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3 1833 02256 3370 



1609 —1888.^,. 

J. THOMAS ^SCHAKPy A. N[.- LI^- I^- 


!T^:p:f o:b' ^; 

; S I S T A. IN- T S - 


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L.. J. UlCHAllDS X- CO 




VOL. I. 


l^it.i,I)..M, Martin W 

li.yiir.l, Hon. Ji«. A 

RiyarJ. T. F 

Ik-lle of thij Ri' 

liJJIo, CnpMiD J;iMU;3 

Bi-iTS, B. T 

BrilHhstnmr, Wni. ffiiu 

n.irt.D, Williiini 

B.i^li, I.e«UP 

Currvll, Jlrs. Cli;i3.,.rr 

Cuns?y, Peter r 

>Cb;iiidler, Srtitliin 

Cliirk, IW.ert II 

C'Uyton.'Joha M 

Chiyton, Tlu.'um3 

Coni.gys, G. P 

Cuurad, Hsnry C 

Cca::.-.^:;;-! currency 

Cre.iiu ii..t, printed to Henry Hill 


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Lotiw ... 

Mi-iii, . 

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Mllli;;,.n J. 

Mixire, Jacob 

Noucs, Onplain He 



OH lor. 

.011 Cotf.e 



Read, ( ol. James.. 
Read, C<.1. Jolm..., 
Kead, 'Join. Thus.. 
KeJ.i, Coi.i. TIjoj.. 

H.i.;=oD, Ilei.ry.. 

Seal, Philadelpliia, 17 
Seal N'ewNethe.laa.l. 
S'lldiera' liiOQimjents. 

SaiUlient, X. B 


.Stotklcy, Gliarl.'S C... 

Stiljv-siint, Gor. Pet. 

S» Jlap ^, 

Tatnall, II. L ' 


, J. I--. 

CX)N1'KX1^S (JK X^OI.lIMl^] I 

(•ii\rTi;i: i. ^ ,^ ciiai'TI'.ii xiv. 

!NTKciril(_TIoN- AND Tol-i",i;AI'llV .>F 1 IK I, A U A K;. . 1 DkI,A\VA1:K UUKIN'. ihi: KlAliI.iniiiy, 


The (lEOLOGY OF Delaware, 4 From Tin: Revolition tu the War of ISl 


I he .\lJoUK;tN-E.'i, 

The Wak oe 1812-1 




.,n From the Treaty of (Iiient to l.SOO, ... . ."04 


■;w Sweden on the DLEAw.uti;, 34 The Civil War 


^IR F.D.MrND Pl.oWDEN .iNl> NeW Al.llloN. -')7 DELAWARE AFTER THE (.'IVII WaK, IStJ-'-lSSS, . .375 


Delaware under the Di t. h Gl ' internal Imfuovemknts, 41S 

William Penn and his (;overnment, 


ire ENDER AVlLLlAM l'l\-v 

\TEs AND Privateer..-, . . . 




'■"LONIAL Hi-thrv, IT'il -177.".. 



Pl-ri-ic Education, 

CH.\PTi:i; XXI II. 
The Pre.- of Deeawai-e, 400 


.\Iei>|. AI. Mi::-.-, . . 

The IJen.h and Pah 


\Umners and Crvn.v. .,r t„w Ew,tv Iv, ,..,.,. APPKNi'lX. 

:rs and (.u.vd.m-^ i,v tuh Early 

!!(• ft.wTER or Delaware Vountei 


That in tho tw.i liuii.liril and liliy ,mx years ]Ki-t >iiire men (if tlie Caiica.-iaii race tir.-t 
■ ttmiptcl uillilii it^ 1m ,iiii,hn 1-, nu |Mvvi,,u, attempt sli..ul.l have heen made to 
rumplete a lii~t..ry nt' the ,-,,l,,ny aiul State ..l' Deh.uare, is a self-exiilaiiatury rea.-un for 
the preiKinitioii aii.l piiMieation wf thi- work. 

While it i- remarkaMe that s.> impcrtaiit an-l interesting a liehl nf hi.turi.'al inve-ti-atimi 
-honhl iiave heen ne-leete.l in the-., latter .lays .,f keen tm.l .Lvp n-eaivh int., the 
alities, the euvin.nm.iit, th.^ m.iti'..-. th.' !al".r> an-l th.' r.' ..f the people wli., lai.l the 
leiin.lations ami ere.'t.'.l th./ snper-triiei nivs ,,f th.' Ameri.'an'.alths, it may he 
a.-.vpteil that in the ea.e of l>ela\vure, th.' .litH.-iiItie, uf a .■..mplete an.l .n-e.<Iitahle \v..rk 
^■eme.l even in^urninnntahle, than ih.' t.niptati.m to- enter tlii- alm.i-.t iinexiil.jretl .Inmain 
was attraetive. Tn tin.l.-rtaki' an .'xhaii-tive in.piiry an.l carry it to sui\-.'sstul eonipleti.m 
has heen a la,-k that enli>t.-.l paii.iit .l.i.i minaii.M,, th.ii,.huh ,-ynipalhy with the .•,ul.j,.rt, 
miiuite s.a-utiny an.l that liheral eiiterpri-.^ which the puMish-rs have i,a-neron,-Iy furnidial. 
Now, after many months of toil, in whi.h the lore ..f Delaware, the fragmentary ivor.l^ left by 
its pioneers, the sta^^^'s of its progress an.l the .-.ilLvtions e>f Eiirop.'an an.l American writers 
hearing iipim It- .■.-taMi-hment an.l i;-ro\vth, have hen .•<Mnpell.-.l b> yickl their sc.-ret or 
open treasures, this hi.-toiy i.- pnt forth with full e.infi.lence that no means have been unem- 
l/loyt'il to secure its accuracy anil c [iletene-s in .letail .ir as a whole. 

Whatever lapses and may he found within its pa^es— an.l it is believed th.?y are 
.■omi)aratively trivial in miml..a- and signiticance— wore inseparable from the conditions. 
Delaware possesses fewer .■oIlat..l an.l .■oime.'te.l iv.v.nls of her early days than any of the 
.• ..r .irigitial Stat.s. What chronicle- were ke[.t by the Swedish an.l Dnt.'h settlers, 
they ni.i.-tly cavi-'wd away .ir .lestroyed.. and alth..n-h the succeeding English were more 
I'iinstaking in the niakinu- .■in.l pre-.-rvation ol' tle^ written materials of history, the centre of 
tlii'lr politi.'al life wa- autiy from the' -Thr.- (oumies upon the Delaware," and their 
re.-,., were largely formulated in .■,.n with {'.•nn.>ylvania, New York, and to some 
■xteiit with Marylan.l. It is t.) an aiilenom.nis piolitieal .■ommuiiity that we lo.ik t'or a well- 
liid^e.l chain .,f history firged by the,' interest of it, people in their .,wn atfairs, an.l 
IV'htware .lid not approach a (;onilition of embryo stat.4i.xjd until she reach.'.! a .•.in.lition of 
legldative semi-in.lependcif.; in 17(»b Still, the narrative of iter public, >..,. ial an.l 
life is tliirly well kept in her own, th.>se of the parent couutri.s which Hi-t p..pulated 
lier territory an.l tli.-se ...f the ontignou- .-oloiii.-, and tVom them an intelligent narrative 
"f her colonial ep...di ha. been .;..nstru.t.'.l. In the next f.llowitig j..ri.«l, the pillage 
ati.l de.tru.'tiou ,,f the ar.-hives at Wil:niiigt..!i an.l New C\ttie by the liritidi .luring the 
Uevohition, was a deplorable ob~taele to the procurement of inti^miatiou at first hand but 


thi- lack lia~ Im..,,,.,! l,v tl„' ainlifniir n-laiio,,- ,,f ,■,„„, inporarv InMonan- in n,l,er 

(nx-l-, pr.>cnt,-,l tl„ ,n> in llirir ,„■..,„.,• niaunitu.l,. an,| inline,,,. .M,„v,,v,t, the klt-rs 
an.l paiiLTs of Ddauar..^ sratc-nR'n and -Mi. i- aiv nnnK-i.,n- en.-u.^h t.. tlinr.v a hr.i.Hv- 
illuniinatin- li-hl np.m the ..111-1-, in.i.lri, I^ and ...n-, .[n, n,r> of il,,. tinu/, and liavr 1m.'„ 
u<wl witli >i;.iial i-nrllt. For tl„. Mory of thr niov,nu..nts of atlalr. aft,,- tlic [h,,,-,. \vi,l, 
(Jrtat Lfltain to tl,. p,v-.nt day. lUr l,i-tori,al nKitnial Ik- l-ecn >uffiri.ntly almndant. 

Attention i< railed to tl.r roaipl.tmc" of tl.o Io,-al narrative ..f tl,.. pnlitirul and 
geographical divinon^. 'J'hi- ti.'ld lia~ Iwvn ini.-parin^ly ^ian-d and the r. Mdt> -nhniiin.l, 
althongh these have in -onie in-tanre- involv.<l the appraran.r ,,f ,Ia<h, eontn^on and r.,n- 
tradi.tion. In many in-ian,v.s the -rkrteh.- ,.f •' hnn.lred hi-torirs." in tlir -,.ond voluni.'. havr 
been in,-erled a,- they were prepared hy the local writers. Th,!' editor wa- not at liUitv to 
change either their matter ,)r form of arrangement. But tliefe i- n,,thin- in whieh h.eal 
e.xpcrt.s aud amhoi-ities so ditl'rr as in tho-e vicinage cvonts an.l matters on.Trnin.^ 
which they collectively agfee that th.^ int.'rferenc .,f the ontM.ler niii-t he stuhbornly 
resentetl. Therefore, the l.x'al writei- have perinitte.l to IrU ..wn -tories ex.-.'p"t 
where certain ver-i..n- have been j.lainly cntrary t., the e,-labli>h,,d truth- ..f i,np..rtant 
liistory, in which the editor has -et Ibith the fa.'ts as .1 bv the eriti.'al w.n-ld, 
and it, of c.iur^c, foll.iws that every t'orin of a pnr.av lo.-al narrative enriciie.- the bo.'k 
for the readers of the hx-ality atli-ct.'.l. As t.. the variatioin in the ortlio-raphv ,,f flie 
names of places an.l persons that will be n.itic.l, it inn-t be ,-ai.l tliat the has 
ailhere.1 to the original -pelling as near as it coiiM be a-.-ertained, but in c.imin;:^ 'h'wn 
to later times the nj..d..riiiz.:d ..rthography ha- been a.lopt.-l. the Swedes, Dut.-h, 
and Eugli.-h, wh.i peop|._'(l Delaware, there wa- a conl'n-ion an<l much ..f a blen.iin- of 
tongues; spelling wa< not a j.o-itive -ience v, ith any of, an.l in early document^ 
page will often sh.,w several ditliavnt .■ondiinati.m^ of letters in one tianie. Under sii.-h 
circumstances the ..nly safe rale i- that which ha- b. en pursued, to f..llow the record; or 
in the printing of biogr;iphie^ in in.livi.lual- to ac.'.'pt tlie dicta of the laniilics. It will 
not esaipe ob-ervati.)n that the bi,-.graphie- ..f .iniiient citiz.'n- wh.i have borne or are 
bearing distingiii-hed parts in tfic pi...-..— e- and progre<- ..f J)elawar.' are .if ab<.irbin.r 
interest and tlia' the list is -o, die history ,.f lives so e.xact as to alm.^t 
make in tln.'in-elv.s a compen.lium of event- f..r over tw.i .■.■ntnri..'s. 

A limited am. .nut of -pace lias ixen given to l.i,.-,n-aphi. - of ivpre-.-ntative men, liviie.^ 
and dead, who have b.-riic an a.-tive part in the various .nt. rpri-..- .,f life, and ^\h.l hav 
become i.lentiti..! with tlic hi-tory ..f th.' -tai.> an.l the l..calitie.- in wiii.'l; thev live The 
achievements of the living mii-t b.- f.M-gotten, nor mn-t the memories ..t' th..-e who h ive away be allowed to peri.-h. It is th.' imp.a-ative .Iiity .,f tli.' hi-t..rian t.) .■hr..nirie 
their pubii." an.l jirivato ctfort- t.. advance the great int.'r.-t- nf .-o.-i.-ty. Their d.^.ls arc t.) 
be recorded f..r the bcnetit of tho.-- win. f..ll..w them,— th.y, in fiet, Ibrm |iart of the lii-t.,rv 
of their communities, ami their -mvc-.-t'iil liv.- a.M to the g'orv .,f tia- .■oinmonwealth. With 
tlii.s view the pnbli-hers hav.- pr.pare.l an.l in tli.- w..rk a nninlH.r of intt-re-tiie-- 
biographical sketches of a lew of i>elaware's representative iHt-n. 

P II E F A C I-: . V 

TliP oditMi- would Ke (Ic-titutr. ..f a .-rii^j of jii-ti.v to liiin-df and to Hir Stat.-, wlio-o 
entiiv hi-tory Iki- now I).mmi writtni for tlio fir-t time, if lir fail.d to arknouird-i' ia tin-, 
place, and with a .cntinHnt of i-n-loimd pralitnd,-, tl,- .-oulial aid .-xtm.l.d to hini and hi^ 
u.i.leftakin-, hy li,r p-oplo of Delaware. 'I'lay liavo -iven Inn. tl,r InlK-t ,.nronra--nH-nt 
thnmgliout and have helped hin. nuil.ria'.iv in elahoratin- and perl'eetin:; the uork. To the 
press <if the State, the l'..nn-yl vauia lii-t^.rieal Society, ih.^ Delaware Ili-torieal S.eicty, 
State, county, eity and town oth.-ers and the oHl.'iaN of ehnrehe-, -o.i.tie. and corporation^. 
he is especially indehted. .Vn.on^ the ua.nes of JRlp.av and co.itrihutors are tho-e of Chief 
Justice J. P. Coniruy,-, dnd-e (h'or.v P. Fi>her, Nathaniel P. Sinither^, Wni. Atkinson, 
(;eo. II. Pates, Jud-e Leonard E. Wales, .Vu.tin Harrington, Dr. Horace Purr. W. P. Lon^^;-. 
iiev. T. Gardner Littell, .John C. (iooden, Prof. \Ve-l,w Webh, I'rof. W. P. (h.odi,,^^ 
Dr. Charles II. Pi.hard-. Dr. Pohert G. Elk-ood. Dr. I'.dward E.wler. Dr. (c^.r^e W. 
Marshall, Pev. Lewis \V. (uh-^on, Pev. J. F. Stoneeii.her, Pev. Thomas E.Terry, Alexander 
Cumniin-s, Charle. G. Fleuiin-, Pev. J. L. M.dvim, Pev. W . W. W. S. .M.^Xair, 
Alfred Matthews, Austin X. Ilun-erford, George P. Prowell, J. L. P'ock.y, W. A. Ei'dnian, 
Harry W. Madntire, P. -M. Stocker, Jetierson II. Nones, l>avid <i. Scott, E. P. Fulton, of 
the Philadelphia 7V,.«, Frederick D. Stone, Lil.rarian of the Penn-ylvania IIi~torioal Society, 
Gover Kettlewell, and J. G. Guu-cnheinicr. To his puMi-hers the author nni-t render thanks 
that are, after all, not -iiiricieutly exprc-ive of uhat is owin- t.. their cnierpri-r and lil.crality. 
In every respect oi' lettcr-pres-, portraits, map-, en^M-avin^s of -ceiie- and lf"alltie-, and each 
feature of artir^tic and mechanical execution, they have res[)onded promptly to all .-iiu^e.-tioirs 
made to them, and have striven with tine taste aud judicious discrimination to make the 
hook hi typography, illu-tration ami binding cpial to its gieat purpose of furnishing Dela- 
ware and the historical literature of America with the oidy entire reeord in existence of 
one of the stars in the original galaxy of the union. 

J. Thomas SriiAcr. 
B'l/thnnrr, Fff/nufn/ '.'(;, 1887. 



/\TU01)rCTI0N, AMI TOI'Ocii;.vrHY()K PEL.VWAKE. 

The State of Delaware is one of the oviuniial 
thirteen States nf the American I uion.and. thoiiL'h 
next to tlie smallest in area, and least in popidation, 
|ins-es>es annals not surpassed by those of any other 
State in topics of varied character, romantic inci- 
dent and instructive lesson. Nor does her early 
hi>tory relate alone tu thnse coutines which now 
limit her territory. New York, New Jersey, Con- 
necticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, Virginia and 
IVnnsylvania all partake, to a greater or less de- 
;rrue, in the interest of her peculiar story. The 
•■arly adventure of discovery and settlement: the 
-truL'gle with barbai'ism, and the sabji;:.';u;iin of a 
riul; soil; the contrast and blendincr of Kuropcan 
uitli American life ; the transfer of old institu- 
tions; the intermiuglins of races ; the progress nf 
C'lmmerce; the establishment of churclics and 
srliouls ; the triumph (if freedom of conscience over 
IiiLTotry; the development of ])rinciples (jf sclf-gov- 
u-iirui'iit within, and the action of encroachment 
and eoni]uest from without ; the relations of Dela- 
ware \Yith Sweden, Holland and Great Britain ; cjf 
iheproijle with the proprietary of Pennsylvania; 
the attitude assumed towards the Dutch of New 
York ; her position before and during the Ameri- 
c.iu Ucvokition, were ail peculiar, and in the high- 
<-t dcijree instructive to the student of the present 
lis well as of the past. 

At every period of the country's history Dela- 
iiware has been among th.' lirst in p itriotism and 
^mong the earliest in all that related to national 
'i'inise. " The three lower counties of New Cas- 
tl''. Ivent and Sus-ex, on Delaware,'' were repre- 
- ntvd in the Continental Coni;ress wiiicl; a^sem- 
t'h^' :»t Philadelphia, on tlie >ith of Septeaiher, 
^>~i, and from that day to the present, the pen|,le 
"t the .'^tute have been among the foremost in all 
that led to the prosperity and proirress of the whole 
'■"'intry. No state has exhiiiited stronger ati'ection 
'•ir the Union, made greater sacrifices in war or 
i 'ir-urd a more judicious policy in the accumula- 
li-ii of wealth. Her position has ci.mmaiided 
>"' -!i"ct, and her integrity is beyond reproacii. 

It is surprising that Delaware, with a pa,-t so 
ii.ii'trious, so full of interest, and in many respects 
'•-'•iuo, Siiiiuld have no proper history. Not only 

aliens, but even her own sons, have been very im- 
perfectly informed of her true liistorv, and, as a 
conseijuence. she has been denied the meed of liunor 
both abroad and at home. 

Jt i^ the aim of the present work to give tlie 
history of Delaware with accuracy and intelli- 
gence, omitting nothing that will cimtribute in any 
degree tD illustrate its origin and growth, its na- 
tional importance and it? peculiar hx'al features — 
to paint a portrait of the State as it was and as it 
is. in which every lineament shall be truthfuUy 
portrayed and represented witli life and vigor 
enougli to make its fidelity aeknowledcred by all. 
If these objects can l>e attained by zeal, sincerity 
and taithful, patient and exhaustive research, the 
author and his co-laborers have no fears of the re- 
ception wliich awaits their foi'miuable undertaking. 

The State of Dchiware i- sirnat.'d lietween ."S^ 
2.^' and .;!»'' 47' of north latitude, and lietween 74" 
o(j' and 75° 4Li' of longitude west fnjm Greenwich. 
Its jihysieal boundaries are — on the north bv the 
State of Pennsylvania, Delaware River and i3ay ; 
on the south "by the State of ^Maryland ; on the 
east by the Delaware River and Bay, from a point 
twenty-four miles from its uortiiern boundary by a 
line of low-water mark on the Jersey shore, thence 
to the radius of twelve miles north of New Castle; 
on the west by the States of JIaryland and Penn- 
sylvania to the periphery of tiie circle drawn in a 
radius of twelve miles from the court house at the 
centre of the town of New Castle, commencing at 
low-water mark on the shore of New Jersev north 
of New Castle, thence extending over the Dela- 
ware River, and following its circumference until 
it a',:ain touches the shore of that State south of its 
radius of twelve miles from New Castle. Sole 
jurisdiction is given to the State of Delaware over 
the Dilaware River and Bay by this circular line 
of boundary, from j.iw-water mark on the Jer-ey 
shore, aliout a mile north of the mouth of Naa- 
man's Creek on tlie Delaware State sido, for twenty- 
four miles southward, nearly to where Silver Rim 
enters the Delaware River. Within the circular 
boundary arc Pea Patch and Reedy Islands, on the 
former of which Fort Delaware is situated, and 
upon the latter a light-house. The jurisdiction of 
tlie State below tlie circle extends to a line run- 
ning down the mid'lle of the Delaware Bay as 
tar as Cape Henlopcn ; thence alons: the Atlantic 


Ocean to Fenwick's Maii.l. in :il)nut •2-;° I'O' r.or'h 
latitude. Tl.e line runs westwardly ihiity- 
i'niT miles, three luni.lrnl anil nine perehe.-s to the 
exact half of the (li>tanee ht-tweeu the Atiantie 
Ocean and the Ch<-ai"ake P.ay : thence by arl.iit 
line nearly due north at a tan'j-<-nt until it reaeht s 
the western jiart of the pcriiihrry nt the vh\:k- 
twelve miles from the court-hou-L- at New Cait!.-. 

The length of thr Statr i< niiiety-tiv-- "wle-: at 
its southern houmlarv the width is thirty-fivj niiie.-i : 
at Cape Henlopen tiu- width is aliout ' tw.uty ^v- 
miles, which dimiui-hes, hy the \\ater-liaH (ii rhe 
bay, until, at Red Lion Creek, in Nesv Ca^tie 
County, the width of the State is not over teu miles, 
while at its northern end its width is twelve uiiies, 
being the radius of the Xew Castle circle. 

The line whi.h divides Delaware from ^lar;, - 
land, starting at the Atlantic Ocean, running du'> 
west for a distance of thirtv-four miles, turns at 
right angles due north to the tangental point on 
the New Castle circle, which was run hy Cliarler. 
Mason and Jeremiah Ptxon in 176:!, and is known 
as " Mason & Dixon's Line." 

Each of the three counties extends across the 
State from the ocean, bay or river to the dividing 
Hue between Delaware and Maryland, Xew C^=tle 
being divided from Kent hy Duck Creek ami a 
line running due west to the ^laryland line ; Kent 
is divided from Sussex by the Mispillion Creek and 
the Tan Trough Branch ; thence hy a line south- 
westerly to a small branch of Xanticoke, down 
this branch to the boaver dam, and th.ence by a 
line due west to the ^Maryland line. Sus,-ex cum- 
priscs all south of the last-discrihed line to the 
boundary of ^Maryland. 

The topography of the State may be said to con- 
sist of rounded hills in the northern ])art, wliieh 
rise at no point over five hundred feet above the 
sea-level ; this elevated portion of the State extends 
southward to White Clay Creek, and repo.^es upon 
a substratum of rock. South of White Clay Creek 
the State is level, and nowhere elevated more than 
seventv feet, which only occurs on the sandy table- 
laud ridge which passes through the State. In 
this tabledand most of the rivers and streams have 
their sources. One of the most notable features of 
the State is the Cypress Swamp, on the southern 
lino between Delaware and 3Iarylan<l, and lying in 
both States. Tliis swamp abounds in trees, mostly 
cypre.-s, and "janie of all kinds is to be found in its 
recesses, lielow its ,-urtace are found immense 
trunks of trees, the remains of giants of the for- 
ests, which, perhaps, sunk beneath the waters in 
years long past. These trunks are raised and 
made into shingles, and find ready market and re- 
ward for the lal)or bestowed u[)on their conversion. 
The soil of the State is fertile, and has long 
been celebrated for its wheat, its fruits and vegeta- 
bles ; while the clearing of it^ lorest.s cut aw ay 

the uh.'.te and !>!a k oak, yellow i,in.\ cypress, tulip, 

the whole >^iat.-. 

Its principat r'vors and streams are the Dela- 
w.'ir'' i'iver, '.vuich lor iweuty-iour miles forms the 
eastern d^niurk.-.tiou : Naaman's Creek, enters 
the Delaware abot^t a mile south of the northern 
lif.e; &he!poi Creek lee.vs into the P. randy wine, and 
thence, with the i;rai!d\ wine, which crosses the 
Staie, erUer-: the Chri-nan;. within the limits of the 
ritv o< ■'A' ,i:. aboui out- and a half miles 
fi.jiu th.', i'ito which it emptie-" its wa- 
ters; the Kr-astaywine is navigable for about two 
miles for sloojis aud scliooners. From the head of 
navigation, the Erandywine is a rocky stream with 
several f dls, which ati()rd excellent water-power. 
Tl.e Christiana rises in ^Maryland, and flows 
t'-.rouLd: the State into the Delaware at Wilming- 
iop. and. has depth tor ves-els drawing fourteen 
feet. Red Clcy Creek, :Miil Creek and Bear Creek 
-.A-"' .-treams tlowin'jr into 'A'hite Clay Creek. These 
were once navi.'able. hut are now valuable only 
for water-power. Red Lion Creek has been 
dammed up. >t. tieorue's Creek now empties a 
portion of its waters into the Delaware and Ches- 
apeake Canal, and the remainder through a new- 
channel into the bay. St Augustine and Silver 
Riif are small creeks which discharge their waters 
into St. George's Bay below Reedy Islam!. Ap- 
poquinimink Creek is navigable for sloops from 
Ode-sa to the Delaware, a distance of about seven 
miles, and for steamboats to Thomas' Landing. 

Blackbird Creek, flowing due east and north 
until it empties into the Delaware Bay, is naviga- 
ble ; Duck Creek, which divides Kew Ciistle from 
Kent County is navigable for seven or eight miles, 
to Smyrna, and to Hay Point Landing for steam- 
boats of twelve to fourteen feet draft ; it reaches 
the Delaware Bay through a channel, called the 
'■Thoroughfare." at a point north of Bombay 
Hook. Little Duck Creek is navigal)le for sloops 
to the town of Leipsic ; Dona River connects with 
the Little L>uck Creek and enters the bay below- 
Little Bombay IL.ok. Dona and Little Duck 
Creek form Kent Island, a lar-e marshy island, 
several miles in extent. Mahon River is merely 
one ot' the outlets of D.jim River, which hastbreed 
a pa-sa-'' tlirou-h the marsh, and flow int; southerly 
for four miles enters the Delaware.'" Kellev's 
Bland is fu-med bv the conjnnetlon of the Mahon 
and" Port -Alahou is .steeme.l the 
best harbor for cnasters on the Delaware. Little 
C'-eek is navigable, as far uii as Little Creek Land- 
insr. about three miles from its mouth, for sloops 
and small schooners. 

Dover, the capital of the State, finds an outlet 
for its commerce to the Delaware by a very cir- 
cuitous route through St. Jones' Creek, a distance 
ot thirty u.iles. It is navigable as far upas De.ver 



wl >teai 




Murdorkill Cnck cnt.i,- the Itav W\,>w tlie 
mouth of St Jdiirs' C.'n c'k, ami up it,- iiavi-alilf 
water.- comnierce tint!:* its way to Frederica. Mi-- 
pilliou Creek atlonl:? iiuvi-ahlc faeilitit.-.- to .Mill'ir.l 
by large sloop.-, -ehnoiior^ and -tcaiidioat-. (,\-dar 
Creekrthough Miiall, is navi .'.iLU- fn.m the ]> la- 
ware, into it tl'>w- J)rap( i-',-, <lan-httjr's 
and Frimeliook Creek- are ^Illall ,-tnani- iiiteriiig 
tlie bav between the month-' of Mi-piHini) and 
Droadkiln Creeks. Broadkiln i.- navi-ahle for 
sloops and schooners to ^Milton, about twelve 
miles from its mouth, and flows into the estuary of 
Lewes' Creek, about two miles from the Delaware 
Bay. Lewes' Creek is about six miles long and 
empties into the liay ; its navigation was destroyed 
by the "Great .Storm," which washed sand of the 
ocean into the creek and iu this way destroyed its 
mouth for navigable purposes. Canary or Mill 
Creek aflbrds navigation to Lewes Creek and 
from there to Broadkiln, and "Wolf Creek an.i 
Old Creek fall into it near Lewes. 

A narrow ridge of sand separates Rchoboth 
Bay and Indian Iliver Bay from the Atlantic 
Ocean, while Indian Eiver Inlet is a passage, torn 
by storms, through this ridge for the waters of the 
two bays to the ocean. This inlet rarely contains 
more than a few feet of water, and after a great 
easterly storm is closed by sand washed into it 
from the ocean ; but soon the dammed up waters 
of the bays bn-ak again for themselves a pa-s;ige 
to the ocean. These large bays have each a sur- 
fiice of twenty-five miles, but their depths rarely 
exceed four or five feet. The most northerly of 
these bays is Rehoboth, which, nearly Siiuare in 
shape, extends parallel with the ocean, fioni which 
it is separaterl by the ridge. Line Creek, Midille 
Creek, Herring Creek and Guinea Creek empty into 
Rehoboth Bay. Long Neck, a narrow sand bar, 
separates last-mentioned creeks from Indian 
River Bay, while the "Burtons ' — marshy islands, 
called on old maps Station Islands— indicate the 
changes that have taken place iu these waters. In- 
dian River Bay is al)nut eight miles long and from 
two to fourbroa 1 : it fronts the Atlantic (Jcean lor 
three miles, and is separate<l only by the narrow 
ridue mentioned above. .MiUsboro' is on Indian 
River. Pepptr Creek, Vine Creek and White 
Creek flow into Indian River. 

Fresh Pond and Salt 1', nd are two ponds a few 
milts south of Indian River — the former is ah. nit 
half a nale in length and two imndred yard- wide, 
and is from twenty-five to thirty feet dee]i. It has 
apparently no outlet or streams flowing into it, 
and contains but few fish. It is separated from 
the Atlantic Ijv a ridge of sand not more than an 
eighth of a m'ile wide. The other. Salt Bond, is 
about the same size and situated about three miles 

Its walr 

the ,u-eai 

A --aw 

aii.l It IS 
.-ait, and 



formed by Jefi'erson Creek, 
and is Ioml: and slialinw, about seven miles long 
and from on.' ro .,nr-iialt' a mile broad, and from 
three to tiv f . t dr. p. It is separated from the 
Atlnntie bv Fenuiek's L-Iand. a inn- narrow rape 
and rid-e of lan.l which ext.nd- in length tuenty- 
three miles. 

The streams which tluu into the Chesapeake 
Bay and take their ri-r in Delaware, are the Xan- 
ticoke, the Br.Kid (_'n 'k and tin' Pe.komoke. Sea- 
fbrd find- uabT euninmnieMlion with the Chesa- 
peake Bay down the Nanticke. Portsville is 
reached by Broad Creek, and the Cypress Swamp 
is reached by the Pokomoke. Back Creek, the 
Bohemia and the Sassafras, in New Castle C'onnty; 
the Chester, the Choptank and the Jlarshy lIo[)e, 
in Kent County ; and the Wicomico iu S\, all 
take their rise in the Sandy Ridge of Delaware 
and discharge their waters into the Chesapeake, — 
they all belong more properly to Maryland than 
to Delaware. 

The lines of railroad in Delaware reach every 
localitv and give tlie people every facility of 
transportation. The State has over three hun- 
dred miles of railroad, and the respective com- 
panies are treated more fully elsewhere in another 

The waters of the Chesapeake and Delaware 
Bays are connected by the Ch'M'iptoki: and Dtla- 
irurr Canal, uavigable for coasting vessels and 
propeller steamers. This canal extends from Del- 
aware City, forty si.x miles below Philadelphia, to 
Chesapeake City, on Back Creek, a navigable 
branch of Elk River, in ^Iarylan<l. The canal is 
thirteen and a half miles in length, sixty-six feet I 

wide at the ti3p and ten feet doep. It has two tide 
and two left lift locks, and is located four miles 
through a deep cut ninety leet iu depth; it was 
completed in 1828 at a cost of two million two 
hundred and fiity thou-and dollars, and has since 
proven a source of incalculable value to the pro- 
ducers of the surrounding country in furnishiug 
an outlet to the markets of the large cities. 

A ship canal has lieen contemjdated for many 
vears lietwetu the two bays, I'or which a comjntny 
was chartered by Maryland and liy Delaware, and 
the line located from the Su-.-afras River to tl-.e 
Delaware Bay. Beyond securing the right of 
way nothing has been done. Salem Creek and 
the Delaware JTiver have been connected by a 

Delaware is an agricultural State ; a part of it is 
in a high state of cultivation. Beside wheat, In- 
dian corn and other grain, jjeachcs are grown iu- 

tmall fruits are also raised for trausportatiou. In 


the northern part of the ?^t:ite are niiiinrnu- niaiiii- 
faetories. WilmiiiL't'.n is the principal eintre of 
industry. New Ca-lie, al.u, has iiupnrtaiit mliin- 
mills. and cotton and wn,,llen fartoriis. On I'.ran- 
dywine Cre^k are -onu- of the tine.-t HourinL'-uiills 
in the United States, to u liieh vesstls drawini,' eiirhr 
feet of water ean eonic. The foroi-n trade of the 
State is effected chietiy throu-h IMnladdphia, Ikil- 
timore and New Yoik ; -i that its direct firei.'u 
trade is very iucuuiicK rahle. 



iLoc;y I If 11 

DURIN.; the ycar^ l-^:',7 and 1.^"..^, Prof .Ta~. C. 
Booth, in aceor.laiiec with an act of the State 
Legishiture, niade a ireohi^ical snrvey of Delaware, 
the results of whicli were pul.)liilied in a report 
that n[)peared iu 1841. This old memoir is of 
great value, iioih from the accuracy of the author's 
observations and his minute attenti(jn to detail; we 
cannot, therefore, expect to take anythiiitr from the 
character of this work, our aim lieiiiL' to s,, i^.,,],,. 
pletely reconstruct our geolouy as to hrini;- it into 
sympathy with results in adjaceiif States. 

The formation represeut-d witliin llie lioumls ft' 
the State are Archeau, Creiaerous, Tertiary ami 
Quaternary. The relations and [lo^ition:- id' the 
several divisions of tlie>.' f urinations are represented 
in the accoinpanyinL;- talih-, also the thickness of 

each. It will he uiidorst 1 that the formation 

oldest in ago and order of drpo^ition is placed at 
the bottom. 

JlQdern. Bug Clay Allu 


Glai-ial. Delaware Oral 


Claw San.1— irj'. 

1 MicK.-ene. 


1 Eocene. 

i Upp.r. 

MiJJIe Mail Be.l-l;)a'. 

[ MidJle. 

In.ii:rate5Iail l!ej (lit- 

.1 S.cia of New 

i Lower. 

L'Wt-rMari Bi'.l-Or. 
■ Pla.-.tic Clo-3ll'L.t..inac 


M.l-nusian MarW 

'■ OjntrLutLj by Prof. Fro,: rick D. Chuler, if Di 

The of the State of Delauare i.- coin- 
jiarativclv ^imple. T'hc ol.i.-t Arcli,.;m rocks 

cover all that p.^rti f the .-ial. which \[r, to 

t!ic north of the Philadelphia. Wiliiihi-ton and 

P.alti re Railroad, uhcre'thov are tilted at hij, 

an-les, ,-,,„forted and ovvrthroun The re-ion is 
one of ureat interest, and oltiTs to the held -eolo- 
-i.-t prohh'rn- of such moment as to make it a 
classic lield in American ^eolo^-v Re.-tin.: upon 
the ero.led eA-vs of the A/oic rocks are suece^-ive 
series of pla-'ic clav-. -and maris anil i^reeii sands, 
of Cretaceous a-e, which form iiuite uiiif )rm strata 
dipping at a l.)w aii-le to tlie -.uthea-t. Tlii.~ 
lielt, havin-a width of ahout eighteen miles, ex- 
tends from the Archean hill,- to the latitude' of 
Niixontown mill pond, iiisi south of Middle! own. 
Tiie Cietaeeons is succce'ded l.v a stratum of white 
or lead colored clay having a thickne.-s of ten to 
twentv feet. 

This continues a- far south as :\rurderkill Creek, 
and from fo.ssilit'enms evidence i> prohahly Miocene 
South of ISIurderkill Creek, the iMioceue is suc- 
ceeded by three to ten feet of light or dark blue 
clay, beneath whicli is a uniform stratum of tine 
white glass sand of at least f u-tv feet in thickness. 
That all the State south of Miirderkill is later 
Pliocene rather than Modern, as the older writers 
have claimed, has, we think, been well demou.trated. 
All the beds of the Tertiary lie in a nearly heri- 
zoiital position, dippiing at a still lower aii-le than 
the Cretacemis, and probably uucontiirmable to the 

Covering all of the f)regoing formations, and 
reaching u|) the flanks of the Azoic hills to the 
height of two hundred feet or more above tide is 
a layer of sand and gravel, wdiich to the north is 
of a coarse red nature, and to the south is fine and 
white. These gravels are of f,)uaternary iiL'e. and 
have been styled by the author the Delaware 
Gravels and K-tuary Sands, r,s|i, ,ti\ e-ly. Along 
the river and bav shores ir al-o the belt of bo.^ 
clav, which is modern, and of more recent ori-in 
than the Gravel.-. 

Tin: Akcheax. — Generally speaking, the south- 
ern line of the Azoic or Archean rocks is the lindt 
of the "highlands," but in certain places they 
extend well into more level regions. Beginning 
with a point upon the ^Maryland boundary, a little 
north of where the latter is cut by the Mason and 
Dixon line, the limit of the rocks runs in a north- 
east direction, cutting through the western end of 
Newark, and follow iul;- the northern boundary of 
the town. Thence it runs close to the south shore 
rd' White Clav Creek to a distance of two miles 
beyond. Koseville, u here it makes an abrupt bend 
to the north, until at Sianton the rocks cease to be 
f.und. A mile b.iek of the railway station, llu y 
again ap|)ear, continuing to a poiut about a mile 
Lack of Newport, where their course runs slightly 

TIIK Cri:OI.(>i;Y Ol- DKLAWAllE ^ 

to the ..ut!u.n-t, -n.-in. tl. W,lnn,.n,n tun. ^^^ ^-^';--^'';-;; ;-X!r:U^^^^^^^ 

turns abniiitly -outli to tho rivrr. 'X'cnr m all .-t;._c.- ''''';'''"''''''''''''''.'", i-i|,",^,','.|^,v 

stnmg contrast to the low-lying rcyiun to the ^ax..nN. _ v, ,, ,1 in the .■•^ten- 

south. The rorks, however, are too unitorm in Lhe lmIiIu-o-, l»'.-t jM.o-mI ,n n 

texture an,l structure to cause n.arke.l tnpoL'raph.c sive .inarms ot hr.^u^y^^m■■ , a . . 

outlines. The r...i..n is rath.-r rollln.. ,.■ th.^ hill^ nK,..v,. u, .tn,, ..■ .ulyu, ;-;-. ^;;^- "^ j.^ 

''" i"' i:"11:-n"i !;:pn -i.i-'''''n,:":v:ati:a; i,:;:;.!.;":';.;':!,."' An^evi.!...,. ,.i,tain..,i in ti„. 

of'thishi-hlan.ln M,.n varies iHiwecT, two hnn.h-.-.! tiel.l an.l with the n.icr._«M,pc cnnrms th.^ inli.t 

and three^u'>n,ln-ran,l tit tv feet above ti.le, gra- that they are truly eruptive and that the ro.^k 

,„ ,,,,. ;,,„, t,) the n..rth ^vas at one time in a more or less molten ^tatl, in 

' S; ^XZ-J::!^:^ ti: state can be divi.le.l .Inch .-on-liti-.n it wa. pn.hahly! up th,„u.h 

eliptical area ot ..tier micaceous gnus., an.l ;;;;-';;;^l:'-,';; ;;^,^ ^,,^ ..^^,,,, , His gahhro belt 

'' Tim., t th.' wla.le ..f Bran.lvwin.' 1 [uii.ln .1. an.l have subjected to great pressure, a pressure 

th(' .)utheru half ..f Chri-tiana Ilun.ln.l are .'ov- which the n.icr.iscope shows was great enough to 

ered^bvthero:ksofthetii.teIa.s. To the west of flatten an.l ek.n.ate -f f " ''f j'^, "^"f;;:^ ^j:;-!: 

Brandvwine Sprin-s these ivcks, however, taper stituents ...t the r...k and to cru.-h otliei.^ into Iia^ 

out into a uarr..w belt of not over a quarter of a ments. 

mile in wi.lth whi.'h runs along the southern limit To the north of the area ot gabbr.,, an.l ho.n 

:;^d,: A:f iu: t,. bevond Xew^rk. blende, rocks, and resting upon the latte. is an 

Another Interesting development of th.- same extensive h.rn^tion ot highly micace,!.. .L><.k 

rocks occurs to the s.,uthwest of K.-.l Mills, and so easilv tViabl.. as f, crumb e o tl- t, u .u d 

thence to the well-know-n elevati.ui- .-allcl Iron which break into a l....e .-andy, ot guat n.h 

and Chesfiut Hills. The ;>1-;;; ';;•':;-:;'-- -- ^ ,.^,^.,^. „, ,,^ „„,., .,,,;,, u,u are all strati- 
gabbro or hypente ..t tli.' .•iul.-.liap. .1 .ii.a ju.t tnt_ hkk. oi uil i.i 

described is ^pres,.ntc,l bv the .,,.,.,11. .1 - IWumly- tie.l with variations ot b,.d,hn., In.n^ tha as d n 

wine .ranite," whhh i- ,,uarned to such an exten- as slate, in the nn.-a ..h.t., t,, hat o a .ud^ 

sive de-ree in tb,. ,„.l .lib.-rhuod of Wilmin-t,.n. b..hl._-,l .-hara.'t.a- m in.av i„.'tan„aph,,-, ,1 

It is a'rockof .lark blui-h urav or bluish black forms. strik.' an.l .bp m th.-e n..-.. a,... 

color of -reat har.ln.'ss an.l firmness, and is with,.ut subject to great vanation. A aiiat.,.n- ..1 .-tn .^ m 

doubt one of the mo.t valuable an.l .birable .tones this case provmu tuat tb. . evat.n. -;;-';•■_ 

in exi.stence.' unequally showu,.^ in a tw -t n. an.l uiuu 

This r.i.'k has been studied in detail by the latiou ot the ,iut-.r,,ppin- . ,l-- -t ihc .« k v. 

writer an.l fr..U! its wide variation in composition of dip , nablm- il.e -, "h'-i.t, .y pl.mnej, 

and slru.tural .-haracters is of peculiar interest upon paper th...' ob.,.rv,,l al„u_ ^'">- ;";';; "■"; 

The rock, as stu.,i..,i iu„i..r u-iicr........ found j;--; •;•;;-;;;;:;;':; I ;;;: )xt ^:t;r:. 

;^,;;;:;;:;;, ,:xr ;: ./:;: tb:a.;;:riK'r:i;h ;:■: !r ti::-;:...^ i,. a ,,;...... . ..i.;.h. by a., en..- 

The most remarkable fact observe.l in the study lan.l f. Alaban.a, ,.f win, h uplilf the crystalline 

of the.-'e rocks is the intimate associatR.n of hiirhly ,,i D.lauai,' t,,rm a [.ait. 
schi.-tose black hornblende rock with these massive Th,. nu.-a .-.hi-t. an.l !-'";;'^^'-^ "' ,, T-'''^," 1 

trrav -ahbros. The black h.,rnblende i.-, after a .•ontinuati..n ..ft,... s,.-.-ad..l 1 h,lad.l|.hia .u. .,-. 

^ • '" . ■ ._...,•. iv..„.i f,, 1,.. l.Mf .,„ ..V. „l,;,.l, ruviTs tli,' "leatir liaft ..t Delawaie 

ia.~t microscopic studies, fbund to be but an ex- l„.lt. which clivers tlr 

of variation afiecti 

lurn |,..r.i..n ,.f M. 

_„, ^ _ ,-vh 

diich'i^thetrue gabbioi-buta rareora.'ce-ay The-.' r,..k. 

,..e 1. Mill un.leci.l.Mb llv 

con.^titueiit. IS louna lo inciea.e m a........... ...— uunv.-; ^ -i-c - ,;..,. 11 

---. .. ,,.w.,..,,„.,u.,.. ,nany th..y are r.var.le.l a. altered sedi 

d to increase in am.HUit until trover.y, an.l 



monts, whil,^ otluTs .nntin.K^ tn n-ml a.-^ <.f 

Th.-e Slll„livi-i 

ons uiU 1.,. notie. 

.1 ill the.'hrono- 

Archf;m n-,: Thi- latl.T .l.-i-natiM,, i. l,:,-,-,l 

loj-ieni taM.. at Ih 

r npr|li||_r ,,fthi- 

^ arliele au.l will 

upon thrli- lill„,l,,-iral -iniilarilv to inanv nf tli,. 

Ih' ,1,-erUi.Ml 111 oi 


older crv-tallinr -, !,i-t<. Tli.v havr laai.v l.-.a 

'fin: l'i.\~iic 

Clay-..— This 1 

Poi-ination i,- the 

reforrod'to tli.' White Mountain. .,,■ tl„. l;..,kv 

thirkr-t lllellll.. r, 

■ f ihe ,avta. ■,.,„,. 

who-., iiortheiii 

I\[oniit:un :^trii'tf. one of t\u' iipp.T iiieniliei> (if tlie 

iiniit correspoiicl- 

. uith the uppe 

r h.nler of the 


cretaceoiw. Its 

Soulhrni line he^ 

:in- a few i.iilr- 

Associated with tho softer slaty micaceous rock- 

-outhofX,.w Ca: 

-tie, alel exl.I^I- 

- in a -..e.thw, <t- 

are probably intrusive masses of coarse LTaiiic! enilv dii-eeti'iu to ju-t In IdW le'il I.Imii.'_' 

granite, whicii vary in thiekuess for several ineln - the raili-nad lietweii I'.irter'- and Kiikwood, and 

up to nianv feet. The-e L;raiiite< often hi.eome so eutiin:: tlie Slate line alioiit two inileT north of 

hiL^hly feid.-pathic a- to p.,.-,... ,.,,n-.d,.,-able <;lie>apeake City. 

economic value, ina.-iiiueh a- tlie iMd-par fre- Althou-h ,,f so mie-h importam'e, it i-. owiie.' to 

quently becomes (lecoin|)osed into Kaolin. the L'lX'at thii-kni.,— ol'tl verlviiej .jra\els, rarelv 

The celebrated deposits around<in are expo-,.,!, and even \\ hen tavnnd.h/ opp,,rtnni- 

of this character. Dixon's ipiarry near ^\'ilnlinLr- ti. - .are otlired, luit a t'vw fet ot' the eharaeteristi.; 

ton has produced verv tine vields of f.ld-par. A Red Clav appear abovo the snrfaiv. 

very notable vein cuts across the road l.^adinir up The elay is mop. -eneially nd and highly 

the Brandvwine, about one and a half mile- tVom pla-tie; in other I'ases it is mottl.d, and a'jaiu 

the head of the ^^tate. It< width i- alnnit tumtv white and .-indv like tire , lavs. 

feet, and the material a mixture of red orthorla-; Tho best , xposures are the loucr levels of 

albite, blue quartz and museovite. The rock is the iriillies cut by the creeks of ujiper New Castle 

quarried for the valuable feldspar, used in the County, jiartieiilarly alnntr Red Lion Creek, (^c- 

manufacture of artificial teeth. casionally the charactcri.-tic red clav comes to the 

Quartites are also imbedded with the mica schists surface at point- aloivi'the roads. The hills to the 

and when pure and white are worked under the east and north ot' (,'liristiana are formed of these 

name of///))/. At Tweed's r>[ill, above Newark, this clay^, wliieh enter.. |. very freqitently a!on;g the 

rock is gr.nmd into a line Hour, wlieii it is shipped road lead.imr fium ( 'hri-tiana to N.'w Castle. 

for use in the manufacture of pcu-eelaiu ware. JudLrint: from tli.' niaiiv p.iints wlna-e we have 

It is an interesting point to note that these found this clay exp.i.-e.l we are eouvinced that it 

quartz veins are frequently (.fa eilliilar character, has an important eeon..>mie value for the 

when they are quite similar to many ;iold bearint: inannfaetnre of terra e.tta war.'. The supply is 

veins in rooks of like a-e in \'ir'jiuia, X(.rtli Car..- j.raelieallv inexhau-tible, and thi> elav is to all 

lina and Georgia. Hen, v it is not at all impp.b- app.aran.v a- .j-....d a< .-iniilar elay- w.-rk.-d in 

able to suppose that g.ild beariuL' veins may -on..- X.-w .ler-.-.- ti.r inani.fa.tuiv int.j terra e(.tta war(\ 

day be di.=C(jvered up..n the farms of N.irthiru The l.|;■,^tie clays ..f Delaware hav(. within the 

Delaware. past year been correlated with the so-called 

Another connnon associate of the mica ,-ehists i- Rotomac fbrmatioii of Maryland and Virginia, 

a black hornblende rock interbedded with the latter, and have important relation- t.i e.rtain ol.ler 

and forming masses often several hundred feet in grav. 1 (lep..-i(.- whi.h will l... n|i(.n lat.u'. 

thickness. In places, this alternation of hornblende Sam, .M AKi..-Tlii- is a ,1. |,.,-it ,.f a l..amv yellow 

and micaceous rocks is frequent. » silicons san,l, with i- mix.'.l,, .jr, i n 

TiieCrktaCD-il-.s.— Thecreta(_v,,usof Delaware, saiel niar|., wle.-e is ab.,ut nimtv f.t. 

a continuation of the same f.rmation as (le\elop.(l It r, -t- upon tli,' pla-tic elav forinali,,n. and 

in New .I,M--.v, .-xteiid,- a,To- th,. .tai,- a^ a north- .-..vors that part .,f New Ca-tle Countv, Ivin- 1,.;- 

east an,ls,,uthw,'-t l„.|t,witli a breadth of ei'jht,,.!!, twi-eii th,- s,.utliern limit (,f the pla.-tie clays, and 

and a lem_'th of tVoin till, en t.. tv^entv mile-. The tie- canal. 

northern limit of the belt ha< been trace,! Tin; Mai:l R.i.i,-.— Th,. marl be,l- ever a coin- 
out as making the -..uthern boundarv of the ]iai'ativelv -mall ar, a in th,.. .■~tat,., and are pra,- 
Archean. Tlie .-outherii limit was a litth- to'the tieallv limited to that divi-i.,ii of New Ca.-tle 
south of, and parallel with, App,„piinimink Civ, k, cnmy , ailed St. (;,.,i-..-s Hiiielr,.!. 
cutting through the centre of N.>x.uit,nsu mill- T"li.' tir-t imp,. riant ,>utia-,.ps of ■_'i,.en -and oc'iir 
pond, and thence proi-eeds in a straight south- alon._Mhe D.laware and Cli. -apeake Canal, the 
w-esternly direction. The ditferent subdivi.-ions ,jf channel ,. I' wlii.h ciit- d. .plv into the tiu-iiiation. 
the cretace,ius form nnifirm be,ls ,li|,pim: at a Ii- ii.irth,a-n liinil. a- ,1. i.rniin...l bv ..1.1 marl jiiis 
low au-le t.i the s-, nth, ast. This , lip wa- .•arelully run- appr.,xiiiiately |.arall,.| with the canal, 

and Delaware canal, and found to be at this i».iiit to a mile. Fn.m thi- line the marl extend^ south- 

nt the rate of f.,rf> -five tiet to the mile. wa.rd t,. an.,tlier h.^in lary parallel with, and ab,mt 

THE (;eo].()<;y of dklaware. 

Drie mile smith "f A]i[)^>'Hiiiiiinink Crt'ek. where it 
^iv^l-Iace tothe t,Tli:uv,h,vs. 

Tile (livi.-ioi,< .,r the .jiv, .1 sai>a fnrinatinn are 
t'lUiiil, witli twii exce|iti'iii-, U) coi-n-iiniid wjtli 
tlinse liuule by til,' New Jei>ey Survey. The clir..- 
iiolu^'ieal tabic at the upenini,' of llii- article y;ives 
tlie suliilivisions of the marl lieds. 

LowjiR JFarl Bed. — This stra'um, which ex- 
tends as a narrow belt on each side of the canal, 
is found to outcmp along the entire len;5th of the 
same, rising about u foot above the surface of the 
water, and fartlier west to the height of twenty leot. 
The lowest layer in thi^ deji'isic is a t'lUirh bluoish 
black marl, which, upon drying, turns to a lii'hter, 
ashen or earthy color, when it is found to lie made 
of a mixture of green sand, siliceous sand and 
argillaceous matter. The solid particles are coated 
with chalky carbonate of lime, which, under the 
microscope, appears as a fine white powder of a 
granular character. 

Overlying this last layer is a shelly layer ..f 
about three feet in thickne>s. and <-oiitainiiig the 
characteristic fossils of the Lower Marl Bed of Iv'ew 

Above this layer, which we have called the 
" Black Argillo-micaceous Marl," to tlie west of 
the Delaware railroad, it is exposed in tiie •■ iJoep 
Cut, "where its characters can be well .-tiidi-d. Thi- 
black marl is composed of niiinuc >liarp ghi-v 
particles of quartz, coated with a grayi-h du^t, and 
associated with a few green sand particles of unu- 
sual firmness, together with a considerable quantity 
of minute scales of muscovite mica. 

Indurated Marl Bed. — The nortlurn limit 
of this belt, which is also the southern limit ot' the 
lower marl bed, starts near the mouth of .Si-ott's 
run, and thence keeps parallel with the canal to 
the railroad, where it begins slightly to diverge, 
cutting the headwaters of the northern branch of 
the Bohemia river. The southern limit of the lielt 
can only be approximately outlined, but as can 
liest be determined, runs from Port Peun through 
the headwaters of Drawyer's Creek, and crosses 
the Marvland line four miles below the head of 
linhemia Kivcr. The deposit is divided into two 
layers : 1st, Lower layer of reddish siliceous sand, 
with some green sand, which occupies the upper 
border of the belt a littl.' south of the canal; and 
-d. An upper layer of [larlly decomposed or indu- 
rated marl, of a rusty green color when drv, which 
underlies most of the area of the belt. 

TiiE^IiDDLE Marl Bed. — This belt cro-<.s the 
State with a uniform breadth of three and a half 
miles, the northern line runninu; Inun I'ort I'.-nn, 
a little north of Drawv>r"s Civk, aii.l cro.v~iii.^ the 
State line four mil. s ^out!l of tlio Bolieniia Liver. 
'I'liesoiitlicni line cr-.-^es tlie center ot' the .\..xon- 


ik Creek. The ndd.'Ie marl 

IS .livided into three very ,li-tant lavei-s. (1") A 

bell, and well-ex[..,-ed aloii- I)^l^^ v'rs Civek an.l 
Silver Lun. ( 2> An intern;ediate hiyer of friaiile 
shelU, from three to ten feet, exposeil at the head 
of Noxontown mill-pond and along the south side 
of Appoi|uinimink Creek. (.'!) An upper yellow 
or reddish-yellow sand, occupying the southern 
verge of the belt. 

The Economic Value of the ;^L\UL.— The 
area covered by the marl beds has already been set 
f>rtli with sutiicient exactness to enable one to 
know where marl can be found. The supply 
within the area, umlerlaid by it, is probably inex- 
haustible. Its value as a fertilizer makes it wor- 
thy of consideration. (Jreen sand is composed of 
grains of tlie minend glaiK'onite, mixed with 
greater or 1l-> ipiaiitities of impurities, as clay, 
siliceous saiul, and mineral particles. 

Cilauconite is a compound of silica, iron, prot- 
oxide and potash ; the quantity of potash ranging 
from four to twelve jier cent. ^lany of the Xew Jer- 
sey green sand marls contain from one to two and 
a half per cent, of phosphoric acid, and there is 
no reason to doubt but that the Delaware marls. 
which are geologically identical with those of New- 
Jersey, may be equally rich in this last substance. 
^^'llell used, liberal dressings of tlu' land should 
be made before plowing, in this wav a large 
amount of potash is introduced into the soil, which, 
while at first insoluble, or not directly available, 
becomes slowly set free by decomposition, and 
renders it available to plants. 

The effects of the marl are, theref ire, lasting, 
and when ajiplied every few years permanent. A 
careful inquiry into the results obtained from the 
application of marl upon some of the Delaware 
farms has convinced the writer that good results 
can be reached by its use. As a direct ami imme- 
diate source of potash, green sand is not to be 
compared, by the rule of commercial valuation, 
with the easily soluble kaiiiil; but as an easily 
available and cheap material for the culture and 
permanent improvement of land, green sand marl 
is a material worthy of the attention of those far- 
mers of the .State w-hose lands are underlaid by it. 

The Tertiary. — All that portion of the .State 
lying south of the lower limit of the marl beds, as 
already pointed out, is underlaid by the Tertiarv, 
of both Pliocene and probable I'liocene age. 

The northern half of this area, which is iKirdered 
on the south by a line running not far t'rom the 
course of Murderkill Creek, is underlaid bv a dral) 
or white clay deposit of from ten to twenty feet in 
thicknos.-, so far as can be determined from such 
well-reeords a< have' eumeto the writer's attention, 
Thi- .lepii-it t-oiitains in places abundant f i>-il~ 
futiicieiit to deiermine its Mioeeiie ai'e ; it aLo 
overlies, probably iin.''onf'ormably, the marl. This 


hijrhly phi^tic clay can he k 
crcoUi of Kent Luunty ami 

Along thu rre.ks at Sniyrn: 
freiiuently ex|ii>r-(l, whi-re iia 
studied. In it? pui\T I'.irnis ii 
mirable potter'.- clay, and con.- 
supply, underlying: as it dots the v 
County, its \alue for that ]Hirpose is worthy ol the 
consideration of potters abroad and at home. 
South of the latitude of MurderkiU Creek, repre- 
senting the whole of Su.-?ex County, we meet with 
a later de])nsit of the Tertiary of probably Plio- 
cene age. 

This is reprer-ented by an uppcnno.-t layer of 
blue clay, and an under deposit of ,>;la-# sand. 

The blue clay varies iu thickue^.^ from ihr. e to 
ten feet, and often runs into a black hog mud, 
while less often it becomes of a light drab hue. In 
its upper portion it contains nests of the modern 
oyster in a verv friable condition, and which Prof. 
Heilprin,of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural 
Sciences, considers as of a somewluit antiijue char- 

Underlying the blue clay is the glass sand, which, 
so far as the writer's knowledge goes, has been 
penetrated to a depth of forty feet. 

It is a pure white glass sand, and would be of 
great value in manufacturing were it easily acces- 
sible. It seldom, if ever, comes to the surface, 
owing to the overlying clay deposit, which rises to 
just about tide-level. "Where the uppermost grav- 
els and loams of Susses County are thin, howevei-, 
it miglit be found near enough to the surface to be 
readily worked. At any rate, this point is well 
worthy of the time necessary for prospecting. 

Iron Ova: r>i;Ds. — The ore beds of the State are 
found only in New Castle and Susse-x Counties, and 
are entirely bog-ores, ^Yhich are of two kinds 
" dome" and " layer." The Ibrmer is found luostly 
in New Castle County ; the latter in Sussex County. 
The outlying spurs of the Archean Kocks, Iron 
and Chestnut Hills, which rise abruptly aliove the 
plain iu the vicinity of A\'hite Clay Creek in IVn- 
cadcr Hundred, New Castle County, were known 
to contain ore from the earliest settlement of that 
part of the State, and the hjrnier is mentioned in 
official records and papei-s in ICfll. 
forge and furnace were built at the 
ore was mined and smelted for a'^out ten years. 
They were then aban.loned, and ill 1>41. the jiits 
and adjacent property w-ere purcha-ed hy David 
\V.,od, an iron-n,a-tcr'of Philadelphia, by whom 
they were o]. crated for maiiv years, and were 

known as " W i'sOre Pit;."" In l.sT'i, the 

property ].a---ed to the proprietors of the Principio 
Furnace, l>y whom they are still owned and 

.•en only alon- the 

a mile west of Ir 

on Hill.) nun 

ly y 

lower New Ca.tle 

1^7::, the «cuk . 

.f miiiin-alhU 


pun on ,,uite a 

large ,eale, ai 

id c 

I and at Dover it is 


.(Ualitics can be well 

In Su.scx Con 

mty.alon- the 


t would make an ad- 

westerly into liie 

■ C"hc~a|„ ake 1 

'.ay : 

•idering its luilimilt il 

Nantieoke II m 

;(lud. 1:. g-(,ri- 


3 the whole of Kent 

known to exist f 

rom alioiit the 


In 17 

mis that tlow 
,nd lai-L'clv in 
erj haye I'.ccu 
le of the last 

, large ([uantitics 

iie iron shippi 

of ore were raiM_d, smelted ainl tiie iron shipped to 
England. The blockading of the Chesapeake, 
comjielled the abandonment of the furnaces, and 
the mining of ore and the manufacture of iron, was 
not again renewed until the beginning of the 
]>re^ent century, when forges and furnaces were 
built and large cjuautities of ore raised, some of 
wliich was smelted iu the forges in the vicinity but 
tile larger portion shijiped to New Jersey. The 
lauds from which the later forges procured their 
ores were those worked before the Ptevolutiou. 
Collins forge, which went out of blast about PSoO, 
was the laat to abandon the manufacture of iron 
in Sussex County. ^Many of the lauds, about 
1.^21, passed to iron masters of New Jersey, who 
raised and shipped the ore to their furnaces in 
that State long after the abandonment of all the 
forges in the lower parts of Delaware. No ore 
has been raised in Su-sex and Kent County for 
several year?, as the \isible supply was nearly 
exhausted; but new deposits are slowly being 
made, and at some future time the iron industry 
may again be mtide a source of profit to the State. 
It may be of interest to the people of the region 
where these ores are found, to know iu what other 
localities similar ores are worked and how they are 
formed. Professor J. P. Lesley, an eminent 
authority, in the "Iron ^Manufacturers Guide." 
published iu 1859, enumerated the diflisreut kiuds 
of ore ai 

■M. Tlie 




found on CI 



finolil.' nuxii.fc' ere l< l' 11,,: cbajCLiil Hiriinc>-s in lL.-]r;,liLu.l.uu.i ; 
butowiugtotlie sulphur tiny ccnliiiD make i,i!;.T Eeulr.i; 
ores run red-.-hort, and, tin, •■lioiild be ni'xed only wiili coid sl.nrt 
Hiiid ores. Bv t'De uf these liai^i y adar.taticns which extite our plfe;i3 
urable adniiration for the laws -which Ku\trn the n alt-rial world, these 
U-ff dapo»iI3 fortunately are int>t ctniiiLn in rej. ions which exhibit 
hfavy silicious ores of cold short temper." 

The ores of tliis nature inentioned above, as the 
" dome " and formed by a nicchnnical prooesn, are 
found mostly in the north \\-estern part of Dela^vare 
in the vicinity of Injn Hill. Profe.rsor James C. 
Booth in his report of 1841 .-^nvs: 

" This elevation consists oi' clay.-, .-^and and 
gravel, and derives its name from the abundance of 
boulders of iron-stone and ferruginous quartz scat- 
tered over its flanks, the latter of which was 
probably at one time of good quality, but through 
exposure to atmospheric agents, has been rendered 
valueless. An excavation has been made on the 
summit for the extraction of inm ore to the i.lepth 
of 40 to oO feet, which enables us to estimate the 
character of this singular hill. . . . 

" Nodules of iron ore are aluindantlv ;li.~triliuted 
through the whole forniatinu; it i? of a vhe.-tnut- 
brown color ( sometimes bluei.-h-blaek from the pres- 
ence of manganese), hard and tough ; may be con- 
sidered a moderately hard ore, being both siliceous 
and argillaceous; the nodules frequently enclose 
an oehrey clay, more rarely a black eartli contain- 
ing manganese. Large quantities of the ore have 
already been ex[iorted." , 

Professor Le.-ley continues in regard to laver 
ore : 

" But ore of another kind is deposited upon the 
white clay or white sand floor of peat I.iul's, lakes 
and swamps of every kind iu tertiary, and other 
low and gravelly parts of the earth's surface. In 
Etistern :Massaclius..-lts the ohk-st fur'i;i'-es were 
built to smelt such ores. In Xew Jer.-ev and 
Delaware they have been wrouirht manv years. 
The southern shore of Lake Erie is lined with fur- 
naces built on deposits of this order. In true peat 
bogs a cake or pau of peroxide of in.n i,~ found at 
the bottom, and every tree-trunk is ilved bhirk «ith 
it. The waters which feed the.-e bog.- hriu- into 
them from the ferruginous sand hill,-, bv which 
tliey are inlocked, emiugh of iron to suppiv certain 
llll.•^o^copir animals with the mati rial th.-v reouire 

for chi'ir fcrro-^ilirrous sl-.ield -. and tliese, upon the 
dc-ath i.f til" \[i:\'- e.>-.-;tiins, fill in a fine powd-r 
to the l>.,;t(,i,i of !h.' bi.-g or are ctirried into the 
pores of t;^- tii'.otr !■ cimt.iius." ' 

The ores of thio .^i.ate are not, however, those 
formed ia pest s\\;'a;ps but are better de.scriind by 
Profes.sor .}>f.u\,::^ C. Booth in his report in 1.^41'. 
L'nder the head of •' L'pper cSands,"' he writes : 

'•The ores of imn tbuml in various parts of 
Sussex (.'ouoty iu coiisideriible quantity, and par- 
tiouiavly on the di\:-iing ridge, claim attention as 
•'.■■vx-i!i'r yie'ded and still introducing some revenue 
into the Stare. The most remarkable are those 
situated a lev.- miles northwest of Georgetown, 
near the sources of several strea^us tlowiiig \vesterlv, 
which, being on elevated and level land, spread 
themse'ves in broad and shallow basins covered 
'.vith a stratum of black argillaceous mould. The 
ore fbund below this black soil is of various kinds, 
hard or sohd. gravelly and loam ore. The hard 
variety, which exists in great abundance, forms a 
aoiid substratum to the mould from sis to eight 
inches or more in thickness; it is hard, moderately 
tough, of a rich brown color and resinous lustre, 
with au uneven, conchoidal fracture; sometimes 
compact ; often cellular in structure ; composed 
essentially of peroxide of iron and water. Aa 
analysis of this variety of ore from the Clowes bed 
(in the western part of Broadkihi Hundred), per- 
formed by E. Mayer, yielded peroxide of iron, ^0 
per cent.; water, 15 per cent.; silica, 5 per cent., 
and of alumina a trace, which may be viewed as 
the average composition of the same kind found 
in other localities. The amount of metallic iron 
in the above is 55j jier cent., but when sulijected 
to i-oastiug the remaining ore will yield nearly 06 
per cent. The gravelly ore consists of irregular 
masses of a similar ore of the size of a nut and 
smaller, disseminated in a yellow ferruginous loam, 
but containing rather more argillaceous matter, is 
softer and more reatlilv worked. 

"Ihe loam ore, whirh i- -till solter than the pre- 
cedino-, is a yellow ot-hre or clay highly char-ed 
with hydrated jit-ruxide of iron. For workin-j- in 
the furnace tiie-eveial kimlsare luiii-letl to-etlier, 
which not only facilitates the reduction by tluxing, 
buL results in the production of a better quality ol 
iron, ^'arious names have been given to the ores 
of Mi.-sox, more dependent on ditierences in their 
external form and other characters of the ore, 
which first renders itself perceiitible iu the metal; 
it is that matter wliirh forms a cold. short metal, and, 

or ar.-eiiic. but- analysi- has not hitherto detected 


lllsToUY OF I>i:L.V\VArJ 

their prfscnee in the ore. The liaril ur -uli.l variety 
is very apt Xo ]iri"luce such a inrtal, Imt iiy !ni\in:x 
with the softer kinds, the n.-uU is a -mi 1 inuilraiiie 
iron when worked in a forL'e. 

"Collins" ore bed, the Idw. st on tlir tiieen 
Meadow braneh of I)eep Creek (,i:i ^anii'.'ke 
Hundred), consists e'lietlv of a si. lid loam ore 
which is principally \\roU'.'lit at Collins' lor.- —a 
hard, compact ore, vi^-ry rioh in iron. I>iit --.'.'i to 
yield a cold, short nieral, and of a small (juant'ty 
of sandy ore. There are many otlier deposits of 
ore in various parts of Sussex, such as that on 
Green liraneh, about ten miles west of ^Iillsboruu_di, 
the best of which is in ball^ or nodules and yields 
good metal ; that on Burton's branch, one mile 
west of the same town, makini; a cold, short iron ; 
that on Little Creek, near Laurel, and others iu 
which the characters are referable to those given 
above. . . . 

"The raising of ore in quantity wa- ronunenecd 
about 1814, since which time nearly _'iin,()i)U tuns 
have been rai^ed, about of wliirh were ex- 
ported, introducing not less than St.JOO,Ul)0 into the 

At the time IMr. Bo(jth made his report little was 
known concerning the manufacture of iion before 
the Revolution and mining of the bog ores. A 
full account of the mining of ore and manufacture 
of iron will be found in histories of the hun- 
dreds in which the furnaces and forges were 

The Quaterxary.— Overlying all of the f ir- 
mations of the State, and forming its soil, is a broad 
sheet of gravelly deposits, whose average tliickness 
is about twenty-tive feet. In New Castle County 
these gravels have received the name of Delaware 
gravels, from their identity with like de[H.sits along 
the Delaware River valley. Here we distinguish 
two layers — an upper brick clay, called the Phila- 
delphia brick clay, and an under red sand and 
gravel. The brick clay layer has a thickness vary- 
ing from two to six feet, bur with -an averaL'c of 
about three feet. It varies from a .-titf brick clay 
to a loam of remarkable richne-s, which firms tiie 
soil of Xew Castle County. It often becomes quite 
gravelly, containing frequently quartzose boulders 
and cobble-stones of huge size. Tin' red sand has 
an average thickness of about twenty feet, and is 
characterized by its color. Tin- saml i> ot'tcn quite 
fine, again coarse and running into gravel ; it -hows 
frequent cross bedding, and indicates the ai^'iicy of 
swift, shifting currents in its depo-ition. The Dchi- 
ware graveL extend up the slopes of the Areheaii 
hills to an average elevation of two hundred feet, 
which represents the heii'lit of the waters of (Qua- 
ternary time. 

Over Kent County the gravels maintain an 
cciual thickness: the brick-lay layer, however, be- 

loam, this dep<,>it forminL'the rich peach la. id of 
Kent County. 

In .< lutlicrn K.-nt County the two members of 
the (Quaternary _'rav( Is m.Tge iiuo a sim:le de- 
posit of a hi-hly gravdly or lo:imy character, 
this feature continuing over the whole of Sus-ex 

To explain the mode of di'po-Ition of these grav- 
els, we me-t umld>taiid that darin-j the Glacial 
epoch, what i^ iciw the Delaware River had its 
source near 1'.. Ividere, at tlie lower limit of the ice. 
sheet: that it ^lood one hundred iind fiftv feet 
In-I.. r than at pre-ent, and had a width of "some- 
thing like ten miles. 

Atthe,-anie time, what is now the Delaware and 
.Maryland Peninsula, became submerLred, forming 
an e-tuary, like the tliesapeake; into tlii.- the 
swollen Delaware Kiver emjitied. carrying wiili it 
its loads of detritu-, which it s[)read out over the 

I'own this (,)uaternary river icebergs floated, 
carryiiiir burdens of boulders, which they dropped 
at i)oints over the entire State. 

Besides this universal sheet of gravel covering 
all three counties, we find over the high Archean 
hills isclated patches of gravel, which are much 
older. This is called the Potomac formation by 
W. T. ]MeGee, from its fine exposures along the 
Potomac River. ]McGee has shown that these iso- 
lated patches of gravel are contemporaneous with 
the phustic clays of the Lower Cretaceous, when 
the clays exti nded farther north, so as to reach 
over the high hills of Dilaware. 

The materials of the Potomac gravels are quite 
like those of the Delaware gravels, but the two can 
easily be distiuL'uished, from the fact that the Po- 
tomac gravel patches reach an elevation of from 
three hundred to four hundred feet, while the Del- 
aware gravels never reach that elevation, but have 
a maximum elevation of two hundred and twenty 
feet above tide. 


THK ABonii,INi;s. 

A V.\sr, my.-terii.iu-. barbarian race, the aborig- 
ine- of the We^-tern Continent, emerged gradually 
tV,.m blank- ol.-curiiv into the clear liL:ht of knowi- 
,.l::e. and lie-an to ti.nire upon the pa-e- of hi- 
torv with th- other peoples of the- earth, when the 
pioneer navi-ator, ,,f the Old Worl-l touched the 
shores of the New-. 

At the dawt'i of the historic era, which .so far as 


it. first i:UMnii..L' in tlie .-i.l'.vnt ..f H nrv llii,l-n„ 
„|Mm tlie Dclawaiv an.l the Noitli Klvr. rl,.' In- 
dian.* uccupvini: thr rnnutrv \v;iri'i-.'il liv llicsr 
.rn-M stiviuu^ uer.. .hinlv 'of ilir AlL'.Mn|nin-, 
l^enni-L^napr .„■, u> tiuv iuuv l>..n n.ore o-ni- 
nionlv calkd, I >rlawar. -, an.l tho, In- 
quois'or Five or Six Nations/ 

The former fxt.n.1,.1 tVnni tlir lou.-r IIu,i-^-.n t- 
tlie Potomac, l>nt tli-v aopraf to liavr 1h-,ii ren- 
tralized npnii th.' I).'lau:nv lliv.r and liav. luu- 
ticularlv tlh' fnrmri-, ^\llil,■ tluir kiii-nim tli- Xan- 

ticoiies had 

ter and occupied at that laily [uriod iiiu'li nt' the 
territory now inelnd.d in tlie -oniliLrn ]iarts ot' 
Dekwarean.maryhmd and tlie ea-teni .hore of 
the Chesap'^alie. in th.' hitter re^don ln-inL'- inter- 
spersed with the ManL-'iiiTs or Minu'oes ; i.iltfii these 
were called the Siisiiuehanoas. The Leuui Leiitipe 
may thus be said, in a ^-eneral way, to have held 
dominion over the fore^t-eovered hills and plains in 
what is now southeastern Xew York, nearly the 
whole of New Jersey, all of Pennsylvania east of 
the Susquehanna and much of the reuion included 
in the State which is the i^peeial province of thi- 
work. It was not, h'.iWL-v.'r, an undisputed domin- 
ion. Their great north. -ni lu-iL'-ldiors, die Iroipioi-, 
were their implacLdil.' t .imiiis, and often w a^ed 
war against them, repiat.'dly rodiieiiiL'' and iin- 
miliating them, so thtit hy a century and a half 
after the first authentic knowledge of tlie Luiiape 
was obtained, they had sunk into comparative 
^ insignificance. The Iroi|Uois occupied th.,- re-ion 

; of the Up]ier Hudson ujion its west -liore, and 

their villages sparsely dotted the wilderne.~- nortli- 
wanl, to and beyond the St. Lawrence, and west- 
ward to the great lakes, their principtil popula- 
tion being within what is now the State of Xew 
I York. 

When Henry Ilnd- .n. in September, 1(500, after 
\ entering and examiuiiiL'- the Dehiware liav, skirt- 

I cd the Atlantic Coast, sailed up the r.^yai river 

; that bears his name and rode at anrlu.i- in the 

I majestic tide, he tom-lad th.' northern and eastern 

I e.Ktreinity of the land ot' the Lenape. The Indians 

j whom he met there and upon the islanii where it 

I came about that Xrw York was built, were of 

I that nation, and with tlimi were .ome of their 

\ iViends the Mohicans or M..he-ans. 

; Full of sim[)le sublimity and lofty poetry was 

1 ' "Tlic nai.iQ ' Delavvnn-5,- wlii.h Wi- sive to Ihv- ■,»•. t.l"," sivs 

i II-:k.-Mf|.ler, "if koown in th.!r invn luiiLniase ; * » th-v rl,',..iL-l.t tiie 

«Iiii.-1u„1k,v.ii ,r,.:u :„.l,T,M,.i. l.ut ll.i-y wiTf r-.o>,cile,l to it, 

.ti-anu^e pale-fe^d m.'n, in dn-, b.arin- 

s| rh dilKa-rnt from th-ir own, who rainr in th.? 

'■ win-.'d ean...s" to th.-ir sle.n-. In th.-lr a^oii- 
i-hm..,Uth..veall.Ml .,ut t., .m.',r, " U.^ohl I 
th.. (J.hN aiv eonu' t.. vi-il n^!" Th.-y at fir.-t 
e..nMd.a-.-d ih.-e hith.Tt.. unkin.wn b.aii-- a> me^- 
sen..rers of peace <■ nt t.. tlfiii fr.mi th.' al....le of 
the^Cxreat Spirit, an. 1 u. l.-.,m,.l au.l hn,„,n,l tie m 
withsaeriHeial f.aM- an.l with uift-. Hu.l-ou n- 
o.n-d,;{ that aln.v.' th,- H !■■ hIan.K " tli.-v f.un.l a 
verv l.A-in- p.M.pK^ an.l verv .,ld men, ami were 
^^,■n ii-.'.l.-' 

The-allant Dut.'h iiavi-at..r ami .li,eoverer was t.. be in .-iviiity ;ind -Lai.;r<.sity. He 
gave the w..n.liTin- .-ava'.;.;S pr.'SeiU. an.l put to 

ably Hidlaud -.■hnapp- -in,— tint- intr.i.lueing at 
thi' via-v ineepti.jn ..f his aciiuaiiitance with them 
.in.' .if the destructive and important character- 
istii- of civilization, — the art of becoming drunk. 
The savages reciprocated by extending the tobacco- 
pipe, and thus the Old \Vorld and the New each 
gave the other a much-prized new vice. 

As has been heretofore intimated, actual knowl- 
edge of these people— their history— begins with 
the coming of Henry Hudson, and such informa- 
tion as we have concerning them in after-years i^ 
atii.nled by the other early adventurers and set- 
tl.'i-., along the Atlantic seaboard. Of the origin 
(jr di-rivati.jn ..f the race — of its earlv movements 
—there i.. ab-..lutely n.. .lata, .udy an illimitable 
fiel.l fir wihl conjecture ; and concerning the 
atliiirs of the several nations, even during the 
peri.jil closely preceding the discovery and occu- 
pancy of the country, the Indians were able t.> 
give only vague and fanciful traditi.jns, some of 
them corroborated as to essentials by evidence 
from other sources. Ofthi~ela.-- is th.- Delawares' 
traditionary account of th.' migrati.m of 
peo[)le and the Meugwe or Iro..piois from the f ir 
west to the east, which there is external evidence 
for believing in the main true. We present this 
with some other D.dawaro leL'end< befirc drawini' 
upon the accounts of tin- Dutrli. Swe.l.s an.l Kn.:- 
lish fir a deseripti..n <.f the hMian chartieter and 
mann.r of lit!'. 

The L.iiap.' elaini.-.l gnat aiiti.piity ami super- 
iority over ..ther ab.iri-inal nati.m.-. In.lce.l, the 
name Leiini Lenape i .-.netime^ R. iini K. iia|i;.i < 
signifies "the original p.opl.-" ,a- ■• in.ii ..f men" 
— a race of liunum li.inLr> ^^h" aiv ili. .-ame that 
thev were in th.' b. -iunin- unehan-e.l an.l un- 
mixed. Thev a'-.rt.<l that thev ha.l .xi-te.l fr..m 
th.. b.;.in.,in'_r.,t-tim.', an.l .uany In.lian uati.m.-. 
the Miamis. \Vyau.|..t.-, Shawam/.e an.l more than 

JTI,..- L...U I.n,,., I,,,ii.l.'.l .l.i.wi tl.e tr.i.litiuM ul ri-«-i.liuji uf 


,.., „„ , ... ;;■.:':;.;;;:-:;:;'. -'■-»; t ,:J:;.7!U'rc\:::i:. 'in":::';:':-;: 

tUllutV UU.l rMrd Ilui.i (.l,UiM,.iui n,,,n, -lir Mltin" Mill 

,•"• »■ 1 1,- .,r ,,(■ ill,- irit 1.11- IMHiIl the (ilir-t ot Imni illi MUni-.nii. 

tnulitiun ot llic ;ia\riit ..l lli> ^u^uu ' , i Mvd, ■ w to their ..ri-iu ;w urihIi'Ts ot the hnman 

Dehuvare ami the eu.-teni .ea-eoa.-t is ihh tieal .i i.^ f.„;,ii,._,V,,i, ,.n.ati..n— .■xi-tr,l anion- the DMa- 

intcrestiug :f'^^>" ^^'f ;.';^;';', ^J;;',; ■;;''■ tCliuav ^va.■eJ \n .reat vari.ty.atte.tin^ the ,,fo„ei,e- of 

y^-^^^°^''"';r';^^: :."\va a--t e U. ■; --> thi. ha,-hana„ ,eo,,l... n. eoiun.on .ith al 

country beyon,! the 1 allK ol W at 1 t ,,ivili,,,l raee,~, to .-,,eeulaie upon the niy.te.y ot 

^,., o. M,-M.,p,u-an.l near ^l;;- ' .^ 'l; » ^^^^^ ,„„. ,„,J,„ , K. the 

which the -"''-"^.'■^"'>;"^;, /,,■:„„,;. Thev eUmn that th.v o:n..,-.v,l .■■on. a eave nt the 

long heton. tho ^'"^^ ■';;,;; ;;,. ,,,,,, eat-th. like tl,.. uoo.leioiek a,.! .n.un.l .,ninvl : to 

traveled easlxNaril. ^eokln_' a l.ui. laii . .,„.,„,- a Miail that «a> tian-lnnueil 

theirpropliet-haatoia.lion, ,na.-tl,eyn,ae, ^ V,,;", i„„„^ „„,„,„,„,„,.„ ,he my.t.fie- 

the western >hore ot tlie ureat M.-M-nri th.> ma |'|,'-^^-'^^^_|^^^^^^, ,^^^^, ^^^^_ ,^^,,,, ,,^. ^, i„,,,,i,,,„t .pi.-it, 

another niiuhtNaKitiouoiinen .4 ^ li,,.! 'that 'M, he ua. ree-ive,! into the 

istence thev liail he.n in i-ieaaa.i. ^ '" I I j^_ ^ ,. ^.^^^ i„,.ivi.r ami niarri. .1 hi< tavonte 

theysayweretliej/w,;;e., ,„■I,^..,uo,-,an.^th,-^^a. ^^^^-^^^^^^ \,.,.nlin^ to another l.^eml. a Nvoiuan 

the first meeting ut tlie-e tuo^ nali-n-, -l. -^ ^^ . ^^^^^ ^-^^^-^ ^^^^ ,,^,„,1|,,1 heaven i- hoverin.- in mia- 

remaill in the east tor e. ntniie- a^ n. _ - ,.1,.,,,^ ,,t' ;U'-'-^' ^^''tei'^^. theix^ hein- no 

enemies. Tlrey J"-;--' •;' I";,; r;;';;!'; , arth to her a re^m.-plaee. At thi. entienl 

warfare nor tnena.-l,i|., hut pi-ontl,, tl.\ ■„„,.„,,,, i„ t'„. raiver ..f the' Lenape i,ro-ei;itor.-, 

that they must nuite th. ir toie..- aLeun-l a ■'"".'^^^^'^^^^.^, ■^,^^^_; j.^, ,^, j,,,. ^..,,t^. ,l,.|,ths aiia i.lae.a 

men enemy. Ea.t of tlie lather ot aier- t ie> . g -^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^.^^^ ^^^^^^^ -^^ ^^^ _ ,,.rviee, aiul 

discovered a race ealle,! the Alle-wi, "';'-"l'>^'^'^'^ ''^ ^^^ ,]J,.ru,\<-A upon it ana ina-le it her aho.le. 'Hu' 

vast domain and tn^ only Mron...' "| ;|'"" ;' ;_^^,^ ^, „„ ,,,„ .,„,,;„,, „f ^he glol)e-coverin^ 

than them-elves, Imt ..|naU> iia\i n > 1,.,,.,, ,,.1,- attaeh. a thom.-lves to the mai-ni 

skilled in .ar. Thev leid, indee.l. tortihea toun. -'.-■;;;;,!' -;'^^;^^ ;,/^, ^, ^^^^^^^.^ ^^^j^^.^j .p,,, 
and numerous stronLa,; .Id-.' Ihe- AlU-ui leuuit^ ^^^ ^ ,,.,:,„„,',;- of sea-weed, and alfuf the jioh.m, 

ted a part of the emi-ratimj nation, to 1'-'- '^^ ,,nhe'ia imal .>eean accumidatcd until the dry lami 

border of their coniitry, and liav.n;.' ""'Y''"~' ' .j „,,,,,.,,„.; .„ia after a-es had passed, all of that 
division of their antagonists, leU upon ;|.- ^ ^ ; ' ^;^ ;,;^,, ^^.j^;^,, ,,,„,titnte. North Atm.riea 

great furv to annihilate them. Lnt t a m,i n ho, > a t i ^^^ _^^ 
!fthealhedMe,,gweamlLenape,allvin..i-,.,nte --;•-;;;;;;; ;;;-\l::-^, .,,„..-- of le. -it,:- 

first shock, made resistance ^Mth .ueh .h-p, amiu a,..,, J,vi. of va-t dnratio.,, hioken 
ener.vthatthey defeated theAlle.^i, ami '^''''Y'' (j ,;V'n 1 hieh ^luMva- viMted hv a -piri. 
them fbrsvar.1 as the ^vind does the dry leav . <.t .m >^ '-^jl. ' p|^; 'p'-oP nhove the skie., aiei ot' tl: 

along and l)lo,.a\ \\.a \\on\ut<iN ^,,„„„„ .,ll ,1,.. nat on- ot 

dioni have si.ning all the na 

tl... earth 

untifthey had not -^y ;■-'■'>,,;-:''-;; ;,;;; I ".;;;,u::ri;!::;i'ti::;;r:at Spirit i. ,.,.pr,-ent.. , 

well-niLdi exterminated them, iii'-ii < oumi. , ^ th.' taer ot'theuaM- in the 

which their earth fortificatio.K ri'inamea the onh a. ck>u i^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ p,,„„liier tli. le until 

reminder of the dispelled natmii. wa- o.-rupio,! U^ toini o . ^^ exovei-iie" it- e.vativ- power. 

the victors. Alter this Loth the Men.ue and t e t e -;;;;;;;;-,:;;;^;;- :,^p;:,\;:::;,,,,. ,Pe alnmal- 

Lcnape ranged eastward, the tormei ko imig to a . to whom wa- 'aveii an arrow ini- 

the northward, and the latter to the -'';';: 'J; ;;;,^,,,,,_, ,,i,.,;,„ ,,,1 . .ali- 

until thev reached respectively the 1 lud-oii and '""'^^^ " ' ' > ,^., , |,^. ,,;, ,,,,.i,.,,„„-„, l„-t the 

the Dehuvare, which they called the /„ ,e,;„ 1 - .- .nan . ''';';;;;'■, 'l^,;':, „„i „,,; ,,k,, .,.,.1 

f»ci-, or Kiver of the Lenape.- I [-n il< l.ank>. a^no^ .^.^^^ ^^^^^ ^' . ^^^^^— ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ , ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^.^ _ 

''"^,l'i;,''u;'o':\a;':Vr;:V:;;;,li;;'\"''[.''m"l ,..,,..,-...''■<- .„,other'ana very prevalent Hetion of the Lenape 

'-i.. '."- /■'■' '■' \'r'''-''''7;:;;:;;;^!l::' ::':"•.':<' ascribes to th.^aemi-od Manal.ozhothe.avauonot 

I'^^V;;"':'- ;,./. 7 ^;,,;n,, :;;:,.-■....., .,.n.u,«.,o ^^„ j,,„ J,,,,,, „f,.ed mon from Iho earea-esot 

■V;- :; ■' , ■''::::::' !]:tZ'':^^^^^^^^ various ^nimakreptile.aiuH.ira-, as the hear,the 

, th 

.le. et<-. Mam 

:,llra Me.- 

Mi,hah.- and Nanahn-h , ua- the central 
in the lialian nivtholo.^y ; wa- the re-lorer 
woria after the deluue, brun-ht on by the an 

tup: abortgines. 

iic>.> of the serpent Manjtnus or evil .-|iirit.- ; was 
rr.'unle.l ;is unrkiii- all ..l' tlir inv-hrinus riuin-is 
in natiuv, an.l \\a» Mi|ii.n,-,,i t" ]'•■ tlir kin^' nf tie' 
wli..le ereatiou uf l»aM<. 11, ■ «as tlir .-,,n ..l' the 
west uind an.l a (h -rciulant ..f ihr inn,m He 
sometimes a],|M;nv,l in th,. form of a «..1|- .,r a l.inl. 
and often in that of a man ut' niajestie mien ami 
^.tature. l)ut hi.- u.-ual nianili station was in the 
siiapei.f th.' (;l::antie Hare, IK ha.l p-wrr ..v, r 
the ma-i ; ua.-, in thrt, a >oiveivr, aiel iinit.-.l in 
iiim.-elf thr ,iuali(h> l»loU'.!ii_' t.. I'r. i-pei-o, Ariel 
and Pnrk, In in^' -..nirtiin.- a.-tuatrd hy ti -j.irit of 

elf di^plaviiiu- ill wavs in-atiahle nialiee 
and niahvuhiir,.. 

The matter of the derivation of the Indian raee 
has lieeii as vario,i-!v, if not a. wildlv and fuieitlillv, 

s[ieeulated u| hv H-holar> as liv the red men 

thenr-elves. William I'euii -ravely. and with coin- 
jihiecnt a-suran(;e, put forward tiie hy|,otlie.-i- that 
the so-called ahorigines of America vvere de-.-eud- 
ants of the ten lost trilies of Israel, and men of 
much more pretensiou of study, and usually eon- 
fining themselves to' the few hard facts that are 
known com-ernin- thi- jieople, have permitted them- 
selves iilea-iiiL', it pi'. litless, dalliance with various 
unsiipp<>rfed 'leMiJ.- of their origin. Bancroft 
argues that a Calnuick or 3Iong,dian immiirration 
was not impossible and, indee<l. not iiiiprol)al.)le, 
and this hypothesis has found many advocates. 
S[)anish legeml- have been adduced to contirm this 
view. 31. d(_- (_iuignes, in a memoir read before the 
rreiich Acailcmv of Inscriptions, arL'ued with con- 
siderable plau.-il'.ility that the Chiiie.-e penetrated 
America in a.h. 4oS, and useil the de-cription and 
chart of Fou San- in proof, and Charles G. Le- 
land, of rhiladelpliia, eminent as an ethnologist 
and explorer of the hid.ieu byways of hi.-tory, has 
been faseinatetl by the same half-myth and lent it 
the approval of his partial cred. ne,> in hi- re- 
publication of the story of the .-o-e.ille<l i.-land of 
Fou Sang an.l its inhabitants. De Guigne^ asserted 
that the ('hine.-e were familiar with the Straits of 
Magellan and that the Coreaus had a settlement on 
Terra del Fii.-o. Another Clunese immi_rration 
is as.-igned to \.u. l_'7n, the time of the Tartar in- 
vasion of the- Central Flowery Kiic-dom." China, 
Tartary, Siberia and Kamtsehatka, with the -\.leu- 
lian archi[)elago, formed a natural route f >r immi- 
gration, thouLdi none of the student- and speculators 

explaining how the hordes of savages were able to 
make their way throu-li the frozen wastes of Ahiska 
and British >i''irth America. Syme students, as 
Williamson, think the Indians of Cingalese or 
Hindoo ori::in, and that the Oc-idcital world was 
ke-pled from the' Oriental world in pre-hi-toric 
'one- is vervgeiierallv admitted up..n the <tront: 
■--round of the clo-e resemblance which the ancient 


md rerubeartotlio-eof E-vpt 
•vpt, India, China and Tartarv 
onlv, urie- of the Fir-teru 


ited to in 

the F.ast. 
r- the re.ji 
of popnia 

niiaiiy spreicun- 
ov,a- North America had its ori-in. The mo-t 
U'eucrallv aciepted iheorv i- that th<_" Indian race 
came ori.,i,iallv irom ciiina. Humboldt tlwu-ht 

ance, many of the historical problems" concerning 
this theory might " be cleared up i)y the discovery 
of facts with which we have hitherto been entirely 
nnai.'inuiinted;"' but Prof W . I), ^\'hitney, one of 
the most advanced stu<lents of onr time, is less 
sanguine. He says that it is " futile to attempt, 
by the evidence of language, the peopling of the 
continent from Asia or from any other portion of 

the world outside If our studies .shall 

at length put us in a position to deal with the 
question of their Asiatic origin, we shall rejoice at 
it. I do not myself expect that valuable light 
will ever be shed upon the subject by linguistic 
evidence ; others may be more sanguine, but all 
must, at any rate, agree that as things are, the 
subject is in no position to be taken up and dis- 
cussed with profit." The author from whom we 
have quoted, notwithstanding his attitude upon 
this question of Indian origin, is a warm advocate 
of greater diligence in the study of American an- 
tiquities. "Our national duty and honor," he 
says, " arc peculiarly concerned in this matter of 
the study of aboriginal American languages, as 
the most fertile and important branch of Ameri- 
can archa'ology. Europeans accuse us, with too 
much reason, of indifference and inefficiency with 
regard to preserving memorials of the race whom 
we have dispossessed and are dispossessing, and to 
promoting a thorough comprehension of their 
history." - 

Reverting from what may seem a digression, to 
the matters of more immediate interest to the 
reacler— to the Lenape or Delawares a* the white 
man found them on the shores of the bay and 
river bearing their name — we find cause fir regret 
that the first comers to these shores were not 
better observers and more accurate chroniclers. 
Hudson, Captain Cornells TIendricksou, Captain 
.lacobson JVIey, De Vries, Campaiuus, Acrelius, 
William Penn, Gabriel Thomas, Thomas Budd, 
George Alsop (ot ^Nlarvland), and others among 
the early Dutch, Swelish and En-lish adven- 
tui-er- aiid writers saw the Indians before they had 
underLione anv inaterial chauL'e fVi'U) iL-sociation 


linink in \\it!i I[nllaii<l .-cliiuii.p- mikI KikH.-Ii 
spirits vtTV nnich nf that knowlnl-.- uliicli t>rici 
suspicion in tin' -iivauc lireast. Ihul thr-f ni'Mifers 
of the Dolawan- n-,ui(.u Inrn train.,! ,,l.~crvtTMiD.l 
investigators, alilc to ilivi -t tin nj-.h is nt' preju- 
dices :iii(l to luivo tola xvhat tliry Wi-.TUvd intel- 
ligibly, thoy couiil htive prestrvi'd many t'a.'tt. 
concerning the ImJians wliich now are lost ibrever. 
Nearly all of tlic-e early writers irivp spocnlations, 
and dreams, and opinions, often exeoeuinglv <-x- 
travagant and ridiculous, instead of facu H'e>' 
paid more attention to the Indian's r,-tr,j',(,_ri ^ ;^^,,\ 
fable, and tradition, than to the Indian'.- maiiiir 
of living, his social system and his {a:igua:i---tiic 
most necessary factor in ethnological stmly. Smuic 
of them mingled most>ly false state- 
ments, made evidently in the iitino.-t seriousness, 
with the few truths" they chnuiicled. Of thi= 
class, the baldest falsifier was Thon.a.- <Ja-i:panius, 
of Stockholm, albeit a most interesti'iu" racuitttur. 
and the preserver of some valuable tiiets as well 
as of many more or less interesting statements, 
exhibiting high inventive genius, as, for instance, 
Campanius' stories of the rattlesnake which could 
bite a man's leg off, and of the "sea spiders" 
(crabs) which had tails like edired swords, H'itb 
which they could saw dinvn trees. The way in 
which Campanius allows his imagination to en- 
large upon and add to the marvels of the New- 
World makes him worthy of the title -Scaiulina- 
vian Munchausen of the Delaware. 

From the time of Hudson's voyaLri' to tlie close 
of the seventeenth century there is t'rei[uent co- 
temporary mention of tlie Dela\\ares and their 
kinsmen, the Nanticokes (of whom we shall 
presently treat), and their neighbors the Mengwes, 
Minquas or Mingoes, known in 31aryland as the 
Susquehannas, and latM' in I'enn.-ylvania as the 
Couestogas. Captain Cornells Ileiidrickson who 
explored jiart of the Delaware, in lill')-lti,' met 
and traded with the Jlinquas - proiiably at the 
mouth of or upon the Christiana), and redeemed 
from them three Dutch pri.-ouers. Hi- intereonr^e 
with them wa- the lieLrinninL' of the Dehiuarc i'lir 
trade. In li;-:'. Caplaiii Conieli^ .Iarol,-,,„ .Mey 
met tlK'm at the >ite ot' ( ilou-e-ter, N..1., ju;t 
below the lilaee where I'eim's -riat eitv was to be 
founded, and whore he Imilt Fort \a-."au. 

The first whites who f .rmed a settlement in the 
lone, but lovely wildrnie>s re-ion now included 
in the bounds of Deh\wari' — a little colony planted 
by David Pioters.-n Di' Vrie.-, on tiie iloornekill, 
near Lewes, in the yearUl.'.l — soon afterwards fell 

own doom bv iniliiUorv ar!_~ ..t' \ ioh nc c' 

When De Vrie.- fmnd-l hi^ rol,.nv, an^l at the 
time of his expedition in lo:;:; up the Delawtire, 



^i,e ^linquu., of the 1, 
;it war with rl;e Lenajn , wiio were then ehiellv 
eonllnt'.l to t;-,c cpsrern op New .Ter.-ev side of thc' 
Delaware Bay Kal lliver, an,l to ihe're-hm aloie_- 
that pa--! of .i,, ,No., J,,,,,,; nou in N.,rthern Dela- 
\.are and Nnuh.. >t,.n, i'.,,nsvlvania. In hu\s 
the Sued.s ea;.:fc !•. the Delaware (as will be miue 
fuliy set forth in the next chapter), and foundiii_r 
the t^rst permanent settlement within the re^don 
whiel: .-our especial province at Christiana ( Wil- 
mI(i^con'. and subsequently est:d)li.-hing themselve- 
;>c otncr points, began an active and cxten-ive 
trade with' the Lenape. 31inquas and Nanticoke-, 
f T furs. They bought tlv land which thev oceu- 
])ied, and a;;pear to hove lived with the Indians 
cn veiT friendly terms. They were supplied with 
professional interpreters, and systematically soiiLdit 
rho good-will of the Indians for the purpose of 
carrying .m an advantageous trade with them. 
'I'he Swedish governors seem to have understood 
how best to conciliate the Indians and retain theii- 
cinfidence, and they soon supplanted the Dutch in 
ihe esteem of the savages. They even exercised 
a protecting power over the Delawares and the 
Mincjuas, and when the Iroquois came down to 
wage war against the latter, in 1662, they were 
balHed by a regular fort, constructed by Swedisii 
engineers, with bastions and mounted cannon. 

With the Swedish Governor Printz, there came 
to the Delaware, in 1643, John Campanius - i to 
whom allusion has heretofore been made), rendered 
prominent from being the first to translate Luther's 
catechism into the Indian hmguage, from the fact 
that he was for six years a pastor of the Swedes, 
and last, but not least, because of his keeping a 
journal from which his grandson, Thomas Cam- 
panius, wrote his famous " Description of the New 
Province of New Sweden,"' illustrated with cuts 
and maps made by the Swedish engineer Lind- 
strom, several of which are reproduced in this 
work. From Campanius we glean some interest- 
ing information concerning the Indians taking 
care to exclude' much that is clearly erroneou-. 
He states that the Swedes in his time had no 
intercourse except with "the black and white 
-MenLrwes" — an expression it is ditficult to under- 
stand. The ^linquas, or Susquehannas, had their 
chief population upon the river bearint: their 
name, and in the region now Cecil County, .Marv- 
laud (where they were regularly visited by the 
Swedish traders), but they are known also to have 
been rpiite miruerous at times upon the Chrisriatui 
and BraiMJywine, and thus in the immediate 


printP'l lobn 


,\:an. N. 
tt„. fa.-t that h. 
txcvpt \v 

I'llIflS U[)l 

\\lioni he afCUM.s <if li' 
a.i, iu truth, were near 
American Indians, but oii!>, 


The attitiule ..1' the Inr 
Dehvware toward:; the eai 
settlers is shown in an ae 
council which they held wiiilc Print 
was Governor, proliahly aliout 1(34" 
given in Canipanins' worlc and iindouin- 
edly authentic in its essential statements. 
The council was called by tlie Sachem 
Matta Horn, who owned the ltouik 
on which Wilmington stands, and soh 
that upon which Fort Christina was 
built. At the time of the 
of the inhabitants along the Delaware 
were Swedes, but there were a few Hol- 
landers in the country. Matta Horn 
is represented as calling tirst his son, ifc-^..-.-..^:--*^ 
Agga Horn, and afterwards upon other 
chiefs and warriors, to ascertain the 
opinion of his people as to the advisability of 
allowing the white men to dwell peacefullv in 
the country, or fall ujion and disperse them. 
The dialogue which ensues is thus represented 
by Campanius : 

lli;i.AWAI;E l.M 


(From Gimpaniua' 

' Kew Swedeu.") 

S.-Y.'S, I have. 

F.-What liave vou don.' ? 

S.-Wi. have killfd two flUs 

ami as iiianvdee 

f.— Ilavp you sl.ot no tnilic 

FMrr .Ifoffn Hon 
S"a A<j'j^i Honi.~ 
:■■« Cittmberg. 


ms and we fSwodps. and Dutch, and English) 
ich othor. We are jrowl men. Come to ns. 
cloth, kettles, gunpowder, guns and all that 

lit d.i you Kty about this, .\f:c;a Horn, my son ' 

Il-<(rri..r.<— Yes, gi' 

r— I', 

Tht .01, 

■ed that the; 
I, .\cga U., 

nilh the m. 
nlluuen (sic) 

u.. dialcly ou 

.M 1^ «l 

ili.T we shall go out and Kill all the Swcles, and 

■!.r, or whether we !ihaU suiter them to remain? 


u chii'fs and warriors, what advice do you give? 

,:l, the Swedes? They have no cloth, red, blue, or 

Ili-V li.iv 

i.o kettles, no hrass, no lead, no guns, no powder. 


to sen us ; Init the English and Dutch have got all 


-nisicfr.— We arc for the Swedes, we liave nothing 

„...r«.-n WO.lId he well t.. kill :ill the S,vele-; f,,, 

,1 their Mores. r..r whieh «.• . :,r, It ele u,il, He lu. 

;« icini" 

,„;n; sloe. Id »e Kill ,11 Mle^^,,,]^,, .unl 

out of t 

to make .> them.' I'rc^ully they «ill l.ringheic u 

fu'l) of a 

1 soils ..f giH..i things. 

niST<)RY OF DELAW-vil! 

Olhrs ami 

.r.— y 

Th.-u w sl.-i 

1 n..t K 

Olh.T. r,.,.\ 

— V '. 

ami til' V «ii 

,'., .11 

T*- A-... ■ 

A sachem rultd over each trilie, tho otficr hi .nrr 
hereditary u[)on the mother's side. " When a 1- i-i- 
or sachem died it was not," say.- Can:,iai>ius," li..s 
children who succeeded him, but hi.s hrm hers by 
the same mother, or his sisters or their dtuighteiM' 
male children, for no female could succeed to the 
government." It was customary, when any act of 
importance was to be entered upon, as the sale of 
land or making of war or peace, fur the suchem 
to summon a council cousistint; of the wise men 
and also of the common people. In makinj^ d 
treaty of peace or friendship, they were accustomed 
to give to those with whom they were making it a 
pipe to smoke, which act being performed, the 
treaty was regarded as concluded and sacredly 
sealed. Their punishments usually consisted of 
fines. "A murderer," says Campauius, "may he 
forgiven on giving a feast or something else of the 
same kind ; but if a woman be killeil. the penalty is 
doubled, a woman can bring forth chil- 
dren and a man cannot." Nearly all authorities 
seem to agree with the Swedish chronicler that 
murder was very uncommon among the Indians 
until "the white man came, when, under the intlu- 
ence of intoxication from the liquor they sold them, 
several wore committed by the Indians. When 
they committed murder under tln).se circumstances 
they excu.sed tiiemselvcs by saying it was the 
liquor that did it." 

Another writer - gives some interesting flicts 
concerning the relatiun of drunkenne.-s and crime 
among the Indians, prefacing his local facts with 
the remark that into.\ication was to them (the 
Indian.s) a new sensation ; they did not come to it 
by slow and imperceptiide degrees,, . . . but 
plunged at once into the vorte.K and madness was 
the consequence." In the year lOtJS some Indians 
in a state of intoxication attacked and murdered 
the servants of one of the settlers near wliere Burl- 
ington, N. J., now stands on the Delaware. "The 
Indians when sober appear to have been ever anx- 
ious to live on terms of friendship with the whites. 
Accordingly, we tind that in this instance, as they 
had previously done in many others, they deter- 
mined to bring the otlenders to justice. Having as- 
certained who the murderers were, they arrested the 
chief of them, a man i)y the name of Tashiowycan, 
siiot and brought his body to Wicacoa. ' from whence 
it was taken to Xew Castle ami there luiu'r in 

cl-.ains." Il i:-, a notable fact tiiat after tiiis event 
tlie Iii(li:iii.-^ r'.i.-Ki^'J.vs reouctnl that an ali.-oliite 
;ifiii,il>itii.ii ot ihe saiu of liiiwr to the Indians 
<h..i:id !.eo.d.r<'.; .lii.n- the uiti.v length of the 
IV-hiw-.-e. <;-.v,.r.i..r I., ivrhuv inltlTl artuallv 
prohibtUd, i:p-ui , run. if spirits 
and poudfrai.d iLud to th. Indians, but tlie law 
was ;ii(>i)cr:'.ti--e, *'. ■■ v.i' tind that thi-.~e very articles 
w-re the oriiK-i ■Mn.-id.'! ai'mis in land purchases 
from t'u,- Jiii!i:iiis almost inumdiately after the 
pro<:hu;-.ation, and continued to be for a century. 
Ee-um'rig our extracts from Campauius' work, 
thou'jh tids time it is the engineer and map-maker 
Lindstrom who is quoted l)y the former, we tind a 
description of one of the Indians' great hunts. — 


toudi ll.-a 

Indians were stone hatchets, 
iiid the war-club, and these 
•<'d them in the chase and in 
.'h other until they obtained 
guus and powder and 
lead, knives and iron tom- 
ahawks, the Delawares, 
Susquehaniias, Xanticukes 
' and some other tribes from 
the Dutch tind Swedes 
and English, and the Iro- 
quois of New York from 
the French. Their bows 
were made usually of the 
limbs of trees about six 
feet in length, and then 
strings were made of the 
sinews and skins and in- 
tLstiiies of animals Their 
arrows were reeds from 
and a half long. They were 
r.-, ami in the end was fixed a 
in u hirh wa< -.'t a flint, a piece 
onirtinn - the sliarfi tooth of an 
.whirh was .-ccnivh' fastened in 
Its and ll.-h ■Jiic. "When thev 
bravr piovidid hinisvlf with a 
,f anou. and a club, and thev 
uid pla.vdu|.ou their brads ivd 
i-nia of b! 1. Thev ti.rtitied 


11 re lie (J, 

.•.oine of tlitir Ik. uses (ir L'niu|w of huts a-aiiist tlie u 

siliUk-li atkirks of thrir m. ini. s. ( 'anii.aniii.- ^:lv^ tl 

tlie :\[iuqua.s Inul "a fmto,, :, |,i^r|, n.oun-nii al.out lj; 

twelve miles from NCw Swi.iltu" ' < Foit (.'liri.-tiiia, tc 

on theChrUtiaiia River, at the site of Wilmin-ton). j.l 

111(1 uiion. I 
.1 lieri.iulieiil 


L' lient towards eaeh other until the |,alisui..s .■ro-.^,!, a 
ua- throun up l^r the .i.fru.lers 
eases the paiisades were 
ularly in iiule post-holes, and tlie 
dihh thrown up them. 
:s werereL'uhulv iaiiit or -ave the 
ly eoii-iderahle stren-th/exeept 
s had the assistance uf Euroi.eau 

None of these 
api.earanee uf 
where the I ml 

Their lodges, aecording to Campanius, they con- 
structed in this way: '-They fix a pole in the 
ground and spread their mats around it, which 
are made of the leaves of the Indian eorn niatttd 
together; then they cover it above with a kind of 
roof made of bark, leaving a hole at the tun for 

possibly meaning at Iron or Chtstnul Ilills, near 
Newark. He says " they surrounded their houses 
with round or square palisades made of Ions or 
planks.whieli they Ihsteu in the ground." Parkman- 


3K by 

more fully de 
defenses. Fir; 
lage, the eart 
trees of which tl 

niadi! were burned c' 
branches partly cut 
finished by haekinj 
the Indians pos-e.— i 
upright in tlie emba 
centric ruws, those i 

then ph 

smoke to pass through; they lix hooks in the jiole 
on uhich they hang their kettles; underneath thev 
put a large stone to guard themselves from the 
fire, and around it they spread their mats and 
skins on which they sleep. For beds, tables and 
chairs they use nothing else; the earth .serves them 
for all these They have several doors to 
their houses, generally one on the north and one 
on the s(nith side. When it blows hard, they stop 
-up one of them with bark, and hang a mat or skin 
before the other." The Delawares, intimates our- 
Swedish observer, had ti?w towns or fixed places 
, of habitation (though, as a matter of fact, thev 
did have some permanent abiding-places), and ho 
continues: " They mostly wander about from one 
place to auothei-, and generally go to those places 
where they think they are most likely to fin.l the 
means of support. . . . When they' travel thev 
carry their meats uitii them wherever thev go and 
fix tiiem on poles, under which they dwell". Wlen 
tluy want fire, they strike ii out ot' a [jieee of ,h-v 
wood, of whicUtliey find ph-ity: and in that man- 
ner thev are never at a loss tor fire to warm them- 
selves or to cook tlieir me:U." 

The huts ef the Lijiape and other Indians of the 
re^i- n which we are coiisidei nii: could not have 
been very comfjrt.iblc in winter. The smoke from 


their tirfs 




h..lcin til 

■ r, 

f, : 

n.l th._ 

din.L'v, an, 

1 tl 

■ h. 


''flit ami 

i u. 

or.s a:< 


, ul,l ; 

ticm nf the eve- au,l blimlur.s 
lleas ami other venuiii were iiuiultuu- ami [n-tile-r- 
ous, ami Il,li^e and cont'usiou reiiineil .-upieine in 
the closely-huddled laiuily eircle. i'arkmau draws 
a vivid picture of a hjdee on a winter nii^ht, alter- 
nately in glow anil <:liiomironi the tlirkcrin'i' Hame 
of resinous woods that sent fitlul lla>hes thi-ouL'h 
the dinL'v canopy of smoke, a hr^n/jd L-r^iup en- 
circling the tire, eookiug, eaiinir. -anihlinL', quarrel- 
ing or amusing themselves with idle chatl"; grizzly 
old warriors, scarred with the marks of repeated 
battles; shriveled sijuaws, hideous with toil and 
hardship endured for l;alf a century; ynung war- 
riors with a record to make, vain, boastful, ob- 
streperous; giddy girls, gay with paint, oehre 
wampum and braid; "restless children pell-mell 
with restless dogs." 

Of foods the Indians had, besides their game 
and fish, fresh and dried, melons, squashes and 
pumpkins, beans, peas and berries, of which they 
dried many for winter use, and several roots and 
plants of which they ate largely, and they all 
raised corn, the Indians along the Lower Dela- 
ware, and in Maryland, Pennsylvania and Vir- 
ginia especially, paying considerable attention to its 
cultivation. They ground it in the hollow plae-es 
of rocks either naturally or artificially formed, 
mixed the coarse cracked kernels with tlour, and 
baked the paste in cakes upon the ashes. While 
engaged in the chase or traveling along distances 
they carried pouches full of parched corn for their 
sustenance. They had, too, the tiiobthoe {i[\Q pvtuk- 
gunnug of the Delawares and the iauqornih of the 
Minquas), called by the whites the " Indian loaf," 
a curious root sup]iosed by some to be a sort of 
truttte. It was of the form of a tlatteued sphere, 
and varied in size from an acorn to the bigness of 
a man's head. It was roasted in tl>e ashes, as was 
also the Indian turnip, which, thus deprived of its 
pungency, made a wholesome food 

The Indians of Campanhi-' time had well-ni'_dv 
given up the manufacture of pottery, t'.ir the cook- 
ing utensiU they secured from tlie Europeans served 
their pur[)osc better. They were perfect strangers 
to the use of iron, and their own tools were rude 
and poor, strictly speaking, being those of the 
stoue age. Charles Thom])son, who had an inti- 
mate knowledge of the Indians, but who, unfor- 
tunately, wrote but little about them, >ays in an 
essay:' ''They were perfect strangers to the ii.-e of 
iron. Tlie instruments with which they diiu' up 
the ground were of w<iod, or a :-tone ta.-teued to a 
handle of wood. Their hatchets for cutlin- were 

of stone, sharpene 

pointed with Mint 
wore was of the sk 
and tlieir ornamen 


Their skill in some kinds of domestic industry 
[tested by Campnniu«, who savs; 

•'Tliey can tan and prepare tlie skin; 

I fnicli 

J Tr.ii 

THE ;VROli!Gi:s-H.S. 

eiida or liu;vH, ilioy pn 

WiUiilHiiu aiul war ami [n-Arv lalt^ai-c .l-^ci il.fd 
l,v tlir saiuf wrilur : 

V 11 11 ) 1 

ullcr .1 

itii.n ■ 


■ IV. 1 

l\V 1 

I.- :_'ivt_ 

u l.v ! 

'■■im i 

111 a 1 


f 1 


, niiii 

;i!i 1.1 

A 11^ 


I \ 1 

avy, :u 

-e ^. li 


■ tall 


William rciiii's obiei-vatiuu.s aud o[iinious uf the >■ 

Indians are iutt'i-c^tiiig- and ^vell wurth rfproduo- Jj.; 

liuii iu these pa.i;es, tor he uot only first'saw the ■"• 

natives of the New World on the shores of the ''1^ 

Delaware (at New C'astle), but those whom he I" 

afterwards had oii-"irtuiiity of luimitelv studyiiii; at '„" 

IMiiladeljihia were of the same people, aud doubt- •«■> 

l<->s, iu nu'iy eases, the ?ame individuals who lived Z'' 

in the region wliieh now eonstitutes the northern "" 

i'artof this State. In a letter to Henr\ Sewell, ',',' 

'lilted I'hila.lelphia, SOth of Fifth :\Innth. Itis:!. - 

lie thu,- rhrnnifl.-,> his impressions : I' 

hen tl„-y rlc.,.,.. Tl, 
an.I fuurlLcn ; if men 
Ttifir liunt-e5 are ma 

iP.nii>jivanuiSrchivw, V< 


every kins tl'<^" 


the reii.<..n is, a litri- r.-nt-nrs fU 
Tenged on us; if the\ tre iLcn^ra 
frum our piiina. . . . :*iii.ptii.' Kn 
pruwn ^(.-at I.-ver» .'t -ti.^n^ Ij.j.ii 

liquura thev are rfstka; ril! ihf\ 
crj,-~Somr'mnre mid J uUl .ju to <l 
WTtttcbeJ spectacles in the world '. 





cially for tlieir'cliilJreii, 1<. 
drink at these times ;i r,-...^ . 

cautico. Tlifir siiori 
they kill goeth t.) tin 

There h. 

;;• (iabriel Tli.miur. .li^cmii-td vf the Tii.lian. in a 

, ,1 maimer similar tu Peiiii, but adils an iutei'fjtiiii; 

-" feet or two: "The En-li.-h and tlic Indians," lie 

li^ savs ■' live to-ether verv peaeealily. by iva<nn that , 

"";' the EiiL'li^li '-atisti.s tii.rn fur their J.and. . . .i 

Itt'v Tlie Duteh aii.l Su. a,!.- iiitnnii me tliat thev are 

\" -reatlv deer. a,-. d in numb, r to what thev'wu'e 

'''- «hen\hev came tii-t into tl,i^ eMintrv, and th.' 

/',; Indians theinMlve.- say tliat tuo of ti.em die t.. 

^l" Xiiere is not niiieli nmiv tliat it i.- wnrth uhih: t.' 

.Tn; d.nluee from the cot.-miH.rai-v writer.- n|u.ii thr 

';\f Delauaro. thoie.di ue -iiall h. rrafl.-r .|ii.:te imn, 

a"; (;,.,,rL'e AUo,, .•Mncrniin.Mi.r Miihiua-. .Minion,- „r 

'■''' Susuu.-hannas. Wlial ur hav extraeted fmni iIm 

both whv^t and t^uio, vvIiIlIi Uiey iii;ike 
leaves of th.' oitfiu iuid l.iikf theni in tlie 

'^^^b::^^:::l^,!^<:T>^n:;ll'!::\.'^!ly'^ ZllZ. .„,, ,,.... ^Z to liiuit imutt-rs of n,inor importan«^ an,l \ 
b.v su,cer>,K.n, rui j1«.,>, '..1. 111.- ,i„.ihnr-.i siiie. . . . Lver.y Kinc i.^iii « hich are elcarlv erroiK'ous. at!(.irds (Hiite a eoin 

ichrr^h.;;", , ow'hin:!','. ;»'.; ir i'al^^rZ,!, 'H '"!';": hen=ive view .^f the manners, enstom-, charaeter am 
.'','.''■''. ''I ', '.'''.;.'''',"~,"'t'V''tv :!.>-'' -"I'v whom there mnst be a eoiistantlv inereasiiiL: inter 


T!u' laii-ua-c of till' rA'mii Li'i 
;..-tilian of th,' Xeu W.,rl,l,'-— , 

ape.— tlic [,;,-.. 
1 the opinioi) ..f 

VITmI COIll[)L-tfIlt juclL'fs, i- tin- 11 

u. I.uliaii to„>:u.s. akl.,a,-h all 
what philoli>i:i>ts n-^'ard as o 

>fthe^e hel..n-ea 
ne uf the 

alctyiu-. l!,-tiM,Lnn>lir,l \,^ 

heauty, --treij-[h 

c^ .^/l 

m ^ 



beinj^ the upr-*" 
th» sd riiv.>r I.. I 


• ' 4^ 

'A. Wellehms 

lulsi; l-H'K. SI KAPKn. 

anil flexibility. It h;is the power of conipveivlng 
a whole si^ntence into a siiiL'lo word. This is done 
by taking; the most important syllable of each 

bining them in <lijhtly varyiiii: f..rni.^ ..r with 

observed, and thus foi-minL' a new word. ,X|;-i:ss- 

ing a variety of ideas Nearly all of the Indian 

names, particularly tlmse of the Leiiape, are rieh in 

rvthmical euphonv, and some which are exceptions ,, ,. . . . . , t^ , , . 

have doubtless received their harshness throu.Th ''"*'■<'*'■ «* land in Appoquinmrnink Hundred, in the 

imperfect reuderiu'j- into luiglish (or, in man; 

\nother deed si.iuliar to the one here L'iven was 
made NovembeT- 1, 16.S0, by the sa?iie sachem, 
Mechacksit, transferring to Ephraini Herman, " for 
two half aneers of drink, cne blancquet, one mats- 
c'-atp, two axes, two kni\es, two double handsfull 
of povrder, two barrs of lead, and one kittle," a, Dutch and Sw.di-h 
The earliest Indian d, 
Delaware which is on rec 
and is preserved in the ; 
ottice in New Castle Cou 
i>laud upon the Delawai 
dred, Kent Conntv, ki 
Island, ..f which Mecha 
-rantor and Peter Bavai 

tran.-ferri.iL' lands in 
I i-dated.May4, IfiTM, 
lives of the reconler's 
. It is a died for the 

u Duck Cvcek Hun- 
n as i;.md.av Houk 
it. a saehrm. wa. the 

the jirantee. In the 

lov.-er part of New Castle County." In conveying 
lands the Indian sachems usually signed their marks 
tc the deeds of conveyance for the various tracts. 
The autographs of the most promiuent Indian chiefs 
from 1682 to 1692 are shown below : 



1ST KNITF. FLINT PF.r:Fi>r.AT0r.. 

■h is the full text of the deed, here 
of antiquarian interest, the "an- 



cher" of liquor mentioned as one of the items in 

the consideration was a Dutch measure, equivalent 

to al)out tl 


■ti.rof all 
1-8 Uook, 

in-'Kiltia , 
iiml De- ' 
.lae and 

.■ .loe 

,, Tnins- 

alter Js«.l h pul.l 


1 1 IS TO i; V » » F D ]•: LA W A I! E. 

Soraethini; of the trilialdivisinn and latrr lii.-tnrv 
of the vani^lu-.l Ia-ikii-l' nati<iU ivniain, tu !.,■ t..l,i. 
It is nut protiablc that at any time nfti-r they he- 
came known to the whites the Delaware- hai] in 
their whole region more than twenty-tive to thirty 
thousaud j)eople or from five to si ven thou-and 
warriors. In 1750, but little more than a century 
from the time that the first knowledge ot' them wa- 
obtained, they had but six hundred tiL'htiiii: men 
between the Delaware and the < "hio. It is |.i-oiialile 
that their numbers had iieen greatly redueed, deci- 
mated time and time again by the Iro(|Uois prior 
to the coming of the Dutch and ."Swedes and 
English among them. The Delaware.- were di- 
vided into tribesof which the most notable were the 
branches of the Turtle or Unamis, the Turkey or 
Unalachtgo, and the "Wolf or ^linsi (corrupted into 
Mousey). While the domain of the Lenape extend- 
ed from the sea-coast between the Chesapeake and 
Long Island Sound back beyond the Suscinehanna 
to the Alleghenies and northward to the hunting- 
grounds of the lroi|Uois, it seems not to have been 
regarded as the ccimmon country of the trilies, but 
to have been set apart for them in more or less dis- 
tinctly-deiine<l districts. The Unamis and Unal- 
achtgo nations, subdivided into the tribesof As>iiii- 
pinks, iMatas, Chicheqnaas, Shackauiaxon-, Tiite- 
loes, Nanticokes and many others, occupied the 
lower country toward the coast, upon the Delaware 
and its attluents. The Unamis were the greatest 
and most intelligent of the Lenape. They were a 
fishing people and ti.> a larger extent planters than 
the other tribes, and e.|ualiv skilled in the hunt. 
They had nummous small 'villages und, r minor 
chiefs, who were subordinate to the Lrreal council ot' 
the nation. They u. n less nomadic an,l mo,-,, 
peaceable than the other tribes of Delaware^. 

The more warlike trih.- of the Minsi or Wolf, as 
Heckewehler informs us. -had elio-en to livo back 
of the other trib. s, and loiiu. d a kind of a bulwark 
for their ]irote,<ti..n, watrhin- the motions of the 
Irotpiois, or Six Nations, and hand to oiler 
aid in case of a rupture with them. ' 'i'lie Minsi," 
c<intinues the authority from whom we hav i|Uot' d, 
"extended the'ir setth iiirnts from the .Miuinnk, a 
place (on the Delawaif, in Monroe (.'.miitv, I'enn- 
sylvania) named after them, wlure they had their 
conncil-seat and fire, (jiiite up fo the IInd~orion 
the east, and to the west and .-oulh fii- bi youd the 
Snsrpiehanna ; their northern lioundarits were -u|i- 
p,«.d oriL'iually to be the leads of the -rear riv. ,> 
i^usiiufhannaand Delaware, and their -outhein that 
rid-e of liill> known in New .lersev bv the nam.' 
,.f Mu.kan.rum, and in Pennsylvania hv those of 
L,.hiL:h, Co-lnuwa^o.-" 

Th.' l.ouai..' and the Iro.|Uois eonf d.raev, a. 
has been brlorr niuarked. were almo.l ron-tantlv 

at war, but after the advent of the Frem-h in 
Canada, the Iro.,uoi.-, tindin- that they eould 
noi uith.-tand an momy upon each side of them, 
shreuillv souirht to placate the Lenape tribes, ami. 
hy the"u.-e of much skillful diphanacy, induced 
them to aliamlon arm> and act as mediators be 
twti-n all the nations, to taki' up tiie peaceful i)ur- 
suit of aL:rieulture, ami, hv avoiding war, pronioti- 
their own growth as a p.oplo. and at the same 
time excrei.-e an influence Inward- the [ireservation 
of the entire Indian raeo. Into tin. trap, devised 
bv the eunnin- Iro.,uoi., tiev f ]1. and f,r a hm- 
period .iccupied, a,- they thJm.-rive,- expressed it, 
the position <,f ,n,„ieit instead of mm. The Five 
Nations, when o[)p(jrtunity presented itself, re- 
warded with treachery the confidcnc'e that the 
Lenap( had reposed in them, aud the latter, then 
resolving to unite their forces and by one great 
effi)rt destroy their pertidious northern nei^diliors, 
asain liecame /»-//. This was bofue the .ra of 
the English in Amcri.a had really l.c-uii, ami the 
Lenape were diverted from their i)uri)ose by new 
and strange occurrences. The English came in 
great nund)ers to their coast. They received the 
new-comers kindly, as they had the Dutch, liut 
in time the F^uglish, even the followers of Penn, 
turned from them and made friends with their 
enemy, the Iroi[uois, as the Dutch had done. Thev 
never ceased to revere the founder of Pennsylva- 
nia, Mlqii,:,,. as they called him, but laid all of the 
suliseiiuent wrong to iiiischievous peo))le who got 
into power after their good brother had gone 
awav, and who. not content with the lami thev 
had' them, contrived, tla^v alleged, l,v cvcr'v 
fraudulent mcaiis in lln-ir power, to rol, them (if 
all their p,,-M-iou-. and hrou.dit the hat.d Iro- 
• pioi.-to humiliate them. Thevalv.av- maintained 
that thev wcrciir-ulnd and treated in a .IcTadiuL' 
manner at trealie- lo which the Km^li-h wee par- 
Philadelphia, in diilv, 174-i, and at Ea.ton. in 
November, IT- >\. uh,ii the Six .Nations were pnb- 
liclv called upon toenmpel the Leuai.e to L'ive up 
the land taken trom them hv the fimous and in- 
famous -Walkin- of IToT. Put for 
th,.- an,l other outra-es th.'y d.'clard they x\,„il,| 
not have taken up the tomahawk a-ainst llie jaii:- 
li-h in the s,,-calhd -FniK-h aial Imlian War" of 
17oo-t;:k It i.- po-ilde that thev would liave re- 
mained neutral, not w itli.tandine llair -rievanees, 
had ihey not been incited to eiindty by the I ro- 
.|Uoi-. After llie close of the war,"in 'uc:;, the 
Penape withdrew alln::ether from the proximitv 
ofthe whu- Mtllemenlsinto the w ihls an.nml the 
upper w.-iter- of the Su-^iuehanna. and to Wyalu- 
-ing, a hnndred mile- from the pioneer .settlers of 

however, for the in„|Uois sold the w hole coimtrv to 
the EuLdish. -Some of the Mlu-^ls ,,r Mans,,/, had 


gone before this U, the head-waters of theAUeirheny, 
and those of this tril... uho u,-re at Wvahinn- 
Joined them there. >ah,-e,,ii. iitiv the L. nape trihe-s 
were in Ohio, an,l a e.aisidnahle uumWr, ehi.tly 
of the Min.v<, in Upper t'anadu, whih- otheis were 
upon the waters of the \\'al>a.-li, in Indiana. Be- 
tween the years 1780 and 1790 they he-an Xu 
endprate from those regions to the territory wesi 
of the Mississip[)i. The remnant of tlie race thus — 
if their legend was true— retraced the steps of their 
ancestors, made centuries before. 

It would be improper to conclude this -ketch of 
the Leuni I.enape without a few Wl>rd^ upon its 
greatest and nohh.'st character, the most ilhi>trious 
and revered chief in the whole history of the nation 
— Tamanend or Tammany, who once livrd stmie- 
where in the territory now constitutinL' thr >tate 
of Delaware. Comparatively little is known ol' 
hira. He lives principally in tradition, and his 
name has been perpetuated by frequent application 
to civic societies among the people who supplanted 
his race. He was a seventeenth century Indian, 
and is supposed to have died about the time of its 
close. In lOSo hei with a lesser chief, afli.Ked their 
hieroglvphical signatures to a deed conveying to 
William Peun a tract of land in Bucks County. 
Pennsylvania. ' While his home was doubtless tbr 
many years upon the Lower Delaware, and, there 
is reason to believe, near the Cl;ristiaua, he doui)t- 
less moved northward as the English settlers en- 
croached upon his domain, ami it is traditionally 
asserted that he lived far up toward- the head- 
waters of the river of his i>en|.le in th. ,-xtrenir 
northea.stern part of I'l/nnsylvania. ' Of the chai-ac- 
ter of Tamanend, Heckewrlder says : "He was in 
the highest degree endowed with wisdom, virtue, 
prudence, charity, artability, meekness, hospitality, 
— in short, with every good an<l noble (|u;dilication 
that a human being ujav po,-;rss," and Tiiatchcr 
declares that the Indians" ■■r,.nld ,,niy armunt fnr 
the perfections they a:-crili. d \n him l.y Mippnsim.' 
him to be favored with the sjiiiial cnnjiyunii iiti..n> 
of the Cireat Spirit." 

The Nanti.'ofers, to .vhom allusion has .-ev^ral 

tinu's been made in this chapter, were allies and 
kindred of the Drhnvaivs, whom thev called 
-grandfathers," and occupied the l,,„er paUof 
this .State and the Ka.-tern Shore ..f .Maryhiiid, 
and were distinctively n li-hiiig auil trappiiiL' 
[leople, rather than hunters and warriors. The.-e 
facts were asserte.l by one of thi ir chiet;. White, 
to Loskiel and Heckeuelder, the .Moravian mis- 
sionaries and historians at Bethlehem, Pennsyl- 
vania. The Nanticokes moved northward be- 
fore the pressure of the slow, but inexorable 
advance of the white settlers, and after waging 
for a long period an intermittent war with the 
early colonists of Maryland they retreated to the 
head of the Chesajieake Bay, and thence, some of 
them, under the advice and protection ol' the Iro- 
(piois. moved to the Wyoming Valley, and others 
Went farther up the Siisipiehanna to Chemmenk 
or Zeningis (Sheuango), to which region they all 
immigrated at the beginning ot the French and In- 
dian War against the Ennlish. The tribe suffered 
even more from contact with the Europeans than 
did the Delawares and Sus(|Uehanuas. '' Nothing," 
said White, "had ei|ualed the decline of his tribe 
since the white people had come into the country. 
They were destroyed in part by disorders which 
they brought with them, by the small-pox, the 
venereal disease, and by the free use of spirituous 
liiiuors, to which great nnndiers fell victims." ' 
The tribe had so dwindled awav that soon after 
the Kevolution (in whieh thev' had joined the 
British standanl < they did not number than 
tiftv men. 

The last reiiiiunit of this pi npl,. in Delaware 
tonk their dep.-irtnre alM,nt 1 7 1^,' from the nei<rh- 
borluind ..f Laurel, m Su.-mx C..unty. In thi.- 
loeality-aboiit a mile from Baurel, on the b:,nk 

biir\ iiiL'--Mnuiid, which was opened earlv in tlie 


earth for the inirjiose of i-epairing a nnll-dain. 
They dug up several wagon loads of bones and 
left a large quantity still remaining in the earth. 
The skeletons were in a fair de<jree of preserva- 
tion, lay side by side and eaeh hone was in its 
pr.i])er )ilace. Several '>i' theiii were of such size 

|,„..M-s(d reniarkalily high slatni(^ an<l great 

feet in length. At the time the grave-yard was 
opera d livthe -pailc-of the laborers there were 
liviiiL: in the n( i^ihliiu heMil -everal very old men 
who reiuemhere.l -tlie la-t ..f the Xantieokes." 
and .-aid that ^i short time bef,,re thev left that 

HISTORY i)V D5LA tl,i-<s,.(.r. rbie!^ 


^,.(.r. rbie!^, ,!!Mn!;;ui.luMl mm nr v, iv cln.o khu\n ,] 

U:ui If.rkvvv.l.l :■ i. ;;rlh-itv ti-r tin- ^Intrincnl ll.:,. 

-i.,n in ti,c vcai-lHn^v,.^.,; IT.v'i ;:,:.! ITCi) nianv ,,ttl,.- 

..■n- In.linM, Avnf r!,.«:, t„ the D, lauan-Maivh,i„i 

a.'par- l',ii,n..,la !■. .a;!■^ tlu^ l...iir-. of tin ir .l,.ail \i|. i^. 

u.-l.i.,r \Vv..iu;ii^ a,„; :\.'>,;.ii..rk, an.l ll.' .a\.-, -1 

n^.iiar ivau-n.Uer s...;:.- thc-ru loa^!,.! \\illi Midi l,.m, -, 

cfa^cil whlcl,.;^ (ix-i,, .m.!- ■.! a ,li^al:lv,■ Mciuli ;,- 

I ill,"— :v -lat'Tiieiit Th? SuM|iir!iaT"aa.-, 

lii.ntir account ^vo .he Pcro.„ar an.! tlio 

tl-rcis of llr 
l.a.l tliiai- 


ti-il)e \M\h 
111 <cttle,> 
, ami tlivv 

of Nnrtiii i-ii iv !a\ 
whom tl„' lailv a 
of the L'rlauaa-c I 
bave rfcei\-e(l iVviuiiit mciitinii in this (■hapti i-. 

ivorthy of a more spefitii.' I'lm-idn-atinn in llu-c 
paijts thai! ha- yet Ijeen acennh .1 t.i tlnni. Th'-v 
were — conciude Frauci* Parkinan ami ..tlu-r stu- 
dents who have given sperial and intiHi^aait aitcii- 
ti'.n to the suhject — a hranc h or mitU ini: I'lilonv i !' 
that quite wonderful ^avaitc ciinliMlriary. the Fi\r 
(afterwards the Six) Nation^, nr the ln..| and 
they seem to have aetcd a> a ;jiiard or check ii[Hin 
t'ae Delaware^ of th.e lou.r rivr;- mid. ..tin r -Miithnn 
Lribes, oi'ten waging; war ai'ain-t thcni and al.-n 
committing occasional drint datinn,- (.a tin- fnaitii i 
. settlements of Marvland, Tlnv \w re the Min- 
(|uas or .Min,|nM>v of the 1 )iilrli, the .M, nttwes of 
J C'umpaniii- and the S«, ,1, . ^en, rallv . lla- Kndi=h 
/v corrupting: the n; 
-^:\ hannasorSu.,".!. 

.. Mln-_..e>), the .SuMjue- 

:'f v.ere al.-o ealhd the Anda.M<- .>r Gaudastogiie^ 
:| I corrupted in 1'. i,n-vlvania into Omestogas). The 
j| Siisi|uehanna> or .MiuL^ies were a stalwart race of 
d those who >aw them in their ]irime 
phv-ical snperioritx over other trihe,. 
,n Mnith <h-erihes theia as 

\ \ --. f warri, 

' -'- attest 

}/•' 'i eapta 

have ma I.a 
indeed n 


\- a 

\i- use of i 
nl. In t 
move th.' 1 

1 re 
li^ i 


t.- t 
• th.' 
r 111 

he di-e.i 
11. 1> t,, a 



little w. 


tral loca 
did not 

itv and r, 
ake them 


n lull 

ity t 

,..■. Iiiit 
. uhi.-h 





wcr.' ali( 

>h' V did 

lit to enii- 

in Drlau: 
aula is inc 




- ..t' t 
d Ma 


\ iaiu 
hut i 

id fn.m 
> sueh 



dus were c 


,- tl 

.>e o 

f sacheli 

- or 

■-• H... k.•^ 


i;,..,l-e AlM.p. 

i.hed in it;t,>;: 

l.y liouiKc Mmi,; L.. 

TlieSu~.iiu-haiina> u.-re . 
l.utrh au.l Snv.,1,.-, l„ni.' 
,.l,,ll.v llir hittor. u I 
Innltfurtlun, a fort ul,i,;l: defeat at the liail.U 

Six Natiun^. The Ki-li-h 
ware were ei|iKillv .-killtui 
_'aiiiiiiL,' aij(l -I'-uiiii.' the Ii 



()VKi;y ami >i;i ri.i;MiM' i;^ Tl 

1 l'o,m1 terms «i(h the 
UMialjlv a-si.-te,l aii.i 
., a> heret..tnre.-tatea, 

,f their kill. In, I. the 
..t.h.r<ni.,.„^tl,e I >,.....- 

Ln,l-hi|. ;,f thi-^ tni,.', 

.ir uith then.. The 

,.nee aureeahle all. I 

ie,,e.l the aihlnniaev 

erni.rsat New Y,.,k a'n.l the minor ettieers uimii 
the Dehiuare .lurin- the e^irlv [.erin,! , it' the Kn- 
h^h ,■,;/;„,-, a.- they ,li.i h.ter' hetv.eeii Peliu aild 
his fiin'eti..i,ari.< in reiin.^'. I\ ania an.l the - three 
lower cnuiilie^.' (nweni-r Aiidr.iS, uriiiii- to the 
eoiirt offieials at New (a.-tie. on ^o, 
167G, says: '• IH' the Su-iiiehaniui,- -liouhl apj-ly 
to you for any tiiiriL:, you are {<> ii-e theui kiuiily, 
still as tran.-ieut frieml-, hutt tor more than that 
to Refer tlieni w come hither to the Governor, 
where they may exiiect all further just favors ^v'*' 
dis|iatch ill what they may desire'" — which artords 
a fair illustration of the prevailing dispositiou of 
the English towards tlie pe.iide they ;vere destiued 



• i< 

11. •! p..i..itiv. Iv kll..v 

Ui wh.j .1 



• now kM..wu'a~ I)e 

hiware, 1. 

lit a- . 


e .'-^paiiiai.U ..ii 

Iv ex|.|..i 

■e.l tl,. 

t Ir. 
• ud 

.m the Mexiean C. 

the thirty-tit'tli .lei:i 

lil!', n.iMl 
.■•■ ..f lati 

iward, ; 

1 atl 


tempte.l t.i f.rm a 


It all. 
iilv i, 

Tew of ther-e 

ihe Kn-li.: 

• if th.' Ame.ieau .-..n 
- it w,.u!.l have been s 

>taoli-h I 

Alternately at u 
tribes of thiii- .umi i 
nists, the D.lawar. 
Indians, an.l the It 

with the whiter an.l .^ther 
•—with tile Marvian.l col.j- 
:.e('h.sapeakean".l P..tomae 
i..i,~ ui the north, — the J^u^- 

quehannas at last gtive way Ijefore the march ..f 
civilization and its attendant evils, rum and small- 
pox, combined with the onslaught of their savage t|,, 
enemies, until a mere fragment of their iiati.iU, <!, 
called the Cuiest.iL'as, was all that remained ..f a „„ 

once powerful iie..>|ile, which, 
thirteen huu.lre.l tr 
tirearms by soldiers 
were treacher.ui.-lv an.l bnita 
"I'axt.m b,.\>," in the Lan.- 
reuM.^ylvania anth..riti,s ha.l 
te.lion, and n^.t niaiiv vears 
parably the g.vate.t ..f the Mi 
ate but .liLMiili.-.l an.l s. nte 
displave.l in his w,,r.N of ,„o 
kindled, is w.,rl.bfan...u.-. iMI 
ahawk of an In.lian a-s.,-in 
lonelv camp-tire in the,thenol 

HF.Xr.Y Ht't'.-OX. 

■at ba>in, n.iw kn.iwii as Delaware Bay, 
have remaine.l unkn.iwn to the Spaniards 
was visited bv Heiirv lin.lson in I'ioO. 

Nestor disco verv 
lui skill of the 
the c..l..iiizati..n 

slate a;i ]iU7, had In thesixteenth ceiitnrv ent. 

ineil to the use .T ^vere ami the" ,lari 

Tlie,-e (•..n,st..L'as earlv vova-er. «!,., l./.i the wa 

y munlen.l by the ,,f the ITlite.l States .le-.v,. ih.' hi-he>t a.ln.ira- 

.-lei jail, where the ti.m. The chara.,ter of the pixval.nt wiii.U aP.l 

at.'r l...gai,, inc.^m- .li-mverv were -.n.rallv ,T I.- than ...i.' Imn.lre.l 

U.....>, whose pas.-i.m- t.^ns bur.l.'U. Frobi-her sail..! in a ve.-.d ,.f but el...|U.'li.-e, a- t^^.•ntv-ti ve t.w.s : iw., .,f th.,~.. ..f C..himbn.- were 

rniiu' ti.r hi- slain ui,l„,nt a .h.'k. an.l s,, p,.ril,,us were the v.>yages 

vi.tim to the t..m- ,l,..nH.l that th.' w.av before 

while -ittiiiu- bv his l.nd.arkile^ t.. pirf.^ini -..leiun act- ..f dev..tion, as 

Ohi... Thuspa-se.i if ,„ prej.are f.n- et.rnitv 
e.-t.. fall that brav.. ], j. .-ertain tliat th.- lii>t ora.ii.'al .lis.v)verv of 

if barliar.His, p. 

