Ohio. 

The objeel ol this society is mutual life insurance 
A corresponding charter was granted b\ the society's 

Supreme Council, on July 5, 1880. Membership 
thirty. The present officers are: Rev. •!. B. L'oim 
Spiritual Director and President; Albin Bauer, Via 
President: J. M i lorfer, Recording Secretary; 

•J. P. Weismantle, Finance Secretary; Dr. A. 
Bechtold. Treasurer. 



This society was organized in May. 1ST"' Its ob- 
ject is pureh benevolent Assistance and help are to 
be rendi red .luring the sickness of each member. In 
i -.• of death the society will attend the funeral serv- 
ice and give a moderate support to the widow of the 
departed brother. 

J. M. Preisendorfer is President; John Deihl; 
Secretary: C Diehl, Treasurer. 


Auglaize Grange, No. B71, P. of If.. was organ 
ized January 11. 1S74. with the following members: 
William Phillips and wife, V J. Dils and wife, Joshua 
Dicus and wife, Michael Humbert and wife, A. B. V. 
Sponsler and wife. M. C. I 1 i and wife. J. P. Gar- 
man and wife, S V\ Carpenter and wife, Henry 
Schoonover. Levis Sitterly, R. F. Romine, H. S. Vari- 
vlerah, Lovina Sandoz, Amos Sandoz, Job English 
and wife. J. IT. Morris and wife, Noah Devault. J. 
A. Phillips, Maria Vanvlerah, Isabel Schoonover, 
Sarah Sch . S. M. Shirley and wife. 0-. P. 

Graham a:; 1 wife, Christ! ; her Rose. Rachel Phillips 
and Sarah Rose. The following is a list of the first 
officers: William Phillips, Worthy Master; A. J. 

Dils, Over r; Henrj Schoonover, Lecturer; Michael 

Humbert, Stewart; Joshua Dicus, Chaplain; J. F. 
Garman, Preasurer; it. S. Vanvlerah Secretary; S. 
W. Carpenter. Assistant Steward; Lewis Sitterly: 
Gate-keeper; Ceres. Nancy I>ils; Pomona, Isabel 
Schoonover: Flora. Rachel Phillips; Lady Assistant 
Steward. Sarah Schoonover. The first member in- 
itiated after its organization was Hon. John Taylor. 
who, although past eighty-one years of age, t- still a 
zealous w-orkrr for the good of the order. Since then, 
there have been sixty two members enrolled. Four 
have been lost by death, viz.: Smith Mead, Henry 
Weils Daniel it. Boor and Mrs. Alice Morris. 
Meetings are held every fortnight at Grange Hall, 
Section 10, wh re su] ply of goods such as gro 
ceries are kept Eor the accommodation of the members 
The condition of the Grange i- good, both financially 
and socially, and it is ag in numbers, elev «n 

beiugi i ated the past j ear. I : foil vi a list of 

the officers elected for IS81: David MeCallister, 
Worthy Master; J H. Morris, Overseer; IS. iv. Morris, 
Lecturer; John McCallister, Steward; J im< - H Mor 



ris, Assistant Stew aril; Samuel Phillips, Chaplain; 
J. F. Gannan, T easurer; H. S Vanvlerah, Secretary; 
Gatekeeper, S. \V. Morris; Mrs. B. F. English, 
Ceres; Mrs E. .v. Allen. Pomona; Mrs. II. K Mor- 
ris, Flora; Miss Rachel Phillips, Stewardess. 

BISHOP POST, SO. 22, G. A. R. 

The organization, called the Grand Arm) of the Re 
public, wa> instituted in the citj i >f Indianapolis, Ind., 
November 'Jn. 18*30, to supplement solidify, and 
perpetuate the results of the great war of the n - 
ion. For fourteen yoars this order lias been work- 
ing diligently and increasing in number and power 
and is now composed of one National Encampment, 
thirty Department Encampments and over one thou 
sand subordinate Posts throughout the United State-. 
embracing nearly every State and Territory in the Un- 
ion, and having an enrollment of over one hundred 
thousand good and true men, some of whom occupy po- 
sitions i if tl);- highest trust and emolument in the coun- 
cils of the nation and States. In this organic element 
by their existing laws, no political question can be pre- 
sented or discussed, no man's political views or ten 
dencies are ever cpiestioned, and all that is ev«r re- 
quired of him is that he should Lave served the coun- 
try faithfnlh when she called for his service and re- 
ceived an honorable discharge, and that he now atlirui> 
his loyaltj to the flag, the constitution and the laws 
of the United States, and now has ct of his 

fellow-men In the same manner and with equal vig- 
or are all questions of religi a- nature eschew ■ I, i nl ; 
reserving the belief in and reverence for the great 
God who made all the worlds anil all things therein 
and the priceless golden rule. Theworkings of this 
order are truly and purely social, humanitarian and 
military, the objects being set forth in the rules and 
regulations of the order and are as follows: 

1st. To preserve and strengthen th"-e kind and fra- 
ternal feelings which bind together the soldiers, 
sailors and mariners who united to .suppress the 1 e 
rebellion and to perpetuate the memory and history 
of the dead. 2d. To ,"--i- r such former comrades in 

anus as n 1 help and protection and to extend the 

needful aid to the widows and orphans of those who 
have fallen. 

3d. To maintain true allegiance to the United 
States of America based upon the paramount resp ;ct 
for and fidelity to the National Con titution and laws 
and to discountenance whatever tends to weaken lov- 
alty or to incite insurrection, treason or rebellion, or 
in any manner impair the efficiency and perman 
of our free institutions, and to enc mrage the spread 
of our universal liberty and equal rights and justice 
to all men. 

The soldiers, sailors and marines <>f Defiance 

ntj who nrvivod tin - i of war realiz- 

ing the importance and propriety of such an or 

on thai would bring them together iu soc 
reunion and cultivate a more fraternal feeling, and 
through which the hallowed memory of those who 
had fallen by their side might be kept for 
ever green, and that it would enable them to 
assist each other in time of need, and aid the help 
le - widow-, and orphans of their late comrades, pro 
ceeded to organize a Post at Detianco, an i some time 
in the mo b ranuary, 1879, wrote to the depart- 
ment headquarters, then at Toledo, Ohio, and obtained 
the necessary blanks for the purpose of forming a 

Post, and a:ter obtaining tin required names of 

rades in good standing and having forwarded the 
same tu the Assistant Adjutant < reneral of the Depart 
ment of Ohio Grand Army of the Republic, the de- 
partment commander granted a charter on the 8th 
day of July, and detailed Comrade Cecil A. Hall, of 
Forsythe Post No. 15, of Toledo, Ohio, and ordered 
him to proceed to Defiance and muster the ap- 
I lici tits whose names were signed to the petition for 
sion to the ranks of the Grand Army of the Re 
public, and on the 1 1th .lay of July. l s 7'.i, Comrade 
1 ecil A. Hall, special mustering officer, accompanied 
by Henry S. Bunker, Assistant Adjutant General of 
the Department of the Ohio Grand Army of the K ■ 
public, cann to Defiau . and the following comrades 
were mustered into the Gran i \j iy of the Republic, 
it: William E. Carpenter, L. W. Richardson, 
Alb rt W. Kin rge IF oker, Frank C. Cnlley, 

