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Full text of "History of the Department of Police Service of Worcester, Mass., from 1674 to 1900, historical and biographical : illustrating and describing the economy, equipment and effectiveness of the police force of to-day, with reminiscences of the past, containing information from official sources"

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FROM 1674 to 1900. 












Grave and Pious Matoonus of the Nipmuck Tribe the Original Constable 
Clothed with Authority of the Crown, He Inspires King Philip's War 
Early Settlement of Quinsigamond and First Constables The Beat of the 
Constable Along the Blackstone Canal Work of Thief-Detecting Asso- 

The story of the Worcester Police Department is a story 
of upbuilding and maintenance of the strong right arm of 
the law as the tiny village of more than two centuries ago has 
grown to be a thriving city of 120,000 souls in the last year of 
the nineteenth century. This story has never been adequately 
told, yet it furnishes interest, pathos, courage, heroism and sen- 
sation enough to fill many volumes. In reviewing the history 
of the Worcester police for 226 years, this volume can tell but 
briefly, yet with an attempt at completeness, of the history of 
the department which is closely interwoven with the history of 
the city, and must have more than a passing attraction for every 
citizen of the Heart of the Commonwealth. 

The character and duties of the police can only be gathered 
from the customs, opinions and tastes of the people the nature 
of events and the peculiar condition of things. It is a bird's- 
eye view of the character of the times, the police regulation of 
the laws, and here and there an inkling of the civil and criminal 

Nothing but facts are dealt with here. Police departments 
recognize nothing but facts, and the record of a department is 
a record of nothing but facts. In the town's earliest days, it is 
true, the original policemen are shrouded almost in mystery, 
yet it is the mystery that shrouds the commonplace which peo- 
ple of the time think not worth recording, until it is too late 
for absolute verification of exact dates and names. Yet even 
in this respect, the Police Department does not waver far from 
the straightest line of correct information, and what is printed 
may be accepted for all time as the truest possible information 

6 History of Police Department, 

regarding the Worcester Police Department to the year 1901. 
Of the story of the Police Department of Worcester as a plan- 
tation, town and city, it may be said, it is simply a matter of 
record, and a record to be proud of, for the Worcester Police 


Department has been free from scandal, competent and coura- 
geous, doing its duty always faithfully and well, and keeping the 
reputation of Worcester as free from criminal stain as any city 
of like population in the world can boast. In the preparation of 
this book, it has not been forgotten that the present day is one 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 7 

of great interest in matters of local history, and so it happens 
that few books have been compiled relating to Worcester's his- 
tory which are more valuable to students of local history. 

All communities have their peculiar standards of morals, and 
there are different classes in the scale. The laws of the Puritan 
fathers were severe on the licentious and vicious. Women sus- 
pected of any little improprieties were liable to be set high upon 
a stool in the broad aisle of the church Sundays, there exposed 
to the gaze and derision of the whole congregation. Worcester 
has had its standard of morals always high, and better police 
rules have resulted in extreme measures. In the early days the 
pillory and the gaol, or cage, were put in frequent use, but the 
town fathers never consented to the use of stocks. 

The Massachusetts people in their new homes were almost 
surrounded with a wild, unexplored wilderness. The General 
Court of Massachusetts Bay Colony established a watch in Bos- 
ton in 1631, but it took more of the character of a military guard 
than otherwise. There were numerous straggling Indians, and 
there were also among the inhabitants a set of knaves, thieves 
and burglars of their own kith and kin. 

Records show that Worcester originally was a plantation con- 
taining eight square miles, purchased from the Indians for "12 
pounds of lawful money," this tract including what is now por- 
tions of Holden and Auburn. The first constable was an Indian, 
who had a roving commission among the tribes of the Nipmucks, 
From the original copper-faced constable the police system has 
progressed until to-day there is a police force in Worcester com- 
prising 137 persons, of whom 118 are patrolmen, and the terri- 
tory covered by them is 36 square miles, protection being af- 
forded to upward of 120,000 persons. 

Matoonus, spoken of by historians as a "grave and pious" 
Indian of the Nipmuck tribe, on Pakachoag hill, a short distance 
south of the present location of Holy Cross College, was the 
first peace officer for the territory of which Worcester is now 
a part. With the appointment as constable, and with the author- 
ity of the crown, Matoonus went to Mendon in 1675, where 
he revenged the loss of his offspring by murdering five inhabi- 
tants of that place. This act hastened the uprising against the 
whites by the Indians and precipitated King Philip's War. 
Matoonus not only was the first policeman appointed, but his 
case is the first suspension of a policeman of which there is any 


History of Police Department, 

Capt. Daniel Gookin, superintendent of the Indians, an office 
created by the General Court of Massachusetts Bay Colony, 
with John Eliot, apostle to the Indians, visited Pakachoag, Sept. 
17, 1674. There was a court kept among the Xipmuck Indians 
whose ruler was Wattasacompanum. July 17 a court was or- 
ganized by Eliot and Gookin, with John, alias Horowanninit, and 
Solomon, alias Wooanckocku, as rulers. John was sagamore of 
the Xipmuck tribe, on Pakachoag hill, and Solomon was saga- 


City Marshal, 1853. 

more of the tribe on Tataeset, or Tatnuck hill. Both tribes were 
allies of King Philip in the Indian War of 1675 and 1676. These 
red men had made considerable advances in civilization, and 
some of them professed Christianity. In Sagamore John's rude 
hut on Pakachoag hill the court constituting John and Solomon 
as rulers, was established by direction of the General Court, and 
this authority was accepted by the rulers. The newly constituted 
court, with Eliot and Gookin, selected from the Xipmuck tribe 
"a grave and sober Indian" called Matoonus. He was confirmed 
constable, and in his history Gookin says : "Then I gave both 
the rulers, teacher and constable of the people their respective 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 9 

charges to be diligent and faithful for God, zealous against sin, 
and careful in sanctifying the Sabbath ; to apprehend drunkards, 
cake away their strong drink, and bring the offenders before the 
constable for punishment." The historians of the period heap 
upon Matoonus a load of abusive and uncharitable epithets. 
Sagamore John, that he might ingratiate himself with the Eng- 
lish, whose friendship he was willing to seek, got into his hands 
"an old malicious villain" one Matoonus who was the first 
to do any mischief in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, July 
14, 1676, bearing an old grudge against them, as is thought, for 
justice that was done upon one of his sons in 1671. 

Increase Mather, in his history, speaking of Matoonus, says : 
"Matoonus, who was the first Indian that shed innocent blood 
in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, had some years before pre- 
tended something of religion, being- a professor in general (al- 
though never baptized), that so he might the more covertly man- 
age the hellish design of revenge that was harbored in his devil- 
ish heart; but at last Sagamore John, with some of his Indians, 
unexpectedly surprised and delivered him to justice." 

William Lincoln's "History of Worcester" refers to Matoonus 
as follows : "In 1677 the settlement was prosperously advancing, 
and the inhabitants had built after the manner of a town, when 
the war with Philip, of Alt. Hope, broke out in Plymouth 
county. Although remote for a time, the war soon approached 
the plantation of Quinsigamond. The son of Matoonus had been 
executed in 1671 for the murder of an Englishman, and his head 
placed on a pole on Boston Common, where it long remained 
as the terrific memorial of justice. The father, a grave and 
sober Indian, appointed by Gookin constable of Pakachoag, in 
his profession of Christianity had not forsaken the principle so 
deeply cherished by his people. July 10, 1675, he visited Men- 
don, and revenged the loss of his offspring by the death of five 
of its inhabitants. This was the signal for the commencement 
of a desperate contest. July 27, 1676, Sagamore John surren- 
dered and returned to Boston, bringing 180 of his followers. To 
propitiate favor and purchase peace, for an acceptable offering 
he had treacherously seized Matoonus, who had shed the first 
blood in Massachusetts on the beginning of the war, in Mendon, 
and had brought him down bound with cords to be given up to 
justice. Matoonus, having been examined, was condemned to 
immediate death. Sagamore John, with the new-born zeal of 


History of Police Department, 

a traitor, to signal his devotion to the cause he adopted by ex- 
traordinary rancor against that which he deserts, entreated for 
himself and his men the office of executioner. Matoonus was 
led out, and being tied to a tree on Boston Common, was shot 
by his own countrymen, his head cut off and placed upon a 
pole opposite to that of his son, who formerly suffered on the 
same spot for a real or supposed murder committed in 1671." 
Three attempts were made before Worcester was permanent 


City Marshal, 1854. 

ly settled. In 1674 a few settlers cultivated land taken by them 
in different sections of the plantation of Quinsigamond, and Oct. 
11, 1675, Daniel Gookin petitioned the General Court to survey 
a "meet place for plantation" near Quinsigamond pond. King 
Philip's War drove away the settlers, and not until ten years 
later was the second attempt made. April i, 1684, the County 
Court of Middlesex county ordered that "the people of plantation 
Quinsigamond meet together on the Lord's day to worship God, 
and Capt. Daniel Henchman is required and authorized by the 
court to take special care to prevent the prophanation of the 

Worcester, Massachusetts. n 

Sabbath by -neglect thereof." Daniel Gookin, Thomas Prentis 
and Daniel Henchman, the committee from the General Court 
on settling and ordering the new plantation near Quinsigamond, 
in the roadway from Boston to Connecticut, gave approbation 
that Thomas Browne of Cambridge desire the County Court of 
Middlesex to give him a license to furnish travelers with wine 
and strong waters. This license was granted Dec. 15, 1674, to 
"keep an ordinary at plantation of Quinsigamond." This was 
the first inn-holder's license of the first settlement. In 1684 
Nathaniel Henchman was given a license to "sell and furnish 
travelers with rhum and other strong waters in bottles of a pint 
or quart, but not to retayl any in his house or suffer tipling." 
He had the first license in the second settlement. His house 
was north of Lincoln square, where now is the freight-house of 
the Worcester & Nashua Railroad. Other early inn-holders were 
James Rice, John Hubbard, William Jennison and Robert Gray. 

The settlement was so far advanced that in June, 1684, the 
appointment of a constable, fence-viewers and hogreeves was 
required. The following is the order of the court, April 17, 1684: 
"At the motion and desire of the committee of ye Plantation of 
Ouansicamund this court doth order that William Weeks be 
constable for ye plantation for one year next ensuing, and that 
he have all the power of a constable as the law directs, and Capt. 
Daniel Henchman is empowered to give said constable his oath." 
This is the first record of the appointment of a constable in the 
settlement of Quinsigamond. Sept. 10, 1684, the name of the 
plantation of Quinsigamond was changed to Worcester. 

The first assault case that came before the court while Worces- 
ter was a plantation was brought Oct. 2, 1685, by George Dan- 
son against Capt. George Wing, one of the Plantation Committee. 
Danson had lived in Boston, and twice had been whipped for 
attending a religious service of the Quakers. He claimed that 
Wing assaulted him while laying out a parcel of land near North 
Pond. When the case came into court, the charge of assault 
was dropped and that of defamation of character was substituted. 
Danson lost the case. 

The third settlement was in 1713, and was permanent. The 
records from 1686 to 1813 are meagre and indefinite, except to 
show that the Indians caused a second desertion of the place, 
the most serious interruption being during the raging of Queen 
Anne's War, beginning in 1702, when Digory Sergeant was 

12 History of Police Department, 

killed and his family taken prisoners. Sergeant's death and the 
capture of his family is prominent as an historical event of the 
early settlement of Worcester. In 1722 Worcester was incor- 
porated as a town. June 17, 1722, a warrant was issued by Ira 
Fullam of Weston, justice of the peace, calling a town meeting, 
and was given to Lieuts. Jonas Rice and Henry Lee, there being 
no constables. The meeting was Sept. 30, 1722, and Jonathan 
Moore and John Hubbard were elected constables and James 


City Marshiil, 1855. 

Holden and Jacob Holmes tithingmen. Police-duty had been 
done in a general way by the militia, and for a long time after the 
incorporation of the town the military organization was looked 
to for protection of the citizens. The records of the town of 
Worcester have little touching upon the subject of police. There 
is no record of the appointment of a night-watch aside from the 
constabulary watch and ward, and the reports of the town treas- 
urers contain no record of payment of funds for police-duty of 
any description beyond what was paid out to constables for 
serving of warrants and collection of taxes. 

At a meeting of the Selectmen Oct. 12, 1722, the northern 
and southern precincts of the town, then including Holden and 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 13 

one-half of Auburn, were established by the following vote: 
That "the country road shall be the line between the constables 
from Leicester to half-way river, and from thence said river to 
be the line till it comes to Mill brook; thence said brook to 
be the line until it comes up to the country road ; then the road to 
be the line to Shrewsbury, and to be known by the names of 
the North and South Precincts." At the meeting Oct. 19, 1722, 
the Selectmen were directed to procure staves for the consta- 
bles and the tithingmen. In 1723 James Rice and Zephaniah 
Rice were chosen constables and James Moore and James 
Kelogth tithingmen. 

The oldest people of New England remember the tithingman 
as a sort of Sunday constable, whose special duty it was in the 
old parish meeting-house to quell the restlessness of youth and 
to disturb the slumbers of age. This ancient watchman was a 
primitive character. The original town record shows it was the 
duty of the tithingman not merely to preserve order in the meet- 
ing-house, but to see that everyone went to church. He was a 
kind of an ecclesiastical "whipper-in." In New England the execu- 
tion of the laws for the observance of the Sabbath in other ways 
than going to church was intrusted to the local tithingman. 
Travel on that day was strictly forbidden. The law against 
Sunday travel has been rigidly enforced in one way and another 
by tithingman, constables, local police or public opinion down 
to the present day. 

From the colonial laws of Massachusetts it appears that the 
functions of tithingmen were not restricted to the arrest of all 
Sabbath-breakers, but extended to the inspection of licensed inns 
for the discovery of disorderly tipplers. Even by such links as 
these were the towns bound to the old English parish life. The 
use of the pillory and stocks in punishment for drunkenness 
was a similar link of parish habit. The tithingman is the histor- 
ical prototype of the parish constable, for constables were ap- 
pointed long before tithingmen. They had many functions in 
common with constables. Both endeavored to repress tippling, 
gaming, night-walking, strolling, begging, roaming streets or 
fields, and idleness in general. They restrained butchers and 
drovers from cruelty to animals, and kept boys and all persons 
from swimming in the water. The tithingman was the father of the 
hamlet. He felt himself personally responsible for the char- 
acter and conduct of all householders in his neighborhood. He 

14 History of Police Department, 

was held strictly to account by the Selectmen or townsmen for 
the presence of any new-comer in the hamlet. He was keeper 
of peace ; he was arbitrator between neighbor and kinsman ; he 
regulated the division of land, the use of pastures or meadows ; 
he announced the time of harvest, and when enclosures were 
to be removed and fences put up. He was a man having author- 
ity in a small neighborly way, and foreshadowed the petty con- 
stable and the easy-going Selectmen of our modern New Eng- 
land towns. 

City Marshal, iS56-'57-'5S. 

One of the first persons committed for refusing to pay a fine was 
Joseph Dyer. He came to Worcester in 1736, and was a lawyer 
and shopkeeper. For twenty years he objected to the town 
records and protested against all municipal proceedings. In 
1759 he was committed to jail for neglecting to discharge a fine 
incurred by absence from a military muster. The fine amounted 
to sixteen pence. He had refused to bear his burden of taxa- 
tion. In 1764 the sum necessary for his liberation was raised 
by subscription, and he was forcibly ejected from the jail, pro- 
testing as he went. While in jail he compiled a dictionary of the 
English language. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 15 

In 1724 Constable James Rice was ordered to "warn William 
Hamilton to depart forthwith from Worcester with all his sub- 
stance and never to reside there any more." On March 27, 
1723, the town paid three pounds to each of the constables as 
a gratuity for gathering the tax of three pence per acre. The 
jails and lockups in the early history of the town were at Lin- 
coln square. For many years they were of an inferior design, 
but in 1732 a new jail was built on the south side of Lincoln 
square. Until the present jail on Summer street was built in 
1819, jails were in that vicinity. 

An act for keeping watches and wards in towns for the pre- 
vention of disorders in streets and public places, was passed by 
the Legislature March 10, 1797, this act repealing the acts of 
1699, 1703, 1711, 1712, 1726 and 1752, which had provided in 
a general way for keeping the peace in towns. 

Section i provided that all male persons of the age of eighteen 
years or upward shall be liable to watch or ward, except all 
persons who shall live more than two miles from the place where 
the watch or wards are kept, and except also the justice of the 
peace and the selectmen of the town or district and the sheriffs 
of the county and the ministers of the gospel. 

Section 2 provided that when so often as a military watch shall 
not be appointed to be kept, the justice of the peace, together 
with the selectmen of each town, shall have the power from 
time to time to direct a suitable watch or watches to be kept 
nightly from 9 o'clock until sunrise ; and also a ward to be kept 
in the daytimes and evenings, when they shall think the same 
watch and ward necessary ; the constables shall have authority 
to warn such watch and ward and see that the duties are per- 
formed, and to take care that some able householders be joined 
in each watch and ward. Constables shall charge the watch 
to see that all disturbances and disorders in the night shall be 
prevented and suppressed, and to examine all persons whom 
they shall see walking abroad in the night after 10 o'clock, and 
whom they have reason to suspect of any unlawful intention 
or design, inquire of their business and whither they are going. 
Each constable, when attending the watch and ward, shall carry 
with him the usual badge of his office. 

Section 3 provided that when any town shall judge that a 
watch may be kept more for the benefit and safety thereof, and 
the inhabitants shall agree to support the charge of the same, 

1 6 History of Police Department, 

the justice in the court of general sessions of the peace within 
the county wherein such town lies, upon application made, are 
hereby empowered to direct and order the rule for apportioning 
and levying such sum upon the inhabitants and residents of such 
town as shall be granted by the town for that purpose. 

Section 4 provided that one sober, discreet, able-bodied house- 
holder shall be appointed officer of the watch (if a watch shall 
be appointed and agreed upon different from a constables' 


City Marshal, 1858. 

watch) by said justices and selectmen, to take charge and com- 
mand of such watch, who, as the badge of his office, shall carry 
a quarter-pike, with a spire on the top thereof, and every watch- 
man, as well in this as in the constables' watch, shall carry a 
staff with a bill thereon, as is usual. 

Section 5 provided that any person refusing to serve on the 
watch shall forfeit a fine of $i for each offense, to the use of 
the poor of the town or district, and any person refusing to per- 
form the duties of watchman shall pay a fine of $10. 

Section 6 provided that when the justices or selectmen shall 
inspect the order of the town at night, the watchmen and con- 
stables shall attend them and obev their commands. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 17 

Section 7 provided that the fee of the gaoler for each person 
taken up in the night shall be twenty-five cents when committed 
until morning. 

The town of Worcester did not act under this law so far 
as it applied to a watch and ward, independent of the constables' 
watch. The law and order of the town was maintained by the 
constables, who received fees for their work, the records not 
showing that any stated sum was paid for police-duty. In 1838 
and 1840 there are records of police-work done by Ivers Phillips 
as a constable. He was, with Frederic Warren, the most prom- 
inent police official in Worcester before it was incorporated as 
a city. Some creditable police-work was done by these two 
officials, but the records name them as constables, indicating 
that the establishment of a permanent night-watch or police de- 
partment did not come until after Worcester's incorporation as 
a city. 

The constables from 1825 until 1848, when Worcester was in- 
corporated as a city, were : John Gleason, Jr., Thomas Howe, 
Timothy W. Bancroft, Lewis Bigelow, Luther Burnett, Jr., John 
F. Clark, Joseph Lovell, William Chamberlain, Levi A. Dowley, 
Samuel Ward, Asa Hamilton, Dorrance J. Wilder, Charles A. 
Hamilton, Simeon Gleason, Lewis Thayer, Billings Hobart, 
Charles M. Deland, Edward H. Hemenway, Charles P. Bancroft, 
Clarendon Wheelock, Asa Matthews, William R. Wesson, Seth 
Fisher, Lyman Whitcomb, W^arren Hinds, Samuel R. Jackson, 
Gordin Gould, Luther Capron, Joel Wilder, Danforth H. Bundy, 
Leonard Pool, Peter Richardson, Ivers Phillips, Benjamin 
Flagg* Joseph Lovell, George Hobbs, Rufus Hastings, 
William M. Bickford, Harrison G. Howe, William Green- 
leaf, Charles Hersey, Parley Goddard, Whiting Gates, Clau- 
dius B. Long, George B. Conklin, John H. Knight, Benja- 
min B-. Otis, Levi Jackson, Thornton A. Merrick, Asa D. Whitte- 
more, Benjamin Walker, Samuel Banister, Rufus Rice, Charles 
Davis, George Jones, Francis Strong, Rudolphus C. Edwards, 
Calvin W. Ainger, Frederic Warren, Sumner Pratt, Luther 
Gunn, Jubal H. Haven, Lewis Thayer, Charles Warren, Edwin 
Eaton. In 1846 there were twelve constables, and they did all 
the civil business as well as looking out for the protection of 
the inhabitants. On the occasion of the funeral of Capt. George 
Lincoln, killed at the battle of Buena Vista Feb. 23, 1847, which 
was July 22, a special appointment of constables was made, in- 

1 8 History of Police Department, 

eluding these names : Alvan Allen, Samuel D. Harding, William 
C. Whiting, Andrew A. Williams, Joseph Lovell, Jr., George \\ . 
Wilder, Charles P. Bapcroft, Jonathan Luther, Henry Earle, 
Silas Dinsmore, Peregrine B. Gilbert, John F. Gleason, Adolphus 
Morse, William C. Clark, Fitzroy Willard, Samuel Banister and 
Francis Strong. 

The Worcester Association of Mutual Aid in Detecting Thieves 
proved a valuable auxiliary to the police authorities of the town 


City Marshal, 1859. 

in the days when constables were few in number. The associa- 
tion was organized Nov. 16, 1795, and its constitution was re- 
vised in 1837, 1857 and 1862. The preamble of the association 
is : 

Whereas, the practice of stealing has been so prevalent of late 
that it becomes necessary for the well disposed to unite in the 
most effective measures for protecting their property against the 
hostile incursions of unprincipled individuals and lawless free- 
booters that infest our community. 

We, the subscribers, do therefore associate ourselves together 
for the purpose of more effectually providing means for the re- 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 19 

covery of any property that may be stolen from the members 
of the association by mutually aiding each other, by the adoption 
of the most effective measures for bringing offenders to justice. 

The constitution provided for holding the annual meeting the 
second Tuesday in January. The officers consisted of a board 
of directors, clerk and treasurer, and a pursuing committee con- 
sisting of twelve members. One of the articles of the by-laws 
was that any member of the association who shall refuse when 
detached by the directors to go in pursuit of a thief or thieves 
shall be excluded from the benefits of the association. Another 
article provided for the payment of a member such sum as seems 
reasonable for active work of pursuing, but in 1837 this article 
was amended by providing for the payment of $1.25 a day when 
actually engaged in the services of the association, and an ad- 
ditional compensation of one-twelfth of a dollar a mile for all 
necessary travel. The first treasurer and clerk was David An- 
drews, and the members admitted in 1795 were David Andrews, 
Samuel Andrews, John Barnard, Samuel Brazen, Samuel Brooks, 
John Chamberlain, ThaddeusChapin, Oliver Fisher, Samuel Flagg, 
Daniel Colliding, John Green, Jr., Asa Hamilton, Abel Heywood, 
Benjamin Heywood, Daniel Heywood, Daniel Heywod, 2d, Joel 
Howe, Phineas Jones, Ephraim Mower, Nathaniel Paine, John 
Pierce, Ebenezer Reed, Robert Smith, Charles Stearns, Isaiah 
Thomas, Walter Tufts, Asa Ward, Joshua Whitney, Daniel Wil- 
lington, and Leonard Worcester. Persons who became members 
during the first fifteen years of its existence include the follow- 
ing: 1801, William Caldwell, Ebenezer Mower, Ebenezer Wis- 
well; 1802, David Curtis, William Eaton; 1803, William Cald- 
well, 2d; 1804, Joseph Daniels, William McFarland, Jonas Rice, 
Peter Slater, Nathaniel Stowell, Peter Stowell, Benjamin T. Fos- 
ter; 1805, Samuel Chandler, Elnathan Pratt; 1806, Elisha Flagg, 
John Foxcroft, Joseph Holbrook, Jacob Miller, Rufus Paine, 
Geer Terry; 1807, Thomas Chamberlain, Reuben Munroe; 1808, 
Theodore Wheeler; 1809, John Curtis, Enoch Flagg and Joseph. 
Lovell. Other names that appear in the list of membership up 
to 1862 include John Green, William G. Green, Levi Lincoln, 
John Earle, Levi Lincoln, Jr., Artemas Ward, Nathaniel Gates, 
Samuel Ward, John M. Earle, Lewis Barnard, Ichabod Wash- 
burn, James Estabrook, Osgood Bradley, Joseph Pratt, Artemas 
Ward, 2d, Horatio N. Tower, William R. Wesson, John Bar- 
nard, Asa Matthews, Ivers Phillips, W. C. Clark, Albert Curtis, 

20 History of Police Department, 

John Hammond, Edward Earle, Leonard Fales, Elizabeth Green, 
F. H. Kinnicutt, Joseph Boyden, J. S. C. Knowlton, Genery 
Twitchell, Levi Jackson, E. Harrington, D. Waldo Lincoln. 
These familiar names appear in the list of membership since 
1848: Elliott Swan, Fred Warren, T. P. Curtis, Jason Temple, 
J. C. Ripley, Dennis G. Temple, Priestly Young, C. B. Pratt, 
James H. Wall, Hiram Fobes, O. B. Hadwen, Charles Hamilton, 
Ashley Moore, J. B. Pratt, R. C. Taylor. The original mem- 


City Marshal, :86o. 

bers of the Pursuing Committee consisted of Thaddeus Chapin, 
1806 and 1807; Daniel Heywood, 1806 and 1807; Phineas Jones, 
1806; Joshua Whitney, 1801 ; Daniel Willington, 1803; Ebenezer 
Mower, 1803; Ebenezer Wiswell, 1804, 1805 and 1811. 

In 1843 the association was organized with County Treasurer 
Anthony Rice as Treasurer and Clerk ; Directors, Ephraim 
Mower, George T. Rice, John W. Lincoln, Otis Corbett, Leon- 
ard W. Stowell, Alpheus Merrineld, Lewis Bigelow, Benjamin 
Butman, John Jones, Daniel Goddard, Cyrus Stockwell, Asa 
Walker; Pursuing Committee, John F. Clark, William R. Wes- 
son, Ivers Phillips, Asa Matthews, Jaines Estabrook, Josiah 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 21 

Brittan, Jr., Jonas Bartlett, Horatio N. Tower, Artemas Ward, 
Jr., Benjamin P. Rice, Joseph Pratt and Loring F. Perry. When 
the city was incorporated and a permanent police force was 
appointed, the Thief-detecting Association took little part in 
criminal work. It still keeps up its organization, the social fea- 
ture being its most important consideration. The last meeting 
held was in 1895, when the looth anniversary of the organization 
was observed. 

In 1838 the last by-laws of the town of Worcester were adopted. 
They prohibited ball-playing in the public streets ; throwing 
stones in the streets ; smoking a cigar or pipe in any of the 
streets within the school district ; swimming between sunrise 
and sunset in the waters of the Blackstone canal within the 
limits of the town in view of a dwelling-house, street or high- 
way; coasting; driving in excess of eight miles an hour; and 
carrying a naked scythe between sunset and sunrise. Fines for 
offenses of the by-laws ranged from $i to $10, and the highway 
surveyors, field-drivers and constables of the town were author- 
ized to enforce the laws. 

There were two criminal cases in 1840 in which Constable 
Ivers Phillips was identified. Elias M. Turner and Dickinson 
Sherer were each sentenced to state prison on the charge 
of kidnapping Sidney O., son of John F. Francis, and 
transporting him into Virginia with intent to sell him into slavery. 
The case was the most important of that year, and the defendants 
were represented at their trial by Isaac C. Bates of Northampton 
and Jonathan Chapman of Springfield. The cases were prose- 
cuted by District Attorney Pliny Merrick. 

Martin T. Draper, of Draper & Davis, grocers at Washington 
square, entered into a conspiracy with Samuel A. Way of Bos- 
ton, in June, 1840, to defraud creditors. Draper delivered to 
Way $5,000 in cash and refused to account for it. He was 
arrested by Ivers Phillips on a charge of perjury and sentenced 
to five years in state prison. 

The office of tithingman was dropped by the Selectmen of the 
town seventy years ago, but the constable has been a fixture 
from the time Matoonus roamed the hills of Worcester county 
among the King Philip tribes in the sixteenth century. 


History of Police Department, 


Prisoners Led to Gallows, Whipping-Post and Pillory in Colonial Days 
Hanging of Bathsheba Spooner on Frost's Hill in 1778, Only Woman 
Executed in Worcester County Executions in Public and in Private 
Cases that Made Worcester Prominent during Revolutionary War Re- 
view of a Century. 

In the early history of Worcester crime was frequent and 
punishment severe. The gallows was erected for burglars and 
murderers alike in the last century, and offenses which in these 
times would furnish no public interest, being disposed of with 
a light fine or short term of imprisonment, called for punish- 


ment in the pillory or at the whipping-post. It was also 
a favorite sentence of the court to condemn a prisoner to the 
gallows for an hour, to sit with the rope around his neck, to give 
him opportunity to think upon death and his God. For what 
are now considered trivial offenses prisoners were subjected to 
humiliating punishment, being sent to the whipping-post, or both, 
and if there were any aggravating circumstances connected with 
the case, an hour on the gallows for meditation, with a year or 
term of years in the "gaol," was added to the sentence. Branding 
a prisoner on the forehead or cropping one of the ears was oc- 
casionally included in judicial sentences in cases of burglary. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 23 

The pillory and whipping-post were familiar objects on 
Court hill a century ago. The gallows was usually erected on 
what was called "Frost's hill," where now is located the Worces- 
ter Insane Asylum on Summer street, and with a single excep- 
tion hangings took place there as long as they were held out- 
doors. Here is where Bathsheba Spooner, the only woman 
hanged in Worcester county, was led to her death. 

In connection with the pillory and whipping-post, an early 
record shows that Caleb Jephterson was exposed in the pillory 
"for one hour and a half, pursuant to the sentence upon three 
separate convictions, for the odious and detestable crime of blas- 
phemy." The notorious Stephen Burroughs, tried in Worcester 
in 1791, was sentenced" to receive 117 stripes on the naked back, 
stand two hours in the pillory, and sit one hour on the gallows 
with the rope around his neck. His case created considerable 
excitement, and he was rescued from the jail by a mob of 1,000 
before the sentence was fully executed. In his memoirs Bur- 
roughs says the mob came from Uxbridge. 

Early in the century the whipping-post was abandoned, the 
sentence of a woman to this punishment for a trivial offense 
creating public sentiment against it. William Caldwell of Rut- 
land was sheriff early in the century until 1805, and when the 
woman was led out to have the sentence executed, he disap- 
pointed a crowd of about 3,000 by saying the sentence did not 
say when she should be whipped. After the crowd had dispersed, 
the woman received the punishment, the lashes being applied 
lightly by the humane sheriff, and she was allowed to go with 
the injunction to sin no more. 

What is known in the criminal history of Worcester county 
as the Bathsheba Spooner murder case relates to the most famous 
crime and subsequent execution in its history. In reference to it 
in recent years the facts often have been misrepresented, and 
descendants of the unfortunate woman and historical societies 
have devoted considerable time in bringing out the accurate 
facts in the case. Bathsheba Spooner, who proved to be an ac- 
cessory before the fact in connection with the murder of her 
husband in 1778, was the daughter of Judge Timothy Ruggles 
of Hardwick, generally called Brigadier General Ruggles, one of 
the most distinguished citizens of the province of Massachusetts 
Bay. He adhered to the cause of the king during the Revolution 
and years of discussion which preceded it. The people of 

24 History of Police Department, 

Worcester were incensed with him for adopting that position, 
and although he was a true friend of his country and honest in 
his political opinions at the time of the trial of Airs. Spooner, he 
had come to be "regarded as the worst traitor, and his name 
was held in the utmost abhorrence." The daughter was well 
brought up, and on account of the family name and her posi- 
tion in society, the case attracted widespread attention through- 
out the country at that time. It has been referred to as the 

City Marshal, 1861. 

most extraordinary crime ever committed in New England on 
account of its long premeditation and the methods made use 
of to bring it about. The crime was committed on the night 
of March i, 1778, by Lewis Buchanan, a lieutenant in the army 
under Gen. Burgoyne ; William Brooks, a private in the same 
army ; and Ezra Ross, a soldier in the Continental army, who 
made his home with the Spooner family in Brookfield, and at the 
time of the crime was but eighteen years old. 

Bathsheba Ruggles was married to Joshua Spooner of Brook- 
field in 1764, and the evidence at the trial showed that prior to 
1778 she had conceived a great aversion to her husband. His 
only fault appeared to be "in not supporting a manly importance 
as the head of his family and not regulating the government 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 25 

of it." It was not certain what the aversion in Mrs. Spooner ; s 
mind was, but from the general tenor of her conduct it is prob- 
able she cherished a criminal regard for some other person, and 
decided to destroy the life of her husband. He attempted to 
check her in her career. She at various times procured poison, 
but never gave it to him. She told Ezra Ross if he would kill 
her husband, she would become his lawful wife. He testified 
that upon her persuasions and the fancied happiness of marrying 
a woman so much above his rank in life, and the allurements of 
"wallowing in Mr. Spooner's wealth," he finally consented. Mrs. 
Spooner became tired of the delay of Ross in keeping his promise, 
and made like overtures to Lieut. Buchanan of the troops. Ross 
took Mr. Spooner to ride, going to Oakham, with the intention 
of carrying out his promise, but did not have courage to give the 
poison he had taken with him. Buchanan and Mrs. Spooner en- 
gaged William Brooks of the troops to commit the murder, 
Brooks being promised the watch, buckles and $1,000. Thurs- 
day before the murder Mrs. Spooner met Buchanan and Brooks 
at the Widow Walker's in Worcester. They remained two days, 
and hei conduct disgusted the widow's family, who knew her social 
position in life. They returned to Brookfield, and the three men 
agreed to wait for him. They were concealed in the barn for a 
day and a night, and Mrs. Spooner took their meals to them. 
The night of the murder Brooks met Mr. Spooner at the door 
of his house and knocked him down. They all fell upon and 
killed him and threw the body in the well, where it was found 
the next day by the servants in the house. Mrs. Spooner paid 
the men for the performance of the crime, giving Brooks $200, 
the watch and buckles. They then burned the clothing which 
was covered with blood, and Ross, Buchanan and Brooks fled 
to Worcester, where they were arrested by constables the follow- 
ing night. On examination they implicated Mrs. Spooner, and 
she was arrested at Brookfield Thursday, March 3. They were 
all tried in Worcester in April, 1778, Mrs. Spooner being de- 
fended by Levi Lincoln, who made a defense of insanity. They 
were all convicted of murder in the first degree, and on April 17 
were sentenced to be hanged on July 2, 1778. 

Mrs. Spooner, through her counsel, petitioned for a reprieve 
until after the birth of her child, which was denied by the Council 
of the state of Massachusetts Bay. This action was undoubtedly 
influenced by the excitement existing in the community regard- 

26 History of Police Department, 

ing prominent Tories, and Mrs. Spooner, who was fond of her 
father, probably sympathized with him in his political views. Two 
midwives and a jury of twelve matrons were selected to examine 
Mrs. Spooner, and their report was contrary to her claim made in 
the petition for reprieve. A second petition was made to the 
Council, Mrs. Spooner averring the fact that "the infant she bore 
was lawfully begotten." The Council refused to grant her peti- 
tion, and Rev. Thaddeus Maccarty sought a reprieve, expressing 


City Marshal, 1862. 

it as his firm belief the jury of midwives was mistaken. Follow- 
ing the execution the post-mortem verified her claim on which 
she based her petition for reprieve. 

The execution took place at 2.30 o'clock on the afternoon of 
July 2, 1778, the gallows being erected on the hill where now 
is the Worcester Insane Asylum. The criminals were brought 
out of the prison and conducted to the place of execution under 
a guard of 100 men. The three male prisoners went on foot and 
Mrs. Spooner rode in a chaise with Rev. Thaddeus Maccarty 
of the Old South Church, she having been sick several days. 
A thunder-cloud appeared, the heavens were darkened, and there 
was an awful half hour. The loud hallooing of the officers, "Make 
way, make way," amidst the crowd of 5,000; the horses press- 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 27 

ing upon those on foot ; the shrieks of women in confusion ; 
the malefactors slowly advancing to the fatal tree, preceded by the 
dismal urns ; the fierce clouds, quickly followed by loud peals of 
thunder and vivid flashes of lightning, conspired together and 
produced a dreadful compound scene of horror. While the sher- 
iff William Caldwell of Rutland was reading the death-war- 
rant, Buchanan, Brooks and Ross stood on the staging. Mrs. 
Spooner, being feeble, was permitted to sit in the chaise. She 
was indifferent, and bowed to many in the gathering with whom 
she had been acquainted. When called to ascend to the stage, 
she stepped out of the chaise and crept up the ladder upon her 
hands and knees. The halter was fastened, she was pinioned, 
her face covered, and the sheriff informed her he should 
drop the flag immediately. Mrs. Spooner took him by the hand 
and said : "My dear sir, I am ready. In a little time I expect to 
be in bliss, and but a few years must elapse when I hope I shall 
see you and my other friends again." The prisoners were all 
calm, and almost smiled at the approach of death. The sermon 
was preached by Rev. Thaddeus Maccarty, his text being, ''Thine 
eyes shall not pity him, but thou shalt put away the guilt of 
innocent blood from Israel, that it may go well with thee." In 
their dying statement Buchanan gave his age as 36, his birth- 
place as Glasgow, Scotland, and said he was a lieutenant in Gen. 
Burgoyne's army ; Brooks, a private in the same army, was 27, 
born in Wednesbury, county of Stafford, England ; Ross was 
18, a Continental soldier, born in Ipswich, in the parish of Lynde- 
brook, Xew England. 

It is a generally accepted fact that the body of Mrs. Spooner 
rests on the Green farm, in the northern part of Worcester. 
Samuel Swett Green, in a paper before the American Antiquarian 
Society twelve years ago, argued in her defense, on the belief 
she was insane at the time of the murder, and was a victim of 
public opinion on the question of a reprieve. He said "the 
evidence showed she was a remarkably eccentric person. Mrs. 
Spooner's daughter, Bathsheba, who died in Cambridge thirty 
years ago, was hopelessly insane for many years before her death. 
Mrs. Mary Ruggles Green was made temporarily insane by trou- 
bles preceding and accompanying the trial and execution of her 
sister/' Referring to her resting-place, he says : "Her remains 
are in a grave in the northeasterly portion of this place ; the exact 
spot where they are buried is known, I presume, to only a few 

28 History of Police Department, 

of the descendants of the first Dr. John Green of Worcester, who 
married Mary Ruggles, a sister of Mrs. Spooner. She rests in 
an unmarked grave within the bounds of the estate formerly 
owned by the husband of the sister and occupied by them and 
their family. The land is still in the possession of some of Dr. 
Green's posterity." 

As Worcester has always been the seat of the courts of justice 
in the county, all the executions of prisoners for high crimes and 


City .Marshal, iS63-'64-'65. 

misdemeanors committed within the county since its organiza- 
tion in 1731, have taken place here. There have been eighteen 
individuals hanged at thirteen different times one of them a 
woman, four at one time, and there were two occasions when 
two were hanged. Ten were executed for murder, five for bur- 
glary and three for rape. Different days of the week were se- 
lected, the taking of Friday being a comparatively modern usage. 
The first execution was Nov. 26, 1737, when Hugh Henderson, 
alias John Hamilton, was hanged for burglary. The last execu- 
tion was that of Samuel J. Frost of Petersham, for the murder 
of his wife's brother, Frank P. Towne. The hanging took place 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 29 

in the Summer street jail May 25, 1876, the prayer at the gallows 
being given by Rev. C. M. Lamson, then pastor of the Salem 
Square Congregational Church. Frost was a small man, and 
when the drop fell his head was nearly severed. Many in the 
gathering fainted, and from that day there has been a sentiment 
in Worcester against hanging. Other executions were : 

1745. A negro named Jeffries was hanged for the murder of 
his mistress. 

Oct. 20, 1768. A negro named Arthur was hanged for rape, 
the sermon at the gallows being preached by Rev. Thaddeus 

Oct. 25, 1770. William Lindsey was hanged for burglary. 

Nov. n, 1779. Robert Young was hanged for rape upon a 
eleven-year old girl named Jane Young, of Brookfield. 

June 19, 1783. William Huggins and John Mansfield were 
hanged for burglary. The day before the execution, they made 
an attempt to escape, but were discovered the next morning. 
They used a crowbar, of which they obtained possession the 
day before, and pried up a floor. This allowed them to escape 
into a vault, but they were unable to get any further, and there 
they were found. Little sympathy was shown them in the jail, 
and they were led unceremoniously to their death. 

The last hanging for burglary was Wednesday, Oct. 16, 1786, 
the victim being Johnson Green, and the crime of which he was 
convicted being especially aggravating. Since that time the gal- 
lows has not been used for a crime of less importance than 
murder, although thieves and burglars were sentenced to sit 
upon the gallows before the public gaze, and had the halter 
around their necks as a suggestion of the fate of their criminal 

April 1 6, 1784, Samuel Frost, tried for the murder of his father, 
was acquitted on the grounds of insanity. Whether he was con- 
fined as an insane person, there is no record, but July 16, 1793, 
he murdered Capt. Elisha Allen of Princeton, for whom he worked 
on a farm. Frost and Capt. Allen were working in the field, and 
as the result of an argument Frost struck Allen with the blade 
of a hoe, cutting a gash in his head, knocking him to the ground. 
He struck his victim upward of fifteen blows with the hoe, and 
left his body lying in the field. Frost was not arrested until 
several days later, when he was brought to Worcester and placed 
in "the gaol." His case was heard by the Supreme Court short- 

30 History of Police Department, 

ly after, and he pleaded guilty. The court insisted on a trial, 
and an inquiry was made as to his sanity, as he had previously 
been acquitted of a charge of murder on this pretext. He was 
adjudged sane, and after a trial sentenced to be hanged, the 
execution taking place Xov. 5, 1793, on "Frost's hill." A ser- 
mon was preached by Rev. Aaron Bancroft, and the execution 
took place in the presence of 2,000 persons. 

The first hanging of the present century was the last outdoor 

j. H. KNOX, 

City Marshal, 1866. 

execution in Worcester county, the victim being Horace Carter 
of Worcester. There has been no other Worcester person hanged 
in Worcester county in the century, and there was a lapse of 
thirty-two years between the hanging of Carter and the execu- 
tion of Samuel Frost in 1793. Horace Carter and his brother 
Thomas were both tried at the same term of the court, Horace 
being charged with rape upon the person of Ruth Ainsworth 
of Brookfield, an inmate of the poor farm, aged seventy-eight 
years. Thomas Carter was tried for burglary and intent to com- 
mit personal violence upon a female child. Horace Carter's crime 
was committed Feb. 23, 182-5, and the trial was at the October 
term of the court. It was an interesting case from the fact that 
the evidence which condemned him was given bv the victim, 

Worcester, MassacJnisctts. 31 

whose reputation for truth had not been considered of the best, 
and after the hanging there was talk that an innocent man had 
been sent to the gallows. The evidence of Ruth Ainsworth was 
that she was awakened on the night of Feb. 23 by a burglar in 
the house, she being a pauper and living at the Brookfield poor 
farm. She asked who was there, and Carter replied that he 
was an overseer of the poor, and demanded admittance to her 
room. She refused, and he broke open the door. He was de- 
fended by John Davis and Pliny Merrick, and the jury found 
him guilty. He was sentenced to be hanged Dec. 7. The exe- 
cution took place upon the hill on the north corner of Belmont 
street and Lincoln square. Thomas Carter, his brother, was 
convicted and sentenced to state prison for life. Stephen Dick- 
inson, convicted at this session of the court of the abuse of a 
female child, was sentenced to state prison for life. 

Thomas Barrett of Lunenburg \vas the first murderer hanged 
in the Summer street jail. He killed Ruth Houghton of Lunen- 
burg Feb. 18, 1844, and the hanging took place Jan. 3, 1845, 
the first hanging since that of Horace Carter in 1825. Barrett 
was employed on a farm in Lunenburg. On the morning of 
Feb. 19, his victim, who was seventy years old and lived alone, 
was found dead, with her ribs broken, and there were evidences 
she had been strangled. Barrett was indicted by the grand jury 
for rape and murder, and tried at the session of the Supreme 
Court following the date of the murder. He was convicted, and 
the execution was Friday, there being present fourteen persons, 
including three physicians, Sheriff Rice of Hampden county, 
Rev. Mr. Williamson, Barrett's spiritual adviser, and several 
deputy sheriffs. The same rope was used that hanged Carter 
nineteen years before. Although Barrett made a confession to 
the priest who attended him in his last hours, he never made a 
public statement concerning the crime. Asa Matthews was jailer 
at the time, and the sheriff was John W. Lincoln. 

Friday, Sept. 25, 1868, took place the hanging of Silas and 
Charles T. James for the murder of Joseph G. Clark, the execu-' 
tion being in the chapel of the Summer street jail. This was 
one of the famous cases in Worcester, and is referred to in an- 
other chapter. 

Examination of the court records for the last century shows 
cases interesting to the present generation. The town consta- 
bles were evidentlv alert to their clutv, and had a keen scent for 

3 2 

History of Police Department, 

criminals who infested this section of the county. In the earlier 
days of the town of Worcester, burglaries were advertised, and 
occasionally a reward was offered. Burglaries that took place in 
Boston and other sections of New England were advertised in 
Worcester in the latter part of the last century, and the Pursuing 
Committee of the Worcester Association of Mutual Aid in De- 
tecting Thieves took a hand in the police-work early in the cen- 
tury. A burglary that attracted widespread attention throughout 

City Marshal, 1867. 

New England was that of April 12, 1784, when the store of 
Elijah Paine in Cambridge and the library of Harvard College 
were broken into. A valuable collection of coins was taken 
from the college. A reward of $30 for the arrest and conviction 
of the thieves was offered. 

May 12, 1/84, the residence of Hon. Dwight Foster in Brook- 
field was entered and robbed in the night, and a few nights 
later the residence of Rev. Ephraim Ward of Brookfield received 
a visit from thieves, and a quantity of valuables was carried off. 
The records show then as now that Brookfield had more than 
its share of unusual crime. The most horrible crime of the last 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 33 

century was committed there, and during the last decade some of 
the most startling crimes of record have taken place in Brookfield. 

A few sentences of the court between 1775 and 1800 will give 
some idea of the severity of the law in the early courts of the 
county, and the persistency of officers in bringing to justice 
criminals of every description. At the session of the Supreme 
Court Oct. 5, 1784, several violators received the discipline of 
the whipping-post, and a man named Sennett, whose offense was 
especially obnoxious, received the extra penalty of being branded 
on the forehead. 

Attached to the old stone jail, which stood on the south side 
of Lincoln square, are many melancholy reminiscences. It was 
used for the incarceration of poor debtors as well as criminals, 
and one of the saddest of these recollections is the fact, duly 
recorded, that the patriot, Col. Timothy Bigelow, was committed 
there on an execution for debt Feb. 15, 1790, and died in the jail 
March 31 following the entry reading, "Discharged by Death 
April i." 

Timothy Queen, charged with uttering counterfeit money, was 
fined forty pounds, and for having counterfeiting tools in his 
possession was sentenced to the whipping-post, where twenty 
stripes were applied, and to stand one hour in the pillory. 

Samuel Corey, charged with assault on Mrs. Hannah Day, an 
aged woman, with intent to ravish, was sentenced to sit on the 
gallows one hour with the rope around his neck, to be whipped 
thirty stripes, and to find sureties for good behavior for three 

Robert Simpson and Hannah Gibbs, charged with lewd and 
lascivious cohabitation, were sentenced to stand one hour in the 
pillory, Simpson to receive thirty lashes and Hannah Gibbs twenty 

James Trask, for fraud in transferring false notes, was sen- 
tenced to stand in the pillory for one hour, and for another fraud 
of a similar nature to be whipped thirty stripes. Being unable 
to pay treble for the damage, Trask was sentenced to be sold 
for the term of four years. 

July i, 1784, two men escaped from the "gaol," and one of them 
David Smith was described at the time as being "as thorough- 
paced a villain as ever was decked with a halter." 

July 2, 1784, James McFarland's house was robbed, and the 
same week the houses of Mr. Tanner and Mr. Mower. The 

34 History of Police Department, 

authorities were much excited over the affair. The newspapers 
at the time said : "They deserve the fate of Mansfield and Hig- 
gins, who have previously been hanged for robbery." 

John Connolly, who was before the Supreme Court in April, 
1789, received one of the severest sentences recorded. For steal- 
ing he was sentenced to pay a fine of 151 pounds, 28 shillings 
and 6 pence, to receive twenty stripes, and if unable to pay the 
fine to be sold for seven years by White, from whom he had stolen. 

City Marshal, iSoy-'oS-'oo-^o-'yi, 'So-'Si-'S2, and Chief of Police, iSoy-'yS-'^. 

If not sold within thirty days, Connolly was to be sent to Castle 
William for one year. On a second offense of breaking and enter- 
ing Reed & Rice's shop, he was fined 50 pounds, sentenced to 
sit on the gallows one hour with the rope around his neck, to 
receive twenty stripes at the whipping-post, and to be sent to 
Castle W'illiam for two years. 

Paul Caldwell, convicted for forgery May n, 1791, was sen- 
tenced to stand in the pillory for one hour. 

Elisha Dakin Mansfield, convicted of tlieft, sat on the gallows 
for one hour and received fifteen stripes at the whipping-post, 
after which he was sent to Castle William for three vears. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 35 

On the night of Sunday, July 15, 1791, there was a wholesale 
escape of prisoners from the gaol. Paul Caldwell, convicted for 
forgery ; Jeremiah Nightingale, sentenced for horse-stealing ; and 
James McDale and Edward Burns, serving for minor offenses, 
dug through the floor of the gaol and under the foundation. The 
authorities instituted a search for them, and the town constables 
hunted for the escaped prisoners. They were not caught for a 
time, and the sheriff offered a reward of $40 for the arrest of 
Caldwell, $20 for Nightingale, and $5 each for the arrest of Mc- 
Dale and Burns. 

The old "gaol house" was advertised for sale during 1788, and 
a new and more modern jail erected. 

