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Full text of "History of Dodge and Washington Counties, Nebraska, and their people"

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History of 

Dodge and Washington 
Counties, Nebraska 

And Their People 



Editors 



REV. WILLIAM H. BUSS, Fremont 
THOMAS T. OSTERMAN, Blair 



Advisory Editorial Board 

L. D. RICHARDS, Fremont T. L. MATHEWS. Fremont 

C. D. MARR, Fremont M. T. ZELLERS, M. D., Hooper 

JAMES M. BEAVER, Scribner ROY CUSACK, North Bend 

W. J. CRANE, Arlington CHAS. E. MAJERS, Scribner 

EDMOND C. JACKSON, Blair J. C. ELLER, Blair 

WM. E. SWIHART, Kennard C. M. WEED, Kennard 



VOLUME I 



THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

CHICAGO 

1921 






I 



DEDICATION 

THIS WORK IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED TO 

THE PIONEERS 

MOST OF WHOM HAVE LONG SINCE DEPARTED. MAY THE MEMORY OF 

THOSE WHO LAID DOWN THEIR BURDENS BY THE WAYSIDE EVER 

BE FRAGRANT AS THE BREATH OF SUMMER FLOWERS FOR 

THEIR TOILS AND SACRIFICES HAVE MADE THESE 

COUNTIES A GARDEN OF SUNSHINE 

AND DELIGHTS 



PREFACE 



All life and achievement is evolution; present wisdom comes from 
past experience, and present commercial prosperity has come only from 
past exertion and suffering. The deeds and motives of the men that 
have gone before have been instrumental in shaping the destinies of later 
communities and states. The development of a new country was at once 
a task and a privilege. It required great sacrifice and privation. Com- 
pare the present condition of the people of Dodge and Washington 
counties, Nebraska, with what they were threescore years ago. From 
a trackless prairie it has come to be a center of prosperity and civilized 
life, with millions of wealth, systems of railroads, telegraphs, telephones, 
with tens of thousands of automobiles for the convenience of a happy 
and contented people. It has come to be a subdivision of a great com- 
monwealth with its thousands of God-fearing people worshiping in 
scores of beautiful church edifices ; with its thousands of intelligent chil- 
dren attending high-class standards of public free schools, with excellent 
instructors to impart useful and practical knowledge to them. Can any 
thinking person be insensible to the fascination of the study which dis- 
closes the incentives, hopes and aspirations as well as the efforts of the 
early pioneers who so strongly laid the solid foundations upon which has 
been builded the magnificent prosperity of later days? To perpetuate the 
story of these people and to trace and faithfully record the social, politi- 
cal and industrial progress of the community within the boundaries of 
Dodge and Washington counties, from their first inception is the function 
of the local historian. A sincere purpose to preserve facts and personal 
memoirs that are deserving of perpetuation, and which unite the present 
to the past, is the motive for the present publication. 

A specially valuable and highly interesting department is the one 
devoted to the sketches of representative men and women of the two 
counties under consideration. These biographies have for the most part 
been prepared under the direction of the subjects themselves, or by 
their near relatives and finally submitted to them for correction and 
approval before being printed, hence are considered accurate. 

On account of ill health, when the work of compiling the Dodge 
County section of this work was commenced. Rev. William H. Buss, of 
Fremont, who had been selected as its editor, was unable to engage in 
the duties of an active compiler, hence the publishers were obliged to 
engage other competent compilers to do the work of gathering material 
and writing most of the chapters, aided, however, by a number of local 
writers whose contributions have embellished and made doubly valuable 
the work now within your hands. After the compilation had been 
written in full, the important chapters were then all carefully read and 
approved by Mr. Buss, who acted simply as supervising editor, and had 
nothing whatever to do with the biographical or financial part of the 
publication, yet to him the reader is indebted for many timely sugges- 
tions and changes, as the work was being prepared for Dodge County 
and the same may also be said concerning the supervising editor of the 
Washington County section, Mr. Thomas T. Osterman, of Blair 
We especially wish in this connection to acknowledge the great aid 



iv PREFACE 

rendered us in the compilation of this work by Hon. L. D. Richards of 
Fremont and Judges Jackson and Eller, of Blair. 

It has been the aim of the writers of this work to seek out the most 
useful information regarding these two counties from their earliest set- 
tlement to the present day, believing this to be of first and prime con- 
sideration for all local history, rather than to produce a work of high 
literary excellence. We have aimed to be fair and faithful to the interests 
of all whose names appear herein — whether dead or living. Therefore 
throw the mantle of charity over the work and believe it to be, as nearly 
as possible, a true, unbiased record of the comings and goings of the 
men and women who have lived and labored in the goodly counties of 
Dodge and Washington. 

Our work is done — it is yours to read, to criticise and then leave as a 
legacy to your sons and daughters. 

Believe us, faithfully, 

The American Historical Society. 
1921. 



CONTENTS 



DODGE COUNTY 

CHAPTER I 

GEOLOGY, TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL FEATURES 

Geological Eras — Coal Measures — Glacial Period — Agricultural 
Value of the Soil — Scenery of the Loess Deposit — Character 
of Deposit Along the Rivers — Formation of the Platte Val- 
ley — Bottom Lands — Last Buffalo Hunt — Sand Cherries — 
Soap Weed — Alkali Lands — Modern Changes — Timber — Topog- 
raphy AND Natural Features — Extreme Temperatures — Mean 
Temperatures — Nebraska Winds — Moisture and Rainfall — 
Rank Among the States in the Union — Forests — Wild 
Fruits — State Institutions — Legal Holidays — "Blue Book" 
Paragraphs — State Seal — State Flower — State Capitol Build- 
ings — Vegetation — Grasses of Nebraska — ^Wild Flowers — Gov- 
ernors — Abstract of Counties — County Population — Altitude 
and Area 3 

CHAPTER H 

DISCOVERY AND OCCUPANCY BY WHITE MEN 

The Louisiana Purchase — Other Views of the "Purchase" — ^The 
Missouri Compromise Affair — The Name "Nebraska" — Terri- 
torial Organization — Admitted as a State — The Constitutions 
— Early Exploitations — Fur Traders — Great Exploring Expe- 
ditions — Mormon Advent — Gold Hunters' Panic, 1849 36 

CHAPTER III 
INDIAN OCCUPANCY AND FINAL DEPARTURE 

Concerning the Indians — Pawnees — Pike the Exploror Among 
the Indians — The Poncas — The Algonquin Family — Sac and 
Fox Purchase — Other Indian Tribes — The Kiowan Family — 
Half-breed Tract, Etc. — Still Other Tribes — Character and 
Relation with the Whites — Implements and Weapons — Hostil- 
ity Toward the Whites — Indian War of 1890-91 43 

CHAPTER IV 

EARLY SETTLEMENT 

Fontanelle Settlement — Thrown Into Washington County — 
First Houses — First Land Broken — Early Crops — Milling 
Markets — Townsite Projects — North Bend — Fremont — First 



vi CONTENTS 

Births— Death— Hard Winter 1856-57— Pawnee Indians— 1857 
Panic — 1857 Settlement — Pioneer Himebaugh's Experiences — 
Sixty Per Cent Interest — Pike's Peak — Immigration Days — 
Union Pacific 52 

CHAPTER V 

ORGANIZATION OF DODGE COUNTY 

Original and Present Boundaries — County Seat Contest — Meet- 
ing OF First County Commissioners — Platting of Fremont — 
Agitating Erection of County Buildings 56 

CHAPTER VI 
DODGE COUNTY GOVERNMENT 

County Organization Perfected — Prosecuting Attorney and 
County Attorney Systems — Acts of County Commissioners — 
Making of First Precincts — First Road Districts — Names of 
Commissioners — Creation of "Township Organization" — First 
County Supervisors — The Burning of Courthouse in 1887 — 
Building a New Courthouse — Second Courthouse Fire, 1915 — 
Present Structure — The New Jail — Highways — Bridges — 
Ladies' Rest Rooms — Property Valuations — County Finances 
— Boards' Estimate, 1891 — County Treasurer's Report, 1892 — 
County Seat and County Buildings — Courthouses and Jails — 
Bids for Present Courthouse — Dedication — County Poor Farm 
— County Officials, 1920 — County Officers' Salaries — Taxes — 
Assessed Valuations — Board of Supervisors for 1920 — State and 
County Levies — Average Value Farm Lands, 1920 60 

CHAPTER VII 
THE RAILROADS OF DODGE COUNTY 

Value of Railroads — The Union Pacific Railway and Its Construc- 
tion — List of Nebraska Land Grants — Speeches Made in 
Starting the Construction — Work of General Dodge — Inter- 
esting Incidents — Cost to Dodge County — Old Sioux City and 
Pacific — Old Fremont, Elkhorn and Missouri Valley — Diverg- 
ing Branches — The Building of the Latest Railroad, the 
"Burlington" from Lincoln to Sioux City, Iowa. Mileage 
75 

CHAPTER VIII 

AGRICULTURE AND AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES 

Nebraska Compared with Other States — Products of the Rich 
Soil — Farm Statistics — A Large Number of Totals — County 
Agricultural Societies — Dodge County Farm Names — Officers 



CONTENTS vii 

OF Dodge County Farm Bureau — Directors — Farm Bureau's 
Agent — Chief Co-operators of Farm Bureau — The Race Track 
85, 

CHAPTER IX 
History of the Dodge County Bar 91 



CHAPTER X 

MEDICAL MEN OF THE COUNTY 

First and Subsequent Doctors of Dodge County — List of Physi- 
cians — Short Personals of Some of the County's Medical Men 
— List of Present Physicians — The Dodge County Medical 
Society — Hospitals, Etc 99 

CHAPTER XI 

BANKING IN DODGE COUNTY 

Utility of Banking — The First Bank of the County — Subsequent 
Institutions — Present Banks of Dodge County — Summary 
of Banks in 1920 — Building & Loan Associations — Trust 
Companies 107 

CHAPTER XII 

DODGE COUNTY NEWSPAPERS 

The First Newspaper in Dodge and Adjoining Counties — The 
Fremont Weekly and Daily Tribune — The Old Tri-Weekly — 
Growth of the Pioneer Paper Plant — The Fremont Weekly 
Herald — The North Bend Eagle — The Hooper Sentinel — The 
Uehling Post — The Scribner Rustler 123 

CHAPTER XIII 
Soil and Drainage of Dodge County 128 

CHAPTER XIV 
Dodge County and Modern Roads 133 

CHAPTER XV 

POLITICAL 

General Comment — Vote on Governors — State Senators — House 
OF Representatives — Party Vote of County by Decades Since 
1868 — County JtroGES — County Attorney — County Treasurers 



i CONTENTS 

— County Clerks — Clerk of the Court — Sheriffs — Surveyors — 
Superintendent of Public Instruction — Registrar of Deeds — 
County Commissioners — Board of Supervisors 137 



CHAPTER XVI 

THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND OTHER EDUCATIONAL 
INTERESTS 

President McKinley's Estimate of Free Schools — Schools of 
Fremont — The Present City Schools — North Bend Schools — 
Scribner Schools — Hooper Schools — Other First Schools — 
Dodge — Snyder — Crowell — Nickerson- — County School Superin- 
tendent's Annual Report — Buildings — Pupils — Expenses — 
Other School Statistics — Graded Schools in County — Private 
AND Parochial Schools — Teachers' Wages Now — Valuation and 
Tax Levy of School Districts in 1920 — Fremont Normal School 
AND Business Institute — Fremont Business College — Midland 
College 152 

CHAPTER XVII 

MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS 

Dodge County Postoffices — Market Prices — Past and Present — 
Population of County — Original Village Plats — Early Mar- 
riages — Grasshopper Plague — Elkhorn Flood of 1873 — Old 
Settlers' Association — Days of Mourning — President Garfield's 
Death — President Grant's Death — President McKinley's 
Death — Hymn to Nebraska by Rev. W. H. Buss 168 

CHAPTER XVIII 

VARIOUS CHURCHES IN DODGE COUNTY 

First Churches in Dodge County — The Congregational Denomi- 
nation — Methodist Churches of the County — Free Methodist 
Churches — United Presbyterian — Presbyterian Churches — 
Baptist Churches — Lutheran Churches — Various Branches — 
Catholic Churches — Christian Church — Adventist Church 
178 

CHAPTER XIX 

THE CIVIC SOCIETIES OF THE COUNTY 

Free Masonry — Odd Fellowship — Knights of Pythias — The Wood- 
men — Workmen — Knights of Columbus — Eastern Star 
Chapters — Rebekah Degree Lodges — Ben Hur — Workmen and 
Various Other Secret and Semi-Secret Lodges 188 



CONTENTS ix 

CHAPTER XX 
MILITARY HISTORY OF DODGE COUNTY 

Civil War — Loyalty of Settlers — Assassination of President 
Lincoln — The Indian Troubles — The Spanish-American War 
—The Great World War— 1917-18 200 

CHAPTER XXI 
Crimes Committed 212 

CHAPTER XXII 

THE CITY OF FREMONT 

The Name — Origin of City — Entering Land for Plat — Money 
Scarce — First Houses — Lots Donated — First Events — City's 
Developments — Manufacturing in 1886 — Postoffice — Civic 
Societies — Municipal History — Indebtedness — City Hall — 
Water Works — City Building — Orphan's Home — Classified 
Business in 1892 — Business Directory, 1920 — Reminiscences — 
Industrial Interests — Commercial Club — Population — The 
City Library 218 

CHAPTER XXIII 
Fremont Township 246 

CHAPTER XXIV 

NICKERSON TOWNSHIP 

Description — Boundary — Early History — Population — Settlement 
— First Things — Educational and Religious — Village of Nick- 
ERSON — Present Development — The Two Railro.\ds 250 

CHAPTER XXV 

CUMING TOWNSHIP 

Description — Boundaries — Population — Nationality of People — 
Railways — Homesteaders — First Settlement — First and Early 
Events — Pioneer Schools and Churches — Village of Scribner 
— Business Interests — 1920 Commercial Directory — Municipal 
History — Water Works — Postoffice History — Price, of Farm 
Lands Today — Public Library 254 

CHAPTER XXVI 

COTTERELL TOWNSHIP 

Its Boundary — Population — Pioneer Settlement — Once Inclxtoed 
Village of North Bend — General Natural Features and Pres- 
ent Condition of Township 260 



X CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XXVII 

PEBBLE TOWNSHIP 

Location — Description — Boundary — Railroad — Population — Vil- 
lages OF Crowell and Snyder — "Pebble" Now Defunct — Schools 
AND Churches — Milling Industry — The First Settlement of 
THE Township 263 

CHAPTER XXVIII 

WEBSTER TOWNSHIP 

Location — Boundary — Railroads — Organic — Early Settlement- 
Village of Dodge — Postoffice — Incorporation — Schools and 
Churches — Business Development — Roller Mills — Commercial 
Interests in 1920 — Population 268 

CHAPTER XXIX 
Elkhorn Township 272 

CHAPTER XXX 

HOOPER TOWNSHIP 

Its Boundary — Description — Population — Organization — Rail- 
roads — First Settlement — Later Settlers — Village of Hooper 
— Business Beginnings — Original Flour Mill — Commercial In- 
terests, 1920 — Municipal History — Waterworks 274 

CHAPTER XXXI 

EVERETT TOWNSHIP 

Boundaries — Organic — Population — Settlement — First Events — 
Schools and Churches — Postoffice — Gener.a,l Condition Today 
— Land Values, Etc 280 

CHAPTER XXXII 

RIDGELEY TOWNSHIP 

Location — Boundaries — Population — Organization — Schools and 
Churches — Ridgeley Postoffice, Etc. — Webster Postoffice — 
Miscellaneous Items — Mutual Insurance Company — Early 
Settlement of Township 283 

CHAPTER XXXIII 

UNION TOWNSHIP 

Location — Boundary — Organization — First Death — First Birth — 
First Land Plowed — First Religious Services — Settlement — 
Schools, Churches, Etc. — Population 286 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XXXIV 

PLEASANT VALLEY TOWNSHIP 

Description — Population — Organization — Schools and Churches 
— PosTOFFiCES — General Condition Today — List of Early 
Settlers 289 

CHAPTER XXXV 

LOGAN TOWNSHIP 

Its Extent — Boundaries — Population — Railroad Facilities — 
Swedish Colony — Later Settlement — Village of Uehling — 
General Conditions Today — Organization of Township or 
Precinct as Then Known — First Township Election — Swa- 
BURGH Postoffice 292 

CHAPTER XXXVI 

MAPLE TOWNSHIP 

Description — Boundary — Old Precinct of Maple — Census Returns 
— Schools and Churches — Postoffices — Settlement 295 

CHAPTER XXXVII 

NORTH BEND TOWNSHIP 

Formerly North Bend Precinct — Its Interesting History — First 
Colony — First Election — City of North Bend — Pioneer His- 
tory — Early Events — Commercial Interests of North Bend — 
Business Interests in 1920 — Postoffice History — Municipal 
History — Miscellaneous Improvements — Parks, Etc 298 

CHAPTER XXXVIII 

PLATTE TOWNSHIP 

Boundary — Organization — Settlement — Early Events — First 
Birth — First Death — First Marriage — First School — Village 
OF Ames — Standard Cattle Company, Etc. — Population — 
Indians 306 



WASHINGTON COUNTY 

CHAPTER I 

TOPOGRAPHY, GEOGRAPHY, NATURAL PRODUCTIONS 
AND ORGANIZATION 

Location — Boundary — Topography — Natural Resources — County 
Organization — First Census — Present Resources Within the 
County — Present Civil Townships Named 312 

CHAPTER II 

INDIAN TREATY AND EARLY SETTLEMENT 

Lewis and Clark Explorers Hold Council with Indians in 1804 — 
Burial of Big Elk, Last Chief to Die in Washington County 
— Buried Near Fort Calhoun in 1854 — Early Settlement by 
White Men — Forts Atkinson and Calhoun — Settlement in 
Various Parts of the County — An Interesting Reminiscence 
ON Early Days — Where the Pioneers Emigrated From — The 
Mormon's Sojourn — The Quincy Colony — Claim-Jumping and 
Early Murder 316 

CHAPTER III 

COUNTY GOVERNMENT 

County Buildings — First Courthouse — Present Building — Various 
County Jails — List of County Officers — Valuations of County 
— Financial Statement for 1920, Etc 323 

CHAPTER IV 

RAILROADS OF THE COUNTY 

The Old Sioux City & Pacific — The Old Omaha & Northwestern 
— The Present Chicago & Northwestern System Through the 
County 332 

CHAPTER V 

AGRICULTURE AND STOCK RAISING 

General Facts — Comparative Agricultural Statistics — The 
Grange Movement — Annual Premium List — Registered Farm 
Names 334 



CONTENTS xiii 

CHAPTER VI 
The Attorneys of the County 338 

CHAPTER Vn 

PHYSICIANS OF THE COUNTY 

Concerning the Science of Medicine — Its Advancement — Sur- 
gery — Old-Time Physicians — Saddle-Bags — Long Drives — The 
Medicine Chests — List of Physicians — The County Medical 
Society — Present Physicians — The Hospital 342 

CHAPTER VIII 

BANKING IN WASHINGTON COUNTY 

Early Banks in Nebraska — First Banking in Washington County 
— Plateau State Bank — The Herman State Bank — Washing- 
ton State Bank — Farmers & Merchants Bank, Kennard — 
Home State Bank — Arlington State Bank — First National 
Bank — Washington County Bank — Citizens State Bank — 
Fort Calhoun State Bank — State Bank, Blair — Farmers State 
Bank, Blair — Bank Summary 345 

CHAPTER IX 

WASHINGTON COUNTY NEWSPAPERS 

Newspapers of Blair — The Register — Washington Democrat 
(Defunct) — The Pilot — The Enterprise — The Tribune — The 
Times — The Courier — Kennard Weekly News — Herman Record 
— The Calhoun Chronicle — The County's Earliest Newspapers 
— The De Soto Bugle — De Soto Pilot — The Sun — Enquirer — 
Register — Nebraska Pioneer — Cuming Star 350 

ii 
CHAPTER X 

POLITICAL AFFAIRS OF COUNTY 

Presidential Elections — Special Elections — Lists of Senators — 
Representatives in State Government, Etc 354 

CHAPTER XI 
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS 

First Public Schools in Washington County — Later Develop- 
ments IN Matters of Education — The Fort Calhoun Schools 
— The De Soto Schools — Fontanelle Schools — Cuming City 
Schools — Blair City Schools — Other Schools in the County 
— Condition of Public Schools in 1920 — Superintendent's 
Report — School Buildings — .Teachers — Pupils — Wages — Paro- 
chial Schools — The College 356 



xiv CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XII 
SECRET SOCIETIES OF COUNTY 

Free Masonry — Odd Fellowship — Knights of Pythias — Woodmen 
OF THE World — Modern Woodmen of America — Danish Broth- 
erhood — Ancient Order of United Workmen — Eastern Star — 
Rebekah Degree Lodges — Etc 362 

CHAPTER XIII 
CHURCHES OF WASHINGTON COUNTY 

The Congregational Churches — The Methodist Episcopal 
Churches — The Baptist Churches — The Catholic Churches — 
The Lutheran Churches — Danish Lutheran Churches — 
Episcopal Church 370 

CHAPTER XIV 

MILITARY HISTORY OF THE COUNTY 

Its Part in the Civil War — Indian Troubles — Spanish-American 
War and the Late World War— 1914-18— Fort Calhoun— Its 
Ruins 375 

CHAPTER XV 
MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS 

Population of Washington County — Hard Winter of 1856-57 — 
Original Village Plats — Markets at Various Times — Days of 
Mourning — Garfield, Grant and McKinley 389 

CHAPTER XVI 
Indian Troubles 394 

CHAPTER XVII 
BLAIR TOWNSHIP AND CITY 

Boundary — Streams — Railroad Lines — Population — General Fea- 
tures — Drainage Ditch — City of Blair — Platting — Commercial 
Interests — Railroads — Postoffice and Municipal History — 
Factories, Etc 399 

CHAPTER XVIII 
CUMING CITY TOWNSHIP 

Boundary— Streams— Railroad— Big Drainage Ditch— Population 
— Tyson Station — Cuming City (Defunct) — Highland 412 



CONTENTS XV 

CHAPTER XIX 

DE SOTO TOWNSHIP 

Boundary — Streams — Railway Line — Population — Early History 
OF THE Township and De Soto Village — First Events — Once 
Settled by Fleeing Mormons — Mills — Newspapers — Incorpora- 
tion — Pike's Peak Boom — First Church Services — List of Early 
Pioneers 414 

CHAPTER XX 

ARLINGTON TOWNSHIP 

Boundary — Population — Towns and Village — A Farming Section^ 
Market Facilities — Surrounded by a Beautiful Country and 
A Large City to Trade at — City of Arlington — Bowen Hamlet — 
The Marshall Nurseries — Railroad Lines 417 

CHAPTER XXI 

HERMAN TOWNSHIP 

Boundaries — Streams — Lakes — Railway Line — Big Drainage Ditch 
— Population — Hudson — the "Paper Town" — Village of Her- 
man — Hamlet of Fletcher 422 

CHAPTER XXII 

FONTANELLE TOWNSHIP 

Historic Location — Correct Spelling of Name — Boundary — Popu- 
lation — Streams, Soil — Improvements — Village of Fontanelle 
— Talbasta — Reminiscences by Eda Mead — Extracts from Bell's 
History of Washington County in 1876 — Death and Burial of 
Logan Fontenelle 426 

CHAPTER XXIII 

FORT CALHOUN TOWNSHIP 

Boundaries — Old Fort Calhoun — Village History — Lakes and 
Streams — Schools — Municipal Affairs of Village — Railroad — 
Population — Business of Village Today — Centennial Celebra- 
tion — Postoffice History — .Reminiscences — Account of Place 
By W. H. Allen, Mrs. E. H. Clark and W. H. Woods 435 



xvi CONTENTS 

CHAPTER XXIV 

RICHLAND TOWNSHIP 

An Old Settlement — How It Obtained Its Name — First to Set 
Stakes — Beauty and Actual Value of Township Agricul- 
turally — Population — Boundary — Organization — First a Pre- 
cinct Then a Township — Villages of Kennard and Washing- 
ton 448 

CHAPTER XXV 

GRANT, SHERIDAN AND LINCOLN PRECINCTS 

Grant Township — Its Character — Its Name — Its Organization — 
Its Population at Decade Periods — First Settlers — General 
Features — Sheridan Township — Boundaries — Population — Set- 
tlement — PosTOFFicE — Later Settlers — Killed in Indian Scare 
— Lincoln Precinct — Organization — Boundary — Pioneer Set- 
tlers — Population — Settlers of 1856-57 and 1858 — Experience 
WITH Indians — Going After Provisions 452 



INDEX 



Abbott, Charles E., II, 540 

Abbott, L. J., I, 101, 106 

Abels, Bernhard, II, 890 

Abstract of counties, I, 30 

Adams, Frank C, II, 906 

Adams, W. R., II, 549 

Admah, I, 390, 454 

Adventist Church, Fremont, I, 186 

Agricultural Societies, Dodge County, 
I, 86; Washington County, I, 334 

Agricultural Statistics, Dodge County, 
I, 85; Washington County, I, 335 

Agriculture: Dodge County, I, 85; 
Washington County, I, 334 

Albers, A. J., II, 722 

Algonquian tribes, I, 43, 48 

Alkali lands, Nebraska, I, 12 

Allen, Roland G., II, 659 

American Fur Company, I, 41 

American Red Cross, Dodge County, 
I, 211; Washington County, I, 386 

Ames, banks, I, 117; location, I, 171; 
platted, I, 171; history, I, 309 

Ames Methodist Episcopal Church, 
I, 182 

Ancient Order of United Workmen, 
I, 195, 368 

Andersen, A. M., II, 819 

Anderson, James B., II, 870 

Anderson, Ove T., II, 689 

Anderson, P., II, 670 

Anderson, William O., II, 509 

Antill, George M., II, 912 

Area of Nebraska, I, 19 

Arlington (village), platted, 390; loca- 
tion, I, 417; municipal history, I, 
418; business and professional in- 
terests, 1920, I, 419 

Arlington High School (illustration), 
1,418 

Arlington Nurseries (illustration), I, 
420 

Arlington State Bank, I, 347 

Arlington Township, history, I, 417; 
boundary, I, 417; population, I, 417 

Arndt, F. W., II, 812 

Arnot, Charles, II, 493 

Assessed valuations of Dodge County, 
I, 64; Washington County, I, 330 

Attorneys: Dodge County, I, 92; 
Washington County, I, 328, 338 

Aughey, Samuel, I, 3, 12 

B Line, Fremont to Blair, I, 135 
Bader, Frederick, II, 787 
Bader, Jacob R., II, 736 
Bader, John H., II. 754 
Badger, James C, II, 847 
Baird, Guy B., II, 518 
Balding, James, II, 538 



BalduflF, Charles H., II, 469 

Ballard, Grace, II, 630 

Banghart, Vangilder, II, 510 

Bank, summary of Dodge County 
(1919-20), I, 119; Washington 
County, I, 349 

"Banking House of A. Castetter," I, 
345 

Banks, Dodge County, I, 107; Fre- 
mont, I, 108; Nickerson, I, 113; 
Snyder, I, 114; Dodge City, I, 115; 
Winslow, I, 115; Uehling, I, 116; 
Ames, I, 117; Hooper, I, 117; North 
Bend, I. 118; Washington County, 
I, 345; Blair, I, 345, 348; Herman, 
I, 346; Washington (village), I, 346; 
Kennard, I, 346; Arlington, I, 347; 
Ft. Calhoun, I, 347 

Baptist Churches, Dodge County, I, 
184; Washington County, I, 372 

Barnard, E. H., I, 219, 246 

Barry, Mary, II, 918 

Barz, William E., II, 565 

Basler, George F., II, 502 

Beales, Austin W., II, 899 

Beales, Hannah H., II, 899 

Beaty, E. S., II, 850 

Beebe, Henry L., II, 757 

Beet sugar industry, I, 228 

Belknap, William H.. II, 595 

Bell. N. H., I, 91, 95 

Benevolent and Protective Order of 
Elks, Fremont, I, 198 

Ben Hur. I, 196 

Benner, Henry, II, 752 

Bergmann, Christof, II, 911 

Bergquist, H. O., II, 516 

Berry, Leslie T., II, 897 

Bethel Methodist Episcopal Church, 
I, 182 

Beyersdorfer, C. A., II, 690 

Black Hills Trail, I, 135 

Blaco, Harry C, II, 885 

Blaco, John, II. 880 

Blaco, Mattie, II, 881 

Blair: Newspapers of, I, 350; Schools, 
I, 3S8; Masonic Lodge at, I, 362; 
platted, I. 390. 399; county seat of 
Washington County, I, 399; rail- 
roads, I, 401; first events, 1, 401; 
municipal history, I, 402; water 
works, I. 403; fire department, I, 
403; present city officers, I, 405; 
commercial interests, I, 405; 1920 
business interests, I, 405 

Blair City Hall (illustration), I, 403 

Blair Congregational Church, I, 370 

Blair Courier, I, 351 

Blair Enterprise, I, 351 

Blair Pilot, I, 350 



XVIU 



INDEX 



Blair Postoffice. I, 407 

Blair Public Library, I, 408 

Blair street scene (illustration), I, 401 

Blair township: boundary, I, 399; pop- 
ulation, I, 399 

Bleyhl, Arthur, II, 496 

Bliss, Wlalter C, II, 593 

Block, Samuel, I, II, 809 

Bloomer, Arthur, I, 52 

Bloomer, John, I, 52 

"Blue Book" Paragraphs, I, 23 

Boggess, N. M., II, 622 

Bohling, Caroline, II, 845 

Bohling, Henry, II, 845 

Botanical specimens, I, 27 

Bottom lands, agricultural value of, I, 
10; Nebraska, I, 13; Dodge County, 

I, 128 

Boundaries of Dodge County, I, 56; 

Washington County, I, 312 
Bowen, I, 390 
Bowen (John S.) Lodge No. 232, 

A. F. & A. M., Kennard, I, 363 
Boyd, H. H., II, 482 
Bradbury, James, II, 829 
Bradbury, Mary A., II, 830 
Bradbury, William H., II, 796 
Braucht, Frederick E., II, 784 
Briggs, A. H., I, 97 
Briggs, Clarence D., II, 688 
Brown, David, II, 814 
Brown, George S., II, 583 
Brown, Gratia C, II, 591 
Brown, Nathan H.. II, 590 
Brown, Owen D., II, 815 
Brownell, Rainsford C, II, 823 
Brunner, Charles H., II, 476 
Buchanan. Albert E., II, 758 
Buffalo (illustration), I, 34 
"Buffalo Bill," I. 31, 32, 34 
Burdic, Eugene W., II, 851 
"Burlington," I, 83 
Bushnell, G. A., II, 679 
Business Directory, Fremont, I, 230 
Buss, William H., I, 133, 180, 239; 

II, 903 

Butler, David, I, 24 

Button, Frederic W., I, 97; II, 637 

Byers, Robert C, II, 497 

Caddoan tribes, I, 43 

Gaboon, Ira E., II, 507 

Cain, Ulysses S., II, 577 

Cain, William M., II, 725 

Calhoun Chronicle. I. 353 

California trail, I, 23 

Calkins. Frederick E., II, 830 

Cameron, A. J., II. 896 

Campen, George C, II, 733 

Capitol buildings, I. 25 

Carpenter, Ernest H., II, 506 

Carpenter, Harlow J., II, 505 

Carrigan, E. B., II, 828 

Carter, John B., II, 624 

Carter, Thomas N.. I, 436 

Gary, Peter F., II, 709 

Cassell, James, II, 791 

Castetter, Abram, II, 749 

Castetter (A.) banking house, I, 345 



Castetter, Francis M., II, 610 

Catholic Churches, Dodge County, I, 
186; Washington County, I, 373 

Cederlind. Martin T., II, 882 

Centennial celebration of Ft. Calhoun 
settlement, I, 440 

Centennial Lodge of Odd Fellows No. 
59, I, 192 

Central High School, Fremont (illus- 
tration), I, 153 

Central School buildings, I, 136 

Chappel, R. H., II, 800 

Cherny. John C. II, 579 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R. R., 
I, 83 

Chicago & Northwestern Railroad, 
I, 332 

Christensen, Arthur G., II, 491 

Christensen, Christ H., II, 789 

Christensen, Christian, II, 662 

Christensen, Christian J., II, 656 

Christensen, F. W., II, 903 

Christensen. Louis, II. 863 

Christian Churches (Disciple), Dodge 
County, I, 186 

Christian Science Churches, Dodge 
County, I, 186 

Churches: Dodge County, I, 178; 
Fremont, I, 178; Nickerson town- 
ship. I, 252; Pebble township, I, 264; 
Snyder. I, 266; Dodge Village, 1,271; 
Everett township, I, 281; Ridgeley 
township, I, 283; Union township, 
I, 288; Pleasant Valley township, I, 
290; Maple township. I, 295; Wash- 
ington County, I, 370; Kennard, I, 
450 

Citizens State Bank, Blair, I, 348 

City Building, Fremont, I. 224 

City Hall, Blair (illustration), I, 403 

City Hall, Fremont, I, 224 

City Hall, Hooper (illustration), I, 276 

City Hospital, Blair, I, 344 

City Schools, Fremont, I, 155 

Civic Societies, Dodge County, I, 188; 
Washington County, I. 362 

Civil War Monument, I, 386 

Claim-jumping, Washington County, 
I, 319 

Claridge. Frederick H., II, 750 

Clark, Mrs. E. H.. I, 438 

Clark. William, I, 37 

Classified business interests, Fremont, 
I, 226 

Cleland, J. C, I, 223 

Clemmons, William H.. II. 799 

Clerk of the Court, Dodge County, 
I, 142 

Clerks of the District: Washington 
County, I, 328 

Coal, I. 4 

Cobb, William A. G., II, 581 

Cody, William F., I, 31, 32 

Coffman, I, 389 

Colson, Sireno B., II, 681 

Comanches. I, 48 

Commercial National Bank, Fremont, 
L 111 

Condit, William C, II, 471 



INDEX 



Congregational Churches: Dodge 

County, I, 178; Washington County, 

I, 370 
Consolidation of country schools, I, 

135 
Constitution of 1875, I, 40 
Contal, Captain, I, 314 
Cook, Cortez U., II, 879 
Cook, Joe S., II, 557 
Cook, Joseph C. I, 141; II, 724 
Cornhusker Highway, I, 135 
Coronado, I, 40 
Coroners, Dodge County, I, 145; 

Washington County, I, 328 
Cotterell Township, Dodge County, 

Officers of, I, 149; boundary of, I, 

260; population of, I, 260 
Country schools: Consolidation of, I, 

135 
County Agricultural Societies, Dodge 

County, I, 86; Washington County, 

I, 334 
County Attorney: Dodge County, I, 

140 
County buildings, Dodge County, I, 

69 
County Clerks, Dodge County, I, 140; 

Washington County, I, 326 
County Commissioners, Dodge Coun- 
ty, I, 60, 145; Washington County, 

I, 328 
County fairs. Dodge County, I, 86; 

Washington County, I, 334 
County jails, Dodge County, I, 71; 

Washington County, I, 325 
County judges, Washington County, 

I, 327 
County land surveyors. Dodge 

County, I, 143 
County school superintendents. Dodge 

County, I, 144; Washington County, 

I, 327 
County Seat, Dodge County, I, 68; 

Washington County, I, 315 
County supervisors, Dodge County, 

I, 146 
County surveyors, Washington Coun- 
ty, I, 327 
County treasurer's semi-annual state- 
ment for 1920, of Dodge County, I, 

67 
County Treasurers, Dodge County, I, 

142; Washington County, I, 327 
Court houses, Dodge County, I, 69 
Courthouse, Blair (illustration), I, 324 
Crabbs, J. H., I, 101 
Crane, William J., II, 548 
Creeks, I, 55 

Criminal cases. Dodge County, I, 214 
Crowell, location, I, 171, 266; platted, 

I, 171; business interests, I, 267 
Crowell, Christopher C, II, 857 
Crowell Memorial Home for the 

Aged, Blair (illustration), I, 410 
Cuming City, I, 390, 412 
Cuming City Township, boundary, I, 

412; population, I, 412 
Cuming Township, Dodge (Tounty, 

officers of, I, ISO; boundaries of, 



I, 254; description of, I, 254; first 
settlement of, I, 254; first events, 
I, 255; population of, I, 254; pioneer 
settlement, I, 260 

Cuming, Thomas B., I, 313 

Cunningham, Charles C, II, 883 

Cusack, Christopher, II, 561 

Cusack, John, II, 611 

Cusack, Roy J., II, 562 

Cushman, Edward F., II, 884 

Cuykendall, C. E., II, 771 

Dahl, Henry C, II, 715 

Dale, I, 390 

Dame, Arthur K., II, 634 

Dana College and Trinity Seminary, 
Blair, I, 360 

Danish Brotherhood, I, 195, 368 

Danish Lutheran Publishing House, 
I, 352 

Danish Sisterhood, Fremont, I, 197 

Dau, Ernest, II, 785 

Dau, William G. J., II, 609 

Davies, Wilham J., II, 533 

Debel, Mary C, II, 618 

De La Matyr, Fred, II, 726 

Delaney, J. W., II, 700 

Denver trail. I, 23 

Deposits along the rivers, I, 7 

De Soto township. I. 414; boundary, 
I, 414; population. I, 414 

De Soto (village) first settlement, I, 
316; platted. I. 389; I, 414; popula- 
tion, I, 414; newspapers, I, 415; 
incorporated, I, 415: early pioneers, 
I, 416 

Devries, Joshua S.. II. 647 

Diels, Adolph F., II. 748 

Dierks, Elise, II, 685 

Dierks, John H., II. 684 

Diers, E. C, II. 842 

Diffey. Edwin, II, 751 

Dixon. Asa Jr., II, 917 

Dodge, General, I, 78 

Dodge City banks, I, 115 

Dodge City Postoffice, I. 269 

Dodge Congregational Church, I, 180 

Dodge County, deposits along the 
rivers, I, 7; first settlement. I, 52; 
pioneer experiences, I, 52; Pawnee 
Indians in, I, 53; first death, I, S3; 
topography, I, 54; settlement of 1857, 
I, 54; rivers, I, 55; boundaries. I, 56; 
organization, I, 56: first commis- 
sioners, I, 58; government, I, 60; 
precincts of, created. I, 60; new era 
in government of, I, 63; assessed 
valuations. I, 64; taxes, I, 64; farm 
lands in, I, 65; finances, I, 66; 
property valuations, I, 66; county 
treasurer's semi-annual statement 
for 1920, I, 67; first county seat of, 
I, 68; county seat, I, 68; county 
buildings, I, 69; court houses, I, 69; 
county jails, I, 71; officials, 1920, 
I, 72; poor farm, I. 72; supervisors, 
1920, I, 73; railroads of, I, 75; rail- 
way mileage in (1920), I, 84; farm 
statistics, I, 85; agricultural socie- 



INDEX 



ties, I, 86; fair grounds, I, 86; farm 
names, I, 87; lawyers of, I, 91; bar, 
leading members of, I, 92; judges of 
the District Court of, I, 97; physi- 
cians of, I, 99; past and present 
physicians of, I, 100; hospitals, I, 
IDS; banks, I, 107; bank summary 
(1919-20) of, I, 119; newspapers, I, 
123; first newspaper, I, 123; soil and 
drainage, I, 128; bottom lands, I, 
128; terrace lands, I, 128; drainage, 
I, 129; tile drainage, I, 129; modern 
roads, I, 133; state representatives, 
I, 138; state senators, I, 138; judges, 
I, 139; county attorney, I, 140; coun- 
ty clerks, I, 140; clerk of the court, 
I, 142; county treasurers, I, 142; 
county land surveyors, I, 143; 
sheriffs, I, 143; registrar of deeds, 
I, 144; superintendent of public in- 
struction, I, 144; coroners, I, 145; 
county commissioners, I, 145; county 
supervisors, I, 146; party vote by 
decades, I, 148; public men, I, 149; 
township officers (1919-20), I, 149; 
schools of, I, 152; school superin- 
tendent's annual report (1919), I, 
157; private and parochial schools 
of, I, 159; graded schools of, I, 159; 
valuation and tax levy of school 
districts, I, 160; miscellaneous items, 
I, 168; postoffices in, I, 168; market 
prices, I, 168; population of, I, 169; 
original village plat, I, 170; early 
marriages in, I, 171; Old Settlers 
Associations, I, 173; first Fourth of 
July celebration, I, 173; first church 
in, I, 178; civic societies of, I, 188; 
Odd Fellows Lodges, I, 192; mili- 
tary history of, I, 200; roster of sol- 
diers, Spanish American War, I, 
200; roster of soldiers, World war, 
I, 202; Liberty Loans, I, 210; Red 
Cross work, I, 211; crimes in, I, 212; 
famous criminal cases, I, 214; remi- 
niscences, L 239, 270 
Dodge County Agricultural Society, 

I, 86 
Dodge County Bank, Hooper, I, 118 
Dodge County Corn Field (illustra- 
tion), I, 131 
Dodge County Farm Bureau, Officers 

of (1920), I, 89 
Dodge County Introduction, I, 1 
Dodge County Medical Society, I, 105 
Dodge (village), platted, I, 171; loca- 
tion, 1, 171, 269; incorporated, I, 
269; conditions in 1920, I, 270; early 
business interests, I, 270; churches 
of, I, 271 
Ddering, Henry, II, 729 
Dolezal, Frank, I, 91; II, 635 
Douglas, Stephen A., I, 38 
Drainage, Dodge County, I, 129 
Dudley, Charles L., II, 553 
Dudley, Ina B., II, 554 
Dundy, Elmer S., I, 31 
Durkee, W. E., II, 729 



Dustine, I, 41 

Dykeman, John G., II, 473 

Early days in Fremont, I, 233, 235 

Early days in Fremont Township, 
Dodge County, I, 246 

Early events, Platte Township, I, 307 

Early marriages in Dodge County, I, 
171 

Early milling plant. Pebble Township, 
I, 264 

Early missionaries, I, 41 

Early Nebraska explorations, I, 40 

Early settlement, Webster Township, 
I, 268; Everett Township, I, 280 

Eaton, John P., II, 465 

Edelmaier, Henry, II, 501 

Edelmaier, John, II, 806 

Elkhorn River, I, 954; flood, 1873, I, 
172 

Elkhorn Township, Dodge County, 
officers, I, 151; location, I, 272; orig- 
inal settlement of, I, 272; popula- 
tion, I, 272; railroads, I, 272 

Elkhorn Valley, I, 55, 128 

Eller, Israel C, I, 338; II, 888 

Emerson, John A., II, 515 

Episcopal Church, Fremont (illustra- 
tion), I, 153; Dodge County, I, 186; 
Washington County, I, 373 

Equitable Building and Loan Asso- 
ciation, I, 119 

Erickson, Eric G., II 626 

Everett Township, Dodge County, 
officers, I, 150; boundaries, I, 280; 
early settlement, I, 280; population, 
I, 280; postoffice, I, 281; churches, 
I, 281; schools, I, 281. 

Ewald, P. J., II, 519 

Explanation to Old Fort Atkinson 
Map, I, 447 

Fair Grounds Dodge County, I, 86 
"Faithful" Rebekah Lodge No. 332, 

Kennard, I, 367 
Farm lands, average value of, in 1920, 

I. 65 
Farm names, Dodge County, I, 87 
Farm statistics. Dodge County, I, 85; 

Washington County, I, 335 
Farmers' Alliance, I, 24 
Farmers & Merchants Bank, Ken- 
nard, I, 346 
Farmers and Merchants Bank, Snyder, 

I, 115 
Farmers and Merchants National 

Bank, Fremont, I, 109 
Farmers State Bank, Ames, I, 117 
Farmers State Bank, Blair, I, 349 
Farmers State Bank, Dodge, I, 115 
Farmers State Bank, Nickerson, I, 113 
Farmers State Bank, Scribner, I, 113 
Farmers State Bank, Uehling, I, 116 
Farmers State Bank, Winslow, 1, 114 
Fauquet, Mannasses, II, 862 
Fauquet, Mary, II, 862 
Fidelity Trust Company, Fremont, I. 

120 



INDEX 



Finances of Dodge County, I, 66; 

Washington County, I, 330 
Finegan, John, II, 864 
Fire department, Blair, I, 403 
Fire department, North Bend, I, 305 

First apple orchard in Nebraska, I, 
314 

First Bank of Nickerson, I, 113 

First Bank in Washington County, I, 
345 

First church parsonage, Nebraska, I, 
314 

First church in Dodge County, I, 178 

First Congregational Church, Fre- 
mont, I, 178 

First constitiution of Nebraska, I, 40 

First courthouse, Blair (illustration), 
I, 324 

First courthouse, Washington County, 
I, 357 

First events, Fremont, I, 219; Nicker- 
son Township, I, 251; Cuming 

Township, I, 255; Union Township, I, 
286 

First Fourth of July celebration, 
Dodge County, I, 173 

First house in which United States 
Court and District Court was held 
(illustration), I, 322 

First Legislature, Washington County, 
I, 313 

First National Bank, Arlington, I, 347 

First National Bank, Dodge, I, 116 

First National Bank, Fremont (illus- 
tration), I, 108 

First National Bank, Hooper, I, 117 

First National Bank, North Bend, I, 
118 

First National Bank, Scribner, I, 112 

First newspapers: Dodge County, I, 
123; Washington County, I, 352 

First parsonage in Nebraska (illus- 
tration), I, 179 

First public school: Dodge County, 
I, 153; Washington County, I, 356 

First school building, Washington 
County, I, 357 

First settlement. Dodge County, I, 52; 
Maple Township, I, 295; Hooper 
Township, I, 274; Union Township, 
I, 286 

First State Bank, North Bend, I, 118 

First territorial capital, I, 25 

First territorial legislature of Ne- 
braska, I, 57 

First white settlement, Washington 
county, I, 316 

Fletcher. I, 390, 423 

Flynn, Eliza Lee, I, 241 

Fontanelle, I, 52, 56, 168; platted, 390; 
pioneer settlers, I, 428; important 
events, I, 429; of today, I, 429; 
another history of, I, 430; trouble 
with Indians, I, 432 

Fontanelle High School (illustration), 
I, 428 

Fontanelle Township: location, I, 426; 
correct spelling of name, I, 426; 



population, I, 426; first settlement, 
I, 426; pioneer settlers, I, 428; im- 
portant events, I, 429 

Fontenelle, Chief Logan, sketch of, 
I, 429 

Fort Atkinson (see Fort Calhoun), 
anecdotes, I, 314; first settlement, I, 
316; description, I, 387; established, 
I, 398. 

Fort Atkinson map, I, 446 

Fort Calhoun (see Fort Atkinson), 
first settlement, I, 316; Masonry at, 
I, 363; description, I, 387; estab- 
lished, I, 398 

Fort Calhoun map, I, 446 

Fort Calhoun Village, I, 435; remi- 
niscences, I, 435; Thomas N. Car- 
ter's story of, I, 436; in the later 
fifties, I, 438; retrospective view of, 
by W. H. Woods, I, 439; centennial 
celebration of settlement, I, 440 

Fort Calhoun Village, I, 442; mu- 
nicipal history, I, 443; present offi- 
cers, I, 443; schools, I, 444; post- 
ofiice history, I, 444 

Fort Calhoun High School (illustra- 
tion), I, 444 

Fort Calhoun school grounds, I, 358 

Fort Calhoun State Bank, I, 348 

Fort Calhoun Township, I, 435; 
boundaries, I, 435; population, I, 
435; settlement, I, 435 

Fort Kearney, I, 24 

Foster, George, II, 524 

Fowler, Frank, I, 97 

Frahm, Robert, II, 589 

Franke, George, II, 508 

Fraternal Order of Eagles, I, 197 

Free Masonry, Dodge County, I, 188; 
Washington County, I, 362 

Free Methodist Church of North 
America, I, 183 

Fremont, site of, I, 52; permanent 
county seat of Dodge County, I, 
59; physicians (1920), I, 104; banks, 
I, 108; newspapers, I, 123; schools, 
I, 152; present city schools, I, 155; 
location, I, 170; platted, I, 170; 
churches, I, 178; origin of, I, 218; first 
platting, I, 218; first events in, I, 
219; postoffice history of, I, 220; 
postmasters at, I, 221 ; secret socie- 
ties at, I, 222; municipal govern- 
ment, I, 222; city officers, I, 223; 
indebtedness of. I, 224; city hall, I, 
224; water works, etc., I, 224; city 
building, I, 225; orphans home, I, 
225; public library, I, 225; classified 
business interests, I, 226; manufac- 
turing industries, I, 227; business 
directory, I. 230; population, I, 232; 
early days in, I, 233, 235 

Fremont-Albion Highway, I, 135 

Fremont Baptist Church, I, 184 

Fremont Business College, I, 161 

Fremont College, I. 164 

Fremont Commercial Club, I, 134, 232 

Fremont. Elkhorn & Missouri Valley 
Railroad, I, 81 



INDEX 



Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley 
Company, I, 332 

Fremont Foundry, I, 227 

Fremont Herald, I, 125 

Fremont High School, I, 154 

Fremont Hospital (illustration), I, 106 

Fremont, John C, I, 1, 24, 218, 220 

Fremont Joint-Stock Land Bank, I, 
122 

Fremont Lodge No. 23, A. O. U. W., 
I, 195 

Fremont National Bank, I, 110 

Fremont Normal College and Busi- 
ness Institute, I, 161, 164 

Fremont Precinct, I, 246 

Fremont Presbyterian Church, I, 184 

Fremont State Bank, I, 112 

Fremont Stock Yards, L 229 

Fremont Town Company, I, 218 

Fremont Township, Dodge County, 
Officers, 1, 151; early days in, I, 246 

Fremont Tribune, I, 123 

Frick, J. E., 1, 91, 96 

Fried, William, U, 540 

Friendship Chapter No. 122 O. E. S., 
Hooper, I, 192 

Fritz, Christian G., II, 574 

Frontier conditions, I, 24 

Frost, Andrew, II, 670 

Fuhlrodt, Frank W., II, 781 

Fur Traders, I, 41 

Gaines, Henry L., II, 705 

Garfield, James A., death of, I, 175, 

392, 393 
Geological eras, I, 3 
Gericke, Albert F., II, 919 
Gibson, John H., II, 612 
Gilmore, Mae, II, 522 
Glover, Jennie, 11, 539 
Glover, Samuel G., II, 539 
Goff, John W., II, 833 
Gold hunters' panic, I, 42 
Goll, William R., II, 905 
"Good Roads Wolz," I, 133 
Gottsch. Emil, II. 896 
Governors of Nebraska, I, 29, 137, 355 
Grace Lutheran Church, Hooper, I, 

185 
Grange movement, I, 337 
Grant Township, organization, I, 453; 

population, I, 453 
Grant, U. S., death of, I, 176, 393 
Grasses, Nebraska, I, 28 
Grasshopper plague, I, 171, 291 
Great American Desert, I, 42. 311 
Great exploring expeditions, I, 41 
Grey, E. F., I, 91, 94 
Gross, William D., II, 824 
Grimm, John H., II, 869 
Guidinger, W. A., II, 740 
Gumb, John, II, 526 
Gumpert, H. Gus, II, 700 
Gurney, Edmund R., II, 867 

Hagenbaumer, Adolph, II, 537 
Hahn, Ernest, II, 691 
Halfbreed tract, I, 49 
Hall, Dervie, II, 894 



Hamilton, Cynthia, I, 233 

Hammond, Frank, I, 120; II, 663 

Hammond, Ross L., I, 124, 134; II, 
460 

Hansen, C. Edward, II, 571 

Hansen, Hans, II, 879 

Hansen, H. Charles, II, 839 

Hansen, John J., II, 521 

Hansen Ole, II, 571 

Hanson, E. P., II, 854 

Hanson, James F., II, 764 

Hard winter (1857-58), Washington 
County, I, 391 

Hartung, Gottlieb, II, 508 

Harvey, Andrew, II, 775 

Haslam, George J., I, 101, 106; II, 654 

Haun, Frank M., II, 551 

Haun, Henry A., II, 629 

Haun, John, II, 70S 

Haun, John W., II, 706 

Hauser, Byron B., II, 632 

Havekost, John, II, 747 

Haverfield, Rutherford H., II, 638 

Healy, Byron N., II, 720 

Heath, E. V., II, 876 

Heaton, Isaac E., I, 220 

Hedelund, George T., II, 892 

Heine, J. Howard, II, 628 

Heine, W. Howard, II, 522 

Hemphill, W. F., II, 669 

Hendricksen, John, II, 621 

Henneman, William, II, 703 

Herfurth, Fred A., II, 667 

Herman (village), platted, I, 390; mu- 
nicipal history, I, 423; business in- 
terests, I, 424 

Herman Chapter, Order of Eastern 
Star, No. 216, I, 365 

Herman High School (illustration), I, 
424 

Herman Record, I, 352 

Herman State Bank, I, 346 

Herman Township, boundaries, I, 422; 
population, I, 422 

Heuermann, Fred, II, 878 

Highland, I, 412 

Highlanders, Scribner, I, 199 

Higley, Harry, II, 820 

Hilliker, William E., II, 550 

Himebaugh, O. A., I, 52 

Hinchman, Joseph V., II, 603 

Hindmarsh, George G., II, 510 

Hindmarsh, Ray, II, 468 

Hines, G. G., II, 584 

Hinman, Beach, II, 487 

Hinman, Guy M., II, 487 

Hinman, Miner H., II, 4«6 

Hiram Lodge No. 52, A. F. & A. M.. 
Arlington, I, 363 

Historic items: Dodge County, I, 239; 
Washington County, I, 317 

Hoebener, John H., U, 738 

Hoegemeyer, Casper, II, 618 

Hoegermeyer, Otto, II, 596 

Holbrook, William D., II, 575 

Hollenbeck, Conrad, I, 91, 96; II, 601 

Holloway. Louis F., II, 707 

Holsten, Herman, II, 580 

Hooker, Edward W., H, 535 



INDEX 



xxm 



Home Savings Bank, Fremont, I, 111 

Home State Bank, Kennard, I, 347 

Hooper, Charles H., II, 605 

Hooper, Banks, I, 117; schools, I, 
156; location, I, 170; platted, I, 170; 
village of, I, 275; business begin- 
nings, I, 276; commercial interests 
(1920), I, 277; municipal history, I, 
278; waterworks, I, 279 

Hooper Building and Loan Associa- 
tion, I, 121 

Hooper Lodge No. 72, A. F. & A. M., 
I, 190 

Hooper Lodge No. 226, A. O. U. W., 
I, 195 

Hooper Methodist Episcopal Church, 
I, 181 

Hooper Roller Mills, I, 276 

Hooper Sentinel, I, 126 

Hooper Township, Dodge County, 
Officers, I, 150; description of, I, 
274; location, I, 274; population, I, 
274; first settlement, I, 274; organ- 
ization of. I, 274 

Horstman, Morris, II, 680 

Hospitals of Dodge County, I, 105 

Hovendick, F. J., II, 857 

Hrabak, Charles, II, 672 

Hudson, I, 390, 422 

Hustead, Edwin L., II, 622 

Illustrations: (map) Normal Annual 
Precipitation, I, 17; Typical Scene 
Along the North Platte, I, 20; Mov- 
ing Indians, I, 45; Log House of 
Hon. E. H. Rogers, Fremont, Erect- 
ed in 1857, I, 58; Old Courthouse, 
Fremont, Destroyed by Fire, De- 
cember 5, 1915, I, 70; Railroad 
Yards at Fremont, I, 76; View on 
"Burlington" near Fremont, I, 82; 
Tractor Plow, I, 88; New Court- 
house, Fremont, I, 93; Fremont 
Hospital, I, 106; First Building of 
First National Bank, Fremont, and 
Present Building, I, 108; Typical 
Dodge County Corn Field, I, 131; 
Old Stage Coach, I, 134; Joseph C. 
Cook, I, 141; Central or Old High 
School (1870), First Methodist 
Episcopal Church, Fremont, 1899. I, 
153; High School Fremont, I, 154; 
First Parsonage in Nebraska, I, 179; 
Postoffice, Fremont, I, 221; J. C. 
Cleland, Many Years Mayor of Fre- 
mont and Father of the Fire De- 
partment, I, 223; Carnegie Public 
Library, I, 225; Factory District, 
Fremont: Fremont Gas and Electric 
Co., I. 229; Log Cabin in which Hon. 
Ray Nye was born, I, 236; Resi- 
dence of Hon. Ray Nye, Fremont, 
I, 236; Business Street, Scribner, I, 
256; City Hall, Hooper, I, 276; High 
School, North Bend, I, 299; Thor- 
oughbred Cattle, I, 308; First House 
in which U. S. Court and District 
Court Was Held, I, 322; First Court- 
house in Blair, I, 322; Courthouse, 



Blair, I, 324; Cattle, I, 335; Thresh- 
ing Scene I, 336; Log Schoolhouse, 
I, 357; Mt. Hope Fruit Farm, I, 400; 
Street Scene, Blair, I, 401; Blair City 
Hall, I, 403; Ware Farm, I, 404; 
Postoffice, Blair, I 407; Crowell 
Memorial Home for the Aged Blair, 
I, 410; High School, Arlington, I, 
418; Arlington Nurseries, I, 420; 
High School, Herman, I, 424; High 
School, Fontanelle, I, 428; Henry 
Rohwer Farm, I, 434; Lewis-Clark 
Monument, Fort Calhoun, I, 441; 
High School, Fort Calhoun, I, 444; 
Kennard School, I, 450; R. Peterson 
Farm, I. 452 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
I, 366 

Indians, Removal of, I, 24; customs 
of, I, 45; location of the various 
tribes, I, 46; character of, I, 49; 
relations with settlers, I, 49; im- 
plements of, I, 50; hostility towards 
the whites, I, 50; scare, Platte 
Township, I, 3()6; troubles in Wash- 
ington County, I, 394; trouble with 
at Fontanelle, I, 432 

Indian Council, Fort Calhoun, I, 398 

Indian War of 1890-91, I, 51 

Introduction, Dodge County, I, 1; 
Washington County, I, 311 

Jackson, I, 23 

Jackson, Edward C. II, 586 

Jahnel, Frank, II, 822 

Jahnel, William, II, 872 

Jamestown Methodist Episcopal 
Church, I, 183 

Janssen, John B, II, 779 

Janssen, Katherine, II, 779 

Japp, J. F., II, 907 

Japp, W. L., II, 852 

Jensen, Andrew, II, 782 

Johnson Allen 11, 594 

Johnson, Charles C, II, 534 

Johnson, Frank W., II, 723 

Johnson, Magnus, II, 902 

Johnson, Nels M., II, 710 

Johnson, P. G., II, 786 

Jones, William P., I, 161, 164 

Judges, Dodge County, I, 139; Wash- 
ington County, 327 

Judges of the District Court, Dodge 
County, I, 97 

Jungbluth, Fred E., II, 898 

Jungbluth, Herman, II, 886 

Kahnk, August, II, 874 

Kavich, Jacob, II, 762 

Keene, C. A., II, 485 

Keller Paul L., II, 528 

Kelser, Jacob J., II, 607 

Kendall, Harvey C, II, 853 

Kendrick, Henry G., II, 696 

Kendrick, Verne, II, 696 

Kennard (platted), I, 390; churches, I, 
450; schools, I, 450; business inter- 
ests in 1920, I, 450 

Kennard School (illustration), I, 450 



XXIV 



INDEX 



Kennard Weekly News, I, 351 

Kidder, Henry M., II, 675 

Kinkaid act, I, 11 

Kiowan tribes, I, 48 

Knapp, Frank B., II, 847 

Knights of Pythias, Dodge County, I, 

193; Washington County, I, 367 
Knoell, Henry, II, 843 
Knoell, Fred, II, 479 
Knowles, John H., II, 774 
Koehne, C. Julian, II, 480 
Koehne, Fred F., 11, 585 
Koltermaii, Carl F., II, 570 
Kountz, John A., I, 219 
Koyen, Victor E., II, 841 
Koyen, WilHam, II, 678 
Krajicek, Benjamin E., II, 665 
Kroeger, Carl, II, 783 
Kroeger, Harry, II, 727 
Kronberg, Gustave E., II, 898 
Kuss, Henry, II, 745 

Laird, Fred C, II, 744 

Landmark Lodge No. 222, A. F. & A. 

M., Herman, I, 364 
Langhorst, Edward F., II, 552 
Langhorst, Otto A., II, 518 
Langhorst, Otto, Sr., II, 511 
Largest beet-sugar plant in world, I, 

18 
Largest broom factory in world, I, 18 
Largest cattle feeding station in 

world, I, 18 
Largest creamery in world, I, 18 
Larson, Luther C, II, 489 
Larson, P. Harry, II, 807 
Last romantic buffalo hunt, I, 31 
Lawyers, Dodge County, I, 91; Wash- 
ington county. I, 338 
Leake, Endell N., II, 730 
Lee, Henry J., II, 606 
Lee, William B., I, 241 
Legal Holidays, Nebraska, I, 23 
Lewis, Captain, I, 37 
Lewis and Clark Expedition, I, 41 
Lewis-Clark Monument, Fort Calhoun 

(illustration), I, 441 
Liberty Loans in Dodge County, I, 

210; Washington County, I, 386 
Lincoln, I, 25 

Lincoln, Abraham, death of, I, 175 
Lincoln Highway, I, 133 
Lincoln Highway East, I, 135 
Lincoln Highway, West, I, 135 
Lincoln Township, I, 454; population, 

I, 454; settlement, I, 454 
Lippincott, M. R., II, 768 
Livingston, Duncan, II, 484 
Livingston, J. Stewart, II, 484 
Location of Nebraska, I, 19 
Loess: deposits, I, 5; character of, 

I, 5; agricultural value of, I, 6 
Logan Township, Dodge County, Of- 
ficers, I, 151; boundaries of, I, 292; 
early settlements of, I, 292; organ- 
ization of, I, 292; population of, I, 
292 
Logan Valley, I, 128 
Logan Valley Bank, Uehling, I, 116 



Loomis, George L., I, 91, 95; II, 459 
Loomis, Howard W., II, 460 
Looschen, Henry H , II, 721 
Louisiana Purchase, I, 36 
Luehrs, Robert A., II, 709 
Lueninghoener, Henry H., II, 694 
Lund, N. T., II, 750 
Luse, Dora, II, 904 
Lutheran Churches, Dodge County, I, 

185; Washington County, I, 371 
Lutz, J. E, II, 685 

Maccabees, I, 197 

Maher, William J., II, 777 

Mahlin, Eugene L., II, 788 

Majers, Charles E., II, 545 

Mallet, I, 41 

Manufacturing Industries of Fremont, 
I, 227 

Maple Creek, I, 295 

Maple Township, Dodge County, Of- 
ficers, I, 150; description, I, 295; 
first settlement, I, 295; population, 
I, 295; postoffices, I, 295; churches, 
I, 295; schools, I, 295 

Market prices, Dodge County, I, 168 

Marquette, Father, I, 41 

Marr, Charles D.. II, 714 

Marr, Charles J., II, 696 

Marshall, Chester C, II, 463 

Marshall, George A„ II, 463 

Marshall, Harvey W., II, 463 

Marshall, William, I, 91, 95 

Marshall Family, II, 463 

Marshall's Nurseries, I, 421 

Martin, Edwin W.. II, 832 

Martin, Grant G.,. I, 97 

Masonic Home for Children, I, 189 

Masonic Temple, Fremont, I, 189 

Masonry, Dodge County, I, 188; 
Washington County, I, 362 

Masters, Commodore Perry, II, 542 

Mathews, Trevanyon L., I, 107; II, 
711 

Mattson, John, II, 755 

Maxwell, Elizabeth A., II, 568 

Maxwell, Samuel, I, 91, 92 

McCann, J. F., II, 893 

McCann W. J., II, 874 

McFarland, Elmer M., II, 779 

McFarland, James J., II, 778 

McGiverin, Rose, II, 914 

McKay, John, II, 650 

McKennan, Charles, II, 673 

McKinley, William, I, 152; death of, 
I, 176, 393 

McKinley Chapter, Order of Eastern 
Star, Blair, I, 365 

McQuarrie, John, II, 755 

McVicker, William J., U, 512 

Mead, C. R., II, 564 

Mead, Eda, I, 430 

Meherns, Maurice, II, 827 . 

Melick, John H., II, 798 

Mencke, Henry, II, 865 

Menking, George, 11, 894 

Mercer, George L., II, 642 

Mercer, William G., II. 642 

Merselis, Warren, II, 476 



INDEX 



Methodist Episcopal Churches in 

Dodge County, I, 180; Washington 

County, I, 371 
Meyer, Herman, II, 693 
Meyer, Herman F., II, 569 
Meyer, Herman G., II, 543 
Meyer, J. H. C, II, 626 
Meyer, William H. J., II, 604 
Middaugh, Raymond J., II, 717 
Middaugh, William, II, 699 
Midland College, Fremont, I, 162, 166 
Military history of Dodge County, I, 

200; Washington County, I, 375 
Miller, A. J., II, 769 
Miller, Charles M., II, 598 
Miller, Elmer M., II, 900 
Milligan, John O., Jr„ II, 561 
Milligan, John O., Sr., II, 560 
Mitterling, P. T., II, 829 
Miscellaneous items, Dodge County, 

I, 168; Washington County, I, 389 
Missouri compromise, I, 38 
Missouri River, I, 7, 19, 312 
Modern Roads, Dodge County, I, 133; 
Modern Woodmen of America, Dodge 

County, I, 194; Washington County, 

I, 369 
Moe, Mrs. L. S., I, 108 
Moe. Rex R., II, 744 
Moeller, John H. C, II, 617 
Mohler, G. H., I, 164 
Moller, Frederick, Sr., II, 837 
Monke, Henry S., II, 661 
Monke. John H., II, 660 
Monnich, Bernard, II, 472 
Monnich, Gerhard, II, 682 
Monnich, Herman, II, 792 
Monnich, John N., II, 547 
Moore, Sadie I., I, 233 
Morehouse, Carlos, II, 594 
Morehouse, May (Smith), II, 593 
Mormons, I, 41 
Morris, John, I, 25 
Morrow. Hamilton M., II, 801 
Morse, Edward N., II, 815 
Meyer, George W., II, 808 
Mount Hope Fruit Farm (illustration), 

I, 400 
Mueller, M. H., II, 891 
Mummert, D. Z., II, IIZ 
Munger, W. H., I, 91, 94 
Municipal government, Fremont, I, 

222 
Murdoch, R. J., II, 572 
Murley, William, II, 877 
Murphy, Aaron W., II, 558 
Murrell, James A., II, 613 

Name 'Nebraska," I, 24 

Naomi Chapter No. 121, Order of 
Eastern Star, Fort Calhoun, I, 364 

Natural Features, Nebraska, I, 13 

Nebraska: state history, I, 2; geolog- 
ical eras, I, 3; coal beds, I, 4; wild 
fruits, I, 6, 22; river bottoms, I, 9 
alkali lands, I, 12; bottom lands, I 
13; natural features, I, 13; temper- 
ature, I, 13; topography, I, 13 
winds, I, 15; moisture, I, 16; rain 
fall, I, 16; largest beet-sugar plant it 



world, I, 18; largest broom factory 
in world, I, 18; largest cattle feed- 
ing station in world, I, 18; largest 
creamery in world, I, 18; rank 
among other states, I, 18; area, 
I, 19; location, I, 19; rivers, I, 
19, 27; timber, I, 21; species of 
trees in, I, 21, 27; state insti- 
tutions, I, 22; legal holidays, I, 23; 
historic paragraphs, I, 23; name 
source of, I, 24, 38; from 1830 to 
1854; I, 24; from 1867 to 1875, I, 24; 
territory organized, I, 24; state seal, 
I, 25; state capitol buildings, I, 25; 
state flower, I, 26; vegetation, I, 26; 
grasses, I, 28; wild flowers, I, 29; 
governors, I, 29, 137, 355; counties, 
I, 30; admitted as a state, I, 39; 
early explorations, I, 40; first con- 
stitution, I, 40; constitution of 1875, 
I, 40; Indians of, I, 43; first terri- 
torial legislature, I, 57; grasshopper 
plague, I, 171 

Nebraska Colonization Company, I, 
52, 316 

Nebraska Country, I, 38 

Nebraska-Kansas Bill, I, 24 

Nebraska Prize Hymn, I, 173 

Nebraska Sheep (illustration), I, 29 

Nebraska State Building and Loan 
Association, I, 120 

Nebraska Territorial Organization, I, 
38 

Nehrbas, Albert A., II, 766 

Nelson, Andrew P., II, 483 

Nelson, J. C, II, 803 

Nelson, Martin, II, 676 

Newell, John W., II, 651 

Newsom, Joseph C, II, 616 

Newsom, Joseph E., II, 649 

Newspapers, Dodge County, I, 123; 
Fremont, I, 23; Washington County, 
I. 350; Blair, I, 350; De Soto, I, 415 

Nichol, Sarah, II, 615 

Nichol, William, II, 615 

Nickerson, Banks, I, 113; location, I, 
171; platted, I, 171 

Nickerson Lodge No. 390, I. O. O. F., 
I, 192 

Nickerson Methodist Episcopal 
Church, I, 182 

Nickerson Township, Dodge County, 
officers, I, 150; description, I, 250; 
pioneer settlement, I, 250; popula- 
tion of, I, 250; first events in, I, 251; 
schools of, I, 252; churches of, I, 
252 

Niebaum, Edward, II, 511 

Nielsen, Morris, II, 677 

Niobrara River, I, 8, 13 

North Bend, banks, I, 118; schools, I, 
155; location. I, 170; platted, I, 170; 
city of, location, I, 298; commercial 
interests of, I, 301; business inter- 
ests (1920), I, 302; municipal his- 
tory of, I, 303; postoffice history, I, 
303; miscellaneous improvements, I, 
305; fire department, I, 305; great 
fires, I, 305 

North Bend Eagle, I, 125 



INDEX 



North Bend High School (illustra- 
tion), I, 299 

North Bend Lodge No. 119, A. F. & 
A. M., I, 190 

North Bend Lodge No. 161, L O. O. 
R, I, 192 

North Bend Lodge, Modern Wood- 
men of America, I, 194 

North Bend Methodist Episcopal 
Church, L 182 

North Bend Milling Company, H, 515 

North Bend Township, Dodge County, 
officers, I, 151; description, I, 298; 
location, I, 298; pioneer history, I, 
298; early events, 1, 301 

Nusz, T. A. F., II, 625 

Nye, Mrs. Theron, I, 235 

Nye, Ray, II, 554 

Nye, Schneider, Fowler Company, 
Fremont, I, 227 

O'Connor, John, II, 640 

Odd Fellows Lodges, Dodge County, 
I, 192; Washington County, I, 366 

Officials of Dodge County, 1920, I, 72 

Officers of Dodge County Farm Bu- 
reau (1920), I, 89 

O'Hanlon, Clark, II, 573 

Old Settlers Association, Dodge Coun- 
ty, I, 173 

Ollermann, H. O. L., II, 576 

Olsen, Otto F., II, 876 

Olson, Andrew E., II, 688 

Olson, Eric, II, 844 

Omahas, I, 47 

Onate, I. 44 

Order of Eastern Star, Dodge County, 
I, 191; Washington County, I, 364 

Oregon Trail, I, 1 

Original village plats, Dodge County, 
I, 170; Washington County, I, 389 

Orphans Home, Fremont, I, 225 

Orum, I, 390 

Osterloh, Fred, II, 840 

Osterloh, John G., II, 768 

Osterman. William, 11, 916 

Osterman, Thomas T., II, 856 

Overland Stage Line, I, 220 

Overland Trail, I, 1 

Overland Trails, I, 23 

Panning, Frederick G., II, 468 

Panning, Gustave C, II, 759 

Panning, Henry. II, 467 

"Paper Town," famous, I, 422 

Parkert. George N., II, 502 

Parkert, Peter, Jr., II, 739 

Party votes by decades, Dodge Coun- 
ty, I, 148; Washington County, I, 
354 

"Pathfinder," I, 1 

Patrons of Husbandry, I, 337 

Paulsen, Chris, II, 875 

Pawnees. I, 44 

Pease, Charles H., II, 523 

Pebble, location, I, 170; platted, I, 
170. 264 

Pebble Township, Dodge County, of- 
ficers, I, 150; location. I, 263; de- 



scription, I, 263; population, I, 263; 
first settlement, I, 263; early milling 
plant, I, 264; schools, I, 264; 
churches, I, 264; villages, I, 264. 

Petersen, C. Henry, II, 852 

Petersen, Herman, II, 664 

Petersen, Nickels, II, 872 

Peterson, Lars, II, 846 

Peterson, Laurence M., II, 848 

Peterson, O. A., II, 796 

Peterson (R.) Farm (illustration), I, 
452 . 

Petrow, John, II, 797 

PfeifJer, G. I., II, 543 

Phillips, Ezra, II, 772 

Phillips, Lloyd W., I, 229: II, 687 

Physicians, Dodge County, I, 99; 
Washington County, I, 342 

Pierce, Fred G., II, 600 

Pike explorer, I, 46 

Pike's Peak Immigration, I, 54 

Pilcher, Edward, II, 860 

Pilcher, Mary. II, 861 

Pilgrim Hill, I, 7 

Pine Ridge and Rosebud Agencies, I, 
49 

Pioneer experiences of Dodge County, 
I. 52 

Pioneers, Dodge County, I, 52; Wash- 
ington County, I, 317 

Plambeck, Anthony F., II, 531 

Plateau State Bank, Herman, I, 346 

Platte River, I, 8, 19 

Platte Township, Dodge County, offi- 
cers, I, 150; boundary, I, 306; set- 
tlements, I, 306; population, I, 306; 
Indian scare, I, 306; early events, 
I, 307 

Platte Valley, I, 9, 38, 54 

Pleasant Valley Township, Dodge 
county, officers, I, 149; description, 
I, 289; population, I, 289; organl 
zation, I, 289; pioneer settlement, I 
289; churches, I, 290; schools, I 
290; postoffices in. I, 291 

Political afifairs, Dodge County, I, 137 
Washington County, I, 354 

Pollard, Charies C, II, 737 

Pollock, Irving J., II, 841 

Poncas. I, 47 

Poor Farm, Dodge County. I, 72; 
Washington County, I, 326 

Population, Arlington Township, I, 
417: Blair Township, I, 399: Cotter- 
ell Township, I, 260; Cuming Town- 
ship, I, 254; De Soto Township, I, 
414; Dodge County, I, 169; Elkhorn 
Township. I, 272; Everett Town- 
ship, I, 280; Fontanelle Township, I, 
426; Fort Calhoun Township, I, 435; 
Fremont, I, 232; Grant Township. I, 
453; Herman Township, I, 422; 
Hooper Township, I. 274; Logan 
Township, I, 292; Maple Town- 
ship. I. 295; Nebraska sandhill 
region, I. 11; Nickerson Township. 
I, 250; Pebble Township, I. 263; 
Platte Township, I, 306; Pleasant 
Valley Township, I, 289; Ridgeley 



INDEX 



xxvn 



Township, I, 283; Uehling (Village), 
I, 293; Union Township, I, 286; 
Washington County, I, 389; Web- 
ster Township, I, 268 

Postoffice, Blair (illustration), I, 407 

Postoffice, Fremont (illustration), I, 
221 

Postoffices, Dodge County, I, 168 

Poulson, Christ L., II, 639 

Pratt, Fred E., II, 697 

Presbyterian Churches: Dodge Coun- 
ty, I, 183; Washington County, I, 
374 

Preston, Sylvester A., II, 488 

Property valuations of Dodge County, 
I, 66; Washington County, I, 330 

Publii; Library, Fremont, I, 225; Blair, 
I, 408 

Puis, Carl P., II, 911 

Railroad yards, Fremont (illustra- 
tion), I, 76 

Railroads, Dodge County, I, 75; 
Washington County, I, 332 

Railway Mileage in Dodge County, I, 
84 

Ralph, Carl N., II, 807 

Rathbun, Grove H., II, 809 

Realph, William, II. 466 

Rebbe, August L., II, 623 

Rebbe, Henry, II. 559 

Rebbe, Henry C, II, 560 

Rebbe. Louis J., II, 636 

Rebekah Degree Lodges of I. O. O. 
F,. Dodge County, I, 193; Washing- 
ton County, I. 367 

Reckmeyer, Walter R., II, 731 

Red Cross Work, Dodge County, I, 
211; Washington County, I, 386 

Reeder, Grant S., II, 740 

Registered farm names. Dodge County, 
I, 87; Washington County, I, 336 

Reinhold, Arnold, II, 557 

Removal of Indians, I, 24 

Republican River, I, 9, 20 

Republican Valley, I, 9 

Reynolds, Benjamin W.. II, 527 

Reynolds, Wilson B., II, 498 

Reznicek. Joseph F.. II, 493 

Richards, Lucius D., I, 75; II, 643 

Richardson. Ira F., II, 530 

Richland Township, location, I, 448; 
settlement, I, 448 

Ridgeley Township, Dodge County, 
officers, I, 150; location, I, 283; pop- 
ulation. I, 2883; organization, I, 283 
churches, I, 283; schools, I, 283; 
postoffices, I, 283; first settlers, I, 
284 

Ridgeley, Village, I, 283 

Riker, George B., II. 887 

Rine, Philip S., II, 718 

Ring, Herbert T., II, 474 

Rivers of Nebraska, I, 19, 27; Dodge 
County, I, 55; Washington County, 
I. 312 

Roberts, Joseph, 11, 753 

Roberts, Oliver C, II, 873 

Robertson, James C, II, 668 

Robinson, Charles J., II, 810 



Rockport, I, 442 

Rogers, EHphus H., I, 58, 92, 108, 246; 
II, 741 

Rogers, Henry W., II, 631 

Rogers, L. H., II, 734 

Rogers, Mr. and Mrs. L. H., I, 108 

Rohwer Farm (illustration), I, 434 

Rosenbaum, Buck, II, 881 

Rosenbaum, Hiram J., II, 855 

Rosenbaum, John, II, 859 

Rosenbaum, Sarah G., II, 855 

Ross, Charles, II, 686 

Roster soldiers, Spanish-American 
War, Dodge County, I, 200; Wash- 
ington County, I, 375; World War, 
Dodge County, I, 202; Washington 
County, I, 383 

Ruth Chapter No. 119, O. E. S., North 
Bend, I, 191 

Sac and Fox Purchase, I, 48 

Saeger, William, II, 592 

Salt Lake City, I, 42 

Sampson, John, II. 674 

Sampter, Carrie, II, 588 

Sampter, Nathan, II, 588 

Sanders, Jacob, II, 698 

Sanders, John, II, 575 

Sanders. William M., II, 532 

Sass, Christian, II, 480 

Sasse, Herman G., II, 776 

Schafersman, William. II, 849 

Schmidt, C. A., II, 760 

Schmidt, Ernest, II. 703 

Schmietenknop, Henry, II, 684 

Schneider. Rudolph B., II. 614 

Schoeneck, Arthur G., II, 491 

Schoeneck, William A., II, 492 

Schoettger, Henry W., II, 761 

Schools, Dodge County, I, 152; Fre- 
mont, I, 152; North Bend, I, 155; 
Scribner, I, 155; Hooper, I, 156; 
graded, of Dodge County, I, 159; 
private and parochial. Dodge Coun- 
ty, I, 159; Nickerson Township, I, 
252; Pebble Township, I, 264; Ev- 
erett Township, I, 281; Ridgeley 
Township, I, 283; Union Township, 
I, 288; Pleasant Valley Township, 
I, 290; Maple Township, I, 295; 
Washington County, I, 356; paro- 
chial, in Washington County, I, 360; 
Fort Calhoun, I, 444; Kennard, I, 
450 

School Superintendents, Dodge Coun- 
ty. I, 157; Washington County, I, 
360 

Schow, C. J.. II. 517 

Schuett, William. II. 713 

Schumacher. Chris, II, 871 

Schurman. Otto H.. II, 565 

Schwab, J. Frank. II, 470 

Schwatka, Frederick, I, 31 

Scott, Fred F.. II, 735 

Scribner. Banks. I. 112; schools, I, 
155; location, I, 170; platted, I. 170; 
incorporated. I, 256; business inter- 
ests of 1892, I, 257; present (1920) 
commercial affairs, I, 257; municipal 
history, I, 258; postoffice, I, 259 



xxvni 



INDEX 



Scribner Business Street (illustra- 
tion), I, 256 

Scribner Congregational Church, I, 
180 

Scribner Lodge, A. F. & A. M., No. 
132, I, 190 

Scribner Rustler, I, 126 

Scribner State Bank, I, 112 

Second territorial capitol, I, 25 

Secret Societies of Dodge County, I, 
88; Washington County, I, 362 

Security Savings Bank, Fremont, I, 
111 

Selden, Perry, II, 818 

Shaffer, Harvey W., II, 802 

Shaffer, James M., II, 597 

Shaffer, Norman E., II, 545 

Shaffer, William A., II, 838 

Shephard, George W., II, 805 

Shephard, Grace, II, 805 

Sheridan Township, population, I, 453; 
settlement, I, 454 

Sheriffs, Dodge County, I, 143; Wash- 
ington County, I, 327 

Shipley, Marion E., II, 692 

Sidner, Seymour S., II, 619 

Siekkotter, Mary M., II, 821 

Sievers, Henry, II, 496 

Sink, Joseph C, II, 745 

Siouan tribes, I, 43 

Sioux City and Pacific Railroad, I, 79 

Smails, Nathaniel W., II, 780 

Smith, James R., II, 563 

Smith, Joseph T, II, 910 

Smith, J. Towner, II, 909 

Smith, Leander B., II, 513 

Snyder, Joseph II, 503 

Snyder, Louis, II, 504 

Snyder, Myron G., II, 582 

Snyder, Banks, I, 114; location, I, 
171, 264; platted, I, 171; commer- 
cial interests (1920), I, 265; munic- 
ipal history, I, 266; churches, I, 266 

Snyder Lodge No. 470, M. W. of A., 
I, 194 

Snyder State Bank, I, 114 

Soil and Drainage of Dodge County, 
I, 128; Washington County, I, 334 

Sonin, John, II, 834 

Spangler, Grover C, II, 525 

Spanish-American War, Dodge Coun- 
ty, I, 200; Washington County, I, 
375 

Spanish-American War, Roster of Sol- 
diers, Dodge County, I, 200; Wash- 
ington County, I, 375 

Sprick, Albert W., II, 568 

Sprick, Henry, II, 567 

Springs, I, 20 

St. James Protestant Episcopal 
Church, Fremont, I, 186 

Staats, George F., II, 667 

Standard Cattle Company, Fremont, 
I, 228, 309 

Stage Coach (illustration), I, 134 

State Bank, Blair, I, 348 

State capitol buildings, I, 25 

State Flower, I, 26 

State Good Roads Association, I, 133 



State Highway Advisory Board, I, 135 
State Institutions, Nebraska, I, 22 
State Representatives, Dodge County, 

I, 138; Washington County, I, 355 
State Seal of Nebraska, I, 25 
State Senators, Dodge County, I, 138; 

Washington County, I, 355 
Steam Wagon Road, I, 23 
Steamboat Years, I, 24 
Stecher, Joe, II, 653 
Stephens, Dan V., I, 128, 134; II, 701 
Stevenson, John W., II, 504 
Stewart, Edward R., II, 555 
Stewart, Gabriel R, II, 866 
Stiles, Frances E., II, 804 
Stiles, Seth F., II, 803 
Stinson, Robert J., I, 96 
Stiver, Gustavus S., II, 704 
Stone, William H., 11, 481 
Street Scene, Blair (illustration), I, 

401 
Strong, D. M., I, 91, 96 
Sublette, I, 23 

Supervisors, Dodge County, I, 63, 73 
Surface Drainage, Dodge County, I, 

129 
Surface of Platte Valley, I, 54 
Sutton, James H., II, 732 
Swan, Harry L., II, 864 
Swanson, Dan, II, 816 
Sweet, G. A., II, 672 
Swihart, William E., II, 900 

Talbasta, I, 390 

Tank, Claus G., II, 758 

Tank, Henry, II, 767 

Taxes of Dodge County, I, 64 

Teeter, Guy H., II, 515 

Teigeler, Henry, II, 728 

Temperature, Nebraska, I, 13; ex- 
tremes of, I, 14; yearly mean, I, 14 

Terrace Lands, Dodge County, I, 128 

Thom, Alexander, II, 588 

Tile Drainage, Dodge County, I, 129, 
132 

Tillman, A. M., II, 475 

Timber, I. 12, 21 

Topography, Nebraska, I, 13; Dodge 
County, I, 54 

Township Officers, Dodge County, 
1919-20, I, 149 

Township Organization, Dodge Coun- 
ty, I, 60, 146 

Tractor plow (illustration), I, 88 

Trees, species of, in Nebraska, I, 27, 
28 

Tribal lands, I, 49 

Triumph Lodge No. 32, K. of P., Fre- 
mont, I, 193 

Turner, George, II, 835 

Turner, Nancy S., II, 835 

Turner, R. P., II, 653 

Turner, William H., II, 620 

Tyson, I, 390 

Uehling, Edward, II, 478 

Uehling, Frank T., II, 552 

Uehling, Henry, II, 706 

Uehling, Ludwig, II, 666 



INDEX 



Uehling, Martin A., II, 479 

Uehling, Theodore, II, 477 

Uehling, banks, I, 116; location, I, 171, 
293; platted, I, 171; population, I, 
293; waterworks, I, 293; commercial 
interests (1920), I, 294; postoffice, I, 
294; hospital, I, 294 

Uehling Post, I, 126 

Union Fair Ground Association, I, 86 

Union Pacific Railroad, first railroad, 
Dodge County, I, 54, 75 

Union Township, Dodge County, offi- 
cers, I, 149; location, I, 286; organ- 
ization, I, 286; first settlers, I, 286; 
first events, I, 286; population, I, 
286; churches, I, 288; schools, I, 
288 

United Presbyterian Church, North 
Bend, I, 181 

Vacoma, I, 390 

Valuation and tax levy of school dis- 
tricts. Dodge County, I, 160 
Van Anda, Elvina, II, 920 
Van Anda, John A., II, 919 
Van Anda, Mary, II, 916 
Van Deusen, Don C, II, 599 
Van Metre, Richard T., II. 716 
Van Patten, John B., II, 671 
Vaughan, Fred W., II, 793 
Vegetation in Nebraska, I, 26 
Vloch, William E., II, 666 
Volpp, Fred, II, 490 
Voss, William, II, 914 

Wallingford, Charles L., II, 836 

Ward, Lewis E., II, 882 

Ware Farm (illustration), I, 404 

Warner, John H., II, 813 

Warner, Louis M., II, 790 

Washington, I, 389 

Washington (Zounty: Reminiscences, 
I, 239; introduction, I, 311; descrip- 
tion, I, 311; location, I, 312; rivers, 
I, 312; timber, I, 312; topography, 
I, 312; abstract, I, 313; first legis- 
lature, I, 313; organization, I, 313; 
county seat, I, 315; settlements, I, 
316; first white settlement, I, 316; 
pioneers, I, 317; historic items, I, 317; 
claim-jumping, I, 319; county build- 
ings, I, 323; government, I, 323; 
county treasurers, I, 327; county 
surveyors, I, 327; present court- 
house, I, 323; county jail, I, 325; 
county clerks, I, 326; probate 
judges, I, 327; county judges, I, 
327; county school superintendents, 
I, 327; sheriflfs of, I, 327; attorneys, 
I, 328, 338; clerks of the district, I, 
328; county commissioners, I, 328; 
coroners, I, 328; financial statement, 
I, 330; valuations of farm and city 
property, I, 330; railroads, I, 332; 
railroad mileage, I, 333; agriculture, 
I, 334; stock raising, I, 334; county 
fairs, I, 334; comparative agricul- 
tural statistics, 1,335; registered farm 
names, I, 336; physicians, I, 342; 
banking, I, 345; summary of banks. 



I, 349; newspapers, I, 350; political 
affairs, I, 354; state representatives, 
I, 355; state senators, I, 355; 
schools, I, 356; first public school, I, 
356; first courthouse, I, 357; school 
superintendent's report (1920), I, 
359; parochial schools, I, 360; super- 
intendents of schools, I, 360; secret 
societies, I, 362; churches, I, 370; 
military history, I, 375; in Spanish- 
American war, I, 375; in World 
war, yil; original village plats, I, 
389; population, I, 389; markets at 
various times, I, 390; hard winter 
of 1856-57, I, 391; present market 
prices (1920), I, 391; county seat, I, 
399; Indian troubles, I, 394 

Washington, village, I, 451; business 
interests, 1920, I, 451 

Washington County Agricultural So- 
city, I, 335 

Washington County Bank, Fort Cal- 
houn, I, 347 

Washington County Courthouse, I, 
315 

Washington County Medical Society, 
I, 343 

Washington Democrat, I, 351 

Washington Lodge No. 41, Independ- 
ent Order of Odd Fellows, Arling- 
ton, I, 366 

Washington State Bank, I, 346 

Waterhouse. Archibald H., II, 655 

Waterman. Herman H. F., II, 520 

Waterman, Herman, II, 537 

Weber. Gus H.. II, 763 

Webster Township, Dodge County; 
officers, I, 149; early settlement, I, 
268; location, I, 268; population, I, 
268 

Webster, village, I, 283 

Wegner, O. B., II, 627 

Weigle. John, II, 698 

Weitkamp. H. P., II, 500 

Wells, I, 20 

"Western Engineer," I, 24 

Western Theological Seminary, Fre- 
mont. I. 162 

Westlin, August, II, 683 

Westphalen, Henry, II, 912 

Widhelm, Joseph G., II, 462 

Widman, Oscar. II, 795 

Wiese, R. G., II, 869 

Wild flowers, Nebraska, I, 29 

Wild fruits of Nebraska, I, 622 

Wiley, William C, II, 770 

Wilkins. Norman, II, 861 

Wilkinson, James. I, Til 

Wilkinson, Lucy, II, 913 

Wilkinson, Thomas T., II, 913 

Wilkinson, W. W., II, 826 

Williams. Ira M., II, 660 

Williams, Mrs. L. A., II, 818 

Winkelman, Florence A., II, 845 

Winnebagos, I, 47 

Winslow banks. I, 114; location, I, 
171; platted, I, 171, 279; village of, 
I, 279; commercial interests (1920), 
I, 279 



INDEX 



Winslow State Bank, I, 114 

Wintersteen, Waldo, I, 97; II, 657 

Witt, Anna, II, 557 

Witt, Henry. II, 633 

Witt, John H., II, 557 

Wolcott, Harland L., II, 702 ' 

Wolf, Fred, II, 695 

Wolsleger, William J., II,- 499 

Wolz, George R, I, 133; II, 494 

Women's Christian Temperance Un- 
ion, Fremont, I, 127 

Woodmen of the World, Dodge 
County, I, 194 

Woods, W. H., I, 439 

World war, Dodge County, I, 202; 
roster of Dodge County soldiers, I, 
202; Washington County, I, Zll; 
roster of Washington County sol- 
diers, I, 3«3 



Wrich, Chris, II, 908 
Wrich, Hans, II, 908 
Wright, Homer A., II, 895 
Wright, Thomas H., II, 747 
Wyeth, Nathaniel I., I, 23 

"Yellowstone," I, 24 
Yeoman Lodge, Fremont, I, 198 
Young, James T., II, 774 
Young Men's Christian Association, 
Fremont, I, 127 

Zapp, Samuel A., II, 529 
Zellers, Moses T., II, 804 
Zellers, William M., II, 649 
Zion's Lutheran Church, Hooper, I, 
185 



History of Dodge County 



INTRODUCTION 

This is a concise history of that portion of the State of Nebraska 
known as Dodge County. It is beHeved to be a true account of the early 
settlement and subsequent development of one of the original subdivi- 
sions of this commonwealth, of which the enterprising City of Fremont 
is the seat of justice. In this city, today, stands (near the Union Pacific 
depot) a beautiful, plain Scotch granite marker, placed by the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution, for the purpose of marking the spot 
where the center of the great Oregon Trail (or the Overland Trail as 
called by some), used to run on its westward course, through Nebraska, 
Colorado and Utah, thence on to the far-away Pacific coast. Its alti- 
tude above sea-level is 1,192 feet. It was this trail that Gen. John C. 
Fremont, the "Pathfinder," took when he made his famous exploring 
expedition for the United States Government to the great and then 
unknown West. It was over this route that the most of the hardy "49" 
gold seekers wended their way with ox and mule teams ; also the Pike's 
Peak gold seekers of a few years later date. Just before the Civil war 
came on — beginning with 1855 and 1856 — emigration set in to this part of 
Nebraska, from New England, New York, and some of the Southern 
and Middle States. These brave sons and daughters left the home-fires of 
their native states to become pioneers in a wilderness of which they knew 
aught save by hearsay and reading. They exchanged, in fact, the dense 
fogs of the Atlantic coast, the miasma of an Indiana or Illinois swamp, 
for an altitude and longitude and latitude productive of vigor and robust 
health. They came as home-builders, not speculators, and they "builded 
better than they knew." 

These early settlers were in advance of railroads by more than ten 
years. They had great hardships to endure, but with brave hearts and 
strong bodies they forged through till prosperity finally crowned a 
majority of those who first invaded the fair prairies and fertile valleys 
of present Dodge County. The first settlers were ahead of the Govern- 
ment surveys; later comers to the county pre-empted land at $1.25 per 
acre, while hundreds of returned Civil war soldiers took homesteads and 
thus secured what soon came to be valua'ble farm-homes. 

The history of this' county may be divided into two divisions — before 
railroad days and after the building of the railroads. 

The annals of this county contain many interesting features and the 
record has been compiled from the best authority extant, and approved 
by men whose memory reaches back to almost the original settlement 
period. Each subject is properly classified and will be easily found by 
reference to the index. The personal sketches contained herein have 
all been submitted for approval to those interested, hence may be relied 
upon as correct. 

1 



2 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

State History Section 

The work before you contains several chapters concerning the general 
State History of Nebraska, which leads the reader in an intelligent and 
interesting manner, to the county's history, locally. The reader of any 
given subdivision of a state's history should first be posted about the 
geology, topography, discovery and early settlement of the state as a 
whole, hence the state section of this work is an invaluable addition to 
that promised in the prospectus, giving the reader even much more than 
was promised the patrons when they ordered the work, entitled "History 
of Dodge and Washington Counties." 



CHAPTER I 

GEOLOGY, TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL FEATURES 

Geological Eras — Coal Measures — Glacial Period — Agricultural 
Value of the Soil — Scenery of the Loess Deposit — Character 
of Deposit Along the Rivers — Formation of the Platte Val- 
ley — Bottom Lands — Last Buffalo Hunt — Sand Cherries — 
Soap Weed — Alkali Lands — Modern Changes — Timber — Topog- 
raphy and Natural Features — Extreme Temperatures — Mean 
Temperatures — Nebraska Winds — Moisture and Rainfall — 
Rank Among the States in the Union — ■ Forests — Wild 
Fruits — State Institutions — Legal Holidays — "Blue Book" 
Paragraphs — State Seal — State Flower — State Capitol Build- 
ings — Vegetation — Grasses of Nebraska — Wild Flowers — Gov- 
ernors — Abstract of Counties — County Population — Altitude 
AND Area. 

It has been said by one writer that geology is the poetry and romance 
of science. But it is far more than that. It reveals the causes that make 
the material prosperity of a region possible. No one can fundamentally 
understand his section or state unless he knows its geology. To the 
ordinary reader of local history it must be admitted that this subject is 
not of the most interesting character, yet no county or state history can 
in any sense be called complete without some article on the natural features 
of the country, be such article never so brief. Only such points as seem 
to the writer of importance to the readers of a history treating on Dodge 
and Washington Counties and the Platte Valley, in general, will be here 
treated. 

Geological Eras 

Unfortunately the state geologists or the United States department 
of geology has never made a geological survey of these counties. 
Prof. Samuel Aughey, professor of natural sciences at the University of 
Nebraska more than forty years ago wrote extensively on the geological 
formation and on the topography of this state, and from this authority 
we are permitted to quote freely. He states in the outset of his work 
that: 

As now understood from its rock memorials, there have been five 
great eras in geological history : The Archaean, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and 
Psychozoic. During the early part of the first era our globe was com- 
panion star to the sun, and glowed by a heat and shone by a light of its 
own. The basaltic rocks are believed best to represent the physical char- 
acters of the earth's crust at the beginning of recorded geological his- 
tory. From such materials when our globe came to be sufficiently cooled 
3 



4 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

down were formed by the asserting pov^er of water the sediments that 
were subsequently metamorphosed into the gneissic, granitic and other 
rock masses that constitute the Laurentian and Huronian strata of the 
earth's crust. As the rocks of these epochs still left in Canada are forty 
thousand feet thick and at least as extensive in the Rocky Mountains 
and the Sierras and still greater in Bohemia and Bavaria after being 
subjected to the numberless ages of erosion the time represented by their 
deposition was greater probably than the whole geological history since 
their close. So far as we now know during all this immensely long era 
there was no dry land in Nebraska. Then followed what geologists call 
the Paleozoic era, because of the antique or old life form of all animals 
and plants that appeared. The earlier portions are known as the Silurian 
ages during which invertebrate life was dominant and especially moluscan 
life and the continent was growing and extending southward from its 
Archaean nucleus. The next age, often called the age of fishes, and also 
known as the Devonian, followed, but neither in this nor the preceding 
age was there any dry land in Nebraska. Neither are there any known 
deposits of the next or sub-carboniferous period in this state. Even the 
millstone grit so common in the east under the coal, has not yet been 
found. We come now to the Carboniferous age proper. 

Carboniferous Age 

During the progress of this age in Nebraska the first dry land 
appeared. It was one of the most wonderful ages in the history of the 
globe, for during its progress the thickest, most extensive and most valu- 
able of all the coal beds were formed. 

The carboniferous deposits occupy the southeastern portion of 
Nebraska. Approximately, the western boundary line commences at a 
point a little above Fort Calhoun, eighteen miles north of Omaha and 
extends southwest, crossing the Platte near the mouth of Salt Creek; 
thence running southwest a little east of Lincoln and thence in the same 
■direction crossing the state line near the middle of the Otoe Indian Res- 
ervation. All east of this line is mainly Upper Carboniferous period. The 
Dakota group cretaceous sandstone once covered this entire region but 
was removed by erosion and small patches of it are still found in isolated 
basins over this carboniferous area. 

Coal Measures 

Thus far only one marketable bed of coal has been developed in our 
carboniferous measures. The one referred to is in the western part of 
Richardson County, town 1, north of the 6th principal meridian. From 
the bank on section 33 during the years of 1880 and 1881 over 100,000 
bushels of coal were taken. A great deal was also mined from the same 
bed three-fourths of a mile southwest of the last. The coal is of a fine 
quality giving but little ash. The bed ranges from eighteen to thirty 
inches in thickness. The coal was in demand for local demand. In 1882 
when this article was compiled developments had not yet proven how far 
the coal bed extended by any actual shaft-borings. At a few other points 
in this area coal has been discovered but not in paying quantities. 

Glacial Period 

The plains were desiccated before the Pliocene had entirely passed 
away. Following this condition of excessive dryness came one great 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES ' 5 

period of humidity and a much lower temperature than the present or 
previous age. The snows of winter eventually accumulated too rapidly 
to be removed by the summer's warmth. This finally resulted in the 
glaciation of the plains of Nebraska. A thick mantle of ice extended 
south of the southern line of the state, .->nd, according to Agassiz, at one 
time to the thirty-sixth parallel. Thus was inaugurated the Glacial 
epoch of the Quaternary period. The following is the order of the 
epochs of the Quaternary period in Nebraska : A Glacial, Forest Bed, 
Drift, Loess and Terrace epoch. 

The Loess Epoch 

The. loess deposits first received this name in America from Lyell, 
who observed them along the Mississippi in various places. The name 
was used previously in Europe to designate such materials in the valley 
of the Rhine and Danube. Hayden called them the Blufif Deposits because 
of the peculiar configuration they give to the uplands that bordered the 
flood plains of the rivers. This deposit though not particularly rich in 
organic remains, is in some respects one of the most remarkable in the 
world. Its value for agricultural purposes is not exceeded anywhere. 
It prevails over at least three-fourths of the surface of Nebraska. It 
ranges in thickness from 5 to 150 feet. Some sections in Dakota and 
other counties measure over 200 feet. Even at North Platte west of 
the Missouri, on the south side of the river, the thickness varies from 
125 to 150 feet. From Crete, on the Burlington & Missouri Railroad, 
west to Kearney, on the Union Pacific Railroad, its thickness for ninety 
miles ranges from forty to ninety feet. Along the Republican the for- 
mation of various thickness extends almost to the west line of the state. 
It is generally almost homogeneous throughout and of almost uniform 
color, however thick the deposit or far apart the specimens have been 
taken. I have compared (says the geologist) many specimens taken 
300 miles apart and from the top and bottom of the deposits and no 
difiference could be detected by the eye or by chemical analysis. 

Ch.^racter of the Loess 

Over eighty per cent of this deposit is very finely comminuted silica. 
When washed in water left standing and the water poured off and the 
coarser materials have settled the residuum after evaporation to dryness 
is almost entirely composed of fine siliceous powder. So fine indeed are 
the particles of silica that its true character can only be detected by 
analysis or under the microscope. About ten per cent is composed of the 
carbonates and phosphates of lime. These materials are so abundant in 
these deposits that they spontaneously crystallize or form concretions 
from the size of a shot to that of a walnut ; and these are often hollow 
or contain some organic matter or a fossil around which the crystalliza- 
tion took place. Almost anywhere when the soil is turned over by the 
plow or in excavations these concretions may be found. And often 
after the rain has washed newly thrown-up soil the ground seems to be 
literally covered with them. Old gopher hills and weather-beaten hill- 
sides furnish these concretions in unlimited quantities for the geologist 
and curiosity hunter. When first exposed most of these concretions are 
soft enough to be rubbed fine between the fingers but they gradually 
harden by the atmosphere. This deposit also contains small amounts of 
alkaline matter, iron and alumina. For the purpose of showing the 



6 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

homogeneous character and the chemical properties of the Loess deposits 
the geologist has made many analyses of these peculiar deposits, five of 
which are here given as sample: No. 1 from Douglas County, near 
Omaha; No. 2 from the bluffs near Kearney; No. 3 from the Lower 
Loup; No. 4 from Sutton, and No. 5 from the Republican Valley, near 
Orleans, in Harlan County. 

Agricultural Value of the Loess 

As would be expected from the elements which chemical analysis 
shows to be present in these deposits it forms one of the best soils in 
the world. In fact, it can never be exhausted until every hill and valley 
of which it is composed is entirely worn away. Its drainage, which is the 
best possible, is owing to the remarkable finely comminuted silica of 
which a bulk of the deposit consists. Where the grout is cultivated the 
most copious rains percolate through the soil which in its lowest depths 
retains it like a huge sponge. Even the unbroken prairie absorbs much 
of the heavy rains that fall. When droughts come the moisture comes 
up from below by capillary attraction. And when it is considered that 
the depth to the solid rock ranges generally from 5 to 200 feet it is seen 
how readily the needs of vegetation are supplied in the driest seasons. 
This is the main reason why over all the region where these deposits pre- 
vail, the natural vegetation and the well cultivated crops are rarely dried 
or drowned out. A few showers fall in April and little more rain 
until June 'when there is usually a rainy season of from three to eight 
weeks in duration. After these June rains little more falls until autumn; 
and yet if there was a deep and thorough cultivation the crops of corn, 
cereals and grass would be most abundant. This condition represents 
the dry seasons. On the other hand, the extremely wet seasons only 
damage the crops on the low bottoms subject to overflow. Owing to 
the siliceous nature of the soil they never bake when plowed in a wet 
condition and a day after heavy rain the plow can again be safely and 
successfully used. In the interior away from the Missouri, the surface 
of the lowest deposits is in places gently undulating and in places rolling. 
Not unfrequently a region will be reached where for a few miles the 
country is hilly and then gradually becomes with all kinds of intermediate 
forms almost entirely level. The bluflfs that border the flood plains of 
the Missouri, the lower Platte and some other streams are sometimes 
exceedingly precipitous, sometimes gently rounded off and sometimes in 
gentle slopes. They often assume fantastic forms as if carved by some 
curious generations of the past. At present they retain their form so 
unchanged by year to year affected by neither rain nor frost that they 
must have been molded into their present outlines under circumstances 
of climate and level very different from those that now prevail. 

Fruit of the Loess Deposits 

In these loess deposits, says the geological writer above mentioned, is 
• found the explanation of the ease with which nature produces the wild 
fruits of Nebraska. So dense are the thickets of grapes and wild plums 
along some of the bottoms and bluffs of the larger streams that it is dif- 
ficult to penetrate them. Over twenty-two varieties of wild plums have 
been discovered. Two species of wild grapes have been distinguished but 
these have interminable varieties. The same remark applies to the wild 
strawberries. Raspberries and blackberries abound in many parts of 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 7 

Nebraska. The buffalo berry is common on the river bottoms of the 
state. Many other wild fruits abound and grow with amazing luxuriance. 
Of course this only applies where the prairie fires have been kept from 
them. It is also a paradise for many cultivated fruits. They luxuriate 
in a soil like this composed of such materials and with such perfectly 
natural drainage. No other regions except loess regions elsewhere can 
compare in these respects with Nebraska. The loess of the Rhine sup- 
plies Europe with some of its finest grapes and wines The success that 
has already (1882) attended the cultivation of grapes in southeastern 
Nebraska at least proves that this state may likewise become remarkable 
in this respect. For the cultivation of the apple its superiority has been 
long since demonstrated. Though so young in years, Nebraska has taken 
the chief premiums in the pomological fairs at Richmond and Boston. 
There are obstacles here as well as elsewhere. What is claimed is that the 
soil, as analysis and experience prove, is eminently adapted to the cultiva- 
tion of the grape and the apple. The chief drawback, especially in the 
interior, is climatic. In mid-summer an occasional hot wind blows from 
the southwest and the young apple trees need to have their trunks pro- 
tected by a shingle until the top shades them. Any of the older orchard- 
ists can give the various methods by which this may be done. 

Scenery of the Loess Deposits 

One writer says of this scenery : It has been remarked that no sharp 
lines of demarkation separate the kinds of scenery that produce the emo- 
tions of the grand and beautiful. This is eminently true of some of the 
scenery produced by the loess formations. Occasionally an elevation is 
encountered from whose summit there are such magnificent views of 
river bottom, forest and winding bluffs as to produce all the emotions of 
the sublime. One such elevation is Pilgrim Hill. Dakota County, on what 
was the farm of Hon. J. Warner. From this hill the Missouri bottom 
with its marvelous weird-like river can be seen for twenty miles. Dakota 
City and Sioux City, the latter distanced sixteen miles, are plainly visible. 
If it happens to be Indian summer the tints of the woods vie with the 
general hazy splendor of the sky to give to the far outstretched land- 
scape more than an Oriental splendor. I had looked at some of the won- 
derful canyons of the Rocky Mountains but nothing there more com- 
pletely filled me and satisfied the craving for the grand in nature than did 
this view from Pilgrim Hill. There are many landscapes everywhere of 
wonderful beauty along all the principal rivers. The bluffs are sometimes 
precipitous but generally they round off and melt into gently rolling plains. 
They constantly vary and in following them you come into a beautiful 
cove, now to a curious headland, then to terraces and however far you 
travel you can look in vain for a picture like the one you have just passed. 

Character of Deposits Along the Rivers 

If we go up the Missouri to its source and carefully examine the 
character of the deposits through which it passes, we cannot but be sur- 
prised at its character. These deposits being of Tertiary Cretaceous ages 
are exceedingly friable and easy of disintegration. The Tertiary and espe- 
cially the Pliocene Tertiary is largely siliceous and the cretaceous is both 
siliceous and calcereous. In fact, in many places the Missouri and its 
tributaries flow directly over and through the chalk beds of the cretaceous 
deposits. From these beds the loess deposits no doubt receive their per 



8 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

cent of the phosphates and carbonates of Hme. Flowing through such 
deposits for more than a thousand miles, the Missouri and its branches 
have been gathering for vast ages that peculiar mud which filled up their 
ancient lakes and which distinguishes them even yet from most other 
streams. Being anciently as now very rapid streams as soon as they 
emptied themselves into these great lakes and their waters became quiet, 
the sediment held suspended was dropped to the bottom. While this 
process was going on in the early portion of this age, the last of the 
glaciers had not retreated further than a little beyond the northern boun- 
dary of the Loess Lake and then gradually to the headwaters of Platte, 
the Missouri and the Yellowstone. Aided by the erosive action of the ice 
these mighty rivers must have been vastly more rapid and energetic at 
that time than in their recent history. The following analysis of the 
Missouri River sediment, taken at high stage, will show by comparison 
with the analysis of loess deposits what a remarkable resemblance there 
is even yet between the two substances. In 100 parts of Missouri River 
sediment there are of — 

Insoluble (siliceous) matter 82.01 

Ferric oxide 3.10 

Alumina 1.70 

Lime, carbonate 6.50 

Lime, phosphate 3.00 

Magnesia, carbonate 1.10 

Potassa 50 

Soda 22 

Organic matter 1.21 

Loss in analysis 67 

Total 100.00 

This comparative identity of chemical combinations points to the 
remarkable sameness of geological conditions that have long periods 
existed in the Upper Missouri and Yellowstone regions. 