George W. Ivilley. VV". S. Hoffard. Solomon Deamer. 
A. B. Woodruff, William H Ralst m, John E Rich- 
irdson, Franklin Duck, George Olinger, B. B. Wood- 
cox, Luther IF !. Beurj Kuhl, B. F. South- 
worth, Robert Cary, Frederick Conrad, George i'. 
SijuireH, William \ a In vs. W. S. McClary, all of 
whom thereby b came the chart* r d ail -rs of Bishi p 
E'ost. No. 22, of Defiance Department of Ohio Grand 
Army of the Republic. Immediately after being 
mustered into the order, the} proceeded to the elec 

f officers, and the following were the officers 

duly electi d, appointed and installed in their respect- 
ive offices for the r< n it ler of the y< ar of 1870: 

Commander f Post, William F.. Carpenter; 
Senior Vice Coi aandcr, B. F. Southworth-; dun 
ior Vice Commander, Geoi ;i !' Squires; Surgeon, 
VVillia a Rals on, SI. D. : I I. ither U. Rob 

ersob; Quartermaster, A. W i\,a_r; Adjutaut, Frank 
( '. Cnlley; Officer of the Day, Henry Kuhl; Officer of 
the Guard, B. ii Woodcox; - mi Major, George 
. er; Quarter master Sergeant, L. W. Richards 
!\ i ye r, the Post received several additi >nal 
i bers, and at it- el >se the Post had an enrolled 
membership of thirty seven comrades. 

nu: '- 





1, Jr^Z^rUrtyi^tJ^ 






• ; 







V vjja^* ■ r£ .■'//>-, 



,fe^' ^%g^ 


! <5 

At the annual election held al the close of tliis 
year, li • • following were elected, appointed and 
properly installed as the officers of this Post for the 
year .if L880: 

Commander of Post, William K Carpe I 
Senior Vice Commauder, A. I:'. Woodruff; Junioi Vice 
Commander, John Widmer; Senior Surgeon of i' - . 
Wiliam H. Kalston, M. I). : Chaplain, Luther H. 
Roberson; Quartermaster, A. \Y. King; Adjutant, 
George Hooker; Officer of the Day, Henn Kuhl; Offi- 
cer of the Guard. Solom. i) Deamer; Sergeant Major, 
J. O. Foot; Quartermaster Sergeant. L. W. Rich- 
ardson. M. li. Stevens, M. D., and John Richolt 
were selected this year on Mm staff of the Department 
Commander D. \V. Thomas, of Akron, Ohio, the for- 
mer as Aido-de-Ca up and the latter as Assistant In- 
spector. George \V. Killey, of this Post, was elected 
a member of the Couucil of Administration at the 
department encampment held at Cleveland, Ohio, in 
that year. In this year the Post lost one member by 
death -Comrade Thomas B Wade, who departed from 
earth to join the grand army above During the year, 
Large ac ons were made to the order, and at the 
close of this year (18S0) the Post then numbered 
seventy- two members in good standing in the 

At the next annual election held in December, 
1880, the following comrades were elected, appointed 
and properly installed as officers oi this Post for the 
year 1881, and were installed in their respective 
office- by George W. Killey, special mustering 

Commander of Post, A. B. Woodruff; Senior Vice 
Commander. Franklin Duck; Junior Vice Comman- 
der, Henry Kuhl: Surgeon, M. B. Stevens, M. D. : 
Chaplain, Luther H. Robinson; Quartermaster. A. 
W. King; Adjutant. George Hooker; Officer of the 
Day. Solomon Dearner; Officer of the Guard, Werner 
Wrede; Sergeant Major, Baxter Davis: Quartermas- 
ter Sergeant, L. W. Richardson. Comrades Frank 
C. Culley and John Richolt were appointed this year 
upon the staff of John S. Kountz, Department Com- 
mander, the fori n t as Aide-de Camp and tic latter 
as Assistant Inspector. Comrade William E. Car 
penter of this Post was appoiuted Assistant Quarter- 
master General of the Department of Ohio, for the 
year of 1881. This Post was named after Capt. 
William Bishop, Company D. One Hundredth Regi- 
ment Ohio Volunteer Infantry, who was mortally 
wounded in battle at Pumpkin Vine Creek, Ga., May 
28, 1804, and died June 13 isO-i. He proved him- 
self a brave and efficient officer, and was much es- 
teemed by all that know him. He was formerly a 
resident of Defiance, Ohio. 

or rge C Upi is, Companj G, 1st Connecticut Artillery, e. De- 
lis. Si ptemher 25, i !■ > 
J:um^ K. A my G, iidth Ohio Volunteer Infantry e 

i u in ■_'. is.;, ^is. July 7. I - 1 
William Andrews, Company C 22d Uiehigau Infantry, e .hay 1, 

lsi;-j, di.->. June 20, ] i i 
|[enry Balske, Company C, 71st Ohio Volunteer Infantry, e l)c 

; 5, 1S01, ilis. December 0, 1865. 
Joseph 13 i 1, Company E, llltb Ohio Volunteer Infantry, e Au- 
gust 22, 1 M i J , .lis. June 27, 1865. 
I.. E. Be ir i-ley, ' Company A, 1 lih Ohio Volunteer Infantry, c. Au- 

_ isl 18, 1801, dis. November I s Is,.;. 
First Lieut. J. II. Blackmore, Company E, 124th Illinois Infantry, 

■■ Api ; : 15, IS ■-. ilis August 25, lSii t 
frank Blesser, Company l\, 134th New Vork Infantry, e. July 15, 

1802, li« in e : i ' 
John Boyd, Com] my 1, 3d Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, e, \ v.tuber 

3, t^ 1 '. !, lis. August 4,1- i 
John Bi ■ Snj B, li th Ohio National Guards, e. May 

•J. 180 i. di September 4. 1804. 
George Butler, C mpany A. 25th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, e. 

larcl 11, 1864, lis U irch 31, 1867. 
.lol.n Butlei Company F, 4 8th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, e. De- 
bet I ■ -1 lis luly 1 '. 1805. 
lii i _ ■ ■ ' . i[ >:.-. ■ ' ■ • j i Ohio Vol teei Infantry, e - 

tembcr - I, 1- il, dis. July 15, 18 5 

E. Carpenter, Company F, 48th Ohio Volunteer 

Infantry, e. November 2, IsO!, dis. May 2 I, 1866. 
sergeant 1'komas K. C rrol, Company U, 103d Ohio National 

■ i. e. M ty '.'. I 80 I, Us Seplcmb t 1". 1 36 1. 
Robert Cary, i i mg m; '],;,, Volunteer infantry, e. July 

-, is. .'j , - October 13, 1804. 
Olho i oilier. Company !), 100th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, e. July 

1?. 1802, dis. Jum 18, I860. 
Frederick Conrad, Company K. 25th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, e. 