Oct. 6, 1785, J. Austin Smith, convicted for passing counterfeit 
money, and James Jewell, sentenced for theft, escaped from the 
gaol, and a reward of $40 was offered for their arrest and return 
to the gaol. Jewell was arraigned on seven counts for stealing, 
and sentence was suspended upon five. For the two on which he 
was sentenced, he was obliged to stand in the pillory and have 
one of his ears cropped. Smith was sentenced to receive fifty 
stripes at the whipping-post and serve seven years in the gaol. 
The escape caused much excitement, but they were not recap- 

During and after the war with England in 1812, excitement 
ran high in Worcester. A climax was reached when nine British 
officers, including Col. Grant, were arrested and placed in jail. 
They were given two rooms in the second story of the building, 
and had considerable freedom during the day. On the night 
of Jan. n, 1814, John F. Clark, while making the rounds of the 
cells preparing the prisoners for the night, was pounced upon in 
the rooms where the officers were confined. He was bound 
with a rope, gagged with a handkerchief, and tied to one of the 
beds in the room. The cord was not fastened sufficiently secure, 
and he released himself shortly after, but not until the officers 
had made good their escape. The town authorities were quick-, 
ly notified, and a general searching party set out to recapture the 
prisoners. On account of the excitement attending the war and 
the importance of capturing the officers, local interest in the case 
was at a high pitch. No case in the history of the early town 
police-work was followed by so general a discussion, which 
brought the case into national importance. The patriotism of 
the people of Worcester was at stake as the result of the corre- 

36 History of Police Department, 

spondence following the escape. James Prince, United States 
marshal at the time, authorized a statement in the Boston Patriot, 
over his signature, in which this paragraph appeared: "If the 
friends of these British officers can as well excuse themselves 
for the escape that has recently been effected as they can justify 
the country or its officers from the charges of rude and unfeeling 
conduct, it will be well for their personal character and for the 
laws of the state." 


City Marshal, 1872. 

These remarks created widespread indignation in Worcester 
and throughout Massachusetts, and a leading editorial in the Spy 
called for an apology from the marshal. It said : "The United 
States marshal should retract his illiberal insinuations, and on 
his knees beg the pardon of the citizens of Worcester." Thomas 
Walter Ward of Shrewsbury, son of Gen. Artemas Ward, was 
sheriff and made a thorough search, with the result that the 
prisoners were recaptured in Worcester county. Hard experi- 
ences were had in getting them back, as several towns were 
traversed in the search. One of the officers was taken on the 
turnpike, near Holden, and four of them succeeded in reaching 
Barre, twenty-one miles away, being driven in a team a portion 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 37 

of the distance. Francis Blake of Worcester, a personal friend 
and counsel for Colonel Grant, the most important prisoner, was 
indirectly charged by the United States marshal with being re- 
sponsible for the escape of the officers. He figured with no small 
prominence in the discussion that was carried on through the news- 
papers for several weeks. He advised Grant at the time of his 
arrest, also visited the jail, and interceded for better quarters for 
the men than were accorded ordinary prisoners. 

A man named Dale, an officer in Rutland, acting under a proc- 
lamation issued by United States Marshal Prince, after the escape 
of the officers, got into prison on account of a false arrest. One 
Bigelow, passing from Rutland to Boston, was arrested by Dale, 
brought to Worcester, and was placed in jail on the charge of 
treason. He was later released, and Dale, admitting he had made 
a mistake, was tried and sentenced for his connection with the 

With its tithingman and its constables, when capital punish- 
ment was the penalty for crimes no more serious than burglary, 
Worcester went through the most critical days in its history, well 
policed and well governed. 

History of Police Department, 


Incorporation of City and Appointment of George Jones City Marshal 
Bomb-Throwing in Mayor Henry Chapin's Administration Fugitive 
Slave Law Riots and Visit of "Angel Gabriel" Tragic Death of Marshal 
Frederic Warren First Police Rules Adopted in 1856 Arrest of John 

As the transition from town to city was scarcely noticeable, 
except in change of name of corporation and titles of office, so 

City Marshal, 1873, '7S-'76-'77-' 78-'79, '83, 'S6-'$7,.SS-'S9-'9O-'9i-'92. 

there was no special change in the method of furnishing protec- 
tion to the citizens. The same men who had been constables, 
for the most part, became members of the newly established 
night-watch, which did not come into existence until Worcester 
had been a city two years. Their duties remained essentially the 
same as before the incorporation of the city. The Millbury Bank 
robbery in 1843, tne murder of William Stiles by Orrin DeWolf 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 39 

in 1845, and the hanging of Thomas Barrett the same year, had 
aroused the primitive constabulary force to a keen sense of ac- 
tivity, and a more substantial police government was demanded 
by the people. The population in 1848 was about 15,000, having 
doubled in ten years. 

The opening of the Boston & Worcester railroad in 1835, and 
the employment of many foreigners blasting at "deep cut" for sev- 
eral years, resulted in the locality known as Pine Meadow, being 
a troublesome neighborhood. The constabulary force had been 
gradually increased from year to year, and the association which 
for fifty years had been prominent in the detection of thieves 
had given assistance to the constables ; but the growing town 
became ambitious and wanted watchmen. Other towns had 
boasted of a night-watch for a century. 

Worcester was incorporated as a city Feb. 29, 1848. Section 8 
of the act establishing the city provided "that the mayor and al- 
dermen shall have exclusive power to appoint constables and a 
city marshal and assistant marshals and all other police officers, 
and have the same to remove at pleasure." Section 24 of the 
act established the police court. The first election, resulting in 
the choice of Levi Lincoln as mayor, was contested on the tem- 
perance issue a question that entered with prominence in elec- 
tions for many years. When Mayor Lincoln was inaugurated, 
there were twelve constables. No salaries were paid them, fees 
being their only source of income from the town. The first meet- 
ing of the City Council was held April 17, and Asa Matthews, 
George Jones, Levi Jackson, Edwin Eaton, Frederic Warren and 
Benjamin R. Otis were appointed constables, confirmed by the 
aldermen and sworn into duty by Mayor Lincoln. They were 
ordered to furnish bonds in $500 each. In the cases of Warren 
and Jackson their bondsmen were not accepted, and they were 
obliged to furnish new sureties. May 4, 1848, Mayor Lincoln 
appointed George Jones city marshal. He was confirmed and 
furnished bonds in $1,000, his bondsmen being Calvin Foster and 
Lemuel T. Fox. Frederic Warren and Edwin Eaton were ap- 
pointed assistant marshals June 29, and were sworn in July I. 
The ordinance providing for the appointment of a city marshal 
fixed his salary at $400 a year in addition to his legal fees as 

Alvan W. Lewis was the first watchman appointed in Worces- 
ter. This appointment was made by Mayor Lincoln in September, 

40 History of Police Department, 

1848, under an ordinance which reads : "A watch is hereby estab- 
lished to do duty within and about the City Hall, and to take the 
care and see to the safe-keeping of the prisoners who may be 
confined in the lock-up therein, with such other duties as may be 
required of them by the mayor." Mr. Lewis began his duties 
Sept. 27, and remained in office until April I, 1849. He was 
reappointed and remained until April 27, 1850, when he was suc- 
ceeded by John D. Welts. The salary of the watchman was fixed 
at $225 a year at the time the ordinance was passed. 

City Marshal, 1874. 

Henry Chapin was elected mayor in the fall of 1848, and in his 
inaugural called attention to the ordinance relative to the police ; 
also to the fact that since Sept. 27, 1848, "there had been nearly 
300 commitments to the watch-house, and at least nine-tenths of 
them had been for the cause of drunkenness." He demanded 
rigid enforcement of the liquor laws. He appointed George Jones, 
city marshal; Frederic Warren, assistant marshal; Alvan \Y. 
Lewis, watchman at City Hall ; and as constables, Jonathan Day, 
William L. Merchant. Elbridge G. Watkins, Jeremiah Kane, Peter 
Donliavie and William A. Howland. There is no record in the re- 
ports of the town treasurers, or of City Treasurer John Boyden 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 41 

in his report for 1849, f an 7 money being paid for police-duty 
excepting to the city marshal and the watchman at City Hall. 

The ordinance providing for the establishment of a night-watch 
was passed by the City Council May 6, 1850, and is as follows : 

The mayor and aldermen may, whenever they may deem it 
necessary, appoint city watchmen, who shall hold office during the 
pleasure of the mayor and aldermen, and who shall be sworn 
to the faithful discharge of the duties of their office, and receive 
such compensation as shall be fixed by the mayor and aldermen. 

Following the passage of this ordinance, Alderman Joseph 
Pratt of Ward 4 and Charles White of Ward 6 were appointed a 
committee to select watchmen. They reported names, and Mayor 
Chapin appointed as the first regular night watchmen Moses L. 
Bolster, Lathrop Dorman, William W. Codding, John A. Dodge, 
Daniel Holman, Stephen Shumway and Matthew F. Harding. 
Under the ordinance passed in 1848, assistant marshals had acted 
as watchmen. In 1850 the salaries of watchmen amounted to 
$2,505.28, including $328.27 paid George W. Norris, Frederic 
Warren and Levi Jackson for extra work on account of the 
bomb-throwing incident. 

Of the many evils that taxed the ingenuity of the police since 
Worcester became a city, the control of the liquor business has 
not been among the least. The liquor law has been enacted, es- 
tablished, amended, reenacted, reestablished, modified, suspended 
and reconstructed for half a century. The "Maine law" was 
passed in Massachusetts in 1855, and was then supposed by its 
friends to be the best thing that could be made. At the time of 
its passage the question assumed somewhat of a political char- 
acter. The authorities found its enforcement an up-hill business. 
Progress was slow because of the united efforts of the opponents. 
The work of the police was persistent, the police courts and 
grand juries were busy, and the results are not forgotten. Some 
interesting experiences have been told. 

It was early in the history of Worcester, the outcome of the 
stand made by Mayor Chapin against the rum element, that one 
of the exciting incidents in the city's history took place. A 
weekly paper called the Liberty of the Press, printed in a barn in 
the vicinity of Foster street by Peter Johnson, and edited by 
Jubal Harrington and others, was devoted to the liquor interests. 
Personal assaults were made through its columns upon represent- 
ative temperance men, and its influence culminated in the attempt 

42 History of Police Department, 

to blow up the office of Mayor Chapin and home of Assistant City 
Marshal Frederic Warren, the latter on Warren street. The City 
Council Jan. 15, 1850, instructed the police to more thoroughly 
enforce the liquor law, and Frederic Warren had charge of the 
police-detail that made raids and gave the rum-men all their 
trouble. In Liberty of the Press Mr. Harrington had promised 
to give the Free-soilers and temperance men ''hell and scissors/' 
and on the night of May 3 an attempt was made to carry out 


City Marshal, 1893, and Chief of Police iS94-'95-'o6. 

the threat. Mayor Chapin's office was in the Flagg building, 
opposite the Bay State House. Shortly before midnight a six- 
inch hand-grenade was placed in the entrance of the building, 
near the door leading to Mayor Chapin's office, on the second 
floor. The door of the office was shattered, and the doors of the 
offices adjoining were wrecked. A hole was blown through the 
floor of Hall & Thompson's store, the wreckage going into the 
cellar. On the night of May 6 another bomb was thrown at the 
residence of Assistant Marshal Warren. Extra policemen were 
ordered on duty, and a reward of $1,000 was made for the arrest 
and conviction of the violators. Several arrests were made, but 
Jubal Harrington, who was responsible for the outrage, left 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 43 

Worcester, locating in California. A special meeting of the City 
Council was held May 4, when a reward of $1,000 was offered, 
and at the regular meeting of the council May 13, $500 was 
appropriated for the expenses connected with the incident. 

George Jones held the office of city marshal from 1848 until 
1853, resigning to become deputy sheriff, and was succeeded by 
Alvan Allen, who was appointed by Mayor John S. C. Knowl- 
ton. He went out of office with the record of having successfully 
gone through trying times in the first five years of the city's 

The lock-up was in the basement of the old City Hall, demol- 
ished two years ago. During a few months when it was being 
remodeled, the old brick school-house at the lower end of the 
Common was utilized as a police station. The office of the city 
marshal was in the basement for several years, but in the '6o's 
was located in the southeast corner of the first floor of the build- 
ing, the room in the basement being given up to police captains. 
There were cells enough in the old lock-up to care for many 
prisoners, and it was frequently filled to its capacity. The watch- 
man had a small room, and one-half the force went off duty at 
midnight and gathered at the lock-up to eat their lunch. There 
were no uniforms until 1865, and during the cold weather watch- 
men wore heavy blankets thrown over their shoulders the last 
half of the night. The beats were known as the north, south, 
east, and west beats, and each covered a vast territory. The 
sections of the city were familiarly known and always referred 
to as the "north end," which was the territory north of Lincoln 
square; "Pine Meadow," the section east of Washington square; 
the "Narrows," the section through Franklin and Winter streets ; 
"Scalpingtown," including the territory east of Madison street, 
through Gold and Assonet streets ; the "Island," familiar to the 
present generation; and the "Flat," that section of the city in 
the vicinity of Chandler, Austin and Tufts streets, near Park 
avenue. Watchmen traveled but a short distance north of 
Lincoln square, and Quinsigamond was not included in the 

The present generation is not familiar with the sharp crack 
of the watchman's rattle, which was provided for use of the 
watchman before the days of the "billy" and revolver. The start- 
ling sound of this instrument was about the only thing to infuse 
life and energy into the heart and heels of a watchman. Its 

44 History of Police Department, 

peculiar tone, different from anything else imaginable, produced 
a sensation novel and exciting. 

The records of arrests in the old City Hall lock-up were orig- 
inally kept on a slate, and when it was covered the names were 
rubbed out. When Alvan W. Lewis was appointed night watch- 
man at the lock-up, he had furnished him a book in which records 
were made, and this book is now in the possession of the Police 
Department. On the inside of the cover is an autograph state- 
ment of the appointment of Alvan W. Lewis, his reappointment 
April i, 1849, resignation April 27, 1850; also the statement that 
he turned over his keys to John D. Welts, who remained until 
Jan. 10, 1852, when he resigned and went to Maine. George M. 
Pierce served as night watchman during the vacation of Lewis 
in 1848, and when Lewis resigned in 1850, Samuel Stillman 
was appointed to take his place, but declined. In 1854 the first 
detail was made for a policeman in Washington square, his boun- 
daries being fixed between the canal bridge, on Front street, 
and the crossing of the western railroad, on Grafton street. 

In 1851 the blue laws came in for attention from the City 
Council. Feb. 21 Alderman Charles White introduced the fol- 
lowing order, which was adopted : "Whereas, it appears that the 
ordinance against smoking in the streets is daily violated, it is 
ordered that the city marshal be directed to prosecute all such 
violations without unnecessary delay." 

Feb. 13, 1854, Mayor Knowlton appointed Frederic Warren 
city marshal, but the Board of Aldermen, by a vote of 5 to 3, 
refused to confirm him. Henry W. Conklin was nominated and 
confirmed Feb. 27, but declined the office. Lovell Baker. Jr., 
was appointed and confirmed Feb. 27. The pay of the watchmen 
was on a sliding scale from 1848 to 1862, when it was fixed at 
$2 a day, and watchmen were obliged to give their entire time 
to the city. During the first sixteen years of the city's incorpora- 
tion, the watchmen worked afternoons in shops and traveled 
nights. In 1859 tne P av of watchmen was $1.37^ a night, and at 
other times it was fixed at $1.12^ and $1.16 2-3. In 1858 the cap- 
tain of the night-watch was paid $1.50 a night. In 1851 the list 
of property owned by the Police Department, according to the 
report of Mayor Bacon, was "furniture in office-room, 10 straw 
ticks, 26 blankets, 12 watchmen's rattles, 7 billies, and i pair 
of leg-irons." 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 45 

* In 1854 Mayor Knowlton recommended the reorganization of 
the department. The population was increasing 1,000 a year, 
and there were but five watchmen. The expenses of the depart- 
ment increased from $585 in 1848 to $5,450 in 1854, and the 
Police Court complaints had increased from 365 in 1848 to 1,026 
in 1854. In 1855 George W. Richardson was elected mayor, and 
appointed Jonathan Day city marshal, the salary being fixed at 
$1,000, and Levi Jackson and Benjamin Walker were appointed 
assistant marshals, at a salary of $700 each. Samuel Sweetser 
and Ebenezer Flagg were appointed day watchmen. Alvan Allen, 
city marshal in 1853, was elected city auditor in 1854. He was 
killed Nov. 29, 1859, between Front and Mechanic streets, while 
walking on the railroads tracks. 

Mayor Peter C. Bacon, in his inaugural April 7, 1851, said in 
reference to the fugitive slave law : 

There is one subject now occupying a high place in public 
consideration. I refer to the duty of the public police as con- 
nected with the recent enforcement of enactment of the fugitive 
slave law. It may be asked whether it is intended that the police of 
this city shall assist in its official capacity, in its enforcement. I 
say, "Xo." The government of the Union is clothed with all nec- 
essary authority, and to them should be left enforcement of this 

The anti-slavery sentiment in Worcester dates back to 1767, 
when the representative to the General Court was instructed to 
use his influence "to obtain a law to put an end to that unchristian 
and impolitic species." It developed until the days of William 
Lloyd Garrison, and during the administration of Mayor Knowl- 
ton there was considerable Garrison sentiment in Worcester. 
The city was a hotbed of anti-slavery agitation, and intense ex- 
citement was caused by the attempted enforcement of the fugi- 
tive slave law. Many of the citizens were pronounced anti-sla- 
very men, and many a fugitive slave found shelter within the city 
limits. The excitement that was created in 1853 developed in 
the year following, until riots calling for police interference took 
place. What are known as the Asa Butman and "Angel Gabriel" 
riots, are familiar to many of the older residents who took an 
active interest in them at the time. 

Asa O. Butman was one of the deputy United States sheriffs 
who had assisted in hunting down and arresting refugees in Bos- 
ton and elsewhere in this state. His fame had reached Worcester,. 


History of Police Department, 

so that when he had put in an appearance, a welcome awaited 
him that was not tending to his personal safety. He came to this 
city on the afternoon of Oct. 29, 1854, and put up at the American 
House, where he registered under an assumed name, thinking, 
no doubt, his identity would be unknown, and he could pursue 
his work without molestation. He had not been long in town 
before his presence was generally known, and a meeting of the 


Station i, Waldo Street. 

Vigilance Committee called. A committee was appointed to 
watch the hotel during the night to see that he did not escape, 
and excitement on the street and among the crowd ran high, 
even to the point of a mob. The committee of watchers was 
considerably reinforced from the crowd, and found amusement 
during the weary hours of the night by frequent calls at the 
inn door, and by shouting and jeering. Butman became ex- 
asperated by their actions, and drew a revolver, which he threat- 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 47 

ened to use upon the crowd if it did not leave him alone. This 
gave the committee an excuse for having him arrested. A warrant 
was soon served charging him with carrying concealed weapons, 
and he was lodged in the watch-house. The case was disposed 
of the following day by being postponed until a later date. The 
prisoner, after furnishing bail, was allowed to depart and was to 
take a train for Boston, but the mob outside was awaiting his 
appearance. Fearing a riot, Marshal Baker took Butman to his 
office, and then went out to address the crowd. George F. Hoar 
also spoke to them, asking that the man be allowed to depart un- 
molested. While the marshal was thus engaged, a negro had 
made his way inside the building and to the room where Butman 
was waiting. Inside the room he proceeded to administer pun- 
ishment to the defenseless victim of his anger. Butman. was 
knocked to the floor and would have been given a severe pound- 
ing but for the return of the marshal, who immediately arrested 
the negro and locked him up in the room, where he was left 
for a short time. When wanted he was not to be found, having 
crawled out of the window, dropped to the ground and made 
his escape. Escorted by Mr. Hoar and Rev. T. W. Higginson, 
Butman started for the depot. The crowd was too much ex- 
cited to allow him to depart without some token of their indigna- 
tion. Several times before the depot was reached he was pelted 
with eggs and similar missiles, none of which had any serious 
effect. Arriving at the depot, it was found that the train by which 
he was intending to take his departure nad gone and another 
would not leave for an hour or more. The crowd again became 
excited, and cries of "Kill him !" "Put him out of misery," "Make 
him a present of a coat of tar and feathers !" and similar remarks, 
were heard. Fearing an outbreak, Butman was hurried into the 
closet attached to the station, the marshal ordered a team, and he 
was taken to Upton, where he could await the next train in 
safety. It was in John A. Dodge's brougham that he was finally 
sent on his way, no doubt rejoicing at having escaped with his 
life. He promised never to show himself in Worcester again, 
and it is believed that he kept his word. 

One of the unusual events that marked the progress of the 
year 1854 was the advent of "Gabriel" and his horn. It was not 
the Archangel Gabriel spoken of in the sacred page, but John S. 
Orr, a Scotchman, with more impudence than brains, who, with 
a three-cornered hat and a cockade on his head and an old bras? 

48 History of Police Department, 

horn in his bosom, came to Worcester. He took advantage of the 
political excitement and traveled about the city tooting his horn, 
collecting crowds in the streets, and delivering what he called 
a public lecture, passing the hat for contributions. His lectures 
generally consisted of a repetition of a few ill-chosen words, prin- 
cipally a tirade against the papacy and Catholicism, resulting in 
a disturbance. His best argument was the tooting of the horn. 
He drew crowds, demanded police protection, and a rough time 
he had of it. He was arrested the second day he appeared on 
the streets, and on promise of leaving the city was released. He 
returned a week later, and on the occasion of his lecture a riot 
followed. Mayor Knowlton read the riot act, and the City Guards 
were called out. He was finally got out of town, and peace and 
quiet were again restored. He went to San Domingo, where 
he was placed in prison during one of his harangues, on the 
charge of being a general disturber, and died before the expira- 
tion of his three years' sentence. 

Rev. T. W. Higginson, pastor of the Free Church, was ar- 
rested by a Boston officer June 12, 1854, on the charge of con- 
spiracy in connection with the Anthony Burns case. Burns was 
a runaway slave, arrested in Boston, and afterward turned over 
to the Southern officers. An attempt was made to rescue him, 
Higginson being indicted with many others. 

Isaac Davis, elected mayor in 1856, appointed Frederic War- 
ren city marshal and John L. Baker deputy marshal. Joseph H. 
Flint, for more than forty years a member of the police force, 
who died early in the present year, was appointed by Mayor 
Davis. Frederic Warren, known as ''King" Warren, was the 
most widely known official in Worcester for many years. He 
was a constable early in the '4o's, and is said to have given the 
best satisfaction of any marshal who had held the office. He was 
courageous and fearless, and the rough element in the several 
sections of the city had a dread of his approach. It was during 
the first year of Marshal Warren's administration that the first 
rules governing the watch were adopted by the City Council. 
Nothing of importance transpired during Marshal Warren's first 
year in office, and he was reappointed in 1857 by Mayor Rich- 
ardson, and again in 1858 by Mayor Davis. J. Waldo Denny wa 
assistant marshal in 1857 and 1858, and Samuel H. Reed was 
captain of the watch. In 1857 the star badge was adopted, but 
it was not until later that a uniform was suggested. The total 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 49 

earnings of the department for that year was $2,041.98, and the 
expenses $9,213. City Marshal Warren died Nov. 13, 1858, be- 
ing shot in his office Nov. 10. He had returned from Springfield 
with a prisoner, and at the time of the shooting there were in his 
office B. L. Harden and Henry W. Hendricks, the latter a sheriff 
from Charleston, S. C., who had been in Worcester a week on 
criminal business. Marshal Warren took from his safe a revolver 
which Henry D. Stone had given him, and was showing it to 
Deputy Sheriff Hendricks. The Southern officer drew back the 
hammer of the revolver with the thumb and was twirling the 
chambers of the revolver with his fingers when it was accident- 
ally discharged, the bullet entering Warren's breast. He knew 
he was fatally wounded, and before he died exonerated the dep- 
uty sheriff. He lived three days and was buried Nov. 15, the 
funeral being largely attended, many policemen from out of the 
city being present. City Marshal Warren was forty-nine years old, 
son of Charles Warren, and was born in Sutton. He had been a 
policeman, since coming to Worcester, several years before the 
city was incorporated. The Boston Courier, in speaking of his 
death, said : "Mr. Warren was an efficient officer and coura- 
geous man. He was the detective of western Massachusetts." 

Rules governing the watch were verbal in its early days, there 
being up to 1856 little system in connection with the manage- 
ment of the department, then not exceeding six men. The bomb- 
throwing and the fugitive slave law excitement of the early years 
of that decade had been handled fairly well, many specials being 
sworn in on occasions of importance. City Marshal Warren recom- 
mended rules for the government of the department, as Worcester 
was assuming the importance of a city. Mayor Isaac Davis ap- 
pointed Warren, and in the Board of Aldermen Samuel V. Stone, 
to whom the matter of police rules was referred, reported Feb. 25, 
1856, the following rules and regulations. They were adopted 
by the Board of Aldermen and went into effect immediately. No 
copies were printed, they being read to the watchmen by the 
officer in charge of the station : 

Section i. The captain of the watch shall have the charge 
and supervision of all the watchmen, and shall have the preced- 
ence and control of the same whenever engaged in their duties, 
subject to the general control of the city marshal. 

Sec. 2. He shall keep a minute record of all doings of the 
watch ; of all arrests made bv him or bv the watchmen under his 


Worcester, Massachusetts. 5 i 

control ; and of commitments to the lock-up (while he is on duty) 
by others than the watchmen. Said record shall state the names 
of the persons arrested, and for what cause ; the name of the 
officer or person making the arrest ; and what disposition (if 
any) has been made of the case. 

Sec. 3. If any person shall have been discharged by him 
during the night and before making his morning report, he shall 
record the reason for said discharge. He shall make a record 
of all the property taken in charge by him or by the watchmen, 
and what disposition has been made thereof. He shall have the 
general charge of the lock-up, and to see to the care and safe- 
keeping of the persons who may be confined therein. 

Sec. 4. The record herein acquired shall be transmitted each 
morning to the city marshal as a report of the doings of the 
watch for the preceding night ; and the record shall at all times 
be open for the inspection of the mayor and aldermen. 

Sec. 5. The watchmen shall have a fixed salary, to be agreed 
upon and fixed by the mayor and aldermen, and paid monthly ; 
and they shall account for or pay into the city treasury all fees 
received by them, or to w r hich they are entitled as witnesses in 
all criminal cases in which they may be called to attend before 
the police court. 

Sec. 6. The duties of the watchmen shall commence at sunset 
and end at sunrise ; and they shall exercise full power as watch- 
men during that time. 

Sec. 7. Every \vatchman shall perform his tour of duty at 
least one hour. 

Sec. 8. Every watchman who shall be found asleep at his 
post of duty, or any other place during his hours of duty, or 
shall be guilty of any disorderly conduct whatsoever, shall be 
suspended by the captain of the watch. 

Sec. 9. If any watchman shall be found in any house, shop, 
cellar, or other place of concealment during watch hours, except 
in the performance of his duty, he shall be suspended. 

Sec. 10. If any watchman desires to be absent during the 
night, he shall make it known to the captain of the watch be- 
fore* the time of setting the watch, who may grant his request 
if he thinks proper. 

Sec. TI. In case any watchman is absent, the captain may 
supply his place by appointing some person for the night. 

Sec. T2. The watchmen shall report all violations of law and 
order, or the ordinances of the city, which they shall discover, 
and all obstructions or defects in the streets or highways, to the 
captain of the watch, who shall report the same immediately 
to the city marshal. 

Sec. 13. Xot more than one-half of the whole number of the 
watchmen shall leave their beats for refreshments at one time ; 
and the time shall be regulated by the officer of the watch. 

52 History of Police Department, 

Sec. 14. They shall render immediate assistance to any person 
who shall cry for it. 

Sec. 15. In case of a discovery of fire by a watchman, he 
shall first spring his rattle sufficiently to give alarm, and then 
cry "Fire" distinctly, and in an audible voice say where the 
fire is. 

Sec. 16. At the time appointed for leaving for their beats, 
the several watchmen shall meet at the watch-house and make 
a report to the officer of the watch. 

Sec. 17. It shall be the duty of the watchmen to shut off the 
street gas-lights within their beats, and at the time directed by the 
persons having charge of the same. 

Sec. 1 8. Any watchman neglecting to perform the duties or 
refusing to obey the rules above specified, shall be suspended 
by the captain of the watch. 

Sec. 19. It shall be the duty of the captain of the watch, after 
suspending a watchman from duty, to forthwith report the same 
to the city marshal, together with the cause assigned for such 
suspension ; and said watchman shall not be allowed to go on 
duty again except by the permission of the mayor and alder- 

Sec. 20. It shall be the duty of all constables and police officers 
to report to the city marshal all violations of law and order, or 
of the ordinances of the city, and to aid and assist the marshal 
when required so to do. 

Sec. 21. The foregoing rules and regulations are established 
for the government of the police and watch, but verbal and tem- 
porary orders may be given from time to time, as occasion may 
require, by the mayor and aldermen, or by the city marshal or 
captain of the watch when directed by them. 

Mayor Alexander H. Bullock in 1859 selected as marshal Wil- 
liam S. Lincoln, with James McFarland as deputy marshal and 
captain of the night-watch, and John M. Studley the second 
deputy marshal. There were nine watchmen and three day- 
police, making the total force of patrolmen twelve men. Mr. 
Lincoln began a crusade against illegal liquor-selling, which was 
followed with persistency in after years, and was accompanied 
with many exciting incidents. John Langley, one of the prom- 
inent gamblers in the city, had defied the police, and the watch- 
men had not exerted themselves to effect his arrest. Mr. Lin- 
coln had sufficient courage to carry out his intentions, and one 
of them was to bring Langley to justice. In disguise he caught 
Langley violating the law, and brought him before the court, 
but a fine of $100 and costs was the extent of the punishment, 
which Langley willingly paid. Political influence and public 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 53 

opinion were a serious handicap to the work of the department. 
Warner Clifford, proprietor of the Bay State House, was caught 
selling liquor and ordered into court. Before the trial Marshal 
Lincoln received orders from Mayor Bullock to discontinue the 
prosecution. Marshal Lincoln tendered his resignation, but it 
was not accepted. He finished his term, but made no further at- 
tempt to prosecute liquor men. 

The constables from 1848 to 1851, and watchmen and day police 
from 1851 to 1860, were: Frederic Warren, Edwin Eaton, Asa 
Matthews, George Jones, Levi Jackson, Alvan W. Lewis, Jona- 
than Day, William L. Merchant, Elbridge G. Watkins, Jeremiah 
Kane, Peter Donliavie, William A. Howland, John D. Welts, 
David Gleason, Andrew Beaman, William W. Codding, Stephen 
Shumway, Lathrop Dorman, Gustavus Elliot, Ebenezer Lund, 
Arvin Thompson, James McFarland, M. L. Bolster, Joseph Chap- 
man, Lewis B. Clisbe, Michael O'Driscoll, George S. Hamilton, 
Lawson E. Levering, John R. Willard, Samuel S. Sweetser, 
Ebenezer Flagg, Henry H. Harrington, Horace Hilman, Dwight 
S. Jackson, James H. Raymore, Otis Stearns, Haskey Wight, 
George S. Hamilton, Ezra Kent, William Hoyle, Samuel H. 
Reed, Charles T. Whitmore, Joseph H. Flint, William Lawrence, 
John Morrison, George F. Newton, Silas Xotirse, Francis C. 
Bigelow, Silas Clapp, John G. Coes, Perley Dean, Walter H. 
Duggan, Charles W. Wentworth, Hollis Ball, John W. ' 
Davis, William B. Martin. The deputy marshals during 
that period were: Frederic Warren and Edwin Eaton, 1848; 
Frederic Warren, 1852 and 1853; Levi Jackson and Benja- 
min Walker, 1855; John L. Baker, 1856; J. Waldo Denny, 1857 
and 1858; John M. Goodhue, 1858; James McFarland and John 
M. Studley, 1859. Captains of night-watch Frederic Warren, 
1851, 1852 and 1853; Benjamin Walker, 1855; Samuel H. Reed, 
1857; James McFarland, 1858 and 1859. 


Worcester, Massachusetts. 55 


Growth of Department During Period of Civil War Escape of Counter- 
feiter William Brockway Col. James M. Drennan's Crusade Against the 
Gamblers W. Ansel Washburn and Amos Atkinson at Head of Police 
Offices of Roundsman, Detectives and Sergeants Created Opening of 
Xe\v Station on "Island." 

The night-watch had been established ten years when, in 1860, 
the police force went through its second reorganization. The 
fugitive slave law riots, the active temperance agitation that pre- 
ceded municipal elections, and the tragic death of Frederic War- 
ren, were fresh in the minds of the people when the war-cloud 
appeared to keep the public mind in a fevered state of excite- 

\Yilliam W. Rice was elected mayor in the fall of 1859, and the 
year 1860 opened in police circles with the appointment of Col. 
Ivers Phillips of Fitchburg city marshal, and Levi Jackson and 
Charles H. Braman deputy marshals, Levi Jackson acting as cap- 
tain of the night police. Colonel Phillips, who died in Boulder, 
Col., June 10, 1900, at the age of 95 years, was the oldest survivor 
of the town constables. He was constable in 1838, a member 
of the Pursuing Committee of the Mutual Aid Society for the 
Detection of Thieves in 1843, anc ^ a bitter opponent of the rum 
sentiment. He had moved to Fitchburg, where he was engaged 
in manufacturing interests, and was also president of the Boston, 

Barre & Gardner Railroad when Mavor Rice called him to the 

i - 1 

office of city marshal. Colonel Phillips accepted the place with 
reluctance, but as his temperance ideas agreed with those of 
Mayor Rice, he accepted, still retaining the presidency of the 

Mayor Rice recommended a more liberal appropriation for the 
police, and discouraged the inclination to increase the earnings 
of the department by unnecessary arrests. The department had 
been placed upon a more substantial basis, the police quarters 
under City Hall being enlarged the year before. In October, 
1860, Edwin Haven was appointed lieutenant of police, his pay 
being fixed at $1.65 a night. The watchmen included Sumner 

56 History of Police Department, 

Bridges, Leonard E. Brigham, Ephraim L. Drury, Ebenezer 
Flagg, Joseph H. Flint, H. H. Harrington. Charles D. Mower, 
Stephen Shumway and Otis Stearns. In addition there were ten 
constables and six specials. The original rules were revised, 
and those adopted in 1860 were ordered printed. The first sec- 
tion was : 

The night police shall consist of a captain, and lieutenant of 
the watch, and, until otherwise ordered, of ten watchmen, who 
shall be distributed as follows, viz. : four on Main street, from 
Park street to Lincoln square ; two on the south beat, from Front 
street south ; two on the north beat, from Front street north, 
and two on the west beat, from Main street west, which beat shall 
extend from Wellington to Grove street. 

The rules were more specific than those of 1856, and many of 
them are embodied in the rules of the present department. The 
first assistant marshal was also captain of the night- watch, and was 
obliged to be on duty a portion of the day and until 12 o'clock 
at night, when he was relieved by the lieutenant. It was the duty 
of the lieutenant of the watch to patrol the city from 9 to 12 
o'clock, when he was to relieve the night captain and remain in 
the office until the arrival of the second assistant marshal. 

The action taken by City Marshal Phillips against the rum ele- 
ment brought him into unpleasant notoriety, and at the end of the 
year he was satisfied to give up the office. He made many 
liquor seizures, the majority of them being during the night, and 
many convictions were brought about through the persistency 
of his efforts. Shortly before his term of office expired he was 
sued by W. C. Clark, owner of what is now the Walker block, 
corner Main and Mechanic streets. Marshal Phillips arrested 
Mr. Clark during the progress of a riot in front of his block, 
and suit was brought on the ground that Colonel Phillips was 
not a legal resident of the city. The case was freely discussed 
and finally dropped. 

Isaac Davis was again elected mayor in 1861, and appointed 
Col. Levi Barker city marshal. The Legislature passed in 1860 
a law defining costs in criminal proceedings, and marshals and 
assistants were afterward paid stated salaries by the city, and 
were obliged to turn into the county treasury all fees paid them. 
The year was uneventful in police circles, although there was 
some excitement throughout the city resulting from the prepara- 
tions for war. Provost marshals had been appointed in the con- 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 57 

gressional districts in all the loyal states, who were to supervise 
and execute the enrollment and draft. The excitement attend- 
ing the draft was not experienced in Worcester, for the reason 
that there were sufficient volunteers, and there were not the riots 
over the conscription act for drafting men in 1863 experienced 
in other cities. During City Marshal Barker's administration 
the first special was sent to Quinsigamond Village. James Mc- 
Farland was appointed captain of the night-watch in place of 
Levi Jackson. Soldiers were encamped on the fair grounds 
awaiting orders during the year, and naturally were unruly at 
night, keeping the night-watch busy much of the time. Mingled 
with their patriotism was the desire to enjoy the preparations 
for war, to the expense of many hours of worry by the night 
watchmen. There were desertions and foraging parties, and the 
watchmen were not sorry when the orders to go to the front 
were received. During the war 'many deserters were arrested 
and sent back to their companies. There was also more or less 
excitement in the city when the soldiers returned on furloughs 
and made free use of their money. No exciting events followed 
the return of the soldiers on furloughs or the final marching 
home of the troops later in the decade. 

During the four years of the war the mayors were P. Emory 
Aldrich, D. Waldo Lincoln, and Phinehas Ball, the latter hold- 
ing the office when the troops came home. The marshals were 
William E. Starr, succeeding Col. Levi Barker, in 1862, and 
Charles B. Pratt, in 1863, 1864 and 1865. Colonel Barker and 
William E. Starr are now living in Worcester, and have a clear 
recollection of the troublesome times during the years they were 
at the head of the department. The appointment of special 
policemen increased from year to year, the first detail being made 
in 1859, under Marshal J. Waldo Denny. He succeeded Frederic 
Warren upon his death. These first specials were Calvin W. 
Angier, Boston & Worcester railroad station ; John Graves, 
western railroad station ; Erastus N. Holmes, Mechanics Hall ; 
Calvin H. Pierce, mission chapel, on Summer street. 

The year of Mr. Starr's administration was one of the quietest 
in the early history of the city, possibly due to the fact that the 
events of the war greatly overshadowed those at home. The pay 
of the policemen was gradually increased during the years from 
1860. In 1864 the department was put upon what in those 
days was called a permanent basis. It had been the custom of 

Chief of Police. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 59 

watchmen to travel nights and work a part of the day. Under 
Mayor Lincoln the watchmen were increased to $2 a day Jan. 
IT, and captains were increased to $2.40 a night. At that time, 
on recommendation of Alderman George Crompton, the pay of 
the city marshal was increased to $1,500, and the deputy mar- 
shals to $800 and $850. The salary of the city marshal was in- 
creased Feb. 15, 1869, to $1,600, and the assistant marshals Feb. 
i, 1866, 'to $1,050 for first assistant and $1,000 for second assist- 
ant. The salary of the marshal was not changed for several 
years, but the assistants were raised in 1869 to $1,100 and $1,150. 
The pay of the watchmen, which had been increased to $2 in 
January, 1864, was increased to $2.25 in October, 1865, the pay 
of the captains being fixed at $2.40. March I, 1866, the salary 
of the captain of the night-watch was increased to $2.65 a night, 
and the captain of the day-police to $2.50. Feb. 3, 1868, the pay 
of patrolmen was raised to $2.50, and the following year the 
pay of captains was raised to $2.75, the night and day captains 
receiving the same amount. 

Charles B. Pratt was city marshal in 1863, 1864 and 1865, 
through the administrations of Mayors D. Waldo Lincoln and 
Phinehas Ball, and proved to be an interesting official. He took 
active interest in the affairs of the department, and several events 
of importance took place during his terms of service. His assist- 
ant marshals were Charles M. Ruggles and John A. Dana, and the 
captain of the watch was John F. Murray. These officials held 
office until 1865, when James M. Drennan became second assist- 
ant marshal and Henry Cole captain of the night-watch. Truant 
commissioners were created in 1863, consisting of Mayor D. 
Waldo Lincoln, City Marshal Charles B. Pratt and J. D. E. 
Jones, superintendent of schools. Special policemen were ap- 
pointed that year for "Ward's island." The report of the city 
marshal for the preceding year showed that there were forty- 
four arrests for desertions from the army and one from the navy, 
and that the "soldiers in camp had kept the department busy 
much of the time." Uniforms for men were recommended dur- 
ing Marshal Pratt's first year, and Oct. 10 the City Council 
voted that $25 should be allowed each officer for military over- 
coat. During the enforcement of the conscription act in 1863 
$100 was expended for extra policemen on July 4. In 1865 the 
Legislature passed an act authorizing policemen to carry arms 

60 History of Police Department, 

and a "billy" and revolver, and the police gave up the rattle 
for the more modern equipments. 

Under Marshal Pratt's administration the affairs of the depart- 
ment progressed smoothly, the only incident of special interest 
being the escape and capture of William Brockway, counterfeiter 
and burglar. Brockway presented a bill at the depot for a ticket 
to a western point, and it was discovered it was a counterfeit. 
He was arrested at Springfield at the request of the Worcester 
officers and brought back to this city. Assistant Marshal John 
A. Dana met him at the railroad station and locked him in a cell 
at the police-station. There were no bars across the windows, 
and Brockway smashed out the glass with a shovel and escaped. 
Assistant Marshal Dana gave chase, but was not fast enough, 
and the counterfeiter escaped by jumping into a farmer's wagon 
and driving toward Auburn. In 1865 City Marshal Pratt learned 
Brockway was in Xew York, and with Assistant Marshal Dana 
went to that city, brought about Brockway's arrest, and he was 
brought back to this city. He received sentence, but it was not 
long after his liberation that he was wanted for burglary. 

In 1865 W. Ansel Washburn was appointed a member of the 
police force by Mayor Phinehas Ball, and in 1866 Sumner W. 
Ranger, now captain of Station 2, was appointed a member of 
the force by Mayor James B. Blake. J. Orlando Bemis was ap- 
pointed first truant officer in 1865. City Marshal Pratt made 
the first suggestion that the Police Department be made perma- 
nent. In 1865 he recommended an increase in the force, also a 
raise of pay, and asked for a day policeman at the railroad sta- 
tion. Referring to the permanency of the force, he said in his 
last report : "The system of dispensing of police appointments 
as political rewards, thereby producing many and frequent 
changes, does not produce the best results." 

Mayor James B. Blake assumed the office in 1866, and served 
through a portion of 1870, when he was killed by the explosion 
of the Gas Works. The war had closed, and military men were 
receiving rewards for their services in the way of political ap- 
pointments. For several years the soldier figured with promi- 
nence in the police, in common with other departments. City 
Marshal Pratt resigned Jan. 29, 1866, and at a special session 
of the Board of Aldermen Jan. 30 the appointment of Capt. 
Joseph B. Knox was made by Mayor Blake and confirmed. 
Nothing of interest took place during that year, the "cholera 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 61 

scare" being agitated freely. It was during this year the ordi- 
nance forbidding hogs to 'run at large was passed, and City 
Marshal Knox was ordered to strictly enforce it as a preventive 
against the spread of cholera, of which the city was in dread. 
Gen. A. B. R. Sprague was appointed city marshal in 1867, and 
after serving six weeks resigned to accept a position in the in- 
ternal revenue department. Col. James M. Drennan, also a sol- 
dier, who served as assistant marshal under Marshal Sprague, 
was appointed city marshal June 10, 1867, and since that time 
has been prominently identified with the department. Emory 
Wilson was assistant marshal, and the captains of police were 
Henry Cole and George W. Austin. During City Marshal Dren- 
nan's first term Clark Jillson, clerk of the Police Court, and 
afterward mayor, was appointed patrolman. He appreciated the 
work of a policeman, for when he became mayor the pay of the 
police was raised to $3 a day, the highest figure it has reached. 

City Marshal Drennan's connection with the department first 
ceased in 1872, and he is entitled to the credit of ridding Worces- 
ter of its most pronounced gambling evils. He drove the most 
notorious of them out of the city, and an ex-police official briefly 
puts it : "Colonel Drennan broke the gamblers." He was a fear- 
less, industrious official, and personally conducted many of the 
police expeditions that made the department much to be feared 
during the early '7o's. He showed no mercy to rumsellers, and 
in making raids took long chances for his personal safety, bring- 
ing rum out of the most inconceivable hiding-places. His re- 
forms began with a military drill, which the police were obliged 
to go through in Horticultural hall, wooden swords being used. 
What soldierly discipline there is in the department to-day had 
its origin with Colonel Drennan, who devoted many years of his 
useful life to police-work. In one of his reports he said the 
"method of discipline was new and distasteful to the men, but they 
gradually worked into and liked it." He recommended in 1868 
a new station near the Junction depot. 

In 1868 Emory Wilson and W. Ansel Washburn were assist- 
ant marshals, John Howe captain of the night-watch and Joel 
L. Prouty captain of the day-police. Amos Atkinson, now dep- 
uty chief of police, Ezra Churchill and Charles A. Garland were 
added to the force that year. The force was materially increased 
in 1869, Harrison H. Comings being captain of the day-police 
and John Howe captain of the night-police. In 1870 Reuben 


City Marshal, iS&t-'Sj, and Present Deputy Chief of Police. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 63 

M. Colby and Joseph M. Dyson were added to the force, and 
two horses were purchased, the cost of horse-hire for the previous 
year having been upward of $1,000. The first system of police 
records was introduced by Marshal Drennan in 1869, showing 
in detail the work done by the department. Stations were rec- 
ommended that year for the north and south ends of the city, 
and dormitories received recommendation in his annual report. 
In referring to the death of Mayor Blake, City Marshal Drennan 
said in his report : "The last work performed by him at night 
before leaving City Hall, even as late as the midnight hour, was 
a tour of inspection through the department and the city prison, 
and the kindness of heart shown and the pleasant word spoken 
by him to the poor imprisoned unfortunates will dwell long in 
their recollections." 

In 1870 there were twenty-four night watchmen, and E. D. 
McFarland was truant officer. The force had been increased, 
and City Marshal Drennan had prominently figured in the two 
most famous cases in police history of Worcester the mur- 
der of Joseph G. Clark by Silas and Charles T. James in 1868, 
and the Graf ton Bank robbery in 1870. From 1870 to 1880 
there was continued agitation relative to the pay of officers, and 
early in the decade the first steps were taken toward making 
the force permanent. In 1872, under Mayor George F. Verry, 
the pay was $2.75 a day for patrolmen, $3 for captains, and the 
marshal received $1,600, that being the salary paid for several 
years. Clark Jillson succeeded Mayor Verry, and there was a de- 
cided advance in salaries. The city marshal received $2,200, as- 
sistants $1,500, captains $3.25, and patrolmen $3. In 1874, under 
Mayor Davis, the salary of the city marshal was reduced to $2,000, 
assistants received $1,500 and $1,450; captains were paid $3.25, 
and patrolmen $2.75 a day. Clark Jillson was mayor in 1875, 
and the pay of captains was reduced from $3.25 to $3 a day. In 
1876 the salaries were further reduced, the marshal being paid 
$1,800, assistants $1,350 each, captains $2.75, and patrolmen 
$2.50. The pay of the city marshal and assistants remained the 
same until 1881, but the pay of patrolmen was reduced in 1877 
from $2.50.10 $2.25. 

Worcester was experiencing results of the panic of 1877, and 
there was a tendency in the Board of Aldermen to make a gen- 
eral reduction of salaries. Captains received $2.50 in 1877, ^78 
and 1879, and were raised to $2.75 in 1880. In 1881, under 

64 History of Police Department, 

Mayor F. H. Kelley, the salary of city marshal was increased 
to $1,800, the assistant marshals $1,300 each, captains $3 a night, 
and patrolmen were advanced to $2.50. There it remained until 
the reorganization of the department Dec. I, 1896, when the 
graded system was adopted, pay being fixed at $2.75 a day for 
third-year patrolmen. This was done through the efforts of 
Councilman Nicholas J. Mooney, a member of the Police Com- 
mittee of the City Council. The pay of detectives, which began in 
1876 with the appointment of Ezra Churchill, has varied from 
$2.50 to $3.25, the amount paid at the present time. In 1883 
the rank of sergeant was created, the salary being fixed at $1,000, 
and the pay of captains was advanced to $1,200. The only change 
in recent years is the advance in the salary of sergeants to $1,100. 
the pay of captains remaining the same. 

In 1884 and 1885 Amos Atkinson was the city marshal, and he 
combined with it the office of probation officer, increasing the 
salary from $1,800 to $2,200, probation officer being paid $400. 
The office was established by act of the Legislature in February, 
1883, and is now held by Col. E. J. Russell, the salary having 
been increased to $1,500. In 1871 the name of watchman dis- 
appeared from the records, and since that time Worcester has 
had a police force upon modern lines. The first detective ap- 
pointed was Ezra Churchill in 1876, and David A. Matthews was 
appointed roundsman in 1879, serving one year. Amos Atkinson 
had acted as roundsman, but the office was not created by the 
City Council until 1879, an( l lasted but a single year. During 
that year Patrick O'Day was appointed special liquor officer. 
Jan. 7, 1884, Reuben M. Colby and Patrick O'Day were appointed 
detectives, and in February, 1883, John W. Hadley and Charles 
W. Barker were appointed sergeants to have charge of Station 
2, they being the first sergeants appointed in the department. 

Jonathan B. Sibley was appointed city marshal by Mayor 
George F. Verry in 1872, held the office one year, and was suc- 
ceeded by W. Ansel Washburn, the first city marshal to come 
from the ranks. Emory Wilson and James R. Fish were assist- 
ant marshals under Marshal Sibley, and when Mr. Washburn 
assumed the office, E. D. McFarland and Joseph M. Dyson were 
made assistants. Amos Atkinson was appointed captain of night- 
police and Joseph L. Hall captain of day-police. Mayor Yerry 
was elected by the Democrats, and the changes up to that 
time were made in the department. The force was made up 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 65 

largely of Republicans. Mayor Verry dropped nearly one-half 
the number, replacing the Republicans by Democrats as his po- 
litical reward. In 1873 Mayor Clark Jillson reinstated many of 
those dropped by Mayor Verry. When Mayor Jillson was suc- 
ceeded by Mayor Edward L. Davis, the most sweeping change 
in the history of the department was made, upward of twenty 
men being dropped. The majority of them were reappointed 
the following year by Mayor Jillson, who succeeded Mayor Davis 
In 1877 Charles B. Pratt was mayor, and he laid the foundation 
of a permanent police force. During this period the force was 
increased rapidly from year to year, and Mayor Pratt was able 
to make political appointments without pronounced changes. He 
recommended in his inaugurals that the force be made permanent. 
His example was followed by other mayors until it was made 
permanent during Mayor Samuel Winslow's administration in 
1888, the City Council, May 22 of that year, accepting the act 
of the Legislature for "the tenure of the members of the police 
force of the city of Worcester." 

During the administration of Mayor E. L. Davis in 1874, an 
unfortunate incident happened that resulted in the defeat of Mayor 
Davis at the polls, and a complete change in the organization of 
the Police Department. A. Davis Pratt was appointed city mar- 
shal in 1874, and during the fall of that year John Kelley com- 
plained of the conduct of his son, who was living at the corner 
of Union and Thomas streets. The place was watched, and 
Officers Silas Clapp and Joseph Whittemore arrested Kelley and 
a woman Dec. TO, locking them up at the police-station. It de- 
veloped that the couple was married, and the incident was used 
as a campaign document, with the result that Clark Jillson de- 
feated Mayor Davis, and the police who had anything to do with 
the arrest went out of office. City Marshal Pratt had been a fore- 
man in the Walker boot shop, and after the defeat of the admin- 
istration went to Wisconsin. 