After these great lakes were filled up with sediment (Missouri mud) 
they existed for a longer or shorter time as already remarked, as marshes 
and bogs. Isolated portions would first become dry land. As soon as 
they appeared above water they became covered with vegetation,, which, 
decaying from year to year, and uniting under water, or at the water's 
edge, with the deposits at the bottom, formed the black soil so character- 
istic of Nebraska prairies. For it is well known that when vegetable 
matter decays in water or a wet location, its carbon is retained. In dry 
situations it passes into the atmosphere as carbonate acid gas. After the 
first low islands appeared they gradually increased in size and numbers, 
until dry land conditions prevailed. The ponds and sloughs, some of 
which were left almost lakes, still in existence, are doubtless the last 
remains of these great lakes. The rising of the land continuing the rivers 
began to cut new channels through the middle of the old lake beds. This 
drained the marshes and formed the bottom lands as the river of that 
period covered the whole of the present flood plains from bluff to bluff. 
- It was then when the bluffs were new and more plastic that they were 
first sculptured by rains, frost and floods into their present unique forms. 
The Missouri during the closing centuries of the loess epoch must have 
been from five to thirtv miles in breadth, forming a stream which for 
size and majesty rivaled the Amazon. 

The Platte, Niobrara and Republican covered their respective flood 
plains in the same way. In the smaller streams of the state those that 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 9 

originated within or near the loess deposits, such as the Elkhorn, Loup, 
Bow, Blue and the Nemahas we seen the same general form of flood- 
plain as on the larger rivers, and no doubt their bottoms were covered 
with water during this period. Hayden in his first reports has expressed 
the same opinion as to the original size of these rivers. Only a few 
students of geology will dissent from this view. The gradually melting 
glaciers which had been accumulating for so many ages, at the sources of 
these great rivers, the vast floods of waters covered by the necessarily 
moist climate and heavy rains, the present forms and materials and 
river bottoms are some of the causes which would operate to produce 
such vast volumes of water. The changes of level were not all upward 
during this period. The terraces along the Missouri, Platte and Repub- 
lican rivers indicate that there were long periods when this portion of the 
continent was stationary. Several times the movement was downward. 
Along the bluffs in the Republican Valley, at a depth of from ten to thirty 
feet from the top, there is a line or streak of the loess mingled with 
organic matter. It is in fact an old bed, where vegetation must have 
flourished for a long period. It can be traced from Orleans upward in 
places for seventy-five miles. It indicates that after this bed had. as dry 
land, sustained a growth of vegetation, an oscillation of level depressed 
it sufficiently to receive a great accumulation of loess materials on top 
of it. Other oscillations of this character occurred previously to and sub- 
sequently to this main halt. These have already been mentioned. 

Formation of the Platte Valley 

( 

As typical of the river bottoms let us look at the formation of the 
Platte Valley. The general direction of this great highway from the 
mountains to the Missouri is from west to east. This valley is from 
three to twenty miles wide in Nebraska and over five hundred miles long. 
All the materials that once filled up this trough from the tops of the 
highest hills on each side have been since the present rivers were out- 
lined toward the close of the loess age transported by the agency of the 
water to the Missouri and the gulf. (See Hayden's Report for 1870.) 

Here then are several thousand miles in area of surface and entirely 
removed by denudation. Now the Platte comprises a fraction of the river 
bottoms of Nebraska. The Republican alone for 200 miles has a bottom 
ranging from three to eight miles in breadth. The combined length of 
the main bottoms of the Blues, Elkhorns and the the Loups would be over 
a thousand miles and their breadth ranges from one to ten miles. The 
Nemahas and the Bows, and portions of the Niobrara, also add a great 
deal to the area of the bottom lands. All the rivers have numerous tribu- 
taries which have valleys in size proportionate to the main rivers and 
these more than double the area of the bottom lands. These Missouri 
bottoms in Nebraska are exceptionally high, so that a few of them have 
been overflowed since known to white men. The one element of uncer- 
tainty about them is, when located near the river, the danger of being 
washed away by the undermining action of the water. Sometimes during 
a flood time, when the current sweeps the bank, it is so insidiously 
undermined that for several rods in length and many feet in breadth it 
tumbles into the river. This cutting of the banks is greatest when the 
river commences to fall. 

When we bring into our estimate all of the river bottoms of Nebraska, 
and the tributaries of these streams, and reflect that all of these valleys 
were formed in the same way, within comparatively modern geological 



10 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

times, the forces which waterway agencies brought into play almost appall 
the mind by their very immensity. 

Agricultural Value of the Bottom Lands 

So well are the bottom lands of this state distributed that the emi- 
grants can, and in most of the counties of the state, choose between them 
and the uplands for their future homes. ( This was written in 1882.) 

In some of the counties like Fillmore, where the bottom lands are far 
apart, there are many small, modern, dried-up lake beds, whose soil is 
closely allied to the valleys. Portions of each are sometimes chosen, on 
the supposition that the bottom lands are best adapted to the growth of 
large crops of grasses. 

But of all the years of experience in cultivating uplands and bottoms 
in Nebraska leave the question of superiority of the one over the other 
undecided. Both have their advocates. The season as well as the loca- 
tion have much to do with the question. Some bottom lands are high and 
dry while others are lower and contain so much alumina that in wet sea- 
sons they are difficult to work. On such lands, too, a wet spring inter- 
feres somewhat with early planting and sowing. All the uplands, too, 
which have a loess origin seem to produce cultivated grass as luxuriantly 
as the richest bottoms, especially where there is a deep cultivation on old 
breaking. Again most of the bottom lands are so mingled with loess 
materials and their drainage is so good that the cereal grains and fruits 
are as productive on them as on the highlands. The bottom lands, how- 
ever, are the richest in organic matter. The following analyses of these 
soils will give a better idea of their critical agricultural character. The 
samples were taken from what are believed to be average soils. The 
first is from the Elkhorn, the second from the Platte, the third from the 
Republican and the fourth from the Blue River. Number 2 analysis in 
the tables made by the state geologist, refers more especially to the Platte 
River valley and, of course, to Dodge and Washington counties. 

Insoluble (siliceous) matter 63.70 

Ferric oxide 2.25 

Alumina 7.76 

I.ime, carbonate 7.99 

Lime, phosphate 85 

Magnesia, carbonate 1.45 

Potash 54 

Soda .52 

Sulphuric acid 70 

Organic matter 13.45 

Loss in analyses 79 

Total ....100.00 

Soils when taken a few feet apart vary much in their chemical prop- 
erties, and therefore analysis frequently fail to give a correct idea of 
their true character. This table shows that chemically alluvium diflfers 
from the loess principally in having more organic matter than alumina 
and less silica. The depth of the alluvium varies greatly. Sometimes 
sand and drift material predominate in the river bottoms, especially in 
the subsoils. Often the alluvium is of an unknown depth and again in 
a few feet the drift pebbles and sand are struck. This is especially true 
in the western valleys. There was a period of longer or shorter dura- 
tion when the bottoms were in the condition of swamps and bogs; and 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES H 

during this period the greater part of that organic matter which is a dis- 
tinguishing feature of these lands accumulated in the surface soil. It 
would be easy to select isolated spots where the soil had from 30 to 40 
per cent of organic matter; where in fact it is semi-peat. When we 
reflect that this black soil is often twenty feet thick it is apparent that 
the period of its formation must have been very long. There are still 
some few localities where that formative condition has been perpetuated 
to the present time — as for example the bogs that yet exist at the head 
waters of the Elkhorn and Logan along Elk Creek on the Dakota bottom 
and on some of the tributaries of the Republican. All the intermediate 
stages from perfectly dry bottoms to a bog can yet be found. So much 
has the volume of water been lessened in the rivers of Nebraska through 
the influence of geological causes that there are few places where now 
even in flood-time they overflow their banks. The occurrence of great 
masses of timber on our bottoms at various depth in a semi-decayed con- 
dition, illustrates through what changes of level they have passed. The 
deepening of the river channels now going on still further lessens the 
dangers of overflow. 

Sand Cherries 

The sand cherries common to this region grow on spreading shrubs, 
varying in size according to their relatively advantageous situation. The 
cherry is somewhat smaller than the orchard cherry. It resembles the 
choke cherry in color though somewhat darker, also in its astringent 
taste, and its "puckering" the mouth. When fully ripe it is pleasant to 
the taste, notwithstanding the dictum of long distance authority that it 
is scarcely edible and is used locally for making jams and marmalade. 
This sandhill shrub was named "prunus besseyi" for Charles E. Bessey 
the distinguished botanist, though he himself doubted that it should be 
regarded as a difi^erent species from the "prunus pumila" of the sand 
district in the region of the Great Lakes. 

Soap Weed 

Soap weed, more properl^ "yucca," is so-called because it yields a 
substance sometimes used as a substitute for soap. The root of the 
Nebraska species, "Yucca Glauca," was used by the Ogalala and probably 
other trans-Missouri Indians as a shampoo. They believed that it stimu- 
lated the growth of the hair. A decoction of the roots were used in 
tanning hides also and the leaves for fuel. 

While the sandhill region is' sparsely settled, the population of its 
typical counties ranging from about 1,500 to about 2,500, its production 
of cattle and dairying are very important industries. There was a heavy 
loss of population from 1900 to 1902 ; a heavy gain from 1902 to 1904, 
doubtless due mainly to the so-called Kinkaid act, passed April 28, 1904, 
which conferred the right to homestead 640 acres in the territory it cov- 
ered instead of the ordinary quarter section ; a considerable loss again 
from 1904 to 1906; then an important increase from 1906 to 1908; a small 
loss from 1908 to 1910; a general increase from 1910 to 1912; and a 
small general increase from 1912 to 1914. The territory to be affected 
by the Kinkaid act was evidently determined with reference to the sand- 
hill region and the degree of aridity. Thus on the northeast this favored 
land extends to the eastern boundary of the counties of Boyd, Holt and 
Wheeler, while in the southwest the eastern boundaries of the counties 
of Hayes and Hitchcock in its eastern limit. 



12 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Alkali Lands 

Every one in Nebraska will sooner or later hear of the so-called alkali 
lands. They are not confined to anyone geological formation, but are 
found sometimes on the drift, alluvium or the loess. They increase in 
number from the eastern to the western portions of the state. Yet one- 
half of the counties of the state do not have any such lands and often 
there are only a few in a township or county. When they have been 
closely examined, they are found to vary a great deal in chemical con- 
stituents. Generally, however, the alkali is largely composed of soda 
compounds, with an occasional excess of lime and magnesia or potash. 
The following analyses of these soils show how variable they are. That 
showing the Platte bottom land, south of North Platte, is as follows : 

Insoluble (siliceous) matter 74.00 

Ferric oxide 3.80 

Alumina 2.08 

Lime, carbonate 6.01 

Lime, phosphate 1.70 

Magnesia, carbonate 1.89 

Potash 1.68 

Soda carbonate and bicarbonates 5.17 

Sodium sulphate 70 

Moisture 99 

Organic matter 1.20 

Loss in analyses 78 

Total 100.00 

The specimens for analyses were not taken from soil crusted 
over with alkaline matter but from spots where the ground was covered 
with a sparse vegetation. 

Much of the alkali originated by the accumulation of water in low 
places. The escape of the water by evaporation left the saline matter 
behind and in the case of salt (sodium chloride) which all waters con- 
tain in at least minute quantities, the chlorfce by chemical reactions sepa- 
rated from the sodium ; the latter uniting with oxygen, and carbonic acid 
formed the soda compounds. The alkali that exists far down in the soil 
is also brought up during dry weather by the escaping moisture and is 
left on the surface when the water is evaporated. 

In cultivating these alkali spots it is found that wheat rapidly con- 
sumes it and a few crops with deep plowing prepares the soil for other 
crops. In this way these lands have often been made the most valuable 
part of the farm. 

Modern Physical Changes — Timber 

When the loess epoch was drawing to a close and portions of the area 
..covered by these deposits' were yet in the condition of a bog, the climate 
was much more favorable than the present for the growth of timber. 
Rainfall was then much more abundant. In 1868, says Professor Aughey, 
I found logs, some of which were 60 feet in length, buried in the peat 
bogs at the head of the Logan where no timber was then growing within 
twenty miles. They evidently grew on the shores or banks and after 
falling into the bog they were protected from decay by the antiseptic 
qualities of peaty waters. Many other facts exist showing the greater 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 13 

prevalence of forests within geologically recent times. It is known 
that at a comparatively recent period pine forests existed eastward to 
the mouth of the Niobrara along the northern line of the state. What 
caused the disappearance of these forests cannot perhaps be determined 
for a certainty. Some geologists hold that the increasing dryness of the 
climate caused the disappearance of the old forests. Might not the con- 
verse of this be true here as elsewhere — namely that the destruction of 
forests inaugurated the dry climate that prevailed when this territory was 
first explored ( ?) it is at least conceivable that the primitive forests 
received their death blow in a dry summer by fire through the vandal 
acts of Indians in pursuit of game or by acts connected with a war 
period. An old tradition that I once heard from the Omaha Indians 
points to this conclusion. 

It is wonderful how nature here responds to the efforts of men for 
reclothing this territory with timber. Man thus becomes an efficient 
agent for the production of geological changes. As prairie fires are 
repressed and trees are planted by the million the climate must be further 
ameliorated. When once there are groves of timber on every section or 
quarter section of land in the state an approach will be made to some of 
the best physical conditions of tertiary times. The people of this com- 
paratively new state have a wonderful inheritance of wealth, beauty and 
power in their fine climate and their rich lands and as they become con- 
scious of this they will more and more lend a helping hand to the proc- 
esses of nature for the development and utilization of the material 
wealth of Nebraska. 

Topography and Natural Features 

Nebraska occupies a position near the center of the re]3ublic and is 
varied in its topography. There are no elevations approaching anywhere 
near to mountains, but in the north and western portions there are very 
lofty hills, though generally they are gentle of ascent. The hills and roll- 
ing lands of Nebraska are mostly caused by erosion. In fact all of this 
state emerged so recently geologically from the waters of the Loess age 
that it still exhibits, as a whole, many of the phenomena of a recently 
drained lake bed. 

No one can gain any correct idea of the number of bottom lands in 
Nebraska by looking at a map — not even the United States Government 
maps. In fact, counting in the small tributaries with their narrow bot- 
toms, not less than 25 per cent of the surface of the state is made up of 
bottom lands. 

Temperature — Much of error has from time to time been written 
concerning the temperature of Central and Western Nebraska, but from 
the latest reports compiled from records of weather as found at the 
signal stations at Omaha and North Platte, with even earlier auxiliary 
records taken by United States army officers before the weather stations 
were established at these points, show that the mean temperature of the 
months of June, July and August is not far from 73 degrees. At the 
North Platte station it averages a little higher than this. There are, how- 
ever, some advantages in high summer temperature, for in such locations 
only do the finest grapes mature. The fine soils and natural drainage of 
this state would be without avail were it not that these conditions are 
complemented by a higher mean summer temperature. 



14 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

During the winter months, embracing December, January and Febru- 
ary, the mean temperature is 20 degrees above zero. The autumns are 
indeed wonderfully beautiful, and are long and dry. The average tem- 
perature as shown between 1872 and 1882, for these three months of 
autumn weather was a fraction less than 50 degrees above zero. The 
long Indian summers are here, more than elsewhere, characterized by a 
curious haze which mellows the light of the sun. It has the curious 
effect on high strung natures of rousing their poetic sensibilities and giv- 
ing the weird and shadowy experiences of dreamland. At such a season 
existence to a healthy body is a pleasure and real toil a delight. 

Yearly Mean Temper.\ture 

Notwithstanding the extreme cold of a few days in winter, the mean 
temperature is very high. The mean yearly isotherm of 55 degrees 
passes through Washington, District of Columbia, Cincinnati and South- 
ern Iowa, strikes the Missouri River near Nebraska City and then mov- 
ing northwest crosses the Platte near Columbus and then in a north- 
westerly direction across the state. This mean annual isotherm there- 
fore embraces over one-half of the state. The mean yearly temperature 
of 52^/2 degrees which passes through Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, crosses 
the center of Iowa, diagonally, strikes Sioux City on the Missouri, thence 
following the Missouri some distance, takes in the whole of Nebraska 
not including the yearly isotherm of 55 degrees. The yearly isotherm of 
573X degrees passes south of Nebraska. A portion of Southern and 
Southwestern Nebraska is therefore included between the yearly isotherms 
of 57y2 degrees and 55 degrees and the balance between 55 degrees and 
52^ degrees. 

Extremes of Temperature 

In Doctor Child's record of nineteen years, prior to the '80s, the mer- 
cury rose to 100 degrees and upward twenty-nine times, or an average 
to a little more than a day and a half a year. The hottest year was that 
of 1874 when the thermometer in July and August rose to 100 degrees 
and upward on twelve different days. On July 13th it rose to 113 
degrees, it being the hottest day, according to Doctor Child's record, in 
nineteen years. 

Occasionally the thermometer falls quite low. In North Nebraska 
the thermometer has been known on a few occasions to descend to at 
least 35 degrees below zero. South of the Platte River, Doctor Child's 
lowest record for nineteen years was for December 11, 1869, when the 
mercury fell to 30 degrees below zero. Almost every winter the mer- 
cury goes below zero for a few days. The extremes of temperature are 
therefore great while the mean is high. And yet no acute sufferings or 
other ill consequences flow from it. The heat of summer is modified by 
the breezes that fan the land. The severe cold of the extremes of win- 
ter is made indurable by the dryness of the atmosphere period. The dry- 
ness is so great that the cold is not felt here more when the thermometer 
marks 20 degrees below zero than it is in Pennsylvania when it stands 
only at zero. It is moisture that intensifies the sensation of chilliness. 
It is the moisture of the atmosphere of the East that makes the sensation 
of cold so much severer there than here. For the same reason the fruit 
buds survive a cold here which would be fatal to them in the East. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 15 

Winds of Nebraska 

One who has made the course of the prevailing winds in this section 
of Nebraska a study, has this to say relative to this subject, the same 
being from observations very early in history of the weather service in 
the State of Nebraska : 

"The atmosphere is rarely quiescent in Nebraska. While hurricanes 
are very rare, storms are more frequent in winter and gentle zephyrs and 
winds are almost constant. These greatly modify the heat of the summer 
and the cold of winter. When the thermometer is up among the nineties 
even a south or southwest wind makes the weather endurable. At this 
high temperature the atmosphere is almost certain to be in perceptible 
motion from some direction. The prevailing winds in winter are from 
the north and northwest. 

"With the coming of spring there is a great change in this respect. 
The winds veer around and a strong current sets in from the south, 
blowing from the Gulf of Mexico, but entering the interior is deflected by 
the earth's motion and becomes a southwest wind. This remains the pre- 
vailing wind -during the entire summer and often until late in autumn." 

The Storms of Winter 

A very mistaken idea used to obtain concerning the severe weather of 
Nebraska, Iowa and Kansas, but in more enlightened and recent times it 
has come to be known that Nebraska is not worse in winter than scores 
of states in the Union and not nearly so severe as many. During one- 
half the years, none are experienced of severity, and when they 
do come the laws that govern their occurrence are so well understood 
by the older residents of the commonwealth that little damage is suf- 
fered from them. One of the laws of their occurrence is their periodicity. 
When the first one of the season comes, whether it is in November, 
December or January, a similar one is almost sure to occur within a few 
days or a month from the first. Those whose necessities or bus'iness 
calls them out during the winter season need only the date of the first 
to know when to guard against the next. It is rare, however, that more 
than one of these periodical storms is of great severity. 

When these commence they are rarely heralded by anything except 
areas of low barometer, even this warning is sometimes absent. The 
wind generally blows gently from the north, northeast or northwest. It 
is often preceded and accompanied by a fall of fine snow. Sometimes 
the storm or wind does not commence till the snowfall has ceased. The 
wind gradually intensifies itself, accompanied by a falling barometer. 
Its violence increases until the snow is blown into huge drifts and some- 
times all that fell during several days seems mingled with the atmosphere 
so that it is impossible to recognize roads or even the points of the com- 
pass. Progression becomes impossible except in the same direction with 
the wind. This is an extreme case but a truthful one and fortunately 
of rare occurrence. Such storms last from one to three days and a few 
instances are on record where they have lasted five days. When the wind 
ceases to blow the thermometer reaches its lowest point and the intensest 
cold that occurs in these latitudes is experienced. In a few days the 
thermometer rises, the weather becomes moderate and pleasant and all 
about the storm is apt to be forgotten. So mild does the weather often 
become in December and January between these storms that men work 
in the open air in their shirt sleeves. This is what often deceives the 



16 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

unwary and especially newcomers. I have known men starting off in 
new settlements for loads of wood going in their shirt sleeves with a 
single coat in reserve in the wagon, to be caught in such storms, and, losing 
their way, to perish. Proper observation and care as we have seen would 
avoid such suffering and disaster. Notwithstanding, however, these 
storms of winter there are many more days here during winter when men 
can work more comfortably in the open air than in the East. 

Moisture and Rainf.^ll 

Eastern Nebraska has an abundance of moisture. This may appear 
to be an exaggeration to those who are educated to believe that Nebraska 
was an arid region. And yet there is nothing in the natural history of 
the state better established than that there is here an abundance of 
rainfall. 

As has been said by an old and well-posted citizen : When the snows 
of winter disappear the ground is in good condition to be worked. Suf- 
ficient showers come during early spring to excite the crops of cereal 
grains, grasses and corn to an active growth. Sometimes it is compara- 
tively dry between the spring showers and the June rains. These come 
sometimes earlier than June, in the last of May, and sometimes not till 
the last of June, and constitute the rainy season of the state. It begins 
whenever the "big rise" of the Missouri and Platte occur. This rainy 
season lasts from four to eight weeks. In seventeen years I have not 
known it to fail. During its continuance it does not indeed rain every 
day, except occasionally for a short period. Generally during this period 
it rains from two to three times a week. It is more apt to rain every 
night than every day. In fact, during the whole of this season three- 
fourths of the rain falls at night. It is not an unusual occurrence for 
rain to fall everv night for weeks, followed by cloudless days. This 
rainy season of June occurs at a period when crops most need rain and 
owing to the regularity of its occurrence droughts sufficiently severe to 
destroy the crops in eastern Nebraska where there is a proper cultivation 
have not yet been known. Even in 1874 when the droughts in some parts 
of the state was damaging there were some fields of corn that produced 
good crops where the majority were failures. The successful fields were 
the ones that were well and deeply cultivated. After the wet season of 
June, which extends sometimes into July, is over, there are rains and 
showers at longer intervals until and during autumn During winter it 
rarely rains. Snow falls in winter, but seldom to a great depth. The 
snow ranges in depth from 1 to 10 inches and in a few extreme cases it is 
15 inches. During the majority of winters no snow falls over 8 inches. 

West of the one hundredth meridian the amount of rainfall decreases 
from the yearly average of thirty inches at or near Kearney Junction, to 
twenty inches at North Platte. 

If exceptional years were taken into account the rainfall should be 
estimated at thirty inches almost to the west line of the state. The 
average for a period of ten years would by no means place it near so 
high. North of the Platte, in the Loup valleys, abundant rainfall has 
existed very much farther to the west. 

Even the relative amount of the moisture in the atmosphere is high. 
This is evident from the Omaha signal service reports, and North Platte. 
It reports as much vapor on an average in the atmosphere at Omaha as 
exists in the states in the Mississippi Valley. At North Platte, which 
represents western Nebraska, the atmosphere contains comparatively a 



18 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

large amount of vapor. The following table taken from the report of 
the signal office for the year ending Jwns. 1878 — forty-two years ago — 
gives the vapor in the atmosphere for each month. 

Per Cent Per Cent 

North Platte Omaha 

July, 1877 47.02 62.04 

August, 1877 57.05 67.04 

September, 1877 52.09 69.00 

October, 1877 64.08 73.06 

November, 1877 64.03 73.07 

December, 1877 68.04 77.08 

January, 1878 68.04 78.06 

February, 1878 66.03 73.01 

March, 1878 61.04 64.08 

April, 1878 54.05 59.08 

May, 1878 64.04 63.07 

June, 1878 69,07 71.01 

Annual means 61.06 69.06 

The amount of rainfall during the year ended November 30, 1877, 
at Plattsmouth, Nebraska, was forty and sixty-two hundredths inches. 

The rainfall in British Islands is 32 inches ; in western France. 25 
inches; in eastern France, 22 inches; in Sweden, 21 inches; central Ger- 
many, 20 inches; in Hungary, 17 inches; in eastern Russia, 14 inches; in 
Portugal, 11 inches; in Madrid, 10 inches. Paris has only 20 inches of 
rainfall. 

At North Platte the average amount of rainfall is twenty-two inches, 
or was thirty years ago, but has materially increased since that date. 

It should be ever remembered that the rainfall is increasing with the 
absorptive power of the soil, wrought by cultivation, largely, and in a 
smaller degree by the increase in timber of artificial planting. A square 
foot of virgin prairie soil will only absorb one-tenth as much water as 
will a square foot of cultivated soil. Thus the latter finally sends back 
^o the clouds ten times the moisture that the tough sod does. 

Nebraska's Rank Among Other States 

The statistics of the Bureau of Labor for this state in 1904 gave out 
the following statistics : 

Nebraska has the largest creamery in the world. 

Nebraska has the largest broom factory in the world. 

Nebraska has the largest cattle-feeding station in the world. 

Nebraska has the largest beet-sugar syrup and refining plant in the 
world. 

Nebraska has the second largest smelting works in the world. 

Nebraska has the third largest meat packing plant in the world. 

Nebraska is the third state in corn production. 

Nebraska stands fourth in the production of wheat. 

Nebraska stands fourth in the production of oats. 

Nebraska stands fifth in the production of beet sugar. 

Nebraska stands first in the production of rye. 

Nebraska stands fourth in the production of cattle. 

Nebraska stands fourth in the production of hogs. 

Nebraska stands seventh in the production of horses. 

Nebraska stands tenth in the production of milch cows. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 19 

Nebraska stands first in the production of vine seeds and sugar corn 
for seed purposes, growing more than all other parts of the United States. 

Nebraska has the greatest number of distinct varieties of native pas- 
ture and hay grasses of any state in the Union. 

Location and Area 

Nebraska is situated between 40 and 43 degrees of latitude north, and 
between 95 degrees and 25 minutes and 104 degrees of west longitude. 
Its width from north to south is 208 miles, length from east to west 412 
miles and an area of about 77.000 square miles. Nebraska is larger than 
all of the New England States combined, and has eight counties that are 
each larger than the State of Rhode Island ; it is seven times as large as 
Belgium, has 18,000 more square miles than England and Wales and is 
14,000 square miles larger than Scotland and Ireland combined. 

The prairies are dotted with towns, having every modern convenience 
in the way of churches, schools, libraries, public halls, moving picture 
houses, parks, water and light plants, railway, postal, telegraph and tele- 
phone facilities ; and with cheerful homesteads surrounded by groves 
and orchards, looking out on a beautiful expanse of cereal fields as 
meadows. In no other commonwealth are the urban and rural popula- 
tion more in touch with each other, and both fully share the best things 
in life together. 

The Mighty Platte River 

The rivers of Nebraska are distinguished for their breadth, number, 
and some of them for their rapidity and depth. The Missouri is the 
chief stream not alone for Nebraska but for the whole country, because 
it gives character to all the others that unite with the great Gulf of 
Mexico. Forming the eastern border of our state, and a small portion 
of the northern boundary, with about 500 miles of the stream washing 
the eastern and northern portions of the state. It is deep and rapid and 
its channel conveys water from the snow-capped mountains of the north- 
west, via the wonderful Yellowstone River on down to the far-away 
Gulf, dividing several places on its onward rush to the southland and 
eventually mingles with the waters of the ocean. 

The next river of importance in Nebraska is the Platte, the length of 
which is approximately 1,200 miles. Its headwaters head in the moun- 
tains and some of them in lakelets fed by the everlasting snows. By 
the time this river reaches Nebraska it is. broad, shallow, sandy, but still 
flows with a rapid current. It flows through the whole length of the 
state, from west to east, dividing the state, but leaving the largest part to 
the north. At places, in low water stages, it can be forded, though fre- 
quently teams become mired in the quicksand. This stream is not navi- 
gable. It has long since been finely bridged by structures at Fremont, 
Schuyler, Grand Island, Kearney, North Platte and other points. The 
South Fork of this stream enters from Colorado at the southwest corner 
of the state, while North Platte enters the state from Wyoming near 
latitude 42. The average volume of water at North Platte is greater 
than at its mouth, though it receives in the meantime some large tribu- 
taries, the most important of which are the Elkhorn, Papillion, Shell 
Creek, Loup and Wood rivers. The best authorities aver that the 
explanation for the decrease in the waters of the Platte below their forks 
is from the fact that the character of the bottom and its continuation 



20 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

with the "drift" underlying the uplands south of the Platte. The bottom 
of the Platte is extremely sandy, and is continuous with a sandy, grav- 
elly and pebbly deposit of the drift under the loess as far as to the 
Republican River. The general level of the Republican is 352 feet below 
that of the Platte. There is, therefore, a descent from the Platte to the 
Republican, and along such a formation that there is easy drainage from 
the one to the other. That there is such a waste or drainage into the 
Republican River there can be no doubt. The prospectors and geological 
surveyors mention the fact that while wading in the channel of the 
Republican in the month of August, for many miles, they noticed on the 
north side of the stream water oozing out of the drift continuously every 
few feet in places and rarely less than every few rods. Nothing of this 




Typical Scene Along the North Pl.\tte 

kind was observed on the southern side of the river. ^Vhen tributaries 
of the Republican from the northwest cut deep enough to strike the 
drift, they share in the reception of this water from the Platte. 

Flood time for the Platte is generally about the same time as that of 
the Missouri — sometimes a few days or weeks earlier, but the continu- 
ance of both is so long that they meet, though they rarely culminate 
together. The Platte drains principally from the northwest. Its water- 
shed on the south is only a few miles from its valley, while on the north 
it extends in places to within thirty-six miles of the northern line of the 
state. 

Ch.\r.\cter of the Water 

Carbonate of lime is the commonest ingredient of the waters of 
springs and wells. Then follow in minute and varying quantities in dif- 
ferent springs carbonate of potash and soda, sulphate of potash, soda 
and lime, chloride of sodium and potash and free carbonic acid. Many 
springs are free from most of these salts. Carbonate of lime, the com- 
monest impurity, is seldom present in injurious quantities. Perhaps 
three-fourths of the springs of Nebraska contain it in amount varying 
from a trace to distinctly hard water. There are many springs and wells 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 21 

whose waters are remarkably soft. Those of the Bow River are mainly 
of this character. Generally, where springs emerge from the gravel beds 
and pebbles or strata of sand in the drift the waters are soft and other- 
wise remarkably pure. Wells sunk in these deposits are of the same 
character. On the other hand water obtained from the loess whether by 
springs or well has a perceptible quantity of carbonate of lime and a 
small quantity of lime in solution. There are also strata in the drift 
containing a large amount of lime and this is often the source of the 
hardness of the water that proceeds from these deposits. In general the 
waters of springs and wells is remarkably clear and cool and free from 
injurious ingredients. There is, of course, no such thing as absolutely 
pure water, except by distillation. It is the salts that natural water 
contains that make it palatable. 

Some of the wells sunk in the rocks of the Dakota group have a 
strong taste of iron. While this is disagreeable it is not specially 
injurious. 

The character of the river and creek waters of Nebraska is peculiar 
from the large quantities of sediments which they contain. The Missouri 
leads in this respect. At high water it contains 403 grains per gallon ; at 
low water 51 9/10 grains per gallon. Carbonate of lime is present in 
considerable quantities : also small quantities of carbonate of soda, iron 
in various forms and carbonic acid. Minute quantities of sulphuric acid, 
magnesia and organic matters were also present. 

Though the water of the Missouri is muddy yet when it is allowed to 
settle and become clear it is singularly sweet and in summer when cooled 
with ice it is easily delicious. Barrels of Missouri water have been seen 
in July and August and whether in the shade or in the sun no infusoria 
or other minute animal forms could be detected with the microscope 
even after a week's exposure. No such experience can be related of any 
other water from rivers. Probably one reason of this is that the sedi- 
ment held in suspension by the water carries to the bottom as it settles 
all organic matter. Eventually, infusoria appear in it from ten to twelve 
days, while with ordinary water under the same circumstances they can 
be found within a week. 

The waters of the Platte River do not materially differ from those of 
the Missouri. It holds about as much sediment in suspension during 
flood time, but materially less in time of low water. 

Timber 

Geologists have shown in recent years that Nebraska was at no very 
remote day heavily timbered with a varied forest vegetation. When the 
causes commenced to operate that finally reduced its area to present 
limits some of the species retired gradually to such protected localities 
as favored their perpetuation. One of these causes was probably forest 
and prairie fires inaugurated by primitive races for the chase and for 
war. Some species are now confined to spots where fires cannot reach 
them. Another probable cause was the encroachment on the timber by 
the prairie caused by the ground being so compacted with the tread of 
countless number of buffaloes that tramped outgrowing shoots and unfit- 
ting ,the soil for the burial of seeds. Since the buffalo has retired and 
prairie fires have been repressed, and rainfall is increasing, the area of 
timber lands is spontaneously extending again in many directions. 

Up to 1880 seventy-one species of trees have been discovered growing 
wild in Nebraska. Among these are linnvvood, maple, locust, wild cherry, 



22 DQDGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

ash of four species, four species of elm, walnut, hickory, twelve kinds 
of oak, many species of willows, four species of cottonwood, pine and 
cedar. 

Wild Fruits 

Wild fruits are a prominent feature of Nebraska. They luxuriate 
in its rich soil and almost semi-tropical summers. Among the wild 
fruits of this state the plum family is a remarkable example of how 
nature herself sometimes ameliorates and improves her original produc- 
tions. There are three type-species of plums in the state — viz.: (Prunus 
Americana), Chicasa and Pumila. Of these there is almost an endless 
number of varieties. In a plum thicket in Dakota County, covering only 
a few acres, there has been counted nineteen varieties of Prunus Amer- 
icana and Chicasa varying in size from a fourth to an inch and one- 
quarter in diameter and in color from almost white and salmon to many 
shades of yellow, tinged with green and red and from a light, dark and 
scarlet red to purple tinged with different shades of yellow. Such 
instances are frequent over most portions of the state, the plum being 
common in almost every county, especially along the water courses and 
bordering the belts of native timber. These plum groves in springtime 
present a vast sea of flowers whose fragrance is wafted for miles and 
whose beauty attracts every eye. 

The color of the plum is of all shades, various hues of yellow, red 
and crimson. Some varieties are large, thin-skinned and very delicious. 
They ripen from July to the last of September. Delicious as some of 
these plums are, they are much improved by cultivation.. 

Wild cherries abound in various parts of the state. Two species of 
strawberry of fine flavor are in places amazingly abundant. Raspberries, 
blackberries, hawthorns, June berries, wild currants and especially 
gooseberries find here a most congenial home. Of the latter there are 
many varieties. 

Two species of grape and an endless number of varieties grow most 
luxuriantly within our borders. It is not an unusual experience to find 
timber almost impenetrable in places from the excessive growth of wild 
grapevines. 

There is as much difference in flavor and quality as there is in form. 

Mulberries, buffalo berries and elderberries are abundant in places 
and all can be produced with great ease by cultivation. In south 
Nebraska the pawpaw is also found. Walnuts, hickory and hazel nuts 



are common. 



State Institutions 



Institute for Feeble Minded, Home for Friendless. Lincoln. 

Beatrice. St. Agnes Academy, Alliance. 

State Normal School, Chadron. Bellevue College, Bellevue. 

Boys' Industrial School, Kearney. Christian University, Bethany. 

Girls' Industrial School, Geneva. Dana College, Blair. 

Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, Grand Trinity Seminary, Blair. 

Island. Central College, Central City. 

Insane Asylum, Ingleside. Union College (Adventist), College 
Tubercular Hospital, Kearney. View. 

State Normal School, Kearney. St. Francis Academy, Columbus. 

Capitol, Lincoln. State Agricultural School, Curtis. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 23 

Doane College (Congregational), School for the Deaf, Omaha. 

Crete. • State Normal School, Peru. 

Sacret Heart Academy, Falls City. Fish Hatchery, Valentine. 

Franklin Academy, Franklin. State Normal School, Wayne. 

Fremont College, Fremont. Military Academy ( Episcopal ), 
Indian Industrial School, Genoa. Kearney. 

Grand Island College, Grand Island. Medical College, Lincoln. 

Hastings College, Hastings. Martin Luther Seminary, Lincoln. 

Immaculate Conception Academy, Whitten-Carlisle School, Lincoln. 

Hastings. Nelson College, Nelson. 



Hebron Academy, Hebron. 



Brownell Hall, Omaha. 



St. Catherme Academy, Jackson. Creighton University, Omaha. 

York College, \ ork ^-^ g^^^^j ^^ Commerce, Omaha. 

Ursuhne Convent, York. Universitv of Omaha, Omaha. 

Nebraska Hospital for Insane, 5^ ^^^^^;^ Academy, O'Neill. 

mcon. ., y. , Santee Indian Training School, 

Orthopedic Hospital, Lincoln. j, ^ & > 

State Fair, Lincoln. t ..1 c ■ c j 

State Penitentiary, Lincoln. Lutheran Seminary Seward. 

University of Nebraska, Lincoln. Jf^'^'^f '^°""^f' Spalding. 

Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, Mil- Martm Luther Academy Sterling. 

£gj.j Wesleyan University (Methodist 
Industrial Home, Milford. Episcopal), Lincoln. 

School for the Blind, Nebraska Luther College, Wahoo. 

City. St. Augustine School for Indian 
Insane Asylum, Norfolk. Girls, Winnebago. 

Legal Holidays 

In the State of Nebraska there are now the following legal holidays : 

January 1, New Year's Day. 

Februarv 22, Washington's Birthday. 

April 22, Arbor Day. 

May 30, Memorial Day. 

July 4, Independence Day. 

September (first Monday"), Labor Day. 

October 12, Columbus Day. 

November (by proclamation), Thanksgiving Day. 

December 25, Christmas Day. 

"Blue Book" Paragraphs 

The official Blue Book for Nebraska in 1915 has the following 
historic paragraphs which should here find permanent place in the annals 
of Dodge and Washington counties. 

The Overland Trails— On April 10, 1830, Sublette and Jackson with 
ten wagons and one milch cow started from St. Louis for the Wind River 
Mountains in Wyoming and returned in the fall. In 1832 Nathaniel I. 
Wyeth went over the same road to Oregon. Their route was up the 
valley of the Little Blue and Platte rivers and made the beginning of 
the Oregon trail which for the next forty years was the greatest wagon 
road the world has seen. Other trails across Nebraska were the Cali- 
fornia trail, starting from Bellevue or Omaha and traveling up the north 
bank of Platte; the Denver trail from the Missouri River to Denver 
and the "Steam Wagon Road" or Nebraska City cut-off from Nebraska 



24 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

City up the \\'est Blue to the Platte and on to Denver. These trails 
were traveled by thousands of wagons every year until the construction of 
the Pacific Railroad. 

The Steamboat Years — The Western Engineer which brought Major 
Long's party on its exploring expedition in September, 1819, was the 
first steam vessel to navigate Nebraska waters. Other steamboats took 
part in the Aricara Expedition in 1823. In 1832 the steamboat Yellow- 
stone began the first regular annual fur-trading voyages up the Missouri 
River, stopping at points on the Nebraska coast. From 1850 to 1860 
steamboat navigation along the Nebraska shores was at its height, forty 
or fifty diiTerent steamboats being in the Missouri River trade. With 
the construction of railroads the steamboat business rapidly fell off until 
now only a few ferry-boats and one or two steamboats a year navigate 
the Missouri along the Nebraska shores. 

Nebraska from 1830 to 1854 — Frontier conditions of the most rugged 
nature ruled in Nebraska between these years. A few steamboats plied 
the Missouri River between St. Louis and the head of navigation. The 
overland trails from the Missouri River to the mountains and Pacific 
coast were traveled by caravans of emigrants and freighting wagons 
each summer. A little group of Christian missionaries and teachers 
were laboring among the Nebraska Indians. A few white fur traders 
and bufi^alo hunters followed the streams and crossed the prairies. Fort 
Kearney on the Platte River opposite the present City of Kearney and 
Bellevue on the Missouri River were the only two white settlements of 
any size within the present state. The dominant figures in the Nebraska 
landscape were the bufifalo, the coyote, the prairie dog and the Indian. 

Nebraska Name and Organization — The name "Nebraska" first 
appears in literature about the }ear 1842. Lieut. John C. Fremont 
explored the plains and mountains in that year. His reports speak of 
the "Nebraska River," the Otoe Indian name for the Platte from the 
Otoe word "Ne-brathka," meaning "Flat \\\aters." Secretary of War 
William Wilkins, in his report of November 30, 1844, says : "The 
Platte or Nebraska River, being the central stream, would very properly 
furnish a name to the (proposed) territory." The first bill to organize 
the new Nebraska territory was introduced in Congress December 17, 
1844. by Hon. Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois. This bill failed to pass. 
In 1848 Douglas introduced a second bill which also failed. In 1853 a 
third bill was likewise defeated. In 1854 a fourth Nebraska bill now 
called the "Nebraska-Kansas bill" was passed after a long and bitter 
struggle and signed by Franklin Pierce on May 30, 1854. This pro- 
longed struggle between the slave states and the free states for domi- 
nance in the Nebraska region led to the organization of the new repub- 
lican party and the border conflicts which hastened the Civil war. 

Nebraska from 1867 to '1875 — This is the formative period of the new 
state. Among its principal events were the relocation of the capital at 
Lincoln July 29, 1867, the impeachment cf Gov. David Butler in 1871, 
the first period of railway construction, including the completion of the 
Pacific Railroad to the ocean and the entrance of Burlington and North- 
western railroads into the region, the hard times and grasshopper period 
beginning in 1874. the establishment of the State L-niversity and Agri- 
cultural College, February 15, 1869, and the first great wave of home- 
steading immigrants who settled most of the desirable land in the eastern 
half of the state and sent adventurous pioneers into the remotest parts. 

Farmers' Alliance Origin, etc. — This period ( 1875 to 1890) is 
marked by the complete settlement of all parts of this state except a few 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 25 

million acres of sand hills ; by a rising demand for railroad regulation 
and political conflicts with the railroad companies: by the removal of the 
Sioux, Pawnee, Ponca and Otoe Indians from their old Nebraska homes 
to new locations in Oklahoma and South Dakota ; by continuing conflicts 
between the Grangers and the cattlemen for possession of the land, in 
western Nebraska ; by the beginnings of the world-wide struggle 
between organized capital and organized wage-earners exemplified by 
strikes in the City of Omaha in 1882, and the great Burlington strike of 
1888, and finally by the organization of the Farmers' Alliance, its entrance 
into the political field, first victory in the election of 1890 and the social 
revolution which has followed. 

Nebraska's Capitol Buildings — Nebraska has had four capitol build- 
ings, two of which were constructed during the territorial period and 
two during the state period. The first territorial capitol building was 
constructed in Omaha by Iowa men and by Iowa money. This building 
was a two-story brick structure and was "thirty-three by seventy-five 
feet and cost about $3,000." This building was a temporary makeshift 
to be soon superseded by a more elegant and commodious structure, also 
located in Omaha, and erected in part by an appropriation of $50,000 
from the Federal Government and in part by municipal grant of $60,000 
from the City of Omaha. The dimensions of this second territorial 
capitol building were as follows: "Extreme length 137 feet; extreme 
width 93 feet: height sixty-two and one-half feet." . 

The State Capitol Buildings 

On page 6, of the Nebraska Blue Book for 1915 is found the following 
concerning the capitol buildings : 

Throughout the territorial period there was constant agitation for 
the removal of the seat of government from Omaha to some other point 
in the territory. This purpose was finally effected in the passage of the 
removal act approved June 14, 1867. The new capital city was to be 
named Lincoln. July 29, 1867, the new site was chosen. October 10, 
1867, plans for the new capitol building were submitted and those of 
John Morris of Chicago were adopted. The building to be immediately 
erected was 120 feet in length by 50 in width : height to top of cupola, 
120 feet. The cost of this building was $75,817.59, which amount was 
derived from the sale of lots in Lincoln. This building was so poorly 
constructed that it began to show signs of decay as early as in 1871. A 
severe storm in May, 1873, so damaged the capitol that it was necessary 
to expend $5,897 in repairs. Gov. Silas Garber in his retiring address 
to the legislature in 1879. said: "For sometime past the outer walls of 
the capitol have been considered unsafe. * * * the time is not far 
distant, however, when steps should be taken for the erection of a new 
State House of adequate proportions." The legislature of 1879 appro- 
priated $75,000 to begin the construction of the west wing of a new 
capitol building. The architect was William H. Wilcox and the con- 
tractor W. H. B. Stout. The total cost for building and furnishing the 
west wing was $83,178.81. This work was begun in 1879 and finished 
at the close of 1881. The 1881 legislature appropriated $100,000 for 
the construction of the east wing of the capitol and retained the same 
architect. Contractor Stout also built this wing. The total cost of 
building and furnishing the east wing was $108,247.92. It was legally 
accepted December 1, 1882. 



26 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

For the construction of the central portion of the new capitol the 
legislature of 1883 and that of 1885 authorized a levy of one-half a mill 
on the grand assessment roll for the years 1883. 1884, 1885 and 1886. 
W. H. B. Stout obtained the contract for the erection of the central por- 
tion of the building at the price of $439,187.25. The 1887 legislature 
authorized a levy of three-fourths of a mill for the years 1887 and 1888 
to complete the capitol building. The same session of the legislature 
made provision for the sale of all unsold lots and lands in the City oi 
Lincoln belonging to the state for the use of the capitol building fund. 
This amounted to about $78,870. The total cost of the present capitol 
building was $691,429. 

State Se.\l 

A bill introduced by Isaac Wiles of Cass County, on May 31, and 
approved June 15, 1867, appropriated $25 to be used by the Secretary of 
State for the securing of a State Seal which was thus described in the 
act: "The eastern part of the circle to be represented by a steamboat 
ascending the Missouri River ; the mechanics arts to be represented by a 
smith with a hammer and anvil ; in the foreground agriculture to be 
represented by a settlers cabin, sheaves of wheat and stalks of growing 
corn ; in the back-ground a train of cars headed towards the Rocky 
Mountains and on the extreme west the Rocky Mountains to be plainly 
in view ; around the top of this circle to be in capital letters the motto 
'Equality before the law' and the circle to be surrounded by the words 
'Great Seal of the State of Nebraska, March 1, 1867.' " 

Nebraska State Flower 

A joint resolution introduced by Representative L. P. Judd of Boone 
County and approved April 4, 1895, designates the Golden Rod (Solidago 
serotiana) as the floral emblem of the state. 

The following poem on this almost universal wild weed or flower is 
indeed apropos in this connection : 

Oh, Erin has her shamrock green, and England has her rose. 

In Bonnie Scotland's misty glen, the purple thistle grows. 

The Jung Frau wears the Edelweiss upon her snowy breast. 

And France for centuries has borne the lily in her crest. 

The Cornflower on the castled Rhine, in azure beauty blooms. 

The heavy-headed lotus nods among Egyptian tombs, 

But in the land of liberty a yellow blossom springs 

And with its beauty dims the gold upon the head of kings. 

It brightens every dusty road and every barren field. 

It needs no care to sow its seed or make its blossom yield. 

The "Nation's Flower" — it only grows in Freedom's sacred sod — 

Aye proudly waves in Freedom's cap the— Feathery Golden Rod. 

Vegetation 

Concerning the vegetation growing within Nebraska, possibly no 
more concise statement has been made than that from the pen of 
Professor Bessey, who had charge of the botany of the University of 
Nebraska many years. In his writings are found these paragraphs : 

The natural vegetation of Nebraska shows it to be emphatically that 
of the Great Plains, and thus differs much from that of the forests to 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 27 

the eastward and the mountains lying westward. To say that the eastern 
botanist notes the absence of many a familiar plant signifies nothing, 
since this must always be the case in comparing the flora of one region 
with that of another. The flora of the plains difi^ers in many respects 
from that of New York and New England, but the eastern botanist must 
not unduly magnify the importance to be attached to the fact that he 
does not find here many of the plants he knew in childhood days. The 
plains have their own plants which will eventually be as dear to the men 
and women who gathered them in childhood as are the old favorites to 
the New Englander transplanted to the West. 

A study of the vegetation of Nebraska shows it to possess some 
remarkably interesting features. The wild plants of the state are very 
largely immigrants from surrounding regions. By far the greater num- 
ber have come from the prairies and forests lying adjacent on the east 
and southeast by creeping up the rivers and streams, or in case of 
herbaceous plants blowing overland without regard for the water courses. 
Thus of the 141 trees and shrubs which grow naturally within the state 
all but about twenty-five have migrated from the east in nearly all cases 
following the streams. Of these twenty-five four or five may be con- 
sidered strictly endemic the remainder having come down from the 
mountains. 

A careful study of the plants of the eastern part of the state shows 
that many species are confined to limited areas in Richardson and the 
adjoining counties and that the number of species with marked regu- 
larity as we ascend the Missouri River. The same general law is seen 
as we ascend the three great rivers — the Republican, Platte and Nio- 
brara — which cross the state from west to east. On the other hand as 
we ascend the streams we meet here and there a mountain plant which 
is wandering eastward down the slope from an elevation of a mile above 
sea-level in the western counties to less than a thousand feet along the 
Missouri River. Thus the buffalo berry, the golden currant, low sumach, 
the dwarf wild cherry and yellow pine have traveled half way or two- 
thirds across the plains : while the creeping barberry, black cottonwood, 
Rydberg's cottonwood, mountain maple, mountain mahogany and sage 
brush barley enter the western counties not extending eastward of the 
Wyoming line more than a few miles. A few species of wild roses, the 
sand cherry and perhaps the sand plum seem to belong strictly to the 
plains. 

Wherever we go we find upon the plains a similar commingling of 
eastern and western species. Every mile one advances westward brings 
to view plants not hitherto seen while at the same time there is left 
behind some familiar species. 

Nebraska affords one of the finest illustrations of the commingling 
of contiguous floras to be found anywhere in America. Not a few of 
the species in the southern half of the state have come up from the plains 
of the southwest, some even coming from Texas and New Mexico. 
Others again appear to have migrated from the great northern plains of 
the Dakotas while here again there are endemic species as the buffalo 
grasses, Redfield's grass, false buffalo grass and many more. 

Through the untiring efforts of the members of the botanical seminar 
of the University of Nebraska, there are now known fully 3,300 species 
representing every branch and nearly every tlass of the vegetable 
kingdom. 

There are sixty-four species of native trees in the state. There is, 
however, no place in the state where all of these species grow together! 



28 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

No county contains sixty-four kinds of native trees. Thus there are 
nineteen species of trees in the northwestern quarter of the state, twenty- 
seven in the northeastern, fifteen in the southwestern and fifty in the 
southeastern. . 

A close study of the distribution of the trees shows that nearly all 
have probably migrated to the plains from the east. They have in some 
cases done more than get a little foothold in the extreme southeastern 
counties to which they have come from the heavy forests of Missouri. 
A few have doubtless crossed the Missouri River from western Iowa, 
although this number is evidently small. Nearly all have come up from 
the Missouri bottoms and spread from the southeastern corner of the 
state west and northwest. Possibly a few may have come up the Blue 
River from Kansas, but these must eventually be traced to the Missouri 
River bottoms at the mouth of the Kansas River. 

The trees and shrubs which are found only in the western part of the 
state unquestionably came from the Rocky Mountains and have spread 
eastward to their present limits. Only one of these, the bufifalo berry, 
has spread itself over the entire state. There is a probability that a fur- 
ther examination of the bluffs of the Niobrara, Platte, and Republican 
rivers will show several more of the Rocky Mountain plants, which have 
come down with the river currents. It is singular that so few of the 
western trees and shrubs have come down the streams, especially as pre- 
vailing winds are also from the westerly parts toward the east. It would 
naturally be supposed that it would be easier for western trees to come 
down stream with the wind, than for the elms, ashes, plums, etc., to 
have gone up the streams against the prevailing winds. 

Trees of Nebraska 

Among the more important trees found growing in Nebraska soil are 
the following: 

Yellow or Bull Pine, Red Cedar, Black Cottonwood, Rydberg's Cot- 
tonwood, Cottonwood, Basswood, White Elm, Red Elm, Hackberry, 
Plane Tree, Mountain Maple, Silver Maple, Box Elder or Ash Leaved 
Maple, Butternut, Blackwalnut, Shellbark Hickory, Big Hickory Nut, 
Bitter Hickory, White Oak, Burr Oak, Red Oak, Ironwood, Canoe Birch, 
Choke Cherry, Wild Black Cherry, Wild Plum. Kentucky Cofifee Tree, 
Honey Locust, White Ash. Red Ash. Green Ash. 

Grasses Found in Nebraska 

Many plants are commonly called grasses which are not grasses at all. 
Many people speak of clover and alfalfa as grasses because they are 
made into hay for stock just as many of the real grasses are. So, too, 
many of our weeds are called grasses, as rib-grass, knot-grass, etc., when 
they are not at all related to the proper grasses. On the other hand many 
true grasses are commonly kept separate from them under the impres- 
sion they are a very diliferent plant. Thus many people do not think of 
common field corn as a grass and yet it is in every way a true grass, 
although a very large one. So, too, wheat, oats, rye, barley, are really 
grasses, although we rarely hear them spoken of as such. 

A grass is a plant with narrow elongated leaves which are in two 
ranks upon the jointed, usually hollow, stem. The leaves end below in 
open sheathes which wrap around the stem for a greater or less dis- 
tance. The flowers are chafify and are never colored or conspicuous; 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



29 



they are often in loose heads (panicles as in blue grass and oats) or in 
spikes (as in timothy and wheat). Some live for but a single season 
(annuals), while others live for many years (perennials). 

In the whole world there are about 3,500 species of grass and of 
this vast number 154 have been recorded as growing wild or under com- 
mon cultivation in Nebraska. Probably there is no place in the state in 
which there are not from fifty to seventy-five kinds of grasses and in 
some places doubtless there are more than 100. 

It is unnecessary to take up all the grasses of Nebraska, but the fol- 
lowing wild and cultivated species should be known : 

Maize or Indian corn, of which there are these — the Dent type, the 
Flint type, the Pop-Corn type, the Soft Corn type, the Sweet Corn type. 




'^0mifiim>-m^^ 




The Big Blue Stem, the Switch grass. Barnyard grass, Clreen Fox 
Tail. Millet or Hungarian grass. Yellow Fox Tail, Indian Rice. Wild 
Ribbon, Muhlenberg's grass, Timothy, Red Top, Oats, corn grass, Blue 
Grama, Black Grama, Tall Grama, Buffalo grass. Reed grass. Salt grass, 
Orchard grass, Kentucky Blue grass. Wheat grass, Rve, Wheat, Barley, 
Wild Rue. 

Other forage plants are Red Clover, \\'hite Clover, Alfalfa and the 
native Sedges. 

Wir.D Flowers of Nebraska 

More than 300 beautiful wild flowers are found growing in Nebraska 
soil, but not all in any one locality. The more important of these wild 
flowers which were indeed beautiful to behold by the eye of the first 
pioneers of the state are as follows : 

The Lilies, Orchids, Buttercups, Water Lilies, Poppies, Capers, Vio- 
lets, Mallows, Cactuses, Mentzelias, Evening Primroses, the Roses, 
Lupines, Prairie Clovers, Morning Glories, Gilias, Pentstemons, Ver- 
benas, Sunflowers, Asters, Golden Rods. 

Governors of Nebraska 

From the date of organization of Nebraska as a state until the present 
time the governors have been as follows : 



30 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



David Butler, 1867 to 
James (secretary of state) 
he from 1873-75. 
Silas Garber, 1875-79. 
Albinus Nance, 1879-83. 
James W. Dawes, 1883-87. 
John M. Thayer, 1887-91. 
James E. Boyd, 1891-93. 
Lorenzo Crounse, 1893-95. 
Silas A. Holcomb, 1895-99. 
William A. Poynter, 1889- 
Charles H. Dietrich, 1901. 



1870 — impeached and succeeded by W. H. 
until the inauguration of Governor Furnas, 

Ezra P. Savage, 1901-03. 
John H. Mickey, 1903-07. 
George L. Sheldon, 1907-09. 
Ashton C. Shallenberger, 1909-11. 
Chester H. Aldrich, 1911-13. 
John H. Morehead. 1913-17. 
Keith Neville, 1917-19. 
1901. Samuel R. McKelvie, 1919-21. 



Abstract of Counties 



The following is a list 
name of county seat and a 

County 
Name Seat Area 

Adams, Hastings .... 567 
Antelope, Neligh.... 872 

Arthur, Arthur 810 

Banner, Harrisburg. . 752 
Blaine, Brewster. ... 811 

Boone, Albion 692 

Box Butte, Alliance.. 1,076 

Boyd, Butte 535 

Brown, Ainsworth. . 1,235 
Buffalo, Kearney ... . 954 

Burt, Tekamah 475 

Butler, David City. . 583 
Cass, Plattsmouth . . . 538 
Cedar, Harrington. . . 735 

Chase, Imperial 899 

Cherry, Valentine. . .5,979 
Cheyenne, Sidney. .. 1,194 
Clay, Clay Center... 579 
Colfax, Schuyler. . . . 405 
Cuming, West Point. 577 
Custer, Broken Bow. 2,588 
Dakota, Dakota City. 253 

Dawes, Chadron 1,402 

Deuel, Chappell 439 

Dawson, Lexington. . 985 

Dixon, Ponca 472 

Dodge, Fremont 531 

Douglas, Omaha.. . -. . 331 
. Dundy, Benkleman. . . 927 
Fillmore, Geneva .... 576 
Franklin, Bloomington 578 
Frontier, Stockville. . 975 
Furnas, Beaver City. 721 

Gage, Beatrice 862 

Garden, Oshkosh. ... 1,652 
Garfield. Burwell.... 575 



of counties, together with their population, 
rea: 

Popula- County Popula- 
tion Name Seat Area tion 

29,000 Gosper, Elwood 464 4,938 

14,003 Grant, Hyannis 726 1,097 

1,200 Greelev, Greeley 571 8,047 

14,044 Hall, Grand Island.. 528 20,361 

1,672 Hamilton, Aurora... 538 13,459 

13,145 Harlan. Alma 574 9,578 

6,131 Haves, Haves Center 732 3,011 

8,826 Hitchcock, Trenton . . 724 5,415 

6.083 Holt, O'Neill 2,393 15,545 

21,906 Hooker, Mullen 722 981 

12,726 Howard, St. Paul... 561 10,783 

15,403 Tefferson, Fairburv.. 578 16,852 

19,786 Tohnson, Tecumseh.. 374 10,187 

15,191 Kearney, :\Iinden.... 516 9.106 

3,631 Keith, Ogallala 1,068 3.692 

10,414 KeyaPaha.Springview 775 3.452 

4.551 Kimball, Kimball.... 958 1.942 

15,729 Knox, Center 1,114 18,358 

11,610 Lancaster, Lincoln.. . 853 73,793 

13,782 Lincoln, North Platte.2,536 15,684 

25,668 Logan, Gandy 573 1,521 

6,564 Loup, Taylor 576 2,188 

8,254 Madison, Madison. .. 576 19,101 

1,786 AlcPherson, Tryon.. 864 1,270 

15,961 Alerrick, Central City 462 10,379 

11,477 Morrill, Bridgeport. .1.417 4,584 

22,145 Nance, Fullerton 446 8,926 

168.546 Nemaha, Auburn. ... 389 13,095 

4,098 Nuckolls, Nelson 579 13.019 

14,674 Otoe, Nebraska City. 606 19,323 

10,303 Pawnee, Pawnee City 431 10,582 

8,572 Perkins, Grant '. 886 2,570 

12,083 Phelps, Holdridge... 538 10,451 

30,325 Pierce, Pierce 577 10,122 

2,538 Platte, Columbus. ... 673 19,006 

3 417 Polk, Osceola 430 10,521 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 31 

County Popula- County Popula- 

Name Seat Area tion Name Seat Area tion 

Red Willow, McCook 720 11,056 Stanton, Stanton. .. . 431 7,542 

Richardson, Falls City 545 17,444 Thayer, Hebron 516 14,775 

Rock, Bassett 1,004 3,627 Thomas, Thedford.. . 716 1,191 

Saline, Wilber 573 17,866 Thurston. Pender.. . . 387 8,704 

Sarpy, Papillion 239 9,274 Vallev, Ord 570 9,480 

Saunders, Wahoo. .. . 756 21.179 Washington, Blair. . . 380 12,738 

Scotts Blufif, Gering. 723 8,355 Wavne, Wayne 450 10,397 

Seward, Seward 574 15,895 Webster, Red Cloud. 578 12,008 

Sheridan, Rushville.. 2,469 7,328 Wheeler, Bartlett.. . . 578 2,292 

Sherman, Loup City. 573 8,278 York, York 575 18,721 

Sioux, Harrison 2,055 5,599 

Last Romantic Buffalo Hunt 

In a collection of reminiscences published on Nebraska history by the 
Nebraska Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution in 1916 
the author of this volume takes the liberty to quote the story of the 
"Last Romantic Buffalo Hunt on the Plains of Nebraska," by John L. 
Webster, of Omaha : 

In the autumn of 1872 a group of men, some of whom were then 
prominent in Nebraska history. Judge Elmer S. Dundy and a Col. Wat- 
son B. Smith, and one who afterward achieved national fame as an 
American explorer, Lieut.. Frederick Schwatka, and another who has since 
become known throughout Europe and America as a picturesque char- 
acter and showman. Col. William F. Cody, participated in what proved 
to be the last romantic buffalo hunt upon the western plains of the State 
of Nebraska. 

Elmer S. Dundy was a pioneer who had come to Nebraska in 1857. 
He had been a member of the Territorial Legislature for two successive 
terms ; he was appointed a Territorial judge in 1863 and became the first 
United States district judge after the admission of the state into the 
Union. Col. Watson B. Smith at that time held the office of clerk of the 
United States District and Circuit courts for the District of Nebraska. 
Some years afterward he met a tragic death by being shot (accidentally 
or by assassination) in the corridors of the Federal Building in the City 
of Omaha. Colonel Smith was a loveable man of the highest unim- 
peachable integrity and a most efficient public officer. There was also 
among the number James Neville, who at that time held the office of 
United States attorney and who afterward became a judge of the Dis- 
trict Court of Douglas County. He added zest, vim and spirit by reason 
of some personal peculiarities to be mentioned later on. 

These men with the writer of this sketch were anxious to have the 
experience and the enjoyment of the stimulating excitement of partici- 
pating in a bulTalo hunt before those native wild animals of the plains 
should become entirely extinct. To them it was to be a romantic inci- 
dent in their lives and long to be remembered as an event of pioneer 
days. They enjoyed the luxury of a Pullman car from Omaha to North 
Platte, which at that time was little more than a railway station and a 
division point upon the Union Pacific and where was also located a mili- 
tary post occupied by a battalion of United States cavalry. 

Lieut. Frederick Schwatka, a regular army officer and an American 
explorer, at one time commanded an Arctic expedition in search of Doctor 
Franklin, and who had command of an extended exploring expedition of 



32 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

the Yukon River. At another time he commanded an expedition into the 
northernmost regions of Alaska in the interest of the New York Times. 
He also became a writer and the author of three quite well-known books : 
"Along Alaska's Great River," "Nimrod in the North" and "Children 
of the Cold." 

At the time of which we are speaking Lieutenant Schwatka was sta- 
tioned at the military post at North Platte. He furnished us with the 
necessary army horses and equipment for the hunting expedition and he 
himself went along in command of a squad of cavalry which acted as 
an escort to protect us if need be when we should get into the frontier 
regions where the Indians were at times still engaged in the quest of 
game and sometimes in unfriendly raids. 

William F. Cody, familiarly known as "Bufifalo Bill" who already 
achieved a reputation as a guide and hunter and who has since won a 
world reputation as a showman, went along with us as courier and chief 
hunter. He went on similar expeditions into the wilder regions of 
Wyoming with Gen. Phil Sheridan, the Grand Duke Alexis and others 
quite equally celebrated. 

This Omaha group of amateur buffalo hunters led by Buffalo Bill and 
escorted by Lieutenant Schwatka and his squad of cavalry rode on the 
afternoon of the first dav from North Platte to Fort McPherson and 
there camped for the night with the bare earth and a blanket for a bed 
and a small army tent for shelter and cover. 

On the next morning after a rude army breakfast, eaten while we sat 
about on the ground and without the luxury of a bath or change of wear- 
ing apparel, this cavalcade renewed its journey in a southwesterly 
direction, expecting ultimately to reach the valley of the Republican. 
We consumed the entire day in traveling over what seemed almost a bar- 
ren waste of undulating prairie except where here and there it was 
broken bv higher upland and now and then crossed by a ravine and occa- 
sionallv by a small stream of running water along the banks of which 
might be found a small growth of timber. The visible area of the land- 
scape was so great that it seemed boundless — an immense wilderness of 
space and the altitude added to the invigorating and stimulating effect 
of the atmosphere. 

We amateurs were constantly in anticipation of seeing either wild ani- 
mals or Indians that might add to the spirit and zest of the expedition. 
There were no habitations, no fields, no farms. There was the vast 
expanse of plain in front of us ascending gradually westward toward the 
mountains with the blue sky and sunshine overhead. I do not recollect 
of seeing more than one little cabin or one little pioneer ranch during 
that whole day's ride. I do know as the afternoon wore on those of us 
who were amateur horsemen were pleased to take our turns as oppor- 
tunity afforded of riding in the army wagon which carried our supplies 
and leading our horses. 

When the shades of night of the second day had come we had seen 
many antelope and now and then heard the cry of coyote and the prairie 
wolf but we had not seen any sign of buffalo, but we did receive infor- 
mation from some cattlemen or plain wanderers that there was a band 
of roving Indians in that vicinity which created within us a feeling of 
some anxiety — not so much for our personal safety as that our horses 
might be stolen and we left in these remote regions without the necessary 
facilities for traveling homeward. 

Our camp was made for the night upon a spot of low ground near the 
bank of a small creek which was bordered by hills on either side and 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 33 

sheltered by a small grove of timber near at hand. The surrounding 
hills would cut off the sight of the evening camp-fires and the timber 
would obscure the ascending columns of smoke as they spread into 
space through the branches of the trees. 

The horses were picketed near the camp around the commissary 
wagon and Lieutenant Schwatka placed the cavalrymen on sentinel duty. 
The night was spent with some restlessness and sleep was somewhat 
disturbed in anticipation of a possible danger and I believe that all of us 
rather anxiously awaited the coming of the morning with the eastern 
sunlight that wc might be restored to that feeling of security that would 
come with freedom of action and the opportunity for "preparedness." 
When morning did come we had the pleasure of greeting each other with 
pleasant smiles and a feeling of happy contentment. We had not been 
molested by the Indians and our military sentinels had not seen them. 

On the afternoon of the third day of our march into the wilderness 
we reached the farther margin of a high upland of the rim of a plain 
where we had an opportunity of looking down over a large area of bot- 
tom land covered by vegetation and where there appeared to be signs of 
water. From this point of vantage we discovered a small herd of 
browsing buiTalo but so far away from us as to be beyond rifle range. 
These animals were apparently so far away from civilization or human 
habitation of any kind that their animal instinct gave them a feeling of 
safety and security. We well knew that these animals could scent the 
approach of men and horses even when beyond the line of vision. We 
must study the currents of the air and plan our maneuvers with the 
utmost caution if we expected to be able to approach within any reason- 
able distance without being first discovered by them. 

We entrusted ourselves to the guidance of Buffalo Bill, whose experi- 
ence added to his good judgment, and so skillfully did he conduct our 
maneuvers around the hills and up and down ravines that within an hour 
we were within a reasonable distance of the wild animals before they 
discovered us and then the chase began. It was a part of the plan that 
we should surround them, but we were prudently cautioned by Mr. Cody 
that a buffalo could run faster for a short distance than our horses. 
Therefore we must keep far enough away so that if the buffalo should 
come toward any of us we could immediately turn and flee in the oppo- 
site direction as fast as our horses could carry us. 

I must stop for a moment to relate a romantic incident which made 
this buffalo chase especially picturesque and amusing. Judge Neville 
had been in the habit of wearing in Omaha a high silk hat and a full- 
dress coat (in common parlance a spiketail). He started out on this 
expedition wearing this suit of clothes and without any change of gar- 
ments to wear on the hunt. So it came about that when this group of 
amateur buffalo huntsmen went riding pell-mell over the prairies after 
the buffalo and likewise when pursued by them in turn. Judge Neville 
set astride his running warhorse wearing his high silk hat and the long 
flaps of his spike-tailed coat floating out behind him on the breeze as if 
waving a farewell adieu to all his companions. He presented a picture 
against the horizon that does not have its parallel in all pioneer history. 

It was entirely impossible for us inexperienced buffialo hunters while 
riding galloping horses across the plains to fire our rifles with any degree 
of accuracy. Suffice it to say we did not succeed in shooting any buffalo 
and I don't now even know that we tried to do so. We were too much 
taken up with the excitement of the chase and of being chased in turn. 
At one time we were the pursuers and at another time we were being 



34 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



pursued, but the excitement was so intense that there was no limit to 
our enjoyment and enthusiasm. 

Buffalo Bill furnished us the unusual and soul-stirring amusement 
of that afternoon. He took it upon himself individually to lasso the 
largest bull buffalo of the herd while the rest of us did but little more 
than to direct the course of the flight of these wild animals or perhaps 
more correctly expressed — to keep out of their way. It did not take 
Buffalo Bill very long to lasso the large bull buffalo, as his fleet blooded 
horse circled around the startled wild animal. When evening came we 
left the lassoed buffalo out on the plains solitary and alone, lariated to a 
stake driven into the ground so firmly that we felt quite sure that he 
could not escape. It is my impression that we captured a young buffalo 
out of the small herd which we placed in a corral found in that vicinity. 




On the following morning we went out upon the plains to get the 
lassoed buffalo and found that in his efforts to break away he had broken 
one of his legs. We were confronted with a question whether we should 
let the animal loose upon the prairies in his crippled condition or whether 
it would l»e a more merciful thing to shoot him and put him out of his 
pain and suffering. Buffalo Bill solved the vexatious problem by con- 
cluding to lead the crippled animal over to the ranchman's house and 
there he obtained such instruments as he could, including a butcher 
knife, a hand-saw and a bar of iron. He amputated the limb of the 
buffalo above the point of the break in the bone and seared it over with 
a hot iron to close the artery and prevent the animal from bleeding to 
death. The surgical operation thus rudely performed upon this big, 
robust wild animal of the prairies, seemed to be quite well and success- 
fully performed. The buffalo was then left in the ranchman's corral 
with the understanding that the animal should be well cared for, watered 
and fed. 

We were now quite away from civilization and near the Colorado 
border line and notwithstanding our subsequent riding over the hills 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 35 

and uplands during the following day we did not discover another buf- 
falo and those which had gotten away from us on the preceding day 
could not be found. During that day we turned northward and I can 
remember that about noon we came to a cattleman's ranch, where for the 
first time since our start on the journey, we sat down to a wooden table 
in a log cabin for our noonday meal. During the afternoon we traveled 
northward as rapidly as our horses could carry us, but night came on 
when we were twenty miles or more southwest of Fort McPherson, and 
we found it again necessary to go into camp for the night, sleeping in 
the little army tents which we carried along with us in the commis.sary 
wagon. 

Colonel Cody had on this journey been riding his own private horse — 
a beautiful animal capable of great speed. I can remember quite well 
that Mr. Cody said that he never .slept out at night when within twenty 
miles of his own home. He declined to go into camp with us but turned 
his horse to the northward and gave him the full rein and started off 
at a rapid gallop over the plains, expecting to reach his home before the 
hour of midnight. It seemed to us that it would be a dreary, lonesome 
and perilous ride over the solitude of that waste of country without 
roads, without lights, without signboard or guides, but Buffalo Bill said 
he knew the direction from the stars and that he would trust his good 
horse to safely carry him over depressions and ravines notwithstanding 
the darkness of the night. So on he sped northward toward his home. 

On the next day we amateur buffalo hunters rode on to Fort McPher- 
son and thence to North Platte, where we returned our army horses to 
the military post with a debt of gratitude to Lieutenant Schwatka, who 
at all times had been generous, courteous and polite to us as^ )v.e)l^ ^^ ^ajv 
interesting social companion. j[_r'^-w.^v> • v3 

So ended the last romantic and rather unsuccessful buffalo hunt over 
the western plains of the State of Nebraska — a region then desolate, 
arid, barren and almost totally uninhabited, but today a wealthy and 
productive part of our state. 

The story of the buffalo hunt in and of itself is not an incident of 
much importance but it furnishes the material for a most remarkable 
contrast of development within the period of a generation. The wild 
buffalo has gone. The aboriginal red man of the plains has disappeared, 
the white man with the new civilization has stepped into their places. It 
all seems to have been a part of Nature's great plan. Out of the desola- 
tion of the past there has come the new life with the new civilization 
just as new worlds and their satellites have been created out of the dust 
of dead worlds. 

There was a glory of the wilderness but it has gone. There was a 
mystery that haunted all those barren plains but that too has gone. 
Now there are fields and houses and schools and groves of forest trees 
and villages and towns all prosperous under the same warm sunshine 
as of a generation ago when the buffalo grazed on the meadow lands 
and the aboriginal Indians hunted over the plains. 



CHAPTER II 

DISCOVERY AND OCCUPANCY BY WHITE MEN 

The Louisiana Purchase — Other Views of the "Purchase" — The 
Missouri Compromise Affair — The Name "Nebraska" — Terri- 
torial Organization — Admitted as a State — The Constitutions 
— Early Exploitations — Fur Traders — Great Exploring Expe- 
ditions — Mormon Advent — Gold Hunters' Panic, 1849. 

The purchase of the vast region from the French under Napoleon 
for $15,000,000 was admired, not so much for its agricultural and min- 
eral wealth as for its value in obtaining the right to establish our own 
western frontier clear through to the sea on the west. 

Between 1785 and 1789, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, at the 
court of France, negotiated the "Louisiana Purchase" from Napoleon 
Bonaparte, the same being completed in 1803 at a cost of 2 3/5 cents 
per acre. The aggregate amount paid for this ne\\' empire was $15,000.- 
000. Of this purchase price France received in United States bonds 
$11,250,000 and by the agreement the remaining $3,700,000 was paid to 
American citizens in Hquidation of claims against the French govern- 
ment. When the United States took possession of these lands on Decem- 
ber 20, 1803, the Union consisted of but seventeen states — Connecticut, 
Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland. Massachusetts, New Hamp- 
shire. New Jersey, New York. North and South Carolina, Ohio, Penn- 
sylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee. Virginia and Vermont. The total 
acreage of these states amounted to 444,000 square miles. This amounted 
to 384,411,520 acres, but Mr. Jefl'erson's purchase of contiguous terri- 
tory covered 890,921 square miles, including both land and water sur- 
face amounting to 878,641 square miles, and it lacked but little of being 
twice as large and certainly contained twice the value of the seventeen 
states enumerated. This territory comprised about one-fourth of the 
area of the republic of the United States of America. 

From this vast purchase of territory adjacent to the previous hold- 
ings of the republic have been created twelve great states, namely : 
Louisiana in 1812; Missouri in 1821; Arkansas in 1836; Iowa in 1846; 
Minnesota in 1858; Kansas in 1861; Nebraska in 1867; Colorado in 
1876; Montana in 1889; South Dakota in 1889; North Dakota in 1889; 
AVyoming in 1890. The estimated population of the land ceded by 
Napoleon in 1803 was 50.000 whites and 40.000 slaves and 2,000 free 
blacks. More than four-fifths of the whites and all of the blacks, except 
about 1,300, were in and adjacent to New Orleans. The rest were scat- 
tered throughout the country now included in Arkansas and Missouri. 
The population of the "Louisiana Purchase" is now over 15,000,000. or 
was in 1890, and if as densely settled as Belgium, which has 536 human 
lieings to the square mile, it would contain and maintain about 474,000.000 
people. Historian Rhoades remarks : "The possession of the mouth 
of the Mississippi River was a commercial necessity, and Thomas Jef- 
ferson showed wisdom in promptly seizing the opportvmity presented by 
a fortunate combination of circumstances to receive the magnificent 
purchase of this rich domain." 

36 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 2>7 

The statesmen of the South opposed the "Purchase," as did parts of 
New England. A Massachusetts poHtician said: "I consider Louisiana 
the grave of this Union." Even so great a poHtical figure as Governor 
Morris contracted his usually clear vision to this : "Among other objec- 
tions they (the Western States) would not be able to furnish men 
equally intelligent to share in the administration of our common interests. 
The busy haunts of men, nor the remote wilderness, is the proper school 
of political talents. If the western people got the power in their hands 
they will run the Atlantic's interests."' 

Another View of the Purchase 

An early writer on Nebraska history has said : "A vast unexplored 
almost illimitable empire was ours ; perpetual immunity from dangerous 
neighbors ; sole possessor of this river of rivers, with all of its tribu- 
taries ; a sure dominating influence in the affairs of the North American 
continent ; national opportunities for the future almost depressing in 
their sublimity." 

The first governor of Louisiana Purchase was Gen. James Wilkinson. 
He was untrue to his covmtry and like Aaron Burr was tried for treason, 
though acquitted. Captain Lewis, of the Lewis and Clark expedition, was 
appointed governor to succeed Governor Wilkinson, in 1807. He it was 
who concluded a treaty with the Osage Indians for the cession of 48,000,- 
000 acres of land extending from Fort Clark, thirty-five miles below the 
mouth of the Kansas River, due south to the Arkansas and along that 
stream to the Mississippi. The Sacs and Foxes sold 3,000.000 acres in 
1804. In 1803 this tribe and the lowas claimed all the State of Missouri, 
as well as the northwest quarter of Illinois and a part of southern Wis- 
consin. In 1810 Howard succeeded Governor Lewis. In 1810 the popu- 
lation of the territory was 20,000 and had pushed its way along a strip 
from fifteen to twenty miles wide from Arkansas River to a point not 
far above the mouth of the Missouri River and had necessitated treaties 
with the Indians. "Louisiana," by act of Congress June 4, 1812, became 
the Territory of Missouri, and its government was advanced to the sec- 
ond grade, same as other portions of the Great Northwest Territory. 
This act provided for a government headed with a governor appointed 
by the President, a House of Representatives elected by the people and a 
legislative council of nine members appointed by the President. Gover- 
nor Howard divided its settled portion into five counties by proclama- 
tion, and for several months Frederick Bates served as its governor 
until William Clark (of Lewis and Clark expedition fame) was appointed 
in 1813. He held the office until Missouri became a state in 1821, and 
afterwards was' superintendent of Indian affairs until his death. 

In 1819 Arkansas Territory was carved from Missouri Territory. 
Up to 1834 that part of the original Louisiana Territory had no gov- 
ernment, but by congressional act, June 30, 1834, one provision was: 
"All that portion of the United States west of the Mississippi River, not 
within the State of Missouri and Louisiana or the Territory of Arkan- 
sas, and also that part of the United States east of the Mississippi River 
in and not within any state to which the Indian title has not been extin- 
guished for the purpose of this act, shall be taken and deemed to be 
'Indian Country.' " This act also provided for a superintendent of Indian 
affairs, who resided at St. Louis, Missouri, and had a salary of $1,500. 
He was provided with two agents. 



38 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

By the congressional act of June 28, 1834, that part of the territory 
east of the Missouri River and White Earth River and north of the 
state line of Missouri, was "for purpose of temporary government 
attached to and made a part of Michigan." That part west of the Mis- 
souri River, which included present Nebraska, was left without govern- 
ment or political organization until the passage of the famous Kansas- 
Nebraska Bill of 1854. 

The Missouri Compromise Affair 

The first direct controversy over slavery took place when John Tay- 
lor of New York, February, 1819, moved to amend the bill for the 
territorial organization of Arkansas by the same anti-slavery provision 
which Tallmadge sought to incorporate in the enabling act for the admis- 
sion of Missouri as a state. It provided that no more slaves should be 
introduced into the territory and that all children born after admission 
should be free, though they might be held to service until twenty-five 
years of age. This started a fierce fight over the question of American 
slavery, which in the minds of far-seeing men could but end in disrup 
tion of the Union and Civil war, and which was only postponed by tht 
three great Compromises — the last of which was the Nebraska Bill 
Stephen A. Douglas was the pioneer projector of a territory organization 
for Nebraska. As early as 1844 he introduced a bill in the House of 
Representatives "to establish the Territory of Nebraska." The bill was 
twice read and offered to the committee on territories, from which it was 
not reported. In March, 1848, he introduced a bill of the same purport, 
which was recommitted on his own motion the following December, and, 
like its predecessors in the house, was pigeonholed by the committee. 
The boundaries of the bill of 1848 were as follows : "Commencing at a 
point in the Missouri River, where the 40th parallel of north latitude 
crosses the river ; thence following up the main channel of said stream 
to the 43d parallel of north latitude ; thence west on said parallel to the 
summit of the Rocky Mountains : thence due south to the 40th parallel 
of north latitude ; thence east on said parallel to the place of beginning." 

The Name Nebraska 

From the time the region of the Platte Valley was known to white 
men till it was politically divided by the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the name 
of the principal river was applied, roughly speaking, to the country 
between the watershed of the Platte and Arkansas rivers on the south 
and the forty-third parallel on the north, the Missouri River on the east 
and the Rocky Mountains on the west. It was known as the 
"Nebraska Country." 

Territorial Organization 

February 2, 1853, William A. Richardson, member of the House 
from Illinois, introduced House Bill No. 353 to "organize the Territory 
of Nebraska." This bill, which made no reference to slavery, passed 
the House February 10, 1853, by a vote of ninety-eight to forty-three. 
The northern boundary of the territory described in this bill was the 
forty-third parallel line, the present boundary of Nebraska on that side, 
its eastern limit was the west line of Missouri and Iowa, its southern 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 39 

boundary the Territory of New Mexico and the parallel of 36 degrees 
and 30 minutes, and its western the summit of the Rocky Mountains. 

It may be said that Louisiana Territory was conceived by the exigen- 
cies and on the threshold of a mighty international struggle which 
resulted in the annihilation of the greatest and most powerful poten- 
tates ; and Nebraska, the child of Louisiana, was conceived by the exigen- 
cies and in the beginning of a great national struggle, in which the no 
less imperious power of human slavery was also to meet its doom. 

When organized, "the summit of the Rocky Mountains" became the 
western boundary line of the vast territory. Just where the lawmakers 
believed the "summit" to be no one can but conjecture at this late day. 
But it is supposed to be where the waters of the great watershed fall 
toward the Pacific Ocean and others toward the eastern slope and to 
the waters of the Yellowstone and Missouri and their tributaries. The 
northeast boundary of the territory followed the Missouri River and 
the White Earth River to the British line. In February, 1861. Colorado 
Territory was created, taking a small piece from the southwestern cor- 
ner of Nebraska. Two months later Dakota Territory was formed, 
which removed all the stretch of country north of the forty-third paral- 
lel. At the same time two tracts were added to Nebraska from Utah and 
Washington territories. The effect was to change the western boundary 
from the indefinite "summit" to the thirty-third meridian west from 
W^ashington. Nebraska Territory was four times' as long as it was 
wide, stretching, in fact, about fifteen degrees of longitude. It so 
remained for about two years. In March, 1863, all west of the twenty- 
seventh meridian was taken away. Only one change in boundary has 
since been made. The original boundary of 1861 followed the Niobrara 
River and the Keya Paha to the forty-third parallel, which was the north 
boundary line. In 1882 Congress changed the boundary, so that it fol- 
lowed the Missouri River to the forty-third parallel, thus throwing the 
Niobrara River and ancient Ponca Indian lands entirely within Nebraska. 
(See Lewis and Clark's Government Reports, page 56.) 

Admitted as a State 

Before the Territory of Nebraska was five years old, the matter of 
its being made into a state commenced to be discussed in political party 
circles. Governor Black's message to the Territorial Legislature in 1859 
was largely along this line. That session of the Legislature provided 
for the election in March, 1860. to decide on statehood, but at that elec- 
tion the people favored the continuance of the territorial form of gov- 
ernment. In February, 1864, Congress was asked by the Legislature to 
admit it as a state, and two months later went forth the petition for an 
"enabling act." Nothing came of this save the meeting of delegates to 
a convention at which nothing was accomplished. The Civil war was 
on and the Territorial Legislature did not further discuss this matter 
until in the session of 1866. This time it was not left to a constitutional 
convention to act, but the Legislature took action themselves, and through 
their committee one was drafted and submitted to 'the people for 
approval or rejection June 2 that year. The contest was close and at 
times very exciting. There were nearly 7,800 votes cast, and the measure 
carried for statehood by a mere 100 majority. It was made a party 
measure — the democratic party opposing the territory being made into a 
state and the republican party espousing the side of statehood, and won 
out by the rule of a "miss is as good as a mile." 



40 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

From election time in June until early in 1867, Nebraska had both 
a territorial and state government. The authorities of the territory con- 
tinued in office, and the Legislature, on January 10, 1867, met for its 
twelfth and last session. Meanwhile the new State Legislature had its 
first meeting July 4, 1866, and was called together again February 20, 
1867, two days after the adjournment of the Territorial Legislature, to 
make good certain Federal requirements. 

First Constitution Not Satisfactory 

The Constitution of 1866 not proving satisfactory to a mass of the 
state's citizens, another convention was ordered by the eighth session of 
the Nebraska Legislature, and it was voted upon by the people Septem- 
ber 19, 1871. This was also counted worthless and voted down. Among 
its provisions were these — taxation of church property; compulsory edu- 
cation, and one clause opposing and forbidding the aid to any railroad 
line within the state. 

The Constitution of 1875 

October 12, 1875, the people finally adopted a constitution by a vote 
of 30,202 for and 5,474 against. This state constitution went into effect 
November 1, 1875. Since that date the people have sailed along with 
the remainder of the sisters of the Union, making a fair showing in all 
things that are for good government and progress. 

Early Explorations 

Before completing the story of discovery and occupancy by the 
white race it will be well for the reader to peruse the following concern- 
ing some of the recorded accounts of early explorations, the entry of 
fur traders, etc. 

There is a legend, partly backed by history proper, that the Spanish 
cavalier, Coronado, came up from Mexico with several hundred men 
looking for a supposed gold region, as early as 1541, and on his trip 
came as far northeast as the southern part of Nebraska. Whether that 
be simply romance of which the Spanish were so fond, or whether it 
was actually correct matters little to this generation, so long as they left 
no positive record of such an early expedition. The best historians of 
the western country agree that probably this Spaniard did come as far 
north as the Kansas-Nebraska line, and that it was several years before 
1600. This was the same year that De Soto was wandering through 
Florida and on to the slopes of the Mississippi River. Henry HI was 
then still on the English throne ; Francis I held the throne of France, and 
Paul III was Pope at Rome. All Europe was in the midst of the Martin 
Luther Reformation. It was also then that the red man occupied this 
vast prairieland, and was entirely ignorant of his pale-faced brother, 
who was destined to finally occupy his extensive hunting grounds and 
cause him to be kept within a small "Reservation" for the betterment of 
"Christian Civilization." 

In 1601 there was, as shown by actual record, an expedition by the 
Spaniards, taking about the same route claimed for that of Coronado. 
Then there is another account of an expedition in 1662, but the latter is 
not clear enough delineated to make it safe to go into history as correct. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 41 

However, it is certain that Father Marquette in 1673 floated down 
the Mississippi River and learned from the natives about the Missouri 
River; also about the Platte. He made a record in map form of this 
section of the west and it is believed that his was the first map of this 
portion of the western world. 

In 1719 Dustine came across the country from the northeast and met 
tribes of Indians in the eastern part of what is now known as Kansas. 
This is significant of the coming of the French into the plains of the west. 
Twenty years later (1739) two brothers by the name of Mallet came into 
the North Platte region, exploring the river as far up as its forks. 

The Fur Traders 

The first great commercial industry in the Northwest was that of the 
fur traders, by the French. As early as 1634 in Wisconsin this trade 
commenced. After England obtained possession of Canada, this fur- 
trading interest was followed by the British. This period was from 
1763 to 1816, when Congress passed a law prohibiting foreigners from 
trading within the limits of the United States. The Americans com- 
menced very early to compete with Great Britain, but the formation of 
the large companies of the United States commenced when John Jacob 
Astor chartered the American Fur Company. Two expeditions were 
sent out in 1810, one of which was by the way of the Missouri River. It 
was during that year that a trading post was set up at Bellevue, Nebraska. 
And even long before that barter in pelts and furs had been going on on 
the banks of the Missouri. Such trading was with the Indian tribes 
then living along the streams of what is now Nebraska. American 
explorers found traders on Nebraska soil soon after 1800, and the annual 
business in furs was very large. It is said that for forty years up to 
1847 the annual value to St. Louis was from $200,000 to $300,000. 

The Great Exploring Expeditions 

The Lewis and Clark expedition of 1804 marked an era of progress 
for the new American Republic. Following this came the undertakings 
of Major Long in 1819 and that of the illustrious Pathfinder — Gen. John 
C. Fremont in 1842 and 1843. Among the travelers to Nebraska may 
be given these: Lewis and Clark, July 13 to September 5. 1804; August 
31 to September 11, 1806. Thomas Nutall and John Bradbury, 1808 
(botanical trip). Major Long, 1819-20; W. H. Ashley. 1822; Rev. Sam- 
uel Parker, 1835; I. N. Nicollet, 1838-39; Capt. John C. Fremont, 1842; 
Lieut. G. K. Warren, 1855-57. 

The news spread throughout the east about this "beautiful, fertile 
country" and the chances to become wealthy by easy methods. Traders 
still got many furs and buffalo robes, missionaries came to bring the 
glad tidings of the Gospel to the Indians. One of the earliest mission- 
aries within the borders of this state was Moses Merrill, who resided 
and preached among the Otoes from 1833 to 1840. 

The Mormon Advent 

Among the interesting incidents of the early days in this state was 
the advent of the Mormons from Illinois in 1844. They had been driven 
from Missouri to Illinois and again established themselves and built an 
immense temple, but after a few years were driven out of the state. 



42 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

crossed the State of Iowa and stopped on the west bank" of the Missouri, 
a few miles above present Omaha, at Florence, then called "Winter- 
Quarters," for it was at that point the Mormons remained two years and 
then marched toward their "Promised Land" in Utah, and became the 
founders of Salt Lake City. The Mormons who halted at Winter- 
Quarters numbered about 15,000 souls, men, women and children. About 
one-half of this number in the spring of 1846 decided to separate them- 
selves from the Brigham Young faction that believed in and practiced 
polygamy, and settled the southwestern counties in Iowa, being the 
pioneers of those counties. The other half of the Mormon body, with 
their famous hand-cart expedition, crossed the great plains of Nebraska. 
Such things as the country afforded for both food and shelter these 
strange religionists helped themselves to. For a city to spring up on 
the frontier in a month and have 15,000 population was indeed an 
unheard-of event in any part of the world. The land then belonged 
to the red men and the Government was compelled to stand by his 
rights. The Mormons had to move. Not a few of these Mormons, or, as 
they style themselves, "Latter Day Saints," located in different parts of 
Nebraska and Iowa, aside from the general settlement already named 
in southwestern Iowa counties. As late as 1857 they made a settle- 
ment at Genoa, now in the eastern part of Nance County. A hundred 
families received shares of the 1,000 acres which they enclosed and in a 
few years their colony was very prosperous. The Pawnee Indians, how- 
ever, came to occupy the reservation assigned them by the Government. 
Wars came on between the Pawnee and Sioux tribes, so that six years 
after Genoa had been founded, they had to again disperse and hunt 
other homes, and today one finds no trace of Mormondom there, 
save a few sections of earthworks. 

The Gold Hunters' Panic— 1849 

Next to the Mormon incident came the exciting gold-hunting years, 
when thousands of men came on from the remote East, even from New 
England, and crossed the Great American Desert, including Nebraska, 
headed for the gold fields of northern California, that being the year in 
which much pure gold was discovered in that far-away Pacific state. 
The valley of the Platte was the natural avenue by which to approach 
the mountains, especially from the Northern States. At points on the 
Missouri River where teams could find a crossing, thousands took advan- 
tage and crossed over and making up long trains of horses, mule and 
ox teams, started on their tedious route. Many were illy prepared and 
perished by the wayside. Some gave up trying to get to the gold fields 
and settled down to make homes for themselves, and these persons were 
among the pioneer band that made permanent settlement in Nebraska. 
However, their number was not very large. As Barrett says in his 
"Nebraska and the Nation," one must have a strong imagination to 
realize even dimly the long lines of toilers across the continent, the 
hardships and heartaches, and the terrible' suffering, which left the 
whole way strewn by castaway garments, by beasts of burden that had 
perished, and by graves of weary pilgrims. This sad picture points to a 
moral about fortune-hunting. 



CHAPTER III 

INDIAN OCCUPANCY AND FINAL DEPARTURE 

Concerning the Indians — Pawnees— Pike the Explorer Among 
THE Indians — The Poncas — The Algonquian Family — Sac and 
Fox Purchase — Other Indian Tribes — The Kiowan Family — 
Half-breed Tract, Etc. — Still Other Tribes — Character and 
Relation with the Whites — Implements and Weapons — Hostil- 
ity Toward the Whites — Indian War of 1890-91. 

There was a stronger influence than the contour of the land which 
drew the tide of emigration, although this had its effect, douhtless, to 
such an extent that the route of travel had a west-by-northwest course. 
The food supply became the main factor in determining the real direction 
of migration. The buffalo, which are indigenous to the whole central 
region of North America, were partial to the open country and enticed the 
Indians to the Nebraska plains which they possessed in vast herds. This 
noble animal was the source of supply for almost every want ; food from 
the flesh, raiment and shelter from the hide, implements from his bones, 
vessels for holding liquids from his intestines and fuel from his clung. 
The bufifalo made it possible for great numbers of Indians to subsist in 
comparative ease on the treeless prairies of Nebraska 

By far the greater number of Indian tribes, which have from time 
to time inhabited this territory now known as the commonwealth of 
Nebraska, followed the general rule of migration from east to west. 
These tribes belonged to two linguistic families — the Algonquian and the 
Siouan. Both these great families sprang from the region east of the 
Appalachian Mountains and in turn occupied nearly the entire Mississippi 
Valley. 

The first occupants of Nebraska did not follow this rule. The Cad- 
doan linguistic family had its home in the South near the banks of the 
Red River, and migrated northwest, occupying the valley of the Kansas 
River and reaching northwest to the valley of the Platte River, finally 
going west to the foothills of the mountains. Two other linguistic fam- 
ilies, the Shoshonean and Kiowan, encroached on our territory from the 
west. They hunted along the headwaters of the Republican and Platte 
rivers and claimed a part of the territory of this state, but few, if any, 
ruins of their permanent homes are found within the present limits. Only 
these five linguistic families were found in Nebraska and but two of 
them — the Caddoan and Siouan — are of importance in this connection. 
Tribes of these two families had their permanent home within the state 
and fought with one another and among themselves for supremacy on 
our eastern borders and up and down the Platte Valley. 

The original homes of the Caddoan family was on the Red River of 
the South. Prior to 1400, A. D., one band, known as the Skidi, branched 
oflf from the main stock and drifted to the Platte Valley. The next line 
of immigration is hard to decide upon, but tradition says this tribe lived 
as allies of the Omahas near the mouth of the Ohio River. It is not 
impossible that they may have followed the Mississippi River in coming 
to the Platte Valley, where, according to historian Dunbar, they were 
43 



44 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

located in 1400, A. D. Prior to 1500, A. D., another branch branched off 
from the parent stock and drifted northward to a point near the Kan- 
sas-Nebraska line. Here the Wichitas turned back and went south, while 
the Pawnees moved northward and occupied the Platte Valley and inter- 
vening country. In 1541 A. D., Coronado found the Wichitas near the 
Kansas River and sent a summon to the "Lord of Harahey" (Pawnee) 
to visit him, which he did with 200 naked warriors : This is the earliest 
authentic record of Indians occupying Nebraska territory. This is the 
first time civilized man ever saw an Indian from what is now Nebraska. 
All history before that date is simply legendary, and legendary history is 
so conflicting that we may only say that it is possible for it to be true. 

How far Onate penetrated in 1599 in his trip northeastward from 
New Mexico is hard to establish. He says he visited the City of Quivera 
which was on the north bank of a wide, shallow river (likely the Platte). 
He says he fought with the "Escanzaques" and killed a thousand. Pos- 
sibly this battle was in Nebraska. Penalosa also claims to have had a 
conflict when three brief glimpses into Spanish history are substantiated. 
We may be able sometime to establish more definitely the exact date of 
Indian occupancy in Nebraska. 

The Pawnees 

The Pawnee (proper), consisting of three main tribes — the Choui 
(or Grand), the Pita-how-e-rat (or Tapage) and the Kit-ke-hak-i (or 
Republican), emigrated to the Platte Valley prior to 1.500 A. D. They 
held the country fifty miles wide west of the Missouri River and were 
eventually conquered by the Skidi band, who had come in 100 years 
before, and adopted it into their own tribe. Before the Pawnees came, 
however, a band called Arikara had drifted away from the Skidi band 
and established itself on the Missouri River, but out of the bounds of 
Nebraska. The Arikaras came into Nebraska and lived with the Skidi 
tribe for three years, from 1832 to 1835, when they returned home. 

In 1861, just at the openmg of the Civil war period, the editor of 
the Huntsman's Echo described the Pawnees on their Genoa reservation 
as follows : "The Pawnees numbered at first about four thousand souls 
and possibly a fraction more, and when at home live in a cluster of huts 
built with crotches and poles, covered with willows, then with grass and 
dirt, giving the appearance, at a little distance, of an immense collection 
of 'potato hills', all of a circular shape and oval. The entrance is 
through a passage walled with earth, the hole in the center at top serv- 
ing both for a window and a chimney, the fire being built in the center. 
Along the sides little apartments are divided off from the main room by 
partitions of willow, rush and flag, some of them being neat and tidily 
constructed, and altogether the lodges are quite roomy and comfortable, 
and each is frequently the abode of two or more families. In their 
villages are no regular streets or alleys, but each builds in a rather pro- 
miscuous manner, having no other care than to be comfortable without 
much regard to taste or order. This tribe is divided into five bands, 
"each being under a special chief or leader and the whole confederation 
being under one principal chief. Each band has its separate habitation 
and is distinct from the other. Three bands live in villages adjoining 
and all camp in one village, the other two some little distance removed. 
There is considerable rivalry between the tribes or bands in fighting, 
hunting and other sports, and not infrequently one band commits theft 
upon the effects of another band." 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



45 



At the beginning of the Civil war the Pawnees had several thousand 
horses, but owing to the severe cold, and long winters that followed 
hundreds of the poor animals perished from sore tongues and other dis- 
order. The animals lived out all winter upon dry grass; but if the snow 
was too deep for them to reach it, cottonwood trees were cut down and 
the horses would subsist upon the bark. These horses were above the 
average in their "high-toned-ness" for it is said that they would not eat 
corn raised in civilized life, even when placed before them.. They were 
valued at from $30 to $60 each. 

The Pawnees at this time generally took two hunts each year, and at 
such times all went — old and young, both sexes — and for the time their 
villages were abandoned, while the tribe visited the buffalo ranges. From 
these visits the summer months were put in in securing jerked meat and 




Moving Indians 



lodge skins and in the autumn hunt they secured buffalo robes, furs and 
tanned skins : also dried buffalo meat. These hunts were usually in the 
beautiful "Indian Summer" months of October and November. These 
Indians had a field of considerable extent, near each village, where they 
cultivated com in considerable quantities ; also raised many beans. With 
these and a little flour and sugar they managed to eke out their existence, 
miserable though it was. Some seasons of the year they feasted and 
others almost starved. 

One writer who traveled extensively among the Indians wrote of this 
tribe : "The females are the working bees of the iiive : they dig up the 
soil, raise and gather the crops, cut timber, build lodges, pack wood and 
water, cook, nurse the babies, carry all the burdens, tan the skins and 
make the robes, as well as all moccasins. The lord of the other sex 
reclines by the fire or sits in the shade, kills the game, and their enemies, 
does all the stealing and most of the eating, wears the best ornaments 
and plays the dandy in their way to a scratch. They are a tall, graceful 
and athletic figure, as straight as an arrow and as proud as a lord, while 
the squaws are short, thick, stooping, poorly clad, filthy and squalid. 
Parentless children and the very aged are left behind or at the wayside 
where they perish and die, as useless creatures." 



46 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Explorer Pike Among These Indians 

Pike in his exploring expedition tells of his visit to the Pawnees in 
1806 and says they dwelt near the south line of the present state until 
about 1812, when they journeyed to the rest of the band north of the 
Platte River. Dunbar gives the location of the various tribes in 1834: 
The Choui band resided on the south bank of the Platte River, twenty 
miles above the mouth of the Loup ; the Kit-ke-hak-i lived eighteen miles 
northwest, on the north side of the Loup; the Pita-haw-e-rat. eleven 
miles farther up the Loup and the Skidi five miles above those last 
named. He says they changed their villages every eight to ten years. 
In 1833 the Pawnee ceded the territory of Platte to the United States. 
In 1857 they ceded the territory north of the Platte (except their reser- 
vation in Nance County). The territory ceded is said to have been 
embraced in the central one-third of present Nebraska State. The reser- 
vation just named was ceded in 1876 and the Pawnees were then taken 
to the Indian Territory, where they still enjoy their reservation. 

Other Tribes 

The various branches of the Siouan linguistic stock have come to 
this state at five different times. The first were the Mandans, whose 
coming is not certain as to date, but very far remote at any rate. Catlin, 
the greatest Indian portrait painter ^and traveler among the North 
American Indians, is said to have traced their earthworks and habitat 
down the Ohio River and up the Missouri. Another authority states 
the Siouan family began to cross the Appalachian range of mountains a 
thousand years ago. The Mandans were the first to break off from the 
parent stock and the only excuse we have for including them in this 
history is the probability that they crossed our borders on their way up 
the Missouri River some time prior to the coming of the Skidi band 
in 1400 A. D. 

In 1500 A. D. the Omaha tribe was located near the mouth of the 
Ohio River, so its advent in central Nebraska was certainly after 1500. 
Their trail is traced quite accurately up the Missouri and Des Moines 
rivers to its present home in the northeastern part of Nebraska. The 
Osage tribe branched ofif and remained at the Osage River. The Kansas 
tribe came on to the Kansas River and there established its present 
habitat. 

The Omahas and Poncas remained together until 1650, when the 
latter moved northward and occupied the country from the mouth of the 
Niobrara west to the Black Hills. By the treaty of March 16. 1854, the 
Omahas ceded the northeast third of Nebraska to the United States, 
excepting that part north of a line drawn due west from the mouth of 
the Aoway River. That tongue of land which was added to Nebraska 
in 1890, by authority of congressional act dated March 28, 1882, and 
which lies between the Niobrara, Keya Paha and Missouri rivers, was 
ceded by the Poncas in 1858, except a small reservation. In 1877 the 
Poncas were moved to the Indian Territory. 

The third detachment of the Siouan family to occupy Nebraska 
consisted of three tribes — the Otoes, Missouris and the lowas. The 
Otoes and lowas have always been closely related. They were first 
seen at the mouth of the Des Moines River by Marquette in 1673. They 
are said by tradition to have sprung from the Winnebagoes. It is stated 
that in 1699 they went to live with the Omahas. The Missouris have 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 47 

had a very checkered career. They were first seen in 1670 at the mouth 
of the Missouri River. Soon after 1700 they were overcome by the 
Sacs and Foxes and other tribes. Most of their number joined another 
tribe, but a few went with the Osage and others united with the Kansas 
tribe. They have never ceded land to the United States, except in com- 
pany with the Otoes, but they have been a party to every transaction of 
the Otoes. For all practical purposes the Otoes and Missouris have been 
one tribe during their occupancy of Nebraska domain. The Otoes and 
Missouris ceded the southeast portion of this state in 1833 to the United 
States ; this cession embraced the land south and west of Nemaha. The 
remaining portion of the land which they claimed lay between the 
Nemaha, Missouri and the Platte rivers, reaching as far west as Seward 
County. The last tract was ceded in 1854, when they returned to their 
reservation south from Beatrice. In 1881 they relinquished this domain 
and now abide in Indian Territory. Most of the lowas remained east 
of Nebraska soil until 1836, when they were given a tract of land along 
the south bank of the Nemaha. This land they retained in part in indi- 
vidual allotments, but remained under the Great Nemaha Agency. This 
tribe of Indians was always closely associated with the Otoes, but was 
never under the same tribal relations as an organized body of Indians, 
as was the Missouri tribe. All three tribes belonged to the same branch 
of the Siouan family as the Winnebago. 

The council gave the United States title to the east two-thirds of 
the domain in Nebraska. The earliest treaty by which they acquired 
title to land in Nebraska was made with the Kansas tribe in 1825 ; by 
this treaty the Kansas tribe ceded a semi-circular tract along the south 
line, reaching from Fall City to Red Willow County and almost as far 
as Lincoln. So it appears that the Kansas tribe at least laid claim to 
part of the territory now called Nebraska. 

The next detachment of the great Siouan family to invade Nebraska 
was from the northern branch of this tribe which dwelt along the Great 
Lakes. The Assiniboins had separated from this branch as early as 
1650, and according to McGee, were near the Lake of the Woods in 
1766, so they had not long wandered over Nebraska when the white 
man's history began here. 

The Poncas and Omahas 

The Poncas and Omahas joined in repressing the advance of the 
northern tribes and held them back from the great waterways for many 
years, but they hunted on the headwaters of the Platte and Republican 
rivers and even went as far to the south as the headwaters of the Smoky 
Hill and Solomon rivers. The Crows were doubtless the first to encroach 
on the Platte Valley: they drifted to the Black Hill country in a very 
early day and hunted on the Platte from the northwest. The Blackfeet, 
a branch of the Saskatchewan tribe, came later. The Yankton, Santee, 
Brule, Sisseton, Teton, Minnistaree and parts of the tribes from the 
headwaters of the Platte frequently hunted and fought in the valley 
of this stream. They united in ceding the northwest part of the State of 
Nebraska to the United States in 1868, reserving for themselves a com- 
mon hunting ground right, which, however, in 'l875, they relinquished. 
They next were numbered in the various reservations of Dakotah and 
Indian Territory. 

The Winnebagos were the last tribe of the great Siouan family to 
come hither. They were moved from Minnesota to a part of the Omaha 



48 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

reservation in 1862, and there still reside. Schoolcraft says in his Indian 
history that this tribe once lived on a branch of the Crow Wing River, 
Minnesota. Some of the Santee Sioux were moved to Nebraska at the 
same time, but many of both tribes came across the country before. 

The Algonquian F.^mily 

To this family belongs the Cheyenne, Arapaho and Astina, who wan- 
dered over the western part of Nebraska, as did the Sac and Fox tribe, 
which had a reservation in the extreme southeastern part of this state 
from 1836 to 1885. The Algonquian family once occupied the greater 
portion of the Mississippi Valley. At a very early date the Cheyenne 
drifted westward through Dakota and gave their name to one of the 
important streams. Later, they drifted southward. Explorers Lewis 
and Clark mention this tribe as occupying a portion of the Cheyenne 
Valley in 1804, while Long in his 1819 expedition found small bands 
which had seceded from the main stock on the Cheyenne River and had 
roamed with the Arapaho along the Platte River. Gen. J. C. Fremont 
made a record which states that this tribe was found on the Platte above 
Grand Island in 1843. They ceded the southwest portion of Nebraska 
in 1861. 

S.\c AND Fox Purchase 

The United States purchased all of Missouri north of the river, most 
of the State of Iowa, and a portion of Illinois, Wisconsin and Minnesota 
from the Sac and Fox tribe. They seem to have been the original own- 
ers of the Mississippi and Missouri fronts and the Siouan tribes as they 
departed went westward doubtless had these Indians to contend with. 
The Sac and Fox gave up their holdings and settled on a southern reser- 
vation, excepting a band who took up a reservation on the Great Nemaha 
River, party in Nebraska and a part of which is in Kansas. 

Other Indian Tribes 

It is certain the Comanches roamed at will over Nebraska soil at one 
time, and probably the "Padoucas" once had their home and hunting 
ground here ; at least North Fork of the Platte River was known in early 
days as the Padouca fork. Historian Mooney, in one of his early 
reports, says: "In 1719 the Comanche were mentioned under their 
Siouan name of Padoucas living in what is now known as the western 
part of the State of Kansas. It must not be overlooked that five to 
eight hundred miles was an ordinary range for plains tribes and 
the Comanche were equally at home on the North Platte or on the 
Chihuahua (Mexico)." 