January 22, 1804, dis. May 26, 1305. 
Cabiu-boy James Conway, t ni e St lies Iteg. ship., e. February, 

.' 1864, -iis. May 12, 18l "• 
William Co iper, Company F, 68th ' >hio Volunteer InfanU-y, e. I'e" 

cember 8, 186 I, dis. July 10, 1805. 
Sergeant James F. I ran lall, Company A, 52 1 Ohio Volunteer In 

. try, •■ August 15. 1861, dis. December 25 i 363. 
David Creek, Company li, 14th Ohio Vulunteer Infantry, e. Sep 

tember 12, 1S61, lis. July 11 1865. 
Lyman Critclineld, I mipany K, 21st Ohio Volunteer Infantry, c. 

Ipril 12, i- • :. dis J U n< 3, it ■ 
F. 0. Culley, Company F, 8th Ohio Volunteer Infantry e May 

is :. dis. February 1803. 
Sergeant H txter Dai is I ' tmpany I. 2d I Ihio Volunteer Cavalry, e 

Deceml er 12, 1" 12, dis. October •>. 180 ■ 
John Davis, Company i), 100th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, <- J.-:y 
10, IS 12, lis. M ty 2 >. 1 -,':. 

..... r, I d ; any D I 10th Ohio Volunteer lu- 
fantry e, April -..:■■; dis. luue 2 3i i 

■ 1 ■■ : . i I02d Ohio Volunteer 

, fan try, >. 31 , I - • o, 1 805. 

Feter Dicki m, ( mipan A, United States Marines, e. August 13, 

1802, lis .I.e. - iry 18, \-' 
Franklin l>u -..'' mpany D, ItiOth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, e. 
July 20, 1802. lis. June Jo, 1 jji '. 

1 ] . i . > |>a:sy 1, 17tb Ohio Volunteer Infantry, e 
August 1 1 i '■'■:: dis July 1, 1 1 



Sergeant Orlando D) trm in, C mipany E, Veteran Reserve Corps, 
e. April IB, 180! dis. .Jure 4, ISO t. 

Corporal F. En n,( i | iny C, 1 28th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 
e. .!..;. I, 1803, dis. hily i t, 1865. 

Lewis i ii. Com] iny F. 48th Ohio Volunteer infantry, e. Feb- 
ruary 15, 1862, Jis. < October 17.1- 

Sergeant John B. Fisher, Company C, 8th Ohio Volunteer! lavalry, 
e. January 5, 1864, (lis July 30, 1S65, 

John O. Fisher, Company K, 31st Illinois Volunteer Infantry, e. 
Septeml 30, 1804, Ii May 31, 1805. 

Sergeant Roliin Fisher, Company LI, McLaughlin Ohio Volunteer 
Cavalry, e. November 10, 181 1, Jis. .lime 7. 1865. 

Second Lieut. Johns n i il ' npauy F, lllih Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry, e. August, 1- 12, di: June, 1805. 

William H. Francisco,*-' ni] ... F, 148th New York Volunteerlu- 
fantry, e August - K 1802, dis, June 17. I 

Henry Generick, Company G, 38th Ohio Veteran Volunteer In- 
fantry, e September il, 1861, li Jul 

Davi 1 (lie)- m. Com] my D. 14th Ohio Veteran Volunteer In- 
fantry, e. April 16, 1801, 'li*. .Inly 16, . 

Paul E. L. Hager, Company G, Vereran Reserve C irps, e. July 28, 
1862,dis 1865. 

Corporal J. 1. Hale, Company K, -4th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, e. 

April 19, 1861, Jis. March 12, 1-''. !. 
Hiraru II i'i k, Company F. !8thO i \ eteran Volunteer infantry 
e. Febru iry 10, 1804. Ii- July 12, 1 505 

Michael J. Hawk, i ompany i, 78tl Ohii lunteer Infantry, e. 
Oi I er 18, 1804, lis. June 12, 1S65. 

Capt. 1!. F. VV. Hawkins, Cuinpany II, I32d( Ihio N itional Guards, 
e. May 2, 1864, dis. September 24, 1864 

Corporal James IV. Henderson, Company G,- 38th Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry, e. September 7. 1861, dis. July 12, 1865. 

George Hooker Company II, 1st Ohio Volunteer Liirlit Artillery, 
e. August ■". 1802, .Ii-. June 11. ■ ■ 

Wilson S. Hull i 1. Coini, any li. 100th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, e. 
August 4. 1862, <l : s. June 25, 1- i 

Lewis Jay nes, Company B, -,i. Ohio Volunteer Infantry, e. Oc- 
tober, 1802, dis. December 9. 1865 

Conrad Kale Company K. 3d Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, e. 1'ecem- 
her 12, 1 »03, dis, Uigust 14, 1805. 

George VV. Kiliey, Company F, 9th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, e. 
February 10. IS04, di3. July 18, 1865. 

Corporal Albert VV. King, Company D, 100th Ohio Volunteer In- 
fantry, e. July 17. 1862, dis. May 20. 1865 

i harlea Klinefelter, i inipany A, llMb Illinois Volunteer Infant- 
ry, e February 4, 1805, li- - 

Samuel VV, K sier. Company B, 2d In liana Volunteer Light Ar- 
tillery , e. August .0. 1801. dis. October 12, 1865, 

William A. Kraft, Company B, 68lh Ohio Volunteer Infantry, e. 
February 20, 1804, Jis. July 10, 1805 

Henry Kuhl, ' impaiiy li, 1 9th Ohi i Volunteer Infantry, e A| ril 
•J4, 1801, dis. August 28, 1861. 

Sergeant E. N Lewis 1st Indiana Battery, e. October 22, 1861, 
dis. February 29, 1864. 

John Lewi - 

F. A. B. Lowe. C mipany K, 12th Massachusetts Infantry, e M t; 
9, 1861, dis. March 16 ISO-",. 

t'orj il li, 1 ];. Mallett, Company E, ISOth Ohio Satir-i , 

Hoar ■!-. e. May '_' 1864, dis. September, 18( I 

Isaac Masden, Company G, 1 03d Ohio National Guards, e. May 2. 
i - l. oi- Sept uber 10, 1804, 

Henry Miller, < nmpany G, 38rii Ohio Volunteer Infantry, e. Jan- 
uary L9. 1801 dis. July 12, 1865. 

John I Miller,!.' uipanyG, - h Ohio Volunteer Infantry,* Jan 
nary 'J' 1 1804, Jis. A) ril 20, ! -■.) 