Mayor Charles B. Pratt in 1877 gave the city its first mounted 
policemen. Numerous complaints of thieving on the outskirts 
resulted in the experiment. The original detail included George 
V. Barker, D. A. Matthews, Albert J. Bonn and Napoleon Oliver. 
Two men were to ride the first and two the last half of the night. 
It was the coldest night of the winter when the officers started 
out. Before the hour for reporting back, all of them experienced 
trouble with the harness, and the horses were put into the stable 

66 History of Police Department, 

until warmer nights. The experiment gave satisfaction, and it 
was carried out through Mayor Pratt's three years of office, one 
year nights and two years days. A carriage for the transportation 
of prisoners was purchased in 1882, and the mounted police 
idea given up. Others who rode were R. M. Colby, Charles H. 
Benchley, George J. Chandley and David Goggin. While riding 
in the vicinity of Fox mill, on Green street, David Goggin was 
thrown from his horse and had his leg broken. 


Inspector of Police. 

The assistant marshals from 1874 to 1880 were E. D. McFar- 
land, Henry W. Conklin, Joseph M. Dyson, John W. Hadley, 
Friewaldau C. Thayer and James K. Churchill ; the captains 
were Patrick E. Ratigan, Joseph L. Hall, Amos Atkinson, John 
W. Hadley and J. K. Churchill. In 1875 City Marshal Wash- 
burn inaugurated the system of three reliefs. It had been the 
custom prior to that time to go on duty at 9 o'clock at night and 
go off at 4 o'clock in the morning. The growth of the city de- 
manded officers on duty early in the evening. The two night- 
reliefs had practically the same hours of duty as the present time 
6 to i o'clock, and I to 7 o'clock although for a short time 
the late relief traveled until 8 o'clock. The reliefs were not alter- 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 67 

nating, but in 1879, as tne result of a petition circulated among 
the officers by Walter N. Drohan, the system of alternating 
beats was established. Joseph M. Dyson went off the force 
March 12, 1878, resigning as assistant marshal, and John W. 
Hadley was appointed in his place. In his annual report for 
1878, City Marshal Washburn recommended a system of graded 
salaries, which did not become a fact until nearly twenty years 
later. D. A. Matthews was appointed roundsman by Mayor 
Pratt in 1879, being the first to be formally appointed, and the 
pay was fixed at $2.75 a night. 

In 1880 Col. James M. Drennan returned to the department 
as city marshal and served three years, when W. Ansel Wash- 
burn succeeded him and remained one year. During 1879 Mayor 
Pratt issued an order to the city marshal for "further investiga- 
tions of the sale of liquor, and to prosecute all violations." This 
resulted in nearly 300 raids. 

City Marshal Drennan served his second period in that office 
during the administrations of Mayors Frank H. Kelley in 1880 
and 1881, and Elijah B. Stoddard in 1882. During the adminis- 
trations of Mayors Yerry, Jillson, Davis and Pratt, many of the 
officers now on the force received their appointments. In his 
annual report for 1880 City Marshal Drennan referred to his re- 
turn after eight years, and recommended a police commission 
and an addition to the force. Officers R. M. Colby and Patrick 
O'Day were detailed for detective duty, and Jan. 7, 1884, they 
were appointed detectives. Feb. i, 1886, the name was changed 
to inspectors, and they were appointed to that office, the pay being 
fixed at $3.25 a day. In 1882 a police-wagon was purchased 
for the department, used for conveying prisoners and for ambu- 
lance service. That year an officer was sent to the lake, where 
a temporary police station was leased. March 7, 1881, the first 
order was introduced in the City Council for a central police-sta- 

In 1883 Samuel E. Hildreth was mayor, and City Marshal 
Drennan was replaced by W. Ansel Washburn. What was 
known as the "Know-nothing" element entered largely into that 
campaign, and Assistant Marshals F. C. Thayer and J. K. 
Churchill were dropped. The members of the Grand Army in- 
terested themselves, and Mayor Hildreth made Mr. Churchill 
captain of the night-watch, Xathan Taylor and Amos Atkinson 
being appointed assistant marshals. The pay of the marshal was 

68 History of Police Department, 

fixed at $1,800, and the assistant marshals received $1,300 

In 1883 Station 2, on Lamartine street, was occupied, Officer 
Charles W. Barker being appointed sergeant by Mayor Hildreth 
and transferred to the new station for night-duty. John W. Had- 
ley was appointed on the force in February, with the rank of 
sergeant, and sent to Station 2. The station was opened Feb. 
26, and dedicated Feb. 28. Mayor Charles G. Reed dropped Ser- 
geants Barker and Hadley the following year, and appointed S. 
W. Ranger and M.B. Lamb. In 1884 Mayor Reed appointed Amos 
Atkinson city marshal, F. C. Thayer and James K. Churchill as- 
sistant marshals, and David A. Matthews captain of night-police. 
In 1883 recommendations were made that the Armory on Waldo 
street be utilized as a central police-station. Sub-stations were also 
recommended for Prescott street, Grafton street and Bloomingdale 
road and Lake Ouinsigamond. The recommendation was also 
made that the department be taken out of politics, the suggestion 
of Mayor Reed in 1885 being "that the appointing power be 
taken away from the mayor and vested in a civil-service commis- 
sion." In City Marshal Atkinson's report for 1884 he referred 
to Worcester as the only city obliging its policemen to light and 
turn out the gas-lights, "an old custom still adhered to, v and 
recommended a graded system on the question of salaries. The 
question of a signal system had been agitated, and Mayor Reed 
and Marshal Atkinson made a personal investigation of the sub- 
ject, resulting in a system being established in 1887. The mar- 
shal's report for 1884 showed that two officers had been detailed 
for park duty, there had been 5,925 lodgers cared for, and De- 
tectives Colby and O'Day had recovered stolen property of the 
value of $3,527. The report of the probation officer, the first 
made, showed that 103 prisoners were taken on probation in 
1884. and it was explained that "probation was the suspension 
of sentence for a limited time to give the offenders opportunity 
to reform without punishment." 

In 1885 tne department occupied the Armory building on 
Waldo street, its present quarters, removal being made Xov. 30. 
It was called the central station, and gave what was then consid- 
ered ample room for the needs of the department for many years, 
but within a decade the demand was made for more room. A 
section of the building was devoted to general offices, there were 
sleeping quarters for twenty men, a guard-room and two cell- 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 69 

rooms, one for men and the other for women. The department 
at the time numbered seventy-seven men. In his second report 
Marshal Atkinson showed the valuation of police property to be 
$18,398.90. The lodgers numbered 7,215, the number having 
more than doubled in two years, and were declared a nuisance ia 
the report. James A. Herbert, one of the most widely known 
of the patrolmen, died March 2, 1885. The first patrol-wagon 
was purchased by City Marshal Atkinson in 1885 ; it cost $400, 
and was made in Amesbury. There was no barn at the station, 
and the horses were kept in an adjoining stable. When an alarm 
came in it was necessary to send word to the barn and have the 
horse brought to the station, a slow process, but a decided im- 
provement upon walking a prisoner in from Quinsigamond or 
some equally distant section of the city. 

The citizens' ticket administration went out with the election 
of Samuel Winslow mayor in the fall of 1885, and he held the 
office during 1886, 1887, 1888 and 1889. He appointed W. Ansel 
Washburn city marshal and Amos Atkinson second assistant mar- 
shal, the first assistant being F. C. Thayer. It was the first no- 
license year, and the police had a busy time. The salary of the 
city marshal was dropped from $2,200 to $2,000, the assistants 
each receiving $1,300, and the captain received $1,200. City Mar- 
shal Washburn held the office until 1893, being succeeded by 
Major E. T. Raymond. His fourteen years at the head of the 
department, during a period of twenty years, gave him oppor- 
tunity to make many reforms which were suggested to him by 
the growth of the city, and some reforms in the department to- 
day are the result of his early recommendations. He was the 
foe of the rum-men, and in the enforcement was honest and 
conscientious. He had traveled as patrolman, knew the needs of 
officers, and while maintaining strict discipline had a kindly con- 
sideration for an officer who stepped out of the straight and 
narrow path. In his report for 1886 Marshal Washburn said 
the department had grown from the little band of six watchmen 
under George Jones to eighty men. The arrests for the year 
were 2,917, a smaller number than in 1881, when it was 3,022, 
and the arrests for drunkenness numbered 1,680, the smallest in 
many years, a direct result of no license. In seven months of 
license the arrests numbered 1,385, while during a corresponding 
seven months under no license the number was 954. During the 

70 History of Police Department, 

year there were served 1,372 liquor warrants, resulting in the 
seizure of 4,000 gallons of liquors of all kinds. 

In 1887 Mayor Winslow added several officers to the force, 
and the recommendation was made that it be increased to 100 
men. In 1888 Sumner W. Ranger was appointed captain of 
Station 2, on Lamartine street, having been in charge of the sta- 
tion days with the rank of sergeant. During that year the office 
of police matron was established by legislative act : Mrs. Mary 
B. Lane was appointed matron at a salary of $500 a year. David 
J. Barr was appointed permanent driver of police-wagon, a jani- 
tor was added to the department at a salary of $600 a year, and 
the assistant marshal's salary was advanced from $1,300 to $1,500. 
The expenses of the department for that year amounted to $102,- 
ooo, the first year in its history it had reached the $100,000 
figure. The Brewer & Smith signal-service system was installed, 
and under its first two months' operation 227 prisoners were 
brought to the station in response to calls, and the police-wagon 
ran 138 miles. James J. McLane died Feb. 5, and Leonard X. 
Thayer July 25, the latter having been a member of the depart- 
ment since June i of that year. 

May 22, 1888, under Mayor Samuel Winslow, the city accepted 
the act of the Legislature making the force permanent. On June 
4 an order was passed requesting the city physician to make an 
examination of members of the force, excepting marshals and 
assistants, with a view to permanent appointment. The report 
was made June 11, when Mayor Winslow dropped the entire 
force of patrolmen and reappointed them as permanent officers, 
under the provisions of the civil-service act. Not one of the 
patrolmen was dropped as a result of the examination. This was 
the ending of what had been during the latter part of every year 
scenes of confusion and disorder, unmanning nearly the entire 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 71 


Central Police Station Occupied in 1885 and Department Furnished with 
Patrol-Wagons Signal and Telephone System Installed and Woman's 
Prison Established Force Made Permanent by Mayor Samuel Winslow 
in 1888 Organization of Police Relief Association and Establishment of 
Ambulance Service. 

The period from 1880 to 1890 was the era of progress in the 
Police Department. It began with the purchase of a wagon for 
the transportation of prisoners by City Marshal James M. Dren- 
nan in 1882. This improvement upon the custom of dragging 
prisoners through the streets a mile or more gave the officers 
such ideas of ease and luxury that they were not contented 
until all the progressive steps suggested had been carried into 
effect. The action of City Marshal Drennan was followed by the 
purchase by City Marshal Amos Atkinson of a patrol-wagon for 
general use in arrests and conveyance of sick and injured per- 
sons. In 1883 came the establishment of a sub-station on 
Lamartine street during the administrations of Mayor Samuel E. 
Hildreth. It had a civilizing effect upon the inhabitants of the 
"Island" district, and proved decidedly beneficial to the order and 
discipline of the department. 

In 1885 came the occupation of a central station on Waldo 
street, followed by the installation of a police-signal and telephone 
system in 1887. This was followed by the establishment of a wom- 
an's prison in charge of a matron. The organization of the Worces- 
ter Police Relief Association in 1887 was followed in 1888 by the 
acceptance by the city of the civil-service law, making the force 

As the result of agitation among members of the department, 
following the death of two patrolmen in 1886, the Worcester 
Police Relief Association was organized March 2, 1887. Assistant 
Marshal F. C. Thayer, associated with other members of the de- 
partment, investigated the organizations in other cities and pro- 
cured copies of constitutions and by-laws under which kindred 
organizations were working. The first meeting was held in the 
Central District Court room, on Waldo street, there being pres- 

72 History of Police Department, 

ent sixty-seven members of the department. Assistant Marshal 
Thayer called the meeting to order, and outlined the purpose of 
the organization to afford aid and relief to the sick members of 
the department, and to provide a benefit for the family of a de- 
ceased member. Patrick O'Day was elected chairman and Mr. 
Thayer clerk. The committee to draw up by-laws included Of- 
ficers John F. Beahn, William Hickey, J. T. Johnson, Capt. 
David A. Matthews and Sergt. Sumner W. Ranger. To this 


Acting Inspector of Police. 

committee were added City Marshal W. Ansel Washburn, Assist- 
ant Marshal F. C. Thayer and Inspector Patrick O'Day. The 
meeting was adjourned to March 9, when the constitution and by- 
laws were adopted and officers were elected. The by-laws 
provided for the payment of a death-benefit of $300, and a 
sick-benefit of $i a day for not more than 180 days, and the 
annual dues were fixed at $2. The membership-fee was fixed at 
$5, and an article in the by-laws provided that any member of 
the association leaving the force could still retain his member- 
ship. The meeting was adjourned to March 10 for the election 
of officers. City Marshal W. Ansel Washburn was elected presi- 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 73 

dent, but declined to accept. The following were the first officers 
of the association : 

President Friewaldau C. Thayer. 

Vice-president Matthew J. Walsh. 

Secretary Patrick O'Day. 

Treasurer Amos Atkinson. 

Directors Sumner W. Ranger, Michael J. Foley, David A. 
Matthews, Nicholas J. Mooney and Addison March. 

The question of a concert and ball was discussed at this meet- 
ing, and a committee to consider the project included City Mar- 
shal W. Ansel Washburn, Sergt. Sumner W. Ranger, Capt. 
David A. Matthews and Officers John F. Beahn, James T. John- 
son, William Hickey, Addison March, Edward C. Fitzpatrick, 
George V. Barker and Thomas Hurley. The first quarterly 
meeting of the association was held April 6, when the Ball Com- 
mittee reported it inadvisable to hold a concert and ball until 
winter, and the committee was discharged. A Committee on 
Entertainments was appointed consisting of Capt. David A. Mat- 
thews, Inspector Patrick O'Day and Officers Charles A. Gar- 
land, William Finneran and M. J. Foley. It was voted to hold a 
ball in Mechanics Hall Dec. 2, 1887. The committee to make 
arrangements included City Marshal W. Ansel Washburn, As- 
sistant Marshal F. C. Thayer, Assistant Marshal Amos Atkin- 
son, Inspector Patrick O'Day, Capt. David A. Matthews, Sergt. 
Sumner W. Ranger, Officers Thomas Hurley, Michael J. Foley, 
James T. Johnson, William Finneran, Nicholas J. Mooney, 
George V. Barker, Edward S. Crowell, John F. Beahn, William 
Hickey, Simeon M. Bellows, Romanzo Thayer and Charles A. 
Garland. The price of tickets was fixed at $1.50, and City Mar- 
shal Washburn was selected as floor director. Later in the meet- 
ing Sergt. Matthew J. Walsh and Inspector Reuben M. Colby 
were added to the General Committee. Drilling for it took place 
in the Rink under the direction of Capt. David A. Matthews, and 
the ball was a social and financial success, the drill being a feature 
of the programme. The report of Treasurer Amos Atkinson 
relative to the first ball of the association shows the receipts as 
follows: Tickets sold, 1,738; receipts from sale of tickets, 
$2,608.25 ; donations, $223.05 ; total receipts, $2,922.35 ; expenses, 
$530.20; net receipts, $2,392.15. The report shows that there 
was in the treasury before the ball $292.15, and the total cash in 
the treasury Jan. 4, 1888, when the first annual report of the 

74 History of Police Department, 

treasurer was made, was $2,684.65. The donations were from the 
following: Stephen Salisbury, ex-Mayor Samuel E. Hildreth, 
F. B. Knowles, Sargent Card Clothing Co., Charles H. Eastman, 
George F. Hewett, William J. Hogg, Prof. L. P. Kinnictitt, M. 
J. Whittemore, John Bowler, W. H. Chandler, Albert Curtis, 
\Yilliam Bonney, Mr. Higgins, J. D. E. Jones, Jeremiah Murphy, 
W. H. Inman, Charles Crompton, Mr. Bigelow, Col. E. J. Rus- 
sell and Mr. Benchley. The first annual report showed a balance 
in the treasury, after paying sick-benefits and the expenses of the 
association, of $2,740.81. 

At the second annual meeting the original officers were 
reflected, and the president, secretary and treasurer were in- 
structed to take necessary steps to have the association incor- 
porated under the laws of the Commonwealth. Application was 
made Oct. 20, 1888, and Jan. 23, 1889, the charter was granted 
by H. B. Peirce, secretary of the Commonwealth, the charter 
members being Assistant Marshal F. C. Thayer, Inspector Patrick 
O'Day, Capt. David A. Matthews, Sergt. Sumner W. Ranger, 
Assistant Marshal Amos Atkinson, and Officers Addison March, 
Nicholas J. Mooney and Michael J. Foley. 

Oct. 31, 1888, the by-laws were amended so as to increase 
the death-benefit from $300 to $400, and the annual dues and 
death-assessments were $2 each. The officers were called a 
Board of Governors, and the first sick-benefit was paid Officer 
Joseph H. Flint, amounting to $4, it being voted him at a meet- 
ing, of the board in January, 1889. The first death in the asso- 
ciation was Officer M. J. Hubbard, and his widow received $400. 
The first year's sick-benefits amounted to $118. On May i -. 
1889, the by-laws were amended to provide for the payment of a 
sick-benefit of $1.25 a day not exceeding 120 days; that is the 
benefit paid at the present time, which represented for many 
years one-half a day's pay. 

Assistant Marshal F. C. Thayer held the office of president 
until 1892, when Capt. David A. Matthews of Station i suc- 
ceeded him, and Capt. Sumner W. Ranger of Station 2 was 
elected vice-president, the offices of secretary and treasurer being 
held by Patrick O'Day and Assistant Marshal Amos Atkinson 
respectively. Capt. Matthews held the office of president during 
1892, 1893, 1894 and 1895, an(1 was succeeded by Sergt. Thomas 
McMurray of Station i. who held the office during 1896 and 1897. 
He was succeeded by Officer Edward C. Fitzpatrick of Station 2, 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 75 

who held the office during 1898 and 1899, and his successor in 
1900 was Lieut. James T. Johnson of Station i, who holds the 
office at the present time. The vice-presidents since Captain 
Ranger have been Sergt. John W. Warren of Station 2, two 
years; Officer Herbert W. Merrill of Station i, two years; and 
Sergt. William Hickey of Station 2. elected last March, who is 
serving with President James T. Johnson. The members of the 
department who have served on the Board of Directors are 
Chief of Police W. J. E. Stone, Sergts. John W. Warren, Thomas 
McMtirray, Walter N. Drohan, William Hickey, Acting Inspect- 
or Arthur F. Roach, Officers Henry B. Streeter, William R. 
Ramsdell, Thomas Cummings, Charles W. Barker, Henry H. 
Mecorney, Oliver Blake, George A. McLeod, James J. Tierney, 
J. Clarence Davis, Silas D. Hemenway, D. E. Clifford, Thomas 
F. Boyle, John O'Connor, John B. McCarthy, Edward C. Fitz- 
patrick, John Dunn, Thomas Hurley, Fred M. Ames and David 
J. Whelen. 

There have been thirteen annual concerts and balls, the amount 
cleared being as follows: 1887, $2,392.15; 1888, $2,399.84; 1889, 
$1,969.18; 1890, $2,255.38; 1891, $2,010.45; 1892, $2,328.28; 

1893, $1,734.26; 1894, $i.975-65 : 1895- $2492-25 ; 1896, $2,470.46; 
1897, $2,264.07; 1898, $1,907.87; 1899, $1,781.23. The sums in 
the treasury to the credit of the association since 1890 are as 
follows: 1891, $9,567.01 ; 1892, $11,277.08; 1893, $13,507.84; 

1894, $15,242.10; 1895, $17,774.95; 1896, $18,964.11; 1897, $21,- 
742.65; 1898, $24,656.82; 1899, $27,383.95; 1900, $28,945.20. 
Benefits have been paid on account of the deaths of Reuben M. 
Colby, Freeman H. Sampson, Patrick E. Ratigan, Thos. C. Cum- 
mings, James S. O'Connor, Michael J. Healey, Patrick Diggins, 
Wm. H. Johnson, Marshall S.Greene, Bellville R. Hunter, Andrew 
J. Benson, Joseph H. Flint and Charles A. Garland. The death- 
benefit has been three times increased. It was raised from $300 
to $500 by an increase of $100 at a time, and during the last 
year Capt. David A. Matthews was president, his recommenda- 
tion that the death-benefit be increased to $700 was adopted. The 
membership-fee at the present time is $20, and the annual dues 
and death-assessments $2 each. There has been paid out in 
death and sick benefits since the organization of the institution 
between $13,000 and $14,000, an average of $1,000 a year dur- 
ing its existence. There is now a membership of 132, and the 
income from dues and death-assessments pays nearly one-half 

76 History of Police Department, 

the average expenses of a year based on the reports for the 
past ten years. There is an annual income from the invested funds 
more than sufficient to pay one death-claim. Within the past 
year the by-laws have been changed to meet the requirements 
of the insurance commissioner, owing to changes in the insur- 
ance laws requiring separate death-benefit and sick-benefit ac- 
counts, also expense accounts. The finances of the association 
have been carefully handled, and sickness and death in the depart- 

Acting- Inspector of Pawn-shops and Licenses. 

ment can be cared for a long time to come. There is no more 
worthy organization, and Worcester's citizens have contributed 
to it liberally. 

When the police signal service went into effect Oct. 14, 1887, 
following the purchase of a patrol-wagon three years before, the 
policeman realized his burdens had been lightened. It had been 
a custom to walk prisoners to the station from whatever section 
the arrest was made, and the task became tedious if the prisonei 
was inclined to be unruly, and the distance to the station was 
as far as the limits of some of the beats of to-day. Prisoners 
have an idea they must contest every foot of the ground with a 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 77 

policeman when under arrest, and the crowd that looks on gen- 
erally sympathizes with the under dog in the fight. 

For several years recommendations were made by mayors 
and city marshals for a signal service, the difficult duties of the 
policeman being set forth with emphasis. The city was expand- 
ing in every direction, and policemen who were sent to the 
lower end of Shrewsbury street, New Worcester and Quinsiga- 
mond were not able to give the city much protection if obliged 
to make an arrest in the night, and walk to the police station 
with a fighting prisoner. Mayor Samuel Winslow, City Marshal 
W. Ansel Washburn and the committee from the City Council, 
consisting of Aldermen F. A. Harrington and L. L. Brigham, 
visited several cities where signal systems had been installed. 
It was decided to recommend the Brewer & Smith visual system, 
invented by Capt. James P. Brewer of Station i, and W. C. Smith, 
superintendent of the fire-alarm system, both of New Haven. 
The City Council passed the order for the service June 20, and the 
contract was signed Sept. 12. It was a ground-wire system, 
meaning that one wire was grounded at each station. Two 
boxes were on a circuit, and the original contract called for thirty 
boxes. The cost of the system was about $4,000, and it gave 
satisfaction until the heavy current escaping from the street-car 
rails charged the telephone wires and practically made them 
useless. W. C. Smith came to Worcester to superintend the 
construction of the system, which was done under the supervision 
of Charles M. Mills, then superintendent of fire-alarm telegraph. 
The best feature about the system was the red light that could 
be thrown from the central station. This light could be seen :i 
long distance, and when an officer was wanted, or there was a 
message to deliver an officer from central station, the globe was 
thrown, and the attention of the officer was attracted instantly 
if he happened to be in the vicinity of the box. In setting up 
some of the boxes the adjustment was not perfect, and the globe 
would not go up. When the defect was remedied, the system 
worked well for nearly ten years. The first boxes were centrally 
located, and in 1888 ten boxes were added, making forty boxes, 
which was the number in use when the new system was installed 
in 1899. The most distant box in the old system was at Lake 
Quinsigamond, and other outside boxes were at North and Pres- 
cott streets, Webster square, Quinsigamond wire mill, and Agri- 
cultural and Highland streets. There were two stations on a 

78 History of Police Department, 

circuit, and an enormous amount of wire was necessary. Where 
two boxes were put on a circuit in the first system, ten are put 
onto the circuit under the Gamewell system. In connection with 
the first system a bell was attached to a stable on Foster street, 
where the horse for the patrol-wagon was kept, and the stable- 
man was notified immediately after the call came in. The first 
message sent over the wires was from the box corner Main and 
Oread streets. One of the aldermen who was on the committee 
to select the system, opened the box and ordered his dinner, the 
message being received at the Waldo street station. The second 
day after the boxes were installed, one of them failed to work, 
but the adjustment was reset and there was little trouble after- 

As soon as trolley-cars began running on Main street, it was 
necessary to put in resistance boxes to neutralize the current. 
The system was turned over to the Fire-alarm Department to 
care for, and since 1890 has been in charge of Supt. W. H. 
McClure. For six years the system was in fairly good condi- 
tion, but for five years it had given poor satisfaction. The visual 
feature was the best invented, but the telephone was ruined by 
street railways. To work the visual system required grounded 
wires, and these were useless on the telephone branch. Elec- 
tricians said it was impossible to have a visual and telephone 
system in one box under the present conditions of wiring and 
the leakage from street-car rails. It took one man nearly all 
the time to care for it, and it proved expensive after a few 
years. The cost of repairs during the past five years averaged 
$600 a year, and electricians condemned it. 

Early in 1899, a f ter tne fire-alarm system was installed by the 
Gamewell Fire & Police Telegraph Co., the question of a new 
police signal service was agitated. The Police Committee, con- 
sisting of Aldermen John R. Back, Charles A. Vaughan, and 
Councilmen John H. Meagher. George C. Hunt and Wesley Mer- 
ritt, together with Chief of Police James M. Drennan, visited 
several cities and decided upon the Gamewell system. Mayor 
Rufus B. Dodge, Jr., contracted with the Gamewell Co., the 
price being $10,000. It is a metallic circuit central station sys- 
tem. There are forty-eight boxes in use, and there is no limit 
to the number of boxes that can be placed on one circuit. The 
territory in which boxes have been installed has not expanded 
since the Brewer & Smith system was put in, but there are 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 79 

eight additional boxes in the more thickly-settled districts. Ed- 
ward Rogers of the Gamewell Co. superintended setting up the 
new system, but the work was done under the direction of W. 
H. McClure and D. E. Healy of the Fire-alarm Department.' 
It is a tape system, all calls being registered at central station 
on a tape, by telegraph code. In the box are telephone, police- 
wagon, ambulance and duty calls, the tape showing the box, 
officer who sent it in, and the nature of the call. The boxes 
are arranged about the city at the junction of several beats, and 
there are many hundred calls during the night. Officers are 
obliged to send in a duty-call every hour, and the tape on which 
they come in is kept for reference, so that every officer in the 
department is accounted for during the time he is on his beat. 
Officer M. E. Craffey of Station i had charge of the system 
when it was installed, but in the interest of economy it was 
turned over to the care of the superintendent of fire alarm, the 
change making a saving to the city of several hundred dollars 
a year. In the central station are the switch-boards, clocks, pole- 
changes for each circuit, relays for each circuit and pen-register. 
The charging-board consists of volt and am meters, and double 
pole-switches to connect the line with the batteries. This sys- 
tem was first used in September, 1899, and gives satisfaction. 

The establishment of a sub police-station at the corner of 
Lamartine and Grosvenor streets in 1883 had more of a civiliz- 
ing effect upon the unruly element of the sections of South 
Worcester, Millbury street, the "Island" and "Scalpingtown," 
the name given the territory around Gold and Assonet streets, 
than any other single act done by the City Council. The police 
had experienced considerable trouble in these sections, and for 
nearly twenty years a sub-station had been recommended. 

The building which is now occupied as Station 2 was originally 
built for a Fire Department house. It was constructed under 
the direction of S. E. Combs, chief engineer of the Fire Depart- 
ment for many years, and proved to be too large for the needs 
of the department. It is a three-story brick structure, and the 
only piece of fire apparatus in it at the time it was used for Fire 
Department purposes was a hose-reel. The expense of heating 
the Lamartine street building was so much that Chief Engineer 
Combs made a proposition to the police officials that if the de- 
partment would build him a smaller house on the adjoining lot, 
his department would give up the engine-house to the Police 

8o History of Police Department, 

Department. This was done, and Feb. 26, 1883, the new station 
was formally opened. Mayor Samuel E. Hildreth made three 
additions to the force to meet the demands of the new station, 
and Feb. 5 appointed Martin Doherty, Nathan A. Simmons and 
John W. Hadley. An order was passed by the City Council 
that two sergeants be appointed for the new station, at a salary of 
$1,000 each. John W. Hadley had been dropped from the office 
of assistant city marshal by Mayor Kelley in 1880, and was not 


Clerk of Police. 

again a member of the force until 1883, when his appointment 
was made by Mayor Hildreth. Feb. 26 a detail of sixteen men 
was made from central station for the Lamartine street station, 
and John W. Hadley was made day-sergeant, and Charles W. 
Barker night-sergeant, the latter being appointed Feb. 19. They 
were the first sergeants created by the City Council. The six- 
teen patrolmen who were transferred to the new station were : 
W. R. Curtis, Martin Doherty, Walter N. Drohan, Daniel Foley, 
Charles Hanson, Frank J. Howe, James Hunt, Thomas Killilea, 
John Legasey, J. M. Maloney, Daniel McCarthy, John O'Con- 
nor, Patrick E. Ratigan, Freeman H. Sampson, Nathan A. Sim- 
mons and Nicholas J. Mooney. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 81 

The new station was dedicated on the evening of Feb. 28 by 
Mayor S. E. Hildreth in the presence of members of both 
branches of the City Council, with eighty invited guests. A gen- 
eral inspection of the building was made, after which the party 
went to the drill-room on the third floor, where a collation was 
served. Mayor Hildreth welcomed the party, after which there 
was general speaking. He referred to the action of the City 
Council in establishing a branch station as the "opening wedge 
which would secure to other parts of the city similar quarters, 
and to the rest of the department a station and facilities suita- 
ble for its business." 

Mayor Charles G. Reed dropped Sergts. Hadley and Barker, 
together with City Marshal W. Ansel Washburn, and Jan. 7, 
1884, Sumner W. Ranger and Matthew B. Lamb were appointed 
sergeants, the former in charge of the station days and the latter 
nights. March 24 Sergt. M. B. Lamb resigned, and Matthew 
J. Walsh was appointed sergeant. In 1899 the building was re- 
modeled, the lodging-room being abandoned. The force at the 
station in 1900 is composed of one captain, one lieutenant, two 
sergeants, two doormen, four day-patrolmen and twenty night- 

In 1886 the Women's Christian Temperance Union of Massa- 
chusetts inaugurated a movement to have a woman's prison and 
matron connected with the police departments in cities of over 
30,000 inhabitants. This agitation resulted in an act being passed 
by the Legislature in 1887, and the Worcester department car- 
ried it into effect at once. Mrs. Mary B. Lane, who had the 
endorsement of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union of 
Worcester, was appointed matron May 31, 1887, by Mayor Sam- 
uel Winslow, and began her duties July i. She did not make the 
Waldo street station her home, as there were few women arrested 
in the early months of her appointment. During her connection 
with the department from July i, 1887, to April i, 1892, she cared 
for 1,400 women prisoners, an average of about 275 a year. She 
was adapted to the care of unfortunate women, and when she re- 
signed April i, 1892, the department realized it had experienced 
a loss it would be difficult to fill. The work was hard for her, 
and she resigned to accept a similar position in the Massachu- 
setts reformatory at Concord. The office of police matron had 
been established from a humanitarian point of view, and it was 
with many misgivings that Mrs. Lane undertook to bring the 

82 History of Police Department, 

influence of Christian womanhood to bear on the darkest sub 
of woman's life. She had to deal with the depraved and the de- 
graded, and many of the unfortunate characters in Worcester 
came under her care. The influence wielded at this time is im- 
portant, and, generally speaking, the influence brought to bear 
upon these people had good results. When Mrs. Lane first 
became connected with the department, women prisoners were 
in the same cell-room with men. Through her efforts the present 
quarters on the second floor were obtained in 1888. 

Dora H. Cook, employed in the Westboro Insane Asylum as 
a nurse, succeeded Mrs. Lane, and held the office until Jan. i, 
1897, when she resigned and was succeeded by Mrs. Deborah 
B. Sawtelle, for eleven years matron at the Summer street jail. 
Mrs. Sawtelle was appointed by Mayor A. B. R. Sprague. The 
salary of the office has been raised from $500 under Mrs. Lane 
to $700, the latter raise having been made on petition of Mi:-;-; 
Cook during her administration of the woman's prison. The 
matron makes her home at police headquarters, having three 
furnished rooms, and the department has been successfully man- 

May 22, 1888, the City Council accepted the act of the Legisla- 
ture for the tenure of the members of the police force of the city 
of Worcester. The subject was brought to the attention of the 
City Council in 1887 on petition of City Marshal W. Ansel Wash- 
burn, P. L. Moen and others. It had been recommended by 
Mayor Samuel Winslow, and the chiefs of police for twenty-five 
years had suggested in annual reports, to take the police out of 
politics. Mayor Charles B. Pratt in 1877 recommended a perma- 
nent police force, and it was in his administration that the fewest 
changes were made. In 1875 tne force began increasing yearly, 
and Mayor Pratt dropped a few members of the department 
when he came into office. His custom was followed during the 
administrations of mayors who succeeded him, and Mayor \Vins- 
low in his inaugural strongly favored a permanent force. The 
petition was referred to a committee consisting of Aldermen 
Crane and Porter and Councilmen Aldrich, Luby and Wood- 
ward. The report was favorable, and the city accepted the law. 
An order directing the mayor to petition the Legislature to make 
the Worcester police force permanent, introduced in the City 
Council Jan. 26, 1880, during Mayor Kelley's administration, 
had been rejected. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 83 

Placing the Police Department upon the permanent basis made 
it necessary for every applicant, unless a veteran of the Civil 
War, to take the civil-service examination. The general law 
went into effect in 1884, and members of the Worcester force 
who were appointed after that year were required to take an 
examination. An amendment to the law was passed which pro- 
vided that "veterans may apply for appointment to or for employ- 
ment in any position in the public service without examination. 
In such application such veteran shall under his oath state such 
facts as may be required by the civil-service rules." In the force 
at the present time there are thirty-four veterans of the Civil War 
and one veteran of the Spanish-American War. 

Veterans of the Civil War who are under fifty-five years of age 
are few in Worcester. There are no names on the veteran civil- 
service list whose ages are under fifty-five, and the last appoint- 
ment from this list was made by Mayor Rufus B. Dodge, Jr., 
May 28, 1900, of John H. Walker, whose age was fifty-one years. 
Any veteran has the right to have his name added to the list by 
application to the Civil-service Commissioners. 

To be placed on the civil-service list requires a lengthy ex- 
amination. It is competitive, and one is usually held every year, 
taking place at City Hall. The largest number examined at 
one time was seventy, and the lowest forty-two. Questions are 
asked in various studies, including simple questions in criminal 
law, and every applicant is required to write a letter to the mayor 
as a specimen of his handwriting and composition. The exam- 
iners in Worcester are James Early, one of the original mem- 
bers of the board ; Frank B. Hall, secretary, who has served since 
May 5, 1892; and John P. Munroe, who has served since July, 
1898. The first secretary of the board was Frederick W. South- 
wick, and the other original member was George H. Mellen, now 
a resident of Boston. 

Whenever there is an addition to be made to the police force, 
the mayor must make a requisition upon the civil-service ex- 
aminers for several names. For one vacancy three names shall 
be certified ; for two vacancies, four names ; for three vacancies, 
five names ; then for each multiple of three vacancies the same 
multiple of five names. Before an applicant can get on the list, 
he must pass a physical examination. Last year the Board of 
Aldermen accepted the strength-test, which is conducted by Dr. 
Augustus H. Brown of New York, and takes place at the Young 

8 4 History of Police Deportment, 

Men's Christian Association gymnasium. This test has proved a 
stumbling-block to many bright applicants who have passed the 

mental test. 

The ambulance service, now centred at the Waldo street po- 
lice-station, is one of the important branches of the service, and 
added an annual expense of several thousand dollars. When the 
police-station was under the old City Hall, on Front and Main 
streets, one small room was used for the care of sick and injured 



persons. It was the custom to call the city physician, and as 
soon as possible take the patient either to his home or the City 
Hospital. In 1882 the first wagon was purchased by the de- 
partment. It was a covered arrangement, and was known as the 
"Black Maria," being used for transportation of prisoners from 
the police-station to the jail. In 1885, during the administration 
of City Marshal Amos Atkinson, a wagon was purchased in 
Amesbury at an expense of $400, and this was fitted as a patrol- 
wagon and emergency ambulance. Upward of ten years ago 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 85 

the first regulation ambulance was bought. City Physician L. 
F. Woodward gave lectures at the police-station soon after it 
went into service, on emergency work, and the drivers and of- 
ficers received information relative to the care of a person severe- 
ly injured. The police at first carried sick and accident cases 
to the hospitals, but during Major E. T. Raymond's administra- 
tion as chief of police, he refused to convey sick persons, and the 
ambulance was placed under the supervision of the trustees of 
the City Hospital. The Police Department purchased a new 
emergency ambulance, after the pattern of those used at the 
Boston hospitals. For several years there was correspondence 
between the hospital and police authorities relative to having 
the entire ambulance service under the full charge of either one 
department or the other. Conferences were held between the 
police officials, Mayor Dodge and hospital trustees, and in 1899 
the ambulance service was placed under the supervision of the 
Police Department. The Waldo street engine-house passed into 
the hands of the police, and is used as a stable. There are two 
ambulances, two drivers for ambulance-work, and a surgeon who 
goes on every call, his headquarters being in the building. 

The appointment of an ambulance surgeon is the direct re- 
sult of the work of the Brotherhoods of Railroad Trainmen and 
Locomotive Engineers. It was claimed that accident victims in 
the railroad yards could not be properly handled without the 
presence of a surgeon. Petitions were sent to Mayor Dodge, 
and in 1899 he appointed Dr. Francis Shaw, who is the surgeon 
at the present time. 

86 Histcry of Police Department, 


Hanging of Silas and Charles T. James for Killing Joseph G. Clark Arrest 
of John Murphy in May Street Road-HousePardon of Thomas Callahan 
Arrest of Dwight F. Stesre Accidental Shooting of Henry T. Weikle 
by Officer Lowe'l Lilla Hoyle Mystery Tainter and William Streets 

After the close of the Civil War Worcester's population in- 
creased rapidly. It nearly doubled in the ten years from 1860 
to 1870. In 1860 there were twelve policemen, this number being 
increased to sixteen in 1865. As the population grew and the 
city expanded, it was found necessary to enlarge the police force 
to meet the demands of the growing city. From a force of six- 
teen men under City Marshal C. B. Pratt in 1865, it was in- 
creased to thirty men under City Marshal James M. Drennan in 

The period from 1865 to 1875 is generally considered the dec- 
ade of greatest lawlessness since the department began. It was 
the period when the gamblers realized their days in Worcester 
were drawing to a close. Col. James M. Drennan inaugurated a 
crusade against them that practically drove them out of the city. 
The road-houses and gambling-houses were familiar resorts. 
Dan and Eunice Green ran the "brick house" on Bloomingdale 
road after Green left the "Five Points," and his arrest Sept. 13, 
1851, for the murder of James Callahan; Jack Shepherd's place 
on May street had a wide reputation ; the Five Points cottage, 
near the Summit, was run by Beeman Webber, after Green left 
it ; Jack Quimby ran the Tatnuck cottage, which was a short 
distance west of the present location of Newton square ; the 
Half- Way house, between Worcester and Millbury, was run by 
Mrs. Sugee, who left Worcester suddenly after Jim Crockett was 
murdered in 1866; these, with the "Farm," below Rice square, 
and the "White House" on Belmont street, were the famous 
road-houses of that time. 

Joseph G. Clark, John Langley and Bill Eager were the most 
notorious gamblers. Langley had a room where' the Walker 
Ice Co. now has its office on Exchange street. Eager ran a wide 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 87 

open game in the building west of Langley's, now occupied by 
D. W. Meagher & Co., and Joseph Clark had rooms in Union 
block, on Alain street. Yank Sullivan's place was at 419 Alain 
street and Aaron Lord's rooms were at 464 Main. street. Other 
places were 10 Pearl street, Stockwell's block, 16 Alechanic 
street, the block corner Alechanic and Norwich streets, the Gould- 
ing block at 300 Alain street, 398 Alain street, and at Franklin 
square. During City Alarshal Drennan's administration occurred 
the Joseph G. Clark murder and the Grafton Bank robbery, the 
most famous cases in the police history of Worcester. Marshal 
Drennan brought Silas and Charles James to the gallows for the 
murder of Clark, and rounded up the Grafton Bank robbers, 
sending two of them to state prison. The jealousy of a woman 
resulted in the discovery of the murderers of Clark, and for re- 
venge a woman gave the police information that brought about 
the arrest of the bank robbers. The James boys were the only 
persons hanged for a murder committed in Worcester. 

Joseph G. Clark was a professional gambler, and came to 
Worcester from Providence at the close of the Civil War. He 
occupied rooms in the third story of the fourth-story building 
which stood on the east side of Alain street, south of and ad- 
joining the Alechanics Hall building. It was known as Union 
block, owned by Lewis Barnard, who had made preparations to 
vacate its use by tenants of an objectionable character. Silas 
James, familiarly known in Providence and Worcester as "Gen- 
eral," and Charles T. James, the former thirty-one years old, and 
the latter twenty-two, were cousins, and belonged in Green- 
wich, R. I. They came to Worcester on the morning train from 
Providence Feb. 25, 1868. Charles had been in Worcester before 
that time. They boarded during their stay at the Waldo House 
on Waldo street, and visited saloons and gambling-rooms in the 
city. There were many gambling-places at that time, and among 
Clark's associates was John Langley, who had been selected as 
a victim by the James boys. George R. Wesson, now living 
on Grafton street in what was known in the earlier days as 
Wesson's tavern, knew Clark, and also had an acquaintance with 
Charles and Silas James. He gave Clark a warning that they 
were in Worcester to rob someone, but Clark had received so 
many warnings concerning visiting gamblers that he took no no- 
tice of it . 


History of Police Department, 

On the evening of Feb. 28 George H. Ward Post, G. A. R., 
gave its first ball in Mechanics Hall, and there was an unusual 
number of persons on the streets. An alarm of fire was given 
from Union block in the course of the evening, and it was dis- 
covered Clark had been murdered in one of his rooms by blows 
given by a hatchet upon his head, and that his death had been 
made certain by the violent twisting of a hempen cord around 
his neck. The body had then been moved to an adjoining room, 


where it was placed upon a bed, kerosene oil sprinkled upon it, 
a lighted match applied, burning the clothing and filling the 
room with smoke. 

The murder was discovered by Emma F. Thayer, formerly 
Mrs. Eaton, whose home was at the corner of Summer and 
Charles streets, and she had lived with Clark for two years. She 
was a native of Charlton, had been married, but was separated 
from her husband, and at the time of the murder had been hold- 
ing a relation to Clark that was by no means equivocal in its 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 89 

character. Although she claimed to make her home with her 
mother, Clark furnished the provisions, and they lived separately 
from the rest of the family, part of the time in the house and part 
of the time in the block. 

On the night of the murder Mrs. Eaton went to Clark's rooms 
at an early hour, and made several ineffective attempts to gain 
admission. She seated herself upon the stairs leading to the 
floor above, occasionally knocking at the door. She was jealous, 
and her thought was that Clark had company that he did not 
want her to know about. She left the building, but quickly re- 
turned and made another attempt to get into the rooms. She 
seated herself upon the stairs leading to the upper story, and 
had been there but a short time when two men came out of the 
room with their heads covered and walked rapidly away. From 
their dress she recognized them as Charles and Silas James. 
After they went away she made another attempt to get into the 
rooms, and in her excitement broke a glass in the sash of the 
door. It was then she discovered the fire and gave an alarm. 
Officers Sumner W. Ranger and Louis Harper were playing 
"muggins" in the police-station, and were at once sent to the 
scene of the murder. Officer Ranger was the first in the room. 
Clark's head had been split open with a hatchet. Around his 
neck was the rope, with a piece of paper twisted in it as a tourni- 
quet. He had been struck with the hatchet while sitting in front 
of a stove. He was carried to the bed by the murderers, and a 
kerosene lamp was broken over his head, the bed being then set 
afire. City Marshal James M. Drennan was in Mechanics Hall, 
and as soon as he reached the block he detailed Officers Ranger 
and Harper to go directly to the western depot. Mrs. Eaton 
had told the officers her story, and the vigilant police set out upon 
the tracks of the murderers. Silas James was found at the west- 
ern depot with two tickets to New York in his possession, and 
was taken into custody. James made no resistance, but emphat- 
ically denied any connection with the murder. It was 10 o'clock 
when the arrest was made, three hours after the murder, and 
Silas was waiting for a train for New York. Charles James 
walked clown the tracks of the railroad to Westboro, where he 
hired a man to drive him to Woonsocket. He was arrested in 
Providence the following clay by Officer William A. Carroll of the 
Providence police force. The gold watch, a diamond ring and 
$1,000 in money stolen from Clark's room were found in Charles 

90 History of Police Department, 

James' possession. Deputy Sheriff Charles X. Hair accompanied 
Officers Ranger and W. H. Clark to Providence. On the way 
back to Worcester James confessed to Officer Ranger the mur- 
der. He said Silas James persuaded him to come to Worcester, 
telling him Clark had a large sum of money. The murder was 
committed between 6 and 7 o'clock. Charles admitted striking 
Clark with the axe as he was sitting in front of the stove, and 
the "General" put the rope around his neck to stop his groaning. 
"General" robbed the body and Charles took away the axe, which 
had been bought at the store now known as Duncan & Goodell's, 
on Main street. Charles James told Ranger the spot in the 
canal where he threw the axe on the way to the depot. The fol- 
lowing morning Officer Ranger raked the canal under the via- 
duct on Front street, and after a short search found the axe 
within a few feet of where James said he threw it. 

The coroner's jury that heard the evidence in the case con- 
sisted of R. M. Gould, foreman ; Jerome Marble, George R. 
Spurr, D. W. Knowlton, Charles Sibley and William A. Gould. 
This jury found that Clark came to his death from a blow with a 
hatchet struck by Silas or Charles James. The court for the trial 
of Charles and Silas James consisted of Chief Justice Reuben A. 
Chapman and Associate Justices Dwight Foster, James D. Colt 
and John Wells. The prosecuting officers were Attorney Gen- 
eral Charles Allen, assisted by District Attorney Hartley Wil- 
liams. George F. Verry and Samuel Utley were counsel for 
Silas James, and P. Emory Aldrich and L. W. Southwick were 
counsel for Charles T. James. Silas James was so mad with his 
cousin Charles for the confession he made that he never spoke 
to him after the arrest. They were led to the gallows together, 
and the cousins did not exchange a word or look. The jury 
that tried the two men was famous for the reason that upon its 
verdict the only persons ever hanged for a crime committed in 
Worcester were sent to the gallows. It consisted of Francis A. 
Merriam of Phillipston, foreman ; Albert Lee, Clinton ; George H. 
Mansfield, Grafton ; John Q. Maynard, Berlin ; Samuel Page, 
Winchendon ; Hiram C. Reed, Shrewsbury ; Charles C. Richard- 
son, Dana ; John F. Thurston, Lancaster ; Lorenzo West, Peters- 
ham; Samuel L. White, Leominster; Joseph Baldwin, Fitch- 
burg, and George W. Oaks, Brookfielcl. 

The prisoners were arraigned in the Supreme Judicial Court 
May 18, 1868, and both pleaded "not guilty." George F. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 91 

Verry made a motion for a separate trial for his client, on the 
ground that an alleged confession had been made by one of the 
defendants, which prejudiced the case of his client. The motion 
was denied, and the two defendants were tried together June 10. 
A woman in black was a prominent figure at the trial, who proved 
to be the widow of Joseph G. Clark. Clark's son was a witness 
at the trial. Among other witnesses were Dr. J. Marcus Rice, 
medical examiner ; Emma F. Thayer, also known as Mrs. Eaton, 
with whom Clark had lived ; John Langley, known among the 
gambling profession, and an acquaintance of Clark for twelve 
years ; W. L. Chase, the first person in the room of the murder 
after the entrance of the policemen ; Rolla N. Start of the Waldo 
House, who testified to knowing the Jameses as boarders ; Lewis 
Barnard, owner of the Union block ; Officers Louis Harper and 
Sumner W. Ranger; Samuel Stratton, who testified to the pur- 
chase of the axe which was used to do the murder; and City 
Marshal James M. Drennan. The jury was out but a short 
time, bringing in a verdict of guilty, and the defendants were 
sentenced to be hanged. An attempt was made to have the sen- 
tences commuted to imprisonment for life, but this appeal was 
without avail. 

The hanging of Silas and Charles T. James took place in the 
Summer street jail Friday, Sept. 25, 1868. The gallows was the 
same that was used in hanging Dr. Webster for the murder of 
Prof. Parkman of Harvard College in 1850. It was a gloomy 
day, the rain falling in torrents. It was the intention to have the 
hanging in the corridor, but it was necessary to change these 
plans, and the execution took place in the chapel of the jail. 
This announcement created discussion, there being a protest from 
the ministers of the city. The prisoners were attended in their 
There were not many witnesses to the hanging. Before 
last hours by Rev. R. R. Shippen, of Church of the Unity, 
his death Charles James received the ordinance of baptism from 
Rev. Dr. William R. Huntington of All Saints' Church. 

At 10.27 o'clock the prisoners were brought from their cells 
to the gallows, accompanied by Deputy Sheriffs Sibley and New- 
ton of Worcester, Bullock of Fitchburg and Hall of Grafton, and 
Rev. R. R. Shippen. The official witnesses were Hon. Edward 
Mellen of Worcester, X. H. Davis of Webster, Hon. E. B. Stod- 
dard of Worcester, F. P. Goulding of Worcester, Dr. James 
Green of Worcester, Hon. Velorus Taft of Upton, City Marshal 

92 History of Police Department, 

James M. Drennan of Worcester, Assistant Marshals Emory Wil- 
son and W. Ansel Washburn, Lyman Brooks, Dr. Rufus Wood- 
ward of Worcester, and C. W. Whitcomb of Barre. The death- 
warrant was read by John A. Dana, clerk of courts, and the 
sheriff was John S. C. Knowlton. When the gallows was reached, 
Silas James said he had nothing to say except to thank the 
officers for their kind and gentlemanly treatment, and as the rope 
was adjusted about his neck, said: "Pull that rope tight, and 



give me all the drop you can." He did not appear in the least ner- 
vous, and faced death calmly. He did not look at his cousin 
Charles, who was nervous, and evidently feared the last act. 
Charles James made a long address to the people. Sheriff Knowl- 
ton sprung the drop at 10.31 o'clock, and Silas James was in- 
stantly killed, but Charles James was slowly strangled to death. 
After the bodies had been hanging twenty-one minutes, Drs. 
Rufus Woodward of Worcester, W. E. Dyer of Philadelphia, 
and C. W. Whitcomb of Barre examined the bodies. They were 
taken to West Greenwich, R. I., for burial. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 93 

A crime equally as brutal as Clark's murder was the killing of 
John Bullard in Shrewsbury by John Murphy Oct. 2; 1876. Bui- 
lard lived with his brother Charles in Shrewsbury lower village, 
opposite the Artemas Ward homestead, made famous by the 
Revolutionary War. The Billiards sold cider, and in the even- 
ing usually had a crowd of the village boys in their place until 
a late hour. The cider they sold was the attraction. On the night 
of Oct. 2 Charles Bullard went to the grocery store near by, and 
when he returned an hour or so later, found his brother dead 
with thirteen hatchet-wounds in his head. For brutality the mur- 
derer had no rival, for he literally hacked his victim's head to 
pieces. It was the only murder Shrewsbury had experienced, 
and there was intense excitement in the village. A reward of 
$500 was offered the following day by the Selectmen of Shrews- 
bury for the murderer's arrest. 