The Comanche and the Kansas Indian tribes were closely connected 
for over 150 years, at least. There is no record that the Comanche 
ever ceded any part of this state to the United States Government. 

The Kiowan Family 

This tribe of Indians migrated from the northwest and took up a resi- 
dence near the Black Hills. From that point they were driven by the 
bloodthirsty Sioux tribes and Lewis and Clark mention them as residing 
on the north fork of the Platte in 1805, in all they had seventy-five tepees. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 49 

They slowly drifted southward until they occupied the south side of 
the Arkansas River country. As this particular tribe seldom lived long 
away from the mountain countries, it is most likely that they had not 
been long occupiers of Nebraska domain. 

The Halfbreed Tract, Etc. 

There was a halfbreed tract situated between Neosha and Missouri 
rivers. It was set apart in 1830, intended for the home of civilized 
Indians belonging to the Omaha, Iowa, Otoe, Yankton and Santee Sioux 
halfbreeds. 

The Pine Ridge and Rosebud agencies are located just to the north 
of the Nebraska line in South Dakota and the Indian title to a narrow 
strip adjoining this state was until recent years not yet extinguished. 
The only Indian agencies in Nebraska at this date (1920) are the Santee, 
near Niobrara; the Ponca, the Omahas and the Winnebagos in Thurston 
County. 

In 1890 United States census returns give the number of Indians in 
this state as being 3,322. There are three Indian schools in the state 
conducted by the Federal Government — one on the Santee reservation; 
one on the Omaha-Winnebago reservation, while a boarding school is 
run at Genoa, Nance County. 

Tribal Lands, Etc. 

All tribal lands, except a small part of the Omaha reservation, have 
been allotted and all Indians are taxed as citizens of the state. The 
Omahas in 1904 numbered 1,200 and the Winnebagos 1,100 souls. The 
Omahas are of a much higher type of Indian citizens than the Winne- 
bagos, and are by far the more industrious, taking great pride in becom- 
ing good agriculturists. They also pay strict attention to their marriage 
vows, whereas the Winnebagos pay little attention to such matters. 

Indian Character and Relations with Settlers 

W. J. McGee, in his report of the Bureau of Ethnology, remarks : 
"They were ceremonious among themselves and crafty towards enemies, 
tactful diplomatists as well as brave soldiers, shrewd strategists as well 
as fierce fighters ; ever they were skillful readers of human nature. 
Among some of the tribes every movement and gesture and expression 
the male adults seems to have been afi^ected or controlled with the view 
of impressing spectators and auditors, and through constant schooling 
the warriors became most consummate actors. 

"The best developed industries were hunting and warfare, though 
all of the tribes subsisted in part on fruits, nuts, berries, tubers, grains 
and other vegetable products, largely wild, though sometimes planted 
and even cultivated in rude fashion. The southwestern tribes, and to 
some extent the eastern remnant, grew maize, beans, pumpkins, melons, 
squashes, sunflowers and tobacco, though their agriculture seems always 
to have been subordinate to the chase." 

In manners and customs the Indian was very different from the 
whites. For this reason the two did not come to understand one 
another as they did years latef. An interesting thing in which this is 
true was the idea that the greatest man always gave away most things. 
On this account, nearly always the chiefs were very poor in this world's 
goods. 



50 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Implements and Weapons 

Stone, wood, horn, bone and antler were usually used for imple- 
ments and weapons. The domestic utensils were made from wood, crude 
pottery, basketry, bags and bottles of skin. Their apparel consisted of 
lareech clout, moccasins, leggins and robe, usually of dressed skins. The 
prairie tribes had for places of abode earth lodges for winter, buffalo 
skin tepees for summer. Their horses were of Spanish origin. The new 
enterprise of catching wild horses made a great difference with their 
mode of living. They had for their amusements — races, wrestling 
matches, games of chance : sports for boys, making bows and arrows, 
playing hunt, etc. ; of girls, dolls, play-house, etc. The organization of 
tribes was very complicated. Their property regulations were strictly 
observed ; common land ; much individual possessions in other things, 
but a great deal of entertainment of friends in the family lodge. Tepees 
belonged to the women. Food was not owned in common. 

Hostility Towards the Whites 

The associations between the two races — the red man and the white 
man — made up one continual warfare, at least this was true from about 
the commencement of the Civil war period, when it has been suspected 
by northern radical thinkers, that they were greatly influenced by the 
men at the head of the Southern Confederacy, in order to weaken the 
strength of the Northern army. This was proven in a number of 
instances, among which was the uprising at New Ulm, Minnesota, in 
1862, when a thousand settlers were ruthlessly massacred by the blood- 
thirsty Sioux. But be that as it may, the histories of the counties that 
have been compiled of the part of the country in which Lincoln County 
and Nebraska in general were situated are replete with accounts of bitter 
feelings, hostilities, cattle and horse stealing, and some loss of life, too. 
On the other hand it must be admitted that the Indians were ill treated 
by them. Not by the sturdy actual settler, but by the roving band of 
traders and rougher element that is ever found on the frontier of any 
country. The Indians resented any personal injury and took vengeance 
upon all whites alike. 

When cattle were stolen by the Indians large companies of white 
settlers would band themselves together and overtake the offenders. 
Punishment was meted out without trial and without delay. A marked 
change was noted with the commencement of the Civil war. Then it was 
that Indian hostilities increased rapidly. Not only did they attack and 
murder small parties and raid settlements here and there, but the spirit 
of enmity caused many bands of savages all through the great Northwest 
to combine in attacking settlements. 

August 7. 1864, occurred one of the worst Indian raids the true 
pioneers of Nebraska ever suffered. At about the same hour of the 
same day and month all the homes except two along a route of 200 miles 
were surrounded and burned. The inmates who could not escape were 
killed, and their provisions and goods were carried off. This state of 
affairs continued to some extent after the close of our Civil war which 
ended in April, 1865. 

One writer of Nebraska history relates that in the neighborhood of 
Lincoln County the attacks of Indians continued for five years. As late 
as the time the Union Pacific Railroad was constructed through this 
countv the company's property and men had to be guarded and pro- 

'.I ' i*m 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 51 

tected by United States soldiers, who as late as 1869-70 also stood guard 
for the Government surveyors who were then quarter-sectioning this 
county. 

Indian War of 1890-91 

The last trouble between the Indians and whites in Nebraska 
occurred in 1890-91, in which case, as usually before, the United States 
(shame to such deeds) failed to keep good her word with the Indians. 
If the Government authorities were innocent ( which is doubted ) at 
lea.st they winked at the unlawful acts committed by Indian agents, who 
did not have at heart the good of all concerned, but wished only to make 
what they could out of trading with the ignorant Indians. Many of the 
Indians at the commencement of that noted outbreak were literally 
starving to death, due to the shiftless policy of the Government. 



CHAPTER IV 
EARLY SETTLEMENT 

FONTANELLE SETTLEMENT THROWN InTO WASHINGTON CoUNTY — 

First Houses — First Land Broken — Early Crops — Milling — 
Markets — Townsite Projects — North Bend — Fremont — First 
Births — Death — Hard Winter 1856-57 — Pawnee Indians — 1857 
Panic — 1857 Settlement — Pioneer Himebaugh's Experiences — 
Sixty Per Cent Interest — Pike's Peak — Immigration Days — 
Union Pacific. 

The reader will bear in mind that Fontanelle was at first within Dodge 
County, but two years after the settlement of this part of the state it 
was thrown into Washington County. Then in Fontanelle was the first 
settlement — made by the "Nebraska Colonization Company" from 
Quincy, Illinois. But the first regular settlement in what is now Dodge 
County was effected by John and Arthur Bloomer, near the mouth of 
Maple Creek, early in April, 1856. During the first part of the next 
month, they broke out twenty-five acres of prairie which was the small 
beginning of agricultural pursuits in Dodge County now so famous as 
a farming section. Mr. Bloomer spent his last years at the Soldier's 
Home in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

May 25, 1856, Mrs. Wealthy Beebe, with her children and Abram 
McNeal, her son-in-law, with his family, located two miles west of Fre- 
mont — then unknown as a settlement. The following month, George 
Emerson took a claim five miles west of the present site of North Bend, 
built him a shanty and broke out eight or ten acres of prairie land. July 
4th the North Bend Colony, attracted by the promises of the townsite 
company, arrived and settled permanently. (See details in North Bend 
History.) 

August. 1856, the first settlers having claimed the site of Fremont, a 
town was formed under the name of Pinney, Barnard & Company, whose 
doings with the Piatt Valley Claim Club, were among the first promoters 
in this part of the county. September 3, 1856, the new town was named 
Fremont after the great western pathfinder — Gen. John C. Fremont, 
who was the republican candidate that fall for President of the United 
States. At the same campaign the democrats named a townsite twenty- 
five miles to the west "Buchanan." 

In June, 1856, O. A. Himebaugh entered a half section of land on 
Maple Creek, three miles south of the present Village of Hooper. He 
and his brother lived in a cottonwood hut together. There was then a 
sawmill at Fontanelle, lumber selling in Omaha at $100 a thousand feet. 
John Batie had previously marked a tree in section 5, township 18 and 
entered his claim in the books of the club at Fontanelle. Of him 
Mr. Himebaugh purchased fifty acres of hardwood timber for $200 in 
gold. His experience in that region during that never-to-be-forgotten 
winter of 1856-57, was but the common lot of all who then undertook to 
spend the winter months here. Cold weather and deep snows obtained 
from December till almost May 1, 1857. Food was scarce. Once in a 
great while some hardy persons would face the storm to Omaha from 
52 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 53 

Fontanelle and thus get in touch with the river points and the east. One 
of these terrible trips to Omaha was made by Mr. Himebaugh. He 
started out Monday morning and arrived home late Saturday of that 
week. He affirmed that on a level, the snow was fully three feet deep, 
and drifted entirely over many of the cabins, stables and haystacks. 
Cattle perished in the blinding storm, or were smothered in the rude 
shelters. Strychnine was applied to their carcasses to prevent a pesti- 
lence when spring thaws came, and many hungry wolves perished like- 
wise, but crawled away and died without such thoughtful preservation. 
The first death of a human being (white) that ever occurred in 
Dodge County was Steadmah Hager, who perished while driving from 
North Bend to his home west from Fremont. His remains were found 
the following spring when the snows melted away under the welcome 
sunshine. His was the first funeral and Reverend Cooley, a Disciple 
minister, preached the sermon. 

The twin daughters of Mr. and Mrs. Abram McNeal were born 
April 8, 1856. McNeal was a son-in-law of pioneer Mrs. Wealthy Beebe, 
first to settle in the Platte Valley proper. 

Seth Young, son of George Young and wife, was born at North 
Bend November 30, 1856. December 20 the mother died and was buried 
where cold winds and driving storms could reach her no more. It being 
impossible at such a time to secure a coffin, cottonwood boards were 
torn from the house flooring and a casket made from it in which the 
deceased pioneer was buried. About 100 persons braved the terrible 
winter of 1856-57. 

The Pawnee Indians were then stationed just south of the Platte 
River and their chief village was nearly opposite Fremont. An early 
writer speaks of them thus : "They had looked on with angry faces at 
the inroads which the new settlers were making upon their timber land. 
In the fall of 1856 the people of Fremont derived an advantage over the 
Pawnees bv sending for military aid to Omaha, the 'force' being piloted 
by James G. Smith. When this terrible winter came upon this country, 
the Pawnees were firmly of the belief that the 'white man brought the 
big snows' and were 'Bad Medicine' for them. They threatened dire 
calamity and 'looked blood.' sending at one time twenty of their strong- 
est chiefs across the river for the purpose of commanding the settlers 
to depart. After parleying a time, the brave men of the tribe decided 
to take 'much good supper' instead of many scalps, and their thirst for 
blood was thus appeased. They were hungry — that's what ailed them — 
and fully satisfied themselves, they left and never returned to molest or 
threaten. They became unpleasant neighbors, however, and hardly a 
day passed during 1857 that they did not come to Fremont in large 
numbers either to trade with Smith Brothers, or steal back some of the 
goods they had sold the firm. By the treaty of September 4, 1857, they 
were removed to their reservation in the valley of the Loup Fork River. 
In 1859 when the Pawnees passed through Fremont, going north, bound 
on the warpath up the Elkhorn Valley, they committed no depredations 
upon that village, avoiding hostilities of any nature until they reached 
the settlements on Maple Creek. A full account of the Pawnee war 
will be found elsewhere in this work, hence only mentioned here. 

"The financial panic of 1857 had its efifect on Dodge County's settle- 
ment. The summer had been spent mostly in breaking prairie for crops, 
only a little sod corn and a few potatoes. The settlers were therefore 
illy prepared for the oncoming severe fall and winter. Money became a 
thing almost entirely unknown to this band of settlers. Even postage 
stamps were a curiosity." 



54 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Spring of 1857 Settlement 

In the spring of this year quite a number of settlers came into this 
county, including H. P. Wolcott in May, who in August was joined by 
G. W. Wolcott. Their claims were northwest of Fremont, near the Elm 
Grove Claim, later the property of John Batie, who moved over from 
Fontanelle. H. G. Wolcott, a brother of H. P., received frequent letters 
from him, full of glowing accounts of the country. Later in the autumn 
such letters ceased to come to his brother, and later it was explained that 
"they had no money with which to pay the postage on letters." 

The land pre-empted by Mr. Himebaugh came into the market in 
1858, and he was obliged to hire $150 of a banker in Omaha, at 60 per 
cent interest. The note was compounded the second year at 25 per 
cent. The third year the same banker's terms were given him. It was 
virtually impossible to secure money. Finding it one failure upon another 
Mr. Himebaugh abandoned his farm operations and started out to dis- 
pose of his crop. From his farm on Maple Creek, he was compelled to 
haul his wheat to Omaha and have it ground into flour. With two ox 
teams he started on a journey of 600 miles to Denver. He took with 
him 6,000 pounds of flour and was two months on the road. His sea- 
son's work netted him $360. The payment which he was finally obliged 
to make on the original note for his land amounted to $415. He could 
not meet it and nearly lost his land, with improvements. Many people 
in this county were making preparations to leave. Pioneer Himebaugh, 
however, was "given another chance" and he improved it well. 

Pike's Peak Immigration 

The season of 1858 was extremely wet, little was grown save some 
soft sod corn and soggy potatoes. This diet allowed settlers to exist. 
The winter of 1858-59 was fortunately quite free from cold and storms. 
In the spring of 1859 the Pike's Peak immigration brought into the 
country considerable money which revived trade somewhat. Soon after, 
on the return of these gold-seekers, they brought back with them much 
money (in some instances only) and also valuable provisions, which they 
sold cheaply to the settlers in both village and country. 

The construction of the Union Pacific Railroad in 1866 was the mark- 
ing of another special era in the history and settlement of the domain 
of Dodge County. 

An account of many settlers will be found in the township and vil- 
lage chapters of this work, hence need not here be enlarged on. 

The County's Topography 

The Relative State History section of this work gives much on the 
general geology and topography of Nebraska, including that of Dodge 
and Washington counties, but in this connection this much should spe- 
cifically be said concerning the topography, streams, etc., of this part of 
the state. 

The surface of the wonderful valley now under consideration (Platte) 
constitutes a vast domain with undulating prairie lands of great extent, 
diversified by a few low hills and ridges. 

From the west and north the land slopes gradually toward the Mis- 
souri River, which bounds the state on the east and northeast. The 
Elkhorn River is the greatest natural drainage for this whole section 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 55 

assisted by the Niobrara and Union rivers. The Elkhorn Valley which 
stretches itself across the northern part of the state is one of extreme 
fertihty and its many tributaries and several lakes render the country 
well watered. The western part of this section is well suited for graz- 
ing purposes. Generally speaking, the wonderful fertility of the soil and 
the absence of sloughs have attracted its thousands of actual settlers who 
at once commenced planting out groves of timber which now have come 
to be miniature forests and lend both beauty and utility to the otherwise 
monotonous prairie landscape. 

In the lower counties embraced in this valley grains of all kinds 
(including winter wheat) do well. Corn, the staple crop, is unsurpassed 
by any section of the West, while the flat lands produce a luxuriant 
growth of both wild and tame grasses. Hence stock-raising is a predomi- 
nating feature of the inhabitants. 

Good water is obtainable at almost any point in this valley at depths 
ranging from 20 to 100 feet. Much concerning the streams and general 
formation of this valley is treated in other sections of the work. 

The chief streams of the county are the Elkhorn, Rawhide Creek,' 
Pebble Creek, Logan Creek, Clark Creek and Maple Creek. 

The Elkhorn River, a stream of the third class and the largest in 
Dodge County,, flows from the northwest to the southeast. Its length 
is, in this county, about thirty miles. It was named in 1804 by the 
explorers Clark and Lewis. Its meanderings as well as the soil through 
which its cuts its changeable channel is very similar to that of the 
Missouri. 

Rawhide Creek took its name from the fact (or tradition) that during 
the 1849 emigration to California it was said that a white man was 
bound by the Pawnee Indians on the banks of this stream and there 
literally burned to death, his skin being left in great rolls resembling 
rawhide. It rises near North Bend and flows eastward to the Elkhorn 
River. 

Pebble Creek derives its name from the many white pebbles found at 
a ford at which the soldiers crossed in 1849 during the "Pawnee war." 
This stream has its source in the northwestern part of the county and 
forms junction with the Elkhorn River in Everett Township. 

Logan Creek derives its name from Logan Fontenelle, a friendly 
chief of the Omaha Indian tribe. It was given this name by Col. William 
Kline in 1854. It finds its source in Burt County and unites with Clark 
Creek in Hooper Township. 

Clark Creek was so named by Col. William Kline in honor of Dr. M. 
H. Clark, the first , territorial representative from Dodge County. It 
rises in Logan Township and enters Logan Creek in Hooper Township. 

Maple Creek takes its source in Union Township and flows eastward 
across the entire county, emptying into the Elkhorn River near Nick- 
erson in Maple Township. 



CHAPTER V 

ORGANIZATION OF DODGE COUNTY 

Original and Present Boundaries — County Seat Contest — Meet- 
ing OF First County Commissioners — Platting of Fremont — 
Agitating Erection of County Buildings 

Counties, like states and nations, have their own pecuHar forms of 
government — here in Nebraska the tviro systems obtain. County Commis- 
sioners' Court for Precincts and the present "Township Organization" 
plan under which Dodge County has been governed since 1886. 

Dodge County is bounded on the north by Cuming and Burt counties; 
on the east by Washington and Burt counties ; on the south by Saunders 
and Douglas counties ; on the west by Colfax County. As now constituted 
it comprises about fourteen congressional townships. Its seat of justice 
is the City of Fremont. This county was organized by an act of the 
Territorial Legislature of Nebraska in the winter of 1854-55. The act 
which fixed and approved its first boundaries was dated March 15, 1855, 
and read as follows : 

"Commencing at a point on the Platte river at the southwest corner 
of Douglas county, running westerly along said Platte river to the mouth 
of Shell Creek — thence north twenty-five miles ; thence east to the west- 
ern bounds of Washington county ; thence south to place of beginning. 
The Town of Fontenelle shall be tlie place of justice in and for said 
county." 

The act approved November 2. 1858, read as follows: "An act to 
establish boundary between Washington and Dodge counties : — Begin- 
ning at the Fourth Standard parallel two miles east of the southwest 
corner of township 17, range 10, east of the Sixth p. m. ; thence north 
twelve miles to the line between ranges 9 and 10: thence north to the 
south line of Burt county." 

The act of 1869 established the line between the counties of Dodge 
and Burt as follows : "Commencing at the northwest corner of town- 
ship 20, north of range 8, east : thence east along the Fifth Standard 
parallel to the northeast corner of section 6, township 20, north of range 
9 east ; thence south on the section line one mile east of, and parallel 
with the Guide Meridian four miles to the north line of Washington 
county as defined by the act of the Legislature of the Territory of 
Nebraska approved February 9, 1857." 

Dodge County is the second west of the Missouri River and is sit- 
uated in the point not very far distant from the confluence of the Elkhorn 
and Platte rivers. 

By the above acts it will be discovered that at first that part of present 
Washington County in which the Village of Fontanelle is located was a 
part of Dodge County originally. Fontanelle was then the county seat, 
and so continued until in 1860 when the county's boundary was changed, 
by act of the Territorial Legislature, and in February, 1860, by a vote 
of the people the seat of justice was changed to Fremont. 

It should b'e stated in connection with the organization of Dodge 
County that it was one of the original subdivisions in the Territory of 
56 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 57 

Nebraska. Acting Gov. T. B. Cuming (who acted after the death of 
Gov. Francis Burt) divided the territory into eight counties — Burt, 
Washington, Dodge. Douglas, Cass, Pierce, Forney and Richardson. 
Dodge County was bounded as follows : Commencing at a point on the 
Platte River twenty miles west of Bellevue thence westerly along the said 
Platte River to the mouth of Shell Creek, thence north twenty-five miles, 
thence east to the dividing ridge between the Elkhorn and the Missouri 
rivers, thence south to place of beginning. The voting precinct was 
established at the house of Dr. M. H. Clark of Fontenelle. William 
Kline, Christopher S. Leiber and William E. Estley were appointed judges 
of election and William Taylor and E. G. McNeely clerks. The county 
was named in honor of Augustus C. Dodge, a United States Senator 
from Iowa and an active supporter of the Kansas-Nebraska bill. In 
accord with the proclamation of Acting Governor Cuming made October 
21, 1854, an enumeration of the inhabitants of the territory was made. 
The apportionment of Dodge County was one councilman and two 
representatives. 

Eight votes were cast at Fontanelle on December 12, 1854, by which 
Dr. M. H. Clark was chosen to the Territorial Council and Judge J. W. 
Richardson and Col. E. R. Doyle to the lower house, constituted the first 
election ever held in Dodge County. In regard to their "constituents" 
left at home Doctor Abbott had the following in his history : 

"The first Territorial Legislature convened at Omaha on January 16, 
1855, and while Messrs. Clark, Robinson and Doyle were attending the 
legislature, the Town of Fontenelle and the county of Dodge were 
deserted by their inhabitants until Col. William Kline, then and later a 
respected citizen of Fontenelle, and a half breed Indian named Jo, were 
the only constituents left to the honorable members of Dodge. Colonel 
Kline can truly be said to have had at one time in his life the largest 
representation according to population of any gentleman in Nebraska if 
not in the United States." In November, 1855, Thomson Gibson was 
elected a member of the House of Representatives from Dodge County. 
At the third election for members Silas E. Seely secured fortv-four votes 
and Thomas Gibson forty-one votes. Gibson contested Seely's seat on 
the ground that Seely had not resided long enough in the legislative dis- 
trict. The Legislature vacated the seat held by Seely on his certificate, 
but did not declare for Gibson, thus leaving Dodge unrepresented in the 
lower house in the winter of 1857. 

Prior to the coming of the first settlers at North Bend, in the south- 
western part of Dodge County, a town company had been formed by 
speculators in Omaha and land disposed of without even being seen at 
high prices. In November, 1856, after a colony had been induced to 
locate by the paper company, George J. Turton built a double log house. 
It was here that the first election in November within the present limits 
of Dodge County was held, Mr. Turton being selected as commissioner, 
Silas E. Seely. representative, and Robert Kittle and George Young, 
justices of the peace. 

By legislative act of March 2, 1858. the eastern boundary of Dodge 
County was re-defined and in January, 1860, it was so changed (the 
Elkhorn River being its limits) that Fontenelle, the county seat, was cut 
ofif. By an election held the next month the honor was transferred to 
Fremont. The southern boundary had already been changed to its present 
limits ; the northern and western boundaries were left in peace. In 
February. 1867, a portion of the territory cut ofT by the act of 1860 
known as the Logan precinct, was re-annexed to the county. In March 



58 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

1873, slight changes were made in the boundaries and in February, 
1875, the Legislature prescribed the present limits. 

The first commissioners of the county met January 6, 1857, the 
session being held in Fontanelle at John Batie's house. William E. Eee 
and Thomas Fitzsimmons were on hand while L. C. Baldwin of Golden 
Gate precinct was absent. An order of business was adopted, after 
which the county was divided into three precincts. All the territory east 
of the Elkhorn River was fixed as No. 1. all between the Platte River and 
a line running west, starting from the Elkhorn River on the township 
line between townships 17 and 18 to the western boundary of the county, 
No. 2 ; all north of said line and west of the Elkhorn River to be known 
as No. 3. The county was also divided into road districts. 




Log House of Hon. E. H. Rogers, Fremont, Erected in 1857 



On April 6, 1857, the commissioners met, but on account of the 
drowning of Seth P. Marvin at the ferry, "without adjournment" repaired 
to the river. The next day Robert Kittle resigned his office as justice of 
the peace. On May 30, Fremont precinct was organized so as to include 
all south of township line between townships 17 and 18 and east of 
range line between 7 and 8. 

Soon after Fremont was platted by the town company in 1856, it 
became evident that Fontanelle was to be vigorously pushed for the 
county seat by its somewhat younger competitor. The excitement reached 
its climax during the winter of 1859-60 when Fremont was growing 
rapidly and pressing her claims more strongly than ever for the county 
seat. 

E. H. Rogers of Fremont was the representative from this countv in 
the lower house ; James Stewart of Washington County and John Rick 
of Platte. Rogers was sent to the Legislature in 1859 and was pledged 
to work against any attempt to change the boundary between Dodge 
and Washington counties. There were eight delegates present at the 
nominating convention, Mr. Roger's opponent was Thomas Gibson, then 
a resident of Fontanelle and therefore interested in removing the western 
boundary of Washington County so far west as to bring the village some- 
where uaar the center and throw Fremont in a corner, aiid therefore out 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 59 

of all chances for becoming the county seat. The delegates from the 
Fontanelle region numbered four, and the delegates from Fremont way 
numbered four when they entered the nominating convention. They voted 
by ballot, and what was the consternation of Fontanelle when the result 
was announced — five for Rogers and three for Gibson ! In haste and 
trepidation the Fontanelleites returned homeward, and there each and 
every man formally swore that he voted for Gibson. It has ever been 
believed that a delegate named Saint forgot himself and his candidate. 

By January, 1860, Fremont had outgrown Fontanelle so that the 
county seat could be removed to the former place by the crowding of 
the latter out of the county. The first election after the selection had 
been made was held on the first Monday of February, 1860, resulting as 
follows: E. H. Barnard, probate judge; William S. Wilson, sheriff; 
H. C. Campbell, treasurer: J. F. Reynolds, county clerk; George Turner, 
George Turton and Thomas Fitzsimmons, commissioners. 

It was settled that Fremont was to be the permanent county seat, but 
it was six years later — April, 1866 — before any move was made toward 
providing the county with suitable buildings in which to keep its various 
offices. In June, 1866, the specifications for a courthouse by John Ray 
were accepted. Lots 1 and 2, block 155, having been selected for the 
site of the buildings. A good two-story brick courthouse was erected 
thereon, the same being forty by sixty feet, and it was completed in the 
winter of 1867-68, being accepted in January the last-named year. Its 
cost was $11,800. A jail was built in 1875, costing $15,000. (See 
County Government chapter.) 



CHAPTER VI 

DODGE COUNTY GOVERNMENT 

County Organization Perfected — Prosecuting Attorney and 
County Attorney Systems — Acts of County Commissioners — 
Making of First Precincts — First Road Districts — Names of 
Commissioners — Creation of "Township Organization" — First 
County Supervisors — The Burning of Courthouse in 1887 — 
Building a New Courthouse — Second Courthouse Fire, 1915— 
Present Structure — The New Jail — Highways — Bridges — 
Ladies' Rest Rooms — Property Valuations — County Finances 
— Boards' Estimate, 1891 — County Treasurer's Report, 1892 — 
County Seat and County Buildings — Courthouses and Jails — 
Bids for Present Courthouse — Dedication — County Poor Farm 
— County Officials, 1920 — County Officers' Salaries — Taxes — 
Assessed Valuations — Board of Supervisors for 1920 — State and 
County Levies — Average Value Farm Lands, 1920. 

After the organization of this county had been perfected and the 
machinery set in motion usually speaking Dodge County has been a well 
governed subdivision of Nebraska. True, in early days, under the old 
and somewhat crude form of territorial government, matters were not 
cared for as they have been since statehood was obtained. The pioneer 
forms used under the original county commissioner court system here were 
patterned from those brought from eastern and middle states, from 
which many of the Dodge County pioneers came, with a number from 
Ohio. The affairs of the county were administered by the commissioners' 
court until "Township Organization" came into operation in 1886 by 
the popular vote of the people of this county. By this plan each civil 
township or precinct is entitled to at least one representative on a board 
of supervisors. The officers of clerk of the court and county clerk were 
one office up to 1869 (except in 1860-61). 

The original office of district attorney was changed to that of county 
attorney in 1888. 

The county commissioners were the guardians of the people for a 
third of a century. They were three in number, representing three 
various districts of the county. Their assembling at the county seat was 
termed "County Commissioners Court." The following constituted some 
of their more important acts : 

Acts of the County Commissioners 

The first board of county commissioners consisted of William E. Lee, 
Thomas Fitzsimmons and L. C. Baldwin. They first met (the last named 
not present) "at the house of Batie and Blinn's at Fontanelle, Dodge 
County, Nebraska Territory," January 6, 1857. This was while Fonta- 
nelle was yet included in Dodge County — the change of boundaries taking 
place in 1860. The order of their first business was : 
First — Dividing the county into districts. 
Second — Dividing the county into precincts. 
60 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 61 

Third — Dividing the county into road districts. 
Fourth — Appointing of officers. 
Fifth — Approving of official bonds. 
Sixth — Locating public highways. 
Upon motion of Commissioner William E. Lee, the county was 
divided into three precincts bounded as follows: No. 1. All that portion 
of the county east of the Elkhorn River. No. 2. All that portion of the 
county between the Platte River and the line running west from the 
Elkhorn on the township line between township 17 and 18 to the west 
line of the county. No. 3. All territory lying north and west of said line. 
The road districts — five in number — were under the care of the fol- 
lowing supervisors: No. 1, E. H. Barnard; No. 2, "Mr." Miller, of 
North Bend; No. 3, David Bloomer; No. 4, Hiram H. Ladd ; No. 5, 
I. Warner. 

April 6, 1857, the commissioners met and created the precinct of 
"Logan" and designated the place for the first election to be at C. H. 
Liser's. The judges were to be Hiram H. Ladd, Willis Carr and Martin 
Sherer. 

At the same session thev also created "Fremont" precinct and fixed 
the place of election at the house of Barnard and Kuntz at Fremont Vil- 
lage. The judges were E. H. Rogers, Jackson Davis and A. McNeal. 

The commissioners in 1858 were Thomas Fitzsimmons, W. E. Lee 
and C. A. Whiteford. In June of that year they assisted in the organi- 
zation of Platte County; also of Monroe County; their chief business, 
however, being looking after county roads and routine work of no great 
historic interest. At the August meeting they authorized the sheriflf of 
the county to proceed to assess the taxable property within Dodge 
County. 

The commissioners for 185Q were Thomas Fitzsimmons, C. A. White- 
ford and J. M. Hancock. At the January session they created "Maple 
Creek" precinct and ordered a bridge built over the Elkhorn River to 
cost $1,500; ordered the making of a county seal to be paid for in county 
warrants at not less than 75 cents on the dollar. In July they fixed the 
assessment at 6 mills per dollar. In August they created "Bell Creek" 
precinct. 

From October, 1859 to 1860. the board consisted of Thomas Fitzsim- 
mons, G. A. Turton and Jared Blasett. John Evans appeared before 
them and gave bonds as county registrar of deeds. The treasurer's report 
made to the board was as follows : 

Territorial fund $300.00 

County fund 624.00 

School fund 201.20 

Poll and road fund 397.18 

Total $1,522.38 

The commissioners were George Turner, Thomas Fitzsimmons and 
George Turton. The Minute Book shows an exhibit of Dodge County 
taxes for that year as follows : 

Territorial taxes $167.00 

County taxes 972.00 

School taxes 214.00 

Poll and road tax 831 .00 

In 1862: During this year the board was George Turner, Thomas 
Wilson and W. H. Ely, who met at the "Valley House," Fremont. 



62 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

In 1863 the board met at the clerk's office and in 1864 at the Congre- 
gational Church building. During the Civil war but little business of 
interest was transacted. 

January 1, 1866, the board was George Turner, J. E. Dorsey and 
George Young. During that year the building of a courthouse, or county 
house, was agitated. J. J. Hawthorne offered the county block No. 96, 
at Fremont, for such building site and a building was finally advertised 
for. It was to be 30 by 60 feet, built of frame and boards. In July they 
contracted for 125.000 brick suitable for a foundation, paying $12 per 
thousand for the same. 

These plans were discarded and at the October session that year the 
board decided to build a brick courthouse, which they did. ( See court- 
house history elsewhere.) 

In 1867 commissioners were Christopher Knoell, George Young and 
George Turner. 

In 1868 the commissioners were Robert Graham, A. C. Briggs and 
George Turner. A room in the southwest part of the courthouse was 
fixed up suitable for jail purposes. They also submitted the Sioux City 
& Pacific Railroad bond question to the voters of the county. It resulted 
in a majority for, of 185 votes out of 413 votes polled. The same year 
the board rented a room of the county building for the use of a printing 
office, to A. S. McAlister. They also required the following official 
bonds to be filed: County treasurer. $25,000: county clerk, $8,000; 
sheriff. $5,000; probate judge, $5,000. 

In 1869 the commissioners were Robert Graham, George Blanchard 
and A. C. Briggs. One hundred and twenty-five thousands dollars in 
railroad bonds were approved by this board for the aid in securing the 
Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley Railroad. The popular vote was — 
for 432 and 120 against the proposition. These bonds drew 8 per cent 
interest and run twenty years. 

In 1870 the precinct of "Webster" was created at the June meeting. 
At the November meeting when John P. Eaton, George Blanchard and 
A. C. Briggs were on the board. Fremont Township voted bonds in the 
sum of $50,000 for a bridge over the Platte River, which caused the 
board much work. 

In 1871 the board was composed of John Eaton, J. J. Hawthorne and 

A. C. Briggs. During that year the old courthouse was remodeled, 
plastered, etc. In 1872 "Everett" precinct was formed by the board. 

In 1874 the board was as follows: John C. Seeley, F. M. Tillman and 

B. Nicodemus. They advertised for bids for the erection of a jail in 
August of that year. Finally McShane, Ouimby and Clagg, of Omaha, 
received the contract at $9,8.32 for the building of a brick jail. 

In 1875 when Theron Nye, F. M. Tillman and John C. Seeley were 
on the board "Elkhorn" precinct was formed. Also "Platte" precinct. 

In 1878 the commissioners looked after the interest of the North 
Bend precinct which had voted bonds to the amount of $7,000 for the 
building of roads. 

In 1881 the board was as follows : E. C. Burns, H. J. Lee and Milton 
May. During that year $10,000 bonds were issued for building a portion 
of the Platte River bridge. These bonds were for twenty years at 7 per 
cent interest. 

In 1882 Commissioners J. H. Caldwell, Milton May and H. J. Lee 
looked after the North Bend bridge bonds voted to the amount of $10,000, 
running twenty years at 7 per cent interest. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 63 

In 1884, when the board was composed of J. H. Caldwell, M. Welch 
and Milton May, a contract wns let to A. Zimmerman for the erection 
of a county poor house to cost $3,645. July 3d, that year, a severe storm 
damaged the courthouse to the extent that the county clerk send word 
to the board to meet at once. Upon meeting they decided to repair tem- 
porarily and then arrange for building a new courthouse. The matter 
came up to the people at the following election. 

Board of Supervisors 

Eighteen eighty-six ushered in a new era in the government of Dodge 
County, for it was during that year that the people voted in favor of 
"Township Organization," after which time they were to be represented 
by a Board of County Supervisors instead of County Commissioners. 
By the new plan a supervisor was to be elected from each township in 
the county. All but the months of November and December of 1886 
was under the old commissioner system, the first Board of Supervisors 
meeting in November. The last commissioners were J. H. Caldwell, 
George C. Laird and M. Weich, while the first Board of Supervisors 
was composed of M. Weich, John P. Dierks, William E. Lee, A. E. Jen- 
sen, F. M. Tillman, H. E. Wolcott, H. H. Robinson, J. B. Foote, John 
Emanuel, J. A. Sill, B. F. Laird, H. Christy, James S. Jennings and Nels 
Johnson. 

The first important act of the newly constituted board was to reorgan- 
ize the precincts into "Township Organizations." By that act the civil 
subdivisions were set apart and bounded by the lines of the Congressional 
townships, except along the Platte and Elkhorn rivers, where they 
remained fractional as before. A few slight changes were subsequently 
made, but for the most part they were bounded as they appear on the 
county's plat books today. 

In 1887 a report was made by the overseer of the poor to the county 
board in which it stated the number of paupers then to be eighteen. In 
that year the board created the office of county physician and ordered two 
steel cages for uncontrollable insane people at the noorhouse. 

The last day of the year 1887 was an unfortunate dav for the county, 
as it was then that it sustained a loss of more than $3,000 in the partial 
burning of the courthouse. Many valuable books were lost and much 
expense incurred in making transcripts by experts for court records. 

The supervisors rewarded the firemen for the faithful work at the 
courthouse fire by presenting them with $60 in cash. Three hundred 
dollars were spent in trying to locate and arrest the person who set the 
fire, but all to no purpose — it still remains a mystery. 

In March, 1888, the chairman of the board was H. G. Wolcott. 

The material left from the fire of December, 1887, was offered for 
sale by the board. That year George W. Davy was paid $1,200 for repro- 
ducing new court record books and papers to take the place of those lost 
in the fire. It was during this year (1888) that the board had its mind 
occupied with planning for a new courthouse. (See Courthouse History.) 

It was in this year that the board was called to act in the case of trying 
to enforce the state law compelling the Union Pacific trains within Dodge 
County to stop at all railroad crossings, as two persons met with accidents 
and one was killed at such crossings within ten days' time. The board 
entered suit against the company. 

In 1890 the chairman of the board was W. D. Thomas. The com- 
mittee on county buildings was M. Weich, A. P. Shephard and H. Christy. 



64 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

It appears from statements made in board meetings in 1890-91 that 
the manner of keeping the county's records has materially improved after 
1887-88. 

In 1892 A. J. Sill was chairman of the board and J. H. Fletcher was 
appointed overseer of the poor at a salary of $50 a month. 

Up to 1893 the Minute Books of the Commissioners and Board of 
County Supervisors had reached five in number and were devoted to all 
manner of resokitions and business transactions connected with the hun- 
dreds of wagon roads and no less of bridges, public ditches, county build- 
ings, with other improvements needful to the safety and comfort of the 
people of the county. But with the expenditure of much money in way 
of taxes, the people were benefited and the increased value in lands and 
town property proved this assertion. And what was true thirty years ago 
is doubly true of the advancement made since that date. 

With the passing years the supervisors have been kept busy looking 
after the establishment and maintenance of public roads, drainage ditch 
systems and the general routine of county improvements, including the 
erection and repair of public buildings and the hundreds of highway 
crossings and bridges. 

The supervisors have always tried to spend the money paid into their 
treasury to the best advantage of the taxpayers — giving value received. 
And even the general comfort of the people has been looked after in the 
providing of ladies' rest rooms in the basement (first floor) of the new 
courthouse. At first this room or set of rooms was furnished and cared 
for by the Retail Business Men's Association of Fremont, which society 
paid the expenses for a year or more until these rooms had been proven 
a success, after which the county board took them over and really cares 
for most of the expenses of keeping them up. They are duly appre- 
ciated by ladies of this county, as well as "strangers within the gates." 

Concerning Taxes 

All taxes become due November 1st each year. 

Taxes become a first lien on real property October 1st. 

Taxes become a first lien on personal property November 1st. 

Personal taxes become delinquent December 1st, after due. 

Real estate taxes become delinquent May 1st, after due. 

Real estate advertised for sale for taxes October 1st, after due. 

Real estate is sold for taxes the first Monday in November. 

Taxes draw 10 per cent interest after delinquency. 

Tax sales certificates draw 15 per cent interest. 

Personal assessments are made in April and May of each year. 

Real estate is valued every four years and equalized every two years. 

Assessed Valuations — 1919 

(Townships) 

Assessed Value Mills Levy 

Union $679,881 10 

Pleasant Valley 443,781 14 

Webster (including Dodge and Snyder) . . 703,837 12 

Ridgeley 602,521 14 

Cotterell 677,353 12 

Platte 860,115 12 

Maple 455,798 10 

Everett 497,356 6 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 65 

Assessed Value Mills Levy 

Cuming (including Scribner) $645,971 14 

Logan (including Uehling) 587,396 14 

Hooper (including Hooper and Winslow) 790,969 14 

Nickerson (including Nickerson) 558,919 8 

Elkhorn 425,822 12 

Cities and Towns with Railway Terminals 

Assessed Value Mills Levy 

Fremont $2,179,132 55 

North Bend 288,245 35 

Dodge 114,855 35 

Snyder 104,146 25 

Scribner 234,100 50 

Uehling 75,422 25 

Hooper 206,880 45 

Nickerson 48,880 13 

Winslow 48,543 20 

Total of county (1919-20) $10,669,623 

Total railway terminals 301,657 

State and County Levies — 1920 

(State Levy) Mills 

General fund 4.80 

University 1.00 

State aid bridge 20 

Special university fund 75 

Normal school 1.00 

Capitol building fund 1.50 

State aid road 3.00 

University act fund 75 

Total 13.00 mills 

(County Levy) 

General fund 7.07 

Bridge 4.00 

Emergency bridge 1.00 

Road 2.07 

Drainage 80 

Soldier's relief 06 

Courthouse bonds 1.00 



Total 16.00 mills 

Average Value of Farm Lands — 1920 

The county clerk recently published the following concerning the 
farm lands in Dodge County — the same being for assessment purposes: 

Per Acre 

In Union Township %76 

In Pleasant Valley Township 79 



66 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Per Acre 

In Pebble Township $76 

In Ridgeley Township 85 

In Cotterell Township 78 

In Cuming Township 77 

In Maple Township 84 

In Everett Township 82 

In Platte Township 91 

In Hooper Township 80 

In Logan Township 85 

In Nickerson Township 85 

In Elkhorn Township 71 

In Webster Township 89 

Total estimate for school purposes (not including bond levy), $260,- 
176.73. 

The school bond levy is $17,555.11. 

Property Valuations 

At various periods the property valuations in Dodge County have 
been as follows (figures from official reports made to the state auditor) : 

In the year 1870 the assessed valuation was $1,910,000 

In the year 1878 the assessed valuation was 2,319,(XX) 

In the year 1885 the assessed valuation was. 3,160,000 

In the year 1891 the assessed valuation was 3,162,000 

Twenty-nine years ago (1891) when property was being assessed at 
about one-third of its actual value, the record shows the following valu- 
ation of all realty and personal property by townships and precincts : 

Cotterell $145,706 Pebble $104,113 

Cuming 131,606 Pleasant Valley 95,944 

Elkhorn 77,015 Platte 151,308 

Everett 98,494 Ridgelev 95,629 

Hooper 71,871 Union '. 116,625 

Logan 105,904 Webster 105,613 

Maple 107,030 Fremont (city) 824,844 

Nickerson 110,830 North Bend (city) 112,600 

Coming down to the present time the records show the following 
property valuations in the county ; also the value in various townships 
and cities and villages, as a whole : 

The total assessed valuation in the various townships in this county 
in 1919 was $7,930,019. 

The assessed valuations in cities and towns with the railway terminals 
was $2,378,980. 

The County's Finances 

It is now about sixty years since the county was really organized and 
the following statements as to its finances show its condition at the end 
of the first thirty years (1890), and that of 1920, thirty years later. 

In 1860 the county treasurer's report for Dodge County read as 
follows : 

Territorial fund $308.80 

Countv fund 612.12 

School fund 201.20 

Poll and road fund 397.94 



Total $1,512.06 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 67 

Board's Estimate in 1891 

Bonded indebtedness, liberally towards railroad enterprises, bridges, 
drainage and county buildings, had brought the following demands by 
the close of the year 1890: 

County general fund $35,000 

County bridge fund 18,000 

County sinking fund ,^,500 

County insane fund 2,000 

County road fund 2,000 

Courthouse fund 4,000 

Interest on railroad bonds 12,000 

Interest on bridge bonds 7,500 

Soldier's relief fund 1,050 

Total $85,050 

County Treasurer's Report 

The county treasurer's report for the last half of the year 1891 shows 
the following balances : 

Balance general fund (state) $ 4,232 

Balance county road fund 873 

Balance insane fund 441 

Balance soldier's relief fund 762 

Balance general school district fund 10,960 

Balance general road district fund 1,850 

To balance on hand 49,750 

Total disbursements 108,397 

County Trea.surer's Semi-Annual Statement — 1920 

The subjoined is a statement issued to the public by the county treas- 
urer of Dodge County for the first six months of the year 1920: 

July, 1920 

Disbursements Balance 

State general fund paid $38,317.52 $5,202.30 

State capitol fund 11,904.18 1,618.50 

State university fund 8,004.87 1,085.21 

Special university fund 5,952.08 809.25 

State land fund interest paid 12.60 

State aid bridge fund 1,600.17 216.96 

Special university building fund 57.50 Overdraft 

. State normal school fund 7,993.45 1,083.75 

State university activities fund 5.993.37 812.33 

State institution improvement fund 77.70 Overdraft 

State aid road fund 23,844.11 3,239.67 

State highway fund 40,948.86 1,225.50 

State hail insurance fund 434.24 

Countv genera! fund 62,732.74 10,953,90 

County bridge fund 14,076.42 22,725.44 

County road fund 19,494.65 17,143.01 

Countv sinking fund .11 

County drainage fund 4,909.54 6,204.29 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



Disbursements 

Special emergency bridge warrants $ 667.13 

Soldier's relief committee fund 1,157.70 

School district— general 200,005.27 

School district— bonds 15,835.09 

Township — general 67,060.87 

Road district — general 5,695.74 

Fremont Corporation 80,109.71 

North Bend Corporation 6,737.81 

Hooper Corporation 7,005.10 

Scribner Corporation 8,025.03 

Dodge Corporation 4,196.96 

Snyder Corporation 2,252.29 

Winslow Corporation 618.02 

Uehling Corporation 1,139.17 

Nickerson Corporation 614.97 

Fremont old precinct bridge bond , .01 

Special assessment 4.45 

Advertising 

Redemption fund 1,204.40 

Protest fund 

Poor farm fund 3,397.49 

Fine and license fund 1,500.00 

Fee fund 12,349.06 

F. F. & R. R. Drainage Dist 1,388.42 

GENERAL PURPOSES 

F. F. & R. R. Drainage Dist 321.39 

BONDS AND INTEREST 

Inheritance tax fund 1,608.89 

Auto license fund 13,862,03 

Elkhorn drainage district 97.67 

Courthouse bonds 18,705.00 

Bloomendalh ditch 121.65 

Scott ditch 4.77 

Lincoln Highway Fund No. 1 

Disbursements to June 30, 1920 $702,041.09 

Balance on hand July 1, 1920 289,304.49 

Less overdrafts $ 8,836.18 



July, 1920 

Balance 

$ 18,753.12 

2,213.48 

59,364.75 

11,760.02 

44,055.09 

8,075.56 

6,214.83 

745.65 

1,490.59 

3,556.79 

798,59 

267.29 

467.85 

829.14 

76.82 

.11 

335.29 

33.60 

205.71 

30.931.06 

1.231.65 
140.50 
278.68 



22.53 



9,522.94 

351.71 

4,671.74 

6,637.96 

Overdraft 

219.23 

3,731.99 

$289,304.49 



County Seat and County Building 



Fontanelle was the first county seat (when that place was within 
Dodge County), but in the winter of 1859-60 the Territorial Legislature 
changed the bounds of this county and in February, 1860, the Dodge 
County voters fixed Fremont as the seat of justice. Upon that occasion 
the vote stood: Fremont, sixty-two; Robinsonville, two; Blacksmith's 
Point, one. 

A private house at Fontanelle served as a business office for the 
county. Much bitterness was engendered between Fontanelle and Fre- 
mont over the county seat fight. When the books came to be removed. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 69 

much trouble was experienced by the county officers, but as time heals 
all troubles like county seat contests, this was almost forgotten by the 
second generation. 

Fremont has held the county seat, although a few attempts have 
been made to change its location, one of which was in 1884, when it was 
sought at various points, and the matter was finally submitted to a vote 
of the people in charge of the County Commissioners' Court, and 
this was the last important act this body had to attend to, before going 
out of office and the ushering in of the Township Organization system. 
The vote on relocating the county seat stood as follows : 

For Fremont For Centerville 

Fremont (city) 1,206 8 

Platte (precinct) 87 14 

Elkhorn " 92 

Maple " 83 36 

Hooper " 24 181 

Pebble " 80 185 

Logan " 8 74 

Cuming " 12 Th 

North Bend" 202 81 

Everett " 224 

Webster " 3 162 

Union " 1 180 

Totals 1,798 1,218 

County Buildings — Courthouses, Jails, Etc. 

For the first ten years after Dodge County was organized it had no 
public buildings, worthy the name. Log cabins, and sod houses must 
needs be used before the pioneer is able and justified in building better 
buildings, either public or private. Most counties settled in the "fifties" 
and "sixties" did the same as Dodge County, but in due season excellent 
buildings were erected. Here, the county offices were kept quietly in 
some private house or later in leased apartments. 

The question of building a suitable courthouse came up at the 
January session of the Commissioners' Court in 1866, when the com- 
missioners were — George Turner, J. E. Dorsey and George Young. 
Block No. 96 of the City of Fremont was ofi^ered the county by pioneer 
J. J. Hawthorne, as a building site, and finally it was accepted and bids 
solicited for the erection of a courthouse, to be 30 by 60 feet. This was 
to be built of lumber, but later the matter was entirely discarded, and 
in October that year, 1866, the commissioners decided to build a brick 
courthouse on the present public square. Such a building was erected, 
the contract being awarded to John Ray at $4,950, by the commissioners, 
Messrs. Christopher Knoell, George Young and George Turner. It 
was finished and accepted September 3, 1867. This structure served 
until 1871 without repairs. At that date it was remodeled and was in 
good form until a windstorm in 1884 damaged it, and December 31, 1887, 
a portion of it was burned, together with the records in the clerk of 
the court's offices. Repairs were temporarily made and in 1888 the 
question of building a new courthouse was submitted to the people, 
and the result was that the people declared for bonding the county in 
the sum of fifty thousand dollars ($50,000) for the purpose of erecting 
a good courthouse. In addition to this, the city of Fremont voted the 



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DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 71 

sum of ten thousand dollars ($10,000) with the understanding that the 
city should have the use of three rooms in the proposed structure for 
city purposes for a term not exceeding five years. 

Sixteen bids were received, and the commissioners accepted that of 
Seeley Sons & Co. of Fremont. The contract for the naked building 
was $50,533.50. It was an elegant pressed brick building, finished in 
hard wood, heated by furnaces, and had cheerful rooms for every county 
official. 

At the corner-stone laying Dr. L. J. Abbott was chosen to deliver the 
oration which was a masterly effort and too lengthy for reproduction here. 
The completed structure was dedicated October 4, 1890, when Hon. E. F. 
Gray delivered an eloquent address, the closing paragraph of which runs 
thus : "This building is worthy of the wise generosity of the whole 
people who have contributed the funds for its erection. May their 
records be kept correctly and herein preserved." 

From almost any reasonable human standpoint, it would have 
appeared at that time that the building of which Mr. Gray was then 
speaking, would stand intact and do service in Dod^e County for a 
century, but alas, not so, for it must be recorded that on December 5, 1915, 
this beautiful temple of justice was so nearly destroyed by fire, originat- 
ing in the basement, that its entire walls had to be taken down and an 
entirely new structure from the ground up erected. Even the old founda- 
tion stones were found to be in bad condition so a new wall was run up 
on which rests the present magnificent building. Quite an amount of 
public records were also entirely destroyed, but the principal books were 
all saved. The loss in this respect was not nearly so great as in the fire 
that consumed the other courthouse. 

Immediately after the burning of the courthouse in December, 1915, 
the supervisors made arrangements with the owners of the First National 
Bank Building on the corner of Main and Fifth streets by which the 
county removed its cliief offices to this massive building, for which they 
paid a rental of $295 per annum for the period the new building was 
being constructed. 

The bids for the present courthouse were advertised for January 22, 
1917, and the lowest suitable bidders were Olson and Johnson Company, 
of Missoula, Montana. The contract price made with this firm was 
$119,675. The architects employed by the county were members of the 
firm of A. H. Dyer Company. The building is faced with Bedford lime- 
stone from the celebrated quarries in Lawrence County, Indiana. The 
detailed contract is found in Minute Book No. 12, page 30, of the County 
Supervisor's records. 

One of the provisions was that the building should be entirely com- 
pleted by February 1, 1918, which provision was substantially carried out. 
This building is scarcely equalled in all Nebraska. Its exterior as well 
as interior are indeed models of beauty and strength. The solid Bedford 
stone surfacing the exterior and the pure marble and granite of the 
interior of the building render the whole absolutely "fire proof." A fur- 
ther description in a county history is hardly necessary as this structure 
will doubtless stand intact long after this volume has perished with 
usage and time's touch. This building stands as its own best memorial. 

County Jails 

Before Dodge County had a courthouse, prisoners were kept in some 
dwelling house improvised for jail purposes. When the first court- 



72 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

house was built, two rooms were set apart for jail use. In 1874, Com- 
missioners Nicodemus, Tillman and Seeley awarded a contract to an 
Omaha firm for the sum of $9,832, to construct a county jail which was 
used until 1918. This jail was a two story brick building and it stood on 
the south side of the courthouse square. A portion of it was used as a 
residence for the sheriff of the county, or his deputy. 

When the new (present) courthouse was constructed, its specifi- 
cations included a jail situated on the upper floor, as it remains at this 
time. It is a fine, sanitary jail where prisoners may be safely kept and 
with less expense than in a separate building. 

County Poor Farm 

No better index can be had of the true character of a people than 
to note its respect for its departed dead, and its care for its unfortunate 
poor. As the county settled up with a mixed population the poor classes 
came in as well as those in better circumstances, and by 1884 it was 
decided to not try to care for the paupers of Dodge County by township 
appropriations, etc., but the commissioners purchased a Poor Farm in 
section 26, township 18, range 8 (Nickerson civil township). The 
place mentioned had been leased by the county several years before that 
date and partly sustained the pauper element in the county. In 1887 the 
total number of paupers of this county was eighteen. The county farm 
just named is about four miles to the north and a little east of Fremont. 
The inmates who are able to labor are supposed to work a part of their 
time, but no task-master is placed over these unfortunate men and women, 
but all are treated well and given good homes so long as they remain 
citizens of the county. The present condition of the farm and the pauper 
element of Dodge County is in keeping with the times in which we live. 
Each supervisor district is looked after by its supervisor, so far as 
caring for the unfortunate poor is concerned. The last (1919) report of 
the Poor Farm shows there are only eight men and two women inmates in 
the Dodge County Poor House. J. W. Sexson was steward of the Poor 
Farm many years and was succeeded in January, 1919, by the present 
steward, J- H- Randall, who is proving the right man in the right place, 
as well as his wife, who is present stewardess. 

A report made April 15, 1920, shows the following concerning the 
Poor Farm and its belongings: 

The invoice shows 44 head of cattle, valued at $2,405 ; 16 hogs, 
valued at $595; 10 horses, valued at $1,125; 4 harness, valued at $120; 
9 tons of hay, valued at $32; oats and corn, valued at $774; hogs 
slaughtered, valued at $315; merchandise on hand, valued at $25; mis- 
cellaneous, valued at $123; machinery, valued at $1,017. 

The disbursements for the Poor Farm for the last vear were : Dry 
goods, etc., $214; coal and oil, $664; hardware. $111 ;' groceries, $929; 
lumber, $109; labor and hauling, $380; veterinary, $241; repairs, $248; 
live stock, $256; corn and hay, etc., $2,390; meats. $56; ice used. $12; 
windmill, $212; drugs. $35; harness, $43; salary Steward, $1,400. The 
total disbursements over the receipts of the farm were $3,547.23. 

Dodge County Officials — 1920 

Treasurer — Joseph Roberts 
Deputy Treasurer — M. H. Woslager 
Bookkeeper — Charlotte Lake 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 71 

Stenographer — Hanna Ohlson 

Clerk— W. E. Barz 

Deputy Clerk — H. J. Arundel 

Stenographer — Allie P. Wegner 

Judge — Waldo Wintersteen 

Clerk of County Court — Marie Carstens 

Registrar of Deeds — Ernest Hahn 

Deputy Registrar of Deeds — Effie H. Hahn 

Clerk 'District Court— Peter T. Mitterling 

Deputy District Clerk — Kittie Armstead 

County Assessor — John O'Connor 

Record Clerk — Georgia O'Connor 

County Attorney — J. C. Cook 

Stenographer — Pauline Kendrick 

Superintendent — J. E. Marsh 

Clerk of Superintendent — Esther Knapp 

Sheriff— W. C. Condit 

Deputy Sheriff — W. A. Johnson 

Stenographer — Marguerite Haven 

Surveyor — W. M. Sanders 

Physician— F. E. Calkins, M. D. 

Highway Commissioner — W. M. Sanders 

Superintendent Courthouse — L. G. Windsor 

Steward Poor Farm — J. H. Randall 

Purchasing Agent — A. W. Murphy 

Distributing Agent — H. J. Arundel 

County Officers' Salaries Per Annum 

County Treasurer $3,000 Precinct Assessors, per day. .$ 5 

Deputy Treasurer 1,500 County Attorney 1,800 

Two clerks 2,000 Stenographer . ." 900 

Clerk of District Court 3,000 Countv Superintendent 2,400 

Deputy Clerk 900 Stenographer 900 

Proofreader 60 County Surveyor, per day 

County Clerk 2,800 and mileage 8 

Deputy Clerk 1,500 County Highway Commis- 

Stenographer 1,200 sioner ' 1,800 

County Judge 2,500 County Sheriff 2,000 

Clerk of County Court 1,200 Deputy Sheriff 1,200 

Proofreader 200 Stenographer 600 

Registrar of Deeds 2,000 Steward Poor Farm 1,200 

Deputy Registrar 900 Stewardess Poor Farm 300 

County Assessor 700 Custodian Courthouse 1,380 

Chief Clerk, per day (four) . 4 Countv Supervisors, per day 

Clerk, per day (three) 3 and' mileage added 5 

Board of Supervisors for 1920 

In after years it may be of no little interest to know who has charge 
of the affairs of county government in this county, hence this list of 
supervisors is inserted in this connection, the same constituting the mem- 
bers in 1920: 

M. A. Uehling, Hooper: District No. 1 — Logan, Hooper and 
Nickerson. 



74 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

P. J. Flanagan, Snyder : District No. 2 — Everett, Cuming and Pebble. 

F. "j. Stecher, Dodge : District No. 3 — Webster, Pleasant Valley and 
Union. 

Fred Scott, North Bend : District No. 4 — North Bend, Cotterell and 
Ridgeley. 

Maurice Nelson, Fremont: District No. 5 — Maple, Platte and 
Elkhorn. 

A. W. Murphy, Fremont : District No. 6 — Second and Third Wards, 
Fremont. 

Oscar Widman, Fremont: District No. 7 — First and Fourth Wards. 

Chairman — A. W. Murphy; Clerk, W. E. Barz. 

Each Supervisor has direct charge of all matters within his respective 
district. 



CHAPTER VII 

THE RAILROADS OF DODGE COUNTY 

(By L. D. Richards) 

Value of Railroads — The Union Pacific Railway and Its Construc- 
tion — List of Nebraska Land Grants — Speeches Made in 
Starting the Construction — Work of General Dodge — Inter- 
esting Incidents — Cost to Dodge County — Old Sioux City and 
Pacific — Old Fremont, Elkhorn and Missouri Valley — Diverg- 
ing Branches — The Building of the Latest Railroad, the 
"Burlington" from Lincoln to Sioux City, Iowa. Mileage. 

While it is true that many of the first settlements in the West were 
effected before the railroad was built through that section of the coimtry, 
it is also true that no great growth attended such settlements until 
the shrill whistle of the locomotive echoed and reverberated over forest 
and plains. The pioneers of Dodge County were not "blind spinners" 
stopping wherever they found it most convenient, but they very wisely 
surveyed the landscape, the geography and topography of the county and 
concluded that in the near future the West was to have railway trans- 
portation, and with a prophetic eye looked ahead to a time when the 
Mississippi and Missouri valleys were to be connetrted with iron highways 
through the West to the far away .Pacific Ocean. When that time came 
they felt that the Platte Valley was the only natural course for a railway 
from Omaha to the Great Salt Lake Valley to take, hence with no small 
degree of certainty they cast their stakes within what has come to be 
Dodge County, its county seat now having come to be quite a large rail- 
road center. 

The settlement was made in 1856-57 and for another decade or more 
the county was without railway connections east or west, north or south. 
This had been unexpectedly put off on account of the coming on of the 
Civil war between 1861 and 1866. During 1866 the activities along the 
Union Pacific road were indeed almost magic in their accomplishments. 
It marked a new historic era in this county and Nebraska in general. 
Hundreds of familes wended their way hither and home-building was 
seen on every hand. 

The Union Pacific Railroad 

The first railroad to cross the domain of Dodge County, Nebraska, 
was the Union Pacific. The subjoined gives a short general and local 
history of its construction : 

The greatest stride ever accomplished in railroad building (consider- 
ing the times in which it was accomplished) was when the Union Pacific 
was constructed from Council Bluffs. Iowa, west to Ogden, Utah, where 
it connected with the Central Pacific line from San Francisco, California. 

This road had been contemplated back in the fifties and President 
Lincoln stood on the bluffs on the east side of the Missouri River at 
75 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 77 

Council Bluffs, in 1859 and really selected the point at which this road 
should cross the river, the same being where now stands that wonderful 
iron and steel structure over which daily run so many freight and pas- 
senger trains. 

By an act of Congress in the fifties, millions of acres of land were 
given to various corporations to construct steam railroads across this 
continent. These roads as later known, included the Union Pacific, 
the Kansas Pacific and other trunk lines from east to west. The aggre- 
gate of lands in Nebraska granted to the Union Pacific Company was 
5,926,400 acres. All were contiguous to this line of railway and in 
Lincoln County the acreage was greater than in any other covmty in this 
state— 690,000 acres. 

The Union Pacific lands were placed at prices and on terms that 
brought them within the reach of any man who was disposed to work and 
had energy and industry and desired to secure a good farm home. The 
range of prices for these railroad lands was indeed wide in the extreme. 
They were fixed according to location, soil and general surroundings. 
They could be purchased at from $2.00 to $10.00 per acre. They were 
sold on ten years' time, with one-tenth down, the remainder in equal 
annual payments at six per cent interest, and when parties wished to pay 
cash down, a discount of ten per cent was made. By 1880 a large share 
of the best of these lands had been put under cultivation. Land explor- 
ing tickets were sold at low rates, while the actual buyer was transported 
free of charge. Also liberal discounts were made for shipping emigrant 
goods. Immigrant houses, as they were called, were provided at a mod- 
erate cost, to such as were not able to immediately settle on their purchase. 

It is needless to go into further detail concerning the construction of 
the Union Pacific Railway, so far as its original Congressional Bill is 
concerned, suffice to remark that after running the gauntlet of postpone- 
ments and amendments it was finally adopted, and became law, July, 
1862. December 2, 1863, Peter A. Dey, chief engineer, received a tele- 
gram from New York, announcing that President Lincoln had author- 
ized him to formally break ground, and that it had been decided to make 
Omaha the initial point of the proposed road across the continent from 
the Missouri River to the Pacific Coast. 

Business men and citizens of the towns of Council Bluflfs and Omaha 
(for they were neither but small places) were hurriedly called together 
and planned for properly celebrating the event of commencing to build 
the much talked of and long delayed Union Pacific Railroad. The hour 
was fixed for two o'clock p.m. The day was pleasant and the sun shone 
brightly. Fully one thousand people were present at the spot named for 
digging the first shovelful of earth. Flags fluttered, people cheered, 
cannon boomed both on the eastern and western sides of the "Big Muddy" 
and "Old Glory" never floated more proudly than then to the pioneers 
of the "Missouri Slope." Rev. T. B. Lemon opened the exercises by prayer 
to Almighty God for His blessings on the undertakings of finite man. 
Then the chief engineer, assisted by Augustus Koontz, of Omaha, George 
Francis Train, of New York City, Dr. Atchison, of the Western Stage 
Company, and William E. Harvey, territorial auditor, Nebraska, with 
picks in hand, commenced to clear the ground preparatory to removing 
the shovelful of ground, which was done midst the loud and long cheers 
of the assembled throng, which was only drowned by the echo of the 
artillery on either side of the Missouri River. Following came the appro- 
priate addresses of Governor Saunders, Mayor Kennedy, A. J. Popple- 
ton, George Francis Train and others. 



78 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Preliminary work was begun and a call for one million ties for 
immediate use, and three million more within two years was received with 
ridicule, and no one believed that such a quantity could be obtained 
within so short a time, but the company declared they "must be furnished 
by specified time." Good prices were offered and soon the railway ties 
began pouring in. 

Some grading was executed in the autumn of 1864, but not until July 
10, 1865, that the first rail of the system was laid along the bottoms 
between Cut-off Lake and the grade leading through the hills of Omaha. 
It was during that month that locomotive No. 1, named "General 
Sherman," arrived, having been freighted through up the Missouri River 
by steamboat. The second engine was named "General McPherson." 

The Work of Gener.\l Dodge 

To the late General Dodge of Civil war fame belongs the credit of 
forwarding the work, for he was the chief engineer in the construction 
of this great national thoroughfare. He once stated to the eastern capi- 
talists that : "During the entire construction of the road, a relentless, 
determined war had been waged all along the line by tribes of the plains 
and no peace found until we had passed the hostile country and got 
beyond their reach. 

"Every mile had to be made within range of muskets and there was 
not a moment of security. In making surveys numbers of men some of 
them the most able and promising were killed ; and during our construc- 
tion were run off by the hundreds ; I may say by the thousands. As one 
difficulty after another was overcome in the engineering, running and 
construction departments a new era in railroading was inaugurated. 
Each day taught us a lesson by which we profited the next. Our advances 
and improvements on the art of railway con.struction were marked by 
the progress of the work." 

It will be remembered that none of the Iowa roads had yet reached 
the Missouri River or Council Bluffs, hence all machinery and material, 
provisions and fuel, as well as men, had to be transferred at St. Louis 
to boats which were then run to Council Bluffs and Omaha. Railroad 
ties (on account of treeless Nebraska) had to be brought a long route 
and cost the company as high as $2.50 each. Thus it will be, seen that 
the construction of this iron highway was very great and was built under 
adverse circumstances. All through from Omaha to the Rocky Moun- 
tains track-laying averaged about four miles per day. No such record 
in the world's history had ever equalled this. Old Civil war soldiers, for 
the main, were the laborers who performed this magic feat. 

An Interesting Incident 

The pages of the Omaha Herald, November 2, 1866, gave the fol- 
lowing: The Platte River is bridged at Cottonwood Springs, Nebraska. 
This bridge would be valuable for taking over ties and telegraph poles 
and not less important would draw travel from Nebraska City. It passes 
over four channels, three of which are shallow and filled in and securely 
"spiled." The fourth was 400 feet wide with a swift current fifteen feet 
deep. This was crossed by twenty pontoon boats. 

The Omaha Republican of May 10, 1866, congratulates the traveling 
public because the track is laid to the Missouri River on the east side 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 79 

and passengers can now get directly on the ferry-boat, missing the dis- 
agreeable staging from Council Bluffs. 

A regular train service was established early in 1866 and trains were 
running to Bridger's Pass by October, 1868. The first conductor on the 
Union Pacific was Grove Watson, deceased, and the second Augustus A. 
Egbert. The first station at Omaha was built near the present smelting 
works and B. T. C. Morgan was appointed agent January 1, 1866. By 
September, 1867, the great highway had become progressive enough to 
announce that "On and after next Sunday" all trains, passenger and 
freight, would run on Sundays as on week days. On May 20, 1868, it 
was announced through the Herald that passenger fare had been reduced 
from 10 cents to IVi cents a mile. By this change the fare to Cheyenne, 
which had been $51.50, became $38.50. 

Among the earliest local officials of the Union Pacific Railroad after 
its formal inauguration were : Webster Snyder, general superintendent ; 
soon he was followed by Samuel B. Reed and later by C. G. Hammond. 
H. M. Hoxie, assistant superintendent; J. H. Congdon, general manager; 
S. H. H. Clark, general freight agent ; Thomas L. Kimball, general pas- 
senger and ticket agent ; T. E. Sickles, chief engineer, and William Huff, 
master mechanic. 

The Union Pacific Railroad, constructed by the United States Gov- 
ernment, cost Dodge County nothing, except the right-of-way, depot 
grounds, etc. Its main line from Omaha enters the county in Elkhorn 
Township, passes through Fremont and North Bend and so on up the 
great Platte Valley. The total main line mileage in Dodge County is 
twenty-five miles. 

The Fremont Tribune files show that the first train service over the 
Union Pacific Railroad was had at Fremont in January, 1866, and the 
old Sioux City & Pacific line (now a part of the Northwestern system) 
made junction with the Union Pacific at Fremont February 12, 1868. 
In passing it may be added that the Western Union Telegraph line 
reached Fremont in 1860 and the shoe shop of Thomas Colson & Son 
was the first office, the younger Colson (Sireno B.) being operator and 
later the first agent of the Union Pacific, and reported the defeat and 
victories in Civil war days in Fremont. 

The Sioux City & Pacific Railroad 

The present officials of the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad Com- 
pany have upon request of the publishers kindly furnished the following 
narrative concerning the construction of the Sioux City & Pacific Rail- 
road, which is now a part of the Northwestern system : 

Under the provisions of the act of 1862 providing for the construction 
of the Union Pacific Railroad, that company was authorized and required 
to construct a railroad and telegraph line from Sioux City to a connec- 
tion with the Iowa branch of the Union Pacific Railroad whenever there 
should have been a line of railroad completed through Minnesota or 
Iowa to Sioux City. By the act of July 2, 1864, amending the original 
Union Pacific act the Union Pacific Railroad was released from the con- 
struction of said branch and any company organized or to be organized 
under the laws of Iowa, Minnesota, Dakota or Nebraska as should by 
the President of the United States be designated or approved for that 
purpose, was authorized to construct said branch and to receive lands 
and subsidy bonds to the same extent that the Union Pacific Railroad 
would have acquired for the construction thereof under the act of 1862. 



80 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

It was further provided that if a railroad should not. be completed to 
Sioux City across Iowa or Minnesota within eighteen months, then the 
company which should have been so designated might commence, con- 
tinue and complete the construction of said Sioux City branch. 

The Sioux City & Pacific Railroad Company was organized at 
Dubuque, Iowa, August 1, 1864, for the purpose of constructing the 
said branch and was by the President of the United States designated 
for that purpose. The corporators and first board of directors were 
Piatt Smith, L. B. Crocker, M. K. Jesup, James F. Wilson, A. W. Hub- 
bard, Charles A. Lambard, Frederick Schuchardt, William B. Allison 
and John I. Blair. John I. Blair was the first president of this company 
and W. W. Hamilton, secretary. The Sioux City & Pacific Company 
passed under control of Messrs. Blair, Ames, Lambard, Crocker, Ber- 
tram, Glidden and Williams and other stockholders in the Cedar Rapids 
& Missouri River Railroad and the money for the construction of the 
road was subscribed by them and their associates. 

Construction was begun in the spring of 1867. The 6K' miles 
built by the Cedar Rapids & Missouri River Railroad Company, con- 
necting Missouri Valley Junction with California Junction, was finished 
in August of that year. Track laying began at California Junction in 
September, 1867. Thirty-six miles were completed by the first day of 
December of that year and 49>1 miles before the first of January, 1868. 
The track was completed into Sioux City in February, 1868. From 
California Junction to Fremont the line was finished in February, 1869. 
The cars were ferried across the Missouri River during the summer 
months and crossed on a temporary bridge during the winter months up 
to the fall of 1883, when the bridge was opened that had been built over 
the river. L. Burnett was the engineer in charge of construction and 
the superintendent of the road to January 1, 1878. 

The Sioux City & Pacific Company received from the United States 
under its congressional grant, 42,500 acres of land and from the State of 
Nebraska through a consolidation with the Nebraska Air Line Railroad, 
46,000 acres. It received from the United States Government a loan of 
6 per cent bonds to the extent of $16,000 per mile of road constructed 
from Sioux City to Fremont. It issued its own first mortgage bonds to 
the amount of $1,628,000. The earnings of the road not being sufficient 
to pay the interest on these first mortgage bonds, the avails of the two 
land grants and the sale of town lots along the line were used to make 
up the deficiency. After these assets were exhausted the Cedar Rapids 
& Missouri River and Chicago, Iowa & Nebraska companies, through 
loans and other methods of assistance, made up the deficit until the sale 
of these last-named railroads in 1884. In 1880 the Chicago, Iowa & 
Nebraska and the Cedar Rapids & Missouri River companies acquired 
by purchase, from the individual stockholders, over 90 per cent of the 
stock of the Sioux City company. This stock was in the treasury of 
the Iowa roads at the time of their purchase by the Chicago & North- 
western in 1884, and thus became the property of the Chicago & North- 
western Railway Company. 



In addition to the foregoing article on this railway, it may be inter- 
esting to know something of a local company that figured in the matter 
at an early date: 

To secure the line from Sioux City to Fremont via California Junc- 
tion, bonds were issued to the amount of $50,000, running twenty years. 
This line was the immediate cause of the reduction of freights from 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 81 

Dodge County to the Missouri River and all points to the east of this. 
Prior to its construction the Union Pacific company charged 12 cents to 
carry a bushel of grain from Fremont to the river, a distance of only 
forty-five miles. The origin of. this road came about in this manner : 
In 1867, a local company was formed and received a charter from the 
state in June of that year. This company did not propose to build the 
road but desired to shape its matters so that the lands belonging to Dodge 
County as well as Washington County, could be turned over to some man 
or competent corporation, who was finally John I. Blair. The incorpora- 
tors of the company which was named the "Air Line Railway" were 
chiefly state officers and members of the Legislature. The bill providing 
for this road was drawn up by Judge Dundy, of Falls City, Nebraska ; 
Thomas Kennard, then secretary of state; J. H. Bowen, clerk of the 
House ; Thomas Majors, of Peru, Nebraska ; William Daily, representa- 
tive from Peru : Henry P. Beebe, of Dodge County, and Jesse Davis, 
president; Henry P. Beebe, vice president; J. H. Bowen, secretary, and 
Thomas Kennard. treasurer, being the officers. Fifty sections of land 
were grated for the purpose of building the road from the Missouri 
River to Fremont. 

Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley Railroad 

This company was organized at Fremont, Nebraska, in January, 1869, 
to construct a line up the Elkhorn Valley, which was accomplished, and 
later it became a part of the Chicago & Northwestern system, as it is 
today. It was another one of the railroads promoted by John I. Blair, 
in 1869-70. To give a more comprehensive understanding of the causes 
that led to the building of this railroad, it should be stated that when 
Nebraska was admitted to the Union in 1867, there was a provision by 
which this commonwealth was to have 500,000 acres of the public domain 
and this was to be distributed by the Legislature of the state for internal 
improvements. A greater portion, of course, went toward the construc- 
tion of railway lines. Among such lines was the Fremont, Elkhorn & 
Missouri road. 

At first, a local or home company was incorporated, the articles of 
incorporation of which were prepared by Robert Kittle of Fremont, who 
was backed by almost the entire community, all being desirous of secur- 
ing another railroad line. In September, 1869, public meetings were held 
and much interest was manifested. 

From old paper files it is learned that November 5, 1869, the bells 
of Fremont were ringing loudly ; all its flags and banners were given to 
the breeze, and a large procession, composed of all her leading citizens, 
both male and female, wended its way down "E" Street to Second, 
thence to the spot where the first ground was to be broken for the Elk- 
horn branch of the Sioux City & Pacific Railroad. The chairman for the 
occasion was E. H. Barnard, who mounted a wagon and spoke at length 
to the assembly. 

Finally, bonds were voted by Dodge County in the sum of $120,000 
running for twenty years. With this for backing, a member of the local 
company went to Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and there met John I. Blair, who 
had already utilized the franchise of the Sioux City & Pacific road from 
Sioux City to Fremont. To Mr. Blair were given the above-named bonds 
and Dodge County's interest in the state lands set apart for this purpose 
and he in consideration of this went ahead and constructed that portion 
of the Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley road which runs from Fre- 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 83 

mont to Wisner, a distance of fifty miles. In 1880 the main line of this 
road was extended on west, the track reached Deadwood in 1890. The 
narrow gauge extension from Deadwood to Bald Mountain and Ruby 
Basin was opened up in 1891 and the Hot Springs branch in the same 
year. 

The first ten miles of track north from Fremont were laid on this line 
late in the season of 1869 and an excursion was run over the track from 
Fremont January 1. 1870, during which year it reached West Point and 
was leased to the Sioux City & Pacific Company, which continued to 
operate it until August, 1884, when it passed into the hands of the 
Northwestern system. 

Of the Wyoming extension of this road it should be stated that it was 
commenced in the summer of 1885. Track-laying was begun at Dakota 
Junction in April, 1886, and completed to Douglas that year. It reached 
Casper in June, 1888, and Lander, present terminus, early in the '90s. 

In 1885 the Chicago & Northwestern also decided to enter the South 
Platte country. The line from Fremont to Lincoln was located in the 
winter of 1885-86 and graded in the early spring of 1886, the track being 
completed to Lincoln that year. 

In 1887 the Hastings line was built from Platte River Junction to 
Hastings and the Superior line from Linwood to Geneva. 

In 1888 this road was completed to Superior. The Scribner branch 
was built from Scribner to Lindsay in 1886 and on to Oakdale in 1887. 

In 1887 the Elkhorn line was connected with Omaha and South 
Omaha's stockyards by a line built from Arlington Station, in Washing- 
ton County, east of Fremont, on the old Sioux Citv & Pacific line. The 
Creighton branch was extended to Verdigre in 1888. 

The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railway 

What is usually dubbed the "Burlington" or sometimes the "Q"' line 
of railroad, in Nebraska, has a branch or division running from Ashland, 
near Lincoln, Nebraska, to Sioux Citv, Iowa, with principal stations in 
Dodge County, at Fremont, Nickerson, Winslow and Uehling. This runs 
about north and south through this county. It was built in 1905-06. Its 
passenger and freight depots at Fremont are thoroughly modern buildings 
and are appreciated by the citizens generally. While not as large, it is in 
many ways far superior to the new Union Pacific station in Fremont. In 
the passage of this road through Dodge County it crosses Platte, Nicker^ 
son. Hooper and Lyon townships. 

This railway connects at Sioux City with the Great Northern system, 
sometimes styled the "Jim Hill System", which extends from St. Paul to 
the Pacific Coast. 

Early History 

The subjoined communication from a railway official in St. Paul to 
one of the officials at Lincoln, written in September, 1908, is self-ex- 
planatory : 

"Replying to your letter of September 29, 1908, in reference to the 
dates of track-laying on the line from Sioux City to Ashland. 

"Our track-laying on this line commenced at Dakota City September 
19, 1905, reached Walthill November 1, 1905 ; track-laying gang was then 
moved to Ashland. The northern portion of this line was put into oper- 
ation by the Great Northern Railway from Sioux City to Walthill Janu- 



84 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

ary 2, 1906. Track-laying began at Ashland November 8, 1905, with 
C, B. & Q. train service, reached Oakland February 25, 1906; commer- 
cial business handled by construction trains until April 8, 1906, at which 
time the C. B. & Q. regular trains were placed on the south end of the 
line. The north and south ends of this line were connected through a 
big cut between Walthill and Rosalie June 13, 1906. C, B. & O. trains 
were operating at this time and I presume this is all the information you 
need." Truly, 

(Signed) A. H. Hogeland, 

Chief Engineer. 

Railway Mileage in Dodge County — 1920 

The present railway mileage in Dodge County is : By the Chicago & 
Northwestern system, 55 21/100; by the "Burlington" system, 26 72/100, 
and by the Union Pacific system, 25 21/100 miles. 



CHAPTER VIII 

AGRICULTURE AND AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES 

Nebraska Compared with Other States — Products of the Rich 
Soil — Farm Statistics — A Large Number of Totals — County 
Agricultural Societies — Dodge County Farm Names — Officers 
OF Dodge County Farm Bureau — Directors — Farm Bureau's 
Agent — Chief Co-operators of Farm Bureau — The Race Track. 

A writer concerning this state in 1888, wrote as follows, and as it 
refers to many products grown in Dodge and adjoining counties, it is 
here used as a preface to this chapter: 

"This beautiful valley is a part of the great State of Nebraska which 
is 'first in corn, first in wheat, and first in the hearts of her citizens.' 
Between four and five hundred miles wide every morning in the corn 
growing season the farmers go out into a corn field larger than New 
Jersey. Every noon the harvest hands come in from a wheat field con- 
taining 150,000 acres more than the State of Delaware and every night 
Mary calls the cattle home from a pasture larger than the State of Penn- 
sylvania. Once called the 'Great Western Desert' is now the garden of 
the world. The mustang is succeeded by the Norman. The buffalo has 
turned the fertile grass over to the Durham. Corn tassels where the 
Sioux danced his war-dance. The wheat crop grows over the old prai- 
rie dog villages. The same warm sun that crept over the sage brush 
and the Indian wigwams, smiles on the orchard and meadow." 

The altitude in Eastern Nebraska is highly adapted to the maturing 
of crops of wheat, corn, vegetables and grasses. Corn and stock have 
for many years been important factors of farm life in Dodge County. 
In 1888'the agricultural reports show that about 6,000,000 bushels of 
corn were produced in the county, and more than one-half of this vast 
amount was fed to Dodge County cattle and hogs, before they were 
marketed. 

The drainage of the flat, wet lands of the county have been largely 
drained and tiled out until now but small tracts of land only remain 
without such profitable improvements. (See other mention of the 
county's drainage.) 

Farm Statistics 

In 1918 the state agricultural reports gave figures on Dodge County 
as follows: 

Number of farms occupied by owners, 837; farms occupied by 
tenants, 778. 

Number of acres in farms in county, 238,410 ; acres under cultivation, 
231,627; acres uncultivated. 106,783. 

Farm mortgages filed, 206; amount mortgaged, $1,560,000. 

Number of horses in county, 10,667; mules, 1,193. 

Number dairv cattle, 6,071 ; number of all cattle, 25,796. 

Number of hogs, 29,820. 

Number sheep and goats, 1,512. 
85 



86 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Number dozens poultry. 12,665; incubators, 251; stands of bees, 71. 

Number of dogs, 1,918. 

Number automobiles on farms. 1.374; gas tractors, 133; gas engines, 
922; silos, 150; cream separators, 1,079; butter-making machines, 91. 

Number of acres of corn, 98,239 ; average yield, 33 bushels ; total num- 
ber bushels, 3,241,887; valued (at $1.25 per 'bushel), $4,052,000. 

Number acres winter wheat. 31,961; average per acre, 14 bushels; 
valued at $2.00, equaled $895,000. 

Number acres spring wheat, 20.277 ; average yield per acre, 8 bushels. 

Total value of all wheat crop, $1,211,229. 

Number acres of oats, 48,000; average per acre. 37 bushels; 
valued at 63 cents. 

Number acres of rye, 905; averaged 15 bushels to the acre, brought 
$1.20 per bushel. 




Hogs 

Number acres of barley. 1.298; average per acre, 30 bushels. 

Number acres of millet, 369; average per acre, 2 4/10 tons; value 
per ton, $15.40. 

Number acres in sorghum, 625 ; average tonnage per acre, 4. Value 
$10.00. 

Number acres of navy beans, 2. Of onions. 11 acres. 

Number acres potatoes. 942 ; average yield, 48 bushels. 

Number acres of alfalfa, 8.053 ; average per acre. 3 2/5 tons. Valued 
at $20.00 per ton ; total value. $515,000. 

Number acres wild hay. 28.886; yield 1 6/10 tons; value, $16.00. 

Number acres of clover, 3,129; acres timothy, 561; timothy-clover 
mixed, 10,815 ; other tame hay, 6.437. 

Number bearing apple trees, 9.791 ; cherry trees, 2,467. 

County Agricultur.\l Societies 

There appears to be no record of an agricultural society in Dodge 
County prior to 1870, when there was formed what was styled the "Union 
Fair Grounds Association." It was organized at Fremont, but as was 
once said concerning it, "It takes in the whole world.'* 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 87 

In 1872 a joint stock company was organized and known as the 
Dodge County Agricultural Society. This was formed at Centerville, 
section 32, township 19, range 7. The first officers of this organization 
were as follows: J. P. Eaton, president; J. B. Robinson, treasurer; W. C. 
Aikin, secretary. The first annual exhibit, was made at Centerville in 
1872. This continued until 1879, when after considerable pulling and 
hauling between various parts of the county, the location was changed 
to Fremont by a vote of the stockholders as follows : Fremont, 95 ; Cen- 
terville, 72, and Hooper, 3. At the same date this society was consoli- 
dated with the Union Association at Fremont, which made a new strong 
society. After these changes had been made the first officers elected 
were : James G. Cayton, president ; H. P. Nicodemus and J. Y. Smith, 
vice presidents ; F. I. EUick, secretary. 

Originally, the fair grounds here comprised eighty acres, but that 
was cut down to forty acres prior to 1890. The grounds are about one 
mile northwest of the central part of the city. From time to time good 
buildings were placed on these beautiful fair grounds, but in July, 1890, 
a severe windstorm destroyed many of these valuable improvements, but 
by the next year nearly all had been replaced. 

In looking over old minute books of the society it is found that in 
1892 the officers were: J. B. Robinson, president; William E. Lee, vice 
president: M. H. Hinman, treasurer, and J. W. Hyatt, secretary. At 
that date the society only owed about $1,000. But year by year misfor- 
tune and change of public opinion lessened the general interest, one 
element being a diiTerence of opinion as to conducting races in conjunc- 
tion with agricultural fairs. Finally about 1900 the society went down, 
like many another in various states. Now there are numerous district 
and town stock exhibits, such as the successful ones of Hooper and 
Scribner, where the interest is usually well centered. A Trotting Park 
Association was formed at Fremont instead of a county fair and that 
holds its annual races to the entire satisfaction of the horsemen of this 
and adjoining counties. 

Dodge County Farm Names 

Since 1910-11 there has been a provision in the Nebraska laws that 
each county clerk in the state shall be provided with a record book in 
which shall be recorded the name selected by the owner for his farm, 
and with it shall be a description as to location, section, township and 
range. No two persons can claim the same farm name. The fee in 
Dodge County for recording "farm names" is $1.00. While not many 
have so far taken advantage of this law, yet since 1910 there have been 
recorded the names of thirty-nine farms. The recorded description of 
these is as follows : 

No. 1 of these "farm names" was recorded July, 1911, by William J. 
Coad, for his farm in section 7, township 17, range 9, the same being 
called "Maple Grove Farm." 

"Sunny Slope" farm was recorded by M. A. Uehling, September 30, 
1911, the location being a quarter of sections 8 and 17, in township 19, 
range 8. 

"Island View Home," May 12, 1913, by George W. Ainsworth, in 
Westside Addition. 

"Jhe Elms," May 29, 1913, by Ray Nye in Nye & Hawthorne's 
Addition to Fremont. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 89 

"Pine Hurst," in part of the south half of the southeast quarter of 
section 13, township 17, range 8, by ]\Irs. J. W. Van Anda. The date 
was June 14, 1913. 

"Maple View," July 3, 1913, by Philip S. Rine, in the southwest 
quarter of section 2, township 18, range 8. 

"Logan Lodge," September 13, 1913, by May Lyman, in Hooper 
Township, section 10, township 19, range 8. , 

"Utopia," November 5, 1913, by J. J. Hawthorne, in Platte Town- 
ship, in sections 21 and 22, township 17, range 8. 

"Elmhurst," by Jesse W. Hibben. Platte Township, section 24, town- 
ship 17, range 8, on November 17, 1913. 

"Spruce Hedge Farm," by Christ Muller, in section 35, township 
18, range 8, on November 20, 1913. 

"Clover Leaf Farm," by John Petrow, in section 8, township 17, 
range 8, November 25, 1913. 

Fred De La Matye, in section 20, township 17, range 8, the "High- 
lands." 

"Westfield Acres," by Frank Fowler, in section 15, township 17, 
range 8, November 25, 1913. 

"Thoroughbred Holstein and Poultry Farm," by J. Watts Kaven, in 
section 36, township 19, range 9, on December 1, 1913. 

"Idlewild Farm" is in section 20, township 18, range 9. and was 
recorded December 9, 1913. 

"Morning Side," bv Wallace M. Smith, in section 24, township 7, 
range 8, December 13,'l913. 

"Edgewood Farm," in section 28, township 19, range 6, in Ridgeley 
Township, by George Nolan, December 22, 1913. 

"Valley Grove Farm," in section 11, township 17, range 6, bv Fred 
D. Howe, December 29, 1913. 

"Lake View Farm," in section 2, township 19, range 7, by Herman 
Monnich, July 5, 1914. 

"Oak Hill Farm," by Herman Monnich, in section 2, township 19, 
range 7, July 5, 1914. 

"The Londonderry Farm," in section 13, township 19, range 5, by 
John J. Fey. 

"River View Farm," by Charles W. Mulloy, in section 14, township 
17, range 7, on February 28, 1914. 

"Evergreen Home," by David Brown, in section 9, township 18, 
range 7, on April 9, 1914. 

"Pfaffe Valley Farm," by Frank J. Kromas, in section 2, township 
17, range 5, September 18, 1914. 

"Square Deal Farm," by Monnich & Sons, in section 19, township 
7, November 3, 1914. 

"Lone Cedar," by Alfred C. Rexin, in section 17, township 18, range 
6, on March 11, 1915. 

"Wildwood," in section 28, township 17, range 8, by George F. Wolz 
and Frank Pfeiffer, April 11, 1916. 

"Creek View," by Swan Anderson, in section 3, township 17, range 8, 
on July 15, 1916. 

"Grand View Park," by George F. Wolz, in section 28, township 17, 
range 8, August 21, 1916. 

"Plain View Farm," by Joe Baechler, in section 24, township 19, 
range 6, recorded November 25, 1916. 

"Wildwood Farms," by Fred Eason, Cotterell Township, in section 9, 
township 17, range 6, recorded September 5, 1917. 



90 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

"Wittdale," by Anna Witt, Ridgeley Township, in section 2, town- 
ship 19, range 6, recorded November 21, 1917. 

"The Grove Stock Farm," by H. M. Kern, in section 26, township 18, 
range 5, recorded March 20, 1917. 

"South View Stock Farm," by Henry S. Spath, in Ridgeley Town- 
ship, sections 9 and 16, in township 19, range 6, recorded May 31, 1919. 

"Logan View Farm," by Emil H. Suhr, Logan Township, in section 
9, township*20, range 8. 

"Hillside Farm," by Willie Olson, in Pleasant Valley Township, in 
section 16, township 19, range 5, recorded October 11, 1919. 

"Poland China Farm," by Harry C. Dahl of Maple Township, in sec- 
tion 19, township 18, range 7, recorded March 29, 1920. 

"Valley View Farm," by H. C. McGath, section 20, township 18, range 
7, recorded June 17, 1920. 

"Lakeside Farm," by Ray A. Hindmarsh, in section 19, township 19, 
range 10, recorded June 23, 1920. 

Officers of Dodge County Farm Bureau, 1920 

Frank E. Liston, president, Hooper ; William Havekost, vice presi- 
dent, Hooper; William M. Milliken, secretary, Nickerson. 

Directors of Farm Bureau 

C. F. Luecking, Scribner ; Louis Musbach, Scribner ; Emeal Sievers, 
Scribner; Albert Gerecke, Fremont; Chris Schow, Fremont. 

County Farm Bureau's Agent 

R. N. Houser, Fremont, office in courthouse. 

Chief Co-operators of the Farm Bureau 

H. J. Wolf, Ames ; John Ehninger, Hooper; J. G. Hunteman, Hooper; 
Henry Tank, Fremont ; William Rittig, Scribner ; W. O. Haseman, Fre- 
mont; R. H. C. O'Brien, Ames; Robert Seymour, North Bend; Frank 
Diers, Nickerson ; F. M. Sumner, North Bend ; John Wallace, North 
Bend; E. R. Hughes, North Bend; Ernest Schmidt Fremont; Emeal 
Sievers, Scribner ; Hans Paasch, Scribner ; J. N. Emanuel, North Bend ; 
George Hilbers, Hooper; W. H. Farrell, North Bend; H. F. Muller, 
Scribner ; C. J. Lenneman, Scribner ; Charles Auten, North Bend ; George 
Jorgensen, Ames; August Klemke, Scribner; O. O. Larson, Hooper; 
Elkhard Janecek, Dodge ; E. F. Novak, Dodge. 



CHAPTER IX 

HISTORY OF THE DODGE COUNTY BAR 

(By Frank Dolezai.) 

This narrative of the lawyers of Dodge County is wholly from per- 
sonal acquaintance with the men. From the start the bar of Dodge 
County occupied a high place in the profession, and during the active 
period of its leading members, practiced in nearly all of the counties of 
the state north of the Platte River and in the tier of counties south of 
the Platte River lying along the river. The judicial district in which 
Dodge County is situated in the early days included a great many coun- 
ties, and Saunders, Butler and York remained in the district for quite 
a period of time. So these leading lawyers had a wide field for their 
operations in the formative period of the state, and by their abilities and 
characters exerted a strong influence on the law history of the state. 

Another such period of forty years cannot come, neither can men of 
the peculiar character of these leaders of the bar come. They were men 
whose sentiments and convictions were formed by the ideas and ideals 
which prevailed among the intelligent classes of American citizens before 
the Civil war. Thev were earnest men, and attained their education by 
sacrifices and they held to those ideals through the great period of com- 
mercialism's struggle for control of law which started with the Civil war 
and exerted a fatal influence on the American bar. The spirit of com- 
mercialism which has changed all business and industry and subverted 
the real and legitimate influence of legal profession began at about the 
time that they started in the practice of the profession. These lawyers 
had the professional ideals that professional skill with integrity and 
honor should be the measure of professional success, and they viewed 
with natural misgivings the organization of wealth into corporations and 
the vast powers conferred upon these organizations. They stood for the 
criterion of merit and service as against measuring things by the com- 
mercial outconie of money profit. As a result of this struggle and of 
the influence exercised bv the leading members of the bar of Dodge 
Countv during their time, no lawyer here became rich from law practice 
or even what was then considered well off. They were genuine Ameri- 
can individualists. 

The Lawyers of 1881 

When I came to Dodge County, January 1, 1881, the Dodge County 
bar then consisted of the following practicing lawyers engaged in the 
active work of the profession : E. F. Grey, W. H. Munger,' N. H. Bell, 
W. A. Marlowe, W. C. Ghost, James A. Sterrett, WilHam Marshall, 
George L. Loomis, C. Hollenbeck, and J. E. Frick, all located at Fre- 
mont, and D. M. Strong located at North Bend. The late Samuel 
Maxwell was then one of the judges of the Supreme Court. In the latter 
part of 1881 Mr. Sterrett died, and Air. Marlowe and Mr. Ghost, along 
in 1882, moved to Denver, Colorado. At about the same time Z. Shed, 
a former member of the bar, also moved to Denver, Colorado. Sterrett 
91 



92 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

and Marshall had come to the county from Illinois some years before 
1881. Mr. Loomis had then been in Fremont a few years, and Mr. Hol- 
lenbeck had been in Fremont two years, while Mr. Frick came to 
Fremont in 1880. For a great many years the bar consisted of Grey, 
Munger, Bell, Marshall, Loomis, Hollenbeck, Frick and myself at 
Fremont, and D. M. Strong at North Bend. From 1881 on, Grey, 
Munger and Bell were the leaders in the bar, and their practice extended 
over many counties of the state. In the first fifteen years following my 
coming, changes had taken place, so that Loomis, Hollenbeck and Frick 
gained leading positions in the bar. A short biography of these men 
will illustrate the character of the bar. 

A few words explaining the history of the bar may not be amiss. 

Members of the Bar Before 1881 

Robert Kittle, one of the pioneers concerned in laying out the Town 
of Fremont, was a lawyer by profession although he did not take any 
position in the practice of his profession in Dodge County. He owned 
much of the town property and was more concerned in that than in 
the practice of law. 

Z. Shed was the outstanding lawyer of the early period. He had 
built up a good practice and was a versatile man, who might be described 
as a graduate of the vmiversity of the world. He left the practice 
of law to engage in commercial enterprise. He built the Opera House 
and conducted a large mercantile establishment until he sold out in 
Fremont about 1883 and moved to Denver. He made a success of law 
practice and his reasons for leaving it go back to the struggle which 
I have mentioned in the introductory part. He told me that he noticed 
the trend of affairs and for that reason determined to quite the law. 

E. H. Rogers and George W. E. Dorsey were members of the Dodge 
County bar in the early days, but devoted their energies to real estate, 
loans and politics. Mr. Rogers was appointed Consul at Vera Cruz and 
died there. Mr. Dorsey became a member of Congress and was a 
public spirited man, and died later at Salt Lake City. Neither of these 
men practiced law since my coming. 

J. W. Perkins, who was a member of the bar in the first years, moved 
into Knox County, and as I understand it, Mr. Loomis took his place in 
the practice. 

The Leading Members of the Bar 

Samuel Maxwell had a long career as Judge of the Supreme Court 
and after leaving the bench, did not actively engage in law practice. 
He was afterwards elected to Congress. He was a great worker and 
quite a prolific writer on law matters. He wrote works on legal pro- 
cedure, both civil and criminal, aside from the writing of opinions of the 
Supreme Court of which he wrote a great many. Whatever may be 
said in a critical way of his opinions from the professional stand- 
point, he always had before his eyes that the object and aim of law 
is to do justice between the parties, and it will be admitted that he 
held to that ideal. He was a broad man and man of wide views. 
His defeat for renomination to the bench was one of the incidents of 
the struggle, and his nomination and election to Congress was an inci- 
dent of the same struggle. The struggle against the encroachments of 
commercialism. He died shortly after finishing his service in Congress 
and at an advanced age. 




New Courthouse, Fremont 



94 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

E. F. Grey, while not born in Nebraska, was really a native Nebras- 
kan, and came from the southern part of the state to Dodge County. 
He had previously been at Lewiston, Idaho, and had written the 
criminal code of that territory. When Judge Crounse became Judge 
of the district, the position of District Attorney came to Mr. Grey, 
and he came back from Idaho and moved up to Fremont, where he 
remained in the active practice of law until his death. There never was 
a lawyer who worked harder and more faithfully for a client than 
Mr. Grey. His was the spirit of the true warrior. He was a man of 
patience and perseverance and method. He was a man of the highest 
professional honor, whose word was as good as a bond. He did not 
only stick to an oral agreement he had made even though that agreement 
turned out unfavorably, but in addition he would not try any of the side 
stepping, and fairly took the agreement as made and intended. He was 
an uncomplaining man and aside from his professional work, was a kindly 
man, and an interesting companion. He was a man of bravery, moral 
as well as of physical development. And 1 shall never forget the last 
interview with him. I had heard of his intending to give up practice 
and I went to his office to tender him a banquet of the bar as he was 
the oldest practitioner. On asking him whether it was true that he 
was going to quit practice he said to me. "Yes, I am going to leave 
today. I am going to my daughter's to die," and pointing out certain 
books in his library, he said to me, "I have given these to my son-in-law 
at Plattsmouth, and these," pointing to others, "go to my son-in-law at 
Sioux Falls." His declaration was in even tones. It was not the 
bragging or defying of a man, but the statement of a fact as a fact. 
He did not seem cast down, he told me that he had finished his law 
work. I then made the statement to him that when he got up to his 
daughter's and rested up from work that we would then expect him 
to come down for a visit, and in the same even tones he told me that 
when he came back it would be his dead body, ^^'ithin a month of the 
time he laid down his professional work he was buried in the cemetery 
at Fremont. Mr. Grey occupied no ofificial position after his office of 
District Attorney in the early days until towards the close of his pro- 
fessional career when he acted as City Attorney for one term. 

W. H. Munger came to the county in the early days, being guided to 
Fremont by that nestor of early days, C. A. Baldwin, of Omaha. I heard 
. Mr. Munger say that he studied law in Cleveland, Ohio. When I 
came to Dodge County he had a very extensive and select practice which 
he held until his appointment as judge. He was then in his prime. The 
old timers are nearly all gone, but those left here and those who knew 
Mr. Munger will admit that it never occurred to any man to question 
Mr. Munger's fairness or honesty, or any statement that he made. He 
was professionally and personally the cleanest of men, and the last 
of men to be influenced in any way by consideration of profit. He was 
quiet in his tastes and genial and when engaged in investigating a legal 
question or proposition his mind worked with great rapidity. His intel- 
lectual cast was that of analysis, and he had a sensible grasp of men and 
things. I do not think that ambition to get on in a worldly way ever 
disturbed him. He was appointed Federal Judge for the District of 
Nebraska in the nineties, when those two great lawyers of the State of 
Nebraska, Honorable W. V. Allen and Honorable John M. Thurston 
represented the State of Nebraska in the United States Senate. I know 
that IMr. i\Iunger worked much harder as a judge than as a practitioner. 
I know that his appointment and confirmation were welcome to all, 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 95 

irrespective of party. He was the one man that the great powers of a 
federal bench did not turn arbitrary or tyranical. His record is that of 
an ideal judge. 

N. H. Bell was the most interesting member of the Dodge County 
bar and the most picturesque personality in it. He labored under diffi- 
culties that the public was not aware of. Mr. Bell was a genius. He 
was the master of plausibility in argument. His reasoning was nearly 
all by analogy, and he had that greatest of wit that never wounded 
the feelings of others. Many incidents could be recorded of his wit. 
He was my opponent in the last jury trial that he tried, the question 
being as to whether a certain mechanical device worked or not. My 
client was on the stand and this mechanical device, being the first of 
the kind in the county, of course restricted our side simply to the tech- 
nical mechanical proof. Mr. Bell knew the weakness of it, and touched 
up my client with the exclamation "You never saw it work" following 
it up with "How do you know it will work?" About the third time that 
he touched it up, my client got warmed up and stated that he knew it 
would work because it was made to work. Judge Bell in an instant 
jumped up, threw out his arms and in his inimitable way said. "So was 
I, but I don't." The result was a roar over the court room that the 
presiding judge good-naturedly joined in. To this day among the' 
lawyers are reported many instances of his wit, and his power of 
mimicry. He was an imaginative man, a great reader and given to 
amusing conceits. Mr. Bell in the early days served a term as the 
County Judge of Dodge County, which is the only official position that 
I know of his having held. In his life he had the usual inaptitude of 
the professional man to accomplish anything except professional labor. 
He died about eighteen years ago and is buried at Newton, Iowa. 

William Marshall was the only one of the bar who was a Civil 
war veteran. He had held the position of Lieutenant-Colonel in the 
war and had acted for many years as state's attorney. He acted as 
state's attorney in the old district here until he got the position of 
district judge which he held until his death along in 1900. Judge 
Marshall was a painstaking, plodding worker, working slowly, had 
great respect for precedents and the wisdom of the past. He was an' 
earnest, honest man, whose integrity I never heard questioned. He 
gave to the office of judge that attention that no man could have done 
better. It was nothing unusual for him to be up past the midnight 
hour working upon instructions or hunting through the books on 
questions of law. His mind had a mathematical cast to it, and I often 
thought that he was too prone and insistent in establishing a proposi- 
tion to demonstrate it as one would a problem in mathematics. As a 
lawyer he was probably the best posted in criminal law that was ever 
known in the Dodge County bar. Judge Marshall never married and 
he followed his profession with a singleness of purpose and attention. 
He felt and knew that he was made for the law, and the other things 
of life did not allure him, except his hunting and fishing diversions. 
He had the most elaborate hunting and fishirig equipment of any 
member of the bar. 

George L. Loomis is the present collector of internal revenue, and 
virtually retired from the active practice. In his time Mr. Loomis 
held the position of county attorney and representative before his 
present position. Mr. Loomis devoted his time more to the commercial 
branch of the law than any of the other lawyers of the bar, and he 
gave his business that careful attention that could not fail of success. 



96 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

He is methodical in his work and painstaking and worked more in 
detail than any of the other members of the bar. Mr. Loomis also 
gave much attention to the Odd Fellows Lodge and has held the highest 
positions in it. I would not mention him because he is living yet and 
still a member of the bar, only for the fact that he is the last here 
of the bar who were here when I came in 1881. 

C. Hollenbeck came to Nebraska in 1878 from Pennsylvania, and 
I have to revise my statement as to Judge Marshall being the only 
veteran of the Civil war, for Judge Hollenbeck enlisted at the age of 
sixteen and passed through the Civil war. He was admitted to the bar 
in Pennsylvania, and represented his county in the Legislature of that 
state before coming here. He held the office of county attorney for 
two terms and then judge of the District Court until he was elected six 
years ago Chief Justice of Nebraska, and died in that office shortly 
after taking his place on that bench. Judge Hollenbeck was an interest- 
ing personality and during his practice was my closest chum at the bar. 
He was a man who was well educated and possessed great mental 
powers. He was not a ready speaker but his mental cast was that of 
judgment, and he excelled in his judgment of men as well as things. 
He was not a great or extensive reader in the law, but he worked hard 
in analyzing the proposition and getting it distinct and clear. He was a 
broad man and had studied the Constitution of the United States and 
of the State and had decided views as to the purposes of contitutional 
law. His individual peculiarities as a man and lawyer are well known 
and remembered. His standing and ability as a district judge are 
exceptional. He possessed the faculty of locating the ruling point in 
a law suit. 

J. E. Frick, since 1881 until leaving Nebraska in 1897, was my 
partner in practice. He had taken up the law after being in business 
and after having learned and practiced a trade. He was a man of broad 
and very general information and a great reader. Mr. Frick had 
natural oratorical abilities in voice and appearance to a marked degree, 
and was the orator of the bar during his residence here. In Utah he 
gained the Supreme bench and is now a member of the Supreme Court 
and a candidate for re-election. Mr. Frick took naturally to the law and 
the comments among the lawyers reading his opinions as Supreme 
Judge leave no room to doubt that the people of Utah in his case have 
made no mistake. 

D. M. Strong was an old resident of this county, and served as 
sheriff, from which office he graduated into the law. He was established 
at North Bend when I came and remained there until his death. He 
was the second member of the bar who never married, He was killed 
by an accident on a train at the station of Valley. His work was mostly 
that of counsel, but he had a legal mind and his analysis of a case for 
a self-taught man as he was, was remarkably good. ' 

About 1883, Robert J. Stinson came to North Bend. He was a young 
man then, who had gained his education by great sacrifice, and he started 
in partnership with a man named Harry Clair, which was unfortunate 
for him owing to the fact that Clair had imposed on him and on the 
people here and was in fact a criminal and extradited from the state 
afterwards. Mr. Stinson, about the year 1885, removed to Fremont, 
and entered the partnership of Judge Frick and myself and afterwards 
was in partnership with Grant G. Martin. Following this he was elected 
County Judge of Dodge County, and held that position until his death 
some eight years ago. Mr. Stinson came originally from New York, and 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 97 

for years preceding his death was suffering from the disease which 
finally terminated fatally. 

Grant G. Martin came to the county from one of the Dakotas about 
twenty years ago and remained a member of the bar until he took the 
position of deputy attorney general since which time he has lived in 
Lincoln. Mr. Martin held the position of county attorney for two 
terms, and following his position of deputy attorney general, became 
attorney general of the state, and has served as commissioner of the 
Supreme Court and is at present a candidate for Chief Justice. 

During my time, Frank Fowler of Nye-Schneider-Fowler Company, 
and B. H. Dunham, now of Omaha, and Master in Chancery of the 
Federal Court, became members of the Dodge County bar, both study- 
ing in the office of Mr. Munger. Mr. Fowler was in the office of 
Mr. Munger during the partnership between Mr. Marlowe and Mr. Mun- 
ger in the early days, and after his admission to the bar took up a 
commercial career. Mr. Dunham moved to Omaha and served long 
years in the law offices of the Northwestern Road. 

Waldo Wintersteen, the present County Judge, also became a member 
of the bar by studying law in a law office. He had been County Judge 
some years iDefore his present term of service. 

A. H. Briggs, an old resident of Dodge County, was a member of 
the Dodge County bar for many years. His family settled in the 
county in a very early day, and Mr. Briggs gained his education and at 
times had engaged in farming and in mercantile pursuits. He opened 
an office in Scribner, and finally moved to Fremont. He was elected 
County Judge of Dodge County and served in that office for two terms, 
and afterwards retired from law practice to a farm in the neighborhood 
of Cedar Rapids, Nebraska, where he now lives. 