1 ■ - mpany F, 9th Uhio Volunteer Cavalry, e. 

IL a-, luber I ".. 1 -•'■ I, ii-. July 15, 1 - 
William M r, 16th Ohi i Batti ry e \ ;usl 10, 1861 

21, 1802. 
William S McCIarj Company C. 99th Ohio V dunteer Infat rj 

■ \ . -, : i. 1802, 'li-. June 20, 1805. 
Corporal David McCollister, Company ii. -1st Ohio Volunteer In 

fantry, e. August 23, 1862, dis. July 13, 1865. 
John O McNah .. F, L29th Indiana Volunteer Infantry, 

e. July 11. 1-'. I, Ji Vu ;ust 29, 1865 
David Navcau, Companj li 130th uhio National Guards, e May 

2, 1804, dis. Septetnhi r 23, 1864. 
Lester Newton. Company K, 1 69th Ohio National Guards, e. May 

•J. 1804, dis. September 4. 1864 

rgc Ollinger Com] >ny l?, 100th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, e. 

\ :;■- isl 5, 181 di M i.. !0, 1805. 
lir.-t Lieut. William Palmer Company [5,1 - li Ohio Volunteer In- 
fantry, e. April 10, I8i I di Jul . 10, 1805, 
Corporal George I'aiuee. Com pan} li. 14th Ohio Volunteer In- 

fanlry, e August 21, 1861, Jis. August 1, 1865. 
Corporal Joseph Partee, Company !■'. I8th Ohio Volunteer In- 

fantry, e. November 17. 1861, dis. May 9, I860 
Corporal O. l '. . Pavtce I unpauy F, I8lh Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 

e. November 9, 1801, dis. December 2, 1864. 
Corporal . Company F, l"ntU uhio National 

Guards, e M ly 2 IS it, dis. Sep I er 22, 1864. 

William Hi nry llils , I n . inj K Ohi V ilnot i In 

fantry, - Vpril 24, 1861, dis August 1'.', I--' 
Capt. David Ren ton, Company G, ISth Ohio Volunteer Infantry. 

e. August, 1861, di-. July. 1805. 
George N Rice, Company H, S2d Ohi \ • • < r Infantry, . No- 
vember 22, 1801, lis January 2, 1805. 
Serjeant John I 7 .. Richards. >n. Company F L 48lhOhio Volunteer 

Infantry, e. Octoher 26, 1801. lis January 7, 1865 
Second Lieut. '.. VV. Richardson. Company <•. 08th Ohii 

teer Infantry, e. Apt 19, 1801 lis. January 12 l w ' ' 
S ; gcant John Richholt, C j '■ 2d Ohio Vo'.'tn'eer Cavalry 

e. November 14. IS02, Jis. May 12, I - 
Corporal Simon Ridennour. Conipany C, 1- Id Ohio Volunteer In- 
fantry, e. Sovcm er 1!. 1803, lis. luly I", IS05. 
Luther H. Roberson, Company I'. ' -th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 

e. April 24, 1- il, .ii-. Jul) 10, 186 
James Romine, Company K. 25th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, e. 

September 12, 18 I dis. July 15, 1 365 
Henry Rothenberger Company G, 38th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 

e February I, 1804, dis. July 12, 1865 
John S'chuernian, Company hi. '.'th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, e. 

May 27, 1801, dis. July 11 1864. 
I'riih Sha-teen, Company D, 100th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, e. 

July 29, [802, dis. June 20, I s ' ■ V 
Stephen M. Shirley. Company If, 25th Ohio Volutiteer Infantry, 

■• September 12, 1*04, lis August 1"'. 1865. 
Benjamin Slmpp, (ompany i 1st Michigan Infantry, e. Septem 

tier':. I- dis, Noveni er 9, 1805. 
Sergeant Peter Si eren Company B, t'8th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 

e. Apt ■ - - I dis. July 10, 1805. 
Henry Smick. Company O, R81I1 Ohio Volunteer Infantry, e. July 

15, >• 1, dis Jui" 1 . 1 -' " 
Sergean : - ■ ._••■ VI ^chmtdi •' [ndependanl Company, Ohio 

Volunteer Cavalry, e. July 4. ]^ t '), lis Lugu 1 '>. 1862. 
William L, Soals, , nj II. Sth Ohio • ui I er Inl ntj •. • 

Vpril, 1 Inn i 805 

Major I! njauiin F. South worth, II lib Ohio Volunteer Infantry, e. 

August •■. 1' 02, dis June 21, 1S05 
( ;.'.o ge X >iu ii' - 



I'!.,.,! Rlepbeni, Company G 'Alh Ohio Volunteer Veteran In- 
fi\iitrj , ■• Se| cm ' er I, I8HI , (lis, Julj 12, 1 

Corporal M !'• Stevens, Company I.. Huh Sew V'ork Artillery 
December 2'.>, I-S03, ,!i-. .lune :SO, ISiJ.i. 

James A. Sinner, Company K 1 1th Ohio \ ,lutiteer Infantry e. 
February 2K IHO-I lis Jul} 1 I, 1*0-3. 

Serjeant John W, Stoner Company I, 125th Ohio Volunteer In- 
Ihntry, e lugtisl, 1S01, ilis. M ■, " >. IKO.j. 

Christopher Snrrenner, Company C, tSi li Ohio Volunteer Infantry 
e. June 1. I -■,! , ilis. ,lunc 27, 1 -'..">. 

James \\ Townslcy, Company I' 1 -101 1 lliin - Volnn eer In- 
fantry, c lanuary It), I - ">. li '. Januarj Ifl, 1800: 

Sergeant Nathaniel V'an-lu'cn. Company K, 1 1 Ith Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry, e August II, 1*02, ilis. June 27, IH0S. 

Alvni Vanskiver, Company I- . 4-,h Ohio Volunteer Infantry, e, 
January IT, l'-',l. ilis. August >, IfC*. 

Michael Vanvlcr >h. 

Thomas I: VVarle. 

Joint Wiilmer, Company (1, SRlh Ohio V ilunteer Infantry, e, Jan- 
uary 2 I, 1 S04, ,!i" July 12, 1805. 

Daniel VV. White, Company K, ilsth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, e. 
February iT, IMJ4, Jis. July 12, 1*03. 

Sergeant Anus w . Whitiiej, Companv K. 10th C'niteJ Stales In- 
fantry, e. October 8, 1803, 'lis. Decern 1 ) r '!, 18j7. 

Musician George A. Williams. Compntij I' l^lli Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry e. October 1-'. 18' 1 'lis \pril 20 1SC6 

( lorporal J, U. Williams n, Companj 1 : 1 1 Dili ('ennsylvmia Re- 
serve Corps, e. A] ril 27, 1*01, JU. Juno |ii, 1805. 