-his.iwn fate tvp 
n an.l his race^ 

A I of 

It the Delaware I'.a 
IJav an.l Hml-.' 
Henrv Ilu.lson, 

.1 Riv.-i 

..fthe New V.irk 
la.le in 1(,(1!», bv 

Ufrur.l,,if .NVu 

lie ias;llil t,> 

il-i,r> ll.iii-.jn 
tie Eu-llill ilu 


vice of the D.itrl, K:ist Iinlia ('..mpany, ul,,.-,. 

tane<s, and i> tonnd to be .< 

o aeeurtite to thi,- .lav 

title loiiiiiiiirtalitv .Mrnis t.. I.f :i~,-un.l lu'tlif fart 

that 111'- roiito can !,,. uiinut. 

■Iv f illoue.l. 

that one nf tiir lar'-. -t l>av~ and ■•n,. ,,t' ilir iimUI, q 

At 11 llud-on haviu- 1 

i.a-.-.l the l.iwer eapo. 

rivers in tl.r unrhl ,.,uallv l,r:.r lu- nan,.', aiai aiv 

the .-hore.v wore d. .-.a ied .-1 

admitted t- have Ue.ii ,li-. ..v, a. .1 l.v him. fhe 

ue-t, whilo laud ua.- al.-o .-, 

•en towar.l- then.. Ill, - 

di.^covery of Drhiuaie Havaiid Uiver ua.-iiiaa.-. 

(a,-t. uhieh he al lli-t took t 

o he an i-lan.l, but it 

according; t" l!i«' ioiniial krpt hv K.ihi at .Ffweit 

au.i the -eeond poiui 

(or Jiiet), the tir.-t utiir, i- i,t' I[ipI-i.ii's -hip. uii 

of the l.av.' 

Auj:iist2s, it;(i;),,„.u .-tN I,- . and ..„ thi- di-r.K,rv 

tlie Diitoli f.iund.d thru- daiin u, thr .■ouiitn, , 

The reniaiudrr of tno dav 
th,', uhieh were in'. 

...nie part^ lille.l with 

bind ng upon and adjacmt to i\\<- Noith ' lliid.-on i 

-hoal.<. a- ar tie- piv-, nt tin 

ae, ,-.. that the "Halt 

and the South ' I), hiuan) iliv. .-.' 

.Moon," thou'di of Irdit drai 

luht, still. 'k Upon the 

The aeeonnt.- of Had-on'.- third vova'.^e and lii,< 

h:d.l,n -aud,<. -llee that 

will ill.- 

discovery of the Nmth an.! South Kinc i~ are ti.o 

eoverthi^^ivat l!av," >avs 

duet, "lun.-te have a 

accurati, eireuni>tantial. and ^at i.-la.tor y to alhuv 

-mail I'inna.-e tluit nin<t d 

raw but liiiir or live 

of auy (iue.--tion ill fiiraid to thim Iliid — n'.s Jour- 

footr watia-, to sound before 


nal as well as tiiat ot ilol.. it .liii t aiv pie-oivrc| in 

At .-uii-et the iMa.-tor aiie 

le.iv.l hi,- little ve.-.-l 

Purehas' Piigrin.-, and durt ha.- 'Jv. ii not only 

•■ in eiLdit fathom.- uator," an 


the courses and di-tanets ,-ailed on tin- eoa<t, luit 

from tlie iiorthue-t ; ■'an.! i 

It one fatboiue. 

the various depth.- ..f uaiei- ohtaiiir.l hy -ouiidiiii:- 

and floweth South S,utleea.-t, 

"■ " from thestrenth 

offthe bars and within tiie eapes of thi' two ha\,- 

of the 1 urreiit that .-et out an 

d eaused the aecunui- 

Juet's lot-book of An..:u.-t '>. l(;o;», l,a< indeed 

lation of samU," lie " .-tispee 

te.l tiiat a large river 

been tested by aetnal sonndiii-s aiai -aiiiiiLi (fi.- 

di.-i-harged into the bay."" 

Con.puuy. Tin, „,:,„■. -n. . l,n->..,.l„., , ,u|,|.,.,,l „.|M«.. l„,.„ ,1,.. 

fiilheruf thi- gieut ii.oi.r.., »,,- ., ■.„\^ ,. i ni,l,i !■-; :■, 

fiu.-tor an.l a«,Mit oil thi- ...r ,.| il... 1. |,.„ .■ „,,.> r,., 1,,,.; i,. Ku-ih, 

In the course of the ni^;h 
had 1m. ai intensely warm all d 
.\ pas.-in-.-tormiii-pell.Ml the 

t. the weather, wliieji 
heat, while the breeze 


hteen Kn^li-li ^u.l Dutch »,,r. 

)Ute to the^rn fo:ii -ucli .._-. 


ol^truct. It v,.s<ii. l.i-lh.rU 


:n the Ore. lih.n.l -.:.-, 1- -..i 


■sHK-.ik.?, an.l ill-. ..>.Ti.i li. l.m 


rth 1,.,%,.^.. Ik- r. t..r..-M ,.^.,n, . 


, eiil.'«.l ni..l-c.i|-- l-o. v.ii.t. 


IBmlhlnorew bv I...1-I.,..- .„. 

: aUrift bv the..! in ,1 -im ill !..,,t 


k-fon tlio d.-3..1iit.- I.r.r 1. r mI ih 


.rli.!aril of iiftur«ar.l K .r 1. 


intelligent navi-at .1. ul,., v,: 


l-deliriftl piirrosf, ih- r, ii. 1 n.. 

monosriiiihs uf n.iii. It. i' M.;i|.|iv 


KtT. 1!. K..lee..-t.. 

bl..wii,g iroiu tiie ian.l retre.-hed the Weaiv men 
with the in.iist perfumes <,f sweet shridis aii.'l slim- 
mer tl.iwer.-. At early dawn the e.\p!.. rations wt re 
renewed anil Hnd.-on towar.l.- the "norther 
land," where lie again "strooke ground" with bis 
ruilder. Convineed that tiie rotid to Cliina did 
not lie that way, he hastened to emerge from the 
Delaware in search of new ehanuels through which 
be might pass ({Uickly to India, the goal of his 
wishes. Imbued with this ideti, he contiuiied his 
voyage along the coast of New Jersey, and east 
aiieiior, on tlie 3d of September, within the shelter 
of what is U..W Hook, New Y.irk. His 
-iib,-e.iuent discovery of the rivrr which bear.- Iii- 
name, and his ascent to a point in the vicinity of 
the jireseut city of Albany, are facts too well kn.iw n 
to be given re[ietition here.' 

TliL^ English early gave tlie name .if Delaware 
I'.ay an.l River t.. tiie South River of the Dutch, 
upon the pretext that it wa.- .li>.'.ivered bv Lord 
.le la Warr in his v.ivau'e to N'ir.dnia in IGIO. 
Mr. Brodhea.l an.l .lth■el•^vriters, however, have 


,,|;„nlv slunvn L-nl L:i Warr iiev.T .-^w i )r'u- far voon fivoraMe in mcanl to th. \nrtl, than 

U^-alLs of I.nnl'Sonirr>' .>.,ua.lrnn, «!.... lu in- D^\U-\'. Th.'-JlaitM " in !iil n Aa:. .mt hack 

!,.|r[rated fr.mi liis ronnnandci- in a f..-..t! th,- to i.he Nurth Ri VcP v. i!n a. ..ia-,liri.' rar-o, ami tn.,k 

lUTiiiiuhis, in that vnvat:c tiio narration of wiiich lu ILjliaui; a heavy car- > of rlica|i]v hon-iit tnr,>. 

,-..ii|,p<..<tMl to haveLMv.'nShak>[,rarc ln~t'.,rna"lor in lull fthe sai4 y,.;,r ili:.t Iln.l-"on was al)an- 

ll,c Triiijirsf, was carrii.l hv a rvclonc a, far north dontil to ^i horrihle deatli !iiM..lii.-k ( 'liii-f iarn-rn, 

.,- Cape Cod, an.l .1. -vndinj ihe -a-t a-ain to of Clrve,- -.ear Xie:i:jn,n, Holland, a Wr^t India 

Viririnia, si-htcd the raiH' n. ouo-tion and ^lave Id. tra.lei-, and Adri.Q fdork. of Ani-tprdani. char- 

lord.-luji's nanie to it. ;e.-ed a ship in c inip.inv witl; clii' Schipper 

The Dutch eventually r.-tcd their .'laim t.. the a,-;d :„ \: vova-e to the Manhattans and ""the 

New Netherlands u| the nia-nitieent di-co\eries Lfreat riv^T oi' tl-e uio':ntain-^," returninir with a 

ef Hudson, as opposed loth,' lai-lisji <'lainitliron'.'f. n.'Kuuity of tiivs and hiin-in- aNo txso -ons of 
the freneral discovery liy tlie Cahoi^, Imt :liey did Indian chief-;, who:,i tiiev ii:n),e,'; - N'ah ntine," and 
not immediately pr.iht "l.y them to any -leat ex- "Orson." These .sava.ires. and tlie rare hut 
tent, nor did tliev make prompt endinvors to hv chcop ft'rs from their native land, appear to have 
that hest of all niethod-, or^'anized colonization. roiHeJ the phlegmatic Hollauders from their leth- 
huleed, when it is taken into con.sideraiio:. argy, auj pnblic interest iu the newly <liseovered 
Holland was then the first maritime pouer ami teintorics began to show .sortie liveliness. A me- 
the greatest, trading couutry of the worfl : that morial on the sabject v,-as presented to the Pro- 
Amsterdam was to' the north what Venice had vincinl States of Holland and West Fricsland by 
been to the Mediterranean and the le>s known several merchants and iuhabitants of the United 
seas of two continents; that iier tratlic with Jlns.-ia Provinces, and, says Brodhead, " it was judged of 
trei|neutly necessitated the xaidiiii: of as manv as :"'i.'.iiicient interest to be formally communicated to 
.-eventy or eiglitv ship- a \ear to Ariliaii.'cl, and the cities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Hoorn and 
further, when it is brougiit to mind that her Euckhuysen." - Iu the foliowiug year Christiaeu- 
l)eople had for years been urged by the energetic '^en and Bloi.k received material aid from sc'veral 
L's.seliDX (of whom much moreanou), to system- leading merchants, ami titteil out tuo vcs-^el-, the 
aticallv seek the riches of the New W(uld", it is "Fortune" and " Tiger," upon which they sailed 
ditficuit to form other .■onclushm than that the auain to the Hudson and traded alon- its banks 
Dutch were somewhat dilatory in takin- advan- w ith the rndian.-. In l.Sl:; ,,ther merchants albu-d 
tage of their enlarged op]iortunities. There were by tlie lian<l.-or,,e [profits of these ventures, can_dit 
reiLsons, which will presently be exphiined, for the the New Worhl tever, and the "Little Fox,' 
avoidance of colonization schemes, but the tardi- under ciiiniand of John Dc Witt, and "Niuditin- 
ness, the comparatively incon.sec|Uential character .gale." under Thys Vidkertseii, were .-eiit out from 
andtheincompletely organized efforts of this nation Amsterdam, while the owners ot' the ship " For- 
of merchants, towards establishing trade with the tune," of Hooru, placed their ve.-sel under charge 
rich, new found rcirions of the world are ficts not of Captain Coruelis Jacobsen Mcy (or .May), 
easily accounted for. What the Dutch at first This little fleet sailed to the Hudson River, where 
undertook and actuallv aeeom|ilisiied, how. ver, was Block's ve.ssel, the " Tiger," was destroyed iiy fire 
inspired bvmonetarv i"atherlhan politiealiinibitiou. .just as he was about to set sail tbr Holland in the 

The reports carried to Holland bv Hudson were faU. rndauiite.l bv this ndsfortune, the mariner 

built a hut cm the sh,,re of a small islan.l (named 

i.^MiMiluim." l^iVhv'Lu'li'sV'i''-"!^^^^ ^'y ^''■" 15'"''k Island 1, and spent the winter of 

U.Mr. mM II.. e Nil- I,.. I t; tl.« I.Uc. ile wii., tlie lii-.t Govern.jr 1()1;;-1 4 iu CoUStrUt'I iUL' a boat to SUJlplv tile phlCC 

^^l'n!ln,l'rHMn^"'KH"bn,i!ii,.l''hI-'^,'"'^^^^ 'd'the "Tiger." Thi- was a yacht of lliirty-ei-ht 

I'.'^n'^i?", M!'^7u'V■'"Vn '''-^'''^''^?!''''ii\'',^'V'''rr ''-■'-■"^ keel, forty-four and one-half feet long, and 

r.r .,i,-.i,<,,.n.i..i ir IN- w . ,t -i... k ,!.■ -till hi ii,.- i:. \ .. .mi, .m.i elevcii fcct wide,\sitli a Carrying Capacity of six- 

n'.'.^'f!lHi!'.^,i^:;r','''i.'i'nM !'!l'r.u!,'li'!'r"!Vn'-^ "'"-■" '"'"'■ '-^"'"^ ''^^''- ^''''■^' ''"^ '^•'^^ ^'"''^ ''>' 

J"-"", "-"-I'"'' ■'■■'" "'.-li. ".•■'"- 'i.-r'i.- uw.u, ,;, >'h'.t the L'nited States, the builder named the" (hirust" 

^■"■^'JZ'V'.!u.:'.-u''Xu or "Restless." aial the name j.a-M.l inlo history, 

M^u^'r:!^^!,":',;..'V^'ni,'''-ln',''''',,m'm',lr-,°m"n^ '""' ''"-'•'""■ t^l""""^ •!> that of the VeS-el wllijh 

^>niX'.u^^'.l[''\y[V'':.',7\"\Z'Z'~i"'V^^^^ bore the tli>t actual exjdorers of the Delaware 

\'m'!, !.!'.''!'','■', iu''.!/'i/,Ti.'.M.,ri''M.'.,l!!i 'Vli'.i'i'v '■!!..'!- i'''i'\,"^i'i''' l^'^''-'''- I-y the time that the " t)nrust " was tiu- 

•loi !:■ '!.■, i«. II. ii,.,.i-. .,, i,,..i,,.„i. .i.n.. 7,1 1-. Hr,n. i-il ishedaiid neai'ly ready for service, in the spring of 

''|.l.'!l^■!H'M'l^.^^le■i!!..!'^ ''i-',-.i '.i,"v''«'i'a^ I'ild, the ci.impanion vessels of the preceding year. 


iii-L- eiuir 



. were 1)1 

I tliei, 

1- ua 

V ()' 

tinio, 1. 

to liiLrii: 

1 ih. 


iiir iindi 

rt aii 


in cuii.- 






"'■ !' 



r the ..fthe States (, l,v John Van Ol.l, ,, Rarm 

Tins veMt, ll,e "a.lvnrate'' ■■! Il,.|h,ial, tiiev uiifoM. 

.. I,.,- uhat tluv er.lle.l a " ti-uiallve ina|.-..'f tlie W, . 

i~ l.v lialia iur .\nierieain ena.-t, t..M their tale ,,t' ,„, 

covery" to tlie"Hi-h aii.l Mi-htv State- < h.iMial the iii.,ia.iH,l\ uhieh the e.liel pn-mi-e.!. It u. 

ofHollaii.l,"nne,lietur..nliuanee"lia,ll.eeui->ie.r at ,.i,ee -rante,!, aii<l a .|.e,-ial eharter U, llieiu , 

deciariuu'- tliat it " wa^ iiuimrahle. umIiiI ai..l pn.- exclusive' privilege- h, tia.h- lor four vya-es in li 

fitable" Unit tlie |.e.,|,h. ,,r tlie -'e'liia re-i..n thev ha.l ex|, uhi.l, now, lor the lo- 

be eiicinira.ueil to ail\eiiture thrin-vlve.- ill .li-e,,v- time, ohtaiiie.l the iKUue et' the ".Nkw Nkiiiii; 

erini; uukliowu countiie.-, and lor the |iuri.o.-e of i.A.Nb>, ' wa.- draw n Ufiand ^i-'ied < »ctoiier 1 1 . iiil 1 

making the iudtlcemei.t ■•five and co .ii to Tlie territory coseivd hy thi. eliarl.r wa. all of ii„ 

every one of the inhahitanl.-," it \va,~ 'jranted and re-ioii Iron, New Fraiiet' i a,- the French |,o,-m - 
conceded that "\vlioever shall from this time fn-- sion- in Canada were ealkd , and Virdnia. Tl., 
ward discover any new pas.-a-es, havens, land- or e miiany wa- -ranitd th.' |irivile_L:e, exclusively, t^ 
places, shall have'theexelu.-ive ri-ht of iiavi-atiiiL- navigate t., the newly-di.-eovered lands for liv, 
to the same for lour v..yaL:es." It wa- |.re.vided voya-e-, within the p.rioil of three year-, eoi,.. 
that the discoverer should, within llmrteen days ineiieiiiL: the 1st of January. 1U15. The privi- 
from his return, deliver to the Stale "a pertinent le-e exiiired on the 1st of January, Hil^, ami then 
report of his discoveries," and that in case any is uo evidence now extant that any of the ve-.|^ 
discoveries were nuule simultaneously hy ditli^'rent ever traded on the Delaware. Tiiis chaiter hae 
parties, they were to enjoy in coinniou the rights a broader historical iinportame and greater in- 
acquired. ' Huenee in the chain of rans<' ami erte-ct than llh 
In the spring, when voya-in- he-an, Chri-tiaeii- mere granting of a valiiahle fianchise to a hali 
sen pushed up the lliid.-on and eiviied a tiadm- do/.eu or more indivi.hial-, for it. in eHect, assert. n 
post an.l Wock-house on (,'a-tle l-laml. ju-t that the Dutch territory ..f the New N'ctherland- 
the site of Alhanv; l;l..ek, uith the •■ ( )," ex- embraced all the territory ami .oa^t line of NoiLi. 
plored Long l.-land .Sound, and .Mey .-.liled directly America from the fortieth to the torty-tifth paialhi 
southward, upon the ■■ Fe'riune," eiiarod ihe const Hendrick.sen in th.; little yacht " Onru-t " 
from Sandv H...,k f. the Delaware ami, enterin- .scarcely larger than the oyster shall. .p m 
that bay. gave hi- surname (now spelle.l Mav i to the pre.-eiit day ,.was meanwhil,. engaged in makiii- 
the northern cape, hi.- (.Tirijtian name, Cornelis. the first actual .•xpl.u-atioii of the Delawaiv Ha;. 
to the southern cajie o[i]iosite, and to the southern and Kiver, a work which seems to have oiciiiiiw; 
cape, facing the ocean, the name of Hindlopen or the greater part of the year Id].), an.l some poi 
Henlopen,probablyafterThynien Jacobscnllinlop- tion of the .me. Authorities radicallv 
en, of Amsterdam. "or a town in Friesland, though differ as to the extent of the Captain's exjiloratii>n- 
the latter, applied as it was to a fal.^e cape, was sub- simie firmly asserting that he went as far n.irth a- 
sequentlv transferred to the Delaware cajte (near the Schuylkill, and that he was, therefore, the tir-: 
Lewes), "which n.iw bears it. There is no evidence w hite man to gaze upon the site of the city of I'hihi 
that iSIav attenipte.l to chanoe the name of Dela- delphia, and others stoutly denying that he went In 
ware Eav and Kiver from that given by the yond the head of the liav or the mouth of the Dela 
Dutch, River, ..r that he lau.led a"t anv ware Kiver pr<. p. r. Without entriinL' into an elaho 
point. In "the fall th.' vessels of the tra.lni- rate and uii.-atisfyiiiL' ..f the meriis .■ 
sciuadron all relurne.l 1.. H.dland. except the -On- these clashing, it may be .-tate.l that th- 
rust," which was left at .Manhattan under the f..rmer ihj.-sc-.-.s the -reaier portion ..if pn.haliih 

command of Captain C..riielis Hcndrick-en, .l.aibt-, an.l has been generally ( ce.led by the n 

less for the express purpose of making a over cajiti-ais clas-^ of critics an.l hist.irians. Th- 

minute examination of the country. ThcRti.rne.l chief groun.l tor belief that he did sail u|i lli 

navigators and their associate merchant- torme.l river is to be fmiid in his rep.u-t, in which h 

a company, drew up a rep.irt and chart ..f their speaks .if having "discovered ami explored certan 

several di.-coveries, ami jiroceeded t.i the Ha-ue t.i lamls, a bay and three rivers, situated between '■'■■ 

claim a concession umler the diet oi' March 1J7, and 40 .legrces," crrespomling resiiectively to th 

ICU In the iiresence of the twelve mi-litv lords south b.ain.larv of Marvland.w here it touches th- 

Atlantic^ind the huitu.le .if I'idladelpliia 1 

sk;,^''■'v''"-:■■:. :,/;:, ii.''M'''w,Mn:;;.,;tM:"Vi'";,,'^^ the Delaware Kavand Kiver ami th.- Christian,! aii' 

r;;"'l: -'-' , 'i^'a'>.'J^u!uZ'^'Zi:'l^[i:Xt.n'^ S.-huvlkiH .■oul.l be naaiit. But litth' has 1k-i k-^.rrnK.^^ii,.,i,.v lawr.^.inati. s«.-a..,^>^ proorvcd of the inlormatiou which Heiidi i.'k- i 

codvu'B i!.!v" '"' " "' "' " "' '"""■'"""■■' "'^ ' " - "^'^ "" ■'■ ""' curried to Holland concerning iiis voyage. What i 



.avf<l from ohliviuu nuiv l.c iv-ard.Ml iis tlic first 
r,.,nnl ufniMii upmi tl.u Driiiuinv, and it L^fnouu'li 
(,, sliow tluit ho hmd.Mi nt ,-uveral ],!;!.•.-. t.H,k 

„r tlio I'm- and tlie . apahili'i.^ ,.f tlu' riwr. He 
I, 'IN li(i\v"he trad.d uitii thr Indians ri.r .-kins nf 
various kinds, saMes, ottei-. mink, l)far miIm-;, t-to. 
lie s[)eaks of the ve^'etatiou ot'the shores and men- 
tions the kinds of trees that alxumd — the oaks, 
hickories and pines, richly draped and fe-tooned 
jiere and there uitli irrape vines and flowering 

The forests he says were alive with ltiUio, 
Inieks, does, turkeys and jiartriduL'S. " He hath 
fonnd," says his report, " the climate of said coun- 
trv very temperate," and lie believed it to be simi- 
lar in temperature to Holland. 

At Christiana Creek wiiere he landed, and pos- 
sibly walked over the very ground that was des- 
tined to be covered with the streets and building.s 
of the City of Wilmington, Hendricksen met a 
band of JMin(|uas (or ^lingse) Indians, and re- 
deemed from them three white men. who in the 
spring of IGIG had left the Dutch Fort near the 
site of Albany, wan<lered up the ]\[ohawk Valley, 
cro.-^sed the dividing ridire to the head waters of the 
Delaware, and deseende<l that ^treanl until they 
had encountered the Mimiuas and iiecn inaiJe pi'is- 
oners by them.' 

In the summer of Itjlti, Ctiptain Hendricksen 
was agaiu in Holland, for on August 19, he laid 
his report of discoveries an<l claims for extensive 
trading privileges before the States General. - 
For some reason which does not clearly ap])ear this 
was not granted, and the brave and energetic ex- 
plorer reaped no advantage from his arduous and 
dangerous undertakini;, nor did he fiirtlier tigiire 
in tiie cisatlantic aHiiirs of his nation.' 

If of little use to himself, Hendricksen's discov- 
eries were nevertheless of vast imi)ortance to Hol- 
laiiil, and of far-reaching inlluenee and effect in 
the plauting(}f the American Colonies. His rejM.rt 
of his vovaires alonir the coast and ex]iloration of 
the irn^at" Zuvdt River, did more to briie.^- about 
the organ izat'ion of the West India Com- 
pany than any one power, if p(i--ibly we e\e( pt 
tile l.,n-eontiniied patient, pouertiil and adroit 
manipulations of public ..pinion by William Usseb 
inx. T'his man who had Ion,' before been a char- 
acter in the action of the <lrama of human progress 
How became a most ]>rominent one. He wa^ a 
native of Antwerp, in Brabant, a merchant, who 

the Azores Wands, and had become thoroughly 
t'amiliar with the profitable corinucrce carried .ai 
between those countries and \Vt>t India, as all of 
the then known America was called.' 

As early as 1591, on hi- return to Hollan.l, he 
proposed to certain iiiercliant.--a plan to i-tabli-h 
a company for carrying on trade with America, 
and in the following year ho presented that plan 
in writing to the States General, to several cities 
and numerous imUviduals. He secured an ardent 
adherent in the person of Prince Maurice, and at 
his suggestion traveled thnuighout Holland to urge 
his scheme upon the inhabitants, but he could not 
arouse them, for as he exprc'^sed it "The people 
could not be awakened from their sleep." Now 
that Hendricksen's report h;id awakened fresb in- 
terest in America, Usselinx in 1616, resumed the 
agitation that he had commenced at the beginning 
of the century, and in that year he presented a pe- 
tition to the States General of Holland and West 
Friesiand, in which he offered to prove the follow- 
ing points : — 

I Cun.pan 


collfctpd til i-iirry on tliis work propf-rly 

It was not until nearly a year had passed that 
this document was permitted to b,. n ad, and even 

then its time of fVuitioii had not , v, and even 

when it did, the man wlio had fo-teivd and imur- 
ished the plant received no re^^anl tor hi, indefati- 
gable services which were of vast \ulue to hi- coun- 
try. For years he had devoted nearly all of his 
energies to his favorite scheme, and he became so 
impoverished and embarrassed in his private athiirs, 
that in l(lls it l.iecame necessary that he should 
be pi.itectj.d from arrest by his creditors through 
the L'l-anting of mretr du corji-i. But further than 
thi- Ills frei|neut )ileadim:s for remuneration re- 
ceived no recognition, and the very pisjple who re- 
ceived benefit from his acts liar.-lil\- ci iticlzed them. 
This was too much ti-r hi. lierv.piiii t,. b,..r, and 

he ;_-aveexpn--iou to hi,- iudi^nalioi, iu u i-tak- 

able laiejuaL'c. •■Crack-brained audoveruise pre- 
ten,ler.>- he wrote:— 



If we toUou- f..r a hrief pcrioil tlu- lii-t..r_v -if 
this reniarkulile man, before takiii-; ii]i tlir ..i-ani- 
zatiou and atiliiis of tlie oiiniiany uliicli he .li,l 

his misfortune:, tiie ell.vt ..f an in.-r.ilitu.le uiii.-li 
it isdiitienil to aciMiint for, except ii|...ii liie iriound 

of the l.asenrv. and m 1H.-1iih.>s of the romm rd 

of man, who often when injoyin_' th.' r. -uhs of ui-o 
actiou foi-et- tlie iiiMniiiienI liy whhh th.y urre 
aceompli.-^hed. Trinee ^Maurice nio-t rarn.-tlv 
urged a settK-mmt of poor l^Mdiiix'- .lain,, and i'n 
a Tetter to the States (jennal of tiir United Neth- 
erlands under date of Aii-u-t oit, lilJli, said: — 

in it with tin- Killi.' /^.I, ei Ahi.h h.' i„~ll> .i,-.r>,, I.. I,.. |.r,.,., rlv 
rewarded. Tlier-for.- it .. "ur .1. hi.- Ui:.t \-ui Ih.-I, >1 1 Jmn.-., (■■•ii- 
sider well liia f.TiiMT iiii.l fiiiiiu. -i uci ^ ,,ii.l ~.iti-t> III- in-l , hill, I Ji,, 


In spite of this stronL' advcjcaey of his ritrhtshy 
an influential personage, the States (jeiieral on 
July 4, 16-J3, positively^vfused to settle his ehiim, 
and referi'eil iiim to the managers of the West 
India Cminiany, with a letter in wiiieli they warm- 
ly attested his zeal and atleetion f ir the eoiitinnanee 
of the Company, spoke of his willingness to remain 
and his willingness " to give and explain the know- 
ledge he had aci|uired iiy long experieiiee," and 
begged that the manageis " wouhl examine ami 
consider everything favoralily, ami aennding as 
they found him worthy of his serviets, make a sui- 
table dispo-sitioii." LV.-elinx did not deliver this 
letter, because in the tiist jihur he did not nirard 
the managers or company as hi.~ dclitors, init " that 
their High :\Iightiuesscs the Lords States Generals 
owed for his services," and -ceondly, liecanse he 
had reason to fear tlie jealousy and unfiiciidlim >s 
of several of thi' mana-cr-. " l"..r these i-taM.ii,-," 
he says," I finally resolved not to trmilile my^elf 
any more alxmt the company, ami, :ijter giviiiL'" due 
notice, left them ami the ctaintry to try my luck 
elsewhere, out of the country," And thu> p..i,r, 
disappointed, stung w ith ingratiliule and > nihilten il 
in S|iirit, he tran>ferrcd hi< valiiahle knoivled-e and 
energies to the service of Sweden and ot(lu>iavus 
Adolphu-, where as will presently he .-I, own ihey 

were not only used to ^j 1 advanta-e,-, hut hotter 

appreciateil than in his native c iirv. 

The Dutch Wot India fompai.y was tiiiallv 
incoriiorated on the ."nl oi dune, Hiil, for the time 
was ripe for the coTi>iimmalion of the -reat si heme 
wdiieh, indeed, now looked to a coloni/aliou .if the 
new world possessions of I lolhind, as well a< the 
establisliment of trade. '[\> under.-iand the Inn- 
delay of this ni,a~uiv, it i- neee-arv to recall one 
or two eireiim.-taiices in the conditimi and attitude 
of Holland early in the seventeenth centurv. The 

nation had hcen 

n lieu of a pi 

lent treatv o 
peace. I'hilip II. had coii.-^ented to the imlep- n 
deuce of the Netherlands, hut w.mld not eo,r~eii 
to give them tree tra.le in the East Indies. Tin 
NetherlaiKis wouhl not accept a limd and per 
manent treaty which did not guarantee thei 
commercial freedom, heme the truce as a com 
promise. The negotiation wa- etlected hy (.ir.iliii 

L-ll i.V Ih. 

di^tinctivelv •■ war partv " of the dav, headed In 
r>.>clinx, tor the reason that it destroyed tie 
project for a West hulia Company. This part\ 
was eager to resort to every inean.i to injure and 
humble their haughty and arrogant enemy, and, 
indeed, Usselinx appears to have had a bitter, 
personal hati-ed of Spain and the other Catholic 
countries in which he had traveled. The party, 
too, was infused as a whole with the heat of re- 
ligious rancor for the Calvini.sls and Puritan.- 
(the latter exiles in Leyden) were in bitter antag- 
onism to the Arminians, who controlled the Slate.' 
The Reformers, finally in Kjlit, carried everything 
befire them in the Synod of Dort, the Arminians 
were put down and thus one obstacle to the success 
of colonizati'iii \va~ i-emoved. The charter to the 
Amsterdam merchants expired iu Uil.s ; the 
twelve year truce with Spain ended in the spriim 
of IfiL'l.aud the United Provinces must soon be 
renewed while the nece-sity for a more vigorous 
policy on the part of Holland, in supjiort of its 
claims to the New jS'ctherlands was given an ad- 
ditional force of demonstration by the fact that 
the English government was preparing to remon- 
strate against the expansion of the Dutch territory, 
both on the New England side and on the Dela- 
ware, the Virginians having, in fact, sent one 
abortive exiiedition against the traders on the 
latter stream. Thus various causes conspired to 
brill- aliout the result that Usselinx and his 

hrin- about. 

It was upon the.-ldof.Iune, 1(121, that tiieStat(S 
(b'lieral, under their -leat seal, eranted the ll.niial 
patent incorporating the Wt st India CoiiipMjy, 
for the encouragement of that torei-n .-etilement 

and commerce that it< advocate.- a.-.-eited the wel- 
fare of the Netherlands larjelv rested. The coni- 
paiiv was invested with tremendous powers. It 
wa-', as Prodhead savs, to make in the 
name ..t the Stat, s Ciiieral," ■•contracts tmd 

within tl 


,li:irUT, l)iiil(l f(.rt;s npiHuut and iIImIkm-.. ■_r,,y^ !i:i!i|x-i..-.l, liowrv-',-, tl.iit tin- iM.iks v.orc not cl.w-d 

„.iice ami pnnn.Hc tnidc II wa- IkhiihI to a(i- [■U;<i-A. 

pari.- and ilo all that the srrvire of tli.-v cniinirlc- -^.-vural ^-iiii- w-u mt .,:; tn/MiiLf vntiia'^ <if more 

..ihl the jn-olit aud increase nt' iradf >hall r,M|iiiie.' '"■ l^-'--s [.riv-Jc .•:,ar;.< ;,t t.. thr n. u Iv dixovrird 

It had 11 power iu Anieriea |iraclnallv •■.ju:;! to ■imriiric.-, 1m hhm'.; Iji.'.ndt ,- in ;w]ii 4o " to-cthrr 

,|,at of Holland itself, tor all nf tlio Inn, '[ions oi' '^hh a -u'V. i;-,.r l^io- 1.. i/a-imi -W and 40 d,- 

that ijuvernnient, aiJpcitainin-- lo ii.~ loiiiLrn [lo.-^cs -recs of i.".iiii(h-. ' -ao! Ii i.,' roin,-,. was none oilier 

«i,.ns, were unre.-ervcdiy drli-attd to ii. Tlif than the Ddawart . Then is no evidence that 

Siate.s General, reservin- the |>o\\ei- to di el,!;-!, wa;. tli-_v arioallv t'ailed I'ri this river, hut it is to he 

hail a sort of general supi i\ i.-i..ii with llie |.vi\-i- '•o'.'Me,! li:)iii ;ii, a- ti"ii oi' the J'Jmli.-h in Virjiinia 

|i".'e of contirniinu the appointment ol' -nperii.r tliat ihev 'lei. iiKhed it is ornhaMe that thev 

otficers, hut that was the limit of its [lowers. 'J'he visited, all of tiie .'.ater., ol" the eoa.-t from lUiz 

charter set forth that except ill the name of " the 7Crd'3 Bay (within twenty miles of Plymouth) 

Tnitcd Company of these United Xcther!au<ls, ' tor down to the Delaware. 

the sjiace of twenty-four years, no native inhabitants A plan of coloni/atinii was al>o matured. There 
of the Netherlands slioidd he iiermitted to sail to were then in the Xnherlaiids a nuniher of Walloon.s 
or from, or to trafhe on the coast of Africa, from i Belgian I'rotesiants of iU|iposed Waelsche or 
the tropic of Cancer to tiie Cape of <; I Hope, (Jeilic oritrlii) wlio were retaijees from Spanish per- 
nor in the countries of America or the West In- secutien, who had sou;.i-ht to emigrate to Virginia 
dies, between the south-end of Terra Nuva, Ijy the but o -Mid not secure .-atisfaclory terms. Tlie 
straits of jNIagellau, La Maiie, or any oilier straits India Conip;ui\' ipiick to see that these people would 
and passage situate thereab.uit, lo liie straits of be good iniiuigi-anls with whom to begin the p^er- 
Arriaii, neither upon the North or the South Seas, niauent settlement of their possessions in America, 
nor auy islands situated on the one side or the at oiJ';e made provision to carry them over iu 
other, or between both, nor on the Western or one of their ships soon t(j sail. This was the "New 
Southern Countries, reaching, lying and betXTcen Netherlands" iu eominand of ('a|itain Cornells 
both the meridians from the' Cape''of Good Hope Jacobstn Mey, who ti.x after Hudson had sailed 
in the west-end of New Guinea in the west, '• under into the Delaware Day and who was going out now 

penalty of forfeiture of g Is and ships." as the Srst resident director nv governor of the 

The government of the company was vested in colonies. Tlie vessel sailed from the Te.xel in 

five boards of managers — one at .\ m-teichiin mana- March 102:i, i Adiiaeii Joiis ol Thienpoint beintr 

ging four-ninths of the whole; nne at .Miildleburg, second iu command ),w it lion t about thirty "Walloon ' 

ill Zealand, managing twn-iunth.- ; oni' at Dor- families on boaid an<l look I he southern course to 

trecht, on the ilaose, managing one-ninth ; one in America, (the one then commonly followed) by 

North Holland, one-ninth ; and one in Friesland w;iy of the liiilish Channel, the Canaries, 

and Groningen, one ninth. Tlie general execu- across ihe Atlantic to ( o.iiana and the Carribees, 

tive power was placed in the hand.- of a board of thence northward betuivii th.' licrmudas and Ba- 

nineteen delegate., , n.-uallv ,len ated the CI- hama.- to the \'ireima eoa.-l, and then skirting the 

lcge(,f Nineteen) of wh. M^ht w.iv to c e from .-hole t,) the North River. Keaehing his ilestina- 

the Amsterdam Cliamiier, and the n >t .from the ti.m Mcy di-li ibuted hi- handful of colonLsls as far 

other Chambers in pinpm i i,,ii h. their .-hares, ex- as he could. The niajmiiy weie t;lkeu up to the 

cept that the States (ieiieral wa< tn be lepie-eute.l site of .\lbanv where the Dutch had built F(U-t 

by one delegate. The Slates were plcd-ed to ,le- Orange (Aurania) in ICl (. a (l.u to the Counecti- 

feud the company again. I all cmer,-, t.. l-ivc f.r it- cut Kiver and fuur en„,,le.- w ii,, bad married on the 

each, and four vacht. ,.f ei-htv teii.-eaeh. an.l scu't to the Delaware, where tln-v were either ac- 

to advance a million guihiers ,n n,ei,ev. Tiie ,om- companied or ,.,„,n vi-ited by Mev. The site seleet 

|Kiny wa.- to provide at il.- own e\pei,-e a unmber ed f,,r thi- South Kiver >ettlemeiit wa,- Verliid-ten 

"f>hips equal to those supplied bv lb,' Lrnvcrumeiit Island near the |.ie-eut citv of Trenton, N..I. 

and to arm ami e.piip them all" The lleet thu.- While the Wallnous were located at this place, it 

instituted it wa.- innvid.'d.-l 1,1 be placed umhr appear, thai the -ailoi-s and.-eldiers were stationed 

llac.mmand of an Admiral .el,, ted bv the Stale- at a little loit ^'JnvU was hurri.div built for their 

Ge,„.,.;d. The b,,oks ot"tlie .■,,iu|.aiiv weieniilv |,, protection at a -pot which !lie natives called •' Te- 

l-k.ptopen fnr>lneL.Hib-,,ipti,,n. d'unnu'lhe vear kaaeho " near ( dmiee-t.r roint, imiiM.liatel v oppo- 

l''".;i, and while anv inliabilaiit ol the N.tbeilamU >ite tiie lower part ,.f the .-ilv of j-hila.lelphia. 
loljht become a, -ln,kbnl,ler within that pcrio.l, it 

wa< uniioiinced timt none could do so l-.i'er. It ,,r..i«'biy',ruii'/tZ~vii G.'rnMM w^i-'i wilue, "i-in^ 


This wiii F.irl Na.*sau, the tir^t huihliuL' kiiuwn to 
have bffii er'rted by rivilizt-il mrii on the ihi,Tos 
of the Dehuvare. Its exact .-ite eaiiiint now he 
pointed out, but it was supposed to be upon the 
north branch of L'reek or as tlie. Dutch 
called it " Timiuer Kill," ' then called "Sapackon." 
It was built clo.-e to the point of rocks, its; southern 

rampart l)einu 

ithin a tew feet of the creek. 

The year in which the fort was built is disputed, 
but it is probable that its construction wfis under- 
taken about Ib'io, which was doubtless ulso the 
time of the settlement near the site of Trentc!:. 
The men and women of the Walloons at this iso- 
lated station grew homesick, and within a year o"- 
so returned to Manhattan. The fort toowasabr.n- 
doned after one or two years of occupation though 
it was irregularly occupied by a few soldiers for 
short periods, down to 1642 when it was coctiuu- 
ously garrisoned until 1650 or 1031 when the Dutch 
themselves destroyed it, because it was too high up 
the river and too far from the chief theatre of their 
activities to serve any valuable purpose. It appears 
to have been occasionally used as a lodging place 
by the Indians, probably at such times as they ex- 
pected trading vessels to arrive which was at least 
once a year, and DeVries found it thus tenanted 
by the savages when he visited it in IG.'io. 

In 1625, the colony at :Manhattan imndiered 
over two hundred souls, and Cornells Jacobsen 
May, who administered its simple government, 
(luring the year 1624, wa> succeeded by William 
Verhulst, as" the second director of New Nether- 
lands. He seems to have visited the Snuth 
River, and his name was for a hjng time com- 
memorated by '-Verhulsten Island," near the 
bend of the Delaware at Trenton. Upon this 
island, which is described as being " near the falls 
of that river, and near the west-side thereof," the 
West India Company established a trading house, 
"where tliere were three or four families of Wal- 
loons." The companv also had a brick house at 
Horekill. The Wall'.nu families did. not remain 
very long iu their h.nely fruutier home. F.y order 
of the West Inilia Companv, " all iIiom' who were 

Fort Nassau, iu lli2s.^sen■ r.-movcd to .Manhaltan. 
A small ve.ssel onlv remained there, t.. keep up 
the trade. That trade, however, was le>s pro- 
Htable than traffic on the North Kiver -hip^ regulailv vi-^u. d the South Kiver 
for purpo-:e.. ot t.-a-'e, half u do/., u yeai> elap-d 
before any furcLer iittempt wa.^ mado to place a 

ihis'.vas nuallv broi .-ht abi ui It wa- largely throi:i:li 
private eiilerpris.' rosull'-d iu trie f lumling ot' 
ihe hrst sefr'enieiU -Aiihiri ihe present state of 
Deiawar"^. In tl'.ei-iLantime ch.anges had taken place 
in the lUHuagement of New Netherland atlitirs an<i 
in the poliev of the ^Vest India Company. Peter 
Minuit" c.Tr,\.' out and succeeded Verhulst as Di- 
rector „ri'K- New EuL'l.ind colonies, in 1624, hoid- 
iiv: ti'.e po.--iti(»n until 1632, when he wm recalled 
and Van Twillev became governor in his stead- 
Minuit (as will become apparent in the succeeding 
chanter) a man of great sagacity and energy, 
but hewiis compelled, so far as what nnght be call- 
r:d the home aSiurs of the colonies. t(j follow a very 
conservative policy, for the West India Company 
was .sadly neglecting the colonization and conuner- 
cial schemes it wassi!ppf>sed to have been organized 
t-j fuster and devoting its strength to i'ar more 
ambitious and adventurous on?s. While the cora- 
patjy had been nominally chartered to trade with 
au'i colonize the New Netherlands, the real object 
01 it.s chiefs, had been a colossal system of legal- 
ized piracy agaiiist the commeroe of S[.ain and 
Portugal, in Africa and America. And already 
had it won brilliant successes and acquired vast 
P'-ofits in following this mammon of unrighteous- 
ness. It had invyed upon Spanish fleets from one 
side .if the Atlantic to the other. It had in two 
years taken one hundred and tour prizes. It fre- 
quently sent out Sijuadrons of seventy armed vessels 
to sweep the seas. It had captured Bahia and Pern- 
an-,buco and aspired to the conquest of Brazil. It 
had declared dividends of titty per cent. These 
spectacular and enormously protitable perform- 
ances had dazzled the wealth-worshipi)ing Dutch 
mind and completely cast into the shade hundjle 
profits of plodding, but Icgitinrate trade and the 
company did not care to be bothered with the 
dischar'.'e (jf such common-place duties as direct- 
im_' the settlement of the Dutch 'possessions and 

or liwartin- in iniportaucc of the original ]iuriio>es 
of the company whirl, had been one of the chief 
causes of the withdrawal of William L's-elinx, its 
promoter, iu 1624. But tliore were, neverthele.-^s, 
among the mendjers of the Amsterdam chandler 
some shrewd minds albeit of conservative charac- 
ter, wh.i did not, amiil the e.Kcitenient of conquest 
and qui.k makiicj of vast firtunrs, forget that was an ubidin- value in lands. Of this c la^- 
— all ii,-h, all well-inform.Ml, all int.n-t.'d in the 

i,'h would 
De Laet, 


iW hi.-t,.rian, K.lliaan Van i;cii..-rla.T, Michat-l land, an,! thrsr au'tut^ lV,„n tl„. Indian., 

I'aiiu I'ctcr Kvcrl>rn Ilii. It, WiImmi, H, n- „n tlioniitli (,,r u,>i) .-idc ..f tlir l.av a tra<-t' 

dnrk IIa,n,:l, Samuel G.^Un and San, in 1 Jil^m- ll,irlv-tu,, n,ili> l„n- and lu,. nidr. d-vp, extrnd- 

niacrt. Tl|. se Ani.-tn dan, mm of Md^lanru. a:h r in- frnm .,/,/ Cape Henlopeu (al,.u:t u la-re ihe 

rnnHilting uill, l.aac I )e Ka.-iei i .-, Minuit'.- .eere .-nuth l.uundarv ,,f Delauare t-mhe. the ,,,.,,1, ), 

laiy, wliM, for >ome reason, ha,l l.een >ent l.aek to uortliuaid, to ll,r inoutli of a river, the patent l» ini: 

Holland, .-teured, truin llie Colle-e of Nineteen a rcL-i-ter.d and .nnfirined .iui.,' 1, l<;:;i).' ( jthrr 

'•Charter of Kveinption and l'r,vile:;e,- ' to all Uo,dd-l,e patron> .-,,on fojloue,! tl sample of 

Mich as >hall plant eoloni,^ ni New Netherland. DIomma.rt and (.oduvn. and made -i ar pur- 

uhirh the Slater General eontirined on June 7, cha.-es , l.-eu here ni N.u Net horland-. \'an l;,'n-,-<-- 

plaiited it upon the .-oil of tin: ueMern uorld, present Connlie. (,t A ll.,i„v and ]:en.,-,la.r in Ne« 

destined not, indeed. Ion- to noiiri-h it, l.ut to York, uhil.' their eomrade.- -eeinvd ai -t,.piallv 

hecome the -lohe'- hroade.-t tield of deinoeiaev. extensive, and in -omi ea-e> even more valnahle 

A landed arisloeraev ua~ l,n,n-ht into exi.-tence e.-tates. IJut tia-e lord, of the ,-oil Im -;,„ t(i .piar- 

aiul the .\eu Netherlands were liandeMl over rel amoii- themselv, >, ainl to avoid expo.-ure and 

I)retty nineh to it.- eeiiilrol. The eharter -ave the scandal (for the land - j 1" had iiuieli to tear 

America by the company'.- ship>. on certain coii- ihey ,livi<led the hiinU e.piallv anion- the di.-af- 

ditions, three or ti.air t., -elect lands, which fected one.- of their niiinher, the hi.-toriau, De Laet, 

on purchtise from the Indians :ind on piescnhed IJIommaert and (iodyn, each receiving ii fifth in- 
conditions of plaiittug eolouies, should in tracts of 

fixed size, bec<jnie tiie proiierties of feudal lords, or i^!. i!ll",H?,iVil'-T,'tV'\!r i'!'i 1^1^'' Vi,'i'rt'iT'''\m\ 

patruons, who were' also to have the control and d.,ui-. u.i> ,v,.,^.,u/..i i., n,. i i.,, ,„.i e,.„,, ,i ,,i \. „ n, iiM.ii,,„'i., 

government of their iiihtihitants. The land select- j'.',',.''i'",',','!,i~'i"i ,, ':'Tm ' ■" '■ V ' .'■ V' i'"'i''" 'n,,"V' ni'M''>'i"!>i''.r' 

ed for a colony might extend sixteen Dutch miles is n.n.ii e, a. . ,1, i ,,,: i i.u,. im^.-m,.,,, a .i i, i.,.,i- 

in length if coiiJiaeil to one side of a navigable s\ri',i"''i'i'ii^V>''''''i - i-i.-'i" '^ ■ih' ''-V!^^^'i'^^^^ 

river or eight miles on each side, if both Ijaiiks - c ■■ i.iu.,r. i.> .,.■!,. .m.-iciIi'I. K"o,.t. n h.,. .,i-., i... „ |,um,.|h,i 

were occu[iied, and extend as far into the country I,''.,l M-''l't^.^'.'I'"^l''HMl nm-rilllv^.'-'i'iM^^^^^^^ 

sirable ( though this latter clause seems tifterward. t^!''•'i"\'■'■\'7\',■Al'l''vJ'h'':'T■'' I'r,;', ^, i„'r'.M.'''Ti!.' 'i. !i. h '|.,"L'i!iy 

to have been revoked and the extent inland to "yi-""''- mi.. i.m,-i .,i,.i ,.„„.■ „..iti, m ti... Mi-mi, . i ti„. M;ii,..m 

have been nioditied to one half of a Dutch mile, fuii,",Iv,i,- ihTrnnts ,.r tii.'"o'asi' 'Ti!r''l;cm,V.!t 'wi!',!i! T.^,.-^^ 

or two English miles). These great ;;runts were ^'^''[ 

to be bestowed upon any members of the company fuiiuv 

(to none others were the privileges open) who .. ^ 

should within four years plant a colony of fifty '-i"" 

adults upon the tracts in ciuestiou anywhere in [",", 

New ^'etllerlands except upon the Island of :\Iau- ^'-'■•i- 

liatttin .More immigrants entitleil the patroon to !",',l',[ 

proiiortioiiately more land. The i>atroons aoiuired ''"'^' 

their estates in fee simple, with jiouer of < the., 

Imunds-^'Miad chief command and dower juris- ."..'"',! 

diction "--and each patt.ioi, had the ,A-chiMve |"'" 

privilege of Hshin-, fiwliii- and -rin.lin- corn .'.'.i!' 

within^his own domain. They had also the power j''," " 

of founding cities and appiiintiiig otlicers and .'^n'Vi!! 

could trade anywhere along the cna.-t or to Hoi- J;;)''; 

land on paytnent of five per cent, duty to the » i.-^. 

company, at it- re.-, rvati.m of .Manhattan. The ;|',;-,'' 

cwm[iaiiy prohiliited engagement in manufacturing "•■■••■ 

and retained exclusive inon.ipoly of the fur trade. '"',',' 

In all other matters the patroon- were to be .-ov- i"-i " 

Among the M'ry tir.-t to act under the Charter ^' — ^ 

maert and Samuel (iodwyn. in KI'JK thi'v -eiit -'•"'< 

two persons to tlie Delaware to examine and buy I,"^.';', 

terest in Van l^m.-rlac 
una Gmlyn ,l.aiin,- h: 
the tract nn tin- S.Hitli I 
Bav, as il U"W ln-Lran t 
Go.lyn an.l Ul.uinr. 
rather sccuif tuil titlr 
nize auil irn|iicivc it, an 
this, Davi.l i'lctn.-.n D 
HoUand port, -a 
master ofartilicrv in tin 


and i;l..innKU-rt 

ilv uilh 
ran.l l\: 

ind sk)llul V,. 



L'lMt.Mi I'r 
■• ',h-Vvh 
ui,l, wh.. 


Inuu n.ulvrrtr.rne- 
!u- Ka~t, ,v;- 

a skipper ul 

16l'4, ha.l tried, un-iic 

India Cloinpany'.s nmni 

from a three year.-' er 

ofiered an (ipportunit\ 

as a captain and ".^c 

clined to enter into tiie prnject nn aiiv t'U.i.- .<; 

equality with the. rest, which finally ii.'inu a^n 

to, he was made a patnuai on ( ),tn!.ri- iC, 16 

and taken iuto partuer.-liip with (iod;, n. Bio 


niaert, De Vries and Van Ken.-selaer, ami almut 
the same time four other directors nt the \\\>t 
India Company, Van Cetdeu, Haisicl, \'aii Har- 
inghocck and Van Sittoriiih, were adniitl'd to tfie 
land "pool," as it would n.,w hccall-d. The 
ca[)taiii now set to work to advance tlir enter- 
prise of his a-(,ciatcs. The ship " Walvi>," or 
"Whale," of ei-htron ,-„„,, and a yacht unv im- 
mediately eipiip[icd anil .-ailed troni the T( .'ccl, in 
Decemher, Ui:;(), to plant the tii.-i <ctiKnicnt within 
the present hotm.lancs of the State of 1), lawarc, a 
settlement which ha.- a niournt'ul inteve-i, tiom tin; 
fact tiiat all of it< people were i..a-a.-rcd l.v the 
Imlians. The ve-ef- ea.rie,! out nunii-nuit.-. , -at- 
tic, foo,l and uhalini: iuiplenuiit.-, lor He Vr es 
had heen told that whales alionnded in Ce.lvn's 
Bav, an.l !..■ intcn.h-.j estahli.-hini.' a wh.ale and 
seal H,-hcry th.uv, as well a- a .-ettlenu ut and 

grain. The expe.lition .siilc.l fr the T. xel, in 

Decemher, nn.l.'r the .•onimaml .if i'.'tcr Il.'ves, 
of Edam (for Dc Vries .lid not -o .mt at this time. 

us .-tateii iiv <amc wri'crs;.' They arrived in South 
Kiv' r. in .Ip'-il, lil:'.!. Sailin- up the southern or 
w.'st sh.ire the '-Walvis" an.l her .•..n.s.irt, jn-t 
ah.ive the prcM.'it i /ape H.'idop.n, .nterc.l "a tin.- 
naviLMhie str.'tir:!, rill. .1 with Idands, al...unilin'_' in 
good O^sicis." .-1. i tlowin-.: ll-reULdi :i fertile rc'_fi..n, 
and th"re the imuo-p ai;t- -aiiout thirtv in nuiii- 
her, ail ,uah>^-weie lan.l. d, ami th.- lirst clonv 
if. Uelawar • e-;a!.lidi,-,l. Tli.- pla..-e was near th.- 
..i;e -f Lcwo. aiNl the ^tr.-au, wa> what i. now 
kn-iwr ^^< Le^'..-. Creek, i..:t wa.- th.-u nam.-.l, hs 
fuv.-.-, Ho.,rif!-id,an.l Mii..-. .|U.-nt!v cornipl.-.l into 
W ho;-tk;it or tier, kill.' The .<.-ttle".ucnt was .-allcl 
Z.vaanenJacl .;r Swanvale, ami a Mnall buil.lin-.' 
snrr.juu.led with palisades, was iriven the name of 
J-.irt f)plai/dt. The land at Zwuaiiendael, .ir the 

in a kin. I ..f c.intlnnat..ry way, l.y Peter II. ye.- 
a:n! Gdlis Ila.-sett, r.-spectively the capiain ami 
commissary ol the, on May o, Itiol, 
from SaDuoowoun*, Wiewit, Penehacke, M.-kowe- 
tiek, Teehepewuga. Mathsniem,, Aiichi>.)p- 
0»a, Janqueus and Pokahake, who were either 
Leuajie or Xautic.ike Indians. 

Soon after the colonists were comfortably settled 
at Zwaaunen.lael, Ileves er.)ssed to Cape May an.l 
bought from ten clnefs on behalf of Codyu, 
Blommaertan.l their a.-sociates a tract of land twelve 
ii'iles s.piare wITn-h pur.-hase was registered at 
Manhaitan June :!, l(i;;i. Then after demunstra- 
tiug that nothing was to be expected from the 
whole fishery, Ileyes sailed in Septemlier for 
Holland to report to his employers, leaving Ilossett 
in command of Fort Oplandt and the colony of 
Zwaaneudael. Just how the massacre of the set- 
tlers came about was never known, but there is 
reason to believe that it was incited by wrongful or 
at least unwise acts on the [tart of H(.)S.-<ett and his 
men. The Dut.-h .-ay.s .me account (given to De 
N'ries by an Imlian) as was the custom, erected 
a pillar an.l pla.-e.l a piece of tin u|)on it, 
tra.-.-.l with the ..f arms of the Tnit.-.l Pr..- 
vinces. One of the chiet; n..t kn.iuinL: the irravity 
..f the .irteiice, t.iok away the tin to make pip.-.- 
Irom it, which .rcate.l great imli-nalioii the 

liunes this luirrative, were exceedingly an.\i.jus t.i 
maki- amemis t.i the white men, they enter- 



„llriulin,i: cliift'hmu-hl ;i token of their art to tlir 
i;,rt holiiii,:,' lliiii t(; appra.-r tli,' u hit.' Maiiilou's 
iiiii;<T- llit-'y wuru relinked tor llii.s act, uhicli liny 
'.hoiii:lit would pruvu propitiatory, and went away 
,1,. pleased. Some of the friends' of the murdered 
,.hief who had taken no part in the erinie and re- 
garded it :u bein- actuated by the Dutch, rooked 
,;pon reveuge, and stealin,^' upon them when with 
ill,' e.xeeptiou of one sick man ihey were all at 
work in the fields, >lew them, afteiwanls -oiu- to 
ihe fort and iiiakiii.' tlie ma--aere complete liv 
killim; its solitary .Mvupant, and >i,.„,tim: twentv- 
live arrows into a hii,-e eliained ma^lili. 'fliis ac- 
count of the deitructiou of the Hrst colony of white 
men within the boundaries of Delaware is open to 
(l.iubt, so far as the jirovokin;^ cause is concerned, 
hut it a[ipear.s certain that the whites were greatly 
to blame. Whatever may have been its causes 
the massacre was a melancholy fact, aud thus was 
;hed the first wliite blood upon the Delaware. 

DcVries early in lti'4'I had made preparations 
to visit the colony, inspect its couditiou aud place 
mure settlers there. Just as he was ready to sail 
from the Te.xel in command of another ship and 
yacht, on ■May 24, Governor Minuit arrived from 
.\lanhattan with the startling intelligence of the 
massacre at Zwa:;iiend;',!e. Xotwitnstanding this 
discouraging news he sailed, and after a tedious 
Voyage (making their customary immense detour to 
the southward) arrived off the Delaware coast early 
in December, knowing long before he saw laud that 
it was near " by the odor of the underwood which 
at this time of the year is burned by the Indians 
in order to be less hindered in their hunting." On 
the 3d of December the weary v<iyagers saw the 
entrance of the Bay; on the oth sailed around the 
Cape, and on the Hth ran with the coast up the 
Iloorukill, having first taken precautions against 
an ambushed attack by the savages. De Vries 
<loubtless had hopes that the massacre would prove 
to have been of a pending character than had 
been represented ; that some of the men had es- 
caped or been spared ; but he found that his worst 
fears had been realized and the scene that met his 
eyes, even before landing told too well of the fact 
of the settlement. The stockade had been burned 
and the dwelling or store Ikjusc which constituted 
the stroiiLdiold of Fort Oplaiidt was nearly ruined. 
l!ut the worst was reached when they came to the 
place wh.ere their countrvnieii had been butchered, 
when thev found -Ihe' L'round be.-trewed widi 
liea,U and" bone-: of their nuirdered men, and near 
by the remains of flieir cattle. '' Silence and ruin 

The' meluucholv little search partv returned to their 
ship, and having as yet seen no'ludian>, DeVries 
ordered a cannon fired with the hope of bringing 
some of them down to the shore, but none came 

dav. Upon the next, the 7th of December, 
di-eovered -eveial Indians n-ar the ruin- of 
,ui, but thev would not .onie down to the .hip. 
evidentiv feared to appiu-oaeh an.l ,l,.-ire,l 
.lute, to C( on -l„,re, Whi.'h DeVries ,li.l 

.f tl 

.."ii.le. Hew, 
.nl..r that h," 


■ UL'h in 

ceived the st,iry, already given in substance, which 
was very probalily a fabrication desii.^ned to pal- 
liate the action of the Imlians aud at the same time 
to conciliate the Dutch. DeVries di,l not care to 
investigate too clearly a deed which was irrepara- 
ble, and which he t'At assured originated in some 
brutality or debauchery among his own race. Tie 
already knew something of Dutch ,aiielty, and at- 
tributed the massacre of Ilossett and his men to 
"mere jangling with the Indians" and made a 
treaty of peace with them aud sealed it with pres- 
ents — dufiels, bullets, hatchets and Nuremburg 
toys" after the u.-ual custom. 

De Vries ami hi,- m. u lin-eid in the regi.m of 
Lewes Creek through the remainder of December, 
attempting, it is suppose,!, to capture whales, but 
on January 1 lO-'So, navigati,in being open, they 
weighed anchor aud sailed up the bay and river 
to Fort Nassau, where he arrived on the 5th. 
There De Vries met some of the natives, who de- 
sired ti,i barter furs for corn, of which, however, 
he had none, and was thus unabl,.' to tra,le with 
them. The Imlians made a show of olleriiig peace, 
but their actions were susiiicious, and he was 
warned by a sipuiw whom he gave a cloth ilress, 
that their intentions were evil. He noticed, too, 
that some of them wore English jackets, and pres- 
ently learned that they had recently murdered the 
crew of an English sloop, said t,) have come up 
the river from Virginia, and, as they greatly out- 
numbered his men, the wary ca[itaiu dealt with 
tliem verv cautiouslv. On tin- (itii he anchored in 
fnmt of "the Tininu'r Kill (Timber Creek), fully 
prejiarcl f .r the Imlian.- if th,'v intended harming 
him, ami soon their ,-an,H.s ,.'am,. shootin- from the 
.-hore aud approaclie.l the vaeht. Forlv od,l of 
the nativis ,-lamlM're,l on boanl. Their "visit was n.a.le with paeih.' int.nt, but thev were 
closelv watehe.l, ami wh,-ii the captain tli,,ii-ht 
thev 'ha,l l.e.ii there I,.ul' cnoUL'h. tie or,l,Te,l 
them ashore, thnat.M.iuL' them to lire if th,'V 
r,-tus,,l to ,l.'|,art, and telling them that he ha,"l 
been warned by their Manilou (^Oo,l or .jevil) of 
their wicked designs On the .sth, after cruising 
up and down the river, he au'ain retiirne,! to his 
position before the tort, which was now tlironged 

iiisT(M;Y or i) 


tly a cu 

iu,e cauif ..Ifwitli 

Tun V,:: 

11 tllcV 

v.unr on tw tlu- 1: 
TLcv . rourl,. ,1 ii, r 

,i. colulli. 

nil tl 

1,. l),la 

uMiv on 

,,f DcVii 

tllr Till, 

,f I'M, 

■ \\\f 

.Ir nl' ll 

hi ll,.' 

"■ 1'''"'"' 
oth.T . 

aloii- til 

.' Cap. 




lor a (li-l 

Ulll-L- .. 





Ivii, l;ioi 
iinlia Col 



i.l .-ix 
.lrr,l : 


Ul.l loll 

I .^UlM.T- 

V ilollai-. 


Nvith Iij.liaii., an. I 

vacht. w.Tc toun.l to l,c 

aci.cle. aiul -avt' the .aptaiii I.. un.i..>tan.l tli.y ^^ ..f tli.- I 

had toun.l hu H^- alrai.i ..f tl.ein, Km thai th.:.v tlmty-tu.i mil. 

bmviT ^k■HlS, Nsitii c.TL'in..iiv, ill t.^kun ol' twuive mil.,-, ' 

their frlLU.Uhip. *_lii tlir '.Uii aii.l iUlh he ohtaiiKa ami tln'ir a-.'e 

from theiii a .<iiiall .,,iaiitity nf cuu and a tl-w tor iiftLrii tli.. 

fur^, au.l oil the latt.r|.;.i-.l .i..wu the river thou.-aii.J tu.i 

uiid anelmie.! half a mile al^ve the .Min.|.ia. Kill wa.- the lii>t laml ,-.,1.1 hy uhit.,- ui...ii the Dela- 

(Chrir^tialia Itiveri, oil the l..ok.,ut lor uhale.- uaiv Hay ..i' Kiv. r. 

HLs yarht ua,- aftei-wai.U twie.' lV../,eli ta.-l in the F.irl Na.-aii, ua- iiii...v,ii,ie.l except hv 

ice, and he wa^ in ,-.,ine .hae^er tn.m In.lian-. of Indians iu Ki:;:;, mu-t hav- h.en ,^ai i i,-oii,-,U 

whom h.-sawnan,ei..u.- haii.Ls there hein- afterwards, for in If.oo a party ot hiiji-lim. n 

interueeineNvaram..ii.rthein He ivaehe.l Z.vaan- from the olony .,n the (.■ lliv r. ule. 

endatd, after m.-t vexation., delavs, ,,n P.hruary -'ujit V, make a -. iil ..n the De auaiv . n- 

20th aud on Mareh 6th ,-aiie.i for Virginia L. pm- deav..iea t...apluiv it, hut u.iv thuarted, eaptur, .. 

cure, if possible, supplier lor liis e..h,ny. He was an.l .eiit a. pr,-..ii. rs t.. Manliatiaii. It ,> pn.ha- 

upou his arrival there met l.v the (i.,vern,.r an.l hie that the f..rt wa- .■ontiiiii..usly ..eeupie.l hy the 

some otfieers and sol.liers, wlm t.eate.l him very Dutch lV..m tin, time t., ami alter the >ettleineiit 

cordially, but told him that the !?.nUh Uiver he- ou the river by the Swedes m ICl^, an.l Ue.rtam- 

louged to the British by riolit of dk-cvery. The ly was in that year as the aeeouiil- ...t expe.litmn.- 

Goveruor appeared never before to have liear.l that fir its inaiuteuanee m the West In.lia (_ompany .- 

the Dutch had built forts aud placed settlements books prove. But other than tins iiitiiutesiinal 

upon the river, but spoke of a small vessel that dot of slowly dawnin- civili/.ati..n, near t!ie pres- 

had been sent s.,me time before to explore the eut town of Glouee-ter, N •!,, th.P' wa- n. .where 

stream, an.l ..f whi.h n.,tliiie_' ha.l ^im■e lu-eu up,.m the shores ..f the river an., bay any ,-mn ..I 

heard aUh..a-li -he wa- h.ll-^in.•edue. De Vries human habitation, save the wi-wam 

then narrate.I what ha.l been told him bv the In- of the natives; and the -ivat \wlderiie.. that 

dian squaw iu regard t., the munler ..f a boat's >tretclied away, no .me knew whither, In.m the 

crew, and related the circum.-tauce of having n.yal water-way lay a- a virgin ivgb.n awaitiii,' 

seen some of the ludiaus wearing Knglish gar- the coming of man. L'.ut pi.paiatmns were again 

ments. Purcliasing provisions aud receiving a making beyond the ocean— this time m lar away 

present of half a dozen goats, De Vries set sail Sweden— for the peoi,liiig of these shores. 
again to the northward, and in due time reached 

Zwaaueudael. He found that his men stationed 

there had taken .even wiiales from which they 

had rendered thirty-two cartels <jf oil, but as the CHAPTER V. 
fishing was too ex[)cnsive in |)roporti.jii t.. the |>r.i- 

ceeds, and the cohiuy boin- s.i small that it could sew swedes on tuio dklawaise 
not reasonably be expect, .l to mainiain it,-. If and 

resist the Indians, he t...,k the fu >;weuen was now to hecime the competit..r ot 

there and saih.d to Manhattan and tluiice I.. Hoi- Fran.'C. an.l E lejaii.!, an.l ir..llan.l f..r a f.,..ili..l.l 

land some time in th.' summer ..f l'i:l:i. Thus the iu N.-rlh America. The lib, im1 ,,f Gustasus 

Delaware Bay wius a-ain aban.hine.l t., the In- Ad. .Ipliu.- early .li-crnd tli..^ ben, tit. t.. Ins pc pL' 

dians, and uo pe.. pie i)ut they br.)ke the Solitude of cilonies and an cmmerce; an,l 

of its sh..rc...rtr..,l the melancholy. bl.,..d-stained William U.-^s biix, the pr,,iect,.r .,f the Dutch 

and des..hile ■.'r...iin.l of the - Valley of Swans," West ludia Gmipany, vi-itiiiu tli.> lialtic, .piick- 

the site of Delaware'.- lii>t settlement, mr many cued the zeal .>f the .-a.-aci.ui.- ..verei-n. Turning 

years. " t., Swe.len an.l cnteiiiplating tli.- .-..inplex begin- 

Accordiug t.) Eu-Ii-h rule, occupan.w was nee- ning .,f her c..l..iii/.ati,.ii pn.j.'ct, which resulted 

essarv t.. complete a title f. the wihleruc- The in th.- plaiuiiiu of the lir.-t p.a-maiieut organized 

Delaware havim: bi. 11 ie.-.,n.|iiered bv th.. native-, setllcineiil ..n liie Delauaiv, in KioS-Chnstina- 

beforethel)<-..ul.l ivuew their cJaim, the pat- ham, the .ite ..f is ii,.w embraced in the 

ent <,Ce-iiiu- Calvert, -ecml I,..r.i Balti- citv .,f Wilmiiii:t.,n - ,.iic ..f the iiu'st D..t.w.,rt!iy 

more, on Juii- -.'o, ir.:;-J. L'av.' the Dutch an En- an.l I'ads which pr.^.ul- it.elf t.. the .tn- 
li-h coiii| in the per-oii ..fthe pr..pri.-tarv of .lent, is, that tli.' thre.-\ hluals chielly in.lru- 

Murvlan.l. ' meutal in acc...l.iplishiiig that work were men who 



IkicI !ilre:i(lv liocuiui' jn-di 


nt in t! 

lie Dn 

l,h e..l, 

niil tiit<'i|iri-e.s Tiii>o 


,' Will 

iani 1 


1',-liT Mimiit ami S:iii 



— naiii. 

•,(itli which the nailer of 



linL' e 


:..lrf;Hly familiar, knowiii- 

; i1k 

•in to 


lieen it 

.|«.H-tivt>ly those of tiip fir: 

-t pr 

■of th 

le Dule 


W'r.-t Iiulia Company, in l<i-Jl ; a (i.iv.rm.r ..f 
Ni'W yetherlamls and a palro^.n |.n.].n. n.r of 
-real land tracts on the Delaware, one oi' which 
included the site n{' thi- iinfutuntUe coL.ny of 
Zwaanundael, npnn the Hoornkili. 

Usselinx, as ha- lireii <le.un, left Ilnlland late 
in 1023 or early in ir.-.H, impoveri:~heil ami 
hv the ingratitude of the Dutch. He went ininie- 
iliatoly to Sweden ami tli.iv made, through Clian- 
cellor'Axel Oxen^tierna, to Kin.- (il!^tavlIs Adnl- 
phus,— the, then, iim.-t cmmanainLr ti-ur.- in 
Europe and the chief defender of Protestantism, 
— a proposition to establish a Swedish Trading 
Porapauy to operate in Asia, Africa and America, 
hut to especially direct its energies to the latter. 
Both King and Chancellor embraced the enthusi- 
ast's project, with alacrity, and their interest and 
a.'^sistance knew no abatement, save through the pe- 
cuniary embarrassments, political changes and wars 
which unfortunately ensued. Usseliux, in urging 
all the advantages that might accrue to the nation 
and individuals by the enterprise, stated that there 
were thousands of miles of shore in Anitrica 
where no Spaniards or Dutch had ever been, with 
fertile soil, and good climate, to the natives of 
which their superfluous goods could be sent and 
from whom other goods taken in return : that colo- 
nies might be planted on the.^e shores to the great 
benefit of the mother country and vastly extend- 
ing His .Majesty's dominions, and that the causes 
of civilization and Chri.stianitv might be i:reatlv 
advanced. " Above all," said he : — 

lh--.i[5, u.ia touiirsubjeots -.mj r .v..-ii..-,it :im.1 b.-,ii:u 

A second charter for t.'no compaiiv was L'ranted 
by the King, June l4. VV1(^. wh'.h was similar in 
all e.ssentia! matters to 'hat ><t' two yiars beliire, 
except that it changed (h- tim.'f.r goin- into ef- 
fect from -'6'i-;i to 1(5^7. ft emi-j.-ted of thiity- 
.-even articles aad was intiodm. i 'Aitli ilie tullow- 
;;'g words by the King; — 


, ■•fortli.' 

writy cf orr s..l.j-c 

u" .... tuve 

company or ui.ilcd i 

lower of proprictc 

others :.,! »la!l as-o- 

iHle thei.iselv.-3 « 

work, proniisi::gtT<t 

rcT'Ctbi-n it with c 

elp forward 

The charter fully set forth the objects of the 
corporation ; provided that it should be open to all 
countries, citie.> and individuals, and that those of 
them who should bving one hundred thousand 
thalers >hould be entitled to appoint a director; 
guaranteed national protection; assured a crown 
subscription of four hundred thousand thaler>; 
lixed numerous other details and prescribed a form 
of government for the company. 

That the services of U.sselinx were neither ig- 
nored nor inadequately o.-timated is apparent from 
the thirty-ttiird article, in which he is most favor- 
ably spokeii of and a plan established for his pecu- 
niary recompense, viz: — 

'■ Wlienns Williiiiii f-^-i.Iiiix, horn in .Uitw.rp, I'.nilB.nt. Ii;l- spent 

For the scltlemrnt of -^ii h a ,-i.h,panv as Osd- 
inx proposed the Kiie.' Iwters patent, 
dated November 111, liijt, enaliiiu' t!i.' .-w di-li 
.^onth Sea Companv u lii.-h it was p.-ovld, d, >hoiil,l 
L'o into operation M'iiv 1, ICJ.-,, ami cntinue twelve 
vears or until HioT. On tlieL'M day of the next 
month C.n>tavus Ailolplnis autliori/'d C-.-linx 
to travel thion._di the kiie_'d..m and .-olieit >ni.-. ri- 
ber. to thi'.-toek of the Cmipany and -ave him a 
kind of ._'eneral letter of i-,-e.iinniJmlalion In whieii 
he .aid:- 


N.. ^Ulves 

The Kin- "as a profmiiid, tar-s. 
and liberal tlunktr; an.l lir tl.> nf..! 
freeilom of coiijciLiir.' un.l .-i»-.c!i .-li 
any colony founded iiiidrr tln' >" 
that to it should be wulenuied all 
battle-torn fields of the "Id w..ri 
should tread its soil "f.r," lie >aid 
great deal, labor with reluelanee and .-.M>n perish 
from hard usage. But tl;.' >UMli-h nation is in- 
dustrious and intelligent, and hereby \\e sliall gain 
more by a free people witli wives and children." 
The project thus warndy endorsed by Gustavus 
Adolphus -was received with enthusiasm by his 
subjects. "It is not to be described," says one 
writer,-' "how much all these new schemes de- 
lishted the Senators, particularly that relative to 
the establishment ..f ihe West Indi.- i as America 
was then called', tn whieli ali penplr subscriijed 
, in eonforndty to the ex- 
kiriu-." Ships were made 
. s..nie authorities actually 
t till into the hands of the 


newed and Sw 

at home, all furth.T elforts towards coloni/atmn 
tiinr ;i!iand"nid. Durini: the period 

td tl,.,,.- u: 
:,.,iu,.nl p..l 
t.nn ul.leh 

...nandrd ,-. 



- doe 


a I 

d St 


by C 







of tl 

e N' 



1 \\" 









South Con, 









, 'J- 

e.dlcet ^ 
r lo, K 


readily and gem 
ample set them 
ready and aeeon 
sailed for Ameri 
Spaniards an. 1 tl 

ity Year- War lieing re- 
all her men and monev 

liini "tlie i!l,-t ia"je,-t..r nt tin 
nowapiinintedOv.-i- Direemr, ll,.- 
particularly beloved William 
The disastrous engageiiicnl win, 
Germanv in regard to the company was entiicl;. 
broken oti' by the defeat of the Swedish army ui 
the battle of ^'ordlingen, August 1^7, lGo4, and 
Usselinxthen endeavored, though inetlectually, tn 
interest the French Government in the scheme. 

And now in Iboo, after nine years of, fjr the 
most part, well-directed but intermittent and i>ru- 
ductive labor, and too, anad the very same di^all■ 
vantages which had defeated the original pn.jeet, 
there was begun what was, in many essential re- 
spects, a new movment for the colonization ol New 
Sweden, and one which culminated in sueee.-.- 
Concerning the atiairs of this period in which the 
Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna, Peter .Miunit, Sam- 
uel Blommaert and Peter Spiring were the chiet 
actors, a Swedish invebtigator' has in. very recent 
years discovered interesting data. 

The King, a short time betbre his death, had 
freshlv urged public attention to the trading and 
colonization scheme, and Oxenstierna, to who^e 
wise guardianship, he had entrusted his little 
daucrhter, Christina, the future Queen of Sweden, 
d his well-known desires He 


d t. 

were for the 
which follow 
and the coii- 
divided atteii 
the scheme d 
it by thii.-e i 
blow alike t, 
companv in 
mimled Kin 

id. During the peril 
little re.-pite in the u 
i-al turmoil, and the n 
e successful niatuiini: 
d not 1)0 lir>toUed up' 

:u,d the' I'l-os, 


also stated that the work was almost 
completion, but was delayed by the ab.-enee of the 
King in the crusades, in l'nl.-^ia and Germany 
and from other causes. Fully realizing tlie im- 
portance of the project which had been left him 
as a political legacy and trust, the Chancelhir in 
the spring of Kio-"), while sojourning at the Hague 
and Amsterdam, made the actiuaintance of Sam- 
uel Bliimmaert, the commercially ambitious Hol- 
lander, whose lan.l investments on the Delaware 

N-„vember i 
aflUirs had 1 
elude (ieiii 
and his ant 




lis (Irpart- 
ini. whirh 
l,:i(l the c-tt.rt ..t -ivin- ;i nvw iiMi.rtus V, Svs,-,1l-Ii- 
Anirricau allair.^. ( )nc of llir first of BldiiiiiKunt's 
l,.|t,is niu.le iii'iiiiry as to tlie })rosi.i.'rts of u 
Sui'lisli f\|i' (liiiou to (_;uinea, t(j uhifh coiintrv 
;iiiii ISrazil tin- atti'iitioti ot' tlie Dutchman seems 
tlicii to have lieeii prinei|>ally ilevoted, ami siih- 
.iM|iient letters dealt hu'L'ely Avith a description of 
tlic coiiimereial and maritime enterprises of Hol- 
hiiid. In the following year Oxenstierna received 
a visit in Wi.-mer from another Dutchman \vlio 
was, however, engaged in the Swedish service and 
stood high in the esteem of the government. This 
was Peter Spiring, who was now sent to Holland 
on a commission to gain subsidies for Sweden from 
tJLe States General and also " to observe whether 
it might not be possible in this conjuncture to 
obtain some service in atfiurs of commerce or 
manufactures." Ho wrote the Chancellor, in ^lay 
l(i:](i, that he had held several conversations with 
r>lonimaert concerning the trade with Guinea, 
and had sought to interest in it him and other 
Dutch men of business. He also heard from 
JJlommaert of the person best qualified to impart 
information on these subjects, viz , Peter Miuuit, 
the leader of the first Swedish expedition to the 

^linuit, whom it will be borne in mind, was 
Director of the Council, or President of the Board 
of the Holland We.-t India Company, and Gov- 
ernor of Netlirrland.-, resident on the Island of 
-Manhattan, from .May 4, lti2G to 1632, was a 
native of We^el, in the war-torn Cleves in the 
Rhine provinces of (lermany. He was probably 
compelled to relin((uish his position, in 1632, by 
the intrigue ot a powerful faction of the company, 
and thereufti-r .-eems to have led a retired life, in 
Holland, until ]62(i, when he was brought into 
notice by Spiiiii-. It was propo.sed that ^linnit 
shoidd journ.v lo Sw,din in tlie summer of Kioll, 
" to ai/l the authoriti. - with hi- c.uiu.m.1 and ,-'up.r- 
ior information," but in- was unable to d<.i so, and 
senta written coiiimiini( ation (^dated June l.jiin 

rillJ Bj. 

He suggested that the Sui(li>li fiovernmtnt 
miuht grant a chain r to .-.curr the trad..' Irom 
Terra Nova cNewfoundlaml - lo fhuida, and uI.m, 
grant power to capture Siiani-h and I'oitUL'Utse 
vessels, and that the uoods of ihe e,>n>pany -hould 
be made free liom duty, hoih in and out, for a 
period of ten years. He thought tiiat the coni- 
pany ought to " try to get there the so.jner the bet- 
ter, and procure triendly terms with the wild in- 
habitants, so as to induce tliem to collect beaver- 
skins during the winter; trade willi them for four 
to five thousand skins. Tlius, with a small begin- 
ning, increase the capital, so as to take more in 
hand afterwards." Such an expedition as Minuit 
contemplated required a ship of irom sixty to one 
hundred lusters,' with a cargo worth ten thou- 
sand to twelve thousand gulden,* and a company 
of twenty or twenty five men, with provisions for 
a year and a dozen soldiers to serve as a garri- 
son for the colony which should be located, besides 
a smaller vessel to remain at the settlement. This 
proposition of Minuit's or one based ujion it was 
read in the Swedish Kiid, September 27, 16'16, and 
seems to have been favorably regarded by that 
body as well as by Oxenstierna, Spiring, Bloin- 
maert and other interested individuals. 

In tiie fall of 16o6, Spiring was again sent to 
Holland, but this time as Swedish resident and 
" Counsellor of the Finances, ennobled under the 
name of Silfvercron till Norshalm (with which he 
coupled his o«n name, usually writing it Peter 
Spieringk Silvercroeu of Norshalm). He immed- 
iately resumed negotiations with Minuit, and 
Blomniaert, (the latter ot whom was now made 
Swedish Comnii>.-ary' at Amsterdam), the final 
result of which was that the expedition to Guinea 

volviiig too giiat e\pcIl^e and the coie|-ie resolved 

to form a Swedl^h-Dlll^ll Company, for the pu 

colonies ui'oii tho-c poiiious of the Amirican coa 
not already occupied by the Duleli and EiiLdi. 
It was e.-timatecl that the .'o-t (jf the first exped 
tioii woiihlL.e about tv.eiity-lour tliousau.l Dutt 
florin.-.' half of which was to be contributed I 
Blonii.KHit, Minuit and tlieir friend> and tl 


luiir iMit. h n.. 

iii^TOUY (.)F dklavat.i: 

Spiring was (If.-^irmi 

- of tak 

iiii; iuto tiii-ir tuiili- 


ilonre <.tlu.r l.n-inr- 

• men. li 

lilt thfir coiiipi'.ui.ras 


protrstr.l a'jain-l It 

aihl 111 

■iri'd sfcrecy iii? ihe 


only satV-iKinl a.'ai 

frustration of their 


sclionie 1)V tlio l>ii 

t.h \V,- 

-t In.lia Company. 

of til. . 

This iirtord.s a SM, 

11. ■what 

(■aii>tic r..:nn„-nta;v 

.-ix th..: 

upon the luothoils liy wliirli the fii.-t S'.vedi-li 
colonies were phuiteil uiion the I>ch\waie apu 
explains why so litlle was known of the eatiy 
nuivenients towards that olijcot hy coteinporary 
historians. Bhuiiniaert was a meniher of rhe 
Duteh eonipany, l.ut no less zealous tW tha 
welfare of the Swi^di-h eiiter|iriM' on that :-eorc, 
and indeed he had he. n en-aLTed in .onuntioa with 
the eonip.iny, which, ilouKlle.-s had it.- etfeet in 
making him a party to the new project, but it 
is, nevertheless, a notahje tact that he was not 
taken into the confidence of his a-ssociates. 

Minuit, when these preliminaries had been 
arranged, in February, I6o7, went to Sweden 
and began preparations for the expedition of 
which it was agreed he was to be commander. 
The money required from Sweden was contribu- 
ted by Axel Oxenstierna and two of his relatives, 
Peter Spiring and Clas Fleming, who was prac- 
tically the chief of ihe Sweilish Admiralty and 
secretary of the Swedish company. It was he 
who obtained the commission to fit out the ships, 
and he carried out the details of equipment with 
Minuit and Blommaert. The latter procured the 
crews of experienced nun, in Holland, and also 
bought there the articles tor the cargoes for trad- 
ing purposes. Botli nun and L'ood- were sent ovir 
to Gottenburg, whence lli>' oxp. .lition was t^ s;,i| 
in the spring, but owin- to Minuit',- h.-in- -i-rioiis- 
]y sick, a long d.lay fii.-iird. On the ;ith of 
August, the Adniiraltv i-.-unl pa-sp^rt- f^r the 
ships "Kalmar Xvok."!" ( Ivry of K;,in,ar) and 
"Vogel Gripen"' (iho (uillin, or |;i,d Ciitfini, 
the former a lar-v man of-war, th.^ latti-r a sloop, 
to sail from t'torkholm, and tin 

sailing fro 
adverse a 
December had 

■V did 
ill. • K 

icKeieut and liiey were fearful 
i.i'ize i;o prolir f'om their venti 

il procure jU"- 
rs were S"i(l\ 

that they won!. 
re. Minuit pro 
. to induce th 

' anil '•Orittin 'just as the vear 

Key of K al- 
io:;:, drew to 


Of that old-time venturesome voyage across the 
ocean which resulted in placing the first perma- 
nent settlement on the shores of the Delaware 
Kiver, withm the boundaries of the State named 
lb'- it, uothintr defiirlte is known. The passage was 
lioublless by tlio ciri'uitous .southern route, along 
the coast of Portugal and by the way of the 
Azores and Canaries to the West India Islands 
an.l thence northward, along the American shore, 
to the entrance of the Delaware Bay. What may 
have been the thought of the few persons on the 
two vessels, thus breasting the waves, day alter 
(lay. in iiro_'i-.s< towards a practically un- 
known land, mav bo partly conjectured. AVhat 
vague hopes and vaguer fears filled some of those 
b'-easts may be imagined. They had heard misty 
and fabulous stories of the wealth, and salubrity, 
and luxuriance of the country to which the wiiids 
of heaven were bearing them and they heard, too, 
tales of the cruelty and blood-thirstine.-s of the 
stiange race who dwelt there Some of them 
had kiiMwh-.L^. of oiitraLM'S comniitled 
intry, and those who knew the actual 
of the .^hips were not, improiiably, 
i, of the awful fate of the Zwaanendael 
S.aiie of the had, verv likelv, 
.-^e >lHins befoiv. in the Dutch" .-erviec, 
e commander Minuit knew -oni. - 
dition ..f the coiintrv, but the iv-t 
,l.-..hite i.jnorance of the situation 
e- that awaited them. The mind 
donhtle-.s ilile.l with dreams ,t 

uiust have 
in the co 

.hlavcd liv 
1 a< late a- 

• and thev 1 
^ thini: of tl 

harbor ol 

r were in al 

and circiii 

•■.'.-„., ;ir.,;, 

. of Minuit 

:r.,i.t...l u,.,„ I, 

• personal i 

.„, ..., .,,,.1,, 

, richment . 

,ory miiia, <A iU-.a s.uiill 1 

l,i 1t.-j own tll'HI-Ilt,- ul' 

''k'rv ,.r K:.l,u;i 

NEW s\vi:i 

M-,N ON 

Till-: DKLAW.VUH. 


t I.I1X..1 a,->ri 


TW- .^a.on ua^ an ta. 1 

V nlle. ll 

le VeL'> 


ihc hair iiiv 


u.H aavaii,-.-.!. an,l I„ tl,.- , 

•ve- ..f tl 

1.- luivi 


lioiiihi aihl 1 


arru-tnn,r,l, Inr ti.HM- ln.,I,tl.,- 

-. I.I re-t 1 

i|...n 11 


V tl.r ai^lllht, 


Uut a u.llouv «a^tr of uatr, 

■, an.l ha. 

n.i- h, 

>t .-et-U 

lnn,-> (,f ihr 


lan.l-Sut-il.u ai..l ll..llai„l 

-IJ. llle 

.h-.„l .. 

f uiri- 

tt-r. ihu .>i-lit nt' lla. .hnn- 

..f [»ehiv 

,are. a 

f til.' v,>va-i-, 

t;n- ll.r 

-n .11, luiist have iinii a n-l 
[heir heart.- with happy auti. 

re>hiii- .. 



f.l hv 

'III' "iinl,~ tl.a 

t tilL-.l'iiy hiee/es that Ijofc th. 

i-in- (" 

i..r> ..r 


,-e uhirh 
eertaiu tli 





a peri, 1,1 n. 
1 Hve in.. 

• t -re; 



a ' 

^•ovii2;e to 





itdav.' T 

lie act 

11 a 

1 .-; 


1 occurred 



le e 


the hei;ini 

lillU' 111 



ps were ti 

pun tl 




irch, KJ.'lN. 

1-. iiio: 

m.l th 

he nuh.eke,! 
uiiL- iif va.-t 


ip.-, pi 

r.t phi 

ilheranee of delijit 
hieh thev hinileil f ir 
oh.-ervation ami relre-hnunt, ■• I'ara.'li-e Point' 
(Para.lir^ U.hlen ,i. To their lanii.-heil eve.-, the 
venliire-clad shore ut thi.s phiee (which wa? some- 
where between the 3Iiirderkill and .Mis[.illiuu 
Creek, in the nei^uhln.rhood of Lewes, in Kent 
Countv) was, imletil, a feast of beaiitv — an earth- 
ly pamdise,— all unmimlful that the" de.-ohite site 
of Zwuaneuduel was only u lew mile,, uuay. 

The phice winch they were to make their home 
was not yet reached, and so after a brief enjoyment 
of liberty on shore, the [)eople returned to the 

bay and river, tlie latter of which tliey named 
Nya iSwerige's Elf (New Sweden's River). Fin- 
ally they arrived at the mouth of a stream of 
goodly size, the 3Iini[Uas Kil.' of which ^liuuit 
probably liad some knowledge through the explor- 
ations of Captain Hendricksen,* and doubtless 
with the fixed inteutii. n of locating upon its 
banks, the vessels steered into its channel and 
slowly made their way beyond the mouth of the 
Brandywine to the spot known as "The Kocks,"' 
an excellent natuial vUiart' about one mile and 
three-quarters, follouing the couiseof the stream, 
from the Delaware. Upon these rocks the i>as- 

/...„./.„. l„:„,„.„U, Vul. I , pjl. 



seuf^ers of tlit- " Kvv ut Kalmar " ami •' < irittiii " 
—the piuiuri-s nf "l»,.lawan -,li~.„,l,a.-k..l ami 
the carLMies of the tuo v.-mN uiil.a.i..!. 
Prepjiratiiiiis uvre iruim .liati ly li.-iiu lo iinvt tin- 
wauts ul' tliL- iiLdjil.' aii.l I., makr tiir placi liaM- 
table. Upon the -rniin.l, iMinuaiat.-U lia.k nf 
the creek (uhi.-h Miimit tii-t ralK.l th." i;!!,,., hut 
soon changed to ( 'hri.-tiaiia l'',lt, at'in- the v(.uiil: 
Queen) was l.uilt F.nt (;ini.-tiaria . -fhii-tiiia 
Skaiits") a small eii.-ln~,,.v liaviii- the -• neral 
form of a sr];]are, am! within the >trnii_'hohl were 
erected two 1..l' hmi.-^.. Ihr the ahodr ..f tlio.-e who 
should form the -ani-nii an<l a.- a place h.r the 
storage of provi.~inn- for th-m, as ufll a- a ilr[i,i>i- 
tory for the g.ind,- hrmi-ht tn barter with the In- 
dians. Ininieiliately hack ot' ihi;- liirt, upon the 
rising ground, was afteruaid> laid out and luiilt a 
small town called Christinaham <,r Christina Har- 
bor, the first town within the houndaries of Dela- 

The fort extended ahuu-t to the Christiana and 
fronted upon it, while upon its eastern side was 
also water — a iitle cove or basin, (now filled up) 
■which was called the Harbor — large enough to ad- 
mit several vessels, I'^pou the other sides were 
low sand banks and niar.-hes except in the rear 
where the rising ground, already spoken of, grad- 
ually widened and exteu<led back to the rolling 
hills on which Wilmington now stands. At that 
time there was much more water than at present 
about this place, and, indee<l, it is probable that 
twice in every twenty-four Imurs, when the tide 
was at its height, the ocen pants of the fort could 
look from it^ ranqiarts (U- tVom " the R(jeks " over 
a sheet of water extending to the New Jcrsev 
shore, and unhrok, n >ave l.v " e'herrv Island.'"' 
The spot where the f.rt stoo.l was called bv the 

isalleg.Ml hr or ,-..„., of h,-m,n a-r,aid. d ih-rix,,- 
as far as TimlMT Cnrk' had ,ailv knnu ledge m 
the invasi.ui of what tlav re-ani'.d a^ their d- 
main. William Kieft, uhouas n..u the Govn,,,,, 
of Nrw Netherlands, had n-,viv,d intrilij,,,,-,. o( 

It at Maidiattan M:iud h\ A|>iil L'^lh, al a 

m.,nth from th.' tim.^ ..t' M hiu it'- arrival. rr,vi\ii,_- 
word from ih.- vommi-sirv at Foi t .\a->au, for 
upon that date ho wtoto ih,' diivctor- of the We^t 
Imlia Companv that .Minnil had la.ehd on the 
Delaware and hadln-jun to.'onMrurt a ,-tronuiioh! 

and ha.l tried to pu~h on up the nvor hov 1 Fo, t 

Na.>au, but had heell prevented lion, "doin- m,. 

g^ljlllMi a: lll ll l l l ll l ll l l i mil I II IIUIII I I I M i l l i iL ii i. ii i r,„ . m ^ 

N ly^ 

I . 

Minouas (or .Mi 

Indians whom Minuit 
found in the region HopokahaikiiiL'. From one 
of these Indians, a chief named Meta?iment or 
Mattahoon, the commander bought, on :\Iareh 
29th, this site and [)robalilv <Mnsi(lerable surround- 
ing land, as mucii, the Indians afterward .said, its 
"lay within six tri ■•-.." meaning- certain trees, 
which had been desi_'natvd hv • h!a/in- ■• or mark- 
ing with an axe,' and a lililc later he purchased 
a tract along the w, -t ^hore of the I), lawaie, 
several day:-' journ. v in ext, nt. the bargain b. In- 
ratified bv live .'-^achem-. and a wriltiii eonti.ict 




'C^pMuj, - 

f ^W^t"'"°'"'^" V|No\-,^ SVFXLV.i 

After .Mi 

i.uircd pi 
. and pi 

eha.-e trom tlu- n.itiv,-. hr ,-anM'd thi' arm> of 
t^ueeu to and iiam.d tiieeohnv, w 
he had plant.. 1,-N,,w Swu.KN." 

The Hull li at Fort Na--au i ( ilouee-ter. N. 
either hv thnr ouii uatchluliu>- throu-h ii 

Fort Na-aii to proto-t a-ain-t MinuitV action, 
and that olhrial ,lulv .-mt I'd. a- .Mov down to the 
Chri-tiana to .-,•,. the commandor',- lieeiiM. and 
ro,Mini.-.ion.-, whieli he refiixd to >liow. Tie,' 
(governor tlen, on .Mav Clh. old ,-ivIe, or I7rh, 
iiou >tvle (the Swch- 'u.Mii- the firmer and ihr 
Onteh" the latter. .M-nt the foIl..uiii- .-..lemn |.r..- 
test, inuhieh he lai.l elaim in heh.-dfofihe Dutch 
We.-t ImliuVompanv to the Zuvdf River; 

NKW SWKDlvN ON Till-: DKLAWAinO. 41 

.,,, ,i,,,.r „, Vw N.Ml,..rUn.K h:u.^l»..-n^„. our ,--,-pm ^|„,^,1,1 „,.vrr sre M-aill. He li:ul ,-,01 tl,0 >1..0p 

':^] lai':^ iZ'\''^Z\: ul u^,^'\^^^^^^ "(Jrilfln" ill a.iva.Kv tn thr \Vr>t In<lir- f. .'X- 

V...S.-M,,r,,,n.|.:,.a ,ys. :!„,.. un^.....^^ \W,.,-.. ^,„,y.l„ ,.1, ,,„,_,, [1,,. riM'-n l,n,lp.Kt ,.1,1 IVn,,, G, ,t (l-.I I HI I-, 

:t:!^.r"''-rp'.i',,h ''""!! ,i'.!lh''„','" ■'!'h.,,''.':'li.,V':,.^M aihl lu- >ailMl u|,on tli.' •' K.v ,,f Kaluiar" to the 

'■^Mr'li'fr^wi M!u,.-.r^r"«''''rrt^'\!IVr,-n'\!'7'^^ same placc. Hr arrivo.l .alMv at, thr Wan, 1 of 

■;^\,u.|^l''..'^"ur^l"n",~~, il ,,"!,J^,.^^, v,M ,.nJi-.~i^ St. CiiriMn|,l,rr, Mlrr,,.!,.] ill" .li:^IM,sill- ,,t' hid 

i'^;a;;'^'m";^n,',M'^/'!lM'n'm';w Sl"l''' ^-T-"' '»"' ^'^'^ -''"'I't '" ^^'il tor" Swolm, 

'!''1;Mr!,!'^r""L!!lv!^l'r^r[!.'n!l,:^-''^'i,-''!,!'''u ^f*^ went with his captain to vi-it a Duteli ship 

'".';,:.„ ,,,.,.„, ,:„.,H.r_ n,,, a..,,. Ti,„„uy, u:,:.^ the .,11, „r ,M.n. luuued " Het fliegeiiile here " (The Flyiii- Deer) 

'•'''■'" lying uear, and while tliev were uii hoanl one of 

Mliiuit paid no attention whatever to the O-.v- '"'"'^^ t?';"'''^ hurrieane.s to whi,'h the \V,.-t liidi ■ 

,rn-rV protect. This .•h, in, iv-.ed lip,.li tl 
,l,-,ovrvandor,npatio,Mif ilie eoumrv, 1 
haduliollvahan.lonedtl thev regarded their chi.ii. as nnte,.: ^'^'^''^^^^ ''■^'- '^l' "^' t'"' -I'M- i" H- .-ad-tead had 

' l.eeii .Iriveii to .ea and all had Milfeivd .-oine 

damage, hut it >o happened thai >[in,iit-. own. the 

Kev of Kalniar. ua> iioi oulv anion- which 

ahle for this reason, or tijr the reason that ti 
1. r of the West Indian Company prohihi 
d. eiaratiou of war without the consent 

-tates General, the Dutch suhmlttcd ipiietlv to '■-"d'*"!. '"'t one o( i ho.e whieh sustained the least 

«hat they regarded a., usurpation of" the '"l"'-.^--' '-^'^'t -^I'">"t ^^^'-^ -^ '"'I'L enteriuising, 

.•^^udes. Then too Kieft, heeume aware that 1'='^"^"' "'='"' ^"'"""^ ^"^ S-'H'-^^^-'i :'"<! 't seems 

.Minnit's colony bore the commission of the Q.ieeu "'"''' *''=^' he could not have been permitted to 

,.f Ssvcden, and lie knew how distasteful to the •'''^"'^ '^"J'^>'"1 *'^'"« "^ "'^' '"^■'"'f^ "^' '"-^ '=^'^"'' '^"'1 

lloUand Government it would be. should he em "^ !='■'' ^" ''■''■^' -'ri'^ '" '"^ "•".'^■" '•""' '"■ 'O' J' le 

I. mil the country with a great, powerful and war- ^'i"i't" where he toimded the tii>t C(di>iiy ot New 

like nation, v/ith which thev hail made eonimon ' ^^eilen. 

ean-e in inanv momentous .natters, and too there '^'"-' " '^''■>' "*' K^''"'^''-'" ultimately reached a 

«iH a strong bond of sympathy between the *"""" 1"""' '"'^ ""' without iiuetiiig with other 

Sv,edes and Dutch throu-h their reli-iou, both ""slortunes than the h,ss of her comman.ler. The 

euuntries being Protestant.' The two nationalities, '^'"'^'^ '^*'"" cruising about for a time in West 

however, were destined to clash seventeen years I"^'.^ ^^''it'^'-^- »'fturned to the little fort on the 

Liter and ultimately both to succumb to the En- ''hnslina. Furs had been bought there m con- 

|„l, ■ •- siderable ijiiantity from the [ndiansand\velldaden 

Mincit after he had made such -eiieral provi.s- "'t'' 'l"^''"' "'^' -^'"op saile.l for Sue.len where she 

ions as he deemed proper for the liule baud who i"'"^''-''! "ear the of 31 ay, IG.'JIJ. to garrison the fort, prepared to return to Ibere now came about quite a change in the 

-wed.^n. " He left a portion of the car-o he had emigration sclionie, so far as Sweden was concerned, 

brouudit out," says ( )dhner's tran.dator, "to be l''''^' '^' '^ ''^^canie more nation«l in character. 

.i-,d in barter with the Indians, as well as twenty- ^he Swe.lish partners m the little .■ompany which 

three men, under the c<unmaiid of Lieutenant ^ent out the Christiana colony, had from the 

Mans Klin- the only Swede who is e.vpres.^lv 'h'-u unite.l upon thi. policy', tor they fort-aw what 

n.. ntioned as takin- part in the first expedition, ' i"M'"i-t:inee the eolouy under national and political 

,"id Henrik Iluvghen, wdio seems to have been '■e'-'"""^- ^^-""Id a-^,-ume. Clas. Fleming became 

\lumit'shrother-in law or cousin. It was enioined the <p..eial leader of the work in Sueden, a [.o.,,- 

"1 these leaders (of whom thefonner appears to f'"" '"'• ^^''"■'' '"' ^^''^ ^^t'" *"f^''' '^'^th by his eon- 

^aye been entrusted with the military, the latter "«'-'""" ^^"'' ''"' company and by reason of the 

■'Mth the civil or economical direction) to .lefend '-^^'^ "''" '"-' ''=^^ become president of the college 

■'■■■'■ fortress and carry on traffic with the natives." "^' >-'"'i""erce, which body henceforth gave close 

Ih. -• ii;-truetions apiiear to have been faithfully :»ttention to the colony. In lookiii- ab.uit f.r a 

■■'rrie.l out, especially thoM. in re-ard to trade, sueces.sor to Minuit, they wcit a-ain to the givat 

Old the ,Miece,-> of Swedi,-.h riidiui affairs to have '"'^ritime Dutch naticju, and ehc-e Caiilaiil Conielis 

'"'," •-f^'I'li-li'-'l from the -.tart, 3tik. r.„t .,f ^ .■>.i.,„i, „, ,i„. „on,.,.r ,,!„.>.. ,i.,-,., i „ „„„ „f 

It uas in July thai Minuit made his *.v„,..i .„-. i,r,.„,j,. „„. i,y ,Mi„„fl. n,.. s ii-i, «n,..r„..i>.;,._- .■ ii, 

•i' I'arture Iroin these shores, which it was fined he ^^^^"•■'^'■■lu.'^'TLJ'^^llTon',^^^^^^ 

^" 'ai.,1 Cl.iy, FiM-riH, Vini-cut iiml ii,,n,> iilli.,'r. h:n,- n.tiniillv 

'■■I t,...l ~.iil„,„.-nt3 uii til.' Ii.MH«Mr» River i.Vop IV.rt I]i.,l„r„;l .-iihu.-Ii , ,,|u.,,l tl„- errur, Bomp uv,.ini«,i tin.- .; ii .. uiii,laiili.aiy hi- l..u i,,l 

■ '' I- I r.. I,. ,1.1.., |„,„-,..r. thi^re w..|e ii few other Swedes in the < OJUn-:.--, Siir .Sir ^?,i Ptnumlmma Jf, ,;..;„..! of llUvn, Vol III, D. 


Van Vlii-t,\vh.> hail hfuQ fur i^fventl vaiii- ),.mv- 
ever in thf Swrdi.-h .-rrvicf. Ilaviu-- .■■r-furftl liii'i 
as the caiiiiiiaiiik'r uf the i)r.ipu.-^tM.l fX|,L'J;liuu ihi-y 
took stu]is towards timlini: a uuuibur oi' coli^nists, 
which was hv no means a.s easv a ih'iivs ti- aeeonip- 
lish as it wuul.l l.r at ti'ls day. Tlicv i>cin,Lr ur 
applicants for i\\x- niii-rati.iU the -wvor..ii!-ft 
ordered that certain nf it> otiieers in the prjviiue-; 
of Elfshor-au.l Varnihin.i .-hnuld take hy ^.ree 
such married si.ldiers ;.- had de.-.ii- .: -ir coiei^.i:- 
ted otlier ollen.-es and transi^Tt then, wirii ih.-r 
wives and cliihlivii U> \ew Swed. n, at the au-ie 
time giving promise that tiuy ,-houhl be L-ofjl;t 
home within two years. It was ordered Uo-.vever 
that this sliould be done "justly and discreetly" 
that uo serious emi)roilnieiit niiyiit ensue. 
Thus difficult was it to obtain ' emigranu for 
America" two hundred and fiity years ago! Vro- 
curing fund? hjr the expedition was another not 
easy task, partieuhirlv ;is Bloinniaert aiiJ the 
Dutch partner^ had li-conie impressed with the 
fact that the whole enterprise bad been managed 
more in the interests of the Swedish crown than 
their own, and they were all, Blommaert especial- 
ly, exasperated by the very natural reproaches of 
the other mendjers uf the Dutch "West India com- 
pany for placing the Swedes in their American 
possessions. Thus Swedish colonization affairs 
were complicated, embarrassed and delayed. At 
last, however, and again with means supplied by 
Dutchmen — Blummaert and Spiring, the projec- 
tors of the second expedition were able to move. 
Once more the " Key of Kalinar" was eijuipped 
for a voyage to America. The vessel was fitted 
out and supplied with a crew in Holland and sail- 
ed for Gottcnburg, where the emigrants were to 
be taken on board Great ditiiculty was experi- 
enced in procuring them as had been apprehended, 
but finally a sufficient number were got together, 
and after the vessel had taken aboard cattle, 
horses, swine, iiupleiueuts fur farming and a suffi- 
cient quantity of provisions she left G(jtteuburg, 
early in the fall of 1G:j9. But she' had proceeded 
no further thau the German Ocean, when she 
sprang a leak.aml had t'.' [>ut into port fur repairs. 
Two other attempts to sail were frustrated by 
wind and bad seas and the incompeteucy of the 
captain, and tiually the crew declared that they 
would not sail under such a commander as Van 
Vliet. He was accused both of carelessness and 
dishonesty in victualing the ship, and the charges 
being substantiated he w;is removed and the com- 
mand given to Puuwel Janseu, "probably also a 
Dutchman," and a new crew was likewise provided, 
and after suHering several delays tlie '■ Key of 
Kalmar" at last made her departure from the 
Texel on the 7th ol' February, KUd. .Making an 
unusually ipiick vuyage she reached Christiana uu 
the ITthnf .\pril and her immigrants were added 

.t ti 


ar-d he --died up.:i, ih- ■• Kev of Kalmar," uh, 
siie rbvdiv was i-rihiUed to' have. The pa-l^. 
Reorus T'i|i<;;!u-. ;m-o .induubtedU .•aine over ; 
this Lime ; c.'-:ui,,Iv not nith Mlnuit, a. .rv.,„ 
wri,..,:, have ...ite.i. !!.- wa> the tir.t ivliu,,,. . 
t -a-h' r iu Xew Suedti; ; hut little i:- kiiouu ol' h,. 
hi.stoiv. a, Ml he -!vep. ia :,n iinknoun L-rave. pi., in the b:iiial i:.o!,„d of the Old Su-l, ■ 
chinch .IL \Vili.,ii)-to;;.^ As to the other ilie.M 
-rants 1m- this ^ecnud vo^;l^e of the '■ Kevof K;,: 
mar," thtre i. n^. exact date; but a .hn-uuH lu. 
aiina.g the iloyal Archives uf .<tockhulm giv- 
!lic m.Tiies uf a number whu must have come cithi . 
by thi. or the first expeditiuu, and who wer. 
ther. f>re the tb>t reMdeuts at Christina. Th... 
were A,ol -rs Sv.n>^oa, Per \udvv....n. 
Audcrs Lar-.-ou Daalbo, Sveu Lar~.-on, I'ei^ : 
Guniiarsson Rambo, Sven Guniiai>son, Lai- 
Sveustfon Kiiekiu, Miius Aiidersson, .Joen Thro.-.m. 
and Miirten Guttersson, — ten iu all. It is iiiiere^t- 
iug tu note a few facts concerning the after life or' 
these first dwellers in Delaware. For iu-taiice :— 
Bonde, the first-mentioned in the list, who w:i- 
l.urn in Sweden in IG'JO, settled in lti44 at Tiui- 
cum, later removed to what became r'hilad.'liihi:i 
Guunty, and in 1(30:! was assessed as the wealthiot 
inhabitant of that county west of the Schuylkill. 
He died between 1601 aiid It^OH, leaving a widow 
(Anneka") who die.l in ITl"., and six sons and foi;i 
daughters, who pLrpi-tiiate'd the family under tli> 
angHcized form of the name. Boon or Boii.l 
Daalbo also moved up the river, and was the pm 

present. Baiiibo wa.- another of those who came ov. : 
ill the "Kc'V of Kalmar." ofuh,.Se people the lili^ 
may be traced. .Many of hi^ de.-eendant. berani, 
prominent in Peniisylvauia, Xew Jersey aud D.l:'.- 
ware. And, again, Sven Guunarsson left po-tev- 
ity, who, by the customary Swedish changes i:" 
names, came tu bo known as Svensson (that ;- 
Sven. son uf Sven) which was soon anglicized iiii- 
."^wauson, the coLrnomen of a now vciv e\tcnji\' 
fimily Of several other:, named iioihiiig i- 
known beyond the liist few years of their n- ■ 
dence lieiv, but enough has been said to show tli..: 


tia- .--.r.l of the " Key ..f Knliiiar" ,li,i 
,„,t [i.-risli from tlie v:\nh. 

KfViTtinu' to the :ill;iiis of the now reinf.rrid 
,-,,l,,iiy,it iiKiy he remaikeil that hut htth' i> known 
, i.iu'ernin;; it (UiriiiLfthe time hetwerii Miimit'siie- 
j.arture ami HolleiiderV arrival. The only .locu- 
„i,iit of local nature whieli has heeii pre.-erveil (in 
ilie lioval Arclilve.-i of Sweden 1 i# an aceotiiit hook 
;,, |it hy Henrik Huyghen from the year l(i:!.S, 
uhicii yiehl.-^ no speririe intormation the colony 
j, shown fiom otlur .-oureis tu have maintained 
ik. >ame hraithful ciidiiinn in which HoUcnder 
r,,und it. Thev had luv.i sn a.-tive in the fur 
trade that thev ha.l daiiiaL.d thr Dutrh trade, 
aeenrdiii- to Governor Kicll hiin,-elf, fully thirty 
thou.-and florins. The governor also repijrted that 
the ci>lonists had become so distressed that they 
were about to leave, and had made preparations 
to do so, upon the very day that the Swedish ves- 
sel came to their succor,' but the wish was very 
likely father to the thought. The Dutch had l)een 
initated by the presence of the Swedish fort upon 
their own Zuydt river, and had issued several 
orders iutended to embarrass, or intimidate theiii 
and to prevent further usurpations of their domain, 
among them being a prohibition of sailing on the 
Zi:ydt river without license. 

Governor Peter Hollender docs not appear to 
have entertained a high opinion of the colony, or 
to have been able to administer its ati'airs without 
friction. The immigrants seem to have lieen too 
lew ;ind not of the I'ight class They may have 
.HTved very well to garri.son little Fort Christina 
and to have supported it properly as a trading 
-tation, but they know little of agriculture, upon 
which the colony must largely rely to becomeself- 
.'ustaining. The governor stiys in one of his let- 
liTs' to Chancellor < ).\enstierna, " no more stupid, 
iudilfwent pei.ple are to 1h' found in all Sweden 
Ilem that are now herr," Tluy f.Min.l too, 
ihat they had brought an iii.-uttirient supply of 

doMiotic animals, 

Ilollend.r was in fi 
tnde tuuanls the l>u 
In- had. in fact. Imvu 

the nio^t jiaeilic atli- 
at Fnrt .\a.->au, and 

1-iliey, hut Klin- and llin-lhii up.m uhuiii the- 
diieeticn of athiir- had nVt.d .luring the period 
''■■twecn Minuit's drparliirr and the governor's 
■irrival, were in favor of eiiiploviiig force in the 
-vent of Dutch nfi^r,„,rin- 
'h-> arts of dipl,„na.y. 1 b.ihn.l.r niad.- a littl- 
voya-e up the' D.hiwarr in a slnnp, .,n the Jl.~t 

^^as fiivd up,,u thnr iiii,,.., but he i-noivd the 
I'ro.vcdh.g and eabidv cnulinu,,! his w.iv, and on 

nninication on shore. He received no answer 
other than .-everal shots tired at^.r the sloop as it 
pa.-,-e,l down the river. 

(oivernor Hollemler's mission up the river was 
thi- purchase of Indian title and it was probably lU 
this time that the land was bought on the west 
side of the river as far up irs Trenton, for he ?et u]) 

nine Swedish (thirty-two to thirty-six English) 
miles above Christiana, and subse.piently cieeted 
one below the fort. There is no account of further 
occurrences in tlie colony at this time and indeed 
very little pertaining to any portion of IIollen<ler's 
j'tiiod i>{ government which expired earlv in 
1043. In May, 1640 the " Key of Kalniar" 
started on her homeward voyage and arrived 
at Gottenburg a few weeks latter. ^lans Kling, 
the lieutenant who had ^had command of Fort 
Christina accompanied her under orders to recruit 
imndgrants in certain regions of Sweden tor 
strengthening the colony. 

In the mean time preparations were making for 
planting an independent Dutch colony in New- 
Sweden, under the patronage of the Swedish 
West India Company. This came about through 
certain jealousies and ill feeling in Holland 
towards the Dutch West India Company. The 
Swedish Government had become anxious to 
have its colonization schemes carried on inde- 
pendently of the very Dutch element which it had 
been glad enough to interest at first, and through 
whose aid the first and second ex[)editions were 
made successful. Steps had already been taken to 
buy out the Holland partners " since they are a 
hindrance to us," although that result was not 
actually reached until February, ItlH, when the 
sum of eighteen thousand liulden was paiil lor 
the purpose out of the public funds. The .^wcdus 
however had no objec-tion t.i th.' settlement of 
Dutch people in New Sweden provided thev were 
sid)ject to Swedish rule. Thus the way was made 
e:isv for a private conipanv formed ot' certain dis- 
atll'ctcd persons in the Duleh \V,-t India Com- 
pany, liviiiLT prineipallv in the Provimv of rtreeht 

v:'ii der Hor.-t was tlietn>t to enter into iie-,,tia- 
tion with the Swedish Government, hut the -rant 
wa- .-ubs-ipiently transferred to Henrik Ilong- 
kainer, or as it is more commonlv .-pelled Henrv 
Iloekhamnier and his a-..eiales, thev as the 
ehartc-r stat.'s ••bavin- the iuLutinu of "establish- 
in- a colonv in New Sweden.' fliis eharter called 
" 'Irtrnlj n„.l J'rir;/.. ,;„„,- ill imaalioi, of the 

eoneev-ions common rrhU the Dulel, \Ve,t I .a 

(.'omi.any called '• p:,t n.ou-liip-," provided that the 

west) .-ide.ifthe Delauaie River, at lea-t l'o:ir or 
five Ciermau miles from Christiana, to iiohl the 
same under the protectioh of th<' ero« n of Sueden 


aa hert'ilitiiry propiTty aiiil oxerci^^e nvtT the same ni;iiiy (if ulioin li;i«l licun irupri-iiiL'il hv tlu' |ir..- 

high and luw inr'-.lifti..ii :,na liriii- it into vincial l^'Vitiimi-s. Tliii.- thrv MTiii-.-i luaiiy iii4i 

actual cultivation ia tea years. They were viduals of tiie hiules.s classes, th kil'Ii tiie ..t 

to recognize the suzeraiaty of the erown of iinniiL'raats was not so constituted as a wlml,-. 

Sweden and pay as trlUute thnv iaip.rial <_'ulden Out of tliirty-tuo persons secure.l for thi- 

for every family settled. Iji reii-i^.n they vM-re to expedition tiirou-h tlie persnual ellori- 

prefer tiie Au-il-urLT <.'onfe"inn of Faith hut he- of KhuL', four w.uv eriminals. "hut the n- 

sides were to lie alh.weil ihe privih-.'e of tiie "so mainder went eitlier as servants in tlie i-uipl.i\ 

called Ileformed Ii'li_'ii>a. " lint ia -ueii a maam-r of the company, or to h. tti r thfir eou.litiMii ' 

as to avoid all ilispuic Tlie patroous of the The vessels of the expediti-a this time were lli. 

colony were hound to .~n|iport " as many ministers " Key of Kalmar " aad the " ( 'haiitas/' tin.' !:i;- 

and school-masters as ih.' nuaiher of the inhahi- ter made ready at SinelJiclin. The\>aiKd fr^.in 

tants shall seem in r.M|nire. ehno.-in:; so far as Sweden sometime ia 1 lU I , aad arrived diiK ..a th. 

possible for these o!Kees, ai, ■11 vh., W'.uld he will- Delaware, hut the particulars ..f the vnya-- ;in 

ing and capable in the conver.-ii'ii ol' the savages, wanting'. -V papi r anion,: the anhives nf tli. 

They were to lie allowed tn iie.'aLje in every in- Pennsylvania Ili.-torieal Sncirty ^dves the iiaan- 

dustry, trade and eommriv.' uiih fri.ndly powers of s..nie firtv odd nf the immi-raiits unany n| 

but were limited to the u-e of ve.-.-els huilt them with who eaaie over at llii- 

only in Sweden and were to use Gottealiiirg as the time.' We _ are tohl that Li.utenant Klin- 

place for bouding all L'^ods sent to Europe. They brought with him his wife, child aad a inaid 

were exempted from all taxes f )r a period often There appears to have lie. n also a prie>t — llvn 

years. Christotter- ( no surname is given in the original 

A passport fir the sliip •- Fredenhuri:" was with this expedition, but he could nut have re- 
granted simiiltaneo;;-ly witli this charter aad maiued long in the country, lor no further men- 
also a commi-si.iii jnr Jost van Bogardt as Swe- tion of him is found. It is slated that he canu- 
dish agent in New Sweden, probably to live in the out for experience, stipulating fur nothing bui 
Dutch colony to lie t.iiiuded umler tiie charter — at maintenance, although he received a present ot 
least he is aforwanl- fmind in that iiuslti.iU— and ,,ne hundred daler copper money from the /.'(7-.-r„» i'- 
as comniandrr, with a ,-alary ..t' tive hundnd r.// i or admii-al ) u].on wlmse recommendation h' 
florins per aiiaum The " Fredi nluirg" duly embarked. Cbi.-taf Stiahl, a voung nobleman. 
sailed under eoaimand of Captain Jacob I'owel-oii sailed also upon the reconiuHMidation of the adnii- 
but with Bogardt a- commander nf the ral. Midiael Jan.-son, the burgomaster's Snn. 
tion, and arrived mi tin- D.laware Xnvemlier 2d, from GeHe, was another adventurer. The remain- 
1640, the imaiijiant- briiiLf .-etthd, according to der of the arrivals appear to have been actual 
the best infiraiatinii imw ohiainaMe. abmit three or settlers, and the brief notes which we are able tn 
four (Swedi-hi mile- belnw C'hi i.-tiana,' whit'h give concerning them atlord in many cases intev- 
would place it in nr icar \\hat i- imw St. (Jenrge's esting siiggotioiis in iei:ard tn the cnnditinu,- whicl 
Hun.lred of Xe« Ca-ll.' (;oiiatv. governe.i the coloni/atioii scheme, the character n; 

This enterpil-n i,iii-t imt I..- cmdouaded with the persons themselves, aad the conduct n.f aliiiir- 

the thir.l Sv,i.l,-li rxpcditinn It will be remeai- during the earlv vears of New Swe.len's hi>tnrv : 
bered that Li.'Ut.naiit .Mans Klin- had in Mav, 

1640, acccnaipaui.d the •■Kry M' Kalmar" io ,^:Z:\^rZ^T!t,^:^!^^^'^"ZiZX^^^^ 

Sweden, with anllmritv to cnllect iaoni-rants ll.r »-^i h.i.imrM i.y i,i« «ir.-, two ,i.ni_.|,tf,s,' .,n.i n liai.. -n„. ,u.m n ^- 

strengthenin- tic- cohaiv. He pmM^.aitcd this '''I.^p" 'r.^snirrrc.'.iUoirM^"/' lun,,, p.n.i, r...i, 

work'zealnii-lv. iiaviiiL' as a en lahmv,- ,,ae Limi- a n„i.unj,i. '. .,„■ ,„".. ]..■-. ,..,,.1 :., ,ul -i,,r> u: . 

tenaut-cniniH 1 .inhaii I'riat/, tim .atiic who Mihse- ,::^',\:':::',":';:;:,;:!!i^:r',Hr;;';;';";,,' u!':: '";!^,"'mr;,;,::"..: 

qucntly became '.'nveruor of New Sweden, and ot' r-i.i.n..- m, ]...:. ,- in.i,. ii..i .„, i .h.,.ir..M,j i,m|., in i. ■- ;u..\ .,:•■■ 

whom we shall tluaxfire have more to sav later. r,,'n''iiwM,- ',,, i.'-c i'.'nt'.ii.-.i''|.ii\'.r"rVi'i,'.;.'i,''uiT','_. :.'-.'n.'''.i[,.i,ii siii'' 

They were jiarticaihuiy ordered to recruit in the i-r„ ,„ i. n . ti,. ..n..-i .,- ,.i ,,«. ii !,„.,>.„ iMni.,adi.h,.. f.u.iiiy 

mining .li-trhts, ai-r, fmm a ng the " roaming s.,m.^''t,Lnr ''^,-'-'!ira"r' uiilr!- ur nr!'nih!!m!'n !!r"'.i'!!!'.^!-',' 

Finns," whn " '.\,i\' vM.nt to live free of charge in cumiiuni^i i.y «ii.'. in i.ii i. ^.inni..r ui tu.t ci,,,-tn,.., n, i- j- . 

the hoU.-rS of the inhahitantS of the Swedish for- ''Amil'ra niiM--.-..n. or .Cu,,,..n, U,.. piiniicr'sbr .ther, en-n....I l,y Kli.. 

ests," and among the "forest-destroying Finns," ^.,!^f j,".',','^!'I!,'''|\rr''','^,!rVo'a ^t- y.;,ri> 

I Inr.Kiir.! I.ll.i-i„,n.rl, »■ v.^r U.-re have l.een snnie rtmil.ts nn.,' •^'^e' Still.*, «.me; iiiituiuliw.l in iliinl;.ii.l in lr,i,l, hut rr..lKii.l:- 

or t».i «rit. r, . >. N . ;a i.'N- II .1 III.. r„l,..iv uiu l,.;it.-.l „i, KIk Kiv. r. ri-ti,rii.<l (■■ !li.'», f.,r tlio ni.Tii,. up].. ,.i- i.n,..nb- th^.M of |-i 

MiirvUn.!. It i.. .-o.." -liUi.- I. -•in .-f -iih-,,.,. i,t .l..u the ^'"" loins in i'l,il,.,l,-l,,l,i;i c>.iuily in 1.-.;. 

lotJ.Iily wnsii, Ih- a ;.n. .r. .,.,1 , ...1.,,;,;.. ,1, „ „ „,„ i. ..,, . „,;,■,. „a. oL.f I'ul,-n, ..uil,-, «ltli lv>r„ly Juh; i,t th.. .tnrt. 



,;:<,Mrr as yearly wa 

.Irinving r 

tiy tlie expfilitii/n fur piiuishnirnt." Id 
Peter Larssou Kudc. burn in li}ll, was to st 
Decess;\ry food :lmi1 L-lutli.-d ; in I'US :i ffeiniM, 

Clen.put .M. 


ri. a .;..! 


Finns," of ti.e 


i,li ..f Li 


in tlie sol.lier; 



betiirae a freeni 

inn b. 

V li>4S. 

Eskil L^.n«or 

1 sj»ni 


Bartel y.<kiU 


1.11 of the 


H^.ns Maii^. 

.n, a 

trooper, sinl 

only to be sup 

IS a freninan. 
as pm,i,bi.i.-., 

by the 
istml fol 

the "Cliaii 

During the year 1G42 the colonization scheme? 
of Sweden were broadened in scope, and perfected 
ill nryani/.ation ; preparations were made for the 
f'liirth and gieatest expedition, and a more elahor- 
ati' and etli.'Ctive system of guvernment for New 
Sweden was devised and broiiglit into operation, 
file Dutchman Sj)irinij; still remained as one of 
the chief ad vi.scrs and foreuio.-t promoters nf the 
I iitrrjiri^e, and it was hu-j:ely throngh his intliience 
that a new coiiipiiny w;b~ tormed of those interested, 
r.illiil the Wt.-t India nr American conipan\-, and 
al^o " ('(iiiij/iKjaii ijr Xnni Siif'ciaJ' with a capital 
"f thiny-si.v; tliiHi-and riksdaier, afterwards cusid- 

erably increased. One-half of this capital «a., 
subscribed by tlie old Si)Utliern Ship Cuiiiiiany, 
onesixth, or six thousand riksdaier, by the Cruwn, 
one twelfth each by the great Chancellor, '" the 
heirs of the great chancellor of justice," and 
•Spiring, one twenty t'ourlh caili by Claes Fleming 
and the treasurer and — whiii the total was 
enlarged -the sum of two thousand ;-(t^vZ'i/f)- by 
11 -nrick Huyghen, tiu' mniiiii^.-ary at Christina 
and twelve thousand rik^dalor through the 

/.ation had at its di-po-al at h/a>t tiftv thousand 
W/.W./Ar, b.-id.> whi.h it r.r,.ivrd a grant of 
the tobam iiioin,|io|y formerly besluwcd upon tlie 
Soutliorii Ship Coiupany. 

Chancellor Oxeiistierna determined now, also, 
to appoint a governor and other otHcials for New 
Sweden and to pay their salaries out of the Crown 
funds. Lieutenant Colonel Johan Priutz, the 
same whom we have seen engaged in gathering 
recruits for emigration, was commi.ssioned governor 
on the 15th of August, 1G42, and on the 30th 
a "budget for the Government of New Swe- 
den " was adopted, mentioning a governor with 
a salary of eight hundred rihJalei; a lieu- 
tenant, a sergeant, a corporal, a gunner, a 
trumpeter and a drummer, with twenty-four pri- 
vate Soldiers. In the civil line, provision was also 
made for a clerk, a barber (surgeon ), a provost 
and a hangman! The expenses of this govern- 
ment, about three quarters of which were to be 
collected from the excises laid on [..\r.\rro, it was 
founil, would foot up the respecltible sum of three 
thousand and twenty rihc/uliT per year, the 
amounts besides that to be ]>aid the governor, 
being as follows: One lieutenant governor, sixteen 
rix dollars per month ; one .sergeant-major, ten 
rix dollars ; one corporal, six rix dollars ; one gun- 
ner, eight rix dollars ; one trumpeter, six rix dol- 
lars ; one drummer, five ri.x dollars; twenty-four 
soliliers, at four rix (hjllars ; one paymaster, ten 
vix dollars; one secretary, eight rix dollars ; one 
barber, Icu rix dollars ; one provost, si.x rix dol- 
lars, and one four rix dollars: makingone 

hundred and eighty-live rix dollars per month. 
Special agents for the company were ajipoiuted in 
Gottenburg and Anistenlam, and Clas Fleming 
was i)laced in general charge of the whole home 
business of the company. 

The most elaborate directions were given to the 
governor, contained in part in iiis commission, but 
more fully in ■' Instructions," issued for hi.s guid- 
ance. His commission datecl, Stockholin, .Viigii^t 
lo, 1(;42, to <:o into Cllect Januarv 1, lli4:;, was as 


,.f th. 

The "Instructions,"' containiug tufiity-ciu'lit 
articles, after recitin;,' the advantaircs autii-ipatcd 
to follow the measures already taken and those tor 
which preparation was being made, set forth a 
multiplicity of detailed directions concerninL: the 
duties of the Governor. U[ion tus arrival in New 
Sweden he was to see that — 

"The frni.t. ■[- "f t!, ,^.,-rv PXt..n.| (f.m tli.- ..f tlic sc;! to 

With the Dutch he was to cultivate a friendly 
intercourse, but positively to deny their pretended 
right to any part of the land on the west side of 
the river, purchased by the Swedes from the In- 
dians and he was authorized, in the failure of all 
friendly negotiation, to repel force by force, but 
says the document : 

"Those n.ilhin.Ivrs wl... Imv.- .■ini-.T .t.^1 l.. N..«- Sweden iinl 5.-tt|pc1 

The English, too, were .somewhat to be frand. 
for thev lunl made a settlement on the ea^t >ide ,.f 
the Delaware I'.av, an,l one artiele of the " In- 

In regard to treatment to the Indians he was 
counseled to " humanity and mildness," and to see 
that "neither violence nor injustice was done 
them," but he "must Jabor to instruct them in the 
Christian religion and the Divine Service, and 
civilize them." To disengage them from the 
Dutch and English, he was ilirected to sell at 
lower prices than they. 

The Governor was by every means in his power 
to encourage the fur trade, and agriculture, to 
promote manufactures and to search for metals 
and minerals; to ascertain whether whale fisheries 
could not be made profitalile, and to investigate 
the condition of the country with reference to the 
propagation of silk worms. He had also to 
dispense justice. \\'ith all these divers and diverse 
duties, and many n.ore, it will readily be seen that 
tlie Governor's otiiee was one bv no means easv to 
fill. Printz wa.s, besides, to bu'ild, if neee.-arV, a 
fu-twhieh shouhl "shut up the South river," or at 
lea^t command it, but it he t'ound Fort ( 'hristiua 
ade.piate he wa^ to turn his attention more partic- 
ularly to agrieulture, especially the cultivation of 
tobacco and to rai-e cattle and sheep, the breeds 
of which he wa.- to improve bv obtaining the best 
animals from the Enji-h and Dutch.' He was 
allowed to chon>e lii~ n -id. i where mo-t conve- 

< ai.p 



(;,,tt.'iil)iin.' oi rupi.a but tliiVL- luniiths an. I a'. Su..!ivit a;-i lOii.'u^ Gvli 

Tlio K.'V. Jolm Cainpaiiiu.-., u Im. a.v„i„pani-,l it,,' .li.r, in ] ^Ul )!,«•- ':,c I 

'..littJ in-'liis -raii.lM.n. Tin v t..,,k tlir iiMial n,-- l,ia\.- ,>;q,l,,it<. [/. .M 

.■uituus suutJK-in o.ui>r, -ailini: liv iIk- .,,a,-l.- ■.(■ ,.1 [i.-jl. niuit u!,d tool-: 

|'oi-tuj,Ml aiul Bai-ijaiy, an. I tlic ('anary l.^lan.i-, ( a-inii.-, !iy i'.ui'crn.M- I 

,.;,.|,|iin.; tluiinj; tlic(.'ini>tnias\>at Ami.;.: I. in'.., ti,.- t,>rt by tli-j . 

«lKTf thi'V uciv ..■nt.itainc.l l.y lli.' »;..Vfin..i aii.l S.-Lnt, . t-xk |).».r, -^Mon 

r,.-iiniin-'tli.'ir v..\a-u l.v uav ..f M. ('Iiri-I..i.l:c:-, .ImaiiiIk. Dutch ila- 

St. Ma.tin'.- an.l',Lr W.-t' In.lia l-lan.l.^, ai.J .-t._-a.l.-' 
ihcncL- .•a-tuai.l liir An..ncan ...a-t. Tli. v .N\-a:lv .ill ..riliw.c v 

^^w tiie IKlauaiv I lav, . .H' tiir ll.,„n,kiii cf.-Vf,!, Jan.-. „..t a.— . 

„n tlie 'idtli ..f January, and ..n lli.^ lull. .win;: .'a> li-n-.!. ^^'-Vf. 

hiiii.iin-^n..w, in wiiirh iia. -Fan,.'" ^sa^ j,h -.,,';:::';,; r"!'.:,;:!!'^'!':.'!" 

I,andietl, l..^iu- ihiw ancli..r=, a main nia^t. .md ,:',;,:;',,;;'':,'l;;;'; ''' ■'"■ "' 
>|irit^ail, suHeriug utiiLT (laiuagL->, ami liually run- ii,,V."'i'..i',''i.k,V',, ,. -m.. . .,, 

uinL,' aground, and bein^ rtiii oH' with great dit!i- ''J',!'^!^,',,''/' "',,'', ','.'.' ''^ 
cnltv.' Priutz and ids lelluw vova-ers dincn:- <'^l^ \Z^'7Z' -'':"■■- 

barked at Christina, but he di.l h,n- rcu:ain ,Z'uZ:Z'Z',!n':;'''"'''' '' 

did. 'The Govern._.r nia.l.j hii h.jnn.-, an.l built a r,";'-';!',"^!.','!: ;'.!' r,;','.'l'i 

tbrt— at Tinicuni, above Chester — hii;lirr u|i tli.- K-n . i,.r.t...a. ii.'i. • ...-'.-n. 

river, as will be shown hereafter, an.l it is [.niba- "I'ii.'li, '.',,-'m 

ble that he took with him most of the people he ivi.r >i.;,.r. -,.;,h.. 

had brought over. r?,'iiJ^..Vmi''3i;i'''ij^'i'."'i'h Mine 

Of these colonists who came to the Delaware l^^.r.^^.Jn. s.....:^. 
with Priutz in the fourth Swedi.^h ex|iuditi(m there !i!jl^urZ','i,,^'^,v"vn^^^^^^^^^ ,., i.,n. i„ 1..1-., ~.i.i„.r 

e.^ists uo complete list, but some of their names Lar-. Jacoi.sso... itMiJa-r ..t rhu-.i!.., ... h.,.i i.,j^ 

have been preserved.- The juost [n'onjinent char- lUnirTnl^ ui.ii'isjQ jn. .tn.i.ii., ....p. 1. .r m . ...n 
aeter of all, not even exce[)ting the Governor, was -M-.iteD m irteMss.jn Gt.:..-.T.;. n. 1..14, . ..itiv-.tii,- t.,h;.o..j f,.rthe cum. 

the clergyman John Canjpauius, made lamous by f-" >""'-!'■'"■""'"•■"'"■"""■'. '" 
the journals which he kept, itertaiuing to Xew , -• , , • , 1 • 1 

Sweden, from which his grandson wrote the cele- , ^^ "^ ^''^ ^"Y:'' ^' '^'f lourtli expedition and 

hrated " Description of the Province of New Swe- the settlement o its people, the .^wedi,sh coh.nies 

■n America niav be considered as tairlv established. 

den," a higlily imerestinir, but in some respects 
untrustworthy work, and n. .table, too, as the tinest 
translator of Luther'- catechism into the Indian -"^''"'l 

the sihenies first advocated by Gustavus 
V.l...lplins, were at last sutticiciitlv a.lvanced t.i 
Hbrd a tau-ible pi..mi-e ..filie riel'i f'iuili..n which 
that ni..narch, t..gali.u- u ith William U-Mliiix, 
.Minnit an.l ..thcr.-. ha.l lon.llv h..i...l. Print/-, 
wrote" -It is a remarkablv line Ian. I, with all 
excellent .malilics a man .-an n.-.-iblv .1, ..i.v ..n 

language. His name often ap]iears as .John 
Campanius Holm, the last word being a.hled to 
designate Stockholm, the [dace of his nativitv.' 

The Governor brought with him his wife and 
daughter Armgott, and Lieutenant Mans Kling 

returned to the settlement. ^ *-'"''''• ,'""^ yet the' wa-. tar tn.m beni; 

Amonmh,...ewhowere,h..tin.;dt..lK.c..meproni- "'>=" th,> an-picmus beg.n.nng w.,.:l.l au,^nr. 11,. 

inent among this ;a.t partv, were J.,ran Kvn ^'7;"' -f' the settlement, a. a n.att.r .,.' la.., wa 

' • • Iceblc and tardy, a eonditi..n ..1 thuiL's whi.h IS t. 

v.. I III, p. 4.7:1. ' ' ance of the'n project and was renii.-s il 

^Ti„.i:.v.j„i,„c.,n„,:m,.,. «:.. i,„rn,„ s,,„ki,„i,„. ..,. ,i„. r.u, „r ,,xtcli.lin- financial an.l ".-iher ai.l, wh.n th. 

m""!;';.""!!. 'vn.'tCn.^l'h:''';.!^!''- u:.h'''^n 'il ZZZiZZZxll struggling ^t...Hl in necl 

.^'>l''rlw;'''u,,''n"!V,;'I:',;'.,''^^ adndni.trati..n many "..t the settlci^ dhd, whirl 

n'M.'umlr'uV''2V,..V','u'''r'' ''",''' ',"'"'r" I 'i"' i 'i I ui'i/''', ' i' 1 1''' 'n ' ""^ I'riiitz .~tatrd ill li is 'fcp. if t ,' w a.- iluc to hard worl 

hi'im'"!.!' \i'i'i1 n, ■,','i''v','r"inT,'' ! 0,''l'! m '^\ll -'.''r-r'T «".'l'' " h m'k '.'■''i'iTI ' ■'^'■"- ''--■""«."'<""'<' -l'"3"-''"e ■'.'' «"(■■•;;, Vul. II., p. J-J.".. 

•"■ in .\ii.eric.i, an.l «hi. I, h- l.tT^ n.-.;... t.'.l. II.- I .... .!..■ ITUi ..f ^ l,i,i,Ut]-..iii'a 


and the scarrity tit']Mn]irr tnml. 
timieil ta arriv.', ami tiny a;i|M 
Cdiistitutud i.t' llioami' c-hij.-o a.- 




Inin.l.' r<m- 

nf Dclawarr, t. 

, the i 

i-lan.l nf Tini. 

■nn, (n.,u al-., 

\r U) have lu'Lii 

thr tou^^lMp .1 


11,1, D.lauaiv ( 

niinty. ['. nn. 

u til.- l,.-iniHi,-. 

>vlvania) al.mP 
ofthocitv of ( 


lile- iVnlll th.' 

then .'ailed li 

.a-tern limit- 
V the In.lian- 


Tvna.-uii^r, '[\a 

llckd 1 

lii.'li -ii-n-t.'d' 

's, "the 

it,- M'li. 11111, - 


Hen- liL- l.uilt : 

\ f..rt . 

.r lilnel<-hnU-e, 

nf uhieh Ale 

^Z.'V-'H'sZ'!^^ ',', 

diva> IIu.Mr 

all. ru. 

AV.U .ai.l,— -i 

t i- a |,retl^ 

',' V'""f' , ''V'\\>"!'' 

stn.n.' fi.l1, c. 


t..l l.v laving 

■ v.rv li,.a\) 



h.n.loek (-...•„ 
a iiiausioii lor 1 
and a rhiin-l, 

en. 1.1 

-, th." .ine" nn 





!i'i- (''a 

,||J,;||,i„, ,. 


>e.-ralr<l tn Div 

ilie ll,~t 

■ nn th.' 1th . 

,f .S.,.ten.l,..r. 



ICKi. • Aniui 

id the 

iv^i.l.n.v, ^^hll 

rh was .-all..! 


'^,."\".'!.'(nn, -u'll!a''l 

••I'lint/. Hali; 


lar.l,^ aii.l -af. 

«,.- .,IT. 1 111,, I.itl.i.M. II. 

nut, and the -f 

elUld V 

va. 1. 

ea,uiti.-.l. -fill. 


ill,, ri- .1. Ii-Kt \liiii_-lil\ 

i;.rt, Nvhich ua. 


l-X.U (nitt.'.l 

" .-.I'l-hlei-alili 

''""■-'" '■■•V 




( nithlliliy ' i, 1 

■•(In thi.- i>lan. 

1." -av 

> ('ani|ianiii~, • 

■th.' i,rin,i|.al 


inhaliitant.- Iku 

1 their 

.lu.'lliii;- an.l 



,mm' h''rr,'i'iVr.''i''ih. ■!•■ 

and it is cvi.l. 

nt tlu 

It it l..ealii.' I 

!,.■ In.'iillty ..f 

■■'■>■■■'■ '1" '"■"'" y. 

chief iini".itani 

!■.• in, ;i 

m.l ,,-ally. 

the .-aiillal nt' 

no.imus,„,„g,l,.a,h.vo,u,cit,....i,-.,, I, New Sweden. A nnthef f.nt «a,- eie.'te.l tlu' .aim; 

This Statement of Canipanius (like manv ..thers year ( lti4:l ) .,n the ea.-t .-i.le ..f th.' I ).la«ar.', at 

of his) isn.jt tohcrelie.lupnna,-^awhole. I'rint/.- Varkin's Kill, aft. rwanl,.^ ealli.l hv tli.- i:n_di,-h , 

report rilUT) shows that criminals were re.-eived Salem Cnek nr .M ill < 'nvk. Thi> «a> ri-ht ahm-- 

up to that time, ami yet. they mnst have firnu'd side ..f the s, ..f th.' New (lavn pe.iple. 

but a small pnrtinii nf the "eninnuinitv. li.r the .,11 the opp...-it.' or >nuth liank ..f the .iv. k, at it,- 

whole mmdn'r ..f .nlniii-ts, in lii47, ua- nnlv ..iH' .-.■nllnenee with the DehiNsaiv. Itwa,~ named 

hundred and ei-htv-three-nuI,-( and iiianvnfth. Ill " KHshoi- " ,.r - \V.H,twe.-iin-,' an.l later uas 

have already been shown to hav.' h..,-,, - freemen,'' yalled Elsinh.u- <.,r ^ It luul eiulil 

or otherwise indicated as p. ni.le .,f respeetable ii'!.'" i^'J '"••'•■^■^ ,-'iiii-. :'i>'' ""•■ " I'"t-.hnnf." an.i 

character). The report allinle.l t.. ,-avs, that of aeeording t.- Ilii.hh', was n-nally ■jarri-nn..l Ky 

the total nnniher, '• twentv-ei-ht ..f the freemen twelve men, enmmande.l l.y a lieutenant. Thi- 

had made setthaii.mis," and that a part ..f them f"i't whieh was rea.ty f.n- .i,-.-iipan,-y in ( •.■tnher, 

were provide.l "with oxen and .•..w,<." Uil:;, e.miman.led the .liann.l ..f th.- il.-h,«aie. 