Henry Maxwell, son of Judge Samuel Maxwell, studied law and 
was for considerable time with Fred W. Vaughn, a member of the bar 
now, and afterwards removed to the City of Omaha, where he is Still 
in practice. 

A. Clark Records was admitted to the bar from study in the law 
office of Judge Hollenbeck but did not stay with the practice of the law. 

Frederic W. Button, the present judge of the District Court, entered 
the practice of law in Dodge County with Judge Hollenbeck shortly 
before Judge Hollenbeck was elected to the district bench. 

The foregoing, with members of the bar that are here now, con- 
stitute all the men which occur to my mind as having been connected 
with the practice of law in Dodge County since my coming here. 

Judges of the District Court 

It may not be amiss to refer to the men who have served as judges 
of the District Court. When I came in 1881, the late George W. Post, 
of York, Nebraska, was the judge. He was succeeded when a change 
was made in the district, by his brother, A. M. Post, of Columbus, 
who has the interesting record that after having quit the District bench 
thirty years he has again returned to it, and is now one of the judges 
of the District Court. William Marshall was made judge when the 
district was given two judges. J. J. Sullivan, formerly of Columbus, 
until his elevation to the Supreme Bench, served as District Judge. 
I. L. Albert, now of Columbus, Nebraska, served for a short time by 
appointment when Judge Hollenbeck was elected to the bench. After- 
wards for one term J. A. Grimson, of Schuyler, was one of the judges, 



98 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

and he was followed by George H. Thomas, formerly of Schuyler, 
Nebraska, and now of Columbus, Nebraska. 

I have not mentioned any of the present members of the bar of 
Dodge County, who are engaged in active practice, as it would not be 
deemed by me proper, nor do I take it, would it be acceptable to make 
comments upon the active members, for they have not yet passed into 
history and what might be said would be subject to misunderstanding 
and misconstruction. 

The writer takes pardonable pride in having spent his professional 
life as a member of the Dodge County bar because of the membership 
of the bar and the kindly associations, and he takes great pride in the 
fact that the judges who have served upon the District Court of Dodge 
County and as county judges during his time have performed the 
functions of those high offices in a manner highly commendable in 
the administration of justice. 



CHAPTER X 

MEDICAL MEN OF THE COUNTY 

First and Subsequent Doctors of Dodge County — List of Physi- 
cians — Short Personals of Some of the County's Medical Men 
— List of Present* Physicians — The Dodge County Medical 
Society — Hospitals, Etc. 

Ever since the dawn of civilization the "art of healing" as the work 
of a physician has long been called, has been foremost in the minds of 
intelligent men and women — especially is this true when the body is 
prostrate with some one of the numerous fevers — when the world looks 
dark and gloomy, and pain is constantly reminding the patient of a seri- 
ous illness. It is then, if not at other times, that men and women 
desire the care of a well-read and fully competent physician. They may, 
in full health, about the affairs of life, have spoken lightly of the family 
doctor and his medicine chest, of the theory of his particular school of 
medicine, but when languishing upon a bed of sickness, they take a 
different view of the physician and ask that he be sent for at once. 

It should be remembered that the leading professions of the world 
have always been the doctor, the minister, the lawyer. These professions 
are of the higher and more dignified type of callings which men every- 
where respect and at some time during the short span of years have need 
for. True, not every doctor since Galen, has been competent and even 
honorable and trustworthy, but the exceptions are few. for our physi- 
cians in modern times must needs be intelligent, trained, thinking men 
and women, who realize they hold the lives of the community in their 
hands. Great advancement has been made in the science of medicine 
in the last half century. In surgery and dentistry the improvement in 
twenty-five years has been a marvel to all who stop and think of old 
treatments. Dodge County is old enough to have lived under "old 
fashioned" and newer doctors, and both classes have averaged with 
others in their times. 

Dodge County Physicians 

As near as can now be ascertained the following comprises about all 
of the Dodge County physicians who have practiced for any considerable 
period of time, since the earliest settlement, in the fifties: 

Abbott. Luther J. Borglum, M. D. 

Agee, James C. Buchanan, Albert E. 

Anderson, Louis N. Burbank, F. L. 

Atkinson, Ira E. J. Braucht, F. E. 

Brown, Nathan H. 

Brown, Frank W. 
Barnes. Charles E. Brunner. Henry 

Bates. H. Y. Byers, George A. 

Bear, Alexander Byers, Samuel J. N, 

Bell, Mrs. Nelly Byers, R. C. 

99 



100 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



Calkins, F. E. 
Capek, Ernest 
Colburn, C. L. 
Crabbs, J. H. 
Croll, Nercer B. 
Crook, Charles V. 

Davies, William J. 
Davies, Rupert A. 
De Myers, Henry 
Devries, J. S. 

Earhart, Dr. 
Eby, C. D. 
Eigler, Charles O. 

Fees, Arthur W. 

Geragosian, Vahn James 
Golding, D. G. 
Guidinger, W. A. 

Hardy, J. M. 
Harvey, Andrew 
Haslam, George J. 
Hunter, Major H. 

Inches, Charles 

Kinyoun, F. H. 
Kirby, Lupper 
Knallenburg, W. H. 

Leake, E. N. 

Martin, E. W. 
McDonald, Robert C. 
McKnight, H. P. 



Metzinger, J. J. 
More, Z. N. 
Morrow, H. N. 
Mullens, A. B. 

Nayel, Dr. 
Nieman, Gustav 

Overgaard, Andrew P. 
Oxford, Edwin J. 
Oxford, Charles 

Parchen, H. W. 
Pederson, H. C. 
Porter, Dr. 
Preston, S. A. 

Rathbun, G. H. 
Reeder, Grant S. 
Richardson, Ira F. 
Robinson, Charles O. 

Schemel, Karl 
Schoettler, Dr. 
Seiver. Mrs. Charlotte 
Sexton, T. C. 
Sexton, Thomas C. 
Smith, Leander, B. 
Stratton, M. D. 

Townsend, Louis J. 
Turay, Charles E. 

Unlan, M. D. 

Van Buren, E. 

Van Metre. Richard T. 

Zellers. M. T. 



Past and Present Physicians of Dodge County 



It is always a difficult task to write the history of the medical pro- 
fession in any given locality, for the simple reason that the physician 
is usually too busy about the cares of his office and outside practice, 
to take sufficient time to record data that might in years to come be 
of invaluable service to the local historian, in treating on such a topic. 
Outside of short sketches, of now and then a prominent medical doctor, 
found in "Who's Who?" or similar publications, there is but little com- 
piled concerning physicians until death and then their obituary notices 
are seldom long preserved, save by their own families. In this connection 
let it be stated that the writers and compilers of the History of Dodge 
and Washington Counties, have used every known effort, called upon 
well posted members of the profession, etc., for data relative to the 
men who have lived and practiced medicine in these counties, yet have 
been unable to secure much to make an interesting medical chapter. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 101 

However, that the names of such physicians as are recalled, with such 
notes as have been furnished the writer, the following incomplete list 
of the physicians and surgeons who have practiced here from an early 
day to 1920 — some for a short time and others for a longer period — 
will be here given : 

Doubtless the first physicians who treated the ill who lived in Dodge 
County, as now bounded, was a physician living at the Quincy Colony 
in Fontanelle, which is in Washington County now but then within Dodge 
The files of the Fremont "Tribune" give in their issue of July 24, 1868, 
the names of Drs. L. J. Abbott, J. H. Crabbs and Dr. Bear, practic- 
ing in Fremont then. It is believed there were but few ahead of them 
in this county. In a fist furnished the writer by Dr. George J. Haslani, 
of Fremont, he gives it as his belief that the first physician in the city of 
Fremont was Doctor Stratton. Dr. Alexander Bear was about the same 
time, and later located at Norfolk, Nebraska. Other very early doctors 
in the county were : Doctors Schoettler. Earhart, Borglum. who moved to 
Omaha, Henry Brunner, who graduated at Wurzburg, Germany, prac- 
ticed there and at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, and in Iowa, after which 
he located in the practice at Fremont in the '50s. Dr. E. \^an Buren 
moved to Hooper, practiced till death in July. 1881. Doctor Navel, 
Doctor Porter, Doctor Unlan, Doctor Inches, a graduate of New York 
University Medical College, and is now practicing in Scribner. 

Dr. J. H. Crabbs was among the first in Fremont and has been dead 
many years, as has also Dr. L. J. Abbott, above named ; he was appointed 
as superintendent of the State Insane Asylum at Lincohi and made an 
excellent man at the head of that great institution. Doctor .Abbott was 
a rugged, strong, many-sided character and Iield numerous pubHc posi- 
tions ; he was a member of the last Territorial Legislature and had to do 
with the formation of the State of Nebraska. He was the son of a 
doctor and was born in Blue Hills, Maine, September 15, 1831. He 
graduated from Ohio Medical College, spent two years in Jefferson 
Medical College, Philadelphia, from which school he received his diploma 
March 12, 1854. He commenced his medical practice with his father, at 
Troy, Ohio, continuing six years. In the autumn of 1860 he came to 
Douglas County, Nebraska, bought a claim in what is now Irvington. 
He developed his claim and practiced medicine at the same time. His 
chief business, however, was raising sheep, he being among the first in 
the Territory of Nebraska to engage in such an enterprise. He continued 
until 1866 when he sold and moved to Fontenelle, where he practiced 
two years, then located in Fremont. He was a pioneer doctor and had 
many professional drives more than fifty miles in length, up and down 
the Platte and Elkhorn valleys. He helped organize the first State 
Medical Society in 1868, and was its president in 1877. He was United 
States examining surgeon for pensions from 1871 to 1881 ; was inter- 
ested in educational affairs, member Fremont School Board : deHvered 
able addresses at the corner-stone laying of the second courthouse of 
this county ; wrote an authentic "Centennial History" in 1876 of Dodge 
County, and was author of many able articles for the press. 

Dr. George J. Haslam, still a leading practitioner in the City of Fre- 
mont, graduated from the University of Ireland, Dublin ; member of the 
Royal College of Surgeons, England ; B. S. Victoria University, Eng- 
land ; F. R. C. S. and a member of the American College of Surgeons ; 
has practiced in Fremont since 1891 ; with Dr. L. J. Abbott founded 
the first hospital of Fremont. (See biographical sketch.) Doctor Has- 
lam is a member of the American Medical Association ; surgeon to the 



102 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Chicago & Northwestern Railway, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
Railway and the Union Pacific Railway at Fremont ; is Medical director 
of the North American Life Insurance Company, Omaha; Lieutenant 
U. S. Army Medical Reserve ; is a thirty-second degree Mason. 

Doctor Inches is a graduate of New York University College, and is 
now practicing at Scribner. 

Dr. Leander B. Smith is a graduate of the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, at Keokuk, Iowa ; came to Fremont to practice in 1879 ; 
retired in 1913 ; is now the oldest continuous medical doctor in Dodge 
County ; never lost three weeks time for vacations. 

Dr. William J. Davies ; graduate of Rush Medical College, 1887; 
conducted a drug store in Fremont twenty-five years ; commenced the 
practice of medicine in 1887. 

Dr. J. S. Devries, a graduate of the University of Nebraska ; came 
to Fremont in 1888; in 1897 moved to Fontenelle and in 1903 back to 
Fremont ; took post-graduate course at Jefiferson Medical College, Phila- 
delphia ; in 1918 took a post-graduate course in New York. 

Dr. M. T. Zellers, of Hooper, is among the pioneer physicians of this 
county, having settled in Hooper about 1890, and is still in practice there. 
He is a graduate of Western Reserve University School of Medicine. 
Cleveland, Ohio. (See biography.) 

Dr. Ira E. J. Atkinson practiced in this county for a time, moved 
first to Dodge Village and later to Lincoln. 

Dr. E. W. Martin graduated at Cincinnati Medical College, 1881; 
first practiced five years in Kentucky; came to Fremont in 1886; belongs 
to the various medical societies and associations ; still in practice in 
Fremont. 

Dr. C. L. Colburn practiced here in the nineties, later moved to 
California and is now deceased. 

Dr. N. H. Brown, deceased. 

Dr. T. C. Sexton, graduate Washington University School of Medi- 
cine, Baltimore, Maryland. 

Dr. H. W. Parchen, graduate of Northwestern Medical College, 
St. Joseph ; practiced here at one time and is now practicing at Hoskins, 
Nebraska. 

Dr. Nercer B. Croll left this county for Omaha, practiced there, but 
is now deceased. 

Dr. E. N. Leake, graduate of New York Homeopathic Medical Col- 
lege ; also of Flower Hospital. New York. (See biography in this work.) 

Dr. Nellie Bell, graduate of Kansas City Homeopathic Medical 
College in 1895. 

Dr. Charles Oxford moved from this county to Omaha, where he 
died. 

Dr. Charles O. Eigler moved from this county to Denver. Colorado. 

Dr. J. J. Metzinger, graduate of University of Iowa ; Iowa College of 
Homeopathy, Iowa City, 1899 ; came to Fremont in 1900 ; member of 
the various medical societies ; has been president of the county society. 

Dr. Andrew P. Overgaard, University of Nebraska ; College of Medi- 
cine, Omaha ; practiced for a time here and later removed to Omaha. 

Dr. Frank W. Brown after a short practice here moved to Omaha. 

Dr. F. E. Calkins, graduate of State University of Iowa ; College of 
Homeopathy, Iowa City, 1899 ; practiced at Hill City, South Dakota, to 
1902, then came to Fremont. 

Dr. Ira F. Richardson, graduate of Southwest School of Medicine 
and Hospital, Kansas City. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 103 

Dr. Arthur W. Fees removed from this county to Blair and later 
entered practice at Omaha. 

Dr. Lupper Kirby moved from this county to Fort Kearney. 

Dr. Ernest Capek, formerly of Dodge County, is now practicing in 
Schuyler. 

Dr. D. G. Golding, graduate Jeflferson Medical College, Philadelphia, 
now resides in California. 

Dr. S. A. Preston, University of Nebraska ; College of Medicine, 
Omaha ; came to Fremont in 1908 ; belongs to various medical societies ; 
was railway surgeon at Howells, Nebraska, six years ; also contract sur- 
geon for the United States Steel Company, in Michigan. 

Dr. L. J. Townsend, a graduate of Rush Medical College, Chicago, 
practiced here for a time but is now at Sioux City, Iowa. 

Dr. Richard T. Van Metre, graduate of State University, Iowa ; 
practiced at Dow City, Iowa, till 1911, then moved to Fremont; entered 
U. S. service July, 1918, served until January, 1919; belongs to the 
various medical societies. 

Dr. Grove H. Rathbun, born December 31, 1881. at Bedford, Iowa, 
died at Fremont, Nebraska, September 5, 1919. He was a graduate of 
Omaha Medical College ; practiced in South Dakota at various places ; 
had charge of hospitals at Leed and other points : located at Belle Fouche, 
South Dakota, seven years, came to Fremont in 1912; was a skilled sur- 
geon, widely known as such. Bought a large residence on Nye Avenue, 
fitted up the same and there operated extensively, also operated much at 
the city hospital. He was married and had three children. He died in 
the prime of his manhood. (See biography.) 

Dr. Albert E. Buchanan, Fremont, was born in Smyth County, 
Virginia, August 21, 1872 : entered Emory and Henry College of Virginia, 
an institution of historic note. He there received the degree of B. A. 
He then matriculated in the Virginia Medical College at Richmond, 
Virginia: graduated in 1900; practiced three years at locations in his home 
state, and in May, 1903, came to Nebraska, resided and practiced medi- 
cine at Cedar Bluffs, Saunders County, Nebraska, until 1910, then located 
in Fremont. (See biography.) 

Dr. Charles E. Barnes, University of Illinois; College of Medicine, 
Chicago, practiced for a time here and now practices in Omaha. 

Dr. Charlotte Seiver, graduate of John A. Creighton College, Omaha, 
1915; located in Fremont, July, 1915; secretary of the Dodge County 
Medical Society, still in practice in Fremont. 

Dr. Andrew Harvey. University of Nebraska, College of Medicine, 
Omaha, 1913; came to Fremont in 1915; served on the draft board in 
Dodge County, during the late World war; belongs to all the ordinary 
medical societies and associations. 

Dr. James C. Agee, University of Nebraska, College of Medicine, 
Omaha, 1903 ; practiced at Valley thirteen years ; served in the Spanish- 
American war one year; came to Fremont in 1915; enlisted in World 
war, but was rejected ; has been city physician for two years last past. 

Dr. H. N. Morrow, Fremont, graduate of Rush Medical College, 
Chicago ; located in Fremont in 1905 ; is a member of the County and 
State Medical societies ; is a Free Mason and Odd Fellow and has been 
city physician one year. 

Dr. H. C. Pederson, University of Nebraska, 1905 ; practiced in Don- 
nebury, Nebraska, fourteen years ; enlisted April, 1917, in World war 
service; discharged January 1, 1919, when he came to Fremont and 



104 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

entered practice. He was abroad twenty-two months and served in 
various camps in this country. 

Dr. Grant S. Reader, Fremont, was born March 25, 1885, at Tipton, 
Cedar County, Iowa ; graduate Tipton High School, 1903 ; Cornell Col- 
lege, 1907; Rush Medical College, 1911; was an interne at St. Joseph's 
Hospital, Chicago; practiced medicine at Kirkland, Ilhnois, 1911 to 1915; 
post-graduate work New York, fall of 1915, special work in diseases of 
children. He came to Fremont, February, 1916. Entered Army July 
15, 1918. called to active duty August' 15, 1918, to U. S. General 
Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut, where he received special course in 
diagnosis of heart and lung diseases. Was assigned to duty at Camp 
Funston, Kansas, September 14, 1918, as special chest examiner oh duty 
from September 14, 1918, to June 30, 1919, then sent to Camp Jackson^ 
South Carolina, as special chest examiner — discharged July 9, 1919; 
returned to Fremont, Nebraska, August 1, 1919, and has been engaged in 
medical practice ever since. 

Practicing Physicians in 1920 

The following is supposed to be a correct list of the physicians and 
surgeons in active practice in Dodge County, in the summer of 1920: 

City of Fremont 

George J. Haslam, James Agee, A. E. Buchanan, F. E. Braucht, F. E. 
Calkins, W. J. Davies, J. S. Devries, E. N. Leake, Andrew Harvey, 
E. W. Martin, H. N. Morrow, J. J. Metzinger, S. A. Preston, Grant S. 
Reeder, Ira F. Richardson, Charlotte Seivers, L. B. Smith, R. S. Van 
Metre, Charles A. Bone, Myrtle A. Bone, Donald A. Atkinson, J. T. 
Young. (Fred H. Berhenke, Mason & Mason, chiropractors.) 

North Bend Physicians 

R. E. Huff, Paul R. Hamond, W. E. Doane, S. W. Yates, Dewia 
Hegwer. 

Uehling Physician 

Dr. H. P. McKnight. 

Scribner Physicians 

Drs. G. Bartlett, E. L. Hustead. 

Dodge Physicians 

Drs. Guidinger, F. B. Patterson. 

Snyder Physicians 

Dr. George Byers and Dr. Kinyoun. 

WiNSLOw Physicians 

None located as yet. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 105 

Hooper Physicians 
Drs. M. T. Zellers, J. Howard Heine, Clinton D. Heine, B. B. Hauser. 

NiCKERSON Physician 
Dr. R. C. Byers. 

Dodge County Medical Society 

The first meeting of the Dodge County Medical Society was held in 
Fremont, Nebraska, October 31, 1901, when the following officers were 
elected: President, L. B. Smith; first vice president, R. C. McDonald; 
second vice president, Doctor Doane ; secretary. Doctor Overgaard ; treas- 
urer, W. J. Davies. 

At this meeting a constitution was adopted as well as by-laws. 

This society was organized for the purpose of building the medical 
profession together as a unit; to meet at least once each year and to 
discuss matters pertaining to the welfare of the medical profession and 
more especially to seek by educational methods to acquaint the public in 
general with those methods of sanitation which would make for a healthier 
community and assist in the one aim of the medical profession — the 
alleviation of suffering and the prolongation of human existence. 

The society was organized by the medical profession for the people. 
Its meetings are ever open to the public and any questions which may arise 
having to do with the betterment of health or sanitation are freely con- 
sidered and executed, so far as is within the power of the society. 

The present (1920) officers of the society are: President, H. B. 
Hauser, Hooper; vice president, James Agee, Fremont; secretary and 
treasurer. Grant S. Reeder, Fremont. 

The 1920 membership of thirty-five is as follows : 

Andrew Harvey, Fremont. 
E. W. Martin, Fremont. 
H. N. Morrow, Fremont. 
J. J. Metzinger, Fremont. 
H. De Myers, Howells. 
W. A. Guidinger, Dodge. 
D. G. Golding, Fresno, Calif. 
S. A. Preston, Fremont. 
Grant S. Reeder, Fremont. 
Ira F. Richardson, Fremont. 
Charlotte Seivers, Fremont. 
L. B. Smith. Fremont. 
R. S. Van Metre, Fremont. 
M. T. Zellers, Hooper. 
H. C. Pederson, Fremont. 
H. P. McKnight, Uehling. 
C. N. Moore, Schuyler. 



Too much praise cannot be given the founders of the various hospitals 
Fremont has had since its existence. In 1891, in a small frame building 



1. 


James Agee, Fremont. 


19. 


2. 


G. A. Byers, Snyder. 


20. 


3. 


A. E. Buchanan, Fremont. 


21. 


4. 


F. E. Braucht, Fremont. 


22. 


5. 


R. C. Byers, Nickerson. 


23. 


6. 


F. E. Calkins, Fremont. 


24. 


7. 


R. A. Davies, Arlington. 


25. 


8. 


W. J. Davies, Fremont. 


26. 


9. 


J. S. Devries, Fremont. 


27. 


10. 


C.D.Eby, Leigh (Colfax Co.) 


28. 


11. 


R. E. Huff', North Bend. 


29. 


12. 


Paul R. Hamond, North Bend. 


30. 


13. 


George J. Haslam, Fremont. 


31. 


14. 


W. Howard Heine, Hooper. 


32. 


15. 


B. B. Hauser, Hooper. 


33. 


16. 


Charles Inches, Scribner. 


34. 


17. 


F. H. Kinyoun, Snyder. 


35. 


18. 


E. N. Leake, Fremont. 






Hospitals 



106 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

on the site of the present three story brick building, the late Dr. L. J. 
Abbott opened an institution for the better care of the ill and for prop- 
erly performing surgical operations. At first Dr. George Haslam, M. D., 
still a leading physician and surgeon of the city of Fremont, was a 
partner with Doctor Abbott in his hospital work, at the corner of Fourth 
and Broad streets. This hospital was able to care for fifteen patients. 
Trained and professional nurses were employed, both Drs. Abbott and 
Haslam bestowing their best efforts in their work of conducting the first 
real hospital in Fremont. Doctor Abbott withdrew from the concern 
in 1892. 

In 1897 the present hospital was built, and in this permanent build- 
ing are rooms neatly furnished by the Fremont Furniture Company and 
by the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. The citizens have ever taken 




Fremont Hospital 



much pride in this institution. Any physician of the city may take 
his patients there and treat them. Formerly the capacity was twenty- 
eight rooms, but when the building was rebuilt it provided for more 
patients. This hospital was made possible by the combined efforts of 
numerous business men of Fremont who have always shouldered such 
responsibilities. About a dozen persons are constantly employed in this 
hospital. Nurses are also trained here for practical work. Home capital 
was wisely invested in this institution which has come to be appreciated 
over a wide scope of country. Of the management of this institution it 
may be said that at first it was managed by Doctor Haslam ; next for a 
period of one year its superintendent was Miss Fox ; the next two years 
was in charge of Miss Eoline Clark ; the fourth superintendent was 
Mrs. Honora Kelly, who had charge for nine years, and she was suc- 
ceeded by the present owner of the property — Mrs. Marie L. White, who 
took possession in 1918. 



CHAPTER XI 

BANKING IN DODGE COUNTY 

(By T. L. Mathews) 

Utility of Banking — The First Bank of the County — Subsequent 
Institutions — Present Banks of Dodge County — Summary 
OF Banks in 1920 — Building & Loan Associations — Trust 
Companies. 

A bank is as indispensable in every business community as any other 
branch of business. 

Banks are useful as places of security to deposit money. They are 
necessary and important to persons who wish to borrow — to the farmer 
who buys a farm, or to tide him over from time to time ; to the business 
man who needs additional funds in his operations. 

The bank acts in this double capacity. It gathers the surplus money 
of a community ; offers its capital as a guarantee of its safe return ; loans 
a part of this money to the active members of the community, stimulat- 
ing activity in all lines of commerce. To the extent that the bank holds 
in its custody the funds of the community, to that extent it is of value 
and a benefit in that community. 

A bank account is a safe way to keep your money. 

Payment by check is convenient, saves time, guards against errors, 
furnishes a good record of your transactions, is useful when a payment 
is disputed. 

A bank account of an individual is a valuable record of his income 
and expenditure. 

A bank account is an educator of the depositor, acquaints him with 
the value of keeping a record, gives him a better idea of business affairs. 

A bank account is a great help in saving money. It becomes the one 
ambition of the man who has a sum of money, large or small, to his 
credit in the bank, to strive to increase that sum. 

The richest men in the country never carry money in their pockets, 
but put it in the bank. The bank accords careful consideration to the 
small as well as the large depositor. 

There are National Banks, State Banks, Savings Banks and Private 
Banks in this country, but all are under control of the government — 
National or State. 

Banks in Dodge County 

The history of banking in Dodge County reaches back to the pioneer 
days and has been highly honorable and is unblemished by a single bank 
failure. 

In the history of Dodge County's banking, the record does not show 
that any bank official was a defaulter or the subject of criminal proceed- 
ings. Considering the active part the banks have taken- in the develop- 
ment of a new country and in backing infant industries, the record 
made is one that challenges attention and is worthy of commendation. 
107 



108 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



Because of their high standing and financial strength and the con- 
venient reach, the Fremont banks have from an early day carried large 
balances for the country banks in Dodge and adjoining counties, and this 
has made Fremont an important center for money. 

The Pioneer Bank 

The present First National Bank is the successor to the first attempt 
at banking in Dodge County, and the story is best told by the subjoined 
extract from the "Life of E. H. Rogers," written by his daughter, 
Mrs. L. S. Moe, and assisted by Mr. and Mrs. L. H. Rogers, copied from 
the original manuscript which reads thus : 

In the summer of 1866, the prophetic expectations which led to the 
founding of the little Platte Valley town ten years before, were fulfilled 
by the building of the Union Pacific Railroad through the county. 




First Building Present Building 

First National Bank, Fremont First National Bank, Fremont 



The impetus given to its growth and prosperity bv the magic touch 
of the great continental electric belt, seemed to justify a new business 
venture more metropolitan than any to which the prairie hamlet had yet 
aspired. In connection with a real estate office which they had established 
a short time before, E. H. and L. H. Rogers opened a private bank 
which has developed into the present First National Bank of Fremont. 
Very humble quarters housed the infant institution. George F. Blan- 
chard, a young man whom my father held in high esteem, used as a 
hardware store a long, low, dingy building standing upon the corner 
now occupied by the bank and in its back room the financial experiment 
was first essayed. Later when it gave some promise of success, a small 
one-story building with the ubiquitous square front western towns had, 
somewhat modified, was erected for its accommodation on the opposite 
side of Broad Street. Here it flourished, being for some years the only 
institution of the kind in the town or county. 

A third partner was admitted to the real estate business and that 
branch entrusted altogether to his care, becoming a few years subse- 
quently his individual property. This gentleman was G. W. E. Dorsey, 
since member of Congress, then a young West Virginian, recently dis- 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 109 

charged upon the closing of the Civil war from the United States service 
and seeking his fortune in the West. In 1872, the bank was re-organized, 
becoming the First National Bank with my father as cashier, and shortly 
recrossed the street to its present quarters upon the original site. 

Then it may be stated that this the county's first banking house pre- 
ceded the present First National Bank which was organized March 16, 
1872, the former banking house was established as a private bank by 
E. H. and L. H. Rogers who organized in 1867, doing business under the 
name of "The Banking House of E. H. and L. H. Rogers" until the 
organization of the national bank. 

The first capital was $50,000. The first officers were : President, 
Theron Nye ; vice president, H. J. Lee ; cashier, E. H. Rogers ; assistant 
cashier, L. H. Rogers. The stockholders were: Messrs. J. G. Smith, 
J. T. Smith, S. B. Colson, E. H. Barnard, Pat Hanlon, J. |. Hawthorne, 
Wilson Reynolds, James Balding, Samuel O'Brien. 

The present capital (July 1, 1920) is $150,000; present surplus, 
$25,000; recent deposits, $1,245,479.65. The resources and liabilities, 
$1,752,248.64. 

In 1914 the present steel and concrete bank building was constructed 
and its present value is $300,000. 

The present (1920) officers are as follows: S. S. Sidner, president; 
Henry Teigler, vice president ; A. G. Christensen, vice president ; H. Beck- 
man ; J. H. Williams, cashier ; Leah Williams, assistant cashier. 

The directors are: H. J. Lee, E. R. Gurney, A. G. Christensen, 
H. Beck-man, F. B. Knapp, Fred Bader, Frank Koss, Charles G. Marshall, 
S. S. Sidner, P. A. Nelson, Dan V. Stephens, Henry Teigler, E. N. Morsei 
A. G. Taylor and J. H. Hoebner. 

Farmers and Merchants National Bank 

This bank is another banking concern of the City of Fremont. 
It was first incorporated as the Merchants Bank, September 30, 1882, 
by George W. E. Dorsey, Ernest Schurman, Fred Maver, Morris Sloman! 
John Hauser, Wilson Reynolds, C. H. Toncray, Otto Huette, William 
E. Smails and George A. Dodge. 

The first officers were: George W. E. Dorsey, president; Ernest 
Schurman, vice president ; C. H. Toncray, cashier ; W. E. Smails, 
accountant ; C. F. Dodge, assistant bookkeeper. 

On May 8, 1884, a meeting was held and it was decided to re-organize 
the bank into a national bank and the name chosen was the Farmers 
and Merchants National Bank. The first board of directors were: 
George W. E. Dorsey, E. Schurman, S. A. Sloman, George A. Dodge! 
Wilson Reynolds, J. W. Love, Otto Huette, J. O. Milligan, J. Hauseri 
H. Sorensen. 

The first officers after the re-organization were: George W. E. Dorsey, 
president; Ernest Schurman, vice president; C. H. Toncray, cashier; 
W. E. Smails, assistant cashier ; Charles F. Dodge, and August J. Albersi 
bookkeepers. 

January 1, 1889, C. H. Toncray was elected vice president; W. E. 
Smails, cashier; C. F. Dodge, assistant cashier, and Victor Seitz 
bookkeeper. 

May 13, 1890, Mr. Seitz was elected assistant cashier. March 8, 1892, 
on account of ill health, Mr. Dodge resigned as assistant cashier! 
Mr. Dorsey resigned as president May 5, 1893, and Otto Huette was 
elected to succeed him and Francis I. Ellick was elected vice presi- 



110 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

dent. Robert Bridge was elected vice president January 12, 1898, and 
on January 10, 1899, was elected president and Arthur Gibson was elected 
vice president. In January, 1903, P. S. Rine was elected vice president 
and January 10, 1911, he was elected president and continues in that 
capacity to this time. 

C. F. Dodge was elected vice president and continued as such until 
January 14, 1914, when Mr. Smails was elected vice president and cashier, 
continuing until his death March 4, 1918. January, 1918, J. Howard 
Heine was elected cashier and in April was elected vice president and 
cashier. 

In June, 1920, Thomas H. Fowler, for many years cashier of the 
First National Bank of North Bend, Nebraska, was elected cashier of 
the Farmers and Merchants Bank of Fremont. 

The present directors are : P. S. Rine, C. H. Brugh, George F. Welz, 
R. W. McGinnis, J. Howard Heine, H. J. Hauser and Victor Seitz. 

January 1, 1920, this bank paid dividend No. 70 and since organ- 
ization the bank has paid its stockholders $278,831.92 in dividends. In 
June, 1920, this bank had a capital of $100,000; surplus, $60,000; deposits, 
$571,483.85. Total resources, $885,548.97. 

The Fremont National Bank 

This banking concern is located in the City of Fremont at 152 East 
Sixth Street. It was organized in 1883 and was the successor to the 
private bank of Hopkins & Millard. Its first capital was $75,000.00; the 
first officers were: A. P. Hopkins, president; I.. M. Keene, vice presi- 
dent; Junius Rogers, cashier. Its present (1920) capital is $150,000.00; 
surplus. $150,000.00; deposits, $650,000.00; resources and liabilities, 
$1,752,000.00. In 1871 a bank building was erected of brick at a cost 
of $20,000.00. 

The bank's present officers are : Charles F. Dodge, president ; Joseph 
T. May, vice president ; Henry Wehner, vice president ; Irving McKennan, 
cashier ; A. F. Christensen, assistant cashier. Directors : C. E. Abbott, 
C. H. Brunner, C. H. Christensen, Frank Hanlon, Charles F. Dodge, 
L. P. Larson, L. M. Keene, H. Wehner, J. Rex Henry and J. T. May. 

The stockholders of the Fremont National Bank own the stock of the 
Security Savings Bank, capital, $18,000.00; surplus, $20,000.00; deposits, 
$185,000.00. The capital and surplus of the Fremont National Bank is 
$300,000.00, being the largest capital and surplus of any bank in the 
county. 

History: The history of the beginning of the Fremont National 
Bank seems to be about as follows : "I think the bank was first started 
as a private bank, Wilson & Hopkins, in 1869-70, at about the location 
where the millinery store now is, just west of Johnson's Auto Company 
on Sixth Street, possibly a little west of that. Mr. Hopkins was then 
unmarried and lived in the rear part of the building with his mother. 

"I think the building now occupied by the Fremont National Bank 
was built by Wilson & Hopkins in 1871 (possibly 1870), John Ray, 
architect. Hopkins married about that time and lived on the second floor. 
The Wilson was W. R. Wilson and the Hopkins was the silent partner 
of the grain firm of W. R. Wilson & Co. 

"About 1879-80, Wilson & Hopkins dissolved and the bank was run 
by A. P. Hopkins for a year or so and then Hopkins & Millard (Alfred 
Millard, son of Ezra Millard, who was then president of the bank). 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 111 

"In 1883, A. P. Hopkins, assisted by Junius Rogers, organized the 
Fremont National Bank and A. P. Hopkins was president, L. M. Keene, 
vice president, Junius Rogers, cashier, John Grunkranz, assistant cashier." 

Security Savings Bank 

This bank is connected with the Fremont National Bank, in the 
City of Fremont. It was organized in 1890 with a capital of $12,000.00. 
Its first officers were: I.. I). Richards, president: J. W. Goft', vice 
president: W. H. Fowler, secretary and treasurer. Its present capital 
is $18,000.00; surpkis. $20,000.00: deposits, $185,000.00. Its resources 
and habihties are $220,000.00. The bank is conducted in the Fremont 
National Bank Building. 

The present officers are as follows : Charles F. Dodge, president ; 
J. T. May, vice president ; Pearl E. Albertson, cashier and secretary. 
The directors are : C. H. Christensen, J. Rex Henry, Charles F. Dodge, 
C. E. Abbott, L. M. Keene, L. P. Larson and J. T. May. 

The combined deposits of this bank and the Fremont National Bank 
are $803,316.07. 

The Commercial National Bank — Fremont 

This institution was established in January, 1891, and is located on 
the corner of Fourth and Main streets, in the city of Fremont. It was 
the successor to the German-.^merican Bank established in 1889 by 
E. Schurman and Manley Rogers. The first capital was $100,000. 

The original officers were : E. Schurman. president ; C. Christensen, 
vice president; F. McGiverin, cashier; S. J. Dunn, assistant cashier; 
others connected with the founding of this bank were : J. H. Koehu- 
back. George L. Loomis, William Ruwe, Henry Archer, Charles H. May. 

The present-day officers and directors include these : Otto H. Schur- 
man, president ; George C. Gage, cashier ; J. A. Van Anda, assistant 
cashier; C. Christensen, vice president; O. F. Turner, vice president; 
Otto H. Schurman, O. F. Turner, C. Christensen, G. R. Loomis, John 
Miller, D. J. Springer, G. C. Gage, W. R. Adams, William Sager. 

The present capital is $100,000; surplus $100,000; recent deposits 
$1,153,387.83. Resources and liabilities, $1,845,542.76. 

In 1890 a beautiful red sandstone bank building was erected at a 
cost of $25,000. This institution has long been looked upon as one of 
the safe, sound and progressive banking houses of this section of 
Nebraska. 

It is a member of the Federal Reserve Banking system. Its "State- 
ment" June 30, 1920, showed: Resources and liabilities, $1,695,484.20; 
loans and discounts, $1,324,931.43; United States bonds, $107,000; Lib- 
erty bonds, $104,400 ; interest earned but not collected, $20,000. Capital 
stock, $100,000; surplus and undivided profits, $148,276.37. The amount 
in deposits was then $1,153,387.83. 

Home Savings Bank — Fremont 

This institution connected with the Commercial National Bank at 
Fremont was organized May 12, 1892. Its original capital was $12,000, 
but now is $18,000, with a surplus of $18,000. Its recent deposits were 
$282,695.82; resources and liabilities, $323,301.98. 



112 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Its first officers were : Ernest Schurman, president ; Charles H. May, 
vice president ; F. McGiverin, cashier. Directors, C. Christensen, 
George L. Loomis, D. J. Springer and WilHam Ruwe. 

The present ( 1920) officers are as follows : Otto H. Schurman, pres- 
ident ; George L. Loomis, vice president ; O. F. Turner, vice president ; 
George C. Gage, cashier. Directors : Otto H. Schurman, George L. 
Loomis, O. F. Turner, D. J. Springer, John Miller, C. Christensen. 

Statement November 15, 1919: Capital stock, $18,000; surplus, 
$18,000: deposits, $262,897.47; total assets, $308,430.29. 

Fremont State Bank 

The Fremont State Bank, located in the City of Fremont, Nebraska, 
was organized in June, 1904, and was successor to the Fremont Trust 
and Savings Bank. Its first capital was $15,000; present capital, $50,000; 
present surplus, $11,000; present (recent) deposits, $440,000; resources 
and liabilities, $508,000. 

This institution's first officers were: R. B. Schneider, president; 
E. R. Gurney, vice president; Paul Colson, cashier; D. D. Rowe, assistant 
cashier. This bank is located at the corner of Sixth Street and Park 
Avenue. 

The present (1920) officers are: T. L. Mathews, president; L. E. 
May, vice president; D. D. Rowe, cashier; J. M. Sorensen, assistant 
cashier. The present board of directors is as follows : H. J. Lee, J. H. 
Hoebner, L. E. May, Dan V. Stephens, J. A. Yager, A. J. Eddy, J. A. 
Murrell, W. J. Courtright, D. D. Rowe, T. L. Mathews, E. J. Lee. 

This bank is under state supervision and its deposits protected by 
the Depositors Guarantee Fund of the State of Nebraska. 

In June, 1920, T. L. Mathews resigned as president of this bank and 
Dan V. Stephens was elected his successor. 

The Scribner State Bank 

The Scribner State Bank was organized December 24, 1883, on a 
$10,000 capital. Its first officers and founders were as follows: J. L. 
Baker, president ; John Barker, cashier. Stockholders, J. B. Robinson, 
J. M. Diels. Gus A. Diels, H. Fuhrman, A. P. Hopkins. 

The 1920 capital is $40,000, with a surplus of $30,000. Its recent 
deposits amounted to $800,000. Resources and liabilities, $900,000. 

In 1894 a handsome brick bank building was erected at an expense 
of $6,000. 

The present (1920) officers and directors of this banking house are 
as follows : Fred Volpp, president ; Henry Sievers, vice president ; P. L. 
Keller, cashier; Peter L. Bauer and W. E. Fahnestock, assistant cash- 
iers ; Kate Gordon bookkeeper. Directors, Fred Volpp, E. R. Gurney, 
P. L. Keller, Henry Sievers, George Foster, C. W. Marquardt and 
Peter Preiss. 

During all the years of this bank's history it has stood for good busi- 
ness principles and has been able to satisfy the demands of the excellent 
agricultural community surrounding the Village of Scribner. 

The First National Bank — Scribner 

This bank was organized July 3. 1903, on a $25,000 capital. The 
first officers and founders were : F. McGiverin, president ; Claus Ehlers, 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 113 

vice president : J. L. Reinard, cashier. The directors are, Louis Groetke, 
John Haun, Henry Spath, Henry Schnack, C. T. Horton. 

The present capital is $25,000; surplus, $30,000; resources and lia- 
bilities, $596,000; recent deposits, $442,000. 

A brick building was erected for this banking house in 1903 at a 
cost of $4,500. 

The 1920 officers are as follows : Glaus Ehlers, president ; A. E. Rom- 
berg, vice president; Charles Arnot, cashier; Gesina Schurman, assistant 
cashier ; W. J. Ehlers, assistant cashier ; Fred H. Meyer, teller ; the direc- 
tors are, Claus Ehlers, A. E. Romberg, H. N. Spath, Louis Groetke, 
John Haun, Adolph Grose, Charles Arnot. 

This bank is a member of the Federal Reserve System. Its manage- 
ment has always been of the modern and most excellent business char- 
acter, and the community in which it is located has been highly favored 
by its presence. 

The Farmers State Bank 

This institution is one of the enterprising banks of the Town of 
Scribner, Dodge County. It was organized July 17, 1917, on a capital 
of $35,000. Its present capital is the same, but a surplus is now carried 
to the amount of $35,000. Its recent deposits were $305,000; resources 
and liabilities, $390,000. 

The founders of this bank were : Arthur H. Shultz, president ; Henry 
Edelmaier, vice president; Herman F. Meyer, cashier. 

The officers of the present day (1920) are as follows: Arthur N. 
Shultz, president ; Henry Edelmaier, vice president ; Herman F. Meyer, 
cashier; Edwin Schwein, assistant cashier. Directors, William Mohr, 
Christ Stuahmer, B. Havekost, Herman Stalling, Julius Kruse. 

This bank has a building constructed of brick and Bedford stone and 
it is owned by the corporation. 

With competent men in charge and an excellent farming community 
to draw from this bank, with others at Scribner, are highly successful 
in their operations as bankers. 

Farmers State Bank of Nickerson 

This bank was established at the little Village of Nickerson in April, 
1919, on a capital of $15,000, same as it has today. Its present surplus 
is $1,000; recent deposits, $100,000; resources and liabilities, $125,000. 
The bank is kept in a rented building. 

The original officers connected with this bank were as follows: Otto 
Schurman. president ; Ed Clough, vice president. Directors, Otto Schur- 
man. Ed Clough. F. J. Diers, H. W. Moeller and Ed F. Langhorst. 

The officers, etc., today are as follows : Otto Schurman, president ; 
Ed Clough, vice president; V. M. Huffman, cashier; Frank J. Diers, 
H. W. Moeller and Ed F. Langhorst. 

The First Bank of Nickerson 

This bank was established in 1902 with a capital of $5,000, by W. J. 
Courtwright. as president of the corporation, and H. J. Sidner, cashier, 
the 1920 capital is $25,000. with a $6,000 surplus, its recent deposits 
amounted to $250,000; its resources and liabilities are $295,000. In 1916 



114 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

a good brick bank building was constructed for this institution ; the same 
is valued at $8,000 and its fixtures and furniture at $4,000. 

The 1920 officers are as follows: E. R. Gurney, president; A. W. 
Sprick, vice president; C. E. Negus, cashier; W. A. Anderson, assistant 
cashier ; Frank Bullock, bookkeeper. The directors are : A. W. Sprick, 
E. R. Gurney, W. A. Anderson, C. E. Negus, Anna C. Brown, John 
Sidner and John Niebaum. 

The banking interests of the small Village of Nickerson and its imme- 
diate surroundings are well cared for by this bank. 

The Winslow State Bank 

This bank was established at Winslow, Dodge County, in December, 
1905, and its incorporators were: G. W. Wolcott, Fred Wolf, John F. 
Haye, F. Hagerbaumer, Julius Beckman. 

Officers elected August 11, 1906: H. P. Weitkamp, president; G. W. 
Wolcott, vice president ; William Kaufman, cashier, elected in Septem- 
ber, 1906. The bank received its charter January 4, 1907. It was char- 
tered for a capital of $50,000. but only $10,000 was paid up at first. Its 
present capital is $20,000; surplus, $10,000; deposits, $213,000. The 
bank's total resources is $247,000. 

In 1906 a concrete bank building was constructed at a cost of $3,800. 
In December, 1916, this bank sufifered a hold-up by bandits, an account 
of which will appear elsewhere in this work. 

The present officers are : L. Bartling, president ; F. H. Hagerbaumer, 
vice president; George Voll, cashier; John F. Haye. August Luther, 
M. C. Luther, Fred Wolf, and other directors. 

The Farmers State Bank — Winslow 

This bank was organized June 30, 1919, in the Village of Winslow, 
Dodge County, Nebraska, with a capital of $20,000. Its first officers and 
founders were: H. P. Weitkamp, president; Louis Bartling, first vice 
president; Fred C. Panning, second vice president; Roy W. Brown, 
cashier. 

The present ( 1920) officers are : H. P. Weitkamp, president ; Louis 
Bartling, first vice president ; Fred C. Panning, second vice president ; 
Roy W. Brown, cashier. Directors, H. P. Weitkamp, Louis Bartling, 
Fred G. Panning, Roy W. Brown, H. H. Lueninghoener and Edward M. 
Warner. 

The present capital is $20,000; recent deposits, $20,494.34. The 
resources and liabilities are $39,540.28. Loans and discounts in Novem- 
ber, 1919, amounted to $25,196.87. Undivided profits at that date were 
$2,075.82. 

Snyder State Bank 

This bank was organized in 1892 by Conrad Schneider, John Bolte, 
Ernest Schurman, Herman Holsten, Joseph Winkamp, Conrad Nolte, 
Ferd Billerbeck, Karl Schwichler, John Hardes, Fred Molle, George 
Dietz, W. A. A. Hamann and Ferdinand Kounowsky. The amount of 
capital was $30,000. The first directors were as follows : E. Schurman, 
Herman Holsten, Conrad Schneider, John Bolte, Herman Wolsleger, 
Joseph Winkamp and John Looschen. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 115 

Conrad Schneider was elected president; Herman Holsten, vice 
president ; John Looschen, cashier. 

August 15, 1893, Conrad Schneider, John Bolte, W. A. A. Hamann, 
E. Schurman, Herman Wolsleger, Jo Winkamp and John Looschen 
were elected directors. The officers then elected were Conrad Schneider, 
president ; W. A. A. Hamann, vice president ; John Looschen, cashier. 
They held office until August 6, 1904, when H. G. Meyer was appointed 
as assistant cashier, all other officers remaining the same. 

At first only $9,000 of the capital stock was paid in, but on August 10, 
1906, it was increased to $12,000 at the same time H. G. Meyer was 
elected cashier. All others remained as before except John Looschen, 
who resigned. 

October 3, 1910, the capital stock was increased from $12,000 to 
$25,000; a new bank building was erected in 1910. In December, 1911, 
H. G. Meyer resigned as cashier and Robert Frahm was elected to the 
position. In March, 1919, Robert Frahm and Elliott Frahm purchased 
stock of Conrad Schneider, W. A. A. Hamann, John Bolte, Henry 
Schooner and others, making a controlling interest in the bank. Robert 
Frahm was elected president; Elliott Frahm was made cashier; Arthur 
Bleyhl, vice president. The 1920 board of directors is as follows : Rob- 
ert Frahm, Elliott Frahm, Peter T. Lennemann, Arthur Bleyhl and Otto 
Schurman. The present capital is $25,000; surplus $10,000; loans and 
discounts. $385,000: deposits, $400,000. 

Farmers and Merchants Bank — Snyder 

This bank was established at the Village of Snyder in 1907. Its first 
capital was $12,500. Its present (1920) capital is $20,000; surplus, 
$5,500: recent deposits, $170,000; resources and liabilities, $214,303.83. 

The first officers of this institution were as follows : E. R. Gumey, 
H. Burger, J. J. Dickey, Herman Englebrecht and M. M. Wolslager. 

The. officers today are : J. J. Dickey, president ; Claudi Wendorp, 
vice president; J. C. Dickey, cashier; Florence Dickey, assistant cashier; 
additional director is Herman Englebrecht. 

A new modern building has just been completed to accommodate the 
increasing business. 

Through the good management of the officers and stockholders the 
people have the utmost confidence in this banking house, for they believe 
the conservative manner practiced here makes it a safe, desirable place 
in which to deposit money and transact all banking business. 

A recent statement shows as follows: Capital stock, $20,000; sur- 
plus, $5,500; undivided profits, $22,400; loans, $129,000. 

The Farmers State Bank — Dodge 

This bank was established in the Village of Dodge, in the north 
western corner of Dodge County, in March, 1889. 

This institution in February, 1890, purchased the building and stock 
of the old Dodge State Bank. The first capital of the present institution 
was $10,000; two vears later it was increased to $15,000 and February 
8, 1894, to $30,000. 

The present capital is $30,000; surplus $30,000; recent deposits 
$850,000. 



116 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

The first officers and founders of this bank were : C. George Bowlus, 
T. O. MilHgan, E. Schurmann, Herman Holsten, C. W. Marquardt, 
"D. Holsten, H. J. Smith, Charles Woodruff, Anton Bartosh. 

The present officers are: Herman Holsten, president; James H. 
Hook, vice president ; Will R. Harbak, vice president ; Richard H. Hol- 
sten, cashier ; Josephine Dostal, bookkeeper. 

The first building occupied by this bank was a frame structure and 
it was destroyed in the great fire of 1895 when the Town of Dodge was 
wiped out, only two buildings being left in the business section. The 
same year the present stone-brick bank building was constructed. 

This bank has the facilities and willingness to meet the requirements 
of the territory in which it operates. 

First National Bank — Dodge 

This bank was organized as the Dodge State Bank in 1900 and in 
March, 1903, was succeeded by the First National Bank. Its capital 
was at first $10,000. The first officers were: Ira E. Atkinson and A. J. 
Hasson. The present capital is $50,000; surplus, $25,000; recent depos- 
its, $650,000. 

A bank building was erected from brick in 1903 and its cost was 
$5,000. 

The 1920 officers and directors are as follows: A. J. Miller, presi- 
dent; G. J. Borgmeyer, vice president; I. E. Atkinson, vice president; 
J. H. Miller, cashier; J. H. Longacre, William Rettig, J. H. Montgomery, 
directors ; Clara Woerdeman, bookkeeper. 

The December, 1919, statement shows resources and liabilities $710,- 
102.19. The present condition of the bank's finances is excellent. Loans 
and discounts, $569,989.02; cash due and on hand. $98,463. Compara- 
tive statements— Deposits, September, 1900, $10,098; in 1919, $621,160. 

Farmers State Bank — Uehling 

This bank was established in the Village of Uehling, July 26, 1905, 
with a capital of $15,000. The founders and first officers were as fol- 
lows : Herman Meyer, president ; Theodore Uehling. vice president ; 
Edward Uehling, cashier. Directors, T. Uehling, H. Meyer, H. Bus- 
selman, A. Linn, M. Stenvers, G. J. Bergquist and Edward Uehling. 

The present (1920) capital is $15,000; surplus, $6,000; recent depos- 
its, $240.795 ; resources and liabilities, $280,962. 

The corporation built their bank building of brick in 1907 and its 
value is $5,000. 

The officers and others associated in this financial institution are: 
Herman Meyer, president ; Maurits Stenvers, vice president ; Edward 
Uehling, cashier, with P. A. Anderson, Henry Busselman, G. J. Berg- 
quist and E. A. Larson, directors. 

The Logan Valley Bank — Uehling 

One of the two banks at the Village of Uehling is the Logan Valley 
Bank, organized on a $10,000 capital February 26, 1906, by founders 
and first officers as follows: Charles Arnot, president: A. M. Tillman, 
vice president; J. D. G. Kuhlman, cashier; Charles Romberg, assistant 
cashier. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 117 

This bank has a capital of $10,000; surplus of $10,000; recent depos- 
its, $250,000; resources and liabilities, $300,000. This bank occupies a 
frame building erected in the spring of 1906. 

The present officers and directors are : Otto H. Schurman, presi- 
dent; A. M. Tillman, vice president; J. D. G. Kuhlman, cashier; other 
directors are: Carl Heyne, Arnold Romberg, John G. Osterloh, John 
Henry Witte. 

The success of this institution has been largely due to the fact that all 
patrons have been treated fairly and politely by the management of the 
bank. 

Farmers State Bank of Ames 

This bank is situated at the Village of Ames. Dodge County, and 
was organized August 20, 1914, with a capital of $15,000. Its first offi- 
cers were as follows : A. D. Graham, president ; E. A. Gurney, vice 
president ; Jerome Wostrel, cashier. Others among the founders of this 
bank were : N. T- Johnson, F. B. Knapp, Henry Tank, F. A. Davis and 
O. H. Sink. 

This bank's present capital is $15,000 with a surplus of $2,000; its 
recent deposits were $85,360; resources and liabilities are $103,640. 
Liabilities not including capital and surplus, $86,277. 

The 1920 officers and directors are : E. R. Gurney, Ihno Harms, 
O. H. Sink, Robert C. C. O'Brien, Henry Tank, Louis Rebbe, S. S. Van 
Horn. The president is Ihno Harms ; vice president, E. R. Gurney ; 
cashier, Jerome Wostrel. 

A few years since the bank went through a fire in which damage was 
done. This bank has never been robbed or held up by bandits as has 
been the case in some small towns. While this is a small bank it serves 
well the demand of the community about Ames. 

In 1914 a good brick banking house was erected at an expense of 
$4,500. 

First National Bank — Hooper 

This financial institution was established in the Village of Hooper in 
1885 as "Heimrich & Co." which in a few years was changed to the State 
Bank of Hooper and about 1900 was changed into the First National 
Bank. Its original capital was $15,000; its present capital is $25,000; 
surplus, $45,000; present deposits amount to $425,000; resources and 
liabilities, $577,000. 

A gray pressed brick bank building was erected in 1914 and it is 
valued at $15,000. 

It is indeed highly complementary to the management of this bank to 
note that it has earned a surplus of $45,000. 

As to the first and present officers it may be stated that originally the 
men at the head were : John F. Heimrich, president ; Henry H. Looschen, 
vice president ; E. J. F. Burgh, cashier ; E. H. Airis and John Dern. 

The present officers are as follows: A. M. Tillman, president; Peter 
Parkert, vice president ; Norman E. Shafifer, cashier ; C. H. Dahl, assist- 
ant cashier. Directors, A. M. Tillman, Peter Parkert, John G. Osterloh, 
Will Rodgers. Edward Luther, John Havekost, Norman E. Shaffer. 

December 31, 1919. their "statement" gave among other items: Lia- 
bilities and resources, $576,929.89; loans and discounts, $406,090; stock 



118 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

in Federal Reserve Bank, $1,950: cash in vault, $37,000; certificates of 
deposit (thirty day), $32,000; individual deposits subject to check, 
$164,455,49. 

Dodge County Bank 

The Dodge County Bank located at the Village of Hooper was 
organized in 1882 on a capital of $15,000, but it was increased to $20,000 
January 1, 1889, and to $25,000 April 30, 1900. 

The first officers and founders of this bank were: T. W. Lyman, 
L. D. Richards and E. H. Airis. The present capital is $25,000; surplus, 
$40,000; recent amount in deposits, $640,000; resources and liabilities, 
$750,000. 

The bank building is owned by the bank and valued at $25,000. 

The 1920 officers are: J. H. Windhausen, president; William Meyer, 
vice president ; R. L. Schwab, cashier ; Charlotte Monnich and Walter 
Otteman, bookkeepers. The assistant cashier is George Looschen. Direc- 
tors, J. H. Windhausen, William Meyer, Casper Moeller, Casper Hoege- 
meyer. William Frock, W. G. J. Dau, George F. Otteman. 

In its almost two score years of banking, this concern at Hooper has 
been very successful and stood high in the banking circles of Nebraska. 

The First St.^te Bank — North Bend 

This bank was organized April 19, 1882, and is located in the City of 
North Bend, Dodge County. Its first capital was $25,000, same as today, 
but it now has a surplus of $17,500, Its recent deposits were $518,692; 
resources and liabilities, $620,602.63. The founders of this bank were 
John T. Ritter, L. H. Rogers and C. L. Morse. 

The 1920 officers are : Alex Thorn, president ; T. J. Kastle, vice pres- 
ident ; W. F. Ruzicka, cashier; W. C. Stayskal, assistant cashier, and 
John Kelly, assistant cashier. 

The bank building is owned by the bank, newly rebuilt and refur- 
nished. It is a stone and brick structure and cost $27,000. 

A good guarantee fund is carried for the protection of depositors. 
This bank is a member of the Federal Reserve. 

The First National Bank of North Bend 

This bank was organized at North Bend September 8, 1883, with a 
$50,000 capital, same as carried today, but is now possessed of a surplus 
of $20,000. Its recent deposits amounted to $380,000; resources and 
liabilities, $680,000. 

The first bank building was destroyed by fire in 1892. The present 
fine structure erected at a cost of $20,000 was constructed in 1917-18, of 
terra cotta and brick material, inside finish is mahogany and marble. 

The original officers were Messrs. James Sloss, president ; H. W. Nei- 
man, vice president ; George Hichok, cashier. Directors, James Sloss, 
C. Cusack, H. W. Neiman, M. E. Fuller, J. Y. Smith, Chauncy Abbott. 

The present (1920) officers and directors are as follows: Roy J. 
Cusack, president ; George Fisher, vice president ; C. C. Sidner, cashier ; 
H. C. Cusack, assistant cashier. Directors, Roy J. Cusack, George 
Fisher, C. M. Black, F. B. Datel, Thomas H. Fowler. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 119 

With the development of this county the two banks at North Bend, 
incktding this bank, have been of signal importance and advantage to 
the farmers and business factors of North Bend. 

Dodge County Bank Summary — 1919-20 

The following is a summary of the various banks in Dodge County, 
as shown by their statements, all of which were issued between Decem- 
ber, 1919, and July, 1920: 

Recent 

Name of Bank Estab. Capital Surplus Deposits 

First National Bank, Fremont. . . . 1872 $150,000 $ 25,000 $1,245,478 

Farmers and Merchants Nat'l.... 1882 100,000 60,000 571,483 

Fremont Nat'l Bank, Fremont... 1883 150,000 150,000 650,000 

Security Savings Bank, Fremont. . 1890 18,000 20,000 185,000 

Commercial Nat'l Bank, Fremont. 1891 100,000 100,000 1,153,387 

Home Savings Bank, Fremont... 1892 18,000 18,000 262,897 

Fremont State Bank, Fremont... 1904 50,000 11,000 440,000 

Scribner State Bank 1883 40,000 30,000 800,000 

First Nat'l Bank, Scribner 1903 25,000 30,000 442,000 

Farmers State Bank, Scribner... 1917 35,000 35,000 305,000 

Farmers State Bank, Nickerson.. 1919 15,000 1,000 100,000 

First State Bank, Nickerson 1902 25,000 6,000 . 250,000 

Winslow State Bank, Winslow... 1905 20,000 10,000 213,072 

Farmers State Bank, Winslow. . . 1919 20,000 20,494 

Snvder State Bank, Snyder 1892 25,000 10,000 400,000 

Farmers and Merchants, Snyder.. 1907 20,000 5,500 170,000 

Farmers State Bank, Dodge 1889 30,000 30,000 850,000 

First Nat'l Bank, Dodge 1900 50,000 25,000 650,000 

Farmers State Bank, Uehling.... 1905 15,000 6,000 240,795 

Logan Valley Bank, UehHng 1906 10,000 10,000 250,000 

Farmers State Bank, Ames 1914 15,000 2,000 85,360 

First Nat'l Bank, Hooper 1885 25,000 45,000 425,000 

Dodge County Bank, Hooper.... 1882 25,000 40,000 640,000 

First State Bank, North Bend... 1882 25,000 17,500 518,692 

First Nat'l Bank, North Bend. ... 1883 50,000 20,000 380,000 

Totals $1,056,000 $707,000 $1 1,248,568 

Other Financial Institutions of Dodge County 

Besides the numerous banks of Dodge County, the commercial and 
financial interests have been cared for by the subjoined companies and 
associations : 

The Equitable Building and Loan Association 



This institution was organized April 6, 1886, with officers as follows : 
President, Arthur Truesdell ; vice-president, C. H. May ; treasurer, C. B. 
Veazie; secretary. Earl A. Pettibone. 

The present officers and directors are as follows : President, Frank 
Hammond; vice president, Frank Fowler; secretary, J. A. Donahue; 
assistant secretary, W. R. Rowe ; treasurer, C. B. Veazie ; counsel, George 
L. Loomis. Directors, Frank Hammond, Frank Fowler, J. A. Donahue, 



120 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

C. B. Veazie. George L. Looniis. Arthur Truesdell. Fred Bader. Fred 
H. Richards, Frank Hanlon. 

Loans to members, $339,300. 

Capital authorized, $1,000,000, of which $780,800 has been sub- 
scribed. 

Dues, accrued earnings and reserve fund, $278,793.61. 

Number of loans made, 942. 




Fr.\nk Hammond, Fremont 

Many a home-owner in the City of Fremont has been benefited by 
being a member of this institution. 

Fidelity Trust Company 

This financial institution was established August 15, 1911, in the 
First National Bank Building, corner Fifth and Main streets, Fremont. 
Its first capital was $100,000, same as is carried today. The present sur- 
plus is $15,000: resources and liabilities, $556,401.07. 

The original officers and founders of this institution were : R. B. 
Schneider, president ; F. B. Knapp, vice president ; James A. Donahue, 
secretary and treasurer; E. R. Gurney, chairman of executive committee. 

At the present time this concern is in a flourishing condition. Its 
officers and directors are as follows : 

President, F. B. Knapp : vice president. Frank Koss ; secretary and 
treasurer, James A. Donahue ; chairman finance committee, E. R. Gur- 
ney. Directors, E. R. Gurney, T. L. Mathews, Henry Tiegeler, Frank 
koss, H. J. Lee, F. E. Gibson, F. B. Knapp, S. S. Sidner, A. G. Christen- 
sen. Fred Bader, Joseph Roberts. 

Nebraska State Building and Loan Association 

Among the most successful and flourishing institutions of its kind 
in the entire commonwealth is the association above headed. It was 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 121 

established in January, 1892. It had for its original officers and directors 
the following persons : E. H. Barnard, president ; H. C. Mahanna, vice 
president; T- T. May, treasurer; T. L. Mathews, secretary. The directors 
were : E. H. Barnard, H. C. Mahanna, L. D. Richards, J. T. May, R. B. 
Schneider, T. L. Mathews, E. N. Morse, C. M. Williams. 

As to the various changes in officers of this association let it be stated 
that: 

In 1901 T. L. Mathews was elected president and C. M. Williams 
secretary. 

In 1902 Paul Colson was elected secretary and acted as such until 
1911. 

In 1911 D. D. Rowe was elected assistant secretary and acted as such 
until 1912, when he was elected secretary. 

In 1920 Mr. Rowe was elected vice president and at the same time 
G. A. Olmstead was elected secretary. 

This institution is a state association. It has had a very successful 
career and is now doing business in more than 150 Nebraska towns and 
cities and stands very high as a financial institution, one that has done 
much towards the promotion and high development of the state and has 
helped many thousands of people to own their own homes, and by its 
system of saving has helped many other thousands to acquire a com- 
petency or a tidy sum for a "rainy day." The published statement of 
this association shows the condition of its affairs December 30, 1919, to 
have resources at something over $2,700,000. 

Loans to members $ 2,627,933.09 

Capital and surplus— authorized 10,000,000.00 

Capital and surplus paid 2,800,000.00 

Dues, accrued earnings and reserve fund 

Par value of stocks subscribed for 6,000,000.00 

Number of loans made 5,800 

Present officers : President, T. L. Mathews ; vice president, D. D. 
Rowe ; secretary, G. A. Olmstead ; treasurer, J. T. May. 

Present directors, T. L. Mathews, J. T. May, D. D. Rowe, W. J. 
Courtright, Dan V. Stevens, Paul Colson, C. H. Hawley, E. R. Gurney. 

The association owns the double front building where the home office 
is located and have under way improvements to cost $75,000. 

In the twenty-eight years that this association has been doing busi- 
ness it has paid each year a substantial semi-annual dividend. 

Mr. T. L. Mathews, president, and J. T. May, treasurer, have been 
actively connected with the association in an official capacity since its 
organization until this date. 

Hooper Building and Loan Association 

This association was organized at the Village of Hooper in August, 
1889, by officers as follows : David Reber, president ; J. F. Briggs, vice 
president ; George W. Heine, secretary ; Ed Uehling, treasurer. 

Its statement recently shows amount of loans to members, $22,500. 

Capital and surplus, $23,000. Number of loans made, 142. 

The 1920 officers and directors are as follows : A. M. Tillman, pres- 
ident ; George W. Heine, secretary ; Jacob Sanders, treasurer. Direc- 
tors, W. E. Sanders, Jacob Kirsch, Joseph Stipsky, William F. Basler, 
B. Monnich, Ed Edelmann. 

This is another of the examples of a well managed association in 
which a whole community is benefited by such associations. 



122 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Fremont Joint-Stock Land Bank 

This institution was organized June 1, 1919, by Dan V. Stephens, 
under the banking act of July, 1916. Its object is to loan money on first 
farm mortgages and bond the mortages under government supervision, 
the bonds being sold to the public. 

This bank is in the Fremont State Bank Building, corner Sixth Street 
and Park Avenue, Fremont. 

The original and present officers are: Dan V. Stephens, president; 
D. W. Killen, vice president, Schuyler, Nebraska; T. F. Kastle, treas- 
urer. North Bend, Nebraska; William Meyer, secretary, Hooper, 
Nebraska. 

The first capital was $250,000—2,500 shares at $100 each. 

The present capital is $275,000—2,750 shares at $100 each. 

Present surplus, $15,000. 

On June 1, 1920, the resources and liabilities were $2,461,127.93. 



CHAPTER XII 
DODGE COUNTY NEWSPAPERS 

The First Newspaper in Dodge and Adjoining Counties — The 
Fremont Weekly and Daily Tribune — The Old Tri-Weekly — 
Growth of the Pioneer Paper Plant — The Fremont Weekly 

- Herald — The North Bend Eagle — The Hooper Sentinel — The 
Uehling Post — The Scribner Rustler. 

The local newspaper was early in this field and aided the pioneer 
settler in developing the country. The first settlers were composed of 
men and women who had come in from old settled sections of other 
States, where the "home paper" was 'a household treasure, hence upon 
immigrating here they naturally took great interest in supporting the first 
newspapers published in this and adjoining counties. The Fremont 
Herald and Tribune were the forerunners of the various newspapers 
which have since been published in this county, and they still continue as 
the leading newspapers. 

The County's First Newspaper 

Outside of Omaha the Fremont Tribune was the first newspaper 
established in the Platte Valley. In the summer of 1868, J. N. Hays came 
to Fremont from Plattsmouth with a modern printing outfit, including 
good presses, type, etc., and founded the Fremont Weekly Tribune. 

The first issue pulled from the press was dated July 24, 1868, and the 
office was in a small, tucked-up attic over Usher & Sawtell's furniture 
store. The paper was a seven-column folio, well filled with advertising 
from the start and has been a great business medium ever since. The 
first office of publication was at the corner of Sixth and "F" streets. It 
may be of interest to read a part of the salutatory, as it shows the original 
policy of the paper: 

"With this issue we commence the publication of the Fremont Tribune. 
The paper was started to supply a want existing in this place for some 
means of making known the advantages of this section of the country 
and offering a convenient organ for discussion of matters of local inter- 
est. It will not be indifferent to the great political contest now going on 
in this country and cheerfully enlists as a supporter of the great principles 
advocated by the National Republican party and the election of Grant 
and Colfax." 

Mr. Hays conducted the paper until January, 1872, when Frank G. 
Parcell purchased an interest and became business manager, the firm 
name changing to J. N. Hays & Co. This continued until death overtook 
Mr. Hays m 1873: 

Soon after his death a company purchased the plant and operated it 
as the "Tribune Printing Company" with Fred Nye as editor. In 1877 
W. H. Michael purchased a half interest and thereafter it was con- 
ducted by Michael 8z Nye. In May, 1879. Browne & Hammond came 
into possession of the plant and the following autumn Mr. Browne sold 
his half interest to George Hammond & Son — Frank Hammond being 
123 



124 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



editor. In 1882, Ross L. Hammond secured a half interest and the 
firm was known as Hammond Brothers, with Frank as business mana- 
ger and Ross L. as editor. In March, 1891, Harry W. Hammond, a 
younger brother, came into the firm and later sold his interest to his 
brothers. 

In May, 1883, the Tribune blossomed out into a daily edition. Later 
on the weekly edition was changed into a tri-weekly, which was discon- 
tinued in 1917 because of the inroads made on the tri-weekly subscrip- 
tion list by the establishment of rural routes, when the farmers were 
given a daily mail service. 

In January of 1920, Ross L. Hammond, who held a half interest, sold 
most of his holdings to other stockholders and retired to a comfortable 
home in Southern California, after forty years' continuous service as 




Hon. Ross L. Hammond, Editor for Forty Years of Fremont 
Daily Tribune 



editor. Mr. Hammond's retirement made an official change in the man- 
agement which is as follows: Frank Hammond, president and editor: 
Ray W. Hammond, vice-president and manager ; Lucius R. Hammond, 
secretary and assistant manager: Walter B. Reynolds, treasurer and 
circulation manager. _ Harvey C. Kendall, who is advertising manager, 
with the foregoing officers constitute the board of directors. 

In 1881 a two-story brick block was erected by the Tribune owners 
and partially occupied at that time. As the business grew, tenants moved 
out and the plant spread into the building until it now occupies the orig- 
inal building, with a 50 per cent addition erected in 1902. In that year 
the plant was visited by a destructive fire but not a single issue of the 
Daily Tribune was missed through the kindness of competitors granting 
use of their presses. The newspaper department is well equipped with 
linotype machines and a rapid press of the rotary type, that will print 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 125 

30,000 sixteen-page papers per hour. The news of the world comes 
direct to the editorial rooms over a leased wire. Twenty carrier boys 
deliver the papers in the city. Some of the best business men of the city 
have been carrier boys for the Daily Tribune. 

A large job printing and manufacturing plant is operated in conjunc- 
tion with the newspaper and equipped with all the latest machinery for 
rapid and efficient work. Traveling men cover several states soliciting 
for this department. A combined force of seventy people, besides the 
carrier boys, are required to take care of the volume of business that has 
been developed. The annual payroll is in excess of $100,000. 

The burden of the present management rests in the hands of young 
men who are competent to maintain the growth and prosperity that has 
marked a history of the institution since its founding in 1868 and the 
Tribune will continue to be one of the leading factors in the development 
of the town and state. 

The Fremont Weekly Herald 

The Fremont Herald is a weekly paper published in the City of Fre- 
mont, each week on Friday. It was established in 1870 by W. T. Shaffer. 
Later it was owned and conducted by R. D. Kelly, who in 1873 estab- 
lished the Daily Herald, which was continued for some years. 

In 1876 Nat W. Smails came into possession of this plant, when the 
weekly was issued each Thursday, and the daily each day except Mon- 
day. The Herald is among the oldest newspapers in Nebraska, the daily 
being the oldest of any paper in the state outside Omaha and Lincoln. 
In the nineties its editor was a Mr. Smith of Coldwater, Michigan. 

Today, the Weekly Herald is an independent Democratic paper. It is 
a six-column paper with from eight to fourteen pages, all home print. 
Its subscription rate is $2.00 per year in advance. Its circulation is 
largely in Fremont and Dodge County, with a fair list in adjoining 
counties. 

In 1905 this newspaper was taken possession of by an incorporated 
company, of which Marc G. Perkins was made president ; Frank S. Per- 
kins, secretary, and Marion M. Perkins, vice president. It is published 
at present at' 229-233 East Fifth Street. 

The printing plant is fully equipped with the latest improved machin- 
ery for both newspaper and commercial printing. The Herald is a clean, 
well-edited, handsomely printed newspaper and it always seeks to give 
the people the latest news in the best style, hence is appreciated by a 
large patronage. 

The North Bend Eagle 

This newspaper was established at North Bend November 1, 1897, 
by Charles S. Fowler and Joseph C. Newsom. It was owned and con- 
ducted by Messrs. Fowler & Newsom from November, 1897, to Septem- 
ber 27, 1900, when Mr. Fowler's interest in the paper was purchased by 
Mr. Newsom. who has retained the ownership and management ever 
since, except for one year during 1918-19 spent in France, when the 
paper was leased for that time to E. O. Holub. 

Politically this is an independent paper. In size and form it is an 
eight-page, six-column paper and has a good circulation in North Bend 
and tributary country. It is published on Thursday each week. Sub- 
scription rate is $1.50 per year in advance. 



126 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

The paper is published in a building owned by the proprietor of the 
paper and is valued at $2,500. As to its mechanical equipment it may be 
stated that it has a Prouty power press, two Gordon jobbers, Model "L". 
Standard linotype, paper cutter, stapling machine, etc. 

The following abstract of the Eagle runs about as follows : 

The Eagle succeeded the North Bend Argus, founded April, 1890, 
by W. K. Fowler and C. S. Fowler, and the North Bend Republican, 
founded in November, 1892, by Anna L. Dowden, were merged or con- 
solidated by C. S. Fowler and J. C. Newsom, Fowler having previously 
purchased his brother's interest in the Argus, and J. C. Newsom having 
purchased the Republican of Mrs. Dowden. 

The first newspaper published in North Bend was the Independent, 
established by Doctor Etwood in 1879. 

The Hooper Sentinel 

This newspaper was established at Hooper. April 22, 1885, by W. A. 
Crandall. The owners of this propertv have included these : W. A. Cran- 
dall, E. W. Renkin, C. E. Bennett, j. I. Brorby, Shipley & Thompson, 
W. G. Thompson, Glen Howard, Sedgwick & Ring, H. T. Ring, the last 
named owning it since 1914. 

Politically the Sentinel is independent. It circulates mostly in Hooper 
and surrounding country. It is a six-column eight-page paper, printed 
each week on Thursday, morning. It is $1.50 per year subscription rate 
in advance and has six pages "home print." 

The office equipment includes these items : A 10 by 15 jobber, a paper 
press that prints four pages at one time ; and all necessary material for 
a country newspaper plant. Locally the Sentinel is a most excellent 
paper. 

The Uehling Post 

This newspaper is published at the new Village of Uehling in the 
northeastern part of Dodge County. It was established in 1919 by Gus 
H. Weber, who still owns and conducts it as a weekly local newspaper. 
It is a six-column folio paper, printed each Friday. It circulates through- 
out Logan Valley Township and its subscription rate is $1.50 per year. 
The proprietor is his own printer and is a hustler in all that this term 
has come to mean. 

The first paper started in Uehling was the "Press" by R. S. Honey. 

R. D. Kelly started the Times which ran about five years and went 
down. Politically it was republican. 

The Scribner Rustler 

This local newspaper was established at Scribner in January, 1895. 
Just who the founder was is not known, but it is known that it was owned 
• by Henry Kidder ten years ; by Otto Metschke six years : R. R. Roberts 
one year and Charles E. Majers has owned and conducted it since 
December 1, 1918. Politicallv the Rustler is an independent paper, cir- 
culating in various parts of Dodge County; is a six-column, eight-page 
paper all home print. It is published each Thursday at a subscription 
price of $2.00 per year. 

The Rustler and Scribner News, the other paper of the town, con- 
solidated about 1912. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 127 

Five years ago (1915) a wood-cement block building was erected 
especially for newspaper business. The office equipment includes a six- 
column quarto press — a folder, job press and a Cranston pony cylinder 
press for job and book work. In all the plant has in operation four 
presses and a linotype machine, stapler, perforator and all usual type 
found in such an office. 

The present owner edits a clean local paper and has a large job 
printing patronage in first-class work. "If you see it in the Rustler 
it is true" would make a good motto for the Rustler. 

Young Men's Christian Association 

Fremont had the honor of being one of the first points in Nebraska 
where a Young Men's Christian Association was established. It was 
formed here even before the state was admitted into the Union. This 
did not flourish many years, but in May, 1881, it was reorganized with 
charter members as follows : A. C. Hopkins, M. G. McCoon, Rev. A. B. 
Byram, C. C. Birdsall, A. R. Wightman, R. E. Doran, Mark C. Sander- 
son, Robert Hewett, F. M. Smith, Rev. A. T. Swing, F. M. Griswold, 
G. King, E. T. Smith, W. A. Marlow and L. C. Sweet. 

The first officers were : Robert Hewett, president ; W. A. Marlow, 
vice president; D. A. Lumbard, secretary; L. C. Sweet, treasurer. The 
first active president was Prof. A. R. Wightman. Meetings were held 
in the churches, a lecture course was provided for, prayer meetings were 
instituted and continued until the fall of 1884 when the society disbanded. 

Again in 1888 the work was resumed and the ensuing November the 
association had a membership of fifty-three men and by 1892 it had 
increased to 175. They were legally incorporated in September, 1891, 
and purchased forty-four feet on the southwest corner of Broad and 
Fifth streets, and from that time on the "Y. M. C. A." became a perma- ■ 
nent fixture among the religious societies in Fremont. 

The present magnificent three-story modern brick block on the loca- 
tion last named was erected in 1907 at a cost of $80,000 and it has none 
of the best modern appointments lacking. 

Women's Christian Temperance Union 

This society has been for more than a generation a power for good 
in Fremont. It was formed by devoted Christian women who loved 
temperance and virtue more than money or even life itself. They organ- 
ized in 1874 with only a half dozen members, including Mesdames 
Hitchcock, Bullock, Griswold and Rogers. The first president was Lucy 
Rogers. Up to 1888 they met at private houses, but that year erected the 
Women's Christian Temperance Union Temple at the corner of Broad 
and Military avenue, in which they had a library and reading room, as 
well as a fine audience chamber. All along down the years the devoted 
women of the city have battled against the rum traffic until their prayers 
have been answered and liquor is no longer master in the fair state and 
nation. 



CHAPTER XIII 

SOIL AND DRAINAGE OF DODGE COUNTY 

(By Dan V. Stephens) 

Dodge County, Nebraska, is one of the very best agricultural districts 
to be found in the United States, due to its uniformly rich soils and 
excellent natural drainage. 

The soils of this county may be roughly divided into three groups, 
upland, terrace and bottom soils. The upland group includes the Mar- 
shall and Knox series ; the terrace soils are classed in the Waukesha and 
Scott series, and those of the bottoms in the Wabash, Lomaure, Cass and 
Sarpy series. The bottom soils represent alluvium, derived from border- 
ing uplands. 

Of these three groups, the Marshall soils represent about one-third 
of the area of the county and is a remnant of the original loess plains. 
It is also the highest in elevation. It is cut into four areas, the largest 
covering the northwest portion of the county, west of the Elkhorn and 
north of Maple Creek valleys. The second covers the north central 
section between the Elkhorn and Logan valleys. The third covers the 
northeast part of the county lying east of Logan Valley and north of the 
Elkhorn Valley. The fourth section covers the central part of the upland 
lying south of Maple Creek extending from the Knoell Ravine on the 
east to School No. 30 on the west, a distance of about ten miles. The 
remaining portions of these uplands lying to the east and west belong 
to the terrace classifications and are of a more recent formation. 

The Marshall soil is characterized by its uniform soil particles and its 
tendency to split into vertical planes producing perpendicular bluffs along 
water courses and roads subject to erosion. The Marshall soil is the 
result of the loess formation supposed to have had its origin in the ice 
age. It is uniform in character and contains in proper proportions all 
the natural elements for crop productions throughout its entire depth. 
These Marshall hills have given rise to the terrace soils much of the 
same character. 

The terrace lands, constituting in the main the upland between the 
Platte and Maple Creek valleys, is a valley filling deposit laid down in 
prehistoric times from the wash from the original loess plains. One can 
imagine the great slowly moving ice sheet shaving^ off the tops of the 
loess hills and filling up the then existing valleys to be later recut by our 
present water courses without regard to the ancient channels. This 
theory at least explains why the upland south of Maple Creek is com- 
posed of both the old Marshall formation and the more recent terrace 
deposit, both soils being similar in character and productiveness, one 
.being the wash of the other. 

The bottom lands in the main consist of alluvium, a product of ero- 
sion from all the various soil formations in the adjoining uplands. ' It 
naturally follows that rich upland soils produce rich bottom lands. With 
the exception of the Platte River Valley, the other bottom lands of the 
county form a colluvial soil resulting from the erosion of the near-by 
uplands. The Platte Valley soils, however, have been modified some- 
what by the erosions from the mountains where the river finds its source. 
128 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 129 

The Marshall and Waukesha soils comprising the uplands of the 
county are remarkable crop soils, exceedingly friable and productive. 
These soils resist drouth longer than any other soil known and will pro- 
duce a wider range of crops. Corn, wheat, oats and alfalfa are the 
staple crops, but these wonderful soils will produce any cereal crop that 
will grow in this latitude. 

A little to the south and west of the center of the county on the high- 
est point of the upland between the Platte and Maple Creek valleys just 
east of School No. 30, a magnificent view is afforded of a very large sec- 
tion of the county. Standing on this eminence of the Marshall formation 
looking south, one can get, on a clear day, a magnificent view of the great 
Platte River Valley. For 25 or 30 miles east and west, the mighty 
checkerboard of farms can be seen with its alternating fields of com 
and wheat. Turning to the north, the beautiful Maple Creek Valley 
winds from the west to the east, visible for a dozen miles in its course and 
far beyond it over the upland table to the northeast, the Elkhorn bluffs 
twenty miles away are clearly outlined against the sky line. It is a 
marvelous sight not only from a scenic point of view but from an agri- 
cultural one as well, for practically every acre of this land is highly 
productive and tillable. Few spots like it can be found in the whole wide 
world and none excel it. 

Surface Drainage 

Dodge County is drained by the Platte and Elkhorn rivers together 
with their numerous tributaries, Logan, Maple, Pebble and Rawhide 
creeks. The uplands are adequately drained with a few exceptions of 
swales here and there without surface outlets. The valleys, however, 
being flat with the water table close to the surface, were not naturally 
sufficiently drained. The Platte and Elkhorn valleys, constituting about 
one-fourth of the area of the county, represented a great loss to agricul- 
ture because of the lack of adequate drainage. The lands were given up 
to the production of wild hay, which contained a minimum amount of 
food values. Finally about 1890, a few drainage ditches were con- 
structed in the Platte River Valley, and from this small and inefficient 
beginning, a few years later a complete system of surface drainage was 
laid out through the organization of districts. The result has been the 
reclamation of many thousand acres of land, practically the whole of the 
Platte River Valley within the county. Drainage ditches have been con- 
structed in the Elkhorn Valley, also, until the swamp lands have prac- 
tically disappeared. 

Tile Drainage 

Some sections of these valleys require still further drainage by tiling, 
owing to the character of the soils, and some larger farms have been 
drained with tile. Among them. Maple Grove farm, owned by the 
author of this article, and Idlewild, owned by Mrs. R. B. Schneider, and 
a large farm owned by Mr. L. M. Keene, east of Fremont, and scores of 
smaller farms. 

The first effort at reclamation of wet land by tile drainage was made 
by Phillip Rine on Maple Creek. It was a very successful experiment 
though on a small scale. This led the author to undertake the first 
project of any considerable size in the county, namely, 440 acres of his 
farm at the foot of the Platte River bluffs on the north side of the 



130 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

valley six miles northwest of Ames. The history of this operation and 
theory of the value of tile drainage may be of value in this connection: 

By placing under this land a complete system of tile drainage it was 
possible to keep the water table at a depth of three feet, and as there was 
a constant supply of water at this level, a remarkable result was obtained — 
namely, that regardless of rainfall practically speaking, this land could 
neither "drown out" nor "dry out." During an exceedingly dry season 
grain roots would go down to the water that was available always just 
below the level of the tile lines ; when the rainfall was excessive, the sur- 
plus water rushed away through the vast system of tiles, leaving growing 
crops free from the effects of too much water. 

More than seventy carloads of tile were used on this job which cost 
the owner approximately $20,000, or nearly $50 an acre. There are six 
ten and twelve inch mains each from one-half to three-quarters of a mile 
long, with scores of miles of four, five and six inch laterals extending out 
from these mains covering the entire 440 acres, so that there is not a 
foot of ground more than fifty feet from a line of tile. 

IxcRE.\SE IN Crop Production 

This system was carefully laid out by two competent farm drainage 
engineers and in the years it has been in use it has abundantly justified 
the expense in the increase in crop productions. The second crop of corn 
on the first 120 acres brought under cultivation averaged for the whole 
tract seventy bushels to the acre. One wheat crop for the whole farm 
averaged forty-one bushels with one field reaching a yield of fifty-eight 
bushels to the acre. The largest oat crop averaged eighty-seven bushels 
to the acre. There were also poor yields now and then but these maxi- 
mum yields show the possibilities of the land when properly handled 
under favorable conditions. 

Theory of Dr.mnage 

Drainage by tiling makes land dryer in wet weather and wetter in dry 
weather. Any hot, dry day in August one can dig down a foot from the 
surface over a tile line and find the soil so moist it can be molded into a 
ball. Half way between the lines the earth will be dry and dusty. The 
reason for this seeming paradox is found in physics. The subsoil is 
much colder than the surface. As the warm moisture-laden air at 
summer heat passes through the colder subsoil in its circulation through 
the tiling it deposits its surplus moisture in the soil just as beads of water 
form on the pitcher of ice water in hot weather ; whereas midway between 
the lines this physical phenomenon would scarcely be noticed at all where 
the drawing power of the tile is at its lowest point. 

On the other hand, it drains quickly from the soil all surplus water. 
The capillary water is that water which is naturally absorbed by the soil. 
Every microscopic particle of soil is covered by a film of water. The soil 
will naturally absorb enough water to envelop its microscopic particles. 
This film of water cannot be drained out of the soil. Therefore it is 
impossible to overdrain land. As proof of this law, suspend a dry towel 
over a pan of water permitting the end to touch the water. Watch the 
water creep rapidly up the towel. Every particle of fabric hungrily 
envelops itself in water — just enough and not one drop of surplus is 
absorbed. That is capillary water and in the soil is lost only in two 
ways ; through absorption by plants and through evaporation. 



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132 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

How THE Plants Feed 

The tiling brings the warm air into the cold soil that has formerly 
been waterlogged. This warm air warms the soil and makes a favorable 
breeding ground for plant bacteria. These little forms multiply by the 
billions breaking down vegetable matter and making available the raw 
materials and translating them into assimilable food for plants. Their 
little microscopic bodies are quickly dissolved into this film of water 
enveloping the soil particles and the water becomes rich in food values. 
Tiny rootlets drink this solution and the plant shows the effect of the 
food by its rich dark green color and luxuriant growth. Contrast these 
well-fed plants with those in land that has not tile drainage where the 
soil is cold or waterlogged. Whenever the water in the soil increases to 
the point of complete saturation the envelop of water which contains the 
rich plant food breaks up and the soil particles float in a sea of water. 
The solution becomes so diluted the plants cannot secure adequate food. 
They become yellow and sickly and their growth greatly checked if not 
completely stopped. 

Effects of Tiling 

An example of the marvelous effect on crop productions was clearly 
shown by the first experiment in drainage on this farm. The first eighty 
tiled was plowed and planted to corn. The lines were 200 feet apart 
running across the eighty the short way. The corn was planted the short 
way also. In the month of August visitors who were driven along the 
turn row the full length of the eighty could look down the corn rows. 
As they approached and crossed a tile line the corn gradually rose in 
height around twelve and fourteen feet, and then gradually it dwindled 
in size to not over a foot in height midway between the lines. Along 
the tile lines the corn was a dark green color and luxuriant in growth, 
gradually fading out to a sickly yellow as the effect of the tiling dimin- 
ished. Over the tile lines, and for a considerable distance on either side, 
the surplus of water was drained away and the plant food was made 
available in abundance. The absence of water and presence of warm 
air made the soil a splendid home for plant bacteria. The soil midway 
between the lines was waterlogged and cold. Bacteria could not live in 
such soil, therefore, the abundance of plant food in the soil was not avail- 
able for the corn. It was too thin to furnish proper nourishment because 
of the surplus of water in which it was in solution. It was a remarkable 
sight — the alternating ridges of dark green corn twelve to fourteen 
feet high, at intervals of every 200 feet over tile lines, with corresponding 
depressions midway between the lines of yellow corn a foot high, both 
extending across the full width of the eighty, with exact regularity. This 
example was so convincing to the owner of the value of tile, he imme- 
diately laid lines of tile between the existing lines, doubling the original 
system. The year following the completion of this doubling of the lines, 
he harvested from this eighty and adjoining forty which had been tiled 
at the same time over 8,000 bushels of corn, or about seventy bushels 
to the acre. 



CHAPTER XIV 

DODGE COUNTY AND MODERN ROADS 

(By William H. Buss) 

The substance of this chapter was derived from a very instructive 
interview, obtained by one of our editors, from the Hon. George F. 
Wolz, popularly known as "Good Roads Wolz," who, to use an historical 
term, might well be called "The Great Waywarden" of eastern Nebraska. 
This very busy and useful citizen wears with characteristic modesty sev- 
eral other distinctions. He is commissioner of the Fremont Commercial 
Club; president of the State Good Roads Association, and state consul 
for the Lincoln Highway. Seen by our editor, he very cordially granted 
an interview, recognizing at once that the new History of Dodge and 
Washington Counties would be comparable with Hamlet, with Hamlet 
left out, if it should fail to include a chapter on modern good roads. 
He agreed that the presentation should begin far back in human annals, 
and in the acknowledgment that among all the ancients the mighty peo- 
ple of Rome were the most efficient road-builders, and that all subsequent 
nations had learned much from them. Portions of Roman roads, after 
more than 2,000 years, are still in use and are among the most notable 
memorials of antiquity. However, with the decline of the Roman 
empire, interest in good highways fell away, and not until the middle of 
the Eighteenth Century was that interest revived. France was the leader 
of the new movement, to be speedily followed by England, and the 
main roads of Europe have, for 150 years, been of high and excellent 
quality, admired by all tourists. The highways of our own country, on 
the contrary, up to a half-century ago, were left to themselves, very 
largely, and were a discredit to our civilization. 

Such care as they received was rendered by local authorities, who 
with no adequate system, or Government encouragement, slighted them, 
and suffered them to come to such degeneration as they might. The 
United States Government took charge of the roads in national parks, but 
left all others to the people who use them. It is an interesting historic 
fact that it was the invention and introduction of the bicycle, which first 
awakened practical attention to the need of better roads. In our own 
county before that time the pathways of travel were often impassable 
from mud and water : whole stretches were a mass of gopher mounds, 
rendering the road perilous ; and the grades, where the bluffs by the 
rivers were approached, were not infrequently of 15 per cent. Attempts 
at improvement include the casting up, in this section, of the Broad 
Street grade in 1880 and that on Military Avenue in 1885. The roads 
west of the county seat were through a sand region and needed less help. 
The use of the bicycle, first of the high-wheel variety and then of the 
safety, became very general and popular, and the imperative need of 
better roads was more and more generally felt. This grew out of the 
fact that relay races were attempted from coast to coast, and century 
runs were widely practiced. Then came the advent of the automobile 
and vastly augmented the popular cry for better roads. At first the 
autocar could be used only in summer and fall and never in winter or 
133 



134 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



rainy weather. The mud and snow and their effects made it impossible. 
These discoveries were made by such pioneers in gas-motor vehicles as 
Ross L. Hammond and Dan V. Stephens and soon the press took up the 
agitation for good roads at public expense. As in all times of progress 
opposition soon developed and it was asserted that the demand was for 
the taxation of property holders in the interest of joy-riders, the aristo- 
crats of motor travel. But automobile owners multiplied ; the Ford was 
invented and the friends of good roads rapidly increased. Pioneer enter- 
prise in this direction began to develop. The Fremont Commercial Club 
agitated for a co-operative movement in making the Arlington Road fit 
for gas-car travel, and finally in co-operation with Elkhorn Township 
raised and expended $1,500 for that pioneering project. This led soon 



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after to the expenditure of $21,000 in Elkhorn Township for good roads 
of a similar order. Incidental advantages of great worth soon were 
experienced. The ditches excavated in road-building naturally consti- 
tuted drainage districts which so benefited adjacent farms that from 
being swamplands they became among the most productive in the county. 
All this led to Government action which has since developed into a 
most elaborate system of good-roads manufacture and preservation. In 
the Department of Agriculture at Washington there was established a 
road division, whose function was the study of the whole subject; its 
supervision and the distribution of Federal aid. The first appropriation 
was for $65,000,000 to be met by an equal amount from the several states. 
The second appropriation was 'for $100,000,000, and a third for $200,- 
000,000, and then were established district departments for the admin- 
istration of these funds. The first Nebraska legislation in the interest of 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 135 

good roads in connection with motor-travel was the imposition of a tax 
of $3.00 on each machine, to be used to this purpose. This was in 1911. 
In 1915 a State Highway Advisory Board was created to supervise the 
general work and to recommend Government action. Legislation was 
adopted providing also signs and markings for the identification of routes 
of travel. In 1917 the first attempt was made by our state to provide 
its part in response to the $65,000,000 Government appropriation and in 
1919 liberal legislation was secured in co-operation with this and also 
with the later and larger appropriations. There was made a 3 mill levy 
for two years ; and an automobile tax was voted to bring in $3,000,000 
for road maintenance. This legislation secured $10,500,000 for the 
whole state, of which Dodge County received $127,000. Then the 
auto tax of 1920, amounting to $60,000, was available, to which was 
added a city and county levy of 4 mills each. The outcome is that by 
act of the State Legislature we now have a splendid state highway sys- 
tem, of which Dodge County has eighty miles, maintained by a state 
patrol system which is increasingly efficient. Still another law allows 
townships and counties to vote bonds not to exceed 10 per cent of 
assessed valuation, for road construction. 

Following are the names of the five Dodge County highways which 
have come into being through this legislation : 

(1) Lincoln Highway East. Lincoln Highway West. 

(2) B Line, running from Fremont to Blair. 

(3) Cornhusker Highway: Manville, Kansas, to Sioux City. 

(4) Black Hills Trail, Omaha to Deadwood. 

(5) Fremont-Albion Highway. 

These are considered as the beginning of a great system of highways, 
perfecting our county system of modern roads. 

The matter of good roads mileage is of great interest. Nine hundred 
out of a total of 1,054 miles in the county, are graded, and the strong 
tendency is toward a general grading, drainage and surfacing. The pub- 
lic interest is nearly universal, and the present co-operation is most 
encouraging; and much to the credit of our splendid commonwealth. 
Much might be said of the value of good roads to the county, which 
most citizens now recognize. Of course they result in augmented 
credit, in the east, where capital seeks investment. The question which 
is asked when application is made for a loan on farm lands is apt to be 
this : "What highway is your property upon ?" 

Then as a result of paved roads passing farms, land values have 
increased in some known cases fully $50 per acre. 

What advantage good roads render in the matter of transportation, 
either in the speed or comfort of travel, or in the marketing of farm 
products simply cannot be estimated. That is the reason trucking has 
become so vast and growing a business, and of such profit to agricul- 
turists and consumers. Instead of this constituting harmful competition 
with railroads, it is a benefit to the companies, who do not care for the 
short hauls so much, preferring to care for their long hauling without 
expensive interruptions. 

But other values resulting from good modern highways are of a still 
higher quality. They are educational and social; also constructively 
moral and of the first civic worth. 

The consolidation of country schools, now recognized as so great 
and positive an advance in the promotion of rural educational interests, 
is very largely the issue of the good-roads enterprise. Throughout the 
county it will soon be a common sight to behold special school-trucks 



136 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

equipped for the safe and quick transportation of Young America to the 
central school buildings, and in all weathers, with comfort and 
punctuality. 

These same buildings made so easily accessible by good roads, will 
become more and more used centers of community interests, in which the 
social, civic and ethical life of the people will be conserved and pro- 
moted. The rural problem, long seeming so increasingly difficult and 
despairful, is likely to find its happy solution through the modem facili- 
ties for travel and transportation; higher standards of home and civil 
life will take precedence, and the country once more become, through the 
new exodus from the abnormal life of the city, the fountain of the best 
ideals of our American life. There is no truer patriotic duty than to 
encourage this movement back to the farm and toward the contributory 
perfecting of the highway system of our steadily progressive Dodge 
County. 



CHAPTER XV . 

POLITICAL 

General Comment — Vote on Governors — State Senators — House 
OF Representatives — Party Vote of County by Decades Since 
1868 — County Judges — County Attorney — County Treasurers 
— County Clerks — Clerk of the Court — Sheriffs — Surveyors — 
Superintendent of Public Instruction — Registrar of Deeds — 
County Commissioners — Board of Supervisors. 

Every true citizen has a political ambition, and although he may never 
reach the highest pinnacle there is a possibility that his children may. 
There is an excitement about a political campaign which all enjoy and 
although personalities are frequently indulged in, as a general rule all 
yield gracefully to the verdict of the people, a majority vote, and submit 
themselves unto the "powers that be." 

The various tables of party vote, etc., here annexed will give the reader 
of this volume a fair idea of the political faith of the people of Dodge 
County from 1854 down to the present time. Much careful research 
in the county election records upon the part of the compiler of this work 
has brought out the following roster of both state and county officials : 

Vote on Governors 

Vote Majority 

1870— D. Butler 434 65 

J. H. Croxton 369 

1872— Robert W. Furnas 241 

H. C. Lett 327 86 

1874— Silas Garber 726 168 

Albert Tuxbury 558 

1876 — (No returns given) 

1878— A. Nance 942 66 

W. H. Webster 876 

1880— A. Nance 1,439 357 

T. W. Tipton 1,082 

1882— J. W. Dawes 1,129 

T. S. Morton 1,463 334 

1884— j. W. Dawes 1.589 

J. S. Morton 1,724 135 

1886— John M. Thayer 1,324 

James E. North 1,511 40 

H. W. Hardy 147 

1888— John M. Thayer 1,780 

S. A. McShane 2.320 379 

Geo. E. Bigelow 169 

1890— L. D. Richards 1,623 

T. E. Boyd 2,127 504 

T. H. Powers 549 

1892— Lorenzo Crounse 1,348 

T. Sterling Morton 1.676 326 

C. E. Bentley 89 

Chas. H. Van Wyck 680 

137 



138 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

(The names of the governors elected from this point to present time 
are here given, but not the abstract of votes.) 
1895-99— Silas Holcomb. 
1901— William A. Poynter. 
1901— Charles Dietrich. 
1901-03— E. P. Savage. 
1903-07— John H. Mickey. 
1907-09— George L. Sheldon. 
1909-11— A. C. Shellenberger. 
1911.13_Chester H. Aldrich. 
1913-17— Tohn H. Moorehead. 
1917-19— Keith Neville. 
1919-21— Samuel R. McKelvie. 

State Senators 

The following shows the years served by the various state senators 
representing Dodge County : 
1866— David Leach. 
1867— William A. Preston. 
1869— (No record.) 
1871— A. W. Tenant. 
1873— S. W. Hayes. 
1875— H. D. Perky. 
1877— G. F. Blanchard. 
1879— William Marshall. 
1881— Isaac Power, Jr. 
1883— Charles Sang. 
1885— John E. Shervin. 
1887— John E. Shervin. 
1889— John Dern. 
1891— J. M. Brown. 
1893 — John Thomsen. 
1895— S. W. Hayes. 
1897-09— W. D. Haller. 
1909-13— Fred Volpp. 
1913-15_Geo. F. Wolz. 
1915.17_Wallace H. Wilson. 

State Representatives 

(Territorial.) 
1855— M. H. Clark. 
1857— Silas E." Seeley. 
1859— Henry W. De Puy. 
1860— Samuel H. Elbert. 
1862— Samuel H. Elbert. 
1864— C. Blanchard. 
1866— Geo. J. Turton. 
1867— J. E. "Dorsey. 

(Under Statehood.) 
1867— Henry P. Beebe. 
1869— E. H. Barnard. 
1871— A. C. Briggs, Frank Kupp. 
1873— Milton May. 
1875— J. W. Barnes. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 139 

1877— N. S. Belden. 

1879— G. C. Bruce. 

1881— Wm. Fried. 

1883— J. C. Homer. 

1885— F. E. White, John Heinrich. 

1887— James G. Gamble, C. F. Eisley. 

1889— L. P. Larson. 

1891— N. P. Nelson. 

1893— N. P. Nelson. 

1894— W. J. McVicker. 

1895— Joseph Roberts. 

1897— S. S. Van Horn, W. D. Holbrook. 

1899— M. T. Zallers. 

1901 — Daniel Swanson, George L. Loomis. 

1902 — William J. Harman, George L. Loomis. 

1903 — George L. Loomis, William J. Harman. 

1905 — Joseph Roberts, William J. Harman. 

1907— F. A. Howe, J. H. Knowles. 

1909— F. P. Lawrence, William J. McVicker. 

1911— William J. McVicker, F. P. Lawrence. 

1912 — George W. Losey. 

1913 — M. E. Shiplev, George W. Losev. 

1914— William G. J. Dau. 

1915— C. E. Sievers, William G. J. Dau. 

1916— Norman E. Shaffer, William G. J. Dau. 

1917— William G. J. Dau, N. E. Shaffer. 

1918— Andrew Frost. 

County Judges 

The first probate or county judge in Dodge County was S. I. Francis, 
who held the office by appointment, from early in 1856 to January 1, 1857, 
after which came the following soon after their election: 

1856 — James G. Smith (rep.). 

1857 — Samuel Strickland (rep.). 

1859— Samuel Strickland (rep.). 

1860— E. H. Barnard (rep.). 

1861— L. H. Rogers (rep.). 

1863— H. P. Beebe (rep.). 

1865— T. H. Crabbs (rep.). 

1867— E. C. Usher (rep.). 

1869— E. C. Usher (rep.). 

1871— N. H. Bell (rep.). 

1873— W. C. Ghost (dem.). 

1875— W. C. Ghost (dem.). 

1877— W. H. Ely (dem.). 

1879— W. H. Ely (dem.). 

1881 — James Murray (dem.). 

1883 — Tames Murray (dem.). 

1885— T. T. Barge (dem.). 

1887— j. j. Barge (dem.). 

1889— William H. Hunter (dem.). 

1891— William H. Hunter (dem.). 

1893— Glaus H. Plambeck. 

1895— Glaus H. Plambeck. 



140 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

1897 — Waldo Wintersteen. 
1899— Waldo Wintersteen. 
1903— A. H. Briggs. 
1905— Robert J. Stinson. 
1909— Robert J. Stinson. 
1911— Robert J. Stinson. 
1914 — Waldo Wintersteen. 
1918— Waldo Wintersteen. 

County Attorney 

This office was created to go into effect in 1888. Prior to that 
such business was looked after by attorneys employed by the commis- 
sioners, as also by the prosecuting attorney who served for the whole 
judicial district. In 1888 George R. Loomis (dem.) was elected and in 
1890 C. Hollenback (dem.) was elected and re-elected in the fall of 1892. 

1894— J. W. C. Abbott. 

1895— Grant G. Martin. 

1906— John W. Graham. 

1914— Fred W. Button. 

1916— T. C. Cook. 

191&— J. C. Cook. 

County Clerks 

1856 — Samuel D. Prescott (appointed). 

1856 — Julius Brainard (election), rep. 

1859— John Ray (rep.). 

1861— J. F. Reynolds (rep.). 

1863— E. H. Rogers (rep.). 

1865— E. H. Rogers (rep.). 

1867— A. G. Brugh (rep.). 

1869— A. G. Brugh (rep.). 

1871— L. M. Keene (rep.). 

1873— L. M. Keene (rep.). 

1875 — Charles Sang (dem.). 

1877 — Charles Sang (dem.). 

1879— G. C. Kerkow (dem.). 

1881— J. C. Kerkow (dem.). 

1883— G. H. Forney (rep.). 

1885— G. H. Forney (rep.). 

1887— O. H. P. Shively (rep.). 

1889— Thomas Killeen (dem.). 

1891— Thomas Killeen (dem.). 

1893— Wenzel Legro. 

1895— Charles A. Manville. 

1897— Charles A. Manville. 

1899— George A. Murrell. 

1903— C. O. Boe. 

1905— C. O. Boe. 

1907 — James A. Donahue. 

1909— Tames A. Donahue. 

1911— John O'Connor. 

1914 — John O'Connor? 

1916— W. E. Barz, present clerk. 




Joseph C. Cook 



142 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

County Treasurers 

1856— H. P. Beebe. 

1858— Silas J. Francis (rep.). 

1859— Silas J. Francis (rep.). 

I860— H. C. Campbell (rep.). 

1861— H. C. Campbell (rep.). 

1863 — George W. Wolcott (not qualifying, Theron Nye (rep.) 

was appointed). 
1865— Theron Nye (rep.). 
1867— E. H. Barnard (rep.). 
1869— S. B. Colson (rep.). 
1871— S. B. Colson (rep.). 
1873— A. C. Briggs (rep.). 
1875— John E. Shervin (dem.). 
1877— John E. Shervin (dem.). 
1879 — John Grunkranz (dem.). 
1881 — John Grunkranz (dem.). 
1883— E. N. Morse (dem.). 
1885— E. N. Morse (dem.). 
1887— B. F. Stouffer (rep.). 
1889— John Dem (dem.). 
1891— John Dern (dem.). 
1893— "N. P. Nelson. 
1895— N. P. Nelson. 
1897— William F. Easier. 
1899— William F. Basler. 
1903— George J. Coddington. 
1905— John H. Knoell. 
1907— John H. Knoell. 
1909 — Morris Horstmann. 
1914— Ernest Hahn. 
1916— Ernest Hahn. 
1918— Joe Roberts. 

Clerk of the Court 

Until about 1874 this was an appointive office within the gift of the 
presiding judge. Julius Barnard was the first to act in such capacity. 
He was followed by Mr. Hazen. Next came J. J. Hawthorne, who 
held the position until 1875. when the office was combined with the 
county clerk's office (ex-officio). The first to hold the two offices was 
L. M. Keene who served four years when the office again became an 
office by itself and was also made elective. In 1879 G. H. Forney 
was elected and in 1881 re-elected; then came the following: 

1883 — Louis Spear (dem.). 

1885 — Louis Spear (dem.). 

1887— George W. Davy (dem.). 

1891— J. M. Shively (rep.). 

1895— Tames Shively. 

1899 — James M. Cruickshank. 

1903 — James M. Cruickshank. 

1906— Luke Mundy. 

1911— Luke Mundy. 

1916— Peter F. Mitterling. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Sheriffs 

1856— J. M. Hancock. 
1859 — Henry C. Lemmon. 
1860— John B. Watterman. 
1861— William Wilson. 
1863— J. H. Teats. 
1865— T. H. Teats. 
1867— Ed Fuller. 
1869— D. M. Strong (rep.). 
1871 — Thomas Turner (dem.). 
1873 — Thomas Turner (dem.). 
1875 — August Kopplekom (dem.). 
1877 — August Kopplekom (dem.). 
1879 — Robert Gregg (dem.). 
1881— Robert Gregg (dem.). 
1883 — Thomas Curran (dem.). 
1885 — Thomas Curran (dem.). 
1887— Tames P. Mallon (dem.). 
1889— James P. Mallon (dem.). 
1891— Tames Milliken (dem.). 
1893— Tames Milliken. 
1895— James M. Kreader. 
1897 — James M. Kreader. 
1899— Tames M. Kreader. 
1903— A. Bauman, Tr. 
1905— A. Bauman, Tr. 
1906— A. Bauman, Jr. 
1909— A. Bauman, Tr. 
191 1_W. C. Gondii. 
1914— W. C. Condit. 
1916— W. C. Condit. 
1918— W. C. Condit. 

County Land Surveyors 

Prior to 1861 no regular county surveyor was elected. 
1861 — Isaac E. Heaton (rep.). 
1863 — Isaac E. Heaton (rep.). 
1865 — Isaac E. Heaton (rep.). 
1867 — Isaac E. Heaton (rep.). 
1869 — F. W. Wirminghaus (rep.). 
1871 — F. W. Wirminghaus (rep.j. 
1873 — F. W. Wirminghaus (rep.). 
1875— John W. Dougherty (rep.). 

(L. D. Richards filled out term.) 
1877— L. D. Richards (rep.). 
1879— C. W. Hvatt (rep.). 
1881— G. W. D. Reynolds (dem.). 
1883— Herman Radicke (dem.). 
1885— Herman Radicke (dem.). 
1887— Chris Baysel (dem.). 
1889— T. W. Andrews (dem.). 
1891— T. W. Andrews (dem.). 
1893— G. W. D. Reynolds. 



144 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

1895— John W. Andrews. 
1897— W. J. McVickers. 
1899— W. J. McVickers. 
1903— William M. Sanders. 
1905— William M. Sanders. 
1907— William M. Sanders. 
1909— W. M. Sanders. 
191 1_W. M. Sanders. 
1914— W. M. Sanders. 
1916— W. M. Sanders. 
1918— W. M. Sanders. 