Fian. :is M \\ ug, C./inpany C, STth Ohio Volunteer Infiuury, e. 
June 4. 1802, 'li-. i ' ttober i . 1 -'■-■ 

,lim«< Winterstein, Company B, :'.5thOhio Volunteer Infantry, e. 
1801, dis. 1804 

Secon'l Lieut. Benjamin B Woodcox, Company K. Ill t h Ohio 
V ilunteer Infantry, e. August ''. 1802. lis Mai ih, 1- >. 

A. B. W Irull", Company L, $• I Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, e. Au- 
gust 2G, l v ' J, Jis March 0, ISO I, 

llnrvoy * x : i Is, I mpany A, 25th 01 i i V lur.l ■'■<■ Infar.'ry 
October 0, 1804, li-. October 0, I805. 

John I. Woi Ion, Company 1>. 1 12il li liana Infantry, e. October 
12, 1861, lis July 1 I. IS05 

Musician Warner Wrcle, (Company K. L07th Ohio Volunteer In- 
fantry, e An_u-i '.'. 1802, (lis. .July 10, 1805. 

Sergeant Abi Vcager. Company li, lOOtii Ohio Volunteer In- 
fantry, e S pieni er I, I - lunc 20, 181)5. 

Corporal Gabriel Vcnscr, Company I, 1 I I'nhed Stales Engineers, 
e. August 21, 1801, ilis, September 20, 1805. 

John /..juk. Company G, - li Ohi Volunteer Infinity, e. Jan- 
u iry 13, 1804, lis. July 10, 1805 



St. Paul's Methodist Epis opal Church is situated on 
the corner of Third ami Wayne streets, Defiance, Ohio. 
The tir^t Methodist serrnou was preached in Defiance 
in A. I>. 1825, by Rev. Willi in Sirnmuns, of .V nia. 
Ohio. Soon after, a Rev. Mr. Weir also preached in the 
private house of Mr. i. :a\ ell one of the town proprietors, 
having among his auditors >!•■ --r- Leave!!, Wasson, 
Warren, Dr. John Evans ami William Craig. In IS26, 
Rev. Elias [VttiLUie first regularh appointed Methodist 
minister, t<„'k charge at Defiance .- « i i « I in the same year 
organized a small society, who built a lug church on the 

lot now occupied bj the parsonage Tlie names of the 
first members eannol now : -,' found. 

In 183-1, the first Sunday school was organized with 
officers and teachers and twen i liolars. In 

I SI 1, a board of trustee oi mizi I, onsisting of J 

li. Seamans, Thomas Warren, Joseph Taylor, Ja 
Ward and Nathan Shirley. June 20, 1841, a new board 
of church trustees was created, consisting of J. B. Sea- 
mans, Thomas Warren, James Ward. Isaac Craig anil 
Nathan Shirley, who were instructed to erect a new 
church, the contract for the building of which the\ lei 
to J. B. Seamans, of Defianee, at $1,050. The church 
record goes back to 1S32, ami gives the following dates 
and ministers on ! leOance t lircuit : 

1832 antl 1833 — William Sprague. 

1834— Jacob Marti n and John W. Cooley. 

Deliance ( lircuit consisted ol elev n | n aching phi ■ - 
as follows: Deliance, Perkins, Bowens, Riehardsons, 
Coys. Hamiltons, Runyans, Banks, Quicks, Snooks and 
Shirleys; with but one log church which was in Defiance 
on the lot now occupied by the parsonage. 

1835 — Peter Sharp and Wesley Brock. 

1S30 — Mclvendrc< Tlirop and Austin Coleman. 

1837 — Sanford C Parker and Adam Minnis, 

I--;- S:i i ford C Parker and Bulla IT. Chub. 

1839— J S. Saxby and W. II Culiius. 

1840— Ebenezer R. Hill. 

1841 and 1842 — John Brakefield and Silas l> Sey- 
mor« . 

1843 — Richard Biggs and John S Kalb. 

1844 — John McNabb and C. -Johnson. 

1815— T. M. Morrow. 

1S4G — \v. W. Winter and N friinn. 

1847— W. S. Lunt and J M. V\ ilson. 

1848— Samuel Fairchild and T. L Wait, 

1S49— IK-nrv Chapmi n and IX W, Ockor. 

1 850 — -Benjamin Herbert and J. S. Cutler. 

1S51 — Benjamin Herl erl md F. W. Vestican. 

1S52 and 1853 — Thomas Parker and John Froun 

1S54 — James S. Albright and V. G-, Longsworth 

1855 and IS5G— Jacob F, Bnrkholder. 

In 1857, Di fiance was madea station and R'?v. A. B. 
Poo appointed pastor, and the foil ivving ministers have 
since served the church: Jacob Fetgley, S. 11. Aldei 
man, S. 3, Barter, D. G. Strong, T. C. Reed, A. Berry, ir. 
i.eos,'. A. J. F;sh, x . I.. Roberts. In the sprit . 
1871 the present brick church was commenced ami 
completed in 1873. at a cosl of m irlj $25,000. 

The society now numbers 310 members : the Sttmlav 
school, 400 scholars officers and ! 'hers forty. .1. P. 
Butliugkm, Superintendent : C. Brunsori Secretary. The 
r, cords of i!i • elm: ^l show ' ing as official 

members: Rev. C. Weaner. Rev i; r' Droraer, Rev. 
f>. Tii'deman. J. A. Orcutt, •). P. Burrin : n ; ' Ke 
ing. T. D. Harris. B. F. Aldrit li B. F. South ori li. E 
i: ■■•'-.:, >\ . t E. Bronson.J. il Wliittakcr. J. W. Cbih 



Mr. Skultz, R. If Gleason, II Powell, E R. Maltet 
I). Lehman, -I. 1!. Clrieh, A. F. [larley, Quincy Fair- 
banks, J. Stoncr, A. Finch, Rev I! Henderson. I'. E. 
Samuel L. Roberts, present pastor, June, ! v <'.. 


The first movement toward the organization of a 
Presbyterian Church in Defiance was made on the lmh 
day of August, IS37. A public meeting was called on 
that day for the purpose of forming an Ecclesiastical 
Society. Mr. X. I!. Adams was called to the chair and 
Dr. Jonas Colby appointed Secretary. After the notici 
of the meeting was read, ii was resolved that a com- 
mittee of three persons be appointed to form a consti- 
tution for said society. 

The committee consisted of Dr. George W. Craw- 
ford, Benjamin Bru backer and << C. Mudgett. 

Mr. Pierce Brans, John \V. Moore and N B. Adams 
were appointed a committee to draw a subscription 
paper, and ascertain how much can be secured for the 
support of a Presbyterian or Congregational preachei 

It was also voted that the above committee confer 
with Rev. William U. Stow.' and ascertain on what - on 
ditions he may be had as pastor of this society. This 
meeting then adjourned to meet August 19, at 3 
o'clock P. M. 