John Murphy, youngest son of Martin Murphy, who worked in 
Rice & Co.'s currier shop, in Shrewsbury lower village, had 
borne a good reputation among the village folks, but the night of 
the murder he disappeared and suspicion pointed toward him. 
It was known he had been keeping company with a girl named 
Buckley in Worcester, and wanted to take her to the Shrews- 
bury cattle-show. The day of the murder he went to George 
Warren's stable, in Shrewsbury, asking for the best team he had 
in his stable for cattle-show day. Warren told him that until 
he paid a bill he owed for a team, he would not let him have it. 
Murphy tried to borrow money among his friends, but failed. 
That day Calvin Noyes had bought some cattle from Bullard 
and paid him about $100. It is supposed that Murphy went to 
Bullard's place to borrow the money, and when he was refused 
the murder was committed. About $100 was stolen, and during 
the evening Murphy went to Warren's stable and paid for the 
team for which he owed. He said he would come and get a team 
for the cattle-show, and Warren agreed to let him have it. On 
the bill Murphy paid Warren was a blood-spot, and when the 
news of the murder spread and the disappearance of Murphy 
was known, Warren furnished the information leading to the 
identification of the muderer. Patrick O'Day, then a member of 
the state police force, and Ezra Churchill, of the Worcester 
police force, worked on the case. They were looking for Mur- 
phy, and the road-houses about Worcester were closely watched. 
What was known as the Jack Shepherd road-house, on May 

9 4 History of Police Department, 

street, was run by Johnson Magee. On the night of Oct. 5 
Murphy went to Magee's place, and word was sent to the police- 
station. Night Captain Amos Atkinson, and Officer James Hen- 
nessey, who was traveling a Main street beat, went to Magee's, 
and Captain Atkinson arrested Murphy. He made no attempt to 
get away and confessed the murder to him. At the trial in the 
Supreme Judicial Court Murphy was defended by John R. 
Thayer, and was prosecuted by District Attorney Horatio B. 
Staples. He was found guilty and sentenced to the state prison 
for life. He served fourteen years, when he was confined to the 
prison hospital with consumption, and after an effort on the 
part of his friends was pardoned. He had a cancer and consump- 
tion, and died five months after being brought to his home in 
Shrewsbury. The reward offered by the Selectmen of Shrews- 
bury was divided among Walter Warren, who gave the informa- 
tion leading to the identification of the murderer, and the officers 
of the Worcester Police Department, who made the arrest. War- 
ren received $350 and Capt. Amos Atkinson, Detective Ezra 
Churchill and Officer James Hennessey $50 each. 

A family feud between Jim Crockett, a steam-pipe fitter, and 
a Conway family was wiped out on the night of March u, 1866, 
by the death of Crockett. One of the famous road-houses was 
the "Farm" on Millbury avenue. On the night of the murder, 
Crockett and another man hired a team at Denny & Harrington's 
stable to drive to the "Farm." When it was returned the claim 
was made that the couple met with an accident. Crockett was a 
soldier in the war, and had been home but a short time, but 
the trouble between him and the Conway family was of long 
standing. Nick Conway was bar-tender on Front street, and 
his brother John was well known about town. The Conway boys 
went to the "Farm," and the following morning Officer Ezra 
Coombs found Crockett lying behind a stone wall on Grafton 
street, in Swan's field, near Penn avenue. He was badly cut 
about the head, and had a fracture of the skull. He was sent 
to the hospital, where he died. There was no evidence that he 
had been robbed, and he did not recover to give any account 
of his injuries. It was suspected that the Conway boys met 
him on the road and a fight followed. The coroner's jury, after 
hearing the story of the case, made up a verdict, declaring that 
Crockett came to his death between i and 2 o'clock on the after- 
noon of Monday, March 13; that death was caused by a fracture 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 95 

of the skull and consequent injury to the brain, and that the 
injury was inflicted by. John Conway. No conviction was se- 

A murder better remembered by the present generation was 
that of Luke Daily at the Lincoln House on the afternoon of 
Sept. 3, 1879. It was the week of New England fair, and at 
the time of the murder the hotel was crowded. Thomas Callahan 
of Leicester had been at work in the hotel four years as steward. 
He was twenty-one years old, and was keeping company with 
Miss Amelia Marr, employed as a domestic in the hotel. Luke 
Daily, porter at the hotel for a year or more, had been show- 
ing some attention to the Marr girl, and a rivalry sprang up 
between Daily and Callahan. Callahan was a slight fellow, while 
Daily was much larger and more muscular. On the afternoon of 
the murder Callahan and Daily met in the wash-room, and Daily 
accused Callahan of insulting the girl. Words followed, with 
the result that Daily struck Callahan several blows, causing his 
nose to bleed, and threatened to repeat the dose if he did not keep 
away from the Marr girl. Callahan went into the Lincoln House 
block and borrowed a revolver from one of the tenants. He 
returned to the hotel-office, where George Tower, proprietor, 
was sitting. Standing in the corridor was Elliott Brigham, a 
bell-boy, and Henry Lee, clerk, was behind the desk. Callahan 
met Daily in the corridor, and the quarrel was renewed. Without 
a word of warning Callahan fired two shots into Daily's body, 
and he died that night. Callahan was sentenced to state prison 
for life. In 1888, through the influence of Hon. Charles A. 
Denny, of the governor's council, and several citizens of Leices- 
ter, including Hon. John E. Russell, a pardon was secured. 
Rockwood Hoar represented Callahan at the hearing before the 
governor's council. 

Back in the earlier days of Worcester, when crime was fre- 
quent, and punishment severe, the killing of William Stiles by 
Orrin DeWolf was a famous case. DeWolf worked for a Ferdi- 
nand Whipplc, who kept a stable on Thomas street, in the rear 
of Eagle Hotel. He boarded with William Stiles, and there had 
been several fights between the two men over Stiles' wife. Stiles 
was a drinking fellow, and on the night of Jan. 14, 1845, had a row 
with DeWolf. In the testimony at the trial it was said Stiles 
defied DeWolf to kill him, and DeWolf took him at his word. 
Both men had been drinking. The trial was in June, 1845, De- 

96 History of Police Department, 

Wolf being defended by Alexander H. Bullock. The cause of 
death was given as strangulation, DeWolf choking Stiles with 
a rope. The jury found DeWolf guilty, and he was sentenced 
to be hanged. As a result of efforts made to save him from the 
gallows, sentence was commuted to imprisonment for life. 

At the session of the Supreme Judicial Court that tried Silas 
and Charles T. James for the murder of Joseph G. Clark, James 
E. Shephard and William McGrath pleaded guilty to murder in 



the second degree, and were sentenced to state prison for life. 
Shephard killed his wife, Laura A. Shephard, Nov. 15, 1867. He 
had a wife living, and was secretly married to Laura A., daughter 
of Leander Wesson. She was but eighteen years old, and short- 
ly after their marriage, the young wife found out that Shephard 
had another wife living and left him. She went to live with 
a Curtis family in New Worcester. Shephard went to see her 
and was refused admission. On the afternoon of Nov. 15 he went 
to the house and shot his wife. He was not found for several 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 97 

weeks. At the trial he was represented by Major M. J. Mc- 
Cafferty. Shephard got into a quarrel with a prisoner in state 
prison and was killed. William McGrath and John McCarthy 
worked together in the Washburn Iron Works in 1867. McCar- 
thy was the night-boss at the mill, and McGrath worked under 
him. McGrath lived near the mill, and one night followed Mc- 
Carthy to the McGrath home. He returned to the shop, and 
when McCarthy returned McGrath struck him over the head 
with a bar of iron, fracturing the skull. McCarthy died, and 
McGrath pleaded to murder in the second degree, .receiving a 
life sentence. 

Ezra Churchill, for many years a detective on the Worcester 
police force, figured in the arrest of Dwight F. Steere in the 
summer of 1875 for murder. Steere was employed in Luther 
Stowe's boot factory in Washington square. A personal friend 
was F. A. White of Oxford, who had been working in Spencer. 
White called at Stowe's shop to see if Steere would go to Phila- 
delphia with him. Steere told White he could not, but would 
go to the station with him. They parted at the train, and it 
appeared later that Steere jumped on the rear car and followed 
White to the pier in New London, where he was to take the 
steamer for New York. White's body was found on the pier 
the next morning. There was evidence of a desperate struggle, 
and the night of the murder Steere was a guest at a New London 
hotel. The body was found to have been robbed of money and 
watch and chain. Steere returned to Worcester the next day, 
and attended the funeral of his victim in Oxford. He talked with 
the family, and expressed the hope that the murderer would be 
found and punished. A few days later he was arrested by Detec- 
tive Churchill in Stowe's boot shop, and the bloody knife and 
White's watch and chain were found on him. He confessed to 
the murder, and was taken to Connecticut, where he was sen- 
tenced to imprisonment for life. It was afterward supposed he 
was guilty of two murders that took place in Oxford and never 
were cleared up. In 1891 an attempt was made to have Steere 
pardoned, and Detective Churchill went before the Connecticut 
authorities to oppose it. 

Few cases in Worcester county criminal history have attracted 
so much attention throughout New England as the murder of 
Lilla Hoyle, in Webster, Sept. i, 1887. The Worcester police 
were not directly interested, it being a state case, in which David 

9 g History of Police Department, 

H. Hayter figured with prominence. Several arrests were made, 
and for many months the interest in Worcester and Webster 
was intense, but the mystery never was cleared. Lilla and Alice 
Hoyle were orphans, and Lilla worked in Taylor's restaurant 
and' ice-cream saloon in Webster. She was twenty-six years old, 
had an attractive figure and pretty face, and had several ad- 
mirers. The sisters had a room in Dixon R. Cowie's tenement 
over the restaurant. On the night of Sept. i Lilla Hoyle left her 
room and never afterward was seen alive. A search was made, 
and the suicide and murder theories were advanced and dis- 
cussed. On Sept. 20 Charles Shumway discovered the body of 
the missing girl forced between the rafters of a corn-crib on the 
Dwyer farm, about two and a half miles from Webster on the 
Webster and Oxford road. He was attracted to the place by a 
disagreeable odor, and the authorities were immediately notified 
of the finding of the body. State officers and newspaper-writers 
made Webster their headquarters for several weeks, and many 
theories were advanced as to the cause of Lilla Hoyle's death. 
No case in Worcester county has attracted such widespread at- 
tention, and no more of a sensation has been made than the 
arrest of John McQuaid in. New York May 8, 1888. McQuaid 
was a former student at Holy Cross College, and the faculty and 
students insisted that he was innocent of the charge from the 
moment the arrest was made. This arrest was on a confession 
said to have been made by Alice Hoyle, sister of Lilla. She was 
reported to have said Lilla went away with John McQuaid and 
Dixon R. Cowie the night of her disappearance. Cowie was 
arrested in Meriden, Ct, the day following the arrest of Mc- 
Quaid, at the request of the state police. Both McQuaid 
and Cowie were indicted by the grand jury of Worcester county 
May 8, 1888, and McQuaid was brought to Worcester May 13, 
a week after Cowie had been locked in the Summer street jail. 
McQuaid was studying medicine in New York at the time of his 
arrest. A crowd was at the depot the day of his arrival, and 
great interest was taken in his case during the summer he was 
in the Summer street jail. 

McQuaid and Cowie were arraigned in the Superior Criminal 
Court Oct. i, 1888, Cowie being represented by Rice, King & 
Rice, and McQuaid by John R. Thayer. The release of Mc- 
Quaid and Cowie created as much of a sensation as did their 
arrest. The confession of Alice Hoyle was found to be untrust- 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 99 

worthy, and Nov. 17, 1888, McQuaid and Cowie were released 
from jail on their own recognizance. The indictment never was 
quashed, and the case has not been disposed of. 

Before the Police Department had a patrol-wagon, officers 
were obliged to drag prisoners through the streets. A crowd 
usually followed in the wake of the officer and his prisoner. The 
shooting of an innocent man by a policeman has twice occurred 
in the history of the Worcester department. The first case was 
June 10, 1866, when Henry T. Weikle was fatally shot by Officer 
Samuel J. Lowell. During the evening of Sunday, June 10, 
there was a call for officers to quell a disturbance on Larkin 
street. The "Meadows" in those days was a lawless section. 
Officer Lowell brought the prisoner to the station under the old 
City Hall, and almost a riot followed. The crowd numbered 
upward of 1,000, and stones were thrown at the station and of- 
ficers. A stone struck Officer Lowell, and he drew his revolver, 
firing a shot into the crowd. Weikle was a tall man, and was 
shot through the head. He died the following day, and there 
was excitement in connection with the case. The feeling against 
the policeman was bitter. The coroner's jury held Officer 
Lowell responsible for the murder, and he was held for hearing 
in $6,000. Mayor James B. Blake issued a proclamation, in 
which he said, "There is not sufficient legal justification or ex- 
cuse for the action on the part of Officer Lowell, neither was 
there premeditation or malice." Lowell was committed, and 
bailed later in the week. He was tried for manslaughter, and 
sentenced to one year in the house of correction. The City 
Council voted $1,000 to the family of Weikle. 

Patrick Dunphy, alias Dunvey, was arrested in Cherry Valley 
late in 1871 for the murder of John Stack, which took place in 
that section of the city on the night of Oct. 16. Both had been 
drinking, and Dunphy struck and kicked Stack until he killed 
him. The body was found the following day. Dunphy was rep- 
resented by Frank P. Colliding and George H. Ball, and was sen- 
tenced to the state prison for fifteen years. 

Oct. 23, 1870, Benjamin Westwell, living on Lafayette street, 
was murdered in his home by Francis Doran. 

Officer Michael Deady, for several years a member of the 
police force, arrested Michael Maloney, alias Michael J. Whyte, 
wanted in Dudley for the murder of Frank Spencer of Wood- 
stock, Ct. Officer Deady was traveling with Officers C. W. Bar- 


History of Police Department, 

ker and Andrew Harper of Station i, on the night of August 21. 
Whyte was acting in a suspicious manner, and Officer Deady 
suggested to the officers with him that he had better be taken 
to the station as a vagrant. The murder of Spencer the day before 
had been reported to the police of New England cities, and 
Whyte answered the description of the man wanted. He was 
committed for vagrancy, and a few days later was identified as 
the murderer. He was sentenced to state prison for life, and 



Officer Deady was commended by City Marshal W. Ansel Wash- 

Two family tragedies within the last decade horrified Worces- 
ter. The first took place Christmas eve, 1892, and the second 
the night of Nov. 6, 1897. 

Henry C. Varnum, who was of an inventive turn of mind, 
employed on Church street, lost his position during the hard 
times of 1892. He became discouraged, and brooded over his 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 101 

troubles. The family consisted of himself and wife, Laura A. 
Varnum, daughter Florence, and Mrs. Sylvia Wright, his wife's 
mother. The murder was discovered by Rev. E. W. Phillips, 
pastor of Hope Church, who called at the Varnum home, 31 
Tainter street, the day after Christmas. He was unable to get 
into the house and started an investigation. The front door 
was forced open, and the murder was discovered. Varnum had 
killed his wife and daughter with a patent door-hanger, an in- 
vention on which he had been working. He had struck his 
mother-in-law several blows, but she was alive when found. 
Varnum had killed himself by a wound in the heart with a 
jackknife. Mrs. Wright remained at the City Hospital for several 
weeks, but never recovered her reason entirely. She was not able 
to tell the story of the murder and suicide. She was taken to 
Vermont after she had recovered sufficiently to be moved, and 
died a few months later. 

Edward Bangs Hamilton, cashier in the Worcester County 
Institution for Savings on Foster street, had been sick during 
the fall of 1897, and his mind was affected. On the night of 
Nov. 6 he shot his wife Katharine as she was asleep in bed, and 
then went to an adjoining room and killed his infant son Ed- 
ward and shot his daughter Katherine. He then went into an- 
other room and shot himself. The crime was discovered in the 
morning, and Hamilton and his daughter were taken to the City 
Hospital, where he died. After the child's recovery she was 
taken away from Worcester. 

A tragedy in the county that attracted wide attention through- 
out New England was the Bergen murder and suicide in North 
Brookfield Jan. 19, 1900. Martin Bergen was known through- 
out the sporting fraternity as a member of the Boston Baseball 
Club, and recognized as the best catcher in the country. It was 
known he had acted in an irrational manner on the baseball 
field during the season of 1899, refusing for a time to play ball 
with his club. He imagined the members of the team were 
working against him, and it worried him. He was not well 
during the winter of 1899. On the morning of Jan. 19, 1900, 
his father found the family dead in the house, and it is supposed 
the murder was committed several days before. Bergen had shot 
his wife, and beat out the brains of his two children, Joe and 
Florence. He then cut his throat with a razor. 

102 History of Police Department, 

Isaac Isaacson, living at 5^ Crescent street, was shot on 
Garden street on the night of March 2, 1896. He refused to 
disclose the name of his murderer before his death, which was 
two days later at the City Hospital. The shooting was the re- 
sult of an old country fight. 

Walter Brinkworth shot Bessie McDonagh at her home on 
Columbia street December 27, 1898, and then shot himself. Both 
recovered, but Brinkforth is paralyzed. The shooting was the 
outcome of a love affair. 

The Worcester police assisted the state police in the detec- 
tion of Edward Cunningham, who killed William Baxter in Hoi- 
den in July, 1893. That was the most revolting murder that 
ever took place in Holden, Baxter being killed with an axe. 
Cunningham was sentenced to imprisonment for life. 

John A. Krussell shot and killed John A. Cornell in a house 
on Millbury avenue on the night of Dec. 23, 1892. Krussell 
was arrested by Officers Dunn, Fyrberg and Hackett. 

Mekor Kervorkian shot and killed Kazar Karavarian on the 
Common July 4, 1891, and was arrested by Officer W. R. Rams- 
dell. The shooting was at the time of a balloon ascension, 
Kervorkian claiming he shot at the balloon. Sentences for these 
crimes were short periods in the house of correction. 

The Worcester police worked for over a year in connection 
with the state police to cause the arrest of Paul Mueller for the 
murder of the Newton family in West Brookfield. Mueller mur- 
dered Francis D. Xewton, wife, and daughter Elsie with an axe 
on the night of Jan. 9, 1897, and was seen walking in the direc- 
tion of the Boston & Albany railroad, where he took a train 
leaving at I o'clock in the morning. Xot a trace of him has been 
found since. 

During a family quarrel in the tenement at 23 Larkin street 
Sept. 14, 1896, John Early struck his sister Ann, wife of John 
Hogan, with the end of an umbrella rod. The point entered her 
brain, killing her, and Early was arrested by Officer John Dunn 
of Station i. He was sentenced to the house of correction for 
a short term. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 103 


Work of Worcester Police in Arrests of Dan Dockerty, Charlie Gleason, 
Sam Ferris and Jim Welch "Worcester Sam's" Escape from Summer 
Street Jail Millbury Bank Robbery and the Learned Mare Lancaster 
National Bank of Clinton and People's Savings Bank's Funds Stolen 
Lucius W. Pond a Forger. 

Following closely upon the events in connection with the mur- 
der of Joseph G. Clark, and the hanging of Silas and Charles 
T. James in 1868, came the announcement of the robbery of the 
Grafton National Bank on the night of Oct. 25, 1870. The 
Millbury Bank had been robbed in 1843, an d tne Barre Bank 
was robbed about the same time. The Lancaster National Bank 
of Clinton was robbed in 1885, and the teller of the People's 
Savings Bank of Worcester went away with $50,000 in 1890. 
None of these robberies created such a sensation in financial cir- 
cles as did that of the Grafton National Bank. Planned in James 
M. Welch's saloon on Temple street by Samuel Perris, familiarly 
known as "Worcester Sam," it was successfully carried out by 
bank robbers of New York city who had a national notoriety, 
and the Worcester Police Department was called upon for work 
requiring its keenest officers. Although handicapped by the in- 
difference of the New York police, the Worcester authorities 
inaugurated a plan of action that brought the burglars to the 
Worcester courts for trial. Daniel Dockerty, alias Potter, and 
Charles Gleason, were sentenced to the state prison, Sam Perris 
escaped from the Summer street jail while awaiting a third trial, 
James M. Welch turned state's evidence, furnishing information 
that convicted the burglars, and Reuben Perris was acquitted on 
the charge of burglary. He was rearrested as an accessory 
before the fact, but the case never was tried. 

For two years previous to the Grafton Bank robbery, there had 
been several burglaries in Worcester, the feature being blowing 
of safes. City Marshal James M. Drennan had suspicions of 
Welch and the Perris family, and when the job was done in 
Grafton Jim Welch was watched closely. Austin Gleason, a 
Boston & Albany railroad engineer, placed government bonds 
to the value of $5,500 in the safe in Stephen Taft's grocery store, 

104 History of Police Department, 

corner Front and Trumbull streets. One night in 1869 the sate 
was blown open and the bonds stolen. They were sold through 
a Boston broker. The Worcester police were notified of the sale 
by the United States government, the name of "J ames M. Wells 
of Worcester" being given as the person who negotiated the 
bonds. The broker described James M. Welch to City Marshal 
Drennan as the man who sold the bonds, but would not go into 
court and swear positively that he was the man. A short time 



before that the Court Mills, on Prescott street, lost a month's 
pay-roll by the safe being blown open, presumably by the same 

Sam Ferris and his father were fish-peddlers, riding through 
the county. Sam was a quiet fellow, appearing to take no special 
notice of surroundings, and when not peddling fish was a bar- 
tender in Welch's saloon. He was the youngest of the crowd 
in the Grafton Bank robbery, but considered the shrewdest. Per- 
ris selected the Grafton Bank as the best place in Worcester 
county for a break, and his pals were sent for. Dockerty came 
to Worcester, where he remained several days, and two days be- 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 105 

fore the robbery appeared at the hotel in New England Village 
kept by George H. Bundy. Another of the burglars, believed 
to be Bill Dunn, also put up at the hotel several days before the 
robbery. The crowd met at Welch's saloon once or twice before 
the night decided upon. On the night of Oct. 25, the gang met 
in Grafton, and Reuben Ferris drove to the village with the tools. 
The president of the bank was Jonathan Warren, M. B. Goodell 
was cashier, and Lewis Daniels was watchman. About 10 
o'clock in the evening Gleason met Daniels on the Common, 
asking him where he could get something for the toothache. 
Gleason was joined byDockerty,who seized Daniels by the throat. 
He was bound and gagged and taken to the bank, where he was 
thrown into the coal-hole. He was near enough to see the men 
and hear what was said. They worked quietly, and Gleason, 
who was the mechanic of the crowd, gave orders by numbers. 
He suggested that Daniels be killed, as he would prove a convict- 
ing witness if any of the crowd was caught. Dockerty protested 
against murder being committed, and argued the burglars out of 
that notion. At the trial Daniels gave this evidence, which had an 
effect upon the judge, and he commented upon it in sentencing 
Dockerty, saying he would give him the benefit of a year off 
his sentence for his humaneness. 

The burglars left the bank before midnight with $10,000 in 
bank bills, $10,000 in bank notes, $70,000 in bonds, $90,000 in 
promissory notes and $1,000 in gold coin, a total of $181,000. 
On the morning of Oct. 26 Sam Ferris went to the home of 
Welch, 4 Penn avenue, tapped on the window, and asked for a 
bottle of brandy. He was later joined by the rest of the gang, 
and after opening champagne in the barn, where Welch kept his 
liquors, breakfast was served, and the gang scattered, leaving 
Worcester by different directions. Reuben Ferris drove Sam 
Ferris, and Welch drove Dockerty to Oakdale ; Dunn and Glea- 
son went out on the 10 o'clock train. The money was left with 
Jim Welch, who took it to New York a few days later. As soon 
as the report of the .robbery was sent out, the New York police 
arrested Dunn. George Bundy, of the hotel at New England 
Village, was sent to New York to see if he could identify him as 
one of the burglars. Bundy visited the Tombs, and looked over 
twelve prisoners, but failed to pick Dunn out of the crowd. As 
soon as he returned to Worcester, the gang planned to meet in 
New York. Jim Welch took the money to New York Oct. 28, 

106 History of Police Department, 

and received $100 for making the trip. He was seen to leave 
on a train by Officer Peter Rice, but acting under directions of 
City Marshal Drennan, he did not feel warranted in making an 
arrest. He did not see Welch have any satchel or bundle, and 
did not think he was going to New York. Welch met the gang 
at the Albemarle Hotel, and a champagne supper was served 
at Jem Mace's place. The bank had offered a reward of $5,000 
for the arrest and conviction of the burglars, but the gang was 
not then arrested, it being claimed they put up $15,000 in Xew 
York for protection. It was known in New York who robbed the 
Grafton Bank, and the Worcester police soon after knew who was 
in it, but could not immediately bring about their arrest. 

Sam Ferris, Charlie Gleason and Bill Dunn went to New 
Hampshire and Vermont in January, 1871, where Dunn had 
plans made to rob two banks. At Barton's Landing, Vt., the 
officers followed the burglars, who robbed the bank in that town. 
Gleason, Dunn and "Cockney" Charlie were arrested, and an 
officer had a tussle with Sam Ferris in a sleeping-car. The 
officer and Ferris fought on the platform, and both went off the 
car just before the train reached White River Junction. Ferris 
got away, leaving his coat* and vest with the officer. Dunn was 
held in $8,000 bonds and the others in $3,000. Friends from 
New York bailed Gleason and "Cockney" Charlie, but let Dunn 
remain. The burglars were indicted, and Dunn's wife went to 
Ferris and told him if he did not do something to get Bill out 
of jail, she would make trouble for him. Ferris told her that 
any man who allowed himself to be locked up by an officer ought 
to stay there, and refused to help Dunn out. Mrs. Dunn went to 
Detective A. P. Squires of Claremont, N. H., who was working 
on the cases in that state, and told him who robbed the Grafton 
bank. Detective Squires came to Worcester, and after a con- 
ference with City Marshal Drennan and District Attorney W. W. 
Rice, indictments were brought against Dunn, Dockerty, Glea- 
son, Ferris, Jim Welch and Reuben Ferris. Detective Squires 
went to New York in April, soon after the information was given 
him by Dunn's wife, and worked that end of the case. "Cockney" 
Charlie had escaped from jail at Barton's Landing, and he was 
arrested in New York later at the request of Squires, and taken 
back to Vermont. Assistant Marshal W. Ansel Washburn (who 
knew Ferris), Capt. H. H. Comings and Officers J. M. Dyson 
and E. D. McFarlancl worked on the case for three weeks before 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 107 

the arrest of the burglars in May. Assistant Marshal Washburn 
did valuable work, spending seventeen days and nights chasing 
Sam Ferris, and finally located him in Hoboken, N. J. 

The first of the gang arrested was Charlie Gleason, in a house 
on Twenty-first street. He was hurried out of New York and 
turned over to Officer Joseph M. Dyson, who locked him up in 
Springfield. Gleason wanted to get word to friends, but was 
refused, and protested to being held without a chance to have a 
hearing. The authorities had no right to hold him, but City 
Marshal Drennan refused to allow him to consult with friends, 
as it was not known by them Gleason was arrested. Officer 
McFarland and Detective Squires were with the I9th precinct 
officers at the time of the arrest of Dockerty in a house at the 
corner of First avenue and Thirty-second street. Dockerty was 
in bed when the officers went into the room. He reached for 
his revolver, but was outwitted by the police sergeant, who dis- 
charged his revolver so close to Dockerty's head that his ear 
was burned by the powder. 

Sam Ferris was located by the officers in Albany, where he had 
been living since the Grafton and Vermont burglaries. When 
he thought the excitement had subsided, he moved his house- 
hold effects to Hoboken, X. J. His goods were traced, and in 
Hoboken Assistant Marshal Washburn learned that Sam's child 
was sick with measles. The physician was found who was in 
attendance, and after the house was spotted, the officers visited 
it late at night. The New Jersey officers went in, and Ferris 
denied his identity. When Assistant Marshal Washburn stepped 
into the room, Sam gave up, and was brought to Worcester after 
a legal contest in the courts of New Jersey. He was the last :>f 
the gang arrested, and it cost the Worcester department much 
money and time, and nearly exhausted the patience of the offi- 
cers. The reward offered by the bank was nearly exhausted 'n 
hunting down the burglars, and none of the property stolen was 
returned. The case turned out to be one of the most stubbornly 
contested from first to last that took place in Worcester county, 
and the officers who were interested in it deserved credit for a 
vast amount of hard work. The arrests, as shown by the records 
at the Waldo street police-station, are as follows: May 3, 1871, 
James M. Welch, 37 years old, arrested by City Marshal J. M. 
Drennan and Capt. H. H. Comings; May 6, Reuben Ferris, 58 
years old, arrested by Assistant Marshal W. Ansel \Vashburn ; 

I0 8 History of Police Department, 

May 10, Samuel Ferris, 31 years old, arrested by Assistant Mar- 
shal W. Ansel Washburn, and Detective Squires of New Hamp- 
shire ; May 12, Charles Gleason, 41 years old, arrested by Officer 
J. M. Dyson ; May 20, Daniel Dockerty, 36 years old, arrested 
by Officer E. D. McFarland. All were booked for burglary, and 
bail was fixed at $50,000 in each case. 

The trial of the burglars was the first week in June, 1871, 
Judge Pitman presiding. James M. Welch, indicted with the 

Probation Officer. 

others, became a government witness. District Attorney W. W. 
Rice prosecuted the cases, assisted by George F. Verry; W. F. 
Howe of New York appeared for Dockerty; H. B. Staples and 
F. P. Goulding for Gleason, and Major McCafferty for Sam Per- 
ris and Reuben Ferris. The witnesses were Jonathan Warren, 
president of the bank ; M. B. Goodell, cashier ; Winthrop Faulk- 
ner ; John Brophy ; Mary M. Ames ; George H. Bundy ; E. B. 
Dolliver , clerk in the hotel at New England Village ; Lewis Dan- 
iels, the watchman ; George F. Slocomb, of the Board of Di- 
rectors ; Charles Snow, all of whom either had some connec- 
tion with the bank, or saw one or more of the defendants in the 
vicinity of Grafton about the time of the robbery. James M. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 109 

Welch, Catherine Welch, his housekeeper, his daughters Nellie 
and Abbie, testified for the government. Welch told of the visit 
of the burglars at his place before and after the robbery, of his 
visit to New York with the money, and was the most important 
witness of the government's list. His housekeeper and daughters 
told of the visit of the men to the house the morning after the 
burglary when breakfast was served them. Reuben Ferris ex- 
hibited a letter claimed to have been written by his son Sam in 
Dublin at the time of the robbery, and it also contained the in- 
formation that Gleason was with him. The jury brought in a 
verdict of guilty as to Gleason, Dockerty and Ferris, and not 
guilty as to Reuben Ferris. Motions were made for new trials, 
and the Supreme Court sustained exceptions taken, sending the 
cases back for new trials. On the second trial in Feburary, 1872, 
Dockerty and Gleason were found guilty, and the jury disagreed 
as to Sam Ferris. The jury in his case stood n to I for con- 
viction, the juror in favor of acquittal being a Worcester busi- 
ness man, who believed the defendant proved an alibi. Gleason 
was sentenced to fourteen years in state prison and Dockerty 
to thirteen years. After serving eight years in prison, Gleason 
escaped, and after reaching England wrote a letter from Dover 
to Joseph M. Dyson, telling him he was sorry he could not 
call on him, but he was once more free and had his family with 
him, his home being in Paris. Dockerty made an attempt to es- 
cape from state prison, but fell in front of the team waiting for 
him in front of the prison, and was captured. After his sentence 
expired he went to England, where he committed murder, and 
was sentenced to the penitentiary. It is said he was released from 
prison within the last year. 

When Sam Ferris was committed to the Summer street jail in 
February, 1872, to await a third trial, he was placed in the north 
wing of the prison in one of the second tiers of cells facing, the 
west. While Gleason and Dockerty were prisoners with Ferris, 
an extra guard was placed over them, but when they were trans- 
ferred to the state prison, the guard was removed, and the reg- 
ular night watchman was guard over Ferris the same as the other 
prisoners. On the night of April 6 Ferris made his escape. He 
sawed two bars of his cell with a fine watch-spring saw, and 
crawled into the corridor through a two-foot opening he had 
made. Gaining access to the corridor, he went to the corridor 
above by the staircase, where a wooden door opened to the stair- 

no History of Police Department, 

way leading to the fourth-floor corridor. The lock was picked, 
and he went to the fourth floor. There were four windows on 
the north side, guarded by upright iron bars and strengthened 
by transverse bars two feet apart. He raised one of the windows, 
and let down a long string composed of shoemakers' thread. 
There were confederates outside, who attached to the string a 
three-quarter-inch rope 100 feet long, and a black cambric bag 
containing a jack-screw, lever and burglar's jimmy. With the 
jack-screw Ferris forced the bars to an opening eight inches wide 
and two feet high. Securing the rope to the bars he crawled 
through the small opening and slid down along the dead wall. 
a distance of eighty feet, to the ground. This left him on Pros- 
pect street, where a carriage was waiting, and he was driven out 
of the city. Officers Sprague and Garland of the Police Depart- 
ment, who were on their way home from duty, discovered the 
rope hanging from the window, and also saw several tracks in 
the mud, showing that there were several persons interested in 
the escape. Perris's wife had made visits to her husband in the 
jail, and it is supposed she furnished him the saws with which 
the bars were cut. He never was caught, although a search was 
made for him. He visited England, and Pinkerton men searched 
for him far and wide. "Worcester Sam" is to-day spoken of as 
the smartest all-around burglar who ever operated in Xew Eng- 
land. During the past ten years his death has been reported 
several times, the last report being that he died in Albany up- 
ward of a year ago. James M. Welch is living on Salem street 
in Worcester crippled and infirm. 

Famous in the annals of crime in the latter days of Worcester 
as a town was the robbery of the Millbury Bank August 27, 1843. 
It was a state bank, and at the time of the robbery steps had been 
taken to wind up its business. August 158. S. Leonard, wjio ran 
the express between Worcester and Boston, received from the 
Suffolk Bank a sealed package purporting to contain $17,000 in 
bills of the Millbury Bank, which had been redeemed. This pack- 
age was brought to Worcester and placed in Leonard's safe over 
night. It was carried to Millbury the following morning, and 
delivered to the cashier of the bank. He had no special use for 
the money for a few days and placed the package in the vault. 
August 27 he had occasion to use some of the bills of the bank 
and opened the package. There was nothing to be found but 
carefully-folded pieces of paper, which had been substituted for 

Worcester, Massachusetts. in 

the money. The day after the discovery of the burglary, Jeremiah 
Learned went to the bank and presented $800 of Millbury Bank 
bills for payment, claiming the report of the burglary would have 
an unfavorable effect upon the credit of the bank. The next 
day Abijah Learned went to the bank and presented $800 of 
Millbury Bank bills for payment. The robbery was placed in 
the hands of the police, and the police of Worcester did a great 
deal to bring about the arrest of the burglars. Jeremiah Learned 
came to Worcester August 21, and exchanged $1,000 of Millbury 
Bank bills at the Quinsigamond Bank. The burglars were traced 
to Springfield, where $4,000 Millbury Bank bills were exchanged 
for other funds, and at Norwich, Leicester and Boston bills of 
the Millbury Bank had been exchanged. Jeremiah Learned, 
Abijah Learned and James Learned, the last two being brothers, 
and the former a cousin, were arrested Aug. 31, 1843, an d brought 
to Worcester, where they were tried before Justice W. N. Green, 
Jeremiah and James Learned being held to the grand jury in 
$20,000 bail, and Abijah Learned was held in $10,000. When 
arrested the Learneds had $3,000 in possession. Abijah Learned 
carried on a cotton-mill in Millbury, and James was a wool- 
sorter. When the officers went to Learned's mill a paper was 
found in Abijah's desk on which was a row of figures which 
added $16,800, and the total had been divided by three. The 
Learneds were tried in 1844, at the .May term of the Supreme 
Judicial Court, and all were convicted. Abijah Learned was sen- 
tenced to the state prison for ten years, Jeremiah for five yars, 
and James Learned was given a new trial. 

The Learned mare is still a much-talked-about animal in the 
Blackstone valley. She covered more ground in a night than 
seemed possible, but there is little doubt that she figured in some 
of the bank robberies in central Massachusetts and New Hamp- 
shire half a century ago. This mare aided the Learneds in estab- 
lishing an alibi on their trial for robbing the Barre Bank. The 
story is told of the family that when the Concord Bank was 
robbed of between $200,000 and $300,000, the team containing 
the money and securities was left standing beside the road, and 
wandered away so far that it could not be found by the bank- 
robbers. The horse walked into a farmer's yard early in the 
morning, and a blanket recently stolen in Oxford was the means 
of tracing the burglars. The last of the family to figure in rob- 
beries was Otis Learned, a tool-maker, who was found dead in 


History of Police Department, 

Clinton several years ago. His last Worcester job was the rob- 
bery of a smoke-house on Pleasant street, when a load of hams 
was stolen and sold in another part of the state. 

In 1843 Worcester, in common with other cities, suffered finan- 
cially from a series of forgeries that puzzled the police for many 
months. New York brokers were continually finding forged paper 
in their business, and officers of Massachusetts and New York 
worked on the case for several weeks. That same year Worces- 


Lamartine Street. 

ter county was startled by the confession of William Goddard, 
postmaster of Petersham, considered above suspicion, to com- 
mitting the forgeries. He had been doing an extensive business 
as William Goddard & Co., and Goddard & Hildreth. He lived 
an expensive life, but the people of Petersham supposed his busi- 
ness was profitable. He confessed that the amount of the paper 
he had forged amounted to $41,700. Of the proceeds of his for- 
geries he applied $15,000 to the use of the business of William 
Goddard & Co., $5,200 to the business of Goddard & Hildreth, 
and $17,000 was applied to his personal debts. He pleaded 
guilty, and was represented at the trial by Hon. Emory Wash- 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 113 

burn. He was sentenced to state prison for two years each on 
three counts. 

Prominent of the Worcester county bank robberies was that of 
the Lancaster National Bank of Clinton, Dec. 30, 1885. William 
H. McNeil, president of that institution, wrecked it, and fled to 
Canada, where he is now living in retirement on a farm in Hatley, 
Stanstead county, Quebec. This was not a Worcester case, but 
attracted the attention of the Worcester police, and State Officer 
Joseph M. Dyson did considerable work in connection with it. 
The wrecking of this widely-known banking-institution caused 
the greatest financial sensation the eastern portion of Worcester 
county had ever known. 

William McNeil, president of the bank, was one of the most 
respected citizens in Lancaster, and was the political boss of the 
town. On the night of Dec. 30, 1885, he disappeared, and with 
him went cash and notes of the bank aggregating $175,000. It 
developed that McNeil and Charles H. Veo, clerk in the office 
of Dr. E. M. Nelson of Lowell, went to the bank, opened the 
vault and got the money. Veo and McNeil took the night train 
for Canada, getting off at Rutland, Vt., with most of the cash 
and bonds. Veo, Nelson and Henry Forrester, the latter cashier 
of the bank, were arrested, and Veo and Nelson were indicted, 
but no indictment was brought against Forrester. Chief Wade, 
of the state district police force, worked on the case, and Detec- 
tive J. M. Dyson recovered $165,000. It was found in Rutland 
hid in a wash-boiler in a stone heap, on the side of Tinmouth 
mountain. It had been placed there by L. L. Barnum, clerk 
in the employ of the West Rutland Granite Co., one of the 
concerns in which McNeil was connected with Nelson. McNeil 
never returned to the States so far as any resident of Clinton 
or Lancaster ever knew, but in 1892 a reporter for the Worcester 
Telegram visited McNeil at his home in Hatley, where he was 
doing work on his farm, and appeared to be not financially well 
off. The directors of the bank settled with the depositors, and 
went out of business. Prosecutions were not encouraged by the 
bank directors, they refusing to pay $1,000 for which the arrest 
and return to the United States of McNeil was guaranteed. State 
Officer Dyson never was compensated for $300 expenses in con- 
nection with the case used from his personal funds. 

Lucius W. Pond, manufacturer of machinists' tools, princi- 
pally lathes and planers, at the corner of Union and Exchange 

ii 4 History of Police Department, 

streets, was considered up to Oct. 4, 1875, one of the most suc- 
cessful and thoroughly honest men in Worcester. He was prom- 
inently connected with Laurel Street Church, and owned a 
splendid residence at the corner of Laurel and Edward streets, 
but did not live an extravagant life. He had the respect of 
the entire community, and had served the city in both branches 
of the Legislature. It had been his custom to invest money for 
his friends, and he gave his notes, with good indorsers for 
security. He used the money of widows, persons in his employ 
who had small amounts they wanted to invest, and gave his 
promissory notes, providing for interest larger than could be re- 
ceived at the savings banks. 

Oct. i, 1875, he went to Boston, collected a bill of $2,500, 
and sent word to his family that 'he was going to New York 
with a friend. He left Boston on the City of Providence, of the 
Fall River line of steamers. The following morning several arti- 
cles of clothing were found in his stateroom, but no trace of him 
could be found. The suicide theory was quickly accepted. Four 
days later the discovery was made that he was a forger, a fact 
which startled the community as it had not been disturbed for 
many years. His wealth had been estimated at something like 
$200,000, and he was congratulated for his business tact in 
going through the panic of 1873 without a failure. An investiga- 
tion of his business affairs showed that he was heavily in debt, 
his liabilities amounting to $100,000, and a startling array of 
forgeries was brought to light. Among those who suffered to 
a considerable extent were William Dickinson and T. W. Wel- 
lington. His large indebtedness caused the suspension of several 
firms, and his flight and failure were a sensation Worcester 
had not known for a long time. 

In examining the large number of promissory notes that had 
been altered and forged, it was discovered that Talmadge's light- 
ning ink-eraser had been used. 7 This was about the first introduc- 
tion of the liquid ink-eraser now so common in business houses, 
a composition of chloride of lime. This eraser had been applied 
to the face of the notes, the original being removed and different 
names and amounts rewritten, but the names of the endorsers 
remained as originally. These notes were treated with a solution 
of nutgalls, which had the effect of restoring the ink that had 
been blotted out by the acid. Many poor people were affected 
by the forgeries, and Waldo W. Stevens, who had been in Mr. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 115 

Pond's employ for fifteen years, was so depressed by his loss 
that he committed suicide by hanging Dec. 16, 1875. 

W. Ansel Washburn, city marshal in 1875, had circulars and 
pictures of Mr. Pond sent to every city in the United States 
as soon as the forgeries were discovered. Mr. Pond was first 
heard of in Hamilton, Ont., Oct. 4, where he applied for work 
in several machine-shops under the name of D. W. Pond. City 
Marshal Washburn placed a watch on Mr. Pond's house, and 
Nov. 1 8 a trunk was delivered to an expressman. This was fol- 
lowed to a hotel in San Francisco, where the arrest of Mr. Pond 
was made by a San Francisco officer, who accompanied Detec- 
tive Ezra Churchill of the Worcester police force. The trunk 
when it left Worcester was sent to "S. J. Kidder, Boston, to be 
called for." Ezra Churchill then followed the trunk to Sacra- 
mento, Cal., where it was delivered to "L. D. Wilson." The 
Wells, Fargo Express Company was notified of the affair, and 
traced the trunk to San Francisco, at the request of Detective 
Churchill, where it arrived Dec. 28, 1875. In the meantime it was 
learned that Mr. Pond registered in a hotel in Hamilton, Ont., 
as "L. Wilson," taking his middle name. W^hen Detective 
Churchill met him in the San Francisco hotel Dec. 9, 1875, Mr. 
Pond was considerably changed, his face having been shaved. 
He at first denied his identity, but finally admitted that he was 
the man wanted, and consented to accompany Detective Church- 
ill to Worcester without a legal fight on requisition proceedings. 
The trunk contained Mr. Pond's patterns and tools, and he had a 
ticket for Australia, the steamer being due to sail the day fol- 
lowing the arrest. City Marshal Washburn met Detective 
Churchill and Mr. Pond at Omaha, and the three reached Worces- 
ter Dec. 16. 

Mr. Pond was indicted by the grand jury on thirty-five indict- 
ments, thirty-one for forgery, and four for obtaining money 
under false pretences. His arrest was made on complaint of 
William Dickinson, who charged him with uttering a forged 
promissory note for the sum of $5,000. He was brought into 
court Jan. 28, 1876, and was represented by George F. Verry 
and Col. W. S. B. Hopkins, District Attorney H. B. Staples ap- 
pearing for the Commonwealth. He was arraigned on three 
counts, all for forgery, and pleaded guilty to them all. His 
counsel represented that he was penniless, that he uttered the 
false notes during a period of fourteen months after the panic 


History of Police Department, 

'of 1873, that he had not hoarded any of the money, but used it 
to carry on his business. District Attorney Staples said the 
forged notes were in the hands of bankers, trust companies, 
brokers, widows, and guardians of orphans. Chief Justice L. J. 
Brigham pronounced sentence, which was six years in state prison 
on one count, five years on another and four years on the third, 
a total of fifteen years. Mr. Pond was pardoned after serving 
eight years, and returned to Worcester, where he went to work 



as superintendent in the shop of the L. W. Pond Machine Co.. 
and remained there until his death. His petition for a pardon 
was signed by many persons in Worcester, and he came out 
of prison to find he had many friends in the city which had been 
his home for the greater part of his life. 

The People's Savings Bank is the only Worcester banking- 
house that has been robbed. April 2, 1890, it was discovered that 
$43,000 in bonds and $3,400 in cash had been taken, and sus- 
picion pointed to the teller, who had been absent several days 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 117 

by permission of the officials. A reward of $3,000 was offered 
for his arrest, and Detectives D. H. Hayter and J. E. Shaw, of 
the state police force, assisted by Pinkerton men, of New York, 
worked on the case. It was learned that the teller had gone 
to Paris, and representation was made that if he returned and 
made good to the bank its loss disposition would be made of the 
case satisfactory to him. The teller sailed for New York from 
Havre on La Bretagne in August, reaching New York Sept. i. 
He was arrested, brought to Worcester, and sentenced to the 
state prison for seven years. He brought back the bonds taken, 
none of them having been disposed of. The reward went to 
parties outside of Worcester who were prominent in inducing 
the teller to return to the United States. 

In 1869 George Noyes. Hills and Ed McDonnald came to 
Worcester claiming to be representatives of the firm of Bates 
& Conklin, Rhinebeck, N. Y. They lived at the Waldo House, 
and claimed they wanted to buy machinery. Accounts were 
opened at the Worcester and Central National Banks, and a week 
was passed in visiting machine-shops and examining machinery. 
Early one Monday morning the men appeared at each of these 
banks and cashed a check for $2,780. They immediately left 
Worcester, and the forgery was discovered in the afternoon, 
when City Marshal Drennan sent Officer E. D. McFarland in 
pursuit of them. They were traced to New York city, but Officer 
McFarland was one train behind and lost them. A few weeks 
later Hills was arrested in Elizabeth, N. J., for forging a check 
for $5,000 on the Elizabeth National Bank, and shortly after that 
Ed McDonnald passed a forged check for $5,000 on the Loan 
& Trust Co. of Hartford, and fled to Canada. He was induced 
to come over the line, and was arrested. R. N. Start of the Waldo 
House went to Hartford, and Elizabeth, N. J., where he identified 
both men as being the Worcester forgers. Hills was sentenced 
to eight years in prison and McDonnald to five years. Hills 
wanted a pardon, and to avoid a requisition from the authorities, 
settlement was made with the banks in Worcester. Hills went to 
England, where he joined the Bank of England forgers ; and 
another of the gang was George McDonnald, brother of Ed Mc- 
Donnald who forged the check in Worcester. The Bank of 
England forgers were rounded up and sent for life to Van 
Deman's land. They were afterwards released, and George Bid- 

n8 History of Police Department, 

well is well known in Worcester, where he sells his book telling 
of that famous gang. 

In 1868 a silk-sale was opened in Worcester by a man named 
Dudley, at which silks were sold so cheaply that the attention 
of the police was attracted to it. Dudley was living with a woman 
on Grafton street, who was the wife of an employee of the dry 
goods house of C. B. Claffiin & Co. in New York. The police 
received their information through a Mrs. Sugee, who ran the 
Half-way house at the time Jim Crockett was murdered. The 
New York dry goods house was notified, and a detective watched 
the employee. A lot of silk was found hid under the coal in the 
boiler-room, and when the arrest was made, the employee had 
a lot of costly silk wound about his body. The employee was a 
native of Southboro, and was sentenced to Sing Sing for five 
years. Dudley died six months later from nervous prostration, 
caused by the discovery of the crime, and City Marshal Drennan 
went to the funeral, which took place in Xew Hampshire. C. B. 
Claffiin & Co. estimated their loss at $50,000. and the man who 
was caught in the act had charge of the boilers. Dudley and the 
New York man's wife lived on Penn avenue. Mrs. Sugee was 
found by City Marshal Drennan living in a house on Twenty- 
first street in New York. She exposed the robbery rather than be 
brought back to Worcester to explain what she knew of the 
Jim Crockett murder. 