Superintendent of Public Instruction 

The functions of this office from 1856 to 1869 were not what they 
were in later years and indeed were not well defined by the statutes. 
A. G. Brugh, Mr. Campbell and Rev. Isaac E. Heaton, served as a 
sort of school superintendent in their respective order. Mr. Heaton 
selected a portion of the school lands and examined some of the earlier 
teachers. In 1860 the present system became a state law, or soon after 
Nebraska was admitted into the Union. 

1869— W. H. Ely (dem.). He resigned and 
Reverend Wilson was appointed. 

1871— Tohn Cayton (rep.). 

1873— John Cavton (rep.). 

1875— H. G. Wolcott (rep.). 

1877 — George W. Simpson (dem.). 

1879— George A. Stanley (dem.). 

1881 — George A. Stanley (dem.). 

1883— E. M. Springer. 

1885— Frank C. Tym (dem.). 

1887— A. E. Clarendon (rep.). 

1889— D. V. Stephens (dem.). 

1891— D. V. Stephens (dem.). 

1893— J. A. Collins. 

1895— J. A. Collins. 

1897— Conrad O. Boe. 

1899— Conrad O. Boe. 

1903— Charles Arnot. 

1905— John N. Matzen. 

1907— John N. Matzen. 

1909— John N. Matzen. 

1911— John N. Matzen. 

1914 — John N. Matzen. 

1916— John N. Matzen. 

1918— John N. Matzen. 

Registrar of Deeds 

With two exceptions, the office of registrar and that of county clerk 
have been a combined office. In 1859 John Evans was elected as 
registrar, and in 1860, H. W. DePuy was elected. After his time 
expired the county clerk again resumed the duties which had devolved 
upon the office known as registrar. In 1892 the law was again changed 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 145 

in this county since which date there has been a separate office, known 
as "Registrar of Deeds." The following have filled this important posi- 
tion until the present: 

1893— George F. Looschen. 

1897 — George F. Looschen. 

1905— John O'Connor. 

1909— Fred Klaes. 

1914_Fred Klaes. 

1918— Ernest Hahn. 

Coroners 

There is no complete record of the office of coronor in this county 
in the early times, hence we give such data as appears of record today : 
1893, E. W. Martin; 1895, E. W. Martin; 1897, M. B. CroU; 1899, 
Robert P. Jensen ; 1903, Dr. Frank Brown ; 1905, Dr. A. P. Overgaard ; 
1907, Dr. A. P. Overgaard; 1909, Dr. A. P. Overgaard; 1911, Dr. A. P. 
Overgaard; 1914, Dr. A. P. Overgaard. 

County Commissioners 

Under the old precinct system in Dodge County the county commis- 
sioners who had charge of all county governmental affairs were these: 

1856 — William E. Lee (dem.), Thomas Fitzsimmons (dem.), L. C. 
Baldwin. 

1857— Thomas Fitzsimmons (dem.), W. E. Lee (dem.), C. A. 
Whiteford. 

1858— C. A. Whiteford, Thomas Fitzsimmons (dem.), G. J. Turton 
(rep.). 

1859 — G. J. Turton (rep.), Thomas Fitzsimmons (dem.), Jared 
Blanchard (rep.). 

1860 — George Turner (dem.), Thomas Fitzsimmons (dem.), G. J. 
Turton (dem.). 

1861— W. H. Ely (dem.), G. J. Turton (rep.), Thomas Wilson 
(dem.). 

1862— George Turner (dem.), W. H. Ely (dem.), Thomas Wilson 
(dem.). 

1863— W. H. Ely (dem.), George Turner (dem.), V. C. Valentine. 

1864 — George Young (rep.), J. E. Dorsey (rep.), George Turner 
(dem.). 

1865 — George Turner (dem.), George Young (rep.), J. E. Dorsey 
(rep.). 

1866— George Turner (dem.), George Young (rep.), J. E. Dorsey 
(rep.). 

1867 — George Young (rep.), Christopher Knoell (rep.), George 
Turner (dem.). 

1868 — Robert Graham (rep.), A. C. Briggs (rep.), George Turner 
(dem.). 

1869— George F. Blanchard (rep.), A. C. Briggs (rep.), Robert 
Graham (rep.). 

1870— John P. Eaton (rep.), George F. Blanchard (rep.), A. C. 
Briggs (rep.). 

1871— John P. Eaton (rep.), J. J. Hawthorne (rep.), A. C. Briggs 
(rep.). 

1872— John C. Seeley (rep.), John P. Eaton (rep.), J. J. Haw- 
thorne (rep.). 



146 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

1873— John P. Seeley (rep.), John P. Eaton (rep.), J. J. Haw- 
thorne (rep.). 

1874 — John C. Seeley (rep.), F. M. Tillman (dem.), Baxter Nico- 
demus (rep.). 

1875— John C. Seeley (rep.), F. M. Tillman (dem.), Theron Nye 
(ind.). 

1876— E. C. Burns (rep.), F. M. Tillman (dem.), Theron Nye 
(ind.). 

1877— E. C. Burns (rep.), F. M. Tillman (dem.), Theron Nye 
(ind.). 

1878— E. C. Burns (rep.), F. M. Tillman (dem.\ Theron Nye 
(ind.). 

1879— E. C. Burns (rep.), M. H. Hinman (dem.), F. M. Tillman 
(dem.). 

1880— Milton May (rep.), M. H. Hinman (dem.), E. C. Burns 
(rep.). 

1881— E. C. Burns (rep.), H. T. Lee (rep.), Milton May (rep.). 

1882— Milton May (rep.), H. "T. Lee (rep.), J. H. Caldwell (dem.). 

1883— Milton May (rep.), J. H. Caldwell (dem.), H. J. Lee (rep.). 

1884— J. H. Caldwell (dem.), M. Welch (dem.). 

1885— M. Welch (dem.), Milton May (rep.), J. H. Caldwell (dem.). 

1886— J. H. Caldwell (dem.), George C. Laird (dem.), M. Weich 
(dem.). 

County Supervisors 

During 1886, by popular vote, the "Township Organization" was 
adopted in Dodge County, the same taking effect soon after the annual 
election; those who comprised the board until January 1, 1887, and 
the first and succeeding county supervisors have been as follows : 

1886— M. Weich (dem.), 'John F. Dierks (dem.), William E. Lee 
(ind.), A. C. Jensen (rep.),"F. M. Tillman (dem.), H. G. Wolcott 
(rep.), James S. Jennings (dem.), H. H. Robinson (dem.), J. B. Foote 
(rep.), John Emanuel (dem.), J. A. Sill (rep.), B. F. Laird (dem.), 
H. Christy (dem.), Nels Johnson (rep.). 

1887— B. F. Laird (dem.), J. H. Graham (rep.), John F. Dierks, 
chairman (dem.), F. M. Tillman (dem.). A. C. Jensen (rep.), William 
E. Lee (ind.), H. Christy (dem.), M. Weich (dem.), Peter Themes 
(dem.), James S. Jennings (dem.), John Emanuel (dem.), H. A. Milli- 
ken (rep.), J. B. Foote (rep.), J. A. Sill, Charles High (ind.), H. H. 
Robinson (dem.), H. G. Wolcott (rep.), Evan Thomas, A. R. Hasson 
(rep.). 

1888— H. G. Wolcott, chairman (rep.), H. Christy (dem.), W. H. 
Mead (rep.), Emil Eichblatt (dem.), W. D. Thomas (dem.), J. B. 
Foote (rep.), H. A. Milliken (rep.), W. I. Wady (rep.), John Emanuel 
(dem.), R. B. Schneider (rep.), M. Weich (dem."), Evan Thomas, T- B. 
Imsicke (dem.), F. M. Tillman (rep.), S. M. Nelson, J. G. McV'icker 
(ind.), Ed Watkins (rep.), Herman Wolsleger (dem.), A. P. Nelson. 

1889 — R. B. Schneider, chairman (rep.), Emil Eichblatt (dem.), 
E. G. Brugh (rep.), John Emanuel (dem.), J. B. Foote (rep.), W. H. 
Mead (rep.), Herman Monnich (dem.), J. G. McVicker (ind.), Sven 
M. Nelson, Herman Suhr (dem.), William D. Thomas (dem.), L. A. 
Warner (ind.), Ed Watkins (rep.). D. C. Westfall (ind.), B. W. 
Reynolds (rep.), A. P. Shephard (rep.), F. M. Tillman (dem.). M. Weicb 
(dem.). Herman Wolsleger (dem.). 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 147 

1890— W. D. Thomas, chairman (dem.), H. P. Beebe, (rep.), E. G. 

Brugh (rep.), Kluth (dem.), W. H. Mead (rep.), J. G. McVicker 

(ind.), A. P. Shephard (rep.), F. M. Tillman (dem.), M. Welch (dem.), 
Herman Wolsleger (dem.), H. Christy (dem.), Ernst Eichblatt (dem.), 
Hugh Foy (dem.), Charles High (ind.), Herman Monnich (dem.), A. 
Crawford (dem.), R. B. Schneider (rep.), Theodore Uehling (dem.), 
L. A. Warner (ind.). 

1891— W. D. Thomas, chairman ( dem.), H. P. Beebe (rep.). W. H. 
Mead (rep.), Herman Monnich (dem.), J. A. Sill (rep.), Theodore 
Uehling (dem.), Anton Bartosh (dem.), Charles Balduff (dem.), C. M. 
Black (ind.), D. Rastede (dem.), Herman Rexin (ind.), H. Wolslager 
(dem.), M. Welch (dem.), W. T. Crook (rep.), C. E. Christ (ind.), 

F. I. Ellick (dem.), Hugh Foy (dem.), Charles High (ind.), J. M. 
Kreader (rep.), M. C. Mitchell (rep.). 

1892— J. A. Sill, chairman (rep.), C. M. Black (ind.), Oscar A. 
Bergquist (ind.), Anton Bartosh (dem.), J. A. Elliott (rep.), Eugene 

C. Christ (ind.). Peter Emanuel (dem.), Henry K. Goff (rep.), John 
M. Kreader (rep.), Jegen Larson, W. H. Mead (rep.), M. C. 
Mitchell (rep.), D. Rastede (dem.). John Tym (ind.). Herman Rexin 
(ind.), Herman Wolslager (dem.), S. S. Van Horn (dem.). 

1893 — Messrs. Sill. Bartosh. Bergquist. Black, Gayton, Elliott, Eman- 
uel, Goff, Kreader. Larson, Mitchell, Rastede, Rexin, Tym, Van Horn 
and Wolslager. 

1894 — Messrs, Briggs, Bergquist, Chapman, C. W. Dodge, S. Gay- 
ton, Goff, Hastings, E. W. Hooker, Howe, J. Larson, W. H. Mead, 

D. Rastede, Charles Sievers, Mr. Themes, Townsend, Van Horn and 
J. A. Elliott. 

1895 — Messrs. Balduff, Basler, Bergquist, Dodge, Hastings, Hind- 
marsh. Hooker, Howe. Larson, Rexin, Reynolds, Shultz, Siever, Town- 
send. Van Horn. Williams. 

1896— T. R. Acom, W. F. Basler, A. J. Hastings, E. W. Hooker. 
W. H. Mead, Charles Sievers, B. W. Reynolds. 

1897— T. R. Acom, W. F. Basler, E. W. Hooker, W. H. Mead, 
Wormwood. Sievers and Reynolds. 

1898— E. W. Hooker, W. H. Mead. C. M. Wormwood, S. W. Boyd, 

G. W. Wolcott. John Romberg and lohn Tym. 

1899— W. H. Mead, C. W. Wormwood. Andrew Linn, Joseph 
Roberts. lohn Tvm. lohn Romberg. S. W. Bovd. 

1900-^Peter Parkert. John Tym, S. W. Boyd, W. H. Mead, Joseph 
Roberts. C. M. Wormwood, Andrew Linn. 

1901— S. W. Boyd. John Tym, Peter Parkert, W. H. Mead, Nels 
Martensen, Joseph Roberts. 

1902— Peter Parkert. William A. Graham. S. W. Boyd, J. Roberts, 
C. W. Hepburn. Nels Martensen. 

1903— Nels Martensen, C. W. Hepburn, C. B. Noyes, W. H. Mead, 
W. A. Graham. 

1904— Nels Martensen. S. W. Boyd, C. W. Hepburn, P. J. Flanigan, 
W. H. Mead. C. B. Noyes and W. A. Graham. 

1905— S. W. Boyd, A. P. Shephard. C. B. Noyes. J. Larson. P. J. 
Flanigan, Luke Mundv. W. A. Graham. 

1906— Al E. Evan's. P. J. Flanigan, Ralph Main, M. J. O'Hara, 
J. Larson. 

1907— A. E. Evans, R. Main, M. J. O'Hara. P. J- Flanigan, J. Larson, 
Ole E. Olsen, A. J. Forman. 

1908— J. Larson. P. J. Flanigan, M. J. O'Hara, Z. T. Rector, Ole 
Olsen, A. W. Murphy, A. J. Forman. 



148 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

1909— P. J. Flanigan, A. J. Forman, J. Larson, A. W. Murphy, 
M. J. O'Hara, O. E. Olsen, Z. T. Rector. 

i910 — Messrs. Forman, Larson, Murphy, O'Hara, Rector, Olsen. 

1911 — Messrs. Forman, Flanigan, Olsen, Rector, O'Hara, Murphy, 
W. H. Mead and J. Larson. 

1912— W. H. Mead, Joseph Roberts, J. Larson, P. J. Flanigan, M. J. 
O'Hara. Z. T. Rector. 

1913— Messrs. Murphy, Roberts, Peter Parkert, Z. T. Rector, J. 
Larson and O'Hara. 

1914 — Messrs. Roberts, D. Livingston, P. J. Flanigan, Parker, Rector 
and J. H. Forney. 

1915 — Flanigan, J. H. Forney, Murphy, Roberts, Parkert, D. Liv- 
ingston and Z. T. Rector. 

1916 — Murphy, Maurice Nelson, Parkert, Oscar Widman, Forman, 
Flanigan and Z. T. Rector. 

1917 — Flanigan, Scott, A. W. Murphy, Maurice Nelson, Parkert, 
Forney and Widman. 

1918— A. W. Murphy, Flanigan, Widman, Parkert, M. Nelson, 
Forney, Scott. 

1919 — Messrs. Widman, Nelson, A. W. Murphy, Flanigan, Forney, 
Scott, M. A. Uehling. 

1920 — A. W. Murphy, chairman. M. A. Uehling, P. J. Flanigan, Oscar 
Widman, Maurice Nelson, F. J. Stecher. 

Party Vote by Decades 

The following shows the party vote by ten year periods, beginning 
with 1868: 

Precinct Republican Democrat 

1868— Fremont 202 93 

Maple 46 12 

North Bend 53 14 

Logan Creek 42 48 

1878 — Total vote of Dodge County: republican, 726; democrat, 558; 
independent, 24; prohibitionist, 3. 

Precinct Republican Democrat Prohibition 

1888— Pebble 35 145 3 

Elkhorn 46 45 4 

Ridgeley 39 121 4 

Union 67 79 10 

Everett 55 108 2 

Platte Ill 59 7 

Cotterell 118 79 2 

Pleasant Valley 61 84 2 

Webster 58 193 3 

Logan 77 67 8 

Maple 79 91 13 

Nickerson 92 62 13 

Hooper 118 156 25 

North Bend 99 76 33 

Cuming 75 225 7 

Fremont 717 641 42 

Total 1.853 2,231 178 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 149 



In 1898 the fusionists carried this county in the state election. 
In 1900 William McKinley, presidential candidate, carried Dodge 
County by a handsome majority. 

In 1904 Theodore Roosevelt carried the county (republican). 
In 1908 William J. Bryan carried the county (democratic). 
In 1912 Woodrow Wilson carried the county (democratic). 

Public Men of County 

Among the men of business ability who have been connected with 
politics in Nebraska and the Union may be named the following which 
is doubtless only a partial list of strong political characters from Fre- 
mont and Dodge County; United States Congressmen, Samuel Max- 
well, Dan V. Stephens, G. W. E. Dorsey, who was also nominee for 
governor in Nebraska: United States District Judge Munger; R. B. 
Schneider, member of the executive committee of the Republican 
National Committee ; L. D. Richards, nominee for governor of Nebraska ; 
Ross L. Hammond, nominee for congressman ; District Judge C. C. 
Holenbeck; E. M. Eaton, state commissioner of lands and buildings; 
state senators and representatives, B. W. Reynolds, Dan Swanson, G. L. 
Loomis, Joe Roberts, John E. Shervin. 

Township Officers for 1919-1920 

The following were the township officials within the various town- 
ships in Dodge County in 1919-1920: 

Union Township 

Clerk— Solomon Ruflf, North Bend, R. F. D. No. 3. 

Treasurer— C. B. Stark, North Bend, R. F. D. No. 2. 

Assessor — 

Justice of the Peace— John Quigley, North Bend, R. F. D., No. 2. 

Pleasant Valley Township 

Clerk — Joe Sturbaum, Scribner, R. F. D. No. 1. 
Assessor— Peter Emanuel, Sr., North Bend, R. F. D. No. 3. 
Treasurer — Joseph Minarick, Scribner, R. F. D. No. 1. 
Justice of the Peace — William Rittig, Scribner, R. F. D. No. 5. 

Webster Township 

Clerk — Henry Parr, Dodge. 
Treasurer — Tom Vogeltanc, Dodge. 
Assessor — C. W. Hepburn, Dodge. 
Justice of the Peace — J. J. Hrabak, Dodge. 
Constable — Joseph Roubinek, Dodge. 

Cotterell Township 

Clerk — George Jorgensen, Ames, R. F. D. No. 1. 

Treasurer— William Hull, North Bend, R. F. D. No. 1. 

Assessor — Fred Howe, North Bend, R. F. D. No. 1. 

Justice of the Peace— P. H. Westphalen, North Bend, R. F. D. No. 1. 



ISO DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES ■ 

RiDGELEY Township 

Clerk— B. G. Hey wood, Scribner, R. F. D. No. 1. 

Treasurer — A. C. Rexin, Scribner, R. F. D. No. 1. 

Assessor — Jacob Ries, Scribner, R. F. D. No. 3. 

Justice of the Peace — Chris Stuehmer, Scribner, R. F. D. No. 3. 

Pebble Township 

Clerk — William J. Wolsleger, Snyder. 

Treasurer — Claudi Wendorf: Snyder. 

Assessor — Carl Hollander, Scribner, R. F. D. No. 2. 

Justice of the Peace — Henry Oberman, Snyder. 

Constable — Herman Seidel, Snyder. 

Platte Township 

Clerk — Emil Diederichs, Fremont, R. F. D. No. 1. 
Treasurer — Arthur Johnson, Ames. 
Assessor — A. O. Swartwood, Fremont. 
Justice of the Peace — Henry L. Beebe, Fremont. 

M.^PLE Township 

Clerk— Robert H. C. O'Brien, Ames, R. F. D. No. 1. 
Assessor — Ira Parsons, Fremont, R. F. D. No. I. 
Treasurer — Walter H. Olson, Ames. 
Justice of the Peace — W. D. Holbrook, Ames. 

Everett Township 

Clerk— J. H. Windhausen, Hooper, R. F. D. No. 2. 
Treasurer — Peter Parkert, Jr., Hooper, R. F. D. No. 2. 
Assessor— John W. Dahl, Scribner, R. F. D. No. 3. 
Justice of the Peace — Gerhard Hilgen, Scribner, R. F. D. No. 3. 

Cuming Township 

Clerk — Fred Osterloh, Scribner. 

Treasurer — Henry Edelmaier, Scribner. 

Assessor — Otto W. Grose, Scribner. 

Justice of the Peace — Henry Hiebenthal, Scribner. 

' Nickerson Township 

Clerk — Edward Langhorst, Nickerson. 

Treasurer, Anton Nelson, Fremont, R. F. D. No. 1. 

Assessor — 

Justice of the Peace — David Herman, Nickerson. 

Hooper Township 

Clerk — Harry J. Schwab, Hooper. 

Treasurer — William Frock, Hooper. 

Assessor — William F. Easier, Hooper. 

Justice of the Peace — Chris Royer, Jr., Hooper. 

Constable — Fred Schroeder, Hooper. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 151 

Logan Township 

Clerk— H. J. Nelson, Hooper, R. F. D. No. 3. 

Treasurer — Frank T. Uehling. 

Assessor — Oliver O. Larson, Uehling. 

Justice of the Peace — Emil Christensen, Hooper, R. F. D. No. 4. 

Elkiiorn Township 

Clerk — James Sutton, Fremont. 
Treasurer — 

Assessor — J. C. Jensen, Fremont. 
Justice of the Peace — 

North Bend Township 

Assessor — ^James M. Easom, North Bend. 
Justice of the Peace — J. T. Moolick, North Bend. 
Constable — Russell Anderson, North Bend. 

Fremont Township 

Justice of the Peace — W. M. Stone, Fremont. 
Justice of the Peace- — Henry M. Kidder, Fremont. 
Constable — George F. Easier, Fremont. 
Police Judge— A. K. Dame, Fremont. 



CHAPTER XVI 

THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND OTHER EDUCATIONAL 
INTERESTS 

President McKinley's Estimate of Free Schools — Schools of 
Fremont — The Present City Schools — North Bend Schools — 
Scribner Schools — Hooper Schools — Other First Schools — 
Dodge — Snyder — Crowell — Nickerson — County School Superin- 
tendent's Annual Report — Buildings — Pupils — Expenses — 
Other School Statistics — Graded Schools in County — Private 
and Parochial Schools — Teachers' Wages Now — Valuation and 
Tax Levy of School Districts in 1920 — Fremont Normal School 
AND Business Institute — Fremont Business College — Midland 
College. 

The late William McKinley, many years ago, said this concerning 
the free school system of the United States : 

"An open schoolhouse, free to all, evidences the highest type of 
advanced civilization. It is the gateway to progress, prosperity, and 
honor, and the best security for the liberties and independence of the 
people. It is the strongest rock of the foundation, the most enduring 
stone of the temple of liberty, our surest stay in every storm, our pres- 
ent safety, our future hope, aye, the very citadel of our influence and 
power. It is better than garrisons and guns, than forts and fleets. An 
educated people, governed by true moral principle, can never take a 
backward step, nor be dispossessed of their citizenship and liberties. 

"Permanently engrafted upon the policy and legislation of the state, 
it is free to all ; to it all are invited to come and are welcome, without 
money and without price. It is supported by the boundless generosity 
of the people of the state, open to the children of the humblest citizen 
or exile sojourner within our gates, as freely and ungrudgingly as to 
the native born of the children of the most opulent. Within its juris- 
diction all ('istinctions, social, political, and religious, are banished; all 
differences hushed, all barriers removed. It recognizes neither party 
nor church, creed, condition, nor station, but free as the air we breathe, 
its bounties and benefits fall in equal measure upon all." 

Schools of Fremont 

An intelligent, thinking people always aim to give their children 
the best possible educational advantages, hence one looks and finds the 
standard of public schools in the City of Fremont very high. From 
the earliest days when Miss Charity Colson opened and maintained her 
.private school on through the first public school periods, up to the end 
of more than three score years, Fremont's educational ideal, its theory 
and practice, have ever demanded and secured the best. 

Father Isaac E. Heaton came in 1856, expecting to be a teacher 
here; he was a highly cultured scholar, ever leading to better educa- 
tional ground. 

It is certain that the first school was taught by Miss Charity Colson 
in 1858. It was a private school kept in a frame building that had been 
152 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 153 

erected by two young men, and in which "bachelor hall" was kept for 
some time. It stood on Eighth Street near "D." The first public school 
was taught in this building, in the summer of 1859, by Miss Helen 
McNeill, of Elkhom City. 

Without any attempt to give even a partial list of teachers, in pass- 
ing it may be said that among early and later teachers are recalled the 
names of the Misses McNeill, Rogers, Van Anda, McCarn, Gofif, Miss 
Mary Heaton (afterwards so prominent as Mrs. J. J. Hawthorne), 
the Misses Emma Ely, Evalyn Clark, the Misses Griswold, Emma Gillette, 
Ollie Carmon, Lizzie and Marie Haas, Mrs. Blakesley, and Miss Spicard. 
Also superintendents — Clarendon, Hornberger, Miller, Laird and 
Gardner. 




First Methodist Episcopal Church, Fremont, 1899 
Central or Old High School, 1870 

The first regularly built public schoolhouse in Fremont was oppo- 
site where the Episcopal Church now stands, on Fifth Street. It was 
a long, two room, one story building. This served the town, with no 
additional buildings until 1870, when the "Central School Building" 
was provided. This stood on the west side of the park, next north 
from the Methodist Episcopal Church of today, and was condemned 
and torn down a number of years ago, and the present magnificent 
high school structure was erected. 

In 1877 a $1,500 two story frame building was erected south of the 
railroad, and in 1892 it was removed to Englewood Addition. 

In 1879 a two story four-room brick building was erected on Clark- 
son Avenue, between Third and Fourth streets. This cost $7,000. In 
1888 an addition was made. This building has recently been remodeled 
and repainted so that it does not show its age and is in first-class 
condition. 

In 1882 a four room brick schoolhouse was erected an "K" Street 
between Fifth and Sixth streets. This was known as the West Ward 
School. In 1887 two rooms were added to this building. 

The "North School" was erected in 1883. It was a two story, four- 
room structure, on Union Street, between Tenth and Eleventh. In 



154 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



1888 a one story frame schoolhouse was erected at a cost of $900. 
This was north of the tracks and was used for small scholars. 

Concerning the old high school building — the one used until the 
present one was finished — a writer on the schools in 1892 remarked: 
"The High School building — the pride of the city and the finest in the 
State — was erected in 1889, at a cost of $23,000. It is a magnificent 
two story brick structure, located on a half block of land, between 
Main and "D" streets on Eighth. It is modern in all of its designs. The 
building is divided into nine rooms, exclusive of ample cloak and closet 
rooms. The building is heated by furnaces, well arranged in every 
particular." 

In 1889 the city also built a two story, six-room building on the 
south side of the tracks, on Jensen Street. 




High School, Fremont 



In the spring of 1892 the city voted bonds to the amount of $18,000, 
for the purpose of building two nine thousand dollar buildings — one 
for the northeast part of the place and one for the Nye-Hawthorne 
Addition. 

Very early in the history of schools in Fremont, the women were 
allowed to hold office on the school board and through this many improv- 
ments were made in school affairs. Mrs. M. E. Reynolds' records as 
secretary in 1892, disclose these facts: At that date there were in 
Fremont six brick and two frame buildings used for school purposes; 
the total value of these was $88,000. Total enrollment, 1,700 scholars. 
Thirty-four teachers — all ladies but two. The district then had a debt 
of $50,000. 

The average cost per pupil for the school year was $17.35. The 
superintendent received a salary of $1,500 and female teachers received 
$49 per month. 

Free text books were first used here in 1891. The Board of Educa- 
tion serving in 1892, when the above figures were compiled, was as 
follows: J. W. Harris, president; Thomas Carroll, vice president; 
Mrs. M. E. Reynolds, secretary; Mrs. C. M. Nye, Fred L. Nesbit, 
G. L. Loomis. 

The board at present — 1920 — is as follows: S. S. Sidner, president; 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 155 

D. D. Rowe, vice president ; J. A. Donahue, secretary ; C. H. Christen- 
sen, Elizabeth Forster and Mrs. Catherine Marshall. 

The Present City Schools 

The present city schools in Fremont are as follows : High School, 
Central School, East School, Inglewood School, North School, Nye- 
Hawthorne School, Observation School, Sheldon School, West School, 
West Side School. 

Other Fremont educational institutions are : Midland College, 
St. Patrick's School (Catholic), Trinity Parochial School (Lutheran). 

Present High School Building 

Fremont's present high school building was completed, ready for 
use, in 1915, and its total cost was approximately $175,000. The orig- 
inal contractor after having gone part way with his building operations, 
decided that on account of increase in wages and material that he better 
quit without completing his job and did so after which others completed 
the building. It stands out prominently as one of Nebraska's best, most 
thoroughly modern and expensive structures for high school purposes 
in the commonwealth. 

North Bend Schools 

The first public school in North Bend was taught in the spring of 
1860. It was taught on the west side of the Robert Miller farm, in a 
frame building 12 by 18 feet. It was opened with only nine pupils, and 
Miss Mary Heaton was the first teacher. Her salary was one dollar 
and a quarter per week and her board "thrown in." She was a very 
competent teacher, and today she would have been paid at least twenty 
times as much. Later, this teacher became the wife of J. J. Hawthorne. 

A log building was built a mile or so west of the above mentioned 
building and this served from 1863 to 1866, when a frame house was 
provided on the village plat. This served until the "West School" was 
erected in 1881. It was a two storv, four-room department frame house, 
costing $4,000. 

In 1885 a two story brick schoolhouse was erected at a cost of $9,000. 

In 1892 the total value of all schoolhouses in North Bend was 
$13,000. The enrollment was then 310. For present condition of 
schools see last annual report of' the county superintendent in this 
chapter. 

Scribner Schools 

County Superintendent Henry Wolcott organized the Scribner schools 
March 9, 1876. A building site was bought in October for which $150 
was paid. Prior to that the few children had to attend school at Pebble, 
more than a mile to the southwest. The earliest schoolhouse at Scribner 
was a frame house 26 by 40 feet, to which an addition was made in 
1880. In 1885 it was necessary to make more room and a fine brick 
building was provided at a cost of $7,330. This was the two story, four- 
room building. The present two story school building cost $30,000. 

On account of the terrible scourge of diphtheria in the autumn of 
1887, the Scribner schools were closed more than a month and also 



156 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

several months during the winter of 1887-88. Fourteen pupils died 
during that scourge. With the passing years these schools have kept 
apace with the standards of Dodge County and the state at large. Today 
one finds modern buildings and able instructors — see County Super- 
intendent's latest report in this chapter. 

Among the early teachers in Scribner were these: Mrs. E. B. 
Barrett, Nettie V. Clark, Sadie Neflf, N. F. Livingston, Charles Wine, 
Mrs. A. C. Mulloy, John S. Reynolds, Katie Rochford, Emma Hicks, 
Hattie Hazen, A. B. Smith, G. W. Whitehom, A. Berry, Bell Parker, 
Carrie Rexine, T. B. Kepplinger, W. K. Fowler, Jr., C. G. Ellwanger, 
L. Finnamore, Sadie Showers, F. A. Hye, Mrs. Nellie Royce, Ella 
Cooper, Effie M. Christie, Sadie Ryan, and Emma Wainewright. 

Hooper Schools 

The first scholars living in the Village of Hooper had to walk to a. 
schoolhouse west of town until that building was moved to the village 
plat. In 1881 a brick building was erected, costing $5,000 ; it was 30 by 35 
feet. Four years later it was necessary to make an addition to it, cost- 
ing $4,000. It made a fine looking building and overlooked the beautiful 
valley and village. 

In 1892 a second addition to the high school building was made, 
costing $2,975. For present school facilities see County Superintend- 
ent's 1920 report. 

Other First Schools 

At the village of Nickerson the children were sent to a district school 
one mile to the west of the place until 1883, but that year a school- 
house was built on the plat. This building cost $1,100. The first to 
teach in this village building was Miss Emily Davis, of Fremont. 

At Crowell, a school building was moved into town from the country 
in 1886. It was erected originally in 1873 in section 2. The place now 
has good schools and buildings. 

In Pleasant Valley Township the first schoolhouse was a sod shanty 
made in the spring of 1870. It was covered with slough grass and stood 
in section 33. In it was taught the pioneer term of public school by Miss 
L. A. Miller. In 1871 a frame house was built in section 25 where 
Miss Anna Abbott, daughter of Dr. L. J. Abbott, of Fremont, was the 
teacher. 

See County Superintendent's annual report of schools for 1920 in 
this chapter. 

In Ridgeley Township the first school district was formed in 1871 
and it covered the entire township's territory. Only twelve pupils could 
be found living within the township — but all was legal in those early 
times. A school was taught in 1870 at Fred Fuller's house, with Mary 
Weber as teacher. A frame building was erected that year (1871) in 
section 26, costing $600. Later it was removed to section 21. It is 
always known as the "Little Red Schoolhouse," although later it was 
painted another color. Mrs. E. A. McConnell was the first to teach in 
this building. 

In Union Township the first school was taught in 1860, on the east 
line of the township, an account of which has been given in the North Bend 
schools. With the growth of the township and county the schools here 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



157 



have kept pace with others and are today fully abreast of the others in 
Dodge County — see last report of county superintendent. 

In Webster Township the first school was taught in a sod hovel 
belonging to Andrew Derick, in section 26. In 1872 the first schoolhouse 
was built and the first to teach therein was D. C. Westfall. There are now 
nine schools in the township. 

In the Village of Dodge, at first the people sent their children into 
the rural district to attend school a half fnile ofif of the plat, but the 
following season a building was erected in the village and ever since 
the place has had good schools, well taught and well attended. As early 
as 1891 there were 200 pupils enrolled there. 

In Cuming Township the pioneer school was taught by Mrs. Mary 
E. Parks, in her own house, in 1871. The first school building was 
erected in 1873 in section 28, where Mrs. Augusta Boor taught first. 

Mary Weber taught the first school in Everett Township in 1868, in 
section 34. 

In Maple Township the first school was taught by L. M. Keene, in 
section 10, in a "dug-out," in 1869. A schoolhouse was built in 1871 in 
the center of .section 14 at a cost of $345. 

School Superintendent's Annual Report — 1919 



The following report made July 1, 1919, for the schools in Dodge 
County contained among numerous items these : District number, num- 
ber and kind of schoolhouses, enrollment in districts and total in county, 
number of male and female teachers in county by districts and other 
general information given in totals for the entire County of Dodge. 
Dist. Kind of Enroll- Teachers 

No. Buildings ment Male Female 

1 Seven brick 2,255 5 63 

One frame 54 . . 2 

One frame 32 . . 1 

One frame 58 . . 3 



One frame 
One frame 
One frame 
One brick . 
One frame 
One frame 
One frame 



22 
13 
21 

318 
22 
36 

25 



One frame 41 



One frame 
One frame 
One frame 
One frame 
One frame 



One frame 22 



One brick . 
One frame 
One frame 
One frame 
One frame 
One frame 
One frame 
One brick . 



77 
16 
21 
62 

28 

19 

15 

274 



158 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



Dist. Kind of Enroll- 
No. Buildings ment 

27 One frame 31 

28 One frame 25 

29 One frame 28 

30 One frame 30 

31 One frame 9 

32 One frame 11 

33 One frame 36 

34 One frame 32 

35 One frame 37 

36 One frame 26 

37 One frame 17 

38 One frame 36 

39 One brick 103 

40 34 

41 One frame 11 

42 One frame 25 

43 One frame 9 

44 One frame 24 

45 One frame 27 

46 One brick 138 

47 One frame 26 

48 One frame 25 

49 One frame 115 

50 One frame 14 

51 One frame 34 

52 One frame 23 

53 One frame 31 

54 One frame 23 

55 One frame 20 

56 One frame 26 

57 One frame 18 

58 One frame 12 

59 One frame 29 

60 One frame 34 

61 One frame 28 

62 One brick 222 

63 One frame 22 

64 One frame 29 

65 One frame 25 

66 One frame 19 

67 One frame 23 

68 One frame 23 

69 One frame 17 

70 One frame 27 

72 One frame 23 

73 One frame 19 

74 One frame 9 

75 One frame 8 

76 One frame 12 

77 One frame 11 

78 One frame 17 

79 One frame 34 

80 One frame 17 



Teachers 
Male Female 
1 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 159 



Dist. 
No. 
81 
82 


Kind of 
Buildings 
One frame 


Enroll- 
ment 

18 

15 


Teachers 
Male Female 


83 
84 

8S 


One frame 

One frame 


33 

28 

24 






Totals 


7.350 


13 194 



The total number of males enrolled in county is 3,675 ; number females, 
3,635. The total number of schoolhouses in coimty is ninety-three. Aver- 
age wages paid males is $132.89; paid females, $69.85. Total amount 
expended for all school purposes for last year was $267,882. Paid for 
books and charts, etc., $14,944; for furniture, $1,148. Value of all 
schoolhouses in county, $653,970; for all text-books, $24,520. Value of 
all charts, maps, etc., $16,862. Total indebtedness of county for school 
purposes, $177,679; outstanding bonds, $176,700. 

The Graded Schools of Dodge County 

District No. 1 — Fremont has twelve grades, sixty-seven teachers, 
total enrollment, 1,128; graduates last year (1919), fifteen boys and for- 
ty-five girls. 

District No. 2 — Ames, ten grades, two teachers, twenty-nine 
enrolled ; graduated, three boys and five girls. 

District No. A — Eight grades, two teachers. 

District No. 8 — North Bend, twelve grades, thirteen teachers, 
enrolled, 223 ; five boys and eleven girls graduated. 

District No. 19 — Nickerson, ten grades, three teachers; four boys 
and five girls graduated. 

District No. 22 — Ten grades, two teachers ; three boys and three girls 
graduated. 

District No. 23 — Ten grades, two teachers. 

District No. 26 — Hooper, twelve grades, four teachers, 193 in grades. 
Number of graduates, five boys and twelve girls. 

District No. 39 — Snyder, twelve grades, nine teachers, 104 in grades; 
graduates, three boys and five girls. 

District No. 46— Dodge, twelve grades, five teachers ; three boys and 
five girls graduated. 

District No. 49 — Uehling, twelve grades, five teachers, 101 in grades; 
two boys and three girls graduated. 

District No. 62 — Scribner, twelve grades, nine teachers. 164 in grades; 
six boys and eleven girls graduated. 

Private and Parochial Schools 

Besides the common public schools in the county there are the fol- 
lowing schools : 

The Midland College, Fremont (Lutheran). 

The St. Patrick's parochial (Catholic). Fremont. 

The German Lutheran (parochial), Fremont. 

The St. Venceslaus (Catholic), Dodge. 

The St. Leo's. Snyder. 

The Lutheran parochial. Hooper. 

The Lutheran at Winslow. 



160 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

The Lutheran at Scribner. 

The second one at Scribner of the Lutheran faith. 

The Lutheran at Snyder. 

1920 Wages for Teachers 

Word was given out in the month of August, 1920, that teachers* 

wages in Dodge County had been raised as follows : The average for 

the coming school year is fixed at a little more than $110 per month. 

One man teacher is to receive $135 per month, and one woman will 
receive $130 per month. The lowest wages will be paid to two women, 
who are to receive $80 per month. 

Valuation and Tax Levy of School Districts 

The 1919 assessed valuation and tax levy in the various school 
districts in Dodge County was as follows: 

Dist. Assessed Levy Dist. Assessed Levy 

No. Value Mills No. Value Mills 

1 $2,309,026 43 n $ 67,830 14 

2 118,967 27 38 95,952 13 

3 65,071 20 39 210,497 30 

4 205,683 15 40 89,438 8 

5 68,452 18 41 110,112 8 

6 79,321 8 42 101,251 10 

7 75,383 13 43 85,243 10 

8 378,817 42 44 58,284 21 

9 170,948 4 45 98,104 10 

10 86,889 20 46 276,789 35 

11 180,704 6 47 107,775 8 

12 99,281 28 48 68,883 14 

13 49,963 20 49 146,748 35 

14 104,634 6 50 45,227 16 

15 132,952 6 51 58,453 14 

16 120,775 30 52 74,865 18 

17 82,029 13 53 142,805 15 

18 100,009 10 54 74,079 13 

19 141,623 34 55 58,114 15 

20 87,330 10 56 75,647 16 

21 61,968 14 57 68,619 14 

22 110,162 20 58 55,816 18 

23 96,163 16 59 107.335 6 

24 ■ 66,606 26 ^0 91,832 13 

25 122,842 10 61 55,993 12 

26 262,983 55 ^2 307,966 35 

27 130,333 16 63 140,749 6 

28 77.695 14 64 87,930 18 

29 75,872 14 65 121,717 10 

30 87,733 12 66 98,366 14 

31 53,989 14 67 72,463 16 

32 70,979 12 68 68,900 14 

33 50,614 20 69 . 89,719 16 

34 73,370 14 70 49,190 31 

35 106,043 12 71 (and 27) 

36 45,880 35 72 81,454 13 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 161 

Dist. Assessed Levy Dist. Assessed Levy 

No. Value Mills No. Value Mills 

72, $ 112,636 12 82 $ 79,013 14 

74 53,819 16 83 59,671 13 

75 73,549 10 84 111,009 8 

76 59,690 16 85 82,216 20 

77 51,871 17 Fract. 1 16,221 23 

78 67,664 16 Fract. 2 11,340 28 

79 45,440 27 Burt 49 3,875 16 

80 53,646 22 Colfax 29 .... 2,230 10 

81 65,332 14 Washington 24. 275 54 

The Fremont Business College 

At the corner of Sixth and Main streets, Fremont, June 3, 1889, 
there was established by Prof. T. R. Hamlin a business college wfhich 
grew to be one of much note. The first year the enrollment reached 225 
pupils. The second year it reached 500. One special feature of this 
institution was that pupils were given Greek, Latin and French and the 
common branches for the price of one scholarship. Many a young man 
and woman were here taught commercial law, shorthand, telegraphy, elo- 
cution, penmanship, bookkeeping and a general practical business 
education. 

After a number of years, with changes in the affairs of educational 
matters, and the establishment of other schools throughout the state, this 
institution gave way and ceased to exist as one of the institutions of 
Fremont, many preferring the course given at Professor Clemmons' Nor- 
mal School, noted in this chapter. 

Fremont Normal School and Business Institute 

This high educational institution in Fremont, which occupied the 
buildings and present site of the Midland College, was established in 
1884 by Prof. W. P. Jones, who founded the school and superin- 
tended the construction of the original buildings. He conducted the 
school about three years, when he was overtaken by death, after which 
his widow ran the school another year and in 1888 Prof. William H. 
Clemmons, that most excellent and gifted educator, succeeded to the 
management and full control of the institution. He greatly enlarged the 
buildings, which became a three-story brick structure (as today) 80 by 
132 feet, containing nine recitation rooms, with library and chapel. As 
far back as 1892 twelve Instructors were employed. All the branches 
were taught, but especially the teachers' preparatory course became won- 
derfully popular. In the normal course the study was in preparatory 
course, teachers' course, scientific course, classic course, commercial 
course, music, typewriting, stenography and law. 

The campus, situated in the northeast part of the city, is indeed an 
ideal spot and as the years have come and gone has been greatly 
improved and beautified by trees now well grown, and with ample room 
the land owned by the Midland College today is among the finest places 
in all Nebraska for such an institution as was the "Fremont Normal," 
and which has been transformed into the Midland College, since the 
death of Professor Clemmons in 1918. 

It should be recorded as an historical fact that the Fremont Normal 
was conducted under a local corporation composed of the best business 



162 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

factors in and around Fremont. The directors were in 1891-2 and for 
years later: E. H. Barnard, president; C. Christensen, vice-president; 
Manly Rogers, treasurer ; F. Hammond, secretary ; John Hauser, L. M. 
Keene, J. C. Lee, E. F. Gray, John Knetchel, L. D. Richards, A. Trues- 
dell, George R. Loomis. 

During the year 1890, 800 students attended this school. The found- 
ing and fostering this institution in Fremont by her own citizens was 
but the part of true foresight and great wisdom. 

The Midland College 

The buildings and grounds of the old Normal School and Business 
College at Fremont, mentioned above, were sold to the Midland College 
of Atchison, Kansas, a Lutheran institution, founded in 1887, the date 
of purchasing the Fremont College being September 10, 1919. For many 
years there had been a feeling that the Kansas institution should have 
been located nearer the center of the Luthran population — somewhere 
in the State of Nebraska in place of in Kansas. After the death of Pres- 
ident William H. Clemmons of the Fremont College there was a chance 
to secure a fine college property, which the authorities of the Lutheran 
Synod of the United Lutheran Church in America investigated thor- 
oughly and finally decided to purchase and change the seat of their col- 
lege from Atchison, Kansas, to Fremont, Nebraska. 

This college is under the control of a board of trustees composed of 
twenty-nine men : part are chosen from the city where the institution is 
located, and the remainder from the district synods of Kansas, Nebraska, 
Colorado, Iowa and the Alumni Association. The president of the col- 
lege is ex-officio advisory member. While this college is under the 
direction of a church denomination, it is in no particular narrow or sec- 
tarian. She has among her students those of various denominations 
from all parts of the United States. 

The Western Theological Seminary was established in 1895. At 
first it was a separate institution, but now a part of the college, under 
the direction of the president of the college and board of trustees, and a 
separate faculty. 

The following paragraph is a statement made by the board in its 
first year-book or bulletin after removing from Atchison to Fremont : 

"The buildings and grounds of Midland College are valued at 
$225,000. A campaign for $500,000 for endowment and new buildings 
is now being carried on and (at this writing) more than half of the 
amount has already been secured. The new building program contem- 
plates an administration building, girls' dormitory, boys' dormitory, 
gymnasium, Carnegie library, and a Theological Seminary building. The 
institution is maintained by a liberal annual subsidy from the Board of 
Education of the United Lutheran Church of America, interests from 
endowment, student's fees, and direct gifts from friends of Christian 
education." 

The story of the change from Atchison to Fremont is best told in 
an article in the Fremont Tribune in September, 1919, when the college 
was first opened in Fremont. This is an extract from President E. E. 
Staufifer's article: 

"About a year ago the attention of a number of churchmen was called 
to Fremont, Nebraska, where the Fremont Normal college, a school 
which had been successfully conducted for over thirty years and in 
which thousands of young men and women had been educated and pre- 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 163 

pared for life service, could be obtained at a very reasonable price. This 
school was situated in the very heart of the best part of Nebraska, sur- 
rounded by a constituency which would support the college not only by 
sending their young people, but also by generous financial aid. After 
much negotiation on the part of the Commercial club of Fremont and 
the two Lutheran synods of Nebraska, the board of trustees of Midland 
college was induced to pass a resolution to move Midland from Atchison 
to Fremont, and to purchase the Fremont Normal college, this however 
upon the agreement that Fremont should give $75,000 and that the two 
Nebraska synods should raise at least $300,000 in addition. It was 
readily proven that this amount could be raised and by July 15, 1919, in 
just a little less than four weeks, a sum amounting to $250,000 had been 
subscribed and the campaign was inaugurated to secure $500,000 in 
addition to the liberal contribution of Mr. and Mrs. H. C. Luckey of 
Lincoln, Nebraska, for the endowment of Midland college. On the 
29th day of July, 1919, the board of trustees, in a special meeting held 
in Atchison, Kansas, took the final action which led to the removal of 
Midland college from Atchison to Fremont." 

The Future 

Continuing his article Doctor StaufTer says: "The program which 
has been inaugurated for the further development of this institution 
is a big one and not at all impossible. Already forty acres of land has 
been purchased in addition to the nine and one-half acres already pos- 
sessed upon which to build the larger Midland. The entire program 
which is now under way, is given in another article which appears in 
this issue. Everyone who knows the situation is fully agreed that a new 
day has dawned for Midland College and that the future is bound to 
see this institution one of the largest and the strongest of the schools in 
Nebraska and the Central West. The Church which established this 
institution in Fremont is to be congratulated on its far-seeing vision and 
the wonderful possibilities which will come through the wise adminis- 
tration of its educational afifairs. While Midland college is under the 
auspices of the United Lutheran Church of America, which is composed 
of forty-five district synods all using the English language, with the 
exception of two and these two synods using one other language only 
in part, this is in no wise narrow or sectarian, for young people of all 
faiths are received and the greatest courtesy and fairness is manifested 
in every way. Those in charge are possessed with the conviction that the 
building of character is fundamental and that all good character must be 
founded upon the truths through the teachings of Jesus and that no 
education can be finally of use to the world that is not based upon 
Christian principles." 

Officers of the Board of Trustees 

The 1919-20 officers of the board of trustees are; Louis T. Bang, 
president, Emporia, Kansas ; C. B. Harman, D.D., vice-president, Omaha, 
Nebraska: Rev. Paul Menenoeh, secretary. Eureka, Kansas; Henry C. 
Dahl, treasurer, Fremont, Nebraska. 

Executive Committee 

Louis T. Bang, chairman, Emporia, Kansas: E. E. Stauflfer, D.D., 
secretary, Fremont, Nebraska : Henry Diegel, Atchison, Kansas ; B. D. 
Zimmerman, Atchison, Kansas ; Henry Monke, Fontenelle, Nebraska. 



164 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Of the present faculty it may be said that Ezra Eugene Stauffer, 
D.D., is the president, and Wilber E. Tilberg, A. M., dean. 

During the first year after this institution was removed to Fremont, 
in all departments, there were 697 students enrolled. 

While it is not the province of the historian to speculate on the 
future, but simply record the past and present, it may not be saying too 
much for this college and its new home, to place it in high rank among 
the great educational institutions of the growing west, within another 
score of years, if not in less time. 

History of Fremont College — By Prof. G. H. Mohler 

The extraordinary development of the north central portion of our 
country during the last third of a century has called into existence 
almost innumerable public schools. To instruct in these schools an army 
of teachers is necessary. To meet this condition, training schools have 
been established by public and private enterprise. It is the avowed 
purpose of these schools to be teachers of teachers, that is, to prepare 
persons, both in theory and practice, for the profession of teaching in 
the common and graded schools. 

Such were the conditions which called into existence the Fremont 
Normal College and Business Institute, a short history of which follows : 

In August, 1883. Prof. William P. Jones, of Chicago, having 
learned from the report of the state superintendent of public instruction 
of Nebraska that there was an unusual call for teachers in the common 
and graded schools of the state and that this call could not be met with 
properly trained and competent teachers, determined to found a school 
somewhere within the state, whose aim should be to train young people 
for the responsible position of teaching. 

After much thought and inquiry regarding conditions and the con- 
sideration of the merits of various sections and cities, he decided to 
establish such a school in Fremont, provided sufficient encouragement 
should be shown by the citizens. Accordingly a mass meeting was 
called, the proposition thoroughly canvassed and a hearty co-operation 
of the citizens was assured. Subscription lists met with such liberal 
response that soon enough funds were available to meet the expense for 
the erection of a suitable building. 

The first earth was excavated on May 18, 1884, and the cornerstone 
was laid on July 4, 1884, according to the ritual of the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows. The structure rapidly progressed to completion 
and the school met in its first session and for organization on the morn- 
ing of October 21, 1884. The enrollment for the first day was thirty-six 
students, principally from the city. The attendance gradually increased 
until by the middle of the first year nearly 150 students were enrolled. 
There were at that time but four recitation rooms and the business 
practice room, other rooms in the building being utilized as living rooms 
and for dormitory purposes. The school moved along in steady progress 
until the death of Professor Jones on August 3, 1886. Upon the death 
of Professor Jones the management of the school devolved upon the 
widow, Mrs. Mary E. Jones, who conducted it with varying success until 
May 12, 1888, when the school entire was purchased by Prof. W. H. 
Clemmons. During its entire history, with the exception of a time imme- 
diately preceding the purchase by Professor Clemmons, the college has 
had a steady and healthy growth. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 165 

From an enrollment of thirty-six students, the yearly attendance 
reached from 800 to 1,200, depending upon the time of the year, being 
greatest during the summer and winter seasons. 

At first there were but four regular recitation rooms, and the faculty 
consisted of only four members, but as the attendance increased other 
recitation rooms were provided and the faculty increased by the addition 
of new members as necessity dictated. 

At first the name of the school was the Fremont Normal School and 
Business College. About the year 1900 the courses of study were 
increased, regular schedules were provided and degrees conferred upon 
graduates from the higher courses of study. At this time the name of 
the school was changed to Fremont College and Business Institute. The 
college, however, still maintained the preparatory departments, but laid 
particular stress upon the regular higher graduating courses. 

The school continued to prosper in attendance and enthusiasm until 
about the period of the European war. when, in common with other 
educational institutions of the country, the student body was materially 
reduced. This together with the establishment of a number of other 
schools in the state had a very marked effect upon the attendance, 
although the college continued to maintain the regular courses of study 
and schedules of classes. 

Since its founding, the college has suffered several severe misfor- 
tunes from fire. On October 14, 1907, practically the entire main build- 
ing was destroyed by fire. The fire started at the highest point upon the 
roof at the noon hour, and as the roof was of shingles, spread rapidly 
over the entire building. The city fire department was hampered by 
defective apparatus and the building continued to burn until night, when 
there was nothing remaining but the bare hot walls and portions of the 
lower floor. Such a catastrophe would have completely discouraged most 
men, but President Clemmons and the faculty kept the student body 
together and the regular classes were called the next morning in impro- 
vised quarters. A large tent upon the campus was utilized for classes as 
was a portion of the dining hall. Some of the classes were held upon the 
lower floor of the burned building, with only the blue sky overhead. 
Beside the loss on the main building, much of the furnishings was 
destroyed. As the fire started immediately above the main exit, very 
little of the furniture and laboratory equipment was saved, which was 
a very serious obstacle to the work of the school for some time. 

The insurance, while entirely inadequate to reconstruct the building, 
provided a nucleus toward a building fund, and the reconstruction was 
at once begun. Before Christmas most of the class rooms were ready 
for use and school was progressing in spite of the noise of the carpen- 
ters' hammers. The reconstructed building is much better in arrange- 
ment and construction than formerly, having new furnishings and new 
floors, with a tile roof on the entire building. 

On the night of February 7, 1916. practically the entire west dor- 
mitory, half a block in length and two stories in height, was destroyed 
by fire. This fire started at the middle of the building at about midnight. 
As the weather was very cold the efforts of the fire department were 
handicapped by snow and ice. The building continued to burn for the 
remainder of the night, and nothing was left of the long main hall and 
the south wing, of almost equal size, but the bare walls. Beside the loss 
on the building, the students occupying the rooms lost the greater portion 
of their belongings. Again was the heavy hand of financial loss laid 
upon the institution, and again the insurance carried was not sufficient 



166 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

to reconstruct the building. However, with his usual energy President 
Clemmons began the work of clearing away the debris and during the 
remainder of his ownership of the school partially rebuilt the destroyed 
portion of the structure. 

In 1916 President Clemmons was elected state superintendent of 
public instruction of Nebraska and upon his removal to Lincoln, the 
management of the college was largely delegated to his wife. 

Mrs. Clemmons took up the work with much energy and skill and 
managed the affairs, both financially and scholastically, with marked 
success, carrying the institution through a very critical period of its 
history. 

While yet state superintendent, President Clemmons suffered a 
severe decline in health, making it impossible for him to give proper 
attention to his office, and to the affairs of the college. As the entire 
charge of the institution was too great a burden for Mrs. Clemmons, it 
was though best to turn the management of the college over to some 
competent and practical head that the work so well begun might be 
continued and that even a greater work might be accomplished in the 
future than had been done in the past. 

It became known that Midland College, of Atchison, Kansas, the 
principal educational institution of the United Lutheran Church in 
America, was considering removing to some locality which would be 
more central to its constituency and therefore more able to serve its 
membership both in furnishing a college for the education of young 
men and women along scholastic and religious lines, but also to educate 
and train young men for the ministry. 

Acting upon this information, some of the leading citizens of Fremont 
began a correspondence with the authorities of Midland. Having met 
with some encouragement in the matter, a committee visited Atchison 
for a personal consultation with the authorities of Midland. After due 
consideration by both parties and the exchange of visits of committees to 
Atchison and Fremont, it was finally decided by the board of directors 
of Midland College to accept the very generous offer made by Fremont 
to remove Midland College from Atchison and take over Fremont 
College, merging both institutions under the name of Midland College 
and Western Theological Seminary. 

The final arrangements were completed on July 29, 1919, and the new 
management assumed control on August 15, 1919. 

The formal opening of the new Midland College took place on 
September 10, 1919, under highly gratifying circumstances. This was 
a memorable day in the history of the two schools. A great gathering 
of former students and friends of both the old schools were present, 
together with many men and women notable in education and church 
affairs. The principal speakers upon this occasion were President Stauf- 
fer, Dr. O. D. Baltzly of Omaha, Hon. S. R. McKelvie, governor of 
Nebraska, several leading citizens of Fremont and others high in educa- 
tional and church circles. Many students of the former Fremont College, 
together with several members of the faculty, merged into the new col- 
lege with the happy belief that a great educational institution had been 
opened at Fremont, capable of doing a work both in popular education 
and in religious training, which will make it one of the notable educa- 
tional institutions of the country. 

Under the wise supervision and guidance of its worthy president, 
Dr. Ezra E. Stauffer, the wisdom of the board of directors and the hearty 
co-operation of the citizens of Fremont and all friends of Christian 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 167 

education, the upbuilding and permanent success of Midland College is 
assured. 

The school is steadily growing in reputation and popularity. It 
maintains a faculty of thirty-one members, all departments are strong 
and well equipped for meeting all calls for service within the scope of 
its curriculum. 



CHAPTER XVII 

MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS 

Dodge County Postoffices — Market Prices — Past and Present — 
Population of County — Original Village Plats — Early Mar- 
riages — Grasshopper Plague — Elkhorn Flood of 1873 — Old 
Settlers' Association — Days of Mourning — President Garfield's 
Death — President Grant's Death — President McKinlev^s 
Death — Hymn to Nebraska by Rev. W. H. Buss. 

Postoffices in County 

Dodge County postoffices in 1893 were listed as follows: Fremont, 
North Bend, Scribner (Cuming Township) ; Hooper, Nickerson, Snyder, 
Dodge, Swaburgh (Logan Township); Jamestown (Platte Township); 
Mapleville (Cotterell Township) ; Ridgeley, Webster (Ridgeley Town- 
ship) ; Pleasant Valley, Bang (Maple Township) ; Maple Creek (Cot- 
terell Township) ; Everett, Ames (Platte Township) ; Purple Cane, 
(Union Township) ; Glencoe (Webster Township) ; Crowell (Pebble 
Township). 

The adopting of the rural mail delivery by free carriers has mate- 
rially changed the postal affairs of this as well as other counties. 

The present (1920) postoffices in Dodge County are as follows: 

Ames, Crowell, Dodge, Fremont, Hooper, Nickerson, North Bend, 
Scribner, Snyder, Uehling, Winslow. 

Market Prices — Past and Present 

The local history of no county or state would be considered complete 
without it contained the ruling market quotations at various periods in 
the history of such a locality. The following paragraphs will show the 
prices that obtained at Fremont in 1869 and in 1892, as published from 
time to time in the Fremont Tribune, and were furnished that paper by 
local dealers: will also show the present (1920) prevailing prices which 
should be considered as "just after the great World war" : 

1869 1892 1920 

Best white sugar, per lb $ 0.20 $0.04@$0.05 $0.25@$0.30 

Best green tea, per lb 1.50 .70 1.00 

Common coffee, per lb .40 .20 .50 

Kerosene oil, per gal .40 .15 .22 

Nails (cut), per lb 10 (cut) .03 (wire) .07 

Stovepipe, per joint .30 .15 .30 

Domestics, per yard (common) 18 .08 .45 

Prints, per yard (best) 11 .06 .32 

Seamless grain sacks, each .50 .23 .90 

Wheat, per bu 70 .50 2.89 

Corn, per bu 50 .30 1.67 

Salt meats, per lb 23 .10 .42 

Farm wagons, each 100.00 60.00 125.00 

Harvesters, each 225.00 160.00 300.00 

Sewing machines, each 85.00 45.00 80.00 

168 
/ 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 169 

Live stock, produce, shoes and clothing — from cotton or wool — have 
gone very high since 1917 when America united with the allies in the war 
against the German states. At present summer of 1920, two years after 
the end of the war, these prices obtain, generally in the Middle West: 
Hogs, $16; cattle, $13.25; draft horses, $250 each; gasoline, 28c; eggs, 
per dozen, fresh, 35c ; creamery butter, 72c per pound ; men's suits, $30 
to $75; men's shoes, $5 to $15; ladies' shoes, about the same. It is not 
now believed that present prevailing prices on many of these articles will 
soon, if indeed ever, go much lower. Especially produce here named. 

From a history of the Elkhorn Valley published in 1892 the subject 
of prices was then handled after this fashion, and may well be applied to 
the present generation : 

"The pioneer who with failing eyesight and who may chance to read 
this item will recall other days, early scenes. He will let memory assert 
itself and go back to from 1856 to 1866. He will remember how glad his 
family were to get wheat bread, New Orleans molasses, the old-time wet 
brown sugar, the tallow candle, in place of kerosene oil — that was undis- 
covered until 1861. Then again as he reflects there comes to his mind 
those dark and trying days of the Civil war when 'substitutes' were used 
at home as well as sent to the field. There was barley, carrot, pea and 
parched bran all of which the family used as substitute for coffee while 
various leaves including those from the red-root were used as the substi- 
tute for tea. Indeed the present generation ought to rejoice and be glad 
that they live in a land of peace and plenty and are not subject to such 
great hardships as were experienced by those who first came here to make 
for themselves a home." 

Population of Dodge County 

At various periods the population of Dodge County has been as 
follows : 

In 1844 it had 106 In 1854 it had 139 

In 1856 it had 313 In 1860 it had 309 

In 1870 it had 4,212 In 1880 it had 11.191 

In 1890 it had .19.260 

According to the census reports in 1870 the population was divided 
as to nationality thus : American-born, 2,556, and foreign-born, 1,656. 

Thirty years ago, or in 1890, the United States census reports gave the 
following concerning the population of the cities, villages and townships 
of Dodge County : 

Fremont (city) 6,741 North Bend (town) 897 

Dodge (village) 338 Scribner (village) 664 

Hooper (village) 670 

Townships 

Cotterell 701 Pebble 871 

Cuming 715 Pleasant Valley 815 

Elkhorn 412 Platte 741 

Everett 680 Ridgeley 807 

Hooper 569 Union 660 

Logan 673 Webster 889 

Maple 778 

Nickerson 633 Total of county 19,254 



170 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Population 1900-1910 

As given in the official census reports of the United States for the 
census periods of 1900 and 1910 the figures are these : 

1900 1910 

Cotterell Township 1,194 831 

Cuming Township, including Scribner (village) 1,514 1,488 

Scribner (village) 891 827 

Elkhorn Township 513 442 

Everett Township 612 546 

Fremont City 7,241 8,781 

Hooper Township, Including Hooper and Winslow 

(villages) 1,439 1,496 

Hooper (village) 840 741 

Winslow (village) 99 

Logan Township, including Uehling (village) 621 857 

Uehling (village) 228 

Maple Township 1,409 606 

Nickerson Township 717 637 

North Bend (city) 1,010 1,105 

Pebble Township, including Snyder 973 990 ■ 

Snyder (village) 229 314 

Platte Township 1,358 1,134 

Pleasant Valley Township 734 646 

Ridgeley Township 847 675 

Union Township 723 632 

Webster Township, including Village of Dodge 1,393 1,342 

Dodge (village) 554 661 

The 1920 census is not yet reported. 

Original Village Plats 

The original village plattings in Dodge County, according to the plat- 
book records at the courthouse, are as follows : 

Fremont was originally platted in the summer of 1856 and filed for 
record January 6, 1857, by the Fremont Town Lot Company, James G. 
Smith acting for such company. The Government had not as yet sur- 
veyed the land in this vicinity at that date, hence in platting the surveyor 
described the location as being so many rods and chains, from the 
guide-line, or to a point to the south which had been surveyed. The 
Military Road which runs east and west through the city was not sur- 
veyed true, and the original platting of Fremont conformed to that, 
consequently the streets and alleys of the present city are not square 
with the compass by a few degrees. As now surveyed and described, the 
city stands on sections 22 and 23, township 17, range 8, east of the sixth 
principal meridian. 

Hooper was platted by John I. Blair, February 15, 1871. It is located 
on the east half of section 17, and the northeast quarter of section 20, 
township 19, range 8. 

North Bend was platted October 12, 1867, by S. S. Caldwell, M. S. 
Cotterell and the Union Pacific Railroad Company in sections 6 and 7, 
of township 17, range 6. 

Scribner was platted December 6, 1870, by John I. Blair, on the 
north half of section 31, township 20, range 7. 

Pebble was platted September 19, 1870, by J. B. and H. J. Robinson 
and their wives. It is located in section 36, township 20, range 6. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 171 

Dodge was platted August 10, 1886, by the Western Town Lot Com- 
pany, in the west half of section 8, township 20, range 5. 

Snyder was platted August 5, 1886, by the Western Town Lot Com- 
pany in the southwest quarter of section 18, township 20, range 6. 

NiCKERSON was platted by John I. Blair, January 13, 1871, on the 
northeast quarter of section 13, township 18, range 8. 

Crowell was platted or filed for record, December 22, 1883, by the 
Elkhorn Land and Town Lot Company. It was surveyed and located in 
the southwest quarter of section 2, and the north half of section 11, 
township 20. range 6. 

Uehling was platted December 6, 1895, by Theodore Uehling and 
Frank B. Hutchens, in section 3, township 20, range 9, east. 

WiNSLOW was platted by the Sioux City and Ashland Development 
Company, in section 22, township 19, range 8, east, December 1, 1895. 

Ames was platted (second time) December 18, 1913, by N. J. John- 
son and Albert D. Graham and wife. Location, section 9, township 23. 

Early Marriages 

The earliest marriages in Dodge County included the following list: 
William N. Whittier and Miss Enmia Strickland, both of Fontanelle, 
were granted licenses to be married by Judge S. I. Frances, Octo- 
ber 6, 1856. 

J. W. Pattison and Miss Henrietta Rednour, October 30, 1856, both 
of Fontanelle. 

F. W. Fox and Harriet Whittier. November 30, 1856. 

William Mosepage and Minna Dittmar, November 13, 1856. 

Harlow J. Carpenter and Ellen G. Griffin, March 9, 1857, were 
united in marriage by Rev. Elder M. M. Hann. 

Seth A. Holton and Miss Elizabeth Roe, both of Fontanelle, obtained 
license of Probate Judge Samuel Strickland, and were married by Reuben 
Gaylord, a minister of the Gospel. 

Henrv Brinkman and Hannah Stork were married November 7, 
1857, by' Rev. Thomas Waller. 

Theodore F. Keep, of Fontanelle, and Miss Caroline Davis, January 
4, 1858. 

Abram I. Warner and Miss Lucinda Whitford, before Judge Strick- 
land, October 23, 1858. 

Luther Wilson and Eliza W. Turner, by Rev. Isaac E. Heaton, 
August 23, 1858. 

Timothy L. Felton and Miss Mary Bogan, before Samuel Strick- 
land, probate judge, September 20, 1858. 

Jerome Spillman and Estabella C. Hancock, May 14, 1859. 

George Hindey and Miss Rachel Denslow, united by Rev. J. M. 
Taggart, May 17, 1859. 

William E. Larkin and Rebecca Ann Keeler, by Rev. Isaac E. 
Heaton, July 16, 1859. 

John W. Waterman and Elizabeth R. Graham, July 27, 1859. 

George Young and Miss Elizabeth Stoss, July 23, 1859, by Rev. 
Isaac E. Heaton. 

The Grasshopper Plague 

The years between 1873 and 1878 were dark, hard years for the 
settlers in Nebraska and Western Iowa, on account of the grasshoppers, 
which came down in vast armies, even like the stars of heaven or sands 



172 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

on the sea-shore, innumerable. They destroyed all kinds of vegetation. 
This occurred not alone one season, but for four or more in succession. 
No one but he who has gone through a like experience can begin to know 
the feelings of the husbandmen whose crops bid fair to yield a bounti- 
ful harvest, and then within three days have all in ruins. There were 
debts to meet, the good wife and children to care for and clothe during 
a long, cold winter and no bank account to draw on. Indeed those 
were days that tried men's souls. 

A citizen writing to an eastern friend said: "This summer (1874) 
is the hottest I ever experienced. For three weeks the thermometer 
registered from 90 to 106 degrees. A strong south wind has been con- 
stantly blowing. It has hurt our wheat badly — part of my own is 
burned up — Saturday, August 11, grasshoppers began to drop down. 
They are now in seven counties and more to hear from. When they 
first came, man or beast could not travel. The air was filled with 
them and it gave the appearance of a great snow storm with a heavy 
wind; they covered everything on the ground, buildings, fences and 
all. Such a sight I never wish to behold again. Turkeys and chickens 
had no use for them and retired in seeming disgust. Think of them 
commencing at ten in the morning and constantly coming until night- 
fall. Just above me is a side track on the railway line and in the after- 
noon they wanted to switch some cars but were foiled in the attempt 
as the grasshoppers covered the ties and rails in such masses that 
they caused the wheels to slip instead of roll on the rails. This is 
no fancy picture but can be vouched for and proven. 

"You can't kill the infernal cusses. I took two and held them under 
water ten minutes and when I released them they were spry as ever. 
These I send in my letter I pinched the heads off of as you can see. 
You can't kill them by stepping on them. I hope these will have 
a good time on their -way to New York and may they die on the journey 
for I assure you they are not dead yet ! One I pinched Sabbath last 
and I see he still kicks defiantly! I also send you the tail of a rattle 
snake and if you like them I will send you a whole one in my next 
letter." 

In 1875 the farmers had been so badly eaten out by the grass- 
hoppers that they could not procure seed grain. They had paid, a 
number of years, as high as sixty per cent interest on money to pur- 
chase seed with. That extortion was bad as the "hoppergrass" was 
himself and yet of selfish human origin. Hon. George W. E. Dorsey, 
later Congressman, came to the front and advertised to lend needy 
farmers money in all amounting to five thousand dollars, at 10 per cent 
which at that date in Nebraska was but half value of general interest. 

Elkhorn River Flood of 1873 

There had been no record of higher water in the Elkhorn River 
than was seen in the flood of 1873. It was in the month of June, when 
the water spread from bluff to bluff. Large quantities of stock and 
"buildings were floated off down stream many miles from where they 
had been erected or kept. Growing crops were materially injured 
and many of the settlers had to seek refuge in second stories of houses. 
No damages were sustained by bridges in Dodge County but in Cuming 
the loss was great. 

Sunday, June 8, 1873, a Union Pacific express train from Omaha 
while crossing the Elkhorn bridge met with an accident. The tender, 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 173 

engine and a car load of living fish in transit west, fell through the 
approach to the bridge caused by the washout. The engineer and 
firemen escaped but road master Carey was drowned. 

Old Settlers' Associations 

To a true and intelligent pioneer there are few if any gatherings 
of more real interest than that of old settlers' reunions. Every county 
has at one date or another organized such societies, but alas how few 
keep them up from year to year, continuously. 

In 1889 such a society or association was organized in Dodge 
County and its first meeting was held at North Bend, July 4, that year. 
Fully five thousand persons were in attendance. The acting presi- 
dent was George Young, a pioneer of pioneers. He stated that the 
first Fourth of July celebration in this county was celebrated in 1856 
by the little colony who had arrived from the East on that very morning 
in their "prairie schooners" and celebrated the day by the side of their 
wagons, without flag or fire-crackers. 

The regular set speech of the first old settlers' reunion above 
mentioned in 1889 was made by a Methodist preacher named Brooks. 
H. P. Beebe also gave a graphic description of his experiences during 
the winter of 1856-57. 

A most excellent glee club was composed of the following : Mrs. Lee, 
Mrs. Doubrave, Mr. and Mrs. Dowling, Mr. Flater, Elmer Davis, 
Doctor Brown, Miss Gertie Rice, with Mrs. C. O. Armstead as organist 
rendering "Oh, Hail ye Free." 

J. H. Graham and Robert Kittle as well as M. S. Cotterell gave 
addresses causing merry shouts and others brought many a tear to 
the cheek. 

The first officers of this Old Settlers' Association were these: W. H. 
Ely, president; George Young, first vice president; J. H. Peters, second 
vice president; J. B. Robinson, third vice president; Eli Hager, fourth 
vice president; Robert Kittle, secretary; L. J. Abbott, recorder; Henry 
P. Beebe, treasurer; Chaplain, Rev. Isaac E. Heaton. 

The following was one of the important articles in their constitu- 
tion (No. 3). "Residence prior to February 1, 1867, or for twenty- 
five consecutive years in Dodge County, the payment of fifty cents 
to the association and subscribing to this Constitution shall constitute 
any person, their wives, husbands and descendants, members of this 
association." 

Among other meetings of this association may be recalled the ones 
held at the park in Fremont in June, 1890; also one held in 1891 at 
the Village of Hooper. Since these annual re-unions the association 
has not prospered, in fact has entirely gone down and it is to be 
regretted. 

The Nebraska Prize Hymn 

Composed by a Dodge County author for the semi-centennial of 
the State, in competition with volunteer writers throughout the State. 

Now sing NEBRASKA through the years; 
Extol her stalwart pioneers; 
The days, when staunch and unafraid. 
The State's foundations well they laid, 
To long endure: 



174 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Yea, sing the proud Tree-planter State, 
Nebraska, free, enlightened, great! 
Her royal place she has in Song; 
To her the noblest strains belong, 
Her fame is sure! 

The land where Coronado trod. 
And brave Marquette surveyed the sod; 
Where red men long in council sat. 
Where spreads the valley of the Platte 

Surpassed by none ; 
The land, beside whose borders sweep 
The big Missouri's water deep — 
Whose course erratic, through its sands, 
From Northland on, through many lands 

Does sea-ward run. 

The foothills of the Rockies lie 
Afar athwart her western sky; 
And rolling prairies, like the sea. 
Held long in virgin sanctity 

Her fertile loam. 
Her wild-life roamed o'er treeless plains 
Till came the toiling wagon-trains, 
And settlers bold, far westward bound, 
In broad Nebraska's valleys found 

Their chosen home. 

Her heaving blufifs uplift their heads 
Along her winding river-beds. 
And, pleasing far the traveler's view. 
Well guard her Elkhorn, and her Blue, 

Encrowned with wood. 
And there, by landmark, ne'er to fail, 
Upon her ancient westward trail ; 
Or graven stone, securely placed. 
By eyes observant may be traced 

Where wigwams stood. 

Her honored cities grow in wealth, 
In thriving commerce, public health ; 
Her first : "The Gateway of the West :" 
Her Omaha that will not rest. 

Or take defeat. 
Her Capital of worthy fame 
That bears the mighty Lincoln's name, 
And summons to her Fount of Truth 
Her thousands of Nebraska youth 

At Learning's Seat. 

Far o'er her realm, and 'neath her sky 
Her golden harvests richly lie. 
Her corn more vast than Egypt yields; 
Her grain unmatched in other fields; 
Her flocks and herds; 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 175 

Her fields alfalfan; winding streams; 
Her sunsets thrilling poets' dreams — 
These all we sing, and know that Time 
Has never sung a fairer clime, 
In mortal words. 

O proud Nebraska, brave and free — ■ 
Thus sing thy populace to thee ; 
Thy virile strength: thy love of light; 
Thy civic glory joined with right; 

Our hearts elate. 
Thy manly wisdom, firm to rule, 
Thy womanhood in church and school ; 
Thy learning, culture, art, and peace. 
To make thee strong, and ne'er shall cease 

To keep thee great! 

Days of Mourning in the County 

Upon the sad occasion of the death of Presidents Lincoln, Garfield, 
Grant and McKinley, at various places in Dodge County, appropriate 
memorial services were held. To show the spirit of sorrow that was 
manifested throughout the county it is well to note some of the partic- 
ulars concerning such memorial services held in the county seat — 
Fremont : 

Death of President Lincoln 

In April, 1865, upon the news of President Lincoln's assassination 
the citizens of Fremont (then a mere hamlet) gathered in a memorial 
service at the old Congregational Church. Reverend Heaton was then 
pastor and probably delivered the address. There is perhaps only one 
person living in Fremont at this time who was present on that mourn- 
ful day. From such an one it is learned that some returned soldiers were 
present in uniforms and "stacked" their guns inside the church during 
services. A gloom settled over the little county seat town over this 
event. 

Death of President Garfield 

Sixteen years after Lincoln's assassination, the people of the City 
of Fremont were assembled in memorial services over the lamented 
President James A. Garfield, who fell at the hands of an assassin 
July 2, 1881, and died, September 19, the same year. These sad services 
were held in the old Crosby Opera House on Fifth near Main Street. 
It was filled to overflowing. The designs and general decorations were 
of the most befitting character. Capt. James Murray (then county 
judge) and county school superintendent H. G. Wolcott were chief 
speakers. One represented the democratic party while the other repre- 
sented the republican party. They were both old Civil war veterans. 
The usual music was provided for the mournful occasion and the 
Grand Army appeared in a body. 

In each of these memorial services the citizens of F"remont and sur- 
rounding country manifested much grief and hoped that they would 
never be called upon to go through another like sorrow, but alas, not 
so! McKinley was slain just twenty years later. But chronologically 
the passing of General Grant should first be mentioned. 



176 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Death of President U. S. Grant 

While the people of the larger cities all over the country were in 
deep mourning over the death of the great soldier-statesman, Fremont 
people were more than willing to join in appropriate union services. 
These services were held in the city park (the time being the month 
of August, 1885) at 2 o'clock P. M. Before that hour arrived the fire 
and church bells of the city began tolling and with other evidences of 
mourning on all sides, it was plain that the hearts of the people ot 
Fremont were heavy with grief. 

McPherson Post Grand Army of the Republic and Company "E" 
Fremont National Guards, the latter headed by the cornet band, 
marched to the park in uniform. More than one thousand people 
were assembled on, and near the speakers' stand and others stood beneath 
the cooling shade of the trees. Indeed it was an impressive sight. The 
stand with its somber drapings and the flag waving in graceful folds 
above, with wreathes, and crosses and harps of beautiful flowers, all 
bespoke of the love the citizens of the community bore for the dead 
hero of many Civil war battles. Peering through the trees, a dark 
cloud mantle was seen across the sky, while the cool breeze stirred the 
leaves as they breathed a sad requiem for the great soldier whose 
body was at that very hour being lowered to the silent tomb by the 
far distant sea. 

The program of this memorial was replete with interest. Rev. John 
Hewitt was master of ceremonies. The Fremont Cornet Band opened 
with a solemn dirge, followed by the invocation by Rev. John G. Lange, 
of the Congregational Church. Then came a hymn "His Last Battle," 
sung by twelve male voices. Prayer was oflfered by Reverend Blose 
of the Presbyterian Church; a hymn "Weep for the Brave." The 
address of the day was delivered by Reverend Lawrence, who spoke 
tenderly in making his impressive tribute to the life and character of 
Gen. U. S. Grant. 

The decorations were truly beautiful in design. The sides of the 
platform and the adjacent trees were festooned with black and white 
cambric, bouquets of bright flowers ornamenting the loops. In front 
were pictures of Grant, Lincoln and Garfield, all heavily draped with 
black. There were here and there crowns, harps, hearts and crosses 
made of lovely flowers. The speaker's stand was in jet black, sur- 
mounted with a bank of flowers, bordered with fragrant leaves and a 
line of scarlet geraniums at the top and bottom, amid a solid center 
of feverfew and the word "GRANT" brought out in blue ageratum. 
Above and back of all was the national flag drooping in graceful folds. 

Death of President McKinley 

Lincoln. Garfield, Grant — then the nation mourned the death of 
President William McKinley, in the autumn days of 1901. For many 
days the whole people of the Republic were inquiring after the condi- 
tion of their beloved executive, after he had been shot while attending 
the Exposition at Buffalo, New York. His name was in everyone's 
mind, for he was a beloved man, stricken down by an assassin in days 
of supreme peace and prosperity. Finally the end came and "The 
President is dead" flashed from ocean to ocean and from lake to gulf. 

A few days after his death, and as his funeral was being held in 
Canton, Ohio, every place of note in the Union held its memorial 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 177 

services. In Fremont, as is shown by the newspaper files of that 
date, services were held at the various churches on Sunday. Special 
memorials were held at the First Methodist Episcopal, the First Congre- 
gational and the Episcopal Church, where eloquent sermons were deliv- 
ered by the pastors. At the other churches fervent prayers were 
ofifered up to the Most High, asking for guidance of the new ruler of 
the nation's affairs. 

At the Congregational Church beautiful decorations together with 
a large portrait of President McKinley were very impressive. His 
last words were handsomely inscribed in white lettering upon a black 
card just above the likeness. The audience was made up of all classes, 
and professions and business callings. Members of the choir sang: 
"Lead Kindly Light," "One Sweetly Solemn Thought," and "Nearer 
M}' God to Thee." 

Rev. William H. Buss, pastor, took for his text the words of Second 
Samuel 1:19 — "The beauty of Israel is slain upon Thy high places: 
how are the mighty fallen !" Among the many touching tributes paid 
the departed President by Reverend Buss were the following paragraphs : 

"Immortal is the scene of McKinley's death-bed — no fear there. 
No fretting at God's will. No cry for vengeance. But the quiet of 
the spirit self-committed to the hands of the Almighty. A smile of 
deathless love for the weeping wife. A pressure of the dying hand. 
A faint singing, as of the very soul anticipating its reward and saying: 
'Nearer My God to Thee, Nearer to Thee.' A lapsing into uncon- 
sciousness, and then after another waking the last farewell, that might 
well break and yet comfort the hearts of eighty million people he so 
loved ; 'Good-by all, good-by ! It is God's way ; Thy will be done !' 

"Ah, friends, here is the end of the Christian, and that end is peace." 

At the First Methodist Episcopal Church in Fremont, Rev. F. H. 
Sanderson spoke eloquently from Second Samuel, 3 :38. He delineated 
the career of McKinley from his noble youth to the time he was slain 
by the hand of an assasin. He spoke of him as a boy, as a soldier, 
as a statesman. Continuing in his discourse, the speaker said he "earned 
his fame not alone by things written and said but by the arduous great- 
ness of things done. His personality was more eloquent than tongue, 
more commanding than pen. Measure his character in what we may, 
it stands in pre-eminent greatness." 

At St. James' Episcopal Church in Fremont, on that memorable 
Sabbath, the Rev. H. B. Jefferson, rector, delivered an impressive 
address. He spoke from St. Mark, 4:24 — "Take heed what ye hear." 
This was a discourse filled with appropriate remarks and especially 
that part touching on parents. He warned the parents present to care 
well for their children and not allow them to degenerate from liberty 
to license, but to keep them at home and give them careful training. 

The services held in Fremont and other parts of the county on the 
occasion of the death of the lamented and universally beloved William 
McKinley will long be remembered by all who heard the above men- 
tioned addresses. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

VARIOUS CHURCHES IN DODGE COUNTY 

First Churches in Dodge County — The Congregational Denomi- 
nation — Methodist Churches of the County — Free Methodist 
Churches — United Presbyterian — Presbyterian Churches — 
Baptist Churches — Lutheran Churches — Various Branches — 
Catholic Churches — Christian Church — Adventist Church. 

It can be truly said that the religious element has always predom- 
inated in Dodge County. This is not to be understood that all pioneers 
and those who settled here at a later date, were Christians or church 
members, for many were not, but a majority of them were of some one 
of the many religious denominations, owing to nationality and location 
from which they emigrated. The Catholics were early in the field, 
and the Protestant churches were well represented by those who came 
in from some one of the New England states, or possibly from the 
Middle and Southern states. The Methodists, here as everyhere, were 
among the pioneer band; also the Congregationalists, from York State 
and New England. 

As soon as the various communities had built for themselves such 
buildings as were needed for residences and stables, they at once com- 
menced to cast about and agitate the matter of building schoolhouses 
and churches. Frequently the schoolhouses, though of logs, were built 
with the view of using the building for both school and church services. 

The sturdy pioneer who came in from the East, having crossed the 
two great rivers — Mississippi, and Missouri — had left homes where 
the sound of the church-going bell still echoed in their ears, though 
here they had settled on a trackless prairie, far removed from chapel 
or church. They had been reared under religious influences and wanted 
to raise their sons and daughters in the faith of their fathers, hence 
assisted in providing convenient church edifices, when possible to do so. 

First Church in County 

The distinction of having organized the first church in Dodge County 
must be credited to the First Congregational Church of Fremont. It 
was organized August 7, 1857, with seven members. From this small 
beginning it has grown to a strong active church of five hundred mem- 
bers, forty of which number are now absent members. This church 
was formed by Rev. Isaac E. Heaton, and seven persons as follows: 
Edward H. Barnard, William R. Davis, Nathan Heaton, Isaac E. 
Heaton, Mrs. Miranda N. Heaton, Mrs. Alice Marvin and Henry A. 
Pierce. Mr. Davis soon returned to his former home in Wisconsin 
and Father Nathan Heaton died the following October, so the good 
minister and wife, with three charter members, commenced in reality 
to build up the interests of the church — the first within Dodge County 
of any denomination. Rev. Isaac Heaton served as pastor twelve years 
during which he increased the membership to fifty. In the spring of 
1869, Rev. Isaac Heaton resigned and in October that year. Rev. J. B. 
Chase was called and served two years. Following is a list of other 
178 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 179 

pastors: Rev. Roswell Foster, three years, during whose pastorate 
the church edifice was enlarged; Rev. George Porter, one year; Rev. 
A. T. Swing, in 1878 a pastorate continuing eight years ; and Rev. F. L. 
Berry, who served two years. Rev. William H. Buss followed with a 
pastorate of nearly twelve years and was succeeded by Rev. John 
Doane whose service was of three years. He was succeeded by Rev. 
William H. Buss who conducted a second pastorate of twelve years 
resigning in 1918. The next minister was Rev. O. O. Smith who began 
September 1, 1918. 




First Parsonage in Nebraska 

The first few years after the organization of this church, services 
were held in a small frame building later incorporated into a resi- 
dence still standing at the corner of Eighth and C streets. An outline 
of the various places where services have been held by this church is 
as follows : While the above building was being used and in 1860, 
material was gathered for a church building. This was all destroyed 
by fire. Soon after (probably 1861), a small unfurnished dwelling 
was used for a church and continued to be used for a number of 
years. In 1868 a frame church was erected, its size was 28 by 40 feet. 
In this building's tower was placed the first church bell. In 1874 this 
church was enlarged, under pastorate of Rev. Roswell Foster. About 
1880, the building was again enlarged under Pastor Swing, and during 
his pastorate a thousand dollar pipe organ was placed in the church. 

In 1885 the present beautiful brick church was erected at a cost 
of $25,000 and the pipe organ formerly in the old frame building was 
transferred to the new edifice. In 1907, under the pastorate of Rev. 



180 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

William H. Buss, the new Austin pipe organ was dedicated. It was 
purchased through the efforts of the Ladies' Aid Society. Its cost was 
$3,200. The present church building stands on the same site of the 
former frame structure at the corner of Military Avenue and Broad 
Street. It was dedicated June 6, 1885. Its seating capacity is about 
seven hundred — five hundred in the main auditorium and two hundred 
in the social rooms. 

Under the pastorate of Rev. William H. Buss, the church has 
celebrated both its fortieth and its fiftieth anniversaries, {attracting 
prominent visitors from all parts of the country and adding luster to 
the annals of the organization. In each of these years large improve- 
ments were made in the property at the cost of thousands of dollars; 
and the church made a record in the last quarter of a century for 
benevolence and membership growth. It also built a parsonage at 
Thirteenth and I streets that cost nearly four thousand dollars. This 
building was sold and an old parsonage property near the church was 
rebuilt in 1914 at a cost of $2,000 and in 1919, improvements in the 
church property were made to the value of $2,000. The entire property 
is now valued at $75,000. 

The Scribner Congregational Church 

The Scribner Congregational Church was organized in 1871 and 
now has a total membership of ninety-four. A building was erected 
in 1882 and was later enlarged to meet the demands of the growing 
congregation. The society also owns its own parsonage. The Sunday 
school connected with this church has an attendance of about one hun- 
dred and twenty. The present superintendent is E. H. Koch. 

The charter members included these: (Rev. Thomas Douglas of 
Fontanelle, being the moderator of the organized meeting) Andrew 
and Sarah Warwick, Lina Clayton and Maria Wright. 

The various pastors have been: Rev. Andrew Warwick, L. E. Bar- 
ton, Wallace Bruce, A. L. Seward, A. Doremus, M. B. Harrison, 
R. W. Birch. 

The Dodge Congregational Church 

A Congregational church was formed at the village of Dodge Febru- 
ary 14, 1887, by Rev. J. D. Stevenson. The first members included 
these: S. Lant,'E. H. Lant, H. Stormer, H. S. Stormer, Helen Camp- 
bell, W. Hatton, A. A. Hatton. 

At first services were held in the railroad depot but in 1887-8 an 
edifice was built costing $1,000. 

A good parsonage was soon provided for the pastor, costing $640. 

Among the earlier pastors here were Revs. J. D. Stevenson, Samuel 
Pearson, P. H. Hines. 

This denomination has churches at Uehling, and possibly other 
points in the county not reported to the writer. 

Methodist Churches in Dodge County 

Methodism was early in the religious field of Dodge County, coming 
only second to the Congregational denomination. 

"The First Methodist Episcopal Church of Fremont" was organ- 
ized in the winter of 1857-58 with the following as charter members: 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 181 

E. H. Rogers, Lucy J. Rogers, Mary Flor. Wealthy Beebe, L. H. Rogers. 
The first pastor was Rev. J. Spillman. At first services were held at 
the residence of E. H. Rogers, but a frame church building was erected 
in 1866, which stood on the corner of Eighth and Broad streets, the 
site of the present edifice. This frame structure served well its pur- 
pose until the end of twenty years when the present frame church was 
erected, a portion of the edifice being worked into the new church. Its 
total cost, originally was $10,000. About 1900 the building was inade- 
quate for the growing congregation and it was enlarged considerably, 
but for a number of years it has been altogether too small for the con- 
gregation with the various departments of church and Sunday school 
work, hence the matter of rebuilding was agitated recently and it was 
voted to build a new edifice costing about $90,000. The preliminary 
work of raising funds is now (July, 1920) going forward. The build- 
ing will stand on the present site — opposite the beautiful city park — 
an ideal place around which clusters many a hallowed memory of 
earlier days in Methodism in the City of Fremont. 

In 1875 a parsonage was erected at a cost of $1,000. In 1903 a 
new parsonage was built costing $5,500. 

The charter members of this church are now all deceased. The 
present total membership is nine hundred and sixty (960) at this 
writing. 

The present Sunday school has a membership of 500 and its capable 
superintendent is Miss Linna Barnett. 

For a few months this church occupied jointly with the Congregation- 
alists, their church building; the Methodists here have been independent 
as a society and owned their own church property. The various pastors 
who have served this church are as follows : 

Revs. Jerome Spillman, J. Adriance, 1858-59; L. W. Smith, 1859-60; 
David Hart, 1860-61; Theodore Hoagland, 1861-62; J. H. Ailing, 
1862-63; M. Pritchard, 1863-65; J. Adriance, 1865-67; Joel A. Van 
Anda, 1867-70; E. J. Mechesney, 1870: Charles McKelvey, 1870-72; 
G. W. De La Matyr, 1872-73 ; J. M. Richards, 1873-75 ; C. G. Lathrop, 
1875-76; G. W. De La Matyr, 1876-78; L. B. W. Long, 1878-79; J. W. 
Shank, 1879-81 ; W. F. Warren, 1881-83; J. Fowler, 1883-84; George M. 
Brown, 1884-87; T. B. Hilton, 1887-89; J. W. Robinson, 1889-92; 
George M. Brown, 1892-94: F. M. Sisson. 1894-97; W. P. Murray, 
1897-99; F. H. Sanderson, 1899-1905 ; John A. Spyker, 1905-08; Thomas 
Bithell, 1908-11; F. M. Sisson, 1911-17; Emory D. Hull, 1917— to the 
present date, 1920. 

Other Methodist churches of Dodge County are located at Hooper, 
North Bend, Ames, Purple Cane, Bethel Church, southeast of Hooper 
and Nickerson. Some of the information blanks sent out to the churches 
have not been returned to the historian, hence only meager account is 
given of such societies. 

The Hooper Methodist Episcopal Church 

This church was organized in 1872 by Rev. George De La Matyr. 
The first members were : Mr. and Mrs. Orlando A. Heimbaugh, Mrs. 
Andrew Baker, and either two or three other persons. The first meet- 
ings were held in the railroad depot. A neat frame church was built 
in 1884, at a cost of $3,200. This building was dedicated by J. B. 
Maxfield, D. D. 

The present membership is one hundred and forty. 

t 



182 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

The Sunday school connected with this church has an enrollment 
of 125 scholars ; its superintendent is George \V. Heine. 

The pastors who have served at Hooper have been : Revs. L. 
Charles, 1882; W. G. Pyle, 1883; W. A. Davis, 1884; Charles C. 
Wilson, 1885-86; J. E. Q. Flahartv, 1887-88; O. Eggleston, 1889-92; 
J. B. Leedom, 1893 ; William J. Hatheral. L. D. Matson. W. W. Shenk, 
William Esplin, 1895-98; B. B. Kiester, 1898; A. A. Luce, 1901; 
William Esplin, 1902-03; L. R. De Wolf, 1904; George B. Warren, 
1905-06; T. H. Hard, 1907-08; C. O. Trump, 1909; T. E. Smith, 
1910-12; B. F. Eberhardt, 1913; W. W. Whitman, 1914-15; A. H. 
Brink, 1916-18; E. H. Tipton, 1919, still serving in 1920. 

North Bend Methodist Episcopal Church 

This church is unfortunate in having many of its earliest records 
lost, but from what can be now, at this late day, gathered from quite 
reliable sources it may be stated that the following is about the out- 
line history of this Methodist Church : It was organized in 1858 by 
the pioneer minister. Rev. Jacob Adriance. In 1869, Rev. J. Van Anda 
formed a Sabbath school, the first members of which were: Dora V. 
Johnson, Mary H. Skinner, Mrs. Benjamin, and Mrs. S. L. Lester. 
At first they assembled in the school house, but in 1872 a frame build- 
ing was erected for their use. The present (1920) total church mem- 
bership is 146. 

The following have served as pastors of the North Bend Methodist 
Episcopal Church: Revs. John Van Anda, J. M. Adair, Reverend 
Charles, C. W. Dawson, D. Marquette. John Brooks, C. C. Wilson, 
Peter De Clark. No record at hand for further pastors except the 
present one, Rev. W. H. Jackson, whose salary the last year was $1,700. 

The present church edifice was erected a few years since at a cost 
of $15,000, including parsonage and grounds. 

NiCKERSON Methodist Episcopal Church 

Up to 1888 religious services at Nickerson were held by various 
denominations at the school house but during that year the Methodists 
built a neat chapel costing $1,300. The railroad donated $200 towards 
the purchase of the lot on which to erect the church building. 

The present total membership of this church is 275 ; present Sunday 
school membership 201; value of church property $1,700. The present 
pastor, Rev. E. O. Johnson, receives a salary of $400 a year from this 
church. 

Ames Methodist Episcopal Church 

No data was furnished the historian from which to compile a his- 
tory of this church organization. Conference reports in 1919 gave the 
membership at 114; its pastor Rev. Frank L. Reeder, salary, $1,110. 
The total value of the church property is $11,500. 

Bethel Methodist Episcopal Church 

This church is situated in Maple Township, Dodge County, and 
was organized February 16. 1874, by charter members as follows: 
Edgar Adriance, Anna Adriance, Louisa Bemar, James Hanson, Sr., 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 183 

James Hanson, Jr., Charles Brown, Catherine Brown, and Ann Brad- 
bury. At first services were held at the Brown schoolhouse, but in 
1878 a neat frame church was erected and was dedicated by Presiding 
Elder Slaughter. This building was built on the southeast corner of 
section 4, township 18. In 1891 there was a total membership of 
forty persons here. 

Among the earlier pastors of this church may be recalled: Revs. 
[acob Adriance, Reverend Dans, J. O. A. Flaharty, W. G. Harrigan, 
j. Adair, Peck, W. J. Pyle, W. S. Davies, C. C. Wilson, and Rev. O. 
Eggleston. (No record.) 

The present pastor is Rev. H. S. Grimes; membership is 98; salary, 
$1,250; value of church property, $1,250. 

Jamestown Methodist Episcopal Church 

This was organized in October, 1888, by Rev. T. C. Clendening 
and the first members were: J. Adriance and family, T. Craig and 
wife, R. Kemp and wife. The schoolhouse was first used as a meeting 
house for this society, but in the fall of 1890 a frame building was 
erected and dedicated by Rev. P. S. Merrill, of Omaha. The build- 
ing referred to stood on the southwest quarter of section 20, township 
18, range 7, east. The facts concerning this church since the nineties 
is unknown to the compiler of this chapter. 

Other Methodist Churches 

Besides the above churches of this denomination there are others 
at country stations where services are held in schoolhouses. 

The Free Methodist Church of North America 

March 19, 1903, there was organized at the City of Fremont a Free 
Methodist Church under the above auspices. Its charter members 
included: William McElfresch, J. P. Dibble, W. S. Johnson (trustees) ; 
A. S. McClure, Ida McClure, Maud McClure, James McCreath, Mrs. 
McCreath, Etta Guthrie, Joseph Dibble, Dellia Dibble and S. Anderson. 

This society now has a membership of sixty, with a usual congre- 
gation of 150. 

A frame church was built in 1913, as well as a neat frame parsonage 
at the same date. 

The Sunday school has for its superintendent Alice Pettit ; the attend- 
ance is about ninety. 

The pastors who have thus far served this church at Fremont have 
been : Rev. A. S. McClure, W. McElbreth, T. W. Rutledge, H. Hayden, 
W. McElbreth, Mary Mclntire, F. E. Miller. L. M. Rutledge, H. Wil- 
liams, F. E. Miller, W. W. Whyte, H. C. Williams, L. M. Roby and 
present pastor, W. M. Adams. 

United Presbyterian Church 

There was a society of this denomination organized at North Bend 
in 1861. The exact date was July 19. Rev. Thomas McCartney was 
organizer of this church. The charter members were as follows : Alex- 
ander Morrison and wife, John Miller and wife, Mrs. W. S. Cotterell, 
George Young, James Slass and wife, Robert Graham and wife, James 
Graham, Thomas Patterson, Edward Johnson. 



184 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

There are now 225 members in this church, with 150 attending 
Sunday school, with Mrs. Gertrude Johnson as superintendent. 

The pastors have included these : Revs. Joseph G. McKee, T. P. 
Proudfit, Isaac A. Wilson, Robert Campbell, David Inches, L. W. 
Williamson, G. T. Scott, Peter Swan, Charles W. Ritchie, James Black, 
J. A. Kennedy, D. D., W. C. Davidson, D. D. 

At first services were held in schoolhouses but as the schoolhouse 
used mostly was a mile west of town, in 1869 a church edifice was 
erected at an expense of $1,700. It was erected on the corner of Eighth 
and Sycamore streets and was still owned by the church in 1893, but 
not used, as in 1885 a neat frame edifice was built on Ninth and Chest- 
nut streets. The belfry was provided with a clear-toned heavy bell. 
The cost of this edifice, aside from its furniture, was $5,000. Dr. John- 
son of College Springs, Iowa, dedicated this structure in February, 1888. 

A parsonage was built in 1895 and the present one in 1920. 

Fremont Presbyterian Church 

The Presbyterian Church at Fremont was organized November 23, 

1873, and incorporated April 12, 1874, with charter members including 

jr.; these : James G. Kinnier, Mrs. Annie Kinnier, John A. Kinnier, Robert 

'*-^-' *^- Kinnier, Thomas S. Kinnier, James M. Kinnier (from a Presby- 

^'•■-' terian Church in Ireland), and William Porterfield, Mrs. Mary Etta 

Porterfield (from Council Bluff^s, Iowa), Mrs. Mary E. Fullinneider, 

Mrs. Clara B. Pilsbury (from the Congregational Church of Fremont). 

A frame edifice was erected in 1875, which with the lot cost $3,600. 
This was built on Fifth Street, between C and Union streets. The 
present building was erected in 1910; dedicated December 4, 1910. 
The parsonage in use now was erected in 1914. 

The present Sunday school superintendent is D. D. Rowe and the 
school has an enrollment of 275 scholars. For a number of years this 
church has supported Dr. J. F. Kelly on the foreign field in China and 
is known as a strong missionary church. 

The only other Presbyterian Church in Dodge County today is the 
Webster Church in Webster Township in the northwest part of the 
county, located nine miles to the north of North Bend. 

The pastors of the Fremont Presbyterian Church have been : Revs. 
Edwin Schofield, A. B. Byrons, P. S. Hurlbert, George M. Brown, 
R. M. L. Braden, Daniel Blose, Noah H. G. Fifer, Nathaniel Chestnut. 
Clarence W. Meyer, J. Frank Reed, Nathaniel McGriffin. 

The Fremont Baptist Church 

The largest church of the Baptist faith in Dodge County today is 
the one in the City of Fremont. This society was organized July 15, 
1869, by Rev. George W. Freeman. The charter members included 
these: 'George H. Morrell, H. R. Harmon, William H. Wick, Grace 
M. Wick, Abraham Tice, James Tice, J. C. Blackman, H. C. Ward, 
"Charles H. Lewis, Amanda A. Lewis, Miranda Condit, Maria Harmon, 
Mattie L. Harmon, Deborah Whittier. 

The first services were held in the old courthouse. The first baptism 
was administered February 23, 1870. In the autumn of'^S?! a church 
building was erected at a cost of about $2,500. It was built on Fifth 
and C streets. It was enlarged and remodelled several times and the 
property is now estimated to be worth $14,000. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 185 

The present total membership is 350. 

The Sunday school superintendent is Mrs. D. E. F. Manter, and . 
the attendance is about one hundred and sixty. 

The pastors of this Baptist Church have been: Revs. J. McDonald, 
Reverend Guild, Thomas Jones, A. Hitchcock, T- H. Storms, J. W. 
Osborn, J. C. Lewis, E. R. Curry, H. W. Tate, C. W. Bringstad, T. L. 
Ketman, E. F. Jordan, H. B. Foskett, I. W. Corey, J. Batzle, R. B. 
Favoright, who came in March, 1918, and is still pastor of the church. 

There is also a Baptist Church at the Village of Dodge, the partic- 
ulars of which were not forthcoming. 

The Lutheran Churches 

This denomination is well represented within Dodge County, and is 
divided into several branches and nationalities — German, Danish, Swed- 
ish, and Danish-Norwegian. 

The City of Fremont has the following Lutheran churches : German 
Lutheran with a good frame edifice on the corner of Third and C >^ 

streets and in the same block is a two story frame parochial school 
building, well attended and properly conducted. The Salem. Danish, 
Swedish, Trinity Evangelical Lutheran and Danish-Norwegian churches 
of this faith have good frame buildings and have regular pastors and 
services. Salem church just mentioned, has a frame building on the 
corner of Fourth and D streets, erected in 1902; the Danish Evan- 
gelical Church has a frame structure on the corner of Fourth and Union 
streets, erected in 1907. 

Zion's Lutheran Church — Hooper 

This church was organized March 1, 1890, by Karl Kruger. The 
first membership was largely from among the German settlers in that 
vicinity. In 1890 a neat frame church was erected over which stood 
a seventy foot tower. This building cost $2,000. It was dedicated 
by C. Huber and C. Kruger. The present value of the church is $6,000 
and the parsonage, $3,000. Reverend Schrader is Sunday school super- 
intendent and has sixty pupils. This denomination also has a church 
work and society in Logan Township, Dodge County. 

The total membership of the Hooper Church is 248 confirmed 
persons. 

The pastors have been these : Revs. Karl Kruger, 1890-92 ; L. Grauen- 
horst, 1893-1900; E. Walter, 1900-08; E. OsthofF, 1909-11; F. Mat- 
thiesen, 1911-14; Rev. J. Schrader, 1914, and is still serving the con- 
gregation as pastor. 

Grace Lutheran Church — Hooper 

I 

The last organized Lutheran Church in Hooper is that known as 
Grace Lutheran Church which was organized in 1915 by Rev. W. T. 
Kohse, missionary superintendent. A frame edifice was erected in 1916, 
valued at $14,000. The only pastor called thus far has been the present 
pastor. Rev. K. de Freese. 

The present membership is 178. The Sunday school has a mem- 
bership of 125 and has for its superintendent Mrs. A. E. Herker. 

The sub-joined is a list of those included in the charter member-" 
ship of this church: B. Monnich, Dr. W. Howard Heine, J. Sanders, 



186 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Mrs. M. T. Gellers, Mrs. J. Sanders. W. E. Sanders, Mr. and Mrs. A. 
E. Herker, Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Herker, Mrs. F. J. Egan, Mrs. J. 
Killenbach, Mrs. C. C. Cushman, Mrs. J. Schwab, Miss F. Geisert, 
Mr. and Mrs. William Bucholz, Dr. and Mrs. C. N. Ralph, Harold 
Kallenbach, R. L. Scharb, Mrs. C. W. Conyers, Mrs. J. Ring, E. M. 
Uehling, B. Monnich, Jr., Mr. and Mrs. Ed Schwab, Mr. and Mrs. J. R. 
Bott, Charlotte M. Monnich, Mrs. A. P. Larson, Mr. and Mrs. H. T. 
Ring, Martha Kallenbach, Mrs. Ida Easier, Mrs. P. J. Ewold, Mrs. H. 
Wagner, Norman Wagner, Harry Wagner, Mr. and Mrs. Ike Brondt, 
Mr. and Mrs. H. F. Waterman, Gifford Zellers, Chelsea Cushman, 
Monroe Zellers, Harry Schwab, Frank Schwab, Louis Alperstedt, 
Walter Killenbach. 

Other points in the county where this denomination is represented 
are : Fremont, Ridgeley, Scribner, Uehling, Ames, Winslow, and 
Snyder. 

Roman Catholic Churches 

Dodge County has numerous Catholic congregations including those 
at Fremont, Scribner, North Bend, Dodge and Snyder. The Fremont 
congregation is a strong organization and dates back early. It has a 
handsome, large, red brick edifice at the corner of Fourth and C 
streets; also a fine red brick school building built in 1913. It is three 
stories high and modern appointments throughout. It faces Fourth 
Street and is next to the church property. 

Unfortunately the writer was not furnished with the usual informa- 
tion blank sent to the churches of the county, hence no details on the 
various Catholic congregations can be had in this connection. Rev. 
Father O'Sullivan is pastor of the Fremont church at this time. 

The Adventist Church 

Only one organization of this denomination is foimd within Dodge 
County and that is at the City of Fremont. The society is not large 
and is not supplied regularly with a pastor. They own a small chapel, 
centrally located. 

The Christian Churches 

The Christian (Disciple) Church is represented in Dodge County at 
points as follows : North Bend, Fremont. 

Christian Science Churches 

Fremont and North Bend each have a Christian Science organiza- 
tion, and the few of this faith in the two communities meet for regular 
weekly services, but so far no buildings have been provided for the 
societies. The believers in this denomination and its teachings hope 
not far distant to be strong enough to have a church edifice of their own. 

St. James Protestant Episcopal Church 

This church was organized at the City of Fremont July 14, 1865. 
Episcopal services were held, however, at this point at a much earlier 
date. At first they worshiped at the house of pioneer Robert Kittle, 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 187 

and later at the schoolhouse. It was in the summer of 1867 that they 
reared the first edifice which stood near the present one. It was a frame 
building and was consecrated September 15, 1867. The original mem- 
bership of this church was as follows: Robert Kittle, Helen Kittle, 
Ella Kittle, Wm. V. Johnson, O. C. Dake, J. F. Reynolds, Rebecca A. 
Reynolds, John Ray, Lucy Ray, Harvey H. Robinson, Benjamin Turner, 
Emily J. Turner, Samuel W. Hayes, Sarah Hayes, Abraham Howes, 
Sarah Howes, George Turner, John S. McCleary, Aletha C. McCleary, 
Theron Nye, Caroline M. Nye, Luther J. Abbott, M. D., Clara F. 
Abbott, Anna E. Abbott. 

The following include the various rectors of this church and parish : 
Rev. O. C. Dake. Rev. J. May, Rev. Martin F. Sorenson, Rev. Frank 
E. Bullard, Samuel Goodale, D. D.. Rev. John McNamara, D. D., Rev. 
Timothy O'Connell, Rev. Alexander Allen, Rev. John Hewitt, Rev. 
C. McCracken, Rev. A. B. Spaight. Rev. James Cochran Ouinn, D. D., 
Ph. D., LL. D., and after resigning he was succeeded by Rev. C. E. 
Brandt July 1, 1895, and in 1896, he resigned and was followed by Rev. 
J. C. Gallandet and he in turn was succeeded by Rev. E. Warren Clarke 
in 1901-02 and was followed by Rev. H. B. Jefferson and then came 
Rev. Harry Moore, then Rev. W. H. Frost. The last mentioned clergy- 
man connected with this parish, according to the record-book of the 
parish was Rev. George S. G. Tyner. 

The parish is without a rector at this time (1920). 

Of the building operations let it be said that Bishop Talbot appointed 
Reverend Dake as first rector in July, 1865, as a missionary clergyman 
to organize a parish here. Fifteen hundred dollars was donated by 
St. James Episcopal Church of Chicago toward a building fund and 
that is how this church in Fremont took its name — "St. James." The 
citizens of Fremont including Episcopal members raised $1,500 more 
toward building. A number of lots were bought where now stands 
the church at the corner of Fifth and D streets. At first a cotton- 
wood hall was erected for school and church uses, but on account 
of the warpy character of the home grown wood this building proved 
a failure after a few months use and was abandoned for the use 
intended. The present brick edifice was completed May 1, 1888, at a 
cost of $9,800. The rectory, etc., added to this made the total 
outlay ?1 5,000. 