It does not seem that any thing was done in the wet- 
ter of organizing the church which was made a matter 
of record until November 9, when a meeting was held 
by Rev. William I!. Stowe and the names oi a number 
of persons were obtained who were willing to unite in 
the organization of a Presbyterian Church. 

On the 11th day of December 1S37, the church was 
formally organized by the adoption of the Presbyterian 
form of government and the election of Elders. 

The following persons are the original members: 
Mr. N. B. Adams, Sir Curtis li ilgate, Mr. John Whitney. 
Dr. Jerome Allen, Mr. (afterward Doctor) Oramel 
II. Allen. Mr. Sereno Lyman, Mrs. Mary Adams. 
Mrs. Eliza Holgate, Mrs. Ruth Whitney. Mrs. Sarah 
LewU. Mrs Phcbe Alien. Mrs. Eliza Bru backer. Mrs. 
Abijah Thrall, Mrs. Almira F. Moore, Misses Juliette 
Holgate, Betsy A. Daggett ami Miss Eunice Daggetl 
Mrs, Hannah Goodyear and Mrs Parker. Mr. Nathaniel 
B. Adams and Mr. Curtis Holgate were chosen Elders, 
and Mr. Sereno Lyman was chosen Clerk. 

Religious services were first held in tii irl house, 

the first brick building built in the town, which is still 
standing on Lot 58 the ."> i ; iceut to the one 
now occupied by our present h< use of ivorship, and is 
usCd as a dwelling house by Henry Hardy, Esq a; this 
time. This old court house was the place where all 
schools were kept and in which meetings of :sll kinds 
were held. It has been reudi • d hi toric from ti ■ 
thai iii ? i aboul the yea] 1-- i Morrison R. Waile. the 
present Chief Justice of the diked States, made his 
first speech before a court oi record, and we may add in 

this connection thai William C Holgate. of onreity also 
made hi-, lirsi appearance in courl in this easi 
• pppi istn i ci iiinsel. 

The ehun h was under the pastoral can 'if the Rev 
W. B. Stowe until the spring of 1839. and enjoyed 
reasonable degree of prosperity, during his pastorate a 
number of accessions being made to the church during 

this time. Mr. Stowe, o iw nl >f ill health, closed his 

labors on the :;i-i of March, 1839. January !•">. 18-10, 
Curtis Holgate Augusl 9.1843, Nathaniel B. Adams 

first two Elders departed this life. December 11, 
ism. the church invited the Rev. E. R. Tucker to be- 
come their pastor. Mr. Tucker accepted the call and 
was accordingly ordained anil installed pastoi in 
9th day of July, IS41. Mr fucker proved to be a man 
of earnest piety, and a devoted pastor. For twenty 
years he fulfilled the office to which he had been called 
with great fidelity. When he took charge of this con- 
gregation, the nearest Presbyterian < hurch was many 
miles distant, and he often had to travel fifteen or 
twenty miles on foot to attend funerals and perform 
other pastoral duties. It was through hi.- exertions, 
suppoi ted by a f i i : .. nice: ing !n >usc 

was built. While here, he declined a professorship in 
the University of Ohio at three times his salary as 
preaeher. Twenty years of toil broke down hi> consti- 
tution, and -."a. aftei la- retired to his "in home in the 
Easi and died at Newburyport, Mass.. in January, 1861. 
At tie- iiim of Mr Tucker's call h i hun h ■■■ 
weak iu means ; only from S'id '•< . j ic being rais< i 
for the support of the pastor it. the church and < - \ 
tion for s< ■•■ i I , ./ EH H i!g :b. -.vid i\v ol " lurtis 

Holgate, deceased, contributed about one-half ni this 
amount and boarded Mr. Tuekei . n married being 

a young man "1 s nue I ■•. mty-one years of age, at SI 
a week. Mr-: X. 1! Ydam- also boarded Mr. Tuckei 
about two years, at same price per we i ^ 

The congregation worshiped for some time in a 
room in a frame building known as the ''Gray Housi 
that had been used as a hotel, anil tha stood on Lot it. 
the site of he residence of the late William Carter, de- 
ce .ii. afterward, in a building on the corner of I I 
and Front, streets. This was in n iper room of a .struct 
lire then occupied as a drug si '.■ ■■ i'r U II. .Men 
; building is now used as an agricultural wareh i i e 

The limited means of the churcii al ti' ; > time was 
really not much greater, comparatively than that oi' the 
town and country in those days. There was scarcely 
any money in it. The chi I n ■-- curreui . 

'•county orders,' rated al 50 and iJ(J cents on the 
dollar; ■ canal due bills," issued by contractors then 

Id ng th i. rated al same pr for the bonds 

hi Slate were no higher; ; •• \\ ilf-sealp orders, coon 
uid d i -kins. I* was i!c< sued ■ some strange 
Mr fin k • slii u '. ^i patiently and persevei igly re- 
main and work with so suiali a pittance for a sala 
but ii h as strait ei il! thai he sh< >ul ! lia ve coui :i • I 



the idea, in the close times and under the straitened 
circumstances I refer to, of securing the lot and the 
erection of I he large ami com nodious edifice which the 
chinch now occupies But V.' Pucker -started this then 
great etiterprise for Lhe church anil - . 'ceeded in carry- 
ing it through. Il>' had a few zealous assistants; of 
these I will now name Mi-. Eliza Brubacber, Mrs. Eliza 
Holgate and Dr. II Vlli*ii. Mrs. Eliza Holgate, whoui 
we have already uu m I gave most of the lot on 
which the building is situated. Mrs. Holgate died De- 
cember 27, IS51, Two of her childi n Mrs. E.G. Wil- 
ley and Mrs. ]■], [> Hooker, are now living al Defiance, 
and members and regular attendants of the ehurch. 
The frame of this church was very heavy timber, put 
up. by David L. Oliver, deceased, one of the best of car- 
penters, who was the lirsl husband of Mrs. Moon, now 
living in our city. It stood si veral years without being 
weather-boarded. To assist Mr. Tucker in carrying 
through Ins enterprise, Mrs. Eliza Brubacher, about tins 
time, organized the tirst sewing society in the church, 
and at one of the gal herings of this society, on the com- 
pletion of a quilt, be iug asked what they were going to 

do with it, the ladies rej I, •• We are going to cover 

the ehurch with it." Some assistance was also received 
from abroad. Mr. Tucker was a man of solid attain- 
ments and earnest piety, and enjoyed the confidence of 
every one while he remained resident of Defiance. He 
resigned the pastorate iu I SCO andshortl} afterward re- 
moved to N'ewburyporl Mass., where he soon after died 
After Mr. Tuckei - death, the cl tircb was under the 
ministerial charge of llev. J. 1'. Stockton, now nf\Vr-i 
Unity, Ohio, for one year. .Mr. Stockton was succeeded 
by the present pastor, llev. IJ. W. Slagle, in August, 
1862. Mr. Slagle served as stated supply until July 
11, 16~tt, when lie received a call to become the settled 
pastor, and. accepting the call, he was rey tlail; installed 
ou the lltli of September, 1870, which position he still 
holds. Duriug the present pastorate, the church has 
grown steadily in numbers auJ has enjoyed several prec- 
ious revivals ol religion, iii one of which th< pastor was 
assisted by Rev. II. II. Wells, the result of which was 
an accession of u iout fift\ persons to the communion 
of the church 