Hezekiah Broughton was arrested Dec. 21, 1874, on the charge 
of larceny and bigamy. He was sentenced to the state prison 
Feb. i, 1875, for three years for stealing a horse and carriage 
from Simeon M. Streeter of Sturbridge. It was discovered that 
he had served terms in state prison in Wisconsin and Iowa for 
bigamy and larceny, and had several wives living in various 
sections of the country. He was first married in Poultney. At., 
where he was born and lived the early part of his life. He left 
his wife he married in Poultney and located in Wisconsin. He 
was twice married in Iowa, where he served a term in prison, 
and after his release came to Sturbridge, where he worked for 
a time. He became interested in church work, and was married 
in Fiskdale in September, 1873, to the daughter of his employer. 
Clark W. Hatch, alias Clark Wells Hatch, formerly a broker 
in Boston and agent of the Travelers Insurance Co. of Hartford, 
Ct., was arrested at Union Station Jan. 31, 1891, by Inspector 
O'Day on the charge of forgery. The arrest was made at the 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 119 

instance of the Travelers Insurance Co., which claimed he uttered 
a forged check for $3,000 payable to Mamie E. Smith of Worces- 
ter, wife of Harry E. Smith, a commercial traveler who was 
claimed to have been drowned between Narragansett Pier and 
Providence about the middle of August, 1890. The check was 
presented at the Mechanics National Bank for payment August 
25, 1890. It was from the Travelers Insurance Co. of Hartford, 
on the Fourth National Bank of New York, and representation 
was made that it was sent to Hatch & Woodman of Boston to be 
paid to Mamie E. Smith. It bore the indorsement of Mamie E. 
Smith, and was made payable to Clark Wells Hatch, who was ;\ 
member of the firm of Hatch & Woodman, and at the time it was 
presented for payment an agent for the insurance company. Hatch 
was on his way from Colorado Springs, Col, to Boston when the 
arrest was made, Inspector O'Day taking him off an express train. 
Hatch had received the money from the Mechanics National 
Bank, and it was not discovered to be a forgery until several 
days after its payment. Hatch was a man of remarkable physique, 
and attracted considerable attention at the time of his trial. He 
was forty-three years old, stood six feet, three inches in height, 
and weighed 225 pounds. After his arrest he was identified by 
William J. Lewis, adjuster for the company, for a year a friend 
of Hatch. Hatch came to Worcester several days before pre- 
senting the forged check, and opened an account at the Me- 
chanics Bank, making a deposit of $250, which he afterwards 
withdrew. During a Raymond excursion through the West in 
1885, he became acquainted with several Worcester persons, and 
used their names for reference when he presented the check for 
payment. He was defended by Col. W. S. B. Hopkins, and at 
the trial proved an alibi, two women testifying that he was in 
Boston the night it was claimed the check was cashed in Worces- 
ter. They afterward acknowledged they might be mistaken in 
the day, but Hatch was then far out of the reach of the police. 
After his acquittal Col. Hopkins obtained for his client a writ 
of protection, a second warrant being ready to serve, and on this 
writ of protection Hatch left the state of Massachusetts. The 
last heard from him was that he was living in South America. 

Hatch was well known throughout the West, where he had 
been tried for the murder of his uncle, Henry E. Hatch, in 
Flagler, Kit Carson county, Col., in 1890. He visited his uncle in 
1889, and after he left the place his uncle was found murdered. 


History of Police Department, 

He was twice tried for the crime, and acquitted on the last trial. 
During his early life he lived in Canandaigua, N. Y., where he 
married a daughter of Orrin Poppleton, a wealthy business man 
of Cazenovia. This is the only case of any prominence of "grave- 
yard insurance" with which the Worcester police have had expe- 

Among the brokers there have been various complaints for 
alleged crooked transactions, but the only one of the number 
who ever received a state prison sentence was Charles B. Whit- 
ing, for several years the most prominent broker in Worcester. 
In 1888 he was charged with embezzlement of stock in the Ameri- 
can Electrical Manufacturing Co., valued at $7,900, and owned 
by Luther Brigham of Boylston. He was sentenced to state 
prison for seven years. 


Worcester, Massachusetts. 121 


Arrest and Death of "Gentleman" George Ellwood Nellie Deedy's Catch 
of "Watt" Jones, Notorious Bank-sneak Sentence of John Gillispie, the 
"Butcher" Visits from Frank Moulton and "Lord Beresford" Horse- 
thieving by John Lyons and Charles Dansreau Escape of John Reed 
H. C. Barnum's Diamond Robbery. 

Within the past ten years some of the most interesting cases 
in the police-record have transpired. Bunco-men, swindlers and 
horse-thieves have been brought to the courts, and justice has 
been meted deservedly. An unusual number of notorious crim- 
inals have temporarily reached the end of their career of crime, 
and, strange to say, for offenses committed in Worcester of minor 
importance. There have been frequent murders, some of them 
surrounded with revolting circumstances, but the hangman's 
noose has escaped them all. The state prison holds the majority 
of them, although a few sought protection behind the defense 
of insanity. 

George Ellwood, a noted masked burglar, known over the 
United States as "Gentleman George," reached the end of his 
career of crime in Worcester on the morning of Sept. 10, 1891, 
He came into the city on the 5 o'clock train, and on Front street 
inquired of Officers John O'Connor and Fred M. Ames for a 
doctor. He was directed to Dr. Dean S. Ellis, in Franklin square, 
who found he had received a bullet in his back, and ordered 
him sent to the City Hospital. Ellwood gave the name of 
George Martin, and said he received his wound in a gambling- 
room. Inspector O'Day knew that the residence of C. B. 
Humphrey, of the Daniels, Cornell Co. of Providence, had been 
entered a few nights before by a masked burglar and valuable 
diamonds taken. The day Ellwood arrived in Worcester the 
newspapers had an account of a masked burglar entering the 
house of L. T. Frisbie in Hartford the night before, when he 
was shot by the owner of the house while escaping pursuit. In- 
spector O'Day visited Martin at the hospital, and made a care- 
ful examination of his body for marks of identification. Prop- 
erty stolen from the Humphrey residence in Providence was 

122 History of Police Department, 

found sewed in his clothing, and Inspector O'Day had an idea 
Martin was but the assumed name of a burglar. 

Two or three years prior to this incident, interest was created 
in the middle states by the escape of Ellwood from the Ohio 
state penitentiary at Columbus, and a reward of $5,000 was of- 
fered for his capture. A description of Ellwood was printed at 
the time, and by reference to this Inspector O'Day connected 
Martin with Ellwood. He accused the prisoner at the hospital 



of being Ellwood, the fugitive from justice, and after Inspector 
William B. Watts of Boston saw him he admitted his identity, 
and rather than be turned over to the Ohio authorities, he said 
he would go to Providence for trial on the Humphrey job. Mr. 
Frisbie of Hartford, Mr. Humphrey of Providence, and a man 
from Albany, N. Y., came to Worcester co see Ellwood, the 
Albany man desiring to get trace of $5,000 worth of jewelry 
robbed from his house a year before. Ellwood was taken to 
Providence after his recovery, and made one of the most stub- 
born legal fights in the history of the Rhode Island criminal 
courts. He was sentenced to twenty-five years in the penitentiary 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 123 

at Cranston. In the prison at the time of his sentence was "Spike" 
Murphy, sentenced for life for killing Waterman Irons, a Provi- 
dence business man. Ellwood and Murphy planned to escape. 
Ellwood armed himself with an iron bar, and when opportunity 
presented, both men made a dash for liberty. The keepers ordered 
them to stop, and Murphy threw up his hands. Ellwood reached 
the door, but was shot dead by one of the guards. A reward 
of $50 offered by Mr. Humphrey was divided between Officers 
O'Connor and Ames. 

As a desperate criminal Ellwood had few equals. His earlier 
associates in crime were "Shang" Campbell, George Millard and 
Jim Irving, all notorious in criminal history. Ellwood was said 
to have murdered two of his associates in the earlier years of 
his career. In 1885 he robbed a residence in Toledo, Ohio, and in 
making his escape shot an officer. He was later arrested, and 
sentenced to the Ohio state penitentiary Dec. 12, 1885, for ten 
years. After serving several years, he planned an escape. He 
reached the roof of the penitentiary, and going down through a 
shaft reached the quarters of the warden, whose son was an of- 
ficer in the penitentiary, and Ellwood obtained access to his 
apartments. He put on the official's uniform and passed out of 
the prison yard. In walking through a swamp, he froze his feet 
and passed fifty-seven days in a hospital. Ellwood is known to 
have robbed houses in Cleveland, Albany and Boston. 

H. C. Barnum, traveling salesman for Shaffer & Douglass, 26 
Cortlandt street, N. Y., reported to Chief of Police E. T. Ray- 
mond Feb. 8, 1894, that his sample-trunk was stolen in Spring- 
field the day before, containing diamonds and jewelry valued 
at $20,000. His room in the hotel where he stopped had been 
robbed, and the check for his trunk was among the articles taken. 
The thieves sent an expressman to the depot with the check, 
and had the trunk delivered at a room in the business section 
of the city. The trunk was ransacked, and the more valuable of 
the diamonds and jewelry were placed in a large bag and sent by 
express to Worcester. Inspectors O'Day and Stone watched the 
express-office two days and two nights, but no one called for the 
bag. Several weeks later Daniel Coty of \Vorcester was arrested 
by the Springfield police, and for robbing the trunk he was sen- 
tenced to state prison for four years. 

John Scanlon is serving a twenty-five years' sentence in state 
prison under the habitual criminal act. He was arrested May 

124 History of Police Department, 

n, 1891, by Inspector Stone, having given the police of Worces- 
ter and surrounding towns considerable trouble. He had been 
known as a criminal since 1865. Jan. i, 1882, he was sentenced to 
the state prison for seven years for breaking and entering, and 
was released in 1887. He was arrested the next year in Bos- 
ton, and received a short prison sentence. When arrested in 
Worcester, the records of three terms in state prison, sentences 
being made in 1876, 1882 and 1888, were submitted to the court, 
and he was put away for a long term. 

In May, 1894, Frank Moulton came to Worcester and entered 
into negotiations with E. Avery Brewer, of Bush & Co., drug- 
gists, for the purchase of the Dr. Brockway pharmacy, corner 
Main street and Layard place. The deal was made, and Mr. 
Brewer introduced Moulton at the Quinsigamond National Bank. 
On June 20 he deposited a cashier's check for $5,400 drawn on the 
National Bank of Tama, Iowa. The same day he drew $2,000. 
He was not seen in Worcester afterward, and June 26 the officials 
of the Quinsigamond Bank learned from the Tama Bank that 
the check was a forgery. Inspector O'Day traced Moulton 
through several cities, and finally located him in Vineland, N. J., 
where he lived in luxury under the name of Horace D. Baker. 
He was wanted in Bel Air, Md., for forgery on the Harforcl 
National Bank, and before Inspector O'Day could get a requisi- 
tion from Massachusetts the officials of Bel Air took Baker to 
Maryland, where he was sentenced to eight years in state prison. 
He was wanted in several cities and towns in the East for for- 
geries, and was known as Moulton, alias Baker, alias Hall, alias 
Sage, alias Thomas, alias Roberts. He was a native of Virginia, 
and his name was Robert E. Hall. 

July 12, 1894, Charles M. McFarland, jeweler at the corner 
of Main and Elm streets, was swindled out of $400 worth of 
diamonds and jewelry by a young man claiming to be the son of 
Judge Thomas L. Nelson. The swindler secured a diamond ring, 
diamond pin and a Knight Templar charm, requesting permis- 
sion to take them home for approval. Inspector O'Day discov- 
ered that he was stopping at the Colonnade Hotel, on Front 
street, and was known as J. E. Myers, letters from a girl in Wal- 
lingford, Ct., being found in his room. He had been a dry goods 
clerk in Hartford, Ct. ; Des Moines, la. ; Dubuque, la. ; St. Paul. 
Minn., and St. Louis. He was arrested in Grand Rapids, Mich., 
a few years ago, and received a short sentence for swindling. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 125 

William Sullivan, now serving a fifteen years' sentence in the 
Charlestown state prison, broke into the residence of Prof. E. 
Harlow Russell, principal of the State Normal School, on the 
night of Sept. 10, 1894. He locked the members of the house- 
hold in a room, and got away with money and valuables. He 
was masked, and forced the family into a room at the point of 
a revolver. Sullivan went to Denver after the burglary, where he 
was arrested, and given a sentence in the penitentiary at Canon 
City. He was released July I, 1897, and delivered to Inspector 
O'Day and Officer Dillon, who brought him to Worcester. 

On May 29, 1895, Lucius W. White, mortgage-clerk at the 
Worcester County Institution for Savings on Foster street, left 
Worcester suddenly. An examination of his accounts showed 
him to be an embezzler to the amount of $2,258, which he ob- 
tained by neglecting to enter on the books the amount of interest 
paid on mortgages, and converting the interest to his own use. 
The peculations had been going on more than a year, until de- 
tected by Charles A. Chase, treasurer of the institution, by the 
accidental discovery of a bank-book in the pocket of one of 
White's coats left in the bank. He was traced to New York, and 
later went to London. The bank did not care to assume any 
expense in bringing him back to Worcester, and White is still 
a fugitive from justice. When last heard from, he was working 
in the South. 

Miss Nellie P. Deedy, bookkeeper in T. A. Small's grocery 
store, 22 Millbury street, by coolness and courage detained for 
the police a thief who was known throughout the country as a 
bank-sneak. "Watt" Jones is known to every police department 
in the United States. He came to Worcester in the wake of 
Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show June 6, 1895, and robbed E. A. 
Goodnow of a diamond pin valued at $200. It was picked from 
his shirt-front at Harrington corner during the parade. Jones" was 
caught at Small's grocery tapping the till, and was held by Miss 
Deedy until the arrival of Officers Luke Dillon and Nils Lind- 
quist of Station 2, who arrested him for larceny. He was sen- 
tenced to six months in the house of correction, but before he 
was taken to the Summer street jail, Inspector O'Day identified 
him as "Watt" Jones, the noted bank-thief. Several months 
after the incident Jones arranged to have Mr. Goodnow's diamond 
returned to him. 


History of Police Department, 

Jones was known as William Stetson, A. J. Stetson, Jasper 
Simpson, Rufus Comstock, Thomas Guerin, Albert Montague, 
and by several other aliases. For robbing the Moulston Bank of 
St. Thomas, Ont, he was sentenced to seven years in the peni- 
tentiary at Kingston. Under the name of Clark he served two 
years in jail at Minneapolis, Minn. The job that attracted most 
attention was committed in 1883 in Denver, Col. He went into 
a bank during business hours, and at the point of a revolver 


forced the cashier to deliver to him $10,000 in cash, and then 
he walked out of the bank without a word being said. He had 
called Ihe cashier to his private office, where he made his de- 
mand. He followed the cashier with the revolver in his coat 
pocket ready to use if the cashier made a motion to attract the 
attention of the clerks in the bank. In 1886 he led a party to 
rescue from the jail in St. Louis Jimmie Carroll, a bank-robber 
awaiting trial. Jan. 6, 1896, he went through Senator Warner 
Miller's rooms in the Fifth Avenue Hotel, New York citv, and 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 127 

made his escape after being discovered in the apartment by a 
daughter of Senator Miller. He was sentenced May 16, 1896, 
to three years in state prison in Pennsylvania for stealing a travel- 
ing man's satchel. He is now serving a sentence in the New 
York state penitentiary at Dennamora. 

John Gillispie, known as the "Butcher," is serving a twenty- 
five years' sentence in the state prison at Charlestown under the 
habitual criminal act for robbing the residences of W. A. Rich- 
ardson on Austin street, and P. J. Skinner on Pleasant 
street, in the summer of 1895. He was sentenced, Aug. 
27, 1895, to twenty years for the Richardson break and 
five years for the Skinner break. He is the most close- 
mouthed criminal the Worcester police ever encountered. He is 
believed to be an escaped English felon. His careless manner 
of doing his work gave him the name of the "Butcher." In 1883 
Gillispie entered the residence of Rev. Dr. William L. Gage, 
pastor of the Pearl Street Congregational Church of Hartford, 
Ct. Dr. Gage was awakened after midnight and gave Gillispie 
a tussle. The minister and thief rolled down the stairs together 
and into the street. Dr. Gage clung to his prisoner for twenty 
minutes until help arrived, but in trying to get away Gillispie 
struck Dr. Gage a blow on his head from which he never re- 
covered. The citizens of Hartford presented Dr. Gage a $1,000 
watch and chain and a gold-mounted revolver. A year and a half 
after this incident, Dr. Gage was committed to a sanitarium in 
Philadelphia for treatment, and one day hurled himself from a 
window and was killed. Gillispie was sentenced for that burglary, 
and while in prison never received a caller or received or wrote a 

Thomas O'Brien, alias Burton, "king of the bunco-men," and 
George W. Post, his associate, were arrested in Worcester Nov. 
5, 1885, on suspicion of working their game on Elbridge 
G. Partridge. O'Brien and Post had been in Worcester several 
days, and an appointment had been made with Mr. Partridge 
to meet them at the Bay State House. Before the time of the 
appointment the arrests were made, and O'Brien and Post were 
willing to leave Worcester at the suggestion of the police. When 
arrested, O'Brien had $3,400 in cash, including several packages 
of $100, containing bills of the Drovers' Bank of Chicago. 

Within the last ten years O'Brien and Post were arrested on 
the charge of swindling a man named Corning, in Albany, out 

i 2 8 History of Police Department, 

of $10,000. They were each sentenced to ten years in state prison 
at Dennamora. O'Brien was released on a writ of review, and 
taken to Utica, where he escaped in a way similar to that of John 
Reed in Worcester. He went to New Orleans, where he took 
a fruiter for South America, and afterward went to France. He 
met a bunco-man named Wardwell in Paris, and during a quarrel 
between them, he killed Wardwell. He was sentenced to the 
galleys for life, being confined on Devil's Island, but made his 
escape. O'Brien is credited with making $1,000,000 out of his 

In the summer of 1897 a swindler opened an office in rooms 
716 and 717, State Mutual building, under the name of F. S. 
Lancaster, insurance agent, and also agent of the Worcester & 
Yukon Mining Development & Investment Co. He remained 
here during the summer, and figured with prominence in the 
sporting events given by the English societies. He lived with his 
wife at the Bay State House, and Sept. 15, for the purchase of 
furniture at Flint & Barker's, gave a check for $126.50, drawn on 
the Chapin National Bank of Springfield, signed by A. M. Ben- 
nett. The goods were delivered, and Lancaster received in 
change $104. Lancaster disappeared from Worcester, leaving a 
number of unpaid bills and small loans that were never settled. 
It developed that he was a swindler known as "Lord Beresford," 
alias Sidney Lascelles, who had served a long term in the Georgia 
penitentiary for forgery. He was also known as Sir Harry Vane, 
R. N., and as Lord Courtney. He married the daughter of Alex- 
ander Pelkey, a wealthy resident of Fitzgerald, Ga. After he 
left Worcester, he was located in Buffalo, where he lived for a 
time under the name C. H. Davis, and when last heard from 
was in the City of Mexico, where he swindled people on an ex- 
tensive scale. 

The North Grafton post-office was robbed on the night of Nov. 
7, 1898, by a gang of safe-blowers who had been operating in 
central Massachusetts. While the job in the North Grafton 
post-office was being done, a citizen of the town discovered it 
and notified William A. Gatchell and Amos G. Gatchell, con- 
stables of the town. They caught Lawrence Day and Thomas 
McGrath. While trying to escape, one of the burglars known 
as "French Louie" was shot and killed by one of the Gatchells. 
The fellow was getting away from the post-office, and was found 
dead in a field the following morning. Inspector Stone and Of- 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 129 

ficer W. H. Brady of the Worcester police force arrested Fred 
Norris in a Front street lodging-house the day after the burglary 
on suspicion of being one of the robbers. He could not be 
connected with the crime, but was identified as a Fitchburg burg- 
lar, and was sentenced to state prison by the same judge who 
sentenced Day and McGrath. No one claimed the body of the 
burglar killed by the Grafton constables. 

Horse-thieves have operated extensively in and about Worces- 
ter during the last half century. The arrest of John Lyons in 
Springfield, Xov. 12, 1896, and his identification by Inspector 
O'Day, and the arrest of Charles Dansreau in Danielsonville, Ct., 
Feb. 22, 1894, are the most interesting cases in the history of 
the local police. Both did a vast amount of work in their crimi- 
nal line, and were sent to state prison for long terms. 

Deputy Sheriffs McCann and Phelps of Springfield, while on 
a coon-hunt in the vicinity of W^est Springfield, Nov. 12, 1896, 
found Lyons with a new team in an abandoned barn. The fellow 
was unable to give a satisfactory account of himself, and was taken 
to Springfield on the charge of vagrancy. The arrest attracted 
the attention of the Worcester police, who communicated with 
the police of Springfield. Inspector O'Day went to Springfield, 
and identified the fellow as Lyons, who stole a pair of valuable 
colts from Charles B. Pratt in 1885. He was brought to Worces- 
ter and held on the charge of stealing ex-Mayor Pratt's team. 
In the meantime it was learned that the team found in Lyons' 
possession was stolen from Waterbury, Ct. Ex-Mayor Pratt did 
not care to prosecute the case, by reason of an agreement made 
at the time the horses were returned, and Lyons was turned 
over to the police of Waterbury. He was sentenced to eight years 
in state prison at Wethersfield for stealing the Waterbury team. 
Lyons had served eight years in Sing Sing for stealing a team 
in Westchester county, N. Y., being released in 1893. More than 
thirty years ago Lyons came to Worcester and robbed the resi- 
dence of R. C. Taylor in Quinsigamond. He found a safe which 
he supposed contained money and valuables, and moved the safe 
out of the house, driving away with it. This is the only case on 
record in local police history of a safe being taken away from a 
building by burglars. 

Charles Dansreau, arrested in Danielsonville, Ct., Feb. 22, 1894, 
by Inspectors O'Day and Stone of Worcester and Detective Pat- 
rick Parker of Providence, and brought to Worcester, stole dur- 

1 3 o 

History of Police Department, 

ing his short career as a horse-thief nearly seventy-five horses in 
Providence and six horses in Worcester. At the time of the ar- 
rest fourteen horses belonging in Rhode Island and six belonging 
to Worcester persons were found in his possession. He was tried 
at the May term of the Superior Criminal Court of Worcester 
county, 1894, and sentenced to thirteen years in the state prison, 
on the charges of stealing teams from George L. Stratton of Wor- 
cester. Dec. 30, 1893 ; from Francis W. Grout of \Vorcester, Jan. 



4, 1894; from John Manning of Cherry Valley, Jan. 6, 1894; from 
John J. Riordan of Worcester, Jan. 17, 1894; from John Jenberg, 
Jan. 27, 1894; from Gilbert J. Rugg, Feb. 7, 1894. He was traced 
from Worcester to Danielsonville, Ct., by Inspectors O'Day and 
Stone, and Deputy Sheriff Bowen of Danielsonville assisted in the 
arrest. This was the most extensive series of horse-thieving 
operations in Worcester. Feb. 22, 1890, Dansreau was arrested 
under the name of Johnson and sentenced to the Massachusetts 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 131 

No ease so thoroughly interested the public at large as the ar- 
rest, subsequent conviction, and escape of John Reed, as clever a 
bunco-man as ever operated in New England. He was arrested 
in Clinton Nov. 19, 1897, by officers of that town on the charge of 
gaming. He was hurrying out of the city, and had with him a 
partner believed to be "Lou" Ludlum, also a bunco-man, who es- 
caped. It was found a few days later that Charles R. Brown of 
Gardner had been buncoed out of $2,000, and Reed was held for 
the offense. The Gardner justice who heard the preliminary case 
held Reed in $2, 500, and bail was furnished. So much publicity had 
been given to Reed's arrest that bunco-cases that had taken place 
within two years in Massachusetts towns came to light, and Reed 
was suspected of doing it all. He had many friends in New York 
and New Jersey, who furnished bail for him in several counties, 
upward of $15,000 being furnished for securities by his friends. 
Indictments were found against him in Worcester and other coun- 
ties in the eastern part of the state for obtaining under false pre- 
tences $2,000 from Charles R. Brown of Gardner, $3,500 from 
Charles Sweetser of Chelmsford, $1,200 from S. D. Hardy of 
South Framingham, and $4,500 from Martin Wood of Bridge- 
water, the latter offense claiming to have been committed Sept. 
20, 1897. It was also claimed he secured $5,600 from Comford 
Thompson of Uxbridge, Sept. 15, 1896. It was unfortunate for 
Reed that he was arrested, for every man in the state who had 
been buncoed within ten years came to the front, and was ready 
to swear Reed was the man who did it. There is no doubt Reed 
had to answer for bunco-games with which he had no connection. 
He was tried on three complaints, and sentenced to not less than 
four nor more than five years on each of the Hardy, Wood 
and Sweetser complaints, a total of not less than twelve nor 
more than fifteen years. Oct. 29, 1898, he was brought to Wor- 
cester from the state prison by Officer James L. Abbott of the 
prison, and they stopped at a Front street hotel. Reed's visit was 
to confer with Col. W. A. Gile, his counsel. On the night of Oct. 
30 Reed escaped from the hotel while the officer was absent for a 
few moments. Officer Abbott lost his position, and Reed never 
was caught. How Reed got out of Worcester has never been 
printed, but it is known that after being concealed for a day or 
two, he went out in a soldier's uniform, this being about the time 
the 2d Massachusetts Regiment went to Springfield to be mus- 
tered out of service of the United States government. 

] 3 2 History of Police Department, 

After a year of no license in 1890, the opening of saloons May i, 
1 891, was marked by the murder of John Manning, nineteen years 
old, by James F. Quigley of Xew Haven, Ct., a book-agent who 
was canvassing in Worcester. The saloons had been open but a 
few hours on the ist of May when John Manning, employed as 
driver of a wood delivery wagon by P. A. Friberg, drove through 
Orange street. He was calling out "Wood, wood" from his seat 
when he met Quigley, who was drunk. Quigley imitated the call 
of the wood-peddler, and words followed. Manning was a crip- 
ple, and as he stepped off his team at the corner of Orange and 
Myrtle streets, Quigley struck him several blows on the head with 
his fist. The blows burst a blood-vessel in Manning's head, from 
which he died on the sidewalk within a few moments. Quigley 
was arrested, and sentenced to the house of correction for 
eighteen months. Manning was the son of Joshua S. Manning, 
and lived in the "rookery" on Cypress street. Quigley was later 
arrested in Boston for a murderous assault on Thomas McGuin- 
ness, a Worcester man in the liquor business in Boston. For that 
attempt to murder Quigley was sentenced to fifteen years in state 
prison, where he is now confined. 

William W. Graves killed his wife, Johanna Griffin Graves, in a 
lodging-house on Front street on the night of Dec. 28, 1893. The 
couple were arrested together on Summer street several years be- 
fore their marriage, and Inspector Stone advised him to pay his 
fine of $30 rather than go through a marriage ceremony. Graves 
could not raise money enough to pay the fines, and they were mar- 
ried. Their life was unhappy, and during a drunken carousal 
Graves kicked his wife so severely that she died in consequence. 
She was found in her room, and Graves was arrested later by In- 
spector Stone and Sergt. Thomas McMurray. He was sen- 
tenced to seven years in the state prison. 

William G. Carr shot and killed his sister, Ellen T. Lucier, in 
the front yard of her tenement, corner Belmont and Liberty 
streets, Sept. 29, 1894. Carr was employed in the Grove street 
wire-mill. On account of family troubles he became demented. 
He went to the home of his sister in an apparently friendly mood, 
and without a word of warning shot and instantly killed her. He 
was seen in Washington square during the afternoon by several 
acquaintances, and in the evening was arrested by Officer Thomas 
Hurley of Station i. Carr made no denial of the crime nor any 
attempt to resist arrest. He was examined to determine his men- 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 133 

tal condition, and was adjudged insane. Carr was committed to 
the Worcester Insane Hospital, where he remained several years, 
and is now confined in the insane-ward of the Bridgewater state 
farm. He is spoken of as appearing rational, and a short time 
ago made a move toward securing a pardon. He wrote friends 
in Worcester, but was advised to make no further attempt in that 

Dr. H. Robert Surles, a practicing physician in Worcester for 
many years, and prominent in the English societies, was arrested 
Jan. 22, 1895, on a charge of murdering Anna F. Murphy, a do- 
mestic employed by George F. Clark, at Salem square. He ad- 
mitted performing a criminal operation upon the girl, but his de- 
fense was that the operation did not cause her death. A young 
man concerned in the case turned state's evidence, furnishing the 
police with the information leading to Surles' arrest, and the de- 
fendant was sentenced to eight years in state prison, where he is 
now confined. This was the most sensational case of that charac- 
ter Worcester has experienced in half a century. 

For a crime of the same nature Lena Lavigne, alias Peterson, 
\vas sentenced to the house of correction for six years for causing 
the death of Ida \V. Briggs. She was arrested in a house on 
Grand street by Inspector Stone and Officer George A. McLeod 
June 29, 1897. 

Gilbert Parker, arrested in a house on Xewbury street by In- 
spector O'Day in 1887, was sentenced to state prison for five 
years for a similar crime. He was watched by the police for sev- 
eral months, and his house was so carefully arranged that it was 
almost impossible for a police officer to gain admission. 

The murder of Mesak D'Sahagian at 28 Liberty street on the 
night of Feb. 13, 1896, was the result of a row which had its 
origin in Armenia. Bagadasar Shervonian, who committed the 
murder, one of the most cruel and premeditated that ever took 
place in Worcester, was cook in the Armenian boarding-house 
on Liberty street where D'Sahagian lived. The latter came from 
Tarsus, and had been in Worcester several years at the time of the 
murder, but had repeated warnings that Shervonian would kill 
him, the grudge being conceived in the old country, and death 
was the only way, Shervonian said, to wipe it out. While D'Sa- 
hagian was asleep, Shervonian crept into his room, which was on 
the first floor, and with a Turkish knife, the blade of which was 
eight inches long, stabbed him through the heart. The blade was 


History of Police Department, 

driven its full length, and the heart was cut in two by the blow. 
Shervonian fled the house, and an alarm was sent to the police- 
station shortly after midnight. Search was made by the police 


for two days. S. Everett Phipps, a member of the Fire Depart- 
ment, learned from George C. Blanchard, a farmer on Salisbury 
street, that an Armenian answering the description of Shervonian 
had been working on Pliny Moore's farm, about two miles from 
the city on Salisbury street. Chief of Police Raymond and Dep- 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 135 

uty Chief of Police Amos Atkinson went to Moore's farm, and 
found Shervonian at work in a corn-crib. He was peeling pota- 
toes with the knife used to commit the murder. Chief Raymond 
arrested him, and Shervonian was driven to the police-station 
without making any resistance, although he denied committing 
the crime. He later made a confession, and was sentenced to 
state prison for life. 

The assault upon Thomas Devoy, a potato-dealer on Black- 
stone street, on the night of Feb. 27, 1896, gave the police a long 
and unsuccessful chase. Devoy brought potatoes from Canada, 
and sold them to peddlers from a freight-car. William Murray 
was a new-comer to Worcester among the peddlers, and the 
police knew very little of him. On the night of Feb. 27 Murray 
went to the car while Devoy was preparing to close for the night 
and struck him over the head with an iron bar, fracturing the 
skull. He was taken to the City Hospital, and as long as he lived 
in Worcester never spoke a word, the injury resulting in the total 
loss of speech. Devoy was well liked among the peddlers, and 
information leading to the identity was quickly furnished the 
police by those who traded at the car. Murray drove from W r or- 
cester after the assault in a team hired of Charles Randall, and 
was located in several cities, but his arrest was never effected. 

Alexander Berkman, sent to state prison in Pennsylvania for 
shooting H. C. Frick, of the Carnegie Steel Works, during the 
strike of 1892, lived in Worcester with Emma Goldman, the anar- 
chist, in rooms over the City National Bank, and went from Wor- 
cester directly to Pittsburg, Pa., just before the shooting. 

Inspectors O'Day and Stone, on January 16, 1896, unearthed a 
counterfeiters' den on the Major Brown farm in Oxford. A lot 
of counterfeiting tools was found, and several Armenians were 
arrested, but no convictions were secured. 

Ellen Carey, 9 Harding street, during an attack of insanity, 
killed Patrick Hassett, a boarder, on the night of March 25, 1899. 
She was committed to the Worcester Insane Hospital. 

Peter Finnigan shot and killed his wife July 4, 1887, at their 
home in East Worcester after a family fight. Finnigan was 
drunk, and had given the police trouble for a long time. He was 
sentenced to the house of correction for eighteen months. 

Not since Officer Samuel J. Lowell killed Henry T. W'eikle 
while shooting into a crowd was there another crime of such a 
nature until Feb. TO, 1899, when Officer Ira F. Goodwin of Sta- 

136 History of Police Department, 

tion 2 shot and instantly killed William Harvey, who was em- 
ployed by the Welcome Mission. Officer Goodwin had a fight 
with a prisoner, who assaulted him, and the prisoner got away. 
Goodwin ordered him to stop, and when he did not the officer 
fired two shots at him. One of them struck William Harvey, 
who was driving a wood team, and instantly killed him. He was 
suspended from duty, and indicted for manslaughter, but the case 
was placed on file. He was one of the most conscientious officers 


on the force, and during his trial had the sympathy of the public. 
He was reinstated on the police force Feb. 7, 1900. 

One of the most desperate attempts ever made to kill a police 
officer was that upon Officer Romanzo Thayer of Station i on the 
night of July 31, 1892. Officer Thayer and Officer Stone, now 
chief of police, were detailed as rum-officers during 1891. One 
of the places where rum was openly sold in violation of the law 
was a boarding-house on Thomas street, run by Edward D. Les- 
lie. Pie had threatened the life of Officer Thaver if he did not 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 137 

quit raiding his house. Officer Thayer had ceased doing special 
work as a liquor officer, and was traveling a beat, going off duty 
on the night of the assault at i o'clock. He lived on Paine street, 
and was obliged to walk through a dark section of wooded land 
on the way to his home. It was in this clump of trees, near the 
home of Officer Thayer, that Leslie pounced upon him, knocking 
him to the ground with a baseball bat. When Officer Thayer was 
found, he was covered with blood, and was thought to be dead. 
For many weeks he was confined to his home, and for a week his 
life hung by a thread. Leslie was suspected, and arrested within 
twenty-four hours after the assault. He was sentenced to seven 
years in state prison. 

Deputy Chief of Police Amos Atkinson has a scar on the back 
of his head that will go to the grave with him. He received it in 
a fight in Buck's court, off Mechanic street, in 1870, two years 
after he went on the force. There was a midnight row in the ten- 
ement occupied by a man named Hughes. Officers Atkinson and 
Henry Allen went into the tenement to quell the disturbance. 
There were four men and a woman, and all fought the officers. 
Officer Allen deserted Atkinson when the woman threw a stove- 
lid at them. Officer Atkinson jumped over the stove and Hughes 
struck him with an iron bar on the head, cutting a long gash. At- 
kinson rushed to the door and fired his revolver, attracting the at- 
tention of Officers S. W. Ranger and Joseph M. Dyson. Officer 
Atkinson remained at the house, preventing the four assailants 
from escaping, and while he was weak from the blow and loss of 
blood, he fought the men until the arrival of other officers. Hen- 
ry Allen afterward resigned from the department. 

The last murder-case on which Inspector Stone worked was 
the murder of Asa Bennett in Hubbardston on the night of Dec. 
21, 1899. The state police were detailed on the case, and State 
Detective Peleg F. Milrray asked the local department for. the 
services of Inspector Stone. The case has not been cleared up, 
not sufficient evidence being secured to make an arrest. Inspector 
Stone was obliged to leave the case by reason of his appointment 
as chief of police. 

138 History of Police Department, 


Increase of Force and Appointment of Night-Sergeants by Mayor F. A. 
Harrington Retirement of City Marshal \V. Ansel Washburn Adminis- 
trations of Maj. E. T. Raymond and Return of Col. James M. Drennan - 
Reorganization of Department by Mayor A. B. R. Sprague Inspector 
William J. E. Stone Appointed Chief. 

When Francis A. Harrington became mayor in 1890, one of the 
most urgent recommendations in his inaugural was that the police 
force be increased to 100 patrolmen. When Mayor Winslow 
went out of office, there were 79 patrolmen, and the total strength 
of the department was 94 members. The department had to its 
credit nearly $100,000 worth of property, and the operation of the 
civil-service law, and the action of Mayor Winslow in placing the 
department upon a permanent basis, had brought it up to a high 
standard. The city was going through the process of expansion, 
and there was an urgent demand from the suburban sections for 
additional police protection. Mayor Harrington, being a subur- 
ban resident, realized the needs of more police, and made it a 
strong feature of his inaugural. 

In his report for 1889 City Marshal Washburn made special 
mention of the services of Officers Romanzo Thayer, S. M. Bel- 
lows, Thomas Hurley, James T. Johnson, M. J. O'Connell, O. A. 
Johnson, W. H. Brady and Inspector Patrick O'Day for their part 
taken in arrests of burglars who had operated about Worcester, 
breaking into several residences on the west side and in stores on 
the east side. 

Mayor Harrington inaugurated his official acts with the appoint- 
ment of ten patrolmen, all from the civil-service list, who were 
George A. McLeod, Daniel L. Lamson, John Keyes, James J. 
Tierney, John F. White, John B. McCarthy, August Thunman, 
Frank F. Burbank, Fred C. Eaton and Thomas F. Boyle. Since 
1879 there had been no officials who looked after the immediate 
work of the night-police, and the appointment of sergeants was 
agitated, followed by the City Council passing an order recom- 
mending their appointment. Mayor Harrington selected from 
the ranks Thomas McMurray and James T. Johnson of Station i, 
and William Hickey and John W. Warren of Station 2, appoint- 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 139 

ing them sergeants at a salary of $1,000 a year, these being made 
March 21. 

There were 3,01 1 arrests made during 1890, a decrease of nearly 
1,000 over the previous year. The first year of Mayor Harring- 
ton's administration was the second no-license year, and the re- 
port of the city marshal showed that nearly all arrests were for 
misdemeanors, and that crimes of a serious nature had been com- 
paratively few. The expenditures of the department for 1891 were 
$104,599.95, with a revenue of $13,290.33, a net expense of $91,- 
309.62. So the first year of the last decade began with 104 per- 
sons in the department and an annual expenditure of over $100,- 
ooo. A disposition to violate the law prohibiting the sale of 
liquor during the no-license year of 1890 made additional work for 
the police. During 1890 there were served 1,588 search-warrants, 
resulting in the seizure of about 575 gallons of liquor. The wis- 
dom of appointing a police matron is clearly shown in the report 
of Mrs. Lane. There were 236 arrests of women, which was said 
to be unusually small in number in comparison with license years. 
There were 129 arrests for drunkenness and 45 for keeping liquor. 

In 1891 the office of detective was changed to that of inspector. 
The reason was that for a few years previous, several detective 
agencies had started up, and their work was of such a questionable 
character that it lowered the standard of legitimate detective work. 
During that year William J. E. Stone and Romanzo Thayer, 
patrolmen attached to Station i, were detailed for special duty, 
and Officer Stone was appointed inspector the following year on 
recommendation of City Marshal Washburn. Inspector Reuben 
M. Colby resigned Sept. 28, 1891, on account of sickness, and 
died a few years later in the Soldiers' Home at Chelsea. Patrick 
Diggins of Station 2 died July 16, and Charles F. Gould and Gus- 
taf Fyrberg were appointed to the force Oct. 12. 

The last report by City Marshal W. Ansel Washburn was in 
1892, he being succeeded the following year by Maj. E. T. Ray- 
mond. His appointment was made by Mayor Henry A. Marsh. 
There were in the department during the year 89 patrolmen, a 
total of the rank and file of 107 members, 75 at Station I and 32 at 
Station 2. That year an order was adopted in the City Council 
without much opposition directing the city physician "to examine 
all members of the force, except the city marshal and assistant 
marshals, as to their physical qualifications for the positions." 
March 16 Patrolmen Marshall S. Green, William Finneran, 

CIATIOX FROM 1898 TO 1900. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 141 

Michael J. O'Connell and Nicholas J. Mooney were discharged for 
being physically disqualified, and Joseph H. Flint, Henry H. Me- 
corney, Elliott Tyler and Sylvanus G. Bullock, found physically 
defective, were reduced to the duties and pay of doormen. Their 
pay was fixed at $600 a year, but upon petition it was later raised, 
but not to the standard of a patrolman. Patrick E. Ratigan, 
doorman at Station 2, died Dec. 22, 1892, and Freeman H. Samp- 
son of Station i died Sept. 28. Officer David Goggin was de- 
tailed to the Board of Health during a small-pox outbreak, and 
has since been connected with that board. Officers William Law- 
rence, Wyman S. White and Edward S. Crowell resigned in 1892, 
and Michael Deady, Michael J. Sullivan and John F. Beahn left 
the force. 

With the inauguration of Mayor Henry A. Marsh in 1893, came 
the appointment of Maj. E. T. Raymond as city marshal. He had 
been clerk of the Central District Court for many years, but in 
a change of administration a Democrat was appointed to his 
place. He had the training of a soldier, being a veteran of the 
Civil \Var, and introduced much discipline that was new to the de- 
partment. He was active, and in his four years' connection with 
the department had remarkable success. He went out of office 
with a good record as an executive officer and superintendent of 
police. He was the last city marshal and the first chief of police 
Worcester had, for during his connection with the office the city 
charter was accepted, which made many changes in the several 
departments, one of them being a change of name from city mar- 
shal to chief of police. In Chief Raymond's administration regu- 
lar drills were introduced and successfully carried out, and there 
was an infusion of new life into the department. The department 
took on many military ideas, and the style of uniform was 
changed. The effect of these changes was healthy, and to-day 
the department is better for his connection with it. He gave more 
of his time to it than was absolutely needed, not feeling to take 
the time for a vacation, but his active interest resulted in success- 
ful work by his officers. He enjoyed going out to make an arrest 
with some of the officials. He made several, including a mur- 
derer, and felt a pride in the department whenever a kind word 
was said of it. 

City Marshal Raymond recommended two new stations, one to 
be located in the vicinity of Shrewsbury street. Earlv in his ad- 

142 History of Police Department, 

ministration the ambulance used for the transfer of sick persons 
was turned over to the custody of the trustees of the City Hospi- 
tal. The Police Department continued to care for the emergency 
cases, of which there have been enough to keep it fairly busy, 
being an average of one a day. Legislation was begun by Chief 
Raymond to check the speed made through the public streets by 
trolley-cars, and officers were detailed to watch the speed of cars 
on lines within the city limits. This resulted in several cases 
being heard in court relative to cars running in speed exceeding 
that allowed by law. He also recommended an ordinance pro- 
hibiting riding bicycles on sidewalks, and his recommendations 
were heeded by the City Council. The report of the matron for 
1892 showed 446 arrests, 372 of them being for drunkenness. 
Michael J. Healey of Station 2 died June 4, and William H. John- 
son, so long stationed at Union Station, resigned after serving the 
department a quarter of a century. 

In 1894 the total force of the department was 119 persons, of 
whom 99 were patrolmen. The deputy chiefs of police were 
Amos Atkinson and F. C. Thayer. This year Maj. Raymond 
changed the name of his official title from city marshal to chief of 
police, and the assistant marshals became deputy chiefs of police. 
The enlargement of the headquarters, which seven years before 
had been thought ample for the department for many years, was 
recommended ; also building a stable in the rear of the building, 
and providing sleeping quarters. He argued that men should 
sleep in the station-house, in case of a riot, or any occasion where 
policemen were required quickly. No provision could be made at 
that time, and there was added to the fire-alarm system a riot-call, 
which is known as box 444, but never has been used. For use of 
the department the City Council appropriated $114,000, and the 
revenue from other sources amounted to $6,000, giving the de- 
partment $120,000 for its use. The pay-roll was $111,195. There 
were during the year 4,200 arrests, of which number 2,747 were 
for drunkenness, and the report of the police matron showed 323 

There were four additions to the force in 1895. James S. 
O'Connor died on Sept. 9, and Bellville R. Hunter was killed at 
Brunswick, Me., on the night of August 12, the first day of his 
vacation, while walkmg on the railroad-track from the depot to 
the home of a relative, after the arrival of the train from Boston. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 143 

Sept. 15 Officer Fred E. Fisher resigned from the force to go into 
another business, and James H. Connor was dropped from the 
force. Early in the summer there was complaint from farmers 
living in the suburban districts against fruit-thieves, and an officer 
was detailed for mounted duty. An appropriation of $400 was 
asked for to provide for mounted officers in 1896. The needs of 
an officer whose duty it should be to inspect licensed places, 
brokers, junk-dealers, and second-hand clothing-dealers, also 
hacks and job wagons, were shown and an extra man asked for. 
It resulted in detailing Officer Herbert J. Fisher as inspector of 
junk. That year Chief Raymond made a strong recommendation 
in favor of the reorganization of the department. He claimed 
there were two deputy chiefs of police, but both had the same 
authority, and there was need of but one ; that he be moved to the 
office of the chief of police, and a day-captain be appointed for 
office-duty. This recommendation was considered by the City 
Council, and was also recommended by Mayor A. B. R. Sprague. 
The recommendation was also made that the force properly or- 
ganized should consist of one chief of police, one deputy chief of 
police, and for Station i an addition of one lieutenant and one 
sergeant. This was renewed in 1896, and the reorganization came 
in 1897. 

In 1896 the bicycle-squad came into existence. Officer George 
H. Hill, who was appointed on the force in 1893, was assigned to 
bicycle-duty June n, his territory being confined to Institute"park 
and Park avenue. The City Council passed an ordinance limit- 
ing the speed of bicycles in parks and public streets, and for a few 
days the police-books showed frequent arrests made by Officer 
Hill on his bicycle. This action had a good effect, for as soon 
as riders knew that an officer was detailed for that duty, fast 
riding ceased, and the days of the "scorcher" on the avenue and 
in the parks ended. Before the end of the season other riders 
were added to the force, and the reform inaugurated by Chief 
Raymond has been in force since, the number of riders being in- 
creased yearly. 

In April, 1896, Officer Hill arrested Edward Kelley for at- 
tempted burglary. Chief of Police Raymond issued an order 
commending him for his work, and posted an order in the guard- 
room of both stations. It is the only instance in the history of 
the department where such an order was issued. It reads : 


_ P R. E. S I D E.MT . 

'i'v twr" 


O I f^.E CT 

CIATION, 1900. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 145 

Worcester, Mass., April 4, 1896. 
Gen. Order No. 31. 

The discovery and capture of three men for breaking and entering on the 
night of April 3, by Patrolman George H. Hill, deserves special notice, and 
for the energy, zeal and courage displayed, Patrolman Hill is hereby ten- 
dered the commendaticfn and thanks of the chief of this department. 

This order will be read by the officers in charge of the stations to each 


By order of 


Chief of Police. 

In his report of 1896 relative to the reorganization of the de- 
partment, Chief of Police Raymond said : "The present organiza- 
tion has been in existence since 1848, nearly fifty years, and what- 
ever merits it may have had, it is to-day cumbersome and top- 
heavy. For the best interests of the Police Department, this 
subject should receive careful consideration. If the present or- 
ganization is to continue, I earnestly recommend that the appoint- 
ing-power designate one of the two deputies as first deputy, in 
order that in the absence of the chief the responsibility may fall 
upon some one certain officer." With this recommendation Chief 
of Police Raymond resigned at the close of the year to go back to 
his former position of clerk of the Central District Court, which 
he now holds, but he never has lost his interest in the department 
which had such a fascination for him. 

The reorganization of the department came with the beginning 
of Mayor Sprague's second term in 1897, Deputy Chief of Police 
F. C. Thayer being dropped, and Deputy Chief of Police Amos 
Atkinson was transferred to duty in the office of the chief of 
police. Capt. David A. Matthews was transferred from night to 
day duty, and at Station i Sergt. James T. Johnson was detailed 
to the night-captain's desk. Dec. 14, 1896, an order passed the 
City Council, after several weeks' consideration, adopting a 
graded system for the department. By this order the pay of 
patrolmen was advanced from $2.50 to $2.75 a day, the latter 
amount being paid patrolmen who had been two years in the 
department. The graded system provided for $2.25 a day for 
first-year men, $2.50 for second-year men, and $2.75 for men on 
the force three years or longer. The new scale of salaries was 
ordered to go into operation Dec. i, 1896. The reorganization 
was completed April 5, 1897, by these appointments by Mayor 
Sprague: Sergt. James T. Johnson of Station i, promoted to 

I4 6 History of Police Department, 

lieutenant ; Sergt. Matthew J. Walsh of Station 2, promoted to 
lieutenant; Patrolman George H. Hill of Station i, promoted to 
sergeant; Patrolman Walter N. Drohan of Station i, promoted to 

In 1897 Col. James M. Drennan, who had served several years 
as city marshal, and a deputy sheriff for many years, returned to 
the department as its chief. The same careful system which 
characterized his early connection with the police was carried out. 
He introduced some reforms, but in the course of his adminis- 
tration of three years the police worked upon general lines 
adopted earlier in the decade by Chief of Police Raymond. In 
his first report he said : "After an absence of thirteen years, I was 
again appointed to take charge of the department, and during 
those years I have kept well in touch with the force and its work. 
In my report of thirteen years ago, I stated that as a matter of 
necessity the organization of the department should be changed 
to consist of chief, deputy chief, captains, lieutenants, inspectors, 
sergeants and patrolmen, and after all these years of running in 
the old ruts, I have had the honor and pleasure of putting in force 
the long-hoped-for change." He also recommended that there 
be some form of punishment for the infringement of police rules 
and regulations other than dismissal or being allowed to resign ; 
he recommended the appointment of ten additional officers and 
establishment of a new police signal service ; he made a lengthy 
recommendation for a police pension system applying to members 
of the department who had been in continuous service for twenty- 
five years or more ; he suggested the money received from the pa- 
trolmen for extra duty and for licenses be applied to a pension 
fund, and that the officers retired with pensions be termed a veter- 
an reserve corps, a custom followed in New Haven, where the de- 
partment is much larger than Worcester and the city smaller. At 
the close of Chief Drennan's first year the force had 130 persons, 
of whom 108 were patrolmen. The pay-roll of the department was 
$129,384, and the total cost of running it was $137,646. In 1897 
Patrick Collins and Joseph H. Flint resigned from the force, and 
Moses Thayer and Joseph A. Toupin were dismissed. Joseph H. 
Flint had been a member of the department since 1856, and re- 
signed on account of sickness. 

In 1898 there were seven men appointed, increasing the force 
to 112 patrolmen. In June, 1898, the License Board was 
organized, of which Chief of Police Drennan was chairman. The 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 147 

other members were E. L. Vaughn, chief of the Fire Depart- 
ment, and James C. Coffey, clerk of the Board of Health. This 
board took from the aldermen many duties, and in granting 
licenses and permits is governed largely by the reports of Herbert 
J. Fisher, inspector of junk. This year Officers Michael F. Ken- 
nedy and Daniel L. Lamson were dropped from the force, Officer 
Jeremiah J. Moynihan went to Cuba as captain of the Emmet 
Guards, in the 9th Regiment of Volunteers, and Officer Andrew 
J. Benson died April 29. He was a member of the department 
since May 8, 1893. Early in the year Mayor Rufus B. Dodge, Jr., 
who succeeded Mayor A. B. R. Sprague, recommended that the 
office of chief of police be made permanent. 

In 1898 the police had three days which tested the ability of the 
department in handling crowds, but it was successfully done. 
These days were when the Worcester companies of the 2d and 9th 
Regiments of Volunteers left for camp and the day when the com- 
panies of the 2d Regiment returned. Late in the year 1898 the 
department took possession of the Fire Department building ad- 
joining the police building, and it is used as a dormitory and 
stable for the ambulance service. The custom was established 
several months later of detailing five men from each relief to sleep 
in the dormitory when going off duty at i o'clock in the morning. 
In closing his report for the year, Chief Drennan said : "A number 
of officers are entitled to honorable mention for meritorious and 
courageous acts during the year. Men who can enter a building 
in the night-time and capture a burglar single-handed have what 
may be termed 'Hobson courage,' and have well established them- 
selves in the estimation of their officers and comrades as brave 
men. We were visited by a gang of burglars for a short time in 
midsummer, and after doing us some damage, and while the 
officers were closing in on them, they visited North Grafton to rob 
the post-office. While there, thanks to the brave officers of that 
town, the gang met its Waterloo. One was killed outright, two 
others arrested, and one other of the gang was arrested by the 
officers of this department, and since they were broken up we have 
had no further trouble." 