CHAPTER XIX 

THE CIVIC SOCIETIES OF THE COUNTY 

Free Masonry — Odd Fellowship — Knights of Pythias — The Wood- 
men — Workmen — Knights of Columbus — Eastern Star 
Chapters — Rebekah Degree Lodges — Ben Hur — Workmen and 
Various Other Secret and Semi-Secret Lodges. 

In these modern times one may go to all parts of the globe and where- 
ever civilized man is found, there is found some one of the various 
civic societies or orders which have for their object the betterment of 
the brotherhood of man. A century ago it was not popular to have it 
universally understood that a man belonged to a secret society. Many 
of the religious bodies would not tolerate its members in becoming active 
members of lodges. But as time passed,' and the people by degrees 
began to understand something of the benefits of such orders, the preju- 
dices became less, until today Masonry, Odd Fellowship and other lodges 
have become very popular and are rapidly increasing in number and 
membership. 

There are legions of life insurance beneficiary lodges, some of 
which are herein noted, while the great, real secret orders are confined 
chiefly to the Masons, the Odd Fellows and the Knights of Pythias. 

Free Masonry 

The most ancient of all secret orders is that of Masonry. The first 
lodge of this high order to be instituted in Dodge County was Fremont 
Lodge No. 15. Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, organized June 20, 
1867, by the following charter members: S. W. Hayes, J. H. Crabbs, 
Robert Kittle, E. H. Rogers, Thomas Wilkinson, S. C. Curtis, William 
G. Bowman, Joseph Lambertson, O. C. Dake. S. W. Hayes was the 
first Worshipful Master. 

In 1892 the total membership of this lodge was 162. The present. 
(1920) total membership is 416. Its present elective officers are : Edward 
G. Bauman, worshipful master; Charles E. Miller, senior warden; 
Lawrence M. Nichols, junior warden ; Otto H. Schurman, treasurer ; 
Mathew A. Priestley, secretary ; Harold D. Keene, senior deacon ; David 
H. Ohlmutz, junior deacon; Lawrence E. Taylor, Senior steward; 
John E. Long, junior steward; Charles A. Morse, tyler. Trustees — 
Fred E. Lee, Fred C. Laird and Henry Wohner. 

All degrees of Free Masonry are here represented. Signet Chapter, 
No. 8 was instituted, or worked under dispensation from August 1, 
1871, and under its charter from June 17, 1872. The charter mem- 
bership was: Lewis M. Keene, H. B. Nicodemus, William H. Munger, 
Samuel Hayes, Frank W. Hayes, John N. V. Biles, S. Bullock, Henry 
Fuhrman, E. H. Gray, M. H. Hinman, A. C. Hull, Fred Jenewein, 
James A. Moe, J. S. Shaw, W. D. Thomas, Ashbury Townsend, E. Van 
Buren. 

Mt. Tabor Commandery, Knights Templar, No. 9, at Fremont, was 
instituted, October 29, 1879, with the following Sir Knights as charter 
members: Cornelius Driscoll, William Fried, Samuel G. Glover, E. F. 
188 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 189 

Gray, Joel A. Green. M. H. Hinman, L. M. Keene, William F. Lee, 
William H. Munger, H. B. Nicodemus. L. D. Richards, L. B. Shephard, 
William D. Thomas, A. Townsend. E. Van Buren. In 1892 this Com- 
mandery enjoyed a membership of 104 and at the present date (sum- 
mer of 1920) it has a membership much greater. 

Emett Lodge of Perfection No. 5 of Scottish Rites, at Fremont, was 
instituted March 24. 1888. with charter members as follows: John 
Hewett (thirty-second degree), Venerable Master; L. M. Keene (thir- 
ty-second degree), S. W. ; L. D. Richards (thirty-second degree), Aim.; 
C. M. Williams (fourteenth degree), secretary; Frank Fowler (four- 
teenth degree), treasurer; Nathan H. Brown (thirty-second degree). 
Arthur Truesdell (thirty-second degree), Julius Beckman (fourteenth 
degree), William C. Brady (fourteenth degree), \'. S. Hoy (fourteenth 
degree), George W. Sellers (thirty-second degree), Leander B. Smith 
(thirty-second degree), James H. Hamilton (fourteenth degree), Edwin 
T. How (thirty-second degree). 

Arbor \'itae Chapter No. 92 of the Eastern Star was organized in 
1894 and its present membership is 400. 

The Masonic Temple 

The present beautiful Masonic Temple at Fremont was erected in 
1888. It was built by the Masonic Temple Craft, an incorporated stock 
company, made up of the Lodge, Chapter and Commandery. Its cost 
was $26,000, exclusive of the lot on which it stands, and furnishings. 
The capital stock of this corporation was $36,000. The first ofificers 
were; L. M. Keene, president; A. Truesdell, vice-president; Robert 
Kittle, secretary ; W. D. Thomas, treasurer. 

The comer-stone ceremonies were of a very impressive character. 
They took place August 23, 1888. Grand Master George B. France had 
charge of the work. A metal casket or chest was enclosed within the 
corner-stone and overtopped by it. This contained, among other arti- 
cles of historic interest and future value : Officers of the Fremont Lodge 
at that date ; the "Great Lights of Masonry" ; by-laws of Signet Chapter 
No. 8; charter and names of Mount Tabor Commandery, K. of T. No. 9; 
names of the Masonic Craft at Fremont; photographic views of the 
temple to be constructed ; municipal records of Fremont ; Dr. L. J. 
Abbott's Centennial History of July 4, 1876; records of Company "E" 
Nebraska Guards; records of McPherson Post Grand Army of the 
Republic ; records of Women's Christian Temperance Union ; copies of 
the Daily Tribune and Daily Herald of Fremont ; an account of the pub- 
lic schools of Dodge County ; an account of Odd Fellowship in Fremont. 

M.\soNic Home for Children 

In 1916 and 1917 the Masonic Home for Children, under care of the 
Eastern Star, was completed. The Grand Lodge of the state and the 
Local Masonic order at Fremont purchased sixty-seven acres of land, 
just to the north of the city. The cost of the land, the superintendent's 
home and farm buildings was $37,500. The home for the boys and 
the home for the girls cost about $28,000. Fremont Mdsons contributed 
$10,000 for the purchase of the land and for the homes. The average 
number of resident children is thirty — half boys and half girls. John W. 
Sexton is superintendent of the farm and buildings ; Mrs. Edna Boor- 
man is matron of boys' home and Mrs. Bess Bauer is matron of the 
girls' home. 



190 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

ScRiBNER Lodge No. 132 

Ancient Free and Accepted Masonic Lodge at Scribner was organ- 
ized July 9, 1884. The charter members were as follows : Jesse A. 
Nason, Chauncey D. Gardanier, James Booth, J. J. Barge, John Rom- 
berg, William B. Gardanier, Gustave A. Diels, Robert Moodie, Robert A. 
Hasson, Walter A. King, Charles Inches, Carl T. Pulsifer, Joseph L. 
Baker. John Baker. 

The present (1920) lodge has a membership of sixty-two. 

Of the original officers it may be stated the following served as first 
elective officers: Jesse A. Nason, worshipful master; Chauncey D. 
Gardanier, senior warden: James Booth, junior warden: John L. Bar- 
ker, treasurer; Robert C. Hasson, secretary; J. J. Barge, senior deacon; 
William B. Gardanier, junior deacon ; Gustave A. Diels, tyler. 

The present or 1920 elective officers are as follows : Paul L. Keller, 
worshipful master ; Emanuel A. Bauer, senior warden ; Harold Christy, 
junior warden ; John F. Drenguis, treasurer : Clarence Ranslem, secre- 
tary ; Peter L. Bauer, senior deacon: John Beaver, junior deacon; James 
M. Beaver, tyler. 

This lodge rents a hall at $190 per year: it is situated on the west 
side of Main Street. 

Hooper Lodge No. 72 

Hooper Lodge No. 72, Ancient Free and .Accepted Masons was 
organized March 19, 1878. The charter members were as follows ; 
Abner D. Harwood, Jerry Denslow, William .'\. G. Cobb, Samuel Krea- 
der, James P. Lamberson, H. C. Craigg, Frank E. Wickwire, James F. 
Burns, William H. Aldrich, John F. Romberg, Oswald Uehling, James H. 
Caldwell, Robert M. Peyton, George Briggs, Edward H. Airis, James F. 
Briggs. 

The lodge has increased with the passing years until it now has a 
total of 100 Master Masons. 

The first and present elective officers have been as follows : 
Title First Officers Present— 1920 

Worshipful Master. . . .James F. Burns Herman R. Meir 

Senior Warden H. C. Craigg J. Sherman Zellers 

Junior Warden Jerry Denslow Edward H. Schwab 

Treasurer Samuel Kreader F. H. Maryott 

Secretary Wm. A. G. Cobb Norman E. Shafifer 

Senior Deacon Frank E. Wickwire .... John A. Feinaigle 

Junior Deacon James P. Lamberson ... P. Edward Peppmiller 

Tyler William H. Aldrich. . . .William O. Anderson' 

The lodge owns its own lodge room — a two-story brick building with 
basement, located on lot No. 5, in block No. 2, Hooper. It is valued at 
$10,000 and has no incumbrance against it. 

North Bend Lodge No. 119 

The Ancient Free and Accepted Masonic Lodge at North Bend, this 
county, was organized June 24, 1884, with charter members as follows: 

James A. Bonner, Thaddeus W. , Christopher Cussack, Michael 

Dowling, George A. Eanos, Peter Gillis, Anson J. Hasting, David A. 
Hopkins, Wesley Lynch, Joseph E. Newsom, Milton May, Goldsmith 
H. Norris, Bissell P. Rice, John Y. Smith, Frederick L. Thompson, 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 191 

Chauncy B. Treadwell, W. J. T. Wallace, Hermon F. Wilcox, Charles M. 
Williams, William H. Yaw. 

The present (1920) total membership of the lodge is 110. The value 
of the property now owned by this Masonic Lodge at North Bend is 
about $10,000. First and present elective officers are these : 
Title First Officers 1920 Officers 

Worshipful Master M. Dowling John R. Tapster 

Senior Warden C. B. Treadwell Harry Cussack 

Junior Warden J. A. Bonner R. A. McWhorter 

Treasurer P. Gillis Roy J. Cussack 

Secretary C. M. Williams Henry J. Newsom 

Senior Deacon D. A. Hopkins Leonard B. Woods 

Junior Deacon T. J. Chapin Thomas G. Grimes 

Tyler Joseph E. Newsom .... Joseph E. Newsom 

Order of Eastern Star 

This fraternity is an auxiliary of the Masonic Order, and is made 
up very largely of the ladies whose relatives are Masons. Dodge County 
has a number of such chapters, as these societies are known. This order 
has within the last decade become very popular and seems to be of much 
interest and value to the women who are active members of such auxil- 
iaries to Masonic lodges. Especially is this true in traveling among 
strangers, as members of the Masonic Order readily recognize and pro- 
tect those who are known to be members of the Eastern Star. The work 
of this order, founded on Bible characters, is very impressive and uplift- 
ing in its character. 

Ruth Chapter No. 119 — North Bend 

This Chapter was organized September 27, 1897, with charter mem- 
bers as follows: Rachel Hiett, C. H. Walrath, W. D. Foote, Mae B. 
Walrath, M. Dowling, Bertha A. High, Susan High, Anna M. Johnson, 
Florence Main, J. B. Foote, J. E. Newsom, May P. Dowling, Jessie 
Sherwood, Iva Main, D. M. Strong, Mabel C. Cussack, James H. John- 
son, Ralph Main, Gertrude Sherwood, B. D. Sherwood, Mary E. Dow- 
ling and Anna M. Kastle. 

The total membership in 1920 of this Chapter is 124. 

The original and present elective officers are as follows : 
Title Original Present 

Worthy Matron Rachel Hiett Jessie Emerson 

Worthy Patron M. Dowling Fred A. Howe 

Associate Matron Mrs. M. Dowling Sarah Howe 

Secretary Mabel Cussack Maude Raitt 

Treasurer Mae Walrath Wealthy Foote 

Conductress May Dowling Grace Sidner 

Associate Conductress. . Florence Main Gertrude Johnson 

Warder • Wealthy Foote Grace Haverfield 

Adah Mary Walker Hortense Lehmer 

Ruth Gertrude Sherwood .... Hazel Armstead 

Esther Anna Johnson Cedelea Brownwell 

Martha Elizabeth Hoff 

Electa Cora M. Lehmer 

Organist Alma Hatcher 

Sentinel J. E. Newsom Laura M. Thorn 



192 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Friendship Chapter No. 122 — Hooper 

This Chapter of the Order of Eastern Star was organized February 
26, 1898. Its charter members were as follows: Mrs. A. M. Denslow, 
Mrs. Charlotte Uehling, Mrs. O. Dooley, Mrs. Emma Briggs, Mrs. B. 
Kreader, Mrs. E. Hibler, Mrs. John Ring, Mrs. Barbara Monnich, 
Mrs. E. Renkin, Mrs. H. A. Harris, Mrs. P. Kroeger, Mrs. Mary Cush- 
man, Miss Hattie Caldwell, John Ring, Bernard Monnich, Edward Ren- 
kin, Theo Kroeger, Charles Cushman, Charles Rogers and O. Dooley. 

The total membership of this Chapter in June, 1920, was 134. The 
first and present set of elective officers were: 

Title Original Present 

Worthy Matron Mrs. Anna Denslow Miss Katherine Rebbee 

Worthy Patron Mr. E. Renkin Mr. Edward Rogers 

Associate Matron Mrs. Mary Cushman Mrs. Sherman Zellers 

Secretary Bernard Monnich Mr. H. Schimmel 

Treasurer Charlotte Uehling Mr. Henry Rebbee 

Odd Fellows Lodges of County 

Odd Fellowship is well represented in the various places of Dodge 
County. Its membership is large and the interest in the order is deep 
and productive of much good in the county. 

Without regard to the chronology of the time in which these various 
lodges of the "three-linked-brotherhood" were organized, the following 
account of the order will be given : 

North Bend Lodge No. 161 

North Bend Lodge was organized May 12, 1888, with charter mem- 
bers as follows : A. B. Elwood, Isaac Banghart, L. C. Holmes, Van 
Banghart, J. E. Newsom, Harry Fertig, Joseph Datel, S. J. Fertig, 
W. W. Roberts, Joseph Hodgin, Harry Bogge and a few others whose 
names were not reported to the historian. 

This Odd Fellows Lodge has a present total membership of 102. 
Its present officers include : Roy Lamby, noble grand ; J. C. Mines, 
vice-grand ; Frank Howe, secretary, and V. W. Jansen, treasurer. 

A lodge hall is owned by the order in block 44 of the North Bend 
City platting, a portion of which is used for store purposes. 

Nickerson Lodge No. 390 

Nickerson Odd Fellows Lodge No. 390 was organized June 17, 1920, 
with a charter membership as follows : George W. Hansell, Cordie F. 
Diercks, John W. Ward, W. H. Routh, Don D. Hill, Ernest Sexton, 
George S. Robertson, Peter W. Johnson, Fred Brackett and Bert L. 
Sidel. 

The first and also present elective officers are : Noble grand, John 
W. Ward ; vice-grand, Ernest Sexton ; secretary, George W. Hansell ; 
treasurer, Bert L. Sidel. 

The present membership, is' seventeen. This is the last Odd Fellows 
Lodge organized in Dodge County. 

Centennial Lodge of Odd Fellows No. 59 

This lodge was organized April 19, 1876, and had charter members 
as follows : Martin Higgins, A. B. Dawson, Milton Cook, John McCarn, 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 193 

John Stein, Charles Mitchell, William Durkee, Jackson Lee, Morris 
Davidson, Wilbur Roseman, George Ruggles. 

The present total membership of this lodge is 332. 

The third floor of the Farmers and Merchants Bank Building is 
owned and occupied by this order for lodge room uses. 

The 1920 elective officers are : L. M. Nichols, noble grand ; Edward 
Bentz, vice-grand ; Milard Steen, secretary ; Fred Bader, treasurer. 

Other lodges of this order are those at North Bend and Nickerson, 
both within Dodge County. 

The auxiliaries — the Canton and Rebekah degree lodges — are also 
well represented in Fremont. 

Rebekah Degree Lodges of I. O. O. F. 

Both Fremont and North Bend have auxiliaries to the Odd Fellows 
Order, the same being the two Rebekah lodges. 

Golden Rule Lodge of Rebekahs No. 59, at the City of Fremont, was 
organized March 26, 1891, and now enjoys a total membership of 331. 
The charter members were as follows : I. P. Gage, M. G. Cook, P. Peter- 
son, C. A. Ryan, Rila Ryan, C. C. Pollard, H. H. Pratt, E. Nilson, T. W. 
Gibson, J. H. Williams, H. L. Goodrich, T. J. McKinney, Ida H. 
McKinney, Carl B. Elsworth, O. H. P. Shively, F. M. McGiven, Rose 
McGiven, T. L. Nesbit, J. C. Knudsen, C. O. Pillsbury, A. Truesdell, 
A. C. Jensen, Sr., B. F. Stoufifer, Arthur Gibson, Jennie A. Gibson, 
George F. Wolz, Maggie Wolz, Jennie Lee, J. C. Lee, C. Christensen, 
Maria Christensen, Manly Rogers, Mariah Rogers, George L. Loomis, 
Alice H. Loomis, W. J. Bullock, Nellie Bullock, Estella Baldwin, Bela 
Baldwin, J. V. N. Biler, Theresa Biler, Gilmore King, Ida L. King, 
Samuel Sickel, C. H. Perrigo, Mrs. Perrigo, Josephine Elliott, O. D. 
Harms, Charles H. May, J. A. Sill, F. I. Elick, W. H. Fowler, J. S. 
Seeley, P. B. Cumings, E. Schurman, Henry Breitenfelt, Nannett McCam, 
S. F. Moore, Nora F. Moore, Cora M. Smith, L. B. Smith, Thomas 
Frahm, Rickia Tully, Otto Hueitti, Charles Balduff, Sr., George A. Mur- 
rell, Nancy L. Murrell, W. C. Wiley, George Easier. 

The first elective officers were: Ida H. McKinney, noble grand; 
Jennie A. Gibson, vice-grand ; Nannett McCam, secretary ; Maggie Wolz, 
treasurer. 

Present (1920) elective ofificers: Evelyn Lane, noble grand; Ella 
EickhofiF, vice-grand ; Emma Balduflf, secretary ; Clara Stewart, treasurer. 

Knights of Pythias 

This is one of the more modern civic societies — founded at the close 
of the Civil war in the City of Washington, where Lodge No. 1 was 
instituted. It has grown wonderfully and now ranks along third in the 
great secret orders — Masons and Odd Fellows only being ahead in this 
class of fraternities. In Dodge County this order is not strong, although 
some lodges have been organized. 

Triumph Lodge No. 32 

This lodge at Fremont was organized October 13, 1885, and now 
enjoys a membership of 260. 



194 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Its first and present (1920) elective officers have been as follows: 
First Officers Title Present Officers 

J. E. Frick Past Chancellor . 



C. D. Marr Chancellor Commander. G. W. Nagel 

F. D. Ellick Vice-chancellor H. C. Koplin 

F. A. Harmon Prelate J. W. Cattern 

G. H. Staube Keeper of Rec. & Seal. . H. M. Weeks 

George F. Looschen. . . Master of Finance L. C. Spangler 

A. Truesdell Master of Exchequer. . . W. T. Jlobertson 

Frank Dolezal Master-at-Arms W. F. Primley 

T. L. Stribbling Inner Guard Ray Moller 

August Reitz Outer Guard H. D. Groetzinger 

Master of Work F. B. Snyder 

This order owns no hall, but has a handsome property on the banks 
of Platte River, four miles west of Fremont, known as Knights of 
Pythias Park, purchased in September, 1919, at a cost of $2,000, and 
has here made many improvements so that today it is well worth 
double its cost price. 

The only other active lodge of this order in Dodge County now is 
at Hooper. 

Modern Woodmen of America 

This is one of the numerous mutual beneficiary life insurance orders 
which of recent years has become very popular. The Woodmen of the 
World and the Modern Woodmen of America, rivals in a way of each 
other, are both represented in Dodge and Washington counties to quite 
an extent. 

Snyder Lodge No. 470 

This lodge of the Modern Woodmen of America was organized May 
25, 1898, and had for its charter members these persons : R. O. Jung- 
hand, Carl Schneider, A. J. Schneider, Otto Sievers, E. Sievers, Claudi 
Wendorf, David Weggund, Claus Plahn, Jens Peterson, Emil Zalm and 
one other. 

The present membership is seventeen, in good standing: 

The 1920 officers are: Venerable consul, William J. Wolsleger; 
advisor, Doctor Mead; banker, Otto Sweres ; clerk, Claudi Wendorf; 
escort. Otto Dallman; watchman, Fred Bilke. 

Connected with this lodge is also an auxiliary by the ladies of mem- 
bers of this lodge. At present Mrs. Will Wolsleger is clerk of the 
auxiliary. 

North Bend Lodge 

This lodge of the Modern Woodmen of America was organized June 
14, 1889. The charter members were as follows : E. E. Davis, C. K. 
Watson, Ernest Kern, S. J. Hyatt, Ira Doane. J. A. Newal, J. E. New- 
som, H. G. Snyder, C. O. Armstead, Peter Gillis, O. M. Scott, F. S. 
Millar, C. W. Dodge, Robert Wyatt, John Ross, Burlingame Walker, 
J. H. Chalmers, F. S. King, A. E. Kemper, Harry Walker, A. J. Siders, 
F. J. Kastle and G. O. Dodge. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 195 

The present total membership of this lodge is 221. The first and 
1920 elective officers are as follows : 

First Officers Title 1920 Officers 

E. E. Davis Consul M. L. Tharp 

Ernest Kern Advisor R. G. Miner 

M. G. Snyder Banker R. H. Haverfield 

S. J. Hyatt Escort H. A. Millar 

C. O. Armstead Secretary C. C. Frahm 

J. E. Newsom Watchman C. C. Frahm 

Ira Doane Physician P. R. Howard 

Past Consul A. W. Millar 

The present trustees are : F. S. Millar, James Coen, E. H. Rector. 

Ancient Order of United Workmen 

This is the oldest of all the fraternal insurance orders that have ever 
been instituted in the United States. It was formed by laboring men 
at Meadsville, Pennsylvania, in 1868, and now has its members in 
all parts of America by the tens of thousands. Millions of dollars 
have been paid to beneficiaries in the last half century and more. All 
other similar institutions have been patterned after this order. This 
lodge provides for $2,000 to be paid upon proof of death, and thus far 
they have never failed to pay within thirty days — the limit. 

Fremont Lodge No. 23 

This lodge was organized at the City of Fremont, December 8, 1883. 
Its original members were : F. M. Smith, N. H. Brown, A. E. Stewart, 
A. G. Weander, H. D. Brooks, A. O. Noreen, C. C. Beverage, E. J. Boyd, 
S. R. Patten, R. C. Vaughn, B. F. French, W. G. Yost, S. L. Cleland, 
H. K. Middekauff, P. D. Denney. 

The present (1920) total membership of this lodge is fifty. Other 
lodges of this order are found at Nickerson, Hooper, Scribner, Snyder, 
Dodge and North Bend. 

The first elective officers were: H. D. Brooks, master workman; 
H. K. Middekaufif, recorder; B. F. French, financier; E. G. Boyd, treas- 
urer; N. H. Brown, one of the trustees. 

The 1920 officers are: C. K. Coleman, master workman; C. R. 
Shaffer, recorder and financier ; A. K. Dame, treasurer ; Louis Hanson, 
trustee. 

Hooper Lodge No. 226 

Ancient Order United Workmen Lodge No. 226 was organized at 
Hooper January 8, 1892, and now has a membership of fifty-one. The 
first or charter members of this lodge were inclusive of the following 
persons : Frank Hegenbotham, Angus Philips. John Ring, Bernard 
Monnich, C. E. Ingelsby, T. W. Lyman, E. W. Renkin, John McKeage, 
Fred Bruse, Fred F. Heine, W. Adkins, Fred Burbank, George W. Swei- 
gard, A. E. Tunberg, H. D. Dodendorf, W. E. Wilson, J. L. Alperstead, 
William Borkenhagen, Carl Kahlbeck, Charles Buckolz, J. D. Stroup, 
E. W. Renkin, Louis Edelman, Dan C. Foley, George W. Wolcott. 



196 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



This lodge leases its hall and has regular meetings. Of its first and 
present (1920) elective officers the subjoined is a list: 

First Officers Title Present Officers 

John Ring Past Master Workman . John Edelmaire 

Angus Philips Master Workman W. C. Springer 



E. W. Renkin Foreman 

Bernard Monnich Overseer . . 

C. E. Ingelsby Recorder . . 

T. W. Lyman Treasurer . 

John McKeage Guide .... 

Fred Bruse Inside Watch. 

Fred F. Heine Outside Watch 



..W. F. Bayer 

. . Frank H. Nelson 

. . John Ring 

. . A. E. Tunberg 

. . Lester O. Jeflfers 

. . A. E. Tunberg 

. . Christ Dethelf sen 



Ben Hur 



This modern beneficiary order was organized in Crawfordsville, 
Indiana, in the eighties and its name was taken from Gen. Lew Wallace's 
celebrated novel of the Orient called "Ben Hur" who was the leading 
character of the wonderful literary production. Dodge County at this 
date has only one such Lodge or Court as it is called, and this one is at 
Fremont. It was organized January 14, 1895 and now has a member- 
ship of thirty-nine, but at one time had a large following. It may be 
of interest as the years slip away to know who were charter members 
in this lodge, as herein is found the names of many of the city's best 
known business and professional men : 



Frank Hammbnd 
N. H. Brown 
A. Truesdell 
P. E. Lumberd 
C. R. De La Matyr 
W. H. Atwood 
Ira Wallingford 
T. L. Mathews 

A. K. Dane 

B. Franklin 
Charles L. Olds 
F. M. Claflin 
George F. Wolz 
R. E. Parker 

J. A. Murrell 
E. E. Cochran 
J. C. Ferguson 
J. R. Bader 
J. D. McDonald 
N. J. Walker 
William H. Lucraft 
Fred Gumpert 
W. H. Tones 

C. D. Marr 
R. D. Kelly 
T. W. Miller 
Ira A. Wood 
L. D. Richards 
H. L. Himes 
George B. Eddy 
C. Johannsen 



O. H. P. Shively 
L. C. Truesdell 
Jacob Brown 

B. H. Siepker 

C. T. C. Lollich 
Harry R. Pettit 
W. R. Van Dusen 
F. I. Ellick, Jr. 

L. S. Moe 
J. T. McGinnis 
William W. Fish 
C. C. Pollard 
C. W. Wallace 
E. A. Truesdell 
A. D. Smith 
James S. Seeley 
R. L. Hammond 
James D. Bell 

C. R. Schaeflfer 
Paul Colson 
Henry Jurging 
George Haslam 
Dan Miller 

T. R. Churchill 
L. B. Comon 
M. H. Hunter 

D. B. Gary 
William Marshall 
0. Anderson 
Lewis Leedom 
Al D. Sears 



M. S. Short 
A. Truesdell 
Fred Drew 
Edward Benton 
Charles H. Brunner 
L. M. Keene 
G. Nieman 
F. T. Hanlon 
J. H. Mathews 
I. McKennon 
R. C. McDonald 
Z. P. Stephens 
W. H. Munger 
J. Hughes 
F. W. Sisson 
J. E. Frick 
W. H. Clemmons 
C. W. Jones 
Grant Parsons 
R. A. Twiss 
T. P. Mallon 
J. H. Rogers 
Frank Dolezal 
C. Sigafoos 
F. A. McGinnis 
J. H. Knowles 
M. L. Godfrey 
Wm. R. Brunner 
M. B. Croll 
P. A. Nelson 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 197 

The 1920 elective officers are: past chief, J. A. Murrell ; chief, 
H. L. Himes; scribe, C. C. Pollard; judge, S. S. Sidner 

Order of Maccabees 

There are only two of such insurance orders in Dodge County at 
the present time — the one in Fremont and one at Hooper. The one at 
Fremont is known as Forest City Lodge No. 50, was organized Octo- 
ber 15, 1882, and now has but thirteen members. 

The first officers were : D. R. Franklin, I. D. Bell, H. Horner, 
F. O. McGinnis, E. N. Ellerbrock, August Wonderling. 

The elective officers in the summer of 1920 are: I. Donahue, 
E. N. Ellerbrock, E.' W. 'Martin, F. A. McGinnis, A. B. Miller, 
B. R. Peters. 

The Danish Brotherhood 

This fraternal insurance lodge was organized at Fremont, as Lodge 
26, on October 26, 1895, and now has a membership of 168. They meet 
at the Morse Hall the first and third Thursday of each month. 

When first organized the elective officers were as follows : L. P. 
Hansen, president ; C. T. C. Lollich, vice president ; C. H. Christensen, 
secretary : Soren Jensen, treasurer ; Michael Steen, conductor ; F. H. 
Hansen, inside guard : N. P. Holm, outside guard ; trustees — S. P. 
Christensen, Hans C. Hansen and Jach Christensen. 

The officers in 1920 are: Christ J. Jensen, president; E. B. Ber- 
telsen, vice president; C. H. Christensen, secretary; S. P. Christensen, 
treasurer; C. H. Jensen, conductor; Niels Nielsen, inside guard; Jens 
Weiser, outside guard ; physician, J. S. Devries ; trustees, Fred Jacob- 
sen, Ole Johnson and T. C. Willumsen. 

Danish Sisterhood 

This is an auxiliary to the Danish Brotherhood and is also of the 
mutual beneficiary life insurance nature. Lodge No. i7 was organized 
in Morse Hall December 10, 1896, with charter members as follows: 
Mrs. C. H. Christensen, North Main Street ; Mrs. A. F. Anderson, North 
Irving Street; Mrs. Japanne Jackson, R. F. D. route No. 1 ; Mrs. L. Lar- 
son, Union Avenue, Mrs. D. Petersen, 738 North Broad Street. 

There are now sixty-seven members in this lodge. Its present officers 
are: President, Mrs. H. Seymonsberger ; vice president, Mrs. E. Bertel- 
sen; secretary, Mrs. H. Henninger; treasurer, Mrs. Otto Petersen. 

Fraternal Order of Eagles 

Among the flourishing fraternal, mutual orders for life assurance is 
the Order of Eagles of which Fremont Lodge No. 200 was organized in 
the City of Fremont in February, 1902, with a large charter membership 
— too lengthy to insert in this work, the number being about eighty. The 
first meeting was held in what was then styled the Budweiser Building. 
For many years they have occupied the upper story of the J. Rex Henry 
Building, between the Y. M. C. A. and First National Bank Building. 

The present total membership is 338. 

The first elective officers included these : George Howe, worthy presi- 
dent ; L. P. Hansen, worthy vice president; C. H. Christensen. secretary; 



198 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



J. C. Hein, treasurer; trustees, L. P. Larson, John Gumb, J. A. Doerr; 
physician, Dr. A. P. Overgard. 

The only other point within Dodge County where there is another 
lodge of this order is at North Bend. 

The elective officers in the summer of 1920 are as follows; H. J. Bum- 
gardner, president ; A. F. Diels, vice president ; C. C. Parker, secretary ; 
C. H. Christensen, treasurer ; trustees, Ernest Hahn, W. C. Schultz and 
L. P. Hansen. 

Yeoman Lodge 

The only lodge of Yeomanry in Dodge County is the one at Fremont, 
styled Ivanhoe No. 775, organized August 31, 1901, with charter mem- 
bers as follows : M. A. Mark, O. P. Overgard, A. Bav, M. C. Scott, W. E. 
Sundell, W. F. Harbach, Charles Madsen, W. S. Ball, N. G. Ubs. W. L. 
Windsor. 

The present membership is 342. 

The first elective officers were: M. A. Mark, foreman; O. P. Over- 
gard, correspondent ; A. S. Bay, master accounts. 

The present officers (1920) are as follows: S. C. Sillick, foreman; 
B. B. Miller, correspondent ; W. A. Edwards, master of ceremonies ; 
E. Colaran, master of accounts. 

Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks 

The only lodge of Elks in Dodge County is No. 514 at Fremont. This 
was organized December 16, 1902. It now enjoys the exceptional large 
total membership of 360. The popularity of this order in Fremont may 
be seen by glancing at the list of charter members : 



August J. Albers 
Julius Beckman 
Frank Brown 
Otto Brechlin 
W. R. Brunner 
E. E. Benjamin 
Olive Bird 
G. B. Baird 
C. Christensen 
Arthur Christensen 
L. B. Coman 
H. S. Carroll 
Paul Colson 
P. B. Cummings 
W. J. Davies 
H. P. Dowling 

C. O. Eigler 

A. J. Eddy 

B. E. Fields 
John K. Fuchs 

D. Franklin 
Will T. Fried 
William Fried 
Frank Fowler 
Ed Forney 
H. T. Fish 

J. W. Gofi 
I. P. Gage 
John Graham 



F. Hollenbeck 
Ed Hanlon 
Geo. Haslam 
Guy M. Hinman 
Rex Henry 
N. M. Hansen 
J. D. Johnson 
Bruce Johnson 
J. H. Knowles 
F. H. Knowlton 
Lloyd Killian 
Albert Killian 
J. N. Kelser 
L. M. Keene 
Louie Keene 
Frank Koss 
C. H. Kirkpatrick 
Geo. A. Kendall 
John Knoell 
A. E. Littlechild 
H. J. Lee 
J. T. May 
Charles H. May 
Bert May 
Lou Mav 
E. S. Mitterling 
Pete Mitterling 
Harvey Milliken 



|. F. Mitterling 

E. N. Morse 
C. D. Marr 
Zach Marr 
Mark Mortensen 
C. C. McNish 

R. C. McDonald 

Ray Nye 

A. P. Overgard 

L. M. Ormsby 

C. E. Pascoe 

Dr. O. W. Peterson 

Otto Pohl 

Thad Quinn 

L. D. Richards 

F. H. Richards 
John L. Schurman 
Otto Schurman 

J. W. Stewart 
C. H. Stoner 
R. B. Schneider 
Dan Swanson 
Merrill Shephard 
Ray Thomas 
Fred \Y. Vaughn 
Fred Weachter 
Dick Welty 
C. M. Williams 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 199 

The first elective officers were : Ray Nye, exalted ruler ; H. D. Dun- 
ning, esteemed leading knight; I. P; Gage, esteemed loyal knight; J. W. 
Stewart, esteemed lecturing knight; L. B. Coman, secretary; G. M. Hin- 
man, treasurer; Harvey Milliken, esquire; Frank Hollenbeck, tiler; R. C. 
McDonald, chaplain ; John L. Schurman, inner guard. 

The 1920 officers are: R. H. Chappel, exalted ruler; Alexander Niel- 
sen, esteemed leading knight ; George R. Cheney, esteemed loyal knight ; 
Walter E. Jones, esteemed lecturing knight ; W. S. Balduff, secretary ; 
G. M. Hinman, treasurer; Cassius J. Reynolds, esquire; N. M. Hansen, 
tiler ; C. Christensen, chaplin ; Don B. Wintersteen, inner guard. The 
trustees are : J. W. Goff, O. F. Turner, H. S. Murphy. 

The Highlanders Order 

At the Town of Scribner is located a lodge of Highlanders known 
as Kilsyth, No. 376, which was formed August 14, 1903, with charter 
members as follows: Alfred Henatsch, W. G. Henatsch, George 
Menske, W. R. Dreuguis, A. C. Schien, R. S. Honey, Catherine Honey, 
J. H. Johnson, Augusta Johnson, J. E. Cusich, M. C. French, G. C. 
Stewart, Edgar Christy, B. C. Richards, Radoff Fischer, William Knoth, 
August Selle, P. W. Lockmiller, Margaretha Brown, A. G. Adams, 
Andrew Warwick. 

The present total membership of this order here is sixty-seven. 
They occupy a leased hall belonging to G. Koplin, on east side of Main 
Street. 

The first and present set of elective officers are as follows : 
First Title 1920 Officers 

Alfred Henatsch Past Illus. Protector. . .L. B. Spear 

Milton C. French Illus. Protector Elmer Hubler 

D. A. G. Adams Chief Counselor Margaretha Milligan 

Mrs. Catherine Honey. Worthy Evangel Hulda D. Ehlers 

George Mencke Secretary Elsie V. Ehlers 

Wm. R. Dreuguis Treasurer 

R. Fischer John Brass 



CHAPTER XX 

MILITARY HISTORY OF DODGE COUNTY 

Civil War — Loyalty of Settlers — Assassination of President 
Lincoln — The Indian Troubles— The Spanish-American War 
—The Great World War— 1917-18. 

Dodge County was not settled early enough to have a large enough 
population during the period of the Civil war to have sent many 
soldiers to that conflict. Her spirit of loyalty was, however, manifested 
to a good degree and all that could be spared manfully oflfered their 
services in defense of their country's flag. What few enlisted from 
this county were credited to Omaha and other points in the state, as 
no full company was sent from Dodge County. 

When the war had ended and victory was to the North and the 
slaves of the Southland were forever free, came that awful blow to 
the nation when President Lincoln was assassinated by J. Wilkes Booth, 
April 14, 1865. At Fremont solemn memorial services were held in the 
Congregational Church, an account of which appears under the head of 
"Days of Mourning." With few exceptions the people in this county 
were loyal and did what they could to support the men in the field. With 
the exception of a few Indian scares after the Civil war ended. Dodge 
County and this part of Nebraska in general were at peace with all man- 
kind until the difficulty arose between the United States and Spain in 
1898. (See below.) 

The Spanish-American War 

In the month of April, 1898, in Havana harbor, the warship Maine 
belonging to the United States was sunk and many lives lost and it was 
later proven to have been the work of Spain. From this incident war 
was declared on Spain by Congress under the administration of President 
William McKinley. It was largely a marine warfare and after a few 
weeks ended in the complete destruction of the Spanish war fleet in 
Manila Bay. The result of this short, decisive war was the independence 
of Cuba and the Philippines, and the haughty spirit of Spain broken. 

President McKinley, so far as available, used the National Guards 
for soldiers for the army he raised in so few weeks and which did such 
splendid service, both on land and sea. (See below.) 

Roster of Dodge County Soldiers 

The following list of officers and men who saw service in the Spanish- 
American war in 1889 from Dodge County has been compiled from the 
Adjutant-General's reports of Nebraska, and in the main may be consid- 
ered correct. (These men served in Company F, Third Nebraska Regi- 
ment) : 

Captain — McVicker, William J., aged 47 years. North Bend. 

First Lieutenant — Cummings, Peter B., aged 36, Fremont. 

Second Lieutenant — Thompson, William O.. aged 30, Fremont, 

First Sergeant — Abbott. John W. C, aged 33, Fremont. 
200 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 201 

Quartermaster Sergeant — Breitling, August W., aged 36, Fremont. 

Sergeants — Fuchs, Carl, aged 22, Fremont; Seider, Ernest, aged 18, 
Fremont. 

Corporals — Cruickshank, George C, aged 22, North Bend ; Burns, 
Willis P., aged 28, Scribner; Cook, Artie E., aged 21, Fontenelle ; Mines, 
Herman A., aged 29, North Bend ; Simmons, Charles D., aged 33, North 
Bend ; Williams, Wm. M., aged 19, Fremont ; Sweet, Clarence, aged 22, 
Fremont ; Jeffries, Solomon G., aged 29, Hooper ; Wilbur, Claude, aged 
26, North Bend ; Benson, Albert P., aged 40, Fremont. 

Wagoners — Panbone, Myron, aged 29, North Bend. 

Musicians — Glenn, Guy, aged 20, Fremont; Scott, Elmore J., aged 25. 
North Bend. 

Artificer — Becker, Otto, aged 32, Fremont. 

Privates 

Baughman, Charles, aged 24, Arlington. 

Burtz, Charles, aged 20, Fremont. 

Burtz, Henry, aged 22, Fremont. 

Cantiln, George, aged 26, Fremont. 

Collins, Millard, aged 40, Ames. 

Cook, Guy, Nickerson. 

Elm, William, aged 29, Fremont. ■ 

Esplin, Lucius, aged 21, Ames. 

Evans, Phinander C, aged 21, Fremont. 

Gorey, Thomas J., Jr., aged 23, North Bend. 

Hall, Nelson, aged 23, Fremont. 

Haverfield, Hayes, aged 20, North Bend. 

Jarmin, Harry aged 20, Fremont. 

Jones, Ira F., aged 21, Nickerson. 

Karges, John, aged 27, Ames. 

Krotchvel, John, aged 27, Dodge. 

Lehman, Charles, aged 21, North Bend. 

Lehman, James, aged 25, North Bend. 

Leist, Jacob, aged 23, North Bend. 

Leist, John, aged 24. North Bend. 

Loss, Isaac, aged 32, Fremont. 

Manzel, Charles, aged 22, Fremont. 

Meier, Henry W., aged 21, Hooper. 

Nelson, Chris, aged 18, Fremont. 

Olsen, Chris, aged 27, Hooper. 

Olsen, Lars, aged 32, Fremont. 

Petersen, John F., aged 26, Fremont. 

Pfaff, Daniel W., Hooper. 

Saare, Alfred H., aged 26, Scribner. 

Skippes, Fred, aged 32, Hooper. 

Strayer, George W., aged 29, North Bend. 

Strayer, Chauncy, aged 22, North Bend. 

Troutt, Henry M., aged 24, North Bend. 

Ulrich, John, aged 34, Dodge. 

Head, Charles, aged 22, Everett. Died September 3, 1898, in hospital. 

Underbill, Charles, aged 38, Scribner. 

Zajicek, Joseph, aged 27, Dodge. 

Zellers, William M., aged 18, Hooper. 



202 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Death List 

These two soldiers from Dodge County sacrificed their Hves : William 
O. Thompson, aged 30 years, Fremont, died September 12, 1898. Charles 
Head, died in the hospital. 

The World War 

This, the greatest war ever waged on the globe, was fought on Euro- 
pean soil between the German Empire and a score and more of allied 
nations, including the United States of America. For an extended 
account of the causes and final outcome of this conflict the military 
chapter in the Washington County section of this work will treat fully, 
hence is omitted in this connection. 

Dodge County did its full share in this great war for Democracy 
and in trying to forever obviate more wars on the face of the earth. 
Life was sacrificed and much material wealth expended between April, 
1917, and 1919, when the war ended its active field operations. 

Roster of Dodge County Soldiers 

The following is the "Honor Roll" or roster of soldiers who served 
in the late World war from Dodge County, Nebraska, as far as the 
present county records show. It may be stated, however, that a number 
more went from the county but entered the service outside this county, 
hence were not credited here. For additional names of those known to 
have enlisted away from this county, see later. No absolute list has ever 
been compiled as yet by either Nebraska or the War Department at Wash- 
ington, but the following roster must stand for the time being as correct 
a list as there is data from which to compile one : 
Allen, Harry H. Brown, Clarence Albert 

Anaston, Tom Benton, George A. 

Abraham, Arthur H. Baza, John 

Arnold, Harry Allen Bates, Bruce 

Arps, William Charles Bruton, Wm. Wilson 

Alberts, Herman Bayer, Henry August 

Anderson, Jacob Peter Bicak, Joseph 

Archard, Dwight Abner Book, Joseph William 

Andrews, Forest Le Roy Brazda, Daniel Steven 

Ackermann, Frederick Wm. Brown, Thomas Gilbert 

Augustus, Frederick H. Berry, Jettie Frank 

Adams, Frank B. Burnham, Leland Alfred 

Ashenbrenner, Albert Bodell, Myron Lome 

Adams, John L. Brandert, August Henry 

Adams, Roscoe C. Boehler, Leonard Victor 

Anderson, Dale Bradley, Frank P. 

Abel, Paul Charles Baker, Harlan K. 

Allen, Lewis Wm. Bauman, Charles D. 

Arthur, Lloyd Keith Bowersox, Franklin Peter 

Anderson, Clarence R. Brooke, Harry T. 

Anderson, Robert W. Bunker, Hubert Andrew 

Beaty, Edward Floyd Bauer, Peter L. 

Butterfield, Clarence Burke, John Joseph 

Brannon, Clyde R. Brown, John H. 

Bauman, Edwin George Bogner, Emil Mike 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



203 



Brudeen, Charles A. 
Beers, Raymond 
Buck, Carl Francis 
Block, David Michael 
Brokenicky, Frank John 
Blakslee, Edwin Wilder 
Basler, Wm. F. J. 
Beachler, Leo Henry 
Bucklin, Irving Barrett 
Benson, Roy A. 
Benfiel, Robert M. 
Brunning, Wm. George 
Behrens, Fred Henry 
Busch, Wm. M. A. 
Block, Emil E. 
Beachler, Fred L. 
Borcherding, Martin A. 
Brown, Erma 
Beach, Earl Glendy 
Brown, George Raymond 
Bullock, Charles 
Boldt, Alfred C. 
Bart, Edward 
Brown, Thomas John 
Bennett, Marshall 
Bronson, Leonard G. 
Busch, John Ernest 
Blair, Glenn Dale 
Bullock, Frank 
Boyd, Wilmer Warnock 
Baldwin, Arthur 
Borg, Gustav Adolph 
Chism, Clinton Roy 
Curran, Leo Leonard 
Curry, James H. 
Chapman, Wm. Thomas 
Croghan, Cecil La Verne 
Campbell, Geo. D. 
Cheney, Byron Malcolm 
Coash, Tenis Philip 
Crowder, Ernest Guy 
Cook, Addison Benj. 
Carpenter, Donovan Harry 
Christensen, Albert 
Cobble, Beaureguard B. 
Connelly, Emmet L. 
Christensen, Frank 
Clark, Ed Alden 
Courtright, Carroll C. 
Carstenes, Ralph 
Cohn, Louis 
Cheney, Robert 
Crooks, Carroll E. 
Crocker, Louis Ray 
Carstens, Alfred Hugo 



Comer, Isaac. 
Campsey, Joseph 
Carlson Albert Gustave 
Cavender, Frank Edson 
Clement, Albert 
Cotterell, Roy 
Clevenger, Harry Horace 
Carlson, John Edwin 
Cohn, Samuel Francis 
Cuseck, Harry C. 
Curran, William John 
Christensen, Anton 
Cregg, Fred 
Christensen, Fred 
Christensen, Henert N. 
Curran, Edward Francis 
Chappell, Roy Henry 
Carpenter, Earl A. 
Chard, Welton Peter 
Chase, John Warren 
Cusick, Clarence 
Capesius, Peter 
Copple, Sumner E. 
Chambers, Charles H. 
Chapman, John Jose 
Cushman, Chelsea C. 
Cover. Joseph 

Conrad, Benjamin Franklin 
Challman, Jr., Samuel K. 
Cochran, Thomas Murray 
Carroll, John A. 
Controres, Francisco 
Campbell, Lynn Gerner 
Christensen, Martin C. 
Chapman, Wm. F. 
Carstens. Frank Wm. 
Cain, John 
Cobble, Houston I. 
Chambers, Thorne E. 
Cerv, Lewis 
Curtis, George Logan 
Dobrovolny, Jaroslay 
Demsey, Leo Joseph 
Duhigg, Michal J. 
Draemel, Harry O. G. 
Danner, Fred A. 
Dolberg, Oscar 
Daubert. Edward 
Dodge, Herbert G. 
Dolan, Edward M. 
Duffield, Clarence A. 
Diederich, Michael 
Denham, Sanford Ray 
Dau, Peter John 
Durham, Donald 



204 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



Doyle, Patrick Ambrose 
Dworak, Frank 
Divine, James Curtiss 
Doerr, Harold Frank 
Donegan, Frank A. 
Daum, Frank Joseph 
Dorr, Burton Leland 
Draper, Arthur R. 
Doerr, Glenn H. 
Davis, Glenn Burnie 
Dengler, Frederich A. 
Davis, William Lewis 
Dake, Charles 
Doerr, De Forest J. 
Dahl, Clarence Henry 
Douglas, Clinton H. 
Davis, Elwin Clair 
Dana, Jr., Herbert R. 
Drake, Earl Le Roy 
Emanuel, Patrick T. 
Ernest, Tom 
Estergard, Thomas 
Easter, Earl Joseph 
Evanofif, Vasil 
Ehlers, Wm. John 
Endicotte, Jesse J. 
Ehlers, Walter H. 
Edelman, Louis H. 
Egbers, Carl 
Egbers, Willie 
Ehninger, E. R. 
Emerson, Paul 
Eidam, Clarence C. 
Emerson, Joseph 
Ehlers, Edwin E. 
Ellerbrock. Orville R. 
Eskilsen, Stanley J. 
Edelmaier, Raymond A. 
Farrari, Jacob 
Frederickson. Axel A. 
Franks, Harold L. 
Fitzsimmons, Lovane L. 
Ferguson, Harry Jay 
Flor, Martin E. 
Fry, Harry Wesley 
Flora, Grover Cleveland 
Frederickson, Edward William 
Farmer, Earl Roy 
Fredericks, Harry 
Frost, Irving K. 
Fowler, Alfred W. 
Forest, James M. 
Fleckenstine, William Vincent 
Farley Harry G. 
Flick, Charles R. 



Foley, John Patrick 
Feinauer, William 
Foutes, George Gust 
Farnloff, Ben Eugene 
Ferree, Charles 
Fraggos, George 
Frost, Hubert M. 
Fowler, James Humphrey 
Fitzsimmons, Rollin J. 
Farrell, Leonard J. 
Gunther, Joseph 
Gleason, James J. 
Golding, Joe K. 
Gaddie, Charles Edwin 
Gahagen, Guy Calander 
Gage, Frank Wheaton 
Gutch, Jr., WilHam 
Garfield, Leo Eugene 
Gunderman. Stuart A. 
Gumb, Phillip G. 
Gaughen, Michael R. 
Goss, Carl 
Gerwick, George F. 
Gerke, William 
Garfield, George Perry 
Guefifroy, Charles H. 
Gottsch, Henry F. 
Graham, Kent Wallace 
Gasnike, Jo 
Gaines, Clyde Cecil 
Ginakis, William G. 
Green, Russell E. 
Gorey, Michael 
Gibson, Charles Marion 
Gage, Ralph Harold 
Grubbs, Heavey W. 
Garrison, John 
Gilmore, Hubert Leonard 
Gribas, George 
Hopnuk, Tom 
Henze, Le Roy Arnold 
Harton, Omar A. 
Hartwig, Wm. F. 
Heine, Harman 
Hawley, Jesse 
Howard, Earl Harry 
Hansen, Adolph 
Hull, Jesse Lowery 
Hanson. Donald Everett 
Hayes, Harvey 
Hinricks, Kurt Theodore 
Herman, Ralph Harry 
Howard, Claud 
Huffaker, Irvine Harold 
Hartwig, Herman John 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



Hutchison, James Robert 
Hrabak, Howard Frank 
Hornyak, Oscar 
Hirsch, Ferdinand John 
Hauser, Herbert Saunders 
Hammond, Le Ross 
Hrouda, Robert Jerome 
Haslam, George Alfred 
Hoffman, Joe 
Hainer, William 
Holcomb, Kelly Lee 
Hesse, Jr., Chas. G. 
Hansen, Otto Christian 
Hawkins, Mark Powell 
Herman, Edward Thomas 
Hick, Earl 

Hollister, Frank Finch 
Hausner, Gerald 
Horn, Logan Albert 
Hackstock, Louis 
Hausner, William George 
Hecht, Jacob 
Hanson, Arthur 
Hendricksen, George 
Hoppel, Claud H. 
Hemme, Harry 
Holmes, Bernard 
Hoover, Benjamin Aaron 
Hund, William F. 
Hodges, Henry Claussen 
Holmberg, Erick Hugo 
Hansen, Roy Carl 
Hartman, Paul Chauncey 
Hasen, Jens Marinus 
Harms, August Frank 
Hanson, James Rogers 
Hendrichson, Lloyd Wm. 
Herzberg, Arthur 
Hansen, Peter J. 
Hoadley, Herbert Eugene 
Hanson, Louis Peter 
Hatcher, James Floyd 
Hagerbaumer, William A. 
Havel, Anton Frank 
Hansen, James 
Holten, Ulrik 
Holtberg, Wesley A. 
Heckman, Clarence E. 
Hager, Lester Roy 
Honey, Roy R. S. 
Huntman, George H. 
Haines, John R. 
Hanshel, Herman H. 
Hoffman, James 
Hansen, Edward B. 



Horak, Anton 
Horak, Joseph 
Holmes, William N. 
Houghan, Elmer Charles 
Hoaglan, Roy 
Hensil, James Henry 
Hatch, Orville Ernest 
Hickman, John Clarence 
Harrison, Bailey W. 
Hetmanek, August R. 
Hansen, Walter 
Howard, Gerald 
Hammond, Ross Everett 
Hager, Ely Benjamin 
Her, Leonard 
Jeffers, Ivan Raymond 
Johnson, Lenard Theodore 
Jorden, Fred Carl 
Johnsen, John Henry 
Johnson, William Robert 
Jensen, Max 
Jones, Ollie 
Jones, Lawrence C. 
Johnson, Wm. 
Jensen, Eric Wilhelm 
Janowski, Emil Ewald 
Johnson, Victor C. 
Jensen, William Bryan 
Jones, Irvin Edward 
Janssen, Fred 
Jones, Carl Preston 
Jensen, Ole 
Jensen, Carl Erik 
Jenssen, Charles Bernard 
Johnson, Frederick L. 
Johnsen, John Peter 
Jansen, Viggo Alfred 
Jorden, William Herman 
Johnson, Jason F. 
Jensen, Victor Emanuel 
Jensen, Hans Peter 
Jacobs, William S. 
Jones, Willis Ernest 
Jeseph, Leo G. 
Jenkins, Henry 
Jackson, Lloyd S. 
Jensen, Jamie 
Johnson, Hilbert Louis 
Johnson, Benjamin H. 
Johnson, Walter Emil 
Johnson, Charles Fall 
Jensen, Arthur 
Jonas, Charles Edward 
Jones, Forest Harry 
Jensen, Arthur E. 



206 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



Jensen, Peter 
Johnson, Daniel 
Jennings, Floyd Everet 
Johnson, Ray Walter 
Janowski, Albert 
Jensen, Chris 
Krause, John A. 
King, Lloyd 
Krupinsky, Archie 
Knoell, Albert Raymond 
Kremser, Harry E. 
Krupinsky, Benjamin 
Kerstein, Edward Ludwig 
Kinder, Geo. Washington 
Kroenke, Frank 
Kostlan, Alvin 
Kallenbach, Harold Arthur 
Kallman, John Milton 
Kallenbach, William J. 
Keene, Harold D. 
Kastrau, Albert Herman 
Kalk, Benjamin F. 
Keeler, Horace George 
Kouba, Robert Fred 
Kerlin, Lloyd Wyman 
Keller, Samuel Luther 
Kern, Marion John 
Kruger, Rudolph Frederick 
Kiel, John Raymond 
Klare, George C. 
Kriz, Jerome D. 
King, Arthur J. 
Kirtley, William Beauford 
Kallstrom, Herman 
Katz, Harrison Raymond 
Korbles, Paul 
Konge, Christian Olsen 
Kelly, John Greggory 
Kuehm, Arnold Carl 
KuU, William 
Koehler, Jr., William 
Katsumis, James 
Kalinsusky, Stanislaus 
Kappeler, Jacob Carl 
Koons, Harry Jay 
Larson, Edward Peter 
Lockwood, Ward Dustin 
Lundberg, Alvin T. 
Lee, Victor Carlton 
Larison, Victor 
Lehmer, Warren Meyers 
Leister. William 
Lund, L. Noble 
Larson, Elmer Oliver 
Libbert, Theodore 



Lane, Asa King 
Londot, Camille 
Luther, Carl Oscar 
Lunan, Frank Alexander 
Lukl, Charles 
Laderlee, Joseph 
La Violette, James 
Looniis, Howard Waldron 
Lichtenberg, Joseph J. 
Larson, Julius Oliver 
Lawrence, Wilfred S. 
Loomis, Wayne Victor 
Ladehoff, Gilbert C. 
Lange, Wm. J. 
Larson, Kimball E. 
Larson, Ernest Gustav 
Lou, Charles Fred 
Larsen, Lars A. E. 
Lanwermeyer, Joseph 
Larsen, Arthur Harry 
Leigers, Henry J. 
Luther, Howard John 
Lawrence, Albert F. 
Launer, Jacob G. 
Larsen, Ben F. 
Lazazzars, Michael 
Likousis, Gust 
Lea, Fred Edgar 
McHenry, Benjamin Harrison 
McGee, Pelham 
McConnell, Raymond 
McGuire, George Edwin 
McFarlane, Harris 
Mcintosh, Earl 
Mcintosh, Vern 
McNamara, Walter P. 
McKennan, John E. 
McDill, Homer Kester 
Meyer, Otto Hansen 
Maring, Ralph 
Moyer, Miles Foster 
Millar, Harold Allison 
Maben, Luther Benjamin 
Morrow, James Henry 
Madden, Louis 
Murry, George Roland 
Moeller, John Christ 
Minarik, Mike Lambert 
Mohr, John Frederick 
Mrsny, Charles Adolph 
Millar, Wilmer Leland 
Metzinger, George Ross 
Mehaffey, Raymond Jerome 
Millar, Gilbert Alexander 
Miller, Earl Oliver 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



207 



Monnich, Bernard C. 
Meyer, John D. 
Maxwell, Charles V. 
Maiker, Fred 
Moseley, Frank A. 
Mehon, Bluff Earl 
Meyer, Henry F. A. 
Morlin, Gottfried Leon 
Meister, William Henry 
Marquardt, Gustav Carl 
Meyer, Henry 
Milhken, James Dale 
Mortensen, Alex Emil 
Madsen, Alfred Peter 
Mortensen, Laurits 
Miller, Nathan 
Mason, Le Roy George 
Moench, August 
Moffett, Orville Leone 
Martin, Francis Bernette 
Martin, Bruce 
Monnich, Edward Jacob 
Mulloni, Arthuro 
Mines, Robert August 
Melcher, William Ludwig 
Miller, Jesse A. 
Matthews, William Valentine 
Mahlin, Eugene L. 
Moore, Benjamin Allin 
May, Richard, Col. 
Muselbach, Edwin 
Murninghan. Peter J. 
Morris, Earl Calvin 
Manni, Adolph 
Miller, Charles 
Morgan, George B. A. 
Montrey, Victor Le Roy 
Miller, Clarence Homer 
Marek, Rudy 
Marek, Frank 
Marquis, Harry Stanton 
Muir, Harry Davis 
Malloy, Le Roy Edward 
Morris, Robert Nathaniel 
Marquardt, Elbert 
Mattson, Albert 
Metteis, Henry 
Marr, Lewis Keene 
Moseley, Wm. 
Morrs, Scotty J. 
Melton, Ernest 
Martinek, Frank 
Nicholson, Bert 
Nolte, Leonard 
Nielsen, Harry M. C. 



Nelson, JuHus W. 
Nelson, Carl Herbert 
Nusz, Stoddard Goddell 
Nelson, Niels Christian 
Nelsen, Theodore Marius 
Nelson, Clinton E. 
Nelson, Alvy 
Nelson, Chris Beck 
Nelson, Edward Oliver 
Nugent, Leo 
Newlon, Clyde Arthur 
Nelson, Charles F. 
Olson, Gustus L. 
O'Connor, Harold Joseph 
Ohmsted, Grover 
Olson, Ivan 
Oaks, Harry Richard 
Olson, Jacob 
O'Hare, Willie 
O'Connor, Patrick 
Owens, Ray F. 
Odstrcil, Frank 
O'Donnell, Ernest J. 
Olson, John E. A. 
Olson, Louis 
Olmstead, Guy Arthur 
Payne, Roland J. 
Petersen, Peter A. 
Peterson, Luther A. 
Parchen, Henry E. 
Parsons, Robert Ira 
Peterson, Ernest 
Pfeiffer, Herbert Harry 
Poole. Clarre Othello 
Porter, Edwin Le Roy 
Pierce, Russell Kurtz 
Phillips, Louis Harold 
Parr, Joe William 
Peterson, Harry B. 
Pribnow, August B. 
Phillips, Vernon L. 
Pegden, Carl Raymond 
Pinckney, Thomas Lee 
Pitzer, Joseph Chris 
Pederson, Anton 
Pruss, Edward 
Pettit, Ray 
Powell, Wm 
Pederson, Frank 
Perkins, Frank S- 
Poppe, Calus F. 
Peck, Ralph Frank 
Porter, Guy Matthew 
Paulsen, Louis Peter 
Popa, Frank 



208 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



Pyeatte, Elmer Crozin 
Pierce, Lawrence Pillsbury 
Parkert, Albert Charles 
Porter, Charles Earl 
Price, Cratton M. 
Pott, Henry 
Pocholnke, Nick 
Peters, Alfred Wesley 
Peters, Oswald 
Peterson, Paul Kline 
Pott, Edmond John 
Pollock, Joe Irving 
Phillips, Frank Leslie 
Quigley, Ralph Harrison 
Rowe, William Raymond 
Rasmussen, Fred L. 
Rasmussen, Alfred 
Rasmussen, John 
Realph, Harvey W. 
Rose, Alex 
Ruppert, Frank 
Rowe, Arthur Morton 
Robinson, Russell Alex 
Rink, Arnold 
Royer, Charles W. 
Rasmussen, Louis P. 
Royer, Milo C. 
Ralfs, Charlie 
Rohn, Henry Edward 
Reynolds, Cassius J. 
Richards, Henry Herman 
Rubinek, La Verne F. 
Rapp, Herman 
Rosech, Geo. F. 
Rasmussen, Victor 
Remm, Wm. 
Robertson, Guy A. 
Ruzicka, William Frank 
Robertson, Earlyon Howard 
Ruwe, Elmer C. H. 
Reichman, Walter Chris 
Reitz, James Donald 
Robertson, Anson J. 
Ronin, Charles Ehnes 
Robinson, Clay Aaron 
Robins, Edward John 
Robinson, Sumner Willis 
Rogers, Roy Elmer 
Roberts, Earl Joe 
Randall, Albert Ray 
Robinson, Jay Miles 
Ray, Logan 

Rasmussen, William Parrott 
Rose, Alex 
Risor, Elmer William 



Ruff, Emil J. D. 
Rump, Harry Frank 
Realph, William Bryan 
Roush, Harry Albert 
Roesch, Leo Joe 
Reninger, John Albert 
Spath, Ray Louis 
Smith, Jo T. 
Stark, Ben Bowden 
Shanahan, William Lyle 
Schurman, Teobold H. 
Shanahan, Leo John 
Singer, Anton John 
Smith, Fred L. 
Snover, Walter 
Schreck, Peter 
Stenvers, Albert J. D. 
Srb, Gilbert Joseph 
Smith, W. F. 
Stubbert, William Fred 
Schultz, Carl Henry 
Schneider, Charles 
Scott, Charles Francis 
Schellenberg, August C. 
Schellenberg, Henry C. 
Steen, Raymond Alfred 
Sorensen, John Mark 
Srb, Hugo Frank 
Shull, Clair Alex 
Stevens, Harry Everett 
Schreier, Clifford C. 
Slater, Dwight Edward 
Sears, Alfred Richard 
Scharf, Albert 
Steil, Henry Adolph 
Seger, George D. 
Siders, Cyrus W. 
Tillman, John Wm. 
Tiegler, Jr., Henry 
Tillma, Arthur C. 
Turner, Harvey Ray 
Tienken, Charles 
Timpe, Conrad Christoful 
Timpe, Fritz Arthur 
Tiedeman, Fred C. 
Thomas, Wm. Earl 
Theede, Harry George 
Tedford, Lee Brainard 
Tillman, Cornelius Herman 
Temple, Thomas 
Torrey, David Hjalmar 
Tatman, Earl Ray 
Thomas, Cecil Charles, Col. 
Thomas, Gordon R., Col. 
Soil, Ludwig L. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



209 



Softley, Bruce J. 
Scott, Rex L. 
Shaffer, John A. 
Smith, Irwin F. 
Steen, Earl C. 
Stewart, Augustus L. 
Smith, Charles Herald 
Schmale, Carl Henry 
Spath, Arthur W. 
Sorby, Lloyd A. 
Snyder, Roy Hamilton 
Studnicka, William Ciellie 
Schlote, Wilmer Herman 
Struve, Fred John H. 
Sellhorst, Joe 
Strube, Fred F. 
Sager, James William 
Sullantrop, Alois 
Steil, John Ernst 
Schmoldt, August 
Sinamark, George 
Soukigian, Hagop 
Strand, Barton 
Stuck, Charles I. 
Stewart, James J. 
Spotts, Earl K. 
Sempeck, Frank James 
Spangler, Louis 
Schroeder, Edwin Wm. 
Slack, Henry Delno 
Smith, Con 
Seger, George D. 
Stark, Elmer Emil 
Sterner, Lloyd Henry 
Schulz, Emil J. 
Swanson, Charlie 
Sorenson, Mamius 
Scott, Forest Alexander 
Stecker, Joe James 
Sturbaum, Joe L. 
Strand, Walter Theodore 
Schlomer, Wm. G. F. 
Saunders, Harry B. 
Shomshor, Edwin David 
Stell, Irvin Clark 
Sheeley, Ira 
Sander, Wm. E. 
Schmidt, Wm. Fred 
Stecker, Arnold C. 
Swartz, Arthur Franklin 
Swanson, Kristian Wm. 
Smith, Floyd A. 
Stock, Louis Andrew 
Softley, Arthur 
Sandberg, Henry 



Stone, Clarence Lewis 
Sorby, Roy Seal 
Snyder, Vival Dow 
Schwab, Robert Louis 
Strube. Will 

Schurman, Harry Herman 
Schwanke, Herman John 
Softley, Earl Henry 
Simmerman, Lenel Ely 
Steinkoff, Lester D. 
Sours, Hobert 
Spangler, Howard Andrew 
Stenvers, Wm. Henry 
Spangler, Mason T. 
Stevenson. Arthur 
Schwab, Elmer 
Saeger, Paul John A. 
Schumacher, Wm. L. 
Schoeneck, Hilbert 
Salroth, Iver 
Scott, Everett Floyd 
Siggers, Phillip Harold 
Thompsen, Thomas Fred 
Till, Rex 
Tesar, John Jim 
Totten, Wm. V. 
Thomas, James, Rector, Col. 
Timpe, Somer Eugene 
Thornton, Jesse E. 
Tiemken, Gustav H. A. 
Theede, Clarence Irving 
Thorn, Wm. Harris 
Trumbull, Drayton Le Roy 
Thomsen, Carl 
Uehling, Arthur L. 
Ulcek, Joseph 
Uehling, Harold Theo. 
Vrba, Charles 
Valk, John 
Vitek, Emil 

Van Anda, Ralph Woodward 
Van Cleave, Leslie D. 
Van Loo, John 
Vrba, Adolph Frank 
Villias, Geo. J. 
Walraven, Edwin Wilder 
Waterman, Albert Herman 
Walter, Joseph 
Wallien, Carl Rudolph 
Weist, Karl Anton 
Williams, Edward J. J. 
Wiegle, Herman A. 
Wagner, Ralph Roy 
Warner, Louis 
Winkleman, Ernest Fred 



210 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



Wegner, Jr., Win. 
Witt, Rudolph 
Wormwood, Jay 
Ward, Con Luther 
With, Holger Pedersen 
Winther, Holgar Carl 
Woslager, Tony J. 
Wedegren, Earl Irving 
VVhitford, Le Roy Earl 
Wright, Victor Paul 
Wright, James H. 
Westphalen, Paul Henry 
Wintersteen, Glen Dale 
Wolf, Fred H. R. 
Willeberg, Einer Johannes 
Wheelock, Leon 
Wise, Floyd Baker 
Weidner, Leo N. 
Weldon, Floyd 
Woods, Perry 
Wickert, Albert 
Wolff, James C. 
Weidner, Wm. L. 
Warner, Joe Andrew 
Wintersteen, James Horace 
Wright, Carl Thomas 
Winn, Victor 
Wells, Jess C. 



Weihe, Wm. Gottlob 
Webb, Henry C. 
Weimann, Oscar J. 
Wallick, Gilbert Roy 
Whitford, Arthur John 
Whitton, George 
Whitcomb, Leslie L. 
Wheaton, Frank G. 
Ward, John Wesley 
\\'ilson, Leo 

Weisberger, Otto Lawrence 
Waterman, John Herman 
Wegner, Oscar B. 
Wilch, Charles C. 
W'entzel, Larry Adam 
Watt, Arthur 
Wecke, Joseph F. 
Wertz, Benjamin H. 
Yoder, Jacob Samuel 
Yoder, Jay Arnold 
Young, William James 
Yates, Jr., Walter S. 
Zwickey, Harry John 
Zemlicka, Clarence 
Zuber, Herman 
Zevitz, Sam 
Zellers, Henry Clayton 
Zellers, Monroe Theodore 



Financial Aid in Dodge County 



Besides the brave sons who left the homes and firesides of this 
county, to aid in putting down the World war, the loyal citizens in 
each township of the county freely gave of their wealth, and some even 
at quite a sacrifice. The following shows totals for War bonds War 
stamps and Red Cross funds. The county and every section of it, 
raised more than their quota, and a handsome balance was left on hand 
to be used as needs may require. 

These contributions included the noble work of the Young Men's 
Christian Association, the Young Women's Christian Association, War 
Camp service, the Salvation Army, Jewish Welfare, the A. L. A., 
Armenian, Jewish Relief and Near East work, in all amounting to 
one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000). 

Of the five Liberty loans in Dodge County the records show : 

Loan Quota Subscription 

First Liberty loan $524,000 $568,000 

Second Liberty loan 873,300 868,150 

Third Liberty loan 762.800 1,375,250 

Fourth Liberty loan 1,670,000 1,740,650 

Victory Liberty loan 1 ,353,800 1 ,489,050 

Totals $5,183,900 $6,041,100 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 211 

The records of the sales of War Savings securities for Dodge County 
show the following: 

To November 1. 1918, $611,295. Quota for 1918, $442,900. Jan- 
uary 1 to August 31, 1919, $18,915. No quota assigned for 1919. 

The State of Nebraska gave for the above savings securities 
$27,450,189.85, or $21.18 per capita up to December 31, 1918. 

Red Cross Work for County of Dodge 

Dodge Chapter of American Red Cross was called upon to raise, 
in the various "drives," approximately $125,000, but so eager were the 
good people of this county to aid the Red Cross interests, that it was 
found when the war ended that this county had nearly doubled its 
quota — a record to be proud of by the present and future generations 
who may look back and read this record in the annals of the county. 



CHAPTER XXI 

CRIMES COMMITTED 

Dodge County has never been the scene of a large number of 
revolting crimes within its history of more than threescore years, how- 
ever, it has had some cases which should be recorded in this volume. 

First Murder 

The first murder known to have been committed in Dodge County 
occurred at Fremont in 1870. A man named Smith, proprietor of the 
St. Charles Hotel, was engaged in a dispute over a ten cent feed bill, 
at the hotel barn, with one Gallon of West Point. Blows followed and 
Smith picked up a neckyoke and struck Gallon over the head killing 
him almost instantly. He was arrested, tried and convicted of murder 
in the second degree and received a sentence of ten years in the 
penitentiary. But before he was taken to prison he made his escape. 
Al Norris was jailer at that date and he was induced to enter the 
cell to play "razzle dazzle" and when there was overpowered, the convict 
escaped and was never afterward seen. 

H. B. Hoxie was prosecutor and Z. Shed, attorney for the defense. 

St. Louis Wife Poisoning Case 

In 1877 what was known as the "Dr. St. Louis wife poisoning 
case" blotted the fair pages of Dodge County court records. This 
was a premeditated murder of a man's bosom companion — his wife. 
The case appeared in court October 12, 1877. N. H. Bell and John 
Corrigan appeared for the murderer. Marlow and Munger were 
appointed to look after the State's cause. The case lasted a week and 
finally went to the jury who could not agree. The following March 
the case was tried in Saunders County. He was convicted, sentenced 
to be hanged and on the morning of the date he was to have been 
executed, he hearing the sherifi^'s footsteps to take him to the scaffold 
deliberately pulled a revolver he had hidden about his person and shot 
himself, so that two days later he died, thus ended the miserable exist- 
ence of a wife-murderer and suicide. 

PuLsiFER Murder Case 

By all odds the darkest, bloodiest and most uncalled for murder 
in all Nebraska up to 1892, happened in Dodge County near the little 
Village of Crowell in 1889 and is known as the "Pulsifer Murder" for 
which Charles Shepherd and Christ Furst, two very young men finally 
sutifered the death penalty at Fremont, December 10, 1889, at 6:30 P. M. 
Carl C. Pulsifer, a grain buyer at Crowell and a time honored citizen 
was murdered by two of his neighborhood young men. He lived on 
his large farm three-fourths of a mile from Crowell and used generally 
to walk to and from his business place to his home ; the part of the 
way he went over a private pathway and the remainder on the F. E. & 
M. V. railway tracks. It was at the point where he left the track to 
go cross-lots where the foul deed was committed. He was found shot 
212 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 213 

through the heart, his person and pockets rifled while his assassins 
had fled. When he was yet on the grade his youngest son, John Pul- 
sifer, who had gone on home in advance of his father a few minutes, 
saw him coming home and noticed he had a lantern. In a few minutes 
the boy heard three shots from a revolver whereupon he at once started 
in the direction of the light which soon disappeared. He pressed on 
speedily and upon nearing the fatal spot tried to find his father but 
could not. Finally he came to the narrow culvert along the track and 
there found his father lying on the grade with his feet in the ditch. 
The shattered lantern lay by him. He lay upon his back, his white 
face looking up into the starry heavens. The boy approached the silent 
form (his heart in his throat) his face blanched and a sickening dread 
came over him. He had already divined what had happened. He 
touched the form before him. He called, "father, father," there was 
no reply, no movement, no sign of life ! He felt his father's pulse 
but there was no response. He placed his hand over his father's 
heart and there found blood flowing freely. Then he knew his father 
was dead. 

Alarm was given — the murdered man was an honored member of 
the Masonic Order and a bright light in that order. He was beloved 
by all, and in less than two hours hundreds of men were on the alert 
to detect the murderers. The second day after the murder the guilty 
men were captured, one in the morning and the other later on. They 
had fled and been at various villages and stopped at a farm house for 
bread but finally returned to their old hiding place along the Elkhorn, 
in the neighborhood in which they lived. They were brought to Fremont. 
The same night they confessed their guilt t6 a newspaper reporter of 
the Fremont Tribune. They wanted to rob the man but only got a few 
dollars and claimed a sort of self-defense in shooting, while one of them 
played the insanity dodge for a time. 

County Attorney Loomis and Frick and Dollzal prosecuted in 
Shepherd's case and T. M. Franse of West Point defended. 

Fifty men were called before a petit jury could be obtained. The 
twelve were: John Farrell, J. A. Kline, Joel Forbes, John Thomson, 
Dan Monday, Reuben Collins, James Stover, Henry Weisenbach, James 
Killeen, James Jacobson, John Braman, Henry Hartford. 

The trial lasted a week and resulted in a verdict of "murder in the 
first degree." Judge Marshall tried this case. 

Furst's trial came on before the same judge, C. Hollenbeck appear- 
ing for the defense. The trial lasted three days longer than Shepherd's 
and resulted in the same verdict. The jury consisted of W. E. Haw- 
kins, G. W. L. Mitchell, James Morgan, Joseph Pollock, J. H. Blaver, 
W. H. Brunner, Henry Mayer, Nels Martinson, J. E. Jones, J. H. 
Caldwell, D. A. Boggs, George Caskey. 

These cases went before the Supreme Court and were sustained. 
Then Governor Thayer was implored to save them from hanging — all 
was done that could be done in fairness and justice, but it was deter- 
mined they must hang and June 9, 1891, they were executed within 
the jail at Fremont, between the hours of ten and eleven o'clock. The 
militia was on guard. 

A very striking coincidence in this connection was the singular fact 
that the murdered man was near neighbor and "homesteader," living 
close to Shepherd's parents prior to the birth of the man who finally 
took his life. When Charles E. Shepherd's mother was about to deliver 
him in childbirth, Mr. Pulsifer volunteered to ride against an angry 



214 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

storm in cold weather for a physician at West Point. Then to think 
that twenty-one years later, this same boy should take the life of one 
who had aided in bringing him into the world. 

Famous Crimin.al Cases 

Dodge County has furnished its quota of celebrated criminal cases to 
the history of the State of Nebraska. It would be utterly impossible in 
the "space" allowed to give a complete review of the noted tragedies and 
dramas that have been enacted in Dodge County criminal courts within 
the past fifty years, and, of necessity, the writer must limit the recital to 
a brief narrative of the facts and with but a passing casual glance at the 
principal actors. Judicial investigation with a view of discovery and 
punishment of crime as they involve the highest interests of society, always 
attracts an attention commensurate with their importance. 

The law provides for the preservation of the testimony and the 
records, and the public press chronicles the "side lights" but it is the 
actual witnesses who are thrilled by these dramas of real life. There is 
nothing in the Grecian drama that surpasses the touching pathos in the 
trial of men and women charged with the graver offenses of the law. 

We enter the halls of justice ; we behold the learned judge and watch 
the solemn faces of the jury, the final arbiters of whether the prisoner 
shall again breathe the blessed air of freedom or suffer the extreme and 
dire penalties of the law. We see the pale-faced prisoner; behold the 
anguish of relatives and friends; hear the dramatic, eloquent appeals of 
famous lawyers fighting on one side for conviction; on the other for 
acquittal, and then your heart stops beating when the clerk starts to read 
the verdict which sends the accused back to wife or child or mother 
or friends, or to the scaffold or the dark and dreary walls of prison 
cells. 

In every murder case, the sociologist, the criminologist, the judge 
and the lawyer — in fact, every man or woman who attends the trial, will 
find open before him many new phases of human life. 

The first celebrated murder case tried in Dodge County was the case 
of Dr. George J. St. Louis, charged with murdering his wife by wilfully 
and maliciously administering to her arsenic. There remain but few 
official records and nearly all of the witnesses and actors have passed on. 
The crime was committed on the 30th day of May, 1877, and on the 
2d day of June, 1877, a coroner's inquest was held in Fremont by 
Doctor Crabbs, the medical partner of Doctor St. Louis. George 
Blanchard, Peter Denny, E. C. Usher, D. B. Short, M. H. Hinman 
and George Marshall composed the coroner's jury. The preliminary 
hearing was held before L. M. Keene, county judge, and the defendant 
was bound over to the District Court for trial. The defendant was 
tried in the District Court of Dodge County in the months of 
January and February, 1878. The prosecution was conducted by N. B. 
Reese, district attorney and later chief justice of the Supreme Court of 
the State of Nebraska, who was assisted by Marlow & Munger of Fre- 
mont. N. H. Bell of Fremont, John Carrigan of Blair and Charles Brown 
of Omaha defended St. Louis. He was put on trial in Dodge County 
on the 5th day of February, 1878, but the jury did not agree upon a 
verdict and was discharged. The case was then taken upon a change 
of venue to Saunders County, where a trial was had in April, 1878. 
A verdict of murder in the first degree was returned against St. Louis 
and the date of execution of the sentence of death fixed for September 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 215 

20, 1878. The judgment of the District Court was affirmed and the 
execution of the sentence was suspended until Friday, April 18, 1879. 
The late E. F. Gray and W. A. Gray prosecuted the appeal for the 
defendant to the Supreme Court. A postmortem examination was con- 
ducted upon the body of Mrs. St. Louis and a subsequent analysis by a 
most able and accomplished chemist and toxicologist. Professor Haines 
of the Rush Medical College, Chicago, who discovered over nine grains 
of arsenic in the stomach of the dead woman. The late N. H. Bell, one 
of the most celebrated criminal lawyers of the West, conducted the cross- 
examination of Doctor Haines and the thrilling contest between these 
two brilliant men is well remembered by many Fremont citizens, namely: 
John Hauser, L. D. Richards, John Goff and Nat Smails. 

On the evening of the 17th day of April, 1879, John Hauser of 
Fremont was sent over to the county jail by Smails and Weedin, edi- 
tors of the Fremont Daily Herald, to secure from Doctor St. Louis 
tickets to the execution which was to be held in Wahoo the following 
day. Doctor St. Louis refused to give tickets to the editors, stating that 
he thought they had not treated him fairly, but was willing to give 
Mr. Hauser a ticket, which Mr. Hauser politely refused to accept. 
Robert Gregg, then sheriff, insisted upon Mr. Hauser remaining over 
night with the condemned man. Mr. Hauser distinctly remembers every 
incident that occurred during that fateful night. He described vividly 
how nervous Doctor St. Louis appeared and about midnight insisted 
on Mr. Hauser sending for his sister-in-law, Mrs. John B. Geitzen. 
Mr. Hauser complied with the request and brought Mrs. Geitzen to the 
jail. About half past 1 o'clock on the morning of April 19th, Mr. Gregg 
came in and told Doctor St. Louis that he was ready to start for Wahoo 
and for the doctor "to put his boots on." St. Louis said to the sheriff: 
"Must I go now?" and walked into his cell, secured a pistol that he had 
secreted, and shot himself in the head. He lingered from that time until 
Sunday noon following, when he died. Hundreds of Fremont citizens 
in the meantime viewed the stricken criminal. 

The case of Charles C. Carleton, charged with the murder of August 
Gothman, on the 8th day of June, 1893, near Ames, Nebraska, was tried 
in the District Court in the month of September, 1893. Gothman was 
shot three times in the head. The prosecution was conducted bv Conrad 
Hollenbeck, then county attorney, assisted by George L. Loomis, and 
Carleton was defended by the law firm of Frick & Dolezal. Carleton 
was convicted and sentenced to be executed. Appeal was taken to the 
Supreme Court and the judgment affirmed. However, sentence of death 
was commuted to life imprisonment and thereafter Carleton was par- 
doned. This ended one of the most bitterly contested criminal cases 
ever tried in the State of Nebraska. 

State against William Rhea, et al. On the 4th day of January, 1901, 
Edward Gardner, William Darrow and William Rhea walked into the 
saloon of Herman Zahn of Snyder, Nebraska, and shot him to death, 
robbed his body, lined up the customers, rifled the safe and engaged in 
a pitched battle with the marshal and citizens who were attracted by the 
shooting. John M. Kreader, then sheriff of Dodge County, with a posse 
composed of hundreds of Dodge County citizens armed with all sorts 
of weapons from heavy bored rifles to pitchforks and with the aid of 
bloodhounds, took up the trail. The following morning, Rhea and 
Gardner were "flushed" out of a haystack near Crowell, Nebraska. 
Gardner surrendered, but Rhea made a running fight for several miles 
and only gave up when painfully wounded. 



216 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

These three men were placed on trial in February, 1901. Rhea and 
Gardner were defended by Harry Maynard. now of Roswell, New 
Mexico, and the late E. F. Gray. Both defendants were found guilty 
and Rhea sentenced to be executed. Gardner was sentenced to life and 
William D'arrow, who was defended by Judge F. W. Button and the 
writer, was acquitted. The late Robert Stinson and Judge Grant Martin, 
now of Lincoln, conducted the prosecution. Rhea was executed at the 
penitentiary after the Supreme Court had affirmed the judgment of the 
District Court. Judge James A. Grimison of Schuyler, Nebraska, pre- 
sided at the trial. Gardner has since been pardoned. 

State against Louis Rogers. During the month of August, 1911, the 
dead body of an infant child was found in a box car at Colon, Nebraska, 
with a towel tightly twisted around its throat and the ends forced into 
the mouth. Death was caused by suffocation. "M R" was the laundry 
mark on the towel. Suspicion lead to the arrest of Louis Rogers, an 
itinerant vaudeville actor, who was in Fremont at the time, and arrest 
followed. The late Otto Bauman, commonly known as "Dutch," then 
sherif?, and the present sheriff, who was then deputy sheriff, William C. 
Condit and the writer, then county attorney, addressed communications 
to over 200 police officials of the principal cities of the United States to 
discover whose laundry mark was upon the towel. After weeks of inves- 
tigation it was discovered that Martha Rodier of Detroit, Michigan, the 
proprietor of a boarding house catering to vaudeville people, was the 
owner of the towel found around the baby's neck. She was well 
acquainted with the defendant, who had been a guest at her place but a 
short time before coming to Fremont. This, with other evidence, led 
to the conviction of Rogers. His defense was conducted by Judge F. W. 
Button, now one of the district judges of Dodge County, and Frank Dole- 
zal. The conviction was sustained by the Supreme Court and Rogers 
after serving a short sentence, was paroled. 

State against George Osborne. On the morning of August 12, 1910, 
the dead body of John Hoctor was found lying in the Chicago & North- 
western Railroad yards at Fremont. His head had been crushed by a 
bridge bolt that lay near the body. On a pile of lumber was a bottle 
partly filled with alcohol. During the night there had been a heavy rain 
and the label on the bottle had been washed off and the wind had blown 
this "evidence" against an adjoining pile of lumber. On the label was 
written the figures 90. being the alcoholic "proof" of the liquor. A bar- 
tender in the Baltimore saloon identified the label and recalled having 
sold a bottle of alcohol to George Osborne of Blair, Nebraska, the 
evening before. 1 his evidence furnished the first "clew" which led to 
the arrest of Osborne, who confessed to the murder. Osborne was 
placed on trial during the following November term of the District Court. 
His defense was conducted by Harry Maynard of the firm of Loomis & 
Maynard and John W. Graham, now located at Sidney, Nebraska. The 
defense was insanity. A dramatic incident occurred during the closing 
argument. Osborne, becoming enraged, threw a book at the prosecuting 
attorney, which landed with terrific force in the jury box. Osborne was 
overpowered after a violent struggle and went into an epileptic fit. The 
court was compelled to adjourn the case for two days before finally 
submitting the same to the jury. Osborne was convicted of murder in 
the second degree, sentenced to serve fifteen years in the penitentiary, 
escaped, was convicted of highway robbery in Missouri, again escaped, 
and is now a fugitive from justice. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 217 

There have been other brutal murders and noted criminal trials 
within the past fifty years of Dodge County's history, but good citizens, 
friends and relatives of victims and author of these crimes reside within 
our midst and in consideration of their feelings, the writer has concluded 
it would be unfair and unnecessary to revive the sad memories of these 
lamentable tragedies. 

J. C. Cook, 
Dodge County Attorney. 



CHAPTER XXII 

THE CITY OF FREMONT 

The Name — Origin of City — Entering Land for Plat — Money 
Scarce — First Houses — Lots Donated — First Events — Citt's 
Developments — Manufacturing in 1886 — Postoffice — Civic 
Societies — Municipal History — Indebtedness — City Hall — 
Water Works — City Building — Orphan's Home — Classified 
Business in 1892 — Business Directory, 1920 — Reminiscences — 
Industrial Interests — Commercial Club — Population — The 
City Library. 

The City of Fremont has a history running back to 1856 — sixty-four 
years ago. This was soon after the great "Pathfinder" Gen. John C. 
Fremont passed through the country, a Httle to the south of the present 
city. That was during the Fremont-Buchanan presidential campaign in 
which the latter was successful, but in honor of the first republican 
standard-bearer of the newly formed republican party, the founders of 
their embryo city named it "Fremont." Military Avenue was the only 
highway to the place. Fremont was made the county seat of Dodge 
County in 1860. 

Origin of Fremont 

August, 1856, the first stakes were driven, and an association known 
as Pinney-Barnard & Co.'s Town Plat Company began its operations, 
but as the political campaign advanced that autumn, a town had been 
named Buchanan over in Colfax County (now known as Schuyler) and 
hence it occurred to the town site members that they should change 
their company name to "The Fremont Town Company" which they did 
at a meeting held at the home of Seth P. Marvin, September 23. 1856. 

The first stakes were really driven on August 23, 1856, but the full 
boundaries were not fixed until the 26th of that month. On the morning 
of that day a town company was organized under the name of Pinney, 
Barnard & Company, consisting of George M. Pinney. James G. Smith, 
Robert Moorland, Robert Kittle, John A. Kountz, Seth" P. Marvin, and 
E. H. Barnard. The territory west of the guide meridian had not yet 
been surveyed, but a military road had recently been located from Omaha 
to Fort Kearney, so the company adopted this road as their base line 
and thus laid out Fremont. Military Avenue of today marks the exact 
line of that road through the city. It varies only a fraction more than 
three degrees from a true east and west line, as proven by later surveys. 

The first platting covered one mile square and was bounded by what 
is now known as Irving Avenue on the east, and on the south by First 
Street on which Lincoln Highway now enters the city from the east. 
This plat was later laid of? into lots and blocks, and then parceled out 
to the proprietors in shares of nine lots each, except 100 lots reserved 
and set apart, to be used in building up the town. The record reads: 
"About eighteen lots for church and school buildings; about the same 
number for commercial purposes; the building of a saw mill, etc., and 
seventy lots set apart for residences." 
218 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 219 

By reason of the financial panic of 1857, the town site owners were 
unable when the government land was offered for sale, to pay for the 
full section they had "claimed" and platted the town on, so they con- 
tented themselves with one-half of the tract or 320 acres. This was in 
1859 and the village contained twenty-seven houses. 

So scarce was money in the late fifties that the town site men sold 
Judge E. W'akeley, of Omaha, town lots at 75 cents each, in order to 
pay up what they had borrowed to purchase the land on which they had 
platted Fremont. 

The proprietors advertised to the world that they would donate two 
town lots in the new place to any person building a hewn log house 
16 by 20 feet, a story and one-half high with suitable doors and windows 
and to have a board floor and shingled roof. They would also throw in 
logs in the tree, and fire wood for one year. In a few months Fremont 
had come to be a hamlet of thirteen houses and a blacksmith's shop. 

All historians agree that the first human habitation at Fremont, as 
made by white men, was the one built in 1856 by E. H. Barnard and 
John A. Kountz. It was constructed of poles from the islands, thatched 
with prairie grass. It stood on the site of the present Congregational 
Church. 

The second house was built by Robert Kittle late in the autumn of 
1856. He purchased a lot of hewed logs of a man a few miles west of 
Fremont, and gathered them together at the corner of what is now 
known as Broad Street and Military Avenue. The roof of this pioneer 
cabin was excellent, as it was formed of red cedar shingles shaved by 
Mr. Kittle from logs which he floated down the Platte River. Such 
trees were found growing on the blufifs to the southwest of town. 

Later, little cabins began to appear eastward, on either side of Mili- 
tary Avenue, and business began to grow in connection with the com- 
mercial enterprises of James G. and J. Towner Smith, who first did the 
merchandising in a dugout, and afterward in a log store. 

First Events 

There usually clusters around the first and important events in the 
settlement of any township or village, much of unusual interest, and 
because of this universal sentiment, the following paragraphs of "first 
events" is inserted in this chapter at this point, before going on with 
the development of the city to be : 

The first house was built by Robert Kittle in the fall of 1856. 

The first habitation (the pole and grass shack) was made by Messrs. 
Barnard and Kountz, the same autumn. 

The first child born was Alice Flor, in the fall of 1857. 

The first male child was born to Mr. and Mrs. Robert Kittle; his 
name was Fred and the date of his birth was March 28, 1858; he died 
September 26, 1890. 

The earliest marriage in Fremont was Luther Wilson and Miss Eliza 
Turner, August 23, 1858. 

The first death was that of Seth P. Marvin, who was drowned two 
miles west of town. The next to die was Father Nathan Heaton, 
October, 1857. 

The first National Independence Day celebration was held July 4, 1857. 
A flag was improvised from goods purchased in New York and brought 
west by Robert Kittle. It floated from a cedar Liberty pole seventy 
feet high, "and was planted in loyalty on Military Avenue," the 
pioneers say. 



220 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Robert Kittle was first to sell general merchandise in Fremont. This 
stock was a small assortment brought from Buffalo, New York, by 
Mr. Kittle. 

The first railroad service was commenced here in the fall of 1866, 
over the Union Pacific line. 

The first newspaper in Fremont and the county was the Fremont 
Tribune, established July 24, 1868, and is still the leading paper in 
Eastern Nebraska. 

The first bank was established by "E. H. Rogers & Co." in 1866 
and from it came the First National Bank of today. 

The first family to "keep house" in Fremont was that of Rev. Isaac 
E. Heaton, who arrived in October, 1856, and occupied the Robert 
Kittle house. 

The first postofiice was established in 1857, with James G. Smith as 
postmaster. 

The pioneer blacksmith was John Hormel, who had a shop where 
now stands the Gumpert Department Store on Main Street. 

PosTOFFiCE History of Fremont 

One of the best indexes of any community as to its intelligence 
and prosperity is to know its postal history. The postal service here has 
always been large and excellent, even from pioneer days. Fremont was 
granted a postoffice in the month of June, 1857. That was under 
James Buchanan's democratic administration. Gen. John C. Fremont 
being a candidate for the presidency during that campaign and the 
petitioners for a "Fremont" postoffice being republican, it has been said 
this fact retarded the establishment of the postoffice several months. At 
least the long delays finally ended and the office was established with 
James G. Smith as its first postmaster. No mail route had as yet been 
established west from Omaha, and patrons of Fremont office were 
compelled for a time to carry their own mail that distance. In Novem- 
ber, 1857, Postmaster Smith visited the East and during his absence, 
Rev. Isaac E. Heaton, the pioneer Congregational minister, served as 
his deputy. In December, 1858, Mr. Smith pressed by other cares, 
resigned in favor of Rev. Isaac Heaton, who held the office until 
December, 1866 — clear through the Civil war period, and longer. The 
history of this office was given in interviews with that grand old man. 
Rev. Isaac E. Heaton, in the early nineties, hence may be relied upon 
as correct. He stated that during January, 1868, his residence was 
burned, with all the papers, books, etc., he had. But upon memory, 
he stated that in 1862, about 600 letters were mailed each quarter. And 
in the rush of gold seekers to Colorado, there were 1,600 mailed. During 
1864 over $7,000 were mailed through the Fremont office in drafts and 
money. 

July, 1858, the Overland Stage Line started en route from Omaha 
to California, via Fremont, after which mail was received each week 
at three o'clock in the morning. December, 1866, Benjamin Turner 
was made postmaster, the office then being kept on Main Street. Upon 
U. S. Grant's election as President, the office was virtually tendered to 
Rev. Isaac E. Heaton, again in these words: "As you have kept the 
office so long when you had to rise in the night six times each week to 
open and close mail sacks, would you like to resume the office?" From 
the fact that Rev. Isaac E. Heaton did not believe it necessary to trans- 
act postal business on the Sabbath day, he declined the re-appointment 
at Grant's hands. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



221 



Fremont became a Money Order office in July, 1869. The first 
order was issued July 14, to Thomas Campbell, on Kenosha, Wisconsin, 
for the sum of $15. 'There had been issued 47,975 money orders up to 
1892; also 16,866 postal notes. The latter system only obtained a few- 
years, since which time money has been transmitted by Money Order 
altogether, the Postal Note having been done away with. Only sums 
of less than five dollars were sent by the Postal Note system. In 
1891 Fremont's money order business was the third largest in Nebraska 
and amounted to $52,278.78. As far back as 1892 there were fifteen 
tons of local newspapers sent from this postoffice. Fremont com- 
menced its free delivery system July, 1888, when four carriers were 
engaged and twenty-six mails were received each twenty-four hours. 

The Fremont office lost by fire, flood and burglary but little in 
all of its hi^tnrv Postmaster Paine was robbed twice and sent one 




Postoffice, Fremont 



man "over the road" for a term of years, while Postmaster Murray 
was robbed of a package of registered letters; he also sent one man 
to U. S. Penitentiary. 

The original government postoffice building was erected about 1895 
at a cost of $60,000: its location is the corner of Sixth and Broad 
streets. It was remodeled in 1910 and made about twice its former 
size; this rebuilding cost $50,000. During the construction period of 
the second building the business of the postoffice was carried on in the 
Morse Block. The work of re-construction was finished and the office 
again opened up December 1, 1911. 

The following is a correct list of regular postmasters at Fremont: 
James G. Smith, from June. 1857, to December, 1858; Isaac E. Heaton, 
from December, 1858 to December, 1866; Benjamin Turner, from 
December, 1866, to December, 1869 : Charles A. Smith, from December, 
1869, to September, 1870; H. O. Paine, from September. 1870, to 
October, 1885; James Murray, from October, 1885, to September, 1889; 
Henry G. Wolcott, from September, 1889, to October, 1893; Thomas 
Carroll, from November, 1893, to November 13, 1897; Ross L. Ham- 
mond, from November 14, 1897, to February 28, 1903 ; Daniel Swanson, 
from March, 1903, to March 31, 1911; B. W. Reynolds, from April 1, 



222 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

1911, to March 31, 1915; Nathaniel W. Smails, from April 1, 1915, to 
February 28, 1919; Frank W. Fuhlrodt, acting postmaster March 1, 
1919, to May 10, 1920; Frank W. Fuhlrodt by appointment as post- 
master confirmed May 11, 1920. 

Hence it will be seen that Fremont has had fourteen postmasters 
in the sixty-three years of its history, making four years and a half 
average term. 

There are now four rural delivery routes extending out from Fre- 
mont. The present rural mail carriers are: Orval R. Dixon (tem- 
porary) ; George Keeler (temporary) ; Frank A. Chilcoat and Gordon 
Wallace. 

The names of the city carriers and substitutes are : Edward Benton, 
Harry W. Buffington, Fred M. Davis, Viggo A. Jensen, Frederick 
Moller, Fred W. Moller, Gerald A. Moller, Charles W. Mulloy, Sumner 
W. Robinson and Frank J. Sasse. Also Adelbert H. Schick (temporary 
substitute). 

The total amount of business transacted during the last fiscal year 
was $73.593.44 — this means from July, 1918, to July, 1919. 

Amount on hand in savings department, $1,502. 

At the date of June, 1920, there are postoffices in Dodge County as 
follows: Fremont, Ames, Crowell, Dodge, Hooper, Nickerson, North 
Bend, Scribner, Snyder, Uehling, Winslow. 

Secret Societies 

Fremont is well supplied with secret societies — the list at a recent 
date was as follows: Ancient Order of United Workmen; Benevolent 
Protective Order of Elks ; Brotherhood of American Yeomen ; Danish 
Brotherhood ; Danish Sisterhood ; Fraternal Order of Eagles ; Fraternal 
Union of America; Independent Order of Odd Fellows; Knights of 
Columbus; Knights of Pythias; Knights of Maccabees; Knights and 
Ladies of Security; Masonic Order; Modern Woodmen of America; 
Mystic Workers of the World ; Royal Highlanders ; Royal Neighbors ; 
Tribe of Ben Hur; United Commercial Travelers; Woodmen of the 
World. 

Blanks were sent to the above orders, and wherever they were 
responded to, a brief history of such society appears in the general 
chapter on lodges in this work. 

Municipal Government 

Fremont became an incorporated village May 24, 1859. The first 
board of trustees were as follows : Theron Nye, chairman ; R. W. 
Hazen, clerk; and E. H. Barnard, treasurer; James G. Smith, E. H. 
Rogers, and J. F. Reynolds. The first record book was very small 
and the bill for it was 40 cents. In the June meeting, 1859, it was 
resolved to make a loan of $400 for which 30 per cent interest was 
paid annually, the same to run one, two or three years as desired by 
the village. The minutes of the September meeting were signed by 
James G. Smith, secretary pro tem. 

In May, 1861, the trustees engaged H. A. Pierce to break up the 
land where now the beautiful city park is located, allowing him $12 
for the work. Bids were also received for fencing the park. 

In 1865. at the September session the trustees appropriated $68.58 
for the purchase of town lots, to be held and used for courthouse and 
county building purposes. 




HON. J. C. CLELAND 

FOR SEVERAL YEARS ^^AYOR OF FREMONT, 

AND FATHER OF THE FIRE 

DEPART ^^ EXT 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 223 

Such routine work constituted the chief work of the board until 
1871 when Fremont became a "city" of the second class. The following 
will show the principal elective city officers from 1871 to the present 
date— 1920 : 

1871 — Theron Nye, mayor; William Martin, clerk. 

1872 — Theron Nye, mayor; I. C. Crabbs, police judge. 

1873 — A. P. Hopkins, mayor; E. H. Barnard, police judge; Wil- 
liam Martin, clerk. 

1874 — John E. Shervin, mayor; C. E. Usher, police judge; James 
Davis, Clerk. 

1875 — John E. Shervin, mayor; C. E. Usher, police judge; Check 
H. Toncray, clerk. 

1876 — W. A. Marlow, mayor; William Martin, police judge; Check 
H. Toncray, clerk. 

1877 — W. A. Marlow, mayor; Check H. Toncray, police judge; 
J. W. Goflf, clerk. 

1878 — N. H. Bell, mayor ; William Martin, police judge ; Fred 
De LaMatyr. clerk. 

1879 — L. D. Richards, mayor; William Martin, police judge; Fred 
De LaMatyr, clerk. 

1880 — L. D. Richards, mayor; James Huff, police judge; T- W. 
Goff, clerk. 

1881 — Charles Sang, mayor; James Huiif, police judge; Peter Brun, 
clerk. 

1882 — Charles Sang, mayor; George F. Looschen, clerk. 

1883 — J. C. Cleland, mayor; W. H. Ely, police judge; George F. 
Looschen, clerk. 

1884 — J. C. Cleland, mayor; F. W. Vaughan, police judge; T- H. 
Wheeler, clerk. 

1885 — C. Christensen, mayor ; F. F. Kuen, police judge ; F. M. 
Claflin, clerk. 

1886 — B. F. Stouffer, mayor; F. F. Kuen, police judge; G. W. 
Sellers, clerk. , 

1887 — B. F. Stouffer, mayor; F. F. Kuen, police judge; A. W. 
Forbes, clerk. 

1889 — J. E. Shervin, mayor; A. W. Forbes, police judge; C. L. 
Williams, clerk. 

1891 — William Fried, mayor; C. L. Williams, police judge; E. D. 
Percy, clerk. 

1893-94 — William Fried, mayor; L. C. Holmes, police judge; E. D. 
Percy, clerk. 

1895-96 — William Fried, mayor ; L. C. Holmes, police judge ; W. J. 
Bullock, clerk. 

1897-98 — William Fried, mayor; Charles H. Coman, police judge; 
John Hyatt, clerk. 

1899-1900 — Fred W. Vaughn, mayor; Charles Coman, police judge; 
John Hyatt, clerk. 

1901-02 — Wallace Wilson, Mayor; Charles Coman, police judge; 
John Hyatt, clerk. 

1903-04— Geo. F. Wolz, mayor; J. C. Cook, police judge; S. F. 
Stiles, clerk. 

1905-06— Geo. F. Wolz, mayor; J. C. Cook, police judge; S. F. 
Stiles, clerk. 

1907-08— Geo. F. Wolz, mayor; J. C. Cook, police judge; S. F. 
Stiles, clerk. 



224 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

1909-10 — Fred L. Burrell, mayor; Fred C. Laird, police iudee: 
S. F. Stiles, clerk. 

1911-12— Geo. F. Wolz, mayor; Fred C. Laird, police judge; S. F. 
Stiles, clerk. 

1913-14 — R. M. Herre, mayor; Fred C. Laird, police judge; C. R. 
De LaMatyr, clerk. 

1915-16 — George A. Murrell, mayor; A. K. Dane, police judge : 
C. R. De LaMatyr, clerk. 

1917-18— W. C. Wiley, mayor; A. K. Dane, police judge; C. R. 
De LaMatyr, clerk. 

1919-20 — G. M. Hinman, mayor; A. K. Dane, police judge; Fred 
G. Pierce, clerk. 

City Officers of 1920 
Mayor, G. M. Hinman; clerk, Fred G. Pierce; treasurer, A. F. 
Plambeck ; police judge, A. K. Dane ; commissioner of water, lights and 
sewers, P. H. Larson; city attorney, W. M. Cain; chief of police, M. J. 
Frederickson ; chief of the fire department, Harry S. Morse; street 
commissioner. T. A. Adams; city physician, Dr. J. C. Agee ; city engi- 
neer, L. M. Roesler; president of council, J. A. Yager; board of public 
works, C. H. Green, E. Sanderson, John Monnich; city councilmen, 
J. A. Yager; -H. C. Meadows, H. D. Muir, Fred D. Drew, F. H. 
Wallace, H. C. Dahl, Eric Ericson and Z. M. Marr. 

Indebtedness of City 
The present indebtedness of the City of Fremont is $311,000, which 
is in the shape of bonds (original and refunded). These bonds run 
forty years, but may be paid off at any five-year period. They bear 
5 per cent interest ; $107,000 of these city bonds were issued for paying 
for the intersection of paving work. 

City Hall, Water Works, Etc. 

As late as 1886 Fremont depended on a few shallow street cisterns 
at different corners from which water was pumped by means of a hand- 
pump, known as the "Mud-Sucker." This was a strangely and imper- 
fectly constructed machine but commercially styled a force pump. This 
pump, a chemical engine and hook and ladder apparatus protected ( ?) 
the city from the fire fiend's ravages ! 

In 1885 the city voted bonds in the sum of $25,000 for water works; 
again in 1889 $35,000 more in bonds were voted. These bond issues 
of $60,000 provided the city's first real water system. The purest of 
living water was procured from more than fifty drive wells at a depth 
of from fifty to eighty feet. The original stand-pipe is still doing 
service after all these three decades and more, and is situated at the 
south side of the city park and is 112 feet high. Another stand-pipe 
was subsequently erected and the combined capacitv of the two is 
176,000 gal. The pumping capacity is 2,000,000 gal. 'a day. In 1892 
the city had 9j/^ miles of water pipes and mains, while today (1920) 
it has in excess of forty miles. The Fire department is excellent. 
It had its start away back when the old volunteer company was organ- 
ized in November, 1868, as the "Fremont Frontier Fire Company." 
Later on other volunteer companies were formed and well furnished 
rooms were given to them in the new city building. Thousands of 
dollars worth of improvements and fixtures have been showered upon 
the various companies and the rooms occupied by them. The citizens 
have always appreciated the services of these firemen. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



225 



Today the city is kept safe by a large fire company of expert firemen 
who are provided with all the latest fire-fighting machinery extant. 

The City Building 

Fremont's "fine city building" as it was known a third of a century 
and more ago, was erected on the corner of Fourth and F streets 
and finished in 1889 at a cost of $15,000 including the lots on which 
it stands. In this building are the various city offices, the firemen's par- 
lors, fire apparatus rooms, city jail, etc. It is furnace heated throughout. 

The Public Library 

There had been a few attempts at providing a permanent public library 
for the city, but none were very successful until the great iron master, 




Carnegie Public Library 

Andrew Carnegie, offered a proposition to the city, as he did in so many 
hundreds of cities of this country. The business men and active citizens 
— both men and women — accepted this generous offer and by the purchase 
of a suitable lot on Military Avenue, near the city park and agreeing to 
provide a certain amount annually for books, etc., the work went forward 
to speedy completion. The building is an ideal library home, with all 
that is desirable for both old and young. It costs the taxpayers of Fre- 
mont about $1,700 a year to support this worthy institution. From thirty 
to fifty newspapers are constantly on hand in the reading rooms ; mag- 
azines galore and suitable books from the best authors of the world are 
to be seen on the numerous "stacks." This is one of the useful public 
utilities which the good citizens ever, take unalloyed pride in presenting 
to their visiting friends. 

The Orphans' Home 

In 1893 there was erected by the German Evangelical Lutheran Asso- 
ciation a beautiful three-story brick building on East Military Avenue 
which was dedicated to homeless children. It lies in the midst of a four- 



226 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

teen acre tract of land, including gardens, lawns, play-grounds, etc., for 
the unfortunate orphans. Pretty shade trees make the spot cool and 
shady in the heated summer months. Several hundred orphans have 
here found a comfortable Christian home and are being educated. In 
1904 about $4,000 was expended on the land and buildings. A German 
school was established not a great distance from the home. When of the 
proper age and having first been fairly well educated in all the common 
branches, these children are given good homes outside. 

This institution is employed as a home for orphans, especially of the 
northeastern Nebraska district of the Lutheran Church and annual picnics 
and reunions are held on the grounds at Fremont every summer, when 
hundreds come in from far and near, and several days are spent. At 
such times the children and the institution are visited and inspected by the 
authorities of the church ; liberal donations are also made in aid of the 
home. 

The City's Development 

Fremont has never had the name of being much of a "boom town" 
but ever on the up-grade. From 1868 to 1875 the following improve- 
ments were reported bv builders for the respective years as follows : In 
1868, $140,000; in 1869, $196,000; in 1870, $125,400; in 1871, $124,000; 
in 1872, the panic year, $42,000; in 1873, $138,000; in 1874, $108,100. 