The ehurch buildiug has undergone great modifica- 
tions- aud- improvements since it- erection, the iatest of 
which was made under ill'- supervision of Mr. I>. B. 
Tnrnbull, who constructed a recess ,; i the tear of the 
church t'ortiie reception of a fine pipe organ, built in' 
Steere & Turner, of Springtiel I, M tss This addition 
al-i> secured a st tdy for the pastor, and an infant class 
room tor the S ibbath school. The a idience room was 
also improved by the alteration- of the windows, the pa- 
pering of the ■■van- and ceiling of tin church, the intra 
duction of new seats; carpeting, and heating apj tratus. 
etc.. until thej now have t^ neat and tasteful a housi i F 
worship as they c >uld desire The i hurch and congre- 
gation are now iua flourishing condition, with a member- 

ship of al least. 150 in good and regulai standing, and 
a Sabbath school about equal in iiumbi i 

The officers of the church consist of the following: 
ltcv. Bernard W Slagle pastor; Elders— Messrs E. P 
II okcr, K W. Colby, L G. Thacker, M. D., Thomas [< 
Carroll; Trustees -Messrs. !'. B. Turnbull, George \Y. 
Deatrick, Dr. 1. G. Thacker, Tin. mas R. Carroll . Mr. 
Frank G. Brown, leader of choir ; Dr. J. L. Scott, Clerk. 



This sketch begins with the year 1841, at which 
time Defiance had n population of very nearly 300 ji, 
ha'tiitants. when father Rappj for the firsl time said 
mass and preacln d in Timothy Fitepatriek's house, But 
one more Catholic family then lived in Defiance —Frank 
Wi senburger's. There were then living in Defiance 
also the following young men and ladies : Adam Wilhelm, 
Josepii Grossel, Jehu I'. Dowues. Michael Caldwell, 
Joseph and Michael Decker. Barbara Reikhard (uow 
Mt>. VYeisenburger), and two servant girls, Vgues King 
and Mary Myers. Father Rappe visited Defiance every 
year until he was chosen and consecrated Bishoj 
Cleveland, in the year 1847. After him. Father De 
Goesbriand, n<>-\ Bislt ;> of Burlington. Vt.. came a few 
times to Defi nee. From 1847 to 1849, Father Foley 
■ 1. '1 tip mission from Toledo, after Father Foley, 
Father Ccssare. residing at Maumee followed for about 
a year and a halt'. In 1850, Defiance was made the 

inter of its minion district, and Father Foliere was 
appointed the first residing pastor in Defiance, remain 
in j. about two years, in 1845, September i'.' a tot 150 
feet long and aboul forty six feet front was donated and 
deeded by Horatio G. Phillips to I. B. Purvell (recorded 
Vol. I. 110, Purvell toGilmour, Vol II. 139). A rrame 
i lurch was built on it 22x30 feet. From 1-11 to i -.'a 1 , 
the number of Catholics in Defiance Village did not in- 
crease much, Imt. some families moved into Defiance 
County and the neighboring counties, counting in all 
about fifteen families some of whom joyfully erossed 
the woods twenty miles t<- occasionally assist holy mass 
ami receive the holy sacraments. Their earnestness 
and zeal in practicing their religion, especially- aiso in 
their family circles, are best known lie their descend- 
ants, who to-day appreciate their religion better by far 
than many a family that now come from the old country . 
imbued to a gretil extent with a spirit, to say the least, 
of indifference toward the church. But, it must also hi 
said that not a few of them, for want of a regular ch 

ervice. have c rased to practice their religion altogether, 
and all their descendants can remember of it. is that 
their paren s used to be Catholics. The population of 
Defiance in I 35 I was -590 

- I • the young Catholic folks married 
ies arrived setl le on firms. < »i,io then 
iug a State where land was cheap In 1 352, t he U'aba h 
Railroad was built through Defiance. About this time. 



the Fathers of the Jlosl Precious Blood, from Minsl 
Auglaize County, took ehargc of i i egalioii They 

built a little frame house to the church for their resi- 
dence, ami another was erected for the Sisters of 
order, who came Lo ti ach scl ol [I is to ic 
that Defiance tiing. had a Catholic 

school, ami always up. hi 1853. two more lots, 

each of the sa as the first on il and 

deeded by Horatio ' P - to \ ma lens R ip] 

i irded Vol. VT. 3W). Tn t i i cga 

tion bought live acres of land f'oi i iterj ground 
known as the old cem ten - ), from William Lewis n 
eoi led Vol IV,.158). The ! . fth. Most Pn 

Blood remained in chai i the con . . m until 

October. 1855. We find the foil wing names of I 
in the baptismal record Patrick Hennebcry. Andn .- 
Hcrbstritt. Ens Jacob Kingsly. 'i 

were now about twenty-five families here. To them Fa- 
ther Westerholt, now rector of St. Peter's Church. Cleve- 
land, succeeded He remained until Juno. 1858. During 
hi> administrate m, the number of families fully doubled. 
The increase w • e.sp< eially _■■- ol Defi- 

ance itself, business men star ing and beginning their 
enterprises [t b ssary to build a new church, 

Father Wes rl 11 wenl to see his 1 milies, who very 
willingly . 1 fora uew brick cl nrch, 35x75 fi i ; 

The old church in which the old setl - yfully 
served their God wis moved to : it stands nosv. 

henccforih to e lie happy school children. It is 

said that one time when Father Westerholt was o i his 
way to collect money for tin en cti is ol tin new church, 
he brought hom< 8800 in money, mam Prol s1 nts con- 
tributing. We cannot but improve the occasion to st ■ 
that all along the Manmce Valley, ly in De- 

fiance, there lia3 always existed, and still exists, a com 
mendable spirit of toleration between Protestants and 
Catholics. The church was soon under roof and paid 
for. Meanwhile the neighboring country become set 
tied more and more by Catholics. Father Westerholt 
(as also his sue --■ i visited Poplar Ridge North Ridge, 
Napoleon and Antwerp, to gather the families thai b id 
located near those places, in all of which priests now 
reside. He atten le sides. Ju tii n Delaware Bend, 
Mud Creek— small congregations that now arc a' tended 
from Antwerp and North Ridge, and which now number 
from twenty to thirty and forty families. Father West- 
erholt was Succeeded by Father Hoeffel, who was rector 
of St. John's until January. 1868. [n 1860 lopula- 

tion of Defiance was 1,625. For one year yet !' 
Hoeffel was to be pastor of St. John's and visit the above 
named missions. But the Catl ilation of Deii- 

ance and its next surroundings tjrew ;o stro : that an 
assistant becani - i and in I85t» Father Moioi 

nowrectorof Si- Maiachi's. Cleveland, came I 

the hard i ;' '■■ er ii i !•■!. The assistant pi 

resided in D iance,aud from hercal - 'missions 

until one mission after the other had a church and pas 

sidence built, the missions now being entirely 
ml 'd from Defiance. St. John's iregati >n rap- 
idly increased by a coustant stream of imuiigrati >n and 
in 1868 i 1 nmnberod about >e-, cut] livi In 