Printz's iileas .,f tact an.l .lipl.anaev re-enihle.l "Its primipal ..l.ject," .sivs A.aelins, " was f. 

an elephant .laimin-. He was a I'.lnti; ./ -'■ the Il.illaml .-hips whi.h eame 1>, I'n.v it. 

soldier, well .k.-. liln.l hv the -hrew.l, ..h,-.rvant, an.l i^which stuck verv hanl in their maw- tn make 

caustic Pieter,-.n ! )e V'li..-, a- - Captain I'liut/, them lower their lla-." Proml an.l , Davi.l 

who weiuho.l liun.lie.l, ami t..nk thiv.- I'ictei-scn De Vries, the f mn.l.a- .,f th.' lii-t -ttle- 

drinks at everv meal." 11. ■ la.k.-.l n..| in eii.-r-v ni.ait .,n the Delauare , the unf nt, mat.; .■..hmv nf 

or decision of chaia.ter. Hi- alertn.-,- an.l a-- Zuaamn.lael at the ll....ii,kill -. u ii. n he attempi, .1 

pre.*sivencss nia.le him a n.-.t'ul man in id- time tn pass up th.' rlv.T in (.>i't..i..'r, ir.i:;. wa- cmi- 

and place, an.l pmhahlv his a,lmini,-t,'aiinn was l"'lh'd to halt, .hi. 'k his tla- and '.iv.- an a.'coimt 

more valuabl.', to the ...louv at lar-e, than wmhl of h:niself ami mu.-^t liav.' .'.xp-i leii. . .1 a unm 

have been that ..f a reallv ahler man, .'ouplmLr .- n>.' of th.- chan'.'e uhi.'h a feu y. a, - ha.l wn.u, J,t. 

with hi-her,|ualitie. than iii-,-..-. 1 1 n.hle .-ay,- : " I'.v me.iii- ..f 1 hi- f.irt . . . 

The Govern. .r ha.l 11. ,t l.eeii km'.- in X.w Swe.leii I'r'mt/ ih->d the , ntrame of th.' nv.r ,-0 that all 

— and it will h.' remenihere.l he lan.h.l at ('liri>- v,'.-.-els either tlmse anive.l from li.n.'e ( N.'u 

tina, Feln-uarv 1 .".th. Ill k'.—h. lore h.' -ehete.l a Am,-tei'.lam ) or oth.'r pla.'.s, ai.' .'.mip.'ll. .1 t., .a.: 

home and tlu'".-.'at of -ov.rnm.nt. T.. .lo thi.- he their aueli..r. not .'X.'.pliii'.: tlm-e nf il,.' .N.,M.' 

went l.eyon.l tlu' ..^.'ttlein.nt e.-tahli^li,.!. Company 1 th,' Dut.h We.-l In.lia CnipanN ), a- i.-. 

and beyJn.l the pre.-eiit houmlaries of the State . i 

olh.'r',i'm!;-'"l'r i,n'''iM '\n'~i.J '',1-. -„ u!' lZ,''t '^il, 'M!!l"nn"l'arr! ^ t"n r^■ ■^•-^'n.^l ..■M.mrnt, ■„, ll„ K. I,«,,1V, |i.,-. i.J | 

:|i,.,».rl..f i;,.A,.i„i.,-rr,,il/, hr l.i; l,.u.-!ia,.il fr..m tl,^ Swnli^h l.y aca-lout «i..c« tli.' n.iM,i„„nn,.',.l uf tl.u i',.--'!.! j 

by l>r..:^»-.i.-..;. B. K .ii.-i',..,.-;,!.. ...... .i;.ij'.-..,f.i/ /r./or;,. V.jI. Vir, ..nt.iry.— Ki!Rnl?. J 


, vidriit tVoni si'vernl yachts ci.tninLr fV'.ui the 
ManlKitUiiis, which, wi-hin- to |Hir>iic their vovn-c 
[,,\v:in!s the phice ot' distillation 
-topping often, were injiireil V,v caniiiin liall-. ami 
«, IV in inimineut daiiirer of losinu- ^(Jln(■ of their 
, rew; so that tlioy must proceed with small cratl, 
upwards of six miles, towards the afon-aid Pi-iiitz. 
to ohtain his co nsait. t\vdt they nii_dit -ail lii-her 
lip the river, no matter whether they are EiiLdi>li- 
iiieii or Netherlandeis, without payiu- any re-ard 
to their commissions." ' 

Printz was as arhitrary and violent toward- the 
KiiLdish as to the Dutch. The latter people, it 
will be remendiered. had expelled the New Haven 
M-ttlers from Varkin's Kill, and they now returned 
oulv to experience the peculiar tender meieir- of 
the Swedish Governor. They were led liy the 
.-ame Lamberton wdm had before been theii- nio>t 
prominent man, and it wa; doubtle.-s his ]>urpo-e 
to rejilant the settleiiient. While Lamberton's 
sloop, the "Cock," was lyiuir at anclior somewhere 
in the river between Fort Elfsborir and Christina, 
I'rintz induced him and tw-o of his men to come to 
Fort Gottenburg where he placed them in irjns, 
and threw them into prison. He put the irons 
upon Lamberton with his own hands, and he and 
his wife made the inferiors all drunk, and hv 
promises of rich reward and other means, en- 
deavored to induce them to swear tliat Laml)erton 
was incitiuLr an Indian insurrection.- They re- 
mained true, however, and Printz had after a few- 
days to release his prisr.mers without acconqdishinr^ 
his purpose. Land>erton, before regaining his 
liberty, had to pay a " weight of beaver," and 
receive a vigorous cursing from the burlv and 
irascible governor.'' Printz expelled all of the 
English who would not take the oath of allegiance 
to the crown of Sweden, and the proceeding led 
to a long series of negotiations between the New- 
England authorities, and the .Swedish and Dutch 

Printz was swollen with the "insolence of ofhce," 
and in KU-l, when the Dutch placed Andreas 
Hudde in the p,i>itioi, of commi-.-ary at Fort 
Xas-au, he f.und that he lia.l a more viL'orous 
otHclalto.leal \\ith than the depo-ed dan dansen 
Van Ilpentlam. Hu.lde wa.- .piick to protest 
a-ainst everything that the Swedes did which 
iiiight be construed as adver.-e to Dutch intere.-ts. 
and Printz either paid no attention whatever, to 
-iich protests, or upon their receiition connnitted 
acts even more outiaL'-eoii< than tho.-e which had 
<alle.l them futh. WKcu Hudde, upon Kidf, 

order-, purchased from the Indians some lan.l> . 
the we-t -hore of the river i wliere ;,lterward> w 
built Philadelphia-, and -et up there the arm- 
Holland, Print/ -cut Coinmi-arv Heurik Hu 
-hens, of JM.rt, Chri-tiiia, to throw the in,-i-n 
down. Thereupon Hialde arn-tcl Iluv-her 
threw him into the -narddiou-e, and -cut word 


a;ide Hud. le's communication, re-anlin- the ri-ht:- 
of his company, and seizing a mu-ket threatened 
to .-ho,.t the me.-senger. Print/ was certaiidy 
irritatingly insolent towanl- tho-e whom he re- 
garded as intruilers u]H.n Swedi-h .-oil. Hudde 
says that when visiting him at hi.- own house, at 
talde and in the presence of his own wife, in reply 
to his remark tlnit the Dutch were the first scttler.- 
on the Delaware, Printz sai<l that " the De\-il was 
the oldest possessor of hell, but that ho sometimes 
admitted a younger one," which was certainly not 
diplomatic language, or calculated to create or 
cement friend.-hip. 

The Governor had comi)letely closed the 
Schuylkill * to the Dutch by the erection of a 
fortification at its mouth calleil " ^lanayunk," one 
at Kingsessing and aiK.ither at Passayunk, called 
'■ Korsholni," and had besides, put a fort almost 
contiguous to the Dutch Fort Beversede, between 
it and the water, rendering it entirely useless. 
About midway between Christina and New Got- 
tenburg, a colony was founded comprising houses 
and a fort.' called Upland. North of this, also, 
several scattei-ed settlements were gradually es- 
tablished. Printz built the fir-t water-mill on 
South Piver, at a place called Karakung, other- 
wise Water-^Mill Stream ( Amesland or Carkoen's 
Hook), on what is now Cobb's Creek, near the 
brid'je oit the Darby road, at the old Blue Bell 
tavern, near Philadelphia, This was put up instead 
of the old wind-mill, which, Printz says, never 
would work and was " gooil fir nothimr." This 
mill ground both meal and tlour, and f mnd con- 
stant wijrk. 

PrintzV zeal was rewarded by his government 
with the urant ot' New Gottenbunr, as a perpetual 
po-<e^-ion tor himself and his heirs f .revcr. It 
pa.sed to hi-,lau-liter. n.arried to.lohan Papegoja, 

Throuirh their Governor's energetic action the 
Sweiles eH'ectnally became masters of the river 
and the greater part of the neighboring territory. 
He was prudent enough to keep on a good footing 
with the Indians anikcut the Dutch oil' from their 
traile. The credit enjoyed with the natives by 
the Swedes was, indeed, so irreat that when, in 

uir Slilli-, Ev, 



the spriniT ot" 
were niiir(lcie( 
themselves hcti 

;44. siiiiie of the Min. 
• I'rintz tn iilllr coniiin 

of " Wu-i 

sue for peiK-e. lie il 
Dutohmen. ;i(ln],tc(l :i 
ami sohl the [nili:in- a 
securing not only tlie 
larirer returns of fur 
expelle<l every Dutch 
would not take the 

. lie :il>o persecuted ur 
nan in New Svoden who 
lath of alleiiianco to hi,- 


The Swedish enl.mi-ts. however, had great difli- 
culties to coutenil with, not heing able to i^roduee 
their daily bread, with which tliey were providetl 
partly at the cost of the company. The rovelty 
of the climate and the various privations suffered 
caused the death of many persons (during 16-i3 
not less than twenty-five), according to the Dutch 
account reducing the number of male inhiibitauts 
in ltU5 to eighty or ninety. The situation of the 
survivors, however, rapidly improved ; tobacco 
was diligently cultivated, and the raising of corn 
and breeding of cattle were duly promoted by the 

In the spring of KU-t the ship " Fama " arrived 
from Sweden, having been equipped at the ex- 
pense of the Crown and setting sail the previous 
year, bringing, it is presumed, both emigrants' 
and merchandise, althougli we have not found 
any definite information concerning this, the tifth 
Swedish expedition to the Delaware. The vessel 
was despatched back to Sweden. June 20, 1644, 
carrying a cargo of two thousand one hundred 
and thirty -six beaver skins and t\\enty thousand 
four hundred and sixty-.seveii pounds <<t' tobacco 
for the company, besides seven thousand two 
hundred pounds sent over by the Governor to be 
sold for his own account. 

The ascension of Queen Christina upon the 
throne of Sweden, in 1644, and changes in the sy.s- 
tem of government largely contribut(;d to the decay 
and final ruin of New Sweden on the Delaware. 
From June, lh44, until October, 164(i, eomnumi- 
cation was suspended with the mother country. 
Governor Print/, was, however, zi^alou-ly endeavor- 
ing to promote his enterprise. ^Ve liave already 
seen how, by the action of Nya Kor.-liolm, he 
secured the mouth of the Schuylkill : he also con- 
sidered it necessary to guard tlu' route of traffic 
with the ^linqiuis still further to tlie interior. To 
this intent he caused to be built some distance 
inland a strong block-house, "capable of defence 
airainst the savages by four i^r five men, well sui)- 
plie<l with powder and A\"t." The place received 

,-eral " frcen 
le beyond, ir 
as construct 
luts also set 
"■ -■ because. 

1 h 

■with'.n tn( 

■i[ ir. tile great aclvanta-r ^ ! 
It va-r, as iieretot'ore stated, the tir-i 
nits of Pennsylvania. Further iii;- 
,vere also made at the old phue.-, 
C]ir:iri;ia, Ellsburg an.d Koi-sholm. On the •J-".il, 
I'!' "No'-ember, ^"'^5, Fort New Gottenburg w;i- 
set fire to bv a gi'nuer and it W":xs destroyed in an 
hour. The Governor and people suffered great 
loss; the company's goods consumed by the tin- 
were valued at four thousand riksdaler. Notwith- 
standing this great calamity to the infant colony, 
nn the 4th of September, liUG, Campanius con- 
secrated the fiist Swedish church on the spot, and 
i'rintz afterwards built liis dwelling there. 

The colony was largely reinforced on the 1st of 
October, 1646, by the arrival of the ship " Gylkiie 
Tlajen " (" Golden Shark ") with the sixth Swedish 
expedition. The voyage had occupied four months, 
the vessel losing near all her sails and the entire 
crew being sick. The cargo consisted of Holland 
goods intended for barter with the Indians for 
furs. On February 20, 1647, the ship " Gyllene 
Hajen" sailed with a return cargo, consisting ot 
twx-ntv-four thousand one hundred and seventy- 
seven pounds of tobacco, only six thou.«and nine 
hundred and twenty pounds of which was rai-ed 
hv the colony, the remainder having been pur- 
chased in Virginia. 

Being in a condition to revive his languishiii.' 
beaver trade, Printz now sent Huyghen and Van 
Dvck, with eight soldiers fifty miles into the in- 
terior among the Minquas, with presents of all 
kinds, to induce them to trade with the Swede-. 
Thejealousy which had existed between the Sweii. s 
aiid Dutch from the beginning of the settlement, 
having broken out in open rupture in 1646, tin- 
following extract from Governor Printz's report 
"to the Most Honorable India Company." 
■jives a fair idea of the relations which then ex- 
isted between the rival ci'ldiii.-t- on the Delaware: 

■• Il is of the nc>ce.«ity fnr us tn 'Iriv.? llio Putcli fruiii th- ri^■ t. 

, Pruf. G^ li.Kti- 

Che presi-D! e Al 


Notwithstaiuiiii- tli.:<e ditHfultii-s the c.Ionv 
veiiR'i-1 to prusper, t'nr it \va- .-ucc -stiilly eiiLra-td 
in iiirriculture and traile. LUiil uiimiui-i ,| ,,nv luiii- 
ilrrd and eighty-thrff .-uui.-. Ir \v:i< -iTatly in 
n. ■.■(!, however, of skilled iiieihauirs and soldi. t-, 
■• and, above all, unnian-ii'd women as wivo- for the 
unmarried freemen and the rt-t." In eon-eiiiieurr 
„t' I'rintz's report, on the 2.jth of Siptemljei-, li;47, 
the seventh expedition set sail from Gottl'lll)urL^ 
on the ship " Svanon," Captain Stetlen '\Villein>fH, 
carrying emijrrants and a valuable cargo. Among 
. the former were two Lutheran clergymen, Lare 
Carlsson Looek (Laurentius Lockenius) and Israel 
Fluviander, Printz's sister's son, with Johan Pape- 

' sliort vova-e ot thirtv .lavs arrive.l at 
Ibl-ingur, and on "tin- ;;.l .,f Julv, at M.M'kholni. 

In 1(147 th.' Dutch I)i.vrt,,r-(.u-neral Kicft uas 
~nci-eeded hy Peter Stnyvesant. win. Iie-an hi- a.l- 
inini.-tration on Mav I'Tth. Print/, fi.iin.l him a 
Very .litU'rent man "fmni Ki, fr. Winn tli.' tu.> 
-•' hnallv uui .,n .Mav 'irnU. K.ol the 
''■ii'-h director-general, uhih^ '-luite a> .-..Idi.rlv. 
I'l'nr. an.l ira.cilde as Print/, -howe.l himself f, l".,- 
iiea.l and .-houldc-rs above th- latter in dip;.,ma. v. 


in the per 
had sedul 
bv public 
the . 

ri.i.l ..f Prin 

the II 

e Del: 
'h.- Sv 

.I..S h; 
ith U 

cut 1 



Stuvve-ant came to the S.,utl 
Kiol. "t., pre-crve and pr. 
rights and jurisdiction."' He 
of the company's rights ii. 
demanded in return that tli 
should jiroduee jiroof .if wh; 
chased and his authority to 
.■ould merely define the limits of his t 
say that his pajiers were on tile in the chancellory 
of Sweden. Then .'-^tuyvesant is said to have 
detected Printz in an attempt to secretly buv title 
from an Indian <aehem calle.l Waspang Zewan, 
whereupon the Dutch governor forthwith dealt 
with the Indians himself, and was hy them pre- 
M-nted with a title to b.ith sides of the Delaware 
from Christiana Creek to Bombay Hook, they at 
the same time denying that they had ever sold 
any lands to the Swedes. Finally, Stuyvesint 
determined that he would build another fort, Fort 
Xassau being too much out ofthe way, and in >p!te 
of Printz's protests he built Fort Ca.simir on the 
Delaware side of the river, about one Dutch mile 
from Fort Christina and near the present citv of 
New Castle, where he stationed a garrison, with 
cannon and two shijis. The central jwint of the 
Dutch power on the Delaware, was now trans- 
ferred to Fort Casinur, and sc-on after Fort Xa.- 
sau was abandoned, Printz and Stuyvesant had 
several interviews with each other, and the final 
result was that " they mutually [iromised to cause 
no difficulties or hostility to each other, but to keep 
iH'ighborly friendship and ..•orrespundence toireiiier, 
and act as friends and allies." 

It will be observed that all through these con- 
troversies, while there were many hi^di words and 
some kicks and cutis, the Dutch and Swedes never 
came to actual ho.-tilities, and always maintained 
a vwdtL-i rivenil, with one another. This was not 
because they hated each other le.vs, hut because 
they drea.led a thinl rival more. Both Dutch 

designs up..u the I), lawaiv. As was lai.l ,l,.vwi in 

cecle.l Printz in New .<w.-,l..n,\-i!.'.ak 

new K..rt Ca-iniir, if Ki-iuL'h e.mjd i 

the Dut.-h t,. tli.^ p.,>t bv aii.onn..nt a 

rt'in..n.-tnin.v and uithout resortii'iL' t.i h.-tiliti 

h..-tiliii,-, confining themselves .^delv to ]n-..t,~ 
ti..n^, and ^uHcr the Dutch t., .uvupv the .-: 
f.n-tre-s, than that it shouhMldl int., the 
the Engli^n, nlw are the nin,l pnayrjul and oj cou 

of the 



the mo.'t dniign-nu^ in tint rnuulryr In tlir -^aiiie 
w:iv, after Stuvv.-;,nt IkuI mrt tin' Kn-li-h at 
Hartford, C'miiu.. tri-alv,l xsitli th. in. and >.ttlr,l 
a mutual l.Mun.hiry linr. s,, that all was appar- 
ently pcacr mal lVirii'l>hi|i li.lwr. II tin- Dutch and 
theKew Kii.'lan.i.T-, thr >.\-\v Hav.ii L'onii.auy 
thoiight thrv u.MiM l)r i.rruiitto.l without .li>! tite 
to resumu the iiceuj>aiicy of ilii-ir piinha-cil Iimian 
lauds on the New J.r.-v of tlu- ivlaware llay 
at Salem, when.',- th.v had h.-n twi.v exi elh d. 
Accordin-lv, Jasper ( iraine. William Tuthill. and 
other inhabitant- ..f N.w llav,n and >otoeket. 
to the nunilHT of al.out tifrv, hired :i ve.-^^el au.l 
sailed for that de-tinatimi. On the wav thev enn- 
siderately l^nt into Manhattan to imtity Stuyve-aiit 

of their errand, and ( .-ult with him a.- to the 

best way of aeeMniplishin- it. .--invve-ant took 
their commi.-,-ion away from them, clapped the 
master of the vessel and four other- into prison. 
and refu.-?ed to relea.-e them until •• tin v jiKd-ed 
themselves under their IkukU " not to -o to Dela- 
ware, infi.>rniinir them likewise that if any of them 
should afterwards be IVmnd there he would con- 
fiscate their goods and send them prir-oners to 
Holland. At the same tina' he wrote to the gover- 
nor of New Haven that the Dutch rights on the 
Delaware were ab-olute, and that he meant to 
prevent any Englir-h settlement there " with force 
of arms and martial oppo>ition, even unto blood- 
shed." The Swedes were so mu(di impre-ed with 
this iirw attititde ami with their own unprotected 
eonditi(.)n (thi- wa- probably durin- the inter- 
regnum between I'rint/.'s ileparture and the arrival 
of Risingh, when I'ape-oja, Print//- -o,i-iii-law, 
was acting goverm>r. and there' was no news from 
the mother-country) that they a.-ked Stiiyve-ant 
to take them under his protection. The director- 
general declined to do s,, without instruetii.n from 
home, and the directors of the company when he 
consulted them lett the matter to his own discre- 
tion, simply suggesting that while population and 
settlement shouhl be encouraged by all means as 
the bulwark of the State, it would be advisable 
that all settler,- ,-liould yield allegiance to the 
parent State, and iie willin- to obey its laws and 
statutes in order to obtain protection. 

The ilitHcultie- between I'riiitz and Stiiyvesant 
came before the Koyal Council of Sue.len in 
March, 16o-_'. and j., n'dni- its negotiation- (iover- 
nor Trint/. f. 11 into >till -reater .-trait-. On 
August oi), l.i.VJ. he wrote to the ClKineellor of 
the Kine-dom: ■' The Puritans threaten us with 
violence, and the Dutch are pres-iug upon us on 
all sides; they have ruined the fur trade; the 
savages are troubling us. having' broiiLrht ear;^'oes 
of stran-ers; the people ;,re be.dnnin- to ,1,-ert 
the colonv in despair; f.rtv Dutch lUniili. ,- have 
settled east of the river, win, have ab.-olntely no 
pruvi=ious, and do not sow or plough, de-iring to 

livi' bv the tralh 


vear the situation wa- not i 

"had now assembled his f 

the natives, which th 
I." Dnrim: the follow! 

t Fort faMinir. 
where alreadv in the l,c,ini,in_' of K;.",:; no I, - 
than t\ventv->ix Dutch familie.- ha.l setthd. an,! 
more .still w'ere expected. Nevertheless, he did im, 

Swedes, chieHv for ti'ar of the English, but leli 
obli-ed to confirm to the admonition of hi- 
Directors, to endeavor a- far a- ]io,--ibl(} to :ivoiil 
dis.-ensions with them; "imt to increa>e the miin- 
ber of the Company's enemies during that critical 
period." Not a wtird was heard from Sweden to 
relieve the anxiety of Printz, although he urgently 
applied for aid in his letters to his superiors. II" 
iii.sisted on his di-nii,-sal. and many other inhabi- 
tants of the colony, particularly persons in the 
service of the comjiany. de.-ired to return to their 
native country, while some removed to ^Marylaml. 
and others Inxjught Stuyvesant to allow them to 
settle among the Dutch, a privilege he dared not 
grant. In consequence of a war between two 
neighboring Indian tribes no fur trade could be 
carried on, and the non-arrival of any succor 
•j-radually caused the colonists (hitherto in the 
enjovment of the great consideration accorded to 
the Swedish nation) to be regarded "as abandoned 
wanderers, without a sovereign." ' To give further 
weiirht to his complaints, in July, 1653, the Gover- 
nor sent home his son, Gustavus Printz, who had 
Iteen a lieutenant in the colony of New Sweden 
since 1648. Ciovernor Print/, himself now feared 
that the colony had been abandoned to its fate, a- 
he had not received any letters or orders from the 
mother country for six years. His command- 
were no longer obeyed and he resolved to uo 
home, after having promi,-ed the settlers, for their 
lldelity to the Crown of Sweden, to come back in 
ten or twelve months from September, 16o3, or, 
at least, to procure the sending of a ship if oidy 
to inform them as to the condition of their enter- 
prise. He ajipointed Johan Papegoja I'rovinciai 
Vice-Governor, and in company with his wife and 
children, Ileiirik IlnyLdieii and a portion of the 
coloidsts, he .-ailed earl\ in November, aitd, cros- 
iui; the ocean in a Dutch ve.-sel, December I^t. 
reached Rochelle, from whence he wrote to th. 
Chancellor. Early in IH.",-! he went to Ilollainl. 
and in April arrived once more in Sweden. Alt' :' 
his return he was appointed eohaud in the Swedi-li 
armv, and in looS governor of tlie province ol 
Jonk.lpin'r. He ilied'in 16(;".. 

In the meantime Printz's re[n-esentations at 
liome, put fre^ll life into measures f .r the relief oi 
the eolunv. Her .Majestv renewed her mandate te 


;|„. Ailnilnilty I'diiccriiinu' tlie 
.■.ii]i|>iiu-iit of a jlii[i i'ur Ncu Swc- 
,1,11, •'that the enUTpri?!' iniirlit 
:miI altogetlier conic to nnu-lit." 
riir ^'ciieral niaiKi.'i-Nicnt nt' Swo- 
.|;-li affiiiiv un the IVlawaiv lia.l 
,,,,u pasSLMl to tlie .■liarirr ..i tiio 
■•(•.eiu-ral Collt-tje <,t' Cuiiinu r.v," 
.,fSMckhoIni,ot' uliich Krik (rx- 
, !i?tjenia was jiri'siilLiit. lie i>- 
.iic(l the necessary iii.-tnictioiis 
.111.1 the ship " Ornen " (the - Ea- 
.'Ic "jJohii Piockhoni, coiumaml- 
.T, was assigned to take out eiui- 
L-rantsaiid supplies. Sven Schute 
«:ls corimianiled to enlist fifty sol- 
.liiTs tor the reinforcement of the 
i'..l(iny, and to proceed to Viirni- 
laiid and Dal, and collect fanii- 
lics and single pei-sous livini: in 
ilie forests, to the number of two 
imndred and fifty souls, -'the 
majority to be good men. with 
some women." In accordance 
uith Printz's request to quit the 
I'lilony, Johan Klaesson Eisins, 
the secretary of the college, was 
commissioned as his assistant on 
December 12, KloM, at an annu- 
al salary of one thousand two 
Imndred dalersUJver. The ninth' 
Swedish expedition left Stork- 
liolm, on the Sth of October, on 
the ship '• Ornen," liut was de- 
layed at Gotteiiburg, takin.' on 
cargo, et<-., until tlie L'd of Feb- 
ruary, l(;.-.4, when she saih d. 
'I'lie ^ettleI■s were accompanied 
hy Peter Lindstrom, a militarv 
engineer of some distinction, ^^ho 
had been appointed to serve in 
I 1 roft nnil ca Kit\ m tlu 

I n\ He dfteiw 11 J HI 1(ij4 

' iiudea\tr\ mt u tuu ni ip 
f N\ I ^\\cii_t t 1 111! 1 
' \ C impiniu hi t i\ V f ( 

td ( f It ip[( r in th t \t 
^ith th In bin 1 -w, 1, h 

un t 1 all th in n ^ nth 

HN r V llltcl «lth 1.111 V 1 

'^ ir i,h 1 1 tin III ,t ml 

^■itthu Nutuniu wh hi I 

' I li in iltcmi t t i( uh th 

I n\ in 104) with th unt i 

"iitt \ic ht, n\\hi h 111 1 111 
''' kittui Vit 1 I It ut 


* f 

^7- ) 


-^ • J. .. . ! 1 .<! CUE) i 


• *j « 5 I S ^ 



P j' 



arrived in the Delawar.- Ilav on the L^th of 
.Mav, an.l two .hiv^ afteruanis ai-ii\..l at Fort 
Eltih.u- uhieh ^^a^ now ,h-,-n..i an.l in ruins. 
On the ■2\>t of- \[ay, ImJul' I'rinitv San,lav, 
the"Ornrn" ea-t aii.-lior olf Fort ( 'asiniir, and dis- 
chiirired a Sweili.di -aliitr. 

Kisinir'- in-truMion^ nndor date of Dectaber 
15, 165:;, an.l si-n.-.l l,y Erik ( »xen-fjerna and 
Korster Bonde, ;-h .w that tiie S\\rdfs int. adr.i to 
re-establi;li pow.r in the colony. He and iho 
Governor \vere to adniiid.-ti r ju-tioe, and ]ininioto 
trade and the profr-sion — li^hiii-. hu-l.andry, at- 
tracting meiiiher- of nii-hltoriii.' nations, who 
might be able to give them aid. F-peeially were 
they required to seek "to rid the place of the 
Dutch, who had erected a fort tlicre, exerci.sintr, 
however, all pos^?ible prudence," and above all, 
taking care that the English did not ..btain a f lot- 
hold. They were also to endeavor to .•nla.r-o tlic 
limits of the settlement, and try to get all trad ■ on 
the river out of the hands of foreigner,- by build- 
ing, if need he, anotiier fort at the mouth of iln' 

Immediately upon Ri^iu^'s arrival otf Fort 
Casimir, he sent Sven Schute, with twenty soldiers. 
to the shore, to demand the surrender of the garri- 
son, and not receiving an answer to his signal, 
fired at the fort from two of the heaviest guns on 
his ship. Taken by surprise Gerrit Bikker, the 
Dutch commander dispatched four men with a 
request for three days' respite, which was refused, 
and when the latter ini|uired the terms of the 
Swedes, they were told that thev should lie in- 
formed of these the followin- day at Fort < 'hristina. 
Meanwhile, Lieutenant ( i\IlrnL:ri'n, uiider oiilers 
of Schute, pressing in with some men througli a 
gate, overpowered the sentinels, disarmed tlie gar- 
rison, and triumphantly displayed tiie Swedish tlag 
above the fort. The force which hehl it consisted 
of barely a dozen soldiers, although not less than 
twenty-two houses, inhabited by^ Dutch settlers, 
lay round about. After a body of Swedes, under 
the command of Schute, had entered Fort Trinity 
(named after Trinity Sunday, because it was ca[)- 
tured on that day),' the Dutch soldiers received 
permission to >tay or go, as tiiey pleaseil. ' 

On the (lav foll,,win- the i-ipture ot Fort ('a-; 
inir the "orn,,!" sailed up to Christina, wlirre tl . 
three hun.hvd ciniL-rants wero landcl— the lar.-^ - 
body that had ever rea,-he.l New Sweden at o,., 

. On the ibnowiii- davall the peoi.le atChri>ti„ 


assembled to take the oath of allegiance to Sweden 
and the West India Company, and Papegoja re- 
signed his ortice as Governor into the hand- of 
Eising, notwithstanding the latter had not y ; 
been duly appointed to that charge. PapeL^oj;, 
and Schute continued to be the Governor's prin- 
cipal assistants in the direction of the colony. ( in 
the od of June a similar meeting was held at 
Printzhof on TennakoiiL', and the Dutch com- 
mandant at Fort Casimir and the majority of hi- 
garrison swore fealty to Swedon. Afterwards tl;- 
Governor, in company with engineer Lind^trom. 
made a journey around the rest of the Swedi-1. 
settlement to become acquainteil with the rcidon : 
and finally he called the neighboring Indian- t.- 
gether with a view to make them his allies. Tb- 
joint council was held at Tinnecum, (then c:\]\> ■: 
Printzhof) on June 17th. at which ten Indiai: 

uf tliecnplll 



.-hii'tV were prosiMit, ami Risiiii: iiHi-rcd maity 
pri^oiit.''. (listrihiitt'l wim- ami spirits, ami s] i.:i,| a 
-rcat feast of suppauii ; the old trfatii- urn- n ail, 
mutual vows of friendship exeliaii-ed, and tiie 
liKliaiis heeanie allies of the Swed.-s, \\ hoi,, they 
-troiiL'ly counseled to >ettle at once at ra->ayiink. 

On July od Risiii- -eiit an open letter t.. all th.' 
Swedes who luid L'-one otf to :Maryiand and Vir- 
■_'inia, inviting them to return, when, if they would 
not remain at the settlement, they should reeeive 
jiermission and be provided with a pass to lietake 
themselves wherever they wished. I'ort Trinity 
\va5 rebuilt from its foundations and armed v, iih 
lour fourteen-pounder cannon taken fmni the 
"Ornen." The land nearest to Christina was di- 
vided into building lots for a future town of ('liri>- 
tinahamn (Christinapnrt ', fmni wiienee tra'lie was 
to be carried on with tin' I'roviiiees ot N'iruinia 
and Maryland, with whieh intent, al-., Ri,-ing 
planned the widening of the Swedish territory to 
the west by means of a new settlement, no limit 
ever having been set to it in that direction. 
Finally a map of the river and Swedish posses- 
sions was prepared by Liml.-trom, with an accurate 
description of the region. Tn an "ordinance con- 
cerning the people and the land," etc., dated July, 
lt;")4, he decreed the first anti-slavery act adopted 
in America: " Whoever bespeaks of the company 
any slave over fourteen years in service shall give, 
hcsides the passage money received, twenty four 
riksdaler, and the slave shall serve him six con- 
secutive years, obtaining his food, shoes, and so 
forth every year; after six years a slave shall be , 
absolutely free." / 

Rising selected for himself a piece of land south 
of Trinity Fort, a quarter of a mile in leii'jth, and 
in a letter to Chancellor E. (Jxenstjerna dated 
.Time 11, 165-1-, he solicits " His Excellency to find 
him a good wife and send her over." He assigned 
I'etrus iljort, one of the ministers who came out on 
the "Ornen," to a home in Fort Trinity, while his 
companion, Matthias Xertunius, dwelt at Upland. 

The Dutch and Swedish population on the 
Delaware at this time, according to a census taken 
hy Itising. was three hundred ami sixty-ei-lit 
per.-ons. Thi~ is probably exelu-ive <<t' many 
Swedes who had gone inti.> tlie interior and ero-ed 
the ridge towards :\Iarylaml. But little a-rieul- 
ture was attended to bi.-ide- t<jbaeco plaiitin.', and 
tlie chief industry was the trade in peltrie.-, nhieh 
was very protitable. Jn this trade the Indians 

' ef heaver-skin-, and the 

.rt Na-au that tl,e>avai:es 


d toSwe,|;."')4. 

I and .-Marvland tohaeeo, 
e.'ers soni,-' of the older 

II Pape-nja. Arrivin-at 

aver and 

neat skill as m trappin- the 
his i>elt. Thepriceofabeaver- 
-kiu was two fathoms of' "seawant," and each 
lathom was taken to be three ells long. An ell 
was measured (as the yard .-till is in country 
I'laces), from one loiuer >il' the mouth to the 
thumb of the opposite arm exten.led. The Indians, 
tall and Ion-limbed, alwavs sent their l..n_'est 

at (lolteidiur- the'Mlyll, nellaien"ill,e ••(;,, Iden 
Shark " I, for anntlu'r expedite. 11 to the Delaware. 
On thelL'th of September the'M iyllene Ilajeii "ar- 
rived otf the American coa~t, and '•throuL'h ra.-h- 
ness, or perhaps malice, of the mate." entered a 
bay believed to be the Delaware, but in fa<t the 
Ninth Kiver, or Hudson, the blunder not being 
discovered until she had reached ^laidiattan. 

It was not to be expected that a man of .-^tuyve- 
sant's heady temperament wmild permit an out- 
rage, such as the capture of Fort Casimir, to go 
un revenged, even if the directors of the West 
India Company had jxassed it by. But they were 
quite as eager as Stuyvesant himself, for prompt 
and decisive action on the Delaware. The time 
was auspicious for them. Axel Oxenstierna, the 
great Swedish chancellor, was just dead, Queen 
Christina had abdicated the tlirone in favor of her 
cousin Charles Gustavus, and England and Hol- 
land had just signed a treaty of peace. The 
directors insisted upon the Swedes being etibctually 
punished, and ordered Stuyvesant, not only to 
exert every nerve to revenge the injury, not only 
to recover the fort and restore affairs to their 
former situation, but to drive the Swedes from 
every side of tiio river, and allow no settlers ex- 
cept under the Dutch thiLr. He was promi.-cd 
liberal aiil from home, and w;is ordered to press 
any V(.'ssel into his service that might be in the 
New Netherlands. Stuyvesant meanwhile was 
not idle on his own side. He seized and made 
prize of the " Gyllene Hajen " at Manhattan, and 
placed her captain under arrest, as soon as he 
heard the news from Fort Casimir. He received 
five armed vessels from Amsterdam, iind ordered 
a L'eneral fasting and prayer, and then ha.stened 
to set his armaments in order. On the oOth of 
Au-u.-t, Stuyvesant's forces, consisting of seven 
ship> and >ix hundred men, entered Delaware Bav 

th..' follow in.j dav the Dutch ll.;et was otl' the late 
Fort (V.-imir, now Fnrt Tiinity. The fort was 
summoned to surrender. The Lranisoii, under 

seven men, and thoir commander, surrendered 
them on honorable terms before a gun was tired. 
Stiiyve-ant marelie.i .,n the follow i.rg ilay to Fort 

ve.-ted it on every siile. RisiuLih pret. lukd i;reat 

trivance he could think of, and then on the 14tli 


HI3T0RY OF DE].A^-\\rv5:. 

of Septfn:ber. sumTi<l.Tcil al^i. lut'on- the Dutcli 
liiitterifs o[i(;-,n-d. In truth his toi-; a Uiak 
:ind (IctVnselr^:; nnc, ami he liail scaiviiy tw. 
rounds nf amiminitinn. 

In aceordanee with the terms' ajreiil to, the 
little ^^\Vfdi-hL'aiTi<oii,nan'hcd. "lit, ••colors tlv:'.-.:;." 
The Diitrh wont u]. tho river to 'niiiKcinn, '^^ here 
thev laid wa.^te all the house, and ..lantations, 
kilfed th.' eatfh and ., hindered the InhaMtai;!-. 

[From Camranius' " Xew Sweden."] 

A, Fort OlirUtina. D, Christina Cre.'k. C, Town c.l Clii 

D, Tennekuiij,- Lan.L K, Fi,li Kill. F, SlaiiL-eubul ■_-. G. 

H, Eottnburg. I, Fli.iffUbors. K, Tiiiil. r M.nul. 

M, Position of the Lesiegers. X, Harb.-r. o. Mine. P, S 

A great many Swedes eanie in and took the oath- 
of alleaianee to the Duteh. 

All such were sultere<l to remain nndisturlied in 
their pos-.-sion.?. A few who retii>ed to take the 
oatii \\c:re tran,ported to Manhattan, while others 

doubted)}' Silt 

This v:td a ■; 
the West Indi 
redelivorv of 

hnt theDutel 
upon Swedish 




.in.di, but th. 
n'ceive it, ai 
f New Anist, 
antir moo.I." 

tie.- in .-^\ euei. sii; .\..ed. d in titliii- out the teiitli 
and last c.s.;-.eiiition to New Sweden. The Mi ,- 
curium sailed on the i6th of October, IG-jo, bearin,- 
the last hope of safety for the enterprise on th. 
Delaware, which, had already come to an itrnoniini 
ous end. She arrived in the Delaware, March 
24, 1()')(). the emiL^rants tirst learning the chan-c- 
that Iiad occurred when they were prevented 
from landing, by the Dutch Vice-Governor I'aiil 
Jaeijuet, until the receijit of further orders from 
Manhattan. Stuyvesant sent instructions f.rbid- 
ding thern to laud, am.l directed that they >houl.! 
be sent to Manhattan, to lay in provisions, etc., for 
their voyage Lome. The emigrants refusincr t'^ 
return to Sweden, they took the vessel past Fort 
Casimir. and ufi the river to Mantaes Huek,wherc 
they landed. The Mercurius returned to Gutten- 
borg, arriving there in September of the same year. 

Upon the coniiuest of Xew Sweden, Stuyvesaiu 
appointed Captain Derrick Schmidt as conuiiissaiy. 
who was quickly succeeded as we have seen, h\ 
John Paul Jacipiet, in the capacity of " ^'ice- 
Director of the South Itiver," with a Council con- 
sisting of Andreas Hudde, vice-director, Elnier- 
huysen Klein, and two sergeants. Fort Christin.i 
became Altona, Fort Casimir resumed its ol.i 
name, and a new settlement grew up around ii 
wliich was named New Anistel, the tin>t actual town 
upon the river. 

It must be confessed that if the Swedes on the 
Delaware were not a ha]ipy people it was their 
own fault. But they were happy. Come of a 
primitive race not yet spriiled by fashions, luxury, 
and the vices of civilization, and preferring agri- 
culture and the sim]ilest arts of hu.-bandrv to tra'N . 
they found them-elves in a new, beautit'iil, an.i 
fertile re-ion, with the mildest of climates and tl ' 


1,111. lliot of siiiN. (I.iv.Tiini'Mit, tlu> pi-.'s^iire (if 
^i«.S the w.^iirht <,f taxation llif\- sraivi/ly kn.-,v. 
:„i.l their relation, wen- aluav< i,lra-aut,,ilv. 
.,a.l iutiinate witli tli'.-,- <ava.'-' trili.'- tlw tm-nr .,f 

:itrocities and barbarities. Ve-ry fcvv Swo le- ever 
|,.-t a night's rest beeau-^e of the Inilian'.> war- 
\\hocip. They were a peojile of -iniple ways, in- 
.i'lstrious, loyal, steaUh.-t. In UVX', sotue of these 
lijaware Swede- wroti- home fn- ministers, licjoks, 
;,;id teaehers. This letter says, •' As to what con- 
.■.THs our situation in tnis eoiinti-y, we av.- for tli" 
npi-t part liusliaudiiU'n. We plow and Sow and 
till the ground; and as to our meat and drink, we 
hve according to tue old Swedish custom. This 
(■iiimtry is very rich and fruitful, and here grow 
all sorts of grain in great plenty, so that we are 
riehiy supplied with meat an I drink: and we send 
eiit yearly to our neighbors on this continent and 
t!ie neighboring islands bread, grain, llour, and 
oik 'We have here also all sorts of beasts, fowls, 
and fishes. Our wives and daughters employ them- 
.-elves in spinning wool and flax and many of them 
in weaving ; so that we have irreat reason to thank 
the Almighty for his manifold mercies and bene- 
fits. Goil grant that we may also have good 
shepherds to feed us with lii- holy word and sacra- 
luents. We live also in peace and friendsliip with 
'lie another, and the Indians have not molested us 
for many years. Furtlier, since this country has 
censed to be under the government of Sweden, we 
are bound to acknowledge and declare for the 
-ake of truth that we have been well and kindlv 
treated, as well i,y the Doteh u^ l,v his Majesty 
tlie King of En_dand, our uiaeioiis -overeiL'n ; on 
t!ie other liand, we, the Swedes, have been and 
-till are true to iiim in \vords ,uiil in deeds. We 


'!'ati's; and we live with one aiu.ither in jieace and 
■luirtude." ' 

' )ne of the missionaries sent over in response to 
tile touching demand of whieh the above ipioted 
i'l-age is part, writing back to Sweden after his 
arrival, says that his eongre-atiou are rich, 
;ilding, "The country here is delightful, as it has 
:ibvays been described, and overflows with every 
i'le-sing, so that tlie people live very well witlmnt 
'" ing compelled to too much or too severe labor, 
llie Uixes arc very liulit ; the farmers, att.r tlieir 
^*ork is over, live' as tlicv do in Swi.l-n, but are 
■lothed as well as the respeeaable inhal.itauts of 
■i'e towns. They have fresh meat and ii.-h in 
;'-i'-indanee. and' want nothiiii: of wiiat other 
•••untri.- produer: tl.ey have plenty of grain to 
'!'ake bi._ad. and p!. nty oi' diink. Tliere are no 
]■ "T in this eoiihirv, liiit tlev all provide for 
:l^'U,-elves, feu- the ia'nd is rieli' and tVuitful, and 
'•■" man ^^\u, will labor can Miller want." All 

tullv reprod 
his " Peans\ 

.f Jean i 

of ni-!io 

whieh I, 


It L- 




Bi;foi:e the grant of tlie Province of :\Iary- 
lanil to Cecilius Calvert, .second L ird Baltimore, 
in l()o2. Sir Edmund Plowden, an Englishman of 
distinguished ancestry, with Sir John Lawrence 
and others, petitioned Charles the First for a 
grant of Ling Island aiid thirty miles square, to 
be called Syou. This was modified in another pe- 
tition to the king, asking permission to occupy 
" an habitable and fruitful Island named Isle 
Plowden, otherwise Lung Isle," " near the conti- 
nent of Virginia, about sixty leagues northwards 
from .James City, without the Bay of Chesapeake," 
and " forty leagues 
square of the adjoining 
Continent, as in the na- 
ture of a County Pala- 
tine or body politick, 
by the name of New 
Albion, to be held of 
your ^Majesty's Crown 
of Ireland, exempted 
from all appeal and 
subjection to the Gov- 
ernor and Company of 
Virginia." One month 
atter the Province of .Maryland wasLdven t'> Cecili- 
us Calvert, KingCharlesordered his.secretary, John 
Coke, to reque-t the Lords Justices of Ireland to 
grant to the [)etitioners the island "between thirty- 
nine and forty degrees of latitude," and f .rty 
leagues adjaeent on the adjoining continent, uith 
the name of Xcw Albion. This grant, which was 
enrolled in the city of Dublin, where Sir Edmund 
I'lowden chose to have it registered, being a Peer 
of Ireland,- conveyed to him the following uncer- 
tain-bounded territory : ^ 

"Our a.i.lh l.oi;i„l is SUryUn.] n.rtli 1-un.l, .in.l l...._-it,n,ll, at 

Shortlv a\\rv New Albion was granted to Sir 



v.iii;. Dy 

58 IIISTOIIV OF J)i:i.AWAi:i:. 

Edmund Ploxvdrn, C;ii,tain Tlidnias Y..uiil', a .-on \vitli the title " f-r A,l\vnturer>. and ir 
of Grep.ry Y..un-. of V,,rk, received a .^perial L)i-cri].ti.>n of the heahhie.t, i,lea.<ante.-t, riel,,. 
coraniisMnn fmm the kii.-, which i# printtd in phintath.n cf .\. w Alhiun. in X..ith Vir-inia 
Rymer's -FuMleiariuid dated Septendier:!;;,l(.i;-l:5, a letter Ma.-t. r ];.,l„rt Kveline. who l;-., 
autliori/inn liini to tit oui armed vis^els for the there nianv vear-." Th<' (h -< ripfion "wa- in i 
voyage to VirLrinia and adjacent parts; to take form of a 'let'ter and addre.-.-ed to I'h.w.ien'., ^^\■, 
possession in the kin-'s name of all territory .lis- <ir Edmund rio\\den':< tir.-t visit to Aineri. 
covered, not yet inhahited liy any Christian was in Jd4'2. Koliert Kveivn, mIio liad al.-o r. 
people; to establish tradin.t: posts with sole right turneil on the liod (,f June of the same year, n\.' 
of trade, and to make such regulations and to conmii.sioned l.v the authorities of Marylan,! •■• 
appoint such officers as vere necessarv to estab- take charue, ami command of all or anr of tl 
lish civil government. E,„li,l, i„, ,„ „ear about, Pi^.^atawav, and L v^ 

In the sja-ing of Kio-l the explorin- expedition tram and n.a-t.-r them " 
departed, the lieutenant of whieh wa> Robert I )urin- the vear lt;-i2 Plowden appears to h:P. 

Lvelyn, a nephew of Young ; Evelyn'- father, of .-ailed up the Delaware and visited " the f -rt .-iv, • 
Godstone. burrey. havim: married .-u-au, the cap- over by Captain Young and Master Evelvi,; 
tain's sister. Among other otricers was a surgeon which seems to have beeu'in or near the Schuylkill 
named Scott, and the cosmographer was Alexander His residence was cliioflv in Northampton Countv 
Baker, of St. Holborn's Parish, ^liddlesex, de- Virginia,^ and he brought some servants of In- 
scribed by \ onug as " skilful in mines and trying family from England.* 
of metals." The great object of Captain Young 

was to ascend tlie Delaware River, which he called ' ""' i^''"-''''' ^' ^^- '" r,. -; j. m ,.r m,., ,1. -trr c.ti...-.:., Minn.-, , 
Charles, in comfiliment to the king, until he found v-' ."'- ".Vi" '/ '.' , '' ', !. , '" ' ■," ' ^!:''i!:i°'M''.' .'^^t; 
a great lake, which was said to be its source, and ' , ., , ' ..;.:;•.,: 
then to find a Mediterranean Sea, which the ii: ' ^^i . :■. ^ i' ^ ^ 1 .i: ^^I j. v... ,.^.,,.', ^,, : _-".\i'V^' , Vi',,.". 

Indians reported to be four days' journey beyond ,'';;„'',;,',,',V,-,; 

the mountains. He entered Delaw-are Pav on the -i.i^ r! .s'll.r, i 

25th of July, 1GG4. and on the 2!ith of"Aui:ust i",',"'',' ''"liL' « 

had reached the Falls of the Delaware River, .''''.r., od '.'co 

On the first of September Lieutenant Robert .^^'^'^'j^.Tl'^,' 

Evelyn was sent in the shallop "up to the rocks ^- "1 ""ii;:-" i: ^i '- V rT',"'\ .'^'7'ihe7ifri 

both to sound the water as he went and likewise '1'. ',, . ' ', ' ; ".'' , ' ~ ' >tnbmumeaii 

to try whether the boats would pass the rocks or '■ • >,> . ,1 , ! 1 • i.M.'li'.'-tt-d'^il" 

no." Meeting a trading vessel there from Man- I'lliirj-.y'' "jV'L.iri'J"mt'l'>X,riha"]Vh^^^ 

hattau, Young ordered Evelvn to see the llol- ins^.i-'na^ «..'i,ij UMt boy,,i.',re,'i." ''" 

landei-s outside of Delaware Bay and then to go .he'i'ifntTami'" i^h.^^^^^^^^ 

and discover along the Atlantic coa.-t. He was r^'- "n loi, ii,,ei .i.,.-ii.. c.i... o,i'i,.ii •■exq'i.iMica'nd'fUi' 

sent as far as Hudson's River, and then returned ll!VVrw!li!::'!:riL!,rH,Kr''nI 'ti,'''';^l:,,t^^^ 

to Young on the Delaware. Captain Youns I'-i- ■. ti. r.- r- u^....,. . ..i nvc i....u.,.is\n,.'i'im',ft'.,.n si, 

writes: "As soon as he was retuniMl I :-, nt him '":VJ,irMKll-,'nir,l'!^r''f ynrtl!!,m 

presently once more up to the falls, to try wle-ther "■•-■■■-■ ^."|^ "i..r, u, .i.^^uvuf sir i;.iim,,U'iMui<Tn,'Ki 

he could pa;-s those rocks at a spi«in--tide, which w,'V\"'':r'!T' - v;■'''':!''A^."^'!,l\!''V'M IL^!!^^^ 

before he could not do at a neapi tide ; but it was ';■-:: ^ ; ir.ii," h- iic-ms at that 

then also impossible with any great b. .at-, where- i..V : . '„.,,",, . '•, Vi,'''i;'!^!lV,".!!!'i"-!ir\",jrc. 

upon he returned back to me airavne." ' "=• '• ■•■.!.:. ,. 1 > ,. ,, ,n.t .i.:,i,.-t lM..^^,l,.n 1 

After this expedition Y'oung, jtill beiiiL' in the d.i-"-.ii''n-."niak''i,'J '"li'l.'!',''' 'I'i!.", '.".,'. '."i.'.t' bri'Jf'i 

Delaware River, where he traded with the Indians ;".'"" ,'"-"";'-' -;';■•->' ^■- '"■' '■•.■:';;'.-■ <■' '-.^ ,,„„.t.v' .., 

at Fort Eriwoneck, R..bert Evelyn was sent with deu'- ali'llTM^. lAC'i' \>i'''^i^''^l''Z^''^"'l!Lii!^^^ 

dispatches to England, where he remained until oiiV'u!XTrnrtaV'\' 'm'\'\"' ''' ' '^^' "^ 

the fall of liioi;, when he returned to \'irginia and ern.'.r Lo!„.ud' eCiv(-n,'\i-:'.',^-''ti,.^'iV,!.'.',''K"','""n'ti 

the next year was one of the cown.allors and sur- j^;' ''i;,"",''i'"'v,u^', ■,,"'"■• ^' =-|;"^-y;'"i-'>-^"" ■'<' >■■■ 1 

veyoi-s of that colony. At this time i.norire, his 10 invo'lhreo n'aid.'-"n,inis u7'^irK!hl,'ur,Vrb?«^ 

brother, came to Kent Island, iu Marvland, as i:',4'%',\l,'a",fi'iuXI'no'i'°,'''' '''''"''' "■"''"''' 

the agent of the L<,ndon jnirtnei-s of ' ^VilIiam i''^2 inl!^:",i'u!!-!Z!S!i!^j'^^^^^^^^ 

When Robert Evelyn again retuin.d t., En-lan.l ^!liunV""'i''';i" ^^i^M' rh''n!JhZ! !i..!i;!\: ■;''; j;;"^' 
he was induevil, in li;il,to write a small (quarto K!!t''ul,'i!'r!!r,'!i,!!o,"''!!'.'ir'^,'!:,'ii,u !!,! i','^ 

Is. liishar-littva 

„;. i.i 

ii Jiest in ti.e no. 

of Kuniis an.l co„ 


■1. tu Mhuni L^' 

ad 1.. 

s cruelty was at 


lined hor, and TIo 



.I„lin I'riiitz, til.' tliirJ L-ovornor „f X.'w Snr.len. of .A[;!ryl-;tn(l, -viii. h '■, 

, on the l-'ith <.!' 1-Vliniaiv. KU-'l, at I'nrt his sn-ai.r. >Ie ;.:-.:u;.i 

I ■|,ri>tiiia c;n the Dehiware. He appear.-: to have servaptd an;.! settlfi'-. : 

r,-irtc(l the eUiims of Plo'.v<len. In tlie "lie- and labor, in en;i'=":iV()r of New Xetherlauds," publisheil ill He leased to T..>r(l M;i 

M..',t), IS the tbUowinir : settle it ^Ti^h :.0 hr:, • 


acres, v 
T. Da-,.! 



It appears by tlie stuteiuetit of Charles ^'arlo 
that SirEdimiiul I'low.kii, with his wite and tw 
children, came ,.ver to X.^w AUiiou to eiijov hi, 
property. Findin;,' that it was occnp 
claimed by the Swedes and Dutch, he took up his 
residence for six years in Xorthamptou County, 
Virginia, and on Kent Island and other portions 

thousand pounds uf t 

for trespass for departi 

:t!c it with '>0 men 

i^rr. Bowls 400;: 

res, who was to settle 

with 40 men; to Cap- 

[ ttiin Wni. Claybornc 

seftle it wi,h :,ii nirn. 

ami to \fr .Al,i-kerv 

5000 acres, nho was ti 

settle it with 50 ni-n. 
Z^. Aecordii:Li to Evelyn's account of New Albion, 

'■;"■[ a splendid palatinate was projected— the banks of 
. the Delaware were set off into manoi-s— all tiie 
'I earl's children received titles, and a chivalric order 
,!,„■ wa-: instituted under tlie imposing name of The 
;,'!.''; Albion Knights of the Conversion" of the twenty- 
three Kings. His grant as we have shown, em- 
■li, u. ^""^iced all Of the territory now comprised within 

New Jersey, regardless of the ])rior grant of a 
.''': I large portion tliei-pof, to the New Encrland Com- 
.. panv. all ,,f J^rh,„ar,.., an<l j.nrts of" :Marvland. 
^ ; IVnii-vlvania and N. w York. By the liberal 
Hi., grant whicii I'low.h.n procured from his sympa- 
'■;;,■; thetic monanh, he was invc-ted with the title of 
-..-. Earl Palatiiie, which drew after it very great 
"Z.i privileges to the grantee; for Bracton, "the 
■■■'■" ancientest of lawyers," as Plantagenet calls him, 
J ,', dclincs an Earl Palatine to be one who has rectal 
^iiB power in all things, save allc-iance to the king. 
"\'"^ The first of the manors, called Warc(-<it, the earl 
-d to reserved for himself. It wa- -ituat.-d aliont the 
'X:,. Mtc of Salem. N. J., at th(> southern end of what 
"■■'- Plaiuag.-net calls "the mountless plain, which 
,:",' 3Ia-ter Evelin vouchcih tu be twmly mih- broad 
I "-J ami thirty hdiL', and tifty mil.- \i;i-h.d bv two fair 
„V,rv naviu'alde rivrs ; ,,f thr-o hundivd tliou^and acres 

-■'■^ tit to plow and sow all corn, t-.l.a. and lla.K and 

,";,.:, rio>. the f.urstnph-s ,,f .Ml.inn." Three miles as 
^■-J wn< e-tiiaated from W'air, -.jr. l.iv the domain of 
I'j";-, " l.adv Barbara. J'.ar-m -s ,.f Rich',,, .-k. the mirror 
"- of witandb.autv."ad',inin^C.U:,u Biv.r . now 
■..',,11 Allnuav's C-rrkK •■.-'. naiiu.l .,f .ix hun.hvd 
i'iu,'!i' P""'"'~ ''f wih!'' ,ui tr.-e <_nM\\inj-." .-ays our 
.,„„'- hi.-t..ri:in : who furlh..'r >ets f.u-th the vahie of the 
''>-' seat awar,!..,! to the Earl's, fa v.. rite daughter, bv 

adding that it was of" tw.aitv-tbur miles comuasse. 


HiSTuiiY (IF dklawakf:. 

Wlirn th.' 
in l'i4:;, it is 
nr.l together 

■II, composed 

of \v..,m1, liiiL-c tinili.T invs, aii.l two i'. .'t blai 
mouM, inurl, ,leM.v,l l.v tin V,i-ii,lans t,) plai 
tobaceo." Tlu- uvMun- nt Kii.luipy, at tin- lall. 
Trenton, \\as unappmiiriatc .1. Kulahuanaek, i 
BelveJere, on the (h.-apeake blure nf DehrAa 
State, ^va.- L'iven tn l'lanta.j( net the le.r.: 
seal, as a reward for hi.s pains in exjihirinL^ tl 

How tar this ~rh(Mne was realized we eaiin 
tell. It i- said that the New Haven settler. 
Salem were visitid kv .Ala-t.T .Miles, who sw.. 
their offir.Ts to fktdtv tn ih.' I'ah.tln,' k.'f.Te tlu 
expulsion by the 1»liIc1i and Swio. 
Earl hiin.-eli' eanie to .New Albion, 
said he " niarehed, lod-ed and calji 
among the Indians." 

The Kniirhts of the Conversi 
originally of Sir Edmund Plowden, and the seven 
persons with whom he conferred, partook strongly 
of the fantastic spirit which marked the Hndi- 
brastic age. Whatever seltish motive inii:lit have 
influenced them in reality in their organization, 
they professed to have at heart only a desire for 
the conversion of the twenty-three Indian tribes 
living -within the limits of Sir Edmund's grant. 
Hence upon the badge of their order we find 
their own and Plowden'.s arms, supported by the 
right hand of an Indian kneeling, around which 
are twenty-two crowned heads ; the whole being 
enriched by tlie legend Doceho iniquuos vias tuaa, et 
impii ad te converteniur. The knight's device was 
a hand holding a crown upon the point of .a 
dagger, above an open Bible ; and the Palatine's 
arms, two flowers upon the points of an indented 
belt, with the legend virtus beat sic suos. 

Of the mode intended to be pursued by these 
knights in proselyting the Indians, Plautagenet 
has left us a hint, for he tells us that any gentle- 
man who was out of employ, and not bent to labor, 
might come to Xew Albion " and live like a 
devout apostolique soldier, with the sicord and 
the word, to civilize and convert' them to be his 
majesty's lieges, and by trading with them for 
furs, get his ten shillings a day," which he thoi.ght 
much better tiian eniitraelinu' with tlie L'overn- 
ment at home " to kill Cliri.-tians for live shillings 
a week." 

But notwithstanding the ••apn;t-.llir bhu^^and 
knocks," whieli the KniLdits ,.i' tio- Cmivirsiuu 
thus meditate.l f.r tlie -.".d nf their iv,l bn.iher.' 
souls, the Earl himself intended no Mirli In.jie for 
his Englisli subjects. He meant by an act ,,f his 
parliament to reipiire an ob-ervanee of >onie ot' 
the fundamental creeds, but tlure\\as to ]<v "no 
persecution to nnv di.— ntinL', and to all -in li a- 
the Walloon., free" ehape I..- The -overniu.l.t he 
had i)rijeeted was, exeeptini: hi- own exorl.itant 
powers, as liberal as liis eliuieli. Its ollieir- wire 

hve of th. ni, w. r.: alo a .'nurt of ,haiu-erv." Ii: 
\n^^,l■ iiou-e ,on-i-tid of thirlv hurLdiers f n , '. , 
,-ho.M.n, who wore to nie, t tin- hmls in^Parliam,: 
annually on thr tenth of, to IcJ-l;,: 
for the" palatinate. Any lawsuit under fort 

value, was to he "ended bv the next justice at o; 
.-hilliiiL: ehai-o." The juiisiiietion of the couuv 
court-, e<in>i-trd of tour jiK-tiri -, and meeting evei ■ 
two months, lin-an at ton pound- -torling, or lifloi : 
hundred wei-l.t ot tohaeeo ; and the cost.- of ii 
ca.e tried iierein were h> exceul four shillin- 
Ajipeals lay I'rom these courts first to chancer 
and then to parliament; and our author concludi 


the L. 


his exposition of the Earl's judiciary by sayin- 
" Here are no jeofails nor denuirers ; but a sum 
mary hearing and a sheritl', and clerk of conr 
with' small tees, and all for the most part in a fe\ 

After the di.-per.-i..n of the New Albion sulijeet 
(as I'lanta-otut claims the ^ott]ers on Vaivk.n- 
Kill, in IGlL', tohavebern. the land cmbrarod i, 
their pureh;i.-e of the Indians was the .'au-e « 

New Au'-ti fdani, and the ciinmii-.-ioners of tl. 
united eoloni.s of New i'.n-hnul. On the ISth ■ 
September, IcrA). M difihulih- were ap],areiit! 
removed by a treaty conehided at Hartford, hi 
twcen Stuvvesant and the said ciiminissioiiers, li 
which it "was a-reed "to leave both iiartics i 


U\v In, 
tll<- rl, 



■vv kin 

.tr,l V, 


-t:itii quo pria*. \>i \>]v:u] and ini|irovt 

,'h,v >liall ,-L-e rau-e.- ' 

Jlaving tailed to iiiduci' the friiiL'ra 
••viM'(.imt>, lian>ii.~. Iiaroin ts, kiii-iil.-, 
iijtrfliaiit!', advtntun r> and |ilani.i>" 
I'lil colony, and liavinL'' .-tinlied minute 
aeter and peculiavilies ot' liis twenty-t 
and as Watce.<bit had fallen, and di,-; 
the treachery of the men he had load, d wiili titles 
and promises, Sir IMmninl I'lnwdcii determimd to 
return to Knuland. In tlie sumin,-r of KM-s he 
vi-ited Bo.-ton on hi. reluin home. ( lovernor 
Winthrop in his jenirnal wiives: " ilere, arriveil 
line Sir Edmund Plowden who had lieen in \'ir- 
^inia about seven [six] years. He came tirst with 
a jiatent of a County Palatine for Delaware Bay ; 
hut wanting a pilot for that place, he went to Vir- 
ginia, and there having lost the estate he brought 
over, and all his people seattered frmn him : he 
came hither to return to England tnr supply, in- 
tending to return and plant l)elauare, if lie could 
get sufficient strength to dispossess the .Swedes." 

Arriving in England, Plowden determined to 
make another efiiirt to stock the country with 
settlers. Accordiu-ly "A Der-cription If the 
Province of Xew Alhion" was issued, and on 
Tuesday, June 11, lii-)iJ, a pass was granted for 
about "seven-score persons, men, women and chil- 
dren to go to New Albion,'' but there is no evi- 
dence that the [larty ever sailed. The effort to 
awaken an interest in Xew Albion tailed, and 
when the L)iiteli < 'ommissioners, in the fall of liJo'J, 
visited Secretary Philip Calvert in Maryland, they 
argued that Lord Baltimore had no more right to 
tlie Delaware Kiver than "Sir Edmund Plowden, 
in former time would make us believe he hath 
unto, when it was afterward did prove, and was 
found out that he only subiiptiti'and obreptitf hath 
something obtained to that which was 
invalid." To this it was replie<l by Calvert "That 
Plowden had no commission, and lay in j:til in 
England on account of his debts ; that he had 
.solicited a patent for Xovum Albiuni from the 
king, but it was refuse<l him, and he thereupon 
a[>plied to the Vice Boy of Ireland, from whom 
he had obtained a patent, but that it was of no 


In hi 



III. Si 

:l in 1 

i;;is ;ui 


of .Ala- 


Ui'.i.s, 1: 

. the , 
y di't; 

latent ( 
lined f 

re, liy 

his SOI 

which he said had lurii w ii 

vears to his great loss and I; 

in-law Andrew Wall, of Lud^hott, in the countv 

of S.iwrhtnn. ' 

Brf.ire the War for In.lepen.lenee Charle,- Varlo, 
ijf Londiin, purchased one-third fif tlie cliarter of 
New Albion, and spared no expense to secure 
the property, by registering his title deeds under 
the great seal of London. He also sent printed 
copies of the charter to be distributed among the 
inhabitants of East and West Jersey. After the 
close of the Revolution, in :\[ay. 17^4. 'Sir. Varlo 
secured an appointment as 'lovernor of the province 
of New Albion, and embarked with his family for 
America. He took steps to recover the estate by 
a suit in chancery, and pursued other measures 
but failed, and after the expenditure of much 
time and treasure — he returned to Europe. He 
there jietitioned to the king but received no an- 
swer. He then a]iplied to the treasury to secure 
compensation which was then usually paid to 
loyalists, but he failed to obtain redress because 
there was no act of Parliament authorizing his 
special payment. He then sought the Prince of 
^^'ales to use his influence with the king to make 
some " restitution for the heavy losses I have had, 
in peru-ing an unconstitutional act, arising from 
a crowned act." In all these efforts Mr. Varlo 
failed, and upon the acknowledgment of the inde- 
pendence of the colonies as free and independent 
states, all the rights of the heirs of Sir Edmund 
Plowden were swallowed up by the occupants of 
the territorv. 



Plowden signed hi.- will on the 2'.ith of Julv, Aftei: the conquest of the Swedi-h settlements on 

K<r>:>, in whh-h he .-tyles liim.-elf " Sir Kdnuind th.' Di laware, Director Stnvve.-ant Ivft for New 

Plowden, Lord Eail Palatinate. Cuveiiinr and ( ap- Anist- rdam, h'avin- the adniini.-traliiiii of justice 

tain-General of New Alhinn in North Am, rira," and the superintendence of public interests'in the 

and devi.-ed his |,i,->, .-.-ions in America to hi,- ,-,,n ,, , 

Inn, hi> tni-te-. He direrird that his hndv -hould I" '■■'T "7","' , '\'; r'';Vi' „ n" ^"[l^^.-Y-f';""'' ■"" 
h.: huried in Ledhurv ( ■l.iuvh in ^alop, with " l.ra.-e -i- •!' ■•■ i>. 'i-i.i ^i"h ".L,: .iw"!- a.:.,,.-,., .nul' Z-Z' tTC 
plates of my ei-hU'ene children had attixed to ";'!:i'^!2''lu'n!"'u!Zn Zt !:'^^^^^^^ 


hamii of John Paul .T:H-,iu..t, who h- atr, i-.vards 
contirnii'il a- virrHliroi'tor. .Viiilri«> Hii'Mi' was 
made secretary and survi-yor, and lllu.ii li!iy:.,ii 
Klein coum^elor. Tlie<e three ottietT-, with t\M- of 
the "most expert freemen," were to t\)ftn ll.<' > 'i.iirt 
of Civil Justice. Fort <Ai--itiiir. now re.'ainiujr its 
original name, was to he the seat of trovernmi^nr. 
above which no trading' vessels were to ■■zo. unless 
they received a permit. In the settlement of the 
country, the colonists were to concentrate iheni- 
selves in families of sixteen to twenty in I'uniher, 
and were to pay aiinuall}- f t their lamls t'.v.'!\-e 
stivers a morgen in lieu of tenths. Tlie ti'wn lot.-, 
were forty feet by fifty, and the streets from four to 
five rods in breadth,' The Swedes were to be closely 
watched, and if any should be found disatfected, 
they were to be sent away "with all imaginable 
civility," and, if possible, be induced to come to 
Manhattan. The vice-director was also reijuired to 
" maintain and protect the Reformed religion, as 
it is learned and taught in this country, in couforra- 
itv to the Word of God and the Synod of I)ord- 
recht, and to promote it as far as his power may 
extend." The wliole number of inhabitants eou- 
sisted, at the time, of about a dozen families. Police 
regulation- were adopted, and a libtral commercial 
treaty wa- arranLTcd with the Indians with the 
assistance of the inhabitants. 

Xew Sweden ceased to be the name of the terri- 
tory, as it was now part of the Dutch territo- 
ries of New Xethevlands, and went bv that 
name. The Delaware Kivr was .-ailed the",S.uth 

Meanwhile, information reached the States Gen- 
eral, through their ambassador at the Court of 
London, of the fall of Fort Christina, and of the 
expulsion of the Swedes from the Delaware. The 
Swedish government remonstrated with their Pligh 
Mightinesses at Amsterdam, but the jirutest was of 
no avail. The Swedes could not follow up their 
protests with a sufficient force to command n-pect, 
for "they had their hands full" of tl'e war they 
were then waging against Poland. On ^lay I'l.i, 
1656, the Directors couununicated to Stuyvcsant 
their approbation of his conduct, " though they 
should not have been dis[)leased had such a formal 
capitulation not taken jilace;"' for "what is written 
is too long preserved, and may be produced wlieu 
not desired, whereas words not recordeu are in ilu- 
lapse of time forL'otten, or ma<- be explained auav." 

The Dutcli Wt^t India Company lirin- much" in 
debt, caused by it-^opci-ations in IJrazii and ( uiinea, 
now became embarra-.-ed l\v the aid it extended 
Stuyve-ant in ri'covering S.iutli Kiver. In older 
to linuidate the del)t which the company owed tej 



Lmster.lara t.. 

the aid whi,'h that eitv 
of tlie .-wede-, and I. 
UMJane.of New Nether 
on Ca.-iinir and a pro- 

portiuTiiiie- traer ;n :'> » '■: t,.t\' ! o the I'lUrL'omasti-rs 
of Am.-tordam." C'ejfei i,e, ., foil,, wed, the r.--ult 
of which ^SP.i that the above fei-t, x\ith all tlie 
counlrv i'rom the west >i.l( o.' the Mimjuas, or 
Chri^Jiu;. Kdl, to ;!>e m.,uth <,f the Delaware Bay 
(nan.ed " l;..omtye's [fe'ciuk ' by the Dutch, now 
corrojited ;;\iu "jjejmbtiy iionk," and Canaresse by 
tlie ihilia:i.-», inclusive, and -o far as the ^[inciuas 
land, extended, bceame, with the Conqiany's ri^dits 
and pri\ilewf;-, the property of the city of Amster- 
dam, and was erected into a colony of the first 
class, under the title of Nieuwer Amstel, named 
after one of the fu'mrbs belonging to the city, 
between the Rivnr Amstel rnd the Haerlem Sea. 
Six commissaries were appointed by the Burgo- 
masters to martage ihe e.,liinv, who were " to sit and 
hold their meeting? at tie- We.-t India House on 
Tuesday.- and Thursdays." A set of " conditions " 
was (.rawn up, oflering a free passage to colonists. 

lands on tlic riverside for their residence, and pro- 
vision> and clothing for one year. The city engai-e'd 
to send out " a proper jierson for a schoolmaster, 
win? shall also read the holy Scriptures in public 
and set the Psalms." The municipal government 
was to be regulated " in the same manner as here 
in Amsterdam. The colonists were to be e.xempted 
from taxation for ten years ; after that time they 
she-uld not " be taxed higher than tlie-ie who are 
taxed lowest in any other distrii-t under the govern- 
ment of the West India Company in New Nether- 
land." Speeitie njiiliitions were ailopted with 
respect to trade: and boides the reeoL'uitions 
})ayal,le to the We>t India Company on goeds 
expirted froiif Holland, tiiur per centum wa.- to l)e 

All the-e arran-eni. nt- were ratilied and con- 
firmed bv the >'.ai - (ieneral, upen cndition that 
a church' .hnul.l be or-ani/ed and a clergyman 
establi-hed ai -aiou as there were two hundred in- ■ 



haliitants in the colony. I'rci.ur 
(liutely nuide to or-uiii/.c ll..' coloi 
Alriciis, an unci.' of Durk, tli 

ilioii- wi-rr ininie- 


vii-(-(liic(tor at 

Cuniooa, wiisiippointt'd liirectnr. 
of Xew Anisterchini, upon Sli 

Martin Kn-icr, 

vvc-ant's "-o<.d 

report," w;iscoiiinii?,-ion.(l :is ca] 
of sixty soldirrs and Al.'xand.r 
had fornierlv served in i;r;i/jl,u: 

an, ota.-ou.pany 
> mad'' lieutenant. 

Ordinances •svci-f also pa<.-ed reiji 
to take an oath of alleLriance to t 

irini: the colonists 
le Mate- General, 

the burgomasters of Ani-terdani, ami the ilirector 
and council of Xew Nirlu iland, and lik(\vi^i- to 
promise iiiithfujly t(] oh^crve the ariiiiis whii-h 
defined their duties and ohli^ations to the city. 
These, among other thillu^, rc.|iiiitd tiiein to remain 
four years at New Am,-t<l, nnh,-.- they L'ave satis- 
factory reasons for leaving, or repaid, within the 
proper time, the expenses incurred on their account. 

The West India Company informed .Stuyvesant 
of all these arrangements, and instructed him to 
transfer the territory which the city had purchased 
to Alrichs on his arrival in New Xetherlaud. At 
Forts Christina and New Gottenhurg, "now called 
hy us Altona and the island of Kattenbcrg," he 
was to maintain tijr the present a small garrison. 
"The confidence whieli we feel," they added, 
" about the success ami increase of this new colony. 
and of which we hope to see some prominent 
features next spring, when, to all appearance, large 
numbers of the exiled Waldenses, who shall be 
warned, will Hock thither as to an asylum, induces 
us to send you orders to endeavor to purchase, 
before it can be accomplished by any other natiiin, 
all that tract of land situated between the South 
River and the Hook of the Xorth River, to pro\idii 
establishments for these emigrants." ' 

About 1G7 colonists embarked on December 25, 
IGoG, in the ships " Prince ^laurice," the " Bear," 
and the " Flower of Guelder," and set sail from the 
Texel f u-.<outh River. The eiai-rant~, alter .Milli-r- 

carly in ltJ57. Alrichs" arrival on April t^l , termi- 
nated the official career of Jacquet. Upon his 
return to ^Manhattan on nccoiint of this misgoveru- 
nd proM-i'utid. 

of Car-in 
land.- del 
: pmvha- 
on the 
"ort Ca.i 
aider of li 
.t,d wa- 



he wi 



a few 









h W,.- 



Upon hi.- ; 
fioin Jac.| 
colonv of 
The i-e^ior 
the iurisd 

the lir-t rolo- 
onlers of the 

v transferred 

named New 

on It. in con- 

Jnlv, n;.-,i. • 

iehs reeeiviMl 

ol.e.lh-mv to who^e orders the name of Fort Chris- 
tina wa- chaiiLMMl to that of .\llona." 

Duriiej; the tew months of Alriehs' direetoi-hip, 
Xew Ani>tel pro-pep d. Tlie muniri:,al ::.,v.-m- 
ment «as reniodele,!, the touii ^^as laid out. I.inld- 
ings were rapidly erertiil, a liridL'ewas placed over 
the creek near Fort Ca-imir, a maja/aia- erected, 
the fort repaired, a L'lianl hou-e. bake' h..u_-e and 
forge built, tiigotla'r \\\tU i-r-idoiiors tor the clergy- 
men and otiicT piililii- oftie. 1--;- iiidii-try promised 
■^nci-ess. and thirty I'amilie- wi re t<-mpli',l to emigrate 
fi-om .Manhailan'to the tioiiri-hin- colonv .,ii South 
Uiver. At the end of the tlr.-t year. New Amstel 
was '• a goodly town of about Km) housesl" ' 

An inevitable couse([uence, however, of the 
establishment of the city's colony was the increase 
of smuggling. Large quantities of furs were ex- 
ported without payment of duties, which caused 
the regular traders to complain, and the revenue 
suffered severely. To remedy these irregularities, 
at his suggestion, Director-General Stuyvesant was 
sent by the council of Xew Amsterdam, in com- 
pany with Peter Tonneman, to South River. On 
his arrival at Altona, the Swedes were called upon 
to take the oath of allegiance which was required 
of all the other colonists, and ther were allowed to 
choose their own officers. Upon his return to New 
Amsterdam, Stuyvesant informed the council that 
'• many things are there not as they ought to be," 
and to maintain the rights of the company he 
appointed William Beekman Vice Director of that 
district. His instructions required him to live at 
first at Altona. but to have his ]>ernianent residence 
at or ni'ar New Amstel, wla-re he could more con- 
veniently aiteiid to the eojlction .if the revenue. 
ill thi' powers of the com- 
le South Kiver, except the 
and ua- hound to maintain 

s invo.t.-d - 
n tho whol. 
.,f Xev, A: 

the Ref .mud reli-Joii. 

The prosperitv of New Am-tel had. meanuhi 
become clouded. The coloiii.-t^ had planie.l 
hope ; but heavy rains setting in, their harvest \\ 

•- A Clty-liall for tli.' btirj;tiers w:i3 al-o procted. It was a log-builili 


ivhole of the buitdin 

t this period. Fortv co\ 
nv, v.lLJcU were purcliit, 
I»enty-eJi-hteo o: 

f tl.^ --..VfMiriieiitof Xe 

ou.r.' lur.- ff .,1.1. Tl 

W'e.-t India C 



ruined, and food hrr-Ame .<-irro an,l doar. 
epiik-mic frvrr lirnk.- mit ; llir >,,,■_'.■.,„ and ii 
children died ; and iiio-t ol llir luliaiiitaiil.- .-utl 
from a climate to wiiirh tliiv \vi re not aonistoi 
While the di>ease \v;us vrt raLin-, the .-liii- - .M 
arrived from Hulland. alter a di;a.-troii~ voy 
briniring many new eiiiiuTaiit-, ainnii_' whom ' 
several children from the ( trpliaii Hon-, 
Amsterdam. Tlie population of .\,\v Am^tel 
exceeded six hnndrrd; hut its iidiahiiaiit.< ' 

dr,-d I. 

•h upon tl 


lit the 

" without bread," and tl 

new emigrant^ broifjht no siippi 

Industry w;as cripplod. '.vliile v 

Commissary Rynvelt and niany " re.-peetahle " 

inhabitants perished, and a Ion:; winter stareil the 

famished survivors in the fare. 

On the 2.1th of April, lt'>'>S, Evert Pietenson, 
whose official po.-ition was that of schoolmaster 
and comforter of the sick, landed at New Amstel. 
He is the first schoolmaster of whom there is any 
record on the Delaware. He at once commenced 
keeping school, and had twenty-five scholars on 
the 10th of August foil. .wing, "in a letter of his 
to the Commissioners of Amsterdam, he states 
that "wharves were alrotidy laid out" at New 
Arastel, " and almost Imilt." He al.<o .<ays that he 
"found twenty families ino.-tly Swedes," in the 
City's Colony (that portion of Delaware south of 
the Christina), "and more than live or sixj 
belonging to our (the Dutch) nation." 'i 

New Amstel was in deep distress early in 16-59. 
Disease and famine had almost decimated its popu- 
lation, and the heat of the summer had enfeebled 
the iinacclimated survivors. The wife of Alrichs 
was one of the victims. Everyone had been occu- 
pied in building houses and in pre]iaring gardens, 
so that little grain was -own ; and the emigrants 
from Holland hrotiLrht very scanty suiiplies of pro- 
visions. "Our bread ma-a/,ini\ our pantry room, 
our only refuge is to ?*laiihattan," wrote the 
desponding Alrichs to Suiyvr-aut. The conditions 
of settlement were also altered at tiiis fime by the 
burgomasters of Amsterdam, which only added 
difficulties to the colony. The despairing colonists 
began to leave .Sjuth Iliver, the .-oldirrs of the 
garrison deserted, and toi.k ri fuL'e i;i \'ir::iina and 
Maryland. To add to the alarm of the distrt-sed 
settlers, intelligence was received that the English 
in Maryland claimed the property on South Kiver, 
and that persons would soon be >ent to claim 
possession. The panic ran- d liy the la-t rej)ort 
had not had time to -ul.-ido hi fore Col. Nathaniel 
L'tie with a suite of ^ix p. r-oiis from .Maryland 
arrived. He .-pent .-ome davs in sowin- - >. ilitions 
and mutinous M-,-d amon- tho o.n.munitv," and 
hnallvperemptorilv.-oniinandodth.' 1 )nteh to loave 
South River, or else dorlare them-.lve. .-ul.jeet to 
Lord Haltimoiv. 

Two davs afterward. Lord iialtimore's agents 

■o,v do,-pat,-hod to New Am- 
-terdam f.r r.-eiif .nvnient-- an<l Diivrtor ( .rnn-al 

command of Captain Kri iLTor, who, with Sccretarv 
Van Kuyven, was eoinnn--ionod to act as general 
aLTents for the service of tho oompany. Au'.'Ust 
Horrmans and Rr-oKvd Waldron, " were abo 
<i.--patrh,-d on an emha-,-v to the 2:overnment of 
:\rarvhind, to .-.ttlo the ditli.-ulti.-s. Thev pro- 
coe.led, uith a -mall e-cort, from N.-w Am.-tel. and 

woi-k at I'atuxeiit. Aftor being hospitably enter- 
tained, and nieetin.f (Toveruor Fendall and his 
council, and Sei-ietary ( 'alvert. and discussini: the 
merits of the ro-pii'tive claims t(3 the property in 
dispute, the commissioners returned, having failed 
in their nii-sion. 

Pending these discu.ssions, anxiety and alarm 
prevailed amohg the Dutch colonists; business was 
suspjended, and every one prepared for flight. 
AVithiua fortnight, lifty persons, including several 
faniilies, removed to Maryland and Virginia. 
Scareolv tliirtv families remained at New Amstel. 
The colony was overwhelmed with debt; of the 
S'lldier- who had lieen sent out from Holland, but 
five remained at the Horekills, ami ten at New 
Amstel. At the close of the year 1659, the in- 
habited part of the colony of the South Iliver did 
not extend beyond two Dutch miles from the fort.' 
In the midst of these troubles, vice-director Alrichs 
died, having intrusted the government to Alex- 
ander D'Hinoyossa, with Gerrit Van Sweringen and 
Cornelis Van (xezel as councillors. On assuming 
the government of New Amstel in January, 166U, 
Iliuoyossa, by his indiscreet conduct, produced 

cii pr^'suniptioLi on the f-u't '•( 


ijrcat discords, which wore increased when news of 
the pro|iosed retranst'er ot' tlic col.inv to the NVest 
India Coiupauy reached the South lliver. With 
Beoknmn his relations were scarcely plea-;\nt; 
and complaints were constantly made :o Xew 
Amsterdam of hi- hauLrhty and insolent demeanor, 
and his contempt of the pruvim-ial re2-ul-.\tioiis 
respecting the sale of liquors te> the -ava'.'ts. 

The hostile attitude of the .Maryland ;",:;iioriti.s 
had, in the mean time, been undiT the roti-i'iera- 
tiou of the Amsterdam direetcn-s, wli-i ■.nlirHd 
Stuyvesaut to nppose their encroaeiuie nt-, ' p''-t 
warnintr them in a civil manner not tn n-nrii oi;;- 
territory; hut if they despise such kind eiUre.Uies, 
then nothing is left l>ut to drive them from there, 
as our claims and rights on the lands upon South 
Kiver are indisputalde." But wdiile the company 
was thus strenuous in asserting its territorial rights 
to the whole South Eiver, it declined to receive 
hack fmni the city of Amsterdam the colony of 
Nev,- Anistel ; and the city's commissaries, obliged 
to continue their reluctant support, appointed 
Hinoyossa director in place of Alrichs. ' 

In 16t31. public attention was drawn tl.)^^■a^ll the 
South River, and various plans of emigration were 
proposed. Finally, a colony of Menuonists, or 
Anabaptists, established themselves at the Hore- 
kill. Pieter Cornells Pluekhoy was prineii>al 
leader of the colour. - 

The Dutch West India Company, seeing- the 
impossibility of its colonial enter[)rise on the South 
Kiver, proposed favorable terms to the city of 
Amsterdam i'or the surrender of "the whole of the 
Delaware from the sea upwards as far as the river 
reached, with the territory on the east side, three 
Dutch miles into the interior, and on the west a.s 
far as the country o.Ktended toward the English, 
saving the rights of the settlers and proprietors in 
the neighliorhood." After f .rmal. and -omewhnt 
length.y ne.'otiations. it wa- at h-n-th determiuc'd. 
on the Il'th of Feliruary. KiOo. that the f.'oinpany 
should confer on the city the entire SouthVn- Dela- 
ware Eiver. By this grant, the " high and low 
jurisdiction" which the city of Amsterdam pos- 
S'-sed furmerly over the cohmy of New Amstel 
alone was now extended over the whole territory 
on the river. The tbrmal transfer (jf the territe.ry 
on the Delawar.' to tin eirv of Am~tenhim .lid not 
take i.laee until December '.'■J, It;ii:;, when a deed 

f-r r!.e wLoh. territory 
to Ale^a;vler D'Hiuiv 
raandant, or vice-direct 



ew Vn 

to be s.-curcd for tin 

d William Beekman, 
left witl;':'ut posicio'i on the Delaware, was after- 
ward- -ippoiiited Shciurf or Sellout of a district on 
the North Riv.r. 

in M:e nu VT.tii;;. TIinoyo.i-:i. who had arrived at 
Ari>stf-r<him, ind!; the Imrgoma-ters to apjiro- 
prlate large sums of inoney f jr the vigorous prose- 
I'uclrtc of the work of colonization. He reiu-esented 
the ^Maiyiand autliorities, with w-hom he had 
oomnmuicated, as anxious to promote intercolonial 
eomtnerce; that the Swedes, Fiuus and others had 
aln>ady one hundred and ten plantations, and 
thousands of cattle and swine, besides horses and 
sheep ; that the city had already two or three 
breweries, r.nd more were wanted to Mijiply the 
Ilngiish with beer, who, in return, could furnish a 
thcusand tubs of tobacco a year; and that ten 
thousand furs and othei- articles could be annually 
precnred from the Indians, and e."vported from the 
colony. Tliese representations had their effect. 
The nest month Hinoyossa set sail for the South 
Kiver with about one hundred and fifty colonists, 
and airangements were made to dispatch another 
ship. Xot long afterwards he arrived, and Beek- 
mt'n. in obediemje to the company-'s orders, imme- 
diately recognized him as chief of the Dutch on 
the South River. His administration, however, 
was of short duration, extending from December 
28, l(id;-! to October 1, lOui. During this limited 
perii'.d, arrangements were made for extending the 
fur p.nd tobacco trade ; a gfivernmental revenue was 
provided for by the impo.-ition of a tax on importeil 
goods, and up.m tobacco and furs exp.irred, and to 
prevent trouble from savage exce>s. the brewing 
and distilling of liquors was prohibited in the 

The relations between the English in :Maryland 
and the Dutch on the Delaware durinLr all this 
time were far from being harmonious. Hardly had 
Charles II. reached the throne of England, before 
Lord Baltimore instructed Captain James Xeale, 
his agent in Holland, to re(juire of the West India 
Company to yield up to him the lands on the south 
side of the Delaware. Xe-ale, accordingly, made a 
formal demand for the surrendi-r of Xew Amstel, 
and infjrmed the directors that Lord L.altimore 
v.oiild use all lawful means to defi-nd his ri'_dits and 
subject the Dutch to his authority. The Am-^ter- 
dam Chamber reterre.l the que-ti.'.n to the (■olh-.-e 
of the XIX. who resolved, on Sept. I, lt,r,i», that 
tl,ev would .h'feml their ri-hts with ••all the means 
which (io.l :,nd imlure hnd -ivrn thnn." 

])..r,l,ts h;,d, iiP-anuhile ari..en in the council of 
^larylaml, wletleM- Xow Amstol was really within 
the limits of that piovince, and all further demon- 
strations Were d.'l.'ived until Lord Baltimore 
obtained from the kini: a coufirmaticm of his 




patent. Pf-n.iini: tlir>,> pniccrdiiiL'^, 
liifS conrludid ;i trcity ut' |i. ;icc will 
at the Iieail of Apiji|uiniiiniy creek. 
lanilers, at the .<ame time, pn.ipo-ed t 
or three ho-lirads ..f tub: 
to the Dutch in nturii t.>r iic^mck ; 


vi.-it Al 

In imZ, n. 
more was al 

finding that " In ivi.n ilicriv. 
of French wine i- oiitaiiialile," 
to send liini >oMie t'roni Mai: 
nobleman with." The next 
more's son, Charles Calvert, ( 
, and Altona with a suite of twenty-six or twenty- 
'' seven persons. Beeknian entertained him, nut as 

/ a proprietary, but as a and their intercourse 
\/ was pleasant and hai-nionious. In conjunction 

C with Van Sweringen, the sellout of New Amstel, 
Calvert renewed the treaty with the savage.-, but 
when it was proposed to define the limits of the 
two colonies, he replied that he would communicate 
with Lord Baltimore. The young nobleman took 
leave of his Dutch ho.sts in all good feeling, and 
projiosing to visit Boston the next spring, by way 
of Manhattan, he desired Beeknian to convey his 
thanks to Stuyvesant for his " otter of convoy and 
horses." ' 

:he two c 
til.- Iinli 
Tl„- M; 


The. .■ircum.-tance- 
,.f the Dutch in ti 
demand anv loni; n 

. Whlel 

,e Ne- 

1 led to 

W Neth 

The fa 

, ,1, liver 
•CO anmi: 


there is nnJtirrinL'cj 
No revolution .■.•al, 


in eoiiiie 
e Keen 

1.1 mere! 


tran.-ler of an emiMn 

■ more 



1 r.e.Kn 


l.a.l alwav- had th. 
Kn-li-h ueretheirw 
New Xetlierlarid lav 
Ciilonies. while ;il lli. 

like a 

city to 
Ue.lLje 1, 

■ to trt'iit 


acce.-s to the be.-t ? 

■oils, t 

he n.o,-t r.: 
New Am 


waters in America. 


the l.o 
im the 

oJhfad's HistoT of Nfw Yoil;, 

een tlie Mi! 

eriands, do ,,..; 
cts are few, ai:! 
( tion withthdii. 
nuife tame, n.. 
ic. The Dutch 
know tliat the 
1 this continent. 

keot from 
d.Vii-able ami 

hle-t navigable 
time of Loi-,i 
Baltimore's settlement on the Chesapeake (lf)o4', 

the pressure which the Dutch felt so much U[ 

their eastern frontier was repeated with an added 
strain on the southern. Baltimore's charter calltil 
tijr all the land north of the Potomac and south of 
the fortieth parallel. This line would have in- 
cluded the present site of Philadelphia, and Balti- 
more was urgent in asserting his claim. As ha~ 
been stated, he sent Col. Nathaniel L'tie to Ne\v 
Amstel (now New Castle) to give notice of his 
rights and how he meant to enforce them, and hi- 
ambassador went among the simple-hearted, timid 
Dutch and Swedes like a hectoring constable armed 
with a distraint warrant, l'tie and others assisted 
the Indians who were at war with those tribes who 
were clients and allies of the Dutch, and Fendall 
and Calvert repeatedly made it appear that they 
meant to invade the South River colony and over- 
throw the Dutch power, either by sailing in at the 
mouth of the Delaware or by an invasion overland 
by way of Elk River. So great was the pressure 
put upon them tluit the Dutch abandoned their 
>ettlemeuts about the Ib.rekills, and withdrew 
farther iqi the bay. As a I'urtlur precaution, and 
to erect "a wall between them and the F.nelish of 
-^laryland," the Dutch West India Company, a.- 
we have >hown.ced.d to the city ..f Am-terdam. 
to which it owed heavy del't-, its entire jurisdiction 
over the South Piiver colony. 

But the En-li>li to he dVea.led did not live in 
the colonies hut at home. The Stuarts were in 
power aL'ain. ami so 'jreedy were they and their 
folhjwcrs, atler their loiiu' ta.-t during the period of 
the Comraoinveallh and the Protectorate, that 
England, thougli ■•lean .-tripped, did not fur.d-h 
siioilsenou-h to ■' uo round.' ( harles 11., umiv- 
ov.T, ha.i no f.r the Dutch, and it had 
alreadv become the j.olicv of Croat Britain to 
obtain" control <.f the N.ri'h American continent. 
On .March ll'.-Hii;! i O. .■-.), th,. kin.: rjranted to hi> 
brother Jam,-, DuLe of York and All.anv (after- 
wards King.Iam..- 11. i. a patent f.r all the land 
emoraced lielueeii the >t. Croix liiver on the north 



h:- I) 

lar t' 



liin t.v hi., 
an.l thrc, 

;iiicl the Di'Liware I5:iv nri tlie -out 
ijl of New EnJan.l.'.Wu- Y.rk, 
hatitdi.l nut inchi.h' th.-u.-t-Hh' 
KivtT nii.l J'.av, sh.nvii,.^ rl-.r.[ 
r.-|.c<'t.Ml his i:ilh-T'- .•harr:T rM„vcvi,iL' ihis t.Tri- 
t,,rv to CaUvi-t. Ail of tlif lan.l -raiil^-.! liy tliis 
[Kitnit, from tli.' -^t. Croix Rivor to tin' I'a-ai.'. 
ha.l hvL-u previoiwlv rot,,v,l,Ml to tlio I'lvnioiitli .,r 
North Vii-inia hv Km- Ja,no- [. The 
,hike, in .Tulv.>ol.i or -rant.^l tli.' t-rritorv l.-tuvrn 
ihi' Iliulson aii.l lA'lauaro Itivcri— tlio' « l,,,i,. ,,f 
N,.u- Jersrv, in fa. t— to LtI B. rkolrv an.! Sir 
(n.jrge Carteret. War l^:•t^^.•eIl the En.jli-li an,! 
Diiteli broke out two moutiis after the Duke of 
York received hi; patent, and the latter, who was 
lord lii.irh aiJmiral of the British navv, at onee 
.May 2-5, O.S.) fitt.d out an exri.Mliti.ui'to rMi.tuv.? 
tlie Xew- Netherlands— in ,,:Ii,t, t.i take 
possession of the e mntry piitiute.l t 
brother. The e.Kp"diti..u, .-.Mi-i-tiuL: . 
witii one hnndrrd an.l t\'.-.lve irai 
hundred soldier.-, l>esides tlie sliijis' crews, was 
under command of .Col. Richard Nicholls, who 
was accompanied by Sir It'iberc Carr. Kt., Ge jrge 
t'artwriglit, and Samuel Maverick, commissi. m.a-s 
jio the several English colonies to hear complaints, 
' /'redress grievances, and settle the "peace and 
security of the country." Their instructions ijound 
tliem first to reduce the Datch colonies, as the 
fountain of sedition and sanctuary of discijutent 
and mutiny, to " an entire obelien.'e." The mas- 
sacres of Amboyna were cited in ])ro.)f that the 
Dutch were not fit to be intrusted with .j-reat p.iwer, 
and it was declared to be " high tiino to put them 
without a capacity of doing the sann' mi-. 
America, by reducing tiiem to the sanjo r 
obedience with the English subjects there.' 
lui-ssion to English authority was all that 
bo required of them, tind no man who sii 
was to be "disturl)ed or rem.ive.l fr.)m v 

The Dutch, both at h.)nie aod in Xeiv Nethe 
land, were acquainted with the ex])editiou and i 

lir.-t V( 

, but to 

-^el ..f 

Now ; 

ik no real measures of d 
he ex[>ediiion arrive. 1 

"fense. Th 

,f .<..pte 


out < 

f Ih. 

ir t'..rt u 

ith all 

rum- be 

Ci'rUM' W 

itio'j, ; 
1- p.— 




V lib.-ral. 

In f i.-t, 

^ The 


the En. 

ant an\ 



V -..uu-ht 


new til a 

t that 


half it- V 

alue fr. 

After arranging affairs at Xew Amsterdam, th. 

name of which was now el: 
Sir li.jbert Carr, with tw. 
soldier.-, was -etit to the De 
submi-ionoftlr_ Dutch ther 
Amatol on September oOth. 
one.; vielde.l. but th 
Alrichs and Van .>■ 

ged to New York, 
frigates and some 
vare to receive the 
Thev reached New 
The inhabitants at 
l.ait D'Hinoyossa, with 
en, threw himself int(j 

the fort, and declined to come to terms. Carr 
landed some troops, made his frigates pour two 
broadsides into the fortress, and then incontinently 
took it by storm, the Dutch losing three men killed 
and ten wounded, the Tlnglish none. The result 
of D'Hinoyossa's foolhardiness was the sack of the 
fort, the plunder of the town, the confiscation of 
the governor's property, as well a^ that of several 
of his supporters, and the selling of the Dutch / 
soldiers into Virginia as slaves. A good many '^ 
negro slaves alsi.) were confiscated and sold, a carcro 
of nearly three hundred of these unhappy beings 
having ju-t Ian. led at S.iuth Ambi)y and lici.Mi run 
are with the i.lea of e.-."H)inL;- th.e 
Y..rk. The nameof New Ainstel '^^ 

New Castle, and D'iIinoyo;sa 
m.l, where he was naturalized and 
years in Talbot County, but finally 
finding he could not recover his property, which 
had been taken by Carr and others, he returned 
to Holland, entered the Dutch army, and fmght 
in the wars airainst L-juis XIV.' 

of in 

across the !).• 

e and 



was chan-o.l 

■as t.) 

retired to .Ma 


] i veil for sevei 

at he 

finding he co 

all who submittal. Sfuvv,-ant i-paircl ti..- walls 

of his f.,rt, but he c.uld ii.,t rally the | pie t.. 

reinfnrce the L'lrri-.'ii. TIk-v wool. 1 not l._av. ili.'ir 
villages and b.aieries, their wiv,-s an.l rhihhvn, 
upon any ^uch venture. On the .luth, (.'.jl. 
N'i.-holls demande.l the ;urn.nder of the f .rt and 
inland, replying to Stviyvesant's commis-iouers that 
!"■ was not there to arL'if qurstions of title, bat U> 
■'<'-: or.lrrs, an.l tho ,.la.-.. n,n-t s.,,-r,-n.l, r to him 

^•ith..ut dohatr, ,.r lie w.ail.l liiel moan- to <■ pel 

It t., do .so. Stuyvesant wa.- .-till di-p..-..l t.. argne, 
to tempurize, to fight if he could, but tlie iVigate 

. uiiJ tiiat ro aiippl\ 


In May, lilCT, Nk'hulk was siiper-f cK,l. by Sir and ilu- .Inkc ai.;:.M,ti'l -ir K.ltiiun.l An-ip- 

Francis Luvihur a3 L'livirniir of th<' I iiKch s. ttle- piv, cipt o\er -Jr \\li..lf c.untiy tvoiu the u.-- 

merits on the Nurlli an. I South Kivcrs, aii.! in July ride or' tht- t-).ur.-rU' \il Kivor to the t-ast side ,.i 

of that year [Kacf wa- niaih' l.,tu,en rh.^ i-,.tcii tiu Dehinar^ Ai,.iro-s arri\..| out Xovoiiil,. ,■ 

and En-lish (.11 tlie lia.-is ot' the (((/ /..---• ■/.'(.'v. On iOth.aud at 010 p i , ,<•, t-.i.-.! :■, v, -U'V<- the .'<tatu qn; 

the Dehiwarc, the guverunient ninaiiu .1 in eliarire c/i/e hullviii as I'ar a- he i-nu!,h lie ^va^ an astiit,-. 

of Sir Kohert Carr, with ('apt. Uoh, rr Nerilham v,'; il-infor:!':.! ni:.r.. -f uo..;', h.ihits, witli the tar • 

acting as military comnianiler. In 3[av, liiTli. tlie of a pia.-ti'td eoi:rtiu\ niid many of the rarr- 

town of New Castle was erected into a eorporation, areoraro Imunt.- o; a .-taoinan. Under hi- 

and Capt. Edmund t'antwell ^\as af.poh.ted the r.'liuiul-^ri'.tion an'i th-it ..t' In-; deputic- on ti:i 

first High Sheriti; and Peter Alrichs Hailitf, o: ^)ela^a,v^ Ca.t. <. antw, !].' Capt. Collier, and 

chief magi^tratc, I'nr the town and rii^er. In Clii i t.'.h.i _''o|!op, ^^Ik' .-.'ttlenieiits on tiie South 

August, IGC/.i, -ome di-turhaiur iiro^e ou the De!a- l(i.-, r -lJ, an.: lt.'u rapidly in population. 

ware in conseriuence of the conduct of a Swede resor.rees, and in syuniiitliy and fellow-feeling with 

called "the long Finn," who gave himself out as the other colonics. 
the son of Genera! Count KoniL'-niark, mae'e 

seditious speeches, and tried to incite some si>rt of 

a rebellion. He is thought to have bad the 

countenance, if not the active support, of Printz's II A P T E K \ I 1 1. 

dauirhter, Arniirart Pappesoja. He was arrested. 

put in iron-, tried, convicted, and sentenced to be u'illiam i-enn and his coVERNArENT. 

publiclv whipped, branded on the face and breast, , it, ■ c .\ • 1 

1 \ ^ X -!> \ \ ,1 II 11 i- 1-- ■ A ITER the Kcstoration ol the Stuarts the atten- 

and sent to the Barbadoes to be sold, all ot whien ,. „ ^, , ,, ., i ,.-. -n 1 i 

, , ,. ., t!ou of the court as well as the people ot England 

was done as set forth. t , j • i 1 , .■ 

T ip^.i • 1. 1 » I » »i T^ t 1 was directed in a much Jarjrer measure than loi'- 

In IGio war aeain broke out between the Dutch , , . . ,"'•■,,, 

, T- 1- 1 ■ ' r 1 ^■ ■ li ni.rlv to the American colonies. Jlon who were 

and English m couse(|uenceot the mali^rnintiuence -,,.„,. j •, , 

-A-Ti- ,-i 1 TT Ti i.' 11- wt-irv ot strd'^ discontented with the present 

ot Louis XI \ . ui>on Lharles ii. ihe i rench kins • „ .. . , . ^ , \. 

1 J ..1 -V- .1 1 1 -.It 1 Ilu" aspect ot atiairs or apprehensive ot the tutuiv. 
invaded the Netherlands with two hundre<l thou- ' ,. ^ , ^- • • r,., 1 , 
, 1 ,, ■. ^ 1 ♦ „i sou;;ht relief and peace m emigration, ihe liartl- 
sand men, and there was a series ot desperate naval , .'^ ,. , ., , ' , "., j. t ,• 
battles between the combined French and English f 'P '^^ ^he wilderness, the perils of Indian war- 
fleets, with one hundred and tiftv ships, and the ^''"'' '''' 'impressing diseases ot a iiew climate and 
T, , , n . f ^ a I ," 1 n, r>„ *, unbroken soil were as nothing to those in conipari- 
Dutch fleet ot seventy-nve vessels, under De Ivuyter ° ^ 

and the VOUnger Tromp. The last of these battles, ' O |.t:ui. EtlUHind C»iitweII .-md WillKim Znrn were amhf.rized !■■ 

fought off the Hclder, resulted in the defeat of the Muturrnf"«'!ir RM\l"t'Vi''ue,''r\riiy pi."ruf'n«°riw^'^^^^^^^^ 

allied scjuadrons, and the Prince of Orange at once "'"' "ri^iu'^d si.oriti, m- sdif.ut. ana ti.e iM^r secreMry, ..r .i.-ri;. 

dispatched several vessels iin- j',,,,',', '"„!M,!hH,i \\ tiic 'i:n::'ii-'ir"i-f..r'e t'l.c^.-. lunii of tiio Duicb.^Tho 

.■'-'■-'--" i I.." \^ V- . ^ ' -"' "'' • f';-..'-: ; ■■•■■ ~ ■ r ~. i Milt. I. .].i-in I iumiij . .aitw oil ; Seir- 

' f"" -"■■' ' \ V. • ^ 1'" * i*" '""'''''.'''!' .^^ Fi.;,', c.iik, r-i'.r i.-iiui.i, r-r,i«i ni.ii.ii 11..-S A,ir,. -,.„ w„„ii,. >',>.,iii'. 

,, . . 1 iintish made Imt little re-ist- ■ii,„ ;;„vcrnni.ut oh,i;mu..i1 tiuia 

'o^-™^-'"'. / '""■^' ''■'■'^'^ *'"^ ^'"''■'' '"^^" ^^:-!!;rj"hrc::u!"ra-''ivnu" 

'..'A' r — -J-:! 'v/ comed their old tViuids. Love- anjof Kiiiirlm HeniMiiit ai.^ecM 

^<<i^J lace tied, and in a tew days t::7^:::^^^-;T^ 

^^;::::z^^y the Dutch had resumed con- ivt-r cu, k. r.ur i;iimi>o, i.mei : 

GOV. ANDUOSS' SEAL. . "^" "' ".',V|" '^ '"' in, i! ,. ]: il, i.if Aiign,Mr,T7, OipUin ,I.,lm C.llier was rtlie 

nor, but there were onlv a few administrative »ar«, umii the ii.u.r i.Tt .if nT'i, »hpii' l.o wm removed fur, t]i..u-b a -iim.^d cunti-ca'i.m -.v.-i was tlr^''^'^^::J:::':X^l^:^:^^■T^t^^:^:^:^.. 

pa."(.l UL-aill-t the En-lidl, In I'ud. F.||,niary I.eUvv,,re; thr.-e juiluJliu-.n... ,,,.0.. tI.e over w.r„ al-., .-ul 

10th . ( •. S. I, thr treaty ot' Westminjt.T was siL'ued, ','';; 'j'"^|I'.'^';i).Jr'ic't'«.,H'''e3i'aiilw^^^^^^^^ 

ami pi ;i. c a::ain made between the Dutih ami inin. h wua i.iiKd st. Jonua. i/ui-e 0/ iWi'. tv.i 0/ iuus, 1 

English, wi'h a pr.ivi^^o entbrcin- the iv.:iiution ' ti,"^,,, ,,„,. r .1 im • : i, -,. ...y. : ■■ n imn —, rmm „ ren-r, 

li;04. The Duke of York's [.atciits were renewed, '^^'.^'-'^^^'^j^J-'-^ ';;;/'■ ■;,\'',;:''"^^ " il "n ;i!nE'i'!if V 

:,diu,til tli,.a:ldol 

' Si-ploi 

iOMd liy tlio ai.puii 
n.l.i»,.re llivur i 

ii,d li.. 

; fL.llowil.s .Ma-istr 

Mull. Ilehrj-W;,i.r 

, WiUi.i 

WILLIAM PKXN AX[i HIS ( ;<»vi:knmk.nt. 

son ^vith the liIo-sinLTS of pnlitical an.l ivliL'i'.us 
lilirrty secLircd liy ( iniL'rati'i!i. As tin- a- ilic 
rnurt was coiu'eriiril. ( liarli.s wanrnl iirnvinns to 
,'ive wav to his favorit.s, whil-' lii- lahimts, lidth 
under ChireiHlon, the CalKil, and Daiil.y, ha.l 
siroiiix political reasMiis t'ov |.iittiiiL' thi' (■(.loniis 
more ininiediately umlcr tlir <.'(introl .,t' the crown 

fjovenniHiit ami conijiarativf iiKl('|» inleiK'f. Tiiu.- 
ihe reprcsiiitativ - of pren-jative ^\<n' eniiiprlJMl 
likewi.-e to give an enlarged attentiuii to colnmal 
atlairs. The Council for F<jreign riantatiuii.- was 
L'iven new po\\ers and a LM'eater and ni<jre ixaittil 
membership in 1<:71, and in lii74 this m pa rate 

nial atiiiirs intni.-tod to a rdn.mittee of tlie I'livy 
Cnuncil itself, which was directed to tit onre a 
week and report its proceedings to the innneil. 
This committee comprised some of the alile~t of 
the king's coiincihii-, and amoiiu'' the meniliers 
were the I)iike of York and the Manjuis of 

William Penn, who was a great favorite with 
the Duke ofYork, and f he founder of Pennsylvania 
and Delaware, was born in London, in St. Catha- 
rine's Pari-li, hard by the Tower, October 14, 1G44. 
His father was Vice Admiral Sir William Penn ; 
his mother ^Margaret Jasper, dauiihter of a well- 
to-do Kotterdam merchant. They were united 
•Tune (3, 1043, when the elder I'enn. though only 
twenty years old, had already received his com- 
mission as post-captain in tiie royal navy, and 
William was their tiitt chiU. It is probable that 
the stories of Admiral Penn about the conquest of 
Jamaica and the tropical splendors of that beauti- 
liil island first turned the attention of the younger 
Penn to our continent. 

William Penn received his first education at the 
free grammar-school of Chigwcll, ]'l-;ex, wliere he 
experienced strong religious impressions and had 
virions of the " Inner Light," though he as yet 
had never heard Fox's name mentioned. Hv was 
not a puny child, though he uuist have been a 
studioua one. He d< lighted and excelled in tield- 
sports, boating, running, hunting and athletic ex- 
ercises. At the age of twelve he was removed 
from Chigwell to receive private instruction at 
home, and three years later entered Christ Church 
*-'ollege, Oxford. Penn studied assiduously, he 
.joined the "serious set," he went to hear Thomas 
Loe preach the new gospel of the Si^ciety of 
!■ fiends, he resented the discipline which the col- 
1' ge attempted to {.ut upon him and his intimates 
lU consequence, and he was expelled from the imi- 
vir.-ity for rejecting tlie surplice and rintiuLC ia the 
'lua.lrangle. His tlith.r b, :.t him, r.lent.d, and 
•-■nt hinrto Fran.v, whrrr he cainr h..,ue with the 

^wth Gi-nevan theolo-v. He had bhown in Paris 

that he o.nld ti.-e his rapirr L'allaiitly, and his 

he reinrnod as l.^aror of di>patrl,r-, that he was 

plau'ue <if LdUdun m t him aL'ain upiii a train (jf 
.-,rious thinking, and iiis fathrr, to counteract this, 
sent him to the Duke nf ( )nnoud, at the same 
time gi\ini: him charge of his Irish estates. Penn 
.iamvd ill Dublin and fon-ht at Carrickfergus 
e.,eally w.'ll, and, he ev<n appli,-d for a troop'' of 
hoiM'. He was a verv liand.^dme vountr tedlow, 
and armor an.l lace bJcanie him nd^'htilv. But 
at Cork he niet Tiiomas L.,. a-ain ami "h.-ard a 
sermon upon tW text ■■There is a faith which 
overcomes the woild, and there is a faith wldch is 
overcome by the wnld." Penn came out of this 
meeting a contirmed (Quaker. His father recalled 
him, but coulil not break his conviction ; and then 
again he was driven from home, but his mother 
still found means to sujiply his needs. He n(nv 
joiiied the (Quakers regularly, and became the 
most prominent of the followers of that singularly 
eccentric but singularly gifted leader of men, 
George Fox. Penu's aliection for Fox was deep 
and strong. He rejieateiUy got " the man in the 
leather breeches" released from jail, ami he gave 
him a thousand acres of land out of the first sur- 
veys made in Pennsylvania. I'euu [ircached in 
public as Fox wa< ddinj. and so well that he soon 
found him.-elt' a prisoner iu the Tower of London, 
where, when brouglit up for trial, he defended 
himself so ably as to prove that he could have 
become a great lawyer had he so chosen. 

Penn married in 1072, his wife being Gulielma 
Sj)ringett, daughter of Sir William Springett, a 
lady of lovely person and sweet temper. He did 
not spend many weeks to his honeymoon. He 
was soon at his work again wrestling for the truth, 
and, it must be said, wrestling ttill more lustily 
as one wlnj ^vre.-tles t'ur victory with the oppres- 
sors of the faithful. In this cause he went to court 
again, resumed his relations with the Duke of 
York and securefl that princ/e's influence in behalf 
of his per.-ecuted sect. This semi-alliance of Penn 
with the duke led up directly to the settlement of 
Pennsylvania and Delaware. Penn realized the 
fact that the Friends could not escape persecution 
nor enjoy without taint their peculiar religious 
seclusion, nor could his ideal commonwealth be 
planted in such a society as that of Europe. It 
nni.-t seek new and vir^du soil, wJiere it could form 
its own manners and ripen its own code. Then, 
in 107li, came home George Fox,' fresh from his 

1 llaz.inl Kivs "TliiHViMr [*■, 

nrsTonY OF dklawari 

I.- Its t.) 


journey throuL'-h the wilderness i 
the (^luikcr Mrtloiiifnts in New J 
hind, in which hitt.-r pnivin.'i' thi; 
of Anne Arundel :ind TallmK ',,1111 
important pitheriiiL:- of a hiq, in- 
free from liel>eeutini;<. \\',. |,,:i 
eagerly and elostdv I'( nn re;e! V<<' 
the letters of j:.lni,,iid-toii, W,.,., 
and others alidiit tlieir s. [tienicnis. 

In 1G75, when hi. dis_-u~t with s,.-i,.tv 
and his consei.)U-ne.-= ul' the inipns.iliility to etlect 
radical reform there had been confirmed and 
deepened, Peiin became pennanentlv identified 
with American colonial affairs, and was put in the 

The Duk, 

leiie entirelv 
iniagiiio how 
journals and 
k Chri.-tisjn, 

It p; 

heMtate to proelai,,. 
M Xew York, I',„„. 
iuiM-lf as hi- own pri. 
t of .\,.w XetlH ,-l;„„i 
1 and the Delawar, 

Itl'i-K before ^■icnl^ 
take \,,w York) CO.,. 

hannel 1- 

rd X,.wJ, 

best possible position for 
accurate knowledi'e of the res 




bilities of the country between the Sus.|uehanna 
and the Hudson. As has already bren stat.-d. on 
March 12, l(iti4. King Charles II. .^-ant-d to his 
brother James, Duke of York and .Mlianv, a 
patent for all the land- in New En-kmd from" the 
St. Croix liiver to the Delaware. Tlii- patent, 
meant to lead din etly up to the overthrow of the 
Dutch power in Xew yetherlaud, was proiiablv 
also intended no less as a hostile denionstratioii 
against the New England Puritan colonies, wdiich 
both the brothers hated cordially and which latterly 
had grown so independent and had so nearlv es- 
tablished their own authority as to provoke more 
than one charge that the_v se.ught presently to 
abandon all allegiance due from them to the 
mother-country. At any rate, the New Endand 
colonies at once attempted to or-aiii/e theni-dves 
into a confederacy for puri.o-. - ,,t' mutual d. teii-o 
against the Indians .and Canadian Freinh, as was 
alleged, but for divers other and weighty reasons, 

DiMtins there, it bein^- the firbt ever hel.l in that placo ; theuco they 

liivers uas forthwith 
saih-,1 from i'ort-mo„tli 
veyed l.v tho duko. l,vd._od- ot 
to Lord .lohn lierk,|,,y and Si 
The latter being i:overnor oi' tli 
at the time, the new cohjiiv uas. 
or rather Xuva Ca'saren, in thr ori 'inal "i-aiit In 
167.5 Lord Berkeley sold, tor o„r thou>and pour„i, 
his undivided halt^share iti New J.-rsev to Joiiu 
Fenwiek, in trn.-t tor Edward Biliinge and his 
a>,-igns. Fenwiek and Biliinge were both Quaker.-, 
and Biliinge was bankrupt. Not long after this 
conveyance Fenwiek and Biliinge fell out about 
the projierty, and, after the custom of the Friends, 
the dispute was submitted to arbitration. The 
disputants fi.xed upon William Peiin as arbitrator. 
When he mtide his award Fenwiek was not satis- 
fied and refused to abide by Penn's decision, which, 
indeed, gave Fenwiek only a tenth of Lord Berke- 
ley's share in the joint tenancy, reserving the re- 
maining nine-tenths to Biliinge, but givintr Fen- 
wiek a money payment besides. Penn was orfeuded 
at Fenwick"s recaleitrancv, and wrote him some 
sharp letters. '"Thy days spend on." he said, 
■•and make the best of what thou hast. Thy 
grandchildren may be in the other world before 
the land thou hast allotted will be emploveii.'" 
Penn stuck to Ins decision, and. for that mattei-, 
Fenwiek likewise maintained his grievance. Pie 
sailed for the Delaware at the head of a colony, 
landed at Salem, N. .J., and commenced a settle- 
ment. Plere he carried matters with such a hiirh 
hand, patenting land, distributing otfice, etc.. tliat 
he made great trouble for himself and others aLo. 
His authority was not recognized, and for several 
years the imme of Major Joiui Fenwiek fills a lartre 
place in the court records of New Castle, Upland, 
and New York, where he was frequently im- 
]iri>oiii ,1 and sued for damages bv many injured 

Billinge's business embarrassments increasint; he 
made over hi- interest in the territory to hi- 
creditors, aiijiointing Penn, with Gawen" Lawrio, 
of London, and Nicholas Lucas, of Hertford, two 
of the creditors, as trustees in the matter. The 

plan was not t( 
for the benefit 

) sell, but to impr 
of the creditors. 

ove the pro. 
To this ei 

partition of tin 
drawn through 

? in-ovinee w;is ma 
Little Egg liar 

ide. a line h 
■bor to a I 



■rUU !i 


ne;ir where Port Jt 
],r(ivince on the riL'l 
Jersey, the nm-t xttlnl ]HMil,,n 
was as.--i<:iie<l to Carti-rrt. That 
New Jersey, was ikeihd to Lillii 
tiirru of goveriiinent wa> at oih 
West Jersey, in winch Penn's h 
.-eeu. Tlie' basis was liherty of 
science, "the power in tlie piopli 
( rnnieut and am 'liortition ut' tlie criminal cnde. 
The territory was next divided into diie liundri'd 
parts, ten being assigned ti> I'liiwick and iiiiutv 
to BiUinge's irii.-tees, and ih,- land xva- op.n.d tor 
sale and occnpancv. lieini: ixtt n.-ivi Iv rdvertisrd 
and particulaiiv rr<-n,„n,aid, d lo LnMids. In 
1077 and Kms'Hvc ve.-, 1- -ailed l..r Wi-t Xew 
Jersey, with eight hnndrtd enugrants, nearlv all 
(Quakers. Two companies of these, one fnmi York- 
shire, the other from London, lionght large tracts 
of land, and sent out conniii.— ioners tu '|uiel 
Indian titles and lay ofi' the pn'i "itie-. At (.'liy- 
goes Island they located a town, tir,-t railed Bev- 
erly, then Birdlington, then Burlington.' There 
was a regular treaty \vith the Indians, and the 
Friends nut only secured peace for themselves but 
])aved the 'svay for the pacific relations so firmly 

part of the 

onior of Now York 

and ool 

loctod at the IToivkill. 

1 I'.a-t Now 

The next vear Po 

nn bora 

me part pn.j.ri.tor ,•( 

e territorv, 

Ka.-t New J,r>ov, ^ 

is sold under the will 

e lolt, Wu-t 

.^f >ir Ceoi-e'Ca 

rioret. t 

hon diooa.e.l. to p:,v 

nisioo-, A 

hi- Oolit.. A l-oai 

■d ..f tw 

onty-four proprietai ios 

d.'i-l„d for 

was ortranized. Pen 

11 b. ill_' 

<,no, and to them the 

s d:-tmctlv 

Duke of York ma< 

le a Iro: 

■h -i-ant of Ea-t New 

11 and r,,ii- 

Jersey, dated .^lar 

-h 14. 

UiM'. Kobort Barclay 

■al self-irov- 

becoming Governor 

■, Whilo ] 

['(■nn's friend, Billinge, 

nt negotiations with the 
olony prospered, and 

sealed by Penn 
savages. The Bu 
was reinforced by 
ing in considerabl.- niimbors. In Ki'^d, Penn, as 
counsel for the trustees ol' West New Jer.-ey, suc- 
ceeded, by means of a vigorous and able remon- 
strance, in getting the Duke of York, then pro- 
prietary of New York, to remove an onerous tax 
on imports and exports imposed by the Gov- 

! on the Uel;i 

was made Governor of \Vo-t New Jersey. Both 
these governments wore siiirendered ti.i the crown 
in (,)iioo„ Ariiio'^ loi-n, April lo, 17(»L'. 

Whilo IVnn was thu^ ao,,uirin- knowledge of 
and -troii- ]in.pL-i-ty inten-.-t.- in Amerira, two 
othoi- ciroiiiii-tances occurred to iiiloii.-ify his ini- 
l.atirnce with the state of affiiirs in P.iiLdand. One 
was the ill^en,-ate so-called " Popi-h i.lot " of Titus 
Gates, the other the defeat of his friend, Al^er- 

' fff^:- ' i.\ / '. '■ .^:n '^ 

non Sidney, for Parliament. From the date of 
these events Penn began to look steadily westward, 
and prepared himself for his '• Holy " or " Divine 

Admiral Penn at his .leath had loft his son a 
property of £l.jl)() a year in Iln-lish and Irish 
estates. There was in addition a claim against 
King Charles' government for money lent, which, 
with interest, amounted to £lo.Ofii>. The king 
had no moiiev and no credit. What he L'-ot from 
Loui- XIV.," thioudi the compliant Barilh.n, 

sulHced ior his 

own in'ni 


being now resolved to establish a colony in America 
alongside his Xew Jersey plantations, and to re- 
move there himself with his family >o as to be at 
the head of a new (^luakor community and common- 
wealth, petitioned tlio kiii'_'- to grant him, in lieu of 
the claim of £l'i.iiiM), a tract of country in America 
north of Maryland* with the Delaware on its e;ist, its 


western limits the same as tlio~of)t'^\ l.inil.,inil ifj 
northern :h far a- plaiital)!^ rnunfr\ c \ti n.l, ,1. Jn- 
fore the Privy (.'omicil Com nitt. .■ 1% mi . \| i.iiii' <1 
that he ;\ anted ti\e deirrcu^ ot latitml.' nic i-iii.<I 
from Lord Baltimore's iiiie, :iu(i that Inn at hi- -iij- 
gestion, wa- <lra\\ n fmni tht Miciiinti ih u. i- ot a ( ir- 
ele, the radiii-- ot'\\liicli \\a- t\\«-l\c mil. - trom N. u 
Castle as it^ .. iitio. Th. [ , litioimt' P. im'b u.i-, n- 
ceived June 14, li'^O. Tiie Ml.j,.(t boii.jht, by the 
petiticjncr, it \\a- -t iti d ua- imt . iil\ to provide a 
peaceful hoiUL tor thi p. r- i ut. 4 iiu uilicrs of tlie 
Society of Frimd-, but ti; aH'ord an a^yliini for the 
good and oppn .-std of every nation on the basij of 
a practical ap[ilieation of the pure and peaceable 
principles of Clirijtiaiiity. Tin' pititiou . iicniiti- 
tered much and various oppu-itinn. ^ir John ^V• r- 
den, agent of the Duke ot Yni k, .,pp,.MMl it lueau-e 
the territory ^outrht \\a~ an appi inlaire to the gov- 
ernment of Xe« York, and a- such belonged to 
the duke. ]Mr. Burke, the active and untiring 
agent of Lord Baltimore, oppo--ed it because the 
grant asked by Peun \\ould infrinL'-e upon the ter- 
ritory covered by Baltimore's charter. At any 
rate, said ]\[r. Burke, in a letter to the Privy Coun- 
cil Committee, if the grant lie made to Penn, let 
the deed expressly state lands to the north of Sus- 
quehanna Fort, "■nhii'h is the boundary of ^lary- 
land to the nortln\ard." There wa-, al-o strong 
opposition in the Privy Coiun il to the iJoa ot a 
man such as Penn being puniitteil to t~talili-h 
plantations after his own pei uliar model. Ili.- 
theories of government ^\ere held to be Utopian 
and dangerous alike to Church and State. He 
was looked upon as a Itepublicau like Sidney. 
However, he had stroller friend- in the Earl of 
Sunderland, Lord Phde, Chi. f Jubti.v X.uth, and 
the Earl of Halifax.' He had an int. i\i<u v.itli 
the Duke of York, and contiivi.l to wm him oser 
to look upon his project with taMir, and Sir J. 
Werden -w rote to the secretary, sa) ing, '"His mval 
Highness commands me to h't you know, in order 
to your informing their lordships of it, that he 
is very willing ]\Ir. Penn's request may meet with 
success." The attorney-general, Sir William Jones, 
examined the petition in view of pinposed liound- 
aries, and reported that with some alterati'.ns it 
1 any territ.'ry i.i' pn- 

did not appear to ton 
vious grants, "except • 
England patents, whit 
by the main ocean, sh.. 
impracticable riL'ht to 
The draught ..f the ; 
reached that -taiii- of i 
to the Lords of Tra.le 
interests were subser 
London to lo.'k aftei 
Thekini:.--i-n..l th.^ p 
the venerable d... amir 
curious, fraiULd and h 

are h.iui 

,1 -is 

II di 

d, vel.,pnunt, w: 
to see if lai-li.-l 
>-ed, and t.. th. 

■eal tl„.ii-h 
illv it ha.l 


Bi-l,.,p of 

S.-cr.'tarv of '^tat.', at H.irri-bupj-. Tho nam,' t 
1... ,ds,n t, th.. n. •,; t, r,.t..rN u,,- l.-.t bl,nk ■ - 
th.. km- t . !ill up, anl Chiil.-. , ,11. .1 it P. ni,-.' 
\ania. P. nn, ula, -. . ni- f. luue ben n. ..1|. -'• 

.av that h.> N\ int.. I the t. int.,rv calle.l N. 
Wahs. ,m.| ,.li, i,,l til.. I'mhr ^..."retarv tu.n|. 
-uiiu.i- to ilimj. th.. iimi. , -tor I f'jrul 1. M ,. 
shoul.l li.. l..ok..| .,n a- ,1 x.mitN in m.\" H.iu.N.r 
he coiH.I. 1 I, mi-. It with til.. that ■' ,t i- 
a ju>t an.l . I. ar tl.ln_^ aii.l ni\ C.l, that ha> -i\ ■ i, 
it III,, throiud, many dith. .ilti. s, ;wll, 1 h.di. n, 
l)l..~s and maki. it the -e. .1 of a nation. I .-li.ill 


have a t..nd( r cart- to the irovernmi nt that it be 
well at lli>t." 

The ( h,iit(.r. which i- given c.iniplete in " Haz- 
ard's Annal-," ( on-i-ts of twenty-three aitii.h-. 
with a jjreamble reciting the king's desire to 
extend his dominions and trade, convert the sa\- 
ages, etc., and his sense of obligation to Sir Wil- 
liam Penn : 

1. Tlie grant rompri«3 nil thiit pirf of America, islands ircl.i.t.-.l. 



ispniiJeDce w 

I fruiik-pliid^je, holders i 

\XI 'I'lii' > li if-i ru !"■ v;iliii 1(1 English courts ngainst all aesuiiip- 
XXir r , ; . i, lys'-nil uut clergynlen if asked to doso by 

XMll 1 , .It the cliiirtc-r is io l.c inrerpretedaiid cnn- 

..irii.'l h' , Jj. 11! I'l.i.T fivor. i.rovid.'d sudi c-oiistructiuiu do not 
;iit>il.-re luth ui- K-s.-U the n.yul pverogative. 

On the 2(1 of April, after the signing- of tlie 
i'h;ii'ter, King Charles made a public proclamation 
I if the fact of the patent, addressed chietly to the 
inhabitants of the territory, enjoining upon them 
to yield ready obedience to Penn and his deputies 
.iiid lieutenants. At the same time Penn also 
:i'ldressed a letter to the inhabitants of the pro- 
\ince, declaring that he wislied them all happiness 
lu're and hereafter, that the Providence of God 
li;id cast them within his lot and care, and, though 
it was a new bu-iin>s to liini, he under.-tuod his 
•!uty and meant t„ d.. it ujirightly. He told the 
l"Mple that they were not now at the mercy of a 
' i'lvernnr who came to make his fortune nut (if 
tlf'ui, iiut "yon shall be governed by laws of yi.ur 

^vn making, and live a fi\x- and, if ynu will, a 
-'IxT and industrious pioplp. I shall not u.-urp 
ih- right of any (U- oppiv^. his person, (ind has 
luruishcd mc with a brtti.-r resolution and has given 
111-- liis grace to keep it," He hojied to see thera 
■ '1 a fv-w months, and any reason.-ible jirovision 
i.c-y wanted made for their security and happi- 
li'---' wouhl receive his apprtjbation. Until he 
■-wiie !\e hoped they would obey and i>ay eus- 
'• 'luary dues to his dcputv. 

TluLt deputy was Pcun's (-oiisin. William .Mark- 

;' Api-ii 20, l^,^l, commi-sioned to" -o out to 
' - ii^~> Ivania, and a(-t in that capai-ity until 
'"uu'j arrival. 1I(> was given power to call a 


Council of nil!", of wi;i'-h he was to b- pri -ident ; 
to secure a rec-;i'-n;tio!' if i'-uu'- ■[utlmrity on the 
part of the people; t -> s.-rtlc bduuds iMiwcen Penn 
and his neighbors; to -uivcy, lay out, rent, or 
lease lands accordin.- to his i[i,tru(-tioii-^ ; to erect 
courts, make ;-iieritl.s, jastiies of the jieace, and 
other inferior ieqiii:;icfj orfii-ers, so as to keep the 
peace and enforce the laws; to sup]>ress disturb- 
ance or not by ^he posie coiiiitaiv-', -.uxl to make or 
ordain anv oidlnary ordinaiiCcs or do \\hatever he 
l".wfully might for ihi- pc-o-..- ;iu.! .-.•iiiiity of the 
proviuce. jfarkhao- w-is paitinijarly in.-tru(ted 
to settle, if he coal' ; i.oii!.,i;iri(s \\ iti; Lonl IJalti- 
inorc, and Penn i:;cvc hliu :■. lotttr ti.i that iiciLdibiir 
of his. The (iei^ty s.hvu after sailed lor Peun^yl- 
vania, ou what day is not dcHnileiy known, but he 
■was in New York tm dune 21st, when he obtained 
from the Governor. Anthony Prockliolls, a procla- 
rnaiion enjoining upon the inhabitants of Penn- 
sylvariia that they should obey the king's charter 
and yield a ready obedience to the new proprie- 
tary and his deputy. When Markham arrived 
at Upland he found Lord Baltimore there; the 
boundary -question at once came up, and -^'as 
as qa:ekly let drop when IMarkham found that the 
lines could not be run according to the t-wo char- 
ters respecriveiy without giving to Baltimore some 
lands which Penn wa< resolved to keep as his own. 
It is not supposed that Markham took out any 
emigrants with him. His bu.-ini-- was to L^et 
possession of the province as speedily as possible, 
so as to insure the allegiance of the people, .secure 
the revenue, and prej)are the way tor Penn. It is 
probable, th>;refore, that he sailed in the first ship 
offering for New York or Bost(.)n, without waiting 
for company. ^Meanwhile, even before Markham's 
departure, Penn began to advertise his new pro- 
vince and popularize what information he had con- 
cerning it. This was the inisiness jiart of " the 
Divine Experiment," and reiiii was v rv compe- 
tent to discharge it. He pulili-heil a i.aniphlet 
(throii-h Benjamin (.'lark, iHiok.-eller, in George 

Yard, I.oiiibard Sti-(et.i, entitled " ."^ e account 

of the Pn.vinee of P.-nn.~ylvania in America, 
latolv 2-ranted under the (iivat .-^(.al of En-land 
to William Penn, etc. Together with piivilegcs 
and powers necessary to the w U-L'ovi-rning theixof 
Made public for the inloniiation of Mieb ns are 

servants into tho.-^e ],arts." Tlii- jiid~pe(-tii> .-liows 
the extent of the knowled-e Penn had ainady 

had stlidie. 

.■ttleraent. It 
hole of ^ach 



It wa.- 

iri.s], ;: 



hccr\n:< with an exmir.Mi.^ upon the hru,Aa of p.anta- 
tions or cnl(inic~ in -••niT:il, t'> "...iivinte ■( c p:i;ii'')n 
objection." ■' Cnluni, s" ln> >:iy-, " are the seeds of 
nations, U'lini! and nnuii-!ir.l hv the care of wise 
and po|iuloiw ciintrie,--, a~ cuneeivin- them best 
fur tlie increase of hum;in stock and beueficiid tor 
commerce." Anticiuity is then seartdied throo'^h 
for examples neecUess to rejie-at, bnt all hrou-iit iu 
to prove that colonies do ui)t weaken nr impovt 

^vho will r-nt. ..nd s, rvants. " Tn t! 
..1,- I Mil .hall he r,.,tainast(un,n.'.. 
,a: i^f...av,,.v,vnn...l,.dl contain li-. 

the mother-country. Indeed, thi-^ part cf his 
argument reads as if it were I'enns hrief while 
his petition was before the Privy ('.Hr.Ki!. aiei a-- 
if he drew it up in reply td ..hiertiMn- iheiv L-.r.'v! 
against conceding him the patent. He sh'n.s h'>w 
colonies and foreign plantations have contributed 
to the benetit of England's commerce and indus- 
try, and might be expected to continue t'> do ?o. 
He denies that emigration has depopnlatui U-.r 
country, hut says that the increase of luxury l;as 
drawn'an undue prnporti.m of the rural eo.'umuTii- 
ties into cities and towns, and that the increased 
cost of living thus hnui-lit about tends to prevent 
marriage and so promotes the decay of population. 
For this and the many attendant evils emigration, 
ho sucrgests, is the only eti'ective remedy. He then 
proceeds to speak of his province, the inducements 
it offers to colonists, and the terms on which he is 
prepared to receive them. 

"The place," he says, "lies six hundred miles 
nearer the sun than England," -o far as .litierence 
of latitude goes, adding, "I shall say little in its 
praise to excite desires in any, whatever I could 
trulv write as to the soil, air and water; thi- -hall 
satis'fy me, that by the bU-sing of (n.d an<l the 
honesty and industry of man it m.ay be a go,,d and 
fruitful land." He then ennmerat. s tho larjlitie- 
for navigation by way of the Delaware Bay and 
River, and by way of Chesapeake Bay also; the 
variety and alMindance of timber; the i|uantity of 
game, wild fowl, and !isii ; llie variety of pioduct. 
and commoditie<, native or introduci'd. in^ludinL' 
".silk, flax, hemp, wine, sider. voo.l, madder, 

liquorish, tobacco, pot-ashes, and iron hides, 

tallow, pipe-staves, l)eef, pork, sheep, wool, corn or 
wheat, barley, rye, and al.o furs, a:- your peltree, 
miucks, racoons, martins, and such like store ot' t■urs 
wlllch is to be found anion- the Indian, that are 
protitahle commoditios in" Next, after 
explaiidng the .■li:inii^-!s ot — rountry pro- 
duce to Virginia, tol-acco to l-iuLdand, English 
commodities to the colonics,— he gives assurance 
that under his liberal charter, paying due allecri- 
ance to the mother-country, the peojile will i)e alile 
to enjoy tin' very lar-r.-t j.roportion of lilierty and 

he intends to pr.'pare a -ati-lartory coii-i iiiiiiou. 

renii state.- expliritly in ll.l- paiiiphl. t tlie ron- 
ditions of immii:ralioii into hi- proviiui-. li'' look~ 
to see th.ree sorts of people come,— tho.-e who will 

Thotisun.i !!■■!•. ^ t--e Ironi auv in.'unil.ran. ••, t! . 
I)rice a hnrnir:.! nou-ids, atid for the .|uit-niit ! ,• 
one Engll^li -hll;;^L^ or tii.- valu.' ot' it, y.arlv. t : 
u hundred ,'Ci'-s ; and tie- .aid .piit-rent not ;. 
heiriu to be f.;a: til! ib>^). To the .-ccoiid ...r; 
thiit Sake up land uooi' rent, they shall hav, 
]ibe'-iy so to i]o. payiuL: yearly one pieiiny per ai-n. 
'IOC e:."ceodin<: two huncired :u-res. To the thir.. 
.=._.-it. to v,"i^, servants tliai: are carried over,' tiit\ 
.'Ci'es shall he allowed to the master for eveiv 
head, and fif'y acres to every servant when their 
time is expired. And beean.e some engage witi. 
me that may not ijc disp.o.ed to go, it were v. ry 
advi-ablo Ibr every tiiree adventurers to send ov.r 
an over.eer witli their servants, which would well 
pay the cost." ' 

Penu next speaks of his plan for allotments i.r 
dividends, but as his scheme was not then, as li'' 
confesses, fully >ioveh)ped, and as he later furnish,--! 
all the details of this scliein- a- he tinally matured 
it. we will pass that by for the pre.*ent. It i- 
enough to say that the plan is very closely fol- 
lowed to-day in Eastern Europe to jjromote tb.e 
sale of government bond-. 

The persons, Penn says, that " Providence seem, 
to have most titred for plantations" are " 1st. in- 
dustrious lui.bandmen and ilay laborers that are 
hardly alile ■■ with extreme labor, to maintain their 
families and portion rliihhvn ; J, laboriou- 
handicraft., e.-peeially i-arpeuters, ma-t^ns, smith.. 
weavers, taylors, tanners, shoemakers, shipw right., 
etc., where they may be spared or low iu the wdrld. 
and as they shall want no encouragement, so their 
labor is worth more there than here, and ther-. 
provisions cheaper." 3, Penn invites ingenii.".. 
spirits wdio are low in the world, younger brothei- 
with ..mall iidieritanees and (often) large familie.; 
"la.tlv," he savs. ■' tliere are another sort ul 
pcr.ons, not only tit fjr but nece.-sary in planta- 
tions, and that is men of universal .pirits that 
iiave an eve to the -ood of i>o.terity, and that boti. 

and ju-t giA'ernment among a phun and ueil- 
intendin-' i-eoi.le ; -ueh per.ons mav lind room in 


,..,!.mirs for tlicir -i,n,l r,.iiii.rl ■auA (-..iitrivan. o, urf.-r. an.l lir uns fiinlin- innst iictiv.Iv .■iiii,l(.v, .1 

alio ai-e .-'liiit out fn.iu lM'i,i_rofuiii,-l, u-coi--,Tvi.v in .Ii-i.-hul-- of lati,!,< aii,l Mqi.TJutMi.lliiLr 't!i.- 

I,, L'reat nation-. un.Irr .^ctllr.l ou.toin<: tlir-r i i.-u -ailin-' ..f -hip-loa.!.- of ]n. roloui.!-.. The lir-t 

,l,-.-,Tve nui.'h ,-t.. ni an.l wouM !..■ hrarkoiiM to.' of tlio... paj. I's .,„ ,.,,ur..-Mo„s an.l .-..iLlitiou..- \\a,-. 

\\.rvcon>i,lrratolv I'.'iin n.-xt U:\\- all li- ki'ows j.rq.aiv.l in.lo..,! on th.' . v of ll.v >ailinL' of tlu- 

jM.ut the ^o^t an.l o'^,.- tor tho joniM.v an.l ,,i-t vr.-.-.l- i-ontalnin- hi> " a.lvcntinvr.v" This 

-iih>istt-nce<lu.-inL' tiu- hr.-t frw months', - that" suoli ua- in Jul v. an.l t ho v. -,]- arrivo.l out in Ortohor. 