Amount of Manufacturing in 1886 

The sub-joined shows the volume of manufacturing done in Fremont 
in 1886: Flour and feed, $175,000; butter, $88,000; iron works, $50,000; 
clothing, $41,000; beer, $40,000; brick, $100,000; woodworks, $15,000; 
cigars, $10,000; cornice, $15,000; medicines, $10,000; gloves and mittens, 
$5,000 ; brooms, $4,000 ; blank books, $3,500. Total, $556,500. 

"In a Nut-Shell" 1905 

Under the above title the leading local paper of Fremont in 1905 said 
as follows: "Fremont has now over forty manufacturers and jobbers; 
factories that employ almost six hundred and fifty persons ; eighty travel- 
ing men representing local concerns; seventeen churches, all flourishing; 
seven banking houses, to which list may be added sixteen laywers, nine 
public schools ; two daily, one weekly and two tri-weekly newspapers ; a 
commercial club with over two hundred members ; a normal school ; build- 
ing and loan institutions second to none in Nebraska and many other 
features of a growing modern city." 

Classified Business Interests — 1892 

In March, 1892, Fremont published a list of its commercial interests 
and such list shows there were 385 dififerent places of business, including 
shops, retail and wholesale stores and factories. The list is as follows: 

Agricultural implement dealers. . 5 Broom factories 2 

Architects' offices 4 Blacksmith shops 6 

Attorneys at law 20 Boarding houses 9 

Bakeries 3 Boiler works 1 

Banks 6 Breweries 1 

Barber shops 10 Book bindery 1 

Bicycle agents 1 Boot and shoe stores 5 

Billiard halls 5 Book and stationery stores 4 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



227 



Brick makers 2 

Butter makers 2 

Canning factories 2 

Carpenter and builders' shops. . . 2 

Carriage makers' shops 4 

Carriage painters 4 

Cigar factories 4 

Cigar box factories 1 

Cigar stores 7 

Clothing stores 6 

Creameries 1 

Coal dealers 5 

Confectionery dealers 12 

Dentists 3 

Dressmakers 6 

Druggists 4 

Dry goods stores 5 

Dye works 1 

Express companies 2 

Feed and sale stables 3 

Feed stores 3 

Fence works 1 

Florists 2 

Flouring mill 1 

Foundry 1 

Furniture stores 4 

General merchandise stores 5 

Gas and electric light companies. 1 

Gent's furnishing goods 2 

Grocery stores 14 

Gunsmiths' shops 2 

Hardware stores 6 

Harness shops 4 

Hemp and twine mills 1 



Horse importing companies 2 

Hotels 9 



Harness and collar factory. 

Insurance agents 

Investment companies 

Jewelers 

Land companies 

Laundries 

Lithographers 



. 1 
.25 
. 4 
. 5 
. 2 
. 4 
. 1 

Livery stables 5 

Loan offices 15 

Lumber dealers 4 

Marble works 1 

Meat markets 7 

Merchant tailors 8 

Millinery stores 5 

Nurseries 4 

Oil companies 4 

Opera house 1 

Papers, daily 3 

Papers, weekly 7 

Physicians 10 

Photographers 5 

Planing mills 2 

Plumbers 2 

Pork packers 2 

Railroads 3 

Real estate dealers 16 

Restaurants 7 

Saloons 12 

Wholesale grocers 1 

Wholesale liquor 1 

Wholesale produce 1 



Manufacturing Industries — Past and Present 



The immense number of factories in Fremont is due to several 
reasons : The city's location ; easy access to the markets of the world ; 
its being within the great natural garden spot of the West ; the class of 
business men at the head of affairs, each and all have had to do with the 
establishing of so many excellent manufacturing enterprises. Some of 
these factories have been operated a number of years and ceased to exist, 
but for the most part they are all operating today in some form or other. 

The Fremont Foundry, one of Fremont's oldest big concerns, backed 
by pioneer men of means and brains, makes all kinds of castings and does 
light and heavy machine work. It was established in 1883 on a $20,000 
capital, but in 1905 it had increased its working capital to over $100,000. 
It still does a thriving business and employs many men. 

The Nye, Schneider, Fowler Company, dealers in grain and lumber, 
established in 1892 with a capital of $450,000, now has a capital of 
$2,500,000. This firm handles millions of bushels of grain annually — 
the largest plant in the great Missouri Valley section of the West. 

Another great industry launched in 1892 was the Fremont Brewery 
— finest plant of its kind in all this section — its erection cost the stock- 



228 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



holders (home men) $125,000. The capactiy is 30,000 barrels per year; 
its malt house holds 60,000 bushels. The product of this brewery was 
sold over a large area of country until the state and finally the United 
States wisely enacted their prohibition laws by which such products are 
prohibited from being .made or used. Since the enactment of these laws 
this plant has turned its attention to making a beverage non-intoxicating 
in its character, and are now running full capacity in this line. 

The Atlantic Canning Factory of Fremont (branch of a similar one 
in Atlantic, Iowa) adds to the legitimate number of excellent factories. 
The old three-story creamery building near the railroad was remodeled 
at a cost of $23,000 and converted into a canning factory which is sup- 
plied by the raw products from more than a thousand acres. Sweet corn 
is the sole product now put up at this canning factory. 

The Golden Rod and other large ice cream factories have come to be 
looked upon as among the city's best advertising agents — for their prod- 




Factory District, Fremont 



ucts go out daily over a large circuit of country. Tons upon tons of 
"Golden Rod" and "Polar Maid" as well as "Real Ice Cream" are 
shipped weekly. 

The Fremont fence works, three large brick kilns, cement stone indus- 
try, numerous sand and gravel pits and artificial ice plants, a great poul- 
try and produce house, immense public stock yards, all come in for their 
share of industrial value to the busy city. 

It goes without saying that the flouring mill industry never ceases to 
be known far and near. 

Looking over the list again comes to view the nurseries, the planing 
mills, the Hammond Printing Company, the Parlor Furniture and Mat- 
tress Company, and dozens of lesser plants complete the factory interests. 

Away back in the years gone by the city also had its miles of horse-car 
street railway system (before electric cars were operated) ; it also had 
its great harness and saddle factory, established in 1892 on a $100,000 
capital by Fremont men, including its founder in fact, D. M. Welty. 
Over fifty men found employment in this plant and many more on the 
road. Almost every article cut from leather was made up here, including 
saddles and harness. A four-story brick factory was erected in 1892-93 ; 
also had another warehouse building as large. This industry was not well 
managed finally and went out of business a few years since and the build- 
ings are now used by the produce company, etc. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 229 

The Hammond & Stephens Company is another large pubHshing and 
printing concern that carries on a large business and has customers for 
educational publications and blank books all over the country. Dan V. 
Stephens was the originator and copyrighted many forms used by the 
company. 

One of the largest institutions of an earlier date was the hemp and 
twine factory which utilized thousands of acres of the rank growth of 
hemp growing on the flat lands to the east of the city. This produced a 
wonderful amount of binding twine for a number of years when the 
trade for various causes shifted to other sections of the country and was 
finally in the "binding twine trust" and was made elsewhere. Also the 
fertile lands on which the hemp grew here was better utilized for other 
crops. 

The beet sugar industry was also a very extensive one at Fremont 
not so many years ago, but this industry, like the twine mill, was con- 
trolled by trusts and the difficulty in securing help in the cultivation of 
the beet, caused the great and useful industry to seek other locations. 
This was operated by the Standard Cattle Company and sprang into 
existence in 1893. Most of the capital employed was from the East. 
They had a capital of almost a million dollars and had a plant here with 
the largest beet house in the world. This industry employed many men 
and it was a great financial loss when the company ceased to operate here. 

The Fremont stock yards has a history too lengthy for publication in 
this volume, but it should be said that it has been backed by home capital. 
A description of these yards in 1905 by a local writer said : "The dipping 
plant can accommodate over 5,000 sheep per day ; the barns are ready 
for about thirty carloads of sheep at once; the yards occupy about 1,000 
acres of land in the most fertile portion of the valley, and thousands of 
sheep are here fed annually. The Stock Yards and Land Company has 
been one of the most prominent undertakings in the city for many years. 
Sheep may come and sheep may go but the Fremont stock yards are here 
forever." 

Fremont Gas and Electric Company 

(By Lloyd W. Phillips) 

The Fremont business men, with others from Lincoln, Nebraska, 
owned a gas and electric plant in Fremont until December, 1909, when it 
was purchased by Henry L. Doherty & Company who owns and controls 
eighty public utility concerns, such as gas, electric lights, ice, street rail- 
way and water companies in North and South America, Canada and 
Mexico, with interests in Europe. 

At Fremont this company was reorganized by the Doherty company 
under the name of Fremont Gas, Electric Light and Power Company, of 
which Mr. Doherty is the president. The local management of this com- 
pany is in charge of L. W. Phillips, general manager: M. W. Themes, 
secretary ; E. A. Newlon, superintendent, and G. H. Here, manager of 
the new business. 

The company employs thirty persons in all departments. They also 
own thirty gas and oil wells in. various parts of the country. During the 
coal strike in 1918-19. at Fremont, through foresight and their own 
resources, the people of the city were not hampered for fuel or lights. 
The company realizes the important position it holds in the welfare of 
Fremont and its growing industries, and they have ever made the service 
fully up to standard. 



230 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Business Directory — 1920 

A recent business directory of the City of Fremont — the last one 

pubhshed — gives the following list of business men and women in the 

city. There have been some changes, but all herein given were here in 

1919: 

Abstract of Land Titles — J. F. Hanson & Company. 

Agricultural Implements — W. A. Carroll, Fremont Farmers' Union 
Co-operative Association, Fremont Manufacturing Company. 

Ambulance Service — A. C. Jens. 

Architects and Superintendents — A. H. Dyer, F. A. Herfurth. 

Art Store — E. Anderson & Company. 

Artists — Mrs. Wilhelmina Eagle, Kubista Studio, A. F. Umphrey. 

Asylums and Homes — Eastern Star (boys). Eastern Star (girls), Fre- 
mont Hospital, Lutheran Orphanage, Nye Avenue Hospital. 

Attorneys at Law — Abbott & Rohn, Cain & Johnson, J. C. Cook, Court- 
right, Sidner, Lee & Jones, J. E. Daly, A. K. Dame, Frank Dolzal, 
A. B. Hinman, M. H. Hunter, H. M. Kidder, Loomis, Laird & 
Loomis, N. H. Mapes, Robins & Gleeson, F. L. Spear, D. A. Van 
Donselaar, F. W. Vaughn. 

Auto Batteries — Fremont Storage Battery Company. 

Automobile Dealers — Chandler Automobiles, Electric Garage, Krohn 
Motor Company, Larson Auto Company, John Monnich, Schurman 
& Carroll, White Alotor Cars and Trucks. 

Awnings and Tents — Rogers Tent & Awning Company. 

Bakeries — Loyal Bakery Company, Vienna Bakery, F. J. Wislicen. 

Banking — See chapter on banks in this work. 

Barbers — Twelve shops, 

Bee-Keepers' Supplies — J. J. Funk. 

Bicycles and Repairs — William Burtz. 

Blacksmiths — Three in number. 

Blank-Book Makers — Hammond Printing Company. 

Book Sellers — Five in number. 

Building-Block Makers — Fremont Artificial Stone Building Block Co. 

Building and Loan Associations — Equitable, Nebraska State and Occi- 
dental. 

Canning Factory — Fremont Canning Company. 

Carriage Manufacturers and Dealers. 

Cigar Manufacturers — Five in number. 

Cigars and Tobacco — Brunswick Cigar Store, Phelps Cigar Store, Saeger 
& Son. 

Cigars (wholesale) — Phelps Cigar Company. 

Cloaks and Suits — Block's Outfitting Store. 

Clothing — Abraham Bordy, Hein Clothing Company. Victor Krelstein, 
John Sonin, Union Clothing Companv, Ephraim Weinberg, Abraham 
Zlotky, 

Creameries — Farmers' Union Co-operative Company, Fremont Creamery 
Company, Fremont Pure Butter Company, Golden Rod Creamery. 

Dentists — Nine in number. 

Department Stores — Eddy Brothers, H. G. Gumpert, T. H. Quinn. 

Druggists — Brown-Fredericksen Company, Clarke Drug Company, 
Devries Pharmacy, Fidelity Pharmacy. Pohls' Drug Store. 

Dry Goods (retail) — Eddy Brothers, H. G. Gumpert, T. H. Quinn. 

Electric Light Company — Fremont Gas, Electric & Power Company. 

Electric Supplies — H. J. Trotter. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 231 

Embalmers — E. Anderson & Company. 

Fence Makers — Fremont Fence Company's Works. 

Five and Ten Cent Stores — F. W. Woolworth Company, F. E. Wroe. 

Florists — C. H. Green. 

Flouring Mills — Brown Seal Mills, Fremont Milling Company. 

Founders and Machinists — Fremont Foundry & Machine Company. 

Fremo Manufacturers — Fremont Beverage Company. 

Furniture Dealers — E. Anderson Company, J. R. Bader Company, Carl 
Dengler, Jacob Kavich, Parlor Furniture & Mattress Company. 

Garages — The Zapp Garage, Electric Garage, Larson Auto Company, 
Farmers' Garage, John Monnich, Fred the Ford Expert, Johnson Auto 
Company, Nelson, Nash Sale Company, Schurman & Company, 
Joseph McKennan, Mercer Auto Company, William Pedersen, Ray 
Pettit, Carl Heinrich & Son, Dunbar's Auto Shop, C. H. McKissick, 
Bushnell & Son. 

General Stores^Peoples Co-operative Store. 

Grain Elevators — Fremont Farmers' Union Co-operative Company, Nye, 
Schneider, Fowler Company. 

Granite and Marble Works — American Granite and Marble \^'orks, Fre- 
mont Granite and Marble Works. 

Grocers — Twenty in number. 

Grocers (wholesale) — May Brothers Company. 

Gunsmith — William Burtz. 

Hardware Stores — Doering Henry, N. M. Hansen, Holloway & Fowler, 
Pilsbury, Veazie & Company, Thomas & Courtright Hardware Com- 
pany. The last named firm also does a wholesale business. 

Harness Manufacturers — J. M. Christensen, Emil Cloos. 

Hotels — Nine, including the Pathfinder and the Terry. 

Ice Cream Manufacturers — Golden Rod Company, Fremont Company, 
Candy Kitchen Company and the Loyal Bakery Company. 

Incubator Manufacturers — Fremont Manufacturing Company. 

Jewelers — H. G. Anderson, H. F. Haman, J. T. Herre, G. C. Spangler, 
Marshall Brothers. 

Laundries — Ideal, New Fidelity, Rosa M. Andrews. 

Live Stock Dealers — B. F. Custer, Fremont Farmers' Union Co-operative 
Association. 

Lumber Dealers (also Coal) — Farmers' Co-operative Union, Melick Lum- 
ber Company, Nye, Schnedier, Fowler Company. 

Market Gardener — Hans T. Nielsen. 

Meat Markets Seven in number. 

Merchant Tailor — Herman Petersen. 

Mill Work — Fremont Planing Mill Company, W. R. Reckmeyer. 

Milliners — Seven in number. 

Music Dealers — Boggess Music Company, C. L. Dudley, Music Store. 

Medicine Manufacturing Company — Widhelm Remedy and Manufactur- 
ing Company. 

Photographers — Kubista Studio, Mohler Studio, D. L. Yocum. 

Physicians — Twenty in number (see medical chapter of this volume). 

Poultry Dealers — Four in number. 

Real Estate — Twenty-four in number. 

Restaurants and Cafes — Eight in number. 

Sand Dealers — Fremont Ice & Sand Company, Richey Sand Company. 

Shoe Stores — Harry's Shoe Shop, Morris Horstman ; J. H. Knowles, 
Bernhardt Shamberg, R. P. Turner. 



232 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Population of Fremont 

The matter of arriving at the exact population of the cities of the 
United States is not always an easy problem to solve. The system 
employed by the government at Washington by which the person who 
takes the census for so much a name, instead of a stated salary, is no* 
always fruitful in arriving at the true number residing in a given city or 
town. For instance, the census taker calls three times at a house and 
finds no one at home he usually never returns to get the names of the 
household. It has come to light that many such errors have taken place 
in the 1920 enumeration. The figures given below are such as the depart- 
ment have sent out as correct, whether thev are or not. The census 
periods of 1890, 1900, 1910 and 1920 run thus for Fremont. In 1890 it 
was 6,747; in 1900 it was 7,241 ; in 1910 it was 8,718, and in 1920. 9,549. 
It is generally believed that the city has at least 10,450. 

Fremont Commercial Club 

All modern, enterprising cities in this country have boards of trade 
or commercial clubs by which the commercial interests of the place are 
advanced and sustained. Away back in May, 1880, Fremont, at the city 
hall, had organized what was known as the Board of Trade with the 
following charter membership : Z. Shed, G. W. E. Dorsey, L. D. Rich- 
ards, Manley Rogers, Andressen & Meyer, L. M. Keene, C. Christensen, 
H. J. Lee & Co., Nye, Colson & Co., Otto Magenau, Cole & Pilsbury, 
Arthur Gibson, D. Crowell. Huette & Son, Hopkins & Millard, J. J. Haw- 
thorne, E. H. Barnard and Welty & Shervin. 

By this organization there was the utmost harmony am9ng the busi- 
ness factors of Fremont. As time went on factories were secured and 
aided by this institution to the great betterment of the city. 

After this organization had filled its mission another of similar aim 
was formed — the present Commercial Club, which in 1905 had a mem- 
bership of 250 business men. This club favors the bringing of conven- 
tions to the city, believing this to be the best advertising plan than can 
be had. Through this club Fremont is ever ready to do its best at enter- 
taining and showing up the city's interest to good advantage. 

Recent Achievements of the Fremont Commercial Club 

Some of the more recent achievements and improvements for which 
credit must be given to the Fremont Commercial Club should be men- 
tioned in this connection. The club has always been efficient in securing 
the location in the capital of the county of desirable factories and varied 
manufacturing establishments, which employ considerable numbers of 
men and constantly add to the profitable business of the county. Among 
these may be mentioned the great canning company, and the Fremont 
Manufacturing Company. A second achievement of the club is the crea- 
tion of a drainage district, of incalculable value to the whole section. A 
third is the establishment of a dyking district and a dyking system of 
the first value ; and still another, the achievement of making Fremont 
"The City Beautiful" through the work of the park board, in rendering 
our urban park spaces the delight of citizens an'd strangers together ; and 
in the removal of unsightly poles from the business streets, and the estab- 
lishing of the electrolier lighting system, which renders our night appear- 
ance one of brilliant and fascinating beauty. Our city Commercial Club 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 233 

has a most enviable reputation throughout the state, and in adjoining 
regions, for wide-awake activity and incessant vigilance in behalf of the 
highest weal and progress of our municipality. It makes the whole 
county proud of its capital. 

Early Days in Fremont 

In the 1916 volume of the publication entitled "Nebraska Pioneer 
Reminiscences" under authority of the Daughters of the Revolution, 
there is a good description of the pioneer days in and near the City of 
Fremont, by two local ladies — Sadie Irene Moore and Mrs. Theron 
Nye — from whom we are at liberty to quote: 

The first habitation of any sort was constructed of poles surrounded 
by prairie grass. It was built and owned by E. H. Barnard and J. Koontz 
in 1856, and stood upon the site of the present Congregational Church. In 
the autumn of 1856 Robert Kittle built and owned the first store. A 
few weeks later his house was occupied by Rev. Isaac E. Heaton, wife 
and two daughters, who were the first family to keep house in Fremont. 
Alice Flor, born in the fall of 1857. was the first child born in Fremont. 
She is now Mrs. Gilkerson of Wahoo. The first male child born in Fre- 
mont was Fred Kittle. He was born in March, 1858, and died in 1890. 
On August 23, 1858, occurred the first marriage. The couple were 
Luther Wilson and Eliza Turner. The first death was that of Seth P. 
Marvin, who was accidentally drowned in April, 1857, while trying to 
cross the Elkhorn River seven miles northeast of Fremont. The Marvin 
home was a mile and a quarter west of Fremont and this house was the 
rendezvous of the parties who laid out Fremont. Mr. Marvin was one 
of the town company. 

The first celebratioh of the Fourth of July was in 1857. Robert 
Kittle sold the first goods. J- G. and Thomas Smith conducted the first 
regular store. In 1860 the first district school was opened with 
Miss McNeil teacher. Then came Mary Heaton. now Mrs. Hawthorne. 
Mrs. Margaret Turner, followed by James G. Smith, conducted the first 
hotel situated where the First National Bank now stands. This was also 
the "stage house" and here all the traders stopped en route from Omaha 
to Denver. In the evening the old hotel resounded with music of violin 
and the sound of dancing. Charles Smith conducted a drug store where 
Holloway and Fowler are now. A telegraph line was established in 
1860. The first public school was held in the building owned by the 
Congregational Church at the corner of Eighth and "D" streets. 
Miss Sarah Pneuman, now Mrs. Harrington of Fremont, was the 
teacher. When court convened, school adjourned, there being no court- 
house. In three years the school had grown from 16 to 100 pupils, with 
three teachers. The first public schoolhouse was built at the corner of 
Fifth and "D" streets. 

In 1866 the Union Pacific was built. The first bank was established 
in 1867. The Tribune, the first paper, was published July 24. 1868. 
The "Central School" was built in 1869 and the teacher, in search of 
truant boys, would ascend to the top of the building, where with the 
aid of a fieldglass, she could see from the Platte to the Elkhorn. Today 
can be seen on the foundations of this old landmark the marks of slate 
pencils which were sharpened by some of our middle-aged business men 
of today. 

Mrs. Cynthia Hamilton of Fremont gives an interesting account of 
the early days. In June, 1857, she, with her husband, Mr. West, their 



234 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

daughter Julia, Mrs. West's brother, the late Wilson Reynolds, and 
Mrs. Reynolds, reached a few dwellings then comprising Fremont, after 
an eighteen or nineteen days' trip in moving wagons from Racine, Wis- 
consin. They first stopped at the house of Robert Kittle, corner of Mili- 
tary Avenue and Broad Street. This house was made from trees grown 
on the bluffs southwest of town, and had red cedar shingles for a roof, 
the shingles shaved from logs that had floated down the Platte River. 
After two days they all moved into a log house in "Pierce's Grove". 
While living here Mrs. Hamilton tells of hearing a great commotion 
among the tinware and upon investigation, found it was caused by a 
huge snake. In August of the same year they moved to their homestead 
northwest of town, on the Rawhide. It is now known as the Rohr place. 
Here they remained two years. In the winter the men made trips to the 
river for wood, and the women must either remain at home alone far 
from another house, or else accompany the men. Thus alone one day 
she saw a large band of Indians approaching. The chief picked up an 
ax from the wood pile and placed it under the window where she sat. 
He indicated that she must take care of it or else someone might steal it. 
He then led his band northward. During all the residence on the home- 
stead the three members of the family suffered continually from ague. 
In the fall of 1859, Mrs. West and her child returned to Wisconsin, 
where they remained ten months. During her absence, Mr. West became 
a trader with the Indians and once in Saunders County, as he was selling 
a quantity of meat on a temporary counter, the Indians became rather 
unruly. His white companions fled, and Mr. West, seizing a club, went 
among the Indians, striking them right and left. For this they called 
him brave and ever afterwards called him "Buck Shadaway," meaning 
curly hair. When Mrs. West returned from Wisconsin, she came down 
the Mississippi and up the Missouri to Omaha, then a small town. From 
there they drove to Fremont, with horse and buggy, via Florence. 
Mr. West now bought a cottonwood house, battened up and down. It 
consisted of two rooms and stood on the site of the present residence of 
Thad Quinn. Wilson Reynolds bought two lots on the south side of 
Sixth Street near the West home for 75 cents. Here he built a house 
made partly of black walnut taken from the banks of the Platte. In this 
house was born our present postmaster, B. W. Reynolds. Mrs. Hamil- 
ton relates that the Indians were frequent callers at her home, one 
evening teaching her how to make "corn-coffee," by taking a whole ear 
of corn, burning it black and then putting it into the coffee pot. Food 
consisted of vegetables, which were grown on the prairie sod, prairie 
chickens, small game and corn bread. Butter was 25 cents a pound. 
Syrup was made by boiling down watermelon. Boiled beans were 
mashed to a pulp and used as butter. Everything was high and when 
the money and supplies were exhausted it was hard to get more. Screens 
were unknown and flies and mosquitoes were terrible. In the evening 
everyone would build a smudge so that they could sleep. Not a tree was 
to be seen except those on the banks of the streams. Tall prairie grass 
waved like the billowy ocean and prairie fires were greatly feared. 
Everyone began setting out trees at once. 

In those days Broad Street was noted as a racing road for the Indians 
and now it is a boulevard for automobiles, says Mrs. Hamilton. "Yes," 
she continued, "I well remember the Fourth of July celebration of 1857. 
There were about one hundred people in attendance. Miss McNeil was 
my little girl's first teacher and Dr. Rushtrat our physician." In 1861, 
after a short illness, Mr. West died. He was buried beside his infant 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 235 

daughter in the cemetery, which at that time stood near the present brew- 
ery. The bodies were afterward removed to Barnard's Cemetery and 
later to Ridge Cemetery. The following year, Mrs. West, with her 
daughter, Julia, returned to her parents at Racine, Wisconsin, where she 
remained for many years. In 1876, as the wife of William Hamilton, 
she returned and made her home on one of her farms near the stock- 
yards. Twenty-five years ago (1891) this place was sold at $100 per 
acre, while the old homestead northwest of town brought $25 per acre 
in 1875. After selling the south farm she and Mr. Hamilton, who died 
a few years ago, bought the present home on Broad Street. Everyone 
should honor the early settlers, who left their eastern homes, endured 
the hardships and privations, that a beautiful land might be developed 
for posterity. They should be pensioned as well as our soldeirs. As we 
of the younger generation should respect and revere their memory. 

Early Days in Fremont 
(By Mrs. Theron Nye) 

From the year 1856 until the beginning of the Civil war in 1861, the 
early settlers in Nebraska experienced nearly all of the ills and hardship 
incidental to a pioneer life. Fifty years have passed since then and to 
one having lived through those trying days — or to a stranger who merely 
listens to the almost incredulous tales of a past generation — there arises 
a question as to why any sane person or persons should desire to leave a 
land comparatively full of comfort and plenty for one of deprivation 
and possible starvation. 

The early settlers of Fremont were for the most part young people 
from the eastern states, full of ambition and hope. There is in the youth- 
ful heart of a spirit of energy, of going and daring, in order to realize, if 
possible, dreams of a possible glorious future in which may be won 
honor and fame and wealth. Then again, the forces of nature are never 
at rest and man, being a part of the great whole, must inevitably keep in 
step with the universal law. A few lines written for a paper several 
years ago give the first impressions of the landscape which greeted the 
eves of the stranger on entering the valley of the Elkhorn River in 
1858, April 26: 

"This is the picture as I see it plainly in retrospect — a country, and 
it was all country, with a smooth, level, gray surface which appeared to 
go on toward the west forever and forever. On the north was the blufTs 
of the Elkhorn River but the great Elkhorn Valley was a part of an 
unknown world. South of the little townsite of Fremont the Platte 
River moved sluggishly along to meet and be swallowed up by the great 
Missouri. Ten or twelve log cabins broke the monotony of the treeless 
expanse that stretched far away, apparently to a leaden sky. My heart 
sank within me as I thought but did not say, 'how can I ever live in this 
place?' " And yet the writer of the above lines has lived in Fremont for 
forty-seven years. 

The histories of the world are mostly men's histories. They are the 
stories of governments, of religions, of wars, and only in exceptional 
instances women appeared to hold any important place in the affairs of 
nations. From the earliest settlement of the colonies in the New World 
until the present time, women have not only borne with bravery and for- 
titude, the greater trials of pioneer life, but frorii their peculiar organi- 
zation and temperament suffered more from small annoyances than their 




Residence of Hon. Ray Nye, Fremont 



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Log Cabin in Which Hon. Ray Nye Was Born 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 237 

stronger companions of the other sex. The experiences of the home 
and the family life of the early settlers of the great West have never 
entered into the annals of history nor can a truthful story be told with- 
out them, but thus far no doubt the apparent neglect has been due to 
woman herself, who until quite recently has felt that she was a small 
factor in the world's affairs. 

In the beginning of the new life in Fremont women had their first 
introduction to the log cabin which was to be their home for many years. 
It was not as comfortable as it is pictured in romance on printed paper. 
It was a story and a half high, sixteen by twenty feet in size. The logs 
were hewn on two sides, but the work performed by the volunteer car- 
penters of that time was not altogether satisfactory, consequently the logs 
did not fit in closely, but the open spaces between filled with a kind of 
mortar that had a faculty of gradually dropping off as it dried, leaving 
the original holes and openings through which the winter winds whistled 
and Nebraska breezes blew the dirt. 

The houses were made of cottonwood logs and finished with cotton- 
wood lumber. The shingles warped so the roof was somewhat resembling 
a sieve. The rain dripped through it in the summer and the snow sifted 
through it in the winter. The floors were made of wide, rough boards, 
the planing and polishing given them by the broom, the old-fashioned 
mop, and the scrubbing brush. The boards warped and shrunk so that 
the edges turned up, making wide cracks in the floor through which many 
small articles dropped down into a large hole in the ground miscalled a 
cellar. It was hardly possible to keep from freezing in these houses in 
the winter. Snow sifted through the roof, covering beds and floors. The 
piercing winds blew through every crack and crevice. Green cottonwood 
was the only fuel obtainable and that would sizzle and fry in the stove 
while water froze while standing under the stove. This is no fairy tale. 

The summers were not much more pleasant. It must be remembered 
that there were no trees in Fremont, nothing that afforded the least pro- 
tection from the hot rays of a Nebraska sun. Mosquitoes and flies were 
in abundance and door screens were unknown at that time. The cotton 
netting nailed over the windows and hung all around the beds was a slight 
protection from the pests, although as necessarily the doors must be 
opened more or less no remedy could be devised that would make any 
perceptible improvement. To submit was the rule and the law in those 
days, but many, many times it was under protest. 

The first floor was divided off by the use of quilts or blankets, into 
kitchen, bedroom and pantry. The chamber, or what might be called 
the attic, was also partitioned in the same way, giving as many rooms as 
it would hold beds. The main articles of food for the first two years 
consisted of potatoes, cornmeal and bacon. The meal was made from a 
variety of corn raised by the Indians and called Pawnee corn. It was 
very soft, white and palatable. Wheat flour was not very plentiful the 
first year. Bacon was the only available meat. Occasionally a piece of 
bufifalo meat was obtained, but it being very hard to masticate, only 
served to make a slight change in the gravy, which was otherwise made 
with lard and flour browned together in an iron frying pan, adding boil- 
ing water until it was the right consistency, salt and pepper to suit the 
taste. This mixture was used for potatoes and bread of all kinds. Lard 
was a necessity. Biscuits were made of flour, using a little cornmeal for 
shortening and saleratus for rising. Much of the corn was ground in an 
ordinary coffee mill or in some instances on a large grater or over a tin 
pan with perforated bottom, made so by driving nails through it. The 



238 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

nearest flouring mill was Fort Calhoun, over forty miles away, which was 
then a three days' journey, taking more time than a trip to California at 
the present day. Nothing, however, could be substituted for butter. The 
lack of meat, sugar, eggs and fruits, tea, coffee was borne patiently, but 
wheat flour and cornmeal bread with its everlasting lard gravy accompa- 
niment was more than human nature could bear, yet most of the people 
waxed strong and flourished on bread and grease. Oh, where are the 
students of scientific research and domestic economy? There were pos- 
sibly three or four cows in this settlement at Fremont, and if there was 
ever an aristocracy in the place, it was represented by the owners of 
said cows. 

In 1858 a little sorghum was raised. "Hope springs eternal in the 
human breast." Men, women and children helped to prepare the stalks 
when at the right age for crushing, which was done with a very primitive 
home-made machine. The juice obtained was boiled down to a syrup, 
but, alas, the dreams of a surfeit of sweetness vanished in the thin air, 
for the result of all the toil and trouble expended was a production so 
nauseous that it could not be used even for vinegar. 

Wild plums and grapes grew in profusion on the banks of the river. 
There was much more enjoyment in gathering the fruit than in eating or 
cooking it. The plums were bitter and sour, the grapes were sour and 
mostly seeds, and sugar was not plentiful. 

The climate was the finest in the world for throat and lung troubles, 
but the breaking up of the soil caused a malaria and many of the inhabi- 
tants suffered from ague and fever. Quinine was the only remedy. 
There were neither physicians nor trained nurses here, but all were 
neighbors and friends, always ready to help each other when the occa- 
sion required. 

In 1856, the year in which Fremont was born, the Pawnee Indians 
were living four miles south of the Platte River on the bluffs in Saun- 
ders County. They numbered about 4,000 and were a constant source 
of annoyance and fear. In winter they easily crossed the river on the 
ice and in summer the water was most of the time so low they could 
swim and wade over, consequently there were few days in the year that 
they did not visit Fremont by the hundred. Weeks and months passed 
before women and children became accustomed to them and thev could 
never feel quite sure they were harmless. Stealing was their forte. Eyes 
sharp and keen were ever on the alert when they were present, yet when 
they left almost invariably some little articles would be missed. They 
owned buffalo robes and blankets for which the settlers exchanged 
clothing which they did not need, jewelry, beads and ornaments, with a 
little silver coin mixture added. The blankets and robes were utilized 
for bedding and many of the shivering forms they served to protect from 
the icy cold of the Nebraska winters. In 1859 the government moved 
them to another home on the Loup River and in 1876 they were moved 
to the Indian Territory. 

Snakes of many kinds abounded, but rattlesnakes were the most 
numerous. They appeared to have a taste for domestic life, as many 
were found in houses and cellars. A little four-year-old boy one sunny 
summer day ran out of the house barefooted, and stepping on the 
threshold outside the door felt something soft and cold under his foot. 
An exclamation of surprise caused a member of the household to hasten 
to the door just in time to see a rattlesnake swiftly gliding away. In 
several instances they were found snugly ensconsed under pillows, on 
lounges and very frequently were they found in cellars. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 239 

For more than two years there was no way of receiving or sending 
mail only as one or another would make a trip to Omaha, which was 
usually once a week. In 1859 a stage line was put on between Omaha 
and Fort Kearny. No one can tell with what thankfulness and rejoicing 
each and every improvement in the condition and surroundings were 
greeted by the settlers. Dating from the discovery of gold in Colorado 
the pioneer was no more an object of pity or sympathy. Those who 
had planted their stakes and made their claims along the old Military 
Road to California were independent. Many of the immigrants became 
discouraged and turned their faces homeward before getting a good 
glimpse of the Rocky Mountains. On their way home they sold loads 
of provisions for a song. The same fall the soil of the fertile Platte Val- 
ley, after two years of cultivation, responded to the demand of civiliza- 
tion. There was a market west for everything in the way of grain, and 
every pound of vegetables grown. So at last the patient and persever- 
ing ones received their reward. 

The sources of amusement were few and yet all enjoyed the new, 
strange life. A pleasant ride over the level prairie dotted with wild 
flowers in any sort of vehicle drawn by a pair of oxen was as enjoyable 
to the young people then as a drive over the country would now be in the 
finest turnout that Fremont possesses. A dance in the room twelve by 
sixteen feet in a log cabin, to the music of the "Arkansas Traveler" 
played on a violin, was "just delightful." A trip to Omaha once or twice 
a year was a rare event in the women's life particularly. Three days 
were taken — two to drive in and out and one to do a little trading (not 
shopping) and look around to view the sights. A span of horses, a 
lumber wagon with a spring seat in front, high up in the air, was a con- 
veyance. Women always wore sunbonnets on these occasions to keep 
their complexion fair. 

Several times in the earlier years the Mormons passed through here 
with long trains of emigrants journeying to the promised land and a 
sorry lot they were, for the most of them were footsore and weary, as 
they all walked. The train was made up of emigrant covered wagons 
drawn by oxen and handcarts drawn by cows, men, women and dogs. 
It was a sight never to be forgotten. 

This is merely a short description of some of the trials and sufferings 
endured by the majority of the early settlers of this state. Many of the 
actors in the drama have passed away — a few only now remain and soon 
the stories of their lives will be to the coming generation like forgotten 
dreams. 

Reminiscences 

In a paper read before the Woman's Club of Fremont by Rev. Wil- 
liam H. Buss of the Congregational Church, in December, 1919, were the 
following interesting and historic reminiscences which should be pre- 
served in the present History of Dodge and Washington Counties, 
hence have been inserted : 

"In the days of the '70s, when, horses and mules were in demand, a 
dealer of this city shipped this kind of stock in from the coast and sold 
it to the farmers. It was a common sight to see a horse with a bell tied 
to his neck, and a small boy, on his back, coming up Main street with a 
lot of mules following along for a block or more, and entirely loose. 
Unloaded from the cars, they followed the 'bell horse' and without any 
straying, to the company barnyard." 



240 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

"In the early history of Fremont the place frequently suffered from 
disastrous fires. There had been erected a skeleton fire tower at the top 
of which hung the fire bell, and the structure stood opposite the site of 
the present courthouse. A Chinaman conducted a laundry across the 
street, and one of his customers (evidently not a real Fremonter) one 
day called for his wash, took it, and withdrew hastily, without paying the 
bill. With his pig-tail flying, John rushed out immediately resolved to 
raise the city, and spread the alarm. He crossed the street to the fire bell 
tower, and vigorously pulled the cord, without stint or limit, summoning 
the usual crowd. When the volunteer firemen learned that there was no 
fire and only a Chinaman's laundry bill in peril, they were mad enough 
to hang the celestial, up beside the bell. 

"It has been stated that secretly it was regretted there was no record- 
ing phonograph-mechanism at hand to preserve to posterity the dialogue 
of mingled Chinese and fireman profanity." 



"Pioneer Mr. Kelly used to relate how 'The farmers broke the open 
prairie, and planted corn and turnips, and other vegetables, including 
squash and pumpkins. I used to go to a farm, with a top-box on the 
wagon and the farmer would sell me for fifty cents all the pumpkins 
and squash I could put in the wagon. In one load I counted 203, and 
some of them were all I could lift. We cut them up with spades for the 
cattle. At this time corn was worth only nine cents in the crib. I have 
bought several loads at this price. Coal was rather difficult to get, as we 
lived thirteen miles from Fremont. We could drive anywhere we pleased 
over the prairies. In the winter of 1870-71, we burned corn for months. 
The ears were large, and I put one into the stove as I would a stick of 
wood. Corn makes an intense heat, and even burns out the grate. 

" 'Farming was not as pleasant work as it is now. Pork could hardly 
be sold. I sold good thick spare ribs for one cent a pound. Today 
(1919) spare ribs are spare indeed!'" 



"One fine autumn morning there might have been seen one of Fre- 
mont's very earliest pioneers — J. J. Hawthorne — coming down town 
from his residence, carrying something very unique and precious, to show 
his friends, and he produced a sensation, when, on Main Street, he exhib- 
ited a number of Fremont grown apples. People looked at them with 
wonder and admiration, and with as much curiosity as if they were 
meteors from without our planet's orbit. But the Hawthorne apples 
were a foretaste of the future golden age." 

"Among the numerous railway wrecks occurring in or near Fremont 
may be described the one near the city and on the Union Pacific line in 
1869 — the worst ever had here. The only hotel in the city then was the 
Fremont Hotel kept by Samuel H. Fowler. Many wounded and dead 
from the wreck west of town were brought to the hotel, while others 
were borne to the Union Pacific station, a small one story frame 
building." 

"Bank robbers gave Fremont much excitement many years ago. It 
was learned that bank robbers were on a certain train coming through 
the city and were intending to stop. Sheriff Gregg had sworn in as one 
of his deputies, to assist in the arrest, the intrepid veteran of the Civil 
war, the late Ed. Morse. As the train pulled in, the robbers alighted, 
sure enough, and began shooting at once. One bullet struck Morse in 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 241 

the mouth, and passed into his throat, leaving an ugly and dangerous 
wound. The thieves stole horses near at hand, rode to the river and 
jumped into a skiff and hurried out into the middle of the Platte River. 
The man who shot our fellow townsman, was in turn shot by the sheriff, 
while on the river, and his companion surrendered, was brought back to 
the county jail, and threatened for a time with lynching. He was later 
convicted and sent to the penitentiary. After long and patient suffering, 
Mr. Morse returned to health and a long service as a valuable citizen of 
Fremont." 



Doctor Buss, in concluding his paper before the Woman's Club, 
said: "Who does not remember the disappointments that came in the 
past in the failure to materialize of the long promised and seemingly 
assured railroad shops that were to make us metropolitan in industry; in 
the like failure to appear of the Great Packing House which would have 
made us as important as South Omaha ; in the falling down of the Hemp 
factory industry that promised so brilliantly for a long period? 

"Who does not recall the hopes entertained by the Street Railway 
Company of Old Fremont and the dismal issue and dwindling end of the 
whole enterprise? There was the great Chautauqua Assembly, too, and 
its fine auditorium with its brilliant programs of oratory and discussion 
to which I listened with pride in the first of the nineties, but which faded 
away in -financial failure to the disheartening of the friends of culture 
and literary hope for the town. 

"These and others were the tragedies of the disappointment which 
came in the later days and which tried men's souls as truly as did the 
grasshoppers and drouths of early times. 

"But Fremont triumphed over all, as she will triumph over every 
hindrance that the years unfold. 

"In conclusion then let all hearts salute the men and women of Old 
Fremont and cherish their memory, emulate their courage and perse- 
verance." 

Historical Sketch of William B. Lee 

(Contributed by Mrs. Eliza Lee Flynn) 

William B. Lee was born in County Monaghan, Ireland, November 
13, 1832. He came to America in 1851, and to Nebraska in 1856. In 
Ireland, when William Lee was a boy, the main industry was the raising 
of flax. His father, grandfather and great-grandfather, in their day, 
were foremost in their neighborhood, both in the form of industry and 
also in the manufacture of linen. Their fine linens found a ready mar- 
ket in all parts of the world. So experienced was his grandfather in this 
business that at one time he held a government appointment, as an expert 
linen examiner. In the early days of English dominance in Erin there 
were many of the name of Lee who became settlers in southwestern 
Ireland, and belonging as they did to the Church of England, took a 
lively part in the religious wars of the period. On his mother's side, 
among these were the Martins and Brownlees, who were Scotch Cov- 
enanters, and whose ancestors had emigrated to Ireland when King Wil- 
liam of Orange entered England to aid the Protestant cause. They joined 
his army and fought through the Irish wars, receiving for their service 
grants of land in the County of Tyrone. The people of Mr. Lee's mater- 
nal grandmother were known as the Brownlees of Bothwell, Scotland. 



242 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Thomas Brownlee, Earl of Bothwell, held a high place in King William's 
army, and made his home continuously in Ireland. Of his grand-uncle 
Brownlee Mr. Lee loved to relate tales learned at his uncle's knee, espe- 
cially those about the bonfires he and others were in the habit of kindling 
upon the highest neighboring hills whenever word was received of an 
American victory over the British. At that time, little did he think that 
one day he would himself be a citizen of America, "the land of the free 
and the home of the brave." But to America came William B. Lee, in 
1851, crossing the Atlantic in a sailing vessel which was five weeks and 
three days in making the voyage. Five years later he traveled from the 
coast westward to Nebraska. 

He was married in September at St. Joe, Missouri, to Miss Margaret 
Cassidy, like himself a native of County Monaghan, Ireland, and the 
ceremony was performed by Bishop Hennessey, afterwards Archbishop. 
He was educated in London. After fifty-five years of happy union 
Mrs. Lee died at her home in Fremont, Nebraska, January 30. 1918, and 
in just five months to a day, while on a visit to his daughter in Douglass, 
Wyoming, Mr. Lee also passed away. For sixty-two years he had made 
his home in the City of Fremont, in the founding of which he had promi- 
nently participated, and in which for fifty years he had been honored 
as a worthy and valuable citizen ; the last of a little band of pioneers 
who lived as one family in the summer of 1856 in a log cabin at the 
corner of Broad Street and Military Avenue. 

His experience in numerous Indian engagements makes an interesting 
page in the history of Nebraska pioneers. He acquired land along the 
Platte River, east of Fremont, a part of which today constitutes the 
Fremont stockyards. Mr. Lee built a substantial log cabin, to which 
came at length his bride from the City of London. Great must have been 
her courage and resolution, for vast indeed was the change from the 
City of London to the open plains of our great West. She frequently 
told her children in after years that an Indian seemed peeking at her 
from every tree, so frequently did they appear. She had come in the 
second or third year of the Civil war and the times following that conflict 
were pressingly hard. Later Mr. Lee replaced his cabin with a substan- 
tial frame building, commodious and comfortable, and life became more 
worth while. Mrs. W. B. Lee has the distinction of being the first Catho- 
lic woman resident in Fremont. She was the hospitable hostess to Catholic 
missionaries and also to those of the Protestant faith, and to this day 
people speak in admiration of her gracious hospitality to the travelers 
of the plains. 

The coming of William B. Lee to Fremont antedated its founding by 
a few weeks. They left Grant County, Wisconsin, in search of a home- 
stead in the summer of 1856 traveling from Prairie du Chien to Rock 
Island, Illinois — thence by train to Iowa City, then the terminus of the 
railroad. They made the trip to Fremont on foot. There was a stage 
line running to Council Bluffs, but the "Foot and Walker" was more 
appealing to these young adventurers. In speaking of the pioneer days 
of William B. Lee, the name of his cousin, Commish Lee, frequently 
appears, for they were comrades in adventure. Together they had left 
Grant County, Wisconsin, hoping to join the army then being organized 
by General Lane against the abolitionists. Reaching Council Bluffs they 
found the company they had intended to join had left for Kansas, and 
the spirit of adventure having well taken hold of the Lee boys, they 
decided to go on west and look over the Territory of Nebraska. The 
country was sparsely settled but they managed to find a hospitable cabin 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 243 

for the night stops. Saturday night, just at sunset, they reached Council 
Bluffs and to their delight found a steamboat about to cross the river to 
Omaha, so their first Saturday night in Nebraska was spent in Omaha, 
then claiming a population of 100 souls, not including the Omaha Indians. 
Next morning they saw their first Indian fight on the very spot where 
the state capitol building was to be erected. 

An Indian was beating his squaw when the brother of the woman 
interfered. The clash was short and decisive. A knife flashed, then a 
bow fitted with an arrow twanged a death song. But the murderer fled 
to the hills. 

This was their introduction to Indian life : little did they think then 
of the many encounters they were to have with the redskins, ere Nebraska 
would be a safe place for the settler. 

Had they foreseen it all would they have gone forward? We know 
they would not have turned back, they had come from a line of people 
with a spirit of freedom strong in their breasts, pioneers by nature, 
whose parents, born under the rule of England, had not been afraid to 
brave the seas and emigrate to the shores of America, seeking indepen- 
dence, liberty and freedom and they feared no man when knowing that 
what they were doing was approved by Almighty God. 

Onward these two young men marched ever westward; on toward 
that glorious dream of a home on the plains, that they might help to 
build a state and play their part in the building of a new West. 

By night they had reached Elkhorn City and spent that night in com- 
pany with a man who had decided to take a claim in the Elkhorn Valley. 
Next morning they continued the journey to a point seven or eight miles 
north, where they found a ferry across the Elkhorn. Reaching the great 
valley of the Platte, they followed the old Mormon or California trail 
to a point, IJ^ miles northwest of the present site of Fremont, staying 
that night with the Bebee family, who were the first real bona fide inhabi- 
tants of this part of the state. 

William B. and Commish Lee rightfully claim to be the, second set 
of inhabitants, as they arrived here August 7, 1856, about three weeks 
before the townsite was named Fremont. While seeking land they went 
as far west as Columbus, but found no place they liked as well as the 
territory of the Platte Valley. 

It was on returning to the valley the second time, that they fell in 
with Messrs. Barnard, Koontz, Smith, Kittle, Moorland and a Mr. Pinney 
and they thus participated in the founding of Fremont. Stakes being 
driven for a site the day after they returned, Commish Lee holding one 
end of the rope, in lieu of the regulation surveyor's chain. He always 
maintained that the irregularity of the streets and blocks of the original 
plot of the city was due to the stretching of the rope. 

At this time Buchanan was democratic candidate for President and 
an effort was made to name the town Buchanan, but the townsite com- 
pany found the "Pathfinders" more popular so they honored John C. 
Fremont. The townsite then did not include anything east of Union 
Street. Later land east of the site was pre-empted and the Lees invested 
there. 

Often in recent years, previous to the death of William B. Lee, has 
he recounted the great entertainment of the younger generation — pages 
from his memory, of those pioneer days when the principal occupa- 
tion of the settler was fighting the redskins, freighting to Kearney, 
Columbus and Buffalo, Wyoming, and hunting the wild buffalo that 
roamed the prairies in immense herds ; yes, and fighting, too, the destruc- 



244 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

tive prairie fires that spared nothing in their mad race over the plains. 
As Mr. Lee had said they endured all sorts of privations and hardships, 
such as only pioneers could understand. Back in those days they dwelt, 
as one family, at the corner of Broadway and Military where the old 
marble works used to stand, in a cabin built of logs that had been taken 
from the island in the Platte River. There were William B. and Commish 
Lee, Barnard, Judge Smith and Koontz in a cabin twelve feet square. 

As late as 1918 William B. Lee was the only one left of that com- 
munity of pioneers living in Fremont, his cousin, Commish Lee, having 
been called by death some five years before. E. H. Barnard had by 
several years preceded Commish Lee. Mr. Koontz, early in the life of 
the City of Fremont, had gone to the Territory of New Mexico, there 
bought an Indian village, and there ended his days. Judge Smith of the 
household of pioneers, years ago, gave up Fremont as his home and estab- 
lished his residence in California. 

In the cemetery in Fremont sleep the three, who together began life 
pioneering on the plains of Nebraska, establishing their homes in a city 
of their building; there raising their families and promoting the best 
interest of the ever increasing community, and there at last ending their 
days, surrounded by the respect and admiration of the second and third 
generation, living to see their children's children, and leaving for them 
a heritage of honor and integrity. 

Many of the trees standing in Fremont and so much admired by our 
visitors were planted by the hand of William B. Lee. The oldest tree in 
Fremont was planted by him at the corner of Sixth and Union streets, 
and for over half a century lent its limbs to many a rope for an old- 
fashioned swing, to be used by the children and grand-children of the 
pioneers. Bravely withstanding storms for more than half a century, it 
was finally overcome and completely destroyed, in a high wind in 1917. 
Trees in the days of the earlier settler were even more welcome than 
flowers in springtime, and every day was Arbor Day to the progressive 
pioneer. 

Mr. Lee was also a member of the townsite company of Wahoo, 
Nebraska. 

Speaking of the fall of 1856, Mr. Lee has said: "By Christmas our 
circle had grown considerably larger and, oh, how heartily we welcomed 
each newcomer, only a pioneer can say. That year winter came, Decem- 
ber 2d : snow falling three nights and days : on the level the snow was 
about three feet deep. I made a pair of snowshoes in order to get around, 
going to the island to hunt deer and wild turkey, of which I killed many. 
In February the snow disappeared only to be followed in April by a 
heavier fall adding greatly to our misery, it was a winter that none of us 
ever could forget. 

"Unwelconied visitors were too frequent so that we dwelt in constant 
expectation of a massacre by the Indians. In early and late fall it was 
our custom to go on an extended buffalo hunt and secure sufficient meats 
to last us until spring. These expeditions were full of interest and some- 
times vividly thrilling, especially when we would meet a herd of several 
thousand buffalo, running in advance of a prairie fire, and we, soldier 
fashion, would be compelled to He down beside our prostrate ponies and 
let the entire herd pass over us. It was then that our hearts beat hard 
and fast, for while we knew a buffalo would never step on a prostrate 
animal, still we feared they might do so by chance, enraged as they were, 
by the ever hastening flames of the advancing fire." 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 245 

Such tales of real life on the plains Mr. Lee has left for his children 
and grand-children to read, and as they do so they can but read with 
pride of the adventures of a brave, noble and Christian gentleman. In 
character Mr. Lee was honest to a fault, upright and ever dignified, of 
modest, kindly disposition and deeply religious, living his religion into 
his daily life. 

Almost his last thought was of Fremont where so many of his best 
years were spent, for to those about his deathbed he said : "Say to Fre- 
mont, for her I have nothing but the kindest and best of thoughts ; tell 
this to Fremont when I am gone." After an illness of ten days while 
visiting at the home of his daughters, this sturdy man, last and earliest 
of the pioneers, answered the call. He was buried from the Prebysterian 
Church, with which he had long been identified, and laid to rest beside 
his wife, July 3, 1918. 

The children born to Mr. and Mrs. William B. Lee were six in num- 
ber. Four of them are living at the time of this sketch : Mrs. A. R. Mer- 
ritt being the eldest, Frank T. Lee, Mrs. John M. Flynn, and Edward 
A. Lee. 

Mr. Lee early acquired much real estate in Fremont, and his time in 
later years was devoted to the care of these interests, having retired from 
stockraising and other business activities about the year of the organiza- 
tion of the Fremont Stock Yards Company, when he sold to that com- 
pany his first farm in Nebraska, on the site of which stands the Fremont 
Packing House. Partial loss of hearing caused Mr. Lee to withdraw 
from active business life in late years although his memory up to the very 
last was unfailingly true. Having seen so much of the stress of pioneer 
life, he was regarded as an authentic fountain of information regarding 
the history of the early days of his town and county, and his last years 
were devoted to the effort of faithfully recording for his children the 
birth and development of Fremont, his adopted home, together with 
many tales of early life on the plains of Nebraska. 



CHAPTER XXIII 

FREMONT TOWNSHIP 

Before the "Township Organization" obtained in this county in 1886, 
what was known as "Fremont Precinct" existed, and Fremont City was 
within such subdivision of Dodge County. Fremont Precinct included 
present Platte Township, and other additional domain of the county and 
was created a precinct by the County Commissioners in 1857. The first 
election was held at the house of Barnard & Koontz. The judges were 
E. H. Rogers, Jackson Davis and A. McNeil. Much of the early history 
of the "beginnings" in Dodge County transpired within Fremont Pre- 
cinct. At this time the Township of Fremont simply contains the terri- 
tory covered by the incorporated city, but like North Bend, has its rep- 
resentation on the board of county supervisors, same as all other outside 
townships. 

Early D.\ys in Dodge County 

[In 1884 on the occasion of the farewell services held at the old Con- 
gregational Church at Fremont, a reminiscence was written and read by 
pioneer E. H. Barnard. Now that thirty-six years have passed and the 
"new" Congregational Church is styled the "oldest church in town" these 
historic items seem more interesting than ever to many present-day read- 
ers, hence the story is here repeated.] 

When in the early autumn of 1856, from the bluffs near Elkhorn 
City, my eye first beheld this portion of the great Platte Valley, I thought 
I had never seen so goodly a landscape. For many miles the windings 
of the Elkhorn and Platte rivers were outlined by a fringe of timber, 
bounding the valley on either side, while the meanderings of the now 
classic Rawhide Creek were so distinctly traceable by an occasional clump 
of trees and bushes. The sight filled me with rapture and made the blood 
fairly bound within my veins. In all my life I had never seen its like and 
I never expect to again. Here was this grand and beautiful fertile coun- 
try spread out like a pretty map at my feet. And what made it the more 
fascinating was the fact that it was all unoccupied except by the Indians 
and wild beasts. What wonder that those who saw this valley then 
should be seized with a strong desire, as was Moses of old, to go in and 
possess the land? 

Well, we went in — a few of us — and just here the poetry of the nar- 
rative ends. Instead of the flesh-pots of Egypt, made ready and waiting 
for us, we found privations and hardships on every hand. Nobody had 
been in advance to build us houses and dig us wells, to lay out roads and 
build bridges, schoolhouses and churches, nor men to plant groves for us. 
We had all these things to do ourselves. The man who has a good house 
to live in while he builds a better one does a good thing, but he who 
builds a shelter while he himself is unsheltered does quite a different 
thing, and just what the first settler in a new country always has to do. 
Everything had to be done in way of building before we could begin to 
live, and all the while we were preyed upon most persistently by flies 
and gnats in the daytime and flees and mosquitoes by night. Insect life 
was animated and held high carnival, and I can assure you there is quite 
246 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 247 

a difference between the music of the festive mosquito just outside the 
screen and the same voice — and bill, too — on the rim of your ear, as 
some of you may know. Well, we did not have screens then, or any 
place to hang them either, which was worse. And further, besides all 
these impediments and pull-backs we had the Indians to pacify. All this, 
however, was expected, and as long as money held out to buy provisions 
with, we were content. The first human habitation, so far as is known, 
was built upon the very spot where a part of this church now stands. 
I say human habitation because it sheltered men, and you may regard 
it as an inhuman place to live in when I tell you that it was built of logs 
about twelve by sixteen feet and covered with hay. It was occupied first 
as a boarding house and afterwards as a hotel, furnishing lodgings to as 
many as fifteen on one occasion over night. Such was the first building 
in the City of Fremont. In due time it gave place to this edifice, and 
now that we are to remove the old building from this site, how fitting 
that a monumental church should be erected in its place, thus marking 
the precise spot where that first cabin stood. 

The first winter which followed was one of great severity, and a large 
portion of the stock which had been brought into the settlement in the 
fall, having nothing to eat but hay, mostly cut in October after it had 
been struck by the frost, perished. 

I well remember that one of eight oxen brought here by Mr. Heaton, 
or perhaps I might say that brought him and his effects here, only three 
survived. And here I want to relate a little incident. One of the most 
respected citizens, then as now, built a sled — an ox-sled — rather large, 
as it was intended to haul house-logs on, and as the weather was bad he 
was delayed in his work so that the vehicle was not completed until mid- 
winter. Then all was ready, and when he hitched his oxen to it, they 
had become so poor and the snow was so deep and the sled so very heavy 
that they were unable to stir it out of its place. How handy it would 
have been if he could have had a span of those fat Percheron horses, of 
which Fremont now boasts, to put in their places. But then we did not 
have Percheron horses. 

During the winter provisions had to be brought from Omaha through 
snow drifts that were well-nigh impassable. It used to take a week to 
make a trip and sometimes much longer. On one occasion toward spring 
when there was a crust on the snow strong enough to bear the weight of 
a man in most places, a couple of sacks of flour were brought over from 
Fontanelle on a hand-sled to piece out till our regular supplies could be 
got from Omaha. The winter was tedious, both in its monotony and its 
weather. But in the spring all was bustle and stir in the settlement. 
Every man in health had good courage and hope. Considerable prairie 
was broken up in time for corn planting. The sod corn was of the variety 
known as squaw corn, from the fact of its having been planted by the 
squaws prior to our coming to the country. It was similar to Nevada 
corn, except that the kernel was softer. It was all colors and when 
ground or beaten into meal was the most perfect specimen of variegated 
colors imaginable. 

This corn, while it was good for food, could not at that time be sold 
for cash nor even traded for other provisions, for the simple reason that 
there was not any cash or provisions in the country demanding it. It 
had a value, however. It was good to donate to the minister and for 
some other purposes ! I have been particular to describe this corn because 
soon it became the staple article of diet in the little hamlet of Fremont. 
If it had not been for that little crop of sod corn there is no knowing 



248 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

what would have become of the colony. The settlement must have been 
retarded if not scattered permanently. This may seem strange to the 
present well-fed inhabitants of this prosperous city, but it should be 
remembered that like most first settlers in a new country, the first here 
were for the most part poor in this world's goods and it will be readily 
seen that the expenses incident to building houses and buying everything 
for a year's subsistence, and without any income whatever, were consid- 
erable, so that it was not strange that the second winter found most of 
the settlers with very lean or quite empty purses. One man who had 
spent all, applied to his grocer in Omaha for credit on a supply of gro- 
ceries until he could raise another crop. He got an answer "Groceries 
are cash !" He offered to sell dry goods on time — but they were not 
needed. 

Our friend came home without either and with Puritanic firmness 
sternly determined to stay and go without until such time as he could pay 
cash. That man was E. H. Rogers, afterward and for many years 
cashier and the presiding genius of the First National Bank of Fremont. 
How he and his family luxuriated in cornmeal that season I leave you to 
imagine. 

I well remember the case of two families, father and son, living in 
one house on cornmeal alone for several weeks until, toward spring, 
their cow taking compassion on them graciously consented to add the 
luxury of fresh milk to their diet. I say luxury because I mean it. The 
necessaries of life are really very few and as a certain ex-judge of this 
county once expressed it, "They are mostly imaginary." 

People sometimes get discontended and complain of hard times, sim- 
ply because they are not quite as well ofT as some of their neighbors. 
They think they are frugal and saving, but what would they think of a 
regular diet of cornmeal and salt with variations and plenty of good 
water three times a day for ninety days or so? 

One thing is evident, if the early settlers of Fremont are not all in 
comfortable circumstances it is not for any want of enforced lessons in 
practical economy for they certainly had them and plenty of them, and 
fully illustrated. 

A little anecdote may serve as a pointer and to illustrate the style of 
those early days. A small boy recently transported from a house in 
western New York had taken his place at the table and was about to 
begin his repast when his grandma told him he had not said grace. The 
little fellow looked up with surprise and impatience : "I don't see what 
we have to give thanks for; we live in beggar houses and eat beggar 
victuals and have to sit on old trunks and three-legged stools instead of 
chairs." He couldn't see it and the old lady had to perform the duty 
for him. 

In 1857, with many others, came a man with three P's which being 
interpreted read : Poverty, Perseverance and Pluck. He reached the 
little hamlet of log cabins on foot — worn, dusty and penniless — as did 
many another. He at once sought and found a place where he could 
work for his board — and such board ! — until he could do better. Well, 
he managed by hook and crook to keep soul and body together and by 
the next spring succeeded in borrowing money enough of some friend 
East to buy a breaking team consisting of two yoke of oxen and a plow, 
but before he had turned a furrow the Indians stole three of his oxen 
and while searching for them the other ox strayed of?, so he lost all and 
had the borrowed money to pay. That was a little discouraging, was it 
not? He might have sat down and wrung his hands and prated that the 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 249 

world was against him, or he might have packed his knap-sack and gone 
oflf cursing the country, but he did neither. He stayed and kept at it. 
That man today is at the head of one of the great commercial houses of 
this city and a bank president. 

About the same time a family settled here from one of the western 
states. Some of the ladies called on the newcomers, as you know ladies 
do sometimes, and the hostess informed them that she had not been 
accustomed to such society or to living in such houses, with such furni- 
ture. "Why," she said, "where I came from we had our houses painted 
on the inside and had painted furniture, too." As if the ladies of Fre- 
mont had never seen paint. The next spring there was a rush of travel 
to Pike's Peak and this very woman had tacked up on her house a sign 
which read: "Butter for SAIL Here." She was believed to be the first 
codfish aristocrat of Fremont — she does not live here now. 

I have spoken thus of the humble beginnings, of the hardships and 
poverty and self-denial of those early days as in contrast to the present 
time that the dishonest and unfortunate may take courage by knowing 
what others have had to endure, that the lavish may learn to save, that 
the haughty may be humble, and that all may remember not to despise the 
day of small things. 



CHAPTER XXIV 

NICKERSON TOWNSHIP 

Description — Boundary — Early History — Population — Settlement 
— First Things — Educational and Religious — Village of Nick- 
ERSON — Present Development — The Two Railroads. 

Nickerson Township is government township 18, range 8, and a part 
of range 9 — that part west of the Elkhorn River. Originally this was all 
a part of Maple Township, but after various changes the present bounds 
were made in 1886. 

Geographically, this township is bounded on its north by Hooper 
Township, on the east by Washington County, on the south by Platte 
and Elkhorn townships, on the west by Maple Township. 

W^hat is known as the Black Hills line of Northwestern Railway runs 
through the township from north to south, with a station point at the 
Village of Nickerson, situated in section 11. The Sioux City branch of 
the "Burlington" system also touches this point. (See railroad chapter.) 

Population 

The United States census reports for various decades gives the popu- 
lation of this township: In 1890 it was 633; in 1900 it was 717, and ten 
years later it only had 637, which has increased probably in the last 
decade, although the present census figures have not as yet been made 
public. 

Pioneer Settlement 

The first person to take land in this township was an attorney-at-law 
named Henry Depew, who bought a quarter section in "thirteen," in 
1857. He finally let the land go back for the taxes and it was bid in by 
Michael Herman, who subsequently sold a part of it to the railroad com- 
pany, and they platted the Village of Nickerson on it. Depew went to 
Germany as counsul to Baden and later was made an Indian agent on 
the Pawnee Reservation, Nebraska. 

July 2, 1859, came Michael Herman, and he stated that when he 
arrived the only actual settlers in the township were Thomas Fitzsimons, 
Morris Wogan, O. A. Heimbaugh, Henry C. Campbell, Arthur Bloomer, 
J. H. Peters and a Mr. Bingham. In 1861 August Milligan and E. Abbott 
settled in the township. Other settlers were as follows: 

John K. Cramer came to Dodge County in 1855, before the organiza- 
tion and was numbered among the first Fontanelle colony. After remain- 
ing there twelve years, he moved to section 14 of Nickerson Township 
where he was still residing in the '90s. 

James H. Peters, of section 8, was a pioneer of 1855, and located at 
Fontanelle, but later moved to this township. 

Christopher Knoell, of section 32, came to Dodge County in 1859 with 
his parents, and in 1862 they moved to a new place in Nickerson Town- 
ship. The experiences this family had with the Indians at an early day 
were really of an interesting character. 
250 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 251 

Michael Herman came to the Elkhorn Valley in 1859 and finally pur- 
chased land in section 12 of this township. Subsequently he retired in the 
nearby village. 

Rasmus Johnson, section 23. came to Dodge County in the fall of 
1867, at first settling in section 20, homesteading twenty acres. Later he 
sold and purchased land in section 23. 

xA.nother settler of 1867 was William H. Sweet, Jr., who finally settled 
in section 4, and secured a half section of land prior to 1892. He was a 
native of New York State. 

In 1876 came Romanzo M. Havens, who first located at Fontanelle in 
1868 and lived there until 1876, when he moved to Nickerson and bought 
a hotel property which he still owned in the early '90s. 

Francis M. Healey, section 28, came to Douglas County in 1870 and 
at first worked by the month for others. He then farmed in Wisconsin 
till 1874, then returned to Nebraska and bought land on the Maple 
Creek, living there until he moved to section 28 in 1880. 

Other settlers included Andrew P. Sliepard. section 27, who was a 
resident of Dodge County from 1871 and in 1893 owned 680 acres of 
excellent land in this county. 

Philip Gentzler, section 20, came to Dodge County in 1868, first 
stopping at Fremont, but four years later moved to Nickerson Township. 

Gerhart Harms located in section 3. He came to the county in 1870. 
He settled on Logan Creek, purchasing a place in Nickerson Township 
three years after his coming. 

Another settler of Nickerson in 1870 was John Thede. He located 
in section 28, lived there five years then moved to a new place in sec- 
tion 16. 

Reuben Falconer purchased 240 acres of land in this township in 
1872 and built in section 17. 

Jerry S. Diehl, section 23. came to Dodge County in the spring of 
1877. He worked on a farm for others three years, then bought a quar- 
ter section of land to which later he added considerable. 

Nels Christiansen, section 21, located in Fremont, and eight years 
later, or 1882, removed to his farm in Nickerson Township. 

Charles Diers, section 32, came to this township in 1874. 

Jorgan Larson, later of section 16. came to this county in 1879 and 
bought eighty acres of land. All was wild prairie then, but in a few years 
he had developed his land into a very attractive and valuable place. 

Isaac H. Brown, section 5, came in 1881. He bought cheap land and 
within a few years was surrounded by a comfortable home. 

Lewis Larson, section 9, first located after coming in 1883 on the 
old Doctor Sexton land, which he leased six years then bought in Nicker- 
son Township and made himself a good home. 

Christopher Johnson, of section 21, came to Nickerson in 1887 and 
bought his land there. 

Henry E. Heimbaugh came in 1889, worked by the month a year or 
two and then engaged in business in the Village of Nickerson. 

First Events in the Township 

Henry Depew was the township's first settler or land-owner. 

The first child born in the township was a son to Mr. and Mrs. Mor- 
ris Wogan, early in the '60s. 

The first death was that of Mr. Higgle about 1858. He was buried 
on the hill west from the present Village of Nickerson, but later the 
remains were removed to the City of Omaha. 



252 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

The first residence was a log building on the old Depew place. The 
first frame building was built by Jacob Easier soon after the close of 
the Civil war. 

Schools and Churches 

The first school in Nickerson Township was taught a mile west of the 
present Village of Nickerson. See educational chapter, and for churches 
also see index for general chapter on all churches in the county. 

Village of Nickerson 

This little village is located in section 13 of Nickerson Township, and 
was platted January 13, 1871, by John I. Blair, for the railroad company. 
The land was originally purchased from the United States by Henry 
Depew. It was sold for taxes and the man Herman who bid it in sold to 
the railroad company for $500. 

The earliest attempt at business at this point was about 1872, when 
the nearby farmers formed an association and handled grain from a ware- 
house they erected. Soon thereafter, a postoffice was established and 
among the early postmasters in charge were O. B. Rippy, R. B. Schneider, 
W. H. Havens and George E. Herman. 

O. B. Rippy opened a general store about 1872. The first black- 
smith was Adam Niece, who built a shop in 1887. He sold to "Cal" 
Lehnier and he, in turn, to Charles Ladd, whose father was an early 
settler in Washington County. 

The grain and stock business finally passed into the hands of W. R. 
Wilson, and the Nye, Schneider Company got the business in 1888. 

R. M. Havens opened a hotel in 1876. 

A beer saloon was started early in the history of the village by Christ 
Basel, but finally he moved his "place" to Hooper. 

In the summer of 1892 the commercial interests of Nickerson were: 

Lumber and Grain — The Nye, Schneider Company. 

General Dealers — W. H. Bruner, N. J. Lefiler and H. E. Heimbaugh. 

Blacksmithing — Ladd Brothers. 

In the spring of 1892 a fire destroyed a greater part of the business 
houses. 

Schools and Churches 

From the platting of Nickerson up to 1883 the scholars from this 
locality had to attend school at the district building a mile to the west 
of the village. (See educational chapter.) 

The Methodist people built the first church building, the same cost 
$1,300. (See church chapter.) 

Present Village of Nickerson 

In the summer of 1920 the commercial and other interests of the 
village were as follows: 

General Merchandise — Seidel-Anderson Company, Farmers' Co-oper- 
ative Association. 

Implements — Freeman Brothers. 

Garage — Freeman Brothers. 

Grain Elevator — Farmers' Co-operative Association. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 253 

Pool Hall — Ross Wickersham. 

Hotel — The Havens. 

Lumber and Coal — Nye, Schneider Fowler Company, Farmers' Co- 
operative Association. 

Banks — First Bank of Nickerson, Farmers & Merchants Bank. 

Hardware and Coal — Same as lumber dealers. 

Jeweler — A. B. Crocker. 

Barber — John Litz. 

Postmaster — C. M. Ward, with one rural free delivery route. 

Physicians — Dr. R. C. Byers. 

Nickerson was incorporated October, 1910, and among the various 
village officials may be recalled: H. J. Sidner, 1910-13; Calvin Spangler, 
1913-18; A. P. Coulter, 1918; all having been chairmen of the village 
board. The village clerks have included: C. M. Ward, J. C. Brown, 
W. L. Seidel and A. P. Coulter. 



CHAPTER XXV 
CUMING TOWNSHIP 

Description — Boundaries — Population — Nationality of People — 
Railways — Homesteaders — First Settlement — First and Early 
Events — Pioneer Schools and Churches — Village of Scribner 
— Business Interests — 1920 Commercial Directory — Municipal 
History — Water Works — Postoffice History — Price of Farm 
Lands Today — Public Library. 

In the northern tier of civil townships of Dodge County is Cuming, 
which constitutes all of Congressional Township 20, range 7, east, hence 
is six miles square. It is south of the Cuming County line ; west from 
Logan, north from Everett and east from Pebble Township. In 1890 
this township had a population of 715; in 1900 it had 1,514, including 
the Village of Scribner ; in 1910 it was placed by the United States census 
as only 1,488, including Scribner. The figure's for the present (1920) 
census have not yet been made public. This subdivision of Dodge County 
is highly developed by a thrifty set of people, many of whom are foreign 
born. Many of the early homesteaders laid well the foundations for the 
present prosperity. They came to a wild, prairie land where nothing had 
been done to make the scene attractive, save that which Nature had 
bestowed in the way of wild grass and sweet-scented flowers. It took 
many years of hard toil upon the part of this band of sturdy pioneers 
to bring about the scenes and intrinsic value found in the domain today. 

The Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley Railway crosses the south- 
west corner of the township, Scribner being the enterprising station 
point. Cuming Creek and the Elkhorn River course through the town- 
ship, affording an excellent drainage and water system. 

The only town or village within its borders is the Village of Scribner, 
of which more is given later. 

First Settlement 

There were no such things as a government homestead until 1864, 
hence the earliest to locate within Cuming Township could not avail 
themselves of such free lands, but had to purchase at government price. 
The first man to brave the dangers and hardships of frontier life here 
was B. B. Moore, who with his family came in 1856, locating near 
Dead Timber. Among the next to settle was James B. Robinson, who 
claimed land at first in section 21. Subsequently, he became the pro- 
prietor of Pebble Creek Roller Mills. Still later he was connected with 
the Scribner State Bank. His settlement dated from 1859. His brother, 
William Robinson, came the same year, and remained until 1869, when 
he moved to Pebble Township and there made an excellent farm home, 
which today is worth htmdreds of dollars per acre. 

Thomas Parks and his son, S. B. Parks, came in from Galena, Illi- 
nois, prior to the Civil war. Thomas remained two years, moved away, 
but in 1870 returned again. S. B. Parks entered lands amounting to over 
1,000 acres, with College scrip which he possessed. 

Before the year 1870, these elTected a settlement in this township: 
E. C. Burns (who later served as postmaster at Scribner) came in 1869, 
254 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 255 

locating in the west half of the northeast quarter of section 28, where 
he farmed until 1888, then moved to Scribner to educate his children. 

W. L. Golder also came in 1869, settling in section 16. but later availed 
himself of the homestead act, as applied to returned Civil war soldiers. 
His claim was in section 30. After a number of years there he retired 
at Scribner. 

James Booth, section 20. came in 1868. as did George Romberg, both 
entering land in section 22. 

J. G. Meyer settled in section 26 in 1869; he was from Germany 
and came to the country without means and by utilizing the chances 
given to foreigners, he became wealthy in a few years. 

Section 10 was settled and developed largely by Germans who immi- 
grated here in 1869. This colony included such stalwart pioneers as 
Fred Lucking, A. Van Seggan and A. Gross, all locating on good lands 
in sections 10 and 3. 

J. C. Seeley, who had lived near Fontanelle since 1856. at the close 
of the Civil war, settled in section 9 of this township. 

Sometime during the '60s William Meyer located in section 30. His 
father and family came at the same time and all took homesteads. 

In 1868 Christian F. Miller settled on the northwest of section 34. 

About this time other immigrants came to this township as follows : 
Christian Matwick. section 32 ; Cleister Kow, in the same section ; Louis 
Swartz, section 18; Wesley A. Conley, section 18; Edward Conley, 
George Conley. A. H. Briggs. John C. Briggs. William Matson. A. Wil- 
kinson. Newton Pitzer. Hal Christy. Lawrence Skibowsky. John Dren- 
gus, Joseph Beck, G. W. French, Henry Munke. Otto Pribno, William 
E. Gammage. 

D. Maynard, of section 6, made his settlement in April, 1872, when 
he became a homesteader. 

Frank Brezina homesteaded land in this township in 1876. Later he 
conducted a hotel at both Scribner and Fremont. 

Thomas Hall, deceased many years ago. was among the homesteaders 
of 1870 and died on his farm in 1887. 

Herman Suhr, who later engaged in the farm implement business at 
the Village of Scribner. became a permanent resident of Cuming Town- 
ship in the autumn of 1871 — year of the Chicago fire. 

John Romberg and Christ M. Sasse located in the township in 1868. 

Among the settlers recalled as having arrived in 1869. was Gerhard 
H. Heyne, who located in section 25. but later went to section 24. A Ger- 
man settler named Gerhard Rastede took land in section 27 of this town- 
ship about that ciate. too. 

First and Early Events 

Galena postoffice was established at the house of J. B. Robinson late 
in the '60s. S. B. Parks was commissioned postmaster and held the office 
many years and was succeeded by Mrs. Mary S. Dentler, who conducted 
it until it was discontinued when the railroad was completed through the 
country. 

The first settler was B. B. Moore and family in 1856. 

The first child born was J. H. Robinson in 1868. 

The first death in the township was J. B. Robinson in 1864. 

The earliest marriage was that of S. B. Parks and Mary E. Robinson 
in 1864. 

The first religious services were conducted by the Methodist people 
in 1870-71. 



256 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

The pioneer school was taught by Mrs. Mary E. Parks, wife of S. B. 
Parks, at her own house in the summer of 1871. A schoolhouse was 
erected in 1873 in the northeast quarter of section 28. 

The Village of Scribner 

This incorporated place is centrally located in Dodge County, is an 
important station-point on the former Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Val- 
ley system of railway (now Chicago & Northwestern), twenty-four 
miles northwest of Fremont. It is also a junction point of the main line 
and the Albion branch of this railroad; is situated in section 30, town- 
ship 20, range 7, east. 

Pebble was platted in September, 1870, in section 36, of the same 
Congressional township with the view of securing the coveted railroad, 




Business Street, Scribner 

but its proprietors were unsuccessful in their attempt. Scribner was 
platted in December, 1870, by John I. Blair, president of the Railroad 
Company. 

The population of Scribner in 1890 was 664; in 1900 it was 827; in 
1910 it had increased to 891 and its present population is 1,100. Its 
population is a mixed one, but largely German. Of its excellent schools, 
churches and lodges other special topics in this volume will treat at length 
under their respective headings. 

The first building on the town site was raised in the autumn of 1873 
by John Rochford. It was a frame building 22 by 40 feet and was at 
first used as a residence, but later as a barber shop. 

Of the pioneer hotel of Scribner let it be stated that it was known as 
the Clifton House : was built in the summer of 1874 by George Horton. 
He soon sold to Mrs. Culver, who a year later sold to August English. 
Early in the '90s it was closed, another better planned hotel having been 
erected. 

The first store in Scribner was the general merchandise stock car- 
ried by Gustaf C. Kerkow, later a worthy county clerk of Dodge County. 

The harness business was first represented in Scribner by L. H. NefiF 
about one year after the town was started. He continued until 1885 
when he sold to F. A. Schulz. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 257 

Among other "first events" should be the recording of the birth of 
Emma Spear, daughter of Lewis Spear and wife, of Scribner. 

In 1883 one of the largest flouring mills in Dodge County was put in 
operation, the same having a capacity of 100 barrels per day. This was 
built by John M. Diels. 

Business Interests of 1892 

From a publication known as the "History of the Elkhorn Valley," 
published in 1892, the manuscript of which was submitted to competent 
local committees and by them approved, gives the following as the busi- 
ness interests at Scribner the summer of that year: 

Agricultural Implements — Schnack & Suhr, Sullivan & Boll. Attor- 
neys — A. H. Briggs. Banks — Scribner State Bank, Merchants & Farmers 
Bank. Blacksmiths — Solomon Spangler, C. White. Creamery — By a 
stock company. Drugs — A. Lendnicky, Herbenthall & Priess. Furni- 
ture — C. T. Horton. General Stores — G. J. Milligan, W. Drucker & Co., 
Gus Martens, F. A. Huston, K. A. Horwich. Hardware — William Gar- 
danier, C. W. Marquedt. Harness Shops — F. A. Schulz and E. A. Nason. 
Hotels — Clifton, Windsor. Jewelers — J. A. Nason. Lumber — Crowell 
Lumber Company, J. W. Diels. Livery — W. A. King, William Becker. 
Millinery — Mrs. W. E. Royce. Meat Markets — Ehler Brothers. Milling 
— ^J. M. Diels, Steam Roller Mill. Photographic Studio — Fritz & Good. 
Physician — Dr. Charles Inches. Newspaper — Scribner News. Societies 
— Modem Woodmen, Masonic and Grand Army of the Republic. 

The Present (1920) Commercial Affairs 

Agricultural Implements — J. O. Milligan, Jr., John Themess, Sol 
Spangler. 

Auto Garages — Service Garage, Nast & Themes, Scribner Garage, 
White Front. 

Auto Dealers — August Shellenberg. 

Banks — First National, Scribner State Bank and Farmers State Bank. 

Barber Shops — A. B. Roberston, C. H. Reimers. 

Bakeries — Ed Shornshor. 

Blacksmith Shops — Henry Polster, Fred Harmel. 

Clothing (Exclusive) — John Moller. 

Cream Stations — Produce and cream by Emil Follgner, E. Hubler. 

Cement Blocks — Gus Koplin. 

Drugs — Peterson Drug Store, Guy L. Thompson. 

Dentists— Dr. B. Davis, Dr. B. Krajicek. 

Elevators — Farmers' Co-operative Company, Mercantile Company 
and the Crowell Grain and Lumber Company. 

Furniture — Arthur Furniture Company. 

Flouring Mills — Farmers' Co-operative Milling Company. 

General Stores — J. O. Milligan, Jr., Peoples' Co-operative Store, J. F. 
Drenguis Company. 

Hotel— The Miller. 

Picture Shows — "Crystal" Theater. 

Hardwares — F. H. Ranslem & Son, Fred E. Romberg. 

Jewelry — Fred Dietz. 

Lumber — Same as grain dealers. 

Meat Markets — Ferdinand Sievers, John Ehlers. 

Milling — Co-operative Farmers' Company. 



258 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Newspaper — The Rustler. 

Opera House — L. L. Soils. 

Physicians — Drs. G. Bartlett, E. L. Hustead. 

Photographic Studio — William Fahk. 

Plumbing — Scribner Plumbing and Heating Company. 

Restaurant — Mrs. Margaret Kunce, Ed Shomshor. 

Shoe Repairs — Fred Meyer. 

Veterinary— Dr. Behnard Witt. 

Ice Dealer — Scribner Ice and Light Company. 

Harness — William Baits. 

Wagon Shop— George Stockamp. 

Municipal History 

In 1882 Scribner was incorporated as a village and down to and 
including the year 1891, the following were elected as its municipal 
officers : 

1882— John M. Diels, Daniel McBain, Will Hassen, trustees; L. H. 
Neff, clerk. 

1883— J. L. Baker (chairman), J. A. Nason, C. T. Horton, William 
Kerkow, James Booth, trustees ; L. H. Neff, clerk. 

1884 — J. A. Nason (chairman), R. C. Hassen, Ernest Borkenhagen, 
E. Kerkow, A. Berry, trustees : L. H. Neff, clerk. 

1885— J. L. Bak€r, J. O. Milligan, James Booth (chairman), G. A. 
Diels, R. Dirshaus, trustees: L. H. Neff, clerk. 

1886 — Henry Schnack, John C. Seeley, W. B. Gardanier (chairman), 
R. Drishaus, N. A. Hagenstine, trustees ; L. H. Neff, clerk. 

1887 — A. H. Briggs, H. Schnack, N. A. Hagenstine, August J. Albers, 
R. Drishaus, trustees ; F. A. Schulz, clerk. 

1888— C. L. Horton (chairman), S. B. Parks, H. Schnack, F. A. 
Schulz, Peter Bowen, trustees ; W. B. Gardanier, clerk. 

1889— E. F. Blumer, S. B. Parks, Henry Schnack, C. W. Marquedt, 
E. C. Burns (chairman), trustees; W. K. Fowler. Jr., clerk. 

1890— E. F. Blumer, S. B. Parks, H. Schnack, J. P. Smith (chair- 
man), H. Suhr, trustees; L. A. Seeley, clerk. 

1891 — James Booth, J. H. Clausen (chairman), J. M. Diels, John 
H. Jones, Peter Preiss, trustees ; W. H. Weeks, clerk. 

From 1891 to the present time the chairmen or mavors have been: 
1892— Hal Christy; 1893— Hal Christy; 1894— Hal Christy; 1895 to 

1906, : 1907— Alex Ross; 1908— Alex Ross; 1909— Alex Ross; 

1910 — Fred Volpp, who served until 1917, when Charles Arnot served 
during the terms of 1917-18; the next was Henry Nast, present mayor. 

The Clerks have been since 1891 : W. K. Fowler, Jr., to 1894 ; Frank 
Diels from 1894 to 1895; Hal Christy from 1895 to 1917, when Henry 
Buehring was elected and is still serving as village clerk. 

The present (1920) villiage officers are as follows: Mayor — Henry 
Nast ; Clerk — Henry Buehring ; Treasurer — Hal Christy ; Marshal — 
G. M. Mass; Trustee — Henry Nast (chairman), J. O. Milligan, Jr., 
Ernest Dau, Fred Volpp, Hans Bowl. 

The vote on waterworks and city building propositions was in 1906, 
when it was carried and such improvements were instituted. At first 
the improvements included a gas plant, which was conducted till the 
present private corporation was organized by home capital, and now 
electric light and a "municipal" ice plant are in successful operation. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 259 

The water wells for the waterworks system are four in number 
and run from 67 to 72 feet deep and land in the strata of gravel, which 
gives a superior quality of water. 

Here also finds a beautiful park, though only partly improved as 
yet. The public library of the place is supported by state and county 
tax. 

Farm lands in the neighborhood of Scribner range from $275 to 
$400. 

PosTOFFiCE History 

A postoffiice was established at Scribner in the fall of 1874. with 
William B. Gardanier as postmaster. He was succeeded November 
25, 1885, by Jesse A. Nason and he by Edward C. Burns. Since then 
the postmasters have included the following: Gus Martens, R. H. Schur- 
man, James M. Beaver and present postmaster, Arthur G. Schoeneck, 
who was appointed June, 1914. It is now a third-class office and has 
five rural routes, ranging from twenty-five to thirty miles in length. 

In August, 1880, Scribner became a money order office, the first 
order being issued to Alvira Barge, August 2, 1880, in favor of Doyl^ 
& Adolph, of New York. 



CHAPTER XXVI 

COTTERELL TOWNSHIP 

Its Boundary — Population — Pioneer Settlement— Once Included 
Village of North Bend — General Natural Features and Pres- 
ent Condition of Township. 

This subdivision of Dodge County comprises all of Congressional 
township 18, range 8 east, and about all of the north half of township 
17, of the same range. It is bounded on the north by Ridgeley Town- 
ship, on the east by Maple and Platte townships, on the south by the 
south bank of Platte River and on the west by Union Township. 

The Town of North Bend, second largest in Dodge County, once 
within Cotterell civil township. From an early day in the county's 
history, this subdivision was included in North Bend precinct, but upon 
the date of "Township Organization" in 1886, the division was made. 
The present townships of Cotterell and Union were both a part of 
North Bend precinct. 

But few, if indeed any, portion of Dodge County can boast of better 
soil and improvements that Cotterell, in which township there is but 
a very small amount of land that can truthfully be classed as "waste 
land." 

Population 

The United States census reports give the population of this town- 
ship in 1890 as 701 ; in 1900 as 1,194, and in 1910 as 831. The change 
in extent of territory accounts for the decrease in population largely. 

Pioneer Settlement 

The township was named for its first settler — Hon. M. S. Cotterell. 
In company with James Humphrey, Alexander Morrison and John M. 
Smith, he came from Ohio and the party brought a steam saw mill in 
with them. Mr. Cotterell claimed a half section of land, including that 
upon which North Bend now stands. Other members of the party 
located across the line, west, in Union Township. The date of this set- 
tlement was 1857. 

In 1858 came George O. Dodge, of section 11. He came in com- 
pany with his father, and they soon went back to their native country — 
New England. He enlisted in the Union Army during the Civil con- 
flict and did not return to this township until 1866. 

During 1858 another settlement was effected by James Sloss, who 
entered a quarter section of land near North Bend, he being among 
the first to make actual improvements in Cotterell township. In 1880 
he moved to the village of North Bend, leading a semi-retired life, 
although he had a landed estate in 1892 amounting to 1,100 acres. 

Richard Hooper came in the spring of 1858 and entered a quarter 
section of wild land four miles northwest of Fremont. Subsequently 
he took land near Scribner and at other points in Dodge County. He 
died July 13, 1887. 

260 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 261 

Robert McVicker, later a loan and insurance agent in North Bend, 
arrived in Dodge County in the spring of 1864, purchasing a quarter 
section of land two miles east of the village of North Bend. In 1875 
he removed to Peru, Nebraska, lived there till 1885, when he engaged 
in business at North Bend. 

A portion of section 11 was taken up by E. J. Howe, and in the 
spring of 1866 came Patrick O'Connor to section 22. He and his wife 
boarded some of the railroad hands in a sod shanty. In 1868 he took 
a homestead, to which he removed in 1869 and later owned considerable 
more land. 

The same year last named came Thomas F. Keeton. who taught 
school in the winter of 1866-67. He was variously engaged and finally 
in 1889 was made the manager of the Farmers' Co-operative Associa- 
tion at North Bend. 

A tree-claim and homestead was taken in section 14 in 1867 by 
John P. Eaton. 

Thomas J. Cotterell, a carpenter, came to Dodge County in June, 
1867. He was the son of a shipbuilder and was a soldier in the Union 
ranks in Civil war days. Later he settled in North Bend Villiage. 

Another who made his settlement here in 1867 was Andrew M. 
Jackson of section 30. The same time came Jacob Miller, who located 
at Fremont, started a blacksmith's shop and conducted it three years, 
then went to his farm in section 10, of Cotterell Township. 

William J. Gregg located in this township in section 17, in 1867, 
remained some time with his uncle M. S. Cotterell, and followed school 
teaching winters. He pre-empted a quarter of section 8 in 1869 and 
later bought forty acres of land adjoining it. 

Another settler should here find prominent mention — Charles R. 
Ogilvie is referred to. He was later of the firm of Cusack and Ogilvie. 
He came to this county in April, 1868, and worked at railroading for 
two years. He then spent many years in the far away West and fol- 
lowed railroading until 1885, then engaged in the newspaper business 
on the "Flail" in company with C. W. Hyatt. He sold out his interest 
in 1887 and became the manager of the Farmers Elevator Co. 

In 1868, in the spring, came John Tym to section 4. He home- 
steaded land in this township and later purchased more adjoining it. 

John Haun, of section 2, settled in 1868 and became a prominent 
fanner. 

Archibald H. Elson first claimed land on the low flats in Cotterell 
Township in the autumn of 1868, where he homesteaded, but later 
changed for land in section 8, where he died in January, 1891, an hon- 
ored and successful citizen. 

Leander Smith dated his settlement in Cotterell Township from the 
spring of 1869, when he homesteaded eighty acres. 

In 1872 John T. Zorn arrived in the township with his parents and 
located in section 13. In 1876 he went to work for himself and farmed 
four years in Platte Township, when he bought a farm of his own. 

C. W. Hyatt settled on wild land north of the village in North 
Bend in 1873 but only remained there two seasons. 

The same season came George Faist to section 11. 

Thomas Acom settled in Cotterell Township in the spring of 1873, 
and claimed land in section 9, township 17, range 6. 

George Mittonberger settled in the spring of 1878 in section 6, 
remained there seventeen years, when he traded it for a ranch in Holt 
County, Nebraska ; but he never moved there. He conducted a dairy 



262 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

business until 1891, when he embarked in the livery business at the 
Village of North Bend. 

William H. Divine, section 5, came to Dodge County in the early 
spring of 1879, locating and purchased over 200 acres of wild land in 
Maple Creek Valley. 

Later settlements were effected by Messrs. Silas M. Stanley, section 
29 ; Charles High, section 28 ; Albert McGahey in section 10 ; WiUiam 
Wheeler, section 9; Stedman P. Beebe, section 12, the last named locat- 
ing on land of his own in 1885. 



CHAPTER XXVII 
PEBBLE TOWNSHIP 

Location — Description — Boundary — Railroad — Population — Vil- 
lages OF Crowell and Snyder — "Pebble" Now Defunct — Schools 
and Churches — Milling Industry — The First Settlement of 
THE Township. 

On the northern boundary line of the county and the second from the 
west, is Pebble Township, comprising all of Congressional township 20, 
range 6, east. It is bounded on the north by Cuming County, on the east 
by Cuming Township, Dodge County, on the south by Ridgeley Town- 
ship and on the west by Webster Township. The two villages within this 
township are Crowell and Snyder. The railroads are the main line and 
Albion branch of the Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley (Northwest- 
ern system), which run diagonally through the township. 

United States Census for Three Periods 

The United States census returns for the periods of 1890, 1900 and 
1910, show the following figures on this township: In 1890 it had 871 
population; in 1900 it was 973 and in 1910 it was 990; the returns for 
the 1920 census have not yet been compiled and made public. 

First Settlement of the Township 

Pebble Township is settled by a thrifty class of people of a mixed 
nationality. The first to locate and make a permanent home was Daniel 
Beckwith in 1868. Alexander V. Rich took land in section 14, township 
20, range 6, east. He homesteaded an "eighty" and was forced to farm 
a few seasons with no team but oxen and he was thankful to have a good 
yoke of faithful cattle with which to turn over the virgin sod. 

Another 1868 settler was W. T. Cohee, of section 2. He also drove 
an ox team and owned a few head of cattle. He lived in a sod house for 
two years and saw all the early-day hardships. 

Frederick Molle came to the township in March, 1868, and in May 
located on his homestead and lived in a dug-out. Subsequently, he 
engaged in brick-making at the Village of Snyder. 

John Herder, section 6, came in 1868, as did Fred G. Becker and 
Ferdinand Helgenberger. 

During 1869 came John N. Sommers to section 30 ; he filed on eighty 
acres of government land and within a dozen years became a well-to-do 
farmer. 

Charles C. Sievers, section 20, came to the county in October, 1869, 
remained one winter at his brother's in Ridgeley Township, and the fol- 
lowing March located in Pebble Township. He was a homesteader but 
later bought other lands. 

Casper Gutt, section 28, made settlement here on a homestead in 1869. 

Frederick Pilgrim, section 30, also came in 1869 and took a home- 
stead. 

263 



264 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Fred Zarmsdorf, section, 20, homesteaded here in October, 1869. To 
the list already given should be added the following settlers who came in 
the 70s and '80s: Peter J. Flanagan, 1869-70; Herman Wolsleger, sec- 
tion 21; Henry C. Martens, section 20; Charles Moehring, M. C. Blake, 
August Schilling, Fred Mewis, M. Lehman, M. Fisher, John Meyer, 
M. Covett, L. Kratz, L. Brunke, J. Yunck, Henry Holl, J. Durst, J. Wer- 
blow, Charles Grovier, August Zahn, C. Bilke, Frank Otterman, August 
Kingbaum, Fred Kingbaum, Christ Wendorf, Ludwig Englebrecht, 
A. Bauman, Peter Wise, C. Dammus, H. Conrad, Carl Metschke, John 
Gordon, Henry Swigar, Frank Laird, L. D. Richards, August Schultz, 
Wilborn Metschke, T. W. Putnam, Fred Steinhofel, John Seeley. 

Conrad Schneider came in 1880, and soon erected a mill. 

The first persons married in the township were J. Burns and Mary 
Wright. 

Schools and Churches 

In 1891 this township had seven schools, besides the village school of 
Snyder. 

The first churches here were the Lutheran and Roman Catholic — see 
Church chapter elsewhere in this work. 

An Early Milling Plant 

In 1869 a flouring mill was placed in operation by J. B. Robinson and 
Harvey J. Robinson on Pebble Creek and the waters of that stream pro- 
pelled the machinery. It was built a mile and one-fourth from Scribner 
and for years was owned by Joseph Preininger. At first it only had one 
run of stone ; in 1871 a second pair of stones were placed in working order 
and these served until 1886. when a new milling plant was placed on the 
site of the old original mill. Ten thousand dollars worth of machinery 
was purchased and the mill had a capacity of fifty barrels per day. As 
the years went by this mill went out of commission, with many others in 
this county. 

Village of Pebble — Defunct 

What was originally known as Pebble Village was platted September 
6, 1870, in section 36, township 20, range 6, east. Its proprietors attempted 
to induce the railroad officials to construct the railway through that point 
of the county, but Scribner finally succeeded in securing the railroad. In 
the '60s there had been a postoffice established at Pebble, but it was dis- 
continued as soon as the railroad was completed. A general merchandise 
store was about all the business interests this village ever amounted to. 

Village of Snyder 

Snyder is situated in section 18, township 20, range 6, east, and was 
platted August 5, 1886, and is a station on the Albion branch of the 
Northwestern (Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley line) seven miles 
from the Village of Scribner. It was legally incorporated in 1890 and 
then, according to the United States census, contained about two hundred 
people. At this point a grist mill was built in 1880 by Conrad Schneider. 
In 1881 a few dwellings were erected. In 1886 the grain and lumber 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 265 

business was represented by Conrad Schneider and the Crowell Grain and 
Lumber Company. The first general merchandise store was kept by 
John Bolte in 1883. The hardware business was first represented here 
by Kammiec Brothers in 1887. They sold to H. Wolslager. The first 
lumber yard was established by James Jones. Mrs. Katie McGraw estab- 
lished the first inn or hotel at Snyder in 1886. In 1887 Ferdinand Know- 
sky started a livery business. The first to deal in drugs was William 
Millenz in 1886. Conrad Schneider was first in the farm implement busi- 
ness. Carl Schinkel opened a beer saloon in 1886. A meat market was 
started in 1889 by Conrad Nolte. 

A postofi^e was established at Snyder sometime in the '80s. with 
Conrad Schneider as postmaster. In 1888 John Kemnitz succeeded him. 

A roller flour mill was in operation there in the '90s ; fifty barrels was 
the daily capacity of the mill. 

The State Bank of Snyder was formed in 1892, commenced opera- 
tions August 17, 1892, with Conrad Schneider as its president and John 
Looschen, cashier. 

A good public school building was erected here in 1891 at a cost of 
$3,000. 

Commercial Interests in 1920 

Auto Garages — Seebeck Brothers, W. A. Schoeneck. 

Banks — Snyder State, Farmers and Merchants. 

Barbers — Bettus Siems. 

Blacksmiths — Thomas Wyant. 

Bakery — James Pateil. 

Cream Station — Otto Blyhl. 

Drugs — John Godel. 

Dray and Truck Lines — Adams & Wolfe, Otto Dollmann, Jo Hall. 

Elevators — Farmers Union Milling and Grain Company, Crowell 
Lumber and Grain Company. 

Furniture- — Stephen Ehrenberger. 

General Dealers — C. J. Schneider, John Bolte & Son. 

Farm Implements — C. J. Lennemann. 

Hardware — William J. Wolslager. 

Harness — George Stengel. 

Hotel — Mrs. Prenzlow. 

Ice — William Pateil. 

Lumber — Farmers Union Milling and Grain Company, Crowell Lum- 
ber and Grain Company. 

Meat Market — William Pateil. 

Milling — The Farmers Union Milling and Grain Company. 

Newspaper — The Snyder Banner. 

Opera Hall — The "Schneider," W. A. Schoeneck, pool hall. 

Restaurant — George Stockman. 

Stock Buyer — Henry Bleyhl. 

Shoe Repairs — John Moench. 

Tailor Shop — Kovarick & Son. 

Plumber — John W. Bentz. 

Painter — Ernest Roberts. 

Contractor and Builder — Gottleib Hoffmann, W. C. Bohne, August 
Finke. 

Physicians — Dr. George Byers and Dr. Kinyoun. 



266 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Lodges, Churches, Etc. 

Special general county chapters treat on the churches, lodges, etc. 
The churches include the Roman Catholic, Emanuel Lutheran and Saint 
Peter's Lutheran denominations. 

The civic societies include the Knights of Columbus, the Ancient 
Order of United Workmen and Modern Woodmen of America. 

The postmasters at the Village of Snyder have been as follows: Con- 
rad Schneider, one of the founders of the village; Herman Wolslager, 
John Cusack, Doctor Pachen, John Zeman and present postmaster, John 
Bolte, Jr., since 1915. 

Municipal History of the Village 

Snyder was legally incorporated July 30, 1886, and the mayors have 
included Conrad Schneider and John Bolte, Sr., who have usually been 
in charge of the affairs of the sprightly village. 

In 1912 the council published a revised ordinance book, and at that 
date the village officers were : John Bolte, Sr., mayor ; Robert Frahm, 
clerk: J. R. Bolte, treasurer; Albert Wolfe, marshal. Trustees: J. H. 
Seebeck, Henry Schooner, William J. Wolslager and Battus Siems. 

The 1920 village officers are as follows : Mayor, John Bolte. Sr. ; 
clerk, Robert Frahm ; treasurer, John Bolte, Jr. ; marshal, Herman Seidel, 
who also acts as street commissioner and water commissioner. 

Village of Crowell 

This is a small village on the line of the old Fremont, Elkhorn & Mis- 
souri Valley Railroad (now Chicago & Northwestern system), in Pebble 
Township. It was laid out December 22, 1883, by the Elkhorn Land 
Company in sections 2 and 11, township 20, range 6, east. Before this 
platted village was known, there was established to the southwest of this 
point, what was styled "Oak Springs." In 1873 an office was established 
three-quarters of a mile to the east of where now stands the Village of 
Crowell, and its name was Crowell. The postmaster was Hamilton 
McClintock, and he was succeeded by W. T. Cohee, who was postmaster 
until January, 1884, and was followed by J. J. King. As soon as a station 
was established and a depot erected it was named "Crowell," and the 
postoffice was moved there from the Cohee farm. 

The first move to developing the place was in the autumn of 1883, 
when J. J. King came from Fremont and erected a frame store building 
and placed on sale a stock of general merchandise. 

The same fall (1883) J. L. Baker built a grain warehouse which he 
continued to run until it was purchased in the spring of 1892 by the Nye, 
Schneider Company. 

In the fall of 1884 C. T. Pulsifer engaged in the grain trade here. 
Later on he was murdered. The business changed hands several times 
and in 1893 was in the hands of the Crowell Grain & Lumber Company. 

A general store was opened by Fred Mundt in 1884. He was fol- 
lowed by John Mundt, and he by Herman Diers, who continued in trade 
many years. 

Herman Diers built a hotel known as the City Hotel in the autumn of 
1884. A livery barn was established in Crowell in 1884 by James Cusick. 

A hardware store was built and conducted by John B. Taylor in 1884. 

A blacksmith shop was started by John Harmal in the spring of 1884. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 267 

A schoolhouse was moved in from the country east of Crowell in 1886. 
It was first erected in 1873, north of the farmhouse of pioneer Cohee, 
in the northeast quarter of section 2. 

Business Interests in 1920 

Crowell now has only about a hundred population and its business is 
no more extensive than it was a quarter of a century ago. General mer- 
chandise stores, a few small shops, etc., is all the commercial interests 
amount to at present time. It affords a small trading point for the sur- 
rounding farming community, but the heavier trading goes to larger 
places not far distant. 



CHAPTER XXVIII 

WEBSTER TOWNSHIP 

Location — Boundary — Railroads — Organic — Early Settlement — 
Village of Dodge — Postoffice — Incorporation — Schools and 
Churches — Business Development — Roller Mills — Commercial 
Interests in 1920 — Population. 

In the extreme northwestern corner of Dodge County is Webster 
Township, comprising Congressional township 20, range 5, east, contain- 
ing 23,040 acres of land. It is bounded on the north by Cuming County, 
on the east by Pebble Township, on the south by Pleasant Valley Town- 
ship and on the west by Colfax County. The Albion branch of the 
Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley Railroad traverses its territory, 
with a station in the northwest corner of the township known as the Vil- 
lage of Dodge. 

Population 

The United States census reports for three enumeration periods gave 
the population of the township as follows: In 1890 it was 1,227, inclu- 
sive of the Village of Dodge, which at that time had a population of 338. 
The 1900 census, 1,393, and in 1910 it was given as only 1,342. The 
present census is not yet reported. 

Organic 

The township was organized as a district precinct by the County 
Board of Commissioners in 1870, but its present boundary lines were not 
fixed until 1886, when its territory was cut down to conform to the town- 
ship plan of surveys — six miles square. 

Early Settlement 

As bounded now, the first settlement in Webster Township was 
effected by a few Bohemians, Polanders and Germans, in the northern 
part of the township. 

D. C. Westfall came from Illinois in 1871 and took a homestead in 
section 34 and lived there until 1889, then moved to the "Dodge Farm" 
in Pleasant Valley Township. Henry Hensel came in at the same date. 

J. B. Imsieke located in 1869. Another pioneer of that date was 
V. Wensel in section 34. Henry Kopitschka, section 20, settled in 1869 
and about the same time came John Schodenick, V. Herman, Patrick 
Delaney, John Schwanke, M. Militz, H. Vakenir, Ernest Busch, James 
Glenn and others. 

Anton Bartosh was among the very earliest pioneers to make a home 
within the township. 

Joseph Brodhun came in 1870, and located in section 6. Later he was 
associated with the Farmers State Bank at Dodge. 

Andrew R. Hasson first located in Pleasant Valley where he home- 
steaded, but later moved to this township and was postmaster at the Vil- 
lage of Dodge. 

268 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 269 

Charles G. Williams, of section 22, came to this county in 1879 and 
purchased eighty acres of wild prairie land where he made a comfortable 
home. James B. Vickery in section 31, came to the township in 1881, 
and the following season came his neighbors, John Forney and James 
M. Atkinson. 

The first term of school was taught in a sod house belonging to 
Andrew Derick, in section 26. (See Educational chapter for further 
school history.) 

The first church in the township was the Lutheran Church in section 
14. (See Church chapter.) 

Glencoe postofiice was the first established in Webster Township, the 
date being 1871 and the location section 34. It was named for the early 
settler, James Glenn, who was its postmaster for twenty-one years, and 
conducted a general store for a like period. 

Ogan postoffice was established in 1887 in section 30. This office was 
discontinued in 1891 ; its postmaster was George Whitmore. 

Village of Dodge 

The Village of Dodge is situated in section 8, township 20, range 5, 
east, and was platted August 10, 1886. This is an enterprising little sta- 
tion point of the Albion branch of the Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Val- 
ley Railroad. The place is surrounded by a handsome, fertile farming 
district, the original population of which were German and Bohemian. 
In 1900 the place had a population of 338, in 1905 it was 554, and in 1910 
it was placed at 661. As early as 1892 it was an excellent trading point, 
had a fine roller flouring mill, and handled much grain, live stock and 
lumber. 

A postoffice was established at Dodge more than a mile to the east, in 
1872, with Antone Bartosch as postmaster. When the railroad was com- 
pleted the ofike was re-established at the new village platting. The first 
to hold the postoffice — Antone Bartosch— held the office until 1889. when 
he was succeeded by R. Hasson. The office was made a money order 
office in April, 1892. Other postmasters have been as follows: The 
present postmaster, O. A. Stemkraus, was appointed January 1, 1920. 
There are three rural routes ranging from twenty-six to twenty-nine 
miles each. This is now a third-class postoffice. 

Village Incorporation History 

Dodge became an incorporated village April 19, 1887. The following 
were members of the village board until 1892: 

1887— Charles Woodruff (chairman), Fred Schreiber, G. M. Wil- 
liams, A. Steuf er, Charles Hrabak, trustees ; W. Hatton, clerk. 

1888 — Fred Schreiber (chairman), A. Steufer, W. C. Gorman, 
Charles Woodruff, Charles Hrabak, trustees ; S. Lant, clerk. 

1889— W. B. Gardanier (chairman), Charles Hrabak, V. J. Yunek, 
August Kurz, A. F. Steufer, trustees ; Charles Woodruff, clerk. 

1890 — Charles Hrabak, A. F. Steufer (chairman), Herman Holstein, 
August Kruz, Charles Woodruff, trustees ; G. W. Roas, clerk. 

1891 — A. R. Hasson (chairman), August Kurz, Joseph Brodhun, 
L. W; Schlote, H. Quesner, trustees; G. W. Roas, clerk. 

1891— L. J. Roubinek, A. R. Hasson, C. A. Manville, W. Hatton, W. 
A. Blynn, trustees. 

(The records are missing from 1892 to 1898.) 



270 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

1898— L. J. Roubinek, mayor; A. J. Hasson, clerk. 1899— L. J. 
Roubinek, chairman ; Robert Reed, clerk. 1900 — L. J. Roubinek, chair- 
man ; Robert Reed, clerk. 1901 — L. J. Roubinek, chairman ; Robert Reed, 
clerk. 1902 — Herman Holstein, chairman ; Robert Reed, clerk. 1903 — 
L. J. Roubinek, chairman ; Robert Reed, clerk. 1904- — Robert Reed, 
chairman ; E. P. Popelar, clerk. 1905 — F. G. Kloke, chairman ; E. P. 
Popelar, clerk. 1906— F. G. Kloke, chairman ; F. R. Beebe, clerk. 1907 
— C. W. Hepburn served as chairman until 1912, and James H. Hook 
served as clerk from 1907 to 1918, when he was succeeded by A. J. 
Miller, and he in 1918 by the present clerk. Will S. Derr. In 1912 F. J. 
Srb was elected chairman and served one year and was succeeded by 
A. Schloser, who in turn in 1917 was succeeded by Thomas Vogtlane 
and he was followed in 1920 by J. F. Reznicek. 