! S7H. •■' hen the . ition of Del u ;c w as 2 760 ■■ 
very near one hundred Catholi families Father II 

r i the church It was not merely plastered, hut 
beautiful stucco work ornamented botli 

ei pari of the walls ; there were beautiful pews, 
and a bell also was bought, and a pipe organ, at a cost 
of $1,0110, whi li • ill • rves al divine service, certainly 
betti tli any melodeon could do. 

< In Man li .'-' 1 -'"'■ sever: I ai i - of land ■•■.. 
for a new cemetery, leeded by Philip Smith to \ i 
Kappe (recorded Vol. NIL 90) In January, 18CS 
Father Hoeffel was appointed rector of St. John's 
Delphos ". and was succc Ru 

[n August 1869. Father Viers arrived and had eh 
of the congregation until October. 1878, when the pres- 
ent pastor. Father Voting, succeeded him In 1870. 
the sisters of the convent of St. Agnes, Fond du Lac, 
Wis took charge of the school and have ever - 
wor i i faith idly in the educal ion ol I he little - in - 
Very soon a new - oom was uilt and fir im 

time on I had two dh isions. Th< jrega in 

now growing very rapidly, thechun h '■ ecame b 
there was no room any more foi new comers. By a 
majority of a vote taken by the congregation in January. 
1873. it was decided that tl m was to bi 

led in I wo ; then 

d henceforth in D tSani e be 

a German and an English congregation. Tin- Germans 
:!.! the en1 chu ch pr >p< rty, paying over to the 
Engl j" ion §5,000. Th ■ English Catholics 

were to have the use of their mother church yet for 
three years, to bav< fully timi to : uikl their new church, 
both congregations therefore b j divine service in 

i le same church, but at a time separated "for each 
Shortly after the separation of the two congregal 
the B. & 0. li R, was being built. In 1873, the B. 
ev < > I! I; C impany bought three and half acres of the 
Catholi cemetery for $1,500, and shortly after 1S70 
one factory after the other started bringing new life 

I euterprisi into D [ian c [n 1873, a new pastoral 
leuce was built, which cost ah >nt 84 (100, and is i ■; 
tainly one of tli When the beau- 

tiful new Engi un L and furnished 

the Germans had now alone the |)ossession of the moi ei 
ti il « is as well filled by German I :.'!,. >: ; cs alone 
as it was :, .-i a little befi >re the - pai ition [ndeed. so 
11 v did the ( ion grow larger and larger, 

th; ' i le i ii oceanic again too small. In 1880, an 

addition v. is built to it and when in that year the pop- 
ulation of Defiance was 5.915 tb ■ Gi rman Catholic con- 
gregation b I out 1 families. For the present thi 
church i~ large on. ■ 

A sni .. tl ' vhich is yet on the congr Ration for 
the building il priests rip- 



tion. unci whatsoever may be the waul ■ of future times, 

the congn gation is able :< n< 1 willin» to i i them The 

progress of the temporal welfare of the Catholics during 
the time may he best illustrated by the following: In 
L841, two of the above-mentioned young men. Vdam 
Wilhelm and Joseph (irossoll. were one Sunda\ after- 
noon sitting on the banks of the Maumce Llivur, counting 
their money. Adam Wilhelm then called •-■"> liis own, 
and Joseph Grossed hail a iptarler more. Both of them 
are now grandfathers, the latter still working at. his 
carpenter's trade, with a very good property, the formi r 
now owning one of the best [louring mills in Ohio, and 
said to be the second riehesl man in Defiance. 

ST. MAItv's CATHOLIC Mil mil. 

UV IlKV. '.I. T. K1NKKAO. 

Our Lady of Perpetual Help Congregation was 
Opened in the year 1873 LTp to thai time, all I !atholies 
in Defiance and the immediate vicinit\ worshiped in St. 
John's Church. That edifice being no longer sufficiently 
large to accommodate the rapidly increasing Catholic 
population, at the suggestion of the lit. llev Richard 
Gilrnour, Bishop of the Diocese of Cleveland, the mem- 
bers came together to decide b\ vote either to (reel a 
larger church edifice capable of affording ample facili- 
ties for all to continue worshiping together as hereto 
fore, or to divide and establish an exclusively English- 
speaking congregation.. This latter proposition was the 
one agreed on, and accordingly the new church was 
commenced as soon as the necessary preparations were 
computed. A Building Committee of ten members 
was appointed, constituted as follows: Ydam Wilhelm. 
John Crowe. J. B Weisenburger, John Rowe, Michael 
Gorman, Joseph Haller. Gideon Blanchard. M. B. Gor- 
man, Jacob Karst and A. A. Grant. The first step was 
to select fl location, and soon afterward about an acre 
of land was purchased on the corner of Jefferson avenue 
and Arabella street. The new congregation not yet 
having received a priest of its own, the building com- 
mittee were compelled to attend to all the details of pro- 
viding plans for the church, excavating for foundation, 
raising funds, etc etc. By Maw 1875, the building 
was sufficiently far advanced for the laying of the 
corner-stone, and so rapidly was the work of construc- 
tion proceeded with thai the new church was ready for 
divine sendee in January. 1876. Rev. I' P Maznret 
was appointed pastor of the congregation in March. 
l 5 7r>. and remained in charge for twenty two months. 
On the fourth of January. 1877, the present pastor. 
Rev. M. P. Kinkead, succeeded Rev. Mazuret. The se- 
quel is best told in the words of the lit. Rev. Bishop 
Gilmoinywho visited Defiance November 10,1878 to 
dedicate the church edifice and administer the sacra- 
ment of confirmation. Writing to the C"f/>o/ii f'«iVtr* 
of Cleveland, he thus describes the church and his 
visit : 

"Las! Sunday, at 10 A. M . the Rt. Rev. Bi bop 

dedicated at Defiance, the beautiful new church 
lish) of Our Lad\ of Perpetual Help, after mass, in 
the same church, he confirmed seventy live well-pre 
pared children. 

"The Church of Our Lady of Perpetual Kelp is 
really a. beautiful church, bespeaking not only much 
taste but great liberality on the pari of the congrega- 
tion. It, is on<- hundred and thirty feet long by sixty 
wide, and high in proportion, with stained glass win