;,s incline to -o may not ho to s,.rk hciv, or. hron-iit I'.M'ry papor ho piihli-h,,! rail.-,! f,rih nunirrons 

under any .lisa|,[,ointm.nls there." He mentions lerte-rs from his frieml.-, wli. i uante.l him loe.xplain 

"[,rorit""all ,-ons of apparel an.l ut.'ii.-ils f.r hu..- .e.iiis t., hav re>p..n.h.l eh,', rt-ull v t.. th,->.. .'X- 

handrvan.l Imildin.: an.l ]i..useh..l.l stulf." I'. ..pie hau-tive tax.s np..n hi- tin,.-. Hi.. w..rk .-..„,.- xn 

nnist not delude th.'m.-.'Uvs, he say-, with th.' i.'h'a have attra.-t.'.l -naf att.-ntion an.l .-..mman.h'.l 

..f instant profit-. They will ha\.' a wint. r to a.lioirath.n. Jam..- < 'layp.„.le w iltes iJuly-ilMi, 

encounter before the summer c.mies, ■'and th.^y "I have l...-L'un my hit-r ..n t.>o little a pie.-e ..t' 

must be willing to he tw.i .u- three years \vith.,ut ]iaper t.i -ive the.' my jud-nient of IVnn.-ylvania, 

-.)me of the conveni.jnees tliey eni..y at Imm.-. an.l but. in .-h.irt. 1. ami many wi,-. r than I am. 

y.'t I nm>t needs say that Am."-riea i.^ anoluer tliin- .hi way much appr.>v.' ..f it an.l .1., jii.l-.. ^\■illi.anl 

than it was at the iirst plantati..n ..f Virizinia an.l I'.-nn as tit a man a< anv ..n.' in Kump,' to plant a 

Xew Eln^rrkuid, tor there is better ncomm.Mhiti.m .-..untrv." I'enn iia.l al- ■ bieu bn-iiy m -..liatiic 

and English provi.-ions are to be had at ea-i.T \vith the Duke ol' ^'ork tWr tli.' lan.N n.,\\ .-.jn-ti- 

rates." The passage the ocean will h.; at tiititiL' the State ..f Delaware, the 

the outside six pounds per head for masters and duke's jn-.iperty, an.l wlii.hrenn wanted t..i p.js- 

inistresses, and five pounds for servants, children se.-s in order to in-ure hi- own pr.>vince the free 

under seven years old fifty shillings, " e.^cept they navigation of the D.Iavar.'. an.l perhaps, als..>. t.j 

-uck, tlien nothing." Arriving out in September keep this province liilliuL,' int.. the ban. Is of 

or October, " two men may clear a.s nnich ground his neighbor, Lor.l llahiM.-uc, who claimed it 

by spring fwhen they set the corn of that countrv) under his charter. T.ut >ir J.ihn ^\'elllen, the 

as will bring in that time, twelve tn.inths. f.irty duke's agent, still hel.l ..if ami ^ave I'enn nunh 

barrels, which makes twenty-tive ipmrt.a-- ..f ...rn. troubh^ and u^ea-in..^-. Tii.' latter had r.,.eived a 

So that the first year they must buy c.rn, which t.niptinLr otli'r a c.mpany of .Marylan.hrs of 

is usually very plentiful. They must, so so.. n a- six th.iLi-aml .a-h, an.l a tw..-an.l-a-half 

they come, buy cows, more or less, as they want c.r p-r cent, r.iyalty ti.r t]i.> ..f the In. ban 

are able, which are to be bad at easy rates. For (tur) tra.le between the Delaware ami Su.-(|Ue- 

swine, they are plentiful and cheap, these will haniia rivers, but h..' r.'fuse.l it up.>n m.hle 

'piickly increase to a stock. So that after the groumls. 

iirst year, what with the poorer sort sometimes S.. al,-o Peun retu-.'.l t.. abate the quit-i-eiits ev.n t.i 

laboring to others, and the more able fishing, hi- m.'.t intmuit.' fi " inien.liuL!-." a< Clayp....le 

fowling, and sometimes buying, they may do very wiMte. " t.. .lo e.jual by all," hut he .li.l r.'.lu.e 

well tiil their own st.)cks are sufficient to supply them from a [lenny t.. a ha.lf-pcnny in l'av..r ..!' .er- 

th.Mn and their families, which will quicklv be, vant.- -ettlimr on their liftv-acre i..ts, alter havim: 

and to spare, if tbev follow the En..^lish hu.-bandrv. ^erv..l their tim.-. Suli-.".picntlv, a- w.^ <hall see, 

:ls they do in New" England an.l New Y..rk. and I'enn was !e.- ri-i.Uy nc.ral in his lan.l ...ntracts. 

-"•t winter fodder for 'their" Finally, the In li.;i ..f the j.P.p.i-ed mon..p.dy I'.iin nui.h' many 

'•andiil I'enn recommends that none .-houl.l make 111., ral'..— ..flan. laud pri\ il.-.-.- 1.. an..ther 

up their minds hastily, all get the consent of their cmi.any, •' I'lu' Fr.-.' S.,ei.ty of," who-e 

tiieuil.s or relatives, and all pray Go.l f..r his [.bins h.' liivor. .1. an.l w h..-- lon.-tiiution ami char- 

hlexsing on their honest endeavors. ter h.' h.lpe.l t.. .haw. 

During all the rest of this year and of Uls-J The charter t.. ih.' I'enn-ylvania Cmpanv, the 

an. I up to the moment of his emliarkati.ui f..r Free S..ciety of, b.ars .late Marcii L'4, 

liar.. pe, 'William Penn was bu.sily an.l ah- Hi-^J. The "inc.. rp.. rat.. r- nam. .1 in renn'.- .1. ,-.1 to 

"■.rbin-lyen'.'age.l in the multil'arious pre[)arations them w-n- " Ni.-!i..ia- .M....r.' ..f L<.n.l .n, 

'""■ his new He drc'w up a great d.i.' ; .lame-!,., m, r.'hant : Philip |-"..r.l 

-'atiit.'s, coustituti..n-. et.-., e.pud t.. the averaLre|..n, merchant* F.lwanl Pierce. ..f L..n.l.,n. 

In a.hlithm to w..rk ..f thi- -.u-f. n.MpiirinL' en- -.v. ..f Ch.-hir.\ v.-.iaian ; Tl,.,nia- I'.ak. r, ..l' l...n- 

■■"trate.l and al.-tra.'t..l tii..ujiit an.l his d.ui, w ine-.-....per '; an.l F.luar.l P>r....k. -, .,f L.,n- 

'■•rre.-p.nidenee w-as of the m.,.-t v.duminous'char- d.,n, -n.cer." The .le».l cites I'enn's auth..riiv 


under his patent, niciitidns the am 

tract iiiin til,, man, 11- ,,t' Frank 
mon >nr,-A'^r, liv -iiih r rii< i- 

pan. of twentv , .and ■■ ' ^^ h" 



vevanre t.. tlio , 

'■ntre of his lot anil 

■e~, er.Tts this , 

len> and i.tvhai,!-, - 

*"an.l'-.'rvi"!'" ' 

i-y town." he >aid, • 
nd alu iv- 1 ■ \i 1 1 

1 s.'ei'n „',...:.'.',. i 

ity enuld' l,f hiiih , 

;■ allnu- 

iin:.-It' aliaiid'.nrd i 

'"fr, ■un-liar'.m t 

<'!'oiv he .-ailed, the 

■h u.!l never !„■ 

< n' <-nurse lie 

•'''^'■'---'-'''-''■-^'::':-a.i:::^ i::l^u■::::l';;;:l^;'■:,:'■:■;;:,;^l;!;d;H^^^^ 

'^^V'"'"'"; "— -■•I>nvii,..,.„fo,und,a,on U,.,u- he .ailed, th. -onm.-M, ,." „ 

rmd courtd,.,.t and vi.-w of .Vank-|,le:U,., „iti, all tlndin:: it itapo-nldo to ol,..,-ve tho ^onditiiui '' " 

the au hontv ,v,|U,Mte in the ,„v,ai... The I^eeiallv « la-n ve-.ds he^.u, to l„. nun l7' 

.^,ety ts authota.d to a,,.oint and ren..,. its the uaiet-.tont and l.n.ine-. ,, „„ , .; ' / 

officers and servants, . .iv.,, privih-.e of tVee te.n of .reat tanns, with a e,.„tr :;. shi,, , ' ,? "i 

transportation ot it,- ids an<l nroilnrts .,.1,1 ,^v ;,,r, „ ;,, i » i. i -o couiLiup ,ii\ |,|, ,i 

en^pted froiu any hut'-tato and local taxi^Mlat Ihe T; -.f- hI" ZT- !" """'' ^'" n'^"- 

at the same time it can l.vv all nr.dfal tax.s for Koads w.iv to' l,o huilt t,' t 1 '' >1 '" f "' ';^'' .".'■ 

11^ own support within its own limits. Its chief fVom citv to .itv on"^ ,!;''!,. v'?. '"in"' 

officers are commissioued as niap.trates and all streets wnv'to I,,- laid oti' -it r-l,r",n"l "'' ' 

charged to keep the peace, with jurisdiction in case liberal width and no "hnildim- w' ,• \ 1 '1 

of td.ny, riot, or ,li.-onh.r of ane kind. It is to encroach on tho-,. „or w^^tho,' ■ in i,? ,7 

given three representative, in the Provincial Conn- bnihlii,. to he pe.aeii^.d This , }, T ' '^rT' 

C.1 to three-titth- of tho prodn.-t- of all mine, amounting alnlo.t to t^nn.di v aid i^ t 1 " 

and nunerals found, free priviie,e :,. ri-i, in all the ried out anv n,ore tie.n t ''ivat tv 1 ' " 

waters ot the province, and to e.tahh.h fairs. ,nar- was not Penn's notion ' oiohahfv fi r h\ , 

kets, etc., and the books of the society are exempt precisian ui anvthin.. aLl it" k^,k m^ ^ore 1 ki^ 

§nt;n;:h^::-;^ bi -^^^^^^ 

statement ot ■' ceruun conditions or concessions Lord Baltimore in Maryland t is - ike Iv h 

agreed upon by A\ ilham Penn, proprietary and Penn got the idea where Lord' i;d„m, edri " 

Governor otPennsyh-ania, and those who are the his. IVom Ireland, that form of l^r^de'enediv 

aaventurers and iRirchascR m that province the ground-rent being an old and familiar Iri-h'tei'i 

1 th of July 1..M, the system of plantation is ure.^ The quit-i^ent svstem can-ed 'dmo i n 

p^mly described. I i,-t,_a lar^e- city is to be lai.I diate discontent in Pennsvlvant ^ d u 1 ,b m" 

ofF on navigable water, divided into lots .,,,,1 nnr iniinv.l tl, ,,,,.■, • " "','■.'"'" ""V^"- 

Chafers of large tracts of lands , five' 'Ian 1 i h J m i^ Ir^^ '"'"^'"^^' ""'^ "'^ 'f'>'' 

acres) are to l^^ve one of the.e citv 1, s a-- ' m s n^" ' n „ " r""' 'T'T'"'"' " t'"'': 

them, the_ location determined by chatice, h^^ to this aW " " '"'' '^"""■''"'^^'' 

Penn's oricrlnal plan to have his nrcar cirv roi, It V,- ,„• . ' 

of ten th..san(acres. divided .^L'i::iz:i wJ:;:- .::::;;:;:;:;;--'':r z:r\::rl 

otsot .me hnndivdaoresoaeh. one of these lots to could di^ for metal- an vu leiv' b urn! mh , 
be award.., ( by lot - to each purchaser of a tract ii.r damages .lone. >.ttl..,s .oiv re,,u rei t, .l' u 
ot manorial, who was to' build in the land survc.y..,l for tluni within thr. o v.ars ( !,'.„1- 

W„th,.-,.:..,yv„t..w,.re,ol,e.n 1,0.13 of a,„„„.t of 'st...k ,„.,,! ,,0- ^"^ '^'''""'"^ '''■"''' '■"'^' ''^ ' "'Ud. t . ,r Sold, in 'an V 

....1,- >...-«„,.„. o.,n,o„u,i,. yoonei„K„,u„.i„..:n,^;v:!; '-■a^'^ i» public market, an.l traiul an.l .ie....Mti..n 
^^'^^^- ■'■ ■ --"''^^^^ '''■'' ''' ^- I'"-''-l I'V .;.rtoiture.,fthe.',ol-. 

-■">-; • ^ - '-o™,. .•o„,n,ur...„,e:rnr,.„fr; ^11 tia.lin, with In.iIan-wa-tolK..lo„ei,r.,,,,.a 

'" >''-' ■'• ' ■ ■ '.:- 'T:n:;:::^TiZraic<:::::'z '""■'^'■'- ^""' "■^'•"' "i-" '■"■'" i-went..,! in- ins,.. .- 

nr*;" ^ "' "■ ' -•■>-y..v.,„h'4.r; ge...r.isu.: .li"" "f -'""1- Ut|;.n-es against Iialians' w.,-.. f 

--;- ^ ' ^::r--:;j::,:^::z::.j:-z 'r i-"-'-' .i-' -tho-e against, he whit.-, and 
:;;:;::^;,:,;,:::.\-; , ■ - ■:::■': ■^;.':,,:-,;'Mii:;:■ '!Z^'"' ''':^""",.""' '''■' ''^""^ ^" ''^''^"'-' ''>■ -^ 

^;"!j"^';;;l;',";:;;,|;_^; ' :; ■ ; -i ■ . .-.'••..Mi!a.'e.'''-n;'; as th,- win;,, in improvin- ihoir laii,ls and rai-i'ii- 
tobi.ik t«o..,n,o,e „-.n.Mi ,,, ^,/,.:/„r';,ns',La,;K"t,'ru"r.'^ '^''"'^l'*- ^'^"^'''^ "'"^ uiarkcd withiii tlu'ee months 

fK'aku ISiiy, oily uii D..-!;Liv;ire or fi-...vviiL-re ■ t-i ai.l Iijdi' ii- i l -i i- « * 

hou.«9, eu-.. ;in l^^to h>.|.l n. ,-r...a for fu,m.,;.„ ,,x..,r,' -vnic-, ,vl„.u ii'^.y ' TMh^l^Ii"'" !" ';""""'""'""'" f'^"' '"ttlin- the colony, Oct. 1:1, 1,-1. 

duco on hi.i.l ;ill,.lt-.,l to ll,i.„, l,y tli,-"^,ci,.ty, wii"h",i "t'ic'k r.',?i t'',"N':'"f ']'|'.,;.'.""?,'.''' ' ''';' ''' ' " ' J i.l',-^< ..r tl„. .M..n l.,„.|Comt ol'.l|.'|.r..l-. tl.ooulsKs...en.s to Uave'bci.uan eMcLive'lro-'ir-iMe "Vu'.Vl 'u' e ' ' '■'""' " "■'''''"'"' "'^" tli.-sc l^nst-rwerc "'."r- 

■ial Oumril, -.-nd 

. -lu.ll L'lvc tli.-ir 

o tlr I., 


tMicl to tho (n.v.inn,-. 1,1 rlrariii.' hin.l. nn.j-. th.- .., r:-.lo:. and •■irti-v. Ct 

ir.'O.- to he pix-ervr.l !oi-l,i|.-lHiiiainL'. T.. [u- aftinKiLlivc or n<-,:lv. . v-iiir 

vvnt (l.l.tors fiirtivlv al.^ mMliiiL'. iirua> l.rsl. . . . an.! tli'? la",-. -, or, 

to Icavo thr iirovince until altrrthi'Lv w.vk^' pub- ;.=; aforoaul that are a,-eul,Ml to 1m- the < leneral 

lieatioii of the thrt. A,"„;iihlv shall ;,e earoli;.! as lau. oi'tjie ].n.vinee. 

(»u April -.'oth 1h j.iihli>hol his ■'tVanie of -ov- v. iih thi.-" .ty!e : ' IW tU- ( (..v, M.or, vith thea-Miit 

mnueiit.^ir, as James Claypoole eaile.l it in his an>l apprui'.a'.ion of the f;- en.ea ,■. tl;e Provincial 

htters, '■ the fiiiulaiiientalj for govornnunt," — ia (.'ountil nii'.i Cieiiera! .\.--eiiii>!y,' " Ihio is tin/ 

tiut. the tirst coiiititntiou of Pennsylvania. lina! Jeteet vf i'-au's ('■•!:,. iltntion, a d. Let which 

The cloeiiinent is entitleil " The frame of tlie rol-- it or' t'-.u ai'v |.ivi, ".c,. ,,f heinu' repuhliean or 

L'')vernment of the province of Pennsylvania, it; ('enio.i .tic i:i '•.■.■■n ,,r^ian.c fhe A-seiiihly, 

Ameriea, toLiether with certain laws ai:rei-.l upon the i^puhir li.i.h , i !:■ ■;. oie.-entative- of the jnople, 

in Kii-lan<l hv the -overn.,r an.l .liva- tiv.anen ..f are r; ^trh't.-l to a ve,..pow.-r. 'f li.'V 

the af<.re.~ai.l provin.'.., t.. 1m- t'linh.a-explain.'.l an.l ..ri'/inate hills; tie.y .-anu..t even -J. -hat.'- tliem : 

(■..ntinued there hy the lir-; pr..vincial cuincil that they are not alhiwcTt.) thinl; (.r act f .r tiieuiselvis 

shall be held, if they see me. t." or they represent, luit hav.- n..tliinLr to do 

The "-prefiice" or preamlile to this eoiistitutioD except vote "yes" or ■'no" To In- sine, the 

is curious, for it is writt. n as it'P.nn I'.lt tliaf the Counc'l is an "l.ctivt hoily lint it is mtaiit 

eyes of til" .'oui-t w.i-e upon him. 'J'lie hi>t two to consist of the < on .■ninr's' Iti^thearii- 

paragraphs f.rm a .simple .•xi-iirsis iip..ii the .h.e- toeratie ho.iy. It iloe.- not cene fresh from the 

trine of the law and tin- lran-gre~,-or a.~ expounded people. 'J"ho tenure of its members is three years. 

in 8t. Paul's Epi.-tle t.itlie K.mians : "For we Beskles, for ordinary business, tweuty-four of the 

know that the law is spiritual: but I am carnal. Council make a quorum, of whom twelve, with the 

sold under sin," etc. From this Penn derives, not Govenior'.s casting vote, compri.-^e a majority. The 

very i)erspicuoasly, however. " the divine right of Governor has tltree votes ; tlie Bociety of Free 

government," the object of .jovernment beiiiir two- Traders has six votes; if the Governor have three 

il to chi-rish tiio-e that or fiur friends in Council, ^\hll the -upport of tliis 

■nmient a //>"- /,■ imnd soeietv he can control all li'^iMalion. Itse.iusin- 

■lit], an.l niak.:., it as credil'de that William Penn .-h.juld have ef hi.- 

......1 men sliall he." own free will permitted this blemish hisOm- 

vernm.-nt seems like a stitution. whi.-h he .■laia../.l gav.- all tlie pr.wer of 

part of r.ligi..n it-elf, a ihiir.' sa.-red in its institu- goveru'iient and Jaw-making into the of the 

tioii and end. people. 

In the Cnstitiition. which the preamble. Aside from this fatal pL.-.-e of suliM-rviemv there 

Penn begins by contirmiiig to the freemen of the is much to praise in Penn's Constitution and 

jirovince all the lilierties, franchises, and projier- something to wonder at. as being m,i iiir in a. IvaiK-e 

ti.s secured to them by the patent of King Charles of his age. Tlie executive functi.ins ot' (n.vernor 

II. Tiie government of the provin.-.- i- t.i.-on-i.-t ami Council are carefully detined ami limited. A 

of " tlie Governor and freemen of th.-aiil province, wlml. .-om.' ami liberal provision is made tiir edu- 

iii form of a Provincial C.iun.-il and fJeneral As- calic.ii, publi.' m-IiooIs, inventions, and useful .scien- 

semblv, bv wli..m all laws ,1,;,11 be made, officers title di.-.M,veries. ' 

cho.-, 11, an.l publi.' atlairs trau-acteiL" The Coiui- Th.''ial C.uncil, tbr the more ].r.-)mpt 

eil, .,f .-.eVLi.ty-tw,. members, is t-i be eleetcl at dispat.-h ..f business, wa- t.) be .livi.K-.l into fuir 

once, one-thinl ..f tli<' m.'mb.r- to i^.. out, and their committees, — to have .'liar-e of plantations, 

h vear. and after the first "to -ituate ami s.'ttle citie,-, ]i..-t-, an.l market- 

■j: ..ut .a.'h vear shall not bo t..wn.- aii.l hi,-hwavs. an.l t.. hav.- an.l all 

r. I'w.i-thiril- of the <'..nn- suits an.l c.,'i>i, s r.-lating to plantati..ns," 

veiuv-tour will -utKc... The tra.le an.l tr.-aMirv. an.l ' th.- t;.iirth of mann.'i-. 

, p>v>i.le over the M-i,.n of e.lucati..n, and arts " tliat all wick.'.l and s.;an- 

■ thiv,. v..l.-"The(o.v.u-n..r 

il shall y., ■./-/,■' .(„./ /„-.,^,...^ ' ••■" " • ' ■■ •■ -■■■ "■■- - 

to th.. C.-n.-ral A-.-'inblv heiealier (,// T,;';:!',- ^^"t.'', 

/"■//. ul,i,-li th.-v -hall a'r anv lime think tit t., be '- -■' — 

p:i-.-.l int.. law- within tli.''.'. . . . an.l ";:";";:;■' 

' ■eiieral .V^-emldv, after rea.liiiL' over the r)r.>poSe.l u,\l. 

tbld, t.) terntV 


.1.1 well, "whic 

h -ives 

n,n;,j,tio„ [/. 

r., divil 

durable in th 
Ilemv Penn tl 

..■ w.,rl, 

!,ink,- tl 



ai v 

irs eh'ct. 
•ears tlio. 

;.l .'a 



d within 

a ve: 




t.i e. 

• ;.,v 


„r i, .,K 




an.l i- 1 


:.. ha\ 

Collll»..n,-., ,.f wl.i.l,, 


}[IST01{Y OF T)KLAVvaI;K. 


to Ih: 

:nrly, dr.i,, 
iitii.- ,'il a!, 
■re tn E\., 

^ ;--ec- ors M 1 
:|..vt- th,s>:. 
<:i[ an. 

A -,-^ 



.1 vol, 

All ih, 


,i.,.- C. 
lu- re-ula 

daloiis liviii',' niav lir 

may lie .-u^Tr-tiiily tr;i 

flirkii.iv,]. il^v aii.l artv 
TlieC.-ie'ral A-nnl, 

not toex.vnl two liim.jiv.l liM-Dili, •:■::. re;>e 

all the r.v,.mcn of the |,rovinr,.. -HkV we 

meet in the eajpital on "the '2'>ili ila'- et' th'- 

ond month," aii.l iliiiiiiL: ei-ht dav- ,-\ 

ed to tVe, ly eoiii;r with oil,- aiiothei and the 

Council, and. il' they eho,e, to niaki -nij.-.-rion.- 
tO the Cunneileoininittee- ahoiit ihr aiueiMMi.el.f e) 
alteration of hills (all .-ii.h a~ rhi- Coiineii [eo- 
posed to otter for the ailoption ImJii,:- ii'ilili.-l.ed 
throe weeks lieforehand ). and on ihe niarh dav loi 
were to vote, " not l.:v- than tu.-ihinU hiakiie/ -i sra 

quorl^m in the pa->in- of hiw., an.l r]u\,:.- of Mieii trave- of il„ li|. .,-rie^ of the pi-ovin<-e 
officorsas are hv the.n to I.. ,.ho..„A ■i'f,(,,u. AH , our;.- .hall he o,,..n. and ,u-iie,. shall neiti 

'"*-'>■ hesohhd. n.od.a deh.y.d. hi all eonrts all j, 

voi.,r son.- of a! I ' iTliLiou-'i pei>iia.don- may freelv : 

„ ., . 1 , „. rand J'etir in their own way and aceordiu- to their o\ 

Council were to select the officers to serve. The Planner, i.leadoig poemally or hy 'friend ; co 


'" !■■ 

rai-ed upon ,,, 

ill. h 

to l„. treate, 

■'- I" 

elu to \.v 
eral As.-einbly was to noiuin 
treasurers, sherilf-, ju-t;ee-, >:> 
each office, from which list 

plaint to he extiiidR.l fourteen days before tria 
and ■^unnnon-^ i.-^u-d not less than ten days liefoi 

(•any coniplaiiied uf at his dwellinjr. Xo con 
plaint to he received hut upon the oath or atlii 
niation of complainant that he helieves in hi- coi 
scienee his cause t.;. he ju3t. Pletidin-s, proce-.e 

' ■ ■ ' reijuin'd t,i \,Q \n-\vt', ii 

' as to he under>too( 

11 trial. >hall he hytwolve men. peers, of ^.o,H 
;ieter, .-111.1 of the nei-hliorho,„f When' th. 
Ity t;.r the otieii.^e to' he trieil is death, th. 
H' i-^ to Minimon a grand inquest of twentv 
men, tw.-Ive at least of shall i.ron.iun.';. 

body was to adjourn upon bcini: serveil with m 
tice that the Governor and Council had no fnrtlie 
business to lay before them, and to assemble aii;Mi 
upon the summons of the Governor and Couneii 
Elections were to he, ami so were ques 
tions of impeachment in th.- A,-. mhlv and iud" 
meiit of criminals in the C..iin<il, In case th. 
proprietary he a min.u-, and mi Lnianlian ha 

been appointci in writin- by hi.- lather, the Conn. laiLdi-h, aii.l written ..laiulv -i 
cil was to appoint a cmimi-Mon ..f thive uuani- hv all. 
ians to act as liovernor dui'iiL' >u. h min.u'itv. X. 
busiuft-s was to he done hv th.- ( ;..\, in u-, ( ' 
or Assembly on i:?undav, except in .-.i- -s of enier 
gency. The Constitution could n..t h.- altered 
without the consent of the ( ami six- 
sevenths of the Council ami the ( hiu.ral A- 
senibly. (Sin-h a nil.-, if .-nf „■,-.■. i, w.nihl have 
perpetuaied anv ( oii-titiiti..ii, li.iw . v.-r ha.l .. Fi- 
nally IVuu -..hnnily ,|,.,-l,-n-e.| -that n.-itlier I. 
my heirs nor ti-iun-. shall ]iro.-iii-e ..r .l-i anvthiii- 
orthiu.j-s wh.-i-.-hv th..- Iil"-i-;ie< ill thi- chart.-: <-.,ii"- 
taine.l an.l ,-xpi-.-.-.d -hail h,- iniVii!,.-,! .,r hrokeu ; 
and if auythiii- he pr,M-un..l hv anv p.-r.-.m or 
lier.-.ui.- ,-.inti-ary In the.-e pivmi-e^ it .-hail be held 
of no foi-,-^. ,,r.-H;-et." 

On .May Lnh P.-nn's co.Ie ..flaws. pa->e.l in 
EiiLdan.l, t.i be altered or aiii.-n.h.l in l\-n,i^yl- wn.n-Jy or pn-.- 

statutes, th.- tii-t .if wliieh .1.-.-I.11-, . til.- .-hart.-r .A- ■ - • r' - - -- whi.-h ha.- ju-t b,-, u aii.-dvA-d Mb.- All pri.-.n- ,.f whi.-h .-u-h ,-, 

"funilamenlal in the u..v.M„„.-nt it-eit.'" The shall b.- ^oik-h..,,-.- to,- re|..a- 
sccond e.tabli-h.-,- th.- qual" 
(or v..:,-r or el.-,-tor). Tl: 


he sheriff t.. 
m.-nt. Thi- 
1 r,-a-..nahl.- 

Je.-.- are required to bo moderate, thi-ir am..unt- 
settK.l by the Legislature, an.l a ttihle of th.-ni 
hiiiiL: up in every court-room. Aii\- ]ier.on .-..n- 







i< pai.l hi- ow, 
nihivat.-.l i,,-n 1 

t.iiaut the pro,. 

- .luh- l'ri-..,i-a 

.-^ the All lai 

il.linu-, except ul 

-s ami and om-t 

VII pe.-..u- -hall h,-bai!al,h- 
-av.- in ,-apital oHhn-e-'-uh 
nt <ir tin- pr,-umi.ti..u -m-.-.- 
re as t.j le.-. ]o,h|. 
..Is.iiall 1m- liabh- 

.1 l.-.l, 

then all 

ilonlv. (Tl 


a man sli 

M.uM ,li. 

!■ in.^olvmt.l All N 

!•_'. attcsK' 

.1 l.v tw. 

„ ^i.ii..-,-. >l,all 1»- 

torco a- h 
\v provcl 

. lan.U ^ 

uithiii i; 

■ r olInT 1 VrViill.r,- 

iitv ilavs within or i 

•• Al 
.1 a.' 
t,, 1), 


nii.s to ].-.u-o an.l concnnL KartM,-. :,,,(! oth.-r- 
L'uilrv.f l.r.'arh nf n-u^t liiii~t liiak- siti.l'action. 
an,l ovrr. f. ilirir . luplovrr-, an.l in case 
of :li.. ra.'l..i-'s -loalli tli-- Counci'l C'oiur.iitl.o ot' 

the ["■"^'"'■'■- 'i"'-"-'''' '- !')-(,■ that sa:i-tartion i< nia.lo out of hi. 

S,.vvii yrai-' .[Uiet po-.-^ion -iv.- I itle. (^x.vpt .-tatr.. 

in ra.M's.,f inlani-. lunatie<, nairrie.! W(,nirn, or All piiMie oth.vrs, lo-islator., ,. 

persons hevon.l thr -. a~. ■ Sor-.f taith in .1, -„- Clui-t, ot' ■■,. 

ISriherv an.l extortion aro to ho .rvt-relv hoi„..-t rot.vidio,,., and tuoniv-o,,,l," but tino> -honhl o,. in,.,h.rat,- aiai not pa-..i- livin- in ti,i- provinV. v 

exhan.-tive of meuV pro,,ertv.' knowle.l-.- the onr A lini/lit v 

.Marria-e (not forl.hhlen 'Lv thr ,lr-rre> ..f eon- the Crealor. I'phohhr, an.l Ki 

satiL'uinitv ..r atllnitvi ^h;,!!"!,,. .-t.-oura.:'.!, hut that h.ol.l thm,--. h. , . ohii.-, ,1 in ,-on,M;ien,-.. to 

pannts or i:uanliaii> inu>t tir-t ho eoiiMiho,!, aiM live pra.-oaMv an.l jn.tiv in <avil M,ri,,tv, shall in 

puhli.'ati..n nia.h' i>ef m- -..,|. ,niii/;;ti..n : th.' .-.r.- n..\vavs I..' in..K^te(l or 'pi-'imlieeil li.r' reli- 

ni..iiyto he liy takin- .air an..tln-r a. an.l L'i..ns" p,a>iia< or ]iraetie>. in matters .,f faith 

recorded in the" oth.-e of th.- e..iinty r.'ui-ter. All .-hip, pla.r. or ministry whatever." Th.; ]ieople 

holids, ete., are reipiire.l t.. he r.--i>teiv.l al-o in daily lal...r. All ".irttnses a-aiiist ( io-l," '..uear- 

the county enrollment oftii-e within two m .nths iiej-, curtinsj:, lyincr. profane talking, dninki-nneis, 

after they are executed, otherwiso to he void, driukiny of healths, obscenity, whoredom and 

."Similar deeds made out .if the ]iri.i\ inee were other iiiicleanness, treasons, misprisions, murders, 

ali.iwed six mouths in which to be registered be- duel.s,, sedition, maimings, forcible entries 

fore becoming valid. and other violence, all prizes, stage-plays, cards, 

All defacers or corrupters of legal instrun.ents or dice, IMay-ganies, gamesters, masks, revels, bull- 
registries shall make .lonbl,. s;ui-f:i.tion, half to baitings, coek-tlghtings, and the like, "which ex- 
the party wronged, be .li-mi-si..! fr,.in place, ami cite the people to, cruelty, looseness, aud 
di.sgraced as fal.<e nuii. irreligion, shall lie respectfully discouraL'ed and 

A separate regi.-try of births, marriages, deaths, severely punished, arcordiiiL'' to the appoiurinent 

burials, wills, ami letters of adniinistrati.m is re- of the Governor aud freemen in Coumil and 

cjuireil to be kept. General Assembly." 

All propertv .if t'.ions is liable f..r donblo >atis- All other matters not pr.ivideil tor in this 

taction, half to th.' party wr..n,-,,l : there is code are reffrre.l to '■ th.e or.ler, priidrn,;e, and 

no land the .sati-taclion must be workeii out in determination " ..f th.' ( oivernor ami Le.jislalitre. 

prison; while estates of capital ottenders are The mo-l a. Imirabl.' parts of this code, jiiitting 

.■scheated, one-third to go to the next of kin of the it far ahead of the contemporary jurisprudence of 

sntierer aud the remainder to next <if kin of Eii'-daml or any olh.'r civilized coiuitrv at the 

criminal. time, = are the re-ulatior;s for liberty of woi>hip 

Witnesses mu-t pr.imise t.i >pi-ak the truth, the : i'.i;> v.. n,u,t .Ar..|,t ti..- e.iih lu- .^.i.^nv in Mirviimi fnri„i..,i],v sir 

whole tiaith,ef., an.l if .miu i.-t.'.l .if wiUfuU'al.H- '->--- cio r^v i,:n-..M- .r ir, 1 ...i ,i.,:.- r ., ...'i,,, n ,,!;.;.,i 

ho..,l >hall Miliia- th.; ]H-naltv wi,i.-h wouhl have ci..r":'^'i'''.''!oi,L'';Mn -nii'Vi^Ji'i;"'^^ 

been inHiel.'.l up.m the p..,- .n a.'.-u-,.!, >hall niake bo.:.,..-,- i,_i„- ,„ ,.„ n:-e.r,i,,ri,-.,..- „..,..r ...lo-rrs, i.,,,..,-.:,. 



1 to 

th.- party wro, 

'-'"'■ ^'' 

.d b 

'■ i'"i'ii'-iy 



It b. 

iirt 1 



■ k. 

,r b,. 

'pl 1. 

fore anv ma_-ir 
■r.- shall 
Iron m.ire th 

ai-.T than th 

-trat.' iti 
1 but .. 


. till 

..lH..e at a 

vears ol.l 
•ant,- -hall 
i-tb,. v, 

'■ 1" 

1 if 
It ii 


1 titti 

rvin- an.l at 

II- '■■l"il'''-<-. : 
-rr>, ba.-k-l.i 

till- .-m 

tlfS, .1 

i .if 
I'j- ti 
lurs an.l 


,.rs , 

lit ta 

!-.• nrws. uh,.| 

11. a- a-:; 




• I"' 


, ar.t.i be -.,vi 

■r. ly pu 


ed a- elie- 



and the adniini-'nition ..f j.istirc. rMin's (M.,ie 
on tills lattri- p.iiht i.- nioi-f than a li'.indrLii years 
in advaur'' nf Iji.-laiid. In the matter of ft-cs, 
charges, jihiin and >inipK turnis, processes, records, 
and plcadiuLT-. ii -till n iimin- in advance ot' couii: 
proceedini.,' and riLrnlatmns nearly i Vii-yw htTf. 
The clauses al.out wurkdiMii-.s and al.Mit!a!-ie 
offenses are also far iu advance of evei' tiiC Ijjs;. 
modern jnri-iu-nd.-nee. 

Xotwithstiuidiiej' all these and Toany ctiier 
heavy and piv— inu en-a-enn iits, Pebu -eenis to 
have found time to attend to his \v..rk as a pi'-a-d!- 
er and a writer of n-liirnus ti-aets and iiampldeis. 
He went on a mission tour int<i the West of Eng- 
land, he wrote on " h-piritual Conimissiou."' 'ne 
mediated between dissenting Friends, anil healed a 
breach in his ehureh ; his henevolent endeavors 
were given to aid and eiiedurage the Bristol 
Quakers, then severely pirsecuted, and he biirelj 
escaped being sent to jail himself for preaching 
in Loudon at the Grace Clmreh Street meeting. 

Penn had expected to lto out to Penusyivaida 
himself late in the fall of IGM. but the pressare 
of all these concerns ami the rush of emigrants 
and colonists delayed him. He found he v.ould 
have settlers from France, Holland, and Scotland, 
as well as from Eugland, and few besides servants 
would be ready t" 'jo before the spring of lii82. 
"When they go, I gn," he wrote to his friend 
James Hairisen, " but ray going with servants 
will not Settle a government, the great end of my 
going." He also said in this letter that in :-ell ng 
or renting land he (deared the kin-'s an.l tiie In- 
dian title, the puivha-er nr 1. --■e pa'd the -eriv- 
ener and survex^r. In (,)eiMii..r I'.ini sent out 
three commi-Honers, William Cri-pln. duhn l]e- 
zar, and >vatliauiel Allen, to co-oi>erate with 
Markham in seleetin- a site tbr I'enn'- 
great city, and to lay ii nut. They aUo we'i-e 
given very I'll 11, earet'ul. and explieit in-tnietious 
by Penn, iiartieularly as to dealiuL' \sitli the In- 
dians, some Inilian titles needing e.\tingui-h- 
ed by them. He wrote a letter to the Indians 
themselves bv these commissioners, which shows 
he had stiidi.d the sava-e character verv care- 
fully. It tniiehed the Indian's faith in the one 
universal Great Spirit, and tiuely appeal, d to his 
Strong innate sense of ju-tiee. He did n"t ^^i-h 
to enjoy the great pi-ovinee his kin.' had -i\en 
him, he said, willic.iit the Indian's enn-ent. The 
red man had siitfereil mueh inju.-iii-e t'rem his 
countrymen, but tlii^ was the work of^.lf-eek- 
ers; " but I am net such a man. as i.- well known 
in my own country, I haxf a great li.>ve and re- 
gard for you. and I de~ire t:i win and L:ain your 
love and frieml-liip by a kind. ju-t. and peaceable 

Hie. and the pe,.|.|e 1 send are all of the -a., . 
rr.imi, uu^i -iiall in all thiiej- behave them-U,, 
nccordi'ig'y. and if in ai ytiiinu' any shall ell:... 
you or yo'o p,.'ooie. \<.n shall have a full a;. ; 
speedy sati-f let'on tor tlie -aiiie by an eipial nip ,- 
bcr af jj.-t men f,a both sid< -, that by no m.a:- 
uw may have jnst ocea.-ion of being olliaai. , 
ag;u:i?t cl'.em." Tiiis v,a.- the initiatorv *tfp ii: 
that '•traditional policy' -f iV-nn and the (tuak- 
ers towards the l-.diau-nhieh has been .-o ee.;- 
fi.sieutiy maintaineil ever >inee, to the impeiirii- 
idde JioTvir of thai sect. 

As the year liHi: enters! we fiml Penn rep..rt( .1 
to be " exiraordinarily iaisy " about his provim.- 
and its atlairs. ilv is sellin..' e>r leasing a gtva: 
deal of laud, and sending out many servants. A 
thousand persons are going to emigrate alo!,_- 
with hiui. He gets Claypoole to write to his eur- 
respoadent in Bordeaux for grape-vines, iit'tei. i: 
hundred or two thousand plants, to carry out wit!: 
hiui, desiring vines that bear the best grapes, mt 
the most. Claypoole has himself bought tiv- 
thousand acre>, wants to go out and settle, but 
doubts and fears. He don't led sure about the 
climate, the savages, the water the vermin, reptiles. 

By June 1st Penn had made the extraordinary 
sale of live hundred and sixty-live thousand tive 
hundred acres of land iu the new province, iu par- 
cels of from two hundred and tifty to twenty 
thousand acres. Penn's mother died about thi- 
rime, causing him much affliction. The Free 
Traders' Society is organized. Clayjioole makes Uj' 
his mind at la<t to emiirrate, the site for Philadel- 
phia is determined, and -Markham buys up Indian 
titles and .-eitlei>' land Upon it, so as to have ail 
clear for the coming great city. Augu>t 31st the 
Du6e of Tork gives Penn a "pi'"tective deed tor 
Pennsylvania, and on the L'4th the Duke linally 
concedes New Ca.-tle, and twelve miles about it. and 
Iloreklll (Delaware), between New Castle and 
Cape Heiilnpe.u. to him by deed of feoffment.- 
This conciud. s the major part of Penus busint^.- 
m Enuland, and he is readv to sail Sept. l^t. 
IGSL', in the .diii. " Welcome,'- three hundred ton-. 

Captain Ko 

that he write- the tuuchin- letter to his wife aie 

the love of mv vciith and mueh the joy ,,f m; 
life ; the mo>t beieivcd as well as the most worth' 

,,f nil my e:irt 


• C'-lII 


^ ; ami 


,h:it lovo"u;n in 




irl th: 

m ths 

,^,A.|1.M1C0S, whi 


yet \' 



• Ik" 

,U Deal with :i 



any o 

f (.i.n 

iVoiu the I)»vn.- 

- >L' 

lit a 


• nf ■■ 


f.iithfal tViru^ls 





!l an', 

This petiti.iu have he,.-ii rin._>u-.-.l at't.jr 
CHAPTER IX. Peim's arrival, tor we lln.l in the miinu.- ..f th,. 

Provincial Couueil,^r ,lat.? ..f 10 I, ,,t' Thinl 
DEr..\.WARi-: i-yni;ii witjjA>[ picnn. ^loiith ('Mav 20, Ki^!), that "The (;..v'r [P.iin] , 

InRinns lliJC.jnneiU that he lia.l CalJ.-.l th.- In- 
Fen'X was very well represented in the new ,li;i,i^ t.iir'-tli.'r, aii.l pi-..p .-..1 to L 't th.iii liave ruin 
province and hi.-s intere-t- intelli^'ontly card tor [f ji^.y xv.iiil.l lie .■..ut.iited to he puiii-he.l a- v 
twm the time that Lieut-<TOV. BroelcliolU, of Xew Kiijli>li were ; wliich tliev a-reed tu, [irovi.l.-d that 
York, surrendered the r..l..iiy, until h.' hiiii.- •!!■ ar- y Law of .'Selliug them Rum be aholi-hed." 
rived and took f.nnal p...-.7-^ion. llis eou-in, "file hnv wa-i in fact d"ecl:ired to be a d.^a.l letter, 
Capt. Williani .Markhain, Dcputv-* n.vernnr, a-^ has p,,,!; Jn ](]m Vtum besought the Coimcil to le-i.-late 
been seen, arri\e.l out iu <J,-toiiei-, lilsl. .Mark- ;xnew on the subject so at leti-st as to arre-r in.lis- 
ham was iu Xew Y..rk on June 21-t. hut th.' first criminate sales of spirits to the savages. Thi~ sub- 
record we have of his appearance on the Delaware ject of selling rum to the Indian.-, is concinually 
is the following: coming up iu the Colonial Piecords. 

••OLiii,,unKii,nM, ■■ " w-.'whn,.. i,.ni-:in.iseai, Penu's sliip, the " Welcome." sailed iViun "the 
";",|"i!;7n'V' '■ e ' . ' '." ' ",'."' .';,"''."': '';""; r)..wiie's" (the road-^tead otTDeal and Ramsgate. 
f.r> -■; . I .' . , . - iN. where the Goodwin Sands furnish a natural break- 

!'!!!Vr,; ; .J'-u.;,!.Ji":i' .''i. . .:^,:! •>:,.■ :^,: i.r yi:l^ wali-r I ou Or about Sept. 1, 1082. Claypoole 

it.'S oil Si pteinber 3.1 that '■ we hope the ' Wel- 

iie-.' with Williaiii Peiin, i-^ gotten clear." The 

■*!■ ship mail.' a t.ilerahlv brisk vovage, reaching the 

' RuUort W,i.le, Jlorsan Dreivet. W=>. \V.joam.(n5e, (W. \V. The nwrlc ' ^. , ^ii ' /-\ "l oi^v IX- 

of) w,u,,im\v,.rnar,Tii,.i.i«Friin..,.n,,svn.ii.jQM, Will CKyton, oapes ot the Delaware oQ October 24th, and >ew 

OituE.iroestKudi, and y mark (L)ur L.icy lur L;i33e) Cock.' Castlc OH the 27 th, b. ill- thus tifty-threc davs froin 

In September Upland Court apiiears to have shore to shore. 1 h.' voyaLce, however, was a sad 

been reorganized uu.ler ^larkhani's one, to the point of disaster. The sniall- 

and jury trials instituted. The iu^ti^es pns.nt at pox ha.l been taken al)..u-il at Deal, and so severe 

the meeting of thi- iiewh -..r_aiii/,.il .•.uii-t were were its ravaL'-es that ..f the one hundred passeu- 

Williani Clavcn. William 'Wanier, Ihihirt Wade, gers the shij) can ied, thiitv, or nearlv one-third, 

William Bvies. Otto Enu-t ('...k. Ih.beit Lucas, died durin'j- the pa.-ag.^. The terrible nature of 

L-..isse Cock, Swell Sw.u^. .11. all. i> Eauk.-ou, this pestilence maybe ::arhere.l from one <trikinu' 

live of them bein^' ni.'ino. r- ol' Markiiam - (oiiii- fact, and that is this: auti^piarians. -earehing fir 

eih The clerk of tin' court ua. ri„,:ua~ E v.dl, the names of these fiivt adventurers who come over 

and the sheriti"s name wa^ '!.«.• tir>t with Peiin, — a list of names more worthy to be put 

jury drawn in this court — the tir~t dr.nvii in P. iiii- .,n r.ou-.l than the rolls of Battell Abbey, 

sylvania— wasintliecaseofas-aiiltaiidbatt.rv I'et. r whi.-h pre-.;rves the names of th.> subjugators of 

Earicksen (•■.■. Ilarmau .lohn- ■:, aii.l \\ifi. and Ihi-laud, who came over with William the Con- 

their nanus were .Mor-an Dnw.t, William W.,...l- (nieiMr,— have been able t.i t^ii.l the mo>t of them 

man>on, William ileuvs, .Lim.- En.wue, lleurv attaehe.l a. u itnes.-e< or otherwi.-e t., the udlsof 

Uevrnjlds, E..b:Tt >,■;,,, :,Lv. Ei.-iianl Pittuiai;, the well-to-.lo bui-hcrs ami veomen who 

Lakse Dolboe, J..lin Akiauian, Pet.r Rambo, .!r., embarke.l with Penn on the - Weleonie" and died 

Henry lla-tiu'-, ami William O.xK'V; tu.. durin- the v.iva-.'. The li-t of pa-..n.'ers, .lerive.l 

of tiJ' ])eputv-(;..veru..rV beiii- on ihis .-hi.-tlv rnnu Sir. E.iuar.l Armstron-'- a.Mre.--^ be- 

iury. At th.'n.'Xt meetin- of I'plau.l (.ourt, in f,r.' th.' Peun-vlvania IIi~t..rieal S.jciety at Ches- 

NoMaiib,.r. Maikhaiu ua- pivMiit, aii.l heait.-ii.h'.l t.T iu l^ol (his authorities being there given iu 

A p.-tili.m t.i Maikham. ilate.l " IV-i. nk ■''■^^'■•;';[^^';'^^^^^^ 

•A'.iil.i lend to shou- that the- Indians of that day "\ J'\ /„,„,, „,"|, ,,re<h. ,.vii,.nc. i. th for „..i ihe 
'ould not see the merits of" L.jcal Option." It is a.-.Iumi'a!m'iil'irB,'a.l!oTu'oi'Mru!rr7r''t^^^ 1 

dre.i, uf Yu 

Ellfn (V 

John F.> 

Thom.s 1 


\Mt.-. of Il,r:f.i..l: 
.11 h.-tor, Krnt. 
: ill iriil.lK-an.ure. 

, ami 8on John 

filSTORV OF DiJ.AnAilt:. I 


orkshir,., a firs 
Thomas ilf.n 
John Hev. 


U.I ..,r, Li, «ile 
OTT, of Hursl-rier 

no. Cl.Tk to Pro 

ali.l fali.ily, 
r.iint, Sussex 
■iucial Counci 

f fjL. 


St [..If. 




JOKX iJooDso:.-, ,hiri:rg.,.n. of S.irif 
8'.ip"Jol.i,,u.-liJ,a!: -..r-nnst..!! 


.'i.i SOD J. ,.,,0 




JoiiNH.s;;TCsai:dE!iz,.bell,, h,3 ■ 
J.-.sui'AH.v.,ti:;csa3d x;ii2.ibelh, hi 


J. Ml. A .m',l:: 


1U..MA9 Hocp, cf Brta-on, Eerbv-lii from Lon 

ily, of ParTiJge, L'. 
S.iriefy of Frt-o Traders, rami- in 

■ of tleJl. 

daughter, horn at sea. ,v„Ii,„ sight of the Ilela,^are Oan«. Oct. 24; F. i. , ,.,.; IT- . ;.,.,-, ...,.,,, .-,„ Ue.y.nuu, an.l daoghter, Anne „,. 

Joh■,,H:;:;:„;l"^,:;;';F:::;::;;;:;;,;^..i^:^"o':K:''a"'^^ ,,^;;;--Ho..o.and3b.r,are,,hi.-«.fe,ofca.,ehi,ht,ren,ht„. 

ighter, horn at sea, ^vithiii si"lit of tht " 

, J'^*"^''*'. fn"gi-ant from rhester, Penn's friend, who renamed J-s,,., , [ i !• H^'f^lr,-^, ,n^ 

Ipbnd after Lis native place. His lir.-t name rr..l'atilv Rol,ert I i • - ' ,., ,„i • ,,' -,, 

John EowLANDatidPnsulla, his., le.otBill,nsl..i'rJ,tH^;A- First no';;,:;..:,. ;: , - , ^ - ■■^"""1 """al'l^r Mary, of Llangel, y 

'^o^t-!^';!^!i^Um:!:Z;: ";::!" n^^f';"^::" <„me s..v IrlS"""'^^ ^^'^ '^"Sl-t an.: their mnmy, of Xarbeth, Fe,,,- 
from Conyhurst, or }iitchinL'nel.l,''.sus-ex'!i IievllJ'fV'.'penn.'^iTemVr "."^'KI!F'i^^, srumorK, of I.oem Hill .'b.^hirp 

John Jr \ckiiolse and Margery, his wife, of Yorkshire. Calei; Pisey aii.'l u ii,. \nii aii.l ■! ui'-h't. r \nn 

n.'i','.."!"' ''""^~i'7" ''''" )'"' '■ " ' '''^ ■ = >'""'"""" "■*\>l™n:e"in i i-, -',,■ i ^ !,,..., iii>'«ife, aiel ebil.Iren,— Phebe, John, Tho.,K.< 

f,n,j„, ,'.,"',, ' ,, '., ,| ■ '' " ■'; -^ '■-■'"ii'g Iri'-n.l i>iid Jim- ,. ' I .loseph, of Iluddeston, Lhesliire. 

\\'i, ::[.,' w ,, ;'li, ' . ■ • ■" ^"- ""y^^'''- ■' ■■• -. ■ -- i.ty of Free Tnuiers, from Ridley, Cheshire. A 

itoii, Yorksliire. ' " ' 
Taylor, of sutlin, Cheshire. 

Tl!r,.MAS V'-.RNON, of Sf.„.,l„.r„. .X,.!,,.. 

RocEiiT Veuxon. of >i. , - , . 

-'"!'■ '■' ' T.'^^, .V..rth Wales. Panoall Vei-.nox, . : - ,, 

'■' . ' of r..,n^ll, Derl-'y-l.iie. ' "■' Toe, an o ercimien, j 

i!ai-y,hisvifo, John Hcrb.tfsdaiifbter. Fr.OTi Pl.iMliD (orWoralli of Oiu' R-ksbire 

and. A1.0 their I«o iluugbler8,«ho died at John Woiirem,. j.r.Lablv brother of f,.,',-„in- ' j 

her of Asaembly ill lC&:i. Th.jMas W.ip.Tit of (.ixt.a] \ottiu^hai.-bir '^ ' 

Dr. Guor;... Sn.iili. in tl„- " rii-trnv nfD.hnv: 

Tin- pa-. n„ r. hv the " J,,l,n ami Snrah " :,n.i ' 

" Bristnl," m, tin- a. kn.iun, inrlmle Williai:. ' 

Crispin, «h., ,li,.,l ,„, th,' «av ..iit, .T.ihn Bezar ami ! 

tbniily, William J [ai,v an,! Kiin.iv, Nathaniel All.n > 

and faiiiilv, J.,hi, On.r. E,i„„m.l L.ivett, Jn.-tM.l. I 

Kirki.ri.l^v. an.|(;ai,ii,lTli.ii„av j 

Co., Pa.," .,,f.ali,.< tl„.t;,ll„.in.- a.havin.^i.n.lia- ^""''"^ l^'" ""'/':"' "*!l^'V'' ^^"''"''^ ""' I'^" 

blv come ih,-. lin.r ..f William I'.-nn -.,,,1,. ^''"-"'■^ ■""' ''"■" "* f''^' " \\ >'l'-"iiic wi-iv Mil.j.r. 

before ami,.-,- imm. af'.iAvtnl-" an.l ^" ''"'•"."' •^■"' v..va_a- to tla- I Vlawaiv, v, Inn iIl 

before the en.! .if JtiM'- " " '' "■'twal in-iin,:^ .,t man aiv ,,;,„, -,1 to tAn..r aa.! i 

R...Ann„ARXAnt„of .,,„e,n„M„i,neto.n -l^-^h -l-.un. IVnn -l,.,w.,l him..|f at his 1,,-,. ^ 

Jorx niA,..., or l;ale,s»h,v.iiarried3Iarv,d,ui,hterof William Clay- ^^^"^ """"''^ ""'^'- ■""' '"-'f ' '^ '"^ Ini'mi.-. wa.^ -iv.n 1 

"j;,:;xCx^,,ofDer.vshire,bi,„in.Sarabandtwoehi,dr.n . ^ ' ''" ^"I•I7^"|■ ^'^ -'- j'"''"';^"''''"" "'■''" I 
preacher.if theSU,,,, „„u,berof the \.-eml.lyard of l'onan°'anl "^l"?. tl"' burial (it tllO i!,a<l. Klrharfl Tli\\a- \ 

Epeakerofthef^™erbo,h. ' ' sll. ll.J, a t; ij- o -[ .a ~>. 11 -.T. sii.i , - 1 , i^ -ood con V, I- | 

" ^ " ' ■ " inilc.u.l ill i..ntri!i'ii'i:-; - ■• 

uh.. «.,-.. M,-k«ith !i;.' 

iiaiiy i:...,.l nu-eiinirs ,„i 

iurd." In ihu-e i.i.iiis M-rvios l>,.„n had th- .•m- 

.on. The cvi.lelle 

e i» con- 



..■air ua 

C Kliisbt, of Abi 

en b.ini of Fneli, 
h of October, Its'. 

.;don. ia 
1 taunts 
the day 

to th 


ti.^ .if 11 
. W'c h 

dkl.vwaup: I'xnKR wilijam phx.v. 

,lial iM^lp of UvM- Pe 
.-ratefuliy -uv tl.r 
town on the Dulauai- 
v.,rs hin.le.J, an.l tla 
priatc nanu> nf Upla 

The record of Pi uu"? a 
f>llows: "Octobui- -JS, ( 
hvv. arrived W-t\,;x' tl... 
t.iwn of Nru- Castl.', in 
Delaware, from Kn-land, 
William Penn, E^'\; 
proprietary of Pennsyl- 
vania, who produced two 
certain deeds of feoff- 
ment from the illustrious 
prince, James, Duke of 
York, Albany, eti;., tor 
this town of Xew C'a-tk', 
and twelve miles aljuut 
it, and also for the two 
lower counties the Whore- 
kill's and St. Jones's, 
wliich said deeds bear date 
the 24th August, 1682 : 
and pursuant to the true 
intent, purpose, and mean- 
ing of his royal hiLihue.^s 
in the same deeds, he, 
the said William Penn, re- 
ceived possession of tbe 
town of New Castle, the 
2Sth of October, 1682." 
This delivery was niafle, 
as the records show, \<v 
John Moll, Esii., anil 
Uphraim Plerman,' gen- 
tlemen, attorn. .Ns, consti- 
tuted by his r.'.yal hi-h- 
iicss, of the town of Dela- 
ware otherwise called New 
* 'ustle; the witnesses to the 
formal ceremony in wliieli 
the kev of the foit wa- 

. iiTid w.i. lu L't.lanJ on tlic c 



to receive po.~.-e:-sion of the lo-wer counties irmn 
Moll and IKrriKin. This \mi^ .l.aie un Xuvemhi^r 
7, 1G82. 

He also reconiin. ii.ImI a rniivt to meet :U Xew 
Castle on ydvenilur lid. On that day l\un was 
present with the justices, and ^larkhani, IL.Jnic, 
Haigt', Synicock, and Brassey, of the Provinciai 
Council.' The lower counties gave in their allegi- 
ance to ^Farkhain for Penn on November Ttn. 
In the interval between his arrival and the meet- 
ing of court. Octohcr "iOth. Penn went, to Upl;"id 
to pay a short visit. It was between November "id 
and the 8th that Penn arrived in Philadelphia. 

Penn was n(jt idle while his pecjple were ■•euin- 
ready for the uint. r. Hr -ent ort'two n;. --rii-w- 
to Lord Baltimore -to a,-k cfhi.- l..alL!i. nti; i Kiu.i 
neiudiborhond, and a-r^e iiih.ii a tin-r tlie better to 
establi.-h it." Vu i,~Mud a writ „n November ISrh, 
to Peter P.auei.uiii, the :;h. ritl'.if .b.n--; Oouuty, to 
summon all freeholders on the L'Oth "■ iwA ei"i < u\'\ 
of theuKselves, .seven pers"iis nl" iim-t ii.ire .br wir:- 
dom, sobriety, and intep:rity tn ^nv.- a- their drpu- 
ties and representatives in < n tu ral .\:- mblv, to iie 
held at Upland, in Pennsylvania. I ),e, mb'.r (ith, 
nest, and then and there to (■on>ult nith hb-n lor 
the common good of the inliabitantsof that province, 
and adjacent counties of New Castle, St. Jones and 
Whorckill, «/i((sDeai, uniler his charL'e ami juris- 
diction." On the jauic day Jnhn Viiic^ was aji- 
pointed sheriff of '\Vli,.avkill and ]'enii di- 
rected him to hold an election for seven repn- 
sentatives. Similar notices were issued to the other 
counties. Peuu's province was then divided into 
three counties, — Phihub Ipbia, Bucks, and Chester, 
— and the tcrritorii-s int.j Niw Cattle, Jones, and 
Whorekills, ulia--< Deal. The names of the two 

in the diitluariie of the sai.l tnvit. .\uj tliii 
I iindi-r my hauii anil seal, in Ntw Cjistlc, this 

istlves, is alsu preserved as fol- 
ril.p.1, being h.v Willi.Tni Penn, 

" iVr luy h.n in-, .Tulin Moll, Peter .^irickp, Johannes Ue Hue 
William Simple, .\rnoiatis lie la Grange, and John t.'ann. \> hoe acce; 
tance and obligation, signed b}- them 

Esq., piopneti-ir and i:ovei 
Castle, if., aiipiinled jv, 
upon llela«are, and t% 
to the n..ith side of line ^.l;d full ninlj 1 

un therein. The pn.pi 
at Philadelphia, where 

ilie cl,-c nf ll„, vear (Drrrn,!. 
•d,— Deal to >u--.x.and Jo,„, 
■ o.-c.-fd tl.itt Cane IIenl..p,'U 1 


ernor ai 
iou dirr 
the kc. 




After }-enn had laid otf his province, he t<.ok 
a hei.^e and rod-' ro New York, to r-ee tlie Ooverihi;- 
tiieiv. ard !(.()k intu the atlair.-, uf his friend, tin 
Duke ot 'i'ork's province. When he returned he 
'lict the j^>iL-mbly, on December 4th, at I'plaial, 
Nicholas More was jiresident. The first day wa- 
Gevoted to organization and the selection of com- 
ri.iitees: on tiie second day the credentials of 
ir.embers and contested election cases were dis- 
posed of, and the House proceeded to adopt a serit .- 
uf rules and regulations for its government. The^- 
have no special interest, except that they show il.i' 
Lower House had set out to become a deliberative 
body, !jnd was prei)ared to originate bills as well 
aa vote upon them. The three lower counties sent 
m a petilinn si'.;iied bv seven persons from New 
Deal, sis from .<t. ,b.iie.-,and tive from New Ca- 
tle, asking for annexation and union, and the 
Swedes, Finns, and Dutch another, asking that 
they might be niaele as free as the other members 
of the province, and have their lands entailed upon 
them and their heirs tbrever. The same day a 
bill for annexation and naturalization came down 
from the Governor and was passed, and on the 
ne.Kt day the Legislature passed Penn's " Great 
Law," so called, and adjourned or was prorogued 
by the Governor fur tweuty-.jue days. It uever 
met again. 

The act of unie>n - of the countiis of New Ca-tle. 
Jones's, and Wlioivkill, alia- Deal." and naturali- 
zation •■ uf all torei-nei-s in the prnvinee and coun- 
ties ature:^aid," after ivcitinL' I'eiin'.- ditierent tith.- 
to Peiinsvlvania and the three hiwer couiitie- or 
Delaware" IIiiiidre.l>, and tlie lea^un.- there ueiv in 
favor of a closer union and one government f .rtii 
whole, enacts that the counties inentiuiied " aie 
hereby annexed tu the province of Peiui.-yi\ ania. 
as of the proper terril.irv theivof. und tiie p.opl. 
therein .-liaH be -overmil by tl,.- -ame Iau>and 

hal>ila!its oi I'eiiii-ylvania lio ,.r .-IkiII eiijoy."' I'o 

further tin 
enacted tl 


.t ot 


f;.r(M,L^nors tli:it do tl,i 


ccLiiities :ilni(^:ii.i; 

and u 

,0 ,,ro, 

li.^r :,ll 


to tlie Kill;: "f 1:11- 

1 olu'di, 

HV to t 

lie on, 

[irietary and liisLjdv 


-.-hall 1 

r Inil 

iihI re 

iiiiti'd "tri'cnu-ii ol' I 

ir provii 

rr und 


- 11 Ion 

^:lid, ill as ani|ik' a 

id Cull 



rr^idinu' tliLiviii :'• 

otiirr t; 


ill til'.' 


iqiou inakiiiL:- ai.]Ji 

aiioii ai 

1 pa\ ill 

^- t\\'. lit 

V ddli- 

illL'S ^toi-liii-, to li 

■ iiatur; 

li/,d' ii 

lik.' I 


Tlii.< act, say.s 1'. 11 

1, in a 

Irtln- u 


-li a-ti\ 

afteiwai'ds, " ininh 


til.- (.,■, 

,.1.* . 

. I'li't, 

Swedr^, for tluni-e! 
(luaint liiiii that th 

■es, d..,„ 

ted La 

l.ivr, - 

y ('o.d< 


day ilicy ov.r >aw." An - a.t ot ..■,,ttl.-i,u-iit " aj.- ^he second ,d'tl,._' .'.xle re.juires tliat all 
[M-ars to hav.; l.cui pa-^ul at tin- smu- tin,.-, lu ..ffi^^,, .„„i jh.,.,,,,, •• ,.,,„„„i-Moiiat.',l - an.l in th.. 
wlii(.-li, owing to ''the fVwnt'.-s ut thr iil-o[i1l-," the <^.i-vic(> of th.' ( 'oiiiin..ii\\. tltii am! ■ 1 Ir- ■ • 1 
lumiber of representatives \vas redue.-.l to time in ,i.-].uti.'S in A.->.'i.,l,iv, aii.l'- „/'/ 'll,„f hurr tlr rn'/ht 
the Council and nine in the AsscniMy from .'aeh f,, j,,.f ^.,„,/, J,,,,,/;,.- .||-dl he <iich -i- uroti-s -ii .[ 
county, the meetings of ill. ■ I. i-i.-laliin- to lii'annii- ,l,.,.|.,,-,. thc\- lii'li.< .• in fi-iH (_'liri-t to I • tl '< 
ally only, unless aiK'nier-oii. y >hoiil.l .lei-iir in th.; ,,i(;,„i aii.l Saviour .if tlie v.irl.l " >-:r Tlii* wis 
opinion of Govern.jr and ^^^ ,,,'rhaps' illil.eral f .r P.-ii'ii .-' .'lavjuit uml, r'it 
Penn's "Great Law," pa,-sed as al.ove recited, ,„,( ,j„i,. ,,theists an,l inli.l.'ls. hut iVrian^au.l S,,- 
contained sixty-nhie secti.jus.' It re|iresents the cinianswere d.nie.l tlio ri hi oi' <utfr-i"(' ."-w "ir'i "■ 
final shape in whieli the proprietary's " frame of '• hv the iiini.'ofl io.l oi- C'lui-i .ir J '-us " w s m ' 1~ 
goven.nient"and code of "laws agreed upon in .,hl,'. upon 1._m1 ''.■'.uivirii,,u, liv'a'fiue of ttve '"hill- 
England " conjointly w-ere laid before the Legisla- ij,,^^ ,u. j^^.,. ,|.,v.' hai-.l lih.iriii the House iff 

ture. The \aiiation> tVoin the original forms wcr 
lunieroiis, >om.' ..f tlniii important. The language 

pn-ot,„„'„t" an.l 'l,la-ph.iuy an, 


of the re\ .■ i- much improved over the Hrst i,i-j-,,iiiniiit ami 'lihi-iihtiii\- 'iml cui'-iu"- ii .• ■■•.1 
forms, both in (li'.nit\" ami su.-laiiif.l f.rce. 'I'li.' .;,,,;i.i>- .,..,,.,1.;., 1 il. ,.. 

a.lmiration, and they .lioul.l have tlieirjilace here : yi„,a,,r ,,,,s ,^',^10 'puui-liali!,' with .h-ath an.l 

"THE GEE.\T L.^W; on, the body or L.vws OF THE PnovixrE or contiseatioll of pnipertv, |o 1 1._- i|i\i.i..l li.tween the 

Pf.XNSVLVA.VIA AMI TEKRITOniES TIIHEEIXTO CEEOXOI.W,, PASSED AT AX <. . «' .i-pi-'- •llll tll^ 'vl 'I' r t' l' ' Tl 

Hecemuee, I6s'2. ' ' ' punishment for maiislauulit.r was 1. 1 he L;'railiiateil 

" UViereos, the glory of Almighty God and tlie soiid of mankind is iLq i- . .1 . f i ,.- i^ 1 . 

roason and end of guvernn,™t, und,.l-e -ovornment, in it-olf, iiCCOrdlUg t.i til.' IiatUn' ..f I he oil. Il-e. lor a.lul- 

Js a vener.We orJinaiio- of r..,.\ ■ a„J fu.a-m.Kb a,- it i. prin. i|..'ly tciy the penally Wa- [llllili.' uhippillL: and a V.-ar's 

|''||-'-ji;^^-'.^'''^ ■-:-■'■•- •;■•■'— " ■- ■■; -■■■■■•■■ v\a~ iuipn.-oiimont for lilo, an a.'ti.'U f .r',' 

l'",*;.,' :!-''!!:'r,;'"',\^"' ' ; ": ." , :; ,] ': ,', ' ," \';;','; al>o Ivm- at th.- .ipti.m ..f tlio a--rieved hu-l.aiid 

;":;'■■ \. ''[''"' ' ' . ' ■..':„.,„.. or wit;'; iiir,'>t, torfoitiire of half ..lU's .v-tate and 

V, "■: ,,;/'. ' ■ , . ■,' '■'"','"!:!- a y.'ar's impri^..iim,'iit, ; ^.-.-..ii.l oti.■n:^e, the liie 

''■■"'' ■ ■ ■ ; -" '-r -;, •';:' ' ' - - :.f'r.- i,.,,„ ; -..d.niiy, u hippin-. toHriiun' of ,„u;-thinl .,f 

itlity God beins only I-ord 
llie author IIS well as oliji-^ 

iidelKtuniliiigof po.ple in . 


ll .ill'el 


111. . nth.- 

in prison 

; life t.-i 
> . . 1 , ; ,■ 1 

11 1 




i.'\t tVi. 



1. thn . 
if par 

th-' lab 

u- ill lloU- 
le. t.i ma, 




h.' fort 

: th 

■ n.-thln 

; if th.' 
hi.- .-tat, 

man be 
in a.hlit 



in pr 
.' .if Ci 

i.ift. " 

iiv, hanl 1 

abor tor 



J [V ( r ^ 

^ I \U VI 

Tho penalty for wl 
is punMic'.l with . 
p,m.,l.,n.nt at ,|,- 

Hi)M«'-l.ri!nki[l_' ai 

ling rum to In.iiii 
i,MHrc,-m..iit of ,1, 

1.1 l..r,>.iiy ,i',„u 

ne f 


V t 

f;u;tiun; f.ircLl' 1 .'■ ','', 


\ n" \.i I 

w t.i the I.,..r,|. ,,f tlie C'onimitt,-.. , 

llui:i;>iil:i- ,-<ril, in.ut „f Frim.U ,, 
<k-! ai..! Tail.i.c O.imtiL-.s ^larvl.i,, 
reriching hl^ (!,'Stin.itiiiii on the 2'.)tli. 

a','l'JuT''v";^u'^/"';:!;'!;;^^7;:'"" '''■'"'"'''"" ^ ''''■'' :'^'-" '''■-■• ■■^•'■^ -^ >-ri-v i>u-v one lor ^\■illia;, 

r^Mt»,,l..,Mu-.;t.M,,,Ji-,r;!^!;'!l;':;t'';i"fc°,'^l;^^ P^'""- A ^l^'^^t ,..;-;,.,l- ot\ . .lo„ i,u am Vc. 1. \,u][.: 

••■•^^'^11 ' ■■ ^ ''i. ' ''..!'!.''. V'.u.ce of diai!eL!,ed.,.,.,r,d a '"'^^ uuiong ;■,! nl ,,::..jr-' ua.- a >ourcc of inii,-:' 

!'"";'!'.' ;'.','.'' ' ' '' "'''"" "';""'^'" "'"rl;!-- '"■--'. Jiii'V.u.i care ailj piTolcclrv, tho lin^s aim l)oiin,ls an. 

'"-■-■''-'■' . . ■ ^^'■''•■' ■'•'v' !■'■'■'" ,'V:."'v'^l!; sf-ff^- of tlic ii.w citv ■■.■■luin.,! t.> lie R.a.|jii-r.,i 

h;":,","'..:,';,. ■ ': , ■ - '^ '■ _ ■,; --.^^ tl'^-Coonci; ao.' l.a.l t.. l.e ncwU- cK;,-t,. 

"I ' V ' ■' - 1'., ■ ■, •ii.!°o "i^J ':r-aiu/<;l. wiih mil,!, iiui.ortaru Ir-i-Uulv. 

fl'veor't.n'd,',vs7„a„.v.MkJ,;,L.;"'-' ""' ' " '■■■"- '""■'■ "-"''"^ busiijess beJur,. thrill, ai.ii ihoiv were be^.h.s, th. 

■•XXXII. slanderers, sc^„,oni,.e,vi,„mlspr..:i, botmrlarv quc-^tion all,l iutervieW.S witll Lord I^.ai 

!v,,!r.^"irt;"rt['Tt"Mi:["oitirpZf,"^^ "'"!"''^' ^"'^'''" '■""' '•■•-"''■^ "'''' t'"^"- t'^^Hou^ i„v 

''■■;'-■;''"■ ' ' - iunumry couneu^ an.l pou-«-,,u^, and in additi.,. 

.,.;..^^ :' ' , ::.™rasen,entofn,arri:tgeH«.itwu3 tO all this ail eYlen<iv,. a,„l ,.v -, ,.t i,,.. ,., : ; 

.aire. Pemi, liowe^. 

liKil to it all. 

'xxxvir'ii ,• "",.': : v: " ■"" !'.!''"!,■;' C',u„db„ "isiHtaiued lii=, health, spirits, and energy 

atid tbe 

or whoTh'^ii'.i.' ' ' ■ ' ■ " '"■'' ■'';'"''■■'"-■ "'''•^' ''■'^"- -^^^ '^^■'•'^ ^'^""'^ ^''"*'' f*^ '"''^ke a" exteu- 

jnHti.lof;!,,.',: , . .:....'ii.^^u.iju.iKefindml^!Le "'m- *'^'° '^'^"i" ^'ii'<^"i:^^i '"' t'=''»''tories, visited the Indian 

P'^";,;" ;" '' /' .■ -'"... lunbem in suu,»ay as they tribes in friendship with them, curionslv studied 

tu'k,,,'..' , ,1,'. ,i . ,:, :!;;,""e!'^' """■'■ "'"' "''" "'"'" "'■'" '" '^''^'i'" iJiiinnsrs and customs, and even piJked up a 

ami'l^oVi,''ri..v'„Mi,'-h',iii'e' ^ II f'r'n' '",'"''''"-''""'-'.' "' '"^- "e^" Smattering of their tongue. Penn was more and 

cbe»ler'qnartr,n!'i',.~^JLroneVe""vra''i".?-'n.'"'^^ ?nore pleased witli his pry vluec the moie he ^a w of it 

?uuce?,.)a'".''p.?''.'.l "'Tr!,'d;„''u',.rn^'l'M''','' ' ,' '' ' ' ""'-"-''' '^'"^ ^^'"^ ^''^''•"'^ ^^"''^^^ ^^*^ ^^'^'^^ ^'^'■'^ ^'C liad ^et il, 

aii'i. ' . 1^ -.' . .' '"'",' •"''.",', :'" ' . :' , ' """,'.';, niotion, even while he could not conceal from him- 

b,'.','',' " " : , : .,.', 'i ',' ;':':' ' '~"'"" '*'^''- ^''^'^ ^^^ new province was going to prove ditti- 

■i"!!."'-. I'M ".. ':. .. . : ■' . I ' • ! ,:',>' ,.'.' l,':'^,. , '„ ,, '. ,'•'■"■■" cult for him to govern, and that his'liberal expen- 

o^^^^lur'" . ' . i'' alien names';f.tre'vH:"r'""j'' '■l''"''" '" behalf of its Settlement would eventual] V 

-itbe week, an.]' firl,',' ,^;!',;od|'La plunge hiui deep in pecuniary embarrassments. 

a.:iu.^' with , he day called S.J '..lay, The Govenior ajipoiuted " ucw sheriils for th. 

'•Sections Xll I M .. . . n.-endof thi3cn,learesnb5tantially several COUntieS, Ulld oldele.l them to issUCWri:- 

cm^::::::: .^. ,; , ,:-'i.i:;v^:t!::tu;etb"-:r"'^ ^' ^ z^'^' '^^'^^^'"" ■''' ""•'"'"'■^ "^' ^^^^ provincial 

of justice, tbe .:...,).., t, 1.1, ... hnv, iVgislration iliicrtl'ie'imrTtyrf ^"'^Ulicil and General -\.>selllllly The " 'let el 

:^;X.h:i.,:e*:r::;::;:;;;:luy^u!:::;:;':^:.^^^ settlement,- or trame of gov..|nn,ent proviMonaHv 

After the mectin, of the A.semblv Penn ^et '^;'°p'^|^ '^[ '''^';«^ LegUhuure in its brief .e.-i„n 

out on December lltli to ■.. to vi^r Vonl l",[^ M'^"^'l. or Uiester. ha. ananged tor the elec- 

timore, with wh.. Ill he ha.l an ai.|H.ii,tm,.iu t'.r tl ^ ' '' , ""."''' " ^''''^'^ I"^''=ons from each 

19th. The meetiii- t.i.,k , ,!•„■,. ,t W. -, Pi-,."' '■"""^•\' ■""'■' '"''"'^■'■''1 -^--'""l.^- to consist of n<.r 

where Penn was e,,u,a,.,.,.lv an,M:,V'tabv 'm.' """^ '''^'^' '"" '"""'"'' ''■•""-'• The people of 

tained. Xothin^^ ua. a..,;,n,.li-he,l li;,u,"v,.r in' '"-' 7'""^" - '";"';^ ''■■ '"""^''t that this woiild be 

thewavof seftlin.r the boiin.larv di-miie l„.vi,n,l " ■ ''\ "'"'" '' ''^''"^''^'^ '""' ^''^ y^'^ 

a general .ii.eii..ou of .he ,n,,eei. liabm,.::' ::;:;• 1 iiT :;;':; ;,::!';:;;:''-,,"/i'''" "!":■" '^■''■';- 

contended f,r uhat his ehart-r ■_'.iv... him : ]',,,„ ae..',idii,'.|' ih, v . ,';''"''"'''" '=!"-"'=''-^"'-- ■""' 

hs\,,la'ati!!n''';!,iai,d^*hulH'noiim'e"ii^ iZnu-l-Jc'l Ti] 'Y'T""^ '" '""','" '^"-'. 

tion in whi.-h I'enii aii.l the Virginian Ch.ib.M.e \ "; I" '' ' ^ ' '"" 'I; l'- -< t., act as meiiibe,- ..i 

t.ioK e,,miii.,n ,r,.„i,d. d he i-M,e of f,,, .,, ,.. '.,.| " l' I "''"""■ ' ■ , ■ 

'" i''^' L<"Ji^h, met lor 111,, fii-.t time in Phila- 

l''l|'h>a. the (' an.l (iovenmr e,m,in-t....eth, r 

wlieth.-r tlie l).-hnva,e limi.hv.l.- u,.,v ..trl,,] 

r;;:::,,:...':r:,:i::!':'j;;:';r:':r;r .-.;-.:-.oi,.,...,„..:, .,.„„„,..., , 

iteii.lin..' partie--hoiil.l 

Tlie members, .f the (; 

;?:;ui h>.'''' Th.':;;:i;2;;i:;:it:ii:-:a;:d'^ y^''-, ''-'}-r '^'' ■- "'■''-■ '■-- '-'- 

ing to meet a.ali, ili ^laivh. I;;;:;!:' ,:;■;: \!;r'f- '■' ■'L-'u'-n- ""■'■;■""• ''"-''' 

to write out hf^oun vieus an.l hi. ou„ r of AV T' '' J-p""'".':- . ^^ '"'^^"^ * '^'.^"f"'' J = ^''i"'' 

><i m. ouu a, e.aintot A\ uh.Ts, ^^ iiluim Haiee. John .Mojf K.hiinnd 


i,k. IMuanl .-..utliriii, 
iKrr- .ifthr A".i„, 
ti.s nn til- Ihhr.y.w, 
im. .r.hii I):,rl,v. Vul- 
panis ILii.uiii," .Tolm 
Willimii (iu.-t. IVtiT 
A-„^— .L,J,nLriL'L's, 
l<l..lnhn(.'urtis IMi.rt 
r.— Luko 
:lius Vfi- 


Caiuuell, Fran.'L^ Whitu.H. .I,.l,n ][ 

.I,.l,n IliUianl, Willia'ii V 

ana .J(>hn Th.^ ,n,- 

inmi the tlmv l,,urr mu 

«ore: A'- (crVr-//..— Jnlm C 

.■ntinc IloUiii-wnrth. (ki 

Dfhraef, Jaiii,- Wiliian,-. 

Alrichs, ILn.lrirk Williaia 

Siinun Irnns, Tl.-nias IIa-~Ml,|. .Inhn ( 

IVluell, AVilliam \Vi„.UniM,v. ,L. 

Daniel BnnMi, Leiioni lli-hnp. ,^ 

Wation, Alexaijilir DraiKi-. Willi 

Henry T-ownian, Alexau.l. r MnW-.v 

Iviliort Bracv, Ji.lin Ki}i>haven, C 


At the firet meeting of tlie C'ounci 
piiia, JIarch 10, 1083, Pluu took the i hair and 
sixteen of the eij:htLen councilois •\\eie present. 
The sheritib of the diiftient lountic- ( Edmund 
CaIlt^Yell fui >l\\ C'a-tle, Pati l]aii( omli t,,i K' nt, 
and John \'iut s for 
Sussex) were called in 
and made their return* 
respecting the election. 
The rules were of the 
simplest : the Govti nor 
ordered those speaking 
to do so standing' "ii' 
at a time, and tac in_ 
the chair, and till nn m- 
bers agreed upon a nm 
voce vote in all c\- 
cept persona! matte i.?. 
"When these arose the vote was to be liy ballot. 
The question of the power of electors to change the 
number of representatives without ninililyinLr the 
charter at once arose, when Penu answeivd that 
they might "amend, alter, or add for the Publiek 
good, and that he wa.s ready to settle such Founda- 
tions as might be for their hajipiness and the good 
of their Posterities, according to y" powers vested 
in him." Then the Assembly chose a ."ipeaker, 
and tin re was an adjournment of Council till the 
12th. At the .-essiou of Council of that day nnth- 
ing seems to have been done beyond cdminllinL'' 
L)r. Nicholas Jlore, president of the Society ,.f Fno 
Traders, to appear and apohiLrize for haviirj- abwM.d 

CDtnpanv in a publirk liiMi.-t\ . . . a> lliat l!iev 
have this day broken the . Iiart.r. and ih, u-f .re all 
tliat you do will come tn notliinir i.'i: tl 
in Enu-land will cur,-e vnu for what v. 


ave done 
vou mav 

Dr. ^[ 


•s ap 


a det. 


n^.l , 


n was 




and sii 



IS obvi 



m. and tl 
I'reason for what you 
Acre am]ile, as became 
Uive. Thr next . lav's 

aniendin- ihr ohartrr. 

■ntlv onl 
Dr. .Mo 
to a~k 


IS was t 

manity or moral 
tress' interests, "- 
severely servants 
that the jmni.-lin 
corporation of tin 
the ea 






o. < 

■e Tr 

•. 1 
n I 





of th 


■ 1 


'■' the 






e ot 




< not 

■ in; 



■tv ,1 




ir vi( 



to tiie ( leii.ral .' 
bill for [ilaiitiiii: 
twenty-four liy si 
each county, to I 
other provinces ; 


>t Mil- prejiared for submitting 
. inMy were the following: A 
lax and hemp, for building a 
■oil fift Ilon-e of T'orrection in 

ami t... prevent nina\\ays, a bill 
lut burning w.iods and marshes, to 
have cattle marked and erect bounds, about fenc- 
ing, showing that servants and stock gave the set- 
tlers more concern than anything else. The coun- 
try was so large and free that it was difficult to 
retain people in any sort of bondage, and, ^Yhe^e 
nineteen-twentieths of the land was unincl.jsed and 
free to all sorts of stock, it was necessary to fence 
in impnned anil cultivated tracts to save the crops 



Wlu.-h tile Coini.H „ 
the I'.llh the Speak 
senilily reported tin 
CVmsritufion ), with 

divide ii.-elt". On 
:>mnuttee of the As- 
tlenient (charter or 

divers amendment-," whi.di 
were yielded to by the Governor and Coiineil, and 
other amendments suggested. The Duke of V.nk's 
laws and the fees charged in New York and " Dela- 
ware " were also considered in this connection ; 
finallv, on the 20th, there was a conference between 

t!ie (T.ivernor and the tw.> H.i 
.[iiestion beincc asked bv the 
woiil.lhavethL^olilrhaftei"or a 
inou-lv .le-ired there miju be 

bills intro.liiced at this time I 

>eizure of goods 
marriaire bv ni: 



then tl 
her the 

-e. pos-e.- 







dcntiirf, lmil-V,un,ls and suniniuniii- irrnn.l iuri.-.. 
Th.'iv wrr.;..ii;.,-..l lik. ui-,. H l;nv ..f n,l.H,r-,';iii.l a 
hill tixin- til.' |.inii-l,nir„t for in;ni-l lu.^h:,.,-, ;ir„l 
it w;i<onl,T..I thiit r!,--.alon'hil:hl.-li,l,KiC,, 
hf the anclior, of r,,irk~ Cmiitv a ti-r and, ,;t■ 
Chwtera i.low.of Xeu ( 'a-tlr a ra^tlr, of K'oiir tin- 
earsuflihlian corn, ami of S'i-~,x a , of uinat. 
The iKivnfCounriloi- vva- flKr.l at thnv .hilliu--. 
aud As^rnihlvnirn two ^Inllinj- >ix!irnr.. ]„a- .lin:', 
the ex]ivnsc.- of -ovrrnnirat to \.r rnot !iv a land- 
tax. On April ■_'. li;v;, •Thr (i.vat (.'iiarter of 
thi^ provinr,. xva~ this ni-ht rrad, .-i-nrd, -eal.-d 
and .K-liven.d hv y' ( iov' to v' inhal.itant., and iv- 


ceived by y" hands of James Harrison aud v" 
Speaker, who were ordered to return y' old one ^v'" 
y° hearty thanks of y" whole house, which accord- 
ingly they did." Then on the '\d. aftrr passing 
son\e minor laws, the cliief ot' which wa- to prcjjiibit 
the importation (jf felons, the As-iinhly adjourncil 
"till such time as the Governor and I'mvincial 
Council shall have occasion for them." 

The new charter, Constitution, bill of setth - 
ment, or frame of government was modeled upon 
the plan originally pro[iosed by Penn. It retain- 
ed in the hand.s of (lovernor and Council the 
auth(jrity to originate bills, hot in othir re^pc.'ts 
it deviateil materially from the couflitions of the 
old charter. The Council was to ron-i-t of thivr, 
and the General .V-.-rnil)[y of -ix ninnl.. r- from 
each county. The nioniliia> of Coiimil ^crvod 
one, two, and thn f years n sp'otivi-ly. .V provi- 
sion was introduced lookinL' to inia'ease of n-pi-t- 
sentation in proportion to the growth of popula- 
tion. The whole lf-i~Iativo iiodv \\;i- to bo call, d 
the General an.l all l.ilN hcromin- 
acts were to Ije called acts ot' .-uch A>>enilily. and 
the Lower Hoii-e was not to a.ljourn until 'it had 
acted upon the busine-- l)etbri- it. It was, more- 
over, distinctly implied in the lan-uau'c of the 
charter that ?ome of tlie ri-hts and juvroMativ,-s 
enjoyeii hy I'eiin under it were to cea.-e « iih jiis 
life; they were conce<,~ion~ to his character and 
his labors for the i.rovin.-e, and not a linal surren- 
der of freemen's ri-lit-. In return I'.nn .on- 
tirmed all in all tluir libertlo-. and pledjed hini- 
• self to insure to all the iiihaliitants of tiie province 
the <iuiet pos?e.-.Mon and lieaceable eu)ovm<-nt of 
their lan.d^ and estates. 

The ( Jovernor anil Council were in what ni;i\ 
be , 'ailed contimiou- -e-iou, -ince the charter ,. 
.piired that the (.overnor or hi-^ deputy de,'l 
alwavs provide in the I'rovincia.l Council, •• ,,a.i 
that hediall at no time tlicrcan pertbrm anv :u- 
of Stale whatsoever thai diall -u' may relate' uni , 

vince and tei-ritori.s ;if,r'-aid. but 'l)v and will, 
the advice and con-ent of the l'r,,vincial Council 
thereof The A-enibU-, howev.T, did not met 
a-ain imtil (_»etober •J4th", uheu, after a two dav-' 
se-ion. devot.d t., buMUe.- le-i.dation and pro- 
viding that couiitrv prodnce. could be taken in 
lien of curren.'v, 'it adjourned. The bu-in.-, 
befor.' the Coinicil durln- Kis:; was niainlv of a 
routine ,'hara.-ter. The people and officials u, re 
too Im-llv oc.aipied iu ..ut-door work— huildin,', 
pianlin-. Mirvevin- lavin- oif manor- and town- 
ship-atid treating with Indians-to have time to 
spare for records an.l debate-. Xieholas .More, 
of the Society of Free Traders, wa.s made presi- 
dent of CounVil. ■ 

At the Council held in Philadelphia on the 
■2'.Uh of Januarv, lii.^.l, John Moll represented 
New Ca>tle Couiitv in the Council. Fr.-iucis Whlt- 
well, Kent, and William Clarke. ,<u-,-ex. The 
comndttcc of th^. A-e„iblv were .I^une- William-, 
of New ( a-tle C'-intv : Pe-nonv ] li-h. ,p. Kent ; and 
Luke Wai.-on. .-a-ox. The m-xt A,-cud>ly met 
at Lewe- un the Jd of March, but oidy routine 
bu.-iness was transacted. Early in the year 1G84 
a number of the inhabitants of Kent Countv 
refused to pay their taxes to Peiin, and expressed 
disloyal sentiment,- a-ain-r his •jrovevnment, which 
gave him much concern. The leaders of the 
revolt appear to Ije John Piehard-on. Thomas 
Heather and Thomas Wilson, who made com- 
plaint aL'ain.-t the Government in the General 
A-, Franei> Whiiwell and John Ililliard, 
who were n,eml,er- of the Gmucil with John 
]:iehanl-on, were al.-o implicated iu the rebellion. 

To conciliate the disatlectcd in the three lower 
counties (..f the Delaware, the General Assembly 
met at New Castle on the l(>th of .March, l(jS4. ;it 
whi.'h William Penn was pre-ent. The minutes 
of this session of the .Vs>-n'iblv contain a .sin-ular 
record as illustrative of the I'liaraeter and 
of Peini. and what he meant bv , ivatim: the office 
of peacemaker or arbitrat.u-. who mljht stand be- 
tween the people and the court.- an.l .- ive them the 
expense- and heart-burninu- ..f liti-alion. " .\n- 
drew ,l,,hn..,n. l'!.. Han.'.- .[lan-i 1'. Lr-en, I>,n. 
There bein-a Diti; r.iu'.- deiieu.iin,: between the'm. 
th.- G.,v- A- C..uncill advi,-ed then to shake hamls. 
an.l t.i fir-ive One an.^ther: an.l Ordered that 

f.u-' u.M.d abearance: w ' a.v.u-di.i-lv thcv 
did. 7/ u-a.< also that the n,c.,M< of Court 
coii'Xrnuig that IJil-Iuc.s shonld he bHrnt.'' Thi- 



<w[<\v. nakr.l r, rd of li.uv tlir .lit!' nuns thr [.n-i.lmt. Xi.-h,,Ias Mor.-, Willi;ini Wrldi. 

l„.tuv..n Jail Jan-ru an.l Ilan- I', t. i-n wav William \V..hI. llMl.'it Turn, t. au.i . I,, In, l>klv 

^ -ttk'.l i> i.iic lit' tlie iii.,-t iiii|irr>-iv.' r\anipl.< of uviv iiklI,' |.ro\ iiirial jihl-r< tWr two var.-; ; Mark- 

pnicti("il fthi.'S aiipli.-.l to jiirisprudcmv that was ham was MM-nlarv (,f 'rniim.-il, aii.l .lam.- lla.ri- 

William I'enn ha.l lu^.u km:: |.art,-.l fi- m, liis kurv. H- rmlurk,. 1 at ami vuk ,1 'fnmi I'kila.kl- 

familv, an.l hi- aH'airs in ka.-lan.l w.t.> n..t in j.hia An-u-r k_'. l'•■■^k s^.n.liuL' from ..n tii.' 

a -...,.1 c.m.lition. Uv ha.l ,l..n.> m.i.-k f,r his v.-^.d mv sl... saikMl a final ktt.r ..f partin- t.. 

province, whirh, at thi> time, ha.l a p..piilati..n ..f Lk.vd, CkiypiH.I,', Sim 'k. < ■ Tavl..r, 

seven thousan.l. He now thon.'hr it l'" "1 tkr him an.l J;inKS }Iarri>..n, in whicii h.' v\pi-.--;'s the 

t.) return a s-ason t.i En.'lan.l. . -p> .iallv a,- deejicst aliecti..n f..r tlmse taithfnl fri.'ii.Is. an.l 

j there was tlu' place in whi.-h ho ini-ht mor,- satMy them lii> pravers an.l kksMii-s. Tliev ha.l 

hope to etli'.'t a sittl.'ment of the vexatLms lioiin.i- many resp.msikilitius npou their sh.iul.lers, and he 





ary disputes with L..rd r.akim.ire. wh.ise a-ent.s hoped tliey woul.l ,h-> their duty. The k'ttcr con- 
had invaded the kjwer counties, built a f.rt within cUi.led Avith a fervent praj-er" Philadelphia, 
five miles of Xew Castle, and were coUeetinii- taxes "the vir-in settlement ..f'the province, named 
and rents and dispossessing tenants in that se. ' • - ■ . .. _ 

Calvert himself had gone" to Englan.l in .M: 

and Pcnn wrote to the Duke .it' Y..rk that he see his virgin city and his bel.ived province until 
meant to f.illow him as fast as Ik- coukl. A.-.-..r.l 
ingly, he prepared to leave th.' pr..vince, n.irL'an 
izin^' the church discipline of lii.- .•..-reli-i.:!iari.- 
and looking after the tiscal sy-tcin of hi.- civil _:.,v 
ernmont in a and able way. Th.- ket.'l 
"Kn.lcavor," just arrived from Englan.l with let 
ters and di-pat.'h.s, was o-ot to carrv th, 
Governor hack a-ain. II. ■ r..mmissi..ii.'d th." I'r.. 
vincial C,, t.. a. t in his .tea.l uhik- lu- wa.- 
"Way, intrusting the great >eal tu Thoma- Elovd 


bef.jre th.iu wert born." Penn arrived in Y^wj.- 
land on the o.l of October, ami did not aurain 
see hi: 

The pr.ic.Hiling.s of Council and As-emblv bc- 
ve^-n lii^i and ffiSiO, while they ini-ht till s.-'vcral 
;igcs in a v.dunie iif annals, mav besmnmi'd n]i in 

few paragraphs in a history ,Mmh as this.' The 



transaotions were, as a ruh\ not vrrv important, 
and the major part ot' tlif rcconi,' nt' the 
rcirular routine of aiipMimnirnt-. ( tc. 1~ taken up 
with till- <|UarrrN ot' p'lMi.' otii.vr^ anion- thorn- 
sM;'lvf? anil tho complaint- ot' the people a-ain-t 
IVnn an.l the ixovernment p i:erallv. A l-'reneh 
slii[) with irre-ular [lapen- was .-ei/.td. coinlemneil, 
and s,. hi In-order of Conn.-il under tli.' Kn-li-h 
navigation laws. There ;uu-t have tieeu a 'jreat 
many ves-els on the eoa,~t and in the havs at this 
time which could not -ive a -.'od aeeonnt of them- 
selves, and complaint? of piraev- are loud and fre- 
quent, the colonial jroverniuent- lieinj- .-oinetinjes 
accused of undue leniency in their de.diii-^ witli 
the freebooters. Governor Fletchc'-, of New Yorlc, 
who was also Governor of Penns\ l\ania duriu'j- 
the suspension of Penn's authority in r*Iay. lOlto. 
was on friendly terms with Kidd and others, and 
Nicholls, one of his Council, was commonly charged 
with being agent of the sea-rovers. Governor 
Markliam's alleged son-in-law, James Brown, was 
denied his seat in the A=seral)ly and put in prison 
for sailing in a pirate's vessel. The people of 
Lewes openly dealt with Kidtl, exchanging their 
provisions for his fine goods. Teach, called Black- 
beard, was often about the Delaware, and it was 
charged that he and the Governor of Xorth Caro- 
lina and other otficials of that -State were altogether 
too intimate. 

Penn's noticeaide tact and skill as a pcaee- 
maker and composer of personal dilhculties were 
sadly missed after his departure for England. 
The Assembly and Council got into a serious 
squabble in consequence of a ditfi-rence aliout the 
prerogatives and dignity ot' the two ho. lies. Chief 
Justice Nicholas ^[ore, tlion-h an alile and ].rol)- 
ably upright man, \va- dietatorial and ariiitrarv, 
as well a~ (|Uarrel~ome. He wa^ not a (,)nake'r, 
but he x^^rd very plain lang\iage sometimes, ami 
was free-spoken. Him the As.sernbly fbrmallv 
impeached before Coun<;'il on June 15, 1GS5, 
upon the ground of various malpractices and 
misdemeanors, chietly technical, or growing out of 
■his blunt manners. 

Penn at this time, l.e-ide- his grave concerns at 
court, was bii^y lookin- at'u-r the honi,- intere-rs of 
his provini'c on one ^ide and it- cxteiiial interc-ts 
on the other, now shipping wine, beer, si eds, and 
trees to Pennsylvania, anon imMi>hinL: in London 
accounts and descrijitions ot' the province and 
exccri)ts of letters received I'roin it- hap[iy .-cttlers. 
The projiru'tary was never f.iti-ued e\en he the 
most minute details in a-ay matter in which he 
desired to succeed, and hi- h tiers .-how that he 
anticipated and thoiijht ahoul .very thin-. His 
supervision was nee le.l, i:.r CouneiL .\-imlily. 

in regard to privilege. In fact, underneath tlie.^e 

trivial in.-k.a-in-s a gri<at striiL'-lc was goin- 
lielwceti the repre.-en lati ves ot' tiie t'reeiii. II ot , 

eoiit...-t la>l.J l.mL', ami I'etin'- I'n.n.U inVl..-..: 
witlcut serving hi< pojiti.-ai ,ni, re.ts materia: 
contrived to deal hi< p.-r.-omil,- a cruel M 


leehn-a::aiii-t him. and prov.-kim: them to wit!, 
hold rent,- and punha-e-. and re.hiee hi^ in,.,;,. 
in everv po-Mhj,- wav. i'.ain him-elf wrot- i KISC, that tlieilj fame ,he i.rovim,' ha.i 

■■^■'i'l'd .,11 ai nnt of it- hiekeriim-' had lo-t ,; 

tifleen thoM-and immi,rant<. who would hav 
LTime thither ha.l it- athtirs appea.v.l more >etthd. 
but a^ it wa- th.v w.-nt to North Can.lina in-lea.l 
In rel.niarv, lil.s;, Peun took the exeenIi^, 
]>ower away trim tlu' ( 'ouncil and intrusted it t.. 
a commi-ion ..f tivc iiersons,— Thomas LIov.l. 
Nicholas .More. James Claypoole, Kobert Tun;..-. 
and John JCekly, any three to have iiow.r t.. act. 
He sent over many instructions to his hoard. 
among others to compel the Council to their idiar- 
ter attendance or dissolve them without further 
ado and choose others, " for I will no more endiiii 
their most slothful and dishonorable attendtinc," 
The commissioners were enjoined to keep uji the 
dignity of their station, in Council and out. an.l 
not to permit any disorders either in Cmiiieil .,r 
As-emb|y, and not to allow" anv parleys or c..,-i- 
t'erenc,.< between the two Houses, Init ciirion.-!v 
in-pect the proceedings of both. Thev weiv i\n- 
ther in Penn's name to disavow all laws pa— . d 
since his absence, and to call a new A.-.-emlilv to 
i-epas-, modify, and alter the laws. When "thi- 
conimi-ion w.a,- received, in Fehruarv, liiss, i„,tli 

^I'"-'^' i""^ Clavi le were dead. 'Their plac- 

weivsitpplie.l l.v Arthur Co.ik and J,,hn Simcoek. 
andthen,.w eha-tioii- onh-red gave^amt.el Ilieh- 
ardson the appointment of of Conneil 
for three vears, while Thoma.- llooteu Thonri< 
Fitzwalfr. La>-e('.iek. Jam.- Fox, ( ;rifliil, ()„.„. 
auiMVilliam Soiitherhv wen- clio-in memher- of 
Assembly. The contJ-t^ tor privilege between 

Av-embly -wore its members to divulge no ;iro- 

the ( oiincil a.-.-ert(d its ancient prerogatives; in 
.-hort, the quarrel was interminable except bv 
what would be practically revolution, tbr on one 
.-ide was a writt-n charter and a .'ystem of ir.)n- 
b.iund law,-, on the (.ther the popular detern;ina- 
tioii. growing ^tl■ongcr every day, to secure fir llie 

lai-er .-hare 111 the major concerns of -overnmeii: 
and leui-latioii. The .•ommi.-.-ion, in fict, wo.ihi 
not Work upon trial, and beiore the wa^ out 

the provin. 

old otlicer under tlie Commonwealth and Crom- 



It Geii. Lanili' 
iv;il,— bv lUUll 

, ,,1R' time was .Mnu 
'.lack well. 
Cinvernor BlackutU hail a tr(iulile;Oiue career 
1 c.tHce. For a jjeaecable, iiDii-re^i^-taiit peiipli', 
10 Ponnsylviinia settkrs luul as many tloiiie>tic 
illu'iilties on their luimU as ever any h^M'J'y 
iiiiily had. As ^'0(ln as lilaekwell was indiuted 
,■ was liroiiuht in cdlision with Thomas Llovd, 
liM would not '_'ive up the irrcat seal of the 
rovinee, and declined to athx it to any comniis- or documents of 

which he did not ap]irove. 

- the niisundeistand 

inL' LMCW deei)er. the old 

-le of prerogative c: 
clared that^Ehukw 

une up a-iiin. and it v.':is 
ell wa^ ijot Go\ernor, 

,e reason that, undei 

■ the charier, I'enn couhl 

It create a Governor, 

hut only appoint a DepiUy- 

overnor. An eHbrt \ 

vas made to expel iruui the 

luncil a member who had insisted upon this 
rw of the case; it failed, the Governor dis- 
Ived the f'ouncil, and at the uext session the 
■.iple re-elected John Itichardson, the otiending 
ember, whom, however, Blackwell refused to 
rniit to take his seat. From this the quarrel 
lUt on until wo find Lloyd and Blackwell re- 
ining and reappointing ofiicers, and the public 
licers declining to submit their records to the 
luncil and the courts, Lloyd was elected ineni- 
-•r of Council from Bucks County, and Black- 
ell refused to let him take his seat, which 
■ought on a violent controversy. The general 
scussion of privilege and prerogative in conaec- 
■n with these differences led Bradford, the 
inter, to print tor general use au edition of the 
Form of Government and the Great Law," so 
at everyboily might see for himself the right 
id the wrong of the matters in dispute. The 
:peuse of the publication, it is said, was borne 
.■ Joseph (jniwdon, a member of Council. It 
lis ci'iisidirrd a claugerous and incendiary act, 
id Bradfjrd \vas summoned before the Council 
id closely interrogated, but he would not ad^nit 
lat he liad printed the document, though he was 
I- only person in the province who could have 

iiii'_' toil, some nun ciuntinL' Finn as favoriiii'- 

itv f 

,t A- 


-emiily, anotlier pro- 
;ss, Ix-cause the char- 
in fai't, made him a sort of iudependjnl 
ICO. The result was the Council broke up in 
I'usion, and for some time could not get a 
rum together. The Assembly, meeting May 
li, was suddenly adjourned for'lhe same r. a-on, 
popular party having discovered that by a 




(■policy ottl 
.OSes were jia 
.■illu'r Counci 
of y\:xy till 
1 sjirung upi 

It thr ( 
'.. d. 11 

A -.11 

,n t!i 

the .\,,rth.-r' 

.re f.r the 
lid 1-aL'md 


Miiryhfnd to de.-rroy Phdad. iphia. Blackwell 
wanted insfnnt autiiorlty to h-'^y a force for de- 
fense, but the <^iiakeis t ...k tilings rather more 
•'luietly. They did no- w.ou -in army and they 
did uot be'.ievD :he rumors. Claike said if any 
;-iioh Si.heiuf; of iuvasion had ever been enter- 
tuined it was now dvdd. Peter Alrichs said there 
was nothing to bo reared about. John Simcock 
did not see " but what we are as safe, keeping 
peace-able a-~ those who have made all this strife." 
Gritfidi Jones saiil there was no cau-e uf danger 
if they kept iiuiet. lu fact, the Council not 
only cbiecied to a levy, but they laughed at 
Blackivell's apprehensions, !\Iarkham .said that 
all such talk had no etiect but to scare the women 
and chiidrcn. The Governor found he could do 
nothing, and adjourned the Council. 

Isext canie news that James IL was dethroned 
and William of Orange made king of England. 
The Council was called together, and the lione-t 
Quakers, not feeling sure which king they were 
under, determined neither to celebrate nor wear 
mourning, but to wait events, ths Council amus- 
ing themselves in the mean time by keeping up 
their old fe'.ids. Shrewsbury's letter anuiiuncing 
the new king's intention to make immediate war 
on the French king was laid before Council Oct. 
1, lt)8y, and was accompanied with the usual 
warning about defensive measures and the need 
for commercial vessels to sail in companv and 
under the protection of convoys. William and 
Mary were at once formally proclaimed in the 
province, and a fresh discussion arose in regard 
to the proper defensive measures and the necessity 
for an armed militia. The Quakers wore utterlv 
ojipnsed to any sort of military preparations. \i' 
they armed themselves, it .was urged, the Indians 
would at once rise. " As we are," said sensible 
r?imcock, "we ;ire in no danger but from bears 
and wolves We are w' 
quiet. Let us keep oursclv 
but a peaceable S[iirit an. 
Grirtith Jones, moreover, ; 
thin- would co.-t and ho 
taxation. Finallv. after 

( ' 


the pr.-p:n 

rations fl 

creti^iU of 

the Ciov 

was now i: 

n .hep di 

in hidin^.'. 

lie w 

loUL'er as 

the Goi 



id in 11 





I kno 

-w u; 




t will , 

1.. \ 




d l,oU- 


h the 




re left 1 

;o th 

, the 


e dis- 




am Pen 
partly ; 

n lii 


Governor Blackwell 

92 IlISTOltY OF DKl.AWAllK. 

on J'ln 1 K'lOO it was to inf.irru tluin that lie tlii.'vi'.< am! rnlilicrs. an- tli.^ -anio courfrs th ,■ 

l,ad l.een relKv,.! ,.f hi. nili.c. II. ..vni, .1 -Uul tin ir ,na;.-t,.s tak. tor tlni,- tnrt<, uarn.n,,-, :;,. ; 

to he free. snhli,.,-- rtc, tos.cure thru- kn.-.hun aii.l [.rnyn. ■ . 

The Council, urtin- upon IVnnV in-tructinn. ami v.m as ^^vll as th,' n-t u\ suIh. . t- ' 

and coinmi.-ion on Januarv 'J. li'.'.lU, . L.t,.! Tl.o lint tli.; Muakrr,- wrc nnt t- Ih' runvnir, .1 l.v .:, 

.uas Llovd i-iM .;,lrnt an.l ■/■ !■>■■'■■ D^mtv-Govrmor. surh ar-un,rnt-. Flvlriirr ha.l n-aur. ,1 th- i;^-, . 

Thelo^^TrIV'a^^a.vcn,„m•.., «-,T.,ns ,.fth.. Iht nf \^<r,My,uru. an.l whwi th,. L....-!:.!:, 

gro^vth of Phihukli-hia, Burks. u..a-( lu ,t,.r. The niet on May Kith, th. ti.-t thin,' before the A.-,-,... ■. 

traditions and manners of the ditli nnt -eetion. 1,1 vv.a-^ a pn.|„Mt,n„ to vai-n n,o„,.y by taxation,- 

had little sintilaritv. Finally the had f.rliii- -n --v thr tii-; taK levi. d in I'.hn-vlvania and Delawai. 

so strong as to lead to secession, which i^ ni.,n. —and an act was i^H-ed hvyin- a penny a p..ui„l 

fully treated in a sueceedin- chapter. Tl,.- ivla- <m pn.perty f<.r tlu- .uppnrt of the governnuM, 

^vare counties (or - frritorirs," as th,v were Tlu- .uin thus n.i-r.l auiounlrd tu -even hundred an.i 

called) held a -larat.' Cn.inril, rlr.;trd tlirir own .ixtv iiounds. MXtem .hiiliu.-js. Thus far Fleteli, i 

judges, ana tinallv o,„„p,_llrd I'.nu, in lo'.H.nuieli sinveeded, ,.nly to fail, how.-ver, when he attempt, o 

against his will, to divide the L-overament, which to >eeure the^pa.-ane of a law provnlm- for ov-im- ■ 

he did by continuing Lloyd as Deputy-Governor izing the militia. The As-^-inhlv did [.iis^ ana-: ; 

of the province, and appointing Markham Deputy- pn.viding fl.r the edueati.m .,f child.o,, a;,.l al- ■ .i 

Governor of the territnries. Geor-e Keith also one fur the establishment of a post-nttice. A ^hmmI ^ 

had at this time he-un to agitate in behalf of his deal of practical local legislation was done al.-.. | 

g(.j,ig,u_ ' probably under Markham's intluenee, for he wa- | 

The French and Indian hostilities on the fron- an active, energetic man. and knew the town. th. ^ 

tier, the apathy and non-resistance of the Quakers, people, and their wants better than any oth.r | 

and the ambi'.;uons position of Penn, lurking in person could do. | 

concealment, with an indictment han-in- ov,'r his In the winter of 1693. Penn was acquitte.l by ? 

head, were made the pretexts for takin- the gov- the king of all charges against him and re.ton.l I 

ernment of Penn's pn>vince awav fnmi him. llis f. fivnr. his .jovernment lieint; confirmed to linn | 

intimate relations with tin- dcilimntd kin^. and aii.'W by htt.-i.- patent gniiiod m AniMr-t l(i!i4. j 

thefactthathispn.vince.a.. wcli as the Delaware Pmn would pn.bably hav nlunn.l to hi- pn.- \ 

Hundreds, had been James' private i>rnpcrty, and vince immediately after hi- exoucnitioii, but |n- . 

were still governed to .some extent by " the Duke wife was ill, and died in 1\ bmary. le:)4. Th;- | 

of York's laws," probably had much to do with gnat affliction and the di-oideivd state ol li;- , 

prompting this extreme niea.^ure. Governor Ben. hnaiices detained hiui in En-land several years | 

jamin FleU-her, of New York, was made " Captain- longer. After his government was restored te i 

General" of PcniLsylvauia on October 24, 100l>, him, his old friend and deputy, Thomas Lloyd, j 

by royal patent. He came to Philadelphia April having .lied, Penn once more appointed his cou.-in, j" 

26, 1693, had his letters patent rtad in the mar- William Markham, to be Deputy-Governor, wiia | 

ket-place, and ollered the test oaths to the mem. John Goudson and Samuel Carpenter for as.-i-i- '. 

hers of the C>uneil. Tho„,as Llovd n-f,;-ed to am- The.e .•omndssions reached Markham oi, ■; 

take them, but Markham. Andrew Uobe.on, Wil- Mandi 'Jo. V'^r, j 

liam Turner, William Salwav, and La-e Coek all In the naai, time Governor Fletcher, with In- - 

subscribed. Fhtcher made Markh;\m his Lieu- dcpny i tlds sann- Markham '. ha<l luen encouutei- | 

tenant-Governor, to preside over Cuncil in the in- the old diiheultie- with Councd and A>-einb!y ; 

captain-generals absence in New York. Here- dnriut: lb!' !-:•.! The dread of French and hub- j 

united tlie Delaware Hundred- to the pn.vince, an- .-till pn-vailed. luit it v,a> not .-utHci.nt f .. 

but did nut succeed in harmoni/.in- alfaii-s in his induce the (^inkers of the [n-oviiice to tavor a i 

new government. The Council and he f 11 out milita.y ivyo,,- hnleed. Tammany ami hi-;- | 

about the election of representatives 1.. the A-.-em- ol' Delawares had given the best pn.of of their | 

hly. When the Lc-kslalun. met, Fleteh.r .le- pacific intentions by coming int., Phila.lelphia . 

nianded men an.l mon, v t., aid New V.,rk in an.l .ntreatiug tin- (i.ivernor and Council to ^ 

carryin- on the war with th,- Fnnch ami Iii.ban-. rnerf •re n. j.n v.nt tin- Five Nations from forciu-" i 

The -V^-^emblv nfu- .1 to .•..inplv unle- the v.-te tlunn int., th,' lijn with the French and Hun.i,-. j 

of supplies was pn-ce,le.l bv a "re.he- of .^rhv- Th.v .Inl i-ot want to have ai.vthing t., .lowiti. I 

ances. Fietch.a- tri,.l to na,-.,n with tiieni. ''I th.- uar. b.n to liv,- as tieylia.i b.-eu livm- m 1 
wouldhavev,iuc.m.-ider." he sai.l in hi- -!..,.■!, to e.,n.'.,nl ami .iUi.t with their neiglib.n-s tie; ' 

the As.-enddV, " the walls about y,,nr .^anh n- ami There i^ m. evi.l. n.v that the h-auiie .1 , 
orchards, v.uir do.,rs an.l L.-k- ..f v.^ur h.,u- .-. amity, imphed or wntun, ha.l ever been .-,ri.,ii-l} 
mastiff d.,''s an.l such .,th, r thin- as v..u make hn,ken Ti,e Imllaii- w.aihl .-..metimc- be .Iniak 
use of to def\ii.l y.,ur goods an.l pn,| erly against an.l dis ..rdeily; an.l ..mictim.s u.,nld .teal a I'V 


or a calf, l.iit tliat w:i< all. As Tanmianv saiJ in 
ihis cuuf.Tun.v uith Fin. !„,i-ai:.l >Lirkhani, •' Wr 
..„i,l the ChriitKui- ct'this river have aluavs ha.l a 
iVee roadway to one anoilier, anJ thuii-h si.nie- 
tinle^^ a tree has talkn a:-r..s- the ma.l, yet \ve 
have still rein.yvo.l it a-ain and ke|,t tlie path 
riear, and we desi-n to euntinne the old iVi.nd-liip 
that has been between us and you." I'l.-teher 
promised to protect the Delawar.s fVi.iii the 
Sciiecas and Ononda^'as, and tuhl them it v,a~ to 
their interest to remain ipiiet and at peace. A\'h' n 
the Legislature met (May "22, ir,94), Fletcher, \v|„. 
had just returned from Albany, tried his hi ~t to 
tret a vote of men and money, or either, fir di>- 
tensive purposes. lie even suggested tiiat they 
coidd quiet their scruples by raising moiuy ^imjilv 
to feed the hungry and clothe the naked, hut this 
roundabout way did not commend itself to 
(Quaker simplicity and straightforwardness. A 
tax of a penny per pound was laid to compensate 
Thomas Lloyd and William Markhatu for their 
past services, tlic surplus to constitute a fund to be 
disbursed by Governor and Council, but an ac- 
count of the ■way it went was to be submitted to 
the next General Assembly. Further than this 
the Assembly would not go. Fletcher wanted the 
money to be presented to the king, to Ije apjiro- 
priated as lie chose for tlie aid of Xew York and 
the defense of Albany. He objected likewise to 
the Assembly naming tax collectors in the act. 
hut the Assembly asserted its undoubted right to 
control the disposition of money raised by taxa- 
tion, and thereupon the Governor dissolved it. 

In June, 169.J, after ^Markhain was well settled in 
his place as Penn's Deputy-Governor, there were 
again wild rumors of French designs upon the col- 
onies and of squadrons already at sea to assail 
them, and this was so far credited that a watch and 
lookout station was maintained for several months 
at Cape Ilenloj.en. In the latter part of this same 
muntb Markham informed the Council that Gov- 
ernor Fletcher had made a requisition upon iwm for 
ninety-one men and officers, or the funds for main- 
taining that number for tlie of Xew York. 
This matter was pre-.d hy F]e;eh,_-r, but the Coun- 

ti-aiHacted without coii.ultii.- the General A.-...-em- 
hly. which would not meet het'ore the secouil week 
of September. Markliani ;U_'_'ested an earlier day 
lor meeting, but the Council tlionght the secniriug of 
the crops a moreimportaut busine.-s than any pro[io- 
-ition that the ex-ea]itain-general had to lay before 
thein. When the Assembly did meet, in September, 
It at once revealed the cause of the continual di.- 
<oiiteiits which had vexed the province, and gave 
I>epiity-Governor Jlai-kham the oiiportunity to 

, pav Markhaiu C'.m. eoninl 

, ward- 
en th. 

-■nt I 

that he was an lioia.-t luaii. It vo 
my per iiound and ^ix ?h 

probably XToUU \\ould have been 

Government. F>ut the menihers ae.'oinpanie,! this 
bill \\ith another, a new aet .,f m ttlemenl, iuwiiieh 
the A->eml)lv ..oeured to it^-lf tlie privile-e- uhieh 
thev had sought to obttiiu from Peiin iu vain. It 
w;'.~. as has justly been remarked, a species of" log- 
rolling'." It had long been practiced with success by 
Parliament upon theinijiecunious monarchs of Eng- 
land, and iu these modern times has been reduced 
to a science by nearly all legislative bodies. Mark- 
ham, liowever, refused the bait. He declined to 
give his assent to both bills ; the Assembly refused 
to divorce them, and the Deputy-Governor, iu imi- 
tation of Fletcher's summary method, at oni'c ilis- 
scdved them in the very teeth of the charter lie was 
refusing to supersede. 

After Markhara's first failure to walk in Fletch- 
er's footsteps, he appears to have dispensed with 
both Council and Assemlily for an entire year, 
governing the province as suited himself, with the 
aid of some few letters from Penn, made more in- 
frequent by the war with France. On the 25th 
of September, 1G9I), however, he summoned a new 
Council, Philadeiplna being represented in it by 
Edward Shippen, Anthony ^lorris, David Lloyd, 
and Patrick Robinson, the latter being secretary. 
The home government, through a letter from 
(.lueen ]\Iary (the king being on the continent), it 
appeared, complained of the province for violating 
the laws regulating trade and plantations (proba- 
bly in dealing with the West Indies). The Coun- 
cil advised the Governor to send out writs of elec- 
tion and convene a new Assembly on the 2Gtli of 
October. He complied, and as soon as the Assembly 
met a contest began with the Governor. 3Iark- 
hain urged that the queen's letter should be at- 
tended to, asking for supplies for defense, and also 
called their attention to William Penn's pledg(. 
that, when he regained his government, the inter- 
ests of England should not be neglected. The As- 
sembly replied with a remonstrance against the 
Governor's speech and a p'tition for the restora- 
tion of the provinei;il chait. r as it was before the 
L'ovcrnment was couimitteii to (xovernor Fletcher's 
trust. That Governor wa> .till a-kin- f.r m. nev 
ami relief, and M:nkl,:,m entreated that a tax 
might be levied, and, if eonseience needed to be 
quieted in the matter, the money could be appro- 
priated for the pureha-e of food and raiment for 
those nations of Indians that had lately suffered so 
much liy the Fre«ch. This proposition became 
the bar-is of a compromise, the Assembly aL^reeing 
to vote a tax of one peimv per nound, providei! the 
Governor convened a new A-emhl v, with a full 
uumberofrein-eMMitative-aeennlingto'the old char- 
ter, to meet March 10, Ili'.IT, to .erve in I'rovincial 

IIIST()|;Y of HELAWMti:. 

in.' In rhart.r, until n,ir:iltv Cuuit a 

ii.I tlie 

V cuul.l 1m, kno«n oivci im.iiv.lial 

' I"-"" 

il.r..v..l, tiic ari ua.< liivit.Ml to 

.1 the 1 

1. 1,1.- I' a.ul it uas r. -ol 

vv.l tl.; 

riiait-i- uv ir.vuv of f.-rthu itli pul.ii.-, 


Cni.ncil au.l A.--.niMy, ; 

tlie lord |irn|,n.iary's pl<a.-uiv cuul.l \,r kiio«n pivcii iiiwiu.liali |u-omiii(.iirv. (',,1. (^i 

about the luattir ; if h 

to be void. Maikhan, yi.1,1,.1. hi.- I'mni. il -hi w a.ul it uas r. -olvv.l that a | .-I;,,,,!,! 

up tho supiily hill aii.l a n, w riiait.-i- of I'v.vuv of forthwith |.ul.ii.-hvil .li-.'oura.'iii- iii|-a<y and 

governnieiit, and lioth hill- lic^anir law,-. traik-. (^aari\'s i.-hai-'.' a-aiii.-t riiin's ■^•.\, r 

Jlarkhaiu's new Coiutitiition, adopted Xovciii- riieiit was that the ju-ticrs of l'liilad(.l[ihia ( '..-,; 

bor 7, l(;oi;, wa- eoii<h. d upou the )-.ic.|i. -ii iou liad ir-ii.d a w rit ot' ivj,] vin, ainUt nt the -le . 

thaf'tbe I'oniiurlranieof ..rnvcnitiieiit, mod, ;. d hy M-hivjioole^ to s,.i/e -ood- whirl, were iiither:,- 

act of settlement and eharter of lil» rtie.-. .- t..dv"(d' the mar.-hal ot' the Adimraltv Conn, :■ 

deemed in all ix.-neet.- suitahly aee,,i„i,iedaiMl to .Xew Ca.-tie, ha\ in- hieii K-ally ,-ei/.e,l in the n,,a. 

our present circiini-tanees." 'i'lie I'oiincil was to of the ero\\n; that the ju-tiees liail lieeii oih n-e.. 

consist of tw.i repre.-enlatives Iron, each eouiity, and in-oh nt. to dnd-e (Quarry, ehalleliiiinL' \. 

the Assemhly cd' f ,iir : ele,-tlons to take phue on coninii.-sion and ehrnniii- that I heir juri.-dieii, ; 

the 10th of Mareh laih \.ar, and the General .\s- was eo-exten.-ive will, l;i,- and their aullairitv i 

semblv to meet on the Kuh of .\Iav eacdi vear. unloose fiiUv as i:reat a.- his to bind; that'li. 

The Markham eharter poe.- into .letail.- in .."jaid sheritf made a pietenec of keeping certain piral, 

to the oaths or aliirinatious of otiieials ofall ela.-es. in custody, while in fact they were at hirire evi r'. 

jurors, witnesses, etc. ; it sets the pav of ( dav. This led to a long c(;uferouce, and it had tie 

men and ineniher- of Assembly, and is on the result that the As.-en,bly to be called would com, 

whole a char and more sati-faetory liame of gov- prepared lo auirate the ciue-tiou ol constirutioiia: 

ernnient than the .lUe which it super.-eded, while amendment, as well as that ed' piracy ai,d illic.; 

Dot varying ii, n,any sukstautive leatiiivs from trade. It was decided to call the ohl A.s.-endily t- 

that iustruiiient. The Asseniblv secured at lea.-t meet on Janmirv :ioth, a new election lieiii_ 

one-half what tiie framers of the province had so ordered in New Castle (A,unty, which had ue Ject, o 

long been fighting liir, to wit: That the repre- to chuosc representatives fur the last Assemhlv. 

sentatives of the freemen, when nut in Assembly, At the time named the Assembly caaic togethw. 
shall have poivcr to prepare and propn.<c to the Gou- The sheritf of Xew Castle County returned'^ in an- 

ernor and Coiincil all such bills as they or the niajur svver to the Governor's writ, that liichard Ilalliwell 

part of them. <hall at anij time see need/alto he pii.<itd and Robert French were elected members of the 

into law icithiii the said province and terriinri,.-." Council, and John Healy, Adam Pcter,son, Wil- 

This was a great victory for the popular cau-e. Ham Guest, and William Hou^tou member.- ot' A,- 

Another equally important point gaine.l was a sei,ibly. The writ lor this electiou is interesting 

clause declaring the General Assendily indissoluble from its untisual ftrui : 
for the time tor which its members were elected, 
and giving it power to sit upion its own a<ljouru- 

ments and committees, and to coiitiiiue its .se.-sions ','ii'i!,'r!i'i'i!!",'„'.','.'i" \'i,,l, i,r,u\'7i'ur'',irt'r\'iV.'hLi\''I!LXVndi'L i^^^^^ 

in order to propose and jTcpaie hills, redi-..-ss k.,^ e a.M j-j. .;■■.,-;,, ..i a., .r i . .ii_- s.j m„j, ,.iK..„r,i^v.i ,„ n,.-- 

grievances, and impeach criminals. umik my'iW'".i!iii!'Vt'M 'J-,^^^^^^^^^ 

There is not much more to .-av about tie.' hi-torv "-" ^" ='"'■ ''" n" ^i'^" ■'" e.xivc.ui..,, u y m-xt .\so,i,.!ii> ,» 

of this period. The Colonial Records fumi-ha ^ri'ii'r'sw.rfr.eMv'or 'uuwnimMill^ 

barren tale of new roads jietitioued for and laid noiv cuii wiii be \»iy „, ;imi o.ion uvur. ,\: >« new .\-,i-i„My ,.i...i. 

out; fires, and jirccautions taken a-ain-t them and ruac-r\'ia\kMu'".MLirruvcnim>u^'wiu -,io'f^^ 
preparations to meet them ; taxdiill-. etc. Wiiljam ■ , ., „ .',,. - , ■• "1".Dver. 

Penn sailed from Cowes on Septenihei- !t, l(i:i!i, tor 

his province. He had arranged his luieli-h alliiiis : ^-omc id' the Xew Ctistle pcojile complained that 

he brought his jecond wife and hi- (laii_diier and thev did iiol lia\e any siiliieient notice of thisehv- 

infants with him; probably he expiated thi.- time tion renii said the'-lieriri .siiouhl he puui-hcd l.^r 

at least to remain in the province li^r '.ood and ail, his neL.deel. hut in the mean time tliei-e wouhl lie 

He reached I'inladelphia 1 )eeemher l.-t. and to,.k no bu-ine,-.- before the pix.s.iit .se-ioii except w hat 

lodgings with Robert Wade, d' he eity of hi- love was named in the w, it, in u hieh he lu,pcd all 

was quiet, sad, glonmy. It was ju-t b.'-innim: to would i.Miieni-, witiioiit making t/.e Xew Castle "a.-e 

react after having been Iri-htliillv lava-c d bv an a preeeileiit tor the future. < '..mmitteCs ol' (/out,- 

epidemic <d' yellow lever, attendid "with enat I'.ior- cil ai,d Ai-einhlv were app-iiucd to eon.-ider tia 

tality, aial the people who.-urvived were.-oher and subject of the twc. propo-ed hil!.-, which, a!ier .-.v- 

(^laker. ° '" Tl,e A-emliK- oi.i not lii.e the clau.-e loihel- 

The fir.-t Council attended by Penn nat on De- din- tiadc u ith .Madaua-ear and Xatal ; thc-e 

ccniber 21, li'.'.l'.). and the is-tie between the Ad- [ilaccs, it wa--e-\plained, had heconie retreats aiid 

'T.) r.. Halliwo 

DHLAWAin: r.\]ii:i: william I'Knn. 

ri'tiriiiLr-]'l:i<v> ..f tliL- piiiitc-:, and tviuh' with tluni 
»;is accnnlin-ly fnrM.'KKu l-r tl ivx^ ycai -. I'lnn 
lluu dissolved l\w As.-oiiildy, allrr iiitnniiii!- tin ni 
lluit he intended to call the next lieli.ral A.-M-ri,- 
hly nccording Id charter at the ii.-ual annual .-.s- 
-Kin. Pcnn had nnt .-i-iiili. d to the A^-emhly 
whether or not he a].|Miived of the charter I'l-anttd 
hv Markhara in KiVi;. X,,r did he .ver fonnally 
api>r()ve it, fur the chaite- finally ;fr;iDteil hy Penn 
ill 1701 ajiiiearcd as if it were an aniemlineut to or 
^uhstitute t\>r the charter of lU^-1. I'enn appar- 
. iitly was not on very good terms with Markhaiu 
Lt t'his time, or else the" hitter's ill health he died 
ill 1704 after a long illness; no longer .-utiercil him 
ut take an active part in government atl'airs.' 

Penn showed himself determined at tliis time to 
break up the ])iracy in the Delaware. He even 
uent a little into the detective and private imiuiiy 
business himself. He wrote to Luke Watson: 
•• Thy Son's ^^'lfe has made Affidavit to-day before 
iiie of what she saw it knows of Geo. Thomson hav- 
ing East India goods by him about y"^ time KidJ's 
^liip caDie to yo' Capes : Thy .Sou doubtless knows 
much more of the business : I desire thereiore thee 
would cause him to make affidavit bef ire thee of 
what he knows either of Georires Goods or anv of 

Xeu fa.-tle he- 

in-MiInT uf tlio .\SH_-i!il,ly Iruiii Kent in li 'JS. iiiul tLcn csi-llcil 
iikt of Ills n-Utiuns tu the;itf». Peiiii liu.l Iimi iiTrt-steU in 

the t"rl ol IStlhiinonI, Ouvernor of N.vv York. Tljij is 

ul.Ut iniike a Dilticulty ill bin.Jiiii; thy Exe^ue" » Itii Ui>.-vll 

tli> uui, I.,r..-, only for .% c.M.iiter security. Thou ki.uwe,'t 
r.rv M ,1... fiiai of all oh:ii;,iri.,iis, ,t I .-.innot but like it hur.l 

— 1 ,.:u I, t .,.[,< criK.J ivith. I e.M'-'-t u e.vpre.-,, 
: I. .-t V. 1 „•,^,.„ .,,.,1 nin.un thy ..ikcti"" Kinsman,— W. I'."— 



A.v- • 
he " 

.~on...Mi-prclrd of pira, V had - laflv land, .1 lu low, 
on ihi,- and t'other sid.; the Kiv'ei-, A that some 
hover about New Castle, full of (>ohJ. The.-e are 
to de,~ire vou to u.-e \ our utnicr-t lilndi avor and 
Iliii-eliev in di-eove;-ing ami appdiending all Mieh 
1 .-o.i,.., as you may kii<.w or h.arof that n.av be .-o 
.^u-p.rtid, aceordiiiL: to mv Proclamation'.- A 
-iiuilar letter wa- .eiit to NehoDiiali Itield and 
Jonathan Eailev. 

Birch, collector of cu.-tn,„s at New Castle, wrote 
to Penn under date of .May 'Js;, 1 7(h). complaining 
of vesscds having gone down trom and come upi to 
lelphia without reporting to him. Penn 
red he was sorry that masters were so lack- 
1 respect. Ther- was a bill uow before the 
ildy to make the oifeuse penal. Put he 
a customs collector ought to have a boat, if 
iiteil to secure the enforcement of the laws, 
were all on his side. "Thou canst not ex- 
pect that any at Philadelphia, 40 miles distant 
from you. can putt Laws in execution at X. Castle, 
without any care or vigilance of officers there, if 
so there needed none in the place, especiallv since 
no place m the River or Bay yields y" prospect y' 
i.s at >'ew Castle of seeing 20 miles one way and a 
dozen the other, any vessel coming either up or 
down.'' Penn confesses he thinks the particu- 
lar care he had taken of the interests of the king 
aud his immediate officers de:erved a better re- 
turn ''than such testy expressions as thou flings 
out in thy Letters both to myself and of one to y' 
members of Council." Birch is reminded that he 
has forgotten the respect due to the proprietary's 
station and conduct, aud that he should not make 
Penn a sufferer on account of his pique agtiiustthe 
coll ctor at Philadeljiliia, a matter with which he 
neither had nor wanted anything to do. " Ltt 
your Jr'j4crs at home decide it ; ichat aniir.-^ j'nirli/ 
before me J nhall acqnitt mijse/fof, icitti Hon' ii: Jus- 
tice to if bcit of mil undevMandinij n"'out regard to 
fear or Jarour, for tlio^e sordid pn,-.-<ions -shall never 
move y' Proprief & Gov'' of rensilvaiiia." But 
Penn was not done with ]Mr. Birch yet. In a po.-t- 
script he says he hears that the collector talk.- ot 
wilting home, aud making he knows utit w hat coui- 
pe thou irilt he caidiou.i in that 


hope thou irilt he cauti 

>,ld n-rltr too, nhieh, vhen I doe, may 

irjh to ma/:': fhre .r./.^lb/e of it at a di.<- 

t. ■•/ 

Ud I>h. 

lu,ol ,n, 

tancr. If thou an,]<r->,uoU not thi.i. it ,liall be 
plained to tli'.nA oar n..rl m,,/in.,, >rh, n damn 
at Lu^uref This letter, full of con-ri,His pox 
was palpa'.ilv meaiu tor ( luai rv quite a. muel 
Birch. Penn sent the whole corr, -pond^n.v to 
Lonl. of Trade, ami when Birch .lied .-ho, tlv at 
ward<, Penn himself appointed hi.- -;ieeo--or 
tun., in order, as he sai.l, to protect lli.-.MaJe.- 
inttrests, — in other wvrds, implviiii: that tl 


interests were nut <ervoil by eitluT Bircli or 

At tlieses-i..n <A' tlie A-nnblv uii.l C^imcil, in 
October, 1700, :it Xew (.■a>tl.., tli'.Tr ua^ a -. u. ral 
revision of laws, ami a bill wa- [la.-.-i .1 to rai-e 
two tluiii.saiiil jiniinib. < lue^il ami i''iir 
acts were pa—.il at tlii< .-■— ii^ii ot' ilic Gcmial A.-- 
senibly, the nio.t ot' tlimi Ik-Ihl- iii.Mlili,;ati-ii> nt" 
existiui; laws, nr a'/t- "f local rliararti-r ami 
importuiiee. Tii,- ]>iin'l,a-e ,■[ land imia In, Tans 
witliout con- nt <'l' the inoprirtai-y was toi-Ui,i,ln : 
better provision was madf t^.r the ponr. DiiclinL' 
and chiillenL'inL' to ciiinbat vi-it' i| with three 
montlis' inipii.-oument ; b.mml .-fr\anis ioihiihlen 
to be sold withont their eonstut aii^l that 't' two 
magistrates, and at the expiration of their terei of 
service were to have clothes and injj)lenients jriveu 
them. An act relating' to roads gave the regula- 
tion of county loads to county justices, and the 
king's highway and public roads to the Governor 
and Council; inclosures were to bo regulated, 
corn-field fences to be made pig-tight and five feet 
high, of rails or logs ; when such fences were not 
provided, the delinquent to be liable to all damages 
from stock. The counties were to provide railed 
bridges over streams at their own expense, and to 
appoint overseers of highways and viewers of 
fences. A health bill was also passed, providing 
quarantine for vessels with disease aboard. 

A new Assembly was called to meet on the 15th 
of Septcn)ber, 1701. The proprietary told them 
he would have been glad to defer the session 
to the usual time, but he was summoned away 
to England by news seriously threatening his and 
their interests. A combined effort was making in 
Parliament to obtain an act for annexing the sev- 
eral proprietary governments to the crown A 
bill for that jjurpose had passed a second reading 
in the House of Lords, and it was ab.solutely 
necessary for Penn to be on the spot to prevent 
the snccess of these schemes. \\"lien the Asseinblv 
met, I'enn told them he contemplated the voyaLC 
with great reluetanee, " having piomi^ed nivself 
the Quietne-s of a wilderness," iuit, tiihliii- he 
could best serve them on the other side of the 
water, "neither the rudeness of the season nor the 
tender circumstances of my fansilv can overrule 
my intention to undertake it." At the first regu- 
lar session of the A>~eii)lily since hi- return i April, 
1700) Penn had addr.-sed them on the subject of 
reforming the charter and laws. Some laws 
were obsolete, he said, some hurtful, S(jnic iinjur- 
fect and needing improvement, new ones to be 

made also. 

All this, h: 

.wever, wa^ ] 




Assemblv ni: 
tlie people o 

ade a renion-tranee 
f rhiladelphia whi, 


L-h ha, 

1 be,,, 

IK of 


sented to ( ;„■ 

.ern,„- .Markham in 


i, ii;o7 

, and 

again brough 

t before Penn. were ] 


he oec 


id terr 


.1 be tak, 

charter should l,e granted, that all lu-opei'ty .,::, . 
tious .-hould be settled in the courts, and no lon_, 
allowed to go bet<)re Governor anil Council, a-, 
that the justices should license and regulate o,m. 
naries and drinking-houses. The rest of the a,i; 
clcs were in I'eference to the land question, and il. 
freedom of the demands provoked the Govern, r 
who said, on hearing the articles read, that if i: 
had freely expressed his inclination to imliil. 
them, " tliey were altogether as free in their era'. 
ings," and there were several of the articles whi ! 
could not concern them "as a House of Ke]ir> 
sentatives conveu'd on atlairs of Gov'm't." 1: 
fact, the Assembly demanded (1 ) that the proj.rlr 
tary should cease to exercise the right of reviewin, 
and altering the land contracts made in his nai..i 
by the Deputy-Governor, and that the hut, 
shiiuld have power to remedy all sliortages and over 
measures ; (2) that the charter should secure ai 
titles and clear all Indian purchases; (3j tha 
there shonhl be no more delay in confirming lai,'! 
and granting patents, and the ten in the hiindr, ' 
should be allowcil as agreed upon ; (4) no surveye,- 
secretary, or other [lerson to take any extra fe, 
beyond the law's allowance; ('>) the ancient la,. 
records, made betiire Penn's coming, shoul.l !■■ 
" lodged in such hands as y" A.ssembly shall jml.' 
to be most safe;" 'tli a patent office should i- 
created, like that of Jamaica ; i 7} that the ori-iii:> 
terms f..r laviu'.^ out I'liila, 

the l.aml Iv 
ilreadv built 

phia were clogg. 
itrary to the desi- 
oil Id be eased; . ' 
.f that part of !.' 
common, and tie 


tor tin 

■ of tl' 

iture, te 

e ownei-s .-hall be rea 
ereon, ami that the 1 
uii b.. left to thelnhal 
,ir winter tibdder ;" (0 
the strvvts of the town should be re-ulate. 
b.mnded, the end- on Delaware an.l .•^.•huvl: 
be nnlimit.d an, I hit free, an.l iVee public lai 

Id or Imp: 
1 tllat- 
thi- t..un t. 



uhvts be ooiifirnii'.l at tlif IMiic Aiirlmr Tuvrii 
„na tlu' Penny P,.t-iro,is,. ; ( 10 i the .l.v,l> of 
eiifooffiuent tV.mi tlie Diik- of York for tlio low^r 
counties should \>'' n-ronlrd in llirir rouns ami all 
hinds not disposril of thm hv K-tte.l at th.> old rate 
of u luishel of wheat thr hundred acres ; ^ 11 ) Xcw 
Ciistle should receive the one thousand acres of 
common land promised to it, and liankdnts these 
to be confirmed to owners of front lot^ at low-water 
mark, at the rent of a bushel of wheat per h .t ; (12) 
all the hay marshes should be laiil out for commons, 
except such as were already granted ; (!•'.! ) that all 
patents hereafter to be granted to the territories 
should be on the same conditions as tlie warrants 
or grants were obtained, and that people should 
have liberty to buy up their quit-rents, as formerly 

Penn informed the Assembly that their adilress 
wa5 solely on property, and chiedy in relation to 
jirivate contracts between him and individuals, 
whereas he had recommended them to consider 
their privileges, the bulwark of property. He 
would never sutler any Assembly to intermeddle 
in his property. The Assembly retorteil that they 
were of opinion they had privileges sufficient as 
Englishmen, and would leave the rest to Provi- 
dence. As to the king's letter demanding a sub- 
sidy, the country was too much straitened of late 
by the necessary payment of their debts and 
ta.\;es; other colonies did not seem to have done 
anything, and they must, therefore, beg to be ex- 

Penn now made answer to the address, article 
by article; he would appoint such deputies as he 
hud confidence in, and he hoped they would be iif 
honest character, unexceptionable, and capable of 
doing what was right by pjroprietary and province; 
he was willinir to grant a new charter, and to 
dispense with delays in granting patents ; fees he 
was willing should be regulated by law, but hoped 
he would not be expected to pay them ; the custody 
of the records was as much his business, as the 
Assembly's ; if the Jamaica patent law would im- 
prove things he was willing to have it adopted ; the 
i-laim for town lots was erroneous ; the reservations 
ill the city were his own, not the pro[)erty of the 
inhabitants ; improvements of bed of streets con- 
'■eded ; license proposition conceded ; the deeds for 
I>elaware counties were recorded by Ephraim 
Herman; the other propo-itions, in substauce. so 
fur as they were inijiortant, were negatived or 
referred for revision. 

In the course of the discussions the representa- 
lives of the lower counties took offense and with- 
drew from the As-sembly ; they objected to having 
the Assembly confirm and re-eiKft the laws pas-ed 
lit Now Castle, since they rc-ard. .1 the-e a> aire.-idy 
l^'rnianent and established. Thi^ was ..idv pre- 
hniinarv to the final se]>aration of the Dtdaware 

counties from Peiinsvlvanla. Finallv the Assem- 
bly was dis.-olved on' Oct. L's, ITol, the ( iovernor 
having signed an act to esiahlish courts of judica- 
ture ibr the jnuii-hnient of ]ictty larceny; for 
minor attachments; for preventing clandestine 
marriages; for preventing' fires in towns; for pre- 
venting swine from ninnin'.' at large; fi>r the 
de>truction of blackbirds and crows, and against 
Selling rum to the Indians. Penn also signed the 
Charter of Privile-es, ■■with a Warrant to Affix 
the Great Seal to it, w'"° w:i.s diliver.-d with it to 
Thomas Story, Kee[)er of the said Seal, and master 
of the Rolls," to be Sealed and R.-cordcd.'' 

The Charter of Privileges, after a specific pre- 
and)le, begins by confirming freedom of conscience 
and liberty of religious profession and worship in 
ample terms, as had been done in the earlier f jrni 
of government ; it provided for an Assembly of 
four members from each countv, to be elected bv 


the freemen each year on October 1st, and meet 
in General Assembly October 14th, at Philadel- 
phia. The Assembly to choose its own iSpeaker 
and olficers, judge the qualification and election of 
its own members, sit upon its own adjournments, 
appoint committees, prepare bills in or to pass into 
laws, impeach criminals and redress grievances, 
"and shall have all other powers and privileges of 
an Assembly, according to the rights of the free- 
born subjects of England, and as is usual in any 
of the King's Plantations in America." The 
freemen of each county, on the election day for 
Assemblymen, were to select two persons for sheriff 
and two for coroner, the Governcjr to commission 
a sheriff and a coroner, each to serve for three 
years, from the persons so chosen fiir him to select 
from. If the voters neglected to nominate candi- 
dates for these offices, the county justices should 
remedy the defect. " Fourthlij. that the Laws of 
this Govrm' shal^ be in this stile, viz'. [By the 
Governour with the Consent and Approbation of 
the freemen in General Assembly mett] and shall 
lie. after Confirmation by the Governour, forthwith 
Recorded in the Rolls office, and kept at Philadia, 
unless the Govr. anel Assemblv shall aiiree to 



their acfiistTs 

: coin 



:is to jirop, 1-1 

heard anywhc 

TC bll 

t in 


mrts of jn-ii 

upon appeal h 


V jin 


ltd tor; 'no 1 

ordinaries, t'^'. 