In 1899 two appointments were made, Frank P. A. Gilchrist 
and Albert C. Moulton, both on June 13. A year later Officer 
Moulton resigned to go into other business. A surgeon was 
added to the department for ambulance duty and two ambulance 
drivers were added, the City Council having placed the entire 


Worcester, Massachusetts. 149 

ambulance system under the supervision of the Police Depart- 
ment. Officer B. C. Dustin resigned, and Charles A. Garland and 
Thomas C. Cummings died, the former Sept. 13, 1899, and the 
latter Oct. 29. Both were attached to Station i at the time of their 
death, and Officer Garland had worn number I badge since the 
resignation of Officer J. H. Flint several years before. He was 
appointed by Mayor Blake in 1868, and with the exception of one 
year served until his death. He was a veteran of the Civil War, 
serving for three years in Co. C, 25th Massachusetts Volunteer 
Infantry. Officer Cummings was appointed by Mayor Reed Jan. 
7, 1884, and served continuously until his death. During the 
spring of 1899, Station i was damaged by a fire. It was renovated 
and new sanitary appliances were put in. The adjoining building 
was equipped as a dormitory and surgeon's department. This 
year the department cared for 12,000 lodgers, and at Welcome 
Mission there were lodged 8,000, a total of 20,000 wanderers who 
found shelter in the city. The new signal service was put into 
operation in September, 1899. The average number of arrests for 
drunkenness since 1892 was 3,000 a year. 

The report of Police Matron Sawtelle showed for 1899 362 ar- 
rests, 24 lodgers, 2 persons detained, 43 neglected children, 71 lost 
children and 16 insane women cared for, and 7 runaway children 
detained, a total of 525 women and children who came under her 
personal supervision. The pay-roll for 1899 was $135,557.26, and 
the total expenses were $158,656.02. The property in the care of 
the chief of police included $875 personal in the chief's office, $13,- 
644 on Lamartine street, $2,981 in the stables, $10,770 in the 
guard-room, $42 in the cell-room, $65 in the captain's office, $135 
in the matron's rooms, $75 in the surgeon's rooms, $173 in the 
dormitory, $237 in the inspectors' office, and $314 at Station 2, a 
total valuation of $29,311. As a farewell recommendation Chief 
Drennan urged a police commission and pension system. 

There are fifteen patrolmen and doormen who were appointed 
to the force more than twenty years ago. They are Edson Fair- 
banks, appointed Jan. i, 1873; Elliott Tyler, appointed Jan. i, 
1873; William A. Piper, appointed Jan. 17, 1873; Addison March, 
appointed Jan. 17, 1873; James M. Maloney, appointed July 17, 
1873; George V. Barker, appointed Jan. i, 1872; Charles W. Bar- 
ker, appointed Sept. 17, 1872; David Goggin, appointed Jan. 6, 
1873; Henry H. Mecorney, appointed Jan. i, 1875; Orrin A. 
Johnson, appointed Jan. i, 1879; Daniel McCarthy, appointed 

150 History of Police Department, 

Jan. i, 1879; Henry B. Streeter, appointed Jan. i, 1873; Samuel 
W. Ward, appointed Jan. i, 1879; Michael J. Foley, appointed 
Jan. i, 1874; Robert F. Mathews, appointed Jan. 7, 1879. 

Important changes in the department were made May i, 1899, 
when Capt. David A. Matthews of Station i was transferred to 
Station 2, and Capt. Sumner W. Ranger went from Station 2 to 
Station i. Sergts. Thomas McMurray and Walter N. Drohan of 
Station i exchanged places with Sergts. William Hickey and John 
W. Warren of Station 2. 

In 1900 William J. E. Stone, who had been an inspector since 
1891, succeeded Chief of Police James M. Drennan, his appoint- 
ment being made by Mayor Rufus B. Dodge, Jr. Chief Stone is 
the youngest man who has held the office. The department to- 
day numbers 118 patrolmen, and its total strength is 137 persons. 
Of this number 34 men are veterans of the Civil War and i of the 
American-Spanish War. The veterans are as follows : Clerk 
William L. Robinson, navy ; Capt. David A. Matthews, 3d and 5th 
Massachusetts Batteries and 8th United States Cavalry ; Sylvanus 
G. Bullock, 25th Massachusetts Regiment; William A. Piper, ist 
New Hampshire Cavalry; Henry W. Butler, ist Connecticut Cav- 
alry ; James Donahue, 7th New York Infantry ; John Keyes, 36th 
Massachusetts Regiment; John Legasey, i5th Massachusetts 
Regiment; Addison March, 2ist Massachusetts Regiment; 
Samuel W. Ward, 25th Massachusetts Regiment; Charles W. 
Barker, navy; Michael Cody, navy; Michael G. Donahoe, i7th 
Massachusetts Regiment and 4th Massachusetts H. A. ; Edson 
Fairbanks, 3d Massachusetts Rifles and 5 ist Massachusetts Regi- 
ment ; Michael J. Foley, 5oth Massachusetts Regiment and Co. F, 
4th Massachusetts H. A.; Joseph Midgley, 5 ist Massachusetts 
Regiment ; Frank W. Millett, 2d Maine Cavalry ; Genery T. Dar- 
ling, 1 5th New York Regiment; Jeremiah J. Moynihan, captain 
G Co., 9th Massachusetts Regiment of Volunteers in Cuba in 
1898; Chandler J. Pike, 7th Massachusetts Regiment; John J. 
Flaherty, navy ; Charles F. Gould, 34th Massachusetts Regiment ; 
George W. Hall, 25th Massachusetts Regiment; William H. 
Mason, 2d Massachusetts H. A. ; Robert F. Mathews, 3d Massa- 
chusetts Battery ; John H. Walker, 3d Massachusetts H. A. ; 
Lieut. Matthew J. Walsh, a New York regiment ; Sergt. John W. 
Warren, 2 ist Massachusetts Regiment; Sergt. William Hickey, 
3d Battalion Rifles (old Emmet Guards) and navy ; George V. 
Barker, 42d Massachusetts Regiment; Peter J. O'Marrah, 37th 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 151 

New York Regiment ; James M. Quimby, 2d New Hampshire 
Regiment ; Patrick F. Ryan, 4th Massachusetts Cavalry. 

Since Jan. i, 1900, there have been added to the force Thomas 
J. Kelleher, George A. Jackson, Pierce P. Power, Richard J. Ker- 
wick and John H. Walker, the latter being from the veteran civil- 
service list. The pay-roll of the department last year was $135,- 
500, and the total expense, including the cost of the signal service, 
was $158,656. 

The attempt to establish a pension system for the police began 
in 1891, and will be carried into the new century. Discussion in 
a general way has been going on since the force was made per- 
manent in 1888 by Mayor Samuel Winslow. It did not take active 
form until 1891, when an order was introduced into the City 
Council providing for a physical examination of the members -of 
the force. The organization of the Worcester Police Relief As- 
sociation in 1887 was the first relief measure that had been put 
into force by the department. The action of the City Council in 
recommending the examination was done in a spirit which led the 
members of the force to believe the city had in mind the ac- 
ceptance of a bill providing for a pension system. This did not 
prove to be the case, however, and rather than submit to the in- 
dignity of being dropped as a result of physical defects, several of 
the force resigned before the examinations were made. 

The general police pension bill introduced into the Legislature 
in 1892 provided for pensioning police of cities of 75,000 inhabi- 
tants and over for all who had served fifteen years or longer who 
had become physically incapacitated by police duty. The force 
had reason to expect that this pension law would not be opposed 
by the city government and eventually would be accepted by the 
city. The argument favoring the examination of policemen was 
based upon the fact that this bill was before the Legislature. 
When the bill came before the legislative committee for a hear- 
ing, Mayor F. A. Harrington went before it in opposition, acting 
under the instructions of the City Council. Nicholas J. Mooney, 
who fell a victim to the examination by reason of imperfect eye- 
sight, was at the hearing in support of the bill and opposed Mayor 
Harrington. The bill became a law, but Worcester did not ac- 
cept its provisions. For several years the movement slumbered, 
but has recently been revived. Councilman N. J. Mooney had an 
order brought before the Police Committee several years ago to 
consider the advisability of accepting the pension bill, but it died 


Worcester, Massachusetts. 153 

in committee. The latest attempt to get the City Council to ac- 
cept its provisions was made in 1899 by Councilman John H, 
Meagher of Ward 3, a member of the Committee on Police. Hfs 
order passed both branches of the City Council, but further con- 
sideration was not urged. The police have come to believe pa- 
tience a virtue that needs cultivation, and feel satisfied that some 
future city council will place them on an equal footing with other 
cities in the country by the adoption of a pension system. 

The city marshals and chiefs of police since the incorporation 
of Worcester as a city have been: George Jones, i848-'49-'5o-'5i 
and '52; Alvan Allen, 1853; Lovell Baker, 1854; Jonathan Day, 
1855; Frederic \Varren, i856-'57 and '58; J. Waldo Denny, part 
of 1858; William S. Lincoln, 1859; Ivers Phillips, 1860; Levi 
Barker, 1861 ; William E. Starr, 1862; Charles B. Pratt, i863-'64 
and '65; Joseph B. Knox, 1866; A. B. R. Sprague, 1867, six 
weeks; James M. Drennan, i867-'68-'69-'7o-'7i-'8o-'8i-'82-'97- 
'98 and '99; Jonathan B. Sibley, 1872; W. Ansel Washburn, 1873- 
7 75-'76-'77-'78-'79-'83-'86-'87-'88-'89-'9CK9i and '92; A. Davis 
Pratt, 1874; Amos Atkinson, 1884 and '85 ; Edward T. Raymond, 
4-'95 and '96; William J. E. Stone, 1900. 

There has been no need to draw on the imagination in writing 
the history of the Worcester Police Department, as truth is not 
only stranger, but more profitable than fiction. The duties of the 
police officer afford peculiar opportunities for the study of hu- 
man nature, presenting a wide field not only for the pen of the 
novelist, but for the hand of the philanthropist. The Worcester 
department can safely rest upon its record, which is as creditable 
as could be desired. No city has had better success in bringing 
criminals to justice, and the examination of authorities of noto- 
rious criminals finds the names of many who have temporarily," at 
least, reached the end of their career within the borders of the 
Heart of the Commonwealth. The expense of maintaining this 
strong right arm of the civil government is not extravagant, com- 
pared with cities of a like population. The work done compares 
favorably with that in larger cities where the department is 
larger and the expenses considerably higher. The cost in com- 
parison with the work has not been great. The department has 
been a prominent factor in the development of Greater Worcester, 
the most cosmopolitan city in the United States. The foreign- 

154 History of Police Department, 

born population is a large per cent, of the entire population of the 
city, and in view of the many factions from many climes, crime of 
a serious nature is comparatively small. The puritanical ideas of 
government have not been completely eliminated, and an occa- 
sional wave of reform floats over the Heart of the Common- 
wealth, creating interest for a brief period, then passes on. There 
have been no great sensations in Worcester since its incorpora- 
tion as a city. The steady work of the department has been its 
feature. Strikes and riots have been few in number. In 1868 ihe 
Yale-Harvard crews rowed their last race on Lake Quinsiga- 
rnond, and the excitement that followed the victory is not forgot- 
ten by the policemen who took part in the turbulent scenes at the 
Bay State House and on Main street the evening following the 
race ; the Butler political convention in Mechanics Hall in 1883 is 
one of the incidents in the work of the department that is 
frequently referred to in the line of riots. Strikes have caused 
little trouble. Work was done by the police at the strike of S. R. 
Hey wood's shoe factory in 1887, there was some excitement at 
the time of the Crispin strike, and on two occasions the police 
have been sent out of the city to guard property threatened by 
strikers. A detail went to Millville in 1883 to protect the rubber 
works, and a squad went to Cambridge in 1887 for duty at the 
street-railway strike. 

With the dawn of the new century the Worcester Police De- 
partment, with its youngest executive, looks back over a half cen- 
tury to review a record of which the city can well be proud. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 1 5 5 


Mayor Rufus B. Dodge, Jr.'s, Long Familiarity with Police Work W. J. 
E. Stone's Success as Patrolman and Inspector Deputy Chief Amos 
Atkinson in Department More than Thirty Years Capt. D. A. Matthews' 
Brave Record as Indian-Fighter Capt. S. W. Ranger's Connection with 
Clark Murder-Case Police Committee of 1900. 

The appointments of chief of police and deputy chief of police 
are made by the mayor. With them is left detail of the manage- 
ment of the department, but he is directly responsible for their 
official acts. Error of judgment by them reflects upon his admin- 
istration. For this reason the mayor necessarily exercises his 
best judgment in the appointment of his chief of police. The 
officials responsible for the work of the department are well 
known to the people of Worcester, having been in active service 
upward of fifteen years. 


Rufus B. Dodge, Jr., the youngest man elected to the office of 
mayor of Worcester, was born in Charlton Nov. 24, 1861. His 
father, Hon. Rufus B. Dodge, who still lives in Charlton, although 
feeble in health, was a member of the state Senate at that time. 
His boyhood days were passed on the farm in his country home, 
and he attended the common schools of that town, taking subse- 
quently a course in Nichols Academy at Dudley. In 1881, when 
a minor, being only twenty years of age, the people of his native 
town elected him a member of the School Committee for three 
years. This occurrence is, perhaps, unparalleled in the state, but 
at the time of his election a search of the laws showed there was 
nothing to prevent the election of a minor to that office. 

In 1883 Mr. Dodge came to Worcester to study law, though 
for a time making his home in Charlton. He read law for a few 
months in the local law office, then entered the Boston University 
Law School. Taking the three years' course in two, he was 
graduated in 1885. He immediately entered upon the practice of 
law in Worcester, which has since been his home, and has built 
up a business that has increased from year to year. In 1890 he 


Worcester, Massachusetts. 157 

was elected a commissioner of insolvency, and succeeded himself 
to the office in 1891 and 1892. In 1893 he was elected to the 
Board of Aldermen from Ward 7, and was reflected in 1894 and 
1895, being the president of the board the last year. He was one 
of the most valuable members of the board, and during his alder- 
manic career showed good judgment in matters of public 
importance and became influential on matters of importance, his 
opinions being given valuable consideration by his colleagues. In 
December, 1895, he was candidate of the Republican party for 
mayor, but on account of a disruption in the ranks of the party 
caused by a dispute regarding the seating of a ward-delegation in 
the municipal convention, he was defeated for the office by Gen. 
A. B. R. Sprague. In December, 1897, he contested the office 
with Gen. Sprague, and won by a decided majority, and his ma- 
jorities have increased the following two years of his reelection. 
He was elected in 1899 by the largest majority ever given a candi- 
date for the office where there was an opponent against him. He 
is one of the most popular men who ever held the office, and has 
showed wise business judgment in handling the affairs of the ad- 
ministration. He is a keen, progressive, go-ahead Republican, 
and is now regarded one of the most prominent of his party in 
\Yorcester county. 

When Mayor Dodge was in the Board of Aldermen, he was 
appointed member of the Police Committee, which gave him op- 
portunity to become familiar with the needs of the department. 
Violations of department rules were brought before the committee 
before the city charter was adopted. This placed affairs of police 
more directly in the hands of the mayor. He gave the depart- 
ment careful study, and for several years had been an admirer of 
Inspector W. J. E. Stone, appointed to that office two years be- 
fore he went into the Board of Aldermen. He watched the young 
official's progress, and once remarked to a friend that if he ever 
had a chance he would "place that young man in a position where 
the people would see his real worth/' When the opportunity 
came, he did not do as he intended, appointing Col. James M. 
Drennan chief of police to succeed himself. In 1899 Mayor 
Dodge decided to make a change in the department, and without 
consulting any of his friends selected Inspector Stone for chief of 
police. It came to Inspector Stone as such a surprise he wanted 
time to think the matter over. He did not feel he was capable of 
assuming so much responsibility, but being assured by Mayor 

158 History of Police Department, 

Dodge that he had sufficient confidence in his ability to manage 
the department, he consented to take the position on condition a 
change was to be made. This is how Inspector Stone stepped 
from that office to chief of police without the asking, or having 
any friends intercede in his behalf. Mayor Dodge discovered 
him and brought him out, with the result that citizens of Worces- 
ter are satisfied the city has as capable a chief of police as ever 
held the office. 

Mayor Dodge has been prominent in Worcester politics for ten 
years, taking the stump in the early part of the decade for ex- 
Congressman Joseph H. Walker. He is a moderate, clear- 
spoken, effective speaker, full of force and anecdote, and, at times, 
decidedly humorous. He is full six feet tall, and when he draws 
himself up to his full height and starts in to speak, his audience 
listens with appreciation until he gets through. He is a member 
of the Commonwealth and Shaffner Clubs, identified with the Ma- 
sonic fraternity, and enjoys hunting and fishing. He is married, 
and lives in one of the new residences on Massachusetts avenue, 
the section on the west side recently opened up by Hon. Stephen 


It was not until 1895 that a city council committee on police was 
created, and it has since had a small share in running the deparr- 
ment. Until that time all matters were considered by the mavor, 
who personally directed the city marshal or chief of police in the 
matter, although he appointed an aldermanic committee on police. 
City Marshal W.Ansel Washburn, soon after being appointed at the 
head of the department, recommended in his annual reports the 
creation of a committee of the City Council for the consideration of 
many matters that were being introduced in the council as the de- 
partment was enlarged. The first Committee on Police created 
was comprised of members of the City Council of 1895, and con- 
sisted of Aldermen George W. Coombs and A. A. White, and 
Councilmen E. J. Russell, Charles H. Ellsworth and Nicholas J. 
Mooney. Councilman Russell had been warden of the state 
prison at Charlestown, jailer at the Summer street jail, and at the 
time he was named for the Committee on Police was probation of- 
ficer, and naturally was valuable as a member of the committee. 
Councilman Nicholas J. Mooney, who had served for many years 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 159 

on the police force, traveling in the Station 2 district, had also the 
experience to make his appointment as a member of the commit- 
tee a wise choice. It was customary for the Police Committee to 
consider cases of suspensions, and nearly every detail of the de- 
partment was submitted to its consideration, but in the last four or 
five years cases of violation of department rules have been dealt 
with by the mayor. 

The Police Committee of 1900 includes Alderman Charles A. 
Vaughan of Ward i, Alderman John R. Back of Ward 6, and 
Councilman John H. Meagher of Ward 3, Clarence D. Mixter of 
Ward 7, and Olaf G. Hedlund of Ward 2. 

Alderman Charles A. Vaughan, chairman of the committee, was 
born in Sharon, Vt., Aug. 19, 1847, receiving his education in the 
public schools of his native town, and also at Thetford Academy. 
He was graduated from the academy, and came to Worcester dur- 
ing the war. He went to work for H. & A. Palmer, builders and 
contractors, to learn the carpenter's trade, remaining with them 
during his apprenticeship of three years. He was foreman for the 
concern twelve years, until 1880, when he went into business on 
his own account as a builder and contractor. He has employed 
from fifty to seventy-five men nearly all the time he has been 
in business ; and some of his contracts include the residences of 
George F. Blake, Jr., Gilbert H. Harrington, L. D. Thayer, and 
Fred H. Taylor. He built the Trumbull mansion on Massachu- 
setts avenue, which is a reproduction of the famous Trumbull 
residence which stood for upward of a century at Trumbull 
square, and was an early court-house in Worcester. He has 
been president of the Builders' Exchange and the Massachusetts 
State Builders' Association, and is directo'r of the National Build- 
ers' Association. He has been on the Police Committee since he 
was first elected a member of the Board of Aldermen in 1898. He 
is also a member of the Committee on Public Buildings. 

Alderman John R. Back has been a member of the Committee 
on Police both years he has been in the Board of Aldermen. 
He is also a member of the Finance and Public Buildings Com- 
mittees. He was born in Worcester April 24, 1851, and after 
receiving his education in the public schools learned the machin- 
ist's trade. He has for a long time been engaged as a manufac- 
turer of machinists' tools, being associated with the F. E. Reed 


Worcester, Massachusetts. 161 

Company on Gold street, and is superintendent of the plant. 
He was first elected to the Common Council from Ward 6 in 
1895, and served on all the important committees in the lower 
branch, succeeding Col. E. J. Russell in the aldermanic board. 
He was member of the Grade-crossing Commission and the Joint 
Committee on Public Workshop, and for two years has been 
chairman of the Joint Standing Committee on Claims. He is a 
member of the Worcester County Mechanics Association, and is 
also a director of the Young Men's Christian Association. 

Councilman John H. Meagher of Ward 3 was born in Worces- 
ter Oct. 8, 1872, son of Dennis W. Meagher. He attended the pub- 
lic schools, and was graduated from the Worcester high school in 
the class of 1891. He entered the Boston University School of 
La\v after graduation, and received his diploma in 1895, grad- 
uating well at the head of his class. He was admitted to the bar 
Dec. 25, 1895, and in December of that year was a candidate for 
the Common Council on the Democratic ticket, being elected for 
one year, that being the year all the offices expired under the 
new city charter. He was reflected in 1896 for two years, and 
again in 1898 for a two-years' term, which expires in 1901. He 
succeeded Nicholas J. Mooney on the City Council Committee 
on Police, Mr. Mooney being one of the original members of 
the Police Committee. Mr. Meagher is in the law-office of 
Sullivan & O'Connell, and is an ex-president of the Wachusett 
Boat Club, one of the most prominent in the country, being the 
club which sent Edward Hanlon Ten Eyck to England, where 
he successfully competed for the diamond sculls at the Henley 
regatta. Mr. Meagher has always been prominently identified 
in rowing. He is a member of Division 34, A. O. H. 

Councilman Clarence D. Mixter of Ward 7 was born in Phil- 
lipston Jan. 1 1, 1867, and came to Worcester in 1876, where he has 
since resided, with the exception of 1888 and 1889, when he lived 
in Springfield. He attended the public schools, and left after 
passing one year in the high school, giving up his studies to enter 
the employ of F. A. Easton when he was located in the old post- 
office building on Pearl street. He was bookkeeper for D. H. 
Eames & Co., at Harrington corner, for upwards of seven years, 
leaving there Jan. i, 1897, to accept a position in the office of the 
Worcester corset factory. He is a Republican, being on the Re- 

1 62 History of Police Department, 

publican City Committee for several years, and in 1898 was 
treasurer of the committee. 

Olaf G. Hedlund of Ward 2 was born in Warmland, Sweden, 
Feb. 15, 1858, and after attending the public schools of his native 
country until fifteen years old, went to sea on a vessel on which 
his father was commander. He then served two years in the 
Swedish army, but after two years of army life succeeded his 
father as captain of the vessel on which he sailed years before. 
He came to Worcester April 30, 1881, and went to work in the 
Washburn & Moen wire mill on Grove street, where he is still 
employed. He was vice-president of the Swedish Republican 
Club in 1893, and for three years was a member of the Republican 
City Committee. He is a member of the North Star Benefit 
Society, for three years a member of the Board of Directors of 
the Swedish Cemetery Association, and has been a director of the 
Swedish Cooperative Mercantile Co., and is one of the owners 
and directors of the Eastern Weekly Publishing Co. 


Chief of Police W. J. E. Stone is one of the best chiefs Worces- 
ter has had. His training has been along right lines. He 
enlisted in the ranks and rose by sheer merit and ability to the 
chief command. He is the only man in the history of the depart- 
ment who was appointed to the office without first having served 
in the various grades of offices, and was raised from inspector to 
chief, an innovation in Worcester, but a custom practiced in other 

William J. E. Stone was born in Providence in May, 1860, son 
of William G. Stone, now living in Auburn, in the town of Cran- 
ston, R. I., and for many years was a jeweler. The son went to 
the public schools in Providence. When seventeen years old he 
went to work for his uncle as a loom-fixer in a woolen mill in 
Mapleville, R, I. In 1880 his uncle, Henry Bailey, and George 
Legg bought the Fox mill, at the junction of Green and Bradley 
streets in Worcester, and William Stone came to \Vorcester that 
year to work for them. He worked in the Fox and Adriatic mills 
until 1886. That year he was appointed on the police force by 
Mayor Samuel Winslow. Two years later, under Mayor Wins- 
low's administration, the police force was made permanent, and 
Officer Stone remained on the force as a patrolman until his 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 163 

appointment as inspector. When he took the civil-service exami- 
nation, heranked high, and was one of the first of Mayor Winslow's 
appointments. For seventeen months he traveled the Lincoln- 
street and Laurel-hill beats on the night-relief, and was then 
transferred to the Union-street beat, which he traveled three 
years. In the summer of 1890 he was assigned to special duty 
with Officer Romanzo Thayer of Station i. That was a year 
of no license, and Officers Stone and Thayer devoted considerable 
of their time to liquor-raiding. He was on this duty for a year, 
and these two officers were considered as good liquor officers as 
there have been on the force. 

The sickness of Inspector Reuben M. Colby and his subsequent 
resignation caused a vacancy in the office, and Inspector Stone 
was detailed, in common with several other officers, to special 
duty in 1890. After a year with Inspector O'Day, he was selected 
by City Marshal W. Ansel Washburn for recommendation as 
inspector, and was appointed inspector by Mayor F. A. Harring- 
ton Jan. 15, 1892. The only other city marshals to reach the 
office from the ranks are W. Ansel Washburn, who served four- 
teen years, the longest time any one man held the office, and 
Amos Atkinson, now deputy chief of police, who was city marshal 
under Mayor Charles G. Reed in 1884 and 1885. 

The first year Officer Stone was on the force he showed ability 
as a detective, running down a series of burglaries in October, 
1886. Wesson's gun-factory, the Worcester Wire Goods fac- 
tory, J. R. Torrey's razor-factory and E. H. Stark's boot-shop 
were broken into during the month, and he caught a man in the 
act of robbing Raymond's drug-store on Prospect street. Capt. 
D. A. Matthews, on information given by Officer Stone and by 
his own good work, arrested the following day a man in the Mar- 
tin block on Pleasant street, with over $800 worth of property .- 

While traveling the Thomas-street beat Officer Stone caught 
James Lally robbing Geiger's meat-store, and arrested him at the 
point of a revolver. Lally had a short time before escaped from 
the Massachusetts reformatory at Concord, after assaulting the 
keeper. The fellow gave his name as George Nolan, and Officer 
Stone the same night arrested, with the assistance of Officer Wil- 
liam R. Ramsdell, Patrick Reilly. Nolan was sentenced to the 
state prison at Charlestown, where he died while serving a five- 
years' term. 


Worcester, Massachusetts. 165 

He had remarkable success as a detective, and has a good 
reputation through Xew England and in New York. 

He made a record in running down the extensive horse-thiev- 
ing in 1894, by arresting Charles Dansreau and Fred Libby in 
Danielsonville, Ct. Massachusetts and Connecticut horse-own- 
ers were losing valuable animals. They were located in a 
secluded district near Danielsonville, and the thieves arrested 
were convicted. 

With Inspector O'Day he broke up a den of counterfeiters in 
Oxford, which attracted considerable attention at the time; has 
worked on several murder-cases, and at the time of his appoint- 
ment as chief of police, was working on the Asa Bennett murder- 
case in Hubbardston. He has always had the confidence and 
friendship of every man in the department, and his ability has 
been recognized by the officials under whom he served. He 
was recommended for appointment as inspector by City Marshal 
W. Ansel Washburn, had a warm friend in City Marshal Edward 
T. Raymond during his connection with the department and since, 
and City Marshal James M. Drennan spoke of him as a bright 
young man who deserved success. When it was known there 
was to be a change in the department, Chief Drennan said: "If 
there is to be a change, I do not know of a man I would rather 
see here than Inspector Stone." 

During the many years that Chief Stone was associated with 
Inspector O'Day, he became acquainted with police officials 
throughout the country, and few men enjoy the confidence of 
contemporaries in the police business, or the respect of the public 
at large, in a greater degree than he. He is a man of even tem- 
perament, slow to anger and excitement, and much of his success 
as a detective has been .due to the tact and finesse that he always 
brings to bear in the consideration of a case. He takes nothing 
for granted. He always applies cavises to effects. 

One of the true essentials of the detective is his ability to 
remember faces after long lapses of time. This Chief Stone 
possesses in a marked degree. Oftentimes the readiness with 
which he can recall peculiarities or mannerisms, whether of 
speech or physique, has been of material aid in the identification 
of criminals and in the securing of convictions. 

Discipline is necessarily a quality in a police force as it is in 
an army. One would think that a man of so agreeable a nature 
and of so few words as Chief Stone, would be easy-going, and 

1 66 History of Police Department, 

inclined to put up with a great deal before resorting to extreme 
measures. This in a sense is true if there are extenuating cir- 
cumstances connected with the case. But there is no stricter 
disciplinarian than Chief Stone when the occasion requires and 
the good of the service demands it. 

Although but a few months in office, he has brought the depart- 
ment to a state of efficiency that it has seldom occupied, and this, 
too, without the introduction of new-fangled ideas in the experi- 
mental state. He is a born police officer, patient, persevering,, 
and devoted to his duty. He is not prone to discouragement 
when he encounters obstacles, but works with renewed energy, 
and this, in a large measure, is the secret of his success. He is 
of a modest, retiring disposition, and ever ready to give others 
credit for work accomplished, even though his own efforts were 
in the main responsible for the achievement of success. 

Chief Stone lives with his wife and two children at 65 Mason 
street, and outside of the department has a wide circle of friends. 


Deputy Chief Amos Atkinson, with a record of thirty-two 
years in the Police Department, has held every office from patrol- 
man to city marshal, with the exception of inspector. His record 
in these positions is good, and no more careful, courageous or 
painstaking official has been connected with the department. 
Capt. S. W. Ranger of Station 2 was appointed a member of the 
force two years prior to Deputy Chief Atkinson, but was off 
several years, and has not so many years' police-record to his 
credit, giving Deputy Chief Atkinson the distinction of being the 
oldest member of the department in point of service. 

He was born in South Witham, Lincolnshire, England, Aug. 
28, 1839, and came to the United States when he was seventeen 
years old. He had a brother living in Southbridge, and it was 
through his influence that he left his native land. He went to 
work in Southbridge as an engraver in a printing-office, remain- 
ing four years. While living there, he was married, being but 
nineteen years old. When twenty-one years old, he went to 
Wappinger's Falls, Dutchess county, Xew York state, where he 
went into a printing establishment as engraver, and while there 
had an offer to take charge of a department in the Parrott gun- 
factory at Cold Springs, X. Y. The Civil War was in progress 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 167 

at that time, and he accepted the position, having charge of mak- 
ing the plugs for exploding the shells used in the famous Parrott 
guns. At the close of the war he returned to Worcester county, 
settling in Worcester, and went to work in Ball & Williams' 
machine-shop on School street. He had been there two years 
when he had a desire to go on the police force. He was appoint- 
ed Jan. 7, 1868, by Mayor James B. Blake, during the police 
administration of Col. J. M. Drennan. He traveled the Front- 
street beat with Officer William H. Johnson. It was the custom 
to change the detail every three months, but Officers Atkinson 
and Johnson were on the Front-street beat three years and eight 
months, the longest time an officer had been on a single beat. 
Front street was the scene of many fights, and the neighborhood 
of Spring, Bridge and Mechanic streets furnished work enough 
for officers. During a fight near Mechanic street during the 
early years of his traveling, he received a blow on the head 
that came within a fraction of an inch of being fatal. The circum- 
stances of the assault are of sufficient interest to refer to in 
another chapter. 

In 1872 Officer Atkinson was detailed roundsman, being the 
first to do roundsman's duty. In 1873 he was appointed night- 
captain by Mayor Clark Jillson, succeeding Joseph M. Dyson, 
who was promoted to assistant marshal under City Marshal 
W. Ansel Washburn. In 1874 Mayor Edward L. Davis made 
the most sweeping changes experienced in the department, re- 
placing Republicans with Democrats, and Captain Atkinson went 
with the rest. Clark Jillson succeeded Mayor Davis in 1875, and 
Captain Atkinson was reappointed, succeeding Capt. Patrick E. 
Ratigan, who took his place when he was dropped. Captain 
Atkinson held the position of night-captain until 1883, when he 
was appointed assistant marshal by Mayor Samuel E. Hildreth. 
He held this office one year, and in 1884 Mayor Charles G. Reed 
appointed him city marshal, which position he held two years. 
As city marshal he received $2200, the highest salary ever paid the 
office, and to him belongs the credit of having the salaries of 
night-captain, assistant marshal and city marshal raised to the 
highest figure they had reached. In 1886 he was succeeded as 
city marshal by W. Ansel Washburn, and was appointed assistant 
marshal. Since that time he has served as assistant marshal or 
deputy chief of police, and has had no desire to be chief of police. 
As a patrolman he was fearless, and law-violators kept well out of 


Worcester, Massachusetts. 169 

his way ; as night-captain he demanded faithful performance of 
duty from the patrolmen; as assistant marshal he was well liked, 
and showed good executive ability in the routine work required. 
As city marshal he had the good will of the department and the 
respect of the entire community. He made recommendations 
that were wise, and had good judgment in his official acts. He 
has gone through many changes in the police business, and his 
judgment is frequently sought by the officials of to-day. In 1890 
he was granted a six-weeks' leave of absence by the city govern- 
ment, and returned to his native land for a farewell visit. He 
was patrolman during the years of the Clark murder by Charles 
and Silas James and the Grafton Bank robbery, and arrested John 
Murphy in October, 1876, for the murder of John Bullard in 


Capt. David A. Matthews of Station i was born in Boston 
March 7, 1847, son of George R. Matthews. As a boy he lived 
in Hopkinton and Southboro, getting his education in the "little 
red school" in Southboro, until twelve years old, when his family 
moved to West Boylston. He came to Worcester in 1863, enlist- 
ing for the war in the 3d Mass. Battery, known as Martin's 
Battery, the commanding officer being Gen. A. P. Martin, recently 
chairman of the Boston Police Commission. Captain Matthews 
served in Battery C, in both the 3d and 5th Batteries. He was 
with General Grant, in the ^th Army Corps, through the Virginia 
campaign, from the time Grant took command of the army until 
the surrender of Lee at Appomattox, and was discharged from 
service June 24, 1865. Returning to Worcester, he went to work 
in Timothy Stone's boot-shop, located where now is the govern- 
ment building. June 4, 1867, he enlisted in the regular army, 
and was sent to California to join the 8th United States Cavalry 
at Fort Lapwai, Idaho. San Francisco was reached July 13, he 
making the trip by steamer to Aspinwall and crossing the Isth- 
mus of Panama, the entire trip taking about a month. He went 
up the Columbia river 500 miles to Fort Lapwai, and was 
assigned to Troop E, in the 8th Cavalry. His troop returned to 
San Francisco, and went by boat to San Pedro, in Loxver Cali- 
fornia, to Drum Barracks, where the command was equipped with 
horses. After a march of 300 miles to Fort Mohave, the Col- 

170 History of Police Department, 

orado river was reached July 4, 1868, and two troops were ordered 
into the interior to establish a post to be called Camp Willow 
Grove. A sandy desert was crossed, and for 160 miles not a sign 
of habitation was seen. Camp Willow Grove was established 
on Cottonwood creek, and Troops E and K remained there until 
May i, 1869, when they moved forty miles and established a post 
called Camp Tollgate, near the Mohave and Haulpi Indians' res- 
ervation. There were many skirmishes during their connection 
with that camp, and during the two years of life in the Cotton- 
wood range of mountains, Captain Matthews had the most exciting 
experiences of his life. The fighting qualities of the young soldier 
were not long in being recognized, and he was promoted to cor- 
poral and later to first sergeant of his company ; and for signal 
bravery and coolness in handling his men in battles, received from 
the Congress of the United States, through the War Department, 
a medal of honor. This medal answers the same purpose as 
the Victoria cross does in England, and is given only to men who 
show unusual valor under fire. This medal was won in a skir- 
mish with the Indians in what the soldiers called the Cottonwood 
range of mountains. Captain Matthews, then a corporal, was 
sent with a detachment of ten soldiers with rations for comrades 
stationed at an outpost forty miles from the rest of the command. 
While returning, the Indians made an attack upon the little band 
of regulars at daybreak, and a brisk fire was opened by both sides 
for some minutes. The detachment fought the Indians from 
ambush, and one soldier was wounded and two of the horses 
shot. Captain Matthews succeeded in getting his soldiers back 
to the fort without any loss. In another instance, while in the 
Hasseamper country fighting the Ute Indians, a band of forty 
soldiers attacked a party of Indians. Captain Matthews had his 
horse shot from under him, and was wounded in the knee by an 
arrow. He used the dead body of his horse for breastworks, and 
held his ground against several Indians until they retired. His 
record as an Indian-fighter attracted the attention of Col. S. M. B. 
Young, now in the Philippines, and he was recommended for 
bravery. In October, 1869, while his troop was on parade-duty. 
Maj. A. J. Alexander of the 8th Cavalry called him from the line 
and publicly pinned the medal of honor upon his breast. He was 
also promoted from corporal to sergeant at that time. Defending 
wounded soldiers from an attack from the Indians and bravery in 
action were the reasons for the promotion and medal of honor. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. i? 1 

From Arizona the detachment of cavalry was ordered to New 
Mexico, and stationed at Fort Newgate. Aug. i, 1871, Troop 
E, of which Captain Matthews was sergeant, was ordered with 
a surveying party of the Atlantic & Pacific Railroad Company 
as a protection from the Indians. They did duty from Albu- 
querque, on the Rio Grande river, to the Needles, on the Colo- 
rado river, until January, 1872, when they returned to Camp 
Grout. May i, 1872, Captain Matthews went on his last scout 
into the Tera Amerilla country, where the Piute Indians were 
on the war-path. The cavalry was out one month, and Captain 
Matthews was discharged June 4, 1872, at Santa Fe, N. M., as 
first sergeant. 

Captain Matthews returned to Worcester June 18, 1873, and 
was appointed on the police force Sept. 3 of the same year by 
Mayor George F. Verry. He resigned in 1873, at tne ^ me f his 
marriage, and was appointed again in 1874 by Mayor Edward L. 
Davis, but was off again until September, 1875, when he was 
appointed by Mayor Jillson, and has been a member of the depart- 
ment continuously since. He traveled four years as a patrol- 
man three years on day and one on night duty, and was one of 
the original members of the mounted police. In 1879 he was 
appointed roundsman, being the only member of the department 
who held the office by appointment. He filled it until it was 
abolished a year later. He was appointed captain of police by 
Mayor Charles G. Reed in 1884, and was night-captain at Station 
i until 1896, when he was detailed day-captain, and the detail 
was made permanent April 5, 1897. Captain Matthews has always 
held the respect of the members of the department, is considered 
a careful and efficient officer, and has been prominently connected 
with some of the most important arrests in the history of the 
department. He is peculiarly adapted to police work by reason 
of his keenness and courage. He has had charge of police drills 
since they were instituted, and at public exhibitions, drills and 
parades has been a conspicuous figure. 

He is married and has two children George R., in the Worces- 
ter County Institution for Savings, and Miss Marietta, teacher in 
the public schools. 


Capt. Sumner W. Ranger of Station 2 was born in New Brain- 
tree July 25, 1832. He lived there until twenty-eight years old. 


Worcester, Massachusetts. 173 

going to school winters in his earlier years and working on, the 
farm summers, his parents being prominent farmers in the town. 
He came to Worcester in 1858, and went to work trucking for 
Joseph H. Gould, who had a stable on Lafayette street. This 
street at that time was sparsely settled, and trucking business 
on the "Island" amounted to but little. In 1860 Captain Ranger 
bought out the business, and for six years carried it on with 

Tan. 1 6, 1866, he was appointed a member of the police force by 
Mayor James B. Blake, the city marshal being Capt. J. B. Knox. 
Captain Ranger is the only member of the present force who saw 
police service immediately after the war, and remembers distinctly 
some of the principal events of the early days on the force. He 
has several souvenirs of the early department, including a rattle 
and the first printed set of rules under which the watchmen were 
governed. He and Deputy Chief of Police Amos Atkinson are 
the only members of the present force who served with the old 
night-watch. In 1866 several policemen were added to the force, 
and it was the year the watchmen's rattles went out of service and 
the revolver and billy came in ; it was also the year uniforms were 
adopted. During Captain Ranger's early connection with the 
department, the police station, under the old City Hall, was re- 
paired and enlarged, and during the progress of repairs prisoners 
were locked in the brick school-house at the lower end of the 
Common. He traveled on what was called the night-relief, the 
territory of his beat covering Main, Green and Summer streets, 
and he also traveled the "Meadows" beat and on Vernon street. 
He was an officer in Pine Meadow when it was a rough section, 
and he is reminded forcibly of this fact because he lost two sets of 
teeth and had his nose broken at various times. Raiding for rum 
was the principal work of the earlier days, the police administra- 
tions being instructed to strictly enforce the liquor-law, and 
under City Marshal James M. Drennan some famous raids were 

In 1868 occurred the murder of Joseph G. Clark in the Union 
block by Silas and Charles T. James of East Greenwich, R. I., 
one of the famous cases in the police history of Worcester. 
Captain Ranger was the first police officer in the room where 
Clark's body was found, and with Louis Harper arrested Silas 
James at the old western depot, where he was waiting for a New 
York train. The next day Charles James was arrested in Provi- 

174 History of Police Department, 

dence, and Officers Ranger and W. H. Clark and Deputy Sheriff 
Charles X. Hair went to Providence, the prisoner being turned 
over to the officers, and they brought him to Worcester. James 
made a confession to Officer Ranger, and as a result the hatchet 
with which the murder was done was found by Ranger in the old 
canal. The two murderers were convicted and hanged. Captain 
Ranger is the only officer in the Police Department at any time 
who figured in an arrest of a murderer for a crime committed in 
Worcester for which there was a hanging. 

In 1872 Officer Ranger was dropped by Mayor George F. 
Verry, and went into partnership in the grocery business at Xew 
Worcester with Geo. H. Brown. He remained with Mr. Brown 
until 1876, when he was again appointed on the police force by 
Mayor Clark Jillson, and has been a member of the force since. 
Between 1872 and 1876 he furnished officers with valuable clues, 
as he never lost his interest in police work. Shortly after he was 
dropped from the force, J. Goodrich Scott, a swindler of consid- 
erable note, escaped from the Summer-street jail. George F. 
Yerry was his counsel and Charles N. Hair was jailer. Scott 
lived in Watertown, N. Y., and Captain Ranger was appointed 
deputy sheriff to follow him for the purpose of bringing about his 
arrest. He traced him through towns in northern New York, but 
missed him at Watertown. He arranged with the officials in 
Rome and Watertown, N. Y., to send him word when Scott put 
in an appearance, and as the result of this work Charles X. Hair 
went to W T atertown and brought Scott back to Worcester on in- 
formation furnished by Captain Ranger. 

From 1872 until he was appointed sergeant, he traveled beats 
in the centre of the city, being on Front street considerable of the 
time. In 1884 he was appointed day-sergeant at Station 2, suc- 
ceeding John W. Hadley, ,the recommendation being made by 
City Marshal Amos Atkinson and the appointment by Mayor 
Charles G. Reed. In 1888 he was appointed captain by Mayor 
Samuel W'inslow, and he wears a gold badge presented' him by 
the department at that time. He has good executive ability, 
which was shown during the police shake-up in 1899 under Chief 
of Police James M. Drennan, when he had charge of Station i 
patrolmen in May, June and July, exchanging stations with Capt. 
D. A. Matthews. He has always had the respect of the officers 
under his direction, and has a record as a policeman of which he 
may be proud, having arrested persons for every sort of offense 
and crime from drunkenness to murder. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 175 


William L. Robinson, clerk since 1893, has been engaged with 
the department in various capacities since 1885. He was born in 
Barre, Vt, July 8, 1839, son of George C. Robinson, and his 
mother is still living in Concord, N. H., eighty-six years old. 
Soon after his birth, the family moved to Concord, N. H., and 
after attending the public schools of that town he learned the sil- 
versmith and silver-plating trade. He came to Worcester Sept. 
17, 1858, and completed his trade with Appleton Walker, who was 
prominent as a silversmith before the war. Mr. Robinson re- 
mained in Worcester a short time, and returned to Concord, 
where he was living at the time of the outbreak of the Civil War, 
and enlisted in the ist New Hampshire Volunteers for three 
months. At the expiration of his enlistment he returned home 
and was married. Shortly after, he enlisted in the navy as quar- 
ter gunner on the U. S. S. Managhan, which was attached to the 
Gulf and South Atlantic squadrons. He was discharged from the 
navy Sept. 17, 1864, and came to Worcester, where he was em- 
ployed as timekeeper at the Arcade Malleable Iron Works. He 
left there and went to Boston, where he worked at his trade, re- 
turning to Worcester early in the 70*5. For several years he did 
silversmith business, after which he worked for Henry J. Jen- 
nings, silver-plater, until he came into the Police Department. 
When Maj. Edward T. Raymond was appointed chief of police, 
changes were made in the office and a new system of keeping 
records adopted. Up to that time there had not been a clerk, the 
chief of police keeping his own records. The appointment of an 
inspector for junk-shops and the system of consolidated reports 
from the stations, made it necessary to have additional clerical 
work, and Major Raymond appointed Mr. Robinson as clerk. 

Mr. Robinson has been prominent in the Grand Army, and has 
been a member of George H. Ward Post, No. 10, since his return 
to Worcester. He has held every office in the Post with the ex- 
ception of chaplain and vice-commander, and held the office of 
post commander three years, 1884, 1885 and 1886. He is a mem- 
ber of Montacute Lodge, A. F. and A. M., past chancellor of 
Damascus Lodge, Knights of Pythias, and has been connected 
with the First Universalist Church for many years. His wife, 
Angie A. Robinson, is past department president of the Woman's 
Relief Corps of Massachusetts. 


Worcester, Massachusetts. i 7 7 


Inspector Patrick O'Day on State and City Force Identification of Notori- 
ous Criminals Work of Acting Inspectors Arthur F. Roach and Herbert 
J. Fisher Lieutenants and Sergeants Promoted from Ranks Appoint- 
ment of Dr. Francis Shaw Ambulance Surgeon Mrs. Deborah B. Sawtelle 
as Police Matron. 

The responsibility of the department rests with the chief of 
police and the officials immediately associated with him. Its suc- 
cess depends largely upon the work of the inspectors, lieutenants, 
sergeants and patrolmen, who may properly be termed the 
working-force of the department. 


Inspector Patrick O'Day is one of the most widely-known 
members of the department. He has figured in more prominent 
cases than any other police official in Worcester, and as a de- 
tective has an excellent record throughout the East. 

Born in Montreal, Canada, March i, 1847, son f Patrick 
O'Day, he came to Worcester when five months old, his father 
first coming here in 1842. After leaving the public schools, he 
went to work in the Washburn Iron Works, and afterward learned 
the printers' trade on the Aegis and Gazette. In 1872 he was 
appointed on the police force by Mayor George F. Verry. He 
traveled one year as patrolman, and went out of the department 
in 1873. In 1875 he was appointed on the state police force by 
Gov. William Gaston, where he remained two years, and then 
did special work in connection with the district -attorney's office. 
While on the state force, he worked on the John Bullard murder 
case, in Shrewsbury, in 1876, and was largely instrumental in 
convicting two men who had burned $100,000 worth of prop- 
erty in Clinton, Berlin, and other towns and cities in Worcester 
and adjoining counties. State prison sentences for long terms 
were given both firebugs, whose names were Morse and Wil- 

Jan. 2, 1878, Inspector O'Day was reappointed on the city 
force by Mayor C. B. Pratt, and has served continuously since, 

i 7 8 History of Police Department, 

doing detective duty nearly all the time. He has been associated 
in detective work with Detective Ezra Churchill and Inspectors 
Reuben M. Colby and William J. E. Stone and Acting Inspector 
Arthur F. Roach. He has a wide knowledge of criminals and 
their methods, and since his connection with the city department 
made up to Jan. i, 1899, 4,006 arrests for crimes and offenses 
requiring the services of a detective. In 1879 he was special 
liquor officer, but since 1880 has devoted his entire time to detec- 
tive work. His success has been marked. In the list of arrests 
he has made are the names of some of the most notorious crim- 
inals on the continent, covering a variety of crime. Nov. 5, 1885, 
he arrested George Post and Thomas O'Brien at the Bay State 
House for trying to bunco E. G. Partridge. Post is considered 
the most successful bunco man in the world. July 2, 1885, he 
arrested George Carson and Rufus Miner, alias Pyne, on sus- 
picion. These men appear in Inspector Byrne's book of crim- 
inals as notorious bank-sneaks, and were suspected of planning 
the robbery of a Worcester bank. Carson had robbed the Mid- 
dletown, Ct., bank of $25,000. March 23, 1880, he arrested 
Scott Lord, notorious horse-thief and burglar, who was sen- 
tenced to twenty-five years in state prison under the habitual 
criminal act. Dr. George W. Davis, who had a room 
on Chandler street, near Wellington, was arrested by Inspector 
O'Day Nov. 15, 1884, on the charge of making counter- 
feit money. He had in his room 650 counterfeit dollars and 
$2,500 worth of machinery. He made the best counterfeit coins 
that had been seen up to that time. He was sentenced to three 
years and six months in the house of correction and fined $1,000. 
With Inspector Colby he arrested, Sept. 19, 1882, Charles F. 
Lawrence of Auburn for derailing the Modoc train on the Bos- 
ton & Albany Railroad, between Charlton and Rochdale. A boy 
named Cunningham furnished a description of Lawrence, whom 
he saw in the vicinity of the wreck while driving cows. The 
boy received $250 from the railroad officials, and Lawrence was 
sentenced to fifteen years in state prison. Lawrence was pre- 
viously arrested by Deputy Sheriff James M. Drennan for the 
murder of a man named Battey in Oxford in 1880. but the gov- 
ernment did not have sufficient evidence to convict. Lawrence 
was arrested in 1897 by Inspectors O'Day and Stone for break- 
ing and entering a barn, also for attempting to kill his sister. 
He was sentenced to six years in state prison. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 179 

Within the last ten years some of the most famous cases in the 
history of the department have developed. Inspector O'Day 
arrested Clark Wells Hatch in 1891, wanted for passing a Trav- 
elers Insurance Company's forged check on the Mechanics Na- 
tional Bank. He also in that year identified George Ellwood 
at the Worcester City Hospital as a notorious masked burglar 
wanted for escaping from the Ohio penitentiary in Columbus, 
and for burglary in Providence, Hartford, Boston, and Albany. 
Among other arrests he has made are the following : May 28, 
1895, John Gillispie, the " Butcher," for breaking and entering, 
sentenced to twenty-five years in state prison ; William D. Sul- 
livan, breaking and entering the residence of Prof. E. Harlow 
Russell, and three houses at the lake, in 1895, sentenced to state 
prison for fifteen years ; Jan. 26, 1 887, Gilbert Parker for a crimi- 
nal operation, sentenced to five years in state prison ; Chas. Loen- 
hardt, July 30, 1894, for swindling girls by a jewelry scheme, sen- 
tenced to fiveyearsin state prison ; Sept. 10, 1895, W. D. Lemont, 
for robbing the residence of Rev. Dr. A. H. Vinton, on Ash- 
land street, sentenced to five years in state prison; May 18, 1895, 
Stephen Wedge, two cases of highway robbery, four years in state 
prison on one complaint and three years on the other. 
These are but few of the many cases in which he has 
figured. Aside from his work in Worcester, he has fur- 
nished much valuable information to New York and Boston de- 


Acting Inspector Arthur F. Roach was born in Clarence, N. S., 
Jan. 5, 1860, son of John F. Roach. He obtained an education in 
the schools of his native town sufficient to fit him for teacher. He 
taught district schools in Hampton, Victoria, Port George, Salem, 
Margaretville and Kingston Station, N. S., these towns being 
within a radius of twenty-five miles from his home. In Septem- 
ber, 1885, he came to Worcester, and for a time worked for the 
firm of C. W. Walls & Co. on Lagrange street, his brother, May- 
nard P. Roach, being a member of the firm. His particular part 
of the business was setting up iron-work, but he remained with 
the concern but a short time when he resigned to accept a posi- 
tion as cutter with the Worcester Corset Co., then on Beacon and 
Hermon streets. He had been a call-member of the Fire De- 


Worcester, Massachusetts. 181 

partment a short time, and in March, 1888, went into the perma- 
nent ranks of the department as driver of Engine 2 on Beacon 
street. He remained there until August, 1892, when he went to 
work for the Washburn & Moen Manufacturing Co. as foreman 
of the spring department in the Grove-street mill of the works. 
He was later transferred to the Ouinsigamond mill. Jan. 31, 1894, 
he was appointed on the police force by Mayor Henry A. Marsh, 
and went on duty Feb. 5, being assigned to the Green-street beat. 
He remained on duty in that vicinity until November, 1895, when 
he was transferred to the beat on Main and Southbridge streets, 
between Park and Madison streets. He remained there three 
years, when he WHS assigned to the beat on Main street, between 
Central and Foster streets. He traveled the beat one year, and 
in November, 1895, was detailed on the patrol-wagon, which is a 
night position. This occurred at the time a general change was 
made in the details, and Officer Thomas Hurley was sent from 
office duty to a beat on the west side of the city. Jan. 8, 1900, 
following the appointment of Inspector W. J. E. Stone as chief of 
police, Officer Roach was detailed inspector. As a patrolman he 
made many arrests, none of the offenses being of a serious nature, 
but showing him a careful, reliable officer and a man of good 
judgment, an essential requisite in police business. Since his detail 
as inspector he has had good luck, clearing up nearly every case 
on which he was detailed. He arrested Walter Percy March 26, 
on the charge of polygamy, and secured a conviction ; Jan. 23 he 
arrested Ernest and George Dupont for breaking and entering on 
three complaints. With Inspector O'Day he arrested Henry 
Rivard May 3, wanted for stealing teams, and June I the two in- 
spectors arrested Frank O'Brien, Alfred Charon, Joseph Payette 
and Henry Gauthier on the charge of highway robbery. Acting 
Inspector Roach is married, living on Park avenue, and his par- 
ents are living at Clarence, N. S. 


Herbert J. Fisher, acting inspector, was born in Oakdale 
July 29, 1853. He lived there until Jan. I, 1871, when he came 
to Worcester to work in the Rawson boot-shop, corner Ox- 
ford and Austin streets, where now is located the factory of C. S. 
Goddard & Son. He remained there until 1877, when he went 
to work in E. H. Stark's shoe-factorv, near Main and Mvrtle 

1 82 History of Police Department, 

streets. He was there until 1880, when he accepted a position as 
foreman in the Houghton boot-shop on Front street, where he 
remained until 1885. That year he took the examination for the 
police force, and was appointed Jan. i by Mayor Charles G. Reed. 
He traveled a beat for a short time, and was appointed house- 
officer at the time Martin Hubbard was made roundsman, and 
was the first house-officer in the Waldo street station. The 
office of roundsman was given up at the close of 1885, and Officer 
Fisher traveled the west-side beat, and resigned from the force 
Jan. i, 1887. He accepted a position as traveling salesman 
through the western states, but returned to Worcester late in 
1886, being reappointed on the force by Mayor Samuel Winslow 
in 1887. He traveled days for three years, and was then detailed 
to night duty. April 17, 1896, he was detailed acting inspector of 
pawn-brokers and licenses by Chief of Police Raymond. At that 
time a new ordinance was created by the City Council regulating 
rag-shops, truck-wagons, pawn-shops and places of amusement, 
and it was necessary to have an official to see to it that the re- 
quirements of the ordinance were carried out. He has charge of 
everything that is licensed by the License Board, and upon the 
results of his investigations this board acts. Under the provisions 
of the ordinance everything taken to a pawn-shop must be re- 
corded in books furnished by the department, and these books 
are open to the inspector all the time. No article pawned can be 
disposed of until the description has been examined by the in- 
spector. Acting Inspector Fisher has been a careful official in 
this connection, and besides furnishing the department informa- 
tion that led to the arrest of criminals, he has made several im- 
portant arrests as a direct result of his visits to pawn-shops. One 
of the most important arrests he made was that of James Thomp- 
son Nov. 17, 1896. Thompson was wanted by the Chelsea police 
for house-breaking and larceny. Inspector Fisher is married and 
lives at Columbus park. 


Lieut. James T. Johnson of Station i was born in Wardsboro, 
Windham county, Vt., July n, 1855. When seventeen years 
old, he left home to go into the insane hospital at Brattleboro, Vt., 
as attendant. For four years he held this position summers, at- 
tending school winters. Oct. 12, 1875, he came to Worcester as 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 183 

attendant at the Worcester Insane Asylum on Summer street, and 
until Jan. 3, 1882, was on duty as attendant, watchman or super- 
visor at the Worcester Insane Asylum or the Worcester Insane 
Hospital, the latter at Bloomingdale, both being under the juris- 
diction of the Commonwealth. He was on duty at the lake hos- 
pital when he resigned his position in January, 1882, to accept the 
position as watchman at the Summer-street jail, his appointment 
being made by Sheriff A. B. R. Sprague. From 1882 until Feb. 
3, 1886, he served as watchman at the jail, and resigned to accept 
an appointment on the police force. He took the civil-service ex- 
amination soon after the law went into effect, and passed with the 
highest rank that has been attained by a candidate, his mark being 
96.25. Compared with the ranking system used to-day, his ex-' 
animation would be considered practically perfect. 

Lieutenant Johnson traveled on night-duty for four years one 
year on Front street and three years on Main street. His police 
record was sufficient to place him well at the top of the list of can- 
didates for appointment of sergeants when this action was con- 
sidered during Mayor F. A. Harrington's administration. He 
was one of the four appointed to wear sergeant's chevrons March 
21, 1890, by Mayor Harrington, and traveled from Station I. He 
has been successful as sergeant, and for several years was promi- 
nently connected with raiding for liquor. In this branch of the 
service he was a thorough, persistent official, and brought before 
the court many violators. He has always used good judgment in 
police duty, and when he took a case into court had sufficient 
evidence to convict. He traveled as sergeant until Jan. 
i, 1897, when he was selected for promotion by Mayor A. B. R. 
Sprague at the time of the reorganization of the department. He 
was detailed to night-duty at Station I, succeeding Capt. D. A. 
Matthews in charge of the station, and April 5, 1897, was ap- 
pointed lieutenant of police. He is married and lives on Elm 


Lieut. Matthew J. Walsh of Station 2, one of the oldest men in 
the department to wear official chevrons, was born in Wexford 
county, Ireland, Jan. 28, 1841. He came to the UYiited States 
when quite young and lived in Brooklyn. He enlisted in a New 
York regiment at the outbreak of the Civil War, and in 1865 


History of Police Department, 

came to Worcester. Machinist's business was good at that time, 
and he went to work in the "Junction shop," which was a leading 
machine-shop in Worcester at that time. He worked there until 
1874, when Mayor Edward L. Davis appointed him on the police 


force. With the exception of four months he has served in the 
department since. He traveled the Main and Front street beat 
several years, and business men of twenty years remember him as 
one of the prominent members of the force, careful and faithful 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 185 

in performance of duty. For a short time he traveled on Front 
street days. In 1880, when the Millbury street and "Island" dis- 
trict became troublesome, demanding the presence of more 
policemen, Officer Walsh was sent to the "Island" section, and 
for four years traveled the territory between Southbridge street 
and Union hill and Fox mills and Quinsigamond, the former 
boundary being at the intersection of Green, Millbury and Lamar- 
tine streets. 

March 27, 1884, Mayor Charles G. Reed appointed Officer 
XYalsh sergeant of police, in charge of Station 2 nights. Sergt. 
Matthew B. Lamb, who succeeded Sergt. Charles W. Barker in 
charge of the station, resigned to accept a position as bookkeeper 
for S. R. Leland & Son. While traveling the Harrington corner 
beat, he alternated with David A. Matthews, now captain of Sta- 
tion i , and went to Station 2 with an excellent record as a patrol- 
man. This record has been maintained at Station 2. He was 
promoted to lieutenant of police April 7, 1897, by Mayor A. B. R. 
Sprague, at the time of the reorganization of the department. He 
is married and lives on Cambridge street. 


Sergt. Thomas McMurray of Station i was born in Worcester 
Dec. 3, 1859, son of Farrell McMurray. He attended the public 
schools, and at the time of his father's death left the high school 
to enter the employ of the Washburn & Moen Manufacturing Co., 
working in the inspection department of the Grove-street mill. 
While there he was a call hoseman of Engine 3, on School and 
later on Prescott streets, and was a member of the Fire Depart- 
ment until his resignation at the wire-mill on account of his 
appointment as a member of the police force by Mayor Samuel 
Win slow Jan. 4, 1887. For a time he traveled the Union-street 
beat, and afterward was transferred to the Green-street and Dun- 
garven-hill beats, including the section of Franklin street and 
Bloomingdale road. He was on the Dungarven-hill beat when 
he was detached from patrol-duty, and assigned to special duty, 
working with Inspector Reuben M. Colby, and after the latter's 
resignation was assigned to special duty by Marshal W. Ansel 
Washburn. While doing special duty with John F. Beahn, who 
left the department a few years later, he was appointed sergeant 
by Mayor F. A. Harrington Mar. 21, 1890. He has been attached 

1 86 History of Police Department, 

to Station i since his appointment to the force, with the exception 
of two months in 1899, when he went to Station 2 with Capt. D. 
A. Matthews. 

Sergeant McMurray is probably one of the most widely known 
members of the department. He was for a year on the liquor- 
squad under Marshal Washburn, when he did creditable work. 
He is responsible for breaking up what is known as the "Alcohol 
gang," one of the most vicious gangs of young criminals Wor- 
cester has ever known. They congregated in the vicinity of 
Franklin street, and several robberies and murderous assaults 
have been committed by them. Every member of that gang was 
rounded up through the efforts of Sergeant McMurray and sen- 
tenced to the reformatory or state prison. The reign of the 
"Alcohol gang" was from 1890 to 1895. Sergeant McMurray was 
with Inspector Stone at the arrest of William W. Graves for kill- 
ing his wife Dec. 28, 1893, in a Front-street lodging-house. He 
figured conspicuously in the arrests in connection with the 
burglary of the Uxbridge depot several years ago, and also the 
arrests for breaks in Spencer in 1891. With Officer Beahn he 
broke up a thieving-gang which was operating extensively among 
the freight-yards, the Boston & Albany Railroad being the worst 
sufferers. He has figured with prominence in many arrests for 
various offenses, and always has done his work carefully and well. 


Sergt. Walter N. Drohan of Station i was born in Worcester 
Jan. i, 1850, son of Nicholas Drohan. He left the public schools 
early in his teens to learn the machinist's trade, serving an ap- 
prenticeship in the New York Engine Works on Washington 
street. He was there three years, when the concern moved to 
Passaic, N. J., and he went to Philadelphia. He remained there a 
short time and returned to Worcester, going to work in the L. 
W. Pond machine-shop. He was appointed on the police force 
by Mayor Edward L. Davis in 1874. At the end of the year he 
was dropped with upward of twenty others, and was again 
appointed a patrolman in 1877 by Mayor Charles B. Pratt. He 
returned from Warren, where he had been at work in the 
Knowles Pump Works, to accept the place. For several years he 
traveled on Front and Main streets, and for three years alternated 
with Officer J. H. Flint in traveling the Main-street beat between 
Chandler street and Barton place. In 1880 he was traveling a 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 187 

north-end beat with Officer Daniel Williams. While Drohan was 
at supper, Officer Williams got into a fight and was badly 
pounded. A searching-party was sent out after the assailants, 
and the search was kept up all night under the direction of Capt. 
Amos Atkinson. The officers did not return until morning, when 
the entire gang had been rounded up. 

Two important arrests in which Officer Drohan figured were 
John Kane, arrested Sept. 10, 1879, for rape, malicious mischief 
and assault and battery, and John Ryan, alias Jack Ryan, arrested 
Feb. 15, 1882, on the charge of highway robbery on Franklin 
street. John Kane assaulted an officer named Carroll with a 
brick and had successfully eluded the police. Officer Drohan was 
ordered in citizen's dress, and arrested Kane after a hard 
fight. He was sentenced to state prison for ten years. 
John Ryan was one of what was known in the earlier 
days as the "Moonlight gang." Temple street was its 
headquarters, and highway robberies in that section were fre- 
quent. A man who was going to Scotland, and known to the 
gang to have considerable money, went through the street the 
night of Feb. 14, was waylaid by Ryan, and robbed of his money. 
Officer Drohan was one of the best runners on the force and had 
a personal acquaintance with Ryan. He gave him a chase on the 
night of Feb. 15, shortly after midnight, and caught him in Frank- 
lin street. He was sent to state prison for eight years. After his 
release he was again arrested by Officers Drohan and Lombard, 
but gave the officers one of the most desperate fights they had 
experienced. James Sullivan, wanted for breaking and entering, 
gave Officer Drohan a hard chase on the night of May 26, 1894, 
but was finally landed in a doorway on Bridge street, where he 
had fallen exhausted. Officer Drohan was regarded one of the 
strongest men on the force, and his fleet-footedness made him an 
exceptionally valuable officer. He had remarkable strength and 
courage, and always landed the man he went after. For the arrest 
of John Ryan he received the commendation of City Marshal 
James M. Drennan. 

Sergeant Drohan has traveled several of the most important 
beats in the business section of the city, and when Station 2 was 
opened was detailed to the Millbury-street section, which was a 
troublesome section and wanted a fearless officer. He remained 
there two years, when he was transferred to Station i, where he 
has since remained, with the exception of two months in the sum- 

1 88 History of Police Department, 

mer of 1899, when he traveled as sergeant from Station 2. He 
traveled the Front-street beat for nine years, and was taken off 
the beat to be detailed as sergeant in 1897. He was appointed 
sergeant by Mayor A. B. R. Sprague April 5, 1897. Sergeant 
Drohan has taken* an active interest in meetings and parades of 
the Ancient Order of Hibernians. 




Sergt. George H. Hill of Station i is the only day-sergeant on 
the force. He was born in Lawton, Mich., Sept. 13, 1869, son of 
George B. A. Hill. The family moved to \Yorcester when the son 
was a year and a half old, and with the exception of three years 
which Sergeant Hill lived in Lawton later in life, 'Worcester has 
been his home. He went through the public schools, entering the 
high school with the class of 1889, but left in his junior year. He 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 189- 

went to work in the Grove-street works of the Washburn & Moen 
wire-mill, being employed in the fine-wire inspection department. 
At that time he was call-member of Ladder, i, in the Fire Depart- 
ment, which had its headquarters on Prescott street. After work- 
ing in the wire-mill, he left to accept a position in the Fire 
Alarm Department, being employed for three and a half years as 
lineman. He was connected with the Fire Department as call- 
member and permanent man in the Fire Alarm Department for 
five years. He resigned in 1893, being appointed on the police 
force from the civil-service list by Mayor H. A. Marsh. He went 
on duty a week later, and his first traveling was in East Worces- 
ter on the early relief. After traveling the East Worcester section 
he was transferred to the beat on Main street, between Foster and 
Central streets, where he remained two and a half years. June 
ii, 1896, he was assigned on bicycle-duty by Chief of Police E. 
T. Raymond, he being the first policeman to ride a bicycle. This 
was the beginning of the bicycle-squad, now a feature of the 
Police Department. He made a success in this line, and in Jan- 
uary, 1897, was detailed by Chief of Police Raymond sergeant,, 
doing day-duty at Station i, and was officially made a police ser- 
geant April 5, 1897, by Mayor A. B. R. Sprague. In April, 1896, 
he made a catch of a burglar in the basement of the Barnard, 
Stunner & Putnam Co. store, on Main street, which practically 
resulted in his being selected as one of the new sergeants. On 
the night in question, shortly before 12 o'clock, he discovered 
burglars in the cellar, and also discovered Edward Kelley lying in 
a window. He arrested the two burglars in the cellar and took 
them to the Waldo-street police-station. Kelley did not know 
the arrest had been made, and was not aware Sergeant Hill knew 
of the burglary until the officer ordered Kelley to give himself up. 
Kelley ran and was quickly followed by Officer Hill, who fired 
several shots after the fleeing burglar. Kelley did not stop until 
Officer Hill had run him off his feet, and he was arrested in a 
doorway corner Mechanic and Union streets, Kelley being com- 
pletely exhausted. For this act Chief of Police Raymond posted 
an order in the guard-room of both stations commending Officer 
Hill for his bravery and promptness. Sergeant Hill is a member 
of the Shaffner Club, composed of Odd Fellows, and has been 
prominent in the Sons of Veterans. He is married and lives on 
Paine street. 


History of Police Department. 


Sergt. William Hickey of Station 2 was born in Ireland Feb. 2, 
1840, and came to Worcester in 1854. He entered the public 
schools, which he attended for several years, and left to learn the 
moulder's trade. He was serving his apprenticeship at the "Junc- 
tion foundry" when the Civil W'ar began. He went to the front 
with the original Emmet Guards, of which he had been a member. 
This was the first independent company in Massachusetts to 
volunteer in 1861, and went out as Co. B of the 3d Battalion 
Rifles ; it was stationed at Fort Henry, Baltimore. The company 
served three months, and the most of the members reenlisted in 


Co. E, 25th Massachusetts Regiment, in command of Col. Josiah 
Pickett of Worcester, the captain of the company being Thomas 
O'Neil. When Sergeant Hickey returned, he reenlisted in the 
navy as first-class fireman, and acted as engineer's yeoman. He 
was three years on the gunboat Connamaugh, attached to the 
South Atlantic squadron, and was before Charleston and Savan- 
nah and at Warsaw sound. The gunboat was ordered to Phila- 
delphia for repairs, and returned south under Admiral Farragut, 
taking part in the battle of Mobile bay. He was sick with yellow 
fever in Xew Orleans ten weeks,, after which he returned to Wor- 
cester, his service in the war having ended. He reached Worces- 
ter early in July, 1865, and worked for a time at his trade. In 
1876 he was elected truant officer by the School Board, serving in 
that capacity until October, 1885, when he was appointed on the 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 191 

police force by Mayor C. G. Reed. He was detailed at Station 2, 
traveling Union hill nights and afterward traveled the "Island" 
district days. He became prominent in police circles during the 
no-license years as a liquor officer, and was appointed sergeant 
police by Mayor F. A. Harrington in 1890. He has been con- 
nected with Station 2 all the time he has been a member of the 
department, excepting two months in 1899, when Chief of Police 
James M. Drennan made his most pronounced change in the 
police detail, transferring Capt. S. W. Ranger and Sergt. Hickey 
to Station i. 

While at a circus in 1880, during the time he was truant officer, 
he arrested George Millard in the act of picking a pocket. It 
developed that Millard was a professional pickpocket, wanted in 
other parts of the country. He was released shortly after his 
arrest on straw bail, and Worcester was rid of an undesirable 
character, as he gave this section a wide berth. Sergeant Hickey 
is married, and one son is a priest in the Catholic church. 


Sergt. John W. Warren of Station 2 was born in Princeton 
April 3, 1845, but moved to Boylston when a boy. He was raised 
on a farm, and at the outbreak of the war enlisted in Co. E, 2ist 
Mass. Regiment, the company being raised in West 
Boylston. He was with the Burnside expedition at Roanoke 
Island and Newbern, N. C., and later joined the Army of the 
Potomac under General Pope. In 1862 he was in the battles of Bull 
Run and Chantilly, and under Gen. George B. McClellan his 
regiment fought in the battles of South Mountain and Antietam. 
At Fredericksburg, in December, 1862, he was wounded, receiv- 
ing a rebel bullet in the arm which laid him up for a time. The 
following year the regiment was transferred west, serving in 
Kentucky and Tennessee, and took part in the siege of Knoxville 
in 1863. The 2ist Regiment reenlisted in 1863, and was assigned 
to the 9th Army Corps, in the Army of the Potomac, under 
General Grant. In 1864 Sergeant Warren was in the battles of 
the Wilderness, Spottsylvania. Xorth Anna river, Cold Harbor, 
and was in front of Petersburg. He was mustered out in Sep- 
tember, 1864, returning to Boylston, resuming work on a farm. 

Sergeant Warren came to Worcester in 1872, going to work in 
the Washburn & Moen wire-mill. He remained there until Jan- 
uary, 1883, when he was appointed on the police force by Mayor 

I9 2 History of Police Department. 

Samuel E. Hildreth. He traveled from Station i the first year, 
his territory being Green street and Dungarven hill, and in 1884 
was transferred to Station 2, on Lamartine street. He traveled 
from Station 2 five years, being assigned various beats, and in 1889 
was again sent to Station i, where he remained two years. He 
was appointed sergeant by Mayor F. A. Harrington in 1890 and 
detailed to Station 2. In the summer of 1899, at the time of the 
changes made by Chief of Police James M. Drennan, he was sent 
to Station i, taking Sergeant W. X. Drohan's relief for two 
months. He is a member of George H. Ward Post, G. A. R., 
and is married and lives on Kingsbury street. 



Mrs. Deborah B. Sawtelle. police matron since Jan. i, 1897, 
born in Bridgton, Me., in 1842, and lived there until fifteen years 
old, when her parents moved to Saco, Me., where she lived until 
the death of her father. She came to Worcester in 1862. and 
three years later was married to Francis K. Sawtelle, who died in 
1880. During the administration of Sheriff A. B. R. Sprague in 
1886, she was appointed matron of the Summer-street jail, and 
remained there until Jan. i, 1897, when she was appointed matron 
of the police station by Mayor A. B. R. Sprague, to succeed Miss 
Dora H. Cook. When she first went to the jail there was but 
one cell for women, and since that time three have been 
added. At the jail she was considered an excellent matron, and 
her reputation has been fully maintained at the Waldo-street 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 193 

police station. Her duties are to care for the women prisoners, 
lost children and lodgers, the duties being practically the same 
as were inaugurated in the Summer-street jail when the women's 
prison was instituted. Her salary is $700 a year, an increase of 
$200 over the salary paid Mrs. Mary B. Lane, the first matron to 
hold the office. Mrs. Sawtelle's office gives -her opportunity to 
see many faces with which she is familiar, her experience at the 
Summer-street jail bringing her in contact with a majority of the 
women prisoners who are taken into the Waldo-street station. 
She has earned a reputation for kind treatment of prisoners, and 
has the highest respect of Station I officials. While in the 
Summer-street jail, she became acquainted with Col. E. J. Russell, 
jailer ; Lieut. James T. Johnson, watchman for several years, and 
Officer Charles Shippee of Station I, who was steward at the jail 
much of the time she was matron. These officials of her earlier 
acquaintance in the jail are now connected with police head- 
quarters. Mrs. Sawtelle has one daughter, wife of Arthur P. 
Putnam, living on Dix street. 


Dr. Francis Shaw, in charge of the ambulance department, was 
born in Blackburn, Eng., June 26, 1875, an ^ came to the United 
States with his parents, Richard Shaw and wife, when he was 
three years old. The family settled in New Bedford, where Dr. 
Shaw received his early education, being graduated from the New 
Bedford high school in the class of 1893, and then entered a 
preparatory school, entering the Harvard Medical School in 1895. 
He graduated in 1899, and after being connected with the Boston 
hospitals doing special work, he came to Worcester Sept. n, 1899, 
as surgeon in charge of the emergency ambulance. He had an 
office at the Waldo-street police station when he first came to the 
department, but after his marriage lived on the west side of the 
city, remaining at his office during the day and early evening. He 
has charge of all the ambulance work, emergency and sick, and 
when emergency cases are reported to him he visits them before 
transfers are made. 

ip4 History of Police Department, 


Brief Sketches of the Patrolmen Who Watch Over Property Day and Night 
Birthplaces, Ages and Dates of Appointment Work Required, Hours 
of Duty, and Station to Which they are Attached The Auxiliary on which 
the Routine Work of the Department Falls Important Arrests are Made 
on Their Information. 

The patrolmen of the department are the guardians of the peace 
of the Heart of the Commonwealth. With them to a large degree 


rests the success of the department. Among them are many who 
have a keen scent for criminals, and through them the inspectors 
and higher officials bring about important arrests. As a rule they 
are men of good judgment, courageous and alert, and some of the 
most creditable work in clearing up puzzling cases has been done 
by patrolmen. 

The department to-day numbers 118 patrolmen, divided 
between Stations i and 2 on Waldo and Lamartine streets. Their 
work is routine, the tour of night-duty being seven hours, but 
much extra duty is required of them, and with the time required 
to attend to court-cases in Central District and Superior courts, 
much of the time is given to the city. There are three reliefs 
one on day and two on night duty. The hours of the day-relief 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 195 

are the longest, being from 8 o'clock in the morning. until 6 
o'clock at night, with time out for dinner. The first night-relief 
reports for duty at 6 o'clock and is relieved at i o'clock, the second 
relief reporting for duty at 12.30 o'clock and remains on until 7 
o'clock- in the morning. These reliefs alternate, giving the men 
what is known among them as a long and short day. On their 
long day several of them are required to do extra duty, either in 
the office or outside in attendance on some sporting or other 
event. In recent years the hours of extra duty have materially 
increased, and there has been agitation among the members rela- 
tive to a system of pay covering this feature of the work, with a 
view to the establishment of a pension fund. 
Following are brief sketches of the patrolmen : 

Fred M. Ames, Station I, born in Jefferson, Me., Sept. 4, 
1857; came to Worcester Aug. 13, 1880; appointed patrolman 
Jan. 21, 1889. 

Charles W. Barker, Station i, born in Monson, Mass., 
Nov. 29, 1837; came to Worcester in 1865; during Civil War 
served on U. S. S. Monadnock ; appointed patrolman Sept. n, 
1872; appointed sergeant Feb. 19, 1883, and was first night-ser- 
geant at Station 2. 

George V. Barker, Station i, born in Randolph, Me., Aug. 4, 
1846; came to Worcester 1863; served during war in Co. E, 42d 
Mass. Regiment; appointed patrolman Jan. i, 1872; was out of 
department in 1874 to 1880. 

Jerome G. Barker, Station i, born in Carroll, Me., March 14, 
1867 ; came to Worcester Aug. 1 1, 1890 ; was attendant at Worces- 
ter Insane Hospital; appointed patrolman March 21, 1892. 

William P. Barrett, Station 2, born in Worcester Feb. 24, 1869; 
appointed patrolman Jan. 31, 1893. 

Simeon M. Bellows, Station i, born in Brookfield, Mass., 
July 9, 1849; came to Worcester in 1883; appointed patrolman 
Jan. 5, 1885. 

Oliver Blake, Station i, born in Ireland May 19, 1848; came to 
Worcester May 6, 1869; appointed patrolman Jan. 26, 1887. 

Fred C. Blanchard, Station 2, born in Boston March 20, 1853 ; 
came to Worcester April i, 1870; appointed patrolman May 4, 

196 History of Police Department, 

Thomas F. Boyle, Station 2, born in Whitinsville, Mass., Aug. 

19, 1858; came to Worcester in 1870; appointed patrolman April 
15, 1890. 

William H. Brady, Station i, born in Worcester Oct. 8, 1858; 
appointed patrolman Feb. 28, 1888; is day-officer at Union 

Benjamin F. Brown, Station i, born in Starksboro, Vt., Sept. 
13, 1854; came to Worcester April 29, 1881 ; appointed patrolman 
June 6, 1892. 

Hugh F. Bulger, Station i, born in Worcester April 22, 1869; 
appointed patrolman June 20, 1898. 

Frank F. Burbank. Station i, born in Worcester in July, 1852; 
appointed patrolman April 14, 1890; served in Fire Department 
on Hose 4 in 1872; original member of Fire Patrol in 1875, and 
thirteen years in Hose 6. 

Sylvanus G. Bullock, doorman Station i, born in Providence, 
R. I., Jan. 20, 1834; came to Worcester Jan. i, 1857; during the 
Civil Wsr was in A Co., 25th Mass. Regiment, Vol. Inf.; 
promoted first lieutenant and assistant quartermaster March 30, 
1864; appointed patrolman Jan. i, 1883; made doorman in 1892. 

James J. Burke, Station i, born in Worcester Sept. 8, 1863; 
appointed patrolman July 20, 1896; served several years in Fire 
Department as lieutenant of Hose 3. 

Charles E. Chamberlin, Station i, born in Upton, Mass., Aug. 

20, 1867; came to Worcester in 1870; served on Hose 9 in Fire 
Department; appointed patrolman June 27, 1898. 

Dennis E. Clifford, Station i, born in Killarney, Kerry county, 
Ireland, Sept. 26, 1852; came to Worcester in 1867; appointed 
patrolman Jan. 4, 1887; is on mounted duty. 

Michael Cody, Station i, born in Ireland Oct. 6, 1843: came 
to Worcester in 1867; during Civil War served on flagship Hart- 
ford and gunboat Kanawha; appointed patrolman Nov. 18, 1895. 

William A. Condy, Station i, born in Lowell, Mass., Sept. 3, 
1862; came to Worcester in 1863; was captain of A Co. (City 
Guards), 2d Mass. Regiment, M. V. M., several years ; appointed 
patrolman Jan. 28, 1894. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 197 

Matthew E. Craffey, Station i. born in Ireland July 26, 1865; 
came to Worcester in 1871 ; appointed patrolman Feb. 6, 1893. 

Genery T. Darling, Station 2, born in Worcester Dec. 28, 1847; 
during Civil War served in Co. F, I5th New York Regiment, 
H. A.; appointed patrolman June 20, i< 

James T. Davidson, Station I, born in Ryegate, Vt., March 19, 
1862; came to Worcester in May, 1888; appointed patrolman 
March 21, 1892. 

George H. Davis, Station 2, born in Worcester Nov. 8, 1867 ; 
appointed patrolman June 28, 1894. 

J. Clarence Davis, Station i, born in Moline, 111., Feb. 19, 1854; 
came to Worcester in 1859; appointed patrolman March 9, 1888. 

George T. Delaney, Station i, born in Worcester Nov. 15, 1862 ; 
appointed patrolman Jan. 15, 1887. 

Luke J. Dillon, Station 2, born in Boston, Mass., Nov. 19, 
1861 ; came to Worcester Sept. 6, 1876; appointed patrolman May 
4, 1886. 

James Donahue, Station i, born in Ireland March 15, 1844; 
came to Worcester in 1876; during Civil War served in 7th New 
York Infantry; appointed patrolman Jan. 29, 1894. 

Michael G. Donahue, Station i, born in Ireland Sept. 26, 1842; 
came to Worcester in July, 1857; during Civil War served in 
I7th Mass. Regiment volunteers; appointed patrolman July 21, 

John Dunn, Station i, born in Worcester in November, 1858; 
appointed patrolman Jan. 4, 1886. 

George W. Earle, Station i, born in North Brookfield Sept. 
25, 1864; came to Worcester in 1871 ; driver of Engine 3, in Fire 
Department, for several years ; appointed patrolman Jan. 20, 1898. 

Fred C. Eaton, Station i, born in Vienna, Me., Jan. 12, 1856; 
came to Worcester Oct. 2, 1880; appointed patrolman April 14, 

Edson Fairbanks, Station 2, born in Holden April 16, 1838; 
came to Worcester in 1863; during Civil War served in Co. B, 
5ist Mass. Regiment Volunteers; appointed patrolman Jan. 7, 

198 History of Police Department, 

Charles A. Favreault, Station 2, born in Canada Sept. 8, 1853; 
came to Worcester in September, 1887; appointed patrolman 
March 4, 1889. 

Garrett Fitzgerald, Station i, born in Ireland June 2, 1865; 
came to Worcester May 30, 1882; appointed patrolman Nov. 18, 

Edward C. Fitzpatrick, Station 2, born in Worcester Feb. I, 
1860; appointed patrolman Jan. 4, 1886. 

John J. Flaherty, Station I, born in Galway, Ireland, Nov. 20, 
1848; came to Worcester in 1867; during Civil War served on 


U. S. flagship Colorado, of Mediterranean squadron, and bat- 
tleship Vermont; rowed in barge-race in France, defeating the 
French twelve-oared crew ; earned four medals for life-saving 
when school-boy ; instructor at jail three years ; represented Ward 
3 in City Council from 1890 to 1896; appointed patrolman April 
13, 1896. 

Michael J. Foley, Station i, born in Ireland July i, 1847; 
came to Worcester in 1849; served in Civil War in Co. I, 5Oth 
Mass. Regiment Volunteers, and Co. F, 4th Mass. H. A. ; appoint- 
ed patrolman Jan. i, 1874. 

Gustaf Fyrberg, Station i, born in Hoganas, Sweden, May 8, 
1864; came to Worcester in 1875; appointed patrolman Oct. 12. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 199 

Francis P. A. Gilchrist, Station i, born in Worcester March 
10, 1873; appointed patrolman June 12, 1899. 

Herbert L. Gleason, Station i, born in Heath, Mass., March 13, 
1855; came to Worcester in 1884; appointed patrolman March 
28, 1892. 

David Goggin, detailed to Board of Health, born in Killarney, 
Kerry county, Ireland, in September, 1840; came to Worcester in 
1866 ; appointed patrolman Jan. 5, 1873 ; was off force two years ; 
detailed permanently with the Board of Health in 1892. 

Ira F. Goodwin, Station i, born in Londonderry, N. H., Oct. 
13, 1856; came to Worcester in 1881 ; appointed patrolman June 
8, 1893. 

Charles F. Gould, Station i, born in Clinton, Mass., Jan. 22, 
1846; came to Worcester in 1850; served during the Civil War 
in Co. A, 34th Mass. Volunteer Infantry ; appointed patrolman 
May 15, 1885. 

James P. Hackett, Station 2, born in Worcester Dec. 5, 1861 ; 
appointed patrolman May 15, 1888. 

George W. Hall, Station i, born in Uxbridge, Mass., June 23, 
1841 ; came to Worcester in 1859; during Civil War served in Co. 
D, 25th Mass. Volunteer Infantry; appointed patrolman July 20, 

Charles R. Hanson, Station 2, born in Norway Dec. 25, 1849; 
came to Worcester in 1874; appointed patrolman June 10, 1883. 

Andrew Harper, Station i, born in Millbury, Mass., May 13, 
1848; came to Worcester in September, 1868; appointed patrol- 
man Jan. 14, 1 88 1. 

Alfred Harper, Station i, born in Grafton, Mass., Jan. 12, 1855 ; 
came to Worcester in 1873 '> appointed patrolman March 3, 1888. 

Silas D. Hemenway, Station i, born in Shrewsbury, Mass., Jan. 
29, 1860; came to Worcester Nov. i, 1886; appointed patrolman 
June 13, 1892. 

Patrick Hines, Station 2, born in Falls Village, Ct., March i, 
1849; came to Worcester in 1857; appointed patrolman Jan. 
5, 1885. 

200 History of Police Department, 

John J. Horgan, Station i, born in Boston, Mass., Jan. 28, 
1851 ; came to Worcester April 21, 1871 ; appointed patrolman 
in January, 1874, and again Jan. 5, 1885. 

Thomas Hurley, Station i, born in Ireland Nov. i, 1858; came 
to Worcester in 1869; appointed patrolman Jan. i, 1884. 

George A. Jackson, Station i, born in Worcester April 18, 1871 ; 
appointed patrolman April 5, 1900. 

Oren A. Johnson, Station i, born in Hardwick, Mass., July 9, 
1852; came to Worcester April 15, 1871; appointed patrolman 
Jan. 4, 1875. 

Thomas J. Kelleher, Station i, born in Ireland Dec. 29, 1869; 
came to Worcester in 1881 ; appointed patrolman April 2, 1900; 
recruited with G Co., 9th Mass. Regiment Volunteers, for 
Spanish-American War. 

Richard J. Kerwick, Station i, born in Worcester Jan. 18, 1874 ; 
appointed patrolman April 30, 1900. 

John Keyes, Station i, born in Weld, Me., Aug. 24, 1840; came 
to Worcester March 20, 1855 ; served through Civil War in Co. 
E, 36th Mass. Volunteer Infantry; appointed patrolman Jan. i, 
1882, and Jan. i, 

James W. Knight, Station i, born in Otisfield, Me., Aug. 17, 
1865 ; came to Worcester Oct. 6, 1889 ; appointed patrolman Jan. 
30, 1893. 

Henry A. Laviolette, Station i, born in Chateauquay, P. Q., 
May 17, 1854; came to Worcester in May, 1861 ; appointed 
patrolman March 21, 1892. 

John Legasey, Station i, born in Canada May 3, 1842; came 
to Worcester in 1847; served during Civil War in Co. G, I5th 
Mass. Volunteer Infantry ; wounded at Antietam ; appointed 
patrolman Jan. i, 1870, and Jan. i, 1880. 

Nils Lindquist, Station 2, born in Sweden March 20, 1849; 
came to Worcester in 1875 ; appointed patrolman Jan. 2, 1885. 

Eneas Lombard, Station i, born in Castle Island, County 
Kerry, Ireland, Sept. 30, 1846; came to Worcester in 1868; ap- 
pointed patrolman July i, 1880. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 201 

James M. Maloney, Station 2, born in Ireland May i, 1841 ; 
came to Worcester July 3, 1859; appointed patrolman July 17, 

Addison March, Station I, born in Warwick, Mass., Aug. 31, 
1839; came to Worcester in 1859; served during Civil War in 
Co. D, 2ist Mass. Regiment; appointed patrolman Jan. 17, 1873. 

William H. Mason, Station i, born in Blackstone, Mass., Jan. 
2, 1845; came to Worcester in 1888; served during Civil War 
in Co. D, 2d Mass. Regiment, H. A., ; appointed patrolman April 
18, 1892. 

Robert F. Mathews, Station i, born in Boston May 5, 1845; 
came to Worcester in 1865 ; served during Civil War in 3d Mass. 
L. A.; appointed patrolman Jan. 7, 1879. 

Thomas F. Matthews, Station 2, born in Worcester May 15, 
1864; appointed patrolman Jan. 17, 1893. 

Joseph S. McCarthy, Station i, born in Ireland in February, 
1847; came to Worcester in 1879; appointed patrolman Jan. 6, 

Daniel McCarthy, Station i, born in Ireland April 14, 1840; 
came to Worcester July i, 1863; appointed patrolman Jan. i, 

George A. McLeod, Station i, born in Rogers Hill, N. S., Oct. 
2 5> T 857; came to Worcester in 1879; served several years in the 
Fire Department; appointed patrolman Feb. 7, 1890. 

Henry H. Mecorney, day doorman Station 2, born in Spencer, 
Mass., April 3, 1840; came to Worcester in 1861 ; appointed 
patrolman Jan. i, 1875; doorman since 1891. 

Herbert W. Merrill, Station i, born in Stockholm, N. Y., Jan. 
7, 1869; came to Worcester in December, 1888; driver of Engine 
4 hose-wagon in Fire Department several years ; appointed patrol- 
man Jan. 30, 1893. 

Joseph Midgely, Station 2, born in Lancashire, Eng., Dec. 10, 
1843; came to Worcester March i, 1851; during Civil War 
served in Co. D, 5ist Mass. Volunteer Infantry; appointed patrol- 
man July 21, 1896. 


History of Police Department, 

Frank W. Millett, Station i, born in Corinth, Me., June 25, 
1846; came to Worcester Dec. 20, 1872; served during war in 
Troop M, 2d Maine Cavalry; appointed patrolman Jan. 27, 1887. 

George E. Moore, Station i, born in Woodstock, Conn., Jan. 
i, 1865 ; came to Worcester in 1887; appointed patrolman March 
14, 1892. 

Jeremiah J. Moynihan, Station i, born in Killarney, Kerry 
county, Ireland, Dec. 24, 1865; came to Worcester in 1881 ; 
appointed patrolman Sept. 3, 1897; captain of G Co. (Emmet 
Guards), gth Regiment, M. V. M., since Aug. 27, 1894; served 
as captain of G Co. in Cuba in 1898 in Spanish- American War. 


Patrick J. Murphy, Station i, born in Auburn, Mass., Jan. 2, 
1857; came to \Vorcester in 1860; appointed patrolman Xov. 18, 

George P. Xewton, Station i, born in Oxford, Mass., Oct. 12, 
1871 ; came to Worcester in 1879; appointed patrolman June 20, 

Henry P. Nugent, Station i, born in Worcester May 18, 1866; 
appointed patrolman July 20, 1896. 

James P. O'ConnelJ, Station 2, born in Ireland April 10, 1849; 
came to Worcester July 5, 1864; appointed patrolman Jan. 7, 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 203 

James O'Connor, Station i, born in Worcester June 30, 1855; 
appointed patrolman Jan. 4, 1886. 

John O'Connor, Station i, born in Ireland Oct. 6, 1850; came 
to Worcester in 1868; appointed patrolman Jan. i, 1880. 

John E. O'Day, Station 2, born in Worcester March 29, 1850; 
appointed patrolman Jan. 7, 1884. 

Peter J. O'Marrah, Station i, born in New York city April 13, 
1845; came to Worcester March 21, 1878; during Civil War 
served D Co., 37th New York Infantry ; B Co., 5th N. Y. Cavalry, 
and in government service from November, 1863, to June, 1864; 
appointed patrolman Nov. 18, 1895. 

John O'Sullivan, Station i, born in Killarney, Kerry county, 
Ireland, July i, 1847; came to Worcester May 30, 1870; ap- 
pointed patrolman Jan. i, 1881. 

Chandler J. Pike, Station 2, born in Hopkinton, Mass., March 
17, 1839; came to Worcester in 1885 ; appointed patrolman April 
13, 1896; during Civil War served in H Co., 7th Mass. Regiment 

William A. Piper, night doorman Station i, born in Holderness, 
N. H., March 10, 1842; came to Worcester Nov. 15, 1870; 
served during Civil War in H Co., ist N. H. Cavalry; appointed 
patrolman May 6, 1873; made doorman in 1898. 

Fred W. Porter, Station i, born in Kentville, Kings county, 
N. S., Sept. 9, 1858; came to Worcester in March, 1878; ap- 
pointed patrolman July 20, 1896. 

Pierce P. Power, Station i, born in Worcester Sept. 4, 1876; 
appointed patrolman April 30, 1900. 

James M. Quimby, Station 2, born in Weare, N. H., Aug. 20, 
1845; came to Worcester Aug. 16, 1866; served during Civil 
War in 2d X. H. Volunteer Infantry three years, and ist N. H. 
H. A. one year; appointed patrolman Jan. 6, 1880, and May 12, 

William R. Ramsdell, Station i, born in Milo, Me., Jan. 6, 
1855; came to \Vorcester in 1875; appointed patrolman Feb. 
20, 1883. 

204 History of Police Department, 

John W. Reardon, Station I, born in Palmer, Mass., Oct. 9, 
1857; came to Worcester in 1858; appointed patrolman March 
5- 1884. 

James W. Roche, Station i, born in Grafton, Mass., July 10, 
1854; came to Worcester in 1865; appointed patrolman Jan. 5, 

George E. Rogers, Station 2, born in Columbus, O., Dec. 20, 
1863; came to Worcester July 2, 1890; appointed patrolman June 

Patrick F. Ryan, Station 2, born in Wrentham, Mass., March 
17, 1849; came to Worcester July i, 1870; served during Civil 
War in Co. H, 4th Mass. Cavalry; appointed patrolman May 
7, 1889. 

William J. Ryan, Station i, born in Worcester Oct. 9, 1869; 
appointed patrolman July 20, 1896. 

Joseph A. Sinnott, Station i, born in Duxbury, Vt., Feb. 29, 
1860; came to Worcester Nov. 16, 1881 ; served several years 
in Fire Department at headquarters ; appointed patrolman July 
20, 1896. 

Charles H. Shippee, Station i, born in Colrain, Mass., Oct. 
9, 1846; came to Worcester in 1875; one of first permanent 
members of Worcester Fire Department ; appointed patrolman 
May 31, 1886. 

Edwin H. Streeter, Station i, born in Milwaukee, Wis., June 
9, 1845 '> came to \Vorcester in 1889; during Civil War served in I 
Co., 9th N. H. Infantry; appointed patrolman Jan. 25, 1897. 

Henry B. Streeter, Station i, born in Concord, Vt., Jan. 24. 
1835; came to Worcester in 1872; appointed patrolman Jan. i, 

William H. Spencer, Station i, born in Edinboro, Me.. Jan. i, 
1855; came to Worcester in 1890; appointed patrolman July 
26, 1897. 

Thomas J. Spencer, Station i, born in Worcester Oct. 14, 1869; 
appointed patrolman July 26, 1897. 

Daniel F. Sullivan, Station i , born in Worcester, March i , 1 868 ; 
appointed patrolman June 6, 1892. 

Worcester, Massachusetts. 205 

Apollos Q. Thayer, Station i, born in Wilmington, N. Y., 
Sept. 6, 1854; came to Worcester Oct. 26, 1880; appointed patrol- 
man Jan. 4, 1886. 

Romanzo Thayer, Station i, born in Wilmington, N. Y., March 
17, 1858; came to Worcester March 7, 1882; appointed patrol- 
man Jan. 8, 1885. 

Charles J. Thompson, Station 2, born in Ireland March n, 
1846; came to Worcester in January, 1864; appointed patrolman 
Jan. 5, 1885. 

August Thnnman, Station 2, born in Sweden March 6, 1859; 
came to Worcester May 21, 1880; appointed patrolman March 
21, 1890. 

Elliott Tyler, night doorman at Station 2, born in Whitingham, 
Vt., Jan. 17, 1832; came to Worcester Jan. i, 1866; appointed 
patrolman Jan. i, 1873; made doorman in 1892. 

James J. Tierney, Station i, born in Lowell, Mass., Dec. 10, 
1850; came to Worcester in 1859; appointed patrolman March 
24, 1890. 

Samuel W. W r ard, Station i, born in Worcester June 20, 1845 ; 
served during Civil War in Co. H, 25th Mass. Regiment Volun- 
teers ; appointed patrolman Jan. i, 1878. 

John H. Walker, Station i, born in Upton, Mass., Jan. 15. 
1848; came to Worcester Oct. i, 1872; served during Civil War 
in 3d Mass. H. A. ; appointed patrolman May 28, 1900. 

Rolla C. Walbridge, Station i, born in Palatine, Cook county, 
111., Feb. 16, 1867; came to Worcester in 1868; appointed patrol- 
man June 27, 1898. 

David J. Whelan, Station 2, born in Worcester June 15, 1869; 
appointed patrolman Jan. 18, 1894. 

John F. White, Station i, born in Bradford, Eng., Jan. n, 
1864; came to Worcester in 1866; appointed patrolman March 

22, 1890. 

George H. Whiting, Station 2, born in Fayville, Mass., April 

23, 1856; came to Worcester in March, 1864; appointed patrol- 
man March 14, 1892. 


History of Police Department. 

Frederick W. Williams, Station I, born in Petersham, Mass.. 
April 24, 1859; came to Worcester in 1882; appointed patrolman 
May 10, 1887. 

Michael F. Kennedy, driver, born in Clinton county, X. Y., 
Feb. 13, 1869; came to Worcester in 1874; appointed Jan. i, 1890. 

Edward E. Wilson, driver, born in Greenfield, Yt., July 7, 
1862; came to Worcester in 1864; appointed Jan. i, 1890. 

Robert Taft, driver, born in Charlton, Mass., April 27, 1876; 
came to Worcester in June, 1892 ; served in Cuban campaign in 
Spanish-American War in 1898 in C Co., 2d Mass. Regiment, 
Volunteer Infantry; appointed Sept. i, 1899. 


Alfred A. Sanderson, attendant Station i, born in Rutland, 
Mass., Aug. 31, 1843; came to Worcester in 1863; served during 
Civil War in Co. B, 5ist Mass. Volunteer Infantry; appointed 
Oct. 9, 1899. 

Henry W. Butler, janitor Station i, born in East Douglas, 
Mass., Dec. 29, 1833; served in Civil War in Co. A, ist Conn. 
Cavalry; came to Worcester in July, 1881 ; appointed June i, 

Dr. Francis Shaw, ambulance surgeon, resigned Aug. 15, 
1900, and Dr. Arthur C. Doten was appointed. 

i^> . 


J- -* 

208 Advertisements. 




A. G. BULLOCK, ....... President. 

THOMAS H. GAGE. ...... Vice-president. 

HENRY M. WITTER, ...... Secretary. 

GEORGE W. MACKINTIRE, ..... Treasurer. 


BURTON H. WRIGHT, . . Supt. of Agencies. 

Consulting Physicians : 


annual DivioenDs of Surplus. 

Claims paiO on proof of Beatb. 

policy Contract Simple an& liberal. 

No needless restrictions or useless technicalities. '-Cash Values" and "Paid-up Values" fixed by law. 

No Massachusetts Life Company Ever Failed. 

This Company paid all the death-claims of 48 years from the interest earned by its invested funds. 




340 Main St., - Worcester, Mass. 

The Vaults of the State Safe Deposit Co. are in the new building of the State 
Mutual Life Assurance Co., and the vaults, doors, locks, safes, etc., are of unusual 
strength and thickness, and in every detail of their construction the utmost 
thoroughness has been observed. The premises are entirely above ground, light, 
and well ventilated, and are under constant supervision night and day, and every 
precaution will be taken to secure perfect protection. The safes are commodious, 
of various sizes, and accessible only to renters. 

Prices from $5 upwards, according to size. 

A. G. BULLOCK, President. 

H. M. WITTER, Secretary. 




The Worcester Rational Bank, 


Formerly The Worcester Bantc, 



Surplus and Undivided Profits, 


Banking House, No. 9 Foster St. 










Interest Allowed 
on Special De- 
posits Subject to 

Worcester County Institution for Savings, 

No. 13 Foster St., Worcester. 


This Institution was established 
February 5, 1828. Its object is to 
receive and safely invest the sav- 
ings of the people, especially of 
those who work for wages or on 

Money is put on interest on the 
first day of January, April, July, 
and October. Interest on deposits 
is computed to January i and 
July i. 

Dividends are payable January 
15 and July 15. 


CHARLES A. CHASE, Treasurer. 

210 Advertisements. 

448 Main Street, opp, City Hall, 

CAPITAL, $200,000. SURPLUS, $100,000. 