'., to 

he L 

Tanti.d hilt ui" 

mendation of 

the C 


V . 

Ju.-ti(vs uh, 

suppress such 


i for 


..r.l./r and ni 

suicide was ii 

Ot to 

u„rk , 

reheat of im 

affect its reyuh 


ellt t' 


-ai h.-irs:'n, 

of estates to pn 


ry in 



The charter w 

us n(it 



anien.lrd ..r 

any way but 1 

)V Cnn 



th.' <_;..vtrn.. 

sevenths of tl 

le A>: 



and the lii 

guaranteeing 1 


of t 


science, ".Ik 

and remain wi 




eration, Invi 

ever." The . 

A .-em 



: thi- charl. 

secured what i 

It had 


mtcndin- tnv 

alley, ( ■ 
tiiein t' 

TUr C.ainc-il as noinii,:. 
■ f Kduard Shipp.n. .1 
trr, William Clarke, Th,, 
rhiiu-as I'emherton, Saa 
and J(din Blun.-ton, anv i' 

William }',, 

tl. hi< ui 





the first session at 







privilege of uriiiinatin 




the in 


in e\ery pro].crIy : 


e,l 1,. 



Penn, in fact, conced 






of acres for .-horta-i 

the in 

un \u 

t-, il 

aid Ih 

e .pnt- 

rents. To e\|H.litf 


he en 



of p 


titles, and land -ran 


he er 


a ci 


,-i.Hl of 

propertv, consi^tiiiL' 


■ i:dw 

aid .< 


pen. (. 


Owen, Thomas St,. 




1, with 

power to grant Int- 


i.d la 




The new charter did 


ay wi 

th an. 




and the legi.-lativr ]<■ 


er wa.- 

- vc-te 

d exelu-1 

velv in 

the Abseud)lv. Hut 


.■nil ce 



■d a t 


under his own .-al t. 

. (_■ 


t and : 


-t him 

i or his 

d.'putv or lifutniant 


1 all tl 

le pul 



•..f the 

pn.vinr.,. TheCoui 


1 thu> 


Mlle.i ' 

U.T.' I.I 

hold their plar,- at 


le <;■! 


■'- 1 

■ leaMI 

r.'. th.' 

Deputy-Governor ti 

. 1 

lave t 

he p, 

■ to ;' 


men where there w 


a va 




nate a 

president of Couuci 






i:,e the 

It N.ivemh.r 
Hannah, h 
his infant son d.ilin. end 
■•Dalmah.iv- f.r Kn-lan 
Amlrew Hamilt.m. firm.rlv ti.ivernor ..f I 
an.l W,,>t New Jersev, to U- his Lieutenant-( e .; an.l he ma.le James Lo-an pn.vite 
secretary ami .1. rk of (".mncil. While the .di- 
dr.>].iK-.l d.iwn the riv.r the proprietary wrote h ■ 
l.'tter .)f instruclieiis t.i Logtin, from which extra. : 
have lieen given above. And so Penn pa-- . 
away fr im the province he had created, never i 

return to it again. He died on the oi't: 

N of July, 171^ (0. 8.), in the sevpni\. 
I f.iurtli year of his age. The funeral to' 4. 
I place August 5th, in the burial-groui.e 
J^l at J..)rdan"s Quaker meeting-house, i:, 
^'"- ■ "^ Buckinghamshire, where his first wi:, 
"j and several of his ihmilv were alrea.iv 
■ :. ; interred. 
. ' /y After Penn's departure from the De'.a 
• '.' ware the proceedings of the Govern. t. 
.;-,.-'-dl Council, and Assendily of the provin.' 
;'\-^'^i became monotonous and dreary. A con- 
stant struggle was going on, but it ha.i 
no variations. The same issues were he 
ing all the time fought out, over the saa.' 
tl familiar ground and by the same parti. - 
The interests of the crown, the inter. .-:- 
of the proprietary, the interests of t!.- 
people, did not harmonize ; there wa.- :i 
continual and ince.-*ant clash, and \. ; 
nothing was settled. The Governors w a v- 
of inferior metal, the people vexed and complain 
ing, the Penus wanted money, the crown wantui 
siqiplies and money, was jealous and solicit. ii - 
aliLiut prerogative, everything seemed to be :.: 
...Ids an.l outs, yet the colony grew and prospeni 
aniazinirly. The vari.uis an.l .'..uflicting intere-:- 
di.i n:it .li^turl) a people who were peacefnilv 
r.apin- the fruit, of un a kindiv m ''■ 
in a -eiitle climate, almost untaxed an.l a"lu,. -: 
uim.iverne.l, an.l ll.,we.| in like .' m.mntain ti.le. 

Un July 111, advan.'e of otiicial in.-tna- 
ti'iii.-, Lieuteiiant-t An. hew Hamilton ai ■; 
(.'.iiineil ..rdire.l Ann.' .if Denmark t., be pi - 
elainie.l (^leen of Great liritaln, prin.ipallv L 
caUM' war haTl b.-eu .l.vlare.l uith France" an: 

n.r.^sary in eallin- out the militia f.,r defei;- 
This detenidnation to inv...ive the col. my in iiue 
tary measures at yiice provoked tlie passive ri;i:e 

riKAT'v- AM) rillVATKKnS. 


„noo of tl.r Qinkc.-. Win i, thr tirn.^ c^anr 
(Niivt'iiil.ur 14. 17!il ) l<v ih- A--.p.l,lv (.. 11,.,;, 
tho lower ,„i thr I)oI:u\.Me \v.,ic i.^t 
rclircstiited. All lurjiMunir.rnt \\a- h:i,l. iL .tiwii, 
h.l.l, and IKU- rrj,ri-ntnu\.;,- <l:n.>,n, l.ut V.rv 
hkrwi... i,i\.-ol I.; -o to I'liiLfl.lpiiia, and ..'li'^ 
(^, „r c.-umv. liiuk. aud ( h.'.-'.T Lad 
thiii-^ all tluir null wav. . ' 



Ihunilton died April 20, 17i)3, and was suc- 
ccc<U\, on FtlTuarv 2, 1701. l.v John r.vans, 
IVnn's IRW Ciovnnur. IL. failed in i.n,euiin- 

fuinsties to tb.c Assembly, alien:itiii;4 tlieni more 
conii'Iflely still, and irritatinLi- tl.e represented 
counties by !ii= methods of procedure. 

CHArTEll X. 


Among the manv h.Trdships with which our 
f.reliitliers had to ornlen,! in the early colonial 
peiind were tin' ineii!>ioii3 rind ilepredatioii^ o!' 
pnate=, freel,ti..ters nnil prjvateers. As sodd us 
tliev sueeeeiled in buildii!- their ouiet little town- 
fhips nlon- the coa-:, and, throaLd, titeir thrill and 
(i!-l-jy, C-t:.hli.::e.] lliein^elv, in eon.fortalde 
home- to .-tart out in lile in the Ne'A World, 
th. V fell an ea-v prev to jdr.ite--, aliur.d hv the 
•■oraf.rlablc and fru-al aoprai.niee nt ih,ar I'eMn. - 
M.'ad.. Thev Millered m'.t unlv at the i,an 1- of 
Mrati^nrs aiel torv ii:ieu-, hut " fre.pientiv advei;- 
U>r,-i. would I'o out Inun their own mid-t. di-ap- 
!>>inted or di-ati.lhd with Aueaiean -oil, and, hi 
Collu-lou \\it!i llielldl vdio lei.uiinrd ,.u .horc. 

tleir W.nurv iri.iid<. A va-' .jUanlitv of material 
i- in e.v;i-ienee b.^-arin-_' .n thi. pie -.■ of e,,!, ,ui.d 
lite, to be lonud chiellv in the dep,,dli.,iw of wit- 
ii'-e.s before tile Coui' of the Governor-, the, 
''■^ulatiou:^ pa- ..d lii thecoleiiiei or tie ie trn. ;ioi, ; 

<ent from Knjand v;iih a vi, w to suppress thf>o Ihil Uo-u uf^iandin- th- inter.^t attach- 
ino to it, the matter lia< not a> y. t received the 

tim- lar prelerr.d to u-' the .-dhie.t a- the ba,-i.- of 
ro.nan-e^ and tabulo,,- t.d. - >,f advetiturc ^uclI a» 

As early as It;:.:; we hud a.vounts of the pirat- 
ic:ll cxcur-ions of I'ii. .:,,.,., J;.,n!,t. a re.-ideut of 
New Am,-t(rdani. Holland and J'n-land ■■ere 
then at war. and it vva^ Baxters pla,. to pilla-e 

inthehaM,u--ofi;„. l'.n.Ji-!i ..nh:,>, who protected 
him from hr- Duid, pur.-uers. Others folh.we.l 
the e.xani].le of Jhixtcr, and the condition of atlairs 
was such that a,t- of piracy ,ould be comn.itteil 
with absolute impunity, d'l'ie letaliated on 
tlie Kuirri>h and oiiued their p u■t^ as places of 
refuge U,v those who had plundered the Enirli>h. 
Tlic region abecjt I.^.n- Uhuid and the shores of 
the East J;iver liaalK" became so infested with 
these robber, that boil," the EnLdi,-h and the Dutch 
found it to their advanta,L'e to ta!;e measures to 
supi-ress them. Stuyve.-aiit rai,-ed a force, a jnirt 
of which wa^ aluaN- on ^uard. Yachts were kept 
],lvim_' alon- tlie eor.-t keepin- a vi'/ilaut watch for 
pirat.s. and severe p, naltie. svere iiill'cred oa those 
whe> oieied juxitection to suspicieHis characters; 
and it was only aftc'r th.cse nu^asures were ligidly 
uiforced that tlie New Netherlander.s were relieved 
of the excesses jiractieed by th.ese Ireebooters. 

Being thus driven iVoni the scene;)f a prolitable 
occupation, th.-y were I'orecd to lind a new iield in 
which to carry on their (hi,in'_' operations, and it 
is doublle-- duo to tids iioerruptioi) thai we lind 
them a lew year,-, later perpe'lrating their outrages 
along the coa-t of JJelaware. 

Delawaie being lie a a part of rennsylvania, it 
is, therefore to the r^jrurA^. and archives of the 

liidit upon this suhicct. The earliest appearance 
ot pirat'.s oi!' the coa,-t ol' ])elaware, of which we 
have any delinite know li.(l:_'e was about IGSo, 
but ibr th.'fir-^t two vear- tlev were not a^TLrre.sive, 
and .ati>li, d^^lves with occa.ionaf sallies, 
accompanied bv no,.u,a daina-,^. ]n IG^?, how- 
evr, tlMV.Middcidv ho,,. me bolder and more auda- 
,ioo,,;„,d their ho-i,!,.exhihition< w-ere>of,e.pient 
and deva-tatin- a- to d-niaml the titletitiou of the 
•'overnm. nt in Jhijaiid, Deemiiu: it lust to deal 
uKh them mihllv ai ilr-t, dames 11. b.u.d an 
Older icpiiring the ,oh,nial authoriti.s to u-e every 
precaution to cheek ihe abu-e> ami rent a ileet to 
aid ih.eni hi the worit ; but. he nuth.ori/.,;d the p .r- 
d-n ol' aiiv pii.i-,- wh,, haviiu' beeu captured lu.-lvc r.enth- ,.f the d,,te of the in-true- !Au:o;-t 21, lo-7x diouhl -ive securitv to 

'J ids l..,t. p. 

h„d an efhet 


HISTORY or l>i;lawaiip:. 

that was little fxi.ect..! <ir still 1.- (lr-i,v,l. The 
colouinl < tHcirs used their new ly-aciiuireii preri'i.'a- 
tive of parddii lor the iimst venal purposes, and 
the most notorious pirates, who were able to pur- 
chase their ininiiinitv, went free and unmolested, 
while those whose booty had not been sutficieut to 
satisfy the avariee of the otiicers suffered the full 
penalty of the law. ^[oreover, they we-re extremely 
careless in the legal processes which the less fortu- 
nate freebooters were compelled to nndersro, aiid 
many were convicted unjustly, through a desire of 
those in power to seem zealous in their enforcement 
of the King's commands. Jiiit cdniplaints soon 
reached the ears of those in Ldiidim, and a second 
letter was written, this one addiissrd tn Wiiliaiu 

,Penu himself and dated OetolK-r i:;, U>x7. The 
King requested his servants in the colonies to 
remedy the abuses named, mentioning particularly 
the unfair trials. He went further, however, and 
removed from them all original authority in the 
case of captnied piiates, who were henceforth to 
be imprisoned until His ^lajesty's will should be 
known. In addition to this, Sir Robert Holmes 
was appointed a commissioner whose duty it was 
to decide in what cases pardon should be granted 
in pursuance of the first letter of instructions. In 
;N'ovember the Privy Council met, published an 
order against pirates, and placed Sir Robert 
Holmes in command ot a squadron to be sent out 
for the defense of the colonies, and as a reward for 
his services he was granted all property which 
might be taken from pirates within three years of 
the date of his commi.ssiou. Early in the follow- 
ing year the King issued a royal proclamation 
condemning the pirates in the most severe terms 
and urging their hasty extii'pation, commanding 
that those who, in contempt of His ^lajesty's orders, 
continue their abominable practices, be pursued 
" until they and every one of them be utterly 
destroyed and condemned." 

Through these precautions the outrages per- 
petrated by the rovers of the sea wqre almost 

. entirely abolished, and for a few years the inhabit- 
ants along the coast were able to manage their 
aflairs in peace and contentment Still, there was 
always cause for anxiety, and in the commission 
creating Benjamin Fletcher Governor of IVnnsyiva- 
nia, in 1693, he was given authority to rai-^e forces 
to protect the colonists against pirates Latrr in 
the same year the Governor iicommended the 
erection of a fort on the Delaware River near New- 
castle for the security and defense of trade and 
the inhabitants, to which the Council readily 

When once the surveilhmee was relaxi-d, how- 
ever, pirates a'^ain madf tlirir ap|n-u aiui'. At a 
meeting of ihe G.,iwi.-H hrld at l'l,ila.lrl|.iiia 111 
1097, the Governor, William Maikham. piv^.uird 
a letter from IN uu, who was then in London 

Complaining of certain rumors which had reach..! 
Enirland, to the etH'Ct that the e.ilonists had t:. ■ 
only been lux in their opposition to the piratic 
but had even harbored and protected them. '11, 
Council submitted this to a committee for invent i. 
gation, and it was re[>orted that these rumors wi-i. 
without foundation, that several of the crew of ;, 
pirate shifi eommanded by Avery (one of the ni.-t 
famous pirate captains i liad been imprisoned an i 
escaped to Nc>vv York, but beyond this thui.- 
could he no lan.-e tor coni(>laint. 

DiiriuL: the two year- tiillouinLMhe audacity ai.i 

< )n a ."--eptember afternoon in Iti'.t.'^ there appearcl 
otf the cape at the eastern extremity of Su>.m x 
County a small sloop, which, although it had been 
noticed by the inhabitants, was not sus])ected ot 
having evil designs upon the village. Early th.; 
next moniiuL:, however, it suddenly bore down 
upon Li-wi-to\ui anil landed fifty men well armed 
and;;lily e |ui]i[ied for sacking the place. 
They plundered aJmoit every house, using force to 
secure an entrance, and battering to pieces every 
chest and box, after they had once obtained ad- 
mittance All money or valuables of whatever 
nature were carried off, and one of the townsmen 
remarked, in his plaintive wail before the Gover- 
nor's Council, that they were left with "scarce 
anything in the place to cover or wear." They 
killed a number of sheep and hogs and forced a 
number of the chief men of the town to assist them 
in carrying their booty on board, and even took the 
village carpenter prisoner. After having thus 
terrified and ruined the people they quietly, sail, d 
out into the l>ay and Ir.y at anchor without fear of 
being attacked until a small brig appeared and 
tempted them to offer chase. The particulars of 
this occurrence were reported to the Council by 
four of the prominent citizens of Lewistown — Luke 
Watson, John Hill, Thomas Oldraau, Jonathan 
Baily — who explained the dangers to which the 
town was exposed and asked for greater protection. 
The Council investigated the matter further, and it 
was learned that the sloop had been taken from 
John Redwood, of Philadelphia, as he was cominj 
out of C innepuxon Inlet, by a pirate named Canoot. 
who abandoned his own vessel for a fleeter one. 
Many other Climes .if >imilar nature were traced to 
Caia.ot an.l his piiat.- >lop, an. I the Council at 
once em|iowere.l the Lieiitenaut-t iovernor to mu- 
ter such forces a^ should be ie.|uirtd t.) delend the 
coast towns an.l pursue enemies. The expeu^.- 
required for this work was ordered tube rai,-:. .1 
bv provincial .;ax. but the daiinu- Canoot nia.le 
good his escape. XeveMh,l,-s. ,-,-veral conviction- 
..foth.r piial.-.-.M.n loll,,w. ,1 tl„.-.-new prudential 
m.a-iHV.-, ,,n.' ..f tin- m.j.-t n..|,v beini: llial 
of David Lvan>, «h.. ^^a^ aceu-ed of bel.mdm.' t.. 
Averv'^ crew. Tlii< cnvi.-ti.ui was due laruelv t.. 



the efforts of Robert Snra<l, who iiKhir-trinvi.-ly 
soiiijht to secure any evidtiice altaiiinlile iiL'ain^t 
men suspected of pirney. On one oecasion, how- 
ever, his zeal carried him too (ar, and he was sum- 
moned beiore the Council for havini; advised tlie 
English authorities that IVniisyJvuina lind become 
the greatest reiuize for pirates in America, and that 
the officers refustd to seize them, even, when an 
opportunity prtM-ntnl itstlf. AhhouL'h Siie:id 
promptly deniid liavini: writtm >U(h n ] on-, it 
ap]ioars that tluy were not allom iher unwarrant- 
able, or, at hast, the precautions taken were not 
such as w. uld be in a. , ord with more m.Mhin ideas 
of fruardinn; prisoners. The cases of Knlicrt 
Braudingham and William Stautoi) will furnish 
an apt illustration These two men were im- 
prisoned in the county jail of Philadelphia under 
suspicion of piracy, and the Lieutenant-Governor 
having heard that they were allowed too great 
liberty, demanded an explanation from the sheriti" 
That functionary admitted that the prisoners were 
allowed to stroll about the town, but never without 
his leave and a keeper, and added, by way of 
apology, that he thought this might be allowed in 
" hot weather." Notwithstanding, the stern Lieu- 
tenant-Governor was not to be moved by humani- 
tarian scruples, the sheriff was instructed to keep 
his prisoners in close conlinement thereal'ter. 

About the same time the Council delivered a 
severe reprimand to one of the Admiralty judges, 
Quarry, who had on his own account appre" 
hended two pirates and sent them to West Jersey 
his oidy excuse being that he was extensively en- 
gaged in trade, and acted purely in self-defense. 

Toward the close of the year 1699, the inhabit- 
ants of the county of Xew Castle, presented a 
jietition to the Council setting forth their griev- 
ances, from which many points of interest regarding 
the pirates may be gleaned. They mention the 
plundering of Lewistowu in the preceding year, 
and also the capture of the brigantine " Sweep- 
stakes," belonging to Col. Webb, a former Lv^ivernor 
of Providence. This vessel, already laden and 
prepared for a voyage to England, was lying off 
the town of Now Castle. On the night previous 
to the day set lor her departure she was attacked 
by thirteen pirate sliips. and carried off, with crew 

unfirtunate situation of tlie town, the inabilit\- of 
the citizens to iin.tect tin iiiM'lvrs from tl;(-e..n- 
flaught.-:, and tiiuilly, the in^ulliiifu<-y of the t^rtiti- 
'■ations. But de.-pite all tlii-. ihiv met with little 
sympathy. The boanl laid all the blame for the 
iletay in the construction of a fortress at the feet of 

the inhabitants t!,n!i'l,'iva' 
■I general As.-e.ul 
a hearing to th. 

people of New Castle had nogl.rti d to send repre- 
sentatives to the la.-t nicetiug of tlie As.-;end)ly, 
which would have been the proper place to discuss 
matters conccnnng the good and safety of the 
government. Beside^, the Council did not regard 
the prosperity of the colony as sutticieutlv great to 
warrant a large expenditure, and they had learned 
that in the neighboring and more flourishing colo- 
nies of ^laryland an<l \'irginia. where extensive 
firtifications had been erected and ships-ot-war 
were continually plying, the pirates continued in 
their nefarious work, apparentlv unconscious of 
the pre.-^enee of any oppi-iiion. In fact, the pirates 
would not infreipiently attack the men of-war with 
a vigor greater than usual, and seemed to find 
special delight in murdering His Majesty's marines. 
Consequently, with the exce()tion of one or two 
new laws on the statute books, the citizens of New 
Castle secured very little redress or satisfaction. 

In Ajiril, 1700, the famous Capt. Kidd honored 
the people of Delaware with a brief visit. He 
dotd)tless considered that the spoils to lie gathered 
from an attack on the towns would not repay the 
trouble requisite, and therefore did not molest them. 
He had, earlier in hi.? career, made nninv attacks 
on the colonists, and Captains Kidd and Aveiy 
were the only n;en exempted from the privilege of 
pardon in tiie instructions sent from London some 
time previously. Although on this occasion be 
satisfied himself with anchoring at some distance 
from tlie coast, his visit was nevertheless the means 
of involving a number of the inhabitants in serious 
difficulty. Kidd had just returned from the East 
Indies, where he had been eminently successful in 
his depredations, and brought back a ve-sel heavilv 
and richly freighted with the choicest products of 
the East. The importation of these goods into the 
colonies was strictly prohibited, but in direct 
antagonism to these laws, Wra. Orr, George 
Thompson, Peter Lewi^ and two others, all resi- 
dents of Lewistowu, lioardcd Kidd's vessel and 
purcha.sed a large quantity of his plunder. Thev 
were successful i-n eluding the vigilance of Lowman, 
the collector at Lewistowu, and had already 
managed to dispose of their goods before anv in- 
formation reached the ears of the" authorities. 
Penn, who was at the time both proprietor and 
Governor, immediately on the di.-covcrv of the 
facts, .«-cu red their appri hcn.M> .n a- ;i.-c. '-Mri.-s to 
the pirates and promolcis of ill. -al tiad.'. Thc.-e 
cases attracted so much attiiiiinn that once nuiiv 
the colonists received instruction-^ from En-land 
regarding the suppression of piracv. This k-il 
Penn to call a special meeting of the As-e i.blv to 

<, thev having huiL' sine 
ild it. As tor a uiili[i:i 
i't.n- tn be c..n.-idcr. d ic 
hey rcfu.-c.l to u'l-aiU cvci 
t tor .-u.h ai.l, .-mce th. 

prefKiro a bill aLrainst pirat 
a committee ol CMiiicii 
Shippc. Davhl lJnv,l. 1'!, 
Kodn.y and Cald, " Pu-~c; 
with an A.-^cndilv committt 

He a I 

■tin_' ,.f Kduard 
IVnilHrt-.i-., Win. draw ur 



bill, and after ileli:itiiv.' C't throe week? it \v;is 
finally pawed. Thi> Ian was un,l.uhtr,lly the 
most stringent that had vri incn iiiactcd. It wa.s 
followed bv a ]irnchiniatiiJii renuirin_' all .-tranL''rs 
traveling in the enloiiy ro .~h,,w |,a>.-es, uhic^h enuld 
onl}- be seeured after the identity vt the |i.'r<(in had 
been estalilished beyond a dmiht All iiiii-keepors 
■were reciiiired to give notice to a ma_'i-trate imme- 
diately upon the arrival of a .-stranger, or in case 
there happened to he no maudstrati' near hy, " two 
housekeepers ut' the " were to be 
notified. Even the ferrymen on the Delaware 
River were not permitted to tran.-port a straniier 
or suspicious character, and were firceil to give 
security, pledging themselves to abide l^y this pro- 
vision. The Council also treated New Ca.-tle with 
less severity, paying for boats and liipiors sent to 
that town when it was re]iorted that French pirates 
threatened the town. The colonists had at last 
thoroughly awakened to the enoripnity of the 
ofTenses committed around them, anil the jeopardy 
by which they were surrounded. They accordingly 
demanded appropriate legislation. The ra'-asur.s 
above mentioned were soon followed by an order 
making it the duty of the magistrates of Sussex 
County to keep a constant watch on the cape near 
Lewistown, and as soon as any vessel should appear 
off the cajies, which, on any reasonable grounds, 
might seem to appear suspicious in its movements, 
they were forthwith to report to the sheriff of the' 
county with an accurate description of the ve-f-el. 
The sheriff of Sussex was to forward this informa- 
tion to the sheriff of Kent County, and it was to 
pass by special messenger from sherifl' to sheriti' 
through every county, until it reached the Governor 
at Philadelphia, who directed what action should 
be taken. The sherifis were empowered to use 
horses for the mes.sengers, and to avoid delay, the 
magistrates were to attend to these dispatches in 
the absence of the sheriff, and any expenses thus 
arising were to be paid hy a provincial tax, levictl 
for the purpose 

These several laws, proclamations and orders 
grew more salutary in the results yiroduced bv them, 
than any that had preceded. During the first 
eight years of the eighteenth century, the coa.-t of 
Delaware retnained unnxjlested bv the pirates, 
while the people, iindi;turl)ed by their old oppres- 
sors, increased and prospered In ITn^, however, 
the troubles were once more renewed. The char- 
acter of the water thiev.-< had .-lightly, ulth.oiigh 
not materially, changttl, hut [Ik; hurdni was, if 
anything, more difficult to bear. The dangrrs now 
to be guarded agaiust were chiefly from French 
privateers, but the Dutch, Spainsli and other 
nations were al-o en iiaj-ed in similar nccupatious. 
lu tho, year just mentioned, the ma.-ters of three 

of r..- (.n. taken on his 
Carolina; Moudv, of I' 
London, who eapt, 

.1 ui 

('a.^trau an,l 
entire tii 


d fron.N,. 
nd Voun- 
;ht ,.f Ian. 
■ coa^t of Sussex C .in 
er privatei-rs spent tl 
,een Egg IlarU.raml ,- 
m between tho.-e points 

tls were taken 

ued Castrau. _ They were Captain^ I'liilips, 

soon rendered so dam^erous that it became nei-. >. 
sarv to appeal a'_'ain to Iae_'laiid for asdstaui-,-. 
The Governor of IVnn.-vK miia called a joi,,! 
session of the Council and A-emMy, and prcst'ntnl 
in writiu'.' \\\< vim- ,,n tlio new soiirers of puil. 
The nn>tortuii.s with «lii.|, the people were m. v. 
he-.'t exc-ed..! anvthin- th-v had experien.vd \n 
tho pa-t. Tiir r/,a-t of what i-^ now Delawaiv, 
furni-hed tli.- theatre for the nm-t violent of tlu -e 
exi-esses. NaviL^ation became alm(i.-t impractimdile. 
and the bravest sailors dared not leave or approach 
the coa.-t and trade was, as a natural consequence, 
brought to a complete standstill. The Govei'Uor 
stated his opinion to be that, while the laws were 
quite rigid enough to the evil, the ofhcers 
through whom they were enforced were not suffi- 
ciently nuraerou^ to properly carry them into 
execution, and he warmly appealed to the Assemblv 
to increase the number, and grant money supplies 
for any action that it might be necessary to take 
at once. The Assembly, however, were slow in 
levying a new tax, and remonstrated with the 
Governor, charging him with being derelict in his 
duty for not having reported the matter to the 
admiral before they came to their present deplor- 
able condition ; moreover, they insinuated that the 
taxes had not been a[)plied as economically or as 
wisely as might have been jiossible. These com- 
plaints they forwarded to the Lieutenant-Governor, 
John Evans, who in turn submitted them to the 
Council. To this the Lieutenant-Governor prepared 
an elaborate reply, in which he showed that the 
only hope of relief rested in what the colonists were 
willing to do for themselves. Governor 8eymour, 
of ^Maryland, the vice-admiral of the province, 
had no firees at his command which he could semi 
to the assistance of his neighbors, nor was there 
any rea.son to suppose that aid mi'.dit be expected 
from the Governors of any cjf the adjoining colonies. 
A detailed explanation of the munner in which 
the funds were disposed ot' was al>o incorporattil 
in the response, and after again picturing the 
seriousness of the situation, a second appeal was 
made to the members of the Assemblv. The letter 
elicited from the A.-sembly by thi. was based on a 
new line of argument. While admitting that the 
jurisdiction of the proprietary extended over a wide 
stretch of torritorv, thev asserted that the legi^la- 
tive powers of thJ A.-^emhlv were limited to that 
porth.n of the province bounded by the Delaware 
i'uver, and "goes no further down than twelve 
miles on this side ^'ew Ca.itle." 3Ioreover, theV 





l)v which tlu-y ;ittfii,|.t. .1 to |irov. 
on the hi.u'h Jeas was in al)snhite ii,.>^,-.->i.,ii of the 
crown, and the colonial otiicors Iiad no ]io\vtr to 
encroach thcreoii. In tin ir opiirhn, the mily 
proper course to hf pur-ind liy the < lovimor wa- 
to coninumieate with the vici'-aiiiniral. ulio was 
not Governor Sf-ynionr, as he hail >tatei'l. hut Lord 
C'ornburv, Governor of the Jerseys, w ho IkhI always 
willingly grante(1 them all the as-i-tanee in his 
power. This controver:-y between the Governor 
and the Asseiiihly contiiuied for three months, and 
was not terminated until it had resulted in .■au.-ing 
an irremediable breach beti^een the contemliivj- 
parties, and precipitated the retirement ot' Govei-nor 
Evans. The importance of this dispute is of chief 
interest in so far as it widened the breach between 
the province aud the counties comprisinii Delaware. 
New Castle, .Sussex and Kent were, on account of 
their situation, more directly concerned in 
conten ions than those situated north of theia. 
The continual recurrence of these quarrels pro- 
duced no other effect than an irritability between 
the counties on the coast and those in the interior, 
and they may be considered an important factor 
in the events which brought about the fiual ;e[iara- 

The unsettled condition of affairs which existed 
during the chise of Governor Evans' administra- 
tion was only made worse by a projected war 
afiainst Canada by the English. Taking advantage 
of this, the pirates and privateers were more fre- 
quent than ordinarily in their visits, and at this 
time (1708-!^) records are to be found of many 
attacks on both Lewistown and New Castle. Penn's 
secretary, James Logan, wrote to him in June, 
170S, that the " coasts begin to be intolerably in- 
fested," and has " become a nest of privateers " 
He reported that in four days three vessels had 
been burnt and sunk in the river or off the capes 
Three French men-of-war were stationed at Port 
Royal, one of fifty, one of forty-five an(i> a third 
of twenty-six guns, with orders from the Kin- to 
ply along the coast. They had bi-ouLdit over one 
hundred families with which to ,-ettle a Freieh 
colony, and whatever they L'atliered in their 
cruises, from the British coluni?ts, was used f jr the 
support of the new settlenienl. Logan hum(jrou-ly 
complained that " we luive now four English nn n- 
of-war ou these coasts, but they very exactly 
observe the late practice of the navy, tliat i-, care- 
fully to keep out of the enemy's wav. Thcv 
always see the privateers, but always something 
happens that they cannot tight them." The con- 
dition of atiairs was at this time such that advices 
Were .sent to haiu'land to sei:d no ve-^el-. dm ct to 
the Delawaie. but first to .Maryland, until it is 
learned whether it would he sale to enter tlie hav. 
Lewistown was a'.:ain plundered in 17U9, this time 

l"renelijirnaleer. Additional troubh s were eaiL-e d 
liy these attacks, owing to the refu.-al of the 
(Quakers to bear arms, even in defense, which 
naturally caused the other inhabitant? much dis- 

Fortunately, Governor Evans' successor. Gov- 
ernor Charles Gookin, was not long in ingratiating 
himself with the people, and soon succeeded in 
inducinir the Asseml)lv to grant a liberal sum for 
the protection of the coast. Almost immediately 
after the Assembly had taken tliis action, tidings 
were received that the Queen had dispatched a 
number of men-ofwar to a>jist in the work of 
saving her colonies iVeim the grasp of pirates and 



privateers. The co-ojieration of these two f)rces 
proved fir a time an etliM'tual iilow to the plunder- 
ing ineur^ioiis and thieviiii: attacks which the early 
.-ettleis of I'elauare eoiuinually suffered, and for 
nearly a decade the coa>t was undh-turbed and free 
from hostile invasions. 

In 1717 we again find the jiirates f.rcing 
their objectionable presen e upon the attention of 
the coloni.-ts The renewal of their predatory 
atrocities neces-itated the enactment of I'lirther 
mea-ures (f ilef n-.e On the lecomniendation of 
Lieutemint-Govetno,- K. ith, the Council willingly 
concurred in puhli-liiii- a proclamation wiih a view 
of diiiiini-hiic,' the of their old toriiient<.rs 
A temptin- reward wa~ oil;. red to any per,- ,n -who 
should furnish the ( ioveruor or anv magi.-trate w'tii 
iiilormation kadiii'.' to the con\iclio.i of' any pii-a'.e 


HISTORi' OF l>t:LAV. \RE. 

or other persdii \\lii) IkkI iiit.TterLcl uitli die neojile 
iu the peiU'ctiil pursuit of thrir ati'airs. lieuurds 
were also ottlred for the caiiture ol' accessoii-js auU 
suspicious characters, and the Guverno- pruDiised 
to exert himself to the utmost to secure the pani'in 
of pirates who wouhl surrender themselves or their 
accomplices. The proclanuuiou had hardlv nceii 
issued, when five pirat. s from the sloop •' ^Villiam's 
Endeavor," appeared hefore the Council, surren- 
dered themselves, and ( the pardon offered 
by the proclamation. Tlie pri? iijers wore John 
Collison, Hance Dollar, .Tuht, K. ,mald~. BeiijamiL. 
Hutehins and John Hell. .^tranuely eno'^/h, 
instead of remanding the [ir'soners to jail, until 
they were proved worthy of imtuinnty, they were 
ordered not to he pro.secuted until it might he 
learned that the crimes which they had acknowl- 
edged were such as to exemj)t them fiom the 
benefits of the proclamation. .Such evidence w?.s 
never procured, and the jiirates were conseqnenily 
not prosecuted. 

In July, 171.S, particulars reached the CuUJcil 
of far more serious piratical work. A number of 
mariners now appeareel before the Governor and 
asked his protection. They had been employed in 
the merchant service, but had recently escaped 
from a pirate ship in which they had been held 
captives. When summoned to appear before the 
Council, they gave their names as Richard Apple- 
ton, John Robe.=on, William Williams, John Ford, 
Benjamin Hodges. John Barfield, James Mathews, 
Samuel Barrow, Gregory Margoveram, Renold 
Glorence, Walter Vincent and Timothy Harding. 
Appleton acted as spokesman, and narrated the 
trials and sutt'erings they underwent before they 
esc-aped, making an interesting and thrilling story 
of adventure. They had sailed from Jamaica early 
in the year in a ship fitted out for working wrecks. 
Death soon deprived them of their captain, and 
they met with little luck in their e.\pedition. 
Minting with another sloop, they willingly listened 
to the importunities of its ca])tain, out; Greenway, 
to mutiny, and place themselves under his com- 
mand. They took Captain Greenway on board 
ihtir own sloup, which was the better of the two, 
and put their cw n master on the other. Greenway 
had also brought his crew with him, and the 
arrsugemeut had scari'i'ly l)een completed when 
thcv informed their new a.-.-.n-iale.- that thev were 
pinites, and had no other olijret in vieu in making 
the change than to secure a<lditional men to as-ist 
them iu their robberies. The men thu> betrayed, 
Wire tbrced to serve their pirate ma.-ters in >pite of 
s.":i protests. This lasted several months be'ore an 
eriVrtunity was presented to escape. Their sloo]> 
b.ui attacked an English ve.-.sel, and Greenway and 
■s. \ of his old crew boarded it to secure the 
. l>>. :_v. Those of the old crew who remained on 
b.srd were drank, and it was an easv matter to 

hi'id iIkti) and .-et tiiem adrift in a boat. ()i„, 
fice'l. .he ca.ptivci hastily put out, and althoii_:, 
Gretuway m.ide a desperate attempt to overtnk.- 
them, they escaped unhurt, and at length reach, i 
the host.itahle .-here-; of tlie Delaware, where tl.. •. 
j)i.a in tiir reuiL'e. .After hearing the story, (i,,\. 
ernor K.'iil'. oidevid ;!', iuvf-ntory to be taken ..i 
wliatever v as f..ii.'ii! on tiie-ir vessel. Captain 
Hardy depuuz-d for thi- work, and report, d 
the s\';op well e(piip.;)ed with powder, shot, gun-. 
pistols, inuskets. bk:i;derl)U=S"s, cutl;ts.>es and (jtlu r 
nuite!;:-!.-; and in-.iilei.ients nces^ary for the oeran 
eiicounter^ in which Greenuay had been engag, u. 
as well as f. Tisimerous collection of articles pr<i- 
miscuously gathered fmni his victims. Whatever 
was perishable was :n;mediately sold and used r..r 
the protection of the people against pirates, whil.: 
the rest was held subject to the order of tiie Admir- 
.ahy Courts, and the men were suitably rewarded. 

Ofher cases were continually reported, and the 
depredations again began to e.xcite much alarm. 
li '.'.'as reported that the famous pirate Teach, also 
known as Blackbeard, was in the vicinity, and the 
Governor at once issued a warrant for his arrest, 
but tlie rumor proved to be without foundation. 
It nevertheless became necessary to take special 
nieasnre? fi.'r the protection of the lower counties. 
Captains Raymond and Xaylor were sent out with 
two .^loops to clear the capes of the pirates, and 
did their work very effiectually, while nianv 
prosecutions against the pirates were conducted in 
the courts. 

After these attacks a respite was secured froiu 
the piratical invaders, but it was more to the 
gradual increase of the population than to tiie 
Governor's proclamations that the termination of 
the excesses was due. As long as the pirates were 
leniently dealt with, and allowed to go free on 
little more than their own promises of future 
repentance, they amused themselves by hoodwink- 
ing the officials, and without any scruples of con- 
science continued in their old trade They either 
re-engaged in it by taking an active part them- 
selves, or else kej)t their former comrades thoroughly 
informed of whatever action was taken agaiu^t 
them, and furnished them with advice as to the 
best time to jiounce upon tiieir jirey. The aiithori- 
tifs linally di-eoven d tliat they must deal sum- 
marily with llie eiilprit.- -and p.roiiquiy hum: llieni 
as they were ci'iiviiti d. Atbr the first ([uarter of 

were lew ami de.-ultory, hut iiion.' trouble wa- 
sufKTed at the hands < f the ]u-ivateers. In 17:.-' 
the ]iirates v^ere evidently reappearing, as the 
Couiieil was obli-ed to furnish extra clothes durim: 
the winter for some who were lodged iu gaol, Inii 
that they had lo.^t the boldness which characterized 
their former exploits is quite clear. 

By 178!) the pi'ivateers had begun to make their 



nk the 

:iud every one \\:i 
.il)Oilience to the c; 
ihiiij^ pertain in;: i 
pt-iuiltv of a tiue 
called Wether all 

iiand of the otKcers. 
liv special provision, 

raids at reirular iiitn-vals on t 
Asseiulilv of the lowor .■ounti:- 
hand. The Governor was t-nipoNNcavd to a^.oint 
two well qiialilied p.T-nns or otticers to ke.-p a 
constant watch at Lewi-town. l^ach inhahl'ant 
was re.|tiin-d to kerp hiiu.-clf armed with a i-.iu-.ct, 
cartrid-edio.K, twelve char-..,, of <:un|",w.lcr and 
hall, three Hints, and a worm and primin-wire, 
in.-trncled to vi;!d al-oUuv 
umand-- of the oHir,-,-. in cvorv- 
, the watch or deieii-e, under 
if rive >hillin-s. Tiie otiic^rs 
the inhahitants once a month 
hi'tween the 1st of April and 1st of Octoln i-. and 
unee every three muuths durini; the remainiuL' 
period, fur the purpose of drillintr them and exam- 
ining their arms and aminnnitiou. The tiring of 
three guns successively and the heating of a drum 
was the signal for calliuir the people together in 
the market-place with their muskets, ready to 
defend tlie town at the com 
The Quakers were e-\-empted 
as were also all persons under fifteen and over 
sixty-three. Pilots were prohihited from hoarding 
an inward bound vessel without a jierinit from the 
Governor, to prevent their [)ossihle assistance to an 
eiiemj' or pirate In the province, the apptarance 
of privateers in th.» hay hrunght on the old trouhle 
with the (Quakers, who controlled a majority in the 
Assembly. In 1740, Governor Thomas urged 
them continually to decrea-e the dangers of navi- 
gating in the Delaware, and a long controversy 
resulted. The Governor was grea'ly enraged, and 
in a message to the As^emhly imliunantly asked 
them: " If your priucijiles will not allow you to 
])ass a hill for establishing a militia, if they will 
not allow you to secure the iiaviLratiou of the river 
by building a fort, if they wilfnit allow y.iu to 
])rovide arms for the defense of the inhaliit:iut.-, if 
they will not allow you to rai>e men for Ills .Maj.^-ty's 
service, and on Ilis Majesty's alfectionateapplieal ion 
to you for distressing an insolent enemy. 4f they 
will not allow you to raisi.- and ai>pro|in;ite money 
to the uses recommended by His .Majesty, is it a 
calumny to say that your principles are inconsistent 
with the ends of government at a time wdieu Ilis 
-Majesty is obliged to have recourse to arms, not 
only to protect the trade of (xreat Britain and its 
dominions, l)Ut likewise to <ibt;Ma redress U'Y the 
injuries done to his -ubject-'.'" But with the ex- 
cjilionof rai-iuj .-^ven ,-iiiall eonipani.;s, the'v wr.r, 
nothinir further ihuii' ai tin; tiuie. ' 

The Var... in which the mother countrv became 

Ive.l .-Ic 


ul tb 
ced il 

l!riti-l! ]■; 
n reiin.-vl 

and earnestly re.|Ue-ted tlc' people to exert them- 

wa- to be ex|iecteil, tho Freueh and .■~|iani;:h 
retaliated, and the Am.-rie;,n r,,:,<t .-warnied with 
theiu, the peopjo suHei-in- the iu-ults and -ibe- of 
their eiienii.-.-, a^- well as lo-inj- their prop.Ttv. 
Tl C--C outra..> a-uiued llcir wor-t lorm o,, the 
Delaware diiriu- the of 1747. It became 
iieee-ary late in dun.- to place ve--l< bearing 

could come up the bay, in order to guard against 
every ]io.ssibility of surprise. Pilots were not 
iiermitted to conduct any ship up the Delaware 
Kiver or Bay without a permit from the Council, 
and any ship coming up without obcyiug the regu- 
lations fixed was subject to capture. But it was 
impossible to keep the jirivaieers out of the way. 
On July l'2th a company of about fifteen or 
twenty men, either French or Sjtaniards, lauded 
near Xew Castle and plundered the houses of 
James Hart and Edmund Liston, carrying off 
most of their property and slaves. About one 
o'clock in tiie afternoon the party came on shore 
in an open boat and landed about four miles above 
Bombay Houk, near Listou's house. They ran to 
a place where his daughter and a negro girl were 
crabbing and seizing the negress, bound her and 
put her in the boat; they then went up to Liston 
armed with guns, cutlasses aud pistols, and admit- 
ting they were privateers, demanded his negroes, 
nir.ney and keys. He quickly complied, and they 
Went throULrh the place, taking clothes, bedding, 
furniture and ^vhatever else they discovered, as 
well a> a ne^ro woman aud two children. Having 
jiut tlc;-e in the boat, they placed their pi>tols 
a-aiii-t Listou's bretist and comptdled him to lead 
them to Hart's plantation, about a half a mile 
di,tant. Hart saw them coniin- and cIo,ed his 
hou,e and bolted the doors, thev first chased a 
neirro girl until they caught her, and then called 
out to Hart that unless he admitted them thev 
v.ould fire the house. He still refused and theV 
commenced to bombard the house. A bullet 
struck hi- wife in the hifi, and she hh^d -o proiusdy 
that he surrendered and ojieneil the doors. He 
wa^ ?ecurely bound and the marauders then [ilun- 
d. red the house, taking away tlie negro, all the 
weariii'j appeal, some -old buttor^s and other 
article-, vahe d in all at ab mt ,eVentv pounds. 
Thev feci llarl to return with them to Li-tou's, 
atid after pacLiuu' up all lli.' bootv gathered at 
i.'-i'. plae, - ihov^et. ,.ut a-ain tbr "their boat. 
I.i-ton aiei ilart at ouce intormed Me-l>. deim 
Cuni- and .John Flnuev of the aihiir, aud the 
parti.-uhu- were di-paehed to riv-ideut All houv 
Palmer aud the Council. ,<everal member.- .d' 
the A.-.,emblv of the "province were Mimmoue.l, 



iiulii.lin- Mr.MS. .Tnl.n Ki.i.-rv, iLc .<[.e:ik.r. 
TlH.nia- l.vvrh, .In>, ph Trott.r, .i:nnr< .Mon i. :au\ 
Oswald lW\c. A omi; una- u:is lul.l iKtumi 
these nicniliers and thr C' uiu il and nii:i~iir..- ni.i-,-^- 
s;irv fnrdcf.ndin- tin' inh:d.iiai!ts w. IT lakin uiidci 
discu.-/h>n. As the A,->.iuMy ,-niitrnll,d the friids, 
the Couni.-il was [...unU-- t.i take any >tf|) inmi- 
ring expeUMj without their a-.-fUt, and thi'V hail 
been suuirnnntd to ^tate what niearTUiis tliry I'.i.ii- 
willing to take. But the -cruph s of the (./luik, rs 
again proved a >tunihlii:u' h!ock. The nirnili.T.> 
of tlieAs5cnd)ly at Hr>t lefu.M.d to act at ulKa.-irt- 
iug that :>.s they wrvr thm without authority lioin 
their Assend)ly, it would be usek>j to aet in thuir 
private capaeity, and ou being pressed by the mem- 
bers of the Council, only gave the vagiie-t notions 
of what they might be willing to do. The priva- 
teers continued iu their work without meeting with 
sufficient opposition to inconvenience them iu the 
least. One of them manned a Cape ^lay pilot- 
boat and sent ic up the bay as far as Bombay 
Hook, plundering several of the best plantations 
in the lower counties un its tiip. 

Governor lieading, of >ytj\v Jcr-fV, was re- 
quested to give the Xew Jer.-ey pilots instructions 
similiar to those i.ssued in Pi-nnsylvania re-peciing 
the license required l)y vessels bearing thi-s of 
truce, and accounts of the tronblts were al-o s( nt 
to the proprietaries, witli a rcipR-t tor a->i~tanro. 


In the mean time the nuioy coi 
the colonists. The party wlio had robljed Hart and 
Listen, iu sailing (jut of the hay, met a valuable 
ship bound for Philadelphia from Antigua, and 
carried her otf The Council continued to ask as- 
sistance from the xVssembly of the pi'ovince, as it 
■was feared that at any moinetit the enemy might 
sail up to Philadelphia and sack the town.. In 
their messages to the Asseinhly they pi(turL<l the 
effect of such an event in tlie most viviil manner, 
reminding them of the ruin :uid ldo(.id-h< d that 
would follow; l)Ut the A-seiubly was not easily 
moved. They admitted that tlie enenn- liad been 
bold and ruthless in its aeiioiis, Imt thought it 
would '■ be ditticuk, if not impossihle, to prevent 
such accidents." Tlie h ngth of the' river and !)ay 
thcv considered ample truarantee a_'ain.-t tin- ile- 
struction of Phihuklpliia, and they nuiiiid.d the 
Council that their cor.tiiiuiu- to spreail re- 
ports of tin; ■M-fcn-ol.-s coinlitlon of the 
province," by ^.aiding nn-si-e^ to tiir, 
would have a ^rreat tendency to indiii'e the enemy 
to attack tliem. 

But no measures whirl, the A-sembly ,.r Coitn- 

from rel'usiiig to earn a i'rr Uy olijrriiir_' to rniiduL-t 
vessels into the l)ay, wlii tlicr th' y w._iv rn, n.i, - ,,r 
not. These pilots wrrr. in ta<r, nioru w iliin- to 
serve the enemy than the British, -incr the fjrmer 
were alwavs willing to pav a lar-er ^uin I'or beiu'' 


the eapes 
was kept 

In ?ei 

1 o,; 

teiober the 
several wee 



ttlUL' up t 

urn-, how 

he hay, e 

leh att. llde, 
n the well- 

1 1 



were ,le 

valeer, ^ 

■.ive.l li 
nd hv 

• the faL-e 
he British 


. .-oiue' ot 
or tor lie 


wliom w 

.ejof the 
of the p: 

ere alwavs 
veral .■ases , 


rtieulars th 



th,- d.'pM-ition of William Kellv, late iu ITtT 
Kellvhad heen taken troui the .-hiop " Elizabeth, ■■ 
otf the coa>l of Nortli Can. Una, bv a French piiva- 
teer, "Marthel \'odroit," Captain Lehay. The 
ves-el was of about ninety or a hundred guns, and 
after Kelly's ea[iture, took six English prizes, on..- 
a sloop, about fifteen leagues otf the capes of Dela- 
ware, and two ships in Delaware Bay, commanded 
respectively by Captains Lake and Oswald Evo. 
The privateer put into Cape ^lay, and hoisted the 
English colors. There were Englishmen, Irish- 
men and .Scotchmen in the ciew-, and when they were 
met by I'ilot William Flower, the captain sent one 
of the Englishmen to give instructions. The pilot 
was naturally deceived, ami obeyed his instructions, 
taking them into Cape Henlopen. Kelly informed 
hi HI thatthe vessel was a privateer, but it was then ton 
kite, in the mind of the pilot ; but nevertheless he 
[ironiised to take the ship so near to the shore that 
Kelly might make his escajie by swimming to land. 
^\'ncn coming around- towards Cape Henlopen they 
were boarded by another pilot, Luke Shields, who 
proved to be quite a diiiereut character He and 
Flower were jointly placed in command of the pri- 
vateer, but he refused to so near enouirh to shore 
to let Kellv e,-cape, declaiio- that he proposed lo 
take the vessel where .-he couhl eanture the ne ,t 

lat was 


had come, and no pei-i^; 
could indu.v him to di 
therefore appear that to 


whicll .-he 
11 the part of K.iiv 
om this. It would 
quality of their own 
pilots the e"olonists could attribute much of their 
aunovance bv the'privateers. The pilots were no 
doubt ,loublv rewarded f.r leading the ve.-sels clear 
<^t' all opp.-siiion to tlio-- points most likelv to con 
tain a prize, and lea-t a'.t to be dettnded." 

Darin- the siinimM- 'of 1747 these attacks coii- 
tinueil, kerpiii- tlie iuha'r.itanl.^ in the l,,wer cani- 
ties in a coir-tant .-tate of dread and terror. ( »ne 
or two incidents occurred to ,-how the barharoi;- 

feeliiejs and hl't i.othiiiL' behind wlii.di it was p^ - 
sible to earrvi'li: John Aris a Piiiladelphia pih t, 
was comiii- up the bav oie- .■venin- liavini: taken 
a sliip hevond the eape-. when he was hail.d hv 
so.eie one on board a, when about t. a 
miles below Keedv I-land. A boat -oon ean.e 
alon^,-ide, and a-iuiniher of .Spaniard.- came oU 

hoanl, and, uiih 

little cere.nons 


his tin-> r. l.i.v 
numev. Tin v a 
fond on hoani, 
boat. TIk'V l.t 

M.eki.s and „^ 
-,, .arried olf 
uid all the >ai 
t him Miioe I 

er three 
Ir-elnth.s. .dl t 
s h.dnn-in- to I 
lonldv liread ai 

Uicyleft. Itua 

1 then retired 

. tiiin- at hill) 

ly every one wIk 
hands of the pri 

report.d hav. 

i- Mitli'ivd at t 
1 Ihat «hile a in 

jority of their a 

v-ailan;^ uere 

ii-uallv i;.r..iu:K 

(Spani-h or Fw 

\', ho il-i d "ooi 

was alway-^ soi 
]'']i'di~ii ' It ■■' 

coiK'hidcd from' 

th > that th, r 

•wnre inanv nfi! 

colonists, or perl 
ing with the enen 
aci.'ounted for the 

ap,:- JJriti-h .-^ai 
y,— a taetwhie 

or., win. ^^ea a. 
h iniLdit a!^M ha\ 
ner in wldeh th' 

expeditious u.~iia 

Iv terniinat.d 

Tln>e coward 

and traitorous ji 

■o.'eedin-s uer 

. earrie.l on to ; 

alarniinu' extent. 
Bernard .Martin, 

as the exp,-i 
nn, wdl illii-m 
was ju,-t entei 

ienre of the sh 
te. Thecapta,. 
Iul; the Delawa 

PIRATJ::-; and PRIVAIIiililS. 107 

Ilowlan.!. :^a-u.i.i R.^ Ian I. .Fr, \Vilila.n T; -ulainl, 
^i.-uou I'.dv.aris. J..hi, IJnlv. John Maul, Jid.n 
Adams, al! piiors .r LeuiMown. They also ,e- 

pilots from .ar,-vl,i-..e. th^'sein'. a.l.,.~ - Jloth of 
the;r re.pie.r^ w, re eom|.li. d uith. Imt the re.-tiae- 

tive. As sp-lii^r apie-oaeh.-i ihr privateers reao- 
prar-d, and f ;• tinve :no.,:h> tn, ii- inee-^ant attacks ::>-[, Ts woiv.; ti.a:: lln'V had l.-enonanv 
I.:■t^n;as o<-.a>n.ii. A- oa,|v a/ tin' l.^ih of ^fav, 
Cat.taM INra-,e- ( Jr., ,i a .-.■;,:,- d oif ( 'ao- Hen- 

carrla-e and : ix- eu .. ivel ^uu>. and uith a eivw 
ofonehnndredandsevontvdivennai. Hi- schooner, 
the'Thiemx," was laden with l.nad and [inlian 
corii, and afier t!ie jirivarier had eaiitnred him 
the,- tojk the broad on hoard theirown hoat and 
threw the Iiniian c. in ov-r',oard. Thev then 
placed about ten F;v nrhu'.en on board the schooner 
capes, wheu he was hailed by a privateer of tea aiid sailed up th-^ iiav, stonpinii; to attack a brii,'an- 
gnns. He luanaged to elude her, however, but tiue. Yv'hile the iiieu were boarding this the rope.? 
was met by a pilot-boat, which he knew, as well as gave wry, and Captain Greeu was left in charge of 
the captain, who had often taken hiiu up the bay. boat and nia<le his escape An account of this 
Martin allowed her to come alongside and threw vas sworn to before John Finny, David Eush, 
him a rope, seeing n.-> one ou board exce|it three or Jauie.s Arniitage and Win. Patter-on, of Xew Castle 
four iMigliihnieu. But suddenly about thirty live County, and ,-ent to the Counoil. On this the Council 
Frenchmen and Spaniards sprang t'loin the liatehes, made another attempt to -cair a-si-tance from 
where they had been conceale.l, and boarded the the Assembly, but for a reply that body (juietly 
ship, driving the crew before them at the points stated that they did "not see what prudence or 
of their pistols. ^lartin otftred some resistance, policy could be done in the present emergeucv. 
but they at once oi.ened tire on him, woundinL: him To send a vessel in pursuit of a privateer supposed 
in the cheek, in the arm and ^ide and then kn(jcked to be at the capes, a late example may convince us 
him down. They took comm.iid of the vessel, that the privateer- miuht and verv probablv wouhl 
cruised off the capes for a few days and then iilaeed he out of reach before any vessel could get thither. 
Captain ]Martin and seven men on the pilot lioat And to keep a vessel constantly at our cajies to 
and abandoned them. guard our coast must be introductive of an expense 

As the winter of 1747 approached, the stress of too heavy, as we conceive, for the province to 
weather i>ut a check upon the [jrivateering opera- bear.'' And so they did nothing. About the 
tions for a brief season. 3Iost of them ^oughtshel- middle of ^May His Majesty's s'oop, the " Otter," 
ter in the West Indies, but i-oports eouwnually arrived under Captain Ballet, with instructions 
reached the Delaware that a L'r' at raid was being from the Admiralty tocruise off the Delaware capes 
[ilanned for the o]iening of .-|)ring. The Piuladei- and protect the coast from the ]uMvateers. On his 
phians were especially alarmed at this. A:-socia- voyau'e, however, he had eneonntereil one of the 
tions were formed to defend the city, and appliea- enemy in a four in.ui-' eii-a-.'indit ami was so 
tiou was made to secure cannon t'l be jdai rd at much disabled that it required some time to make 
proper places along the river. But the .Vsseinidy tlie nece:-,-ary repairs. In the mean time the out- 
remained inexorable. .^ev.ral compauie-^ were ru-es continued. Tou ard the end of .A[ay a priva- 
formed within the pro\inee ami the lower counties teer cajitured the sloop '-Three Brothers" otf the 
and the construction of hatterie.- wa^ begun at dit'- caijcs. They tO(jk off all but the captain, CJeorge 
ferent points on the river. Porteous, his wife and son and an old man. ami 

In Apiil, 174S. the pilots of County -. nt put on board three Frenchmen. Thov st. ered for 
in a petition to the Council, a-king them to npoal tin- cape-. aecomp:Tniod l.v the piivate-r. Imt were 
the orders i.-u.d as to pilots couductin- inward separated from In r in a -torm. Porteoiw. hi< ,-on, 
bound ve>.-.|-, in onler to .aiable them to earn a and the old man niaiia-.d to -oeiire the French- 
l'--'itlmate living in competition with the traitors men. and put into L,wi.-[oun tor a pilot, brin-ing 
Hh.> refu.-ed to obey the pronlamations. This was the three prisoners up the bav with them. Soon 
signed by William FieU. Luke .-Shield, Samuel afterwards Xew Castle v.-as threatened with de- 


iii.sTORv OF i)i:la\vai;k 


stniction by the iiirival nC a Sp:iiil>h 
brig of tiiurtecn l'imis ami uiic Imiiilii il : 
men. She had an.hnR-,! ^tr Ei-, iiliui,, ^ 
miles below New e■a^tk■, -ivin- an l.iij 
oner, Georu'e IVdctnr, an o|i|i(irtunitv tn «. 
swininn.i-'tn slmre. He j.nure.leil t(. N. 
and infni-iiii<l the aiitluirities that the c:ii>ti 
brig, Don \'ineent Lopez, had entered tlie riv.r with 
the inteuti(jn of eapturinir the lar'_'<' >hip tlh n ly- 
ing near New Castle, and atiei ward.- plund. r ,iiid 
destroythe town. He had .-divadv 1„ .n <'niiMn- 
off the capes and ha.l ea|i!iin d ■^.vnal V(»el.^ and 
a pilot-boat, Imt was now in pin>';:r ot' larirrr prey 
The privateer came up under ELiijli.-h cm!,, is, within 
gun-sh(jt of New Castle, luit the people werr pre- 
pared and opened tire from seveial u'uns. Lope/. 
finding that his reception would be rather warm if 
he ventured nearer, slipped his cables and dropped 
down the river, huzzaing as he lel't, and hoisting 
the Spanish colors in place of the English. But 
this was not the last that heard from Lopez. 
Captain Nathaniel Ambler rejiorted shortly after- 
wards meeting with tlie Spaniard, that resulted 
more favorably for the latter than his New Castle 
expedition. On ^lay '2'nh Ambler was anchored 
off Reedy Island, in company with three Boston 
sloops, which had been driven in by the privateers. 
Late in the evenin'j- three l>^ats, from the S]janish 
privateer, approached them and raptured all four 
sloops, strij)ping the crew and takim; otiallthiir 
clothes, only leaving each captain a i>air of 
breeches. Captain James White also had an en- 
counter wi"h Don Lopez's men, about thirtv of 
whom boarded his schooner ofi' the high land of 
Bombay Hook, with pistols and cutlasses, [)lun- 
dered her and took the captain and his men on board 
the privatKT. The long list of outrages of this 
character was daily increased by reports of others 
more "daring and iuijuideut. About the 1st of 
June, Abraham Wiltbank, a pilot of Lewistown, 
was appointed to command an intelligence iioat. 
He plied up and down the rivei- and bay from the 
capes to Philadelphia, reporting tlie force and 
movements of all jirivateers within si'_'lit. At 
New Castle there was, to be sure, a fort. Hut there 

l,v til. 

were only four guns to be raised in the \\ hi 
town. This number was increased bv f uir ^ 
pounders from Philadelphia, where they eould 
be spared. The defenseless condition of the eo: 
can therefoie lie well understood, and it is not 
be wondered at that tlie privateers entcrtaiind 
fear of m hatevcr opp(,.-ition might be o/!'eir(l. 

In July a whole lleet appeared oti'tlie .«outiit 
coast of the American colonies, under the lead 
ship of Don Pedro, ami for a time riavi.'atiou v 
completely at a staiid.-till. A part of tli.- Pi ii 
sipuulron in New J^ngiaiid was sent dwwn and .•: 
tured sever il of llir private ers, and mauiM d them 

it a 

roeks of Christiana. In a not,- to Proidrut I': 

mer. of tiie Conn,-il, f i David Pu.-li. .1. : : 

.AleKiulv ami Cliarl,. Pu-li, ihev state tliat i. , 
batt.-ry had bo, n vieuod by manv, and tlm ne 

'•any ,.n tho eontineiit tor .-trenjth and li.aiiiy/ 
I'.ut to tlie two men-of-«ar, the " Hector " ai,.: 
••Oiter," was reallv due tin- .axdit of Hnallv elr.v. 
in- the bay and '.■apes of J ), laware of tho pnx :.- 
tiers. Thev ea.pturnl a numlier and di.-aM. ■, 
others, .-o that belore llie close of the year 174^ 
tliose that remained unhurt had sought more In - 
[litable regions and the p.eople were once more r^ 
lieved fioin the strain incident upon the alnn -■ 
eoiitmuous [iresence of tlieir enemies for two yeai-. 
Tins was the last of the attenijits, either of pirati- 
or privateers, to make any concerted attack mu 
Delaware, jiractically blockading the mouth of tin 
bay. At rare intervals thereafter they would 
apjiarently spring out of the bosom of the wavr- 
and sweep down on an unsuspecting vessel ; bat 
they no longer acted with their former audaeiiv, 
and scarcely ever came within reach of shore. A- 
late as 1788 we learn of James ^IcAlpine b^in^ 
convicted of piracy on the Delaware, but witn 
this the curtain falls on this roruantic and inter- 
e.-ting pliase of the history of I)elaware. 



The State of Delaware to-day eould not well 
made the .-uleeet of a boundarv controver,-v, wi 
its stiff, straight lines on the Voiith aml«\st, 
short, regular curve on the north, and Delawa 
River and Pay and the ocean on the east, to ina 
its separation from any grasping neighbors. 
lies between latitude 08" 28' and ^fP 47' 
and longitude 74^ .50' and 75° 4<J' W. This is 
ileed definite enough, but the disputes and conte 
between the several claimants of the territory, a 
the letters, documents and depositions that an 
out of the boundaries of the territory upon De 
ware, firms the store of a Ioult and bitter stru.'- 
which, on oJraMons. did m.t tail shoit If any palliating n a.-ons are to 
S0ULdit,we can only trace theori-in of these tmiili 
to the numofous ohan-is iji the proprietorshi!i 

f.r marly a oniiurv after Hudson's advent, 
IGO'.t, and" so de,ply entan.did had the claims a 
counter-claims Ucome, that a second centurv v 

(iwwini; rapidly to a rl.>>e Hctorca ]iariti 
iiieiit was tiiiaily aunrd ui -n. In it- 
|ias.-ai:e from the hainl.- i>t the iihiniL^i 
I)uteii, then ti) the Sut ,ii-. and oii<-.- nmietn the 
I)iitrh, to the Duk.- of Yelk ;;;al Hually to 
iVnii. it was nmre than likuly that th- title to this 
%-alueil ])ro]KTty :-houlil not remain iiali-imlaMe. 
Siirveyin:,''\vas rtiidered douhly iliHii-ult i>y tlie un- 
explored condition of the country, and inaccuracies 
in thib quarter furnished a fre(|nent source of 
controversy. But, above all, when grants and 
titles were issued by authorities three thousand 
miles distant, without facility for receiving any other 
information except the testimony of the apidicant, 
it was not improbable that a single-siti-ip of laud 
might be granted to two or even a greater number 
of petitioners. 

The zeal of the Dutch in settling their newly- 
discovered territories, w-hich extended from Dela- 
ware Bay almost to Cajie Cod, naturallv excited 
the British, who were interested iu the Plymouth 
and Virginia charters. As early as 1G21 they 
complained to James I. of the encroachments of 
the Dutch. At this early period it was a simple 
protect of the British against the title of the 
Dutch to the'iS'ew Netherlands, which included 
New York, New Jer^uy and Delaware. Tlie mat- 
ter was brought to the attention of the States-Gen- 
eral of Holland, but on the death of King James 
the ati'air was still badly complicated. Under 
Charles I. the dispute continued. Tlie New Neth- 
erlands had now come under the management of 
the Dutch West India Company, but now, in their 
turn, they were much annoyed by the bold en- 
croachments of the English. One of their largest 
vessels was seized ; they placed the matter in the 
hands of the States-General, who decided to 
firmly maintain the rights of the company. The 
English were equally positive in their determina- 
tion to resist the Dutch ag'j-ressions, and the trouble 
over the boundaries gave rise to intense feeling on 
both sides. The addition of new pureha^?rs, who 
might be po.ssible disputants, had no tendency to 
unravel the entangled claim,-. Godyii and Bloem- 
niart had bought a :;trip of land from tlie natives 
in 1G29, extending thirty-two miles inland from 
Cape Henlopen, and two njiles m breadth. De 
Vries started a small colony nrar the Cape in loMl, 
and in the same year new purclia.-e^ were made 
from the Indians on the east side of the Bay. 
The year I G32, however, stands out as a prominent 
landmark in the history of die disputes, fir it was 
then that the tamou? charter was -ranted to Lurd 
Baltimore, on whhh he afteruanl- lia- d his 
'■laiius to the land on the \\e>t si.le ,,f the river 
IVlaware. It was;:iant,d undnn.-il. lo:;-, an.l 
e-utainedlhe f .llowiii- f rni> : •' Wr ( liailr. 1. ,1,, 
i:ive, grant and eoulirni unto Ceeiliiis, IJaron of 
Baltimore, his heirs and a..igns, all that p.irt of 

I'TES ANI^ .^F.TTLi:\n:NT. 


lire- the ]ienin>ula, nr chersorKs. 

: IviuL' i 

;n the 

part of 

red America betwoen the orran 

1 nn the 


and the 

the Chesapeake on tiie u,-t, di' 

.•id.-d fn, 

m til.: 

■ re-id lie 

thereof liv a ri-ht lino, ,haun from the promt. n- 
tory nr headland .'all. d Watkin- I'nint. situate 
upon the liav afore.-aid. near the river ^^'iL'll(■o 

between that boundary on the south unto that 
jiart of the Bay of Delaware on the north uhieli 
lietli under the fortieth degree of north latitude, 
from the equinoctial, where New EiiL-land is ti r- 
luinated, and all the tract of that land within tlie 
metes underwritten — i that is to siy i pa,-~inL' from 
the said bay called Delaware Bay. in a right line 
by the degree ufiiresaid, unto the true meridian of 
the first fountain of the river of Potomac, thence 
verging towards the south unto the farther bank of 
the said river, and following the same on the west 
and south unto a certain place called Cin<iuack, 
situate near the mouth of the said river, where it 
disembogues into the aforesaid bay of Chesapeake, 
and thence by the shortest line unto the aforesaid 
promontory or place called AVatkins Point. "^ 
The petition of Lord Baltimore, in comjliance with 
which the grant had been issued, set Ibrth that 
the territory was "not then cultivated and planted, 
though in some parts thereof inhabited by a cer- 
tain barbarous people having no knowledge of 
Almighty God," and it was this declaration which 
was afterwards made an important factor in the 
strugLde. These limits included not only the pres- 
ent S'tate of Maryland, but all of Delaware and a 
part of Penn.sylvania and Virginia. The remon- 
strance came first from the last quarter, but that 
controversy does not bear upon the matter in hand 
with sufficient import to warrant our entering 
upon details. 

The arrival of the Swedes in the Delaware, in 
1638, marks another epoch in the narrative. We 
have seen in the chapter on the Swedish settle- 
ments that Ussfclinx, disgusted at his treatment by 
the Dutch, had entered the service of Sweden, and 
with Peter J\[inuit had superintended the expedi- 
tion of 11)38. Opposition was at once elicited 
from the Dutch through William Kieft, Director- 
General of the New Netherlands, but Minuit per- 
sisted, and the erection of Fort Chrijtina gave 
definite shape to his plans Two years later the 
first English settlements on the Delaware were 
begun by the purchase of land on botli sides of the 
bay by Captain Turner, the agent for New Haven.-' 
The purchases of the English continued for several 
years, and their potscssious soon aggregated a con- 
siderable quantit_t of land, although they were 
f ireed to contend with the attacks of the Dutch 

iTb- r.v.T W..4l,o) u.., !,.■ -,. .1, tl,:it n,.w kiww,, ^ tbe P.xu- 



E:-i:;h of 

tlie middle of the seventeenth cent'irv th.' '^n 
tnry now known as Dflawaru w:l- ^u'.it'ct" V, ur,n 
owntTS, each trviii- to int.-i-t'rn- uit'i "'-rvi piv'.'t 
theadvai,o..,r.l„. „thcr~. In l,n,; ;:,.. Li m 
portant cnf. [vmco uvor the h.,un:iari,-> wa< coi 
vened at IlartJmd, t;.|- tho [.iir[H:s 
disputes ljrtu,-fu the Diitrh and 
A'ew Haven, u h^ had i.tin ha-...i hi;,. I ,,„ the 
Delaware. Tliu nirttin- wa.- .alhd at ;iie ^r'-c-b- 
tionof the co.„n,is-i,,n,T.s .,f the United Coi^'des 
and StiiyveNim u illiii-lv a.-, lUrd. The i,.' ...ria- 
tious were at Hn-t conductrd in <.vrli\i) ' ijut~'>:hN- 
method proved irksome, and ^:^>u~\^\^w■\ L riueh 
time that a new plan wa.~ >,M.n •id..or.'d F ■ -li ot 
the parties involved api,oi,.t.d tu.," .....i^i^-^^ers 
to represent tliem. the Iniir to t;,n,i a l,n-.,,i of 
arbitration to settle the disputed .]ue-:tio!,. ".^cv 
vesant appointed Eusi-u Geor-e RaKt.M- '-ml 
C'apt:iin Thomas Willett, while the Xew Lu-i-ind 
commisssoners selected Symon Bradstreet" and 
Thomas Prenco. Their deliberation., however, 
resulted in no definite conclu^iou. The Xew 
Englanders assertci that theDitteh iuid encroached 
OD their land, and that they had in consequence 
suffered damages to the extent of £1000. Stuy- 
vesant denied this, but stated that as tlie^e 
alleged invasir,ns of Eng.ish rights had occurred 
during the administration of (lovernor Kie+t he 
wa.s unable to deal with tl,e matter intelliu^en'tlv. 
Both parties at lengtlt a^re.d t. ivft^r the decision 
to England and Holland, and in the mean time 
agreed to pursue their inter.,ts on the Delaware 
without Hiterferin- with an-.ther.' The New 
Haven people started out soon afterwards with a 
new colony to settle on their in the Dela- 
ware, but, touchiiiL' at Xew Amnerdam on their 
voyage, they were all placed u.uler arrest. Thev 
insisted that they had no intention of settling 
elsewhere than on their own land, which wa< their 
privilege, according to the agreement of the arbi- 
trators. The Director-General thoudit that thev 
had come with a view to extendin^r their territor^ 
and refused to let th,,m proceed.'^ahd the tr,,uble 
over the bounda, i. s was once moreonened between 
the English and the Dutch. 

In the same year, lHol. an att.-mpt w-i^ made t . 
reach an agreement about the ext, nt of'the'lands 
held by the bwedes and Dutch on the Delawar,- 
The Swedes had suddenly exhibited r.n exeee.i: 
lugly hold spirit, committing manv acts of violence 
upon the Dutch with the evident purpose of di.- 
po.s.sessiug them .)f the whole river. Beiii - pomi.- 
cessful at this, thev endeavored to Purcha-c Itnd 
from the Indians, who refused to s-ll. but iave'the 
Dutch all the land from Bombav Ilo.k to Christina 
Creek.- An.,ther unsuccessful attempt was mrde bv 

tbeXeu HavM 

howevtr, bei'.,'-. 
parted with.iu: 
ernor, ie;ivi:;j- 

-■'■ tM be named bv the T,,;,, 
"iiatien. had hardiv been \u-^v 
"-■ Dutch a,'e„„\j,r„,,tlv",|: 

En-l-uld e 
einire,,t- th 



-el at ^ew Amsterdam \\:\.\ 
>vitl! the. Dutch Itwa-ti'.ev 

Ued tiiO 

•rnor J, 

tory uf l).-liiu:ire." (.[v -ji 


by writing to G;,ve,nor .J„hn nisin^."'the" ueu h 
arrived Sn'edi.l, agent, but a^rain with,.ut re-ui^ 
I he at^air hao now been brought to hiirher author 
■ ties and correspondence was conducted b.tweei 
England and Holland relative to the subiect ., 
b:mnJane. on the Delaware, and this was en„all^ 
ban^u of results. In .r;o3 John Cooper and Thonr 
as Jltmsou applied to the court of Xew Haven f„i 
ihe protection of two magistrates and also a <upplv 
ot guns and ammunition, to take uith them in an 
attempt to settle on their land in 'the Delaware 
Ihe court agreed to thiv hut the discoun •■•n - 
reports which were brought from the Delawa're'at 
tins time dampened the ardor of the new coloni-t<' 
although some were still willing to make a start' 
out nothing came of the exj)ed'ition. 

The capture of Fort Casimir bv the Dutch in 
Iboopract^ically settled the ,lisputes between the 
Dutch and Swedes, leavin,. the former cnmpl. te 
raasters of the situati..n. The history of the col- 
ony under the Dutch has already been treated 
at K'Ugth. The severity of Alrichs' administration 
ai N,ew drove =ix soldiers to desert from 
tie Dutch service and seek refuse in Maryland 
At_a meeting of the Council of^Xew Am.~tel in 
IC.ji) It was decided to request Governor Feiidall 
of -Maryland, to return the deserters. The Dutch 
ii'.w began to fear that the English would encroach 
upon them from a new quarter, as they had hith- 
erto been doing from Xew Haven. A letter wa- 
'b>l.atehed to Colonel Utie. the leading ma.d>trate 
ot .Maryland and a memb(,r (,f the (Tcverimr'- 
Council. requcMim: that it b,. f uward'ed \n ihe 
Govern. .r. C.,l,,„,d Ftje e,,ns. i.ted, but at the 
same time iui;,riued the me>-eri-,,r that the (J-.y- 
ern„randC,uneil wf .Maryland had already i^-.ued 
n'-truct,..,,. in .lauuary ordenn.: him to ■• repair t., 

Delauar^li^ao^rinf ,ri,^'^■T'' '"''"' "" "'" 

-:''''':^ ""^if^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^\^^^J^ZZ- 
''"\■ \ ^^■["'•^''■^■^'t-ltliatl.nnl Baltimore h.>,i 
ordered the land nithin the liu.ii, of his charter . i 
l<J:Jl.' to be resurveyed.with a view to assuming detiu- 

»MclI.bJn-s.-U,„o,T„f M.nI.uJ,-p.j3. 


i(c jiii-i.-dictiiin over the ulnlo. The rcc. ipt ..f this 
i„ti'!li'-'i'iK-e ]ir(Hluiv.l -nat rnii<tcriuiti(.ii at X(jw 
Ani.-ul,aiiilStii_vv.-aiit \\rit.> in a^ll.'l•t time 

t,, .M'arvlaiiaaiMi \'n-iira,' It a\ in- s.areelv tliiHv 
laniili.- in the tuwij, uhih' nther phie. , wrre ,lav 
!,v,h.v -n.uin- «n,>e ati.l uo,-,.. Thi. uas the 
|i",-t , 11111. eiilena hv Lnni llahimoiv to-lhrtcrri 
mn- over uiiirh a heati.! -I ni^.- h' u a.- .h-tiueil t.) 

hrnii-ht l.elure the .Marvhnnl C.Mineil en Aiijii>t 
:;r.l(,0. S.), and Utie «a, further iii.-tniete.l 'that, in 
(a^e he tiiid an e|)i]ortiiiiity, he in-innate into tiie 
peeple there seated (i>n the Dehiuare) that i:i ca.-e 
ihey nial<e ihi ir aiiplicatioii to hi.- L'nd-hi|i',- t .mv- 

to the coiiditidiis <A' plaiitatieii:- ^'ranted to all 
comers into tliis proviaec. which ^\vd\l be nuide 
<:ond to tliem, and tliat tliey shall have protection 
in their lives, libertv and estates, \\hi<h they shall 
briiii; with them." On the same day tiie < iiA-rnor 
of Maryland wrote to the Governur nt' the t'-rritnry 
of the Delaware giving him notice to depart. With 
reference to the disputed lands he ;aii.l : " I can liy 
DO means acknowled^re any tor Governors there but 
luyselt', whri am liy his lordship appointed lieuten- 
ant, of his whole pnivinee, lying between these 
degrees, G8 and 40, but do by these n^piire an.l e-iin- 
mand you jjresently to dejiart forth ot liis hnd^hip's 
province, or otherwise desire you to lnJd me 
exctised if I use niy iitmo-t endetivor to redm/e 
that part of his lordship's province uuto its dtie 
obedience unto him." 

Colonel Utie reached New Amstel in September, 
with Major Jacob De Vrint/ and ^^v,■ral other- ulio 
intide up the commi?sion. Sc\ ( lal day> were .-pint 
in reeonnoitering and ipie.-tiiminL: the settlers, ami 
on the 8th a confereiui- wa. held with Airi. !is and 
Commissary William Beeknian. Three of the 
tugitivos were handed over, and Utie then plainly 
stated that the people must either leave or declare 
themselves the subjects of l-ord Baltimore, ;iud if 
they refused to submit to either of these alternatives 
he could not hold himself " respnnsilile for the inno- 
eiiit blo<jd that might be shed on that account." 
Alrichs remonstrated that they had been in [losses- 
>ion for many years, and hehl their land by an 
oitroi of the States-General and the .lirectors uf 
the We.t Inditi Company. The .Mary lander- uere 
ob,>tiiiute and irrital)le and lelu-ed to argue, 

laent from the Dutch as to wliat ihev propo-ed to 
do. Alrichs now endeavored to seJure delay by 
a proposition to submit the whole .pir-tion to the 

ther countries. Failim_'- in tiii-, he n i|Ui.-trd 

lliree w^.eks in which to con i;r u ith the DircT.r- 
'HUrral of th.' New Netherlaml-. to which Colonel 
I 'lie lebictantly cou-ented. d'he next .lay, how- 
'ver, th(.' T)iitch submitted a written urote.-t si-ncd 



bv Alrichs, P.eekman. Ah xander DTIln..vo>=a, 
.John Willi, ni.-on. .lohn ( 'rat... II. mlrh-k Kip'p an.l 
(;. \'an Su.-iiL'.ii. th.' -L.nlaiv ..f tlu' C-ouncil. 
Th.'V .•omplaln..! that th.' .iliz.n.- ..f the Delaware 
has'b,.n .nti.-.d int.. ^!ar^laIl.l bv allnrini: pr. m- 
i-s. .-.mie .,f whom I,::. I thus escaped servi.e which 
tic'y were boun.l to lender, and others ha.l h f t 

tion wa; al>o ma.le to the form of the iiistrncti..ns 
h. 1.1 by Utie, whi.h were sitnply sign.'.l by I'hilip 
Calvert, ,-erretai\, but .■..ntainul neither place nor 
.late; but Utie paid little attention t.. this. The 
particulars of th.' allair were forwanled at .mce to 
.■^tuyvesaiit. wh.i repli'd ..n the '2'6d, censuring 
Alrich- an.l Beekman for allowing Utie to proceed 
as far as he had ami also f.jr promis- 
ing to rejdy within three weeks. He severely 
reprimanded thein for recognizing Utie at all, with 
the defective credentials wliich he brought, and by 
way .if re]iro.:'f removed the management of the 
alfair from their hands and appointed instead Caj)- 
tain ^.larlin Krygier and Cornelius Van Ruyven 
to have entire control of the controversy with 
Maryland. Krygier was at the same time com- 
missioned as commander of all the militia on the 
Delaware, an.l sixty men were placed under him 
to repel any inroads from ^Maryland. The new 
a::ents were also in> to treat Utie as a spy 
unless, on his return, his papers were less defective 
than when first exhiliite.l. 

Humors soon came from ^Maryland that Utie, 
who ha.l returned on the Htli, was preparing to 
return t.) New Amstel with a f >rc(; of five humlred 
men. .>tuyve>;tnt tlier.Mipou appointed two coniinis- 
.-ioners, in th.' persons .it' ,\ugustine Hecrmtins and 
Ke-olv,-,l procee.l to .^laryland with a 
ktter and ..rdei,- t.) re.pie-t, in a " frieii.lly and 
neighborly way, tie? ruleliveiy an.l restitution of 
Siicli I'ree jieople and servants as for debt an.l other 
ways have been fled, and as to us is given to un- 
stand that for the most part are residing in his 
honor's government, especially about a year since 
have gone out oi' this colony of the high, well 
esteemeil govern.Jrs of the city of Amster- 
.lai ) ; whi.;h if v.ju do, we arc ready to assure you, 
that in ni: intaining of good justice and neigh- 
borly iluty, to ,lo the same beside all those tliat 
mav cine runawavs to u- out of anv of vour 
nelLdibor gov>rnment.>." If Governor Uemlall 
refuse.l t.. cmplv the .•.unmi-.-ion.Ts wi're t.i in- 
form him tha't the Duloh v,onl.l ivtaliat.- by ..llor- 

.eek r.'fuue on the Delaware. With re-ard to 
Colon, 1 Utie's expedition, the letter bitterlv com- 
plaine.l both .m the L-i..un.l ..f the abMm.vof all 
justice an.l the har-h n,ann,r in which it was'.l, .and th.' commi.-ionm-- w . re in-lrnct.'.l 

.n^taiic'd bv his lriv.,Kius demamls and bh-otl'v 



threatening." On the :">Oth of Sr[iti'iiiln'r Heer- 
niaas and Walilrna set nut on tlu-ir ji.urnov to 
Maryland. Their -ui.hs wm- sava-,-', and with 
a .small cniivoy ,.f.- >ldi,T> th.-y Mt ..iit n,, uhatwas 
then a rather ]>rriluu.- trip 'I'h.-v liad not jiro- 
pressid far \viien the Indians deelinrd to proceiMl. 
They finally induced them to advaiire a little, hut 
as soon as a river was reached they dismi-rd all 
but one. They emharked in an old, dried-ii;i hnat, 
which thev found on the shore, but were forced to 
calk it with rairs, and one man was eon.^tantly em- 
ployed in bailiniT it out. Thus they reached the 
Elk River, and after a brief re>t in the woods, pro- 
ceeded to the Sassafras. Here they found one or 
two deserters, who, on i>roii,i-,.' ot' a pardon. aL'renJ 
to return to New Amstcl within a montli. luu, met 
with much opposition from others. At the moulh 
of the Sassafras, which they reached on October 
2d, they heard a heavy fusilade at Colonel Utie's 
place, and supposed that this was a company pre- 
paring for an attack on the Delaware settlements. 
On the 3d they stopped for a while with Captain 
Wilke, one of the niaLristrates of Kent Island, and 
a considerable discussion ensued on the issues be- 
tween the two governments, but in a friendly way. 
Here they secured a new boat and guide at forty 
pounds of tobacco a day, and on the 7th arrived at 
Secretary Calvert's house, at I'atuxent. Tliey dined 
together ou the ne.xt day, and discussed the sub- 
ject of their mission, and the same programme was 
also carried out on the 12th, this time the argu- 
ment becoming rather heated. On the 1 6th the Gov- 
ernor announced his readiness to meet them, and 
two horses were sent to convey them to the house 
of Mr. Bateman at I'otusk, about eighteen miles 
distant, where the meeting was to take place. 
After a pleasant dinner the papers were jiroduced 
and the negotiations were begun with the Gov- 
ernor and Council. The preliminaries were quiet- 
ly conducted, but ColonelUtie, who was also jires- 
eut, soon became e.N;cited and declared that if" the 
Governor and Council would be pleased to renew 
his commission, he would do once ftiore what he 
had done before." The Xew Xetherlauders 
mildly replied that if that were done, he would be 
considered a disturber of the public jicace and 
would be treated as such. This brought on a 
heated battle of words, which lasted some time. 
The Dutch had put in a claim for all land lictween 
the degrees of ."5.S= und 42" north latitude, and the 
Marylanders finally broke up the n'leeting bv a.s- 
scrting that they were unable to take anv further 
action without consulting Lord Baltimore. The 
friendlv rel.uions wore onrr moiv ru-unud at'tir 
the mJelin- adjourn. .1, and tlir n,:atrr di.r„..-,,d 
by all parties un,,tli.-ial]v. ( >n tiic 17th a ropv ,,t 
Lord Baltiuiore's grant wa> ^uimlitted to llu- Dutch 
ut their request, and tlicv now (or the lir-t time 
discovered that i)a.-sagc in which Lord nahiniore 

asked fjr a charter over a rcLrinn " /M7/if,-/.Mo,,„r 
tlvnt.,1, „nd j.arlhl ,„;-„/, h.l b„ s„n,qr. ha,-:,,.,,,.. 
L-,„..,-l,:,lr,,: „J //,.■ I >;,■;.„■ j;. ■,„.,:' when tJH'y n■a^. 

put forward by the Dnt.'li a> heiuLT 'piite sufii'-ien't 
to invalidate's pie-ent claim, since the 
re'iion had undoidjtedlv Keen -ettje.l Ijv civili/.ed 

(rovernor Fendall replied that this was known to 
the King, and demanded the charter by wdiich th»; 
Delaware territory was held, but Heermaus and 
Waldron refused to exhibit it. It had now be- 
come so evident that no permanent arrangement 
could he concluded at this time, that very little 
ertort was nKide aft.T this, and on the 26th the 
conuiiir-.-ioners it tt, W'ahlrou returning to New 
Amstel at once, while ileermans proceeded to Vir- 
ginia to obtain the opinion of the Governor of that 
colony on the subject of dispute. O'Callaghan, in 
his " History of the New Netherlands " ' exprejses 
the following opinion of the action of the Dutch 
commissioners at their meeting with the Maryland 
Council in 1059 : " They evinced a tact and 
shrewdness of a high order ; and it is doubtful 
now whether, in the pirolonged suit wdiich occurred 
subse(juently between the patentees of Maryland 
and Pennsylvania, any solid plea was brought 
forward against the Baltimore claim that was not 
already anticipated in the Dutch papers. And 
no man can rise from a perusal of the whole of 
the pleadings without being convinced of this — • 
that if the State of Delaware now occupies an inde- 
pendent rank in this great republic, she is indebted 
mainly for that good fortune and high honor to 
the stand taken by the Dutch in IG-JSh" 

As soon as was possible Stuyvesant acquainted 
the directors of the West India Company of the 
trouble with the English and in 1660 received a 
letter in which they ex[>ressed the opinion that" if 
they (the Engli-h ) won't be persuaded, they must 
be dislodged." Lord Baltimore, who was at this 
time in London, issued orders to his agent in Hol- 
land, Captain Janie., Neal, to demand of the com- 
pany the surren.ler of all lands on Delaware Bay. 
On Se(iteudjer l.-t, Neal conferred with the Council 
of Nineteen with regard to the matter, but thi;ir 
resjionse was merely the firm espre.ssiou to main- 
tain their rights to territory which they claimed by 
;'urcha.<o and [.riority of po....e<sion. The Council 
of Nineteen then p.-^epared an address to the High 
Mightinesses of the States-* ieneral, retpiesting them 
to send au appeal to the King of England to com- 
maiul Lord Baltimore to desist in his encr<iach- 
nunt-. In .Mav, lliiil, at a nieetin- of the Coun- 
cil of .Mai-\lam'l. the uhole trouble w a> ^ettled f .r 
a 5hort ^^Wd■^ l.v tiu' pa-:e,e of the fuliowm- re^o. 
lotion : -That as it i> a n.atter ot doubt wlietlur 
New Am-tel lieslu-low tlic4otl, de-ree of north lat- 



tii,lf>, and :w the Wr^t India Comi.:iny app-us 

there i^ iin [.n.-prrt of aid fn.iu tiu- otiirr c.i, .;,!.■■! 
in any attempts uliicli tliry ini.dit make Ui ivdiicc 
tiiem, all t'lirtlier etiiirts rnrtheii-.siilijii-ation .-iii)i:ld 
be delayed until the will of the proprietary eaii be as- 
certained and that in the mean tilnesolue^■tfort^^llo^lId 
lie made to determine whether the settlement was 
located within the limits of the >rrant." Lord Bal- 
timore nevertheless took the additional preeaa- 
tiou of securing a oonfirmation of hi~ patent 
from the King, ou July 2, 1661, so as to he 
hetter prepared to meet Dutch claims iu the 

The boundary c'isputes were now allowed to re- 
main undisturbed for a few rears, but with the 
transfer of the New Netherlands to the Duke of 
York, in 1664, a new flictor was introduced. The 
accession of an English Governor somewhat ap- 
peased the desires of Lord Baltimore, and he was 
during a brief period a source of no annoyance to 
the proprietors of the Delaware region. That his 
claims were not completely dropped is evident 
from a minute of the Council in 1672, from which 
it can be inferred that in that year the ^Tarylaad- 
ers had again sent their agents to the Delaware, 
who, without any ceremony, had proceeded to sur- 
vey the land witii the apparent jjurpose of a.ssert- 
ing their authority over AVhorekill. Later in the 
year a JIarylander named Jones created a consid- 
erable disturbance there by plundering the people 
and magistrates, and the affair was taken up by 
the Governors of the two provinces. This it was 
feared was another attempt to gain possession of 
the territory for ]VLaryland, but it appears to have 
been no more than an outrage by private parties. 
A similar attack was made iu 1674. These were 
quite sufficient to make the Marylanders a constant 
object of dread and suspicion to the inhabit:ii}t.- on 
the Delaware. This is illustrated by an iiieid._nt 
iu 1677. It was learned that Colonel Coui.-ey was 
going to New York as an agent from Maryland, 
and would pass through New Castle. When it 
was heard, however, that he would be accompanied 
by a number of others, a special meeting of the 
oonimandcr and jusdccs was called and the militia 
wtis summoned to ajipear with arms and ammuni- 
tion, under Captain Cantwell, and await the arrival 
of Colonel Courscy. But it was neverthekss or- 
dered that in ca.-e the coh>nel should announce his 
arrival aud bu-in.-s. that he be hospitably received. 
It was in 167.^ that the boundaries were a-reed 
upoi> between Uj-laiid and New Castle Cm, ties 
The dceiHou was veaelu.l on November 2lM be- 
l^^e.•a tlte Iplaiid Court and PivM.leut .lobt, :\b.|l, 
of the ^'ewCa^tIe Court, ttud delated the •' .■ou„tv 
of Upland to be.jiu from tlie imrtb .-ide ot' U;k' 
rran.rn's creek,' otherwise .'aHed Si,,nkill. Iviu- 
en the /,;,//,; above the I'rnlrlctijr llvrl:, and iVum 


Ml the 

ant to 
IS sub- 

th- said c;-pck over to tlio v//"//, 
Clot 'id- of this river." 

Ill llJlO Peuu's ...■riti.-neaine 
of Trade and Thi'-rat, .v.. prav 
certain lan<ls in Atner.c.i Th. 
mitted at once to Lord Baltiiiiore's ai'iiits to learn 
to what extent, '!f anv, ids lord.-idp's pioportv was 
co-e\-teiisive with tiie territorv .i>ked t'or bv I'enn. 
rilessrs. Bara-ihy Dune!, a.,,! Ili.har.l Burk, the 
agent-) referred to, replied that '■ it is dr^red, that 
if the grant pass unto Mr. Pcun, of the lands pe- 
Litiojod tbr by hiai, in America, that it may be 
cxprc.-^ed to be Ltud tliat shall be north of Sus- 
."iuehana fort, aUo iioifh (,f all lam!.- in a direct 
hue between the -^aid f •rt, tbr said f irt is the boun- 
dary of :\Iarylao,i northward. It i^ further desired 
iht.t tliere may i)e contained general words of re- 
striction as to any interest granted to the Lord 
Baltimore and saving to him all rights granted." 
A letter was also received from Sir John Werden, 
.•-.ecretary of the Duke of York, in response to an 
inquiry aent by the Lords of Plantations, iu which 
he stated that the boundaries of the territory peti- 
tioned foi' b}' Mr. Penn agreed with "that colony 
or plantation which has been hitherto held as an 
appendix and part of the government of New 
York, by tlie name of Delaware Colon ij. or more 
particularly XeiL< Castle Colony, that being the 
name of a principal place in it." The Duke of 
York had willingly assented to the grant, and efforts 
were now made to so arrange matters that a per- 
manent check should be given to disputes over the 
extent of territory occupied by the various pro- 
prietors in America. We shall see subsequently 
with what little success this was done. After con- 
siderable p.'irleying the charter was issued to Penn, 
on March 4, 1681, and granted to Penn, in consid- 
eration of the services of his father, 


This singular definition of the southern boun- 
dary left it an open question whether this boundarv 
circle was to be a circle of twelve miles in circum- 
f.-reiHC, or t,. be drawn arouml a diauioter of twelve 
miles pa-.MUj- throu'h New Ca.-tle,or uith a radius 
<.f twelve i„il, .> b.--iiiniu- iu New Ci.-tle, and was 

tenlion between Jkdilmore ami IVnn. 

I'enn's deputy, Captai.i William .Markham, ar- 
rived iu America touard.i the end of Au-u.-t to take 



charge of the newly-acquired territory.' He at 
once visited Lord lialtiiiiore, bearinu' letters from 
both I'enn and the King rei[iiestiiig an early settle- 
ment of the boundaries. Baltimore exprrssed his 
desire to accomplish this, and fixed upon October 
16th as the date in which he would hnld a confer- 
ence ; but this engagement was subsequently can- 
celed owing to Markham's indisposition. Baltiuinre 
gave him firmly to understand, however, in tlu tir-t 
interview that he jiossessed an undisputed title to 
all land up to the fortieth degree of north latitude, 
and at this same time it was learned, to tlie surprise 
of all, that Upland was situated several miles be- 
low that limii. 

In the mean time Penn induced the Duke of 
York to deed New Castle to him. and two deeds 
were issued by His Highness in lG>^2,oue conveying 
Pennsylvania and the other " the town of New- 
Castle and all that tract of land lying within the 
compass or circle of twelve miles about the same," 
and all that tract of land extending southward from 
it, along the Delaware, to Cape Henlopen. This lat- 
ter deed, however, it was clear, would be certain to 
provoke great ojiposition from the Marylanders, 
since the Duke's patents did not include tlie terri- 
tory granted away.- Armed with the two docu- 
ments, Penn set sail and reached New Castle on 
October 27, 16.S2 In December he held his first 
interview with Lord Baltimore at the house of 
Colonel Thomas Tailler, in Aune Arundel County. 
Baltimore insisted ou 40° as being I'enn's southern 
boundary, but the latter endeavored to satisfy him 
•with 87° 51', which otter was politely rejected. It 
■was not the northern boundary, however, so much 
as Penn's purchase of the lower counties from the 
Duke of York, which irritated Baltimore, and 
fixed him in his determination to secure them if 
possible.' For we find him remarking, in the course 
of the conference, " ]Mr. Penn, you did, I remem- 
ber, once propose to me in England that yuu had 
offers made you of that part of Delaware from his 
Royal Highness (the Duke of York) ivhich I lay 
claim to ; but you would not, as you then said ac- 
cept thereof because you knew it was mine. The 
same, I hear, you have now possessed yourself of 
I only desire to know what you claim." Penn 
evaded the point, and the conference closed without 
any approach to an airangement, and the next 
meeting between them, helil at New Castle in ^lay, 
16So, ended sinularly. In June Baltimore wrote 
to England in the followiiis terms : 

boanl, mid Unit iiuiIiii.l: l'»i'>> 
my inttTt-pt on JttlnMiire Ui\ 
a great piirt of uly province by i 

Penn in his turn I'orwaidfd a Inn- letter to the 
Lords of Trade and Plantin.- .r[uiv' Ins v.r- 
sinn of the controvor.~v, and n.-kiiig tor an \\\u r- 
jiretation of the question at issu(.' favorable to hiui- 
s'lf. Lord Baltimore had now begun to be son)e- 
what agL;ressive, anil issued a procianjation invit- 
ing colonists to settle in the lower counties and 
take patents from him, offering exceedingly low 
pi-iees as inducements. In addition to this, he a[)- 
pointed his cousin, George Talbot, in Septeml)er, 
1083, as a commissioner to demand of Penn all 
land on the Delaware south of the fortieth degree 
of nortli latitude.' Talbot delivered his demands 
in writing and Penn replied in a document of great 
length reviewing the whole situation, and denying 
all rights to the intruders, and here the matter 
was allowed to drop once more. But it was with 
this visit to Talbot that we may associate the be- 
ginning of Lord Baltimore's attempts to stir up re- 
bellion in the lower counties, which we have seen in 
a subsequent chapter (on Colonial History, 1704- 
75) entered as an important element among 
the causes which led to the separation in 1704. 

About this time some correspondence was ex- 
changed with the Jersey authorities relative to 
lands, l)ut the disputes were never of great imjjort- 
ance, the bay and river forming a very distinct 
line of division. As early as 1678 complaints 
were lodged against Major Feuwick and others 
who had interfered with the people ou the Jersey 
shore in the rightful possession of their lands, and 
the authorities at New Castle were ordered to check 
any further abuses of a similar character. In 
16^:1, however, the relation between the two gov- 
ernments had assumed a new phase. In that year 
Penn appointed a conunitsion, consisting of Chris- 
topher Taylor, James Harrison, Thomas Holmes 
and Thos. "Winne, to confer with the Governor and 
Council of West Jersey, rcsjiecting " certain great 
wrongs and injustice done to me and this province 
by some of the inhabitants of their colony." The 
commissioners were instructed to demand satisfac- 
tion for the misdemeanors of certain individual.?. 
Penn tlnii adds that " after all this is ended, insist 
upon my title to the river, soil and islands thereof 
according to grant, and if they will deliver up 
peaceably the islands of ^latiuicum and Sepassin;:, 
return one-half of the island of ^latiuicum before 
the town, according to my former clemency." 
The documents relating to these controversies be- 
tween Pennsvlvania and New Jersey are unfijrtu- 
nately iucompl.-ie, and it oidy appears as a definite 
fact that tlic Tnhabitants of the hjwer counties and 
thrir oppo-iio ut'iulibors on the Jersey shore, had 
brtu at various times encroaching on each other's 

Penimjli/inid M(i(ja:i 



jiriiperty.' Rat no scrions cli<piito ever nsulti'd 
Irem thc>e eurly iiii.-MiHl.r.-taii.litiu'^^, as Imili pur- 
lies soemeil desii-cnis dl' reachin-- a just si-ttliTiieiit. 

The dispute between I'mn and the antliMi-lti.s i.t' 
>rarvland nssumed an alannin'iasp'-et at tlir lieL'in- 
,nn-'of l<58-t, from a l^.tile invasion ..t th- Inuer 
ceiiuties. Colonel Talbot was upun at the head of 
this expedition with a torce armed with L'uns and 
iixes. They terrified the people thmii-hout X,w ( 'a- 
tl- County with threats, but their main .ibjcct was 
phiinly to disafleet the inhabitants from any sym- 
pathy with Penn's f^^overnnient. This was fully 
:!p[ireciated by the Pennsylvanians, for when Penn 
issued a commission to William Welsh, Joiiu Sim- 
eock. and James Harris.. u to defend the lower 
counties, they were instructed to put down all 
" rebellious ]iraetiees," as well as to put down the 
riots of the Mary landers. An instance of Talbot's 
proceedinLTS was furnished t') the Council at Phila 
delphia in a htt.r from Sanuiel Land, of Nfw 
Ca.stle, dated May .Mth. He acquainted theiu 
that the colonel had visitfd the houses of Jonas 
Erskine, Andrew Tille and a widow named Ogle, 
nil residing near New Castle; and, accompanied 
hv three musketeers, to add ibrce to his demands, 
had informed them that unless they would 
ae'knowledge Liu-d Baltimore as their jjroprie- 
t'lr within three weeks, and pay their rents to him 
iu the future, they would be dispossessed of their 
laud and turned out of their homes. The testi- 
mony of Joseph Bowie before the Council, recount- 
ing his experience with Talbot, gives a vivid idea 
of the extent to which the abuses were carried. 
Bowie, who liv,'d at Iron Hill, about ei;.dit miles 
distant from Xew Castle, attested that "Colonel 
Talbot ridd up to his house and was ready to ride 
over him, and said, 'Dam you, you Dogg, whom do 
you seat under here, you dogg I You seat under 
noe body ; you have uoe Warrt from Penn no my 
Lord ; therefore gett you gon or Else Pie sent 
you to St. Murry's ; ' and I being frighted, says 
he, 'you Brazen-faced, Impudent, Confident'Dogg^ 
11 .'^harten Penn's Territories by and by.' " 

This latest outrage elicited a declaration against 
L"rd Baltimore from Penn, reciting the whole 
history of the trouble between the two proprietors. 
This was forwarded to the Lords Commissioners of 
Trade and Plantations. Penn and Baltimore both 
\''iut to Enghuul and the nuitter was taken in iiand 
by the King s otficei-s. The arguments on both sides 
^^^re submitted with great force L<jrd ]5altimore 
'•MIS content with the positive terms of his charter. 
I'l-un, in his turn, arrayed a h>ie_' series of ubjeetions, 
^Mth greater vigor than evtr In I'-.i.-, a'jainst the val- 
idity of his opponent's claim. \U< own grant of 
iVnn-ylvania was the tir.-t WL-ajiou used for the 
'"lack ; W tbUuued ibis up with the grant (.f th.' 
I>uko of York, but neither of these argumeuts 

availed. He was tbrced to find more powerful 

in the en.l hijiiy sn.-,T>-fii"l' H.- nnw a.-serted 
that the Delauaie land- h!\d been purchased and 
srft/eJ by the Dutch b.tbre L .rd Baltimore's char- 
ter was granted. It will be remembered that Lord 
Baltimore's charter of l(>i2 had in express terms 
declared that he had prayetl for lands which were 
uncultivated and uninhabited, except by savages. 
If it were now proved that this disputed territory 
was not only cultivated, but inhabited by a civil- 
ized people at the time of the granting of the 
charter, the Marylander's case would certainly re- 
ceive a severe blow, and this was shown to be the case 
by Penn to the satisfaction of the Lords of Trade 
and Plantations. Not even at this point did the 
inexorable Penn rest his case, l)ut further insisted 
that Baltimore being entitled to an extent of 
territory covering l)ut two degrees of latitude, his 
northern boundary shoulel be determined by 
measuring two degrees of sixty miles each from 
Watkins Point, the acknowledged southernmost 
limit. It was the third point, however, whicli in- 
fluenced the arbitei-s in their decision, for we find 
their oi>inion to be that " Lord Baltimore's grant 
included only lands uncultivated and inhabited by 
savages, and that the territory along the Delaware 
had been settled by Christians antecedently to his 
grant, and was therefore not included in it." 
Their ultimate verdict was not however, a com- 
plete acknowledgment of the justice of Penn's 
claim, but partook rather of the nature of a com- 
promise, and in November, 168-3, a decree of Kiug 
James' Council was issued ordering '• that for 
avoiding further differences, the tract of land 
lying between the bay of Delaware and the eastern 
sea on the one side, and the Chesapeake Bay on 
the other, be divided into equal parts by a line 
from the latitude of Cape Henlojien to the fortieth 
dcL'ree of uortli latitude the southern boundary of 
Pennsylvania by charter, and that the one half 
thereof, lying towards the bay of Delaware and 
the eastern fea, be adjudged to belong to his ma- 
jesty, and the other half to Lord Baltimore, as 
comprised in his charter." ■ 

This decision placed the coveted lower counties 
in the hands of Penn, but nuiny causes conspired 
to delay the execution of this mandate. Promi- 
nent among these was the revulution then iu {>ro- 
gress iu England. The Duke of York, to whom 
Penn owed his grant, was now on the throne as 
James II., and Baltimore dared not raise his voice 
against the decree, lest by the arbitrary fiat of the 
monarch he sh(jul( all that was left. But the 
deposition of James II. meant the fall of Penn's 
allv,and the decision of l()^.'j remained inoperative -, 
but as we shall see j)resently, it was afterwards ta- 
ken as an important element in future nege>tiati(Uis. 

= McJIjLuu'a •■ni>t..i}*uf JLirjIunJ." pp 3a-3o. 


Hl^TOKY OF DilLXW \]{.E. 

We may at least, I'.out'vcr, Idnk ii|i(ai thf i^ecree of 
James 11 as Immiil' iin|"irt:iiit in liisi appriixi'i.atini: 
the bcLiiulai-itjiif IVlawaic tn tin ir |ir;-.Miit 'imits.' 

The evfiiti which lollcwtd u[h.ii the i"Vi.hiti(ii) 
entirely changed the ^ituatii u. It \v;is nc.v no 
longer a controversy between the two profiriLt.Ts, 
each endeuvoi'iiig to rub the other of his territoiy, 
as from another point of view, each seekini; to se- 
cure undisimted sway over what he believed to be 
his own propeity, but both IViin and Baltimore 
were busily cngaLTi'd in (Ufeiiding their lands 
against new rivals, reiiii, in fact, was retired froii^ 
his government by tht- crown, luit was ' d 
in 1694." He was torced to act during this period 
of unsettlenient with the greatest shrewdness and 
diplomacy ; for the mere fact that he had been in 
favor with James II. would have been sufficient 
cause for his removal, on the slightest provocatioi!, ' 
by the new monarch. Lord Baltimore had greater 
troubles to contend with. The I'l-utestant r.ssociatiou. 
which was formed in Maryland immediately after 
the revolution under John Coode, succeeded ic 
throwing otl" the Catholic proprietary, and con- 
trolled the colony from 16^9 to 1691. It was then 
taken up as a royal government and remained so 
until 171G. But an absolute quietus was neverthe- 
less not put upon the controvei'sy between the two 
disputants. That the dispute was a positive detri- 
ment to the value of land in the lower counties 
we have definite knowledge. At the close of 
1704, Penn's secretary, James Logan, wrote to him 
that one of the most valuable tracts of land in 
New Castle County was the Welsh settlement, but 
he mournfullv de[)lores that the "business between 
Maryland and us" renders it almost worthless. 
Of three thousand pounds due on the property re- 
ferred to, Logan fears that not five hundred pounds 
will be realized until the boundary is settled. He 
says further in his letter to Penn, " if that whole 
business be not issued in thy lifetime, I doubt thy 
heirs will reap no great benefit from a large part 
of these counties: they grow more bohj now than 
ever, and extend t\\t-ir claims upon old surveys up 
to and some beyond our old settlement. I must 
always press this, and in every letter, as of the 
greatest necessity." Iteferring to the same subject 
in September, 1705, Penn informs LoL'an tliat when 
last in Maryland he proposed to Colour! Dariut, 
Baltimore's chief agent, to fix t!ie liii. , but lif re- 
fused, as having' no instructions iVoiii his lord.~lii[). 

In 17U7 the Marylaiid.TS n-opened their en- 
croachments upon iJK- property (.if the [icople in 
the lower couiitits, which was biought to the atten- 
tion of the Council ihiou-h a petition from the 
justices of Xew C;i.-lle; ^o|ue of the iiiliabitaiits 

had b, 


]\[;;ryiand, r.lihou-'r, living' within the twelve-mil., 
circle arour^l :New : a little later complaiiu 
was uiaiie by Wiiiiam Clark, of Su-ex Count;.. 
that his mother was lieiiiL.' stied on account of si., 
vinccrt.-dnty of tl;c, boundary lines betwet-ii 
c;>'JiUy and ]\iar_i laud. With n-gtird to the fii-: 
of these questions, the ', Viunri! forwarded a preti -t 
to the Govcn.or of ^Iar^ land, while the second wa- 
settled by an ord-r tc: ihe iu-tices of h'ussi x C<iuii- 
ty, iiis'.rr.etiiig thein noi to entertain any action 

:iarylar..h is dh! n,:tle.i>t, hoWeVe,-, lor in Au..u;-t 
the she.irr ,.{ CVcii roiinty forcibly dispo.-.-e..-ed a 
number of tn.- Welsh settlers in New Castle Coun- 
ty by virtu-3 of Maryland writs. The sheritt' of 
New Castle would uoc quietly submit to this, and 
with the assistance of a lew fritnds seized the shei'ilf 
of Cecil, with one of his aids, and bound him 
over to appear in court ; but such instances were 
rare at this tinie and do not seem to have been at 
the instigation of the higher eifiieials. 

In 1708 Lord Baltimore made another etii.rt to 
secure possession of the whole territory of the 
peninsula between the two bays, by petitioning 
Queen Anne. This attempt prm-ed equally as 
abortive as those previously made, and only re- 
sulted in a confirmation of Penn's title according 
to the decree of 1685, with new instructions to 
draw the line as ordered in that decision. But 
again this was delayed, only to leave matters 
worse than ever before. The petty squabbles that 
were continually indulged in by the authorities 
and the inhabitants of the two provinces in conse- 
quence of the boundary disputes very soon became 
a source of so much annoyance to Penn that at 
length in 1712, he contracted for the sale of 
his interest in the colonies. At the last moment 
an .ittack of apoplexy prevented him from affix- 
ing his signature, and his mental troubles which 
followed never made it pos.,ible to transfer the 
land ' 

The border disputes continued at frequent in- 
tervals, but not often with sufficient virulence to 
demand si)ecial action with reference to their sup- 
pression. Occasionally this was necessary, as in 
1717, when Colonel French was appointed 
'' ranger and keeper '' of the marshes in the province 
and lower Counties, with ]H.wers to repel invasions 
from the Marylandei.^. The direct cause of thi,^ 
appointment was the ariival (jf a number of 
.Marvland .muv. y. .is. w ho had abruptly taken a 
survey of many lots in the h.wer countiis, with tlie 
apparenl i)urpose of clainiin-j the ownership ot'the 
land. A yeaf later the di~piite was reopeneil by a 
more serious (iue>tion. The eouiplainants on this 
oeca.-ion were the Marvlandei- ami not lli.- I', iin- 
svlvanians The town" of .XottiiiL-ham was li.e 
corpw: ihlirtl. (iovtrnor Hart, of JMaryland, pro- 



.liicotl several eomiilaints,.-lio\\in,L' that ma-ir-tratfi 

vaiiia for Xutliiiixluun, wliilo accunliui; to his iipiii- 
i,,n the town was uiiquestionahly in Cecil (.'ounty. 
( Keith admitted haviui: ajipoiiittd the 
ii,a;.'ijtrates, but was umier the inipr. sskhi that the 
t,)\\n was in Chefter County. Colon..! French, 
wlio had resided tor a ioiii,' time in thai iiei.L^hl.ior- 
liood, substantiated this view, hut stated that since 
the boundary disputes had lieL^un it had occa::iou- 
allv been a mooted question as to the county in 
which Nottingham was actually situated. Gover- 
nor Keith firmly rcfu:;ed to revoke the eonimissions 
ot' the magistrates of Nottingham, although pressed 
lo do so by Colonel Hart. It was at leugtli agreed 
tliat they should remain, but both parties promised 
to make no further aggression until the whole 
matter was settled. 

In the spring of 11'2'2 the was again 
revived, tlirough a series of causes. Philip Syng 
was prosecuted for surveying and taking out his 
patents for a piece of land under the Governor of 
Maryland, after lie had been informed that it was 
situated within the boundaries of Pennsylvania. 
A greater source of trouble was the rumor of an 
attempt, on the part of the !Marylanders, to sur- 
vey a strip of the disputed territory, then occupied 
by the Indians on the iSusquelianna. The Indians 
them.<elves were much alarmed, and notified Gov- 
ernor Keith, who met them at Conestogoe The 
Governor anticipated the IMarylauders, however, 
by having the laud surveyed himself, and culled 
<iut the militia at New Castle to meet the invading 
hosts if they crossed the line. He wrote to the 
Council informing it of liis plans and also his in- 
tention to run a line westward as far as the Poto- 
mac. They a.>sented to all his propositions, ex- 
ce[)t the last, which they feared would make the 
breach with Maryland very much wider, unless the 
line would be drawn with the consent of all con- 
cerned. Later in the year the matter become even 
niorc complicated by the arrest of Isaac Taylor 
and Elisha Gatchel, two Chester County niagis- 
trates, by tlie authorities of Cecil County, on a<'- 
'ount of the old Nottingham dispute. Governor 
Keith wrote to Colonel Calvert of the atiiur, re- 
questing him to release the prisoners, but they were 
nevertheless bound over to keep the peace On 
^ov(•nlbcr 5th the Geiveruor ))laced the wliole 
'natter before the Council asking " w iiat measures 
"lay be most proper for him to takefjr preventing 
'he tatal conse(iuenccs of a general misunderstand- 
ing' with such near iieighl)ors." The response of 
the Council was modei-atc to a marked degree. 
Ih.-y admitted that the lioun.lary iu- 
\"lvcd (piestious of ab.-ulutv d'.ubt, and acknowl- 
"1-1(1 the ])o.~sibility of i-nv,r on llie part of I'eim- 
->l\ania as well :is Maryland. The' Governor was 
•'dvi.-ed to make every ellort to secuiesomc firm of 

accomniddation, both by a ]iersonal interview with 
the (iuvernor of .Maryland and iiy application to 
the authorities in i;n'.:iaiid.' No n cord is to be 
f lund of any meeting between tlie two (.iovernors 
in accordance with tliis re.-olution. In fact, it was 
oi:ly a few days after the Pennsylvania Council 
had adoptetl this conciliatory tone that they turned 
sava^'ely on the Cecil County Courts tbr their ac- 
ti'>n in reprehending Tayhir and Gatchel, declar- 
ii;_' that " they ouglit not by any means submit to 
their i^Iaryland) courts or orders, or acknowledge 
their jui-isdictiou over tliem, and that this govern- 
ment ought to support them in the defence of their 
ju?t rights." 

It can easily be appreciated that it was only 
with extreme ditficulty that the relations between 
the jjarties to this jirolonged dispute were main- 
tained in a peaceable way, when sajiported bysuch 
hollow and artificial manifestations of mutual re- 
gard. Every movement was eagerly watched on 
both sides, and suspicion was equally shared by 
both parties. These facts were brought out con- 
tinually, and more forcibly in matters of little im- 
piort than in affairs of graver hearing, in which the 
dealings were usually open and above board. The 
most singular feature of the entire controversy is 
the entire absence of any evidence to show that 
either the Pennsylvaniaus or Marylauders took any 
pains to hasten a settlement of the boundaries. 
This is the more easily exjdained in the case of 
Lord Baltimore, whose claims had twice been de- 
cided uj)on prejudicially to his interests ; but what 
deterred Penn's heirs from hurrying a settlement 
is not so easy to conjecture. Both parties seemed 
to imagine the problem would be solved through 
forces w ithiu itself and prel'erred not to be annoved 
with it. The one arrangement which was made, 
however, in 1723, is worthy of recording, showing 
that a settlement was expected, and a desire for 
such expressed, although the parties to the dis- 
pute still remained inactive. The terms of the 
agreement are as follows : 


between the 

r, Ihel: 

islit HunonvUe 


ii.l, Hnd 

.. I'eiltl, 



-hua i; 

I. I"ii, 


en drap. 
le provii 


siiid rr-.vinpi"!. no per 

■IVnT,s}-U.u,ia, Vul. iii.p. 2U." 



meut for the better quietinj; of the penplo 
Iwing arf) direcleil hihI enjoic'-'I tn rniifonn 

"In witnPHfl wlioreof, the jiarlit'^ above 
their hausla this 17th diiy of F«--bruiiry, IT-J. 

The hope that iijion the terniiiiution tjf this 
agreement the boundaries would liave been settled 
may indeed have boon .-iucere ; but that either 
Lord Baltiuiure or the reun.-ylvauian.s made any 
effort to bring about its realization does not in the 
least appear evident. The document at any rate 
put an end to the border disputes, but it was far 
from havini; any eti'eet towards seeurinrr an ar- 

rangement on a i)ermanent basis. Another decade 
eljjased before any prospects of such a settle- 
ment made their ajipearance. 

In the summer of ITol the controversy was 
again renewed, throup:h tlie violence of one Holey, 
of Cecil County, who, with a nund)er of others, had 
destroyed the fencing around the property of a 
man named Wherry, residing within the limits of 
Pennsylvania. By a ratiier curious series of ju- 
dicial processes, Holev was fiiialiv liberated, and 
Wherry was prosecuted on a char^'e of cuttiui: 
Holey's timber. The <lrlendunt .•laimed that the 
timber was on his own jirovertv, wliieh was situ- 
ated in Penn<vivania but the 'C'cil Ciuutv jurv. 
before which he appeaivd, decided that tlie'ian'.l 
was in Maryland, in spite of all the agreements 
between the two pruviiices to render no decisions 
as to boundaries until the whole dispute was fin- 

ally s..tthd. At the same time a similar cuu-.- 
])liiut was entcnil bv an inhabitnnt of Kmt 
Countv, who had met w'ith like tnatm.-nt in :t[ai •. . 
land. " This arbitrary .-tyle ..f the Cecil enur- 
greatly incensed Governor (iunlon, and In- :,■ 
once opened a correspuntionee with Governor Cal- 
vert, of Jlaryland. protesting against a continu- 
ance of the existing nu'thods. Governor Calvert 
respcjnded that on his side he had received com- 
plaints that the people of the three lower couuti<s 
on Delaware had been coniniittiuLr similar depii-- 
dations, and that only his had d.-- 
terred him from writini: "U the >ann- .-object. lb- 
then explained the Maryland pn.-i(i,,n in tli- 
Wherry ease, but the negotiations were left in a 
most unsatisfaet.iry condition. In October of tlir 
same year (ITol-) another cause for I'riction aro-r 
out of theabusii'e actions of Captain Cresap toward 
the Indians on the eastern side of the Susquehanna. 
The complexity of the controvei'sy whicn grew out 
of the Oesap atiiiir, doubtless exercised a great in- 
fluence in forcing the entire boundary question to a 
settlement, and we are therefore warranted in con- 
sidering the case in some detail. Penn had guar- 
anteed the Indians who settled on the Susque- 
hanna witlilu his territory against all incursious 
from the Maryianders on the opposite side of tlic 
river. Cresap being a native of Baltimore Countv, 
his interference with the Conostogoes was a mat- 
ter which rightfully required Governor Gordon's 
interference. It was not long, however, before 
Cresap entered a counter-claim against Edward 
Bedd(jck and Rice Morgan, two I'ennsylvauians, 
who, while he (Cresap) was taking them across the 
river, threw him overboard and carried otf his boat. 
Cresap took his case before Justice Cornish, a 
Pennsylvania magistrate, and although the 
otienders were duly convicted, the que:^tion of 
boundaries again came uji, it being a disputed 
point whether thetitiense was committeil in ^lary- 
land or Pennsylvania. Governor OLfle, of ilary- 
land, also took undu-ageat an alleged statement of 
Cornish, who, as Cresap insisted, said that Mary- 
landers should not ask for justice in his court. 
Justice Cornish denied having said this, and his 
conviction of the prisoners would seem to have 
proven his impartiality. But U(jtwithstanding 
this, Governor Ogle continued to write on the sub- 
ject, and the dis[>ute continued througli the spring 
of 1732 At this point Cresap was entirely sub- 
ordinated in the pulilic muul to a report from 
London that an a-nmiuit had liiially b.,n reached 


lie pre. 
u: had 

d Tlio, 

■t, and 



niMionere, nnt mni 

Tlie last clausu of the airreeiiieut gave it a tdiie of 
-tiiiiiue earnestness, and, in fact, two days after the 
-i;:riatiires were appended the Peuns named Gov- 
ernor Gordon, Isaac Norris, Saniiiel Preston, 
.Fames Logan, Andrew Hamilton, James Steel 
:iiid Robert Charles as the eommi.-siiiners on their 
[i:irt to treat with those appointed by Lord Balti- 
iiiiire. On the same day his lordship executed a 
>iiiiilar commission, nominating; Samuel Girle, 
fhurles Culvert, Philemon Llovd, Michael How- 
ard, Richard Bennet, Benjamin Tasker and Mat- 
thew Tilghman Ward, to rejiresent his interests in 
the approaching convention. It was several 
months before these commissions reached America, 
and during the intervening time the correspond- 
ence between the two Governors was continued, 
though it was not of importance. Immediately 
upon the receipt of the papers, about the middle 
<if August, Governor Gordon wrote to Ogle, sug- 
L'psting New Castle as a suitable place for the joint 
meetings of the commissioners on both sides. Tlie 
.Marylandcrs preferred Newtown, as being more 
Convenient, and it was arranged to meet at that 
jilace on October Oth. 

But even while the- neL^'itiations were being con- 
ducted, the border warfare lu-okr out in a more 
brutal ti)rm than ever before. Both parties aj)- 
pear to have been at fault, and it is difficult to say 
which side i,-, to lie blamed i'. r the initial move- 
ment. On the night of November •26tli. John 
Lowe, of Baltimore ('ounty, was awakened by the 
marauders and made prisoner. Lie testified after- 
wards that one of the intruders was James Patti- 
son, and the second a constable of Lancaster 
County. Pattison threatened him with a,pistol, 
but he nevertheless resisted, whereupon six more 
fll on him. He was knocked down and dragged 
out of his house, and compelled to cross the Sus 
'piehanna on the ice, although he had lost his hat 
and one shoe in the struggle. The next nKjrning 
he was taken before two justices of Lancaster 
' 'ounty, Messrs. Samuel Blimston and John Wright. 
I'he only charge brought was that his son had 
threatened to kill some one, but as nothiii'^' was 
known to implicate tlie priMJuer, the justices dis- 
charged him. The case well illustrates the extent 
'o which these unwarranted agtrrcssious were car- 
ri' d. Lowe liad protested that there were magis- 
' rates in ^Maryland who would api>rehend him if 

reply fruiu I'attiMiu, who stood over him with a 

pistol, that the boundary of the territory was to 
be determined by the power of the people. Cresap 
was also mixed u|/ in this ail'air as a witness against 
the Pennsylvanians, and soon afterwards he is 
again heard of as L'oinrr into Lancaster County 
with a Marvhmd warrant, and carrvin- off a 
lab,,rer named William Humphrev. " This was 
precisely the same oHin- ulii.h he himself had 
complained of aL^ainst rlie Pennsylvania aulhori- 
ities. Cresap hael abo becime notorious as hav- 
ing threatened to -1 t any ofiicer from Pennsyl- 
vania who wiHild attempt to ap[irehend a pris(jner 
on the disputed te'rritory. This trouble again 
resolved itself into a '■ boundary dispute," Cresap 
and his associates holding that the land was 3[ary- 
laud soil, on the ground that it was within the 
fortieth degree of north latitude, while Joshua 
L(jw, the ta.v. collector of Pennsylvania, testified 
that over four hundred inhabitants living south of 
that point liail lieen paying tax to him without 
protest, and his positi(.>u received the support of 
Governor Giordon and the other authorities of the 

The border troubles next took a southeily 
course, and we find Kent County the centre of 
hostile operations The cause of this dispute arose 
out of the purchase of a piece of laud by John 
Newton. He bought the projierty of a person who 
told him that it was held under a Maryland grant, 
and was situated in Dorche-ter County. Newton 
accordingly paid taxes for the first year to the 
D(jrchester authorities, when he learned that the 
land was never granted to any one by Maryland. 
As it was situated in the doubtful territory, he 
preferred to become a resident of the hjwer coun- 
ties, and had it surveyed as a part of Kent County. 
For several years he paid his taxes into the Kent 
treasury, when the Dorchc-ter magistrates levied 
on him, insisting that he was a resident of i\Iary- 
laiid. He applied to the justices of Kent County, 
who appointed a constable to protect him, but not- 
withstanding this, the sheriff of Dorchester raided 
his place and carried him off. The protecting 
constable gathered a force and put out in hot pur- 
suit, and after a hot skirmish recaptured the 
prisoner. This gave rise to a most extensive series 
of letters between the Governors of the two prov- 
inces, the justices of Kent and of Maryland, and 
between private individuals, connected, directly and 
indirectly, with the affair. Governor Ogle de- 
mauiled the .-urrender of all who had attacked the 
sheriff of Dorche.-ter County and released his pris- 
oner, but this was refused by the Pcnnsvlvaniaus. 
The relations betWA-eu the ^[arylauders and their 
opponents seemed more strained at this time than manv vears, and vet in the whole' correspond- 



ties alwavf 

mere hope that the pending m LTotialious WcHild 
.suit in a speedy settlfnient of the di,-pute, while 


IIlSTOiiV OF DV.I A\\A!li:. 

each stubbornly cmitostrd f,jr niiiior !ii]vaut;i_".-s 
in this subordinate i|iuutl1. 

But not even the unne important transactions 
of the bi)iin(hiry c(iriiiiii-.~ioii,is were eoiiducted 
without friction. They had met, according to 
ngreeinent, at Newtown, in ^laryhind, in Octolier, 
and after doing very little, adjourned on Xoveifbcr 
3d, to meet at New Cattle on tiie l.<i of th;^ 
ensuing Felnuary. (,)n Febnuirj- loth, I.ord 
Baltimore addre:--ed a letter to Governor Gord'.>n, 
complaining of the treatment of the Maryland 
commissioners, whom he had taken spe-ir.i |iuii;? to 
send promjUly, in order tu facilitate iii e\ery 
possible way the conduct of the negotiations. Tiie 
Maryhmders had arrived at New Castle in ample 
time to meet their engagement, but although they 
had repeatedly sent to the commissioners ap- 
pointed by the Penns, they had refused to come, 
and it was impossible to ])r()ceed with the business. 
Lord Baltimore also referred to certain improper 
behavior on the part of the Peunsylvanians towards 
his own commissioners while at New (Jastle, but 
did not mention details. He considered the action 
on this occasion as sufficient ground on which to 
claim the forfeit provided for in ti:e original 
agreement, but agreed nevertheless, to bold 
another meeting on the first Jlonday in ]\[ay, at 
Joppa, in Baltimore County. Governor Gordon 
in his reply evaded all reference to the ill treat- 
ment of the commissioners, as thi-t was without 
foundation, but stated that the commissioners for 
his province declined to meet at Joppa, since it 
was situated at too great a distance from the 
points of most importance, which would have to 
be visited to determine the boundary lines. As 
New Castle was one of these places, and was of 
great prominence, owing to the tiict that the cen- 
tre of the twelve-mile circle was there situated, he 
thought that was tlie most suitable place, and 
named April 16th as the day for convening the 
members of the commission ' 

Thus the meetings were delayed and p(jstpoued 
until the time expired. These delays were pkiinly 
due to the machinations of Lord Baltimore, w ho 
though it was through his own suggestion that the 
proceedings of the commissioners had been insti- 
tuted, found, as matters progressed, that his ignor- 
ance of the geography of the country i)laced him at 
considerable disadvantage, and therefore made use 
of all means to interfe're with the progrer-s of the 
commissiimers. He had submitted a m;i[i of his 
own, plaeiii_' Cape Henlopen about twtntv miles 
below the mouth of Delaware Bay. A line uas 
then to be run t'njm thi.- peint due west, aero-, the 
renin.-ula From the middle [.nint of ihi. line- 
that is. half-way between the tw.. I,ay,^— a lin- was 
to be drawn northerly, so as to foiiu a tnii.'enl to 
the circle, whose centre was at New Ca.-tle, and 

c: nf let wUii li.e 
doo nortli Uur:\ i 
point fifltoon i::; 
part of Fhiia.lel; 

miles. From tlie j)oiiu .,■ 
however, it was to (■\t. u : 
he'd the same latitude ;„ ... 
ih of the most southerly 
A liae due west from tl.i- 

point, T.igr^tlier with tlie arc of the New C'a.-i!,- 
ciride, w:ls to form the S(-uthern boundary of Peim- 
syl\ania. Tho lowor line, extending west freni 
Cap? Hcnlopeii, and the northerly line wer.' t-. 
hare served as soiithern and we^tern boundaries ..: 
iho iower counties- Tids was Lord Baltimnie'- 
own nroj^c^sitin:;, and v as the basis ttxed in thn 
articles of May 10. 17:;-J, on which the conimi- 
sioncrs <..ere *'< a;-t. This view of the sitmi- 
ti<m of Cape Henlv>;.er, was what the Peuns liad 
always desired, and they were, consequently, oiilv 
t(}0 eager to assent. No record remains of the 
proceedings of the commissioners on the occasions 
when they did corne together; but it is (juite evi- 
dent that as soon as Lord Baltimore discovered 
his ."^rror he interposeil every possible obstacle so 
as to prevent the completion of the work before 
December, 173:5, at the expiration of which time 
the commissioners were to be discharged. He wa- 
ennuently successful in this scheme, and after all 
the laborious negotiations, the dispute still re- 
mained unsettled. It would not be proper tu 
say that it was no nearer settlement than before, 
as i.he terms of the agreement of 1732 actually 
formed the basis of operations when the final 
boundaries were drawn bv Mason and Dixon, 
in 1763. 

\Vhat action the Penns to(jk to secure indem- 
nity from Lord Baltimore we shall see later, 
but for the present we must follow up the border 
troubles, which were not in the least interfered 
with by the appointment of the conimissionors. 
One of the sufferers was Samuel Moncey, of Mur- 
dei Kill Hundred, in Kent County. At the re- 
quest of three strangers, who afterwards proved 
to be Jacob Heynman, Peter Rich and William 
Underling, and who stated they had lost their 
way, Mojicey offered to go with them about a 
mile, on being promised a pistol for his .services. 
He had not gone far, however, before he was 
seized by the men, and taken to Cambridge jail ; 
he was next removed to Annapolis, and was in 
irons for six weeks before he was finally released. 
Jared Eothwell was likewise arrested in New 
Castle County by Cecil County magistrates, and 
simihir oeeurrenees on both sides were continually 
reported a~ lthw iie_r ,,iit of the doubtful titles to 
land eeeupied by the parties con.vrned. An at- 

The initiative'uns tld^ time t:il;,-n l.ytlie (iovru-.r 
ami Ceuneii ot' Pennsylvania, by the a[)i)oiutmem 
of two commi-,ionei.- to treat with the Lieutenant- 
Governor of Maiyland, and 'conclude on such 

2" lltmuirs of iLe Uisffricil S.ici.ty of rciinsyh^iiia," vul. i. p. Is'C 

B(H'XI>Ai;V Di-^l 


iiu':i.'Uros as ni;iy liest coiiducr to [irorrvi' peace 
Intween Ijnth L'liveiiinieiil-, and to i.i-evrnt irn.'U- 
l.irltie.s tor tlio futun-, until slir li .undar'u - >lia'.l lie 
■utiiallv run uiid mark.. .1 out " Tlie eoniiui-ionerj 
„ere Andrew Hamilton and. I, .l.ti< nor--, and the 
papers were i.-sued on Mav 14lh. '!'lie\- a' m. ■'■ :-'t 
,,at for Maryland, and arrived at Annapoli, .,n the 
Jilth. The "negotiations were at on.',- l.e-un. earh 
-ide opening \vith theileelaration that it ua-the 
mo.; as-rieved. Tiie oral pr ,eeedini:s r-ulted in 
nothin-'and i[.-M-. Plamilton and Geor-e- then 
presented a fornnd paper, settmi: liirtli their side of 
the i|uestion, ami re.pie-iiu',' some form of a^^ree- 
iiieut. Governor 0:.rle, iu reply, proposed to 
ret'er the whole matter to the King. It was 
evident that Ogle was endeavoring to evade 
the matter The eommi.ssiauers then drew up a 
.-eeond docuruent, expressing their desire to come 
to an immediate agreement, and in response to this, 
Ogle flatly refused, asserting that the commissi n- 
ers had acknowledged themselves to he without 
sufficient authority. He had oidy reached this 
conclusion from a most unwarranted misconstruc- 
tion of a phrase in their letter to him, and it be- 
came clear that the mi.^sion would prove fruitless. 
The Peunsylvanians dauntlessly persisted in send- 
ing a third letter, but waited in vain for a rejily. 
Thus terminated another etlort at settlement. 

Eixciteiuent soon became most intense, however, 
when it was learned that Lord Baltimore had 
made application to the King to confirm hL< charter 
or grant of the three lower counties. At the 
request of the mayor and citizens of Philadelphia, 
the Governor convened the As-eml>ly of the jiro- 
vince to consider this latest step of Lord lialtiuiore. 
Little was done, however, excej)t to giveex])ression 
to the alarm felt at this attempt to usurp the lower 
eounties. In reply to Governor Gordon's address, 
the Asseniljly. referring to the efforts of Lord 
Baltimore to secure the territories upon Delaware, 
-aiil they thouirht " it would be attended with con- 
sequences truly unhappy to the inhabitants o^'this 
province, not only disuniting; those whom the same 
form of government, admini>tcreil under tlie jiro- 
prietaries and G(Jvernors, and a similitude of in- 
clinations and interests have clo<, ly unit<'d, liut in 
diminishing our trade, depriving many of us of our 
properties, and destroying those religious and civil 
hhi'rties which were one of the chief inducements 
to the fir.-t plantin- of this colony." The IVnns 
>ou-ht with all their mi-ht a-aiu-t -rantin- the 
l"tition. They ,alcd L^.d l; voluntary 
surrender of this territory by the a'.n-ecment (if 
17.;-J, as his own acknowlciLnii. lit that the title was 

■•■-ted in the rnin-. The -cpience was that, 

I" oi-ilci- to ti-( tile validitv ot' this a'.'reemcnt, the 
I'enns were ordcr.d to file a bill in chaneerv 
»-Mii,>t Lor.i lialtiuiore. demaudini: the fulHllmen't 
■■f the provi.>ions of the agreement. The bill wa.. 

Th.mias I'eii 
Cli.ineerv C 

bv .Tohn. Richard 
proverbial delay ol 


IS tit tee 

bet'ore the 


1 \vas cliar;ictcri/.cd bv bordertroublcs 
of a violen; natutc hi A pril. 1 7:1.-.. a complaint 
was entered bv Patrick Thmmt^. of Kent Countv, 
Marvland, that .lames Mullen, Ldward P.anbury 
tiiid Jame^ Keillv. of Dover, with -ome others, had 
drajired him frotu his hoiis ■ to the Dover prison. 
The most serious of these frays was an attack on 
the house of Thomas Cresap. Crcsap. as we have 
seen above, was a desperate iharticter, who was 
continually mixed up in the dis[nites on the 
boundarv, but had. nevirtheless, attained some 
prominence in Mai\'l:itid alfairs. The attack was 
doubtle.- made bv Pentisvlvaniaus who hadsufiered 

at his hands. It was not lonir. however, before 
Cre^ip is founil at the head of a band of fifty men, 
invading Lancaster County, and attem])ting to 
settle a dispute which would rather have been a 
matter for the coii.-ideraiioti of the (_TOvernors. 
Diuini: this raid, atnon^' others, Knowles Daunt 
was killed, and Cre-an wtis captured and charged 
with his murder, Thi' loutroversy which arose 
out of this occurreiu-e forms a monotonous record 
of letters and d, po-itiotn. It was followed by 
outrages, however, which soon di<_Mi>ted both sides, 
and madethem equally tuixioii.- to end this constant 
-tate of o]icn warfare. Poth the Mtirvland and 
P.tiiisylvania A.-emblie. forwarded addrc-es to 

to the di-onha-. 'Ihev «,-re i„„ liate in their 

etiirt, and brou-ht from the Kite,' the fillowin- 
order in Council, dated Au-u.-t l^, IT.;;!. It is 

iJI^M.Ll.i.n, "ni^t^.rv'uf M:ir> 1,111,1, •■ n, 4n. 




It will be noticfd tliat tlu' tliive eouiitH.- of the 
present State of I)ela\v:u-c wwc always tho mr^^t 
prominent cause of the dispute. 'V\w Kinix's ordtT, 
however, had some etiect in allaying'- tiic ti-oi:i'!; 
and at length, in ^[ay. 17.' is. the [iroprietord eanie 
in person before the (.'nuncil at Kensington, and 
agreed toaoeomnnxlate tlinr ditl(-renee~. The new 
arrangement referred partieiilarly to lands in the 
neighborhood of Philadelphia and the Sus()ULhanna, 
the lower counties having been freed from the 
border wars since the promulgation of the; King's 
order in Council. In fact, in the agreement drawn 
up between the proprietnrs. it was distinctly stated 
" that there being no rims that apprartti have been 
committeil within the tlnrc \n\wv i-m\nt\v~ '<( Xrw 
Castle, Kent and Susse.\, it is thcnfi.if ii.,i thought 
necessary to continue the latter part of the said 
order in Council, as to the said thn-e Icwer counties."' 
Two commissioners were appciiuted on each side to 
draw the lines as [)rovided fir — Richard Peters and 
Lawrence Growdeu for Pennsylvania, and Col. 
Levin Gale and Samuel Chamberlaine for Mary- 
laud. The temporary agreement for the preserva- 
tion of peace while the work was in progress 
placed all land above the point fifteen miles south 
of Philadelphia, and not occupied by either, in 
possession of the Penns, and all south of it, in the 
hands of Lord Baltimore. Thi.-, nf course, refers 
only to the disputed territciry ..u either >ide of the 
Susquehanna. The survey «as eoiiniieiieid in the 
spring of 17o!>, and j)rogre--ed \\iih some rapidity, 
although the Pennsylvaiiiaus chiiimd tliat their 
brother commissioners proved to tlieui "tliat men 
of skill can find a thousand objection's against 
the doing of a thinir that they have no mind to." 
The Marylanders first opened a di.-rii.>-ion as to the 
method of measurement, iti-i-tin-- on measuring 
horizontally and not siijierlii'iallv. wherever the 
hills presented a elian<-e ..f lo.-> to them by the 
latter proce^s. Next, a controvt.r,-y arose over the 
Gunther's rhain u.-ed bv the surveyor, and when 
thesedisputes ha.l been settled, the death of ( '.ilnnel 
Gale's son called him auav, and .Mr. ( ■ha.nberlaiue 
refused to proreed in his :d)-enee. Not de.-iiiii- to 
have a good work thu- ob-tnieted. <Tovenior 
Thomas i^.ued in>t.aetio„s to the IVnn.-ylvania 
e(.immissioners to 'continue the wurk alone, and 
Messrs. Peters and Growdeti continuid the line 
westward to a point eighty-eight mihs we.-t of the 

This w;ts the t',:ni.'as "t(iM!Hirary line," and v., . 
a .source of grcai yood in elticruallv checkio'.' i!,. 
riot and bio«/.saed whiei: for a half-century I,:.,, 
been, at frei;'jent interval.-, carried on along il . 
borders of the two ;iiovijices. There was, prarii 
cnliy, no further eiicrotichment on either side, aiio 
aothiug occurred in the controversy worthv (,; 
P'litioiilav note, until t!ie antiouncement of tl,. 
decTSe iu the eiiane. rs ra.-, . w hieh was issued I,.. 
Lord (Jhiincelior !!ai',lwi,ke, in 3[ay, 17.".0. I, 
developed nothlu',' Jiove, in [in; ease, but was a 
simple ratificaiion of tiv a-reement of iVIav lo. 
17o2, in favor of the Penns. Xo more solemn 
rebuke could havt been brought upon the head o- 
I,oni Baltimore tluin the declaration of the Lor i 
Chancellor that •' in America the defendant's coin- 
mi-'sionars behaved v. ith great chicane." Cap 
Henlo]>9n is decided to be situated as given bv 
Lord Baltimore on his original map, and nnt, a- 
he claimed later, identical with Cape Corneliu>. 
The decree provided for the appointment of com- 
missioners on both sides within three months, ami 
operrtions were to be bei:un in November.' Tin 
Chancellor reserved the ri^dit to decide any questioi- 
which might arise in the execution of the decree, 
a provision which was .soon proved to be a grave 
nece.-sity. The commissioners assendjled at New 
Castle on November ]'), ll'iO. The New CastU 
circle being the tirst matter discussed, the Court- 
House was fixed upon as the centre of the circle, 
but the Marylanders at once began their fn-na r 
tactics by insisting that the twelve-mile rndii;- 
should be drawn superficially, in the face of tli 
fact that in the measurement of 17o9 they lual 
objected to this method, when it opposed their own 
interests. The Pennsylvanians jirotested, and in- 
sisted on the hori/(nit"al niea-nrenunt, but it w;- 
necessary to apply to the Chaiiei.'llor before Loul 
Baltimore's commissioners would yield. Consider- 
able delay was thus caused, but the -work wa- 
quickly resumed and. the position of Cape Henlopea 
determined at a point one hundred and thirtv-niii- 
perches from the cape on the northern portion n!' 
Fenwick's Lland. A line was then run westward 
across the peninsula, but another dispute here are-' 
as to its western termination, the ^[arvlandei- 
claiming they had reached the liav, when in truli; 
they had oii'ly gone as fir as Slaughter's Creek, 
wliieh was more than three miles east of tli' 
Chesapeake." Another suit in chaneery folh«e,L 
and matters wereturlher comiilicat. d by thedealli 


hi^sc.ll Fml.Tirk.thcla-tLnnl 1 1 Illi ,n>. Whilr 
tlu'Siiit wa.-^ prn.liii- the F.vnch ai.-l In. liar: War 
.Hriipiv.l tlieattrnti,,iL,,t'rl..' pr ,pl.. m t..., -ivat an 
extent to permit them td renew their bonier tijhts. 
.\linost neitliin;: is hear.l ot' the hoiimlarv <|u,-.-tion, 
iinil the only intercourse between the unthorities 
of the provinces had reference to the war or tiie 

The vear 17G0 stand,^ out as an important epoch 
in our'st,,rv. Frederi.'k, Lord 1", iltnaore, had 
long ;ri-o\vn"tir,'d of the ti-lit uliieh, it appeared 
more tiian prohahle, would a-ain he derided a-ain-t 
him. He eon-e,|Uently entered ini^ an a-n .-nent 
uith the IVnn> on Julv 4. 17iiO, aeeeptin- a- a 
basis the articles alrea.'ly drawn up in 17:;l'. and 
alterward^ set forth in the ChaneellorV .leeree of 
IT.'iO. The twelve-mile radiu- from Niw Castle 
was mea.siircd heu'izontallv. and the line acro.-s the 

fnmi Cape lleulo,,,.,! to th.- Clu. 

was drawn to the full lell-th of <ixtV-lfin.- miles, of ti^e mllesor,. ■! r.ap,,.illlel,.rh,I.tu>i.-lilr..e,Mn,lM 

two hundred and nin. ty ei-ht perelie.-, as wa.s ^u^Juf n'tt'i!''! "' ■ ' ' ' ^ i! i''''i'pTVrlJ!!'',VMiI''!i!'.'r\" 

originally claimed by the i'ennsylvania commis- tu-^ivp r: -^ ' , ■■;, r :: i \ ,. e„,;e, 

sioners iu 1751. The articles of agreement are thm u, \ ' : , '. . ' \'.'l^ 

most minute in every detail, and occupy thirty-four en-ii.i -i m, ,, ,, :. : • ,, , in.e 

printeil pages in the Pennsylvania Arcliives.' The o'ti,'!'r • . i.Vr 

boundaries of the lower counties were thus practi- '[""' ■ ' , ■ i , inri 

,,,,.,. „ '■ thp -.M'l . ■ I . . ■ ■ ■,,-■,..,, Ml- 

cally settled in their present form. .i.i.., f,. i:,: .>- .m- ■ i,.,-, i,.i . i, ,!,,■,„.„■ -i.. -ri m .u 

To carrv the agreement into eti'ect, commissioners ^'""' "",'' '''•''" ' ''""" ^-eio-i tiirrr-,,,, -"''iw hm' ^Hi.sii.instuuarda 

^ . r tr 11 tbe auuth an.l vvtrst hiith tliearmsof tliesaiil FreJcncli, Lurd b;iltinjore, 

were appointed on both sides, those for Jlaryhind gmn-a tiirreon. 

being Governor Sharpe, Benjamin Tasker, Jr., ,^^ ,!','' |^ '"""'' ''"' 

Edward Lloyd, Robert Jenkins Henry, Daniel mark.".! l^ . i i 

Dulany, Stephen Bordley and the liev. Alexander '^,"."', ', ■> ,, , „', "' "'kp'.'i'-^' i,'''b"'b'''-'''i' ^''t''""'^ "°j 

Malcolm, and those for Pennsylvania being Hon. tbu lett.r .\i un hm «.-lt tbe.euf." 

James Hamilton, William Allen, Richard Peters, The fourth section goes on to describe the run- 
Benjamin Chew, Lynford Lardner, Ryves Holt and ning of the east and west line, which forms the 
George Stephon.-oii. They met at New Castle on Itoundary for the north of Maryland and south of 
November lit, 1760, and at once bejan to draw P,-nn-vlvaiaa. This line was carried to a di.~tani-e 
the boundarv lines. In Au-nst, 17ti:;. Lonl Balti- of over tw. hun,lre.l and ei,: 
more and MesM's. Thomas and Richard i'enn Indians prevented from 
employed Charles Mason an.l Jereudah Dixon. „f was afterwards .-irri-d to its 
Kn-land, to " mark, run out, settle, tix and deter- tar a- the lower I'ounties were e, 
ndne all such parts of the cir.-le. mark-, lin^s and nate.l the border trouble-, but 
■veral articles countie.- of .Maryland, and th 

Ixjundaries as were mention 

or eommis.-ieilis, and wcr. 

r hot 

They undertook the work ai 

id car 

fuUv, finishing their task i 

n De, 

wa/thusthat'the boundary 

,- betu 

and Maryland came to rec. 

the Mason ami Dixon's Hi, 

e. Tl 

submitted by the c(unnd-> 


17oS, and gives an exact 


the following terms : 


,1, fi.xed 

Iin<. Inzinnin- at (lie e.xait lui.l.ll,.- ot 

the ilue 

11 .1I..1 111 tl.i- Milic 1", ur tli- f.juril, , 

lav of .r 


vet completed." 




rj: them 

i'd it oul.ucces- 


,rd ot 

■ at Ion- 



■mlier, 17i;7. It 

1 to e 


, m 17ti 


en Pennsylvania 



:ed outr 


■ famous name of 


n as 1 

ate as 17 

74 the. 


> final report was 



d over. 



on November 0, 


sell. 1 


and uh 

itv miles, 

when <h 

ire-ellt h 

n-. and i 



n the no 



in Peni: 

oiial riot.- 

~ were .til 

hll Peun 

had occi: 

earlier times h 
derstandiu-s n, 


ire, amUrewo 


s of the di-pii 


of attempts to s,.ttle the iletail 
beyond all cavil. The final proclamation of" the 
(_;ovenior ot' Pentis\«lvania announcing' the comple- 
tion ot' the work uas not is-ued until April s. 177.-,. 
In order to render ol,,.lience to its beh'-i- a- little 
dillieult a.- po-ible, a special act was pa-ed by the 
tcrritoiiai Assembly of the three louer counties on 
Delaware, expvcasiv statiu'- the boundaries of 



Kent, Sussex :in.l Nrw (■;l^tl,• fmin 
ing that all pir.-mi^ \\ ho hail rrsi,lr,l 
territory, hut imw acknowKilLTiil 

in til 

rVhnm,-y 1. I';x4, <>nc CI 
tha, it .'.a- his h, li, f th; 

Pirkerin- n-| 

lower counties 
leges tliereiu. : 
existed. Td t 
supplenii'nt u 
supplement \\n 
who held judg 

, .-hould enjov all ri-lu.s and 
IS though !io" eoutroversy har 
his act, |la^s^d on Si-jit^nibi^r 

s intended forth.' hnirhr of ere 
niiiit- taken out in >rarvhn'.l 


,f 1) 

rsTiiRY, 1704-7- 

TnK hisi 

covered liy the present ehajiter, stands out as a bold 
anomaly in the colonial liistory of America. After 
a long series of wrangles and dissensions with the 
other counties of the province of Pennsylvania, in 
1704 the " territories," or the " three lower coun- 
ties," or the " counties of Xew Castle, Kent and 
Sussex upon Delaware," as they were then variously 
called, seceded from the counties of the province. 
They were to be governed by a separate Assembly 
consisting of representatives from the three coun- 
ties, hut still acknowledged the authority of the 
provincial Governor of Penn.sylvania. This con- 
tinued to be the form of g..vernineiu uniil the 
adoption of a separate ( 'on.-titution by the State of 
Delaware, in 177(3. 

The lower counties had lianlly lieen aiiiiexe.l to 
the province, 'n K.^L', when the enniroV( r-ie- and 
disagreements he-an uhieli tii.allv led to a .repara- 
tion. The Council dealt lih.raily uirli the" new 
counties, agreeing to a-~uuie a large ^JKire ot' their 
expenses as an obligation on the whole province, 
and as early as lG''s4 the_\ complied \eitli the 
request of the territorial representatives by hohling 
a part of their meetings at Xew Castle. One 
effective cause for these early diflerences is to be 
traced to the a-ents sent over bv the Marvlanders. 
It was a pan of Le,d llaltinioie's pi..,.", f,„- the 
success of hi- co\.toi;,- d'-ijns on I'enu'.- territory 
to stir uji ill tl'cliie,' in the lower c(Miutie~. At a 
meeting of the Couueil. hehl at I'hiladelphia. on 

Ki:it(,'oaiity v;Te; to revolt bel•au^e Covein.,, 
I'enn h I'i tio; k- pr his j)i.,ini-e to enter and eh :,r 
all ves.,.ls ,,t N\,v Ca-tle, and in the ev.-nt of Miei,'.t,...l-. ,]uv w.-re a--ured of the s,,p|,ort ..f I.o|-,i 
Baltimore. At t:.- >:i:ne .i,,,.- Francis Whitwell 
.loi.n Ilii.iai-d a;:.; .fob.. Kiehardson, the renr. - 

against pers(jns rer-idinL: on the land in dispuie. 
Great confu.-ion had arisen when the> settlement of 
the boundary ijuestion jilaccd the debtors ir the 
lower counties. For tlie relief ami securitv ca'the 
creditors, the Assemlily enacted a law making it a 
valid proceeding to docket transcripts of the judg- 
ments formerly obtained in the Maryland courts 
against persons resident on lands whicl; had fallen 
within the lower counties on the determination of 
the boundary lines. With this act, the historv of 
the dispute over the bc.mndaries of Delaware came 
to an end. 


and committee- w..,v .-cut to ini|uire into the i-au- 
oi' uieir al)Seiice, as weii as that of the gener:il 
dis:^ flection. While no serious outbreak result, d 
IV an libs, the government of the lower coiinti. - 
j.roved t." be a s v.irce of much annoyance to tin- 
Council, liefica-ts -.lerc continually brought to 
them comjilainin.' of the manner in which th.- 
otficials perfoina-.l tli.-ir dutie.-. The.sheritis e.mhl 
nr-t be relied up m, v.v.A the d(-cisions of the ju-tice- 
were irequenily appeale.i from, as being unjust aii.l 
partial, blatters began to take a more serious turn 
'u 1090. Jealuiisies, based on local prejudices, had 
increa.-ed, and tlie lower counties as.serted that they 
were not fairly treated in the appointment of 
officers. In the year mentioned Thomas Llovd 
had been duly elected president of the Council. 
The territorial members, fearing that they would 
nor receive their fair proportion of ..lilices, convened 
a secret meeting without notifying the ])re.sideiit 
or any member of the Council. The six members 
present were William Clark, Luke Wat.-on, Griftiih 
Jones, John Briiikhie, John (_'ann and Johannes 
D'Haes, who appointe.l ami .-i\ 
judges without th.' kuowh d'je and consent of the' 
other members. ^Vllen the regular ( 'ouneil learn, d 

of the affair, they pr..mptly d the appoint- 
ments to be illegal, and severely re[)rimande.l th..' 
unruly members for their clandestine action. A 
demand was then made that the judges and other 
officers of the lower counties should lie appiiinted 
by the ninerejiresentalives fr.un those counties, but 
this was not allowed. 

In 1091 what was evidently intended by the 
proprietor as an indulgent privilege proved onlv a 
means of wideniiej' the breach between the two 
seeti..ns ..f the pn.vince. Ptnn Inel left to the 
I'hoi:-.' of th.' C.uuieil three dith'rent f.inns for the 
ex.'cutive mana'j-.nient .if the 'j.ivei'nnient. It was 
t.i be eilh.u- tlir.Mi'J, a 1 Vpntv-l u.v.'ni.,r. a cojnrni- 
.M.m ..f iiv.- ..r th.- C.un.'il ii-elf A mai...'iiv -.f 
th.' Coiin.'il favor.'d th.' !ii>t ..f tlu-M- m.-tho.b. 
This br.Might thrill a f.irnial pn.f",-t -v\.\i 

m.'iiib.'i'-. ten- the h.w.'r eouiiti. William Clark, 

John Cann, .lohn Brinkh..?, J.ihn Hill, Itiehanl 
Halliuell, AlVrtus Jacobs and George Martin- 
They deelare.l the appointment of live coin- 
mi-.-i..ners was th.' nietho.l m..-t a'.:'n'eab!e to them, 
an.l their .-e.'on.l ,'li.,i.'e be the comnii.v-i.,n 
• if the,'il it.-elf, but that thev could n,.t aecpi 
the choice of a Deputy-Governor, siiiee it place<l ali 


;,|-o ..n accduiit nf the rxpin.-.' i. ,|iiin.(l lor his at New Ca.-tlf. The (li->, utiii- in. uihrrs iir-..'! that 

-u]>lM)rt. Tlicy a-r,',.l, hnurv.-r. tn a.v,pt tlie as the la«> lia.ihe.-ii ,hil> ]Ki>-e,Mi_v thr A.--, inhly, 

..nverniueiit ..t' the, uii i-nii.lith.ii that iiu thev emihl .-re ii., ffa.-Mii whv thrv >hn,iM 1,,; n- 

"tth-ers shmikl ho a|.i.niiu,,l t., jusitlons in the enacte.l at I'hila.hlj.hia. Tlie act (,f union ha.l 

three lo\\er cmintics witlaiiit tiic i .iHm nt i.f the juuvidul that the hnver emintirs weii' to have 

nieiiihersot'Cuuneil tor ther-e eoimtiis. Thev then r..iiarprivih-i - \\ ith thi- ni.jier in all thiuL's rela- 

withilrew fniin the (.'..uneil. I'r. -ident I.lnyil, u ho tin- to the Lioverninent. aiei to -ay that measures 

hail heen chosen I.)eiiutv-( iovernor. (lis| alelied !ia-->Ml at Xmv Ca.-lle n^juiivd to he eontirnied at 

John Sinu-eek, John ^,ri.-to^v, John IMavall l'hilad.l|ihia \v.,nhl di-roura-o anv further visits 

David Lloyd to >'ew (a.-tie altor th.' .-ee,<linL' to New (Ai-tle a- a plaer for hohliii- ineetinirs of 

liunihers, with the pl■onli^e that thev need have no the A-seinhlv. Moreover, thi'V failed to understand 

apprehension on the p.un!- rai-ul hy tla i.i, a- he that the hnvs would he hindinL- if the lower eouu- 

unlessthey voluntarily a-reed to eontrihuietouar.l, iinh-, it eould he shown that thore is 
his support, and, moreover, he woidd make no LTeater authoritv than wlien tin' two panios act 
changes iu the offices of the lower counties until in eonjunction at Xcuea-tle, Thi- pioti.-t was 
the proprietor's pleasure were known, and none siL'-ned hy John I'.rinkhie, William Lodiiirv. John 
should be removed without their consent. This Walker, "William Mort<in, Luke Wat,-on, Jr., 
did not satisfy the representatives frotn the three Jasper Ycates, Richard Halliwell, Adam Peterson 
lower counties, and they finally seceded, William and John iJonaldson. The Governor e.K))lained 
Markham, the secretary, who had joined them, that this was a mere matter of form, to avoiil any 
being chosen Lieutenant-Governor for the counties misunderstandings during his absence, and added 
of New Castle, Kent and Susses. Penn was much that he was deeply hurt at what he considered a 
grieved when he hoard of the disunion of the personal .-liLiht. On behalf of the others, Jasjier 
province, and attributed the trouble to Lloyd's Yeates a>-ureil the Governor that no insult was 
ambition. This charireseenjed unjust, however, as intended, and tliat thev cherished the L'reaK st 
Lloy.l liad <,nly aecepte-i his olHce after much respect for liini, hut they only aet.'d in ac- 
reluctance, and at the earne.-t .-olii.'itation of most c(u-daiin:' with the hi>; intiacsis of those wlioni they 
of the colonists. - represented. The (iovernor then sugee-ted that 
The province continued uiah-r this double i:(iV they should adjourn for one hour, until he could 
crnment for two years, when Governor Fletcher send for the rest of the Assembly, and at the 
a.ssumed control in KJHo, and again suceeeil. d in a]>pointed time they again met. A full discu.-?ion 
uniting them.' The union that was thus re-tored of the matter took place, in which both side.- spoke 
continued for a while without anything to di-turh very jJainly. The territorial members held that 
the peaceful conduct of government. In IToO the union had been from the first burdensome and 
there occurred a slight dispute over the proportion objectionable to them, and they were no longer 
of expenses to be born by the upi^er and lower willing to remain a party to it. Penn argued with 
counties, but this was soon adjusted. In the fi>l- them, and expressed his sorrow at heinL: compelled 
lowing year several contests were beL'iin, which led to cany such ill reports to J^ngland on hi- ap- 
to the final .separation, three years later. Ever proachiii- voya^'e. but thiallv aji'. ed to let them 
since the act of union, in li;.s-J. tlie lower ei^unties withdraw from the union, -tipulatin- in po.-itive 
had always acted with e-reat unanimitv. IuITdI, terms that the >eparation -hould he on .-unieahle 
when the King forward, d a re^piest to Pen n. ask- terms, and that thev must tir-t -ettic the laws 
ing tor three hundred and titty pounds sterlin- ti.r Some further difijculties oeeurr. d. an.l on the f )1- 
the maintenance of f..rtitieations near New "I'ork. lowing day the proprii tor aiMn--ed a note to 
tln^v entere.l their prote-t as a hoilv, explainin- them, reiteratiii- his plea.-^ an.l admonitions. liieh- 
that thev were unable to prnvJde det'en-es "tor that ard Halliuell, Ja-per Veate- and Wiiiiam P.od- 
co!onv,asthevtheni,-elve- hadlvneed,.! protection, uicy returned to the A-en,, luit .-o,m appeare.l 
On tlie Idth of ()ct..her,,,lthe'.anievear.the mem- the proprietor and a--urcd him that thev 
hers from the louer c, untie-, eon>i.ierinL' that the could no lon-er >it in that l.,,dv, hut niu-t at once 
inea-ures then pending betore the A.-, were Jirocecd to their home.-. Tlie other m.-nihers con- 
highly prejudicial to their intere.-ts, tibruptly left tinned in their oh.-tiiiate ref' to reeo_Mii,?e the 
that boily. On the 14th the members from New privileges con-i-tent with the hoiior and interest 
Ca-tle and Kent Counties, with John Hill for Sus- of the lower Counti( -, that it was incumbent upon 
-•■■<, appeare.l befu-e the 0,,vernor to set foth tin- meiuhcrs to leave. I'-ain. with a !iheralu>e 
tluar -rievanc.v. At ihe liieetin- held on the ..f hi- pe| -rnisive pouer<. at length hrou.ditlhem 
Kith the objectionable measure wa.- a bill to cvii- to term-, after .-everal me--ige, had laen e.\- 
>l•,o„la"ln,^,rvulP.,u,»ylva,u.^■■^ul.i., p r.i, et. s..^ .hiiu-ed with the ('ouncil ami A.-.-emblv,and thev 

pr.iviiK iui .-lien 


-,ll then;. To 


^ tl, 

♦he <^.nft-.l s,l 


y a 

nuirbci i'-i tl'-u 



zht uunoyun.-fc 

i! !i\ 

the ten-itiiria! 



;-ep;irate A.^seni 

My, f 

charto-r. Th.- ( 

■11. >r 

stc-n couia '.n!\ 

■ I'Tni 



agrpfil to return and make another ctr'it to rea. h r^t.'jp towa;-!-' tlie ^'laiiual inrri'a-e oi' the [iroviu, i,,' '.; 

au uiirlerstandin.'-. On ()ct.ili<'r 2Sih Aie new invn.i.e;'-. '> hilr tle'lr own nnniiifr would rrin:i;i, \ 

charter of privde-. ~ whirh I'.ain had t'o. .-oni. bt;iti..,iary. W:tii th- oiF.t oI' th.- huej-d. .-ir, ,i | 

time been pre[iarin'_' wa.^ ^ulunitt' d to ;iii-('oun- .~t|iarat;on |,!a:- d li.doi-.' t!/.ia in the ehavtcr oi -i 

cil. This was thr oeraMoii t;.r anotli.r ouflo-ak. i-rivil.-e-, a ;v:.- not, hk-lvthat tli.-v -houhl main > 

The eharter provided, in the u.-ual terms, tir tlie tain t!ie union a.^y ion.;er tlian was ahs,,|uti !■. > 

enj(jyment 111' Hlierty and happiness by tiie inhabit- neees^ary. But;:- r';,,.y w.-re L'rautid tlirn' yi ;ii- | 

ants of tlu? provinee. and a As;em!,dy to in which ro .1. ad.'. th< y t irrled a little- to hear tin j 

consist of four mondiers from each eounty : Imt, ar:"inunts and. .••v!;,.:-i:i;;,jns of tlie Govi-rnor and ; 

in.;; that a S(| aration litid now come to be inev- provira iat memb-rs. --, ho nuide fVtry effort to v ■ i 

liable, I'eun added the fdhiwiu^' provi.-i; tail, t, lien;. T.e.'ani^ th.^ <-!o-r ,,f the year 17nj \ 

d ni.Muinav- -r.'W woarv o; \ 

.-thceontinuala-italiouor 5 

s, and thev demanded a ] 

rdin- to the t.-rms of th.- j 

remon.-trat-d that su.'h a I 

tho mo-t dinlul iv-idt-, I 

persons t.. r.|.ri.,„r ti..:i. i., lo-ei.ibij- ; aii.i tiit- iuhabit..iu< of e... a rTi.'oothly Hiaintained wiiIl tho mother country: j 

Inrdiu"K't'Llrmui'A'tv.r''ii'it'u'mi,X™^ '"'"t- "''"'-'^ important of all, as tho proprietor \\as { 

""fu^"''"' thon in Entrlaiid for the purpose of securing hi- I 

in'^.':T':'r[''r ''" r' ''''''''' '':.'ZT::"VZ^'^ title to the low,-r-ountios, which had been disputed | 

tiiH ,;,.,, r.o I :,;, , , ;• n. , »hi,ii si'i.^ir.neii i-i.ju;. oiii bv (jthevs, a si'paratiou at moment niiudit 1 

dmrL;; -.ny iiov,',;!',..: ,:,- ;.';J,J„/:,r ,;.H s':,^lim"l!fhe^;ulve'U!'.e W^---- especially .li.a-tn.u. bv wcakonin- his claim. j 

anJ pr.icti,.il, or an.v l.uv iii;i.le iuiil lusseU bj' tlie KLTicral aix, to ^loieOVer, the application hadblMUl made Oil the i 

tlie contr.iry hereof notvviiliatali'iinij," oip/-\.ii i i -iti * 

8th of October, ami as the charter reipurcd a!! , 

The Governor then issued a number of com- elections to bcLdn on October 1st, the Governor 1 

missions, appointing Andrew Hamilton DeputN- ni.-i.-ted that a new As.seinbly could not be elected | 

__^^__ until the ].-t of October should again recur. They 5 

^'f'' ."~^--^ replied that this ditfieulty could easily be avoided I 

J, ■ "^x by the i-ssuing of the Governor's writs, but tliis | 

■x '. ^ official pointed out that the lower counties would i 

J. \ 1 now complain that they had been thrown out 

(__ /---•„ -««.v. 4 without notice, and the olijecting members prom- | 

\, ' i''^^ ''■" ,] Lsed to postpone further action until a conference | 

^^ .' ) could b.. hehl uith the Council, At tlie conference | 

\ \ had not \et elected meinber.-- of the A.-einbly, ': 

thereby signifying that tley would not accc-pt the 
chartei, it would be better to give them an op|")r- '( 

/^ _ tunity to i.-sue writ.^ of election, which would re- 1 

J ' quire verv little time, b,.-t'ore tiic\- wvn- alirupth- 

cast off, so'that their nicmbc-rsmijit be heard, Th'c £ 

dissenting members of the province a-j-reed to 
reconsider their determination, provideil the G<'v- 
ernor would adjourn them for one month. Thi- 
was accordingly done, and the( 'ouncil rca-semldcd 
on November Itlth. In the mean time memliers 
of tlie A.ssemblv had been elected f .r the hiwer 
counties, liut tho^c who had rea, bed Phiiadelphia 

inf.rmed the Governor that tliev Id under no 

circnm^tanci-s -it with the member- electeil for the 
province. The provincial niemb. rs had been 
elc.acd under a charier uiiid, the territorial mem- 
ber.- rel'u>ed to recognize, and lor (heir own elec- 
tion writ, had 1 n i-ued. ( on-idcrable time . 

was.-pent in areuin- but witiiout iv-nlt. When 
tir.t the repreicntativea liiet in the aftcrnouu at .'^amnel 


Governor, and James To-: 

m secretarvof 

the prov- 

ince, and clerk of tl 

le (.'ouncil, I 

iii.l alsc 

nominated niemlici-s ot' the 

Council, and 


ated the city of Phila.lelpi 

li.i. He then 

sailcl f ,r 

TilLdand. Ica\ iiiL'' the pro' 
dis.-ati.-tied condition. The 

viiice in a re- 

tlc-s and 
of I'll. !a- 

dclphia which -ave the P 

rovincial Asr-ei 

ublv two 

additional members was 

snfHiieiit to 

-how the 

territorial Uicmbers that 1 

dii= was only 

the tir.-t 

Colonial iiistouv 


IVrc's, :irc(,r.liiiL' to the ( I.iviTiior s in-tniftiMiis. it 
wii.-^ t'ciuiiil thiit tlir l.riit.iriul iiirniK.T- were lint 
presriit. Ch-iHith Jnm^ aii.l .lihii Suitt u.iv^nit 
to iiifiirm them that thf (nivinoi- .1. Mini tlirir 
attfiKhince, but iTtiiiiii.l «ith thr iiu-sa-.- that 
thoVluul waitr.lnii t hr < 1 ov, in, .,■ f, .c -..„„■ tihi,., 
aiui had n,.w x\itlHlia«n to v. tr. -h I h. n,.-, Iv.-.-. 
and u-,uihl to.nwn-ou wait on the ( iovrnior, if 
there Were oeea.~iMii." Thiie w a.- no aheiTiative 
hut to adjourn, althou-h niurh a-ain^t the will of 
some of tho.-e [n-e.-eiit. On thr- iioxt day. Xovni- 

iiices and terrilorie- met aeeonlinir to app^iint- 
ment. Owing to the dilierent method.-; whieh had 
been employed in eleeting the members of the two 
sections of the province, it was agreed that they 
could not meet as an Assembly. It was sug'jested 
tliat they raiglit meet as representatives of the 
people, or as a convention, but no conclusion could 
be readied on account of the firm position taken 
by the territorial members. They, however, sent 
to the Governor, stating that they were by no 
means lacking in loyalty to the Queen, and were 
nt)t desirous of shirking their fair share of duty 
and responsibility, and if there was anything of 
great importani-e whi(/]i he had to lay before the 
Assemblv, requirincj the joint action of the prov- 
ince and territories, it might still be possible to 
bring about some form of accommodation. The 
Governor answered that the two questions which 
he desired particularly to call to their attention 
were the orders lately received from the (^ueen, 
and the defensel"ss condition of the province, 
exposed, as it was, to the attacks of enemies on 
all sides. But tliese matters were not sutHciently 
grave to accomplish the desired end, and this w;is 
reported to the Governor on the 16th, by Joseph 
Growdon, on behalf of all tlie members. The 
provincial members asserted their willingness to 
meet the others, Inittlie latter now held that as the 
writs by which they were elected were based on 
the charter, a recognition of the validity ^of this 
election would also imply their accejitanee of the 
charter, whi(;h they were not prepared to do. Tlu' 
Council then passed a resolution to the ellect tiiat 
as the members for the lower counties had con- 
sented to be electeil under a writ L'rounded on the 
charter, it was now too late to refuse to at I mi t it-t'orce, 
and they nii-lit as well pr-pce'-d m busim-,- with the 
other meiiibers. On the I'.ith the Council sent a 
message to the AsKiubly, containing three (jues- 
tions, as follows: 1st, are the representatives of 
the j)rovinee williiiLr to iniet the re[ir( seiitatives of 
tlio territories for the iiurnn-,. of forinin- an As- 


meet the reprc.-elltative- of ll>e 
province lor the purpose of f .ruiiii- an A-s.Tniilv ^ 
:'.d, if either reluse, what methods do th. y pn.pnse 
for the formation of an Assembly to prevent the 

jirovinre from -utIi'rinLr, when such L'rave questions 
ivmain iinroii-i.lrred ' The pmviiirial m.-nibers 
in.m.diatrlv replied, .x pi---ing th.a,i.-elve. as both 
wiliin- tia.l de-ii-ou- nt-artin-in A--mblv aecor.l- 
ini: to the direction ..f tli.- cliarter. Th.' followin- 
reply was sniunitted by the members for the lower 
r .unties; 

"T1k> s.iiil ni-nilHTS (in. lin^- tlipy lire Ciilli-,1 liero on a ilifTertnt 

•■ 1; i . ;: 1 ., :. !i, 1.. ;,.i-.l 1! . . ■, ■ :i. I I , . r \ I'.ili-s, Evan Jonea, TUum- 

Ou the advice of the Council, the Governor 
dismissed the whole body until intelligcne-e should 
come from England recommending farther action. 
All the members of the province then united in a 
petition to the Governor, again requesting a sepa- 
ration, and the election of members for a separate 
Assemblv, with two adil'tional members for Phila- 
delphia. Governor il.imilton died soon after- 
wards, after haviiii: devoted the whole of his brief 
administration to a futile attempt to unite the dis- 
cordant elements of the province, much to the ne- 
glect of other important business. The management 
of affiiirs now devolved on the Council, of whom 
Edward Shippen was jiresident. When the' time for 
convening the Assembly, according to the charter, 
came around, in October, 1703, the membei-s for 
the three counties of the province, with two mem- 
bers for Philadelphia, presented themselves for 
qualification by the Council to proceed to business 
in the new Assembly. Governor Hamilton had 
died without taking any action on their petition of 
the previous year, and the Council was at a loss to 
know what authority it had in the matter. After 
some delay, the Council qualified them, and on 
October loth they organized themselves into an 
Assembly of the province. 

John Evans arrived with his commission as 
Eieutenant-Governor at the close of the year 
17i.)o. His first care was to examine into the 
causes of the disruption l)ctween the province and 
territories, with a view to reuniting them if possi- 
ble. The eioveinor inerea.<ed tlie number of 
members of the Coiinril, addini: several members 
from the lower coinuie-, prominent amoii_' them 
bein.j William Rod. n,-v and Ja-per Yeates. He 
also .-e.aiivd tllepa^.-a--'of a iv-oliiiion bv Council, 
depilating themeasons already taken " toward a 
dir-^ol^ltinn of tile unioii, and advisini: the most 
earnest endeavor.- to keep tliein united, both in 
h-islation and aJmini-tratinn. ( ioveriior Evans 
thin went to New Ca-tle and held a ciifeivnee 
witli thr III— t pi-omiin'iit eiti/ens, and it was ar- 
ranged that the h.wer counties should eleet mem- 
bers tor an A^jembh', to meet the Governor at 


ULSTOIiY OF i)El. \V\Ar;!'. 

Plnladrlphiu in April, 170 (. Tlir o]..,ti..i,< >v.t.' 
held in M:ir,'h, ;ni,l ^^vv,■ very rxcitir.-. .-i r.-,:illy 
the oni; at Xrw C'ar.tle.tli.' can.lhlatr- h.iri- J-vm\ 
C.uttrt and Richard Halli^^.'ll. On April !l;h. in 
accordance witli the (inNcrnMr's iii(lii>. the rneni- 
herscftlie province and tlio-clVnni New (.'a-tieand 
Kent Cnnnlie- apnean.l l.cinre the Cnnu.'il, th.we 
from Sus.ex not havini: arrived. The provincial 
niembors refused to confer with the Governor in the 
presence of stranLa'rs, and the nieinliers fr^mi New 
Castle and Kent then withdrew. Tlie S^jie.'kcr ut 
the Provincial A.'-send)ly then lmvc tin' < iovirnoi 
the most sincere assurance on liehalt' ot' the ■.'.I.ol,' 
b,Kly of their .le.ire to ol,cy any con,i„ah,,s :-. 
nii.irht hav.' to lay before tlicni, ritlur tVon; the 
crown or the p,ropriet(jr. ^\'hen the (lovTien- 
BULTL'-ested that they act in eonjunetion witli th.' 
nieinliers for tie- lower counties, they in-i.-ted that 
this would inl'i in-e on their rijrhts "as an A.--eni- 
bly, and declincil to yirld, but finally withdrew 
to their chamber to consider the -tate ..f athui's. 
On April 1-Jih the tw.i l.odie-^ were brouLdit toLrether 
before the Governor, who delivered a written ad- 
dress, setting forth the benefits of harmony and 
unity, and strongly beseeching them to reconsidei 
the steps taken in the past, and once mere to 
unite. Direct negotiations were then begun be- 
tween tlie Assembly of the province and the 
members for the three lower connnu^. Two day., 
were thus occu])icd, aud on the 14th the ( eivernor 
received the following address, signed by the 
members who had been elected from New C:L~tle, 
Kent aud Sussex : 

■' To Ihe Uonorahle John Evliu, G'lvernor of Penmyh-ania unii Ihe thrta 

j.i in Uieir r'lgl.t! 

Honor's pxpeil.ition from ui 

"John Hill, W.^i^iiii .\l,.ii.,n 

The proposal referred to in this address was a 

They further -L.tec U'at they liad a^.einbled ;u 
Phihidelphia in p-rjeance witii tlie <Jnvernoi'- 
instructions, fully e.Kp''ci;i;g to be Joined bv the 

p'We-nt s.ic'n liU'etini-. Uhe piovineial niemln r-. 
in tiivir :ejilv to ti.-..- declareii that the as.-erti(,ii 
:har(her..Mtona! n,. rebers had come to join the,,, 
in .\s-c;nblv ^sa.^ cere mten-e, as it was thev wl,e 

.-(••cogn;/.c tt,.j ..;euter, amt coiu-c'iuently the prov- 
ince was firni in it.-; purpose to retain its new 
A^--enibIy distluct from that of t!,.' lower coinuie>. 
but .•It tl'.e san,e time they hoped that friendly and 
neigliii'jily reiatior.s woidd always be kept up 
iielwten them fVu die safety and welfare of the 

It Mill thus be seen that tlie po-ition.- f,rnierly 
taken by the respective parties to the controver.-y 
had now been exactly reversed. It was the jirov- 
ince which now wished to withdraw, and the 
territr.ries that desired to continue the union. Yet 
it does not seem that they cherished any very fon,l 
desire for a reunion; but seeing that such a thiiiL' 
was now beyond hope, and that the province had 
assumed the lead in the cry for seiiaration, they 
were anxious that their northern brethren should 
lie in a position to bear all the odium that might 
result from any future ill effects of the disunion. 
AVhen the Governor had received the ultimatum 
of the lower counties, he still thought that an 
agreem?nt might be possible, and requested all the 
parties concerned to meet him on the following 
day for a free conference. Governor Evans once 
more earnestly and eloquently repeated the argu- 
ments which he had so freipiently submitted before. 
But all to no eHect. The Governor agreed to the 
separation, and from tiiat time it was complete. 
The next step wa- to or-ani/e the A-senibly f >r 
the lower counties. The opinion ,,f ,IiidL;e Moni- 
jjessop being asked, he d, ejded that it Wi.iild be 
better to is.-ue ne\v writs for eleetioiis, and avoid 
anv po^^ible broils, ami al<o ruled that all laws 
which had previiHisly been ei 
Assembly of province and ten 
full force in each sejiarately. 

The first Assembly of the three lower counti 
met in Xovembev, 171)4. Mo,-t of the niembe 
who had l,eeu elected on the ori-,nai writs we 
re-.lected, and Janie- Coutt. was dm- ■„ Speak, 
The nc-t imp.a-tant hu\.- enact, ,1 hv the n> 
I.c-islatnre iiielTid,,! a n,ea,-,ire provalim: th 
seven year.-' po-.e-,i,,i, of lan.l should give u 

infant-, married women, Inu 

le j<.in: 
now in 

jn,t tl 

iml persons 
o.-.-ess estates 



n.l al.-o a hin for rcmi- 

iittorneys and >oli, 
liUivj. Nveiglit^^ ami iiR-asiin> arconliiiL' t., tl^e 
(Jiieon's standard for tin' txclK^juer. As >'>oa ii-j 
the Assembly ha^l iMUVi.'ncd at Ni^'U" Castic, a tew 

tion from the province. James Lnj-an, who 
accciiupanied the Guvernor I'l New Castle, as 
secretary of the Couueil, wrote to I'eini that 
" Judge Guest, with the designing men uf this 
place (Xcw Castic), seem to endeavor an utter 
sejiaratiou, and that this alone may be made the 
mart for all the people below." ' Guest was an 
ambitious scamp who sought personal ends from 
the accomplisluuentof this scheme, which un.t with 
deservedly little suppport at that time. 

Tlie Assembly before adj(jurning contirnicd all 
previous laws, and also iucrea.-ed the iiiui;!)i'r of 
members of the Assemldy from four to six lor each 

Governor Evans was much irritated at his t'ailure 
to unite the province and territories, and ^ravc vent 
to his petty spite against the former, who had been 
the last to object, by continually interposing 
obstacles to prevent any facility of action by their 
^Yssembly. During the summer of 1704 he had 
issued a call for militia on account of the war then 
raging between England and France and ."~paiu. 
Three companies were raised in Xew Castle County, 
two in Kent and the same nuuiber in Sussex, but 
in the province considerable difficulty arose over 
this order, owing to the number of Quakers who 
held conscientious scrujiles against bearing arms. 
G-overnor Evans became highly indignant at this, 
and when over a year had elapsed, and tlie peojile 
still held out against taking up arms (as they held) 
unnecessarily, Evans resorted to a curious jdan for 
terrifying them into obedience. lie selected 
'fhomas Clark, an attorney of Philadelphia, and 
Robert French, of New Castle, as his as,-oeiates. 
The annual fair was in pro'.'ress at Philadelphia, 
on ^Liy 1(5, 170G. The fair'was a great institution 
of the colonial jioriod. Everybody, ^luiiiu' and 
old, as.'^embled in holiday attire, and it ua- a irala 
time for gayety and rejoieiuLT. French, who was 
stationed at New < 'a.-tle, siiit up a me-.-enuei- to the 
Governor, apparently in a L'leat .-tafe of fear and 
consternation, informiiiL-- him that a number of 
hostii-vev^els had come up the bay, and lie' ].e,.ple 
^^ere in imminent damrer of being attacked, and 
Iheir projierty pillaged. ^fessengers had been 
previously stationed ab'iut the city, and at once 
hastened to spread the news, to the L'reat terror of 
thepeople. The (;..venior rode through the strots 
\wth drawn s\vor<l, apoarentlv much aLntated, 




beseeching the citizens to ofliu- all possible a.^sist- 
ance in the emerL'eiicy. Hut rhrouu'h some un- 
known a-'-ncy the >, ,-i-et becanu' known and tlio 
plot failed, the only ell^rt bein- to tVi-liteii a few- 
people fai-ther up tlio river, wit li whate'ver valu- 

tiou, and plaerd him in -en.-ral di^tavor with the 

In >ovember of the same year, at tiie secret 
suggestion of the Governor, the As~i'ndilv of the 
lower counties authorized the erei'tion oi' a f irt at 
New Castle for Her ilajesty's -. I'vici-. A duty was 
imposed on all vessels pa-sing the f irt in goi/ig up 
the river from the sea, consisting: of a quarter of a 
pound of powder per ton for all vessels owned bv 
persons residing on Delaware River or B.ay, and a 
half a pound for those owned by all others, except- 
ing only ships of war. In addition to this, all 
vessels pa-^siuL'' in either direction were required to 
ilrop anchor, and the commander must go on shore, 
report and secure leave to pass. The penalty for 
the neglect of this regulation was fixed at a tine of 
five pounds, a forfeiture of five pounds for contempt, 
and twenty shillings for the first gnu, thirty for the 
second, and forty for every one thereafter that it 
might be necessary to fire at them on account of 
such neglect. This motisure naturally met with 
much opposition from the province, tlie citizens of 
which denounced it as a bold infraction of their 
privileges, intended only to destroy their trade. The 
people of Philadelphia were particularly loud in 
their complaints, declaring that the tax might as 
well be imposed on the goods in their shops as upon 
the ve.ssels bringing them to the city, and they held 
that their charter granted them a free and uninter- 
rupted use of the river and bay without any inter- 
ference whatever. The law was nevertheless passed, 
except that the provision requiring vessels owned 
on the river and bay to [lay duty wa-^ omitted. 

The Philadeljihians openly declared that they 
would not pay any duty whatever. The fort was 
erected in the winter of 1707 by Captain Rediuip, 
the (Queen's engineer, 'who was brought from New 
York bv the ( iovernor for the pnrpo-c. When 
ever\tliin'_'' was in readiness, and several tines had 
been collected bvthe authorities at the f u-t. Richard 
Hill.of Philadelphia,. lot, .rmined to test thestrength 
of the ].hice bv boMl V de'\ in- the orders. His new- 
sloop, the "Philadeipl'.ia'," was just ].reparin- f:>r 
her first voyai^e to the Parbadoes. The ma-ter of 
the ves-el was ordered by the owners not to >top at 
the flit. Hi' went to th.e Governor. reque.--ting 
permi-ioii to pa.-, but tlii< wa> ret'ii-ed. Hill then 

notwitli-iaiiiling !ii- r<iii>al. The ( .oNcnior at once 
set out for New C:i-tle ,in hor-ebaek to imtitV tliem 
of tho expected arrival of the ve-el, and a watch 
of ten men w:u- -tal foiled on the .-hore, lest she 



might piL-^s uiinotici-(l imilor I'nvrr of darknws. 
Hill, Ix'in- ulVai.! tw tru>t ihe iiKi.-t.r, Ix.ardoa the 
sloop and took with hiiu Samufl i'lv^ton arid I^aac 
NorrLs, who were als<i part owners. The vc>sei 
was duly cleared at Pliiladeliihia, and when tbej- 
reached New Cattle, Preston and ^^orris were sent 
to the fort to rei[Uest permission to pass without 
further interrujition. This wa5 ilenied unless they 
Would comply with the rcirular reuuiremeDts of the 
station. Hill then took command of tho vessel, 
and passed the lijrt under the tire of its i:iiii?, 
receiving no damage except a shot through the 
mainsail. When they had passed, John Freneh, 
the commander of liie fort, put out after them in a 
boat, and when he came up Hill willingly threw 
him a rope. French climbed up. the rope was cut, 
and he was taken prisoner by the owners of the 
sloop. Lfjrd C'ornbury, the vice-admiral of the 
Queen's fleet, happened to Ix? lying at Salem, and 
French was delivered over to him, and after a 
s<'vere reprimai^d was lil>erated. On ^lay jyth 
about two hundred and twenty inhabitants of the 
province, mostly residents of Philadelphia, pre- 
sented a petition to tlie Governor protesting against 
a continuance of the fort as an infringement upon 
their liberty which was was not granted, but in 
fact denied, by the charter of the Duke of York. 
A long discussion ensued in the Council, most of 
the members objecting, not to the fort, but to the 
e.xactions, and the Governor was finally forced to 
promise a susjX'nsion of the objectionable features 
of the act. His position in favoring it, however, 
had already produced a stronger feeling than \xf»re 
against him, and several petitions were sent to Penn 
recjuesting his removal, which were at length com- 
plied with about the middle of 170-^, when news 
was brought announcing that he had been super- 
seded by Charles Gi'okin. 

Evans had just purchased a farm at Swanhook, 
near New Castle, and had made extensive improve- 
ments, and was, therefore, not a little indignant at 
his peremptory removal. Some of those in the 
lower counties who had formerly acted witli Judge 
Guest, hearing that Evans had been removed, and 
knowing his partiality for the territories, supposed 
that he would gladly a-^sume the head of their 
government if they could be entirely separated 
from the jirovince. They prepared another scheme 
for carrying out this idea, but found to their 
dismay that Governor Evans fostered no such 
ambition. On the contrary, in a communication 
to the Assembly at New Castle, delivered shortly 
after this, the most patriotic .sentiments are found, 
together with wholesome advice for defense and 
other measures ennally necessary. 3Iuch lo his 
surprise, he received in reply to this an address 
fn>m the Asseiubly (juestioning his autlmrity to act 
at all, on account of the douiits which existed in 
the minds of members of the A5^cmbly as to the 

legaiity of Penn's title to the lower counties. Tl:!, 
was an old qucjii^'n whi, h was periodically rai-,.i 
in the t>;rntoric.s, and then ouit-tly allowed to dn.j.. 
Governor Evans responded that he had not th- 
leiist doubt as vo the validity of his commi.~si,,n. 
but as his olfice was .<o soon to devolve on anotii. r. 
he would not take the time to vindicate it. At tlil^ 
point a aundxT ot (nembei-s took the ]>art of tin- 
Governor and w ivhd-e>v from the Assembly, break- 
ing up the House. They were Richard Erap.son, of 
Nev; Cpslip, ,)o:^epli Booth, of Kent, and Thomas 
Fish--, Conioii.i^ T^'iltoank, Philip Kussell, Wil- 
iinm Fishes. .Xich.las Grainger and Ad. Joluison. 
of &i',ssex. Tliey insisted that the action of the 
other merabeis in laising a ijuestion ;\s to tlie 
Gv)vernor's authority w:(^ uncalled forand unreason- 
able, and that his answer was exceedingly appru- 
priate. They feared that the nvciiibers intended 
harm i^ather than benefit to their form of govern- 
ment, or at least anticipated some change, and to 
avoid ary counectioa with such a movement thcv 
thought best to withdraw. As Governor Gookiii 
soon arrived, the membei-s quietly returned. In 
aciditiou to the troubles already mentioned, much 
p.iinoyaDce was caused by the depredations of the 
pirates, negotiations with Indians and disputes over 
the boundaries with Maryland, hut these topics 
have been treated at length elsewhere. Penn had 
not despaired of a reunion, and in his instructions 
to the new Governor he recommended an attemjit 
to secure this end. To those in the colony, how- 
ever, it was evident that tliis wa.s no longer possible. 
The breach l>etween them had become too wide. 
But after a few years the two A.~seniblies learned 
to cease their policy of intermeddling, and the 
government was conducted verj- peaceably. As 
early as 1709 we find the Assembly of the province 
passing a resolution of sympathy with the inhabit- 
ants of Lewistown, owing to the suftl'ring recently 
borne by them from an attack by the euemv. 

When the lower counties put an end to their 
quan-els with the province, however, they began 
new ones with the proprietor. The particulars of 
the new intrigues show that amone the early col- 
onists of Delaware there were those who were by 
no means destitute of p>litic-al astuteness. Some 
of the most promineiit men in the territories drew 
up an address early in 1709 to the Lords of Trade 
and Plantations, who all tlic British col- 
onies, complaining of Penn's management of the 
three counties upon the Delaware, lliey avowed 
that because of the proprietor and the Quakers 
they had not sufKcicnt power for enacting the law.* 
nece.^sary tor the j>ublic gr>od ; tliat they were left 
in a defenseless condition, and had nut had ]iro- 
vincial courts among them for seven years. Thii 
addn—i was signed by nine memljcrs of the A.-^scni- 
bly. includinir James Coutts, Jasper Yeates, Ilich- 
ard Ilalliwell ami Kjjlx>rt French. Coutts had 



liitherto :il\v;iyd ln^en niu-ia>Tc(l a stan.-li fririi.l 
,)t' the pn>iiriitnr, ami lii- -u.l.lcn i!kui-'' "f 
pdlicy occiisiuiieil much ,-iir|in.-c. Vi.iti.-, h<i\v- 
<'ver, was the iii>tiLMt(.r ..f thi; new viil.'riins,'. 
He had moved from ('h.-trr tn ^^■\v ( , and 
had there started a Im-im-s vi'iituro (in an ex- 
ten Jed scale. Thetiiuii V. as not cunsiilered healthy 
at this time and did Hot [UM-iior, and tliv |iLo|ile in 
the country much preferred to uo to riula<lelpliia 
to tran.^aet their busiiiet^s than to .~top at New Cas- 
tle. Yeates saw that some liarrier must lie placed 
Vietween the seat of his new venture and Philadel- 
phia, to materially check communication between 
the two places. This was either to be done by 
makiuir New Castle the capital of a new province 
consisting of the three lower counties, or allegiance 
■with Pennsylvania must be severed, and an alliance 
made with some other colony, the situation of 
whose capital would not interfere with the com- 
mercial progress of New Castle. Yeates was 
shrewd and influential, and secured the assistance 
of many others. Although the relation between 
himself and Coutts had for some time past been 
somewhat strained, he soon found an opportunity 
to bring aliinit a reconciliation, since Coutts was 
attliis tinif by far the must influential man in the 
lower counties. Their object was simply to secure 
fi separation from Pennsylvania, (.'outts signed 
the petition as Speaker of the Assembly, although 
It had never been brouLdit before that body and 
was strictly a private ntlair, and took it to Lon- 
•don himself IViiu was kept informed of every 
movement through Secretary Logan and was well 
prepared for his arrival, although he had at length 
lost patience with the territories. But this scheme, 
like its predecessors, came to naught. Toward the 
<?nd Coutts attempted to secure the government for 
himself through bribery, and his co-operators, 
afraid of his power, again ottered Governor Evans 
the leadei-shi]), but he per.-isted in his refusal. In 
consequence of this, a dispute arose, which com- 
pletely disorganized the schemers, and tUere the 
matter ended. It is ilifKcult to see that any par- 
ticular advantage woidd have been derived, uidess 
to the chosen low. Thi' three counties were not 
yet sufficiently [)nis|ierous to succeed as an inde- 
pendent colony. It wa- estimated at tlie time that 

dred and twenty I'amiliis, hardly euoui^h to support 
a well regulated government when surroiunled on 
all sides by others more powerful in respect to 
numbers an<l experience. After the excitement 
incident to this last trouble had sidjsided, tlie peo- 
ple (|uietly sittK'd down, and for the next few years 
nothing occiind to mar tlie (■itizen- in their jieace- 
ful pursuit of and contentment. The 
I'triod, however, is at K a-t notcworlliv as li.ino; 
marked by a rapid .levelMpmcnt ..f the church. 
A-earlv as 170:! a colonv nf Welsh liapli.ts h^^,\ 

settled ..n what was tlien called "The Welsh 
Traet," but n..w knoun a< (;la>-ow, lying between 
Delaware City and Xewark, and about ten nules 
frnni Wilnii[i:;ton. They secured about thirty 
thousand acres from Messrs. Evajis, Davia and 
Willis, who hau purclia.-ed it from IVnn, and at 
once proieeded t.. erect a meetiii--hon>e. This was 
ilni.-lied in 17(m;, tlie tiist |:a>tor bein- the K.-v. 
David Evans, a native of WaL s. Tnder his care 
the church slowlv ine.ea.e,!, aud eaeh year the 
n;eudHi.~iiip increased, either tl,n>UL;h addithmal 
arrivals from Wales or by tlie baptism of settlers. 
At New C.-ir-tlethe same pro- re.-< was noted. The 
Kev. George Iloss was ajipointed missionary at 
that place in ITO-). He started a congregation 
there and met with great success, as among the 
regular attendants at service were numbered many 
from the surrounding country, some coming as far 
as ten or twelve miles. Encouraged by this, he 
extended the field of his labors to Apoquinimy and 
White Clay Creek, preaching twice during each 
month at New Castle, and once at each of the other 
two places named. Richard Halliwell, who had 
contributed largely toward building the Emanuel 
Church on the Green at New Castle, bequeathed 
sixty pounds for its support, and also gave his 
plantation of sircty-seven acres, with finely-im- 
proved houses and orchards, as a parsonage for the 
ministers who should from time to time serve the 

The missionaries who were here settled were 
sent from England by the Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. Their 
work in Kent and Counties was not so easy, 
owing to the fact that the country was far more 
sparsely settled and the people scattered farther 
apart than in Xew Castle. But this had not de- 
terred them from sending out their agents. In 171)4 
the P>,ev. Mr.Crawford was stationed as missionary 
at Dover. In about two years he baptizeil two 
hundred and thirty people in his immediate dis- 
trict, besides many others in the vicinity. At the 
end of the third year they had erected a modest 
structure in which to' hold their meetings. He 
hibored assiduously, being obliwd to give many 
sufficient instriK'tioii to enable them to read the 
common prayers. His plan was to preach one 
Sunday at the upper eml of the county, on the 
next at Dover, and on the third at the lower end, 
thuscoming'in contaet with as many of the inhabit- 
ants as possible. I le was al-o invited to preach in 
Sussex County, and in respon-e to this, preached 
at Captain Hill's house, at Lewistown. The people 
were much idea.sid and wrote to the Bishop of 
Li:ndon, asking that a i[ini>ter be scut to them, 
and promisin-' all the siqijiort they could afford. 
The con-ii-ucti It' a ni' >tiuL:- hwuso was also com- 
menced there. Mr. Crawi'ord was soon after coni- 
peHed to retnrn to EfiL'land and ,li.l not n turn. 



ami fur sonio time neitlifr dfthc two pouutie- had 
a rciTular uiinister. 

In Auiiust, 1717, (M.vminr Kritli, w!ioh:;<l a »'rW 
nKjiitlis jirt-vinuslv >ii(cr('iit il (iuvtrnnL- (iimkin. 
(Irsirmis (if viyitin- tl;r Inwir rmiiiti.-, invit«;.l .Mr. 
I{o.--, who wa~ >t\\\ In t'liar.'c of tin- -[iirituai att'airs 
of New Castle, to areonii.aiiv him. In ronipant 
with ;;cveral otliei-s, they tii->t \v(nt to Lewistown, 
ami on 7th ^Ir. llos- proacheil there in tlie 
Court-Hou^e. He reniainf'l -tveral liavs, 
baptizing over fifty chililn n, and tlim went lo^he 
various meeting-hou.-^es uhieh had already been 
erected in the eounty. lie tlien went throUL'r, 
Kent County with tlio (;..vrrnor and nift with 
similar greetini:. lie was so much '^ratiiicd at rhe 
result of his visit, that in A|'ril, 171^. he again 
went through Sussex County, u;'eiiing a new 
church that had been built and lia[itizlr.g nuL^y 
new membere. Conseijuently, the two Iowlt coun- 
ties were not absolutely without a nnuister, T-Ir. 
Ross addressed a letter to the society in Knghind. 
urging that a missionary be sent out, and this was 
indorsed by Governor Keith. The people of Lewis- 
town had, in Oct., 1720, finished a frame church in 
the centre of the town\md were nuicli rejoiced when, 
in the following year, the Rev. Mr. Beckett arrived 
froui London to take char^'e of it. The sarue 
success followed which his expectations anticipated, 
and the work being now on a firm basis, the pro- 
gress of the Church of England (all the missionary 
work being indejiendent of the lar'_'e number of 
Q.uakers in the colony) was now well established.' 
In the nieanwliilc the civil aflairs of the lower 
counties had not been neglected. When Hovernor 
Keith arrived, in 1717, lie immediately exaiuined 
into the affairs of the territories, and upon the of his investigation added another niend)erto 
the Council from the lower counties, in the pei-son 
of John French. 

In 1719 the As.-cmbly p,i--ed an art for the 
better administration of jiisiice, some of the pro- 
visions of which are hardly e^pmh-.l l,y<he famous 
blue laws of Coniiectient, of the seventeenth 
century. In one respect, however, the act 
exhibited a tendencv toward tideration. viz. : ov 
allowing Quakers to'atRrm, as x\ell as all other-^ who 
niiglit be conscicntiouslv opp(,-iMi to takiii;.'- an 
oath. In this they antic-ioatrd -imihir artinn bv 
the Assembly of the province liy -ix y.-ai-. f ir it 
was not until 172.'. that the Pennsylvania A-m inhly 
relieved th.- (Quakers from takin- oatii. I'.y tlie 
terms (,f the new law, all persons crimmirting 

sufttrcd death, as in th.^ 
person wh.o nit )n' i r di-;: 
the eye, slit tlie !!.'.-■: or li] 
another. ^uii^Ted ■!!■.• d< ,ith 
of clergy. Wor. ^n <.,n 

escape iho de!,til :ni|ii-l:ci 

brandetl on the iiai.d .ind 

rolibery, sodomv 
fidoiis, and puuis 
land (piinl-hed 
concealed the d. 
person advi-in^ 
the child, was 

y or i.i|ic V 
:-dini: to the hi 
h). Anv w. 
■c ba-tard <■!, 


inirno, put ' 
d tho lin.l, 
•itliout ben. 
tolony nu.j 
instead \\i 
1. The sill II 

nation of i^vitnes-e.- nas piii,i,d;ed by a tine of fortv 
pounds, one-half to i- i to the government and ili. 
otncr to the nggvi-v .i party. In case the oHend. r 
could not prf.ciir,- tl;- ;i' ■\..s;irv amount in nioiirv. 
Ir.ud uT , h.,!'i I~, h'- .iillirei! inijirisonment for six 
T'lonths, -.v:. I svt;- ola^d oil ri<e pillory for on. 
hour in some nu'die place where the otl'ence w;n 
committed, and also any other puni:-h- 
meuts or disabilities inf.ictcd by the law of England 
covering the same crime. Any person convictLU 
of a felony made a ca;;ital crime by the act, bi;i 
wh.j was entitled by the law of England to tli. 
benefit of clergy, if couv icted of murder, was taken 
in open court by the gaoler and branded with an 
" ?•! " on the brawn of th,_ left thumb, and with ;i 
"T" for any othrr felony. T!-ese were the niosi 
notev.-ori.hy featiiirs of tlie law, which, at lea.-t. 
leaves us to infer that the people were earnestly 
beiit on the suppression of vice. 

During the same year the Assembly dcvotci! 
their attention to more material affairs, especially 
endeivorlng to encourage the construction of 
mills. It was enacted that in case any one pro- 
jected building a mill, luit was unable to con- 
veniently convey water to his property on account 
of the intervention of land belonging to another 
party, which the latter was unwilling to dispose of, 
he might apply to two justices of the peace lor 
relief. The justices of tlie peace were to instruct 
the sheriff to summon six freeludders, who should 
fix upon the value of the land, and also the los^ 
likely to be suliered by the owner, but they h;id 
no jurisdiction in cases where the disputed ground 
amounted to more than six acres in New Castle 
County, and to two acres in Kent or Sussex. 

In 1719 permission was granted to Benjamiii 
Shurmer, William Brinkloe and Richard Richanl- 
son to survev the town of Dover and lav it oli' in 

In 1721 Jasper Yeat. s <lied. and the vacancy 
in tlie Governors Council was tilled by theapi)oint- 
ment of Henry Brooke, who had formerly been 
collector of cu-touis -t Lcwi.-town. 

During the next five yi-ars there was much 
activity in the lower ciiiiutie-, and many proLMc- 
sive nieasures were in-tiuited. In 1722 an Ur|ihaii- 
Court was e:-t;iiili.-hed. to meet what had for soir.e 
time been felt an ah>oiiite v urement. This new 

onl \sas 

a o 

week that other courts were held, ami at such otli 

COLOMaL lii.STv^'RV 


lime? as wore nocc>?:irv. They I'l.iitnille.l such 
uNitturs as art' ur^ually ■juifiilr'! to similar tiil.'inals, 
|,,it \vfro imt allowed to ailinit any letters o'J 
iKliiiinistratidn in wliich no liond was re»iuired, 
:..iiii ni) administrators or L'uardians were allowed 
( . phu'e the money ot'tlnir wards on interest with- 
out renewing' tor a lonirer time than one year. 
Shortly at'ter thi- the leiral rate of interest was 
rrdiiced from eiudit to six per cent., and the peD-.ilty 
for a violation of the act was forfeiture of the 
^^llole sum loaned. About the same time the 
authorities of New Castle County removed th.e 
olp-triictions in the Brandywine that interfered 
with the Hsheries, and a new outlet was cut fiT 
Miirtherkill Creek into the bay, in Kent County. 

Governor Keith was succeeded by Patrick 
Gordon on .June 2l!, ITliO. He went down to Ne^v 
Castle on the 28th, where a meeting of the Council 
Wits held, and summoned the Assembly to meet 
him on .Jtdy 2ntli. At a meeting of the Council 
on July 'Joth h.' i-sued commissions to David 
French as attorney-general for the three lower 
counties ; to John French and .Samuel Lowman 
in New Castle County, Robert Gordon and 
J'lenjamin Shuriuev in Kent, and Henry Brooke 
and Jonathan I'aily in Sussex, as judges of the 
Stipreme Court, and also conimis;ioners of Over 
and Terminer and General Gaol Delivery in their 
resi)ective counties. The justices appointed for 
New Castle County were John French, Robert 
Gordon, Joseph England, Charles Springer. John 
Richardson, James James, William Battell. David 
Evans, Andrew Peterson, Eljenezer Empson, Hans 
Hansou, James Dvre, Samuel Kirk, Richard 
Graft.^n and Simon Hadley. Those for Kent 
Were Robert Gordon, ]>enjamin Shurmer, Richard 
Kiehar.lson, Charles Hillard, Thomas French, 
-Mark :Manlove, Timothv Hanson, John Hall, 
James Worrell, Jo.seph Booth,' Jr.. Brinkloe, 
Thomas Berrv, Georcre Nowell, John Houseman, 
John Tilton,' William .Manlove aud Hugh Dur- 
liorrow. Those for Sussex were Heiirv Brooke, 
William Till, Philii) Russell, Samuel "P.owland, 
Woolsey Burton, Simon Kcdlock, John May, 
Jerenuah Claypoole, Jacob Kollock, Thomas 
l>:ivis, John Jacobs, Samuel Davis and Josejih 
Cord. The lasi-named list of justices, however, 
soon underwent a change, tiir wlien the Council 
niet at Philadelphia, on September 2:ld. the 
(iovernor anuounerd that Alexander Molliston 
had entered a eo.Mi.laiiit a-aiust .lu.-tice William 
fill, who, he (1. eland, had usid his influence on 
the bench so as to utterly prevent the complainant 
trorn obtaining employiuent and suj)porting his 
familv. It was then learned from member- of tlie 
<oun,-il that Till had o„ a previous,, 
'■I'euedaudkept al.Ttersent fro,nPl,ilad,.lpl.ia to 
Uobert Frankland, .iirveyu- of Mi^-rx Coimtv, 
"nd that at a recent meeting of the As.-enddv of 

e lower counties he ha 
srespectful ti' t!;o iin)p: 

d lanL'ua-e hi.jhlv 
famiiy. '^Till was, 
tnerelore, removei! ami iCKi.ud Hinnum added, 
in his place, to the list of ju<Lii'es. At the same 
time John Riiodes. I'obert Shaiikland, George 
Walton i\:id. Enoch C -liiUiiiiigs were a]ipointed, 
vi--A Simon Kollock, ■) ihn May and Thomas 
Dcivis. As the resul-'" of the October elections 
l-.eld shortly, for sheriffs and coroners 
in the vartous counties, commi.ssions were issued 
to John Gooding, sheriff, and Morgan Morgan, 
coroner, of Nc^ Castle Couoty ; William Rodeney, 
iheriff, und Ed.w.ird Jcunings, coroner, of Kent 
County; Rives Holt, sl-critf, and Samuel Davis, 
coroBer, of Sussex County. 

Daring the latter part of 172tj, and early in 
1727, the Assembly of the lower counties passed 
many important mea.sures. All vessels having ou 
board rickly pei^ons, or coming from places where 
there exis*^eci a contagious disease, were not allowed 
to eouie within one mile of the shore until they 
secureu a permit from the Governor or two justices 
of the peace. Laws were also passed obliging all 
witnesse.? legally summoned to testify against the 
destruction of landmarks ; against the construction 
of dams across rivers and creeks, except for mills; 
.o.gaiusr defacing or counterfeiting seals and 
charters, inciting riots and holding unlawful 
assemblies. A measure of more importance, how- 
ever, was the special form of trial furnished for 
negroes. Tlie Governor was to commission two 
ju-tices of the peace in each county, who, with six 
of the most able freeholders in the neighborhood, 
should form a board for the trial of all negro or 
mulatto slaves. In case the negro was convicted 
of a capital otiense and suffered the death penalty, 
he was at once appraised by the same judicial 
board, and two-thirds of his value paid to the 
owner out of the county treasury. The punish- 
ment of the negroes for meeting in bodies nuniiier- 
ing more than six, or for carryiug arms, was 
twenty-one lashes on the bare back. If convicted 
of stealing, the slave was laslied at the discretion 
of the board, while his master was compelled to 
make reparation f-r the stolen property. The 
punishment for an attempt at ra|ie upon a white 
woman was rather revoltiuLT, the negro l)eing 

f .r four hour.-, on some court day, with his ears 
nailed to the frame, and before he was let down 
they were cut off close to his head. 

For the better seiairity of debts, the Assenddy 
authorized the sale of land when the personal 
estate was insuHiciciit to meet the liability, unless 
the rent of the land would prove to be great 
t noUL'h to iiioct tho claim in scvn vears, in which 
ea-e the nvditor \\a.< oi)!!-,*! to Mait that time. 
Put by far the mo.-t important measure of this 
period of le^i-lative activity was the establish- 




munt of 11 reizulrtr system of l:i\v and ciuiry roiiit,-!. 
There \v:m tirsc tlie euiirt -tylr.! ih.' (it^eral 
(iu.u-tor .^ciMon.-, of the iVarr aii.l ( .a..i Deliv. ry 
in each county, and was hidd tour tiiiu's in each 
year. It was hehl at Lewi-tnwn on thf tii'dt 
Tuesday in February , ^[ay, Aii-ust ami Xuvent- 
ber, at Do\er ou tlie secnnd 'I'liesiiay in tlie same 
months, and at New Castle on tlie third Tue;<iay. 
This court was presided over l)y the justices, or 
at least three of them, regularly emiuuissioaed by 
the Governor, who wore also empowered to hold 
special or private sessions whenever they deemed 
fit, or to take reeo;jnizanee of niisdemeauors out r,t 
the regular sessions, and bring them before the 
court at its regular meeting. Sueh cases as were 
not within their jurisdiction they took to the 
Supreme Court of Oyer and Terminer. The 
General Quarter Sessions was held for three days 
at each of its regular meetings, and to expedite 
matters the writs of any justice were ajiplicablt in 
all the counties. There was also a Cijuvt of 
Record held twice during each year iu every 
county. The days for holding this court were the 
5th of October and- the 21st of April at New 
Castle ; the 9th of October and the 25th of April 
at Dover; the loth of October and 2!ltli of April 
at Lewistown ; but when either of the dates named 
fell on Sunday the court met on the following day. 
This court was known as the Supreme Court of the 
Counties of New Castle, Kent and Sussex upon 
Delaware. It was presided over by three judges 
commissioned by the Governor, one of whom was 
the chief justice. Each of them, however, had 
full power to i.ssue writs of habeas corpus, cer- 
tiorari, writs of error, etc. The jurisdiction of 
this court was rather broad, but in general it was 
a court of appeal, considering cases brou.dit from 
the Court of Quarter Sessions, or any other uii a 
writ of error, or appeal, or otherwise. Besides 
these there was a County Court of Common I'leas, 
held quarterly at the same times and places as 
the regular Quarter Sessions. The governor 
issued commissions to competent justices, not less 
than three, who presided. They held pleas of 
assize, scire fij.eia,i, replevins, informatic.'ns and 
actions upon penal statutes, and heard all such 
cases as ordinarily come under the jurisdiction of 
similar courts. The same justices who sat in 
the Courts of Common Pleas were also required 
to sit quarterly, at nearly the same time that 
the Common Vieas were" held, as a Court of 
Equity. The i^rothonotary of the Common I'leas 
Court was also register of the Court ol' ]v|uitv. 
They considered all cases in ecjuity and any 
other matters coming under the control of Chan- 
cery Courts. This remained the cnn-titulini] ,,t' 
the court until ITliO, when material chan.-e- were 

In ^[areh, 1727, the oM bu-bear cmcernin- 


Penn'^ title to the loner 
started Uo.err'.r <;..n!. 
at New Casue, and while li.ere !,ad ^eeured dee,;. 
n;entary evidence ti;.it Jol.n i'reiieli had Im-i.i 
spreading reports deri.gau'ry to t!ie jiroprietary .- 
familv and their .vurjioiilv over the lower couiitir-. 
V.'heu the Gover.-ior reuirue.i fo Phila.lelphia i,e 
laid t!ic facts, us well as rhe i>iipers, before th.- 
Couucil, and altliee.h it was not proven that 
Frtucli vs'as makini: ar.y attempt to overthrew 
tb2 go\errruiont, or :eivauee any claim of hi- 
■ )wn, be .vns, neve.fiieie^s, removed from the 
CouLcii, "Wiiile in New Ca>tle, howi-ver, the Gov- 
ernor had learued tiu.t William Till, who had been 
removed froni the magistracy of Sussex County 
in the preceiling year, had since been conducting 
hirdself very satisfactorily, and had done goed 
service iu tho late Assembly. He had admitted 
his eiTor, and declared that he had been imposed 
upoa. He was, therefore, recommended for rein- 
gtaterueut, which was acconlingly done, when tlie 
maL'istrates were commissioned in April. In that 
month the Council commissioned the following 
to be judges of the Supreme Court of the lower 
counties : David Evans, Kichavd Grafton, Robert 
Gordon, Benjamin Shurmer, Henry Brooke and 
Jonathan Bailey. The justices of the peace for 
Nev,- Castle and Sussex Counties w-ere at the same 
time appointed for 1727-28. those for the former 
being Robert Gordon, John Richard, Joseph 
England, Charles Springer, Andrew Peterson. 
Hans Hanson, Simon Hadly, "William Read, 
Thomas January, James James, Jr., Richard 
Cantwell, Joseph Robieson and James Armitage. 
Those from Sussex were Henry Brooke, William 
Till, Richard Hiaman, John Roades, Woolsey 
Burton, Simon Kolluck, Samuel Itowland, Jtihii 
]Mav, Jeremiah Clavpoole, Jacob Kolluck, John 
Jacobs, Samuel Davis, Joseph Cord, Robert 
Shankland, George Walton, Enoch Cuming-, 
and David Smith. 

George I. liaving died June 11th, tlie proclama- 
tion of George II. was published at New Castl" 
in September, it having been decided by the Gov- 
ernor and Council that it was unnecessary to 
proclaim the accession in each of the counties 
separately. Immediately upon the receipt of 
the intelligence au addre.-s of allegiance and 
submission to the new monarch was drawn up 
and signed by various magistrates and citizens 
of Kent, Sussex and New Castle Counties. The 
siirners were ^Nlor^'aii MorL'an, Enoch .MorL:aii. Jos- 
eph Hill. Elish a Thomas, Rees Jones, Thomas Davi-, 
David French. J.ohn French, Georire Ross, Robert 
Sparks, James Sykes, Henry New"ton, John Van 
(ie/,oll, HuL'li Stevenson, John Hove, Samtid 
(ifitiitli, Benjamin Burleigh, William (ioddard-, 
Robert Gordon. Richanl Graiton, John Riehard- 
son, Charles Springer, Thonia- January, William 



n.Mil, Jiinifs Annit;i<_'r, Jaiiivs Jaiiie-, Jr., Saiiuiul 
-lu'i.nan and Jeremiah Sht-nnan. 

The OctulKT elcetinn- tor .-liei-iti'rs ami cdrontTS 
ia 1727 resulted iu a choice of the same otticers 
in (ill the counties excr|it in Kent, where Thuiias 
.-kidiuore replaced WiUiuui llnd. ney a.'^ .-heritl'. In 
i!ie following year, however. William iu-ad was 
niiide sherilf of New (.'a.-tle County, in ]>hice of 
John Gooding; .Mo~es Freeman in.-tead of 
Thomas Skidruore, iu Kent ; and Joim .Jacol.s 
.-ucceeded Coroner Sanuiel Davis iu .'~Ur-:-ex;. A 
vacancy in several offices occurred in October, 
17'.'f), by the death of Colonel John French, and 
ten of the ju.stices of the peace for New Cattle 
County at once addressed a petition to the Gen'- 
ernor, requesting that whatever appointments 
might be made, the officers .-elected should be resi- 
dents of the lower counties. A petition was also 
received from Peter Evans, praying to be at once 
admitted to the office of probate of wills, having 
been appointed by Penn, but kept out by French. 
Evans, however, reside<l at Philadelphia, and in 
c(jnsideratiou of the petition just received from the 
justices, his petition was not granted. Robert 
Gordon was appointed to fill the position, and 
other nominations were made, as follows : David 
French, to be clerk of the peace and prothono- 
tary of the Court of Common Pleas in New Castle 
County ; William Read, to be clerk of the 
Orphans' Court ; and William Shaw to succeed 
French as attorney-general. There was nothing 
further of particular note which occurred to dis- 
turb the tranquil tenor of life iu the territories 
during the next few yeai-s. Alexander Keith was 
appointed collector of customs at New Castle upon 
the death of Collector Lowman, in 172&. Later in 
the year a stir was created by a seditious news- 
paper article, which caused its publisher, Andrew 
r<radfurd, to be committed for court. The article 
w;is written by one of the nus-ionarics sent out 
from Englanil, named t'ampbell, who had been 
stationed in New Castle County, btit had .been 
forced to leave on account of unbecoming conduct. 
P>y way of revenge he had wrifen the article men- 
tioned, which contained nuim lous (■liarL"s aL'ain^t 
tin.' government of Pennsylvania and tlie terri- 
tories, and advice to the peojue to revolt. He hnd 
shrewdly g<.itten out of the reach of the authori- 
ties, however, and had gone to Long Island. 

The only indulgence in politics which was en- 
joyed by the people was their annual election for 
.-lieritts and coroners in each county. But from 
the records of these officers it is evident that the 
holders of the ]iositions were well able to manage 
'heir atiiiirs, as those who i:ot control of the offices 
in 17-i(! eontinued. with onlv a few ehau-es for 
tour or five years. nnIi, ii a .-. e'uid lot ,-ai,.e iu, who 
I'pcated the same thin-. At the eleetions in 
17211 William Read wx- appointed .-heritf, and 

Mor-an .Moi-lmu continued as coron.T of Xew CaMJe 
County; William Rod.iiey regaim il his po.-ition 
as sheriti' of Kent County, ;ind Sanun I I'.errv was 
re-elected coroner, and in Siis- .\, Rivers Holt wa.s 
re-elected -heritf, while J,,hn R.,ades succeeded 
John Jaeoli.s a,, eoroiier. In 17o0 the old officers 
were all put out w ith the e'^eeution of Berry. The 
eleetiuns resulted in the ehoiee of William Iteid and 
Aoraham Gooding as sheriti' and coroner for New- 
Castle County; John Hall and Samuel Berry for 
the same offices in Kent ; and Simon Kolluck and 
Cornelius W'iltl)auk iu Sussex. A nuisance which 
the pjeople found themselves forced to abate was 
the ra[)idly increasing number of peddlers. Manv 
complained that they were imposed on by the va- 
grants, both in quality and price, and as they paid 
no taxes, there was no reason why thev should 
be allowed to have unlimited privileges. In 17;U 
the Assembly took the matter in hand, by 
prohibiting any one trom engaging in this 
occupation witliout obtaining a recommenda- 
tion from the justices of the County Court, and 
also a license from the Governor. In addition to 
this, they were required to give bond with at 
least one surety, and the cost of the license was 
fixed at twenty-five shillings for one who traveled 
in a wagon or on horse, and fifteen shillings for 
one traveling on foot. The elections in 1731 
placed in office John Gooding and Robert Robert- 
son as sheritt' and coroner, resjiectively, in New 
Castle County. The old sherifl.s were undisturbed 
in the other two counties, but the coroners were 
not so fortunate, Nicholas Loockernian replacing 
Samuel Berry in Kent County, and John Clowes 
succeeding Cornelius Wiltbank in Sussex. In 
1732, Robertsen was defeated by Henry Gonne as 
coroner of New Castle County. There was no 
change in the sheriff's office, nor iu either of the 
offices in Kent, but in Sussex, Simson Kolluck and 
Joshua Fisher were elected sheriff and coroner. 
In the following year the only changes were that 
Henry Newton became sheriff of New Castle 
County, and Daniel Ro<leney in Kent. At this 
time the dispute over the boundaries assumed a 
very .serious aspect, but the border frays were 
quieted with less trouble than was expected. 

In 1734 an important and fundamental change 
was made by an act regulating elections, as well as 
the number, of members of the Assemblv. There- 
after the elections fir members of the Assembly 
were to take ])lace on the 1st day in each succeed- 
ing October, at the Court-IIouses in New Castle, 
Dover and Lewistown, for the counties in which 
these towns were situated. Each countv was then 
entitled to at least six representatives, but the 
A.^semhly might increase that niindior if it saw fit. 
VotihL' was made compul-ory tor all .jualilied under pe'iialty of a line of twenty shillings. 
The Assemblv thus elected met on the 20th of 



Octohci- at N.;u- Castle, and the ..iilv exni-e^ lor 
which the Ciov. i-n..r wa^ alL.ur.i to t. i.iiM,raril v 
chauge the place .-r' meetiil- Aa- a ra-ili-T .-^ii-kie—' 
or foreign iuva-inu. Tin '|Ualitieatioii.-, for the 
right of sutfrage, and a!,., to Imld tithiv, w. iv that 
the person should he a .-iihjict of <_ir. at I'.ritaiii, 
and twenty-one ye:u-s of ;iir,.. If^. wa- a!.-o ivjtiii'. ■! 
to be a freeholder within the -ovrinnient ot' the 
lower counties and haw tilly acn-nf land ..rnior-o, 
twelve of whieh were il. an d and iin|ii-ovo(l, ..r in 
lieu of this he must have pos-essed firt\' pound- in 
money. But in any case, he must ha\o Ij.en a 
resident fur tv.o years. Any person ntlirin.' to 
vote who was nut so qualified wa.- sidijeet n.i a tine 
of five pounds, and was nut eligible to serve a> a 
member during that year. This punishment was 
also imposed for bribery. Inspectors of election 
were chosen, one out of each hundred, and they, 
with the sheriti" or coroner, ae'ted as judges of 
elections. Every elector hamled in the name- of 
the parties for whom he desired to vote in wriiin_'; 
but if he were illiterate, one of the clerks in attend- 
ance at the polls was empowered to publicly write 
whatever names the elector should mention, and 
deposit the paper in the box. Any vacancies 
■occurring were filled by special elections under 
writs issued by the Governor, or in case of his 
failure to i;sue tliem promptly, the Sjieaker of the 
Assembly was empowered to sign them. The 
sheriff then publicly annuunceil thetitneand place 
of election, and posted notices on trees, Imu-es, and 
even the Court-House and jjlacc- of wor-h.ip. Tlie 
Assembly had authority to elect a ."^[leaker and 
other officers, and was the judge of the qualification 
and election of its own members, impeached crim- 
inals, redressed grievances, passed laws and pos- 
sessed other powers necessary for the conduct of a 
legislative body. The quorum was two-thirds. 
Iso member was allowed to vote before he attested 
to a rigid oath, in which he was obliged to swear 
allegiance to the King, his abhorrence for the 
doctrines of the Catholic Chnri-h. and Iw- belief in 
the divine inspiration of the Old and >'cw Testa- 
ments. Mendiers of tlie A^s. nddv rec ived ^i■v 
shillings per day, and the Speaker ten, as \vcli a^ a 
mileage of three pence, which was [lai'l by the 
counties from which they were elected. 

At the October elections in ]7o4 all the old 
officers were continued exi'cpt Simon Ivolliicl:, who 
was succeeded by Cornelius Wiltbank as sheriti' 
of Kent. In 1 To-') John Ooodiie.: once mor- lueai jc 
gheriff of >^ew Castle County, with Henry Gontre' 
as coroner. In Kent, Daniel Kudeney and Nieh(.>las 
Loockerman retained their others, while in Sus,-es 
both officer- were changed liv the election ,.f .Tnhn 
Shankland fur .-heritf, an.'l Daniel Nunez as 

The year 1740 brought forth many new nua.-urcs 
from the law-makers of XeW Ca.-tle, and -juie e.f 

them uere of no little importance. A pound u,;. 
in lid:, year built at .New Cattle, and paid for hv 
tlie people of the t(jwn. Thlr- was to cheek ti.. 
nuisances sufiered from hor.-i'.- and cattle riiiuiin.- 
loo.-e. Thereafter, if a strav hor.-.' or head of cattc 
were f mud on the property ol' a person w hose feiie, , 
were erected according' to iaw, lie mit'lit jjiit tii,- 
horse or cattle in the pound until coiniH'Usateil hv 
their owners f )r whatever dauia.'e w;is done. An- 
other imptvjvement made at New Ciu^tle was th.- 
estal>lishment of a regular market, and thorouga 
regulations for its comluct. rhili|.) VauLeuveniuli 
was appointed clerk, with authority to enforce con- 
f'rmity to its rules. ^\'edne-llay aiid Satiiid:;.- 
Were selected as the regular market davs. and n. 
one was allowed to buy or sell any pruvi-ion,-, 
except fish, milk and bread, anywhere liut at the 
market-place on those day.-. On a lnvach of tlii- 
rule the clerk of the market could levy on liMth 
purchaser and vender for the amount of the sal.., 
and these tines were used fur the itenetit of the ]iuo,- 
of the town. The regulations prohibited the sale 
of unsound i)eef, and the use of false weights. The 
size and weight of the loaves of bread allowed to 
be sold were fixed by the justices of the peace, and 
every baker was required to mark his loaves so as 
to distinguish them trom others. No person wa-^ 
allowed to ofier any meat for sale (jn Tuesdavs and 
Fridavs, except in the months of Juno, July and 

It was also found necessary to appoint new 
trustees over the public laud at Dover. The three 
who had beeu appointed iu 1719 — Benjamin Shur- 
mer, William Brinkloe and Richard Kic'hardsou — 
had since died, and the absence of anyone with 
authority to sell the laud had been a serious draw- 
back to the town. In their stead were a]ipoiiUi>l 
John Halliday, James Gorrei and Thomas Skid- 
more, who were authorized not only to -ell all the 
land not yet disposed of, but also to ce.nrirm the 
titles of any sold by the former trustees. 

The people at this time l.>egan to tire of the 
practice of re-electim: sheritls for a number of 
succi-s-ive terms, hut found that it was no easv 
matter to ele-ek. .Alanv evil- had resulted from 
the custom. The -heritl- had rc.rted to briberv, 
an.l it wa- also complained that their liberal di'- 
triliution of intoxieatine-,- u-ually trail- 
firmed the ],..ll.s into a huwiine- nioh of drunk a:;d 
disorderly rntiians. Along with the many other 
a.lditioiis to the statutes in 1740, the As.-emhlv 
emictcd a law prohihitin- a sheriti' who had >erved 
thr.'e terms to lie re-ehcieil until a like time had 

at the ,-anie time h. aw penalties were threatened 
on all who nlieivd or accepted bribe.- in mon. v . 
drink or in a.iv f.rm ^^ hat.oever. Another evil 
which received a ch<'ck w;i- the inipiu-tation of 
paupers, iu whom hu extensive trade had snrun.' 



up. It was nnu inailf luilawtul to iiii|nirt a rou- 
\irtor paiijirr into tlic tt-rrit'irics w itlioiit pa\iiiL' 
a.lutvoflivL- ].uun,l- for ,.a.l, ,,nr, aiui jiviuL' I'.oii.l 

in the sum of tifly [ n.i,- lor liis 'j 1 h.-havior 

for one year. In t!i.' ra-e ot' iufant< oi- liinati' - and 
the like, the person importiiiL' tlieni had eit'u-r to 
indemnify tiie goveiiiiuiiit or return them whence 

see that these pro vi.-ion- Were oheVLd in ea.h edunty. 
John Finnevwasappoiute.i f.r New Castle C'ountv. 
J.ihn Ilolliday tor Kent and Sim..n Kolluek for 
Sussex, and any vaeanei^^ were tilled hy a eominis- 

An atternjit was also made to decrease drunken- 
ness, blasphemy and prothnity. Drunkenness and 
mild profanity were punished by small tines, and 
the culprit was plai/eil in the stocks for tVom twci 
to three hours, but for blasphemy he was set in the 
pillory for two h.iurs, branded on the forehead with 
a B, and tlim received thirty-niue lashes on the 
liare back in full view- of the public. Inn-keepers 
were more strictly watched, and the prices of lii[Uor 
and the quantity allowed to be sold were annually 
fixed by the justices in each county, and the lists 
were posted in each tavern. Minor measures were 
passed, fixing the time for killing deer and making 
it punishable to kill a deer or fawn from January 
1st to August 1st. Tlie height of po-t and rail 
fences was put at four and a half feet, and worm 
fences at five feet, and several other similar laws 
were passed at the same time. 

About the middle of 1740 the lower counties 
had a lively exiieri. nee with Ki.iljurt Jenkin,-, w ho 
had counterfeited a lar;:o i|Uanlity of their paper 
money. Jenkins was a re^ident <jf Salem, >i'ew 
Jersey, and, in IT^V,). had i;oin.' to I^ngland with a 

printer at Southwark, tlve -uiueas if lie would 
duplicate them, and promised a further reward 
when he returned to America. Hive, it ajipears, 
had printed the bills, but informed on Jenkins. 
The latter shipped a- a cook on a ve-sel bouijd tor 
New Y..rk, and arrive.l in June. 174(i. (ioverncu- 
Clarke, ..f New York, was awaiting hi- arrival, 
and nine hundred and s^veiity-one twenty-.-hiilin- 
notes were fmnd in lii^ [.o-c-ion, althou-h none 
of them were sl.^ned. He wa- taken pri.-ouer and 
(iovernor Thomas, of IViin-vKania, was notified. 
llc^ wiL- brought to rhiladelpliia, and on .Inly :V1 
Was examined bv the (rox.ruor and Krcorder 
Andrew Hamilton, but Jeukin- tirnilv lidd out 
that the bill., as well a, two phials of nd atid 
black ink taken from his trunk, were th.uv w!un 
it was purcha>.-d, an.l he kn.^w nothin- of them 
until thev were found -ecn ted m the top i,v the 
authoritie- at \, w York. It was plain that he 
wa^ .^uiltv, houcver, h.^ ua- fu'thuuli .-cut to 
New Ca-t'le, where he wa.- tried and convicted. 
In October the elections tor .herifl' and coroner 

in the three countie- 
<;<..Mlin-an.| Hwirv ( 
..f New Ca-tle Cnin 
KIchard .bunes for K. 
and John \\'vtiko,,p 
New C'a.-tle olhi-ers n^ 
CountvKdniun.l l!ad. 

in favor of ,[ohn 
•1 llolii.-'ui and 
rneliu- Wiltl.ank 
X. In 1741 the 
ted, but in Kent 
d Kiel, ard James 
I- Hall and I'efr 
■r. re-pectively. 

Ciow.-s hecame.-herilfand cop 

The A-.-emhly, in 174-.', a-ain pa-.ed a mimber 
of new laws with a view to pn^venting duelinir, 
horse-stealing, burirlary and other similar crimes. 
A measure descrvinL.' of more notice, however, and 
passed in the same year, was a jury act. The 
sherifis in each county were ordered, on the 
receipt of proper w-rits from the court, to summon 
twenty-eight of the most able and substantial men 
in their bailiwicks to serve as grand jurors, and 
f irty-eight as petty jurors, in the Court of Oyer 
ami Terminer. For the Quarter Sessions they 
were to summon a grand jury in each county 
before the bcLnnning of the 'Slixy term, and this 
jury served during the year, but a petty jury was 
summoned quarterly, before each session of the 
court. But in case the sheriff was in any way 
connected with the parties interested in a suit 
pending before the courts, or was in anv wav dis- 
abled, his authority for summ(jning jurymen was 
transferred to the coroner. 

An innovation that was now introduceil was 
the appointment of wdod-corders in every town 
and village in the counties. It w;\s the dutv of 
tlie,e otiieer.- to mea.-ure every cord of wood 
oriered fjr sale and certify that the dimensiiuis 
were such as were properly required. The corrler 
received a six-pence fr(jm the purchaser for his 

The market at New Castle having proved a 
success, similar additions were made to Dover and 
Lewistown. The regulations were almost identical 
with those for the New Castle market, and the 
management was likewise placed in the iiands (jf 
clerks. Thomas Nixon was appointed for Dover 
and Jo-hua l'ishi;r for Lewistown. 

An incident that occurred in 1742, while of no 

loutr counti.s were "lu-'-'.^'it-.-iug smoothly and 
harmoniously in tla-ir independent government, 
aro-e out of a ipnirrei between Governor (leorLre 
Tiioiiia< ami the As.-endjly of the province. The 
A--eii!ip]y hail used rather harsh language in 
ret.Teiice to the Governor, and an allusion had 
al-o been nuule to his allowjinces. In reply 
(governor Tiionuis ^'inploved the followirej lan- 
guage : ■' But before I prcKved to a vindication of 
my.elf give me leave to -ay that you wduld have 
.-hown more exactness if you had di-tini:ui^h((l 
between the jierquisites <jf thi- L'overiiment timl 
tho;0 01 the lower couiuie,., lor I conceive you 



have uu ninre to ilu «itli ^lii'.t 
goveniniciit tliaii vmi luive Avitli t! 

laf.s to that 
I liave Avitl. th,. in.-oiiRM.fiuy 
own privati; t;.-tatL'. T>i that Av-nnlily au^l tl;iir 
CMiDStitlRlits I am [lUa.-il with makiiiLr my 
ackiiuwk'.LMiiont tor tli.- provi-in,, th^v have 

annually iiia.let'nr my .-upiH.rt. hilt iv iiani'-uhirly 

for the ju-tiei- tluy have (h.iie to my administra- 
tion, for from liem-c' it will he eoneUideel iiy all 
imprejudice<l persons that the names inqiostor, 
plunderer, invader of the lilierties of the jieople, 
etc., etc., are the rt,-ult of personal prejudiee or a 
malignant party spirit." 

Samuel Bieklev and 15. njainin Cook were this 
year eleeted sheritl' and ,-.,r iier of New Ca-tle 
County. In Kent and Su^sex the old otiieers held 

In 174-3 the method ^^t' rai-in- taxes in the 
lower counties was subjected to a I'omjilete rear- 
rangement. At th.e re-ular Octol)er election for 
members of the As-euibly, the voters chose an 
assessor for each huntlred, service being compul- 
sory. On the Tuesday after the meeting of the 
Quarter Sessions in November, the justices in each 
county and eight grandjurymen, together with all 
the assessors for the county, formed themselves into 
a sort of finance board, and estimated the amount 
required to meet public expenses for the cominii 
year. When this was determined tlicy made out 
a list of items and the sum required f -r each, aft ,-r 
the fashion of a regular appropriations bill. In 
August the county clerk directed tlie constables 
in every hundred or district in his county to pre- 
pare lists containing the full name of every taxable 
person and all other freemen within their districts. 
These lists were furnished to the board in Novem- 
ber, and were used by them in assessing the prop- 
erty of the county. The assessments were jjosted 
by the county clerk, and four weeks after the 
board held its November meeting it aL'ain con- 
vened to hear any a]>[ieais from tlair a,-s( .-.-ments, 
or to correct omissions or other errors. At this 
second meeting they appointed a collector io every 
hundred for one year. The collector was ]iaid at 
the rate often jier ctnt., but where he was i/olicreJ 
to sell any property, orari-e~ta tax-[iayerby rea.-on 
of his inability to collcrt. his tie was limiti'.l to 
tiiree sliillings sixpence in the tir-t ra>e, and t'our 
shillings in the second. The county tn-a.-unr re- 
ceived and dishur-ed these tumls. and was allowtd 
four jier cent., and his a<;coiuits \wiv examined 
annually by thne members of tii.- board. The 
justices, grand jurymen and a-sc^-ors who tornieil 
the board in New (_'a>tle County were together 
allowed ei-hteen ]ionuds for their servii'cs, those 
in Kent fourteen piainds, while twelve poumls was 
the allowa: 

blatters wen. vei 
counties for several 
remained coniTiarat 


:ho„t the lowci 

n the As.end.h 

The eleetie;:: 

for ^heriI^ and coroner for 1744 placed Sau.uel 
Bicklev and P.Mijamin Cook in those othces ui 
New Ca.^tlc Couutv ; Tliomas (Jrcui and Thou, a- 
I'arke tor Kent;'and William >hankland a..! 
Kobert (..ill f.r Su.scx. The iollowii.g year ,> 
chaiiLie was n.ade exc pt in the otiicc of Sheritl- ,.; 
New Ca-tle County, which wa- tilled by Gidce,, 
<;riti!th. In 174(;, Ciaieeii ( Irilnth and .Jam. - 
M.AIullin were electe.l sh.i itf ami coroner in Mcv. 
Ca:-tle ; John llunt.r aii.l Ceor^e (4of...rth in K.nt ; 
and William >haiiklan.l an.l John MoUiston i„ 

In 1747 and 174S all the l.iwer counties wen- 
kept in a great ^tate ..f ex.-ite-ment, owing to the 
attacks of privateer;, but thi- has been treated of 
in another chapter. In 1747 the road leading from 
Philadelphia To New Cattle was the cause of much 
annoyance, owing t.) it> bad state of repair an.l 
difficulty of improvini!' it. At a meeting of tli.; 
Council, on August l.^th, two petitions were pre- 
sented, one from Ccugc' ft ray, kieper of the lower 
ferry, and the other trom a number of citizens of 
Chester County, asking that the road be repaired. 
The record of the road had been destroyed, and it 
was some time before the Council consented to 
have the road re.-urveyed, but directions were 
finally given for the resurveyingof the road, which 
was now made sixty feet w i.le. 

Late in the year a numb.T of c..mmi.— i.jns were 
issued to officers in New- Ca.-tle C ounty, who, with 
others in the various I'ounties of tlie provinces and 
territories, ha.l begun to .irganize small c.nnpani...-: 
for defense. The new olficers werj Captain Wil- 
liam McCrea. Lieutenant ..-^-lexander bloody. En- 
sign Francis Graham ; Captain Henry I)yre, Lieu- 
tenant Paul Allfree, Ensign Jerrard ilothwell : 
Captain David Stewanl, Lieutenant Jerome Du- 
sheene, Ensign Isaac Dusheenc ; Captain Cieorge 
Gano, Lienteiiant James Ei'liertson, EnsiL^n 
Thoma.s Bennett; Captain Davi.l Lu.-h, Lieutenanl 
John :\IcKinlcv, lai-ieu ( harles Bu.-h ; Captain 
John Van. e, Li.-ut.iiant .]..]in Vandvke. En.^iL'n 
William Ilarraway; Captain Al.'xamler P..rter. 
Lieutenant James Kin-, l.ii.-iL'n .-"amuel Allricks : 
Captain Edward Fit,'ran.l..lpli. Lieutenant Alex- 
ander Chance, En-i-u J...-epii Ib.tham. T., tli.v 
were added, .■arlv the n.-xt vear. ( at-tain William 
Patter.-on, Lieutenant" P.^a.!. J'ti>I-ii Thoma- ; ('aptaiu William I'aulorth, Lieu- 
tenant Henry C..le-l.ury, EusiLrn Peter Jacquet : 
Captain David ^^'iIiler-p....n. Lieutenant Alexan- 
jler Armstroiii:. lui.-i-n Antii..ny Ciolden ; Captain 
James ^McMei'hen. Lieutenant Ab.-l Arni-.tron_'. 
Ensitrn ThomiLS W'.Je : Captain William Arm- 
.-.tron- Lieutenant .lanH> M<n->.. la.-i-.'U Th-.n,;- 

Philip. : Captain .!a.-l. C iim:. Lieutenanl 

• la.-ob ami l.iiHLin DaNi.l II.,NNeII. In 
May. 174-^, still further :i.l.liii..ns wen- ma.le from 
New Castle Countv 1-r the i.-,,uiiiLr of c..mmi-r-ioii- 




plain !•^•au tlit> mi. 

ti'i' t( 

f tUf 

ntf a - 

■qiinn' [lid 

it nt' - 

n.un:l in 
which tM 

'-n CIku-Il's liuii,! 

a 11 



. -niam 

i~ CI 

ark was 

Lli-iu.'iiaut a|i|iiiini 

tol cl 


:' th.' n 

rw luark.-l 
r to tl.o-,. 

;, uihl 

ill Xr 

the re-u- 
w ('a.-tlo. 

t„ Cai-tain Diu'i.l Finn.v. Liuiiteuant 
.lannarv, Knsi-n Fr.iirh "Uatth'; C; 
|;i,v, L'irutcnant .lani.^ Wall.-r, Kn 
Ilrvan, Sr.; Cai.tain Aln> .,.1 
I. Prt. r^on. luL-i-n Luke Mon. 

Tiinotliv(iritHth. Lieutenant Wiiiiaru Faii.s. I'n- Nrw tru^tee. uerr in tliis vrar appninted for the 

MLTii David K.iwhuid; (^'aj.tain Archil.ahl Arm- -. n.ral hian ulKee> in the ,liii; rent eountirs. These 

stroll- Lieutenant rhnnias .M,(.'ulhMi-li, J^n-iuu "t,i,rs ha.l Kern in exi-trne,. for two years, and 

K.iliert Fierce. Two rcL'ine nt- wre orjani/.-d in oriLHiiatrd in eonse'|Uene,' of the re-printinL', 

the county, aud conind.-sion- i-iiod to .l.ihn ( iood- exeiianLrinL"- aii.l re-, niittin- <.f tw.nty tiiousan.l 

inir, Sr., "and William Arm.~tr..n;.' as ('..l..uels; [...un-ls ..f paper m..ii.-v. The ..tiieers ..riu^inally 

Tiionias James and William ['alter,-. .n, !i.:ut.nant- upi.ointe.l were Jehu Ciiitis, John \'aui'e an.l 

o.lonels; and Jaeo!, Vanl.ehl..-r an.l Willian. J..lin M. ■(;.,.. le f.,r N.'w Ca-tle < 'ountv, 

.MrCrea, major-. Erinkley an,l Tlmma.- I ire.-n f .r K.nt, and Paves 

In Kent Ciunty th.> apTi..intni.'nts were t.> Holt and Jacob KoUiiek in Su>-e.\. Their duties 

Captain John ^'iIlinL^ Lieutenant Thomas ]'arke. eompri.-ed a sreneral >nperint.Mi.lenee ..f the new 

Knsiirn Li.liard Wells: (.'aptain Ihinn, issue ..f m.:.uev, an.l ,a.-h wa-^ r..|uire.l t.. -ive 

Li.jutenant William Hit-.. ns.Ensi-n .Mark Hin.n-; l.on.l in the sum ..f on.' th.,u-an,l The 

Captain J;.il)ert BlaeL-hire, Lieutenant Kee.-, terms for which they had h.-.n app..inte.l haviiiij: 

Euji.Lrn William Rees ; Cajitain ('reorge ^Lirtin. now expire. 1, Jehu «'urlis ami J.ihn \'ane.' were 

Lieutenant Jaeoh AIlec,EnsiL:n John Vanwinkle; reappointed in New L'a.-tl.' County and sm-vcd 

Captain John Caton, Lieutenant R.jljertCatlin ami witli a new trustee, Lichard MeWilliam. In 

Ensign Joseph Hodson. In Au,t;ust, New Castle Kent County, John Viiiin;^ and Andrew Caldwell 

County added Ca]>tain John Edwards, Lieutenant were the new apjjointees, while both the old 

David" Johns and Ensi-n Ilobert .^tewart ; and othcers, Pives tlolt and Jacob Kolluck, were 

Kent, Captain David ^larsliall, Lieutenant David continued in Sussex. 

T'lark, Ensign William Green; and Captain James Steps were also taken t..w.u-.l tl..-- better main- 

ICdwards, Lieutenant James Lewis, Ensi-a James tenance of the brid-es and Ip-hwav? in the .UHerent 

James. counties. The jii,-tic. < of the (^uart.-r Sessi.)ns 

The elections in Oct.iber. 17-19, resulted in the were instructed to appoint annually at the ^May 

ap|ioiutnient of John Vandyke and Samuel Silsby se.-?ion ..f the e.iurt or more overseers in ea.'h 

to be sheritF and cor.mer in Xew Castle Countv, d. All kin-'s n.a.Is were ord.-ri-.l t.) lie 

Thomas Parke and William Blakiston in Ken't, forty fe.t ui.l.'. ..t' whi.'ii thirty f.^et were kept 

and Peter Clowes and William Shanklan.l in grul'il.e.l and <lear.-.l, an.l all hrau.-hes an.l limbs 

Sussex. The two first-named counties retained by the way-ide were cut oU' within ten teet of the 

the same officers in ITol), but Sussex elected ground. Other public roads were to be thirty feet 

William Shankland sheriti' and Robert 31cllwaine wide. Bridges over creeks or gidleys were 

cjroner. In ITol George Munro and John Yeates twelve feet wide with railings three feet high, 

were elected to fill the two offices in New Castle These were built and kept in repair at the expense 

County. The two sherilis were re-elected in Kent of the county in which they were situated, unless 

and Sussex but new c.u'oners were elected, wdio the bridse was necessary by reason of a mill-race 

were Jame< (^jrev and 



cross in 

u' the roa.l, in which case the owner of the 

The year.- ITol au.l 



■ A-^.anblv of 

mill w 

a- ...Mig.'il to attend to the bridge. If the 

the lower. '..untie- once 

111. .re. 


va.'tive. On,- 


..f anv parti, ular n.'iiihb.irhood considered 

of the hr.-I matt, is ..f 


i-tan.v w 

hi.'h reeeive.l 

a r.ia. 

1 neee.-.sary, ai.plicati..n was ma.le to the 

its attenti..n wa- a ne 

It -eal i; 

ir it> L:-..vern- 


- ..if the (jliiart.r S.'-sions, wh.i then chose 

meiit. The ohl -..-al h 

a.i th 

,• wonl 

•■ Delh.waiv- 

tiv.' fr. 

.■.• of ^-..o.l .-taihlin- t.i examine tile 

en-rav..l .,n it, an.l as 

it wa 

- lea red 

this mi-hr in 


thn.ugh whi.'h tic n.a.r was t.. run, and 

time pr.i.lui'e tiMubh- 

, a 11 

.•w ,.iie 

wa- liion-ht 


a- to th.' a.Ki.-aliility .if .-..n-t i-u.-lin_' it, the 

necessarv. All j.aper 

.- -tan 

l[,e.l witl 

1 the ..M . ne 


, direeti.m, damages and other necessary 

were de'elaiv.l t.. be 


ctlv le-; 

il, an.l J.liu 


liars. If the committee reported favorably, 

Curti.-, Benjamin Cla- 

w an. 

1 Abrah; 

am Wyncop 

and th 

.■ p.'titi.iners agreed to jiay the damages, the 

were authorized to ]ir 


the n.'A It was 

r.iad w 

as c.u-tru.'te.l. To ke.'(i the roads in repair 

ma.le ..f r-ilver, was t' 

iV.. in. 

■hv, in 

.liam.-t, r an.l 

the ov 

er.secis won- eiiip..were.l to re.|uire of every 

' outaineil thearmsof ti 

le Kil 

U-ofGn ; 


man ] 

.aviiiL'- ta.\es, am..untiiiL' t.. tliirtv peiumls or 

w..nls ■•C..unt!.>..n 1 ). 


v"an.l t 

he .la!.' ITol. 

.layV w.irk performe.l .-ither hv him-.'lf ..r 

A< n.) Iiuii.litij ha.l 

V. t b. 

•■•n (■.•n-t 

ruit-.l t'. r the 

a .-11 ii- 

■ titute. Th.'se jiaviiiLr fr.iiii thirty to si.\ty 

I'larkei-phuv ill I)..v.r 

iXi.'h^ Ri.i 

•_'elv. An.lrew 


s were ..bligeil to 't'urni-li two men, an.l ail 

Caldwell and Thoma. 

: Alfo 

rd \vere 

selected as a 


: more than sixty -[...unds three men. 



It wa>! also nf-cp<>arv to nppDiiit mw trustors 
for a third titiic-. tun. it' i!i.. mmcikI .-ct li.-.vinu- diol, 
to dispose ot'thr niiiainiiii:- Jni- in I)t.\rr. .laiucs 
Gorrell, Benjaiuin t^'lKW aii.i IIoIh rt Willo.cks 
■were this time srlecn .1. with the -aiiic jM.urrs as 
were euiifiTrcjil 1)11 tli. ir prrd. i (-s(.rs. 'I'h.' hist two 
mentioned were aI>o appuiiited in asiniihir i-apaeity 
in coiijunetiiin with ^aiiiin-l Dickiii.-i'ii. .lohu David 
and John Viniiij:, to dis[">-o of the nld D'.vur jail 
and the L'roimd ahmit it. TUv penph- had rai^<<l 
a fund for huildiiiLT a n.'W I'lie, which, tdiroihcr w iih 
the proceeds cmtiinL' tV.mi th.- sale of the old jail. 
was idaee<l in the h: 

the trust 


a new lot. The sheritl- and coimicr- elcctid in 
October, 17.1L», were (_;,■,. r-e .Moiirno and John 
Yeates for New Ca-tlc ( .ocntv. John Clavton and 
French Battle f.r Kmt. and' William SiKinkland 
and John Rodeney for .'^ii— ex County. In ITo:) 
Monroe was re-elected, hut John Yeates was 
succeeded as coroner i.f New < astle L'onnty by 
Eobert Morrison. John ('lay ion, Jr., became 
sherifTof Kent County ami French Battle retained 
his position as coroner. Two new officials were 
elected in Sussex Conntv, the sherifl' l)oin'.i; Jacob 
Kolluck, Jr., and coroner John Spencer. 

In 1754 Jehu Curti-, the second jud-e of the 
Supreme Court, died, and William Till ua» 
appointed to succeeil him by Cioveinor .Janies 
Hamilton. Several justice; had also .lied in Kent 
County and a new comniis.-rion was is.-ued, at the 
same time, appointing Samuel Dickinson, John 
Brinckloe, Thomas Clark. Samuel Johns, William 
Farson, John Vinin-. George Wilson, George 
Martin, John Goadim:. Stipheu Parradee, Robert 
Willcocks, Richard Wells. Thomas Irons and 
John Clayton, Jr. 

The French and Indian AVar had by this time 
become merely a ijui sthm of time, d'he French 
encroachments in the A\'i >t had alreadv stirred the 
people into activity, and all the coloiiie- were tak- 
ing whatever measures they were able to a.-^i.-t in 
the common defense. In 17o4 the A.—tnibly of 
the lower counties on Delaware had provided for 
raisincr a thousand pounds tor His Maie-tv's use, 
and the followin- year, when the cri>i'- was still 
nearer, an act was passed for estahlishinu' a militia. 
Braddock had by this time arrived and was 
already in the We-t. Fvery one was eai^er to as-ist 
in any way po>~ili!e to decrease the hard-hip- of 
the journey. The lower counties, not feeling 
themselves able to render any irreat a-isl.inee. but 
yet desirous of doing all within their power, sent a 
"load of Jirovi^inns to the -eneral and aho a herd 
of cattle f<u- the armv. (iovernor Robert Hunter 
]\Iorris f.rwarded with them the f.llouin- h-tier: 

of their r. i-aril for 

The list of 

d eiirr 

■ ions s,,„t, included twelv> 
wo d,./en flasks of ,,il, t.- 
ea-k of raf-ins, one box ,,t 

tard. eiLfht eu.-k- of bi-niit-, I'our ke-s of stur-eo.. 
one ke:: of herrin-, two elu-t- of lemons, two k._. 
of spirit, one cask of vincL'ar. one liarrel of pota- 
to^>. and thn-v tab- of butter. 

Tlu eleetioiis in 1 7o"i fa- sheriff and coroner in 
the various counties proved the successful candi- 
dates to be William Goldensher for sheriff, aii.l 
Robert Morri.-on fir coroner oi' New Cast!.- 

the same offices in Kent County ; and Jacob Kol- 
luck, Jr. and Payntcr Ste>ck]ey~'-in Sussex. In 
175(5 the war was declared, and jireparations began 
in earnest. A map of Delaware Bay and River, 
wdiich had been prepared by John Fisher, was 
about to be published, when Governor ^lorris 
ordered the publication to be postponed, lest a 
copv should reach the hands of the enemy and 
furni.-h them with a.-.-isiaiice. The Assembly of 
the lower counties provided for striking the sum of 
two thousand pounds in new bills of credit, and 
on May 20th an embargo was declared prohibitiiiL' 
anv exportation of ]>ro visions or arms from either 
of the three counties. This latter act, passed in 
May, exjjired on July 7th, as did also a similar 
law in the province. The Governor at once re- 
quested the province to renew their embargo, but 
this they stoutly refused to do, unless the lower 
counties would continue the embargo passed by 
their Assembly. Governor ]M(_irris went to New- 
Castle to induce the Assembly to extend the time 
of the act, but they were only w illing to continue ii 
until July 20111. and from then for as long a 
period as the province mi'_'ht pa— a similar act. 
but in no case -hould tlie time extend beyond 
•Jctober 22d New York and New Jersey had 
put etiective embar'_'oes into operation, but unh — 
the barriers existed on every side the Asseml'lv 
of the ])rovince held that an embari:-o wouhl I" 
not only useless, but harmful to them. The bill 
wa.s finally jiassed, although it was tlie cause ol 
much displeasure to many merchants, and later 
"broiiLdit f'oitli a vigorous protest from them. 

The- elections in the lower counties for 17oo 
resulted in t'avor of William Gohleu and Robert 
Morri-on t'or .W. ritf and eoroner of New Ca,-tK 
Countv, Ca-ar Kodiae and Mattliii'.s I'rozier f-i' 
Kent, "and John Kodi'iey and Wnxani Lewi. I'l" 
Sussex. A month later, bv the lieninniiiLr "' 
November, the three' .-ouiitie-' had or-anized th. ir 
militia in a.-c,.r.ian.-e with th.' acts of the A:--, m- 






!.<. i: 









s Tyl 





( 'r. 







is ; 

i Dan 

id i; 





:n V. 




Mv, and tlio i^.n..wint: o.inniisMons weiv i..ued : I^^aac Hall ; T,.^vn ■/ D'lVP 
i:,rtli.' UpiHi- Li-ii.i.iii ,,f militia in N.'w Castlf t;.n. Li.ntfn.ii.t Frf-.di ' 
Cuuntv, >;cn Ca.tlr Ilnn.liv,!, N,„th I>ivi>i,,n, Wvl!- ; Dnvtr 1 [,ii;,!n .1. O 
Captain Lirlianl ^[rWiliiani, Li. utniant Natli- Lifit.'uant Janus SM<^ 
:,:,icl SiLl.v, KnH-n Za.liaiiah Luuani-!i; r^.uth UpiMT Part .a' Cmk II 
Iiivi>i.ui, Captain Alrxaii.kv Portrr, Licuti-nant -Inliu I'.aili;,-, Li.-at. !i;.;ii 
^aMUK■l Aldrirks. Ln>iLni Jnlm lirvan ; Whiio ^lartluw Ci-o,:i. r ; L.nv.. 
Clay Creek Hun.lre.l. WVt Division, Captain i[iiii,ir.-,l. Cii'^aia .i,L. 
i;,es Jones, Lieutenant Samuel Llatt, lln-i-n "A'llkMH ;,.:.::r.iaffer, '• 
Tli.inias Williainsou ; East Division. Captaii! >aia- ^lur.ler Kil:: llnn-ln :i, 1 
uel Fattersdn. Lieutenant Thomas Dunn, lui-i-n T/icutei'init ( Ivir'es ITii: 
William Keid; ^NL'ln Creek Hundred, N..itli Divi- ',V;,r-en, .;.•., ;' ,.wer Part of jMurder Kiln Hun- 
-inn. Captain Evan Reese, Lieutenant Jum.s oivd. C-p!:'-:' ^Villinr., Khnades, Lieutenant Jo- 
Walker, Ensi-jn William Ball: South Div.-i..„, -epk Hurel,. -,,.,. Kn.i-u Tliuma. CraiL' ; Lpper 
Captain Thomas Grav, Lieutenant William Mc- Part of Duck Creek Hur.dred, Captain David 
Mehan, Ensign Alexander Mnnt-omery : ( l.ris- Clavk, Lieutena.ut John Eeese, En^i-n John Ca- 
tiana Hundred, Southwest D'vi.-iou, ( 'aptaiii Jame< hoon ; ]>:.\\er Part of Duck Creek Humlred, Ca]i- 
Latinier, Lieutenant Empsoii i;ird,]-:n-i-n Thoii, as rain Charles itillvani. Lieutenant Jacoh Stout, 
Duff; Southeast Division, Captain Andrew Trau- p:Il^i■.u Thomas Tilton ; Tidliury, Captain J.ihn 
\-rTg, Lieutenant William Hav, Ensiim Loliert Cater., I,itutenant Joseph Caljh'_ell, Kn<i-ii Jaine^ 
Kobinson; ]Sorth Division, Cap'tain Thomas Ode, Calduiil; Field (_>if„-r.. Colonel John Viniu-, 
Jr., Lieutenant John Arnistrontr, Ensiirn John Lieutemut-Coioiiel John Urinkle. Andrew 
Hendrickson; Brandywine Hundred, Southwest CaJd^'el'- 

Division, Ca])tain William Empson, Lieutenant Tiic Sussex Countv militia was or-anized as fjl- 
Thom;is MeKim, Ensi-n John Elliot; Northeast lows: for the northern military ,li-rrirt of ( ■. dar 
Division, Captain Emanuel Grub, Jr., Lieutenant Creek Hundred, Ca]itain Benjaiuiu \\'yiiko,,p, 
JJenjanuii Ford, Jr.. I^n.-i>iu Lenianun Kellam : Bethuei Watson, Eii~i-n Levin Crop- 
Field OiHeers, Cdonel William Arm^tron^, Lieu- per- f,r the Southern militarv di-triet of CV.lar 
tenant-Coh.ii.d Joh;i Finiiev, 3Iajor John Me- Creek Haudnd, Captain Thomas Hill, Lieutenant 
Kiulev. " " Daar Watson, Kn-i-n Xehemiah L»avis; fir the 
The Lower Rejiiient of Xew Ca.-tle County northern militarv ,li-ti-iet nf Hmad Kiln Hiin.lrcd, 

sioned from the places named ; St. George's Hun- man. Ensign CJeorge Claypoole; for soutTTern 

dred, Capjtain John Jones, Lieutenant Jerome military district of Broad Kiln Hundred, (.'aptain 

Dusliane, Ensign L=aae Gooding; Captain John J<iseph (^'ord. Lieutenant William Craii:-, 1-jisigii 

Vance, Lieutenant John Vandyke, EnsiL'-n John Absalom Little ; for the mu-thern milit;iry dis- 

Aiiderson; Cajitain Adam Petei-son, Lieutenant trict of Lewes and Reholioth Hundred, * 'aptain 

William Whittle, Ensign Alexan<ler Brvan ; David Hall, Lieutenant Jacob Kolluck, Jr., En- 

Apoquinimink Hundredr Captain William Wil- si-n .b,hn FLill ; for the southern militarv .li,-trict 

liams. En>ign Garrett Rothwell ; Captain Alexau- of L,w.- and Rehoboth Hundred, Captain John 

der Chance, Lieutenant Charles C:ir-on, I'.ii.^iiin Xewl.ol.l, Lieutenant Rice Wolf Eie-i-n Peter 

Daniel Weldon ; Captain George Ganz, Lituten- .March; f.r the northern military ili-trict of In- 

ant Matthew Rhea, EnsiLrn Thomas Bennet : ikd diau River llundivd. (Captain Cord Ha//,ard. 

Lion Hundred, Ca^.tain" Jacob Goodin- Lieu- Lieutenant Peter R/.l.iuson, Eum-ii Thomas 

tenant Thonuis, Ensi-n David l[o-A,dI: Prettvman ; f.r the -outhern militarv di-tri.-t of 

Peni'uderHumlr.d. Captain is TI,oma = . Lieu- Li.lian River Hundred, Cantaiu P.iirtou Waples, 

tenant David Rarr. ICn.-l-u William Mitchell ; Lieutenant J.din Burton, Eiwign William I'lvtty- 

<'aptuin Thomas Cooch, J.ieiitenant Alexander man ; Field Otheei-s, ( 'olouel Jacob Kollu.-k, Lieu- 

I'orter, Ensign David Roulau.l; Field O'ih ers, tenant-Colonel Rives Holt. :\hiior Ja.'ub Phillips. 
Colonel Jacob Vanbebber, Lieutenant-Colonel The returns fir the militia of the lower counties 

Diu id Wether^poon, ]\[ajor Thomas James. ' summarized the above a^ follows: The L'pper 

The Kent Countv militia was a- fillows: I'jiper ReLdnicnt of New (.'a,-tle County contained eleven 

I'art of Mi>pillion Hundred, Captain Thomas eoiupaiiie^, with the oiHcers named and two ser- 

' lark. Lieutenant Eliiah ^forris, E.i^i-n Jo-,„h -cants f.r each ■■oufi-auv, with an avera-.; of sixtv 

M.,rrat: Mid.lh- Part of Mi-pillioa ['d, privat.-. The D.ucr "R.iL'i.iMiit ..f Ncv Ca-tle 

'aptain R,,hert, Kilhn, Licit.' naiit Archiliahl Couiitv c.,u~i,-t.'d ..f nine .■omi.ani. s. av.a-a-ing 

1 icmiu- l-hiH-n Saniu.d P..-viiH Turner; Lower about liftv privat.-. but v,ith th.' ^ame as 

'':>rt ot- Mi<piHi,,u Humlrcl, Captain R._iiiamiii in the Clip.'r Rc-inient. Kent anil Su-s.x Couii- 

Ibiiikl,.,-. IJ.i, tenant J..liu Molliston, i;n.i-n tie.- furni-lied twelve ai'id eiidit companhs respect- 



le T. 

ively, and tluMitficers and jirivatos 

same as in the various iiKinii 

Kfgimunt of Xrw C:iA\r ( .'.nniy. i-" i!.i> it 
appears lliat the lower countus or.j-ani/.rd a lon^e 
of over two thiaisaiid trni.|i-.' In 17o7 thi- sunie 
zeal was contiimrd. the A--ianliiy |ia>-in'j- acts for 
Btrikinjr iiills of cn-dit to the anionnt of four 
thousand ])ounils for His r^laje.-ty's usi\ tor punish- 
ing desertic'HS antl mutiny in thi' army. A con- 
siderable ditficnltv arose aiiout tlie iniildlc of the 
year in consei|Uiaii-f of thc-crupU'S entertained hv 
the Quakers a-ain-t hraiin^j arms, and tiieir -tub- 
born resislain;" of tiio niilitia hiws. Tiie lii~t in- 
stance that (jccurrrd \\a- ^'arlv in Januarv. 
Christopher Wilson, ofCliristiami Hundred, had 
been summoned liy ('a]>tain I'liomas ( 'j-le, init 
refused to a[ip(_-ar. While - ateil on hi- hor-o. 
shortly afterwards, I'onvcr-inL' with a friiiid, -^.mni'l 
Clenny, two con-tal)lc.-, \\'illiam J'.rad.-haw and 
Thomas Elliot, phn-, d him uii.lrr arrest, and he was 
afterwards taken J u,>tirr David Par-h. The 
justice, with very little ceremony, ordered him tn 
jail and he was taken to Xcw Castle. lu June, 
however, a number of complaints were lodged 
against the same Justice Bush. Joseph Niekols 
complained that he had been summoned to appear 
before him and state why ho had not comj)!ied with 
the provisions of the militia acts. ITe assured the 
magistrate that he was moved altoLretiier by the 
dictates of conscience, and not at all iiv a desire to 
disobey the laws; but notwiihstandin;,', the consta- 
bles soon appeared and sri/cd a cow. Joshua 
Baker had sufti/rcd in the same way, and Kuth 
Mendenhall te^tilied that fair men had et.ine with 
swords and clubs ami dealt out a similar fate upon 
her son. Thomas Xickols was another of the 
victims. These cases were l.'rought to the attention 
of the Governor, and in addition other in<adents of 
a like nature were cited. Joseph Xewlin, John 
Perry, Jacob Eobinson, Kichard t'arsan, William 
Shipley, Jr., and Henry Tn.ith all comjilained that 
their property had been seized to pay .the tines 
exacted by Justice Bush for an act which they hehl 
was specially permitted by charter. Governor 
Denny took the matter under con>id.r.ation. but it 
was allowed to drop. The iiK'id. nt at least si rv. d 
the Assembly of the provinei' \\itli a w.aoon ,,f 
defense the Governor, who had cliided thi ni 
for not being as diligent in the ]ia--a_'o ,,f militia 
laws as the lower courities. 

Consulerable jealousy !iad, in fact, spruiii: up in 
the pnivincc. Tiie (Governor ^^as aciai-'il ot' beiuL' 
partial to the lower counties, ami in-inua.tion- and 
attacks of ev.av d.-cnption were pulilh-lv aim. d 
at them. The "onlv notle,. takm of thi-' l,v the 
Assemldv at Xew'CaMle ^^as in an addr.-s to 
Governor I>.tinv in Oetob.r, IToT, wh.n tliev 
expressed their disgust at such assaults, and tluar 

deli-htat lieiu-ind,.|M.nd 

ent of tie- |irnvince. Th 

eharu-e- w.iein truth ino- 

t up.ju-t.f irthe [larttak. a 


.•I'nncli and Indian W..- 

w-as reiativelv,and in -on 

ao re-i ts al.-olnt,-lv, i.: 

greater than tliat taken 1 

.v the province. 

,' lia.l n.Mrlvfiurthousaii.j 

troops .,r-ani/.ed. A h- 
aL-o beuun late in tlie vo 

it;.i-v and barracks v.. a, 
ar. and the little goviaai- 

inent was boldly strainiu 

- e\orv nerve to faithfidlv 

pert'orin its dntv. The was renewed at 

New Ca.-tle and {..■ui-f. 

iwn in March, 17.5f<, an i 

verv >oon afterwanU (o 
the A.-e,nl,ivat New Ca 
that body, he iid'orin.d t 

ivoruor D.'nuy convene 1 
-tie. In his speech bef a.- 
hem that in letters lately 

received from llngland, t 

iie King promised to mak- 

every etfiu't at the conun 

■^ session of Parliament t- 

secure the passage of an act for^compensating tli. 
provinces for their efforts in his behalf, but al.-. 
requesting all pos-^ible as-istanceatthat very critical 
moment. The A-emhly promised, through Speaker 
Jacob Kolluck, to do all in their power, an.l 
regretted that their means were not sufficient to 
allow them to otti^r as much as their inclination- 
prompted. Nevertheless, an act was soon pa:rscd 
for raising a loan of eight thousand pounds. 

In April, 175!), the Assembly passed a bill for 
reprinting and exchanging twenty thousand pound- 
of bills of crc'lit, and for striking seven thousand 
pounds additional for His ^lajesty's use. Jacob 
Kolluck, William Arra>trong and Ca.'sar Rodney 
were appointed to superintend the printing of the 
twenty-seven thousand pounds, the bills varying 
from one to twenty shillinL's. They were signed 
bv William Arm.-tnai- of New Castle Countv, 
Johns Barns of Kent, and 1 "avhl Hall of Sussex. 
Ten thousand pounds were placed in the hands of 
the trustees of the loan office in Xew Castle County, 
and for Kent and Sussex, their trustees receiveil 
respectivelv six and fair ilKai^and pounds for rt - 
distributhm. The seven tle.u-and |H,und- w, r' 
placed in charge of Me.--r-. John l-'innev, (.icon:'' 
Munro, C:e,=ar 'Kodnev, .h.sei.h Caldwell, David 
Hall and Josei-h Kolluck, Jr.. and was to be used 
in the supjiort of one hundi-ed and eiirht men f 'f 
service in the southern <-olonie,-i the money beinj 
rai-eil liy an additional ttix of six-pence on th' 
pound i'or hve years. The reason for joiiiiii-; 

lietter have lieeii jias-nl >e|iarately, soon becane 

apparent. They ha 
a former occa-ion. In 
to the re-emi-.-ioii. 
(.'ouiicil came down 
they tlatly retiued 
for the rea-ou name 

iIk' latter cour; 


■ Liovernor ai: 
Xew Castle, on May ot 
■atifv the double measur 
id al.-o because in the \>v 

uiti.^ had -upportodlliP 
liad cut the number do» 
tv. Aconti-nai.vwash. 
and the Speaker of li 

COLON T.I ]. HfSTOili' 

I A--" nvIh, politely intnrnird liim lliat the ,1 l,„:.e 

; li.iil iTsolvt'd t(i furii!>h no iiicn at all if tin v were 

i , ,,M|.elle.l t.. alter tlieir lull. Tliev well saw tlu^r 

I t|.e(i..vern..rennl.| not t.. ivj.ct their a,-.-i:-t- 

.uiee, nil iiiatler liow in-i-iiitieaiit it was. Tb-ir 
: .aleiilutioMS siinii ])ri)Veil tn lie eiirriet, I'lir nil tile 

I Till the Cimnril r-'luelantlv nrilen.i the (..i.vernor 

I ,„ M-ii tlie bill. 

In October the returns for the electien nf ^herit^s 
.■mil coroners aiinuuneeil that in >."ew ( 'a-tle( '"Untv 
John McKinlev anil AVilliani .<nii!h ha.l l.^.a; 
rleeteil; in Kent O.untv, Th.mia,^ I'arker a-il 
William Wells, ami in Su>se.K, .Ii.-eph .-hankiand 
:,n.l Jabe7. Fisher. 

In April, ITCH, the A-enihlv was met by O.jv. 
.lames Huniiltnn, who had .-ueeeed.d (iov. IVniiv 
in November, lie announced new instructions 
t'mm the KiiiLr. Lrraciously thunkinc his American 
.-ubjects for their services, and otiiM-inL' to arm and 
supply with provisions the krire numbi r -f jv.-.v. 
\\hieh he hoped they would continue to rai-e. 'Ihe 
Assembly asserted their desire to comply \sith ihis 
to the utmost linnt of their ability, and at the saaie 
time handed the Governor two bills t'or hi- .-iunr.- 
ture. Governor Hamilton wilhhehl his signature, 
to learn what they proposed to do in connection 
w ith his war message ; but on their promise to issue 
a new loan, he si^rned the bill and returned to 
I'hiladelphia. The A^^enibly this year placed four 
thousand pounds at his disposal, but thev now also 
devoted some attention to internal atliiir-, which 
had for several years been subordinated to t!ie 
war. The Ru])ren)e Court was completely reor- 
ganized under the name of the Supreme Court of 
the Governnient of the Counties of N'ew" Castle, 
Kent and Suv-^ox upon Delaware. It was to meet 
at New Castle on the twenty seventh iif April, and 
the twenty third of October, at Dover ou the 
twenty eighth of (.)etober, and on the ^b3nday pre- 
ceding the meeting of the Court of Coujuion Pleas 
in May, and at Lewistown on the 3Iondays pre- 
ceding the meetings of the Court of Coinnioi; Pleas 
in ^[ay and Xovember. There were now to be the 
chief ju.-ticc and three others to preside-, instead 
of two, as before. A suppl.-meut to the aet ] :■.^-ed 
in ITlit, for eiicoura'^in-j the eon-ti'uetioii ,,f -,,nd 
mills, wa- al-o pa--'d in ITiHt, ami an a.-oiit tor the 
L'oveniment of the lou.-r eountios wa- -tarioned a: 
J.ondou to loolc alrer thoir int. ivMs. The a.--nt 
appointed was David liarelav. Jr.. of London. 

Thomas ]1unn and Janice ''.Valker were el, eted 
shi-ritfand coroner at the October ei.etiouMn Ni w 
''.-th-Countv; Willia.c Kho.l.-> and Jab-z Jeii- 
^^ins in Kent";aiid .lo-,.p!i and David Shankland 

pensatuiii to th-^ 


:nt was allowi 

In 17i;i tho London a-ent anm 
'd ivr,iv,,l s,„,i,.tliinix' over tl 
■'ind-, as,h.sharebelo„,in^to t 

Sout of a stMii -ranted bv Parii 

of the residue J;oi,ia:,un * 'ht-w ami \\illiam J'lum- 

sum was pail to N,'w Ca>:ie Countv, tlove-tenth^ 
to Kent, Ml,! -he )■, ma.iiiug iwo-tenths to .'-^us.-ex, 

uebf.i comracted in coc.sei|Uence of the war. 

The ihiys for holding the Supreme Court were 
aLram ehan^ed y ar, and wore fixed tiir New 
Ca-'!e on the nrth of Apriiand Hfth of Septendn-r ; 
+or Dover ;,ii i\,y Hfteeuth of April and fifteenth of 
.-eptember; a-:! for Lpv.istowu on the Fridays ])rc- 
ceding the meetings of the ifay and N"ovemher 
sessions of the (Quarter Sessions. 

Another payment was received by Agent P)ar- 
clay in London, in 17(i2, this tin_^e amounting to 
three tb.ou.-and ^even hundred and fortv-tive 
pound:-, iiid paid jiui^uaut to an act of Parliament 
of ITOy. William PJuuistead and Penjamin OIilw 
■»^ere again appointed to manage the fund. The 
D:onc}- was divided among the counties in the 
same proportion as the first payment and applied 
to similar purposes. These payments were a great 
relief to the people, to whom the war had be'en a 
heavy liurden. They at once rallied, however, 
and again began to employ their monov for pur- 
poses more profitable than war. Tlie- jiublic roads 
were the first thin-s that were looked after. In 
Kent Countv the road bevdnnioL'- at Sali.-lmrv, 
dividing Kent and X.w ('astleCnuntie.-, and' 
thence runniiiL' tei Dover, as we'd as the two draw- 
bridge xvad- loading from Dover, were now made 
public or kin-'.- load-, which placed them under 
the care of the eouiity authorities. In Sussex 
County the roads running from the Three Pams 
through Lewistown were raised to the same dignity. 
In New Castle County a new highway was built, 
beginning at the border of Chester County and 
going to Brandywini; Creek, and from there one 
was laid out to Salisbury and another to Blackbird 

The successful eandi. kites in ITCi' for sherifi 
and coroner for New ("a.-tle (^'ountv were Thomas 
Dunn and Jam- Walker; for Su-.-ex, Daniel 
Nunc/., Jr., and .<ainiiel Lowland. Jr.; and for 
Kont, William Phodes ami John dray. The next 
year the same otiices were filled in N'e\v Castle 
Countv bv Thomas Du.f and William Stewart, in 
Sussex bv Daniel Xune/. Jr., and John Wattom, 
and in Kent bv Daniel Pobert.-ou and John 

la ]7(i4 the roads of Xew Castle County a-ain 
oceujiied the atteytion of the A.sscmblv. An 
entirely new sy,-tem was adopted in tin- eountv 
for their manaiioment. the old one not havui- 
given >ati,rarti,,n. 'flio w re now plared 
under the eontnd ol' a board of eommissioiirrs, 
consi.-ting of ^Mes.-rs. Jnhn Stapler, Thomas Tobin, 



David Struart, Oooriro .Afonr.. and .T..lm 3r>- 
Kinley. Th.-v had .[itir.' .•oiiln.l ..v. r tlir l.uil.l- 
ing and rrpairinj- nt' re:; i<, a:id a!-n iill.d up 

made in tliis vear in NiW Ca.-tlr ('lUiitv otiicis liv 
the annual, luit in Krnt '11p lu:,. Cnllins 
and Matthew .Manlnvc vaiv elo. t.d -h. litf and 
coroner, and in Mij-rx Daniel Ninu-/, Jr., cdn- 
tinued as sheritf ami Ilcniy J)avi,- was elceted 
coroner. In Nuveinlier ii.w ciiniiui-.^iiiiis for tliu 
justices of the I'Miirt (jf Oyer and Terminer were 
issued to John Vinin-. Jacoli Vanhfhher and 
Eiehard :\reWilliam. To th. .,.■ John Cl-.^es was 
added in 176"), and Uobert Killen received an 
appointment as an additional justice of the pi_>ace 
for the ^lispilliou hundreds in Kent County, while 
the elections in the same year in the lower counties, 
resulted in the choice of Thomas Duti' for sheriff 
of New Castle County and James Walker for 
coroner. In Kent Countv Tlionia?- Collins and 
John Gray were elertrd, lind in Su.v-,,x 
Shankland and Nathan Youn- In ITCiJ John 
Thompson and James Walker were elected to fill 
the two offices, in New Ca>tle County. The old 
sheriffs were re-elected in both tin.' other counties. 
but new coroners, who were Solomon \\'allai-e anil 
Thomas Gray, for Kent and Su.-sex, respectivelv. 
Governor John Penn went down to New Castle 
on October 21st and jmssed a number of bills. A 
slight hitch occurred over a measure relating to 
testamentary atJairs and providing for the better 
security of orphans in the enjoyment of their 
estates, probably owina: to its great length. The 
Assembly finally subnHtt..d to certain amendments 
oflered by the Governor, and this also became 
a law. While at New Cattle Governor Penn 
issued commissions to Jacob ?ftout. Fen u ick Fisher 
and Thomas Till(m to be justices of the peace in 
Kent County in places where none exi.-ted. For 
the County Courts of the same county he al-^o 
appointed as justices John Caton, Richard \Vells. 
Thomas Irons, Andrew Caldwell, Cicsar iioilnev, 
Charles Kiduelv, John Barns, James Svkt's, 
Wi liam Rhoades, William Rodnev, Robert Ilolli- 
day, John Clark an.l Robert Ki'll. ii. Another 
act of iniportaneo which ncnvidthc (iovernor's 
signature v;hile on tlii^ \isit to New (.'a^tle was 
providing for changing the methods of choo.-im,' 
inspectoi-s of elections ami asse?soi-s, both oi' which 
officers were thereafter ap])ointed bv the ([ualitied 
electors in each hundred at ineetinL;-~ heM for the 
purpose on the l.Tth ot'everv Septendier. 

The fir.n .Mia.lous of the Revoliitinji had by this 
time ca?t thein.-elves plaiuiv in ihe li.-lit of the 
peo[)le. The Stamp Aet lu ITii'i .-tirred up the 
righteous imli-iialiou ni the ci'loni.-ls to the hi'jii- 
est pitch. After haviu- p>u t (orlii eveiv , if.rt in 
the French and Indian War, to be tlui- un-rate- 
fuUv treated in return was more than thev could 

quietlv bear. To the C-n-r.- which was cal!. ■ 
at New York by the ,,tb. r eoL.uies to pr,,;. '■ 
aL'ain-t the Stamp Aet tlie hiwer countio ~, • ■ 
(.'a-ar Rodnev, Timuias MeKean and Ja. 
Kolluek. theSJ.etlk.T of tlie A->einblv Wl,e„.^ 
aet was repealed the ni..,eni:: was'only e.pia; 

McKeau TTere a-ain seieeted bv the As.semblv • , 
draw up an address to toe Kiu^, expresMV^ , : 
their -ratitude. Tiiey little imagined \\h. , 
the address was pre[):ired, the changes wdiich lii 
next decade were to bring, as may easily 1. 
gleaned from the follo.ving extract teeming witli 
sentiments of love and lovaltv for Britain: 

llie sulijectsof a kin; tli. 

^hM Le in:i.k- km.wii : tl,.it ■ 

But the enthusiasm of their affection was des- 
tined soon to be didled. In 17(17 another oili..i:< 
act was passed by Parliament, imjioiing dutv en 
tea, paper, glass and other commodities impeirteU 
to the colonies. Again the protestations of the 
colonists were foruarded in addressess, pctitioii- 
and remonstrances to King George. This time, 
however, they were not so promptly complie>l 
with. The taxes were continued and the Kevolu 
tion began to assume deliiute lorm. 

To return to the internal aliairs, we lind th^ 
years 1767 and 1711^ com|iaraiivc ly uneventful ii 
Delaware At the- in>t;mee of the merchants u: 
Philadelphia, the A.-.-emblv of the province plaew! 
buovs on the .-h,.al^ in D. lauare Bav in 1767, and 
for tlie survey- employ, d Henry Fi.-her, of Leui- 
town, who htid al.-o bem eii-aLted by tlum in l7ol 
to leieet a Mte f,r the fii'-t li-htdiou.-e at Caj ■ 
Ilenhipen. Ti.e ei.etra, i„ 1767 placed in o(h- 
John Th..inp.-on*aiei .lanu- Walker a< .-herilf aiei 
coroner of New Ca>tle Countv; James Well^ aiil 
Solomon Wallaee in Kent ; " Rh,.ade< Shaiddan-I 
an,l William Parker in Sur-.-e:^. In 176s William 
-^leClav succeeded .Walker, and Boaz .Manlo^e 


,„!.l Gcor-c ^V;llk^l• wero .iLCt.M] a^ .-h-'rirf aud hy two rlerks, who rfcnrdf.l ihc n'lnic ..f th..' vnfr 

..iroiiLT ill Sii.-su\ Cum y, Imt thi; nthcr Lliictri and t!ie j.lTs'i.-i to/- v-'l'th l,r v..iid. A~ tlic in- 

Th.' year IK;:) fouiHl the AsseniMy oiu-e in ia a Laid t.ine tl.e i'ai-c of the eUMtnr, which was 

aiueod for extensive !e-i.-latioii, and ihcy d.-alt wich taken down !'y the ■•le'-f.. A >c;i. s of hoxc,-, wire 

iitteni|it to prevent piL'.- from runnin- a: kir-c .>' a huMdrt d in thi in'oiv. to rercive tlip votos of 

Ca-th' (.'oiuity. N.'W trur-tiT- were a[i;"d:i!ed to el.-ctloii, tii'^ ii<t of,- and nunjlMr of votes 

the svvrrai loan ottiees in the ditlLivnt coiiu'.ies. ca.<t h\ ea-Ji hundml were eouioav,,!, hut as tliere 

l!ie tirin- of the old uilicer- havin_' cxpirtd. The was no re ;u!;-.aiuiu [.rovidinu' f.r tin o\viiiL' out the 

oilirtrs cdiosen were Evan Kiec, Tlionuis McK- an txee-\s o^' voo'j .'wr ee-'tor.-, tii.,' oi.jcct ot' this [iro- 

and Kiehard :MeWilliani tor Now ( a.rh C„u:cy ; ceedin- i^ n-.: ooite rh ^r. Fine- were imposed tor Viiiing and C:e-ar Kodney f>r Ken: ; and atienipu.iu' to \ ute iwire, and hn- inauy similar 

Jacu!) Koliuck and John Rodney in Mi->e\. tliey '-rimes which .siili destroy fairness at elections, 

having been all reappointed. The dav.- lor the While the law contained lio very striking features, 

convening of the Supreme' Court were ciaur.ed vet it is noteworthy as all early attempt to secure 

again, the day- -elected <n\ this occa-ioii !). inu' the tin-: purity of the ballot-box. Later iu the same 

14th of Oetolier and the loth or April for Ncv,- year, steps were taken to chock the numerous 

Castle, the 7th id' (_)itober ami the liJd of .^iirii lor loiter-es v.hi.'di wen- sprin.iiui' into existence: a 

D.n-er, and the Friday following tlie nievling of market was e.taidi.hed at' New Ark; and the 

the Xoveiuber Quarter .Sessions and the J^lh of ground on which the public luiileliiigs stood at New 

April at Lewi-town. On the Governor'? vi,-it t(j Castle was jilaced in charge of trustees, the geutle- 

New Castle in October he issued a new conjmi-^ion men named being ^leJveau, George Ecad, 

for justices of the jieacc aii<l the Coiiit of C iinmon John JIcKiiiley. Alexander Porter, Ge(jrge iluuro, 

Fleas iu Xew Castle Coimty, ap[Miiiitin_' Evan Jijhu_ Evans and David Thomjjsou. A piece of 

Kice, John Stapler, I'honias .lames, Ffavid Finuev, ground on v.'hich the people desired to erect a 

William Fatter^.m. Thoaia,-, William Arm- i'ehool, and situated in the market s-iuare at New 

strong, Jame^ La;;imcirjol,n Jones, Thomas Me- Casile, was also vested in trustees, aud those 

Kim, William Williams, Jacob Peterson, John appointed for this trust were ihivid F'iuuey, John 

I'vans, Thomas Tobin, Theodore Maurice. Thomas Thonip.son, George Kead, Thomas 3IcKeau and 

.McKcan, Benjamin No.xen and John Malcolm- George -Munro. the Kev. JEueaslloss and Jlessrs. 