Transacts a GENERAL BANKING business. 

subject to check at sight. 

The Company may act as TRUSTEE, as EX- 

SAFES TO RENT, $5 to $50 per year, e- -*, for 


EDWARD F. BISCO, President. 
SAML AI> H. CLARY, Secretary. 



Of Worcester, State Mutual Building. 

CflPlTflli flflD SURPLUS, $500,000, 









This Bank solicits accounts from individuals, firms and corporations, 

and will be pleased to meet or correspond with those 

who contemplate making changes or 

opening new accounts. 

Interest Allowed on Special Deposits Subject to Check. 

ALBERT H. WAITE, President. GILBERT K. RAND, Cashier. 








Q, Q. 

311 Main St., Worcester, Mass, 

Incorporated. May 15, 1851. 

ASSETS, JUNE 30, 1900, . . $7,377,072.93, 


Deposits from Five Dollars to One Thousand Dollars are re- 
ceived and put on interest on the fifteenth day of January, April, 
July and October. 

Dividends are declared on the fifteenth day of January and July 
(payable on or after the first day of February and August). 









CAPITAL AND SURPLUS, $228,000. DEPOSITS, $1,600,000. 









Dealers in Susquehanna free-burning Coal, 
Jeddo and Lattimer Lehigh, American Co.'s 
Cumberland, and Foundry Coke. : : 

General Office, 536 Main Street. 

Jfinnicutt <Sc 

investment bankers, 

359 Ttyain St., Worcester, 77? ass. 

J. A. FAYERWEATHER, Pres. R. F. UPHAM, Sec'y & Treas. F. P. KENDALL, Asst. Sec'y. 

flQutaal pire Insurance Co. 

Office, 377 Main St., Worcester, Mass. 

Insures the safest class of property against fire and lightning, and Policy 
holders share the profits. Large dividends being returned. Information gladly 

214 Advertisements. 

Worcester Gas Light Company, 


Office, 240 Main Street. 






Pres. and Gen'l Manager, CHARLES DUDLEY LAMSOX. 
Treasurer and Clerk, - - JAMES P. HAMILTOX, 

Price of Gas, $1,20 per Thousand Cubic Feet, 

A discount of 20 cents on a thousand feet will be allowed if paid on or before 
the FIFTEENTH of the month. 


In large or small quantities. Orders may 
be left at this office, or at the works. 

NOTICE OF LEAKS or of trouble with supply may be left at the office of 
the Company and will be promptly attended to. 

All Leaks are Dangerous and should be Promptly Reported. 










THOMAS M. ROGERS, President. 

HERBERT H. FAIRBANKS, Treas. and Sec'y. 

WM. H. COUGHLIN, Superintendent. 

Arc and Incandescent Electric Lighting and Power. 

21 6 





F. H. DEWEY, President. 

<J. N. HKHRMflN, Silpeririten 

H. H. STONE, Treasurer. 

15 Market 

Advertisements. 217 

J.V,,,.,,,,.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, .,., ,,., 



Ulorcesier and Suburban 

Street Railway Company. 

* Portland Street, 
Worcester, mass. 

2i8 Advertisements. 









Private Parties ) 

Excursion " V Accommodate! 

Theatre " j 

Boating, Bathing and Outing Accommodations at 
Lake Chaubunagungamaug and Beacon Park, Web= 

Telephone Street Railway Co. for Particulars, No. 1040. 



American Car Sprinkler Co. 

M. J. WIIITTALL, V. Pres. 


FKANK D. PEKKY, Gen. Supt. 

Contracts Solicited for Sprinkling- Entire Cities. Sprinkling Cars Leased on Reasonable 
Terms. Local companies formed for carrying on work of street sprinkling. 

This Company controls all patents of the United 
Tramway Sprinkler Co. , Louisville, Ky. ^rn^^^^m 

^Worcester, Mass. 





L. GOES' Genuine Improved 

Patent Screw Wrenches. 

Patented Dec. 15, iSqi, and April 30, 1895. 
The Best Made and Strongest Wrench in the Market. 

Office, Goes Square, 

Worcester, Mass. 


Wright & Colton Wire Cloth Co. 


Wire Cloth, 
Poultry Netting. 
Broom, Mattress, 
Market, Store, 
& Florists' Wire. 

Wood Screws, Nails, ,/ ; 
Rivets, Staples, 
D. P. Tacks, Rid- 
dles, Coal Screens. 

Factories : 

l'.\ i M Ki; MASS. Weslern Branch, 79 LAKE ST.. CHICAGO. ILL., I. S. 1. 

Main Office, WORCESTER, MASS. 




Iron and Bessemer Steel Wire 


Wire Specialties* 



to vt/ 

i The American Steel and I 

Wire Company, : 

~to -^-^^^^ ^^^^^^ Nl/ 

to y 

<IS y 

flv y 

to v' 



i $ 




Every form of Iron, Steel, Copper and 
Aluminum Wire. 

Every form of Insulated Wire and Cable. 
Springs of every kind, Round or Flat. 

Wire Rope for every purpose, and of 
every size. 

Round and F : lat Tempered Wires. 
Woven Wire Fence. 
Galvanized Poultry Netting. 








^- ..,... ; , 

ror 58 Years 

The Guardians 
of the Peace of 
Worcester have 
Faithfully Pro- 
tected this . . 
Store Against 
Mishap. . . . 
A Fact Which 
is Appreciated 
by the 


Barnard, Sumner $ Putnam Co. 








Mills at Worcester and Auburn, Mass. 


W. F. HOGG, V. PRES. & SEC. 

Established Philadelphia, 1837. Established Worcester, 1879. Incorporated New York, 1899. 




a : H 

PS << 



Tannery, Factoty and Main Office, 58 to 62 Bloomingdale Road, Worcester, Mass, 

Send for our Illustrated Hand-I3ook descriptive of our PRODUCTS. 

Capital Stock, 1,000,000. 

Established 18.51. 

Incorporated !> .. 

JOS. A. KNIGHT. Pres. W. M. SPAUI.U1NG, V. Pres. & Sec'y. HENRY C. GRATON, Treas. 




Firearms manufacturers, 


Send for Cafalog-ue.- 

1 he most important 
part of a police offi- 
cer's equipment is 
his revolver, bis last 
resort, as it were. 




Is the best high-grade revolver (sold at a reasonable price) that 
is adapted for police use. 32 and 38 calibers, S. & W. Cartridges. 

For sale by the leading dealers in Firearms, Hardware and Sporting Goods 

Send for descriptive catalogue to the Manufacturer. 


U. S. A.. 






Cloth=Finishing Machinery 

For Cotton, Woolen, Worsted and Felt 
Goods, Plushes, Velvets, Corduroys, 
Carpets, Rugs, Mats, Etc. . . 

Shearing Machines of all Kinds c /, v. -j^ m. m 

a specialty. 56 Cambridge St., Worcester, Mass. 

Western Union Tel. Code. 


Lieber's Code. ABC Code (4th Edition). 













Manufactory, WYMAX, HOLL1S AND GRAND STS. Retail Store, 328 MAIN ST. 




The Largest Skate Factory in the World. 

The Samuel Winslow Skate Mfg, Co, 




Manufacture the largest and 

most mod 








3 1 -3 7 Hermon St., Worcester, Mass, 



"Heywood Shoes Wean" 






KeywoodJkol kShoe Co. 

436 J\lain Jt. f Worcefter, Maff. 











Economy Drilling Compound, 
Neverslip Bar Belt Dressing 1 , 
Mill .and Laundry Soaps 

Manchester Street, 








6, S, & A, J, HOWE CO, 20F s ' efSt - 

Worcester, Mass. 

2 3 


Wood Sawed and Split to Order. TELEPHONE CONNECTIONS. 




Also Contractor for Excavating and Stoning Cellars. 

Special attention given to Furniture Moving and Job- 
bing. Orders by Telephone promptly attended to. 


518 Hain Street, Builders' Exchange. 
141 Central Street. 


965 Millbnry Street, Worcester. 


5 Ma n 










General Office, 24 Pleasant St. 
Branch Office, 1082 Main St. 










Dealers in 




7 Pleasant Street, 

69 Grafton Street. 







A Full Line of Stationary and 
Sliding Head, from 20 to 36 
inches inclusive. .. .. 

100 Beacon Street, WORCESTER, MASS. 








Gold and Lamartine Sts., Worcester, Mass. 

Manufacturers of a Standard Line of ENGINE LATHES from JO to 3O in. swing; 




and HEX. CAP 





Send for Catalogues. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Matthews Mfg. Company, 




104 Gold Street, Worcester, Mass. 

Worcester Machine Screw Co 



SET, CflP 





Worcester, Mass. 




Iron, Steel, Copper and Bronze. 

WYMAN & GORDON, 30 Bradley St., Worcester, Mass, 

2 34 


A. H. Steele & Bro. 

and Supplies 



34 Hermuu St., Worcester-, A/ass. 


Manufacturers of 

Planers, Planer Centres, 

Planer Chucks, Power, 
Screw and Foot Presses, 
Etc. : : : 


No. 23 Hermon St., Worcester, Mass. 



JBUliot Glotti.-F*olcli? 


54 Hermon Street, WORCESTER, MASS. 



Office and Works : 






Allen -Higgins Company, 


Worcester, Mass. 

Manufacturers of all Standard 
Grades of Paper Hangings 

Telephone No. 638-2. 
Cable Address, ARTISTIC. 

Boston Office. 59 Lincoln St. 



Manufacturers of 
Men's, Women's and 
Children's Shoes and 
Slippers, turned and 
McKay work. Ladies' 
Feit Juliettes, Cony 
Trimmed, Embroid- 
ered and Toilet Slip- 
pers, Newport Ties, 
Leather and Felt Sole. 
Above styles in all 
colors. Beaver, Felt, 
and Serge Bals. and 
Cpngrets. Serge Bus- 
kins, Canvas, andWeb 
Slippers tor Women, 
Misses and Children. 

Capacity ,000 pairs 
per day. 

Telephone ftW-4. 
Office and Factory, 370 Park A?e., WORCESTER, MASS. 

Morgan Construction Company, 

Worcester, Mass, 

Morgan Spring Company, 


Worcester, Mass. 

236 Advertisements. 

J. J. Warren Company 

JOHN M. WARREN, President. \W/ U\1. H. HAYDEN, Sec'y and Treas. 

Manufacturers of Fine Leather and Canvas Goods of Every Description, 


Telegraph and Cable Address, "REEDS," Worcester, Mass., U.S. A. 

Hammond Steed (Co., 




Organ Keys and all other 

Organ Materials. WORCESTER, MASS. 


Electrical Engineers 
anb Contractors. . . 

Office and Salesroom, 27 BKSSE PLACE. 



17 Mechanic St., Worcester, Mass. 


For Cotton and Woolen Mills. 

Agents for Keasey Wood Pulley "with. Iron Centre. 


Advertisements. 237 


Worcester, Mass. 


Plain and Fancy Looms 

For weaving 

Worsteds, Woolens, 

Carpets, Rugs, Plush, Duck, 

Ginghams, Silks, Sheetings, Print 

Cloths, and every type of Textile Fabric. 





Tainter and Gardner Streets, Worcester, Mass. 

Pine AacfyinerY Castings, 




T. A. CALLAHAN, Treas. 

_ ^Callahan Supply Co., 

Wholesale Dealers 
and Jobbers in . . 


32 and 34 Foster St., 
46 Waldo St , 




Washburn & Garfield Manufacturing Go, 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 


Steam, Gas and Water Supplies. Mechanical 
and Heating Engineers. Steam Construction. 

Foster Street, Worcester, Mass. 





7 Washington Square, Worcester, Mass. 


Mill Piping, 

And Apparatus for Heating by Steam and Hot Water. 

JAMES G. ALEXANDER, A^ent for Worcester Branch. 


2 39 

A. A. McLouighLlio, 



Estimates Given. Jobbing Promptly Attended to. 

Telephone 564-5. 

Rear 25 Exchange St., Worcester, Mass. 


Steam %m Hot Water Heating 


185 Front St., Worcester, Mass. 

jonnson, i nos. 1. Hall, ur. Jidw. U. Fl&gg, Kelson Fairbanks, D. 
McCarthy, Andrew Harper, R. F. Mathews, H. Mecorney, Jos. Flint, 
Wm. H. Mason, Worcester. 

List of a few people using- AH Right Heaters: A. G. Bullock, Dr. J 
Garst, Thos. Talbot, Miss A. T. Chapin, C. F. Rugg, C. J. Ekstedt, 
Dr. F. H. Kendrick, J. L. Ellsworth, C. F. Stowell, G. C. Bryant, 
Theo. Day, C. H. Goodell, John T. McGuire, A. W. Gifford, W. B 
Townsend, N. F. Tucker, Edw. Moulton, Geo. V. Barker, W. E. Hall, 
A. McDerniid, Worcester; L. S. Watson, Leicester; Geo. Taft, Whit- 

VOLUNTEER. Te/ephone A T o. 427-3. 

H. A. McMANUS. Established 1852. F. B. JORDAN. 

J. W. Jordan & Co., 


Stoves, Ranges and Furnaces. 


609 Main Street. 



240 Advertisements. 


President. Treas. and Gen'l Manager. Asst. Treas. and Sec'y. 


General Contractors and Manufacturers 
of all kinds of 


Bank, Store and Office Fittings. 
Cabinet Work and Architectural Iron Work. 

Offices and Factory : 


Providence, R. I., 417 Butler Exchange. Boston, Mass., 408 Exchange Building. 
Montreal, P. Q., 34 Canada Life Building. 








Roofing and 3f)eet Aetal 

Slate, Asphalt, Coal Tar, Copper, Tin and 
Tile Roofing. Metal Skylights, Cornices, 
Finials, Gutters, and Bay Windows. . . . 
Ornamental Copper Work a specialty. . . 




?eor-e Hatch. 

F. W. Barnes. 





Newels, Balusters and Rails Constantly on Hand and Made to Order. Wood Turning 
a Specialty. 

ffice, 163 Tnmon Street, 


. . . and Cabinet u/orJc. 







Capital Stock, $500,000. 




Rough or finished granite in any 
quantity furnished on short notice. 
Deliveries made to any point in the 
United States. 

Office, 47O 


242 Advertisements. 







Artificial Stone Walks and Drives. Tar Concrete Walks and Drives. 

Asphalt Floors for Basements, Stables, Breweries and Mills. 



Established 1868. Incorporated 1893. 


R. C. CLEVELAND, Pres. A. H. GREEN. Treas. 

26, 28 and 32 Shrewsbury Street. 


Cement and. Pilaster. 







Store Fronts in Heavy Brick, Stone or Iron 
Buildings a Specialty. 





Engineers. Contractors and Manufacturers of 

^Structural Work 


Steel and iron frame work for buildings, roofs, railroad and highway bridges. 

QtrOOT WnrnOOtar MOCC Works besides tracks of Fitchburg and B. 

OllCCl, TVUIGCSICI. IViaSSi A M. Railroads, \Vorcester, Mass. 

A dvcrt ise m ents. 243 







I ft MPDDIPIPI n CTDPPT Estimates given and work done at short notice. 

IV .MUKrVll IKl.U O 1 KCC 1 . Satisfaction guaranteed. 





Towns and Tillages Supplied itli Pure Water. 


Shafts for Hydraulic ILlevators. 

A Sew and Highly Successful Method Employed. 

A Great Saving in Water Rates. 

Pumping Outfits, Either Hand, Steam, Caloric or Wind Power, 
Furnished and Set Up. Dry Wells Deepened. Expert Examinations Made with Reference to Local- 
ity for Water Works. Estimates Given on Water Tanks and Piping. Be Sure and Get our Prices. 
All Work Guaranteed. 


82 Foster St., f) Worcester. 

Michael Kenney, 



All M'ork Done at Reasonable Rates. 

JVo. 31*3 Cmri>jric7i>-e Street, Worcester-, A/ass. 

244 Advertisements. 


Teaming, Grading, Excavating, Stone Work, Road Building, Paving, Curbing, 

Conduits for all Purposes, also Raising, Shoring and 

Moving Buildings. 


*ff KEEP abreast with the times and have the largest outfit in my line of busi- 
ness in the state. Anyone having work to be done in my line can see by 
work I have done that I do the best, as samples of my work can be seen in all 
parts of Worcester. It includes the foundation for the New England Telephone 
building, Midland street school, the Oilman block on Main street, the East Ken- 
dall street school, grading and foundation at the St. Vincent Hospital, grading at 
A. B. Wood's, Winthrop street, foundation for Richards and Freeland street High 
School, builder of Whitman, Sagamore and Monadnock roads, Montville. 
You will find my prices right for first-class work. 



Thomas J. Smith, 


018 Main Street, BUILDERS' EXCHANGE. 




Agent for Eureka Hard Plaster. And a Large Stock Always on Hand. 

ALSO DEALER IN . . * Sl """ 



Order Box, 34 Builders' Exchange. Telephone Connection. 

Advertisements. 245 

Concrete Pavers of Walks, Driveways, Floors, Etc, 



9 Richards Street, : : : : Worcester, Mass. 

JB. F\ 




Yard, Garden Street, Residence, 24 Maywood Street. 



Brick Manufacturer. 

At the Dana Yard, 

PLANTATION STREET, ^ ^ j Near Bloomingdale, 

Brick of the Best Quality Delivered in any part of the 
city at Lowest Market Rates. . . . 

P. 0. Address, Rear Plantation St. Brick Yard, Worcester, Mass. 


. . Address, . . 

Plantation Street Brick Yard, 



flfoason : Supplies : anb : Cla\> : <5oobs t 

Including Fine Linings, Chimney and Ash Pit Doors, 

Terra Cotta and Cast Iron Chimney Caps and Tops. 
Kimball's Improved Chimney Thimbles, 

Fire Brick, Building Brick, Metal Laths. 

Agents for Excelsior Chimney Top, Staples' Improved Mortar and Brick Hods, 
Standard Steel Wall Ties, Union Metal Corner Beads, etc. 

"Poctrlonro Rt Mav Stroot Telephone 88-2. Offire, Builders' Exchange. 

.Kesioence, 01 may otreet. . . . BOX 32. Telephone; 



We are fully equipped with first-class teams and competent men to move pianos and 
heavy articles of furniture 

te a specialty of this 
handled by us 


We make a specialty of this work, and no damage ever comes to the finest goods when 
handled by us. Bus parties accommodated at short notice. 

Office, 36 Pearl St., Worcester. 




The Placing of Defective Plumbing Systems in a Sanitary Condition 

A Specialty. . . 



Telephone 1036-12. 



Dealers in all kinds of 

Wood and Kindlings. 

Also Coal by the Basket. 
Postal Cards Furnished. 

Office and Yard, 

731 Main Street. 


Dealer in 



Orders promptly attended to. Lowest prices in 
the city. 

46 Union St., Worcester, Mass. 

Tel. 1018-2. Residence, 51 Union St. 


Dealer In 

Wood and Coal. 


TELEPHONE 794-12. 




jfurniture anfc Jbiano 


Personal attention given to shipping and packing goods. 

, 1 Central Street, cor. Main, WORCESTEK, MASS. 


r- r-k r i y-\ i i -i- i M X-N 

House, Keefe Place. 
Stable, Keefe Place. 


Freight, Furniture and Piano Mover. 

Moving and Boxing Pianos 
and Organs a Specialty. 

House and Stable, 89 AUSTIN STREET. 

OFFICE, Ust l s?ore,) 446 MAIN ST., 





Cor. Pleasant and Clinton Streets, also Cor. Gold St. Court and Bradley Street. 

Absolutely Fireproof New 
Storage Warehouse. . . . 

For Household Goods, General Merchandise, Etc., in separate rooms, with fireproof partitions. Mov- 
ing and Packing Furniture and Crockery. Elevator lifting five tons makes moving cheap. Our rates 
are low, our service best. Telephone or write for inspector to call and make prices. 


Pleasant and Clinton Streets. 

Telephone 804-4. 

C. C. BROWN, Superintendent, 
Residence, 9 Sever St. 

Telephone 594-5. 



Furniture and Piano Moving, 



Personal attention given to Freighting. 

Rear 161 >Iain St., Worcester, Mass. 


Baggage Wagon 
Al ways Ready. 

248 Advertisements. 


Real Estate and Mortgages. 

Loans Negotiated and Exchanges 
Made upon all kinds of Real Kstate. 

State Mutual BuilJing, 340 Main St., Rooms 807. 808 and 809, Worcester, Mass. 

OFFICE HOURS: 9 to 12 A. M. ; 2 to 6 and 7.30 to 9 p. M. 


Makers of the Best Grades of 

Thread for Aanafactarers' 

Wound on spools containing from 200 to 12,000 yards 
each, or on cones and tubes of any length desired. 

Spinning Mills at Thread Mills at 


Estate of Wm. T. 

On Exchange, Union, Cypress 
and North Foster Streets, 

vanforct~Oawtelle Company^ 

SSooksollers and Stationers, 


3/0 Ttfain St., Worcester, 9?ass. 




/lfoen'8 Clotbes. 




Billiard tables 

Ordway's New ^WHsijJi^^ SMT Alld Bowlin " 

Cognation ^^^J^ All 

Cushions. ^ W*- Tables. 



Correspondence with architects invited. 

Fancy Groceries. GROCER. Table Luxuries. 

Fine Wines, Liquors, Ktc. 

Telephone 564-4. 305 Main Street, WORCESTER, MASS. 




H. A. 


Elevator Registers Plumbing Specialties. 

Balsago Cement. Soil Pipe Testing Plugs. Fresh- 
Air Inlet Guards. Boiler Bracket Rings, Etc. 

PLUIVIBING "' a11 kin(is done at Reasonable Rates. 

No. 22 Cypress Street. TELEPHONE 83-4. WORCESTER, MASS. 

2 5 


Use Only 



Worcester, Mass. 

C. S. HOLDEX, President and Treasurer. 


Aetna Knitting Co., 



Woolen and Merino. 

Worcester, Mass, 



Established in 1814. 
Incorporated 1897. 


& Son Co., 


Sleighs, Robes 
and Harness. 


34, 36 and 38 


Worcester, Mass. 


Successor to Manufacturer and Dealer in 

GEO. c. DEWHURST, Fine Carriages. 

Painting and Repairing- of all Kinds. 15 to 31 Park Street, Worcester, Mass. 

. Eugene Curtis, 

Dealer in 


ioi Front Street, 

Worcester, Mass. 

Henry O. Bradley. 

John E. Bradley. 

Osgood "Bradley & Sons, 





. . Afanufacf urer of . . 


Punch and Die Work a Specialty. 


JVo. 04 Herman St., 

*. THE H=> 

Wire Goods Company, 

OFFICE, - ---- * 



PETER WOOD, Pres. and Treas. x ^/ All lengths, from 2OO to 12,OOO yard*. 

JAMES MONTGOMERY, Sec. -*- Also on one-pound holthlns, and paper 

CHAS. DOLAN, Supt. /f- tubes and cones. 



Spool Cotton, 


Office and Factory, 116 Gold Street, Worcester, Mass. 


Dealer in 

Floar, Grain, Peed^ nd Aeal, 





And Dealers in 

Barbers' Supplies, all Kinds of Cutlery, Ground and Polished. 


18 Pleasant Street, - - - - Worcester, Mass. 

Advertisements. 253 

. . IDress <3oot>s, . . 

Suits, Garments, Shirts, Blankets, Ibosierv, 
wear anfc domestics 




J. H. CLARKE & CO., 353 Main St., Worcester. 

The American Agricultural Chemical Co. 




Pure Ground Bone ami Agricultural Chemicals, Tallow, Superior 
Glues, Poultry Supplies. 


Mineral Spring Ave. ,<|g OFFICE AND WAREHOUSE, 


L. M. DARLING, Local Treas. J. G. JEPFERDS, Manager. 



In corpora ted. 

John B. Watson, E. E. Frost, J. Henry Washburn, 

Clarence B. Cook, Saninel Porter, 

John W. Knibbs, Julius F. Knight. 



E. E. FROST, Vice-Pres. J. F. KNIGHT, Sec. 






399 Main Street, Cor, Mechanic, Worcester, Mass, 



Cold Metal Punching and Die Making, 


Firs'-class Watchmaker and 
Optician Employed. 


315 Main Street, Worcester, Mass, 

C. W. Walls. 

A/. JP. Roach. 

C. W. WALLS St OO., 

Structural Iron Work of Erery Description, Fire Escapes, Fences. Iron Work tor Jails, Bridges. 


IO8 W. 28th Street, NEAR SIXTH AVE., NEW YORK, N. Y. 

Coats and Boots, 





Boats and Canoes 



Next to SUMMER 
coln Park, the largest 
and most complete 
outfit in Xew Knar- 
land. Boats and 
Canoes built to order, 
for sale and repaired. 

A. A. t OBI R>, Prop. 

Advertisements. 255 

Worcester Rubber Company, 








Manufacturer of and Wholesale Dealer in 

Hll Ikinbs of Sausages, 


Imported Swiss Cream and Limburger Cheese, HOLLAND HEBUIXGS, 

3O MILLBURY ST. Tel. 10-2 7 -G. Factory, GOO Military St. Tel. 1084-6. 


Established 1H64. J/icorporatee/ IftftO. 



And Wholesale Dealers in 


13 and 15 Bridge St., Worcester, Mass. 


F>. L,. RIDER. 



No. 370 Main St., Lincoln House Block, Worcester, Mass. 

Ladles' and Gentlemen's Mackintoshes, Rubber Clothing, Boots and Shoes, Steam, Mill, Fire, 
Surtion and Water Hose, Belting, Packing, and all kinds of Mechanical (joods. 





Repairing and General Jobbing. Tin and Sheet Iron Work. 



JAMES CAMERON, Residence, 7 Brittan St. 

P. < VMIMO\ . liesidence, Gage St. 


Practical '|n~^- l> Practical 

Shoers. 3^ Shoers. 

Particular attention given to all horses. 
Koad. track and roach horses a specialty. 
flri>t-rlass help employed. 

Shop, Commercial Street, 

Cor. Mechanic, Worcester, Mass. 


jf. X. Drurv, proprietor. 
J 5 and 17 BEACON STREET, 

Telephone 884=3. Worcester, Mass. 






Goods Called for and Delivered Free of Charge. 

TELEPHONE CONNECTION. 28 Bcllevue St., Worcester, Mass. 

City Steam Laundry, 


(Two Blocks below Theatre) 

Worcester, - Nlass. 

Transient Work at Short Notice. 

C. T. BURNS, Proprietor. 

Family Washings a Specialty. 

We do Hotel, Car. Boarding- House, Barber Shop, Restaurant Work, in fact anything that can be 
done in a Laundry. These goods will be called for and delivered to your houses, as I have three teams 
for that purpose. 

New Equipments Throughout. 
Best Work Guaranteed. A Trial will Convince You. 

Union Laundry and Clean Towel Supply Co. 




We lead, let who can follow. We have plenty of imitators, but no competi- 
tors. We are the originators in this city of all our specialties. 

Our Specialties are Clean Towel Supply and Family and Hotel Work. In 

this Hue our capacity is superior to any in the city ana as good as any in the 
WORLD. We realize that home laundry will soon be one of the lost arts, like the 
hand-loom, the old stage-coach, etc., only a matter of history. 

We are fitted up to do work in an up-to-date way, and if you want your laundry 
done as it should be, give us a trial. Our laundry is always open to the public for 
inspection. Come and see us. We are now doing the laundry work for more than 
five hundred families, and eighty per cent, of the hotel and club work of the city. 


A dvertisements. 


UndcrtaKcr and funeral Director, 

109 Park, near Trunibull St., 

Open all Hours. Telephone tall 960. 


Furnishing Undertaker. 

Coffin Warerooms and Residence, 


Everything connected with the management of funerals promptly attended to. 

OFFICE OPEN DAY AND NIGHT. Telephone No. 749 5. Established 1875. 




Telephone 672-2. 


Dealer in all kinds of 

Coffins, Caskets, Coffin Plates and 
Trimmings. Robes, Shrouds, Wrap- 
pers, Etc. Management of funerals 
will receive personal attention. 

Agent for Marble or 
Granite Monuments. 

80 Park Street, .. Worcester, Mass. 



We carry all grades, from the cheapest COFFINS, CASKETS, Etc., to the 
very best. Everything pertaining to the management of funerals promptly at- 
tended to. Rooms for private funerals. 


Office, 21 Pearl St.; Residence, 3 Harvard St., 

| HOUSE 238-4. 


Advertisements. 259 






Jlufiirs in Transit will reeeire Prompt Attention. 


Undertaker and Embalmer. 


Funeral goods, such as Coffins, Caskets, Name- 
plates and Robes, constantly on hand. Everything 
pertaining- to funerals promptly attended to. 

Office, Warerooins and Residence, 

113 Thomas St., Worcester, Mass. 

Telephone Connection. 


32 OKEAD ST. 13 Dix ST. 


Funeral Directors and Furnishing Undertakers. 

A full line of fine and medium priced Caskets, 
Robes, and Undertakers' Hardware always on 
hand. Orders from out of town or by telephone 
promptly attended to. All work first-class. 

Office and Warerooms, 30 Foster Street, WORCESTER, MASS. 











Contractor Builder 

Ksiiniiitcv Famished. 

Jobbing Promptly Attended to. 
24 Coral Street, Worcester. 

Shop, 44 Central Street. 

General Contractor, 


Wm. F, Tucker, 


No. 56 Pleasant St., 

Fred. E. Adams. 

A. F. Powers. 



Mouldings and Builders' Finish. 

Worcester, Mass. 

Contractor of Sewers, Dams and Grading. 

S Forest Street, Worcester. 


LUCIAN A. TAYLOR, M. Am. Soc. C. E. 



Engineers and Contractors, 

Street Railways, 

Water Works, 



719 Tremont Building, 
Boston, Mass. 

831, 832 State Mutual Build's, 
Worcester, Mass. 


General Contractors, 





D. A. HOWE, 


273 Main St., 



20 Lincoln Square, Worcester, Mass. 



Plumber, Steam and Gas Fitter. 

Combination Hot- Water Heating for Houses. 



Fine Harness, 

Horse Boots and Stable Furnish- 
ings, Etc, 


R X. Brunelle, 

1O COBUR1? A VIZ., Worcester. 




Telephone 483-2. 


Estate of ^. L.. GILMATt, 



Cold Tire Setting a Specialty. Repairing in all its Branches. 
104 THOMAS STREET, WORCESTER, MASS. C. G. Oilman. Manager. 

. * Hn Hrab's Saving, . . 

He who knows not, and knows not 
that he knows not, is a fool. 


He who knows not, and knows he 
knows not, is humble. 


He who knows, and knows not that 
he knows, is asleep. 


He who knows, and knows that he 
knows, is a wise man. 


We Know that we are the LEADERS of the Style 
and BEATERS at Price. TRY US. 


H. B. BOGIGIAN, Prop. 

Ladies' and Gents' Merchant Tailors* 





BUSH & CO., 



H. G. BARR & CO., 

Sensitive Drilling Machines 




Long Distance Telephone. 

Worcester Thread Co., 

Manufacturers of 



Peter Wood, Pres. Robert Ruddy, Treas. 

Ward P. Delano, Sec. 

The Peter Wood Dyeing Co,, 

Bleachers and Dyers of 



MORES ON HOLMES ST., Worcester. 

Charles G. Strat'on, Pres. and Gen. Manager. 
F. B. Durfee, Treas. 


.W.i /,(;-. of 




Taber Organ Company, 

Manufacturers of 

(parlor anfc 
Cbapei rcjans. 

Office and Wareroom, 

No. 25 Union Street, Worcester. 


Manufacturer of 


And Hand Shoe Tacks of the 
Best Quality. 



Boston Office, Jefferson Building, Room 50. 
Telephone "7lS-:i. 

Manufacturers of 

Ladies' Wrappers, 

Tea Gowns, Etc. 

65, 67 and 69 Winter St., Worcester. 

JFowiei- <fc Co., 

Manufacturers of 

The Fowler Adjustable Curtain 

The Bacon, Globe aud Sidney Cur- 
tain Rods. 

The Champion Lace Curtain Rods. 


Perfection and Little Giant Curtain Rod 
Sockets, , , . 

Office and Factory, 65 Beacon St., Worcester. 



Papeteries and Paper Boxes. 

Office and Factory, * J* j* 75 SCHOOL ST., WORCESTER. 




Exclusive Agent for " The Celluloid Truss/' A complete line of Improved Up-to-date 

Leather-Covered Trusses, Abdominal Supporters, Bandages, Shoulder Braces, 

ELASTIC HOSIERY, CRUTCHES, ETC. 41 PA UK, Cor. Portland St., Worcester. 

Duncan & Goodell Co., 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers in 



4O4 Main St., Worcester. 

Callahan brothers, 

7 "Uemple St., llforcester. 

Everything Pertaining to the Care 
of the Dead. 

Buttrick & Eddy, 



395 Mitin Street, 



Stained Glass Works, 


Executed in Every Style. 


Telephone Call, 492-^. . . 


Manufacturer, Jobber, 
WJioiesaZe and Retail Dealer in 



Liberal Discounts Allowed to Cash 
Buyers. . . . 

238 Front St., \Vorocsier- 


We Court Investigation. 

jfc 476 MAIN STREET, ^ 

C. B. POST, Prin. 

National Biscuit Co., 



Celebrated Biscuit 

187 and 189 MECHANIC ST., 




Splendid View from the Roof of the 
State Mutual Building. 

~fj f^L AJA T? T rr \ T/' f TV" Open year around. Electric light, steam heat, 
Shrewsbury, Mass. ' ' baths. American and EuropeanPUn. 

Livery, Sale and Exchange Stable Connected, Carriages, Harness, Blankets, Robes, 


Telephone 39-6. C. H. HAVEN, formerly of Haven Bros., Worcester. 



42 Waldo Street, Worcester, Mass. 


Appointments First-class for Boarding and Stabling. c fks f r funerals, weddings, 

Landaus and Coupes for Riding, Calling or Shopping. Driver in Livery if so Desired. 

R. O. Hanson, Pres. 
. J. E. Green, Sec. and Treas. 


R. O. Hanson, J. E. Green, Wm. H. Burns. 
Established 1864. Incorporated 1899. 


General Commission Merchants, 
Wholesale Dealers in 

Foreign and Domestic Fruits and 


E. O. Knight, 

Manufacturer and Dealer in 


Second-hand Engines Bought, Sold and Ex- 

Agent for Waters' Governor. Automatic In- 
jectors, Lubricators, Heaters, and En- 
gineers' Supplies. 

142 UNION ST., Worcester. 

Incorporated 1892. 

Hubley Manufacturing & Supply Co,, 

Mattress Manufacturers and Wholesale 
Dealers in 


Wholesale Dealers in 

Cotton and Woolen Rags. Paper Stock, 

Metals, Rubbers, Wrapping and 

Sheathing I'aper. 

11, 13 & 15 Brackett Ct. Ti ng os^4. tance 

Frank Kuinin. Samuel Kumin. 

Telephone Connection. 


Woolen Rags, Cotton Rags, Paper 
Stock, Old Rubber, Old Metals, 
Drosses. .... 

59 and 61 (OATER ST., WORCESTER 

Corr&sjtondence Solicited. 


Wholesale * Grocers, 

Cor. Bridge and Mechanic Sts., 
Worcester, Mass. 




Knonles Building, 


Dealer in 


, Rags, 


JO Brackett Ct., Worcester. 

Long Distance Tel. I O29-6. 



New and Second-Hand 

Furniture of all Kinds Bought 
or Exchanged. 


Cash or Installments. 
Office, 59 and 61 Water St. Tel. 906-3. 



T. H. GAGE, JR., 




attorney anfc 

Counsellor at Haw, 

60 J and 602 State Mutual Building. 
\Vorcester, iVInss. 

Telephones at House and Office. 

Charles S. Webster, 



Room 1, Walker Building, 










Telephone 953-2. - - WORCESTER, MASS. 



Hennon St. Foundry, 

All Descriptions of Machinery 
and Tool Castings. 

Office, 23 Hermon St., Worcester. 


35 Hermon St., 

2 66 

t Idvertisentents, 



FRANK P. DOUGLASS, Proprietor. 


Graduated Prices. 
First-Class In Every Respect. Elevator. Steam Heated Throughout. 

City * Hotel, 

Robert Kessell, - - Proprietor. 

du nord 


39-41-43 Summer Street 





Two Minutes from Union Depot. 

Rates, $2.00 and $2.50 per day. 
Steam Heat. Blectric Light. Bath Rooms. 
Sample and Billiard Rooms. 




F. F. SA.LLA, I'rop. 

Iiineoli) ^ 
^ (loose, 

E. E. FROST, Prop. 



American and 

European Plan 


155, \57 and \59 Front St., 

Steam Heated Throughout. 

Spacious Dining; Room. 

First-class in Every Respect. 




First-class in Every Respect. 



268 Advertisements. 



Tub, Swimming, Electric and Sulphur Baths 


First-class in every department. Private sleeping-rooms, singly and for parties. 

1 Sudlnfry Street, Opp. Bay State House. Telephone. Send for illustrated catalogue. 

"Cleanliness is next to Godliness." Take our baths. 



' Ale Exclusively. 

1 80 Front Street, Worcester, Mass. 



Jere. F.Regan <5 Co., 2 3 Mechanic St., 

Successors to f^ 



Advertisements. 269 



257 and 259 Front St., Worcester. 


Steam Heat. Established 17SZ. Electric Light. 

First-class in Every Respect. 

Exchange Hotel, 


91-93 Main St., 8s te . c ?' rt * Worcester. 

Special Rates to Court People. Special Rates to Theatrical People. 

, . Gctyemere . . 


LAKE QUINSIGAHOND. New Hotel A Large Dance Hall. 

Full-Moon Mile Race Track and Picnic Grounds. 

New Cafe. Large or Small Parties Cared for. 


Telephone. . . . HOLT & IRWIN, Props. 





2-jo Advertisements. 


W/io7esa7e Dealer in 


Bottled Ale, Porter and Lager. 

Manufacturer of 


And all kinds of Tonics made from "Cold-Blast Distilled Water. " Also Fountains 
charged for Druggists. 

South Worcester Bottling Works, 66O-668 SOUTHBRIDCE ST. 



16O Millbury St., Worcester, Afttss. 





139 Shrewsbury Street, Worcester, Mass. 

Groceries, Provisions, 

Ales, Wines and Liquors. 


Telephone 827-4. 

. P. O'DAY. 

Dealer In 



Family Trade Solicited. 
'W'ATESR SXRKI^T, VVot-o ester, 

TELEPHONE 71f)-4. 

Advertisements. 2 7 1 

Adolphus J. Soucy & Co., 


Also Dealers in Foreign ami 





Choice flics, UHncs, Liquors ana 



Telephone Connection. 


GFoeeries, Teas and Coffees 

15 Winter Street, Worcester, Mass. 


Groceries, Wines <* Liquors 

Telephone 999=3. 



272 Advertisements. 

Telephone 1041-2. 

D. J. DOXOHU& & CO., 

. Dealers in . . 





}. E, CONNOR & CO, 



97=99 Canterbury St., 



Dealer in 

Choice Family Groceries 




Dealer in 






Telephone 953. R. J. McMANUS, 




48 and 52 Green St., Worcester, flass. 





136, 137, 1371 TKHasbington St., iiaorcegtet 



Suitable for 






Newly Renovated. 
Centrally Located. 

35, 37 and 3J> Mechanic St., Worcester. 


Rooms to let by the week lo jjentlenien only. 
The only German House in the city. 

1'i-n <- Keasonable. 

Marlboro Cars Pass the Door. 
Telephone 187-12. 

New Hotel Lyman, 

East Side of Lake 

Parties accommodated with the best the mar- 
ket affords at short notice. 

F. .7. KING, Prop. 

Rates to Suit the Times. 

. DALY, 

Dealer in 


J85 Cambridge Street, ** ** J* Worcester, Mass. 


2 74 



A dvertisements . 


Wholesale Wine and Liquor Dealers. 



Telephone 44O. 




474 millbuf St., ttloreester. 


Wholesale Dealer In 


Kentucky Whiskies, Rye and Bourbons, Etc. 
Imported Porter, Gins, Brandies and Wines. 

Bottled Goods of all Kinds. Best Lager, Pale Ale, Dark Ale and Porter by the 
Case for Family Trade. Telephone and Express Orders Receive Prompt 
Attention. Telephone 16-3. 




" If I Repair it I Will Do it 



Established 1878. 




Warrantee/ One Vear. 




Adams & Powers, 260 

Cross, E. J. 243 

Hawes, Edwin 239 

./Etna Knitting Co. 250 

Curtis, A. Eugene 251 

Henry Bros. 270 

Allen, Frank L. 260 

Curtis & Marble Machine Co. 225 

Hewe'tt, George F. Co. 274 

Allen-Higgins Co. 235 

Curtis Mfg. Co. 262 

Heywood Boot & Shoe Co. 228 

American Car Sprinkler Co. 219 

Cutting, G. H. & Co. 240 

Hildreth & Putnam, 259 

American Steel & Wire Co., 

Daly, Samuel F. 273 

Hoar, Rockwood 265 

The 221 

Danforth, E. L. 246 

Holden.John 260 

Athy, Andrew 258 

Darling, L. B., Fertilizer 

Hopkins, Smith & Hopkins, 265 

Barnard, Geo. A. 240 

Works, 253 

Hotel Arlington, 268 

Barnard, Sumner & Putnam 

Davis Bros. 247 

Hotel Brunswick, 267 

Co. 222 

Desper, H. A. 249 

Hotel du Nord, 260 

Barr, H. G. &Co. 262 

Dewhurst, Wm. A. 251 

Hotel Haven, 263 

Bay State House, 266 

Donohue, D. J. & Co. 272 

Hotel Lyman (New). 273 

Bay State Pink Granite Co. 241 

Doyle, Peter 270 

Hotel Rlaito, 269 

Bay State Wood Co. 246 

Duncan & Goodell Co. 263 

Howe, D. A. 261 

Becker's Business College, 256 

Eastern Bridge & Structural 

Howe, G S. & A. J. Co. 229 

Bernstrom, Benj. J. 259 

Co. 242 

Howard, S. 1. 242 

Bieberbach Bros. & Co. 
Back fly-leaf 

Edgemere, 269 
Elmwood House, 269 

Hubley Mfg. & Supply Co. 264 
Jenks, H. L. & Son, 24? 

Bishop, J. W. & Co. 240 

Elliot & Hall, 234 

_iensen, S. R. 208 

Boepple, George 255 

Empire Laundry, 256 

ohnson, Carpenter & Co. 253 

Boucher, Joseph 245 

England, W. A. 276 

Johnson, Gustaf 271 

Bradley, E. A, 271 

Exchange Hotel, 269 

Johnson & Kettell Co. 264 

Bradley, Osgood, & Sons, 251 

Fay Bros. 258 

Jordan, J. W. & Co. 239 

Braman, Dow & Co. 238 
Brewer & Co. 262 

Finnigan, M. J. Back fly-leaf 
First Nafl Bank, The 21 1 

Junction Foundry Co. 237 
Kabley Foundry Co. 232 

Brigham, L. L. 252 

Flexible Door & Shutter Co. 241 

Kane, -M. J. 244 

Brooks, J. B. 247 

Flint, Wm. S. 263 

Kenney, Michael 243 

Brunelle, F. X. 201 

Flodin Studio, The, Back fly-leaf 

Kidder, R E. 201; 

Burbank Produce Co. 264 

Fontaine & Coutu, 273 

Kimball, S. H. & Son, 245 

Burns, Wm. H. Co. 222 

Forbush, L. P. 256 

Kinnicutt & DeWitt, 213 

Buttrick & Eddy, 263 

Forehand Arms Co. 224 

Knight, E. O. 264 

Callahan Bros. 263 

Fowler & Co. 262 

Kumin Bros. 264 

Callahan Supply Co. 238 

Fox, James 275 

Kumin, N. 264 

Cameron & Cashmon, 256 

French, S. A. 254 

Lincoln House, 267 

Campbell, C. R. 239 

Friberg, P. A. 246 

Lundborg, A. P. 25-) 

Carr, Geo. W. 242 

Frost, Briggs & Chamberlain, 264 

Macullar & Son, 249 

Caswell. F. A. & Co. 258 

Fuller, J. Edward, Jr.. 260 

Mann, Fred A. & Co. 231 

Chadwick, John F. & Co. 231 

Garbutt, W. A. & Co. 249 

Marsh, B. F. 245 

Citizens' National Bank, The 212 

Garbutt, Wm. & Co. 24!* 

Matthews Mfg. Co. 233 

City Hotel, 206 

German American House, 273 

McCloud, Crane & Minter Co.226 

City National Bank, The 210 

Gessner, David 234 

McKeon, John W. & Co. 275 

City Steam Laundry, 257 

Gilman Carriage Works, 261 

McLoughlin, A. A. 239 

Cla'flin, C. W. & Co. 230 

Girouard, J.E. 244 

McLoughlin, P. 271 

Clinton & Hudson St. Ry. Co. 218 

Click, H. 264 

McManus, P. J. 273 

Coburn, George A. 257 

Graton i Knight Mfg Co. 22? 

Alerrifield, Wm. T., estate of 248 

Coburn, A. A. 254 

Greene, J. W. 261 

Middlemas, C. A. & Co. 246 

Coes Wrench Co. 219 

Haas & Fenner, Back fly-leaf 

Morgan Construction Co. 235 

Columbia Electric Co. 236 

Hammond Reed Co. 236 

Morgan Spring Co. 235 

Connor, J. E. & Co. 272 

Harper, Joseph 270 

Moulton, Edward 254 

Cook, C. B., Laundry Co. 257 

Harrington & Richardson 

Murphy, T. H. 258 

Cranska Thread Co., The 248 

Arms Co. 224 

Murray, 250 

Crawford & Co. 236 

Hartigan, John A. 249 

National Biscuit Co. 263 

Crompton & Knowles Loom 

Hastings.L. A. & Co. 261 

Norton Em. Wheel Co. 228 

Works, 237 

Hatch & Barnes, 241 

O'Day, M. F. 270 

Ordway, P. E. 249 

Standard Foundry Co. 


Wire Goods Co., The 252 

O'Shea, Patrick 272 

ite Mut. Restaurant, 


Wood, Peter, Dyeing Co. 262 

Paquette, Ed. 245 

Si.ite Safe Deposit Co. 


Woodward, Geo. M. 265 

Parisian Wrapper Mfg. Co., 

St;ele, A. H. & Bro. 

2 34 

Worcester B us. Inst. 263 

The 262 

S-: phan, K. H. & Co. 


Worcester Carpet Co. 223 

Pero, Prespey 265 

1 :>er Organ Co. 


Worcester & Clinton St. Ry. 

Perry, F. D. 230 

Taylor & Tylee, 


Co. 218 

Pierce, E. S. Co. 

Th lyer & Rugg, 

26 S 

Worcester Coal Co., The 213 

Inside back cover 

Three Little Bros. & Co., 


Worcester Concrete Paving 

Pike's Polish, 250 

Tompkins, H. M. & Son, 


Co. 243 

Prentice Bros. Co. 225 

Tucker, Win. F. 


Worcester Consol. St. Ry.Co. 216 

Quinsigamond Steamboat Co. 

Union Laundry & Clean 

Worcester Corset Co. 226 

Back fly-leaf 

Towel Supply, 


Worcester Co. Inst. for Sav. 209 

Reed & Curtis Mach. Screw 

Union Water Meter Co. 


Worcester Cut Glass Works, 273 

Co. 233 

Verner, L. 

2 75 

Worcester Driv Park Co. 253 

Reed, F. E. Co. 232 

Wachusett Thread Co. 


Worcester Electric Lt. Co. 215 

Regan's Cafe, 268 

Waldo House, 


Worcester Gas Lt. Co. 214 

Rice, King & Rice, 265 

Walls, C. W. & Co. 


Worcester Mach. Screw Co. 233 

Rider, P. L. 255 

Walsh, M. B. 


Worcester Mechanics Sav. 

Roy, Alfred 258 

Warren, J. C. 


Bank, The 211 

Sanford-Sawtelle Co. 248 

Warren.J. J. Co. 


Worcester Mut. Fire Ins. Co. 213 

Sargent, J. W. & Son Co. 251 

Washburn & Garfield Mfg. 

Worcester Nat. Bank. The 209 

SchTesinger, M. 263 



Worcester Rubber Co. 255 

Scoville <& Wheeler, 260 

Washburn, J. H. 


Worcester Safe Deposit & 

Sessions, Geo. & Sons 259 

Watson, James H. 


Trust Co. 210 

Sherman Envelope Co. 262 

Webster, Charles S. 


Worcester Slipper Co. 235 

Shredded Wheat Co., The 

Welch, David 


Worcester Storage Co. 247 

Inside back cover 

Wheeler Eng. Co., The 


Worcester & Suburban St. 

Smith, Green Co., The 242 

Wheeler, J. S. & Co. 


Ry. Co. 217 

Smith, Thomas J. 244 

White & Bagley Co., The 


Worcester Thread Co. 262 

Snyder, J. E. 232 

White, Pevey & Dexter Co. 


Worcester & Webster St. Ry. 

Somers, J'. E. 262 

Wilmot, George J. 


Co., The 218 

Soucy, Adolphus J. & Co. 271 

Wilson & Smith, 


Wright & Colton Wire Cloth 

Spencer Wire Co. 220 

Winslow & Co. 


Co. 220 

State Mutual Life Assurance 

Winslow, Sam'l, Skate Mfg. 

Wyman & Gordon, 233 

Co. 208 

Co., The 


Zaeder's, 268 


Strictly First-class Work. . . 476 MAIN STREET, Opp. City Hall. 



Trips up the Lake Every Half Hour 
to all Points. 








63-65 FRANKLIN ST., 


Bieberbach Brothers & Co., 

Wholesale Dealers and Importers of 



Distributing Agents for Worcester, . . 


Anheuser Busch St. Louis Lager and the Pfaffe Brewing Co., 

Boston, Mass. 

Manufacturers of Ginger Ale, Lemon Soda, Peruvian Beer 
and all Kinds of Aerated Beverages. ..... 

Ill, 113 Summer St., Worcester, JVfass. 

A 000 676 741 2 


&*** $$$3$$$$$ 

I Wines, J 
I Liquors, : 

| Cordials, ; 

* . 
1 Etc. 

Successors to 8. S. PIERCE & SON. 
" " J. S. HILL. 




Sole owners of 



Established 1856. 

69, 7J, 73 Mechanic Street. 



Whole Wheat | 

Consists of the whole wheat berry (nothing added), made light and short 
by mechanical shredding and thorough cooking. 

Combine with the necessary bulk, all the food properties requisite for 
thorough nourishment. 

Easily digested but not "predigested." (The digestive organs exist 
for a purpose, and any attempt to deprive them of their natural functions 
results in physical degeneration. ) 

Especially beneficial for indigestion, constipation and kindred complaints. 

Require no cooking always ready for use. 

Our Cook Book, "The Vital Question," containing over 250 recipes, besides valuable in- 
formation for housewives, mailed free on receipt of your name and address plainly written. 


Worcester, Mass., U. S. A. S