In January, li 70, tive new justices were appointed Richard Mc Williams aud Joseph Tatlow were 

in Kent County, owini: tn the failure of s., me .if the appiointed in a similar capacity over the ground on 

ju.sticesnomiiiatcdon ihehist cwmmis-iouto .pialify. which stood the Immauuel Church and burying- 

The new magistrate- were I'liomas Jlndney, ^\'ar- grounds. The electious iu 1772 resulted in the 

ner MitHin, James Foyer, Thomas IIan.-..n and choice ot John Thompson and Joseph Scedham for 

Jonathan .•Anderson. sheriti' and corouer of New Castle ( 'muuiv : John 

In 1772 the Assendily came to the rescue of the Cook and Caleb Furby iu Kent : and Peter Robiu- 

jii-ople of Wilmington, who were continually en- son aud David Drain in Sus-ex. 

tangling theu'.selves in disputes over the situation The following year little occairred in the lower 

and direction of the streets whenever a new build- counties worthy of note, except chauircs iu the 

inir was erected. The boundaries were tixed as magistracy, the erection of a bridge at Lewistown 

Well a.s land marks. The burge.-^ses were empow over Lewes Creek, ami the departure of the Fiev. 

cred t.i appoint three ,,r stirvevors to ivjulate John Ewin- an<l Dr. IFiLdi Wniiam.s,,n to Europe 

the con-tructiou of parlv-wall- and other matters to seek aM t..r the N. w Ark Academv ; nor uas the 

which also had -ivui rise to trouble, and rciiia- Year 1774 nion Iruiilul et' eveius ibr'the historian, 

lions for laying off streets and allevs uere also In 177o, how.-ver, iioewithstandin- the h.wcrin- 

drawn up, but not c..ntlictiu- with the law ot' the clniuls ..f the Rev-lutinn, the people f..und titiie to 

I'orou-b for the same jiiirp-.s.-. A ti..ubie of a devote attention to -everal matte fs ..f importance, 

natel_\ II. ,t lieiii -ati-factordy dealt witli in many C..uspicuou- an _■■ tho-e was the care of the pour. 

parts ol the country, even after the lapse of m,, re The managemeut nf the ]io,.r was placed in the 

than a centurv. wa- t!ie pi,v:ilem-e of fraud at hands of .'.ver-ecrs ai.pniatcd bv the iitsiices ,>f the 

• Thcsheiiti'or, i,. I, i< absence tl e c .r.,- peace. Service wa. compulsory upon ti.e-e ..ihcers 

a-ist,d by the in-pector who was rcpdivd to take special ta.Kcs m cadi hundr.d for the n.aiut.mance 

a rigid oath to a-i-t to •' prevent ail Iraud- and of the local Indecent. Thev lod,::ed or sou-ht 

'I'-eeits" at the elecliou. These olKcers Were aided empLvmeUt for the j^.or, as the circuii.ctaucerof 



each CHsedirc'cteii, !)ut iiu prison ri'ci'iveil a.--i>taui 
without tlicoTtiticatinltwi, j- -litxs. Parents ai: 
grandparents wt-ir re.iuir<d, xvIil-u al'lc, to .-ii|>["' 
their poor chiidnii and Lcrandrhildnn, and tl 
children were al,-o t-xiu-i'ttd to ^;l|)port tlirii- paim 
and gnindiiarLiit^. Tiir ( 'oui :-l:l"u>t.' and puhi 
building at Dover was now plar.-d in thr hands . 
trustees, :w thoso at Nc-w ( a.-ile had li.i n, the ti u 
devolving upi.ii Casar K.idner. ( harh^ Kid-L-h- 
Samuel Cliew, WiUiani Kdl.'n and Jacol, Stou 
In September a hill was passed by the As.-ondd 
for emitting bills of credit to the amount i fthirt 
thousand pounds, under the direction ot' Tlioni: 
McKean, Alexander Porter and Jolin Clowe 
The avowed object of this was the payment ■ 
public debts, but the approachiuir Kevolutiou \\v 
doubtless what inspired this last bill. 




Tllis history would not be complete if we did 
not pause here, at the birth of the ,'^tate of Dela- 
ware, to give something like a picture of thesoeiiil 
and domestic lile of tlie inhabitants of the 'pi'";'- 
perous and growing colony about the year 177'), 
and the manners and customs of the early settleis, 
the pioneers among those hardy pale-faces befii-e advajice the natives of the soil melted away 
and disapjieared. 

When the first white man came within the 
present limits of Delaware he f mud the L'round 
closely occupied witli a continuou:^ growth of ihe 
primeval forests, except where swamp ami mar.-h 
and the daily tlow of the tide prevented the trees 
from growini:. The solo population were the 
Delaware, Susquehanna and Xantic rke Indians — 
hunters and ti:^he^s, with coi-n-tields and jiarches 
for beans, sqmishcs and melons. In the dee[) but 
not impenetrable ibrests, of oak, hickories .and 
pines, a few-, but not many. Indians liad their lod_'iS 

or huts. The liuntinLT aiid ti-liinL' were - 1 ; the 

deer came to the bt.rders of all the >mall -treani-. 

and the surface c 
dense Hock.- ut' 


1 wit 

:h ll-hcs of v^rr^ 

: si/e, from the stm 

to the 


laile.t pan-h.h. 

The uivar oak-- 

uere I, 

ii.;k> and d.—, tni 

aeeept tl 

le ..idinaiw 

■ inle 


VLaliou of .-ui 



at -Moya'i 



^ 'in the ,-, 

u-iui: ai, ; 

early su: 

nmer nioni 

[lis, jl 

.ifter the Indi 

an- of t;,. 


ed tl, 


e„rn and h 

leans, tl,. 

cnhddv 1 

. and >el 
ar-e ,-hoal,' 




were tilled u 

ith ine:,i- 

'iVe-h' wat 

er in 

irder to'dcp. 

1, pre-lh. 
,.^it th. i: 

spawn. 11 

md pnrsu. 

■d by 


■h.iols of the 


sea ti^h. 

At these 

IS 1 

die shores of I 

:he rivei-- 

were thrc 

jnged with 



- and their lod 


their cat 

loeS dartei 

d ,aN 


over the sur 

thee, mea. 

women and childri 

n sp.' 


ug or uetting 

tish, a,M 


and diyii 

ig tl 


1. The stur 

L'con, tl.. 


now and t 

hen tl 

le : 


ill caught, 

the w; 


with innumerable shad, herring, alewives and 
breani, pike and perch. In the autumn again th- 
Indians were drawn to the river-shore by the at- 
tractions of the oyster bars and banks. This wa- 
in the interval after the corn harve.-ting and the 
beidnning of the winter huntiin:. 

The territory in the neighborhood of Xew Ca- 
tle had grown to be familiar for councils and 
general conferences of the Indian tribes. At the 
time the whites came to the Delaware, the Xanti- 
cokes, the Susquehannas. the Delawares, the 
Shawances and the Iroquois were accustomed 
to kindle their conncil-tires, smoke the pipe of 
deliberation, exchanLre the wampum belts of ex- 
planation and treaty, and drive hard bargain- 
with one another for peltries, [uovisions and sup- 
jdies of various kinds, on tlie banks of the river 
and bay which bears the name of Delaware. The 
trails made by the savages in going to and from 
their points of union were dec[) and broad at the 
coming of the whites, and they have generally 
been Ibllowed in laying out the early roads. 

The tirst white settlers within the present bouiid- 
iif Delaware, as has alreadv been shown in the 
preeeding chapters, and lla. 
previous to the^ of P 
di^tinct aial durable impre.-s 
were the Swede.. Their lir. 
colonies, widch arrived out in 



ute sett) 

' ^ 


made : 


aiul th 



1 11 1-10, : 

likij li.e M,irliij|,-8 lly 


the fifth .■ ;il-.. wliirh ■•ame tho,. r-i' jiijierso-led hohav ..illin- hy Cai't l>..wrl Jan-n i. 

I'rhit/. and Ki-lii-h. .■..:itainc.l a -o.mI maiiv Dutch, Tiir -mv- rninc:;: .,-.lere.! th". -•- n|r„.,-i>, liuivlniv. to 

aii.lwciv iu.hi.l i-aitlv ivrniit,;.! and ni:t iu h.v !iai.,!^ uv. s;irh i.Mi-ri.-l -..l.ilo a~ ha.l rithcr 

the Nethrrhual.s uiih Duirh ca|.ital aral au.lor eva,lr,l .-crvUr ,.r ,-..,,;.,':- .1 -o,„- ..;hcr ..|i;n>,., and 

Dutrh MUtpai-lir- !iv.|urntlv in the KivLT N rw .^uivlrh. ^v:l !l ill.' ,: r.jiui-r r, , i iri n- 1 hillL home 

to sotdcand |ihint,a< urll a< to trad.." with thr :-ain vvi:hia f-v,, vra.-s,.-,o ilo this, houvwr, • ju-^tlv 

Indian.-, a. id that .-iuvvr~ani. alur thv r. .apiuiv .atid ,liMT,.L'tlv,' tha: n, , iot iui_dit . n-u.-." In' KUO 

of Fort Ca^ndr, th. ovrrllirow ot' iti-in-li- jov- a-ain the- i lo^ n^-nor <,f ri,.- |,r..viia ,• of Onhn, ua~ 

.■rnnu-nt and thr -uhjuL'alion of N,w .--vrd.n. M-nt or.l-rt'd to prevail upou tiie nn-rtti,.d Finn< to 

many of hi.s people to the- soiuh .ide of l.e'a^o. th-nil.l v,-. v ith their ^\;ve- :ind ehildr.n, 

to settle the country. For ail that tla- Sued-.^ to >.\v r-,Nc;'an. Fiei.i. Miin^ Klin-, wlio was 

were the tii>t p.-rinanent .•ohndst<. Tlio J>':t.'h la-w Laek in -'.v d- ii, vve- ,-ent t,, r. rriiil f .r end- 

«ere a.lventurer.s Idnd of iiadini;- and naviuratiun. L'rants in via- niiiiir.^' i.-_: ai-.f We-inianhmd and 

As a rule thev <li 1 not hrin- their landlies to the Dahirne. IF- ua- al-o partieuhnlv in-rruetod to 

Delaware with iheu,. and tlieyeouhl ea.-ilv reach odist the •Toaini.iu Finn-, ' who wore tramp-, or 

their ov.u eonntryincn in Now Vi>ik after Fii-li<h squatters li\in- rent free in the forests. Next 

rule had I.e.m c-iaMi-h. d l.y Lovehnv, and. tho year, when Print/ had re:viv._d hi. '■,,ninii.->ion, he was 

so low down on the Delaware. Tiie .<ue,i..- aoc! evnors of I);d and \',;r:M:and rccoivin- orders to 

Finn.Son the other lian.l, had no .-uch nd.ratory and impri,-on, pr.,vidrV rh,.v ,.,,uld not 

[tropensity. Tliey u .re like trees, and -rew in the givii Seearity .a- w.ed.l n,,t -o t.> Vni.ri.-a, the 

soil to which th.'V ha.l lieeii tran.-planted, a.- if they " forrest-de-tiMvin- Finns." wh.., a- .1. -erii)..l in a 

had never kno\^n anv ,.th<r. A< a rule tliey had roya! m,;ndat,', - a-jain-t our an,i pr.udam- 

not emigrated from their native country from ation, destroy llie f.rr.-i- liv settin- tracts ,,f wnod 

choice, but were transplanted hy force. One rea- on lire, in ord.r {■> -..w in th.e a-h. -. and who mal- 

son, indeed, wdiythe Dutch iiartnei-s had hoen invited iciously <l'll tiLe,-." A tr...i|K-r in tlic |.i.nin.-e of 

pany was that emijraiils and v.ilunteer.- t.. the new ^r.-u-den of the r.^yal inona-tery at \'a]-nli(.'m, in 

countrv were s.i hai.l to pniciire. Wester j:otlilani!. and c.mnuitted tlie heinous crime 

The Swedish and Finnidi peasant- had very of cuttin- dou n si.-v apple-trees an.l luo ,-ii,,rrv- 

stron- l.jcal attachments Thev di.l n..t wi.h to trees, was -iven the opti.,n of end-raim- or 

aliandon their nativ.. .-.,il. in spil.- of the -eantv hun- The •• Charilas,- which .-ailed, in KUl tin 

liveliho.Hl it a.-uiv.l llumi. The " Kalmar Xyc- New Sweden, had fair crindnals in a total of 

in gettinir tlieir pa— enuc'rs for the first v..ya'je remainder IxdnLT indentured servants ..r - re.h uip- 

under .Minuit. It i- n.>t certainly know n that of tioners." In fact, Ideut.-Col. Printz was him.-elf a 

this ])arty with Minuil. more than one person — disLrraced man, having been court-martialed and 

Lieut. .Alan- Klin-— was a Swe.le. Anders di-niis.sed from the army fi.r the di.-honorable and 

Svenss..n r...nd.\ I'.i.r i iunnar-,-oii Uan.h... iVr c.wardly capitalization of Chemnitz, of which he, An.l.T- Far.— . .n Daalli... ..-^\cii Lar--..n. was comniaudant, s.) that his appointment to the 

Sven Gunner.ssoii, his -..u. Sveii S\-in-on., Fai-s c.donv of New Swedeh was iu some sort a pnnish- 

Svensson Kiiekin, M...11- Ander-.-..ii, Iveii Tin.r- nient and a bani-limeiit. 

son and ^[arteii ( were all of them Put this very rductan.-e ..f the .<we.l,> to enii- 

cerlainly in New Su'.hn in Iddd,' but it .-ami.. t -rate them tlie bc-t ..f imini.jranis. Thev 

be sla.wn wh. iher ihev came ..ver with Mmuct i-taved in th.' pla.e t.> v.hich thev been re- 

or with hi- sii.-cc-.M-. I[..llamlacr. A- Prof. m..'ve.l, ami b.-.-ame permanent tixt'uies in the new 

<)dhn,-r bv the nerd, -the pcph- enter- ju.t a,- thev ha.l wi,-he,l t., b.- h f t in the old. 

taine.l a repu-nanc- to the lo,,..' .-ea-v,.ya-.-.- :-. the They were ,|ui,"r, onlerlv. .F.-ent. with no injurious 

remote and heathen land. It is atHrmd in the vices, and in that kindlv ami climate the 

l.-tters of the admini-lrati .n i,, tin- ( i..v. iii..i-- ot' natural frnitfulne-s ,,f th.-ir tamili.s was -natlv 

tlie provinces of Flt-b.n-- an.l Varndan.l, that no increa.-ed. Acr.lius. n..ticin-i this prolificne"., savs 

oiics[.ontane..u-ly otihred 10 accompany Cap!. \'an quaintly, ' Jo-, ph ('..b-on. in C'he-ter. tweiitv vea'rs 

\di(-t (wli.i was ..ri-inally afipointe.! f. cmmand a-o. had the bh— ii*-_' t.> have hi- wife have tuiiis. 

:,r «lirn rail 
rtt.-i-to l',,Min 

foiiriil :iii 
waiv Ki' 
othrr -id. 

Duke of 



hrV inultil.lie.l ^ 

Tl,e Svvr.lcH o 

.|ili.r-.iii Si'i-iiiL'' 

r l).-.n i-cprnaclird 

.■lin at Sr.:i-,.liuh 

1. tin t 

uT til.' Iir~t iiiiii 

i- tlllli.M Ivr- lino 1 

■n and d 

Tl,i-,l.v<I,nt ill-lud.'tl 

nf tiu' Drhiuar,-, iiiauv 
a-t iKUik hrmi inrhi.i, 
.- (taxal.l,. ,..a-..n- 
York'.- L'ourt at I'lilaii. 

M.itt-, ne,- 

Pe(er»„„6o. ) 

Ay.i. IVr»>ii, L.jn-^uker.... 




oU'f r.iui 


Olnf IvtT 


Eric M.Ik 


AnJere Lock 




Amuiiij Locs 


I;...l).^rt LuiiKlMrii 

n.ins LutM.-wu 

Oc.Ip r«,»i« 

Au.lers Mii 

iits," buya Mr. EJu.und Ani.^truiig 



t,.r vvliicl, r.-lin -ivtstlani. ii^.i- tlii.r t.. ^^l.i^l 
|„.,(;>nn;u.rr-,ntltl.-il»ui. rnin .-avs, " 11,, 
a,,laiM,Mr.m,^in,lu-t,i.,^, p,.,,,,!,.. y.t haw 

lniri-tivr> a<iftl,rv,l,-iiv.l t..l,av. irji, 

.-uiHi-iluitv." H.->i., :;l;s al,-o ..f thrir n~i,r 
■ inilinritv,"a,l.linL'. - As tli.v a.v a i.r,.|.l.. ; 
:,ial stroll- of ImmIv, m. tlicv'liav.- liiu' rluMivi 
ali.M.-t own- house full; raiv t,, tin,! nno of 

.-ix, sevoii ami eiuht xms. Ami I imi.-t 
[hat right, I see few m.ii uioro ~,>l„,r am 
tri..iii."' In sn«ikiii,j of thoir hirk ,.f .li 

"(OUisc with the Imllan.. Tlu'V vvo.v not 
n.on>ovcr. ot ^^oulll n.nva.lavs be 
1 ivniarka'ri. iii.luMrial i':;!,-!!,! i,-o. There 

no doMl.t 'iia; the Sne.h-.— prohahly 
uan.l.Th,- Fl','; " i.,,'ii the S« iron 
■n> ov,.v,l an, I \v,.rkr,l tho ore-lmnks MartoMi Coonti.s. M,k, Ion- before 

of e,l or l'ro„i,,;,, Funia... ti.oiejht ot'. The mill 

U:-,,Ta.. attor-vanls ,.-,:! bv Ta'^,.^a^.l to ahieh hi- ten- 

ilo tl.Mii ant,? -.veie ecn.i»ih d to brim; their e,irn to be 

1 iii,h'.~ grouti'l v.f.s ..rlLi.'-'.ilv -tarie,! b\- tlie S\\edeS to 

ni,ia.,ts fn,m an exeee,lin-ly 

>. laki- and tiJiJ-, naturall'v 


hu^bamlrv, Tenn tbr-ot tliat l.a.lin- no,, The Svv.les, as , -ni: i a;. 

uas toba.Vo, uhi.'h, bein- without >hivr- ahuost ^^e!l-uatere.l rouutrv, mt i 

eiitirelv, tliev ha.l to eultivato uitli their o\\n bav<, .-outkIs riv, ■>. lak. 

hands." Their intelii-enee mu-t have been at least f-r.ovr,! tho v,at.',-e,,ur-es in tlie 'new eoiintry. 

e,|nal to their loyaltv, Ibr tley were more ilian Th.y f.uo.i a Iioiuelik,' -,,i.:ctliin- in tlie network 

fullv representeil, (in tin- ba:-i- 'it' oonijiarative [lOu- of ^tr.^u.l^ I'a' k of l'iun,,iiui Flaii.l ami theiiee to 

ulation, in all the earlv a.-enibii,.-, eounei;-- ami the <,-!mvlUn, and k, l!ie riveis an,l meadows 

magistrates' eouris, under Lovehi.r and I'enn, and aijont Chr.-tiana Cr.-k and tie ilrandywine. They 

tlii'y were the only interpreters I'eun could get in elung 'o those !oea.liti's te'iacio;,-]y, and the only 

■ in Petin's government wliieli rou^eil their 
tmdit and tiireateiied t,> shake their loyalty 

asiho r,o, ,1 «i,.ii a,.-> i.,„i„H i,t-o,i,,,i..-i.M,,r^s.nn,^.,i,^,-w,:>,-^,,,^,,^^,u ,y.;, j]^^^. attempted interference with their titles to 

tiuie'ait. 1 11, r ,,>rn,j , f 1'. iiii. ;>i,,n , i,i, i mil n, j,-,':,i„i iii« ii, i. 04,.! tlicsc laiids and tlic actual rcduction of their hold- 

l!J'f!r '.'V,'' .' ' "', ■ ■'■''";"■'', I';'7'''''"^':: '■',;''';;'■'■';'';'.■■'■■''' ;''^; ingc by thci/roprictary and his a-ents. It is atiict 

c;in,i-|-,., ' ■ ■ ■ ■■ 1 ■ : . ! ■ - tliaf-onw of t li, 'i I' t' 'ni I n ■- we I'l ■ vcr V II 11. ■cvtaiii a lid 

sr.e'.t.'r, -, ., .■::,_,..,■..-,,,. p,,.,,,,i,,;,. i:, the rv,-,.t' plain and detinite Kii-li<h 

m'c",:.\' -.^ . .; /,'/':/::: law. ami pr,,l,ablv thc(loakers mok advama-eof 

IIT'^'\ ' ■■ ;- '- ; VVr! this to aciiulreoch. at titl.> t,.iiiauv verv desirable 

"u^en"!' '. i . ' ■ I .' ' : , ,', :,! „ ■'■.'.,"-- J'iecesof land which tho iiinciid to be in- 

Z"\u" ■ '■■■■■'iV^. v""' -"i'" '"i ,'"•'"" disputabiv their ouu. 'J'he pureha-er- of Xew 

h,!"w,... , ': ' ■■ ,::M;!:,;.i,;y":^:. "TL'sZ.u.i,'i;.,^,::u^Z Sw-edcn tVom the Indian, had vc-lod the title to 

'n'^?.ri,^'.' .V!'|!'.'"'l'!V!r- ''-!''!'''' M!''?,,!!T.,l'n''.^uI'^ the entire tra<-t li,HiL:ht in tlie Suc,li-h crown, and 

.,mti.i,'','' ■ :' ■.'^ ' : -' '!' '':'■'. 'y,.:"i''"''.~;'..' '.,'"":„ this riuiit of proprrtv wa- r,-co-nizod and exercised 

y;;'\ I;, ,'',,:',.',■"''/'''■.:;;',''',.'.'■,:,:'' "V;;. I'v the crown. Tu,, hmd i^rams Inini t^ueen 

ivt'r-.',!,i'r ' -.'-■,>/,:,.,...„:■,'.,;,;"'n'.rN,...,:!,,!' Christina are on rcr,,rd in Tpland Ciurf.oiie to 

"? ui'-i ' ^ ' ^l:M7■^X■ll"l^^^!ll'''^,:::;':'7' ';';'. Lieut. Swen S,-Iinte and Print/ soveral times solic- 

tl'.e',:,,;. !. , , . !., 'u, , ,W-.,;.tiu,; ,.,,;,:,-.", .,v.iii:iT,^ itedagrant t,. lom-clf, u hi,'!, he liually ..btaiiicd, 

p^I,"'!--!'^:-.^"^;'"-''-'^' /^ pa-o^-s wif.. Tho ,.th,a' land-holdrl^ H-cured 

r,'!!nH" VnJ,?,nT'Kvh, .'"r'ni " . K ",'' M ■'"'.' 'i , r:7''' ''"■''' tra<'t< in acrordamc with the lltlh article 

1,,. ,k.s.:„„.i.,:,;,'„f ].:,-,..c. .I,,-', .1 ,i '. , 1.,,:,. - ,,,: 1 ,.iK.r of t],e (^ii-en"s in-tructioiis t,, the " noble and 

n"!;'vi.'h.nUv'Z,,::^!i'!^i.!-nVoi!'"r7i,r!i,'Z Well-born John Print/." [11 this article, after 

"'n'"I'u;. n''".i! 'i!„m''!f'ti!'' n/;>o'^ ";Vi^^,H.""a,u''m'Knj!'i!' i^^veden, and th,- term< of the .-..ntract under which 

is laid down that 

.' ,'.KtemK in len-th 

[!:''^:.r!!'n[''i^'X',o.'i^i.!^^ about thirty ( h-ruian mil, ~, bm in brea.lth and 

unNin.,!^Bn'«!'r''A,,'i!',''.\\!'h'';J-"i!a^ ditloiied that -her Ib.val Ma^-tv^s Mibi,,ts and 

v:'"X'''^^^'^>i'''-^^u<^-"^ hereatter o.vupv as much land a> tlo'V n,av dcHiv." 

'^„''^"^'- Y^;-'' '■;:"'■ '■"■'■';"•■ '^'";';' ' '•'■'^■; ■ Thelamltl,n^b,;u-hlinaMnJ, bI..rkandattachcdlo 

■n,cu«!::„ !';,;,;'; .''M"''7,i-:,n!^;;,!,;,!;',"''''i,"rJ'!n7i:'!'!: the crown wa. ori-inalU- manaued bv the Suedish 

T ■!;X;,,.aKr'^';' TMyXi; ?^'u'm!ui'"n''n^^"l^'l^^ '^^'''^f ^'"'''^ Companv.' The revenue ami imblic 

1,,^ Country, its rulittul f, 
'y\ this tract or district of 


and it w: 


mnuiu- to h:ivo A transcript ..f tlif first L'raiit of 

tolm.'.-o ,,lant..| lar-rlv. In part ti.i~ua~ ac- tlio li.nKv ,,f iIt -tatr ,.t 1 Vlav, an- appears i„ , . 

conipli-hr.l l,v ,-: rvant-'iu.lrntur. .1 to the cuiapan v, "York Roronl-" m tlir nronl, r's ,,(li.v at ]h.^. 

who «,re s,.Mit ov. r au,l pai.l n .oilar wa-cs l.v tlif witli a tran-lali..,, in hin-li-li arroinpan vin- it. 

monti,.' " was -rante.j ni ir.H; l,v \Villian> Ki.-u. l)u,,i,. 

In part the Ian.! wa~ n-ularlv r-onvew 1 t., .■^, t- (ion.ral ot' tla- W.-t In.iia Tonipanv. at N, 

tlfrswho .-.ou-lit to Ix-ttia- thoir ti.rtunc. ; linallv. Aiu-tonhitn. an.l hoars onlv the ,lalo of tlio v.; 

criniinals an.l nia;.la.-tor> uero .-,-nt out t... .-on,..- an.l .-ay- : •■ \\'.-. ..n ih,' .hiv au.l .lal,' r.n.lerwritt, 

extent at tir-t t • hihor in .■liain-Lran..- up^.n the liave p, rniitt.Ml an.l alhrw.'.i Ahrahani I'lanc, 

road.s and pnhli,' v,..rl<.s. 'J'he hm.l .-e.aire.l hv -t- .'-;iin..n K..ot, Jan An.iri. ^-.■n an.l I'.t.r Harnien-. 

tier- an.l .-ervant^- uia. iiad w.,ri^e.l out their term to settle ..n the .S,uth Uiwrof X.-w N.-therlaial ar 

uf vear., was eraiit..! in tl- und.a- -.irant.- whi.-li take |,...-.-ion .,f the lan.l- l^in-on ihe-ai.l >.,i,i 

cmne direetlv.'.r in.linetlv Ironi the er,A\n. The liiver alnio.-t opp..Hte f, th.' -mall i-lan.l .-a]!, 

ditKeuiti...- alnnit titl,-. whi,-h v.x.d the .-Wed..-. S' V,„jrh> Laut i<r JUnl I.u u>l . uf vvhl.h lan.Uth. 

Suedi.-h, Duteh, En-li-h. aial later nn.l.r I'eun's hun.lred ni..r-en ami t.. er.vt th. iv,,n f.,urfarn 

grant.-, all of tli. 


U.- the .-ame will, 
li.^ir riLiht," with 

ur..- ..f or plantati..n- an.l t.. 

their own. It is iii,portant t.i iin.l. r-raml tlv-e vear from the dat.-, 

ditference.s. whiel, have n.,t li.'en el.arlv explained penaltv of fafeilin'j 

bv writers ,,n tl,e suhie.T. ..f \vh..:u ijave jirivih-i^e .,f .-.eurin- land- hy -.•ttleni.'nt.^ 

hastily eonelu.le.l that t!ie land tenure sv-tem in Wdien the Swe.le- u ere e.ii,.|nere.Iby the Dut.'li, 

Pennsylvania oriuinati.l with I'eiin's laws. So far in Uioo, the arthdes of capitulati(jn pive the Swcde- 

as land is concerne.l. I'.-nnV ■• jreat law" ami the who desired t.i leave one year and six weeks in 

subsecjuent enactment- were all fonmled u]ion tl,e which to dispo-e of their immovable property, suh- 

"Duke of York's laws." the titles un.ler which j..Tt, however, to the oath o# allegiance. It wa> 

Penn was parli.adar to .juiet an.l s.'.-ure. -' further provided that such of the Swedes or Finn- 

iMiii,-^ Klin" I, I.e.. ,i„.i M:r-..v... r ■>.-.i ' i tv r.k..i. ,»r per "'h'"" il'J "ot dcsirc to ffo witii Govemor Risin;.'h., 

>n.."ti, ; I ,:: , ■, • : - ,M,:; -;, ■> .i': ..'inj aiid remained vo lu u t a ri I y. sli o u 1 d " have the jirivi- 

^'r";,;;:' , ,, - .!;..> ''..u'l leges of the Au-sbur-(.'." and have a person 

wi,,,t.>. ■:>..[, I, ;,.:;r .■■ M ■ • , 1 1 , .i.. ,:, ..i; ■ : . ; ,t ti,e to instruct them tlierciu." ' 

pl'i,v"'i . ,: . V ■ ■ , I •>,.'.:,rv'ri;!-ii!irV.'r \^Mi-,ii..i ui'.i.'it ; Those who accepted these terms and took the 

iiHS,, , ■ ■ ' ' 1 :.. ' i ■i.-K. -i- r. -nt «itii tip.- i-\ipiii- oath of alleLriauce were : 

r'h'u-r.'!^! ,'.' .^ , .'i . ,',.,": ':•'" ',''.":":,'- "I'.'r I'm.. n't'I, Jan Eckhoff, Constautius GroeiienburLrh, Hamiou 

r'r:'"''-^ -l^nz, Jan IAT Schofiel, Kla.-- 1/^ 

'']'''""[" Thomassen, Limen ."-^tidileu, Lucas — J' 
;,.;;,;;': 0>=» Petersen, Tho.mias S/^ I3ruvu,\Vi 

:re:;„',:-.;c„. liam ^lorris, Gostatlien Anies. 

n!::;.v ;;;;: j':ri;:ev;';;';:;;e""T,,etuj: 'l^.f !,::" ^ :z Mark of c^ ^ uaemt jonsen. 

niuuly iisr,l. It OKU l.e fouuJ in .l"hn .:■; n.ri -i,.a s iiitr ..liicti..ii tu ^ 

.-print .)t AUc.p's -Chan. t..T ..I" ili . fr..> .„. c uf Marvl.iii.l." 
.-..i.l: '• The Form,- of Bin.U.l ■ .s- . .,' ' 1 i.;~ li..|rl,tiire. n.a.le 
!,,, ,,f . in til- v.;.uv,.f . ',r S .\-i.ii_-Jie LorJ King 

iiud St-ule the day ali-J 

bonr.^ shall I 
b..urli.....i, t. 

the .hi- 

■PtiUU, m fatt, l.jnouej many utbei 


a:;ii cr.-TOM- 


to ol.taiti '.111 ill. 111 



.o;i.t t 

i> din 

ore ordered 
-arded and 

-.v;ir au'aiii nmii. t 
hv Col. Ki.-'u:,;-.! 



■ in 



Governor ami C.n 

1 i-i 1 


In ;li 

patents ncrv i,-.-',; 
:mJ Mr. Wluir,. 



.- i.lhoi 

IV, to 1 

-iirvrv were 

i:^sue,i l.v Col. Vi, 
Edward" An-M-o... l:iTo, 


.-. !• 1 

■ ■niwi-- 

. nf tl 


aee and >ir 
le ]irovince, 
to titty acres 


percapiui. Ir, H 
the i::ct U.^t v,;iv 

criior otiioially an 



".irt d 
that 1 

avc- lui 

tilii vt 

and; 1 

attention to 
id their hind 
■ar the Gov- 
lavinir been 

Mark of ^^;;2) Aiidries Jnn.-en. 
Mark of y^ Jon Jn.-ten. 
Mark of /\. Matliys E.-elfi 
Markof__\^ linens Andrie 

Mark of '<^^^ :Mai:en Marten--e. same must lie recorded and settled upon in six 

•^ mouths 01 be torfeifd. Ii: ICSII the New Castle 

. ,-^ r-ou-t i:r.ide a ^inllliar aiin..uii.'.iiient. Several 

:\Iark of ^ |_Z_ Lambert Miehaelsen. niuiaU later the iiih.ii.itnnt. ..f Croiiie Hook peti 

taken up and not settled npun nor imjiroved, the 

Mark of X^ 

ticned the Go^erti. i- to coiit-riii the original Dutch 

grants hold by tin i:i. In lii>'; William Penn save 

iratiel Petersen. i"^^'-'-^ nctiee'that all 1:::m1. ^ra.oed during the^wo 

preceding years niii-t be ,-ettli'd in twelve months 

or forteited. l\v al-o i:a\e twd vears for the pay- 

Of the above, the names of Janz, Jonsen, Stid- raent of quit-rents ai;d r-[al»li,-lird future quit-rents 

den, Petersen, Justcn, Groeneuburgh and Audries- on a basis of cue bu-li> I ut u In at tbr each hundred 

sen were identified for many years with the history acres as before. Froii! ihU n,,,,.. until Delaware 

of the State, and some are still extant. became a Statr, uaii.uus t'or siirvevs ami patents 

When the Dutch settled at I'ort Casiinir a vil- were grant- d by the piMpiiei.ns or bv the commis- 

lage was ordered laid out in the rear uf it ami hits siotier of the Land « Mlin-. 

weregiven by the Vice-Director t.ithd^ewhdd.Mred The Swedes, Imlh under Minuit's and later in- 

them. The Swedes were ordered to,ni/,e in structinns, vere allowed to lake up as much land 
villages, but they olijected and w.av permiti- d to as they coidd cultivai.', avoiding land already 
remain tindi.-tarb. d pmiliii- the vear ami -ix weeks iiiq>ro\Ltl :'i;d that r. -, rved f .r the purjio-ses of the 
granted them in the articles of Jaoi.idatiou. Sweilish West India Company. This laud, so taken 

At the expiration of that pi;riod. on All-ll^t 14, up, was to reiuain to the pe>M.-.-ors and their de- 
iri.jG, Gregorius Van Dyck, ih jmly .-he liif, was scemiants "as allodial and hereditaiv profierty," 
sent as commissary to the Swi dis to inloiiize them including all appurteiiaiier,- and privih l:i-. as"fruit 
in villages or require their removal. .Tune VI, of the surface, niiiieial>, -piin.:-, rivers, woijds, 
li;o7, the Swedes were dinrt, d to .■urn-, utrate at forests, fish,, e\i ii of liiitl-, iJuM-.-iabli.-hments 
rpland, Passvonk, Fuiland. KinL-h-e-iuL.- on the upon water, windmill-, and e\ .iv advanfa-e wliieh 
•• Verdrietige Yloevk," or at some olh.r plaiv alter they ,hall lin.l ,-tabli,-la d or mav e.stablj.h." The 
notification to the Director-General and the onfv condition.-^ weiv alli -iaiice" to the Swedi.-h 

i< pi 

( oinnal.' crown and a pavm.iit of ihree ilorl 

In lliV, and 1(;.-|7 the Dutel, granted a few pa- fmnUn^ Tiii,^ form of ,,„it-rent p. 

wan-ant;, and patents to Sw.des, and many others something of a communal a-peet to the Swedi.-h 

Sue.les whe, held warrant- imdor the 1)1110!^ w.-,v tract- were dehniteiv liouiided and Mirvev.d in t\,e 

Con^tantins Clrorii.nliur-. in li,.r, ; Cla. s P, !er-. 11, -ariier .lays of the settlement, (nnernor Printz 

llarent Janseu, Pieter Harmeuce, Peter Laurence, received no special in.-irm lions in r.-ard to land 

^'ornelis Stoinwyck, Louder Leendersen, Jan Lek- grants further than to > neoura-e aiirieulture and 

hoif, Jau St. Gaggeuaud Peter Laiiren^en, iu IGoT. to u^e his discretion in all matter-, -uided hv the 

When the Engli-h took po-r.-Vmn, in IfiC:;, ail laws, cu,-t. ms and u,-age< of Swed.n. We'juay 

'or,i.,.-..,,„„i„i..sV..,,.„ u„iV,on.,,.„,v„„,. ^"1T»«' !"■ lollow.^l the eolellial sVMem whieii 

K'.n.,n.. i,„.. n,..,,,-, .„.. i,„„i .,,,,1. ivi,,..,„. K,...,-:,i,„o. „,„ wa> alivailv in operation. ( iovone.r Ki-iieJ,'. i,,- 

^'^■^!'m"!Jlu;;!n!n,'t^;';n;U..''t.'":r^ Mnmtion. iVom the Swedi-h Gim ral I -olio::., of 

''.'Klnt".''"a,rl^'ht"rT"'t;;^ po-es.ion to those who purchased land tVom the 

i ll 

a.i 11 
It. ~l 


havr .-1 



it 1 



i,v,i- 1; 


r I'ii. 




IV. in 1, 

i- -cl, 


witirall alK.luil [ii-ivil,-.- 1.11. 1 tnin.'l,i,-r~. - liiit li.) that tl,,. Sur.i 

one to enter int.' |.o--, -i,,u Im; liy <.iii-,iit ..i the paid .miy a in 

governnuMit.r-.i that ii-. ..ii.' !»■ ilcpi-i\-.i| iiu|ir.,|M'i-|y tVi-iit at tlit-.' p,, .--,■,--,'<." Tli.' >u, .|i-li t. iiiiiv, llaar land or ii 

thorctnre, \va.-l,v-i:int fV..n, tli.' .a-..^ n, tlirmi-li the tliiw l..~t p.- 

Governor, the ' .piit-ivnt h,-inu .■..luniii!..! int.. a ,-\ nv l.iw ,.(' 1 

capitali.jli tax. payal.le annually liy h.a.i- ..t'i'ani- al .-fatruimt <i| 

ilies, the only limil.- t.. tracts -rant.'.l hian- that -o.i., ti,.. -«..i, 

they do ti-c-[ia-- nil olht r hnliiin^'- and are i',j|',!|!"i',,"|',,',',., ,',!', ',',',' 

cultivated. Atter the (■■.iniueM of New ."•uv.lm hy ,n,!'.,..iV:'i-',',', i,'!, 

the Dut.di the .<we.I.',- were onl.avd I.. .■o,i,e in, I',""'', , -',••;""'"',"■ 

take the ..ath of all.-ianoe. and have lan.l ZZuW.Tlln- 

titles reneue.l. The Dutoh u.-iv voiv iilural in -■;;;■ -i "•- --" 

their grant.s under 1 )' 1 1 ln..vo-,-a, hut .. a"", .i-m,, .h..,„. i, 

the tenure of lan.l.> wa.~ rhaii-.d. ami a li^.l^ri.'',,','',',,',,'','!.','. 

quit-rent wa^ now iciinired to h.- paid ot' 1 li .-tivers iiii..ibit.ii,fi r.« .u,.i 

per morgen, eipial to :', .; riiit.~ per acre.' -This was „'Mcii"h"",eirT «'^> 

a high rent, ill e.^ipari-m villi ihat whielithe i.eav.v'e,,,,,.^!, wi„.„ 

Sweiies had been pavin-. aii.l with tl..' rents '^:::^t^!^t^!:i''"' 

charged by the English. Be-i.l. s, th. lan.l h 

be surveyed, and the (-...-t ol' siirxey. ii i-mil 

deeds Ihr'atraet .,f JDO or :;.!<» a,iv. wa. oOll or p^h^^i^f Vhv-I)h-,'^-toi^^n ' S.uth "Rive.- X 

600 poun.l- ot tohaee... Many >w..e. were un- [,,, In the proviMonal iii.trneti..n> to hi.ii 

Willing, some perhaps nnahl... to pay th, -e t, .s an.l ,„.,,^,,. ^^ .^^.^,,,j inini.jderate desire f..r la.K 

rents; sonic abandone.l tluir land. , ntn. Iv, ^^^,^ ,,i,.^^,j^,^^ to exaet #froni each nior^ren of 

sold, andmany pa,.l_ la. a..! to th.; maialat... .,,,i,., ,ti,-,,, „,;„„allv. William Beekmau 

thus m fact converting them,-. Ive.- int.. .-| 


After the En-lisli to..k p..s-e^sion la-w ..atl: 

fhe history .d'taxati.m in Delaware dates toth' 
ailmiuisti'ati..n ..f J. an I'anl da.-oiat. w la 

.r t.. Diivitni- Stuyve-ant, January 14, H 

s.-nted a,.n of the -lii-ritf an.l ei.m 

'..r the taxath.u of ev.av Sw^di-h 

alliance and new coiitinnations of title were ;i„:.^,,.i„^ p,„„:^ ,,,„,,,. jh, , j., ,,[■ ,,„ 

required and Love a.v made pat.-nts ,„i,,,; i„„v.ver. were pai.l hv ,,nit-rent~ an.l e.i- 
ery freely, doing all they e.nil.l f. pioiu,,te an.l toms until ICTC. w hen ( h.v, ni..r— reor-aii 

extend the settlem.nts but the Duk.' ..f Y. 

laws exacted a (luit-imt ot'.Jiie bii.-hel oi'win 

one hundre.l acre-. Wheat, a- we lin.l li\- tie- U 

laud rec 

rent likewise) at the rate of " li\-e Luiah r- pi r -i-ip- 

pie,"— five o;uil.ler- p.r .~r-,'/e.y„7 or l.u.-hel, ihirt\ 

sylvania curren.-y, .' to lorty-toiir and on, '-tilth ",i^, ^. .^Z ^i„ "m^,,,:^;,,,! ".„„i' Viroula'wh^ 

ce..ts.--a rent, theretore, of ,i,ni.-(i,ti,. or two- ^,,^,.,;,,,„i _ .;, ;, ^,.-- ^_^ ^ tember. th. 

fifths of a cent per acre. L P, n.i th.. r<.,ailar ^.,,,,,^^,|,i,„ ,,,,., i„.,,ai,t, .1 t.. mak,. li-t.s of all p. v 

quit-rents were a penny por ai'i-.., th,. .onvevaneinu- ^^^^.^ [j.^,,,^, j,^ j.^^.^tj,,,, . > ainiiel 1 and wis ,.oii-t i 

cjstin- iourteen t.. ei.hlren -hillin- p.^a- M,, ,,f x;,,w ta.lh' 1 )i.ti i.t ; Walter Row h> of < ),.p. 

:Charh-R.iiu-.' In Nov ta 
the, ■..Hit nut at' X.'uCa-tle. an.l lai.l. 

per one hun.lre.l aer.s. Ihi. wa- in a.l.hii-.n f. t„ p,, ,,;,i,M„ ■• Wh. at at -. 1^ . att 4 .•ihi, a ■ 

the l.ical tax tor .-..nn 


able,— an.l I 

the .■..iirt> an.l the ma-i-tratr. a-k..-d tbr in- 

■ti..iisin retw.iav n, piibli.. .-har-e-. In repK . 

,1'' the Governor. X..V. -Jii. HIT.;, auth..ri/.. .1 a le^v,.• 

..lie peiinv in th.^ p..iindoii th.' ival .^tat,' - in >.. u 

Ca-tl... lip th.' river and in th.. l.av." To thi.-ll'.' 

nia-i.-lrat..s. on l'..l.. (i, lil77, .1. ■luurre.l, an.l n ■ 

peucestirling, ..r-ixty ,.'nt-...rti,,iiyp..„.v l-.ain- ,^,,^.^,„,^ |,„.,„i..j,,„ i„ „.^,|^^. ,p, ,^.,.^,. ,. p,^. ,,, . 

id the' ami iv-i.-teriii- a. 
V thirtv ^hil^^e-...r-rVeIl .l..llai- aial ti 
itial luivn.ent, an 1 two , I., liar-- annual 

r,ari.-vatt4i.oi.ler- p. r M-hipple. 1 1 
.il.ler.- 4'.,hha..'.. att 

r- p. 

u- |.. 1 i.u.nM .,1 I'.akeattSan.l ilaenn att Ki.tvvorsplh; orKl. 
per treeman-an.l an ....eaM-'nal " war tax .,1 a i„ v,,,^,„t „, .,,i„^ ^,„ p,,,, C.urrant," an.l in 
penny HI the [HiiiiK.l on a valuation wiiieh. m ll)l)4. 



tnicteil Captain Canlwrll, lii-li she 
,-t of tuxiibU's by .Miu-ch 13, li;7. 
■I aimed under these instructions w:: 

I" Ik.' 

Peter Volckeru. 

David i :vtcr hen 

Peter Koe 
Lucas iv;. 
JaTj Enx. 

Iho ArnoM. 
C-.rit V Jim 
J,. I. V 

John Si 







Ig. i ne; 





iimuius i 



}• Pil.liO. 




iwjb Murt'jn. 
John Street. 
Ecjht Tullent. 

Heliiinx LeuiDl* 
Will Scott, 
liendiik Andriei l.i:;l.-^ 
Jan lieri-itz 
Ge.jrge .>!.,. 
Will Je.ic: 
Julin Wutl- 

Erik J.iti.f,- 
John C.Tl.el 
Mach Barun 


Neither tlie magistrates nor officials were taxed, 
although their servants were included in the list. 
Out of a list of 10-S taxabks in New Castle con- 
stalilery in 1683, 43 were owners of land outside 
of the town.' Of these, the largest were Peter Al- 
richsaud Captain Markham, each of whom had 1000 
acres. The estate of the former was probably on the 
Christiana and IXdaware north of Croine Hook ; 
that of Ca[itaiu .Markhiini was north and wc.<t of 
New Castle. Charhs Kiinisey and John Watkins 
had 640 acres each .m the Cliristiana between 
Swart Nutter Island i now N..ii^ucli) and Fern 
Hook, opposite AVihiiin-tijii ; .I...ha William Peer- 
ing, 500 acres ; John Ogle, 4U(.> acres ; ]Mary Block, 
widow of Hans Block, 3o0 acres above Xew Castle ; 
John 3[oll. 300 acres near Swanwyck ; John 
Darby, 300 acres (^~wart Nutter Island) ; Thomas 
Spry, physician and attorney, 300 acres; AVilliam 
iieniber of Pcnn's Council, 400 acres ; 
let, son of Jean Paul Jaci|iiet. l^NO acres; 
look; Edmund Cantu.ll, hiuh>herit[; 
Arn.ildnsDc Lii-rau-e, 300 acre.-. Fif- 
hind-.iwiKTS :il.-o owned hits iu New 
1 ITiin a!~.i h.1.1 one lot. Among 
■ J.ih.i ^I..!l, AnKildu? DcLa- 
1 and J..hann.<.|,. If;us, magi- 
■h, ulio -;ili>( .jUijiiily succeeded 
bciiili ; l^phraim Herman, ex- 


Hai-h, :i 

John Ja. 

on Long 

10(1 acre 

teen of the huid- 

C;u~rle, and Willi;, 

the hit-ouner- «, 

-ran-e, John Cm 

str;Ue.<; ^\■In. \V. 

J.jhn Moll .m th 

i"illiar.i Guest, Willian: Gusiop, Clui^toj.lier Wljitp, \V, 

].j4 histor'x of DKLAWaKE. 

clt-rkof pourt ; DDiiiinie Trs.-pniukcr, tlic prc;Lcht.r ; n..rman, .'..i... r:.nn, .i..i|n nMrnr..i.i, Fm.ims .i. i;mir.^.,ftrr,i, ,i^. . 

Kiiifli. ;>.!,■ I;ii,-t, Innn.r n':ul.-r in lUr .•Inir-li an,! Tl'-^'^Z^ri 'Z!L.^^''. ".\^"<-''^. -. '.Z.:',,"\iuA il'n.C. i: ,. 

»eh...,l,mL-trr; ainl Dr. ( I.Tunlu- Wr-.U. ';>-• n-^^i'--i'y^- ■-" ■•■■;'■,■,';';'■; ''; 'l':,,-':;;:^",'; 

North (Iri-Iiaiia ( 'n't-k <-nii>tal.!ri-v l.a.l .-ixtv- j,:,!" iwi..- v„„', '., 'r.,' v.„i ".• iv..r aim.i,., i;'.,,. 

fiv.: ( )f th<-,, .h.iiM ( )/w aiHi N'ai. i.tmp l;;:X:z\;::,''';::,^y^^^^^^ 

{Ioilii,--w,,rth' ra.-h ..uikmI -loui) a( r,> ; Mm-an I'i'la.e',':. ylh.H,,'lii vi;;,Cr i,„. j.l.'vu a.:y. .r,. \u.u... ^Uu 

Drultt. .'-nil acres ill tlip " lii.ii-lit " on llio Dila- "■'''■"■' -^■'•■• 

^varp; Tlionia. Wallaevtun, ilrputy AwmY tV.-M Taxables on tiip ixTlli .ide <.f Bran-lyuiu 

hi?:; to ICTii, :;-{) ai-rcs, nn While (lav < 'rvk and <-'i-fek: 

100 ,,„ MillC,-,,.k; Courad ( 'onMantinr. :.t;o .i:....b Vm.m rvo.r,^(,,ni. :iu.^ v..,hL.,., ^ M,,.n. jn-i>, ^ 

dev.T, oOO a.-rr-, on I'.randvwine Crcok. o|.|,o.-itp N.- - i,.' :■• •. ....'.;.■ a, ,..„']., ^m,, -i :,,. u -,,.,,.,-, iiu,.:.., 

Wihi.irit:ion; John XonmuTs, in Mill Vvu'k l^^'Z''\C'^i'.l-n.\..^y''>'"".-.''.,.'y^:'.^^ 

H.indnil. ,„. WhiloClav Cr.M-k, thr oiiartrr. uf ", v.k..,c,Mo ii„i..nU>.wn, ii , ,> ii, mm,..-. , ii,.,,,., . , „v, 

... . ; I 1 ,. -,„ \Villmm=..sK.r, A,l..i,. -'....■.■l-..>, llp:i.';.,oha,.n.\V,, li„ 

a Hide ah.ivc it> mouth ; .John ( onn, oUo ,icrf.<, j^.-j 

<m White Ch.y C'.eek in MUl Creek Ihn.dred : taxable, oa the north <ide of Christiana Creek 

Arnoldii.i De La-ran-e. U-iO aere-. ot whie, 

[lortion wa.- in Chri-riana Hundred, \vliere he 

sided ; lirour SinueXM'n, 770 aen-, 4oil of nineh r:^::. .^r, v.inm,,, .Nr..;i .■■-..■^i^i...ri... I'.k.^. ,.. .^ ,,,., 

adjoined tlie e-tate,,f I )e La-raii-e, in ( 'h ri^t ia i.a p!,';;':;:,i:':!r^!l'.';','e'',''. ■' i ",', )"/ ~:'\ ':,'■-■■': 

Hundred, ;shere he lived; Ahrahani Mann, o70 :.u... SiJi.-in.. « .ii:....^| i --, ^ : .^ ■ -.^ - ^ ■ :,>,;:/:,: 

acres on Bread and Cheese Island and west of Kcu .Tmi',M\i.i.''i""'iie, .i.'i..', i;.. . ,^, i i :, -h i- ;, ,i ^1,.= i;r,,i. Uo 

Clay Creek, where he re.sided (he was justice of ^"'';''"'\?.j'/J^™''|-j,i^,''lJ||;Vi/'.|',," ,'' '^\^'^■ 1^ 

the peace two years, and was chosen sheriff iu ry, raid m i .i^i'.ui. ';..i,. i-.,,,, \M,h .n. j:,.i,. -im". ,). i.n i.i.h.'.m 

l^j■S.'!) ; John Moll, president of the court from ''■'''\.^'''"''' '""^'l'"' ,^i'','',';' ^l!''' ";,~, ''','-' Vi' '-' "'i'v'^,'''r\i'' 

1072 to 10«:], 210 acres, in Mill Creek Hundred, 7^l'.h!hu'Xn''v['.''''^^'-u '^'., ,.'u. ''",,i .,',',.; j-' ..ini'V/'. 

above Bread and Cheese Island ; Joseph Borne, ;;^;'y^;Z'^/\Z^'T^^'.u.J'^'^l2^.\'^'^ua^ 

350 acre^ adjoinin- M...!!'.-. Jubn IJ^a'-MMu, W eiLu '.'m.'.'.," .I.lm'e.iuci,,' .lul„i in'inC I'VKT ,- 

In the <-,;n-taMe,y on the north >i.le of Duck '^*^2!'w,h:'I;.^;k''^u1" svn^o'ilX^ 

Creek there were ti)rtv-:-even taxables, of whom " ' i • i /■ o. /^ • r- ^ 

xr AK-ii- "■ . i 1 i,w, Taxables on north side of bt. George s Creek : 

Ilenrv \\ illiams, maunstrate, owned 4nii acres; '-" » 

rnhriim Fli^riirm 1%) acres- I'eter leivard Hendrick raml,-nb,irg, Peter Wutlastou, Johu Moll, Hans naii= 

ci!;;:;;: 11;::,::; B:nlha;no;,k; ;;..;■ ill: ..i..^^^,e..a.. v.,.,„ 

ward Cantuell, 4J.^i aeie.<, a portion ot which was Taxables on the north side of Opponuenoinen : 
at Cantw.dl's llrid-je . n..w Ode^.si ) w liere he lived 
Morris Li,>ion, 7.".0 a.res at a j.laee ,>till known i 
Li.^ton's Point. 

The c.iHtablcry from St. Geor^.:eV Creek to tl 
north >ide of < )|,oc.|Uenonien, had fiftv taxable 
Ainon- Ca^pani- Herman, 4110 acre^; Hem 
William-, maji-liate.l'.-,0 acres; ( ierret Oils ma- 

strate, 452 ari,-; I'.ter Alri.4i, 400 acr-s at .-t. .n„ i, ,1.., JoI,.. w.iu...,, Eii,.- 
An-ustine'sl.aiMlin-; (lal.riel liappe, 1(100 ai 

Hemy \-aMd, luu-, lUDO aen s. Taxables of north side oi' " Duck Creek huu- 


Slapli^a, E.hvaiJ Giblw, Ilenilri 
ie, Bai 

Follow in;:- 1. a li.t of taxables in the 
ilery of New C 


ed " : 

UyarJ. llr.iK,., .Iuli.i ll..r™, Ik-.iry Uevei-. lu. 1,..M W lut-.- 

Acreliu- i- nopjast to his fellow-countrymen in 
callin- them idle. They weiv timid, and tie v 
la.-kcd eniei|.ri-e to euaiile them to ^r.-ipide wilii 
the po.-.-ibililie- of th<- .situation. Thev were .-impi. 


p':L-ant> of a primitive race anil a sprluiltMl rmm- Hence the c.inunon expedient was nsorte.l to ef 

trv, thn.uii in ainon- peeple nf the rw.. rno,-t lui-hrs and nn.le.-n.wth onlv an.l -inl- 

...Vr-etie .MMmMTeial and nieivantilr natiM-,. the lin- the hirir-r tree., whirh were l.'ft tn ~tand h-itle.-s 

„.,rld ha-ever>een. They uvre anmn.- -;raM.-,av. and dead tdl th.^y'd and fell, « hei, the h.-.s 

.-nedesennhlnnt under-tand. 1 1 i- no" u..nd.-r that ndU'd into pilr. .and hiirnl. It ua- dithenlt t/. 

tiirvshnuld have<hrankliaek,heuild.r.d,and eon- ph.vv hetueen and anion- -o .nanv trnid<- an.l 

t, nied theniselve.s uith Mnall firni. in' retired Mnnijis, and this led the Svvdr.. in nnlrr further to 

,,. i-hliiirhoiiils. l!ut th.-e Miiall farm-, affr the eeononiizo iahor, to r.-i irt to a sv-tmi of Im-Kandrv 

.-sve(le,s .settled doNNn npon th were w.-ll and which still, in a -real .n.asiire, Ve^ulal.- the piieh- 

hihoriously tilled, an.l, small tlioii-h they wcr.-. we in-an.l rotation ..f.r..|.- in th.' 1 J.lawar.. Marylan.l 

h.ive the acknowle.l-iii.ait of the >w,.i.- th.-ni- aiui Vir-inia p. nin-ula. 'fli.' -ronn.l wa.- .hand 

-, Ives that thevviel.h.l a .■..ndorlal.le Mipp.aT. with in the winter, an.l, unle- toleev,, wa- ur.iwn, 

u L'o.idiv surpin- .'a di voar i..-i.i,- t.. I,--,, lar-e the "new -,-onn.l." as it was ,.all,.,p plante.l in 

an.l rapidlv in.-r. a-in- f.mili.- uhi.-h aitra.'te.l e..rn in the sprin- The pr.H-es-, whi.-h is known 

William I'enn-s att.-nii.m an.l cunmaii.le.l his as '■ listin-" ^vas t.. throw tu,. ,„• i\nu- furrows t.i--.;th.'r. \<v phiwinir up an.l .lown th.- ti.d.l 

d'he hur^bandry of th,' Sw.mIcs was homely, hut insi,,a.l .,f ar.iun.l it, havinu a series ..f rid-es with 

it was thorough, ddi.' which they chietly an unplowed s[)ace between. Th.' ,-.>il .>f the rid^as 

tilled was light ami kin.lly. In the b.Xtoiiis, was pulverized with th.' hairow and then 

-waiiips, and marshes aloii,' th.' streams, which the stepped otf' into hills about timr apart, the 

Suedes knew quite as well as the Dutch how to corn-planter dropping his tive grains in each hill, 

.lyKe and convert into meadows, — the Brandywiue scooping the hill out, dropping and covering with 

III. 'a. lows are to this day famous as exam[iles of re- a heavy hoe, — a siin|il.^ operation wdiich exjierts 

claimed lands, — the soil was deep, ri.di aiel v.-ry dispatched with tw oti.m- ..f the implement. At 

pru.luctivc. The earlier Swedes di.l n..t s ,\v the the last working of th,' i-oru, when it had grown 

cultivated grasses on thes,' mead.iws; they ,-iiupiy stout and waist or luva-^-hi-li. the " mi.ldle" of the 

.lyked them and mow I th. n.irural -ra-. pla-.iting li-ts were out an.l th<- fresh .arth thn.wn 

e..rn and tobacco, an.l -owiiii: wli.'at wherever it ab.uit th.- r. ...its of tlie vigorous planl. This "li.-t- 

was dry enough. Acreliu,- .-|..ak,- ..f th.' high price in-" pr...A-ss wa- fnin.l ex.-elleiitly u.-ll suited to 

which these lands brought in his t inn- — --ix hun- the low. Hat Ian. Is ,,f tlie jienin-ula. as, besides 

.livd dollars copper coin [sixty .l.iUar-]" saving lah.:ir. it attijr.led a :• ut .jt' i-asv drainage, 

— wdien thoroughly ditched and reclaimed, th.jugh the bott.mi of every furr..w luan- a small ditch, and 

cnistantly liable to inundations from the tunneliu- this enabled the fann.u-s i.i plant their corn much 

.if the muskratand the craytish. The Upland soils earlier than they otlua-w ise .■.lul.l have done. When 

\wa-e excellently adapted to corn, wheat and tobacco th.- i:-.)rn had gone through the '• ta.sseling " and 

when they had been cleared. The forest growth on ■■.-ilkiug" processes and the ear was fully developed, 

these soils comprised the several varieties of the "bla.l.js" were pulleil and the "tops'" cut for 

American .jak familiar in the .Mi.l.lh- State-, the f ..l.ler. In S. pt.-mlu-r th.- -r.-un.l was li-htly 

hlaek.walnut,ch.-tnut,hi.-kiu-y, p..plar.tulii.-nv.-., pl.,w,l with .-mall ^h.-vel-pLiw- (as v..-t the "culti- 

s.i-afras, cedar, maple, the gums, l.,en-t. .i.,_'Wo,»|. vator" was n..t, ami s.iwi.l in wh'eat. the stalks 

wil.l cherry, persimmon, button-wo...!, -[,;., .-w 1. b. iii._r br..ken .l.iwn after fr.)st with the hoe or by 

pine, alJer,"hazel, etc. The forests -jave tie- >w, ,lis rimuin- r.dlers over tii.-m. Wli.-at thus s.iwed on 

n,u,-h tr..ul.h-, an.l und.mbt.-.llv ha.l an intlueuce er>,..r- ;:; ■;. ,: ti,,. u,n,..r u,,...-, „, .; .. : ..„,. 

HI th.-m.Mh-.,f,-uitivation Jmpi..y,-.i. The cost l^;';,,':' '' ,,' ^. .'^ '':"'"';'";;;"'!'"-' \'' ■ ■• ":7 

of lab.u- ma.le it difiieult to cl.-ar tia- thi.-k woods.' h^,u''u.<^ ; '' '■;, .-, ' -.I'^e'-v",."'!,':' le . ' ,.]':..'.'.:'■[[''; 



riiliiPS vns so well [ti-otpctcd liy 
frdstaiid '• wintcr-killiiiL^" lliat ii 
peninsuhi r^till tliT-..w tin ir \ilica 
rowsevru uliriv th.'V ll-r,lrili. 

ulieat wasnot ,-o\vr,i,m tl.r .■nr 
was not sowcil in the i-|iiiu_', tlio -talk-llrld wa.-r 
sumniei--f;illo\vfil. Imiiil' plnwr,! in May, July iiml 
again l)ct'orc st-i'liiiL'. Tin- wlirat was cut with 
sickle?, bound in anil cliinw u iiiin "dn/,,ns," 
each shock hein- vKi<rrivd u. virld a lin>lH_l. Uyv, 
wheat and oat^ wnc tliia>li.-d with llaiK. and llie 
former, sowed iu NnvmilH r, was a tavmu,' cni]) 
with the Swedes, the soaw Im in- ^^nietiiiH ~-liiii|,eil 
to Europe. Buckwheat wa.sofien -..weil nu the rye, 
wheat or oats stahble, the irrain heiiiLT um d td feed 
stock. Flax and oats were s(iwed iu tic spring, 
either on the curn-Lrreund or -tulil>li-ti, Ms. Pota- 
toes were planted on the hare -mund and covered 
with the li.stiug-plow. Sweet ].(>tat.ies, however, 
were planted in hills after the Liround had h> en deep- 
ly furrowed. Turnips were not uiueli sown, except 
on new ground, and tobacco, in Acreliiis' time, was 
only planted on such tracts or in the gardens. 

The implements were few and rude, as were also 
the apparatus of the farm animals. The plows 
often had wooden mould-boards, and were not capa- 
ble of working deeply ; the harrows were of the 
primitive triangular shape, and the oxen or horses 
working them were attached by means of double 
links to the apex of the V. The ox-yokes had 
bows made of bent hickory-wood, the horses' traces 
were of twisted deer-hide and the collars of plaited 
corn-husks. The rest of the harness was home- 
made, of the same serviceable deer-skins, and the 
farmers and their lads, all Ibnd of riding ou horse- 
back, were content with a bear or deer-skin girt 
about the horse, with a rawhide surcingle in lieu of 
a saddle, imitating the Indians in dispensing with 
stirrups. Beans, punipkins. sipuxshes and melons 
were commonly planted in the hills with the corn. 
Much cabbage was ])roduced, but the variety of 
other vegetables was limited to onions, p«as, beets, 
parsnips, turnips, radishes, poppers, lettuce, pepper- 
grass and scurvy-grass, with a lew herbs, such as 
chamonule,sage, thyme, rue, sweet marjoram, laven- 
der, savory, etc., to supjily the domestic ])harmacy, 
or afford seasoning for the sausages, liver-puddings, 
head-cheese, etc., which were made at " Iiol'- 

Penn,in his letter to the Free Society of Traders, 
speaks rather disparagingly of the orchards of the 
Swedes, as if they declined to profit by the pecu- 
liar adaptedness of their soils to fruit culture. Yet 
they must have been the first to naturalize the ap]ile. 
the cherry ami the poach on the Delaware, and 
we must give them the cr.dit of haviic anticipaicd 
the cherry and apple orchard- ot' lla.-t.i-n l\iin.-yl- 
vania and Cumberland \'alley, and the grand [.each- 
tree rows for whii.h the streets uf Gerniantown became 

raiiKi'je from 

fa UK a 

IS. It 

was a 





V Sw.- 

de-,' w 

ho pr, 


iid iniMcorn- 
a it. Where 

• level 

it is L'i-o 

ir hest 
wii in 


ind, and oats 


a fain 

ilv .,f I 



he .Middh' ^late-, aiic 
Sucle.v who ,,,ri, 
cultivated the pea.h hv wliojcsilc, an.l mad,, it; 
article uf coniuurce. The pcacii-tivc 
came to Delaware from Marviand. liavin- tiav, ;. 
along the coast from the early Spani.-h .-, ir: 
ments in Florida ; hut it has nowlnae hccoui,. . 
coniph-telv naluiali/od, .-o hcahhv, so pio.hictP. 
of hu-.., .su.Tulent, dcliciou.- tniit' a> in the cu,,: 
try widc-h the Surd., iir-t reclaimed from t: 
wilderness. In the time of Acvdiu.-. the pea. 
was supposed to he indi^-.'iious. and was cultivat. 
so extensively as to he reliei.1 upon as a staudai 
food for swine. 

Domestic animals increased verv rapidlv amen 
the Swedes. They imported their own milch kii 
and oxen in the first instance, hut they fuiin 
horses and swine running at lari;-!- and wild, man 
having escaped into the "backwoods" from ti 
Maryland planters.^ These horses had a gm 
touch of the true Barb blood in them, as desceiu 
ants of Virginia thoroughbred sires, and they wn 
probably crossed with pony stock from Swed. 
It seems likely tliat it is to this cross and the wil. 
halfstarveil ex isteuci? they have led for two Inn 
dred years, living on salt grass and asparagus ai. 
fish, bedding in the sand and defying storm an 
mosquitoes, that we owe the incomparable bret 
of " beach " or Chingoteague ponies, fast, wiry, tn 
as steel, untirim:-, sound, with hoofs as hard as in 
and spirits that never lia::. Acrelius noticed thci 
acutely. He wouhl not have been a parson if 1 
had not had a keen eye for a horse. He say 
" The horses are real ponies, and are seldom foun 
over sixteen hands high. He who has a go. 
riding horse never employs him for draught, wliii 
is also the le;s neee.-^ary, as journeys are for ll 
most part made on horseback. It must be tl 
result of thi-, more than of any particular breed i 
the horse, that the country exct'l:, in fast horses. .- 
that horse-races arc often made for very hi- 
stakes. A good horse will go more than a S\\ci 
ish mile (>ix and three-quarters English miles) i 
an hour, and is not bought for h>s than ^ix hui 
dred dollars copper c^oina-e - i.hxiv dollar- 
The cattle, says Acrelius. are middling, yieldin. 
wdien fresh and when ou good pasture, a gallon i 
milk a day. The U[ilaud meadows abounded i 
red and white clover, savs this close observer, hi 
only the first Sudi-li ,-eitlers had .-tabling f -r (Ic 
stocks, except Lu ca-es of exceptionally good liii 


liaiitlrv. IIor^es, cattlt/, sli(p]i and Iki-s r:in out u[i, \\i 
nil the tiinr, iM.iiv.r inci--4 at i.i-l.t, ainl m-uu- fiiiKra!: 
UMKS Au:lU'Vvd Hi .Mvnv v.,ailur. I'lirv unv, 

l','a,.kwh>'at, ia a.i.liri..„ i„ f,„l,I>-r in uint.r, the 
i;„„i of milch cous luiii- iiran nr otlur -n.iuKl 
niill-stutr. Aorrliu^ .-iay.-. in hi., dry, humorous 
way, " the inan-jervant takes care of tlic loddfriu^^ 
,.f the cattle, whilst the house-wife and wonieu- 
fiilks roast themselves by the kitehen fire, Joubt- 
iiiL' whether any one can do that better than 


- and alUpiee; 
.Id.d; ■•>amp- 


Tlie e\eelleiit Sweili-h pastor was a eonnoi-seur 
in drinks as well as horse-tlesh, and he has eata- 
lou'ued the beverages used by tlie Swedes with the 
accuracy and minuteness of detail of a manager 
of a rustic fair. After enumerating the imported 
wines, of which Madeira was the favorite of course, 
he describes, like an expert, the composition of 
sangaree, mulled wine, cherry and currant wine, 
and how cider, cider royal, cider-wing and mulled 
cider are prepared. Our reverend observer makes 
the following commentary upon the text of rum : 
"This is made at the sugar plantations in the 
West India Islands. It is in quality like French 
brandy, but has no unpleasant odor. It makes up 
a large part of the English and French commerce 
with the West India Islands. The strongest 
comes from Jamaica, is called Jamaica spirits, and 
is the favorite article for punch. Next in quality 
to this is the rum from Barbadoe.s, then that from 
Antiguas, Moutserrat, Xevis, St. Christopher's, etc. 
The heaviest consumption is in harvest-time, 
when the laborers most frei|uently take a sup. and 
tlien immediately a drink i.f water, from which 
tiie body pierforms its work more easily and per- 
spires better than when rye whiskey or malt liquors 
are used." Rum, he tells us, was drunk raw, or 
a.s egg-nog (" egg-dram"), or in the form of cherry 
bounce or billberry bounce ; " punch," our learned 
author says, " is made of fresh spring-water, sugar, 
lemon-juice and Jamaica spirits. Instead yf lem- 
ons, a West India fruit called limes, or its juice, 
wiiich is imported in flasks, is used. Punch is 
always drunk cold ; but S'lmetimes a slice of bread 
i- toasted and placed in it warm to moderate the 
cold in winter-time, or it is lieated with a reil-hot 
iron. Panch is nup-tlv u>i.-d ju^t before dinner, 
and is called 'a nicri.lian.' ■' ' 'The (jlher pn-para- 
tions in which rum was an ingredient iududcil 
-lAd/HHi (mum), made of water, sugar and rum 
(,'■ is the most common drink in the interim- of 

llnlt-l-n>. uarni.d bc.-r with rum : 

s.m,- warmc.l ci.h-r with nini added; -n.- ; --lin-" 

or "long ^up." half-and-half .M\cct.ncd rum and 

"SiHibuir is niadc hkc the ,-~wedi.-h -," of 
milk-warm milk, wine and water, — a cooling bev- 
eniL^e in summer-time; "still liquor" was the 
country n;une for peach or apple brandy ; whiskey, 
our author says, "is used far up in the interior 
ot the eountiv, wheie lum is \er\ deir on ac- 
e unt of the tr xu>i)Oit itiou " The peoj le in the 
ti\ n dimkbtcr md ^m dl bftr ui the c uutry, 
-pruce persimmon bee 1 ind me id Le i I s this 

tlie countrv, and 
k-ei,er");" "Man;; 
>u-ar; " titf " or " 
the aihlition of a 
bread; hot rum p 


p nianv a tavern- 
all beer, rum and 
e as fore-oln-, with 
a^ted and huttere.l 
and water uarm.'.l 

r 1 


there are numerous liquors. Tea was commonly 
used, but often brandy was put in it, cotl'ee was 
coming into use as a brcakfa«t beverage, the 
lierries importecl from ^Martinique, San Domingo 
and Surinam, and chocolate also was not ne- 

i-re issued by the State to 


In spite of all tlicso li.|i 
dill nut IU'-lr,f 'I'l,, 

supper, the lattrr <„wrUnw^ 
TIktc wa, no -,-, at of .li 
M-ere serve,! were Mil,>t:iiitial ; h 
roast beef fowls, -with eahl.a-e 
was oue bill of tare: n'a-t iiuit 
potiitoes or turnips, another ; a I 
pasty of (leer, turk,-y. ehiekeii-, p: 
a fourth, beef-steak, veal eiith.t,~, 
turkey, goose or fowls, with jiut 
"stewed ureen peas, Tmki-li bea 


the earlv 


and all the 

ehiii'.nfys smoke!. In sorue hou- - 

■ ,als w,.re 

four a 

straw .arjiets 

w:e to he ibund. iiut the furuitur. 

■el.H.k pie. 

■e" and 

was ah\a;.-s -ii 

luoh.' a'l ! p'-i:)Uti\.\ made (if coiuUr-,- 



w(H.;!^. ^vith •■ 

r.w a!,d ih-u a m-iho,;a!iy piece. Tli' 

-!,.■.-. but - 

■ueh as 

el-ihin'j: was 

lil:d:., (■eeii,-tl,' linou lieinir worn in 

lani, b.rt' 


^^nmuwi- ami < 

lo.n.-'ie wn,,iens, ker.-ys an,l lin., v- 

set round 


ih winter, vi; 

:h ^omo ealieoe- an.t i'.ittous of im. 

ttoii or vea 


I..vted ,to,-ks 

. Th- domo-ii,- (deth wa.> L'OO.l iu 

third iniLd 

u be a 



badl\ d.ed. I'or tiller oceasion- 

irtridi'es m 

]ibisu ;U)f' sat! 

n Wi'M - eilr'MI.e- WiU'U. OuT '_'( m „ | 


"!'■-■ '"" 

pursov, l;y wh 

iose oh.rrvation. we have been j.rotit- 

[aloes set : 

iuts, nolri the 

proL'r">- iiixurv !iad been makiiii: 

n- or SOU' 

e oilier 

nnion;r the S-, 

ved"-. !b- -ay- 

•r eraubii 
•he,,se and 
n-v meal.' 

■rv Tih- 


• For 

'Thu iinie, witli 
. , . Fornifriy the 
ni, fm.t in ciiurdi 

;n fifl,- .. .-arj ;.re ,13 rh.-ia-ed as ni-ht i3 from d^iy 
; r.i.vv U,e ywintr, ,w «^-ll a, il.» uM, must \w u|,u„ 

'•form an.,th,r eour.e. W 

are added, one ha- an 

breaktar-t. tea or eoli;.', with eidpped herf in i::;;;''' ' ' ' \'';,'.;'. '"il.^i't^v'mslu^^ 

summer, m lk-toa<t and liuekw lieat-eake- iu winu r, ili ■ ;, ,i : perscns win b^ ijk- i ; ■ 

the '■ four o'elock pieee " beiie.:- like the breakfast. !.]l>,»a -;arir>/i'l -t ,ft !XiUM?o"hc-i-iimr.v tiipu iv.iira.ii'io'fllmi'- 

ChoCOlate Wa.s commonly tak.n with ,-UppiU-. The '"'s in 1,.«- lj,: l:ou,.<, ivh-ro tlic chlmnp.v win nisdo of Slick. 

Swedes used very little soup ami very little tish, tb're'o*uiit'r'jVThen\he.l\L!.d\ir,xudb^^^ 

either fresh or cured tbey livtd ;>pon grits and nm.-h, now upon f^ii, cutl'ee and chocolate." 

■■ The^meiit of iii.aN ;im..,i^. r„ui.tiy r-opie ia uiimii.T this : for Stray hints of the Simple maiincrs of these primi- 

i!o7tl^,'^^nd'"c.'M^'!!!.''r'"''l,,'''um'.''' !''H,a'' Z''\ nMit'^'l^u'rVrnT'e' *^''^'^ '^'"'^®' '^"'^ °* ^^^^ honesty, ingenuousuess and 
h.'iiiiov and 11:, -:; I 1. .,..', I ; . ;, siHiiiiRT '«i,.j..i ' qiiauit i-eligious, faltli of the people, croj) out now 
drluik'ur' .■'ii.M . - ••v.^hnTeat"'dded !i"d t'-u ID the accouuts whicli Acrelius gives of 
Wff and I..V .ill «:,,.. ,i i,, i.,,-,i i:.. ; uiKi,h ijoaiis' large ihe cliurclies aud lus predecessors in tlieir pulpits. 
l!^M^ef One'or1u,rn;\h:;;fa;l'Shutc7aronodth^^ Wliui the " Upper scttler^ " and " lower sottlefs " 
hoiieii or baked iiuddiii-. dumplings, bacon and eggs, pies of apidea, ipuvrreledi about the phiei' fur their iicw churcli, 
chemes, peaches, etc."i ^^^^ Wioaco carried tlie day, the lower settlers were 
The land was ^o sittled in the time of Acrelius placated with a flatdjoat, maintained at the 
that eaidi hail hi- -eparati; ^roiinil, and iiio.-tly expen.-e of the conLi'reL^ation, to ferry them over 
fenced, in. '• So far as po-ibh the people took up the Schuylkill. The church wardens kept the 
their abodes on navi.:ablie-tieaiii-. -o that tlie tiirms keys of the l.ioat. This was the begiiming of the 
stretched from the water in >hiall ^tl■ip- up into church "Gloria Dei," so venerable in the eyes of 
the land. ' 'I'he Suedes u>ed boats a threat deal. I'liiladi Iphians. The pastor's pay was sixty pounds, 
Thev alwavs went to ehureh in boats if the ice the sexton's ei'_dit pounds. If a man came drunk 
permitted, and they had a .irreat quarrel with to chnn h he was fined flu-ty shillings and made to 
Franklin, to whom I'enu had given the iiioiiupoly do public penance. The penalty for " makiiiir 
of the Schuylkill Ferry, because he \voidil not Kt si)ort of God's word or sacraments" w;is tive 
their boats cross without ])ayinL' toll. The houses pounds tine and penance. For untimely .►•sing- 
were solid ; in Acrelius' time inostlv built «d' briek iug, tive shilliuL'^ tine. If one refused to sub- 
or stone, but earlier of lo-s, ottiu sipian.d oak lo-s, niit to this kind of di.-ripline he was excluded from 
not often more than a .-tory and a half liijh. The the soeiity and hi,- body could not be buried in tlie 
roofs were covered with oak or cedar -liiu-lo-; the ehurehvard. d'lie pa.-tor and wardens looked can- 
walls plastered and whitewti.shed oner a year. The fully at\er botr.nhal- aud marria-es. The whol.- 
windows were large, often with hin-<d fraims, but congrcjation were catechized and also exaniimd 
very small panes of glass when any at all w;is used, npon the contents of the sermon. There wereabo 
fui Riming or oiii.r di.=„rd.ri ami oiiiin!v«,di II,.- i:ov.,' ii„. Stale. "si)iritual examinations" made once a vear in 
T1I.-I uo I ,::,-,; -.:...,.^.iu,c..,u-k..e|,.r-^ f^imilics. Faeh chun'h ha.l its ::1, In., the" 
8i„i,;- .,11. ■ ' . .|.|,iit_v, ]..T ,;ili, 11./'. ; do ,' interior fromwluch was tile pa.-t, ,r'.-, \v ho :il-ii received a 
qoiiiio, ; . I ■• ,', I ii.^o :■•. i...v„iMu,,^ij,ther Hifenorunn-i, i«.r considerable ,-uni from fiiie-rals, marriages, etc. 

" '" ' ' " The churcli lull wa.- -u nil- ill a tree. Aiiioul: the 

fixtures of lli,' piu-oiiae'- \\as a ne_'ro w, 
lon-iuL' to til- eoii-iv.^-aiiiiii aii.l iii,-lii,|,.l in tin- 
invent, ,rv ,.f J, 1,,- prop,atv. \Vli,.u .-h,' u-rew ohl. 
••coiitiarv"ai„l"u-.-le-,">l„. «a- soKl tor seven 
shilling.-. When the Ohristina Church wa- re.tond 
tiiere was a trreat leti^t and a general revival of in- 



(, rf~t in the uncieiit Swr. li.-li uuvs. .M;itinj were 
|,>1,| at (■liri.-tiii;i.s I'.a-l.r ;iiH i'uitr.'o.t : -ai- 
l.ui.lcd liglit.s ana ^i.l,• liL'iiH uf i.ii.r «,M„1 i\n 
Chri.-tnias services, aiiJ ini.lal paii> came to the 
„ rvices ill the church N\uh .tunm,.- an.l ^arhinds, 
ti„.ir hair cli-esM.l alter the nl,l-tm,e S^v,,!i^l. .„- 
tM,„. An.un- the new regulations ol IVt..r II.-s- 

a.Tu.s the churchvar.l, another lorhi.hlin:: them to 
-iriLr as if tiiev were eaUin- tiieir eow~/ People 
»ithhar..h v.^ice- were onhre.l to -tand mute or 
" sin,!,' softly." The Chri-tina (.■hiir.'!i ound to\ui 
lots ill Wiimin-to,,, aid ii-e.l lo hire out it. " pall- 

I'or burying- a gruun jier.-on was twelve jluliings, 
cliiklreii half-pi-ice. 

The .Swedish pastors were generally learned and 
accomplished men, who exerted themselves suceess- 
t'ully in directing the minds of tlicir congregations 
to the necessity of education. The original settlers 
were ignorant people, few of whom could write 
their names. Even La;?se Cock, airent for Penn 
and Markliara for twenty years, could not at rii>i do 
hetter than sign his "mark" to writings. The 
I )astor.«, however, always made a lirave stand for 
eihicatiou, and were the means of preventing tlie 
Swedish tongue in America from sinking into 
ohlivion. They al.<o maintained as many (jf tlie 
"hi observances and religious ceremonies as jiossi- 
ble, such as baptism soon after birth, an actual 
in-^tead of formal sponsorship on the part of the 
•.'od-pareuts, the old service of the churching of 
women, a general attendance upon the service and 
sacrament of the altar and a return to the ancient 
I'orms of betrothal and marriage. "The old sjieak 
of the joy," says Acrelius," with which their bridal 
parties formerly came to church ami sat duiin- 
the whole service before the altar." P>urials were 
>olemu occasions, but lurd tlieir fea>ts as well. 
The corpse was borne to the grave on a bier, the 
pail-bearers, chosen from those of the same sex 
and age of the deceased, walking elo>e aloui;,-,ide 
and holding up the corners of the pall. 

A few of the loa cabin.s occui 

live Swedes are said to be still staiidinir. ^\'a;~on, 
in his " Annals," descrilies one of the better ela>s in 
Swansou's house, near Wieaco. John Hill !\[artin, 
in his" History of Chester," recalls two or three of 
these ancient houses. They wne very rude atlair.-, 
with seldom more than a livin:; room with a lott 
over it, doer .M, low that .me had to enter -toopin-. 
wiu.luwssmalls^uaivhole,- cut in the lo--, pn.'e. ted 
by i,-ingla.<s or oiled paper, or thin stretched i)lad- 
ders, often with nothing but a sliding board shut- 
ter.' The chimney was in the corner, of sticks and 

clav, or -and.-tone blo.ks, -en, rallv imilt out.-ide 
tla" house. The tirst Swede ^etth■,- imitated the 
Iielian. bydre-Miii: in^kin>al)d weai in- moeea.ins. 
The wiam'u'.- jacket.- and pettieoat> and the bed- 
clothes were ,.f the same materials. The fui- were 
by and l,y .-upei>eded by leath.-r breeelies and 
jerkin.-, wliiie the w.uni'ii spun, wn\e ur knit tin ir 
own wool, n war, a.- w,-ll as tlu- lin,n for .-um- 
nier. Tile Wonmn, ol,l ami mani, ,1, w,,ie h,.,,d> in 

girls Went uni.-i.ivi'ieii ex,'i-pt in the h,.it ^iiii, dre.--- 
,n_^^^.ci. a un, m ^ xe 

The jtroof of the in,Iii-tiy ,,f the earlv Swedes is 
to be sought in their w,,ik,-. They were a scattered, 
ignorant race, with la, ,apital, few tools and no 
occupations but tlio.-e ,,t' hu-l)an,lrv and huntin'.i. 
They were ,inly a tlmu.-aml >ii'iii- when IVnu 
came over, y,-t they lia,l ext,.iiil, ,1 their settlements 
over a tract marly two htm, lied miles long and 
seven or eight milis d,,']), building three churches 
and tive or -ix bl,„k-hoii.Hs and forts, clearing up 
feu'ests ami diainin- .-wamps to convert them 
into meadou Ian, I. fhey had discovered and 
worked the ir,in <lepo,-its of ^laryland in two or 
three places. They had built ab-mt a hundred 
houses, fenceil in much of thiir land ami ma,le all 
their own clotlies, inip,>rting n,itliini: but the merest 
trifles, beside? arms ^-yid ammunition, hymn-books 
and catechisms. They had built grist-mills and 
saw--mill5, having at least fntr of the latter in 
operation before Penu's arrival.- .Vccordiiiir to 
Ferri-, however, the frame h,iuse in which Gov- 
ernor Lovelace entertained r;,-,irge Fox in 1672 
was made entirely ,if hewn timbers, none of the 
stuff being sawed, the mortar and cement being 
made of oyster-shell lime ; the hoii.-e it^lf was 
built of brick. Governor Print/, f,,iin,l a wind-mill 
at Christiana in 1043, but h,' savs it never would 
work. t')n the other si.le ,,f the riv,a- there were 
hor-e-mills. One at South Amboy in ICs.-j, it was 
estimated, would clear the owner £100 a year, 
the toll for grin, ling a " Scotch bell " (six bushels) 
of Indian corn being two shillings sterling, equal 
t'l one bushel in every iimr and a half But prob- 
ably more than half the early settlers had to do as 
a primitive denizen in Burlington reports himself 

h< view the pliice, wtiich consialwi "of .inly forty or fifty houses." Thoy 

■Ili=,l.„vof M.,u„fa.tur,s 



as (Idinrr, pouniliiiL^ Imlinn I'urri niio day tor the 
iirxt. In Ulsi), tv\o vars l.c-frnv I'.nn' 'I'liMiLas 
Olive lui.l tini-h.'.l hi. nat.T-inill at 
Crerk, ami R-lu i-t Sia.w hi- at Tr. ntmi. I'riiitz 
mill on Cul.b'.- Cnvk was huilt in lU):;, an.l Cam- 
paniiis reports it a- (loin.:' adniiiahli' woik. Joo-t 
Andriauscn A C'n. huilt a -i-i-t-niiU at N\-w Ca>tle 
in 1CG2. In 1U71 there was a pro]„,-itiMn made 
by Newcastle to erect a distillery for LM-.-in, but tlie 
court ne,L':itived it. exet'pt tli" 'j-rain be " nntit to 
grind and boult," breaii-i' thr prn.ess ..f di-tiUln- 
consumed sueh "an ininn n-e anmunt at' •.'lain." 

Ilallam is ri;^hr in savin- tiiat "No eliapt.-r in 
the hi.storyof national niannrrs wnid.l illu-trate sn 
well, if duly exeeuied.thr prn-n ss ,,f sorial lit'.- as 
that dedicated to dome-lie arehite.-tiire." After 
the saw-mill the brick-kiln tMlous naturally and 
rapidly. Hazard proiluces a pi lition t.i New Anistel 

an<l had a Frenel, vi'.-i 
experiment failed. He 
ever, at IVnnsbury, s 
more successful. 

( iovernor I'l-imz was 

1 to ten.l it, hut If. 
d a brew-house, hov, 
standin-, which '.^■., 

V instructed to 




court, in lOoG, from Jacobu- Crabbe. referring to 
a plantation "near tin- eornor uiieri' bri<-ks and 
stones are minh and bakrd." The Duu-li intro- 
duced brick-makinLC on till' 1 )ila\\ari . the Sweiles 
being useil to wooden lioii-es in own country. 
The court-house at Upland, in which, it is said, 
Penn's first Assembly was luld. was of brick. 

The f«wedes not only made tea of the sassafras, 
but they made both beer and from the per- 
simmon, and small beer fr.nn Indian corn. Kalm 
Siiysthat the brewing and di-llHinj were conducted 
by the women. The Dutch had several breweries 
in the settlement about liiiJ-J Collec was too high 
to be much used in the -cveiiieenth centurv. Penn's 
books .show that it co-t ci.dit.'eii shillin-s and six- 
pence i.ound in New York, and that would buy 
nearlv a l>arrel of rum. Tea fetched fi,.m tuentv- 
two to iit'cy shilliiejs, currepcy, a pound. \Vil- 
liam Peun set-out a vineyard at Springett-bury, 

uion oi ^nr, p, 
these animals in New Sudeii in Itir.o, and tf. 
people ma.le enou-h woolen an.l linen doth i., 
supph'ment their furs and -ive them bed and taht. 
linen. They also tanned their own leather, and 
made their own boot.s and sheics, when they wor.- 
any. Hemi> was almost as much spun and woven 
as tlax. The who had the kud owned larg,- 
herds of cattle, ti.rly and sixty head in a herd. 
The Dutch counni-:-aries were enjoined to search 
chesely tbr all sorts of mineral wealth on tlie ijoutli 
River, and those wlei discovered valuable metal oi 
any kind were allowed the sole use of it 
for ten years. The Dutch discovered 
^ and worked iron in the Kittatinny 

Jl V Mountains, and, as has already been 

_s ''-_-''-, shown, the Swedes opened iron ore [liis 
in Cecil County, Md. Charles Pickering 
^' found the copper with which he debasnl 
the Spanish reals and the ^Massachusetts 
pine-tree shillings on land of his own in 
Chester Count \-. 
'^:f%-::_ When y'illiam Penn arrived in the 

, ■■':-,^ Delaware in IGSl', on October 27th, there 
ii were probably 3500 white people in the 
,,-i^ province and territories and on the 
/ eastern bank of the Delaware from 

'■'''^ ^ -J Trenton to Salem. A few wigwams and 
- ' :^ not over twenty houses were to be found 
■ within the entire limits of what is nou 
::_^ Philadeliihia County. There were small 
I,,, ' towns at Ibn-ekills, New Castle, Chris- 

tiana, Upland, Burlington and Trenton, 
and a Swedi-h hamlet or two at Tinicuni 
and near \Yicaco. licfbre the end of his first year 
in the province ei'_rhtv houses had been built iuthe 
new city of Philailelphia, various industrial pursuits 
had been inauL'urali d and a fair and ])avin!j trade 
was opened with tlie Indians. Wh. n Penn left the 
province in 1(;^4 his Government was fullv estab- 
li.hed, his cldef town laid out. hi.- province "divided 

had =old (JdU.iiilO acn-of laii.l lor t:2(l.ti00 ca.-l. 
and annual quit-rents of .foOO. The popidatioii 
exceeded 7000 souls, of whom I'oOO resided in 
Philadel]diia, whiidi had already oOO houses built, 
and had e-tabli-hed considerable trade with the 
AVest Indies, ,<oi,ii, Ameiiea, Enelaud and the 
Mediterianeaii. When Penn returned again in ll-.n:'. 
■ • iuof the [.lovinee exceeds 20,000. and 

It was: 

„ver. No 

hv the force ot' matei 



;.iM|i'iriiry in(lucrni(nt>, im! drawn on liy I'lminuin- 

,,t' nice, rt'li^'ion, custmn ami liahii, oiir euiumun 
principlo attracted tln'in t^ the -pot. and that was 

M f.>cai)e from uu<ler the ban. fid, wilhrrin.' ^ha•l^\v 
,.|' |)()litico-reliy:iou3 persecution t^j which tiic chit t' 
tenet of their taith, iion-resirtance and suljnii.--iiHi 
to the civil authority, i)roven;cil tlieui iVom ..thrinu^ 
any opposition. They dc-ired to llee becau.-^e their 
reliLrions opinions bound them nut to %bt. They 
ucre not of tiie clnirch militant, like the Puritans 
and Huguenots and Analiapti^ts, and so it became 
theni to join the church migratory and seek in uu- 
iidialiitcil uilds the freedom of conscience denied 
them among the coramuuities of men. They were 
radicals and revolutionists in the highest degree, 
for they upheld, and died on the scatibld and at the 
.-take sooner than cease to maintain, the right of 
tlie people to tliink for themselves, and think their 
own thoughts instead of -what their self-constituted 
rulers and teachers commanded tliem to think. 
But they did not resist authority: when the statute 
and their consciences were at variance they calmlv 
obeyed the latter and took the consequences. They 
knew themselves to be abused and shamefully mis- 
used, but they believed in the final suj)reinacy of 
moral and intellectual forces over despotic, forces. 
They believed with Wiclif that " Dominion belongs 
to LTrace," and they waited hopcfidly for the coming 
of the period of intellectual freedom whicli sh.)uld 
justify their action before men and prove the cor- 
rectness of their faith in human But all 
this trust in themselves and the future did not 
contribute niateriallv to liLditen the burden of per- 
secution in the preswii, and thev .-ou-l,t with 
anxiety fu- a place wliich wocd.l give them re.-t 
I'rom the weariness of man's injustice. They became 
pilgrims, and gathered tlieir little congregation to- 
LTcthcr wherever a faint lifting in the black cloud 
of persecution could be discerned. Thus it was 
that they drifted into Plolland and the lower I-ihine 
provinces of Germany, and became wanderers 
everywhere, seeking an asylum for conscience' sake, 
— a lodge in some wilderness, where "rumor of op- 
pr' -sion and deceit miirlit never reaeh,"and where 
tliey mi-ht await in comparative pea.'c the better 
time that was eoniin-. Tlie _rreat Kin- (_^i|siavus 
Adolphus perhaps meant to oHi-r tiiein s,,,.], an 
u-vlum in AnuTi-a.but his messa-e «a^ -, i,t in the 
hurrv of war and it was not audible in tlic din of 
iMttlcs. Wlieii, liowever, tlii- ollia- was reneued 
and repeat.d in tlie plain lan-ua-o of the ()iiakers 
l>y William I-eiin. it was both iieard and undoi- 
-o.od, and the per-ecnted poo,,l,.s made lia.-te to 
aeeept tlie -enerous asvlum an.l avail th.„,-..lvcs 
"f the liberal olf r. Thev <lid m, in a spirit ot' per- 

in_'enuoiisness and to the character which Peim 

rigtuuessand fiirand ,- [uare doaling. It is pathetic 
to read, in the records ot' the S\vi,ss iMeunoniles, 
how. after thi>y had deiidi-d t(j emiirrate, " they 
rcturutd to till' Palatinate to se.'k tlieir wives and 

land, in Al-aee. : 

lciin,r iint irh,;-.' 111. 

Thus the' niovei 

three lower c-ount 

and tlu 

d in the I'.ih 
.u-rl., h,-f„,ii,,i:' 
ait into Pennsylvania ami the 
s liegan, a strange gathering of 

•t faitli that 

reditable both 

a straii-e p 'oplo, much sutfering, capable of much 
enduriiiir- < *f the Germans themselves one of 
their own preachers' wrote: "They were naturally 
very rugged people, who could endure much hard- 
ships ; they wore long and unshaven beards, disor- 
dered clothing, great shoes, which were heavilv 
hammered with iron and hirge nails ; they had 
lived in the mountains of Switzerland, far 
from cities and towns, with little intercourse with 
other men; their speech is rude and uncouth, and 
they have difficulty in understanding any one who 
does not speak just their way ; they are very zeal- 
ous to serve God with prayer and reading and ia 
other ways, and very innocent in all their doings 
as lambs and doves." The Quakers, too, bore 
proof in their looks of the double annealing of 
fiinaticism and persecution. They wore strange 
garbs, had unworldly manners and customs, and 
many of them had cropped ears and slit noses, and 
were gaunt and hollow-eyed from long confine- 
ment in jails and prison-houses. The influence of 
George Fox's suit of leather clothes was still felt 
among thetu. They were chiefly of the plebeian 
classes, the true English democracy, yeomen, 
tinkers, tradesmen, mechanics, retail shopmen of 
the cities and towns ; scarcely one of the gentry 
and very few of the university people and educated 
classes. From Wales, however, the Thomases, 
Rees, and Griffiths came, with red, freckled fivces, 
shaggy beards and pedigrees dating back to Adam. 
Persecution had destroyed their hitherto uncon- 
querable devotion to their own mountains, but 
they took their pedigrees with them in emigrating, 
and settling on a tract of hills and quaking mosses, 
where the soil recommended itself much less to 
them than the face of the country, they sought to 
feel at home by giving to the "new localities names 
which recalled the }>laces from which they had 
banished themselves. 

Such were the eniiL;rants who sailed — mostly 
from Lon.lon and P.ristol— to help build up Penn's 
asvlum in the wilderness. The vovaL'<' was tedi- 
.. lis, and could be made in' less than two 
months. The vessels in which they sailed were 
ill appointed and crowded. Vet at least fifteen 
thousand persons, nun, woiiuii ami children, took 
thisvoy:ige iietweeii Ills; :ind I7iM). The average 

1 LauL-ns U.-nJn.ks, .jf Mnj^guen. 



passage-nidnev was, allouiiiL,' fur cliiliiren, aluiut 
seventy shilling's per lii'aii;sii tlie rini.'raiits fx- 
pendeci £.',0,00t) iii this ,,nr way. Their inircha-,s 
of land cost tht-ni C^'>^>0^) lunri.' ; the avi ra-e [uir- 
chasos were ahmit t!(i tor each hcail uf family : 
quit-rent3 one shilliiiLC sixjuuoe. The L' 
cost of emigt-ation is set furlh in a jiaiiii'hlet uf 
1682, repuhlished hy the reim.-.ylvania ll.,i(.ricai 
Society, and attrihuted tu P. iiii. and he inii^t have 
directed the [lulilication, th<>iiL:h it is anoii) nioii.-. 
In this patn[.hlet it is suggested that a man with 
£100 in pieces-of-eight niay |)ay his own \\ay and 
his family's by judieious speeulatidn. T'lie " ad- 
vance in money " — i. e., the difKrence between 
specie value in London and on the Delaware — is 
thirty per cent., on goods the advance is fifty per 
cent., and this pamphlet supposes that these 
advances will pay the cost of emigration. The 
figures are too liberaT; however, they give us 
an idea of what the expenses were which a family 
had to incur. They are as follows : 

For five persons— man and wife, two servants and a cliild of 

ten — passage-money 22 10 

For a ton of goods— freij;lit (each talcing out a chest without 

Ship's surm'oii, J~ ' ./ I : h. 1.1 12 6 

Four gall"ii- I ii.i :.,:! - -n-ar 10 

Clothes lor Si 1 111" ■• •' i ', j i.u-tcoats, asuiiinier and win- 
ter suit. h. a, J ; .r ,:; ,, iKiilvr-tluthiug, etc,)- 12 n 

Costofbuildin:;a ll.jiise l". 

Stockfurfarm -4 10 (' 

Tear's provisions for family I'i It- n 

Total £afi ixi (0 

This, it will be observed, on a favorable, one- 
sided showing, is £20 per capita for man, woman, 
child and servant, outside of the cost of land. If 
we allow £10 additional for cost of land, transpor- 
tation and other extras, leaving out clothes for 
thef^iraily, we shall have £30 a head as the cost ..f 
immigration and one year's keep until the land 
begins to produce crops. It thus appears that tiie 
early immigrants into Pennsylvania ami tlie thr. e 
lower counties must have expended at least £4".0.- 
000 in getting there in the cheapest way. The ai'tiial 
post was probably more than double thftt amount. 
In a letter written by Edward Jones, "Chirurgeoii." 
from " Skoolkill River," Aug. 2(5 ir..s2, to John 
ap Thomas, f)under of the first Welsh settlement, 
we have some jiarticulars of a voyage across the 
ooean at that time. . Thomas and sixteen others 
had bought a five-thousand-aerc tract of Peiiu. 

The rest sailed from Livei'i 1, but Th.mias was 

ill, and not able to cnme. Hence the letter, which 
is published in a meiiinir of "John ap Thi.i. a^ 

My. Jones al-o states that the rate for survovii; • 
one hundred acres was twenty shillings— ha"f : . 
much as the price of the laml. At this i;,:. 
Jones Thomas and com|ia!iy had to pay CoO )■ ,- 
surveying their tract of live thou-aiid aere^. 

It will be noticed that the face of the coiiiiti-, 
pleased Dr. Jones, and he is satisfied with il. 
land selected by him. All the early immiLrrai.-- 
and colonists were plea-ed with the new land, an i 
enthusiastic in regard to its beauty and its promi- 
of ])roductiveuefs. Penn is not more so than ti.. 
least prosperous of his followers. Indeed, it is .i 
lovely country to day, and in its wild, virgin 
beauty must have had a rare charm and attracti' n 
for the ocean-weary first settlers. They all writ 
about it iu the same warm strain Thus, fiir in- 
stance, let us quote from the letter written in lUso 
to his brother by jMahlon Stacey, who built ([,■■ 
first mill on the site of the city of Trenton. Stac \ 
was a man of goo<l tducation and family. Helin.i 
traveled much in Pennsylvania and Xew Jersey, 
where he made a great fortune and became a lead- 
ing citizen, his children intermarrying with tin- 
best people in the fwo colonies. The letter, which 
we quote from Gen. Davis' " History of Buck> 
County," says that 

and his frie 




vol. iv. The voyage took more than eleven weeks. 


enjoy L'll 

sev ;^tttl( 



(loni to I), 
Wrst Jei- 
this wav 

rrt. Ileru any 

"I won.l 

iT at our Yorkshire pedjile,'' says 

■^tncfv, iii a 

iiiithor letter of the same chitn, •■ that 

hey iiaci ra 

thei- live in servitude, work han] all 

he vt-ar, at) 

<l Hilt he threepence better at the year's 

Ml. 1,' than t 

1 stir nut of the chiuiiiey-c"i lit r and 

;rat,sj,on tl 

leiiL-eKe- to a [Jaee wiiere, with the 

ike pains, i 

n two nr three years they might know 

letttT thiim 

s I live as well to ray content and iu 

li; t;reat plel 

iity as ever I did, ami iu a far more 


likely way to get an estate." 

Judge John Holme, in his so called poem on 
" the fluurishiug State of Pennsylvania," written iu 
16i>6, seeius to have trieil to set the views of Stacev 
t(.i music. True there is not much tune uor rhythm 
in the verse, hut the Pennsylvania writer of 
Georgics has a :-hrewd eye for a catalogue, and he 
wouM have shone as an auctioneer. He sines the 
goodness of the soil, the cheapness of the land, the 
trees so abundant in variety that scarcely any man 
can name them all, the fruits and nuts, nuilherries, 
hazelnuts, strawberries, and " plumbs," " which 
pleaseth those well who to eat them comes," the 
orchards, cherries so plentiful that the planters 
bring them to town in boats (these are the Swedes, 
of course), peaches so plenty the people cannot eat 
half of them, apples, pears and quinces, 

'• And fruit-treea do grow so fii5t in this ground 
Tliat we besiu witii cider to abound." 

The fields and gardens rejoice in the variety as 
well as the aliuuilaiice of their products; iu the 
woods are found " wa.^c berries, elkermi-, turmer- 
ick and sarsifrax ;" the maple trunks trickle with 
sugar, and our author tells how to boil it ; he gives 
the names offish, fiesh and fowls, inelu<ling \vhales 

The ]Onulishman of that day was -till untamed. 
He had a passion, inherited fnin his Auglu-Saxou 
forbears, for the woods and streams, for outdoor 
life and the adventures which attend it. He 
had not forgotten that he was (Uilv a L'<ii'Tatiiin ..r 
two younger than H.iod alid Will .<earlt t, 
and he could nut be persuaded that the ])Maeh(r 
was a criminal. All the emigration advertise- 
ments, circulars, and prospectuses sought to profit 
liy this pas>i<in in presenting the natural charms 
"t America in the most seductive stvle. While 
tl'e Spani-h enli-ting ofiicers worked l)v the spell 
"f the magic word " gold V ami the canny Am-ter- 
'I'Ui merchant talked "beaver" and "luuler" 
;iud ""cent, per cent.," the English solieitoi-s for 
'-uluuists and laborers never ceased to dwell upon 

lid li,-,.ft.-i ..,1.1 Fo« 

This is the tenor of all the Maryland invitations 
to immigration likewise, and Penn follows the 
model closely. His letter to the Society of Free 
Traders in 1683 has already been mentioned, and 
also his proposals for colonists. In December, 
1685, he issued a " Further Account of Pennsyl- 
vania," a supplement to' the letter of 16S.). He 
says that ninety vessels had saile.l with ]'a<seni,a'rs, 
not one of them meeting with any miscarriage. 
They had taken out seven thousand two hundred 
persons. " Houses over their heatls and Garden-, coverts for their cattle, an increase of stock, 
and several iuclosuresin Corn, especially the first 
comers, and I may say of some poor men was 
the beginning of an P^state, the ditlerence of labor- 
ing for themselves and for others, of an Inheri- 
tance and a Rack L^ase being never better under- 
stood." The soil had produced beyond expecta- 
tions, yielding corn from thirty to sixty fi.ild ; three 
peeks of wheat sowed an acre ; all English root 
crops thrive ; low lands were excellent for rope, 
hemp and fiax ; cattle find abundant fwd in the 




.> ; til- 

ite ti>li 

woods ; E 

futtin- 1ki 


tive jrni 

tlic riv, 

abuudaut and clieaji, in ]'i 

price current. Pcnn ci>nc 

couraging lett 


In 1HS7, Penn published 

ed takes ^vcll an.l 
En-li-li fruits have 
nv inav be made fr< 
id bav abound in v 


autl provi.-iuns \vere 
i.,t-\vhicli he gives a 
les by quoting an en- 
ad received from Ki^ertTur- 




Tcy/ Shi!!h?r 

^*?3' '■- ---•.'-^.3 currenc Mi.nev <it /'s.i/;/;, according 
t:' in? A^t of Fjr]:.T.cnr^ ma^c in 
the S!xrh.Yc3rcf thciiie Qjfen Anne, 
far Afceran.-ng the Rates of I'nrciga 
Coins in the Vl.iritoricrs, cue from rhe 
Province cf r?mj)/i'.n'L-, to the I'ol- 
fiilcr there-)}, fnailbeia Valn^t-qual 

to Money, antl fhili be accepted accordinglyhv the Provin- 
gTj^ c'i\ Treafurer, Trea- 

L eriind cheTriiriCfjtnr the 

Ge'-'ral Loin-Orfice o£ th; 

Prowncecf FmrrjJt'jni'j, in 

. *) '__^ al Piib'.!rkP.tymenT5,a:idi'cr 

f tbe liid TrsatuciSi and 

Litcd v\ F'l.'ddeUmi'^i 

. ^ "^ x-XiA cjy r,£ ^'rJ'J'. ^1 the 

5^:' "itjrofOiirL^rd.OiieThou- 

i ^ f -d fc^en fiiindrcd ond 

T\ 'nty Three, bv Order 

rt t^e Governor cndGeae- 

r2l AlIciTiblv. 

T^n Shilli}}^ 


tftining a letter from Dr. ^lore, " with passaL'csout 
of several letters from Persons of Good Credit, re- 
lating to the State and Improvement of the Prov- 
ince of Penn?ilvania." In 1G91 again he printed 
a third pamphlet, containing "Some Letters and an 
Abstract of Letters from Pennsylvania " Dr. 
More takes pains to show tlie jilenty and pros[ierity 
which surround the people of the province. " Our 
lands have been irrateful to us,'' he savs, " and 

have he-un to reward our bv almuii.i;. . 

Crops of Curn." There wa.> plenty of gnod i,-, .' 

jHirk in market at two and a ball peine ])er p.ui • 

curreuev ; beef, the sanit ; buttir, ,-ixp(nce ; \\\u: ■ 

three ^iiillin.js p.r bii.-liel ; rve at ei-lit gr.::,;. 

corn, two shilling- in emintry iiinuey, and -..i... 

for ex].ort. Dr. .M-ue had gnt a hue cr(i[, ■ 

wheat on his corn ground by ?imjily harrowiuj- .•, 

in ; his hop garilen was very promising. Arnold.. 

de la Grange had raised one thousand bushel- . i 

English grain this year, and Dr. ^Iore>a\-. 

" Every one here is now persuaded of ti.. 

fertility of the ground and goodness of ri, 

mate, here being nothing wtmting, with ii. 

dustry, that grows in England, and man-. 

delicious things not attainable there; and \i. 

have this common advantage above Englaini 
that all things grow better and with li-~ 
labour." Penu's steward and gardener ai. 
represented as writing to him that the peach- 
trees are broken down with fruit; all iL. 
plants sent out from England are growinLi ; 
barn, porch and shed full of corn; setil- 
sprout in half the time they require in En.;- 
land; bulbs and flowers grow apace. Da\iii 
Lloyd writes that " Wheat (as good, I think 
as any in England) is sold at three shi!lii/_- 
aiid sixpence per Bushel Country money an.! 
for three shillings ready money (which n)aki - 
two shillings five pence English sterling , 
and if God continues his blessing to us, tlu- 
province will eertainly be the granary oi 
America."' James Claypoole writes that ln 
lias never seen brighter and better corn 
than in these parts. The whale fishery v.;i- 
cunsitierable ; one company would take s. v- 
eral hundred barrels of oil, useful, wirii 
tobacco, skins, and furs for commerce and i> 
bring in small money (of which there is ;i 
scarcity) for chtinge. John Goodson wriii - 
to Penn of the country that " it is in a pros- 
perous condition beyond what many of our 
Friends can imagine ;" if Penn and lii- 
family were there " surely your Hearts wouM 
be greatly comforted to behold this Wildi r- 
ness Land how it is becoming a fruitiu! 
Field and pleasant Garden." Kobert Jani' - 
writes to ^Nathaniel Wilmer : " Giod prosper 
his Peoi)le and their honest Endeavors in ti"- 
wilderness, and nianv have cause to Bless aii'i 
Praise his holy Arm, whj in his Love hath sprt:fi 
a Table large unto us, even beyond the expecta- 
tions or belief of many, yea, to the admiration "' 
our ^\■i■_'hborin• Co'lunies. . . . God is amoii--' 


.1, fu 



liis People an.l the wililrrmv.- is his, aiul lie waters 
:,„(! retVeshrs it witii liis iin.i.t.nin- l»,w, NMi.rrhy 
the Barren are hi I'niiiiii^' pl.n-anl Fnhis anci 

iiiv Soul, anil Peare ami llapiiini-.-s i,i all (i-.l's 
Peofile everywhere." 

In 1685 a pamphlet ealle.l "O,,,,,! ( )nler E.-tah- 
lished," and giving an aeeouutoi'Peiiiisvivania, whs 
published by Thomas Budd, a Quaker, who had 
iield office iu West Jersey. Budd was a viiii>n- 
arv, mixed up with Keith's heresv, and wanted to 
get a bank fstablished iu Phihuklphia. He built 
largely iu that city, aud was a close observer. He 
pays particular atteutinn to tlio natural ai!vantaL:es 
of the country in its soil, climate, prmlucts and 
geographical relations. The days in winter are 
two hours longer, and in summer two hours shorter 
than in England, he says, and hence grain and 
fruits mature more swiftly. He enumerates the 
wild fowls and fishes, the fruits aud garden stutF, 
and thinks that the Delaware marshes, once 
drained, would be equal to the meadows of the 
Thames for wheat, peas, barley, hemp, flax, rape 
aud hops. The French settlers were already grow- 
ing grapes ibr wine, and Budd thought tliat at- 
tempts should be made to produce rice, anise seed, 
licorice, madder and woad. He has much to say 
about the development of manufactures, and he 
proposes to have a granary built on the Delaware 
iu a fashion which is a curious anticipation of the 
modern elevator, and he projects a very sen- 
sible scheme for co-operative farm-work, on 
the community plan, the laud to be eventually 
divided after it has been fully cleared aud im- 
proved, and the families of the comnuiue have 
grown up. 

In 1(198 was published Gabriel Thomes' "His- 
torical and Geograjjhical Accmnit of the Province 
and Country of Pennsylvania and West Xew 
Jersey in America." This well-known brochure 
descants in florid and loose terms upon "The rich- 
ness of the Soil, the sweetness of the Situati'in. the 
Wholesomeness of the Air, the Navigable Rivers 
and others, the prodigious increase of Corn, the 
flourishing condition of the City of Philadelphia, 
etc. The strange creatures, as Birds, Beasts, 
Fishes, and Fowls, with the Stveral Sirts of 
Minerals, Purging Waters. an,l .^toues lately dis- 
covered. The Natives, AbLirigines. aud tin 'r Lan- 
guage, Religion, Laws aud Cur-tonis The tir-t 
Planters, Dutch, Swedes aud Kng!i-h, with t' e 
nundjer of its iuhabitauts ; as al,-o a Touch upon 
George Keith's Xew Religion, in his m ,-.,iid 
change since he left the Quakers; with a Map .>t' 
both Counties." The title-page leaves the bnok 
but little to say. Gabriel is euthusia.-tic aiiout 
pretty much everything. He makes some shrewd 
remarks, however, as when he says that he has 

"for I have obs..r-...d the iinis of water have the 

mines m Vwdcs." Lie shows the abundanre of 
L'ame by telling ho.v 1:,. bad bought of the 

for two gills of gui'jjowdcr. Land had ad- 
vanced in tivelve years from fifteen or ei-hteen 
sliilliugs to eighty pounds per one hundred acres, 
ovpr a tboi>sand p?r cent, (in Philadelphia), 
and was fetching n.ur.d f)ric.'s in the adjacent 

T!«e' Swede. Imd no roads. Thev f,llowefl 
brid!e-n,,ths ou foot, or- ,.n hor-'haek. an.l carried 
their freight by vater. It svas iu lt;s(j that the 
people of Philadelj.liia beg.n to move for better 
highways. The Schuylkill ferry monopoly was 
then e.iciting pubii" attention, and the Council 
took the whole niatteT of thoroughfares into con- 
sideration. The first control of roads was by the 
courts, which appointed overseers and fence-view- 
ers, the grand jury laying out the roads. Iti 1692 
the control of road.-- was given to the townships, 
and thi.s lasted uutil the adopfiou of a general road 

Precisely ^vhat sort of houses were built by the 
first settlers may be known with satisfactory exact- 
ness from the contemporary records. In Peun's 
tract of " Infornuition and Direction to such 
Persons as are inclined to America," we have a 
descriptifin of such houses, and we may assume that 
the " Welcome's " passengers erected exactly such 
structures during their probationary period of cave 
life or hut life in the wilderness. The dimen- 
sions given are almost those of the house of Pas- 

"To build them an House of thirty foot long and eighteen foot broad 
with a partition near the miiicile, and anotlier to one end of the 


i for the 


ity foot ■ 

pu-ces, as Wi 


te T.mb, 



a half 


;ine Koo 


li is ver: 


The cost of such a house is given as follows : 
Carpenter's work (the owner and his servants as- 
sistin::;), £7 ; a barn of the same dimensions, £5; 
nails and other things to iiuisli both, C, 10.~-.; total 
ibr house aud bari^ Clo U)<. The.-e houses had 
.lirt floors, claplioard lloors f u- -arret. (.)ldaiixon 
cn|.ics these dii-eetioiis verbatim iu his de-criptiou 
of the houses ol'the liist settlers The directions, 



hinvpvcr, are very incomplote : no [irovisiinis ure 
iiKi.le for door.i, "wiiulows or cliinincy^. Of the 
latter these houses hail i)ut one, built outside tiie 
gable of the sitlint;-roiini, sometimes of stone, some- 
times of clav ami sticks, sometimes ofw()od onlv. 
The (h.ors o.uM be made ot' riven stutf, .,f course, 
with deer-skin hmucs and w..,„l.n latch and bar, 
and the windou,, cadd be eloped with ch.|.bnard 
shutters. A lari^e tire-]ihice was needed, witli a. 
stone hearth ; the table could be made of hewn 
stuff, re;tin<r on punclieijns driven into the irround, 
and blocks, stools and l)cuches would answer for 
seats Rude wooden bedsteads or berths could be 
contrived alouj,' the walls, and a tew bearskins, 
with the bedclothes hrought over by every emi- 
grant, would make them warm. The other furni- 
ture would comprise chiefly kitchen utensils; pork 
fat, whale or sturgeon oil, and piue ku<jts or " light 
wood " would give all the artitieial light needed. 
Iron articles were most costly and hardest to get. 
Edward Jones, at ^lerion, writes in August, 16^2, 
for nails, sixpenides and eightpennies ; for mill- 
iron, an iron kettle for his wite, aud shoes, all of 
which he says are dear; " Iron U about two and 
thirty or forty shillings a hundred ; steel about la. 
5rf. per pound." In Penu's ' Directions " he recom- 
mends colonists to bring out with them, in the way 
of utensils and goods, " English Woollen and 
German Linen, or ordinary Broad-Clothes, Ker- 
eseys, Searges, Norwich-Stutl's, some Dutl'els, Cot- 
tons and Stroud-waters for the Natives, and White 
and Blew Ozeuburgs [C'^naburg.s], Shoes aud 
Stockings, Buttons, Silk, Thread, Iron Ware, 
especially Felling Axes. Hows, Indian Hows, Saws, 
Frows [frowers, for splitting shingles]. Drawing 
Knives, Nails, but of i)t?. and Sd. a treiile quantity, 
because they use them in shingling or covering of 
Houses." For the first year's stock for a farm he 
advises " three milch cows, with young calves by 
their sides, £10; yoke of oxen, £8 ; Brood mare, 
£5 ; two y(niug Sows aud a Boar, £1 ]0-~'.,— in all 
£24." For first year's provisions: Eight bushels 
of Indian corn per cnpita, and live bushels of 
English wheat, for five persons, £8 7.:'. 6(/. ; two 
barrels of molasses (for beer), £o ; l)ccf ami pork, 
120 pounds per head, at 2fL per pound, €'> ; hve 
gallons spirits at '2i. per gallon, 10^. Three hauils, 
with a little help from the woman and boy, < iin 
plant and tend 20,000 hills of cu-n (plant-d four 
feet each way, there are 2717 hills to an acre, or 
seven and one third acres to the whole number of 
hills), and they may s(jw eight acres of spring 
wheat and oats, besides rai.-ing jieas, potatoes and 
garden s;utf. Tlie expected yield will be 4U0 
bushels of corn, 120 bushels of oats and wheat, etc. 
These calculations were moderate for a virgin soil, 
free from vermin. Dr. Mure, in his letter to I'enu 
in September, lG8li, says, " I have had seventy ears 
of Rye upon one single root, proceeding from one 

sinirle corn ; f .rty-five of Wheat ; eitrhty »f ( );,:. . 
ten, twelve and f .urteen of Barley out of one ( '.,, ., 
I took the curi(.'sity to tell one of the twelve K..;. 
from one (.Irain, aud there was in it forty live L'lai:.. 
(m that ear ; altove three thousand of oats from o,, 
single corn, and some I hail that hail nnich tii,,r. , 
but it would ,-ieiii a Komauce ratiier tlian a, 
if I shouhl speak what I have seen in the-, 

A better class of houses than clapboai i 
ones with dirt tloors were soon built. Indeed, th. 
old log houses of the Swedes were more condoit- 
able, especially when built like that of Sven Seuer-' 
at Coaquanuoc, with a first story of stone and the 
superstructure of logs. A well-built log house, on 
a stone foundation, well tilled in with bricks or 
stone and mortar, and ceiled inside with plaukinL' 
like a ship, makes the dryest, warmest and nn -i 
durable country-house that cau be built. But tin- 
settlers immediately began to burn bricks and con- 
struct houses of them, often with a timber frame- 
work, in the old Tudor cottage style. This sort of 
building went on rapidly as soon as limestone began 
to be (juarried and burut.' 

This better class of houses was, of course, more 
elaborately furnished. It may be noticed that in 
John Goodson s directory in Philadelphia, cabinet- 
makers aud other workmen in furniture and in- 
terior movables are mentioned, but all the tir.-t 
settlers must have brought or imported their 
furniture from Europe. It was stiff and heavy, 
scarcely anticipating that slim and spindling style 
which came in with the next English sovereign. 
and has recentlw been revived with an extravagance 
of pursuit seldom exhibited except in bric-a-brae 
hunters and opera-boutfe artistes. As yet not much 
mahogany and rosewood were used by the Northern 
nations (except the Dutch), but good solid oak, 
well-carved, and walnut were the favorite woods. 
There were great chests of drawers, massive bulil'ts, 
solid tables, with flaps and wings, straight-back oak 
chairs, well-carved, leathern-seated chairs, studded 
with brass nails, and tall Dutch clocks. Much of 
the table furuit'ire Was pewter or common delt'- 
ware ; brass and copper served in the kitchen where 
now tin is used. Wood was the only fuel, aud the 
tire-places, enormously ca[iaci(>us, had great iron 
dogs in them, to which, in winter-time, the back- 
log was often dragged by a yoke of oxen with the 
log-chain. Cranes and hooks, suspended iu these 
fire-places, held poti for the boiling, and the roa:rt- 
ing was done ou si)its or u[)on ''jacks," which doirs 
had to turn. The bread was baked in a brick 
oven usually oiijslde the house, and the minor 
baking iu " Dutch ovens,'' ;et upon aud covered 
over with beds of red-hot coals. In the familv 



ji;irtuf tlie house the br;i>s ; 
fi'iultT niiide tlie lire ylnv 
look doul)ly clieurt'u!. Tli< 
-toves until Beiiiainin Fr 

ii|)i'ii the ilrrp lirartli 
(^)Lial<crs did not u.~e 
nklin iuvciuded them 


WM. pexn's clock. 

into it with that sinndacniin ot' an o|n'n tircplare 
called theFi-anklinstove. Tlie 
Swedes scarcely had chiin- 
ncvs, much less stoves, but 
the Gerniaus early imported 
the great porceUiiu stoves 
■which they were familiar with 
at home, and which they uscl 
until Cliristopher Saur, the 
Germantowii printer, invented 
the ten-plate stove, tor whicii 
lovers of the beautiful will 
scarcely know how to forgive 
him. All well to-tlo faiuilies 
had good store of linen for 
bed-clothes, blankets, etc. ; the 
washing was not done often, 
and the chests of drawers were 
tilled with homespun. Espe- 
cially was this the case an)ong the German settlers, 
who scarcely washed up the soiled house and person 
wear more than once in a quarter. It was the 
pride and test of a good housewife to have more 
linen made up than she knew what to do with.' It 
is noteworthy that the Germans built their houses 
with one chimney, in the centre of the building, 
the English with a chimney at each end. and this 
distinction was so commonly marked as to attract 
tl>e attention of traveler^.- In their bednnim 
furniture the Germans substituted the " feather 
deck" for the blanket, — inoi-p »i//oy.n/i,— and this 
uncomfortable covering is still retained. 

In the houses the doors down-stairs were sanded. 
There were no carpets as yet, not even liome-made 
ones, and the Germans have not been using these 
for a hundred years. William Penu had no 
carpets in his I'ennsbury .Manor house. The large, 
heavy tables in the dining and living rooms o/ the 
early homes groaned with [jleuty, and the great 
pewter dishes were piled high. The people worked 
hard, and they did not stint themselves. The 
Swedes, Germans and (^^uakers were all of them 
hearty feeders, and they liked gross food. No 
dread of dyspepsia limited their dishes ; they liad 
abundance an(l enjoyed it. Only a tew men of 
English habits and foml of port, brandv and 
madeira, like Capt. Markliam, ever had the'gouf^ 

Diitfh Htici oilier l. 
Ii;iii.letl damsel wii 
re.i^ly i, up for 

Ti>e river.-' teomerl ,vi;h the Quakers early 
leari!ed the virtues nid delicious ila\.ir of the shad, 
broiled on a jiliiuk .'it one side the tirrplace, while 
a joliuny-cake browi.ed on anotiier plank at the 
other side of the hr^. Penn crew so tond of these 
tliat in !(!.':;] pj viof lo Uarn~ou to >end him "si.Kia.kt ivaiiiict;...- ol' vctiison and pork. 
Gel^ them of the H^.e,;.. Some stnoakt shadd and 
beef. The «.'•/ ]„■!.. I ... I'hUadelplna {Fahrwim) 
had rare shadd. .\1,- > ■t\'--,^ peas and beans of that 
ciuni'.-y." Rii.hard TownsliPiid, in lt'i>;"2, says that 
tile l:r-t _\e:'.r coloni.ns almost lived on tish. of which (jiiaijtities wf.-e caughi:, tiie winter being an 
open one. and venison.--" ^Ve could buy a deer for 
about two shillings, and a large turkey for about 
oi\e shilling, and Indian com for about two shillings 
and sixpence per busiiel." .Si.x^ rockfish or six shad 
could be bougiit for a shilling ; oysters two shillings 
a bushe!, herrings one shilling and sixpence per 
hundre ;. Sturgeon were caught for tbod, and also 
for the oil they supjjlied. The Delaware and the 
Schuylkill and adjacent pools and marshes were 
the resort of myriads of wild-fowl, fnim swan and 
geese down to rail and reed-birds. As soon as the 
settlers became established, the flesh of all domesti- 
cated animals was cheap in the markets. Every 
family kept its own cows, made its own butter and 



<1^ 1^ (--M ,A 



■'Rfi.-c 11. 
to n.'. UiHli 

uur FlL-t.h..t 

cheese, salted, cured and smoked its own bacon, 
beef, herring, shad, veui.5on and mutton. The 
smoke-house, dairy and poultry-house were append- 
ages to all town houses, and most of them had 
their own vegetable gardens likewise. It was the 
custom then, and remained so until long after the 
beginning of the present century, for every house 
to be provisioned as if to stand a .-iege. The cellars 
had great bins for ftotato,- and other roots and 

and ca>k.. f..i- vin. L-ar to ripen in. and in a locked 
recess were u.-uallv .-.uue ea.-ks ui madeira, sherrv. 



s[(T aiul 

ill .h-ank r.,1 

port, rum, brandy, irin, etr.. f 

and chililreii. There was an :i 
of drinking goinir on all the lini 
thing, it' it was only ale or .-mall 
and store-Iiouse of tiie mistre.-.s \sas tor u-r, lu.t 
ornament Her barrels ot' saur-kraut were in llu- 
cellar, her firkins of apiilc-lnnh .- (Mcupied the 
ample garret, along with strinL's nt onions, hampers 
of dried peaches and ap|ilt^, and great liun<lles of 
dried herbs; but in the btore-room the deep- 
bottomed shelf wa3 ranged around with gray stone 
jars of large cai^aeity, tilled with piekles, the shelf 
above it marshaled a battalion of glass jars of pre- 
sersx'S of every sort, and the upper shelves bent 
under the weight of bottles tilled with sauces and 
sruhs, and ''bounce" and ketchups, and soys, 
cordials, lavender, aromatic vinegars, and a hundred 
deft contrivances to tickle the palate, and deprave 
all stomachs but such as those of these hardy toilers 
in the open air. 

The gardens yielded all the common vegetables, 
and people who ate so largely of salted meats 
and iish required much vegetable food and many 
sweets and acids to protect them from scorbutic 
afl'ections. Onions, turnips, cabbage, potatoes were 
supplemented with the more delicate vegetables 
known in Germany. The Indians supi.lied the 
colonists with their first peas, brans and ^i|ua-hes, 
taught them how to boil mush, to jMnind hiuniny, 
to roast the tender ears of corn and prepare tiie de- 
lightful succotash. Much pastry was used, many 
sweetmeats and pickles, but not very liigh season- 
ing. At table, until tea and coffee became regular 
articles of diet with all clas.-es, cider and the ^inall 
beers of domestic brewing were .served wiihout 
stint at every meal. In winter the beers were 
sweetened, spiced, warmed and drunk fir ])0.ssets. 
Wines did not appear except upon the tables of 
the well-to-do, but rum and s])irits were in every 
house, and all took their morning and noon drams 
in some shape or other. The effects of alcohol 
were neutralized by the active out-door life all led, 
and by the quantities of coarse food taken at every 
meal. In the journal of William Black, wli<i was in 
Philadel[ihia in 1744,' it is made to appear among 
the duties of hospitality to be treatin'j- to something 
or other every hour in the day. This ymmg fdli.w 
either had a very strong head, or ah-ohol did not 
make the same imprcssinn upon the strou'.', hr.ikhv 
frame of the youth of that day which it do.s upon 
modern effeminate men. Tliere wa- Inead, eiil.r, 
and punch for lunrh, rum and brandy ln/t'ori' din- 
ner, punch, madeira, port and slicrry at dinner, 
bounce and liipicurs with the iadii^s, and wiiir and 
spirits ad Ubituni till ljud;inie. The jiarty are wel- 

1 Bliick WJH a v., mi- V]r„-iii,,,i,, ^.vi-..^irv uf ll.o i'..rm,..-,i-.|i, r« 
appointol hy Or.veui.T C",..!,, ,.|- \ir_'ii,,:,. t.. iinili. «itli tli.i,.. of V-nu- 

coined, too, with a bowl of tine h-mon punch hi- 

■_-. •,-,■." After five orsi.\. of this " pour.-d 
down their throats," they rode to the Governor's 
hou-e, were introducc<l and taken into another room, 
"v.heie we was prr-ont.d with a gla-s of wine," 
and it was punch, .-piiit.- or "a W-w -la.-s, - oi 
wine" wherever thev wvnl durin- their stav, 1,1- 
friends being, as he says, as liberal with their -oe,i 
wine "as ap[)le-tree of its t'luit on a winily day in 
the month of Jidy." 

The dress of the peo|ile in the early days of 
which we write was simple, plain, i>ut iiot formal 
as that of the Quakers subsequently became. The 
country jjeople, for their ordinary wear, made 
much use of serviceable leather doublets and 
breeches, woolen waist coats, felt hats, heavy shoes 
with leather leggings, or else boots. They wore 
stout flannel next to the skin in winter, rough 
coats and many woolen wraps about the throat; 
in summer, coarse Osnaburgs and home-made 
linens. All wore wigs, and the dross suits of 
cloth or camlet were brave with buttons, braid 
and buckles, silk stockings and embroidered waist- 
coats, gold-laced hats and fine lace ruffles and cra- 
vats. Gentlemen wore their small swords ; workmen 
and laborers either dressed in leather, druggets, 
serge, fustian or lockram, or else in Osnaburgs. 
Common women and servants wore linen and do- 
mestics, linseys and calicoes; on their heads a 
hood or quilted bonnet, heavy shoes, home-knit 
stockings of thread or yarn, petticoats and short 
gowns, with a handkerchief pinned about the shoul- 
ilers. The ladies had, of course, more brilliant 
and varied wardrobt* ; the liat wtts high-crowned, 
the hair much dressed ; stomachers and corsage 
long and stiff; much cambric about the neck and 
bosom, much gimp, ribbon and galloon ; silk or 
satin petticoats, and dainty shoes and stockings. 
A friend in Kl'IT .-ent riiiiieas Pendierton's wife 
"an alamode hood," and the hulies would contrive 
always to have something " ii la vwde." In the 
inventory of Christopher Taylor's estate are enum- 
erated " a baratine body, stomacher and petticoat, 
cambric kerchiefs anil f()rehcad cloths." In that 
of John ]Mo:in were a "fine Bru.ssels camlet pet- 
ticoat, a yellow silk mantle, silk band and sash. 
silk and satin enp-, Iniod-, lute-.-trinirs, white silk 

h l-^." William Stanlev's store had for sale 

"frieze, ser-e, bn.adc'loat h! Holland linen, vellow. 
-reenand black c'alieoe-. >;,iin>, lute.^trinl:s,"tabl.y. 
.silk plu-h, ribbon, >tri|.ed petiieoat,-, phillimot, I'er- 
ret. ilow-ered .-ilks, thread l.iee-, i:imps, 
ealloons." Tetitia I'enn did not di-dain to lu;v 
tinerv in Philadelplua, enfis, buekles, a wateh and 
• ithei" eoid.-mith's artiel,,-. Then- was not a -reM 

amount of luxurv, however, nor , -h plate nor 

,li-I.lavof line artieh'S. Th.' people's habit^ w.o 
simple. Thev were all. industrious, ploddinglv --■. 


ami the laws and sfiitinirnt ami temper ot the in- 
tliii'iitial clas-es fVowneil eiiuiilly iiiioii display and 
extravagance. The wild ymith. the sailors ami 
laborers sometimes broke bminds, but th.- curb 
was in their mouths ar.d tlicy were soon reined up. 

The population seemed to realize that they had 
their fortunes to make, and that srood ])ay and 
jjreat industrial opportunities made idlene-s and, extravagant Jiving inexcusable. Wages 
were comparatively high, labor wa.s respectable 
and respected. In 1080 there were ten. vessels 
sent to the West Indies freighted with produce of 
the province, and the same year fourteen cargoes 
of tobacco were exporteii. In ]''i'.)S the river front 
at Philadelphia aboumled with the conveniences 
and facilities requisite fur an extensive commerce, 
and for building and repairing vessels, as well as 
loading and unloading them. Ship carpenters 
earned five and six shillings a day in wages, and 
on that pay would soon save money. The trade 
to the West Indies and Brazil consisted of horses 
and other live-stock, provisions, staves, etc. The 
vessels themselves were sold with their cargoes, 
and every one might have his little venture in a 
traffic which paid double the investment on each 
risk. Thus the ship carpenter, who laid by one 
day's wages a week, could, in a month or two, be 
trading to the Indies so as to give him £.50 or £60 
clear money at the end of the year, and that would 
buy him a tarm, build him a house or give him a 
share in some vessel on the stocks. In ten years 
he could become a capitalist, as many of his trade 
did so become. The timber of the Susquehanna 
and Delaware was sometimes sent across the ocean 
in huge raft ships, rigged with sails and manned 
by regular crews. We read of one of these, the 
" Baron Renfrew," measurinu' five thou.-aud tons, 
which arrived safely in the Downs. 

Mills were established rapidly under the pro- 
prietary government. Penu had two on the 
Schuylkill. Richard Townshcnd had one at 
Chester and one on Church Creek in 168'?. « The 
Society of Free Traders had a saw-mill and a 
glass-house in Philadelphia the same year. The 
saw-mills still could not meet the demand for 
lumber, and in 1698 hand-sawyers were paid six 
and seven shillings per hundred for sawing pine 
boards; in 170.5, ten shillings. Shingles in 1608 
sold for ten shillings per thi;usand ; hendock " cul- 
lings," ten shillings per hundred; timber, six 
shillings per ton. Printz's grist-mill on the 
Karakung was soon duplicated after the proprie- 
tary government took possession. Pastorius says 
th.' colony had mills enough; the Frankford 
'^'orn[iany had established several as early ns ]6s(i. 
•S)me of the large mills added to their protits liv 
iiiiving bakeries connected, where ship-bri ;id was 
b;ikrd in quantities for sea-going ves.-els. 

We have already spoken of the earlv manui'ic- 

.f bricks. The 
-tandin-, was b 

es' Chu 
' briek 

at Wicaeo, 
1700. The 

first Pro[irietary AssemMy at I'liland was held in 
a brick iiouse, but thesi- bricks were probably 
imported. The first Quaker nieetin<:-house in 
Philadelphia was of brick, built in 1684. Penn's 
brew-lioiise at Pennsbury, still standing, was 
built before his mansion. Penu, Dr. More and 
several others of the first settlers made strong 
ertorts to improve native grapes, introduce the 
exotic grape and manufacture wine. They 
had wine made of fox-grape juice and fancied it 
was as good as claret. Penn set out a vineyard at 
Springettsbury and had a French vigneron to 
tend it. The experiment failed, however, and 
was abandoned before Penn's second visit. Pas- 
torius was deceived also, and wrote to Germany 
for a supply of wine-barrels, which, however, he 
never filled, unless wich cider or peach-brandy. 
No wonder Penn wanted to make wine at home, 
— his province imported fjur hundred thousand 
gallons of rum and sixty thousand gallons of wine 
a year, costing over fifty thousand pounds an- 

Penn's leading object in establishing fairs in 
Philadel[)hia and the province was to promote 
industrial enterprises. At the first fair in 1686 
only ten dollars' worth of goods was sold. There 
■was no money in Philadelphia and exchanges 
could not be made. The fairs were held twice a 
year, three days each in May and November. 
Another plan of Penn's was to offer prizes for 
superior work in manufactures. In 1686, Abra- 
ham Op den Graaffe, of Germantown, petitioned 
Council to grant him the Governor's premium 
for " the first and finest piece of linen cloth." 
About the same time Wigart Levering, one of the 
Germantown colonists, . began weaving in Rox- 
borough. Matthew Houlsrate, in 1698, bought 
property in the same township and began a fuU- 
ing-nilll on the Wissahickon. The price in 1688 
for spinning worsted and linen was two shillings 
per pound ; knitting heavy yarn stockings, half a 
crown per pair. Wool-combers received twelve 
pence per pound ; linen-weavers twelve pence per 
yard of stuft' half a yard wide; journeyman tai- 
lors were paid twelve shillings a week and " their 
diet." The domestic manufactures of the day in 
linen and woolen wear supplied a large part ot 
family wants. Fabrics were coarse but service- 
able; and the women of the household, after the 
men had broke and hackled the fiax and sheared 
the sheep, did all the subsequent work of carding, 
spinning, weaving, bleaching and dyeing. Whde 
wa'.'es were good, the clothes of apprentices and buckles and wooden he,-ls hi-t-Ml as Ion- al- 
niost as leather brceehc- and ai.rons. Jlemp and 
flax Osnabursrs, dved blue, cost oiilv a shilling or 



one and sixponce [jor van], and a felt or wikiI 
bat and two or three pairs of '•Dar.-e yarn stock- 
ings were good for two senson.-. Wealthy people, 
who wore imported velvets, satins, silks and uan- 
keens, however, had to pay extravaL'nnt prices for 
them, :itid the co5t of a fushonable outtit often 
exceeded the money value of an eliffilile farm. 
The rapid men use 'of their '• hestial" not only 
gave the planter^ a valuable line of esjiorts, hut 
also early encouraged the maniii'aeture of leather. 
Fenn and the f^fciety of Free Traders e.^tahlished 
a tannery in Philadelphia in ]68;> and it was 
well supplied both with bark and hide.*. Leather 
was in general use for articles of clothing, such 
as are now made of other goods Penn himself 
wore leather stockings, f<ir which he paid twenty- 
two shillings a pair. In 1695 the exportation of 
dressed and undressed deer-skins was prohibited, 
in order to promote their utilization at home. 
Raw hide3 cost one and a half pennies per pound, 
while leather sold for twelve pence. A fat cow- 
went to the butcher for three pounds, while heef 
sold for from three to four and a half pence per 
pound, — a profit of over one hundred per cent, to 
butcher and tanner. But land was cheap, the 
Barbadoes market was always ready to pay well 
for cattle on the hoof, and th.ese things secured 
good wages for labor in the mechanic arts. Cur- 
riers, who paid twenty pence a gallon for their 
oil, received three shillings and four pence a hide 
for dressing leather. Journeymen shoemakers 
were paid two shillings a pair ibr men's and 
women's shoes, and last-makers got ten shillings a 
dozen for lasts ; heel-makers two bhillings a dozen 
for wooden heels. Men's shoee sold for sis shil- 
lings and sixjience and women's for five shillings 
per pair. Great skill and taste were displayed in 
the various makes of " white leather," soft leather 
and buckskin for domestic wear, — a branch of 
manufactures taken up by the Swedes in imitation 
of the Indians. 

The mineral wealth of Pennsylvania, suspected 
by the Swedes, began to be revealed very early to 
the primitive settlers under the proprietary gov- 
ernment. A Dutch colony is claimed to have worked 
iron in the Minnesink long before Penn came 
over, but there is nothing but tradition in regard 
to these pioneers. Penn wrote to Lord Keeper 
North, in ItiSo, that copper and iron had been 
found in divers places in the province. Gabriel 
Thomas speaks of the existence of iron stone 
richer and less than that of England : the 
copper, he says, " far exceeding ours, being richer, 
finer, and of a more glorious color. ' These 
" finds" were in Chester County, the seat of the 
earliest iron-Works in the province. Thou as also 
mentions lin>est(ine,lodestone, isiuirlass, asbestos and 
amianthus, lilaeksmiths earned high wages ; one is 
mentioned w!io, with his negroes, by working up 

old iron at sixpence per pound, earned fiftv -l.ji. 
lings a day. All the contempnpp.ry writers -|., :;,^ 
of the heavy charges for smith work, though tin r.- 
was no horse-shoeing to be donr. Sjlver-iniil , 
got half a crown or three shillinL'- per <.mnr.- l,,r 
working up silver, "and for g^ld, ii|iii\ ujcn, ■ 
There was a furnace and forges at Durham, ii, 
Bucks, before the eighteenth century set in. 

Where there was so much hand-work done, and 
so many things to be accomplished by mere mamia! 
labor, there was naturally not much call nor rirdm 
for brain-work The habits of the Swt-des, tli.- 
system and culture of the Society of Friends, weo- 
not particularly favorable to intellectual growth 
nor to education. 3Iany more scholars, wits ai:d 
learned men came to Pennsylvania in the first tu.. 
generations than went out of it. The learmti 
Swedish pastors were exotics, and their succe;sur-, 
from Carupanius to Collins, had to be importi.i 
from the mother country. They did not grow up 
in the Delaware country. Nor did Penu's " woodeti 
country" (as Stimuel Keimer, Franklin's oiid 
companion at the case, calls it) produce any 
parallels or equals to the university scholars, who. 
like Penn, the Lloyds, Logan, Growden, Shippeu, 
Nicholas and John More, Pastorius, Wynne. 
White, Guest, Mompesson and others, devottd 
their talents and learning to the service of the 
infant Commonwealth. Penn himself, it was 
alleged in Council, on the trial of Bradford for 
the unlicensed printing of the charter -and laws 
(a work which he was instigated to by Judge 
Growden), had taken the Virginia Governor 
Berkeley's rule for his pattern, tind wished to di-- 
courage publications of all sorts. The learned and 
elegant professions, indeed, were not well nurtured 
in Pennsvlvania's early days. In Goodson's 
inventory of occupations the " chirurgion " was 
put down between the barbers and the staymakers. 
Gabriel Thomas shows that the pmfessions were 
contemned. " Of Lawyers and Physicians," he 
observes, "I shall say nothing, because thi- 
Country is very Peaceable and Healthy ; long may 
it so continueand neverhaveoccasionforthe Tongue 
of the one or the Ptn of the other, both equally 
destructive to men's Estates and Lives." Whu' 
the sole source of divinity was " the Inner Light, 
cultivated persons were not to be looked for in the 
ministry; education was rather esteemed ■' 
hindrance than a help to the free and perfeet 
expresson of inspiration. It was a " snare " and 
a "device," like the steeple on the church's tower, 
the stained glass in its windows, like the organ i" 
the choir, and tlie gowns and also the salaries and 
benefices of the clergymen. 

There is really as little to say about the doetor- 
and lawvers of the province as Thomas allow-. 
The Dutch Annals mention surgeons of the 
name of Tvkman -Stidham and Jan Oostiug. 



aii.itlier, William Van Rasenocrj, who wa- calUd 
iijiiirtereiitly Inirl't-r aii'l MiririMin, aiul Inverts aud 
Arciit PiettTsen. Tl;ree nf these in three years 
riceived goverunicnt pay to the amount of two 
iliousand seven hundred and ei;Thty-ei'Tht tiorius 
IIS physicians and " comforters of the sick."' In 
the journal of Sluytcr and Dankers, Otto Ernest 
Oick is called a pliysician, or rather "a late 
laedicus." In additio'n to Drs. Thomas Wynne, 
Oritfith Owen and Nicholas More, John Goodson 
w;ls also a physician under Penn's LTOvernmcnt, 
and so was Edward Jones, founder of Merion, and 
^on indaw of Dr. Wynne. Dr. John Le Pierre, 
who w;is reputed to be an alchemist, came over 
about the same time as Penn. Dr. More did not 
practice his profession in the colony, but Griffith 
Owen \va? a regular physician from the date of his 
arrival. There were several other " chirurgious" 
among the " first purchasers," but it is not ascer- 
tained that any of them immigrated to the p.'-ov- 
ince. Doctors could not be well dispensed with, 
since, in addition to colds, consumptions and con- 
stant malarial disorders, the province was visited 
by three or four severe epidemics, including a fatal 
influenza which attacked all tiie settlements and 
colonies on the Atlantic, an outbreak of pleurisy 
which was noticeably destructive at Upland and 
New Castle, and a plague of yellow fever in 
Philadelphia in 1699. The smallpox likewise 
was a regular and terrible visitor of the coast, 
though its most fearful ravages were among the 

The pioneer lawyer of Delaware was admitted 
to practice in 1G7G, at the session of the court 
held November 7th. The records of that day 
show that " uppon the petition of Thomas Spry 
desireing that he might be admitted to plead some 
l)eople's cases in court, etc, The Worppll Court 
have granted him Leave so Long as the I'etitioner 
Behaves himself well and carrys liimself answer- 
able thereto." 

In addition to Thomas Spry and others Charles 
Pickering appears to have been a member of the 
bar, as well as a planter on a large scale, a miner 
and copjjer and iron-worker, a manufacturer of 
adulterated coins, and a sort of warden of the 
territory in dis[)Ute between Penn and Lord Balti- 
more. Patrick Robinson, the recalcitrant clerk of 
Judge More's court, was an attornev, and Samuel 
Hersent was prosecuting attorney for the province 
ill 16S5, afterwards securing his election to the 
sherilfalty of Philadeli>hia. David Lloyd suc- 
ceeded him as attorney-genera', and distinguislied 
himself in the controversies with Admiralty Judire 
<iuarry. John ;Moore was the royal attorney in 
^^larry's court. 

These gentlem.'n of the bar found plenty of 
w<jrk to do. There wure many disputed titles of 

' Wentcitt'a " History of PliilaJelflua," Limp. i.i. 

hiiid. there wa-< a girat d.^al of coil-cting to do in 
the triangular tr.'le b..-tw-en the pr.ivime, the 
West Indies and the mother conmj-y, and there 
were numbers of r,er-or..'.i i,-.~':rs and Miits iiir 
a.-sau!ts, libels, etc. T5isidis, whilf I'eun himself 
did all he eoul.l to pr>-vent litigations, the ehar- 
acier of his laws nrcos.-.rily call-il for the constant 
iniirfire'KO of the courls in atUiii-s not properly 
their coiiceTi. There weie many ;-,umptuary laws, 
many restri.-tive ones, ar.d the svliole system was 
unplejisajitly inou'sitive and meddlesome It 
kept ;ip the san;e sort of oliuoxious interference 
wi'h private ousiue:-s and personal habits which 
made the Puritan system so int(derable, but its 
penalties had none of the Puritan's atrocious 
severity and bloo;ithirst. It must be confessed 
that the unorthodox person of gay temperament 
who sought to amuse hirasdf in primitive Phila- 
deiph-a v^as likely to have a hard time of it. The 
sail. ir who landed there on li'oerty after a tedious 
thrLe iiMLtiis' cruise soon found that he was not at 
Waj.pitjy. The ('Quakers had learned to despise riot 
and liebauchery, less [>er!ia[)S because it was vicious 
and uenioralizing than for the reason that it was 
ofien>ive to ilicir ingrained love of quiet and order 
and to tivm- passion ior thrift and economy. Wild- 
ness, sport, all the livelier amusements were abhor- 
rent to them because they signified extravagance 
and waste. The skirts of their Christian charity, 
admirable, thoughtful and deep as that was, seemed 
never broad enough to embrace or condone prodi- 
gality. Wiien the prodigal sou came home to 
them tlic fatted calf was not killed, but the ques- 
tion was wonderingly and seriously asked (saving 
the oath) " MaU, que dtuble allait-i/faire dnius cette 
ijalrref" That was the way precisely in which 
they treated William Penn, Jr , when he was 
arrested for rioting and beating the watch in a 
tavern. Instead of cj-cusing him for his youth and 
for his worthy father's sake, they accii.^ed him on. 
that account, and the lather's great character 
actually became a pan of the body of the indict- 
ment against the protligate son. No wonder that 
the father should have cried in the bitterness of 
his heart: "See how much more easily the bad 
Friend's treatment of him stumbled him from the 
blessed truths than those he acknowledged to be 
good ones could jirevail to keeji him in potsessieii 
of it.' 

In fact, all that was not exactly according to 
(Quaker ways was narrowly looked upon as vice 
and to be suppressed Christmas mumming was 
accused as fiagrant licentiousness. Horse-racing 
was prevented by th* grand jury It offended the 
sobriety of the community for shifts to fire salutes 
on arrivioL' and d. 'parting. The laws against the 
small virt.s were so prouii.-euous and indiscriminate 
and the penalties j-o ill balanced that when the 
Pennsylvania code was tlually presented to Queen 



rs .Ir 

tlu'ir pens 
Icnieaiiors and pi-iial- 
■ nstraiu her Majesty's 
nrts and diversions, 
-f T'eMii-vlvania .hall 
is, and 

Anne for approval lu 
through half the li,~t . 
ties, for the reason that 
subjects from innnci 
However, if the A.-;li 
pass an act for jireventiut.' of ri 
for restraining such as are contrary U> the laws nt' 
this kingdom, there will be no ohjertiun thereto, so 
it contains nothing else."' The character of tliese 
unnatural restraints is fully illustrated in certain 
" extracts from the reeonU uf (ieriuautown Court " 
(1691 to 1707) and " prcM ntnienis, petitions, etc., 
between 1702 and 1774." - Fur example, I'eter 
Keurlis, charged with "not cominji: when the 
justices sent for him, with refusing to lodge 
travelers, with selling barley-malt at four pence 
per quart, and with violating Gerniantown law by 
selling more than a gill of rum and a (juart of 
beer every half-day to each individual. I'eter's 
answers cover the whole case of the absurdity of 
such apron-string government. He did not come 
because he had much work to do ; he did not 
entertain travelers, because he 
only sold drink and did not 
keep an ordinary ; he knew 
nothing about the four-pence 
^^^=^,;,:^^^-^=» a quart law of the province, 
1^]:^ and as for the Germantowu 

hy ,\'\ statute, the people he sold tn 

|, jl I being a^ile to bear viore, he 

T;' !| 1 could not, or would not, obev 

^' i ,; ./ the law. The court, how- 

ever, took his license aivay 
from him and forbade him to 
sell any drink, under penalty 
of £5. Oaths and charges of 
_ ^ _ _ lyi°S' ^^lien brought to the 
^^^^" \. court's notice, if the ofl'ender 

PILLORx. , 1 1 1 1 • ■ 1 1 

acknowledged his lault and 
•begged pardon, were " forgiven and laid by," the 
law making them finable otli-nses. Ileinert Peters 
fined twenty shillings for calling the sheriti' a liar 
and a rascal in open street. A case of J?mith (•-■. 
Falkner was continued because the day when it 
was called " was the day wherein Herod slew the 
Innocents." George Muller, for his drunkenness, 
was condemned to five days' imprisonment; "itrm, 
to pay the < 'unstable two shillinL's for serving the 

warrant in tlu- <■„.<,■ of hi< Jaijiug a ,n,,,r,- te, s„toI:e 
above one hundred jiipes in one daij." Herman 
Dors, being drunk, called Trinke o[) den Graeff a 
naughty name, accused Peters of being too kind to 
Trinke, called his own sister a witch and another 
vile name, and said his children were thieves ; 
brought before the court, " and there did particu- 
larly clear all and Cv-ery cue of the said injured 

*;> — 

[)ers(ins, who. upon his ackuowlrdLMneuts of il,. 
wrongs done tlieiii bv him, frPcly I'nrgave bin,; 
the court limd him five .-liillinL', Peter Sli „ 
maker, Jr.,' ac(U>i-s the biases uf .lohn van .h r 
Willd.rne.-s nf huni: "nnlaufnl," because lh,v 
".•o over the f.n,-.. where it had il^ full beiizht/ 
The jury, however, found .'^hoeniaker's fences t. 
be " unlawful. ' The rourt orders that " none «!,. 
hath no lot nor land in this corporation shall t\e 
his horse or mare or any other cattle upon th, 
fences or lands thereof, either by day or niidi;. 
under the penalty of five shillings." Abraham e;. 
den Graetf is before court for slandering I)avi.| 
Sberker, saying no honest tiian would be in hi- 
company. Verdict for defendant. ■' IS'ov. '2.stli. 
]70o, Daniel Falkner, coming into this Court, 
behaved himself very ill, like one that (ca.y In.-' 
night drunk, and not iiet having recovered hk n-itt.<." 
Falkner seemed so agressive that the sheriff and 
constable were ordered to " bring him out," wliieh 
was done, he crying, "You are all fools! " which, 
indeed, was not the remark of a drunken but a 
sober man. No court could continue to waste 
time in preposterous trivial proceedings of such 
sort without exhausting the patience of a com- 
munity and making it impos-ible for people to 
avoid mch outbursts as those of Falkner. 

Among tlie grand jury presentments, etc, quoted 
in these papers, we find one against George Rob- 
inson, butcher, " for being a person of evell 
fame as a common swearer and a commcin drinker, 
and particularly ufion the 23d day of this inst., thr 
swearing three oaths in the market-place, and also 
for uttering two very bad curses the 26th dav oi' 
this inst." Philip Gilheck utters three curses also ; 
presented and fined for terrifying " the Queen's 
liege jjeople. ' John Smith, living in Strawberry 
Alley, presenteif" for being maskt or disguised in 
woman s aparell ; walking openly through the 
streets of this cittj' from house to house on oi' 
about the 'iiOth day of the 10th month [day after 
Christmas], it being again.d the Law of God, the 
Lau- of thi'i province and the Law of nature, to thi 
itaining of holy profe-moii and Licoridging 'f 
wicked in this place." All this against an 
innocent Christmas masquerade ! Children and 
servants robbing orchards is presented ;is a " gnat 
abuse" and '■ licieucious liberty," a "'0001111011 
nuisance" and " agreeviance." Such ridicidoii- 
esaggeration destroys the respect tiir law whicli 
alone secures obedience to it. John Joyce Jr.. 
is presented " fur having to ivifes ut once, which 
is boath against y° Law of God and Man." Dor- 
otbv, wife of, llichard Cantcrill, presented fir 
maskinL' in mi'u's clothes the <lay after Christma.-. 
"walking and daiieinir in the house of John SiiiK-- 
at 9 or lu o'eloek at night,"— even charg. d 
with being in the street! Sarah Stiner, same 
otiense, but on the streets, "dressed in man'- 



( loiitlies, contrary to v* nntiin^ of lier soct.s . . . 
(,, v' grate Di^turliaiicu ot' wcll-iiiiiiiloil [nTsoiiri, 
.iiiii incorridgin;,' of vice in this place." Jolin 
-line!', who gave the masquerade party, is pre- 
-1 iitcd for keepinnf a disorderly lioiise, " a nursery 
t.i Debotcli y' iuhabitants and \outh of this city 
. . . to y° Greef of and disturbance of peaceal)le 
minds and 2^ropi'j<i(i)ig ijr Tlu-onr of ii'irl:r,lii,-s^ 
,1111'iiiijd us." Peter Evans, lm iitli mari. |iir-(iitcd 
t..r sending a challenge to Francis riiillips totiL'lu 
uith swords.' The grand jury r(>]i(irt that their 
predecessors having frecpiently before presented 
the necessity of a diickiiig-jtoo! and house of cor- 
rection ^ "for the ju-st punishment of scolding, 
Drunken Women, as well as Divers other profli- 
gate and Unruly persons in this place, who are be- 
c'liue a I'ublick Xuisance and disturbance to this 
Town in Generall, Therefore we, the Present 
Grand Jury, do Earnestly again present the same 
til this Court of Quarter Sessions for the City, de- 
siring thoirimmediate Care. Th\it tliose pnbUe Con- 
veniences may not be any longer delay'd." Cer- 
tainly it is a novel idea to class ducking-stools and 
houses of correction among" public conveniences." 
There are three successive presentments to this 
etiect. The grand jury also present negroes for 
noisy assemblages in the streets on Sunday, and 
think that they ought to he forbidden to walk the 
streets in company after dark without their mas- 
ter's leave. Mary, wife of John Austin, the cord- 
wainer is presented because she was and vet is a 
common scold, " a Comon and public disturber, 
And Strife and Dtbate amongst her Neighbours, a 
Common Sower and ]Mover, To the great Disturb- 
auce of the Liege Subjects," etc. lusfiite of all 
these presentments and indictments, however, and 
e.specially those against drunkenness and tipplini:- 
houses, we find in a presentment drawn by Benja- 
min Franklin in 1744 that these houses, the " Nur- 
series of Vice and Debauchery," are on the in- 
crease. The bill says there were upwards of one 
hundred licensed retail liijuor-houses in the city, 
«luch, with the small groceries, " make by our 
computation near a tenth part of the city, a Pro- 
portion that appears to us much too great." One 
[ilace, where these houses are thickest, has " ob- 

t }• Pewter Platte 

■PtiKR Kv.vxs- 

I iiUh|.i a].p,.;ir3 to h.-iTe bien arre-tcl, f,)r the ffraiiJ jury present 

'^. n ,iuay my Bervauls," etc. 
' The whipping-post, pillory, and stocks were the usual instruui 

taiucd among tlie fotiinKm People the shocking 
name of l[rll-ti„n,r 

The tirst few years of the eighteenth century 
did not bring much change in the mode of life or 
the costume of the Delawarcans. but thev brou-ht 
much improvement m their dwdlin--'. ' In Wil- 
n.iuL't.ui and other 1uil;c town- of Dcluu;„v many 
new iiouses were built of brick, and some two or 
three stories hiudi. Some of tiiese houses had a 
balcony, usually a front pori;h, a feature of vast 
importance in house-building, for it became cus- 
tomary in the large towns for the ladies of the 
family in pleasant weather to sit on the porch, 
after the labor of the day was over, and spend 
the evening in social converse. In those early 
days when the sun went down the voung ladies 
were dressed and ready for the porch parade : 
then neighbors came for a chat about those en- 
grossing subjects, dress and housekeeping ; friends 
called, and beaux strutted by in powdered wigs, 
swords, square-cut coats, tights and leather or silk 
stockings, running the gauntlet of all those 
bright eyes in order to litt the three-cornered hat 
to some particular fair 
one, and to dream 
about the sweet smile 
received in return. If 
we are to believe the 
old chronicles, lovt- 
making was a very 
tame ati'air in tho-e 
days. Young ladie- 
received company with 
their mammas, and the 
bashful lover, in the presence of the old folks, had to 
resort to tender glance^ and >.oftly-\\]ii,pered vows 
Marriages were ordered promul<rated by atfixing the 
intentions of the paUies on the court-hou'-eand meet- 
ing- house doors, and when the act was solemnized, 
they were required by law to have at least twelve 
subscribing witnesses. The wedding entertain- 
ments must have been more of a nuisance than a 
pleasure, either for the parents or the young 
couple. They were inspired by a conception of 
unbounded hospitality, very common at that time. 
Even the Quakers accepted them with good grace 
until the evil consequences of free drinking 
on those occasions compelled them to coun-el more 
moderation. There -was feasting during the 
whole day, and for the two following days punch 
was dealt out nd lihltnin to all comers. The 
gentlemen invitetl to j^artake of these libations 
were received by the groom on the tirst 
floor; then they ascended to the second floor, 
where they found the bride surroiimleil bv her 
bridesmaids, and every one of the said v'entlemen, 
be they one hundred, ki--cd t!ie bride. There was 
a quaint custom in those davs of turniiiir off 
marriage notices with j<ome remark complimentary 





to the hri.le, as tolL.vvs : '■ Mr. Lwi IIn!li.iL:-u,,rth 
to Mi>s Haiinai, Paschall, .iau.'littr ,,f Mr. Ste- 
phen i'aschuU, a youug huly \\hi-e ainiaijle lis- 
position auJ eniiufUt mental acL'iijii[ili^Kint-ul.s nJd 
digiiitv t(.i her agreeable person." 

When the Revoluridn,' oiu, Mi.-s Sally 
McKean was " anmng the e.-u-^tellatiun Jf 
beauties of Delaware. " She \\;is the daugliter ol' 
Thomas McKean ami was rrruarkaljle I'er her 
beauty. She married D^'U (.'arli.s .Afartinez. Mar- 
quis D'Yrujo ; lur son, the Duke of Soton.:iyer, 
who was born in I'liilaili.l[ilLia. Iiei.-auie jiriiae min- 
ister of Spain. 

At Mrs. Washington's iirst levee, in Philadel- 
phia, she was greatly admired, and the immeD.^e 
wealth at her command, after she was mairled, 

TiiE .M.iucm 

\ V 


. " - ^^'^^^"^-:,. 

' 1 


enabled hiT to maintain a style of life, without 
which beauty alime stii(jd only a slight chance of 
recognition. Her beauty, rank, and wealth, eon- 
spired to draw around her a circle of men and 
women of the very fii-st clas< in elegance and ac- 
compli.-hment. After ln-r fathrr reumvcl t.. IMiila- 
delphia, she livid with an .leu-aiit h..-.,.itality, and 
numbered among her intimates the beik-s of the 
Republican Court, ilrs. \\'illiam Bin-ham (Anne 
WilliuL'), MarL'aret Shi open i Mrs. ^.ien. Arnold). 
]Mis.-es Allen, Mrs. K:ji.,-rt M-rris, D..llv I'avne 
(Mr.s. Madisnni, ^lar-ant, S,,.l,ia and" HaVi-t 
Chew, Martha Jeti^r-.n, .Mr-. Dr. .Tatn.-s Kiidi, 
Mrs. Gen. llenrv Kimx. l;,l,.,vu iManl:-, .Mr.~. 
Esther Krcl, .mV-. Sallv IJarl,,. and a h.-t of 
others. (Jnc of he- doar. ~t fri.-nd> xvas .Miss 
Harriet Chew, who afterwards married Charles 

Carn.U. .h 



hat thv' ) 




ust surviv 


ni: la I. 

several tira-:- v-li..i i-.r -:it "> (i 


to sav ! 

was d"ue to h'-.- int.; 

Mrs. B,adii)rd, t!ie 

of the United State 

of the Eepublicaa Court. 

In ■vviutf^r, company was received in the sittinu' 
room, wbVh might as well be styled the living 
r^.on., tor tii*^ many purposes it served. Thev 
diced lu it, and sometimes slept in it. The furni- 
ture and general ar'-angemeut of the room was of 
the .simplest kind; settees with stitf, high backs, 
one or two large tables of pine or of maple, a 
higli.deep chest of drawers containing the wearing 
apparel of the fomily and a corner cupboard in 
whicli the plate and china were displayed, consti- 
tuted a very satisfactory set of parlor furniture in 
the early part of tlie eighteenth century, — sofas 
and side-boards were not then in use, nor were 
carpets. The floor \n as sanded, the walls white- 
washed, end the wide mantel of the open fireplace 
was of wood The windows admitted light 
thorLUgh small j)anes of glass set in leaden frames. 
A few small pictures painted on glass and a look- 
ing-glass with a small carved border adorned 
the walls. 

W^ealthier people had damask-covered couches 
instead of settees, and their furniture was of oak 
or mahogany, but in the same plain, stiff style. 
They used china cups and saucers, delft-ware 
from England, and massive silver waiters, bowls 
and tankards. Plated-ware was unknown, and 
those who could not atli)rd the " real article "were 
content to use pewter plates and dishes. Not a 
few ace from wooden trenchers. Lamps were 
scarcely known. Dipped candles in brass candle- 
sticks gave sufficieiit light at night. Carpets, in- 
troduced in 1750, did not come speedily into 
general use, as they were expensive articles, and 
not very common in English households. They 
were made to cover the centre of the floor, the 
chairs and tables not resting on, but around them. 
Curta'us of a richer material, mantel glasses and 
candelabra made their appearance in the parlor. 
Low bedsteads, of solid, carved mahogany, found 
their way to the chamber, although they did not 
supersede, to any extent, the popular beds long 
in use. Paper ''for the lining of rooms" was 
advertised by Charles Hargraves in 1745. Paper- 
hangings and j>oj,:r,-iii'ii-hr work was manufac- 
tured in Philadelphia in 17611, and it is likely 
that between 17oi) and 17110 there were a nunjber 
of houses in Drlaware where wall-paper had taken 
the ]ilaceof the primitive whitewash. 

Among the higher classes hospitadty and good 
feeling reigned. Tiie large mahogany or pine table 



r.lten groaned under the weiL'lit of the viands 
<|.rcnd out in \velconie of tome I'riendiv guests. 
Tlie puncli-bowl was a fixture, even in the (Quaker's 
hduse, and it was not deemed a crime to enjoy a 
-oi'ial gUis3. We may even admit th:it our old 
ritizens were hard drinker:*, \vhich is fur from 
iiieaning that they were drunkards. Thev were 
sensible enough to distinguish use from alnise. and 
temperance societies were unknown. Entertain- 
luenta were frequently given, at which conviviah'ty 
sometimes exceeded the bounds. 

The amusements of the people were for manv 
years of the simplest and most innocent kind. 
Hiding, swimming and skatini.' afforded pleasant 
t.ut-door sport. Before the Revolution such barba- 
rous amusements as cock-fighting, bull-baiting, 
Iwxing-matches and bear-baiting were frequently 
indulged in, especially cock-fighting, in which men 
of the highest respectaijility found pleasure. Bil- 
liards was a game much in vogue, thougii frequently 
denounced as gambling. Bowls, ten-pins, quoit- 
throwing, bullets or " long bowls," the shuftle- 
board, with its heavy weights to be shoved or 
" shufHed " with a strong hand, guided by a cunning 
eye, were games which attracted crowds of visitors 
to the inns and public gardens. Among the other 
entertainments were concerts, fire-works, dancing 
and traveling shows. Dancing was freely indulged 
in, although not countenanced by the Friends. 
Dancing-masters visited Wilmington and the larger 
towns occasionally, giving the gay people an oppor- 
tunity to learn the latest fashionable dance. ^luch 
attention was also paid to music, principallv of a 
sacred character. The polished society of those 
days had no visiting or blank cards. Invitations 
tn a ball or party were printed or written on the 
backs of playing cards. The most elaborate invi- 
tation was that gotten up for Lord Howe's ^leschi- 
anza /t^e, at Philadelphia, May is, 177.-<. Thev 
Were engraved, the design In iuL', " in a .-liidd, 
a view of the sea, with the setting sun, and on a 
wreath the words ' Luceo dUcedenn'aucto »pleirdore 
n^urgam.' At the top was the general's crest, 
with 'vive, vale!' All around the shield ran 
a vi<:nette, and various militarv tr<ijihies filled up 
the ground." 

lu the early part of the century some very odd 
I« rtbrmances could be seen on the streets in Wil- 
niington on Christmas-eve and duriui; Christnuis 
week. Parties of " mummers" went round from 
house to house, reciting rhymes explauatorv of their 
fantastical disguises, and demanding " dole." The 
cu>tom, which came from England, prevailed in the 
• ally part of the present century, as is remembered 
hy the old inhabitants. These " raunnneries," 
I'ouever, did not find favor with all the people. 
' II fact, Christmas itself was U(H generally observed. 
Ihe (Quakers did net incline to the comniemoraticn 
' ' holidays, nor did the more ri-id of the Pn te=t. 

ant .^ects, especially the Presbyterians. To the 
£pisfopalian.s the Catholics and the Germans of 
the Jvetbrmed or Lutheran Churches it was a day 
for family reunions and social gatherings as well 
.as religious fotival. The Germans introduced the 
Chri.-tmas-tree, with toys, trinkets, figures of anirels 
and numerous little lii:lited tapers, — a pretty custom 
with which many American families have since 
bcconie familiar. 

For some years after the Revolution, in fact as 
late as the War of 1812, the old English festival of 
May-day was kept by certain classes of people. 
Although spring flowers are not suggestive of fish, 
May-day was the special holiday of the fish huck- 
sters and shad fishermen. They met in the inns 
and taverns, where they indulged in much jollifica- 
tion and dancing, while flaying parties, composed 


\ t '• 

\ ] 


-^ i 

MES. cnARLi:s c.i-iaiiii.L, jr. (ii.vuiLii.r i iij.w , 

principally of young men and young women, left 
tile borough in the early morning to spend the day 
in the fields and woods. May-jioles were erected 
in front of the taverns, around which there wiis 
much dancing. 

Two other anniversaries, dear to every American 
heart, were celebrated with fitting enthusiasm in 
tlie early days of the Rejiublic, — Wa.-hingtCin's 
Birthday and the Fourth of .luly: but these are 
gradually and (|uietly sinkiim iiitn oblivion. 

In olden tiiiu-s, .-Tich a thing as the nuidern 
hotel, like the Clavlnii II, .u.-,. in \Vilmin-t,ai. with 
its fa.-hiunably dnWrd and all-iiniM.rlaut clerk, its 
large smokin-ivoni. .•ar|...trd pari.. is, gilt mould- 
ings and other luxurinus appointiiieiits. was un- 
known. Tiio nicde^t inn'accommodated" man and 


beast," and the jully laiulli'nl welconiei! the 
wearied tnivekr — and llti'ird liini, tcio. when the 
occasion otteri'd — and an active, l)right-e"ed har- 
maid waited im Ihmi, and jn-dvided those sin:- ;;ie 
comforts — -a pipe, a pair of sii[)pers. a tdans of hot 
punch or a tankard of foaraiui; ale and a cosy 
corner near the taproom fire. If the cloth was 
coarse, it was g< uerally white and clean, at least in 
respectable estalilishinents. and tlie plain fleai 
table groaned under tlie weij^ht of viands which, 
if they presented no great variety, were well 
cooked and wholesome Our fathers were great 
eaters and stout drinkers, and tliere was no need of 
a French menu and wines with highsouLiding 
names to whet their apjietites ; roast beef, a le^ of 
mutton ham and caliliage, a fat fowl, were the 
solid dishes laid before them : ale, port or madeira 
wine, and aglass of Jamaica rum and ho: water to 



Mutto— "Keep Bright the Cljain." 

top off, left them in a pretty good condition to find 
sleep on the clean bed, — sometimes a hard one, — 
prepared for them in the small room, whose bare 
floors, whitewashed walls, and plain cotton curtains 
did not invite dreams of palatial s|>leudors. 

The tavern, though it accommodated guests with 
bed and board, had more of the character of a 
drinking-hou.=e. The inn was rural in its origin; 
the tavern originated in the city, and was fre- 
quented not merely by topers and revelers, but by 
quiet citizens, bachelors having no tire-'ide of their 
own, and men nf family who went there to meet 
neighbors and di-ni--; business or the news, while 
enjoying a niil't glu" ami pipe. The ordinaiy 
was an eating-li(iu>e, suniething between the restau- 
rant and the boarding-house of our dav. The 
coti'ee-houses, so called, which dispensed intoxica- 
ting drinks as well as the fruLTant decuclinii 
of the Arabian ucan, made their a[>pearariee later; 

they were bur taverns in an aristocratic ilj,. 

The naoies aud .^gures of certain animals \\. r.. 
t(i be+Lum; Oil mai v .i-ns. They seemed to hav, 
been specially a'iopted by inn-keepers in Aincn^ .. 
as well as iu England. The "white horse" ai. : 
the ■' black"' " black " and " white bears " 
lions, red, white, and biue ; bulls and buil'. 
heads werr" very con\mou. But there were other 
subiects cf a more or national interest, ami u 
still [jrealer number presenting quaint devices, th.- 
•.vhiiiisical -vreatious of the sign-painter, and gener- 
ally Rccoiup.-iuied by some suggestive doggen | 
rhymes. Tiie Jjigis-pii inter of olden time was often 
an artist of no .'niali merit. 

Scores iu Wilmington were quite numerous, iiiid 
the goods oiiered for sale in great variety. The 
ck- .European practice of over-hanging signs, bear- 
ing some device syndjolic of tlie owner's trade, or 
often some fanciful name having not the slightest 
connection with it, always prevailed iu the colo- 

The shade-trees that embellished the principal 
streets of A\'ilmingt(in in tlnise days were the but- 
teinwoodand the willow. The Lombardy pojilar 
was introduced i'rom Europe in 1786-87, by \\w. 
Hamilton. While the grounds of some of the 
largest mansions in Delaware could boast of rare 
flowers and shrubbery, the gardens in WilmingtHU 
— alniost every hou.-e had its garden — were bright 
only with the simple, old-time favorites so ne- 
glecieil in these days of horticultural wonders, — 
the lilac, the rose, the snow-ball, the lily, the 
pink and tulip; above which the solemn sunflower 
and rank hollyhock lifted their tall heads. Morn- 
ing-glories and gourd-vines climbed over the porch 
or shaded the summer arlior. Every house, gen- 
erally, had its well. Public pumps were not nu- 
merous for some years. There were no public 
clocks to be consulted on the streets, but sun-dials 
were affl.xed to the walls of many houses for 
general convenience, as few people carried watches 
then. They were generally of silver, of very large 
size, and were worn outside. A French fashion, 
which prevailed only among a few, was the wear- 
ing of two watches, one on each side, with a std 1 
or silver chain, fnmi whicli dangled a bunch ef 
watch-keys, seals and bright-eohired tropical seoi.- 
set like precious atones. Jewelry, of which the 
ladies made a brillitmt display, was but little wirii 
by men. 

Very few Delawarcans kept a carriage in the 
nldeii lime, ami even hired vehicles were scarce ; 
traveling was* clone jirincipally on horseback. 
Watson says in tlm^e days " merchants and ]>!■.'- 
fe^-innal genllenieu \\<-re ipiite enntent to keep a 
,me-h.,r.-^e chair, The-e had n.-ne of the present 
trapping- iif silver-plate, nor were the chair Imili- - 
varnished; phiin "paint aleme adorned them, anl 



|,ni>^ i-in-s hurkles wen- all tli.- uvnixnwnts 
r,„ni.l oi! the JKim.-^s; the chair, were withmit 
.|irini;s ur leutliei- baii<ls, Biicli as C' ill hi iiow ( 1X4_' i 
1„- made for Hftv dnllar.-." The earria-e U..-.1 
l,v (leii. Wa-hln.'t.m while Pre-ideiit, w hieli had 
i„'cii irnporteit for < n.v.'inor Kic liLinl I'l iiii and 
u!,i,di j.a.-e.l through Wilmin-toi, sev.-ral times, 
»a> the moat si)leiidid ever seen in Delaware. It 
uas very large and heavy, and was drawn liy four 
horses. It was of ereain-color, with nuieli more' of 
L'ilded carvings in the frame than is since used. 
Its strongest attractions were the relief ornaments 
on the panels, they beiuL' painted with medallion 
pietnres of playing cuiiid.-, (jr luiked ehihlren. 

()wing to the want '.>f i^o;,.! roails, the travel in 
Delaware in the early day.- was ixeeedingly d\&- 
eiilt. lu going to chureh or to fairs, the custom 
vuis, as it existed in luirope at that time, for man 
and woman to ride the same horse, the woman 
,-itting on a pillion behind the man. It was a long 
time before chaises or any kind of pleasure vehicles 
came into u-e. The wagons, made to carry heavy 
loads of produce and merchandise, were great, cum- 
bersome things with enormous wheels, which went 
.•reaking alou- at such a pace as precluded all 
thougiits of an eujovable ride. The dress of the 
early Djlaware.ius UeeOisarily simple, made of 
strong and coarse material that could resist the 
hard usage to which it was put. Men could not 
hew trees, build houses and drive the plough in 
velvet coats and satin breeches, nor could their 
wives and daughters bake and scrub and sweep 
«itli their hair " frizzled, crisped and tortured into 
wreaths and borders, and underproiiped with forks, 
wires, etc.," and flounced and furbelowed gowns. 
<.'oarse cloth and deer skins for the men, linseys 
and worsteds for the women, were of every-day 
ii>e; the " iSunday-go-to-nieetiug " clothes were 
carefully preserved in the huge chest of drawers that 
<oi;tained the family apparel. There was little dif- 
I'Tence between the dress of the Quakers and that 
of the remainder of the p. nple The foimer's ach.p- 
tion at a later date of a more formal costume i.f 
>"her Color was anettiut to ir-i-t the extravagances 
■>f fashion, which had p-iid rated into the far- 
distant colony, makiii- it. bjlrs and beaux a dis- 
torted counterfeit of the berutlled and gilded cour- 
tiers of Queen Anne's or George I.'s times. 

But fashion is a mighty ruler, agaiii-i whii-h it 
1-^ useless to rebel. The greatest men — thinkers, 
i'octs, phih.sophersaud .-.oldiers— have bowed to hrr 
d'-crees, and ma<le them-elvcs appear ridictdoiis 
■'< I'h-aM- " Monsnnr T<,nt Ir Mnn.h , " as the Fn-Ilch- 
"lau s.iid. As for the ladies, whom thev wish to 
!'h-a>e is a my-tery, for have they ii.,t tVen, the 
"'clc-t time to the pre-ellt (lav often accepted the 
""-I unbecoming :avle nf .in-.- ajid ,■•,;, in, ; s, ,k- 
•I'ite the protest<of tliiir male admirers ? They 
ii'iin have a more laudable object than e.\eiting 

A w, 

fickleness of taste 
de-ire to com- 

ni nature has not 
»f f n-m or feature. 
• lar_'.- feet, and to 

d th.-i 
the p 

ladv .,1 the British cnrt had 
shoulders disfiuMire.l by .-i war 
unpleasant blemf-h by mean- 
black sticking-plaster; sonn 
seen on every woman's shoiddt 
to the face, and were seen, c 

of h. 

i-elves; a 
>he concealed the 
if a small ],atch of 
lack patehi-s were 
:; thence they crept 
in mo.-t fantastic 

shapes, on the chin, the cheeks, the forehead ; the 
tip of the nose was the only place respecteil. An 
iiifinttn of t^pain had the misfortune of being born 
with one hip higher than tlie other ; to conceal this 
defect, a garment symmetrically distended by 


' 'J 



1 1 

^ \ 



wires was invented, and forthwith all the ladies 
wore hoops. LouisXIV., of France, whose neck was 
not the straightest, introduced the large wisrs with 
curls descemling half-way down the back and cov- 
ering tiie .-boulders; then men, as a mtitter of 
course, adopted the cumbersome head-ge;ir. The 
women were loth to conceal their shoulders, so, 
after a time, they found a means of making quite 
as extravagant a display of their hair; they built 
it up in an immense pyramid, so high, at one 
time, that a woman's face seemed to be j)laced in 
the middle of her bodv. A ladv of diminutive 

ipper .tructnre was dis- 
had wodeii 1,,-els. .-ix 

itiiie, tmdinj that t! 

die- hi-h. adapted to her .-hee,-; all the u,.men 
irned to walk on their tne-. and the tall ..nes 
.ked like -iante-.-es An ..Id ma-azine pub- 
he- tlu- doleful tale of a gentleman who, having 
xrii^A a weil-propoi lione.l'lady, di.-overed, when 


she appeared in dr.<lnil.illr, that lie was \\ed(KHl wri^^ts. H.r hair, no Imijer propped up In- nir. , 

toadwarf. That .,!d rake, the Dniie de Kiche- and cii,-hi..i,,-., ,lrops in natural euris up,,u !.. ; 

lieu,— tlie tit cunipanion ot' the di-:-olute L^ui.^ neck. A li-ht nlk h 1 nt' the then ta^hinI,,, 

XV., — having L'rown irray, was the first to use cherry ei.lor |irote(ts her Ih-ad. The Uselul par:;- 

powder over his hoarv loek^. and for fifty years was not yet known, hut she carries a jiretly i,,, 

starch. Even the soldiers had t(, he iu the fash- haton. 

ion, and some curious economist once made the Tlie irentletnan walks hy her side, but is \,t. 
calculation that, inasmuch as the military ft)rees eluded from oHeriiii; her the support of his ar. 
of England and the colonies were, includinj,' cav- by the iimplitude of her skirts, and of his own : • 
airy, infantry, militia and fencibles, two hundred well, for his square-cut coat of lavender silk .- 
and fifty thousand, and each man used a pound stifleued out at the skirts with wire and buckraiii 
of flour per week, the i|uantity c(jnsumed iu this it is opened so as to show the loiig-tlapped uai-; 
way was six thousand tive hundred tons per an- coat with wide poekois, wliere-in to carry the snu:; 

box and the /,..///.-.„,-;.,--•. The sleeves are sh..n 
r -.—^ ^ \ ' : ~^1 with lai-ge rounded euti.-; his gold- fringed gl..\.. 

[ _ ,,. -1 are hidden in his g l-sizud mulf. A point 1,,. 

I- -:--._i-. ! cravat protects his neck, and (jver his tie-wig h- 

wears a dainty li- 

\ tie cocked ha;. 

i trimmed with ;roi. I 

\ lace. His feet at' 

\^ \ encased in squan-- 

^ '\ toed shoes with 

K^ ,.», ' small silver buck- 





num — capable of snstainiu'.' fifty thousand persons les. His partridge-silk stockings reach above tl t 

on bread, and ]iroviilini: three- million, fifty-nine knee, w-here they meet his light-blue silk breech' - 
thousand three lumdrid and tifty-three nuartern At a respectful distance behind comes the gen;!' 

loaves 1 man's valet and the lady's maid. He wears ■■ 

A pen picture of a fashionable couple walkin- in l)laek hat, a brow-n-colored coat, a striped w-ai-t 

the streets of Wiliniu::ton louLT hef'oie the Pievolu- coat with bra>s buttons, leather breeches, an^ 

tion would be as follows; worsted sto.-kin---, -tout shoes with brass buckl' - 

The lady trips li_.hily on her dainty little feet, The abi^ail's ,lie- i- of huckaback, made shorf, 

cased in satin slippers Her flounced -ilk petticoat the -kiifs not -o di.-tend.d a- those of her mistn-- 

is so distended hy the rerrntly introduced hoop- v^t are puilcd'out iu huinhle imitation of :! • 

that it is a mystery how she can pa-s through an f'a-hion. .V bright apron an.l .-ilk ueckercliief ai. 

ordinarv-sized doorwav; her tiLihtlv-laeed stoui- a iK^at cap -ive a tf)uch of smartness to the pia'-! 

acher is richly ornamented with uold braid, tho co-tume. 

sleeves are short, but e.ljwl xsith uide point la,-c. Here comes a worth v tradesman and his bux^P 

which tails in v'l-acefid fohls near to the sl-nder wife. Hi- coat, ol' .-tout, -rav cloth, is trimu^ 



„ith Ilis -ray Nvai,^t-,M,;U half .-oiKvals his 
., rvicoahlfbrfi'chus ; ucn.-d-il .-tuckiii-- aii<i 1. ti.htT 
-li.Hs protect his le-s and tott. 'iiic ;_'o,,.i .laiae 
liv his side has put on her cliiiit/. (1r>,~, and lhun;:ii 
ihi' material is nut a,- C(i?;lv as that «..rn liv the 
,;,„. ladv bfiore her. it is UKule np in the fa-hi-i,- 
nhle style, and the'n.-al.le h..,,|.s add to the 
natural rotundity ot'tlie wearer. A |'LM-iiliarily in 
ln-r costume is the ciieek apron that ^prrad- d.>un 
iVoin her stomacher, concealing the hrigiit petti- 

The sini[)licitv nt' ajijianl was the rule, the 
custly style previously descriliod the exeepti')n. 
Very ordinary material was siill used umoULT 
Dclawiireans, and articles of clothing were cou- 
-idcred so valuable as to be, in many instances, 
special objects of bequest. Henry Furnis. who died 
in 1701, bequeathed to one of his daut;liters his 
hather coat, leather waist-coat, his black hat and 
cap. To another daughter he left his blue waist- 
coat, leather breeches and muslin neck-cloth; and 
to another daughter a new drug'jiet coat. 

The wigs held their own until after the return 
of Braddock's army. The hair was then allowed 
to grow, and was either [ilaited or clubl)ed behind, 
or it was grown in a black silk bag, adorned with 
a large black rose. From this it dwindled down 
to the queer little " pigtail," which, not many 
years past, could be seen bobbing up and down 
on the high coat-collar of some old gentleman of 
the last generation. 

Stiff', high-backed chairs and settees, a stiff' style 
of dress, - for the hooiied petticoat and wired coat- 
skirt carry with them no idea of graceful ease, — 
nuist have given the manners a tendency tostitiuess. 
The stately minuet was, very appropriately, the 
fashionable dance of the day, at least among what 
was called "the politer classes;" the ''common 
I'cople," that is the great social body not comprised 
in that upper-teudom, did not follow the fiLshion so 
closely, and enjoyed merrier dances, the favorite 
among which was the " hipsosaw." In 17-42.tliere 
were no material changes in the ladies' dresses, the 
hoop still maintaining its hold, as alsr) the furliLdows; 
the robe was made low in fr<ait, tlie ujiper part of 
the stomacher and tlu- short skevus edged with 
p'lint lace. Apnjiis were in fa>hion, ami were worn 
Sometimes long and at other tirnes short, exjiosing 
the richly-embroidered petticoat. Capuchin hoods 
\wre in style. But the greatest change was in the 
dressing of the hair. The simple and elegant 
c lillure of natural curls already described was in 
V"gue only a few years. The old style of building 
lip the hair in a high pyramid suddenly reai)peared 
^^ith ^tiil more exaggerated proportions. The hair 
was carried up over wire frameworks, stiifened with 
l"'niade, sprinkled with powder and formed a 
li' \wldering edilice adorned with curls tlower< and 
feathers. Sometimes a sort of a little hat was 

])erci'.ed on the aiicx i-i this won'lrous structure. 
[Ii'-.v our grau'ln.o'l^jis ever had the piitieiice U, 

the haii-dre.-ser, .-Old i.ow ,h, v cuiila 'move, walk 
and dance with Mich i hv.l on their eraniuni. is 
the \vouder of their giariudaugiitei-. .leuels, rich 

It v-:iS -iie f^shii.n I'^r a Ii-'y U> carry a costly g(dd 
suiui-box- witiu. '..■ikniu' '.i.u-s inside the lid; as she 
opened t!ie box a, take -r otier a piucii, she could 
cast ?. surreptiiious glance at her fair visage and 
see ;i' !-ei r-iUge was niit ciimiutr off. and if her 
"b.;auiy spots,' ;.;., patclica, were slili in the right 

When we read of tiie pulii-hed society of those 
day-, of their elegant dresses, their jewels and laces 


vo cau- 


have, thing-: the 
|io;,rest woman 
of our day could 
not do without. 
Tooth brushes, 
until q;iite re- 
cent! v, ueie un- 
known, and the 
fairest lady rub- 
bed her teeth -■?- 
■with a rag which, ^ 
horreico rcferens. 


V • 

Iwirescorcferens, ^ I \ \\ ^ 1 

she dipped in '^T- f \ \ ~^ '^ ^ 

snufFl Mr. Wat- f": / J I C' v > 

sou. the annalist, : ;: i' '" f »■ V 

speaking of Dr. "- !/ ' ^^ ^' 

Le Mayeur, a / ^^ _ // ) 

dentist, who pro- ^ ^ ~ ^\ ^ 

posed in 1784 to '""^^^^ — 

transport teeth, ^ belle of the re\olltion 
says: " This was .f,, ^ j^ , ij m j r \nari 

quite a novelty 

in Philadeiiihia ; the ]>reseiit care of the teeth was ill 
understood then. He had, however, great success 
in Philadelphia, and went off with a great deal of 
our patricians' money. Several very respectable 
ladies had them imj)lanted. I remember some 
curious anecdotes of some cases. One of the ^les- 
chianza belles had such teeth. They were, in some 
cases, two months betijre they could eat with them." 
In 17i;:t, ' Mr. Hamilton, surireon, dentist and 
operator for the te'«th, from London," advertises 
that he '-.lisplae'e^all superlluous teeth and stumps 
with tlie great' .-t ea.-e aiivl .-afety, anil makes and 

"h'de set, in so nice a manner tluit they cannot be 
distiimuished from iiatnral: therefore, those ladies 



and gcntleine 

having )((((((/■' 
and secrecy, : 
use, oruamcni 
giving the li:i 
There \veri 
menial labor 
man, Enfilisli 






captain tl 

LT, \vh 

( came to 

so 111 for a 


seems to 

people nia 

lirrd servants in those days; 
III- liy black sbives, and Ger- 
ii>h rcdeniptionors, .Slavery 
was not refiUL'iiaiit to forefatluTs' notions of 
justice; it was adiiiittcd even by the (Quakers. ^ 

But the slaves of Delaware and I'enusylvania 
were happy: har>h treatnunt was not counte- 
nanced by public opinion. St rvaiits wi re reijarded 
as forming an iuteL'ral part of the family, and 
proper attention paid to their 
Peter Kalni. the Swedish ti 
Pennsylvania and I>elaware 
have thorou-hlv iiivt -ti-ated the oue.-tiou of 

Juft In.porlea in Iho (h^•> GflANDV, JOSEPH BLE»%''ER. 

Seventy Go Id- Coqfi SLAVES 

ofvariousa^cs, anJ tK-lK feTes, 
Toterolclonb.vjrJr„>irira.pjtMf. flam,-L£d's wliarf.'by 

Jf^JLLlXG a.n<i MORRIS, 

Andapart'of t;it:r, oreir.lenderlfobs fentmarftvcUvctoDook 
Crv:ek, '.her* to be fold, by Mr. Thomas "Mudcdi forcaihon 
country prosi-jce, Pfnn? Jour.Au^ i5 i765. 


servants. lie says that there were two classes of 
white servants; the first were ipiite I'ree to serve 
by the year. They could even leave their masters 

1 The ship •■GiJenn" arrive.l at Xew Anist.>riliini, .Africa, with 

y their own clothes. '[, 
jf SLich persons as r;,]; 
V. En-land and u\\.. 
of M-ttliugin the 01. 1m, 
o|.pri.M.,n, other.^ f,. 

liate 1 
forge 1 1 

waj in will, li 
Council uud t 

slave trade w 

beins devised to Lis w i 

sylvania currency. Tln> wa-"in l'1-.ilad. I,, 

the wages were not ^o u I in the country 

maidservant received ei_r'it or ten [)uunds a \ 
The.-e sirvaiils l,:,d to In 
second rh,~~ rnn-i-trd 
annually fiMin ( icrmai 
countries for the purpi-.-- 
Some were llyiiiL: fnuii 
religious pei>rriition. but iih>t uf theiu weri- ; .. 
jinor to p;iv the six or eiuiit pounds sterli!i_: r 
.juired for "their pa:-sage. They a-reed witii i! 
lat they would sutler themselves t.. i- 
tew years i;in their arrival. Very . ! 1 
ide arrangements to sell their childri :,. 
order to secure their own passage. Sn:m- 
could pay pai't of the passage-money, and wer.- 
sold only for a short time. Some of the German-, 
although having the means to pay their way, 
pret'erred to sutler themselves to be sold, with a 
view that during their servitude they might i;aiii 
some knowledge of the language of the country 
and have time to decide what pursuits would be 
most advantageous. The average price of iIiom- 
Servants was fourteen pounds for four years' servi- 
tude. The master was bound to feed and clntln' 
his servant, and to present him with a new suit 
of clothes at the end of his term of servitude. '1 In- 
English and Lish commonly sold themselves fi>r 
four years, but the Germans frequently agricl 
with the captain to pay him a certain sum nt 
money for a certain number of persons, and on 
their arrival in America, they tried to get a man 
to pay their passage ibr them, giving him in re- 
turn one or several of their children to serve for 
a certain number of years. If the demand wa~ 
brisk, they were thus able to make their bargain 
with the highest bidder. 

The purchase of black servants involved too 
great an outlay of capital to be as general as that 
of white servants, and they were not held in large 
numbers by any one master. 

The practice of importiiiLr '' indented servants" 
continued in force down to the Revolution, and 
altliough we find in the newspapers of the time, 
(^17tJS-G9) communications attacking and defending 
the enslaving of negroes, there seems to have 
been no objection to reihicing white men to teiu])or- 
ary slavery. Such advertisenicnts as the folluwinL' 
were not uncommon: '".lust imported in the 
BriL'antine *. from Ibi-tol. a parcel ot 

healthv, likelv men and women, indentured .- r- 
vants' anion:;' whieb are r.laek.-niiths, Ciittlei-. 
IInu>e-carpi nter.s, Tainti i- and Glaziers, Baker.-, 
Turners, IIu.-b;iiidmen and lalmiirers." Thi> wa- 
no longer the scuni ot' th.e streets and jail; of 


I^udiiii shippc'il to America hy tlic aullicri- 
;,-. :i!* a safe meaIl^^ ol' ridilaiice and fur •' the 
Utior poopliiig 'if his niaie.-t_v's coluiiic.-." 
lliTu we have lioncst a^ti^^ans .-elliiig theni- 
- ivfS voluutai-ilv iuto servitude in urder t'^ 
_, I t(j the new hiuJ of inuiiii-e. Theic i'oor 
;. lli>«s Cduld be transferred hy one tna.-ter to 
:iM"tlier, and sold like cuninion uoods or eliattels, 
initil the term of thjir indentures had expired. 
Kilt there were cases when the master, not, 
tiie servant, deserved sympathy. The thi^^es 
:iiid rascals of every grade, who came «>ver luuh'i 
.■i.iii|)nlsion, or animated hy the liope that they 
\uaM tind iu the enl,ini<s a new ti.'M fer tlieiV 
iirtarious practices, gave no end of tn.ul.h- to the 
unfortunate citizen wiio liad inve^ted his mouev 
111 them ; they were continually runniiiLf awav, 
and tliey generally carried off all tliey 
e..uld lay their hands on. 

Duels, so frequent in England at that 
lime, were of very rare occurrence in 
Ivhiware, yet a few did take place. It 
y not surprising, therefore, tha.t some 
attention should have been given to the 
art of fencing. All gentlemen w ho desired 
to be known as fashionable and polite 
members of society learned the use of the 
suord. Fencing-masters, therefore, trav- 
eled from town to town and fonnd occu- 
pation as well as dancing-masters, al- 
though they were not at tirst received 
with favor. They were tolerated at an 
earlv dav,and at a later dav met with no 

more r.-.odc?'.' i- 
tied b..!!iiid, w 

n, .it this time, however, was 

ppcil. A., recently-arrived 

■reiiltd as wearing his hair 

■s-.d in a brown broadcloth 

coat, lapelh d j-icl-.t, and breeches of the same 

nioterial, a castor hut, brown stockings and shoes, 

witli pinchbeck buckles, while a teacher, who had 

I'luev got hinrs°lf iu some trouble with the sheritT, is 

iway, describei! as clad in a bhte coat, with a red collar 

TH'f XJay TSun away fT-orn Joln-^l''Comi, Junier, an 
Indian V'.omtn, ahout 1 7 Yea.-sof Age, Pitted in 
the Tare, olaiTi-.ddle 5lalura ana Indifferent fait having 
an herfl Dr^gat. Waflcoat . ana Ktrf^v retticoat. of a 
Light Colloor. If anv Perfon cr Ft?rfon3,fkiU bn'n^ 
thaftidCirle to hei-lV'dMaflcr, Ihall be Rewai-dedfor 
their T.'"ouhis to their Content 

American weekly mercury May 24 1723 

A Servant Maids Time for Four Years to be fold by 

A Ver3']fkdy Nrgro Woman to be loM, jwed about 
^\^.c*^- ^ v'"'. '^■* l"'- C^""*ry or Cfty Bofinofs.^ Shz^n 
L-ard, 5pm, hmt analVulk.-, andanv ot-hsrCounh-v-.Wnrk 

Card,'tpm, hmt and Milk. •, andanv ot-hsrCountiy-Wbrk. 
Whoever ha.s a Mir.d for the faid^JeSro mav 
ibiarewBradfc-d m Philadelphia. 
A Tr^"J^ ^^^^ 'Ionian Wbs fold by Samuel Kirk tn 

'ay repair to 

Iha Second ijtreetj Philadelphia, 

Ditto Oct, 

TO be Sold, ava-y likely Xegi-o Wornan fit for all 
Manner of Houfe Work, as Wafhing,, 
Ironing, i:z^ Enquire oi Andrew Bradford, 

Ditto. Dec.2^. 1723 


Aiiiait 17bO gentlemen's costumes suf- 
fered a few alterations, and these for tlie 
1 letter. The coat— no longer of velvet, 
filk or satin, except for full-dress, but 
of strong cloth — was square-cut, with 
>'Miiu simple trimming and black lining; 
I lie long-tlapped waistcoat descending 
Very low, and the stockings drawn very liigliov*r the and wristbands, sugar-loaf-shaped metal buttons, 
knee; large hanging cutis to the coatsleeves, ami lace a blue surtout coat, Nivernais hat and rutHed 
nitlies. The skirts of the coat much less distended shirt; he also wore hi< hair tied behind, 
"i'.li wire ; stockings of blue or .scarlet silk; scjuare- Broadcloths were to be had in :-ueli variety of 
I'hmI, short-([uartereu shoes, with high red heels colors as to please tiie most fa.-tidioiis taste. — 
I'lid small buckles. All wore wigs, but of smaller scarlet, crimson, blue, green, drab, black, white, 
'i/e tliaii before. The small three-cornered hat butf, brown, light-colored and rose-colored. 
«as laced with gold or silver galloon, and 'oine- Fops clung for some time to perukes, powdered 

tuiii's trimmed with feathers. In 17G0 a peruke 

ii:aker adverti>ed that "' gentlemen may be com- men of the old sc 

I'letely furnished with bag-wigs of the neatest up, an 

'■i-liioii, er (jf whatsoever fashion they ehoi -<• : made 

al-., -, lateh wigs and scratch bob wigs, cut wi^s nave u 

-•• ntiemeii mav cho ,-e." 

In 1772 thufoHouin- di-niption of a " dude" 
»;'M'"lilished in I'iiiiadelphia: 

heads and three-cornered hats. Elderly gentle- 

ol were also loth to give tlieiu 

s late as 1800 even wore the large wigs 

.-ray or white h.u-se-hair. When tliey 

of the .lueile, or pi_'tail, formed bv tui-lin- and 
tving the natural hair behind, behnv'the back of the 
neck. Ihit the middU' ehi.- f.lloued th- French 
reiuiblican fa>iiion, and cut their hair a la Tih,.<, 
—a shock head irom tire lorehead to the back of 


HiSTori OF DELAvrAi:!: 

he neuk. At ;i Inter,! Miiotlier French style 
■was introihK-i-il — llw Jiair ciPinhi.J liuwii tlic t'ure- 
head to within ;i .-hdrt cli.-t:ince t'roru tl;e tvo- 
brows and cut striiii.'ht acr"-.-, ua.< allnwiM.! to trrn'.v 
loug: on the si<l'-; and hark nf thi> hiail, mw rini,' 
the ears, en on ilh ^■ '/- cA/. k, a- may \k- jueii iu the 
portraits of thrnral J;niia|iai-tf. 

The heard (hiriu- all tlii:^ time was hauisbed 
from gi.od society. The cheeks, upper and lower 
lips, and throat were carefully and laboriously 
deprived of their natural growth of beard oncp. 
twice or thrice a week, and, among the hrghly 
fashionable, every day. No gentleman could pre- 
sent himself with decency at church or at the 
Assembly, or visit frien<ls or acipiaintance^, uulesj 
he was scrupulously shaved and was able to 
present a clean and respectable appearance. 

The hats had narrow brims, and the erow.i 
tapered off toward the top, not unlike the Tyrolose 
hat, but less elegant. They were made of beaver 
or of the skiu-< of the muskrat, the otter and the 
raccoon, these furs lieiug used for body and ail 
in the finer hats, or the fur was felted upon wool ; 
coarser hats were made entirely of wool. The 
various furs were also used iu the makin^r of caps, 
or these were made of cluth ; there were various 
shapes of caps. 

As loug as stockings continued to be an outside 
portion of the dress of gentlemen they were ol)jects 
of care, and sometimes of pride. Upon occasions 
of ceremony, where elegance of costume was 
looked for, the stockings were of silk — whiteamoug 
young men who coveted distinction on account of 
the observance of the proprieties, and black among 
elderly gentlemen who commanded respect on ac- 
count of age or social position. For those in moder- 
ate circumstances, and those who could make no 
claim beyond that of being useful members of the 
community, the stockings were of yarn, gray, blue or 
brown, accordirig to the fancy of the good wife 
who knitted them. Striped yarn stockings, a la 
mode de Paris, were also worn with 'the short 
pantaloons not i-eaching to the ankles. 

Low shoes, with metal buckles, remained in 
fashion until 1800, when they were succeeded by 
high boots, which were worn with the short 
breeches. A curious fact is that, until that time, 
there was no distinction made by slioenuikers 
between the right and left teet. The fbllowiug 
advertisement shows the fashions in 1800: 

" Plover and snipe toes, cock and hen toes, goose 
and gander toes, duck and drake toes, gosling toes, 
hog and bear snouts, o.k and cow mouths, shovel 
and stick nii>o.-, and others too numerous to men- 

tion." "Suwarriiw,- 

double-tongues, tlrel 

Swiss, hunting, walki 

In those days ther 

co.-sacks, nussars. carnos, 
ickets, nnnaparis, trrcaves, 
g. full dre.-s, Y,>rk.'- 
; was no such thing as out 
or " shoe polish." I.,iijuid 

hhicking trr.-t nrir;iira''t'jr(d in Ni'W Y.irk 
l8(Jo. ■• Black Irul wa., manunciured aliuui , 
same time. It;mM!)<ed of lamplilack.iuuu : 
suet, or bayb'-rry IrJiow, and not unfreipienth ■,; 
the greasy mixta:': which the tanners call "di.:,. 
bing." This mixtiKc rulibed nil' u|inn the cluh 
ing, and \Yhen the riic-dern sb.oe lilackiug can., 
inio use, the beneiit of it was universally reeij- 

In 17' 1 the wi:s in tiie gazettes made fun . :" 
these Ptii'mi'iate indiv^iluals who used umbrella:^ i . 
protect tlicir heads against the tierce rays of a Julv 
sun. The umbrcUa, even as a shelter from rain, 
was a uew article. They were heavv, clum-v 
things, made of oiled liueu stretched over ratt;,!i 
sticks, in imitation of the " quittasol" (the pivu' ■ 
cessor of the parasol), which came from India, aii'l 
were made of oiled silk iu every variety of color.<. 
The ladies used them to keep off the rain. The 
men wire satisfied with the protection of a heavv 
cloi^k or a sort of cape (a French invention) called 
a roquclaure. Ministers and doctors, people who 
had t--- be out iq all sorts of wearier to call on the 
sick, had roquelaurei of oiled liueu. The useful- 
ness of the umbrella during a shower was acknow 1- 
edged, but its appearance in fair, sunshiny weather 
elicited the jeers of the populace and the mockerv 
of men who should have been wiser. The doctors, 
however, recommended carrying an umbrella in 
summer as a safe protection against many diseases 
caused by exposure to the sun. The doctors and 
ministers finally carried the objectionable umbrella 
through the streets at mid-day, which finally silencid 
the opposition. 

The lady's hat for out-d<>or wear was a very Hat. 
round hat, worn so as to stand up perpendicularly 
on the right side of the head, or rather of the 
immense editice of hair reared high over the head, 
the back and crown of which was protected by a 
sort of loose hood. A cloak of some bright color 
was worn in winter. Scarlet cloaks, when first 
imported, were great favorites with the leaders oi' 
fashion, but public taste condemned them, and thu 
mode did not last. ' We took our fashions from 
England, and the ladies of Delaware, as elsewhere 
iu the colonies, were careful to follow the directious 
in the "London Pockut-Iiook," a manual of the 
period. This W(.u-k said, " Every lady who wishes 
to dies.'^ her hair with taste and elegance should 
first purchase an elastic cushion e.vactly fitted t" 
the head. Theu having combed out her hair 
thoroughly, and proprrlij thicL-tncd it with jiowdtr 
and pdinaiiiin, let her turn it over her cushion in 
the reigning nmdel. Let her next divide the side.- 
into divi.-ii.iis tor curl.-, and adjust their numbt-r 
and si/.e from thi.- s^inie uicjdL-ls. It' the hair be u^t 
of a sufficient length and tl^ekne^.-. it will beneo.-- 
sarv to prnrure an addition to it, which is alwa\- 
to be had readv-nurde and matcIiL-d to everv color. ' 


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Duriiicr t!ie noxt ten vears tluTi' was as in 
,lllKTeiit'stvlps..tM!ai.iiv_' the liair. Curls., ri. 
luiii;, feutliers, tloweivs ami ril)lH,n^ ]n,v,\rv 
[iiiiiiatura, each had their turn, ur wi're innilii 
into so many eDnrinitics that they aroiiseil 
poet's sarcasm. — 

In 1800 the walking dresses for hidies were in 
the style called a la grecqiie, a closely fitting 
garment of very plain make, with the waist as 
high up as it could be made; the bosoms, cut 
square, were gathered iu surplice style, and the 
neck and shoulders were protected by a muslin or 
gauze handkerchief, crossed in front and tiirniinc; 
a point beyond. The bonnet fitted as close to the 
head as a cap, and the hair was twisted (jr turned 
up high on the back of the head, while, in front, 
it was combed straight over the forehead, alme.-t 
to the eyebrows. The evening dress, wliile 
preserving the style, was more elaborate ; instead 
of the handkerchief a muttle was worn round the 
neck of the garment, descending iu front and leav- 
ing the neck and shoulders bare. The hair was 
frizzled in front, and an ostrich plume fell with a 
graceful curve over the top-knot. Whether for 
walking or evening, the sleeves were short and 
gathered up with a baud above the elbow, leaving 
the arms bare. 

A very popular head dress for street wear in 
summer time was made of muslin or some other 
light material. It surmounted the head like a 
cap, and was kept in place by a rii)bon of some 
gay color all round the crown. The light muslin, 
often bordered with lace, descended in graceful 
folds on either side of the face and on the back, 
protecting the neck from exposure to thf sun. 
It was a becoming coifilire, and was further 
improved, after a short time, by being divided in 
the back and made to hang down hotii shoulders 
to the waist, the ends beiug fiui.-hid otf with a 
knot or tassel; The sleeves kept geitiuL'' shorter, 
and the exposure of bare arms iu the .-treets was 
disapproved by staid peoi)le and ridiculed by the 

A pretty fa>iii.'n. introiliiccd from France aliout 
this time, was that of carrying a rich lace hand- 
kerchief in the hand. It canie from the Empress 
Josephine; that amiable woman had very bad 
teeth, and as she was very gay anil easily ])rovoked 
to laughter, when she lauLrhed slie rai.-ed her 
handkerchief to her mouth to conceal this defect. 
Josephine was passionately fond of fine laces, and 
her handkerclnefs were nuule of this (■l•^tlv tahric. 

The ladi,~ of the , 
han.lkerrluefs. and 
part ..fa ta,~iiionah!. 

irt t.M.k t.> tlouri-hiuL' hi 


untr. tlieir 

in.', an.l.lrink- 

ik died the body was 
in .-tate" forthe pub- 

Verv little has lum .- 
children. I)Mviii.' a ion 
seen, they wnn' wi'js. ami 
costume ma.le them the 
presentments ' ..f their p: 

A great abuse ami e'v 
at an early day, wa~ the t'. 
ing amoni: the p. 
When a person 
kept for several ( 

lie and tlieir neighbors to com" and lo.jk at it, ami 
also to give lime for the relatives who lived at a 
great distance t.i make the journey and be present 
at the funeral. These visitors had to be entertaineil, 
and in course of time what had been a matter of 
necessity became a general custom, and there was 
an entertainment at every funeral, be the deceased 
ever so .ibscurc. The order of march at funerals 
was as follows : The parson walked before the bear- 
ers, and if the deceased was a woman, the la.lies 
walked iu procession next to the mourners, antl the 
geutlemcu f.dlowed after them. But this order 
was reversed if the decea.sed was a man ; the gentle- 
men preceded the ladies. The practice of Friends was 
to take the body from the residence to the grave, 
where it was interred amid profound silence. After 
the burial the company adjourned to the meeting- 
house, where there was speaking and praying. A 
custom prevailed in 1T7-J at the funeral of young 
girls, that the coffin should be carried to the grave 
by some of the next intimate companions of the 
dead girl. The cu-toin of issuing special invitations 
to per.sons to attend funerals prevailed, and such 
importance was attached to this mark of respect to 
be paid the dead, that funerals were delayed, if the 
jiarties invited did uot arrive at the time appointed. 
The cards of invitation to funerals had deep mourn- 
ing borders and other emblems of death. They 
were imported fiom England. In 1748 "burial 
biscuit" is advertised for sale by a baker in Phila- 
delphia, a ])roof that the feasting at funerals even 
inspired the genius of speculation. To have '■burial 
biscuits" to dip iu their wine probably intensified 
the grief of th.; dear departed's friends In 1721* 
the Quakers resolved against " the vanity ami su- 
]X'rstition of creating monuments and ent.imbing 
the dead with singular notes or nuirks ofdistiuction, 
whi.'h is hut worl.lly p.mip and grandeur, f.r no 
cnomium uor pompous interment can add worth 
to the deceased." It onlered the erection of tomb- 
stones over the gra\;es of Friends to be stojii'e.l, an.l 
the tombstones already so placed to he r.-niovcl. 
T'his order, however, was not L''en.rallv oheved 




Fi:..M thr rlo-0 of t!i.. xviir 1m tu, 
uiii ;inil FiHiUT to tin- Ant.'- U. vol 

m the Delana 

,U of tlu. propl 

ed New 

::\-t\'\ hou- 

from J 

Vuiii to 


tnlo ,„,'.-,- 

-tl.r, pi. 

(1 to t'lf ■Mid 



approximated llu 
of whom ,t mav 
that thev had no hi-torv. The poa.vful 
of thoir'lives th.u-od on mil.r..k,ai hv ovriii 
their contemporaries tiioie_dit worthy ot' 
and not even the ioiirnals of tho hu!>hiti 
vious to the year 17<;2 were pn-orved. Tl 
ahnotft entirely an aLnicultural eommuiut; 
what little tradim: tliev reipiired at Now ( 
and Philadelphia/ and "their politie 
u[) in the strife between the " Court " jiarty am 
the "Covintry" party. The h'adins: niemli( rs o: 
the former were the Governor, the oHicer- of l^ov 
ernment and the seeker? afior otHee ; the lattei 
wa?: composed of those wdiodoircd an indepeii.leni 
judiciary and impartial laws. It was lo a eertaii: 
extent a case of the people versus the (.tlieial aris 
tocracy, lint the excitement that the contest atf^rd 
ed was of a teiiid nature, ^[eantirnc the papula 
tion of the three counties was steadily '.'rowiiiij 
toward 37,")00 inhabitants, which it attained ir 
177t), and a moderate prosperity was tipialU 
diilhsed throughout the endiryo state. 

From this condition of security ami peai;e tin 
Delawareans were ludi Iv ai-oii-.d in ITU-") by tin: 
first of the great agL:i'e.~-ioii> ut the Di iti-h govern 
ment— the imposition of the >taiiip tax. To nn 
der^tand their attitti.le it i- ii.Tr-ary to -lanet 
at their domestic relation.-. \Vith the exeeptioi 
of the Swedish and Dutch element planted by tin 
early settlers, they were purely En'.di^h orof JavT 
lish descent. In Kent and Sussex tliey prided them 
Selves upon the absence of foreign bhiod, and ibt 
admixture of it in New Castle wa< but .<liLdit. Tue.-d 
Here were strong reasons for a tenacious alii etiMn T 

toward the mother country, whose hostile action ware was string a 
had, moreover, less ett'ect in the Delaware counties to the call o! Ma- 
than in any of the contii^iious comnuiiutii's. They of the (. 
were a peeuliarlv i-^olat.'d pe.iijlc, the great mas, 
of them troru th.' route-^ of trav.d 
and havin- .-o little to do with the eomm.ave o 

ture, the several taxation mea-mcs (,f Croat Jirit 
ain touched them only remotely. Javin- am 
clothing themselves from otf their farms, even tin 
stamp tax reached them .mly in their infn(|n.ii 
legal transaction,-, and as th.'ir tea wa> iiiado main 
Iv fr.mi the root of the -a-satias, it was ,.f i,,, |.Pr 

throats of othereolonists. 


heir cin-um-tan^.. 

ten.ledto th.' >ide of ,sm,-. 


m.and th,-,- la, •- 

nuist be kept in mind in 


,ir study „f I),l,. 


ware in the Revolution. 

The stamp net was 


Mareh -J-J. 17.;.-, 

t i'.rit- 

and thrlir-tantbontimot 

ii-e r. 

■oivrd of it. pa-. 

MM-li in 
'- that 

a-e.'ame from r,o,-i,,n ab. 

ut Mi 

vlUb. It b,.rau,.. 


ed evervthin- el.e. Tlie 
in tho other onloni.-, In-; 


rest that it du ai-f 
e of Drlawaiv, a- 
mv to diow tl„ir 


wa- eonr,' mod. O.'i .Mav 


y -o t-ir asrevemi,' 
it was annouiicd 


that llnube-, amon 


the IVnnsvlvania 


A^-emblv, and .a parti-aii 

of ]; 

■niamin Franklin. 

'■'■ I"-'- 

was appointi/d dislriimtor 

of ,-I; 

mp.s. The people 

burnt John Hughe-' etli_ 

V, an 

.1 in Philadelphia 


tlie citizens surroundod li 

- hol. 

se and threatened 

( ^V-tle 

violene... He wrote to 

( iovi 

rn..r John Penn. 


under date of Septombrr 

7. an 

1 to John Diekin- 

rn to tl 
to thru 

the foreign article d..wn the his Majesty and 


,,f C.iiiiMioiis :i'.';iin.-t the act.s of I'ar-lianu at iiii.l (.flii^ L'ovrnuiiint, aii.l tlic ,-:ii; ty, ra-e uu.l prus- 
.l.,.n'in (lutifiillv, vet ino.-t tirnilv, tc a-.-, rt tliu iMiily ..f his i.coplu hi. i hirt; -t car.'; nl' a Kinc; 

itiim, and 

urivilfU'C of trial hv their priT- an. I ni-.-t limahlv aiv .li-M|.al,'.l. Our rn„,|.laiiil~ have l.irn licard 
;,, in.|.ioro relief. ^[eKean an.! li.Hln. v .li-ti.ii- aial oar -rievaii.v,- r. .ir,--, ,1 ; tra,ie anJ e-n,nien-e 
ul.!ie.l themselves in this Con;_^r, -s l.v lla- l...l,l,u- a-ain tlouri^h. , . . Wr ,n..-t luiinhly l.r^r, ,h your 
„itli whieh they a.lvnrate.l the Anurleaa ean,-e .„aj. sty L'rari,m-ly lu ac.'ept the strongest assiirailees 
:,a.l tdok a prdiiVitietit part in frainin- the i.ariiMr- that haviii.u' the jii>te-t -ni-e ,,f the many tavours 
sals anil the declaration of ri-lit-. « »n ih. ir rrtiini wehave reeeived iVoinyoui- royal li.iievolenee. hiring 
[„ Delaware they received th.- tinaiiiiiious thanks the eourse of your Maj. -ty',- ivigii, and how luiieh 
of the Assemblv for their laithinl and indi.ious our pie>ent happiiu.-^ isouin- to your paternal 
disehargeof the" trust repo-ed in ih. lu. Thus the love and eare fnv your people, «e will at all times 
people of Delaware had pla.o.l thrui.-ojv, s on re- most cheerfully eontrihutr to your .Maj.-ty's service 
,ord regarding the fniidaiueutal ]uiiiriph.- tliat the to the utmost of our ahilitir- wlun your royal re- 
eoloides were not to he ta\.d without their eon- <iui.-itions, as heretofore, -hall he uia.le known : that 
sent, and that the colonists eoidd not Ijc taken to your Majesty will alua\- lind -uoh i. turns of duty 
Knglaiid for trial for any otti'U-es. and gratitude from us as the hi-t of Kings may ex- 
in October, ITlio, the nierehants and traders of pect from the most loyal subjects, and that we will 
Delaware subscrilied to a non-importation agree- demonstrate to all the world that the support of 
inent, sucli as were then l)eing signed all over the your ^lajesty's govennnent and the honour and 
country. In this agreement the suliMailier- lioiind interests of tiie r.iiti-h nation are our chief care 
tlieinselves, that in conseiinence of the late acts of and coiu'cru, (h-iiinu nothing more than the cou- 
Carliament and the injurious regulation,- a.-ooni- tiiunmee of our wi-e and excellent constitution in 
panying them, and of the Stamp ju>liee the same liap|>y. firm and envied situation in which 
to themselves and iu ho]HS of boiietit from their it was dellveied dow n to us from our ancestors and 
example, (1) To countermaud all order- for vour :\[aic-tv's preder, .-.-o,s." 
Kn-lish goods until the Stamp Art ^!,ould he re- " Thi.- address was delivered l.y Mr. DeBerdt to 
pealed; (2j a few neces-ary articles, „v shipped L,,rd Shelburn, Uriti-li .-eeivtary of State. " I told 
under peculiar circumstances, are exce[ited ; (}]) his luil^liii), " .-aid Mr. De llerdt, " that to me it 
no iroods received for sale on commi.ssion to be dis- appeared w I'oti' with the nio-t natural honest siin- 
po-ed of until the Stamp Act should be repealed— plhity of anv I had read ; he said it did, and the 
and this agreement to be binding on each and till King wa.- so well plea-ed with it that he read it 
as a pledge of word of honor. overtwi(.e." Surely no government could have 
As the winter advaneeil into ITCti, the public desired more ex [uvs.-ions of loyalty : but the 
dissatisfaction augmented and the d( termination itehiieg of the Jiriti-h royal and palms 
'leepened to prevent, if po.->ilde, till' enforcement of t'or American gohl threw alfaiis aj-ain into dis- 
the hated act. Stamps were burned wherever mder. In May, 17G7, Charles Tow n-Iiend. Chan- 
found, and captains of vessels ariaving h'arned that eellor of the Exelieipier. siiliiiiitted a ])lan to 
it was not safe either to keep or carrv them. In Parliament by which he pn.po-ed " to draw a 
l'"ebruary the people very generally signed an revenue fiom America without giving ottcnce ; " 
agreement not to eator suH'er to be killed anv land) and soon after he introdueeil the acts, to take 
or sheep iintilJan. 1,1767, and not to deal with etli'ct Nov. -I'th, impo-in'.^ duties on glass, paper, 
liiitehers violating the compact. lleoiioniy and pasteboard, white and re.l lead, ptiinters' colore and 
frugality were enforced by exani(iles in high and tea imported into the colonies, establishing a Board 
low, and stea.lfast etibrts made to promote the of Customs at l;o-t,.n to collect the revenue 
market f .r home nianufactured 'joods. throughout Ani.uiea and le-ali/ing writs of assist- 
Later in the same vcar t March b"^, 17fiiii came anee. Thc-e measure- were telt iu the colonies to 
ti.e repeal of the Stamp Act bv rarlianunt, and be even more -ubver-ive of tluir rights than the 
without foreea.-tin-the tnture the A.-einMv ioin.-.l .-^tamp Act, and the D, lawaiv A.-.-eiiibK a[.pointed 
m the jov that pervaded America and api.ointed .MeKean, IJodn.'V aii.l to tbiniulai.' a secoml 
MeKeaii, Rodney and tieorge Kead to frame an addle-.- to the King, 'f lie A-seinbly .lid not fail to 
addre-s to the King, in whieh these [laraL't-aphs renew their protestation- of lo\ alt v, but at the same 
oe.inred; ^ '^ time thev freelv e.Kpie--ed tleir re-ivt at the new 
" We cannot help -lorviu- in bein-,Mhesubjeets cour-e .'.f opp'iessiou which lia.l been adopted, 
"fit Kin- that has iiunh' the pre-eniation ol' the Tlev -aid : 

'ivil ami religious riLdit-^,.fliispeo|,leaihl the estah- '■ The -eii-e of our deploialde e..ndition will, we 

l'~l.ed constitution the foundation and constant rule hope, plead with vour..Majestv in our behalf tor 




the frrcMloin uv takr in .hltifullv nn 
a-aiiist tliv iin.,.c,!iii'- ,,f a [ 
confc^r-cdly til.' wi-. .' ami Lnvat.s! a-.-. 
earth. But if'.ur t; lln\v-iil>irct,- ot'Cr, 
who derive iki authniity t'loiii u~, wlu' 
our humble ojiinion ri'|inMnt u>, ami t 
will not yield in lnyalty and all^.tu.u t 
jesty, ciiu, at tluir will and pi. asnic ..t' 

and t,n-ant awav on 
an iniplicic nb. din 


.'hunt- uitii niost|h,i,.nt ■■■,>nlls. A nnn-iiupMiial !..•, 
i-^cciarlcr, >\ >;s ;'..iiii.d at li.,-tnn in An-n^t. IT^.- 
md in the n. .-.; v>ar l),-iawa,v joined in t:,, 
.Lfiven.ent. Tiic r. i^-c; „i this delay and >..„,. 

.th.T l:;ei 


eviTV order and aet of 
theirs fur that puri«i.-(', ami ilc]irive ail and any 
of the assemblies in tlii.~ iontin<iit of the power of 
legislation for ditlerinu' with lluin in ojiiiuou ui 
matters whieh intiniatelv atU'ct their riL'bts and 
interests and everything: that i.- dear and valuable 
to Englishmen, wc eannut imagine a ease niorf^ 
miserable; we eannot think that we shall have e\en 
the shadow of liberty loft. Wu cnneeive it to be 
an inherent right in your Majesty's -ubjicts, derived 
to them from God and nature, handed dnwu froin 
their anecstors and confirmed by your royal pre- 
decessors and the eon.-titutiou, in jierson, or by 
their representatives, to iiiw aiid grant to their 
sovereign those things which their own labours and 
their own cares have aeipiired and saved, and in 
such proportions and at .sueh times as the national 
honour and interest may require. Your ^lajesty's 
faithful sid)ieets cjf this government have enjoyed 
this inestimable privilege uninterrupted from its 
first existence until of late. They have at all times 
cheerfully contributed to the utmost of their abili- 
ties for your ^lajesty's service as often as your royal 
requisitions were made known, and they cannot 
now, but with the greatest uneasiness and distress 
of mind, part with the [lower of demonstrating their 
loyalty and atlection to their beloved Kin_'." 

This address was immediately tVillowi-d by a 
correspondence with the Governor ot' Viri;inia, 
setting forth the views of the Assembly relative 
to the new aggressions of Great Britain, and de- 
claring an intention of co-operating with the other 
colonies in such prudent measures as iijiLdit have 
a tendency to conciliate the atleetions of the mother 
country, and restore their just rights and liberties. 
Notwithstanding all the intluence brou-ht to bear 
upon the British government forthe rtp-al of the 
act imposing new- duties, it remained i.ib?tiiiate. as 
it was eon-iilered an improper time to yield to the 
demand- of the colonies. It would be time enough 
to do this, it was said, when they had .-hown a 
dispo-ition to yield to the authority of Parliament. 
Lord North declared that however prudence or 
policy might heieatti-r induce the government to 
repeal the act, ho th.y should never think 
of it until America wa< prostrate at their ti'Ot. 
Failing in these mea.-uies, ttie colonies revived tlie 
non-importation system wliieli had been partially 
enforced in the epoch ot' the Stamp Ai't. I'.y re- 
fusing to import auy product of English mauufac- 

citizens of X.;r> Castle 


ity : 

■' Fro:;i our ioci c 


istances it seemed nn- 

necessary i'oi the ee,ii;l, 

■ <.f t 

hi- L'overnnient to enl-r 

into re.sulr.uionsoinoi, i 


rta.ion from the mother 

country, a? w;- ha:', ic 

1. rs among us who ini- 

pcitcd goods trofii ( ; 

eat 1 

iiilain except in verv 

small iiuanti'.:e> a-.l ii 

1 \e-- 

-els lieloneiic.^ tol'hila. 

delphia, which was - 


entlv ^uardcl bv tia 

cgreen'.ent of her out; 


n>. "Lately it has" bee,, 

discovered that a few 

of tl 

le traders of that city 

have become tired of 


they call virtuous ai- 

tcn'pts to restore freedi 

:ini t( 

> America and endeav- 

oi:t-ed to disrsolve ihe rhila.delplna uon-injportatiou 
ag'vetnent. (Jne of the [irincipal arguments made 
I'St of is the proba!)il!ty ol losing the trade of thi? 
government. They say that the ^Maryland non- 
importation agreement having exce[ited many nn)re 
articles of merchandise than that of Philadelphia, 
ihc people here will form a connection with the 
Marylanders in the way of trade, introduced by 
going there to purchase such excepted articles, 
which trade may continue after all contests with 
the mother country are over. This is a plausible 
and forcible argument, and to remove all the weight 
it may have, the inhabitants of the upper part of 
this country, particularly in and about the towns of 
Xew Castle, Wilmington, r'hristiana, Newark, 
Newport and Hamburg Ivaiiding, have resolved to 
support the Philadeli)hia agreement. It is now iu 
the power of the people of this government to lend 
a helping hand and be of real use to the general 
cause. Some of the [lOople of Xew Vork have de- 
serted it, but, it is ihouglit, will be brought back 
to their duty. To inevent the like accident takiiiL' 
place at Philadelphia ue ought to destroy the ar- 
gument alleged liet'ore. Let us be content to con- 
fine our trade to ii:- former channels; there is our 
natural connection : let irs forego some trifling con- 
veiiiem.'e in hope... otpreater advantage ; resolve not 
to purchase any goods out of the government but 
such as are excepted in the I'hiladelphia aL'ree- 
meut, and fall upon some et^'ectual measures tosuji- 
port this conduct." 

The agreement recommended bv .Mr. Reail was 
soon very generally adopted. It" was dated Au- 
gust 17, ITtill, and after slutiuL' in energetic lan- 
guage the grii'vances wlii-h eompudled the Dela- 
wareans to co-o|ier.ite with lln ir fellow-colonists in 
the measure-, best calculati'.i to invite or enfc'rcc 

agree, upon our word of honor and the faith of 
Cliristians, — 

i3^i'- - 

UaC. •'NC ;^^M i"CV^2 RE*C 

T)ELa\vai;k DniiNc; thh rkvolutiox. 


Kit tVniii MUil alKr this date we will nn 
iiy jiart I'f America anv '."""Is, wares., 
whatxicv.'ifniiiiaiiy part ..t'( ireat ISril 
t..tlie.-iiiritan.| iiiteiitinii ct' the aL'n-c 
nrirhalils ntthe Citv ,,l' I'lula.l.'llihi:; 
That we never will have anv ileaiiiii. 


rill any part oft lie I'.ritisli ilniiiininns. w ii<i>hall 
:re urany ntlier [nirpose iinpurt into any part of 
.rv to tliejaiiiauri-eeiiient. 
.if us wh.,^hall wilfuUv 
ill have his name pnb- 
u.u>a> a hetraveruf the 

Aineriea anv artiele ei- 

-Third. "That any 

break this au'reenicnt 

eivil ri-hts ..f Anier; 

deenie.l infani..iis and 

The e..iniia.-t was <i 

ene.l a diss..hiti....i .,f 

-t tl 

rh th 

. per: 

i.mnd patriots, were app.iinte.l in each t..\\n as a 
eoinniittee of illsjX'etion t.. wateh the tra.le. 
George Read was eleetcd chairman ..f the -cueral 
eoniniittee, and tlie subordinate coinniittees ]ier- 
f.irmed their duties with such diligence and ac- 
tivity that they .eijualed the agents of tlie best 
organized police in the dise'overy of delinquents. 
The adherents of Great Eritain were too few in 
luiiubcr to shield the apostates. When informa- 
tion was given against tliem they usually a])peared 
before the general cominitree, which intlieted no 
other punishment than requiring from the otiender 
a public declaration of sorrow for the orti;nse, a 
promise not to repeat it, an.l payment t.i the com- 
mittee of the proceeds of illegitimate sales for the 
use of the poor. 

Events were rapi.lly marching to the crisis. 
On April 12, 1770, Parliament repealed all the 
obnoxious duties except that upon tea, but re-af- 
firmed the right of taxing the crUonies, 

In 1773 the East India Company, finding that 
the Colonies would take no tea on which the duty 
was charged, tried a new plan, and kindled a new 
fiame from the smouldering embers of old e.xeite- 
meuts. An act of Parliament was passed author- 
i/.iugthat company to export theirlea< to America 
free of the duty enacted by the home governmeut, 
and only charged with the three-penny colonial 
duty. It was intended to tempt the eol..nies liv 
ollering them tea far cheaper than it loul.l lie 
landed in London. The news of the [.avsii:,. of 
this act called for new measures of re^istan(■e. 
News of tlie initial shiptnents of tea reaihi'.l Phila- 
a.lelphia on the '27th of September. The ship 
"Pollv," with "th.' .htcst.d plant," ha.l =aile.l 
fruiu ■L..n.l.,n ..n th.- rj:h .>r ,if .September, 
an.l her arrival wu- f..r in the Delaware 
ab.jut the third week in X. >v, inb.r, Th,' patriotic 
inhabitants formed an a>.-'.iaii..ii an.l entere.l into 
c'liiibinations to previ'iu tlie landing and the sale 
of the tea. Aiii.iii:; the first measures ad..!. ted was 

he pil.its. It 
..lit to von th.' ^t.'ps V..I1 

-,-liip falls in v..r.r wav. 

i.iv, t.. pivv.iit, ..r, if that 


irrival. ISiit 
.•r pil..tbrii.._- 

mav .Irp.n.l on, that wh:, 

th.'rivr, Mi.l. pil.,t Will be n,ark,.l l,.r hi.- ^v,^.„„ 
an.l will n.ver afl.ruanls m. et with the least 
en.-..iiraL'eiii.iit in hi- bii>in.-s. Like <\,i,i. he will 

fi.rever rec.rded as the ,l.i„u„d t,:nt„,;,„s ],i/„l ,rh„ 
h,;.u,,/,t „/, tl,r lr„ .<in,,. This, 1„.».A.T, .■aunot be 
the .a.<c with von. Y.,u have pn.v..l .-..,»/•./, ^ /„ 
rrihinrr.^, /„ Lit'nnou< infnnn,;-^ niJ tnh ,r„ifn-<. 
au.l w.' may venture t.. pr.-.liet that y,,u will -ive 

shipif y.Mi .h.,ul.l iiMvt with her. an.l that y.,ur on this occasion w ill entitle you to every favor 
it may he in the p.iwer of tiie nierehants of Phila- 
del[)hia to confer upon you." This address was 
signed by ''The Committee for tarring anfl feath- 
eriurj." On Christmas day, intelligence was re- 
ceived of the arrival of the " Pi.iUy " at Chester, 
and a meeting of over eight thousand citizens of 
Philadel[iliia compelled her to return home with- 
out breaking liulk. This was the first and the last 
of the detested tea-ships in th. D. lawaie. 

It will be most fitting in this pla.e to say a few- 
words in regard to the prominent lea.lers of 
the peo]de of Delaware in this time of approach 
to the Revolutionary ^\'ar — of their characters 
and circumstances we mean, their acts will not 
need comment. There were George, Thoma- and 
James Read, Thomas 3IcKean, Casar Rodnev, 
George Ross. Allen :McLane, Caleb P. Bennett, 
Lewis Bush. Philemon Dickinson, John Haslett, 
Ri.-hard Howell, David Jones, Robert Kirkwood, 
Sh.-pherd Kollock, John Patten, Bedford Gun- 
iiiii-, Nathaniel Mitchell, Richard Ba>sett, David 
Hall and many others who were in the front of 
afiairs at home or on the threshold of battle. 
These men, directly or hy marriage, were con- 
nected with the leading families of Delaware of 
all the .sects. They were all men of ability and 
influence, ditfering greatly in character, tempera- 
ments an.l jiolitical opinions, but all h.inest and 
eaiiiot men. 

'I'he Read family, inheritinir an ancient name 
of honorable repute in the Old ^Vorld, has ren- 
dered its patronymic historical in America l)v its 
patriotic services durin-j the colonial and Revolu- 



the tbimiiatiiui ami ■f^ubs.-.pi. i 
the goveniiiK-nt of the I'liilcl 

The first in this (.. 
John pnbli 
planter, wh.. was born in Dublin. ..f J-lngli.-h 
parentage, in the last yea"r of the reign of JaniL-s 




the Se,..n(l, 1<;SH. His nmther was the srion of 
ail old (»\:;.ni.-hiro house, aii.l his lather, an £11.^- 
lisl) -uuleiiiaii uf lai--e thitiiue, tlieii resi.liii- in 
Dilhliii. was lifih in .l.'M-.nt iVoiu Thomas Read, 
K.rd of the manors of liarton Court ar.d IVedon, 
iu Bcrksliire. and hi,>:h siieritf .,f Br.ks in lo.-l, 
and tentii in descent from K.lward K.ail, h.rd ..f 
the manor of KvuU,n. ami hi.-h sherili' of Berks 
in U:!',) and a-ain iu Uol. One of the latter's 
brothers, Williaui Toad, mx times mayor of Kead- 
in-, was mcmher of I'arliament tor Beadim: in 
1 I.'kV, 1 (lit), in;-.' and 1 t:--'. An older hn.ilu'r, 
Sir Thomas Bead, wa> ,me of the knights who 
aeeompaided Kin- Henrv the Sixth when he 
held his Parliament at Bra.lin- in 14:-;i, and thev 
were all soi,s of Thomas Read, lord of various 
manors in Nortluunberlaud. 

Iu the civil wars of the seventeenth century, 
says Mr. Charles Beade,the family declared for the 
crown, and its then chief, Sir Compton Read, was 
for his services one of the fii-st baronets created by 
Charles the Second after the Restoration. A 
younger son of the family went over to Ireland iu 
the same trotd)les, and it was his son who was the 
progenitor of the American house. Besides the 
baronetcy of the 4th March, I61JO, an earlier one 
had been conferreil upon Sir John Read ou the 
Itith March, 1641. Through a clerical error in 
one of the patents an r was added li< the name, 
and was subse(iuentlv a<lopted liv the En^ilish 
branches. The hi.-to'rica! American brancir re- 
tained the ancient firm which the name had when 
it letl England, and it figures thus on the petition 
to theKingoftheCougressof 1774, thcDechiratiou 
of IndejK'udeuce, the Constitution of the United 
States and man v other earlier and later State papers.' 
John Read had a romantic history. He fell in 
love at an early age iu the old country with his 
cousin, a beautiful and accomplished Kugli~h Lfirl, 
who died suddenly before their engagement ended 
iu marriage. This shuck so overcame the lover 
that, afler struggling in vaiu against his nu'lancholy 
anddst familiar scenes, he determined, in >pite of 
the earnest o[)|iosition of hi- |)arents, to s-e]^ relii.f 

province, to whi.di lie added others in Delaware. 
On his plantation iu Cecil County, .Maryland, he 
po.sscssed a spacious brick mansion, subseipiently 
destroyed by lire, with out-buildings and olKces 
and couifjrtable (juarters for his shtves, whom he 
treated with an unvaryinu' humanity which liecame 
hereditary in his family. Gn.ves of oak -rew 
near tlie house, ami tulips of great rarity i:iew in 
the gardcu.s. Jim was the head of hi, ii,,u.-eser. 

vants, as Juba was the head of tho-e in the nexi 
generation. The pro.luee of the wh. at ami lobaen, 
plantations were di.-patchcd to I'hiladelphia and r, 
Endan.l, and limnd their wav back iu variou- 
attractive and practical -hape, f.r the of tl„ 
hou-ehold. He was fond uf held >porls, and tl„ 

w Is ran- with the sound of his do-s and 1,,- 

guu.s. He wa.s both hospitable and generous. He 
gave the land to endow the church iu his vicinity, 
and his life was honorable in all its relation>. 
l!eing largely interested in various enlerjirises, he 
joined a few other gentlemeu iu foundiii- the city 
of Charlestown, at the of the Chesa- 
peake Bay, twelve years after Baltimore was bcguu, 
hoping to make it a great commercial mart to 
absorb Northern trade, to develop Northern Mary- 
land, anil to give a suitable impetus and outlet to 
the adj(,ining forges and furnaces of the I'rincipiu 
Comjiauy, iu which his friends, the eider genera- 
tions of the Wtishington family, and eventually 
General AVashiugton himself, were dee[ily inter- 
ested. Tradition preserves iu this connectiou an 
account of the youthfid ^lajor Washington's visit 
to Colonel Read at the close of the latter's active 
and well-sj)eut life. 

As one of the original proprietors of Charlcstow n, 
John Read was appointed l)y the Colonial Legi-!a- 
ture one of the commissioners to lay out and gov- 
ern the new town, and he was assiduous in his 
attentions to these duties. 

Afler a long period of single life his earlv sorrow 
was cou.soled by his niarria^'c with ilarv iiowell.a 
charming young Welsh gentlewoman, mauy years 
his junior, who was as energetic and spirited as she 
was attractive ami handsome. Sprung from the 
HowellsofCaerleou. County Monmouth, her imme- 
diate ancestors were seated iu the uei-hborhood of 
Caerphilly, ( ;lamo,-,„shire, Wales',' where she 
was born iu 1711, and from whence, at a tender 
a-e, si,e reuioveduith her parents to Delaware, 
wheivhcrthtlicr wasa huee planter. 

-Mary, the only .lau-hter of .lohu an.l Marv 
( Howell ) Read, married ( uiuuiii- liedl^nl, S,-., who 

n^.l.aud took an actixe [larl iu the Revolutionary 
struirgle. He was coimuis-ioncd major on the liUtii 
of .March, 177'>, and becomin- lic'utciiant-colom I 
of the Delawa.e Keuimcnt on the l;)tii of Janu- 
ary, 177l!, was afterwards uouiide.l at the battle ol 
White Plains while leadin- hi, men to the attack. 
He wa.s likewise mu.-ter-ma>ter -eiieral, memluT of 
the Continental Couerc-s and ( ioyrnior of Dela- 
ware, (ioveruor and .Mrs. Pedlord i wr Read, 
lelt no i>suc. . 

Three .listiu-ui.,!,ed sons ol Colonel .John P.cad 
were Geoi-ire, C,,l. Jame> and Commodore Thoma- 
Read. (ieo,-e Ihad w a> in a peculiar sense the 
father of the State of iKlaware. for lie was the 
author of her iii>t"Constitution in 177ti, and "i 









-r^ ' 


i. -■ --v 









tlu' fir^t iMlilidii ..f hri- lau>. He liLMind in li.r eni-e witli lii.- iVieii.l Sir Kitlianl Xcavr. aturw unls 

A-r^rmlilv 11" l.-s than Iw.Uv ycais, uas Vi<v- u'overnor of the Jiaiik (d' Miijlaii.l. 1r' -aw uttrr- 

I'rr-i.lciiMifthe State, aii.l at nil.' liiiir h, I- artiri,' aiU'e, eleven veais l.elore tlir J l.elanitinn ,,f 

ehieC luaLM-Uale. II. ■ i»iin..l iIm a.Mr. - I,-,.iu IihI, pen.lmec, t.. the reiiiaikaMe |.i uphr.'V 1 1,:,| m 

Delaware to tlu Kill-, w hi. h Lm-,! Sh, li.mii n,- eoiUiiniaiiee in thi- iniMak. n |...ii.v w.Mihll.'.ul 

said >.i iiiiliiv->,Ml (J.M.i-e 111. thai h.- .vul il t.. ili.lo|i. li.leiiee aii.l .'V. lUuallv t.. tli.' .-..Kinies 

„vertwi,v. ![.■ is th.. n,..>t r..„~|.ie,i.„is fejure ill .surpa.-.^iii- Knjaii.l in her sta,.!.' iiianura.'tniv... 

the Dehiuaiv ivenni, li.r lle.iiia-. M. Keair aii.l Fimliug llo nianiU-tati<.ii ul ,1m„j,- in th.- p. ,-iti..u 

,),.hii Di, kill-on w.i-e 1,1. .IV eh. -elv alii. d t.. IVmi- t.nvanl.s the e.)l..iiie>, he n-iM,,..! the atti.iii.'V- 

svlvaiiia than t.. I>.la\; aii.i uhile i^eneniWiii), an.l aeeept.d a ,« at in I Ih' Kii>t C-.n- 

KiMlney ua.- |,r.,iiiiii. lit in ih.' tiiu.- ..I' I h.- D.elar- Jrress, whieli met at l'hila,hl|.iiia in 1774. il.-^till. 

ation, -111.1 alt.nuar.N a- I' ..f iKhniare, iidwever, lin|„.,l tnr ree.iiieiliali..ii, an.l h.' v..te,l 

his pi-enialni-,' .l-ath in 1 7> : .Mil .I1..1I lii,^ . aivr. a-ainst the iii..ti.,ii tl.i- iii.l. prieleii.-.'. I'.ut he 

Fn |.ers,.ii, U.a.l ua- tall, -lijil. -ra..liil, v.itli a linallv siirne.l the I)..lai-ati..ii ..f'e 

fin.'lv-.-liap..l h.a.l. ,-tn.ii-, l.iit relin,.! tealuns, u hen' he found there \\a> 11.. Ii.,p,.. an.l hen. -.lui-v, aid 

and.'laik-hr.aMi, lu.-tn.n> eves. His inanner^ ueiv was the eonstunt (irii;inat..r an.l ar.l. nt .-npp..rter 

.liL'iiiH.'.l, an.l hi' .• 11. 4 t. -I. rate lli,' sli-hlest of measures in liehalf of the iiali..iial .-anse. He 
taniiliaritv, hut h.' wa- m...^t n.iirt- 

hedres-e.luith ih.- in...~t -eni pu l..n.- 
careau.l .l.-aii.-.-. 11. ■ was ..ii." ..f 
tlie tw., -tal.Mii.n, ami th.' ..nlv 
S.,ntli.-rn M.itrsman, wl,., si-n,.l ail 
three of tie' -ivat Stat.' pap.'i-on 
uhi.'h .mr, hist.ny is ha-.d-lhe 
..rii^inal petition t.. th,> Kin- ..f 
thr Ciiiiire^s ,.!■ 1774, ih.' n.Mlara- 
th.ii of ln.l,p,a,.l.inv an.l ih.-C.n- 
-tituthm of th,' I'liit..! Stat.-. lie 
was th.' ehl.M -.11 ..f ( .I..hii 
K.a.l, ..f .Marvlan.l an.l D.lauaiv, 


teinher, 17:1 k ..n ■ ..f the- fanii 

estates in ('.•.11 (dnnlv, Mar\iai 


umler Dr. I'laiiri- .\lli-,,ii, !„■ ^.Xj. 

stn.lie.l lau, an.l wa~ .■all.d t.. th,. :^' 

'I isI.i-% 


^' \ 

'INll T.\i;LF.. sn.VKU 

of I'hila.lelphia, an.l in 1 7.V1 re- 
move.l t.i X.'w Caslle, D.lawaiv. in 
uhi.'h prosin.v ih,- familv al-.i ha.l 

iinp..rtant kin.l.-.l inl.av-t'-. < )n th.' ' ''"'"' '"'"' "' ""■"'""' ""' ""'' '"' "'^^ ' ' 

lltri..f.laniiarv, 17t.:;,h,.niarri.-.l(i,rtrn.le,.lanL.|i- wa.~ pre.-i.lent of the Coii>lilnti..iial ( '..n v.nli.m in 

ter ..f th.' K.v. de-.i-.' i;.,-s, f,,r ii.arlv fil'lv vear< 17Ti;, ami the antle.r of th,' lii-t ( '..n~titiilioii ..f !■: laini.lChiii.h.N. u ( a-l h, a vi-..r..ns D, lawaiv ami ..ft he lir,-l .'.lili-.n ..flea- laws. In 

pillar ..fth.' i:-talilidM'.|(liu,vh in .\m.ri.a. .Mi-. 17^-_' he wa~ appoint,'.! l.v ('..m.q-.-> a jml-e in 
U.'a.l^ lii..lh.r, .h.lm I;..--, ha.l I... 11 alt,.rm'V. th.- nati.mal ( '..ii rt of A in .\.lmiialt v. Time 
-I'li-'ral nml.r th.' ,r,.wii.'r hr.,th,r. th,' v,'ar- lat.'r C •..iilmv.v- niaih- him on.' ,.f ih.'.'.nnmis- 
Uev. .laaas K. -^. 1.. . am.' .■.'h'l.rat.'.l a~ th.anllM.r .sioners ,,fa f'.l.ial ,'. .iirl t., ,!.'!, rmin,' an imp,. rtant 
of ,l,i.|m'nl an.l palri,.ti,' ,-,rm,.n- ,lnrin- tlel;,'- eonlr,.versV in,. t.rrit.,rv l„'iw,','i, X.w 
v.ilmion ; whih'Mill am.ther l,r..lh,'r, ( ;,or-,' I;..-, V,'rk aii,rMa-.--a.'hii^,tt-. In 17.-m'; Im wa- a .l.-l,'- 
was an I'mimnt iii.L.' an.l an-mr of t h.' D, ,'lar- -ate to the ,',,nv. iiti..ii mel at 
ath.n ..f In.Kp.'ml.'m.'. llavin- hieii ap|...inte.l .Marvlan.l, ami he to,,kaii a.tiv.' part in those 
att.,riiev-L;-.'m'ral nml.'r ih.' ,'r,,w n at I h,' ,ail v a-,' pr. „'','edi 11 -s which cirtminat, ,1 in ih,' ealliii- t,,- 
..f tweiitv-nin,', Mr. K.-a.i tial il to li,' his ,liilv, -.ih.'r, in 1 7.S7. of 1 lie .'onv.' in rhila.hlphia 
a.s a fri,ii,l t., th,' iih.lh.'r .".iiiilrv. towarnlh,' whi.'h fram.'.l th.' ( 'oiiM il ,iii..n ..f tl,.' rnii.-.l 
r.rilish -..v.-rnmint ,.f t h,' ,lam.:-.'r 'of altempl imj- States. In this aii-n-l li...l\ h.' w as al-,, a pi^.m- 
to ta.\ th.' ,'.,l,,iii,'s u itin.nt -iv in- tlh'iii ,lir,'et rep- inenr ti._'ure, e'spe.'iallv in his al.le,,ea.'V ,,f 
reseiitalion in Parliament, ami in hi- e,,rresp,,m.l- the rh^dit- ..fill.' siaalier Stat,'- t.. a prop,'r ivpre- 



sentation in the i^ciiLit(\ Iniiiifcliatfly aftpr the Im-ijiitaMe whIIs \\i_;e s.'lU-'vnl tV'.ni tiiui- tu tiin, (,f the O.n-titiition, w liirli " Delaware, groiliw of ;a<l,in;;a!)|. inr^-ls the ,lili;.,vnt 

lar-riv iind.T his .liir.-tlnii, wa- the tir-t to ratitv, parts of the S,,uMr :l- w-.i! :i- iVuiu I'hihi.h l|,hi:i. 

he ua- eleet.'.l to thr .-,iiate nf the United States. Annapoli.s, an,i Ncv ^ ,.,•'•:. \VM-iii;ij;..i; and in:,i,v 

At the expiration at' \\\< term lie was re-elc-T: d. of the aative am! I'ort i-n !;r\ li' nm.i- 

He resigned in IT'i:!, and aeerptcd tiie otti( e ot' and ill the forenio-t -tat sni.-n nf the r.pulii,, 

chief jnstiee of D.hiware, wiiirh lie fillod ir.itH .d-.-pt under it.--. r":f 'tee ami ":il..y.d the eomil\ 

hi.s doatii, on tlir L'lst of S(_>ptenil)er, 17;i><. Cli'et iiospitalities of its onnei-s. A n<.i'.i .11 of ihi- man 

Jii.stiee Head eoiimuuKled [luldie coniidenee. not sioii was destj-ovtd Iv are in I.>'Jl, hut it wa- 

only from his pn.lound ie-al knouU.d-,.. >oLnid. restored and is stil', ' :.tandin._ ,m thr O.lauar. 

judgment, ami impartial delations, luit from hit- front in New Castle. It was om- (d' the tiiic-i 

severe integrity and rstimahle private ch.aracle'-. faiijliy resicienc'-s mi the .--otiih. In thi-\,. 

that he wa.s aeting from a scaix^ of duty, and d;- fantastic shapes, and tulips of the griatot variitv 

clared that there wa< not a .li>hom-t tilov in Ins and beauty, this tlie favorite iluwer ,d' thr 

heart n..r an clnn. ail nf m. ami. ss in hi- >..ul. lie family --a,- the oak was its tavorito tn-e. Inth, 

left three distin-iii-hrd s.a,-. (lonr-e Read. s.'e.ind rear of , he>iv • ..ttiees and out-l>iiildin-s ^^,■^r 

the .luarter, of th- .-hiVL— that i>, nf thr hou-. 

V servants, the h'eld■lland^ I.eing on the oiitlyiiiL' 

7*f'''L__.^ plantations and at Mr. I.'ead's country -siat, faith. a 

so'ltli on the Delaware - 
a man leit onlv of the hii 

inlo^vitv, l.utof th.- 
.. thr s. rvi<'.. .,f hi- 

lonov t;.r that .hn 
uIh, -athrivd ah.HM uh.i l.,.,k,.| in. 

^r^ greatest liberality, an. i I 

his tinr? and his m..i 

countrv that tho a_-.v: 

to a very hu-e -urn 

George Read was a , 

himalai-e einl, ,,f w:, 

,^^_^ to him liir guidamv and a-lvir,. One of tli'.' 

i-»£V' 1 »"^3t notalde. pr.i.ifs id' his own .l.-voti.m t.. 

friendship was tlio pr..of which he .jave of hi- 

endiiring aHection f.r John 1 )i,-kin-.,n. Th. 

„. . .., . latter, havitiL: imt onlv ..pp..>c.l l.nt rcl'us.-d t.. 

I / 't -^ - signthe Deelarati.iiM.f' In.h.p.nd.' 1,-1 

\ ■-'-!% his popularity entiivlv. Hut^h th.' fri.iaf 

shipiMid politiiail and p. r-.mal'e of ( ;,-,,r_'.- 

?\. ' Read he wa.s at'ti r a tim.' rot.av d to ]iuidic lit'., 

_ hecanie President >ui.'.--ivcly ..l' tln> State> ol 

Delaware an.l Piainsvlvania. an.l afl.rwanis on. 

EARi.v i:ni,i.i.-ii sii,vi;u rANK.M;!.. !• ii I , r I • I . , 

„.|-i I 1 , (■ 1 1 I 1 II 1 1 r- ^' the (leleirates u> th.' .-..iiv. iiti..n wluch tram.-.l 

'"""""" ■"" '"'"" the Con.stitiith.n ..ftlie I'liit.-l Slat. >. 

for thirtv vear- ruit.,1 Stat.- .li-trici attl.rnev of There an- at Last thive ,,ri-inal p..itiait- .-1 

D.daware;' William Rca.l, .■..nsul-ucn, ral of" the ( ieorge Rea.l, of D.-hn^aiv. (1.1, ■ i< l.v (iiliuat 

kin-.him ..f Napl.-; aii, R. a.l, S, uat..r ..f Stuart, am, ther hv l;..l.trt K.i-.- I'in.'. and a thii.l 

I'enn.-vlvania ; an.l ..n.-.iaieJit.T, .Marv R.a.l.wh., l.v Trumhull, in tla- hi> paintin- - Tli. 

marri.-.l ('..l..ncl .Mattii.u I'ear.-, ..f l'..i.lar N.'ck, rv.lararali..n ..f Iml.peu.l.aic.-," whi.l, is in ih. 

CecilC.untv, .Marvhin.l. ( i,. .i-c R.^a.l, the >i-ner, Capit..! at \Va-hin:.[. .11. i Ic m^uiv- pr.uninent I v 

was an ardent memh.r..flhe ( 'huivh ..f laiidand aK.. in vari..n- olli. r pi.-luiv.-,— ana.nL' 

and ..f the .\m.ri.-aii I'.pi-.-. ,,,ai ( .,m-, in - ■flic .-i-niu- . .f 1 Ih' ('..h>t it Mti..n ,.f Ih- 

muifion, mauv vcai> .am oftli,. uar,lcn> rnitd Stat--," l.v i;.,"il.a-. an.l in a -Dinner a( 

of Kinmanucl Chun-li, N.w CaMl.'; and he lies in ( oaieral \Va.-hiu'-i..n-~ 1., ( „..n,:.., ..f I Ma 

that heautifnl an.l .|ui. t ,hun ii var.l, where .even ware," l.v .M. Annan.l Dumaies.,. 'fh.. lalt. r ua- 

generati..ns ..f the i;. a.l family rep.,-e. painte.rfor (hai.ial Meiv.lith R.a.l, th.-i:r...l 

The eid..nial ll.a.l ma!i-i..n. ..nth,' w,>t Sank of uraml.-on of (L.Tr-e R, a.l. aiei a e..pv taken Ln 

Delaware Rav, in Neu ( 'a-ll.-, in u hi. h ( ;e,,r..^c p, 1 ..f the ..wn-r i-. in lli.' p'..-.-i.,i. e. 

itcad, th.'si-ivr, live. 1 ami .li.'.l, uas lla- -c, lu' of William .\.~t,.r. K-.|.. ..f Xew V..ik. The pi in.ipa : 

eh'gant hor-pitalitx f.r nianv v. at-. Here pei,-.a.a::es ivpi.-.nt..l aiv (eii.aal ami .M 1 - 

the lea.lin- niaeiialc- of Ihec.h.nh'.-.' ue.e enter- Wa>hinL'ton, ( hi. I d ii-th'e R.-a-l, tin- .Mai.|ui-d. 

tuined before the Rev..lutioU. and within its Lafavette ami Riefianl lleiirv L-e. .M.m-lciii 

? ;j W t^ M;^ roiW '' ! j( WMHj*»i»^^ ' -*<^s8agij S ^ 

i^. e» 



Dunmresq had previously sketc-ln-d ilic portraits Beiijiuniii Rush, sull^.•lllll•^tlv one of the si 
in the Trunii)ull iM.riectinii ;it New liaveu. tiie Dorlunitiou ofIii(le|,eii,l."iir,.. Intlie' 

Geor-e Read is also an nnport 
Dinner CUib of the (.'ouun-^ ot' 
for General .Mereditli Read 
Duniaresi). The corn s|inndeie. 

hiis preserv.Ml the nun 
seleet s,>eial -atherin- 
followin- ei-lit le^ ml 

Washinuton and Hirr 
Marvlan.l, Rodnev an, 
AlsopofNeu Voik. 

whoohtainedthe rank 
of an Anieriean fleet, \ 

■V of I his 
It u;is e. 

It tiL'ure m- fhe 
To.- al.o paint. •<! 
.V M. Arnuind 

of (nor-e lirad 

lined lo-ether 
iandolpl,, Lee, 

Read of Dehr 

,;e,id. the tir>t na 
as a Inave sol, lie 

1 »ela\v: 
and (;i. 

:les i;i,ldle -all 
It that in,.ni.nt as 
,e7t!i of dune, 177i 
■>t -ra,l.- in the (',, 

d ,iei;.n-,. ,,f the 
■r. Ja,k-on, I>,,ti. 
i-.dunti'cre,! un,l,-r tl„^ mast, 
isappoinle,! t,, the 
d navy. an,l wa> 

1," tli,-nlieiny;lniilt 

iruufri-ate-Mu-or-,- Wa-hini 
in th,' l),lauare. In (»et,,l. 
( ongress iv-ulate,l th,- rank ,.f di,. ,,iH,-,ts ,,f tli,' 

navv, aialiie -1 1 Mxtli ,,n the list, llis.ddp 

l,eii[-.~ti!l,,n the>t,M.k.>. he v,.lunte.-re,l tor hmd 
serviee, an.l ,,n the iM ,,f De,vnih-r, 177<;, the 
Committee of .<afetv ,lire,-te,l him, w ith his ,iliieere, 

-^-% f^^^^. .-:• 


^V CASTI.i:, DF.L., 
of the United Stiit.js. 


navijrator and discoverer. He was the s 
Coh)iiel John Head, ,-jf ^laryland ami Dolawa: 
the brother of George Read, of Deiawan 
signer, and Colonel James Read, who was ;; 
head of the Navy Department ,lurin- the R 
tion. He was born at the fanuh-seat, N'eu- 
County, Delaware, iu 1740, and was niarri 
the 7th ofSepteinber, 177il, to 3Irs. Mary 
me Peale, at his seat. White Hill, near I!,ir,lei 
New Jersey, by his frieml, the R,'V. W 
White, chaplain of the Contisiental (oi 
afterwanls the I'rot, -tant J':pi,-e,ipal 1 
of I'eiinsvlvania. 

On the -i;],! of October, 177o, at the earl 
of thirty-five, he was ina,le (■,jnim,i,l,,re ,,ftli,' 
sylvauia. navy, and had tis his tleet s 

on of 
re, and 
\ the 
It the 
( a-tle 
ed, on 

n Dr 

to join General Washington. He gave valuabh' 
assistance in the celebrated crossing of the Dela- 
ware by Washington's army, and at the battle of 
Trenton commanded a battery composed of guns 
taken from his own frigate, which raked the stone 
bridge acrcss the As~anpink. For this important 
.service he received the thanks of all the general 
officers, as stated in tiie letter of the 14th of 
January, 1777, written t,i his wife by his brother. 
Colonel James Read, who was near him ilnrinu'the 
battle. At\er much active servi,'e bv land ami bv 

It. Wh 

sea he resigned, and retired to 
Hill, where he di-nen-, d a ...n-iant l„.spitaiitv, 
especially to Ids ,,1,1 :i-o,lai, ,- in i\„- ( )r,|,r of th,' 
Cincinmiti, of whii'h h,' ua- ,,]!,■ ,.f the ,,riginal 
mendiers. Ills frii'iid R,.li,rl Morris, tiie linam-ier 



(,ftheKfV.)liiti<m,haviiiL' |mp,'lKi>eahisuM fri-atr, R.-ad rtarhe,! ['hilu.lelphia (.n lils ivturn vovaL" 
"the AlliaiKv," in,luc,-.l Cmuiun.l.Mv lleaJ tu take (.u the 17th of Sc|.t<-inh,T, IT.^s, and (,ii thu iiCth 
commanii ot'hei-, and to make a joint advftituretd of (Jctober followinir liied at his >iat in N.u 
the Chinese seas and an out-of-so;L-on jias.-^aL'e to Jersey, in the forty-nintli year of hi- aLu-. IIoL.t! 
China, never beiiiTe atteniiitod. Takins with Morris eoncliided his obituary of him in thi-. 
him as liisfiist otiieer one of his old subordinates, words: "While integrity, beuovoleiiee, jiatii..!- 
Ricliard Dale, afterwards the commodore in ism and eourage, united with the most L^eiiti. 
command, in 18U1. iif the American fleet sent to manners, are respected and admired anioui: njin, 
theMeilitcrranean. and Mr. Geor-.' Harrison (who the name of this valuable lati/.cn and soldier v.ill 
became an emin. nt citi/en of riiiladeljliia ) ;'^s be revered and belove<l. He was in the nol,|,.t 

import of tlir wonl, a man." 

Commodore Kiad left no 

Colonel James Read, imc 
of the fathers of the Ameri- 
can navy, was a son of Col- 
onel John Read, of Maryland 
and Delaware, and a brothei 
of George Read, of Delaw.n re, 
the signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence and 
the framer of the Constitu- 
ti.jn of the United State.-, 
and of the daring navigator 
and discoverer, Commodore 
Thomas Read, of the Conti- 
nental navy. He was born 
at the family seat, Kew Castle 
Countv, Delaware, in 174-"., 
and died at Philadelphia, the 
31st of DecendDer, ISl'l', in 
his eightieth year. He wa.s 
regularly jiromoted from fir.-t 
lieutenant to colonel for gal- 
lant and distinguished ser- 
vices at the battles of Tren- 
ton, I'rinceton, Brandywine 
and Germantown. He was 
appointed by Congress, the 
4th of November, 177'^, one 
of the three conmii.ssicmers of 
the navy for the Middle 
States ; and on Jainiary 1 1 . 
1781, Congress invested him 
with sole jiower to conduit 
the Xavy Board. AVheii hi- 
LiNE ISLANDS. friend, Robert [Morri-. I..- 

canio agent, he was elected 
secretary, and was the virtual head of the 
marine department, while Robert ilorris managed 
the finance department of the American con- 

Colonel James Read married, on the 9th of 
Julv, 1770, Susanne Correy, of the Correys of 
Chester Countv, *l''eiinsvlvania, and left one son. 
James Read, born at Ph'iladelphia in 17^:J. The 

ir. Tire 

EE.Ui lU-rOVERINc; c 

1 the Delaware on th. 
arrived at Canton th^ 

by any other ship, am 
■a.son pass;ij_ro to China 

supercareo, he sailid fro 
7th of June, 17N7. and 
following 2-Jd ofDeceml 
a track as yet uiipiaetice. 
also made the tir^t out-of-; 

and iliscovered two islands, one of which he named 
Morris and the other Alliance Island. These 
islands form a portion of tho now celebrated 
Caroline Islan.U, and ( ' Itead's dis- 
covery gave riglits to the United States which 
iiave never be':n projierly ass> rted. Commodore 

after was a srreat traveler in 
In l.Mo lu- vi-i 
Robert Ker I'orK 



l -lUJjl.»^ i .M-iybj r-tJ'--1 41-J #fe»gSg«^^;^gfefeg^^gP ^k sy U^ ' m J 




r-rTT-,;? ^j^- 









1 *• 


.-fet*^, ., ,r^,.j 

JN:TlD states D-3TR1GT ATTC.RNiEY 




there created a KniL'ht ..f the OnK-r ..t' the 1m)."). aii.l die.l cm tin- Il'th of .Maivh. 

Aniaranlli hv the (^ MfSu.M.Ti He \va- a L'ia.iiiatln- u ith hon-r at th. I nivrr- 

inan ..f (liMi'n-ui-hr.l attaninuiil.- as an amateur svlvania. lie studied hnv uith hi- . 

h,,taiiUt. He di.d uiiii.arn..l. al Thihtdelphia. Ju.-tiee John .Meredith lOad, and ua- ealh d t. 

the -Jilth of Oeiohrr. l>."i:;. ( o|,,m, I Ja iiu- I'tea.l the har. T.nt ^horllv athiuard< ho -tiidir, 

'iso h'tt ono niarrl.d dau-hter, S,i>anne Read. « ho th,oh,._.v. and -ra hiatrd :ii the Rrin., ton Divinif 

married, the L'Tlh of Mareh, iNi:;, .Inaehini Srhooh' Hi. hm- lith ua,- o,„. ,,f nmiarkahh^ n-, 

Frederic Kekar.l. Daiii>h ,-..n-nl at l'hdadel|.hia. fuhies>, and hi< work in India and China iv 

and brother of Hi- Exeellenev rhri-tian Keka.d, donnd,-,! to the e.vdit of Ai„eri.-a. In IM:, h 

Kniflht of the Daniirhrou and honorarv eonn- pnhli.-hed an ani horitatlv.^ vohiine on Ceyhni 

selur to the Kin- .if J>eninark. « ho-,. ,hui.d,tor Dr. load Kekard niairird Maruaivt E-ther 

nmrried tin- ('ourt (irand Ilnnt-inan 'I'ntein, dan-htor of Dr. .Ni.hohi,- I'.avaid, the -on ,, 

Kni-ht Grand I'r,,.- .,f tie' Dann. l-n.-. while his Colonel dohn Havaid, .if I'hilad. Ifhia. Ho lot 

sons'and -rand,-on.- were kiULdit- of ihe >anie one .-on, th,. Rov.' Eo,J,toi, Wil-on E. kaid. hm-i 

order and iiiperior jnd-e.< .d' S,-hles\\iL'-Hol,-tfin. 2:'.d of .Splemher. l^l->, who -radnal. d at Eafav 

READ .M.VN>IO.V, NKW (A.^-Tl.E, liEI-., 

Consul-Cieneral Eekard died at Vene/nela the ette College and at the Princeton Diviiiity 

14th of September, l^oT. Mrs. Sn.-^anne Read .'^ehool, and is aRo a di-^-tinirnishcd clergyman. 

f:ckard wa.s a woman of n-markable accompiisli- H,m. George I'.ead, (lid), of Delaware, eldest 

meiits and (Treat wit, and ti-iirc-. under tie luune surviving son of Geoi-ge Read, the -igner, was 

of Mi-s Rn-hbrook, in a novrl .ntithd - Ju-tina," b,,rn at New Castle the I7th of An-n-t, KHo. at 

bv Mrs. Simeon De Witt. ].iibli-lied in IS-':;, the Read mansion. lb niarrhd, on tho :;uih of 

It i.s there said: "She keep- the ne.-t lit. .arv Otober,," Marv Th.-mp-.n, .lan-ht. r of 

an.l the nw.-t fa,-hi.mabl,. ,-...i,tv in I'hila.l.lphia. General William Thomp-..n. a .li,-tingui,-he.l Revo- 

Her manner.- are eharmini:, her en voi-ati.m fuK hiti..narv otlh. r, at the hitter's cumtry s._at, mar 

of mind, an.l her h. art i^ n..l.h. an.l b.nev..hnt." Carli,-le,' I'enn-vlvania. Mrs. Th.mips..n wa< 

Mrs. Eckanl was the aiuln.r of ih.. hi-frhal a..- Catharine R..-,-, tlu' -i-fr .-f G.a-Irmle R.i-s, uiti' 

.-.amt of ■■ \Va>hin-t..n .h'liv.rin- hi< Faivw.dl of Ge..r_-e Rea.l. Th.. .-i-ner. ( o..!-.' Rea.l. i -.'.G. 

A.ldr. -..- M,-. E.kanl .li. ,1 at Rhiladelphi.a the was an eminent jnri-t. an.l f.r nearlv thirtv y. ais 

;',d .lav ..f D.o.nihor, isdl, Lavin- two distin- was I'nit.Nl States .li-tri.'t attorn.v ,.f I )ehiwaiv. 

i:nisheil-..n.-,--i- f.,Dr. En .hri.k E.-kard, and the He was the ..uiier ..f lai-.. plantalhrn- in ."\Iis-i- 

Rev. Dr. James Rea.i E.kanl. The latter was sippi. He di.'d at ;in' R.^a.l niansi..n ..n tin- ;;.l 

born in I'liila.lelphia on the I'.M of >ovember, September, 183ti, and was burie.l at Emmanuel 



Cliuivl,. Iff ua. a IkhhI-.h,., ,l,,,l inan. ( iraii.M iiilf, >f i"i~M|.|,i, in Frlnnarv, l>-t7, ai,.l 

of Hell r..,n|,lrM.„ 1 r.Mirllv n,arin.T>. IIi> -i.xl. ^Ir.l liv will tu tli- -Pat planlal in,, . .f |;,,.,. 

l.n.-ti-aituas |.aii,t..l liv„,,,'ll. ,■. He rr>i,„v,l ,ia,v, wliii'li ua> n„ir|, ,ia,„aL-.'.l l,v .!„■ r„in„ 

thr l;.a.l „,aiiMoi,. ai,.l ,,,U,lai„ul;,vrttc am, v .In, i„- t hr Wai ..f ti„ KMHlli,,,,. 1I,,„;,,_ 

tliriv i„..-t Mn„|,ti.n,i-K ,,„tl,. lalUT'- -rrnn,l'vi.-it n.,.rs„>an Sali.a „,, ,,f |.vi„-l,lai,-. Vi,-ii,ia. II, 

tn A „„;,!. -a. ' is :il^., a Mira>M„l .■nUuii-|.la„l,,,-, aial a ^. u- 

Hn„. (lo.i-v i;.ail ,:;,li. ,.f Drlauaiv, .,, ' i!,„>aii Ml-.Tal nti,,.,,,, „t a„,l vari,-,l ,a,li„,, 

(ivo,-,. i;,.a,l .-.M . nf l.,lauaiv, ua- !,.„„ i„ il,- , ...„,( u, „_.,■ i;.a.l Mltln. nf l;,..^,,,, ,, . 

tlu' l;,;a,l .,iai,-i..,,. at XruCa-tK, 1 ),lauaiv, .1 ,i.,r ^ li, ,| i,i i„fa„cv. Tuo ,-l,iM,T„ -,i,-vi v. — Clcv.laii.l 

4, 17^^, an. I nia,ii..l. ll,.; ll'll, ..f A|.iil, IMn, K.a.l, l.-in tt'l, .lulv, l^>l,ai,.l Ali.v ll.a.l, l,.„ai 

L..ui-a i;,.li:.lrv I),.,MV, ul„,~.^ lainilv ,vh.1..| |:,iIi uC F,l„,ia,v.lsMl. (;,,„-,■ l;,a.|. < .".t 1, « .,r 

nca,- Haiti ,■.■' Maivlan.l. la ,• lath.,- I.cin.^ i >r. i;..-M„.a-L-, ha.l --wn l.,-..tli,.-, s an. I H-t.a- : ail .l,.-.| 

Nalhan |)..,>.'V, a mi,-. in tla- l;tv..l,,,-v uitla.ilt i.-ni' .liirin- t\w lif.'ti,,,.' ..f tliri,- tath.a-. 

navv, ul,.. aft,',-ua,.l.-, 1., . ana- an iinin. .,t [.hv-i- ..xr.-i-t ...„■ .i-trr aial William Tli..,n|.-..n Kra.l, 

cian'in I'hila.l.lnlna. A tt. r L'la.hiatin. at I'rin.-,- I, at l;..>Mn.a'. , Ttl, ().I..1h-i-, 1 s:,7, ,„;uTi('.l. Tlh 

t.>n with h.,n.n-,'iii ]>()';. la law will, hi. .laniiaiw, l.>7:t. .h.n.. Sann.ka-, ..f Chict ('..nni\. 

fath.T, an. I wa^ .-all.-.l L. th.- ha,- in IMawa.v. an. I l,a~ Willian, Th.a,,|.M,n Kra.l, l,..,n at K..-"- 

l-)i.-tin'_Mn.-l,r.l a> a law v. i-, hr wa.- .-till na.ic. mi- na'iv lM .,f A|nil, h^>,), an.l Kai-1 K.a.l, h,.,,, 

u.ait a, an an.l ivn.aikahl.- tn, hi- ,■..„- .lulv, ls^:l. .M ,-. \V. T. IJ.a.l i,- a lai-t- an.l 

VL'i>atu,nai |...w.a--, nii. 
varied lit.raiv attain,, 
l,..-iifvulrnt.'^rnth' an.l 
was sai.l of hin, that t 

■hu .,i: 

Fiank, uvn.n.n-, (n:.,,-.' K.a.l ~ r,iU . an.l Willian, Tla an|.,-..n lW:u\ 

11,111- in n,ann.,. it i,-.Ma,i..n K. a.l, who was l,..i-iiat K-.^Miioiv on th,- 

./■•</ f. -ai-,1 that hi- -M .,f Fri„a,arv, 1>.V; : inaiii.d. Inth Novt-mlit-r, 

a.I.,1 wa- ..nK -„,•- ISM), F. .M. Cailt..!,, i:.-.,., ..f Kin- an.l Quf. n 

l,a..-r.l l,v th.', att,a;l„n. i,t. nni.l, m-;x- than C'..unlv, Vi,--inia, an.l has <;,.n-.' IJ.a.l (■arlt,.n. 

anv n,an wr hav,- kn..v. n, w hii-h he rli.atol lion, hm-nHth Jiilv, l.^So. an.l .Marian U.a.l Carlt.,ii, 

his imiiudaik tVhn.l-. !!i- tat h,..- ha.l ...-.•np,. .1 l,.,ni A n-n-t ' 1 , 1 >> ). 

for many Vfar- thr |,.,>t ..f rnit,.l >tat.- .li,-tiirt William Th..i„|,-on K.a.l, ,,,ii of Gcr^.- 

attoniev, an.l I,.- al.-.. hll..l thai ..111.;.- u iih ahilitv .J.I), ..f I >.lawa, ,■, was horn in th-j K..a..l nian- 

diiringUu",iini-lrati..n> ..f thiv.- .,f o,ir Fiv.-j- si.,n,at N.w Ca-tl..', ,.n the 'I'M ,,f An-ii-t, 17'.)!'. 

.h-ntsr (.;.-.,, -,. l;,a.l lo.F. .11.. 1 at th.' lamilv an.l wa- hapti/.-.l th..- 1 lit h ..f S.^i.t.anh.T 

inaiisi.ui, in .\\ w Ca-tl.-, ..n th, 1,-t of N.,vvn,h,-r, at lanniamul Chnr.'h. 11. ■ -ra.lnat.,1 at Primv- 

l.s;37, an.l ..n the i vt- ..f l,i> n..min.,ti..n t., tl,.' t.a, in ls| '., -Imli. •! law with hi- father ami wa,- 

Fnitf.l Stal.-Sena!.-. IF- ha.l e.a,-tantlv reh,s,.l .alh-.l!.. th.- in I Mawaiv. 1 1.- re-i.h-.l at Wa.-h- 

(ioir-e Kea.l, i4tl, ,-..n ..( <M_..rue Kea.l . :;,1 i, the u.,veni!n. n"t .lepartnieiit-. and heeanie later 

of Dehiware, was l,..,n at New Ca-tle. t >.t., -e.-ivtarv .if the K-ali..n <<t' the I'nited .*^t:Ues !•. 

FXFJ; niarrie.l, in F-41. >n-an Chapman, ..f Vir- Hiien..,- " A vres, ami a Senat..r .,f Delaware. He 

rrinia, and ,li..l in An-ii-t. 1>V.'. f.rlv--. v.-n v,.,r.- was ais.. ( iraii.i Ma-t.r ..f >[a-.>n,- ..f Delawaiv, 

of a-e at Ih—inei.-, ('..liin,hki. Ai-kan-a,-. an.l ..i,e .,f the foiimha-s ..f th,' Hi.-t..,-ieal S,,.aetv 

He sln.we.l earlv a|.tit,,.le f.r hii.-in.--, an.l \n as ..f Delawaiv. IF- wa- a man ..f L'l.-at .-nltni.'. 

ti-aim-.l in the .•ouiitin-.' hoi,,-.- .,f an ei,,i,i.-,V tirm an ai.l. nt .-hnr.-lii,,aii, an.l l,i-hlv iv-peete.l in all 

in In .-..n,|.anv u it I, hi- ■,:,-a,ii.lratl,er, relati..ii.- tlu..n-li lif.-. He wa-' the aiitlmr of a K._-a.l. ( iM. ' la- |,iir.-ha-.- 1 ,-i .-oitoi, |.lan- Hie .,f hi.- -raii.lfath.r, (h-..r-e K.-a.l, the si-n.-r. 

Arkai,,-a-, ,.,n 'he l,.,r,l.-i - . .f Fom-iana, wl,i.-l, -,-.-w ..f .lainiarv, F-7:;, havin-.' i,,,irri..l .-allv Fatimer 

un.h-r hi- ma^l.-rlv t..nel, int., .,ne ..f th,- -ivat 11 las, ul,.. pre-.l.-e.-a-e.l him. il,-l,-l't n.,i.-„e. 

re|,n-M-ntative plaiitati. m- ..1 th.- Sonlh. IIe^o,.k Hi.- hn.thers. (Innnin- lle.lli.r.l Kea.l an.l Charl..- 

an ac-tiv,- part; in the .,r-ani/.ali..n ..f a pari-h in hi- ll.-nrv Kea.l, h.^h lawver- ..f -leat pi-on,i,-,., .Ii,.l 

iiei-hh..rhood, where hi- kin. 111. -s an.l -en. r..,-itv n aVrie.l. Hi- -i-t.-V. Catherii,.- Anne K.a.l, 

made him the ol.jeel ..f warm H, .li.d wl,., was l,..rii in 17'.'1, in the Ih a.l i,,ai,.-i..n at 

in the cmimiinion ..f the Fpi-e..pal (ha,.-!,, ..f New ( a^tle, ami .|i.-.l ther.' in l.^-JC,; marrie.l, .-n 

whi.-h he was a pi-..n)ine„t ,n,-mher, like all ,.f l,i^ the l>th .,f .In, .-, l-Ml', D,-. All.-n .MeFaiie, .a 

familv. Hewas .-haraet. li/.. .1 l,v -,.nn.l in.hj,,,. ni, Wilmin-t..,,, s..n ..f ( . .l..nel AH, n M.-Fai„-,of th.- 

fore-i-ht, ami , iK-r.-v. IF- wa-' -I v K. v..h,ti..i,arv arniv. ami hr.ah.r .,f the II. .n. 

retim.i, a man .,f,in, height, ,.f han.l-..i,,e F.-w ,> .M.-Fane. >.er.-tarv of State of the Fnil.'l 

face ami earria-.-e. .<Iat.-.-, an.l nmle ..f th.- H..n. K..i..-rt .M. .M.-Fai,.-, 

( Kea.l ,oih,., ..f Arkan-a.-, ehF-l .-..n ..f Fnite.l .<tate- .Mini.-t,-r t., Fran.-.-. 
Geor-e Kead , kin, ..,f,-, was i...rn at William K.'ad, lir.-t lieutenant of the Uliil-'l 


Stutr^ army, bHTii lli.^ li 1th of Aiiril, Is-J:";. at ilie ImrifMl nt G;jvfin :r':; Island. N'ew York, leaving 

lanillv iiian-i..n, X,-,v (':.-:!.■, I ) luu aiv, \va~ Lap- -.LM.-iuc. 

ti/.-.r,.ii the 4th of A]iriL l--!k at ] ;,;..l Annie D',r>.y IIm.I, tni i >1 (hui-hter of die Hon. 

Church, Nuu Ca-ll". I'l- \va~ thr -on ..f thr llm. (;.■.. r.-r Uciel ;:M ). an,l i,;i!i;^a Uiiiirely Dorsey, 

(;,■,, ive Read ( ".J ^ <.f 1 )Ma\van'. ami I.....i-a hi.^ wif^,, h'jrn at the fa uilv nuuijion, Xew Ca^le, 

UiJgely Doi-ev.hi.with. II.' \vasa|.|>.,int.'.lf.-(Ku IVlauar.', ^va^ hni^'i/.A .... i!„. -.1 ,.f Au-ast, 

Delaware a c-a,h_.t at We-t I'.iinl th.' l.t ..f July, l-h-.then ;.,-ev' diiee vu i L^, at r.uinia.iU.l Thureh, 

IS-K); proniiite.l t.. hr s.t.ui.I l.r.'vet li.-ut. nan' ^.'cv,' ('astlc. .-^h.e ,..::r:' .! MaJ .;■ I,-aac A. Keiter 

iu the Sixth lufantrv: .-erved v.itli (!i<tineti..n m Ih-v s, of thi > nit.^; Sta'rs ariay, wh.i wai born 

the war with .Mexie.i'; wa-^ nia.le see,, nd lieutenant in Is'ov lie « as :;,>!..j!ut.'d a eadet from 

uf the Fifth Infauti-v iu IM''.. aud lirst Ihaiteii- New 'I'erk t.,' V .rl Point; in l>:;i, uraduated in 

ant of the same n-inieut in 1 M7 ; reM-ue.l Lil.t :8:]-"i. ^ervc : w ith .'i,;ineaou hi ilie Florida War, 

of Julv, l.Soll II.'. wa> Prof. -or .,f Natural an.! ntal ;,:tahie.i tiu ra.uK ofi,rii..r. He died prior 

Experim.ntal Pliii..s.,i.hy iu the K.iuuekv ^lili- to ihe Kel.aii..n. Mr. Maj.u' P.eves resides in 

tarv In-titute from l^olt., l^'.-; as-i>tant oxaui- one of tho ol.l K.a'.l< ns at New Castle, 

iner of patents at Wa>hin-t.iu l^ru, t.. iM'.l, Delaware and has the;! children. Keiter 

an.l a planter in Montgomery dunty, ^Maryland. Heevvs. civ son. an engineer iu the United States 

fr.un l.SiU until his death in 18S4. " He mari;ied navy, wle. inurrie.l Henrietta Young and has two 

.M. E. Beale, the irranddaughter of Comni.j.ioie cliildrer — iCeiter ICeeves and :Murian Keeves; 

Truxton, <jf the United States navv. Marian Lei:.'re Peeves, a well-known authoress, 

J. Dorsey P..;a.l, a graduate "of the Naval who has written Uiider the iwm de p!n""3 of 

Academy at Annapolis, was a lieut.iiant in the Fadette, the foUowiie/ novels, " Ingemisco," 

United States navy. II.' ili.'.l iu 1 >o.s. Married " Piandolph Honour " an.l '■ Wearie Thorne," and 

Maria Chapman, of Vir-iuia, hut hft lei d.-seeini- in conaeetiou with her aunt Mi.-s Emily Head, of 

ants. He was- the third ton .,f th.. .Hon. Ge.n-e New Ca.tle, has publi-hed " (Jld Martin Boseaweu's 

Read (--Id), of Delaware, and Louisa Pidgely Jest." 
Dorsev, his wife. Annie Dorsey Reeves married the Hon. John 

iNIarian ^Murray Read, born at the Read Man- H. Rodney, of New Castle, a great grand-nephew 

sion. New Castle, Delaware, was baptized on the of the Hon. Cresar Rodney, a signer of the Declar- 

(ith of i\Iay, 1811, aged three month.<, at Emmanuel atiou of Independence, aud has six sous aud one 

Church, New Castle; w;is the eldest daughter of daughter. 

the Hon. George Read (;]d), of Delaware and Caroline E. Reeves married Win. S. Potter, 

Loui.-a Padgely Dorsey, his wife. She married Es.p, a planter in Cecil County, iMarylaud, and 

James G. iMartin. E.m|,, of N..rth Carolina, a has two sous and five daughters, 
graduate of ^Ve--t Point, wh.. attained the rank Caroline Read, fourth daughter of Hon. George 

of major iu the United State.- army, an.l lieeame Fu-ad (•''!). of Delaware, and Louisa Ridgely 

u major general in the Confeih rate army. Dorsey. his wife, b.uii at the tiimily mansion. New 

James G.Martin, eldest son .jfJame.-G.-AIartin, Castle, Delaware, wa- baptized on the 22d of 
of North Carolina, was coun.-elor-at-law, A^he- Jnlv, L'^l'i-. at Emnuiuuel Cluireh, New Castle. 
ville. N.>rth Car..liua. IP' n.arrie.l Annie Davis. She marrie.l, on the illst of .March, 1840, Major- 
Elizabeth Stark .Murray Martin wa- tiie ehlest General William IL French, of the United States 
daughter of James G. -Martin, of Nortli (.'arollna. army, a graduate of We.t P.jiut in ISoT, a di.s- 
She married William Pruce, Esq., c.>uii.-ilor-at- tin_