In 1905 the village voted on a proposition to bond for water works 
and electric lights. The proposition was carried and bonds for $8,000 
were issued and bonds for $2,000 issued for an electric light plant, since 
which time the village has had these modern improvements. 

In 1895 it appears from an ordinance book that the chairman was 
Henry Starmer and the village clerk was then C. C. Whipps. 

First and Early Business Interests 

The first business house to open its doors in the Village of Dodge 
was that of Hilligan & Hrabak, the same being a fair-sized general store. 
In 1891 this firm built a fine two-story block and continued their business 
in that. 

The first hotel was the Commercial House, built in September, 1886, 
by W. Krull. 

The earliest drug store was that of Dr. Edward Persons. 

G. M. Armbruster opened the first hardware of Dodge and George 
Woytcke was the first blacksmith. 

A livery barn was opened for business by A. F. Steufer. 

The Crowell Lumber and Grain Company was first to operate in 
Dodge. 

The Congregational denomination was the first to build a church 
edifice in the village. 

In 1887 a large frame hall was erected by Charles Gohr, known as 
Bohemian Hall. 

Grand Army of the Republic was organized here as Post 326, April 
12, 1892, by seventeen ex-Civil war soldiers as charter members. They 
kept the camp-fires burning as long as they had a quorum. 

For an account of the banks and newspapers, the lodges, etc., see spe- 
cial chapters for the entire county on these topics. 

Dodge Village Conditions in 1920 

In the summer of 1920 the following were the business factors of the 
Village of Dodge : 

Agricultural Implements (with furniture) — J. F. Yunek. Auto 
Garages — D. M. Hook, H. Parr, J. G. Vosacek. Banking — First National, 
and State Bank. Barbers— F. }. Stener and J. W. Ralston. Black- 
smiths — G. W. Hormel. Bakery — J. F. Mlnarik. Cream dejders — 
Farmers Union, A. Kurtz, J. M. Patterson. Drugs — J. W. Bobisud, V. C. 
Johnson. Elevators — Nye, Schneider. Fowler Company, Crowell Lumber 
and Grain Company, Farmers Union Grain and Lumber Company. Fumi- 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 271 

ture — F. J. Srb. General dealers — Ryan & Co., Farmers Union Com- 
pany, and J. F. Reznicek. Hardware— J. C. Nitz, Musil & Weidner. 
Harness — Ben Leham. Ice Dealers — (see Meat Markets). Millinery — 
Mrs. W. S. Derr. Jeweler — A. Schlosser. Meat Markets— R. J. 
Zaloudek and Fred Dramel. Newspaper — The Criterion, McFarland & 
Son. Restaurant — William Parr, F. J. Steiner, V. J. Yunek, Jo Bicak, 
J. F. Mlnarik. Stock Dealer — William Schulte. Veterinary Surgeon — 
Dr. J. S. Karnik. Pliysicians — Doctors Guidinger, F. B. Patterson. 
Photographer — C. Brazda. 

The churches include the German Catholic, German Lutheran, the 
Baptist and Congregational denominations. 



CHAPTER XXIX 
ELKHORN TOWNSHIP 

This civil township derives its name from the fact that its eastern 
border is washed by the waters of the Elkhorn River. It is situated in 
the extreme southeastern part of the county, and comprises parts of 
ranges 8 and 9 in township 17. On its north is Nickerson Township and 
Washington County; on the east is Washington County; on the south is 
Douglas County, and on the west is Platte Township. Originally, the 
boundary line between this township and Washington County was the 
Elkhorn River, but by an act of the Legislature in 1875, it was changed 
to conform to section Hnes regardless of the river, as it made great trou- 
ble in the assessment of lands. 

Several small lakes, fed by living springs, are found in this township. 
Here are to be found fish, especially the wall-eyed pike species. 

Rawhide Creek courses through this township, entering from the west 
in section 18, township 17, range 10, flowing southeasterly three miles 
and then empties into the Elkhorn River. The topography of this por- 
tion of Dodge County is quite flat, as the bottom lands divide the Platte 
and Elkhorn rivers. 

The railroads are the Union Pacific and the Chicago & Northwestern 
railways. 

The population of the township in 1890 was 412; in 1900 it was 513, 
but in 1910 it had fallen oflf to 442. The present census returns (1920) 
have not yet been made public, but probably will show little increase. 

Original Settlement 

The following is an account of many persons who came to this town- 
ship for the purpose of making a permanent settlement between 1856 
down to 1887, when the territory was well taken by actual settlers. 

Elkhorn Township was first settled by Thomas Lee in 1856. He 
located in the northwest quarter of section 19, and there built him a 
cabin. At that place he lived about twenty-five years and then moved 
to Wahoo, where he soon died. 

Albert Johnson, of section 19, township 17, range 9, came to Dodge 
County in the fall of 1857 and made a settlement and later became 
prominent in the development of his part of Dodge County. He worked 
at the carpenter's trade in New York until 1877, then had made enough 
to come back and make the desired improvements on his land in this 
township. 

John A. Close, Union soldier of the Civil war from Wisconsin, after 
that great conflict had ended sold his property in Wisconsin and moved 
to section 26 of Elkhorn Township, Dodge County, Nebraska. 

In 1863 Elijah G. Brugh, later of Fremont, came in 1863 to this county 
and was then but a sixteen-year old lad. He followed freighting across 
the western plains for four years, at a time when all was wild and dan- 
gerous. After having his fill of such a life he settled down on his land 
which was then all covered with a luxuriant growth of prairie grass. 

Joseph Snyder, of section 16, came to Dodge County in the winter of 
1865, establishing the first shoe shop in Fremont. Eight years later he 
272 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 273 

bought his farm, going direct from the shoe shop to the plow field, where 
he made a successful and worthy farmer. 

Section 14 was originally settled in by Montgomery Pollock, who 
came here in 1866. A part of his land he purchased and another portion 
he got through the United States liberal homestead law. 

George Close came into section 25, in 1867, accompanied by his par- 
ents. He remained at home until he was of age, and then bought and also 
homesteaded land of his own. 

Adam Hindmarsh, of section 19, settled here in 1869, first living 
fifteen years in section 30, then sold out, moving to section 19. 

Another settler in section 16 was William H. Hawley, who came in 
1871. He located at Fremont as a contractor and builder. He com- 
menced his farming operations in 1880. 

About 1870-71 a colony of Scandinavians located in the eastern part 
of Elkhom Township. This company was made up mostly of home- 
steaders, and as soon as they proved upon their lands, sold out and 
relocated in Burt County, near Oakland, on account of better religious 
privileges. Among this colony was Jonas Johnson, who remained ten 
years, took a homestead and bought other pieces of land. 

At the same time came John Johnson, settling on the west half of 
the northwest quarter of section 30, township 17, range 10. 

Andrew Johnson homesteaded a part of section 26, sold and bought in 
section 25, later owned by George Close. 

William Harkness was another early settler. He came to section 24, 
township 17, range 9, and homesteaded in 1866. 

John N. Foye homesteaded in 1866, proved up and left the county. 

Joseph Lamberson settled in section 33-17-9 on July 4, 1866, and died 
in 1880. 

F. G. Parcell located in section 15 at Parcell's Lake. 

John Castle homesteaded in section 30, township 17, range 10, about 
1869. He died on his place in 1877. 

Mrs. R. A. Cottle, of section 30, township 17, range 9, was ^mong 
the very earliest pioneers of the township. Her husband operated the old 
stage station on the military road which passed her house. It was also 
an old freight ranch and had much interesting history connected with it. 

Isaiah Crist, section 36, came to Dodge County in 1872 and took 
eighty acres of wild land. 

Charley Johnson, of section 11, came to the township in 1874. At 
first he worked by the month a year or more, then rented land, and was 
driven from the farm by the ravages of the grasshoppers and went to 
Fremont and clerked in a store. Later he returned to his farm which 
finally consisted of a half section. 

Other settlers were Samuel C. Wynn, section 28; Bertel Frandssen, 
section 22 ; first located in Fremont where he engaged in the dyeing busi- 
ness. Two years later he took up a homestead ; also Gustavius G. Going, 
of section 33, came to this county in 1880. He located in Fremont and 
handled cattle, later engaging in the restaurant business. 

The schools and churches of this part of Dodge County are men- 
tioned in special chapters on such subjects elsewhere in this volume. 

An Omaha man named Fauss came to this township and undertook 
to excavate a canal, and utilize the water power of the Elkhorn River for 
the purpose of operating a mill for grain grinding. But for various rea- 
sons this seemingly worthy enterprise failed to materialize. 



CHAPTER XXX 

HOOPER TOWNSHIP 

Its Boundary — Description • — Population — Organization — Rail- 
roads — First Settlement — Later Settlers — Village of Hooper 
— Business Beginnings — Original Flour Mill — Commercial In- 
terests, 1920 — Municipal History — Waterworks. 

On the east line of Dodge County and the second from the northern 
line is Hooper civil township, which contains all of congressional town- 
ship 19, range 8, east, or 23,040 acres of land. The township is bounded 
on the north by Logan Township, on the east by Washington County, on 
the south by Nickerson Township, and on the west by Everett Township. 
The German element obtains almost wholly here and has from the first 
settlement. The United States census in 1890 placed this township at 
569 inhabitants. The same authority gave it in 1900 as 1,439, including 
the two villages of Hooper and Winslow. In 1910 the population was 
1,496. At the last named date the Village of Hooper had 741 and 
Winslow had 99. 

Organization, Railroads, Etc. 

Hooper was organized into a separate precinct (as then called) very 
early in the 70s. Its precinct and later its township government has 
been managed fully up to the standard of other Dodge County sub-divi- 
sions. 

The Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley Railroad (Northwestern 
System) passes through this township with stations and villages named 
Hooper and Winslow. For the history of these see later. 

First Settlement 

The first man to locate in this township was Hiram H. Ladd, who 
came to section 30, in 1856, He it was who built the first house in the 
now famous Elkhorn Valley, north of Fontanelle. 

The next pioneers were Jerry Denslow, Jr., accompanied by his 
mother, a widow at the time, to Dodge County in 1856. The son was 
only eleven years of age. The mother pre-empted a quarter section of 
land at Fontanelle. 

John Osterloh came to section 8 in 1858. As soon as the homestead 
law came into effect in the '60s, he took him a homestead. The same 
year, 1858, W. C. Hecker came to the township. He was a single man 
and took eighty acres of land upon which he subsequently made excel- 
lent improvements. Another settler in 1858 was Christ Henneman. 

Charles Baker located in Hooper Township in the 70s. He came to 
Dodge County with his parents in 1860, locating near Nickerson. 

In 1861 came George Wagner to section 11. 

Jacob Schwab, section 4, came in the spring of 1861 with his parents, 
who settled in section 9, where the father homesteaded a quarter section 
of land. 

Albert Wagner came in 1861 to section 11, also Adam Schwab and 
Henry Schwab, Jr. 

274 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 275 

In 1863 George Weigle settled on Logan Creek. He remained on 
hi? farm until 1890, then moved to the Village of Hooper. At the same 
time came Edward Fleischhauer and claimed land rights on Logan Creek. 

Henry Busch located in section 9. He came with his father to Fon- 
tanelle in 1862. Two years later Henry moved to Hooper Township. 

The year 1864, first year in which homesteads were to be taken, saw 
a very heavy immigration in this part of Dodge County. Oswald Ueh- 
ling took his homestead that year : others settled there, including 
Henry Penning, Jr., James F. Briggs, August J. Heller, Martin Luttherns, 
Christ Easier, John Phelps, W. H. Patterson, G. W. Wolcott, Chris 
Kroger, R. A. Calkins, William Hartung and A. Y. Sutton. 

Later Settlers 

While the names of all the persons who invaded this township 
cannot be here named, it is certain that in addition to those already men- 
tioned came Jacob Lurk. Nicholas Parkert, in 1868: Winfield S. Bishop, 
1870; J. H. Caldwell, John M. Kreader and Samuel Kreader. in 1871; 
Thomas Bullock, 1872; Charles Bayer, who later moved' to Hooper Vil- 
lage and engaged in the pottery business; also W. H. Aldrich and 
Carl Geiser, settlers in 1873. 

Jacob C. Schaffer effected his settlement in the township in 1876; 
Charles Diehl, of section 23, came in 1885, and later moved to Nicker- 
son Township ; John Haje, section 26, moved to the township in 1890. 

Great has been the transformation of the scenes of Hooper Township 
since the days of the Civil war period, when all was wild and undevel- 
oped. The land is all taken up and finely improved by a thrifty class of 
Germans and other European peoples. The villages are enterprising, 
and though not large, are just such places as farmers desire in their com- 
munities. The churches, schools and all that is dear to the average father 
and mother are here found in all of their latter-day excellence. 

Village of Hooper 

This enterprising, thrifty-going incorporation in Hooper Township 
is in the eastern part of Dodge County and is within Congressional town- 
ship 19, range 8, and is in sections 17 and 20. It was named for a 
prominent railroad official of an early date. The winding Elkhorn River 
courses its way along the eastern boundary of the village, making the 
scenery really beautiful. The main portion of the place is nestled at 
the foot of a high bluff. It was platted by that great "railroad king," 
Hon. John I. Blair, of New Jersey, who had so much to do with building 
the Northwestern, Illinois Central Railroad, and was the president of 
Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley Railroad Company. 

The United States and state census reports show that its population 
at various periods was as follows: In 1890 it was 670; in 1892 it had 
grown to 800; in 1900 it was 840, but in the next decade it decreased to 
741, but at the present it is estimated at about 1,000. 

Special chapters on the schools, lodges, churches and banks of Dodge 
County will contain such topics for the Village of Hooper, hence are 
not further mentioned in this chapter. 

Business Beginnings 

Aside from the railroad depot and buildings, the first house in 
Hooper was one built by Myers & Sherman in 1871, and in it was kept a 
general merchandise stock for a half dozen years. In reality, the earliest 



276 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



house on what became the village plat of Hooper, was that built for a 
residence by O. A. Heimbaugh. This gentleman built the first grain 
warehouse and started a lumber yard. 

The first schoolhouse was hauled in from a district west of the village 
platting. 

James Caldwell was the pioneer blacksmith. 

The first merchandise sold at Hooper was by George W. Pew. 

Asa Briggs was the first station-master and a most capable man he 
was and did much toward aiding the first business interests of rfooper. 

Hotel No. 1 at Hooper was built in 1870 by August Koppelcom, and 
later was styled the Tillman House. 

The first exclusive hardware store was kept by Charles Eisley, in 
1871. He continued until 1881 and sold to Jack Dorsey, who in turn 




H. 



H( 



sold to A. F. Bott & Co., and finally they sold to Peague & Uehling. In 
1892 the business was handled by the firm of Uehling & Monnich. 

The first to handle drugs was G. S. Peyton, 1873-4. He remained 
in trade until 1889. 

The first furniture dealer was Charles Buchholz, in 1875. 

Original Flour Mill of Hooper 

The Hooper Roller Mills were first built on Logan Creek by 
A. C. Briggs, but owing to the unsteady current of water, the expense 
of keeping up the mill-dam, etc., it was sold to Oswald Uehling, who 
moved the plant to Hooper in 1888, converting it into a roller process 
mill. It had six rolls, giving a daily capacity of seventy-five barrels. It 
was run by an eighty-horsepower steam engine. In 1889 a large grain 
elevator was constructed alongside the mill and the two were covered 
with galvanized iron sheeting. It produced large quantities of excellent 
family flour that found ready sale all the year round in Dodge and 
adjoining counties. This mill cost (in cheap times) $20,000. 

The milling interests of Hooper are now (1920) in the hands of the 
Hooper Milling & Grain Company. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 277 

Commercial Interests — 1920 

Agricultural Implements — A. E. Tunberg. 

Auto Garages — Dau & Son, Anton Tunberg, Ewald & Schwab. 

Banks — The First National and Dodge County Bank. 

Barber Shops— S. L. Whitcomb, Frank A. A. Sellman, E. R. Talley. 

Bakery — F. H. Crisman. 

Cream Station — Peter Eberhard, C. S. Basler, manager of Beatrice 
Creamery. 

Cement Blocks, etc.- — Alfred Stroh. 

Confectionery — R. R. Marshall, F. H. Crisman. 

Drugs — L. E. Davies, E. L. Geisert. 

Dentists — Drs. J. Sherman Zellers, Howard C. N. Ralp. 

Elevators — Latta Grain Company, Farmers Union Co-operative Com- 
pany, Nye, Schneider, Fowler Company. 

Electric Light Supplies — Frank Basler. 

Feed Store — Julius Bott. 

Furniture — Buchholz Brothers. 

Grocers (exclusive) — Peter Eberhard, Jacob Sanders. 

General Dealers — H. Cullamore, A. H. Harms, Uehling & Cahoon. 

Hotel — "Hooper Inn." 

Hardware — Olson Hardware Companv (G. S., A. G. and O. G. 
Olson), E. H. Schwab. _ 

Harness Shop — Martin Martinsen. 

Jewelry — William M. Kusel, John Ring. 

Ice Dealer — The municipal plant, called the "Hooper Ice Company." 

Lumbermen — Farmers Union Co-operative Company, Nye, Schneider, 
Fowler Company. 

Laundry — Minnie Marlinsen. 

Meat Market — R. Stroh, Uhlig Market. 

Mills— Hooper Milling and Grain Company. 

Millinery — Mrs. John Feinaigle. 

Newspaper^Hooper Sentinel, by Herbert T. Ring. 

Opera House — Tilson's Opera House, Mrs. Annie Tilson, proprietor. 

Physicians — Drs. M. T. Zellers, J. Howard Heine, Clinton D. Heine, 
B. B. Hauser. 

Photographs — P. Traulsen. 

Plumber — William Parkert. 

Pantatorium — A. J. Wiswall, proprietor. 

Photoplay House — Sanders & Shaffer. 

Real Estate — Bernard Monnich. 

Restaurant — Mrs. C. W. Tilson. 

Telephone Company — The Hooper, M. E. Shipley, manager. 

Tailor — J. E. Stipsky. 

Veterinary — P. Simonson, Charles M. Elliott, Doctor Darling. 

Other branches of trade include the "Standard" Oil Station, the 
extensive brick works by the Builders Brick Manufacturing Company, 
J. Schole, shoe repair shop, and Hi Hogroefe, blacksmithing, and the 
new works of the Hudkins Auto Body Company. The proprietor of this 
concern is Perry Hudkins. Perhaps one of the best enterprises, and the 
most far-reaching in its trade, is the serum making plant near the village 
and which is known far and near, through its circulars and its numerous 
traveling salesmen. 



278 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Municipality of Hooper 

Hooper was legally incorporated and placed under a board of 
trustees in October, 1876. The first board consisted of the following 
gentlemen: A. D. Harwood (chairman). William Pellens. E. H. Aris, 
Peter Dressen, John Beebe, trustees ; George B. Parsons, clerk. By 
years the boards have been made up as follows: 

1877— A. D. Harwood (chairman), William Pellens, E. H. Aris, 
John Heimrich, Charles F. Eisley, Jacob Lurk, trustees; George B. 
Parsons, clerk. 

1878— John Heimrich (chairman), Jacob Lurk, George F. Heine, 
C. F. Eisley, W. A. G. Cobb, trustees ; George B. Parsons, clerk. 

1879— W. J. Smith (chairman), H. Steen, Peter Dressen, C. F. 
Eisley, E. H. Aris, trustees; Goethe B. Parsons, clerk. 

1880— E. Van Buren (chairman), E. H. Aris, H. Steen, George F. 
Heine. C. F. Eisley. trustees: Henry H. Looschen, clerk. 

1881 — E. Van Buren (chairman), E. H. Aris, C. F. Eisley, George 

F. Heine, Chester L. Morse, trustees; H. H. Looschen, clerk. 

1882 — O. A. Heimbaugh (chairman), John Henrich, Carl Kroeger, 
C. L. Morse, Henry H. Looschen, trustees; C. C. Stanley, clerk. 

1883 — O. A. Heimbaugh (chairman), John Henrich, Henry H. Loos- 
chen. Carl Kroeger. E. Van Buren, trustees ; T. W. Lyman, clerk. 

1884 — F. M. Tillman, chairman; A. M. Spooner, H. H. Looschen, 
John Dern, John F. Heine, trustees; T. W. Lyman, clerk. 

1885— Same as for 1884. 

1886— F. M. Tillman (chairman), John Dern, E. H. Aris, John F. 
Heine, G. S. Peyton, trustees ; W. A. Crandall, clerk. 

1887— F. M. Tillman (chairman), William F. Basler, Charles Buch- 
holz, John Dern, John F. Heine, trustees ; T. W. Lyman, clerk. 

1888 — John F. Heine (chairman), Louis Keller, W. F. Basler, 

G. Thomsen, E. Fleischhauer, trustees ; T. W. Lyman, clerk. 

1889— F. M. Tillman (chairman), Ed Fleischhauer, John F. Heine, 
Louis Keller, Carl Kroeger, trustees; T. W. Lyman, clerk. 

1890— F. M. Tillman (chairman), Ed Fleischhauer, John F. Heine, 
Louis Keller, W. S. Basler, trustees ; T. W. Lyman, clerk. 

1891— J. F. Briggs, John F. Heine, Louis Keller, E. W. Renkin 
(chairman) ; T. W. Lyman, clerk. 

1892— John F. Heine, Louis Keller, Carl Kroeger, E. W. Renkin 
{chairman). T. W. Lyman, clerk. 

1893 — E. W. Renkin, chairman; H. H. Looschen, clerk. 

1894 — E. W. Renkin, chairman; Henry H. Looschen. 

1895 — E. W. Renkin. chairman ; Henry H. Looschen. 

1896 — J. F. Heine, chairman; Henry H. Looschen. 

1897 — J. F. Heine, chairman ; Henry H. Looschen. 

1898 — J. F. Heine, chairman; Henry H. Looschen. 

1899 — John Hough, chairman ; Henry H. Looschen. 

1900 — John Hough, chairman ; Henry H. Looschen. 

1901 — John Hough, chairman ; Henry H. Looschen. 

1902 — John Hough, chairman ; Henry H. Looschen. 

1903 — John Hough, chairman ; Henry H. Looschen. 

1904 — John Hough, chairman; Henry H. Looschen. 

1905 — Jacob Sanders, chairman ; Henry H. Looschen. 

1906 — Jacob Sanders, chairman ; W. G. Thompson. 

1907 — Jacob Sanders, chairman ; W. G. Thompson. 

1908 — Jacob Sanders, chairman; W. G. Thompson. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 279 

1909 — Jacob Sanders, chairman ; W. G. Thompson. 

1910 — Jacob Sanders, chairman ; W. A. Hecker. 

1911 — Jacob Sanders, chairman; W. A. Hecker. 

1912-18 — Jacob Sanders, chairman; W. A. Hecker. 

1918 — Wm. G. J. Dau, chairman; Stephen Broene. 

1919 — Wm. G. J. Dau, chairman; Stephen Broene. 

1920 — Perry Hudkins, mayor ; Charence Dahl. 

The 1920 officers of the village are as follows : Mayor — Perry Hud- 
kins ; clerk — Clarence Dahl ; treasurer — Henry Schroeder ; the above 
and Edwin Edelman and William E. Frock are of the board. 

The village now has an indebtedness of water bonds amounting to 
$6,900; of town hall bonds, $8,000. 

Electric lights are furnished by the Hooper Electric Light Company. 

It is estimated carefully that the present census will give Hooper a 
population of 1,000. 

Waterworks « 

Hooper was provided with a splendid waterworks system in 1890, 
at an expense of $5,600, which was the best outlay ever made by any 
corporation in the history of Nebraska. Fifty "points" or drive wells 
were put in and these furnished an abundance of the purest water. A 
pumping plant forced the water to a tank on the nearby bluflf, the same 
having a capacity of 32,000 gallons. With a volunteer fire company of 
hook and ladder the village has been safe against great fires, which was 
not true prior to the construction of this practical system of waterworks. 

The first five years the village had a contract with Mr. Uehling, 
proprietor of the roller flouring mills, by which he furnished steam power 
for forcing the water to the tank on the blufifs overlooking the village 
from the west. 

Village of Winslovv 

Winslow was platted in 1906. Its present population is about 275. 
It has a German Lutheran Church, mentioned elsewhere in detail. The 
village was incorporated May 28, 1909. It has a volunteer fire depart- 
ment, whose chief is now Julius Borcherbing. Electric lights are fur- 
nished by the plant at Fremont. The 1920 village officers include the 
following: C. J. Kruse, chairman; O. H. Black, clerk; VV. A. Lallman, 
treasurer; other members of the board are H. P. Weitkamp and Fred 
Borcherbing. 

Commercial Interests, Etc. — 1920 

Banks — The Winslow State Bank, The Farmers State Bank. 

General Merchandise Stores — Lallman Brothers ; C. J. Kruse. 

Grain Elevators — Farmers' Union Co-operative Association ; 
Nebraska-Iowa Grain and Coal Company. 

Lumber Dealers — Handled by the grain men of the village above 
named. 

Hardware and Furniture — H. P. Weitkamp. 

Blacksmithing — Chris Martinsen. 

Cream Buyers — E. M. Fletcher. 

Druggists' Sundries — O. R. Marks. 

Postmaster — O. R. Marks. 

Garage — Schmidt & Son. 

Livery and Draying— Fred Borcherbing. 

Soft Drinks — Henry Kruse ; also runs a pool hall. 



CHAPTER XXXI 

EVERETT TOWNSHIP 

Boundaries — Organic — Population — Settlement — First Events — 
Schools and Churches — Postoffice — General Condition Today 
— Land Values, Etc. 

Everett, one of the centrally located townships of Dodge County, is 
the second subdivision from the east as well as from the north side of 
the county, and comprises all of Congressional township 19, range 7, east. 
While it is without a village or railway station, the Northwestern (old 
Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley Railway) traverses the territory 
from the southeast to the northwest, between the stations of Hooper and 
Scribner, in adjoining townships. The township is bounded by Cuming 
Township on the north. Hooper on the east, Maple on the south and 
Ridgeway on the west. 

Organic 

Everett Precinct (now township) was organized in 1871, and at that 
time included much more territory than at present, its present lines being 
defined in 1886, when "Township Organization" obtained in Dodge 
County, 

Population of Township 

The population of this township at various periods has been as fol- 
lows : In 1890 it had 680; in 1900 it had 612; in 1910 it had but 546. 
Its 1920 figures have not yet been made public by the census enumerators. 

Early Settlement 

J. Monnich had the honor of being the first man to locate in Everett 
Township. He came in 1857 from Iowa to Cuming County, Nebraska, 
in the fall of 1856, and the next spring to this township. 

A son of the first settler, Herman Monnich, located in section 1. 
He took a squatter's claim in 1857 and built a log cabin which he covered 
with a thatched roof. Their nearest mill was at Fort Calhoun — forty 
miles away. 

In 1864 came Martin Uehling, of section 2. He took land which 
later made up a part of his 400 acres in one well-improved farm. 

John Raasch located here in 1865. 

Christopher Kroeger located in 1867 in section 3 with his parents, he 
at the time being but a lad in his teens. 

Peter Bodewig, of section 26, came to the township with his parents, 
who were homesteaders, in 1869. The same season came John Mohr. 
He homesteaded and saw many hardships. By trade he was a carpenter. 

John H. Wenkel, section 14, located in 1869. John Wagner claimed 
a part of the same section of land that year. John Bodewig, father of 
Jacob Bodewig, purchased an eighty-acre tract of land in the township 
in 1869 and improved the same. 

Section 29 had for a settler in 1870, Edward Gamble ; also August 
Schroeder, of section 8, was another homesteader that year. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 281 

Theodore Windhausen, section 14, came in 1871. He worked by the 
month for a couple of years, then purchased eighty acres of land where 
he made for himself an excellent home. 

John H. Dahl, section 18, came to the township in 1872. He first 
located on Maple Creek, section 12, of Cotterell Township, where he 
homesteaded eighty acres. He moved to another place later on. 

Charles Schroeder came to section 18 in 1872. 

Eighteen hundred and seventy-three found Gustaf Nast in section 10 
of Ridgeway Township, where he leased land three years, then moved to 
Everett township. Herman Bohling settled near Hooper, worked by 
the month several years and then bought land in the township and made 
a comfortable home. 

James P. Lamberson settled in 1873; he worked and rented land 
about ten years and then purchased a farm. 

James Bradbury came to Dodge County in 1874, first locating at 
Fremont, where he followed the trade of a carpenter one year, then 
moved to Everett Township and there leased land three years, after 
which which he purchased an eighty-acre tract. 

Other pioneers in the township whose names should not be over- 
looked were: Peter Eberhard, section 21, 1875; Nicholas Mohr, section 
19, 1875; Martin Luttherns, section 18, 1876; James G. Gamble, 1876, to 
section 27 ; Carl and Ernest Axen, two brothers, settled in section 7 in 
1883. Others of an early date in the '80s were: James Murray, John 
Seeley, Carl Schoenick, Fred Wendt, Christ Matwick, John E. Erb, 
William Radkie, H. Wandle, Carl Shoenfeldt, August Koppel, John 
Mueller, N. H. Meir, R. D. Kelley, A. J. Hall, Joseph Moser. 

Schools and Churches 

The first school held in the township was in section 34 in 1868. It 
was taught by Mary Weber. 

Concerning the schools and churches of the township the special 
chapters on these topics will be found elsewhere in this volume. 

First Important Events 

The first settler was Jared Monnich, in 1857. 

The first birth was a pair of twins, girls, born to Mr. and Mrs. Jared 
Monnich, in 1857. The mother of these twins died in the autumn of 
1857, hers being the second death recorded in the township. 

The first death was that of a government surveyor, who was killed 
by lightning in the summer of 1857 and buried in section 1, the site of 
a later cemetery. 

Jared Munderloch built the first frame house in the township. 

POSTOFFICE 

Everett postoffice was established about 1870, with S. D. Pickard as 
postmaster. Henry Block was postmaster in the early '90s. A small 
general store was conducted at that point several years. 

In 1920 

After the toils and perplexities of more than three-score years, for 
the first and second generations of men who have had to do with the 



282 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

development of this goodly agricultural section, one today finds a charm- 
ing country where land ranges from $150 to $300 per acre and- is a good 
investment at these seemingly high prices. If one could view the vast 
hundreds of thousands of tons of various farm commodities that have 
been harvested from the soil of this inland subdivision of Dodge County 
with the coming and going of more than sixty years since its first settler 
invaded its domain, it would indeed be a wonderful amount to behold. 
This includes hay, grain, stock and vegetable growth. 



CHAPTER XXXII 

RIDGELEY TOWNSHIP 

Location — Boundaries — Population — Organization — • Schools and 
Churches — Ridgeley Postoffice, Etc. — Webster Postoffice — 
Miscellaneous Items — Mutual Insurance Company — Early 
Settlement of Township. 

Second from the west and also from the north line of Dodge County, 
comes Ridgeley Township, which is constituted of Congressional town- 
ship 19, range 6. It is bounded on the north by Pebble Township, on 
the east by Everett Township, on the south by Cotterell and on the west 
by Pleasant \'alley. Strictly speaking, this is one of the truly inland sub- 
divisions of Dodge County, as it is without railroad or hamlet. Its 
chief trading point and market place is Scribner, while Crowell and 
Dodge villages are not far distant from parts of the township's territory. 

Population 

The United States census gives the population in 1890 as being 807 ; 
in 1900 it was 847, and in 1910 — ten years later — it had decreased to 
675, while the present (1920) enumeration has not yet been made 
public. 

Organization 

\Miat is now known as Ridgeley Township was formed as a separate 
township when the county was placed under township organization in 
1886. The first election after it was a "precinct" in government, was 
held, in section 28, at Mat Robert's house. The township afifairs have 
been well managed and is today fully up to the Dodge County township 
standard. 

Schools and Churches 

The pioneer school was kept in 1871 and some of the scholars were 
over twenty-one, but many things illegal then went for lawful. For 
school history see Educational Chapter elsewhere in this work. 

The earliest church in this township was the Evangelical Lutheran, 
formed in 1874. See Church Chapter for details. 

POSTOFFICES 

The first postoffices of this township were Ridgeley and Webster. 
The former was established in 1868 with A. Holbrook as postmaster. 
In 1882 it was removed to the home of Patrick Owen, remained a few 
years and then rotated back to Mr. Holbrook, his wife being made post- 
mistress. It was discontinued and after a time re-established. It was 
about 1885 that it was located in section 26, when H. L. Shomsher was 
postmaster. He also conducted a country store at this point. Mail was 
received tri-vveekly on a mail route from Fremont to Webster. 
283 



284 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Webster postoffice moved from place to place. In the early '90s it 
was on the extreme western line of the township, with Isabelle Honey 
as postmistress, whose husband was a mail carrier, and ran a small gen- 
eral store in connection with the postoffice. This office was established 
in 1870 at the pioneer home of F. C. Scott, who served seven years, when 
John Ferguson took the office and it was then removed to Pleasant Valley 
Township. Other changes were made in its location until it was finally 
abolished. 

First Settlers 

In an account of this part of Dodge County found iri the volume 
entitled "History of the Elkhorn Valley," published about 1891, there is 
found the following account of the early settlement in this township. It 
seems to have been corrected and approved by competent committeemen, 
hence as such events are unchangeable, we will assume the statements 
made therein to be correct at this time : 

To have been the first settler to invade and make his permanent 
abiding place in so splendid and highly fertile domain as the Township 
of Ridgeley is composed was indeed an honor to be appreciated by any 
man. To such honor, the record says, is attached the name of Frank M. 
Tillman, who located by right of pre-emption in the northeast quarter 
of section 26, in June, 1868— fifty-two years ago. He and several others 
brought their families from the Lake Superior country. Mr. Tillman 
proved up and continued to cultivate his land until 1880 when he moved 
to the Village of Hooper and purchased a hotel property, conducted it 
for a time, after which his son, Frank, took over the property and became 
landlord. 

Vangilder Banghart, section 28, homesteaded eighty acres in 1868. 
With others, this pioneer homesteader saw great hardships for a decaae 
or more when prosperity smiled upon his eflforts. Henry Banghart 
arrived the year last named as did Isaac Banghart, claiming land in sec- 
tion 28. At one time he sold lumber and bought grain in the Village of 
Scribner. Peter Therens and John Mohr came to the township to effect 
their settlement the same year. 

About 1869 the following made settlement in the township: 
James M. Cruickshank, section 31 ; John Eckroat, section 21 ; Daniel 
Jones, John Yosten and a few others came. In 1871 came Thomas H. 
Hey wood to section 10. 

Old Mr. Berriman homesteaded in section 30; he died many years 
ago. Others settlers in this goodly township were: Nicholas Reise, sec- 
tion 24 ; Henry Sievers, section 18, in 1869 and in 1890 was counted one 
of the richest men in the township ; A. L. Holbrook, section 28, came in 
1869 and sold out in 1882 and moved to Kansas. August English settled 
here in the '70s in section 7, and died in 1887. William Herman located 
in section 6 in 1870. D. Stagerman came at about the same date; also 
Mr. Schuler of section 8. Dr. Thomas Street and Matthew Themis 
were pioneers. 

In the grasshopper days — the times that tried men's souls — lands 
were ofifered at $1 per acre, but fortunate indeed for the owners, no 
buyers could be found to take it off their hands. This land is today 
selling as high as $300 per acre in several instances. 

Among the first events in this township may be mentioned the birth 
of August, a son of Mr. and Mrs. Frank M. Tillman, born in August, 
1870. He was beyond question the first child born in the township. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 285 

Other Items 

The German speaking farmers of this vicinity organized a strong 
insurance company known as the Farmers Mutual Fire Insurance Com- 
pany, in 1885. 

Pebble Creek Farmers' Club commenced its operation in about 1885 
and in 1888 in section 11 was built a large two-story frame hall build- 
ing. In this building was conducted the business of the Mutual Insur- 
ance just mentioned. This club had in 1890 over 200 excellent farmers 
enrolled on its books as regular members. 

A branch of the Farmers' Alliance had headquarters at what was 
known as the "Red School House." 



CHAPTER XXXIII 

UNION TOWNSHIP 

Location — Boundary — Organization — First Death — First Birth — 
First Land Plowed — First Religious Services — Settlement — 
Schools, Churches, Etc. — Population. 

Union Township is the extreme southwestern civil township in Dodge 
County, and comprises all of township 18, range 5, east, and a small por- 
tion of township 17, of the same range. It is bounded on the west by 
Colfax County, on the north by Pleasant Valley Township, Dodge County, 
on the east by Cotterell Township, and on the south by the Platte River 
and Saunders County. 

The Union Pacific Railroad courses through the township from east 
to west, following the meanderings of the Platte River largely. 

Before 1886 when township organization obtained in Dodge County, 
this was within what was known as North Bend Precinct. The rule of 
the new law was to have each civil township conform to the lines of the 
surveyed township of six miles square, and this holds good in Dodge 
County, except in places along the Platte River, where a part of other 
townships are included. 

Population 

According to the United States census returns this township had at 
various periods a population as follows : In 1890 it was 660 ; in 1900 it 
was 723, and in 1910 it had decreased to 633. The 1920 figures have 
not been made public as yet. 

First Events 

The first death in the township was the wife of pioneer George Young, 
December 20, 1856. 

The first white child born here was Seth W. Young, in November, 
1856 — also the first birth in Dodge County. 

The first furrow turned in the township by a plow was the garden 
patch of Robert Miller, in the fall of 1856. 

The first religious services in the township were held by Rev. Isaac 
E. Heaton at a private house. He was the pioneer Congregational min- 
ister who founded the Fremont Congregational Church. 

First Settlers 

Union Township has the distinction of being the first place where 
Dodge County's pioneer settlement was made — Union and Cotterell town- 
ships had the first, or 1856-57 colonies of immigrants within their borders. 
July 4, 1856, was "commencement day" for the county, for it was on that 
date that the newcomers camped and got their breakfast where now stands 
the thriving City 'of North Bend. 

This colony consisted of Robert Miller and family, and his brother, 
John, with his family ; George Young and family ; George McNaughton 
286 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 287 

and family; William and Alexander Miller, single men and brothers of 
Robert and John Miller, also the sister Elizabeth, who became Mrs. Ely, 
of Fremont. (See account of colony in history of North Bend.) 

Robert Miller located in what is now Union Township, in section 12. 

William Miller settled later in Sarpy County, Nebraska, and Alex- 
ander in Utah. McNaughton becoming disheartened after a few days 
returned to his old home in the East. George Young remained and 
became one of the county's well-known citizens. He chose a part of sec- 
tion 12 for his home. His son, James R., when old enough took land in 
section 11. 

J. Mason Smith, a farmer of section 12, came to the county June, 
1857, with Mathew S. Cotterell, Alexander Morrison and James Humph- 
rey, who brought with them a steam sawmill. (See North Bend history.) 

In 1859 Michael Johnson pre-empted a part of section 8, Union Town- 
ship, and there constructed a dugout in the side of the hill, and there he 
managed to live two years or more. He moved to his place in section 
21 in the spring of 1877. His brother, Edward Johnson, located in the 
county in the spring of 1859, first locating on Maple Creek. About 1866 
he homesteaded eighty acres in Union Township where he was living in 
the '90s. 

Part of section 18, this township, was settled by the parents of John 
M. Dickerson in the autumn of 1860. As soon as the homestead law went 
into force David Dickerson, the father, took his homestead. 

Charles Thrush came to the county in March, 1861, and became a 
permanent settler in Union Township. 

David Scott, section 23, located in Dodge County in the autumn of 
1863. 

Josiah Dickerson took a homestead in 1865, the same being in sec- 
tion 34. 

James and William McVicker arrived in the spring of 1867, locating 
in sections 30 and 20 respectively. 

In the fall of 1866 Hiram Burger effected his settlement, rented until 
the summer of 1867, then homesteaded in section 28. 

Andrew Quigley came to Dodge County in 1869, rented land and 
finally settled permanently in section 18, Union Township. 

Mathias Ruff and John Kern arrived in the spring of 1869. Ruff 
took a homestead in section 26. 

William R. Black, section 18, came to Dodge County in July, 1874; 
Thomas Gaughen, section 15, came in 1875, and Daniel A. Boggs, 
March, 1877. 

Later settlements Were made by : Martin Gaughen, section 9 ; William 
L. Hatcher, 1880; Joseph Krause, section 28, in the fall of 1881 ; George 
J. Campbell, manager of the Bay State Stock Farm, arrived in the 
county in 1882 ; C. M. Black, section 16, spring of 1884. 

Dennis Killeen came here in the spring of 1877 ; was a native of Ire- 
land and arrived in America in 1868. His son became county clerk of 
Dodge County. 

Another settler who should not be left from the record was James 
Sloss and family, who located in Union Township in October, 1858, 
locating in section 12. 

Eighteen hundred fifty-nine saw the following immigrants locate in 
the township : David Dickerson and family, of New Jersey, and John 
B. Waterman, of New York. Waterman remained until 1864 then 
removed to California. 



288 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

It should be here stated that during the eventful years of 1869-70, 
the greater portion of the land within this township was taken up by 
actual settlers, who flocked from all parts of the globe. 

Schools and Churches 

The reader is referred to the special chapter on such subjects for these 
are treated in general with all other schools and churches in the county. 
(See index.) 

The Protestants and Catholics both have a cemetery within Union 
Township. 

General Items of Interest 

Purple Cane postoffice in section 18, of Union Township, existed from 
1885 to 1892. 

The Bay State Live Stock Company had a very extensive ranch in the 
southeastern part of the township. There immense numbers of cattle 
and horses were raised and fed annually. The ranch included all of sec- 
tion 11, upon which the Bay State station of the Union Pacific Railroad 
was located. There large barns and yards for stock and extensive corn 
and grain warehouses were erected. 

From this point a branch railroad was projected, and known as the 
"North Bend and Elkhorn Valley" Railroad. For reasons best known to 
railway men, this line was never constructed. 



CHAPTER XXXIV 

PLEASANT VALLEY TOWNSHIP 

Description — Population — Organization — Schools and Churches 
— PosTOFFicES — General Condition Today — List of Early Set- 
tlers. 

Pleasant Valley Township is situated on the west line of Dodge 
County, second from the north line, and hence comprises Congressional 
township 19, range 5, east. It is bounded on the north by Webster Town- 
ship, on the east by Ridgeley Township, on the south by Union and on 
the west by Colfax County. This is another of the civil subdivisions of 
Dodge County in which there are no towns or villages, neither a railroad. 
The Federal census in 1890 gave the population as 815, but a state census 
of schools gave it 1,000 in 1892. In 1900 it had dropped down to 734 
and in 1910, the same authority gave its population as only 646. The 
figures on the present (1920) census have not yet been given out. 

Organization of Township 

Up to 1886 this township was included in Webster precinct, but at 
the time this precinct system of the county was changed to township 
government, it was changed to conform to its present territory and its 
domain has since been known as "Pleasant Valley Township." 

Pioneer Settlement 

A single man named James Ferguson is supposed to have been the 
first person to permanently locate within this township. He claimed land 
in section 24 in the autumn of 1868. 

In the early spring of 1869 came John Ross, locating in section 22. 
He homesteaded a quarter section and became a permanent figure in 
Dodge County. He had served in the army and navy of the United States 
from 1861 to 1865. 

John L. Brown came here in June, 1869, and pre-empted a quarter 
section of land in section 10. He also took a homestead of eighty acres in 
the same section. 

John Emanuel, of section 28, this township, was postmaster and store- 
keeper at Pleasant Valley, was numbered among the pioneers of this 
tovraship. He came in during 1869, taking a homestead. 

Among those who came to this township from other parts of Dodge 
County may be recalled: Eben Ives, who first located in section 32, 
Ridgeley Township, but later moved over to section 36, Pleasant Valley. 
Also James Robertson, who came with his family and located in section 
14 in March of that year, but later moved to section 26. 

Joseph Cross came to Fremont in the early autumn of 1870. In the 
spring of 1871 he rented in Union Township. In 1872 he homesteaded in 
section 28, where he died in August, 1891. 

Henry Rose came to the county in 1870 and made his settlement in 
Pleasant Valley Township in 1871. John Andrews took his homestead of 
a quarter section in section 8, in the fall of 1870. He had been a soldier 
289 



290 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

in the Civil war and therefore entitled to a quarter of a section in his 
homestead. 

Besides those already named as being settlers in Pleasant Valley 
Township in 1870, were also these : James Harvie, whose parents set- 
tled in section 14; Henry Sturbaum, section 2; John Arps, section 32; 
in 1871 came Hans P. Stoltenberg, located a homestead which had been 
claimed by another, in section 28, but he paid the former claimant $100 
and thus secured what soon came to be a valuable place. 

In 1873 Peter Emanuel located in this township, purchasing railroad 
land. Edwin Hook also located in section 6 that year. 

Frederick Zadehoff, of section 31, came to Dodge County in 1874 
and bought 200 acres of land. 

Hon. Charles Feichtinger, section 22, came to Dodge County in 1868. 
He was a native of Germany where he mastered the jewelry trade. He 
came direct from the fatherland to Dodge County, Nebraska. 

Jacob Longacre came in the spring of 1873. 

John Haase, section 29, dated his settlement from the spring of 1880. 

Frederick Haase settled in section 19, in 1883. 

In 1869 when John Ross came to this township he found residing 
here : William, John and James Ferguson, who belonged to a Scotch 
colony on the eastern line of the township. They all came in 1869 ; John 
Johnson, who took a homestead, came that year, and later moved to 
North Bend. 

William Ross came in 1870 and took his homestead, remained until 
1884, when he sold and went back to New York State. He sold to John 
Hair. John Ross came in 1877, purchased railroad land in section 27, 
remained in the township until 1889, then moved to Box Butte County. 

Hon. John R. Cantlin, section 26, came in as a homesteader in 1870. 

Quite a goodly number of Germans located in the northeast part of 
the township in 1870; these included the family of Martin Heckenroder, 
in section 12. 

Charles Warnsdorf claimed a part of section 22. J. W. Porter 
bought him out in 1881, and he returned to Germany. He was an odd, 
character, but highly educated. He had been wealthy before coming to 
this country, but had spent most of his fortune before settling here. He 
took a homestead and lived a single man, doing his own cooking. 

Other early settlers were Thomas M. Stubbert and Hugh Robertson. 

It may be stated that many of the first settlers in this part of Dodge 
County were young single men, who took land, made rude houses from 
sod and other cheap material, and then sent for their intended wives, 
their marriage taking place after they had arrived from some of the older 
settled places in the East, and in many cases from across the great Atlan- 
tic Ocean. It took stout hearts and strong bodies to thus leave home and 
firesides where they had been reared and attempt to make a home in a 
wild, prairie land like Nebraska was at that date. These women made 
the best wives and mothers and have centainly accomplished their share 
of developing this township and county. 

The first marriage in this township was that of James Ferguson. 
This marriage was dated sometime in 1869. 

Schools and Churches 

The first school was held in a sod shanty — see special chapter in this 
volume on Educational interests. 

Reverend Wilson, of North Bend, held the first religious meeting — 
see chapter on various churches of the county. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 291 

POSTOFFICES AND CEMETERIES 

Prior to 1890 there were two cemeteries laid out in this township — 
one in section 28, and one in section — "Pleasant Valley" and "Glencoe." 

It is Hkely that the first death in the township was that of the mother 
of John L. Brown. 

The first birth recorded was that of Bessie Ferguson, May 22, 1869, 
the daughter of John and Jane Ferguson. 

Pleasant Valley postoffice was established in 1871, with Matthew 
Stubbert first postmaster, section 34. Other postmasters were : Messrs. 
Huffland, Hans P. Stoltenberg, section 28, who was followed by John 
Emanuel. The postmaster then conducted a general store. 

General Historic Items 

During 1873-4 and 75 the grasshoppers ruined the fair prospects of 
scores of farmers in Pleasant Valley. Excellent "eighties" of land could 
have been purchased for $100, but most of them held on because they 
found no one to buy them out, and their sons and daughters can now sell 
the same acres at not less than $300 an acre. Twenty-five years ago 
these lands sold at $40. 

A town hall was built for public meetings and election purposes in the 
northeast quarter of section 21, in 1891, costing $200. 

A Grange or Farmers' Alliance hall was also erected in section 24. 

A German Farmers' Club hall was erected in the '80s in the western 
portion of this township. This cost $500. It was a six-sided building 
and built by a stock company. 



CHAPTER XXXV 

LOGAN TOWNSHIP 

Its Extent — Boundaries — Population — Railroad Facilities — 
Swedish Colony — Later Settlement — Village of Uehling — 
General Conditions Today — Organization of Township or 
Precinct as Then Known — First Township Election — Swa- 
burgh postoffice. 

Logan Township is in the extreme northeastern corner of Dodge 
County. It comprises all of the Congressional township 20, range 8, east. 
Until a few years ago it was without railroad facilities and purely an 
agricultural section, but in recent years transportation facilities have been 
furnished by the building of a branch line of the great "Burlington" 
system, with a station near the northern line of the township and county 
— Uehling. Logan Township is bounded on the north by Burt County, 
on the east by Washington County, on the south by Hooper Township, 
Dodge County, on the west by Cuming Township, making a six-mile 
square tract of land. 

Population and Organization 

The township was organized as a precinct in 1857. The first election 
was held at the house of C. H. Lisers ; the judges were Hiram H. Ladd, 
Willis Carr and Martin Shearer. The population in 1890 was, according 
to the United States census, 673, in 1900 it was only 621, and in 1910 
had increased to 857. The 1920 enumeration figures have not yet been 
given out. 

Settlement Notes 

A colony from the north of Sweden, just at the close of the Civil 
war in this country, made the pioneer settlement in Logan Township, 
aside from a few who preceded them. This Swedish colony was headed 
by Peter Saspair, of section 15. Many remained and took homesteads, 
while some went to Omaha for settlement. Among those who may be 
termed "first settlers" were: Andrew Larson, O. Larson, Lars Lund, 
M. M. Frost, Peter Dahl, Andrew Linn, M. Olson, P. A. Anderson, Nels 
Hanson, Oscar Bergquist, Carl Morrell, Christian Dueholm and N. P. 
Westlin. 

Theodore Uehling came to this county in 1860, settling in section 18, 
township 19, range 9, and there built him a log house and covered it with 
slough grass. He bought and traded for many tracts of land until he 
owned 1,000 acres. 

In 1865 Andrew Bowman and his mother came. They homesteaded 
eighty acres in section 10 and built a log cabin which was burned, and 
later they were driven from the premises by high water, but they were 
not the type of people to easily give up, and after a few years of great 
privation and hardship they became well circumstanced. 

In 1867 George Briggs, later of section 34, located in this township. 
He purchased a quarter section of wild land and made his own improve- 
ments as best he could. 

292 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 293 

In 1868 the township had other settlers in the persons of John Samp- 
son, section 26. He stopped in Fremont one year and then took his home- 
stead. Peter Swanson, Peter Anderson, T. H. Mallett and others came 
about the same time or a little later. 

Hon. N. P. Nelson settled here in 1869. His mother took a homestead 
in the fall of that year, in the west half of the northeast quarter of sec- 
tion 34. 

Ole Johnson was another settler of the last named year and he claimed 
a part of section 34. He also bought railroad lands in section 35. 

Fred Daubert settled in section 7 in 1872. 

Gus J. Bergquist bought eighty acres of wild land in section 24 in 
1875. 

Other settlers included Gus Swanson, John Daubert, J. G. Myer and 
Howard Myer. 

Of the churches and public schools the reader is referred to special 
chapters in this volume on such topics covering the entire county. 

Early Postoffice 

Swaburgh postoffice was established in 1881 in section 14, but in 1888 
it was moved to section 24. E. Morrell was postmaster in the '90s. Mail 
was then being received at that date three times a week on a route from 
Hooper to Herman station. 

Vast indeed has been the transformation in this portion of the goodly 
"Kingdom of Dodge" since those days away back in the '60s. One now 
sees in traveling through the country, a splendid agricultural section, well 
developed, with handsome farm houses and barns, and the passer-by is 
greeted by the smiling faces of a contented and prosperous people. 

The Village of Uehling 

This village is a station on the "Burlington" Railroad situated near 
the north county line. 

It was platted in a great cornfield and construction of the "Burling- 
ton" road was carried forward in 1905 and the track laid to Uehling 
February 17, 1906. The first building in the place was erected by 
Mr. Uehling on the corner where now stands the Farmers State Bank 
Building. 

Uehling now has a population of about 400. It was incorporated as 
a village November 20, 1906. The following have served as village 
chairmen of the board: 1906 — Henry Piefer; 1907 — L. A. Green; he 
served until 1911 and was followed by H. R. Suhr, who served till 1914, 
when Andrew Frost was elected chairman and held the position until 
1919, when the present chairman, M. Peterson, was elected. 

The various village clerks have been in order as follows : H. F. Meyer, 
V. P. Hart, L. A. Larson, H. F. Meyer. 1912-18, A. J. W. Koehler, 
1918-20. 

A fine system of waterworks was installed in 1909. The cost was 
$10,000. The source of water supply is three deep wells from which 
water is forced to a steel tower and tank 120 feet high. Electric lights 
were installed in 1914. The village has a two-story brick and frame 
town hall in which the fire department and village officers are housed. 



294 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

PosTOFFiCE, Hospital, Etc. 

The first postmaster was F. J. Uehling, who served from February 
to July, 1906, then it passed into the hands of R. S. Honey, who held it 
till October, 1917, then H. Christensen held from October, 1917, to 
October, 1919; the next postmaster was Mrs. R. S. Honey, who still 
serves. It is a fourth-class postoffice. 

Doctor McKnight, a newcomer to the village, established a hospital 
in the season of 1920 and is doing nicely at this date. 

One of the finest baseball parks within Nebraska is to be seen at 
Uehling, on the banks of the Elkhorn River. 

The village supports a Congregational Church and a Lutheran 
Church. 

A Modern Woodmen of America and a Woodman of the World 
lodge are found here — see Lodge Chapter. 

Commercial Interests — 1920 

Banking — Farmers State Bank and the Logan Valley Bank. 

Doctors — Doctor McKnight. 

Auto Garage — Barton Strand, H. N. De Molin. 

Blacksmiths — Oliver A. Larson. 

Barber Shop — Marshall Bennett. 

Cream Station — Russell Anderson. 

Drugs — The Hansen Drug Company. 

Elevators — Farmers' Co-operative Association and the Holmquist 
Company. 

Furniture (with Hardware) — Fred J. Uehling and L. W. Larson. 

General Dealers — Fred H. Steckelberg, W. A. Stach, Christemen & 
Rinderhogen. 

Harness— W. H. Miller. 

Hotel — Mrs. Chris Nelson. 

Ice — C. J. Shaw. 

Lumber — Farmers' Co-operative Association, Bowman, Kratz Lum- 
ber Company. 

Meat Market — C. J. Shaw. 

Newspaper — The Uehling Post. See "Press Chapter." 

Opera Halls— The Uehling Hall, Larson Hall and Lodge Hall. 

Restaurant — Otto A. Graves. 

Farm Implements — Larson Brothers. 



CHAPTER XXXVI 

MAPLE TOWNSHIP 

Description — Boundary — Old Precinct of Maple — Census Returns 
^Schools and Churches — Postoffices — Settlement. 

Maple civil township comprises Con_s:ressional township 18, range 
7, east, hence is six miles square and it is bounded on the north by- 
Everett Township, on the east by Nickerson, on the south by Piatt Town- 
ship and on the west by Cotterell Township. Originally Maple Town- 
ship as now constituted formed a part of Everett and Nickerson town- 
ships or precincts as then known, but in 1886, when "Township Organi- 
zation" came into effect, the present limits were fixed. This is one of 
Dodge County's inland townships and has neither railway line nor village 
within its borders. 

Population 

In 1890 the United States census gave this township a population of 
778; in 1900 it was placed at 1,409, but in 1910 it was decreased to 606. 
Its population is about equally divided between American and foreign 
bom. 

Schools and Churches 

The reader is referred to the special chapters in this work on the 
schools, churches and lodges of the whole county for facts concerning 
such subjects in this township. 

Postoffices 

Maple Creek postoffice was established in this township in 1870, on a 
mail route from Fremont to West Point. This postoffice in 1892 was 
being kept in section 3. 

Jamestown postoffice was located in section 20, and Bangs postoffice 
in section 15. 

The pioneer postmaster was Father Monroe, who kept the Maple 
Creek office at his home in section 4. The advent of the free rural 
delivery postal system has greatly changed the mail facilities in this 
township and daily mails come from various postoffices right to the very 
dooryard of the farmer. 

First Settlement 

Maple Township was first settled by Seneca Hager, in section 20. 
He came from Platte Township, where his parents had settled in 1856. 

Rev. Jacob Adriance, section 20, came to Dodge County in 1858, 
first locating at Fremont as a Methodist Episcopal minister. In that 
work he continued many years. In 1862 he located land with a land 
warrant, and in 1879 moved to the premises to remain. His settlement 
and labors were indeed full of interesting incidents and pioneer 
experiences. 

295 



296 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

George Knoell of section 26 came to this county in the spring of 1859, 
locating at first in Platte Township with his father, he himself being only 
sixteen years old at the time of his father's settlement. 

Charles A. Bang, of section 14, came in very early. He came from 
Denmark, worked about three years and returned to his native land. 
After a visit in Denmark he returned to this county and was employed 
in a mill at North Bend until 1869, when he purchased and improved 
eighty acres of land, to which he added until he owned a half section. 

Ole Hanson settled in section 26 ; in 1866 he went to work at Fremont 
and about three years later, 1869, he homesteaded land, where he resided 
many years. 

Rasmus Hansen, section 35, came to Dodge County in the autumn 
of 1867 and engaged at sawmill work near Fremont. Eighteen months 
later he rented land upon which he lived two years. He then took a 
homestead, lived thereon five years, sold and purchased 120 acres nearer 
Fremont. He sold again and moved to Oregon, but six years later 
returned and finally settled on land in section 35. 

James C. Nelson of section 22, came to Dodge County in the spring 
of 1867, first stopping in Fremont. At the time he was a young single 
man, and he hired out by the month as a farm hand. He soon claimed 
eighty acres of wild land as his own and there made a good home. 

Eighteen hundred and sixty-seven saw another truly representative 
settler in the person of Lewis A. Warner in section 3, who came to 
Dodge County in the fall of that year. For three years he rented land 
near Nickerson, after which he moved to the Maple Creek county and 
there engaged in farming and stock-raising. 

J. E. Dorsey settled in Maple Township on Maple Creek, section 1, 
in 1867; later he moved to North Bend. 

L. M. Keene came from Maine in Company with Chester Morse in 
1867 and located in section 12, Maple Township. Later he moved to 
Fremont, where he soon became one of the successful financiers of the 
city. 

Chester Morse located in section 4. Not many years later, however, 
he moved to North Bend, and later in company with others, platted the 
Village of Morse BluflF, south of the Platte River from North Bend. 

"Old Mr. Monroe" settled in section 3 at about the last named date — 
1867 — and remained there until overtaken by death. 

Thomas and W. F. Wilson came in from Ohio and located on the 
north line of the township. In 1869 came Melcher Endley, locating in 
section 10, a part of which he homesteaded and another portion he 
bought. After proving up he sold and returned to Ohio. 

Another homesteader of 1869 was James Hiscock, who in 1887 sold 
to J. A. Sill and removed to Colfax County, Nebraska. 

James L. Davis came in 1869, took an eighty-acre tract as his home- 
stead right, and lived on the same until 1887, then moved to Fremont, 
where after a few years he died. 

In 1870 came Seth Harkness to section 13. He bought railroad land 
and resided in this township until 1880, when he sold and moved to 
Hamilton County, Nebraska. 

G. W. R. Pettibone became a resident of section 2 in 1870. He 
bought out a homesteader and lived in the township until 1876, when he 
moved to Fremont and there embarked in business. Subsequently, he 
went to Deadwood, South Dakota, and there traded for a time but 
returned to Fremont and later settled in the City of Lincoln, where he 
became general agent for a Des Moines insurance company, and in 1892 
was reported to have made $200,000 at the insurance business. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 297 

Among the settlers in the "seventies" was John L. Ritter of section 
4. Later he engaged in the grain trade at Hooper; also at Nofth Bend, 
and finally became a member of the Town Site Company of Morse & 
Ritter, platting Morse Bluff. 

Other pioneer settlers were — C. E. Forbes, section 14; William 
Springer, 1870; W. C. Aiken, section 10; Casper Eidam, a farmer of 
section 16, came to the county in 1870 and located in Platte Township, 
where he rented land for a time before purchasing. 

David Brown, section 4, came in the spring of 1870, then rented land 
on Maple Creek four years, then bought eighty acres of his own. 

William C. Wallingford located in section 34 in 1870. He rented 
land near Fremont five seasons, after which he bought in section 7, 
Platte Township, farmed there ten years, then went to section 34. 

Peter Johnson, another 1870 immigrant to Dodge County, followed 
railroad work two years. He then went to breaking prairie and a year 
later purchased eighty acres of land in section 15. 

In 1872 Edward Hooker located at Fremont, near which city he 
rented land a year or more, then homesteaded part of section 5, this 
township. 

Edward Rannie, section 15, came to the county in May, 1872. He 
took up a quarter section of unimproved land. 

Hon. Julius A. Sill, section 11, came to this county in the early spring 
of 1872. In 1892 he owned 400 acres of valuable Dodge County land. 

Frank F. and Hugh C. Brown, Christian Hansen, Hans Hansen, 
John G. Dykeman, Henry Rebbe, B. C. Allen, Ezra Philips, James L. 
Brown, Peter Slack, William Philips, Eugene M. Tarbell, Theodore R. 
Stout and Philip Sullivan all came to this township at an early time and 
helped to subdue the tough prairie sod and transform the wild prairie 
into the present beautiful and high-priced farming lands one now sees 
throughout this and adjoining townships in Dodge County. They 
"builded better than they knew." 



CHAPTER XXXVII 

NORTH BEND TOWNSHIP 

Formerly North Bend Precinct — Its Interesting History — First 
Colony — First Election — City of North Bend — Pioneer His- 
tory — Early Events — Commercial Interests of North Bend — 
Business Interests in 1920 — Postoffice History — Municipal 
History — Miscellaneous Improvements — Parks, Etc. 

What is now styled North Bend civil township was within Cotterell 
Township before township organization took place in Dodge County in 
1886. North Bend Precinct, as once known, is not without its interest- 
ing local history, and the same is covered by the village history in this 
chapter. It was here that the first little colony of pioneer emigrants 
from Ohio settled in 1856. The first election after Dodge County was 
organized was held in North Bend the first Monday in February, 1860, 
at which time Fremont was made the county seat. 

North Bend Township is now confined to the corporate limits of the 
village of the same name — see its history. 

City of North Bend 

This is a thriving city situated fifteen miles to the west of the City of 
Fremont, on the north bank of Platte River, in township 17, range 6, 
east. It now has a population of about 1,200, according to the latest 
United .States census. It was platted October 12, 1867, by S. S. Cald- 
well, M. S. Cotterell and the officers of the Union Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany. The population in 1876 was 250 souls and in 1890 it was placed 
at 897. It is within one of the richest agricultural sections of the state, 
where land is now worth from S250 to $400 per acre. The main line 
of the Union Pacific Railway runs through North Bend, which place is 
fifty miles from Omaha, the terminus of that great rail route from the 
Missouri River to the far-away Pacific coast. The altitude of North 
Bend is 1,275 feet. 

Pioneer History 

The first twenty years' history of North Bend was well described 
"Centennial Year" (1876) by J. Mason Smith, who responded to the 
general call made by President U. S. Grant that every township in the 
country make an effort to preserve its history on that occasion. This 
historical sketch was read before those who assembled on July 4th that 
year, and the same (by permission) is here inserted, and it is believed 
that no better account of the place between 1856 and 1876 can be given 
than Mr. Smith's graphic account of its first settlement, which runs 
thus: 

The Town of North Bend takes its name from the bend in the Platte 
River 'on which it is located. Long before the settlement was made this 
point was a favorite camping ground for emigrants going to California, 
Utah and other points west. Here was an abundance of grass and water 
for their weary cattle ; here was wood and water by which the hungry 
298 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 299 

traveler could cook his victuals and refresh the inner man ; here in the 
Platte's swift running waters they bathed their weary limbs and started 
anew on their journey, refreshed and invigorated. 

Nebraska Territory was not long organized when some of its leading 
men saw that at North Bend was a good point to locate a town. 

Governor Izard, Secretary Cummings, John I. Redick, Judge Mathews, 
Squire Hallock and others — sixteen in all — formed themselves into a 
company known as "The North Bend Town Company." About the first 
of April, 1856, Mathews and Hallock came and located a town for this 
company. About the first of July, 1857, the town was surveyed and laid 
out by Charles Turner, United States deputy surveyor. 

God made the country — man made North Bend a "Paper Town." 
Most of the towns in the territory at that time were paper towns. Specu- 
lations ran very high and a number of land sharks made what they called 




Hk.H SCIIUUL, X(IK 



a good thing out of it. They sold lots from $50 to $100 each to parties 
who never saw the lots and it may be reasonably supposed never will. 

The first settlement in the vicinity was made on July 4, 1856, by a 
few Scotch families who had for a few years previous been living in 
Illinois. The party consisted of Robert Miller, his wife and four chil- 
dren ; John Miller and wife : William and Alexander Miller, brothers of 
Robert and John, and Miss Eliza Miller, now the wife of W. H. Ely of 
Fremont. 

This little party had the night previous camped about four miles east 
of North Bend; finding no wood to cook their supper with they each 
drank some milk and went to bed. They arose early the following morn- 
ing — July 4th, yoked up their oxen and arrived at North Bend about 9 
o'clock A. M., where they found plenty of w'ood and water to cook their 
breakfast with. They liked the appearance of the country, but thought 
they would go further on and prospect. They got ready and started ; 
after going a few miles they came to the conclusion that they would turn 
back and settle at North Bend, which they did. As soon as possible they 
put up shanties to live in, which were made of willows and hay. That 
fall two log houses were erected and were located on section 12, near the 
present farm of James Sloss. 



300 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

In August that year the little colony was increased by the arrival of 
George Turton", who was strong and robust and a good practical surveyor. 
He was a host in himself and the right man in the right place ; his experi- 
ence as a surveyor was of much benefit to the little colony. 

Early in the fall the town company put up what was called the "Town 
House." The contract was let to George J. Turton and William Miller. 
Its dimensions were 16 by 40 feet. It was built of cottonwood logs and 
stood a few rods west of what is now called 0876) the Old Bend House. 
It was fearfully and wonderfully made — a kind of cross between Noah's 
Ark and the house that Jack built. In 1866, it being too near the railroad, 
it was taken down and moved away. Part of the logs are now (1876) 
used, as they are rebuilt in a stable. (Many of the first events of the 
settlement were told in this history, read July 4, 1876, which have been 
cut out and added to the history of the surrounding townships.) 

June 29, 1857, an important addition was made to the settlement by 
the arrival of Alex Morrison, J. Humphries and J. M. Smith. 

M. S. Cotterell, Jr., belonged to this party but did not arrive until 
July 12th. This party was from Cleveland, Ohio, and brought a steam 
sawmill with them as far as Omaha ; they were looking up a site for their 
mill. They were pleased with the country and concluded to locate the 
mill here, which they did. They had left their wives behind, but August 2d 
Mrs. Morrison. Mrs. Smith and Mrs. James Humphries with her five 
children arrived. In the anticipation of their coming, the Town House 
had been chinked and shingled, but the women were much disappointed 
with the looks in general, still with stout hearts they accepted the situa- 
tion and went to work earnestly and energetically, cheered by the hope 
that by and by they would get their reward for all their toils and 
privations. 

Mrs. Morrison and Mrs. Humphries brought chickens with them 
from Cleveland, these being the first chickens in the town and settlement. 
Now, with the prattle of children, the cackling of hens and a crowing 
rooster, things commenced to wear a little aspect of civilization. John 
Sloss arrived in September; he soon went to work for the sawmill com- 
pany. He located on section 11, four miles east of North Bend, Cotterell 
Township. He later married a Miss Kelley. Robert Graham and wife 
and James H. Graham from Cleveland arrived late in 1857 and located 
in what was later Union Township. 

On the first of January, 1858, the number of persons in the settle- 
ment was twenty-eight. Of this number fifteen were children under 
twelve years of age. « 

In the spring of 1858, as the town company had not complied with 
the law, failing to make the impfovement the law required, it left them 
without a legal claim to the property, therefore the townsite was jumped 
by M. F. Cotterell and J. M. Smith. The company did not make much 
fuss, it may be supposed they had realized about all they saw any chance 
of doing, therefore let go without showing much fight ! 

When the colony first located here their nearest postoffice was Omaha, 
fifty miles away, which was very inconvenient for those who had left 
their wives behind them. It is related that M. F. Cotterell is one who 
whistled "The Girl I Left Behind Me" and footed it to Omaha for mail 
that was not there, returning the next day. It was a long ways back to 
North Bend. On December 31, 1858, the number of persons in the 
vicinity was thirty-seven, twelve of these being under twelve years of 
age. 

The above paragraphs bring the settlement of North Bend down to 
what its citizens today are pleased to call "modern times." Before going 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 301 

into the details of business interests in this enterprising little city, some 
of the early events of interest will be narrated. 

Early Events 

The first election was held on the second Tuesday of November, 

1856, when the County of Dodge was in three precincts. Robert Kittle 
and George Young were elected justices of the peace and George Turton 
was elected county commissioner. 

The first marriage within the place was John B. Waterman to 
Elizabeth R. Graham, July 28, 1859. This refers to the "settlement" 
and the first marriage in the Village of North Bend was not until 1860, 
when George Bathrick and Miss Nancy Rhodes were united in marriage 
by Rev. I. A. Wilson, pastor of the United Presbyterian Church. 

The first male child born in this vicinity was Seth W. Young, 
November, 1856; he was also the first in Dodge County. Roderick C. 
Smith, son of J. Mason Smith, was born December 21, 1858. 

The first family to set up housekeeping in the Village of North Bend 
was that of George J. Turton, May, 1857. He came to the county the 
year before, a single man, but in March, 1857, went east and returned 
with his bride. 

The first sawmill of Dodge County was placed in running order in 
this vicinity and was operated until the fall of 1860, when it was burned 
by a prairie fire. This mill was brought from Cleveland, Ohio, in July, 

1857, by Messrs. Cotterell, Smith, Morrison and Humphries. Indeed, 
this was the pioneer sawmill in all the far-reaching Platte Valley. It 
proved a financial failure to its various owners, but was of much value 
to the settlers. Persons came from Fremont and obtained small loads of 
lumber, cut from cottonwood logs sawed by this mill. This lumber took 
the place of the former hay roofs in use ; also furnished their shanties 
with solid floors. A small iron grain-grinding mill was later attached to 
this sawmill and corn was ground constantly until the burning of the 
mill. 

Commercial Interests of North Bend 

The Union Pacific Railroad made its appearance at North Bend in 
the spring of 1866, and that marked a second era in the settlement of 
that part of the county. There was only one house on the site of the 
place when the iron horse first entered that green, glad solitude, that being 
one owned by M. S. Cotterell, Jr. George Canfield opened a small grocery 
store in July of that year, the first goods being sold on Independence 
Day. 

The earliest hotel was built by Williams & Perkins in 1867. In 1872 
it was moved to the tracks and converted into a grain warehouse by 
Dowling & Purcell. 

From 1866 to 1876 there were shipped 19,000,000 pounds of grain 
from the North Bend depot. The first wheat shipped to Omaha was by 
John Burger. The freight rate was $18 per car. The first livestock 
was shipped by Robert Hall. 

The first real, up-to-date grocers were T. B. Purcell and M. Dowling, 
at first in the Canfield Building, but built for themselves on Sycamore 
Street. For many years these men were heavily engaged in the grain 
trade at North Bend. 

The first exclusive grain dealer was N. Merriam, who shipped the 
first car of wheat to Chicago in August, 1874. Down to that time the 



302 DODGE AXD WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

home-grown grain was usually all consumed by the flouring mills located 
at Fremont. This dealer paid Fremont prices at his warehouse at North 
Bend, which caused his business to be very extensive. He was always 
noted for his correct weights and honorable dealings. 

In passing it should be stated that the first fat cattle were shipped 
from North Bend by rail on June 22, 1876. 

A lumber vard was started in North Bend in the autumn of 1875 by 
J. B. Foote. 

The pioneer "Village Blacksmith" was Robert Graham, who came in 
the spring of 1867, but soon sold his forge to Jerry Dion. 

Smith Brothers in 1867 built what was styled the "Corner Store." 

The first man to practice medicine at and around North Bend was 
Doctor Bell, a North Carolinian, who arrived here in 1868. He finally 
met with an accident by which he lost both his feet. He was caught out 
on a professional visit and had his feet frozen. Doctors Abbott of Fre- 
mont and Moore of Omaha amputated his feet. 

For an account of the schools, churches and lodges the reader is 
referred to special chapters on such topics elsewhere in this work. 

The various newspapers and banks are likewise treated in chapters 
on such subjects for the entire county. 

A good nursery was established by J. \V. Stevenson in 1882. Froin 
this nursery he shipped transplanted stock to many western states and 
territories. The nursery joined the town plat and a large annual business 
was transacted. This being the only nursery in this part of Nebraska, his 
shipments were made many miles. 

Many persons have been engaged in business in North Bend for a 
greater or less period of time with the passing years — some are still resi- 
dents of the place, but most all have left for other fields or departed this 
life. At this time (summer of 1920) the historian finds the commercial 
and professional interests to be in the hands of the following persons : 

Business Interests — 1920 

Attorney — J. J. Gleeson. 

Auto Garages— W. H. Westthal, U. S. Tym. W. H. Snyder, City 
Garage and Ford Garage. 

Banks — The First National and First State Bank. 

Barbers — Al Hammond, N. L. Thorp, P. J. Laughlin. 

Bakery — H. A. Miller, Frank Kenney. 

Blacksmithing — G. A. Millar, Anderson Brothers, C. J. Lehmer. 

Community Club — J. J. Gleeson, secretary. 

Cream Station — Lincoln Butter Co. 

Cement Tile Works — A home concern. 

Drugs— J. R. Tapster, W. A. La Violette. 

Dentists— Drs. J. H. Stebbins, T. F. Frederick. 

Elevators — Farmers' Co-operative Association, C. A. Millar Grain 
Company. 

Electric Supplies — All hardware dealers. 

Furniture — P. F. Carey, who also does undertaking. 

Farmers' Telephone Company, F. A. Howe, president.. 

General Merchandise — Houerfield Mercantile Company, and Fred 
Young, also the "Baskett Store No. 46." 

Hotel — The Hackney House, by C. O. Wagner. 

Harness Shop — Adolph Kemper. 

Hay Dealer — W. N. Pruyn. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 303 

Hardware — Griffin & Co., T. J. Gaughen, V. W. Jansen. 
Implements — (See list of lumbermen.) 
Ice Dealer — Earl Street. 
Jeweler — J. T. Ostry. 

Lumber — Cherny & Watson, Farmers Union Company. 
Milling — North Bend Milling Company. 
Meat Markets — William Buchta, John Buchta. 
Millinery — Mrs. Roy Clay. 
Newspaper — The North Bend Eagle. 
Nursery — The "North Bend Nursery." 
Picture Show — The Lyric, by Fred Mehaffey. 
Public Library — "The Carnegie." 
Photographer — G. C. Armstead. 

Physicians— Doctors Hamod, A. E. Hoff, W. E. Doane, S. W. Yates. 
Restaurant — Kenney Bakery and one more (proprietor's name 
unknown). 

Tailors — R. S. Palmer. 

Veterinary Surgeons — Drs. O. O. Wallace, James Thom. 

Variety Store — V. W. Vauter. 

PosTOFFiCE History 

The North Bend postoffice was established early in the spring of 
1858, with G. J. Turton as the first postmaster. July 4th that year the 
first mail arrived over the tri-weekly stage line operated by the North- 
western Stage Company between Omaha and Fort Kearney, with a sta- 
tion point at North Bend. The first stagekeeper here was Alexander 
Morrison. A daily stage line was had in the spring of 1859. when the 
famous Pike's Peak gold mining excitement set in. Before the postoffice 
was established at North Bend the few settlers there had to depend on 
trips by someone to Omaha for their mail facilities. 

A money order office has been maintained here since July, 1879, and 
the first order ever issued from the West Bend postoffice was in favor of 
George W. Gray for the sum of $5.50 to be paid at Omaha. O. A. Hough 
was then the postmaster. Up to 1892 more than 11,000 money orders had 
been issued from this office. Since then the record is not accessible. 
For a number of years what was known as the "Postal Note" was also 
issued from postoffices as well as regular money orders. 

The postmasters from the establishment of the office to 1892 were : 
George J. Turton, Charles Dickinson, Thomas Jones, M. Dowling, J. A. 
Hough, C. W. Hyatt, H. Williams and J. P. Yost. Since the last named 
the list of postmasters has included these : A. L. Norris succeeded Yost, 
served one year under President Cleveland's administration. Next was 
C. A. Long from May 17, 1897, served nine years and one month; John 
Cusack then served eight years, ending April 25, 1914, since which time 
the present postmaster, J. E. Newsom, has been postmaster. This is a 
third-class postoffice and the last year's business amounted to $5,800. 
Three rural free delivery routes go out from this postoffice. 

Municipal History 

North Bend has been twice incorporated into a municipality — first, 
April 20, 1876, as a village and again in 1886 as a "city." The original 
village officers were as follows: James H. Hough, M. Dowling, Peter 
Gillis, C. C. Kendal and A. L. Norris, as trustees ; C. W. Hyatt, clerk ; 



304 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Thomas B. Purcell, treasurer; Jerry Dion, assessor; Duncon Smith, 
marshal. 

The following shows who served on the village board up to the time 
of reincorporating into a "city" : 

1877 — Trustees: J. H. Hough (chairman), Merriam Dowling, A. 
Foote, D. M. Strong; clerk, Thomas Love. 

1878 — Trustees: Milton May (chairman), J. H. Hough, Peter GilHs, 
C. Cusack, B. P. Rice ; clerk, Thomas Love. 

1879— Trustees : J. H. Hough (chairman), J. J. Kelser, John Pur- 
cell, C. B. Treadwell, C. Cusack ; clerk, N. M. Vedder. 

1880 — Trustees: J. H. Hough (chairman), Peter Gillis, C. Cusack, 
John Keith, Frank Stouffer ; clerk, H. B. Millard. 

1881 — Trustees: A. J. Kenyon (chairman), F. F. Doubrava, A. Craw- 
ford, T. F. Keeton, D. M. Strong; clerk, R. Spence. 

1882 — Trustees: James Sloss (chairman), Frank Stouffer, Peter Gil- 
lis, A. K. Walla, T. F. Keeton ; clerk, T. F. Keeton. 

1883 — Trustees and clerk same as for 1882. 

1884 — Trustees: Q. B. Skinner (chairman), A. Crawford, D. A. 
Hopkins, M. Dowling, A. K. Walla; clerk, C. B. Treadwell. 

1885— Trustees ; O. B. Skinner (chairman), A. K. Walla, J. Fur- 
cell, J. B. Foote, H. Williams ; clerk, C. B. Treadwell. 

1886 — During this year the place was incorporated into a "city" 
since which time the mayors have been as follows: 

1886— Q. B. Skinner. 1887— Q. B. Skinner. 1888— D. M. Strong. 
1889— A. L. Norris. 1890— A. L. Norris. 1891— Same as for 1890. 
1892— M. Dowling. 

1892 — M. Dowling, mayor; J. E. Newsom, clerk. 

1893— T. J. Catterell, mayor ; C. K. Watson, clerk. 

1894 — Spencer Day, mayor; C. K. Watson, clerk. 

1895— C. W. Dodge, mayor ; C. A. Long, clerk. 

1896 — Hugh Robinson, mayor ; C. A. Long, clerk. 

1897 — Hugh Robinson, mayor; C. L. Norris, clerk. 

1898 — J. H. Johnson, mayor ; J. C. Newsom, clerk. 

1899 — Hugh Robinson, mayor; J. C. Newsom, clerk. 

1900— C. H. Wolrath, mayor; J. C. Newsom, clerk. 

1901 — John Cherny, mayor ; J. C. Newsom, clerk. 

1902— (No record). 

1903— D. M. Dodge, mayor; Mr. Main, clerk. 

1904 — T. B. Percell, mayor; D. M. Dodge, clerk. 

1905— T. B. Percell, mayor ; D. M. Dodge, clerk. 

1906 — A. Harvey, mayor; D. M. Dodge, clerk. 

1907— T. B. Percell, mayor ; F. D. Howe, clerk. 

1908— Alex Thorn, mayor ; F. D. Howe, clerk. 

1909— T. B. Percell, mayor; F. D. Howe, clerk. 

1910— L. B. McClaren, mayor; F. D. Howe, clerk. 

1911 — William Nichol, mayor; F. D. Howe, clerk. 

1912— L. B. McClaren, mayor ; F. D. Howe, clerk. 

1913— L. B. McClaren, mayor ; F. D. Howe, clerk. 

1914 — L. B. McClaren, mayor ; F. D. Howe, clerk. 

1915— R. C. Brownell, mayor; F. D. Howe, clerk. 

1916 — R. C. Brownell, mayor ; J. C. Newsom, clerk. 

1917— R. C. Brownell, mayor; C. K. Wilson, clerk. 

1918 — Alex Thorn, mayor; J. C. Newsom, clerk. 

1919 — Alex Thorn, mayor; John Emerson, clerk. 

1920— Alex Thom, mayor; John Emerson, clerk. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 305 

The present (1920) municipal officers are: Mayor, Alex Thorn; 
clerk, J. A. Emerson; marshal, D. G. Lehmer; councilmen, C. M. Black, 
D. F. Carey, Levi Williams, Martin Rees ; treasurer, Roy J. Cusack ; 
physician. Doctor Yates. 

The place has a good system of water works, is lighted by an electric 
plant ; has good streets with paving put down the present year. These 
improvements have all cost much money but the taxpayers are not find- 
ing fault, knowing that these things must needs all go with the building 
of a modern city. 

A good city building was provided North Bend in 1890 — a two-story 
brick structure on Seventh and Maple streets, costing $6,000. 

The beginning of the fire department in North Bend was in 1880, 
when the hook and ladder company was formed, as a safeguard against 
the ravages of the fire fiend. In 1892 the place had hook and ladder and 
engine company as well as a hose outfit well handled by competent men. 
At that day the company of volunteer firemen were all well uniformed 
and drilled for actual, practical service as fire fighters. 

Among the greatest fires in North Bend were those of 1885 and 1892. 
The former occurred in August, when the southeastern block of the busi- 
ness portion was totally destroyed, but most of the property was well 
insured, and was soon all rebuilt. The 1892 fire was on September 29th, 
at 3 o'clock in the mOrning. This fire destroyed the opera house. First 
National Bank, postoffice. Star printing office, as well as other buildings 
on the west side of Sycamore Street, between Sixth and Seventh. 

Miscellaneous Improvements, Etc. 

The first opera house in North Bend was erected in 1884 — a fine, large 
two-story brick block costing $4,000 and seated nearly 500 persons. It 
stood on the west side of Sycamore Street and was burned in the month 
of September. 1892. 

The real flour mill industry commenced here by the construction of 
the roller mills in 1890, with a daily capacity of fifty barrels. The pro- 
prietors of this plant were York & Thomas, who sold to the firm of Col- 
lins & Thomas. 

First Platte River bridge at North Bend was the result of county 
bonds issued in 1875 to the amount of $10,000, and again another issue 
in 1880 of $4,000 was voted by the Precinct of North Bend. The bridge 
was completed and opened to the public in March, 1881. Its total cost 
was $15,300. It was built by the Union Pacific Company. Prior to this 
a ferryboat and later a pontoon bridge was used for passage over the 
Platte between Dodge and Saunders counties. 

The public park of North Bend consists of two full blocks of land, 
and is only partly improved as yet, but will in time provide the city with 
a most attractive spot. Then there is a small tract used for park pur- 
poses known as the Union Pacific Park — land belonging to the railway 
company. 



CHAPTER XXXVIII 

PLATTE TOWNSHIP 

Boundary — Organization — Settlement — Early Events — First 
Birth — First Death — First Marriage — First School — Village 
OF Ames — Standard Cattle Company, Etc. — Population — 
Indians. 

Platte Township is south of Nickerson and Maple townships and 
north of the Platte River. It comprises fractional one-half of Congres- 
sional township 17, ranges 7 and 8, east. The seat of justice of Dodge 
County, City of Fremont, is situated in the southeastern part of Platte 
Township, but is now a civil precinct by itself. 

The Union Pacific Railroad passes through Platte Township, follow- 
ing the general course of the Platte River. 

Population • 

The Federal census of 1890 gave the population of this township as 
741 ; in 1900 it was 1,358, and in the next ten-year period it decreased to 
1,134. The present enumeration's figures have not as yet been made 
public. 

Organization 

From the organization of Dodge County down to 1875, this part of 
the county was included in Fremont Precinct, but during that year the 
Board of County Commissioners created Platte Precinct. Its present 
bounds were defined and taken on by the adoption of the township organi- 
zation plan in 1886. 

Indian Scare 

When this county was first settled, in the early '50s, the Indians were 
quite numerous and somewhat troublesome. They did not attempt to 
kill the whites, but bothered them otherwise. It was related by John C. 
Flor, who settled in Platte Township in the autumn of 1856. that at one 
time the Indians were thought to have some grievance against their pale- 
faced brothers and demanded the scalp of his wife, but were finally 
frightened away by the whites who were present. They stubbornly 
demanded to look upon the pale-faced woman and agreed to smoke the 
pipe of peace, after which she shook hands with all and they departed. 

Settlement 

The first settlers in what is now known as Platte Township were also 
the original settlers in Dodge County, as now constituted. This distinc- 
tion belongs to the McNeal and Beebe families, who emigrated from 
Wisconsin in 1856. May 25th of that year Mrs. Beebe (mother of the 
later known Hon. Henry P. Beebe) and her sons, C. C, John, Martin 
and Charles, together with her son-in-law, Abraham McNeal, and his 
family, landed in this county and located two miles west of Fremont. 
306 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 307 

A former county historical record gives the following concerning the 
first settlement: 

John C. Flor, residing in section 14, located here in the summer of 
1856. In those early days the sod house, the log house and shanty had 
to suffice. 

Henry P. Beebe above named, came in September, 1856, to his land 
in section 4, range 8. He remained and became one of the leading men in 
Dodge County. He was the first county treasurer, the first to represent 
the county in the Legislature after its admission into the Union. He was 
also one of the county judges. 

Eli Hager came to the county in the fall of 1856 and for many years 
resided in section 18 of Platte Township. He came to the country when 
only seventeen years of age with his parents. That never-to-be-forgotten 
winter of 1856-57, when the snow was the deepest and average tempera- 
ture the lowest all over the United States of any season recorded by 
white men. caught this pioneer man with a blinding storm December 1, 
1856. His remains were not found until spring when it was observed 
that the wolves had eaten most of the flesh from his bones. This left Eli 
Hager the head of the family and only through a great struggle was he 
able to succeed in keeping the family together. 

Another settler in 1856 was Seth T. Marvin, who located a mile and 
one-half west of where Fremont now stands. Later he moved into town 
and was indeed one of the incorporators of the town site. Subsequently 
he was accidentally drowned in the river near here. 

Three miles to the west of Fremont settled Charles Waldo and George 
Peck. They were "squatters" and only remained two years. 

In 1857 John D. Dodge came to where Ames, Nebraska, was later 
located. He originally owned the land later owned by the Standard Cat- 
tle Company. 

The same time George Dane located north of Fremont. He served as 
a Union soldier in time of the Civil war. His was among the strangest 
cases on record. He was shot in the lower part of his heart by a rebel 
bullet, and carried the same the remainder of his years. 

John Farnsworth settled in Timberville in 1857 and platted that vil- 
lage. He resided here many years but finally sold and moved to Fort 
Scott, Kansas. Another who settled at the same point was William 
Payne. 

Thomas Knoell. of section 5, range 8, came to the county with his 
parents in 1859. The family were renters for five years, then bought 
land. Scott Davis came the same time as the Knoell family. 

Henry K. Goflf located in section 11, range 8, in 1866. He purchased 
his farm a year after coming to the county. 

Andrew J. Howard settled in section 13 in 1868; Harlow Goff, George 
Lombard, Frank Griswold, Edward Rohr all settled here before 1873. 
Charles W. Sheldon came to Platte Township in the autumn of 1881, 
buying a quarter section of wild land. 

Early Events 

The first birth in Platte Township among white people was also the 
first in the county. Twin girls were born to Mr. and Mrs. Abraham 
McNeal July 8, 1956. The first death of a white person here was that 
of Stedman Hager, who perished in the fearful storm of December, 
1856, his body being partly devoured by wolves. The remains were found 
along the bank of Platte River the following spring. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 309 

Marriage No. 1 in the township was that uniting John D. Dodge to 
Miss Dickerson. 

The pioneer school was the term taught in District No. 2, in a log 
cabin at Timberville. While taught in a private house, it was a public 
school. The teacher was Miss Lottie Heaton, who later became Mrs. L. H. 
Rogers. This school was taught in 1860. 

Ames Station 

This small railway station on the line of the Union Pacific Road was 
named for Oaks Ames, the great Union Pacific Railroad builder. There 
was a time when Ames was of much more commercial importance than it 
has been of later years. It is situated near the site of old Timberville, 
which faded away with the building of the railroad and in fact never did 
have much business aside from the postoffice kept by John Dodge. The 
chief business at Ames came from the offices and yards of the great 
Standard Cattle Company, located at that point. Its population is now 
about 100. Years ago this was the point where shippers unloaded, fed 
and watered stock before entering the Omaha markets. But with faster 
shipping facilities, this feature of stock-shipping was eliminated, hence 
this work was all done away with at Ames. Then the activities of the 
Standard Cattle Company were many years the real source of business at 
Ames. See an account of this cattle company below. 

The Standard Cattle Company 

In 1886 the Standard Cattle Company bought at Ames station, almost 
5,000 acres of land, and soon added enough more to make a total of 6,300 
acres. The object of this company was to feed range cattle from its 
immense stock- ranches in Montana and Wyoming. A barn was 
biiilt to fully shelter 3,000 head of cattle. The first six years of the 
operation of this cattle company they shipped and marketed after feed- 
ing at Ames, 37,000 head of cattle ; average days fed, 201 ; average 
weight when received, 986 pounds; average when sold, 1,217 pounds. 
Total quantity of grain fed, 103,919,307 pounds, or 1,855,495 bushels, 
equal to 57 bushels, per head — 16 pounds a day each animal for 201 days 
feeding. 

The farmers of Dodge County were greatly benefited by the increased 
price paid for corn which amounted to more than 3 cents a bushel above 
the regular market shipping rate. 

The company engaged fifty-three men for the first six years of the 
company's history. This company was made up largely of Boston capi- 
talists, and their worthy manager was R. M. Allen, of Massachusetts. 



History of Washington County 



INTRODUCTION 

As the changes of less than three score years are contemplated, one 
can scarcely realize or comprehend that the wonderful results of Time's 
marvel-working hand are the achievements of a period so brief as to be 
within the memory — almost of the present generation. 

Let us turn back, as it were, the leaves of Time's great book to but 
sixty years ago and the stranger would have gazed upon a landscape of 
rare beauty ; selected by the Omaha, the Sioux and the Pawnee Indian 
tribes as their camping and hunting grounds, with that singular appre- 
ciation of the beautiful which Nature made an instinct in the savage. 
These vast and rolling prairies were as green then as now ; the prairie 
flowers bloomed thickly and diffused their fragrance as bountifully. We 
are in the haunt of the redmen, with scarcely a trace of civilization. But 
what a contrast! Then all was as Nature had formed it, with its varie- 
gated hues of vegetation ; in winter a dreary snow-mantled desert, in 
summer a perfect paradise of flowers. Now all traces of the primitive 
are obliterated ; in place of the tall prairie grass and tangled underbrush, 
one beholds the rich waving fields of golden grain and an almost endless 
sea of ripening corn. In place of the dusky warrior's rude cabins are the 
substantial and frequently elegant dwellings of the thrifty farmers, and 
the "iron horse," swifter than the nimble deer, treads the pathway so 
recently the trail of the red man. Then the sickle of fire annually cut 
away the wild herbage and drove to its death the stag, now it is the home 
of the cereals and nourishes on its broad bosom thousands of tons of 
the staple products of the great commonwealth of Nebraska. Then the 
storm drove the wolf to its hiding place ; now the blast drives the herd of 
the husbandman to a warm and comfortable quarter. Indeed, the trans- 
formation is complete. 

In place of an occasional steamboat stopping on the western shore of 
the Missouri to "wood-up," now one sees dozens of freight and passenger 
trains heavily laden with valuable freight and wide-awake passengers 
going and coming hither and von. What was sixtv vears ago styled in 
the common school geographies as "The Great American Desert," includ- 
ing, Nebraska, is now known as the Central Garden Spot of the West. 

Ten years before the Civil war Washington County was a howling 
wilderness — no settlers to speak of ; no churches or schools ; no towns and 
cities ; no railroads, all was yet one green, glad solitude. How the trans- 
formation has been wrought, the various steps by which the wilderness 
has been changed into habitations for civilized men, is the plain duty of 
the local historian to show in the following pages, with the hope that his 
efforts will be duly appreciated, and that the facts contained therein may 
be of interest, and the lessons of the past may be instructive to each and 
every reader. 



311 



CHAPTER I 

TOPOGRAPHY, GEOGRAPHY, NATURAL PRODUCTIONS 
AND ORGANIZATION 

Location — Boundary — Topography — Natural Resources — County 
Organization — -First Census — Present Resources Within the 
County — Present Civil Townships Named. 

Washington County is on the eastern border line of Nebraska, is 
bounded on the north by Burt County, on the east by the Missouri River, 
with Harrison County, Iowa, at its eastern shore, Douglas County at the 
south and Dodge County on its west. It comprises 4tt) square miles or 
equal to 256,000 acres. Its latitude and longitude will be shown by the 
chapter on County Organization. 

The surface of this county is of a diversified character; about one- 
third of its domain is composed of beautiful river and creek bottom- 
lands, while 10 per cent is very broken and hilly blufT-land. The remain- 
der of the county is either upland or rolling prairie. The valley on the 
western side of the Missouri River runs from three to seven miles in 
width. Those along the famous Elkhorn are from three to six miles 
wide. Bell Creek flows from north to south through this county and 
empties into the Elkhorn, and this valley is from one to three miles wide. 
There are numerous other smaller streams within Washington County, 
including the beautiful Brown, Little Bell, Deer, Fish, Long, New York, 
North Papillion, South, Stewart, Turkey and Walnut creeks. Every 
township in the county has running water within its borders, making it a 
delightful region for agriculture and stock-raising. The uplands run from 
50 to 150 feet above the bottoms and are usually a deep dark and very 
fertile loam soil. Along the creeks and rivers the soil is for the most 
part a dark, sandy alluvium. 

Originally, the prairies in this section of Nebraska were covered with 
a luxuriant growth of blue-joint grass, but since the development of the 
county the grasses common to this section are all grown in immense 
amounts, including alfalfa which of recent years has become the most 
profitable and popular grass grown in the county. Red top, timothy, blue 
grass and clover all flourish here well. 

Timber has never been known to be very heavy within the county. 
Although along the streams, at an early day considerable good timber 
was found. The varieties included cottonwood, ash, elm, willow, soft 
maple, oak, hickory, and the two walnut varieties. But very early the 
pioneer settler out on the upland and prairies saw the wisdom in planting 
out artificial groves of box-elder, cottonwood and other trees. The census 
of 1880 shows the county had about 1,895 acres of forest trees and 
twenty-five miles of hedges within its borders. Sandstone and brick clay 
are the only minerals of any note found in Washington County. Hence 
it is considered almost exclusively an agricultural county — this, of course, 
includes grain, stock-raising, fruit, vegetables and poultry, all coming in 
for their share at this writing toward making up the sum total of farm 
wealth. The chapter on Agriculture will make clear some of the state- 
ments contained herein. 

312 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 313 

Much relative to the geological formation found in Washington 
County will be given in the State History section of these volumes. 

Organization of Washington County 

Thomas B. Cuming, of Iowa, became acting governor of the Ter- 
ritory of Nebraska on the death of Governor Burt, who passed from earth 
October 18, 1854. One of his first acts was to issue a proclamation divid- 
ing the territory into counties. Among the several counties was Washing- 
ton, whose boundaries were fixed as follows : "Commencing at a point 
on the Missouri River one mile north of Omaha City ; thence due west to 
the dividing line ridge between the Elkhorn and Missouri rivers; thence 
northwesterly twenty miles to the Elkhorn River ; thence eastwardly to 
a point on the Missouri River two miles above Fort Calhoun; thence 
southerly along said river to the place of beginning." 

There was only one voting place within the new county — Florence 
postoffice — with judges of election as follows : Anselum Arnold, Charles 
Howe and William Bryant. 

The first census was taken under atting Governor Cuming in Octo- 
ber, 1854, and it was the base for apportionment and one councilman 
and two representatives in the assembly of the territory were granted this 
county. James C. Mitchell was chosen councilman and Anselum Arnold 
and A. J. Smith members of the lower house. 

The first legislature convened in Omaha January 16, 1855. On Feb- 
ruary 22, 1855, an act was passed reorganizing Washington County with 
boundaries as follows : "Commencing at a point on the Missouri River 
two miles north of Florence ; thence north following the meanderings 
of the Missouri River to a point in a direct line twenty-four miles, from 
place of beginning; thence west to the dividing ridge betwen the Elk- 
horn and Missouri rivers, or to the eastern boundary line of Dodge 
County; thence south along said line twenty-four miles; thence east to 
the place of beginning." 

By the same act Fort Calhoun was made the county seat ; the organiza- 
tion of the county was then completed by the appointment by the gover- 
nor of the following county officers : Stephen Cass, probate judge ; 
George W. Neville, clerk; George Martin, treasurer, and Thomas J. 
Allen, sheriff. 

Washington County was placed in a judicial district made up of 
Washington and Burt counties, with Judge James Bradley as presiding 
judge. This was in 1854, but in 1856 Washington County together with 
Douglas, Dodge, Washington, Dakota and Burt counties into one judicial 
district, presided over at first by Judge Fenner Ferguson. 

For the organization and description of local history of the several 
township histories the reader is referred to the Township History section 
of this work. It may be added, however, in this connection that the pres- 
ent civil townships in Washington County include the following: Her- 
man, Sheridan, Grant, Lincoln, Cuming City, Fontenelle, Arlington, Rich- 
land, Fort Calhoun, De Soto and Blair. 

An Abstract of Nebraska and Washington County 

The present State of Nebraska and Washington County have been 
carved from territory located, bounded and possessed by countries as 
follows: Pioneer W. H. Woods, of Fort Calhoun, and correspondent 
of the State Historical Society, in a paper published in 1915, is our 
authority for the subjoined abstract of this county and state : 



314 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Louisiana Purchase, 1803. Louisiana Territory, 1805. Territory of 
Missouri, 1812. Indian Territory, 1834. Nebraska Territory, 1852. 
Separated from Kansas, 1854. Nebraska State, 1867. Washington 
County, 1854. Reorganized Washington County, 1860. Cavillier History : 
Fur trading post, 1802. Lewis & Clark two camps ; and one council with 
the Indians — "Council Point" and "Pumice Stone Camp," 1804. General 
Atkinson and the farthest mihtary post in the United States — "Camp 
Missouri," "Camp Hook" and Fort Atkinson, Fort Calhoun, 1819-27. 
and Major Long's engineers' cantonment and outfitting station, 1819-20. 

The oldest known cavalier in Nebraska, Captain Contal, who was 
brought by his parents to old Fort Atkinson, died in Blair, 1903. And 
old Rockport, in this county, claims Madame Lesa, 1819. the first white 
woman to settle on Nebraska soil. Fort Calhoun, Washington County, 
claims the first apple orchard in the state, the first county courthouse 
and the first church parsonage in Nebraska. Fontanelle the first seminary 
in the state, and Cuming City the first $20,000 college incorporation in 
the state. Blair holds a chip over her shoulder over her pioneer Jacob 
Goll who came to Washington County in 1847 and settled on his claim 
in 1849 and was buried in Blair in 1906. In 1854 the Fontanelle colony 
purchased twenty miles square from the Indians for $100 dollars in gold 
(some aver the amount was a $10 gold coin). The Lewis & Clark monu- 
ment was erected at Fort Calhoun in the school campus with military 
ceremonies August 3, 1904, The old fort was established here by Gen- 
eral Atkinson in 1819, 780 miles from St. Louis and 580 miles from a 
postofifice and abandoned in 1827. In 1822 they farmed 556 acres of land; 
had a grist and sawmill, library and school. In 1823 the troops raised 
and gathered 8,839 bushels of corn. Antone Barada, the strongest man 
ever known on the Missouri River, was born near the mouth of Fish 
Creek in 1807. Fort Calhoun with its beautiful park, history and scenery 
is the finest place in the state for the gatherings of the pioneers and old 
settlers. 

Fort Calhoun is one of the chief corner-stones in the history of the 
West, between St. Louis and the British possessions. Beside Lewis and 
Clark and old Fort Atkinson here at the fort is recorded the story of the 
first New Year celebration in what is now nine states, in 1821, and here 
too, the first white child born in that region in 1824. Here, soon after 
the great chief, Logan Fontenelle, and Mary La Fleshe, the wife of his 
successor, and here too is buried the first white girl that made her home 
in the present City of Omaha, and the very first mail route north of 
Kansas was established by act of Congress in 1854 to run from Table 
Creek and end at Fort Calhoun. 

Ten miles southwest of Fort Calhoun was the winter quarters of the 
Mormons on their way to Salt Lake, who raised 300 soldiers for the 
Mexican war, probably in 1846 and probably one or two years after the 
famous Mormon Prophets Brigham Young and Oscar Pratt spent one 
winter in log cabins four miles northwest of Fort Calhoun. Brigham 
Young's cabin still remained in 1871. Previous to 1860 the north line of 
Washington County lay one mile north of Fort Calhoun and the south 
line two miles south of Florence. Florence or "Winter Quarters" was the 
county seat. Fontanelle was then the countv seat of Dodge County. 

Fort Calhoun was sixty years old in March. 1915, and celebrated her 
second pioneer centennial for Fort Atkinson September 19, 1919. to follow 
her Lewis and Clark centennial celebrated in 1904. Thus Washington 
County from 1804 to 1860 contained more real pioneer history than all 
the rest of Nebraska. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 315 

Nebraska Territory in 1852 contained all the lands belonging to the 
United States for 800 miles west of the State of Missouri and north to 
British Columbia, now seven states and territories, and in that entire 
region there were 300 white men, each holding a license from the govern- 
ment at Washington, and the soldiers were ordered to see that no more 
white men be permitted to make homes in this territory now peopled by 
millions. 

County Seat of Washington County 

The following is a concise description of locating the various county 
seats of Washington County, the same is by the pen of Frank McNeely 
and may therefore be relied upon as correct : 

"In 1855 an act was passed by the Territorial Legislature reorganizing 
Washington County and designating Fort Calhoun, as the county seat. 

"De Soto, a small village five miles north of Fort Calhoun, wished the 
coimty seat to be moved there. In the winter of 1858 a crowd of De Soto 
citizens organized and with arms went to Fort Calhoun to take the county 
seat by force. Fort Calhoun citizens barricaded themselves in the log 
courthouse and held off the De Soto band until the afternoon of the sec- 
ond day when by compromise the county seat was turned over to De Soto. 
One man was killed in this contest in which I was a participant. 

"The county seat remained in De Soto until an election in the fall of 
1866, when the vote of the people re-located it at Fort Calhoun where it 
remained until 1869. An election in the latter year made Blair the county 
seat. 

"A courthouse was built in Blair, the present county seat of Wash- 
ington county, in 1889 at a cost of $50,000. 

"In the early days every new town (and they were all new) was 
ambitious to become the county seat and many of them hoped to have the 
honor of becoming the capital of the territory. Washington County had 
its full share of aspiring towns and most of them got beyond the paper 
stage. There were De Soto, Fort Calhoun, Rockport, Cuming City and 
last but not least — Fontanelle then in ^^'ashington County, now a deserted 
village in Dodge County. Of these only Fort Calhoun remains more than 
a memory. De Soto was founded by Potter C. Sullivan and others in 1854 
and in 1857 had about five hundred population. It began to go down in 
1859 and when the city of Blair was started its decline was rapid. Rock- 
port, which was in the vicinity of the fur trading establishments of early 
days, was a steamboat landing of some importance and had at one time a 
population of half a hundred or more. Now only the beautiful landscape 
remains. Cuming City like De Soto, received its death blow when Blair 
was founded and now the townsite is given over to agricultural purposes." 



CHAPTER II 

INDIAN TREATY AND EARLY SETTLEMENT 

Lewis and Clark Explorers Hold Council with Indians in 1804 — 
Burial of Big Elk, Last Chief to Die in Washington County 
— Buried Near Fort Calhoun in 1854 — Early Settlement by 
White Men — Forts Atkinson and Calhoun — Settlement in 
Various Parts of the County — An Interesting Reminiscence 
on Early Days — Where the Pioneers Emigrated From — The 
Mormon's Sojourn — The Quincy Colony — Claim-Jumping and 
Early Murder. 

First White Settlement 

The first white settlement to be effected within what is now known as 
Washington County was that made about old Fort Atkinson — later called 
Fort Calhoun, hard by the west bank of the Missouri River in the south- 
eastern part of the present limits of the county, in about 1819, when Fort 
Atkinson was constructed by the United States Government, and which 
event was made the subject of a well-attended centennial celebration at 
Fort Calhoun in 1919. Some time after Lewis and Clark made their 
report on this section of the country, and prior to 1818, the first white 
men commenced to invade this territory as traders and explorers. The 
reader is referred to further articles on the settlement as shown in the 
various township and village histories of this work, wherein names and 
dates are entered into more in detail than is necessary in this connection. 

The Second Settlement 

After the settlement by army families and traders at Fort Calhoun 
vicinity, came the Fontenelle settlement in the western portion of the 
county, by the Quincy Colony, who settled under the auspices of the 
"Nebraska Colonization Company," in 1854. The account of this noted 
settlement is found in this work in the township history section. (See 
Fontanelle Township.) 

The De Soto Settlement 

The settlement made at and in the vicinity of De Soto, was made 
in 1854-55, and within a few months more than thirty log cabins were 
erected and soon occupied by newcomers. Just below that point the 
fleeing Mormon band (Latter Day Saints) in their flight from Nauvoo, 
Illinois, had stopped about 1846 and remained several years before going 
on to the Promised Land — Utah. Near De Soto lived their illustrious 
leader — Brigham Young and Orson Pratt, on land where later the 
De Soto flouring mill was built. The early gentiles found many brick- 
bats left from the brick kilns burned by the Mormon settlers. (See 
De Soto history.) 

Other Settlements 

An account of other settlements in this county will be found in the 
several township and village histories in this volume. (See index.) 
316 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 317 

Departed Pioneers 

In August, 1920, historian W. H. Woods of Fort Calhoun, of the 
Old Settlers' Association, reported the following persons who had 
passed from earth's shining circle since last year, the same being Terri- 
torial pioneers, those who resided in Washington County when it was 
yet in the Territory of Nebraska: 

Ephriam Gilliam, Herman Stork, James R. Hastings, George N. Weise 
Oliver O. Fox, Mrs. Anna Ruwe, Mrs. Soren Asmussen, Anna H. Web- 
ber, Mrs. J. P. Wishart, Carl Otto Jensen, F. N. Gilliand, Oliver 
Bouvier, Mrs. Mary Teats, George Sutherland, Charles Osterman, Mrs. 
Cornelia Olsen. Mrs. J. W. Newell, Sr., Mrs. Mary E. Parker, W. G. 
Cunningham, Duane Brown, A. C. Jones, I. N. Branhall, Thomas P. 
Kennard. George W. Watson. 

Historic Items of Washington County 

Mrs. May Allen Lazure, well-known to the people of Washington 
County, a few years since made this historic record of some interest- 
ing items on the early day history of the county, and from such writings 
we are permitted to quote freely: 

Alfred D. Jones, the first postmaster of Omaha, tells in the Pioneer 
Record of the first Fourth of July celebration in Omaha and Nebraska, 
as well. 

"On July 4th, 1854, I was employed in the work of surveying the 
townsite of Omaha. At this time there were only two cabins on the 
townsite, my postofifice building and the company claim house. The 
latter was used as our boarding house. Inasmuch as the Fourth would 
be a holiday, I concluded it would be a novelty to hold a celebration 
on Nebraska soil. I therefore announced that we would hold a cele- 
bration and invited the people of Council Bluffs, by inserting a notice in 
the paper, and requested that those who would participate should prepare 
a lunch for the occasion. 

"We got forked stakes and poles along the river, borrowed bolts 
of sheeting from the store of James A. Jackson, and thus equipped, 
we erected an awning to shelter from the sun those who attended. Anvils 
were procured, powder purchased and placed in charge of cautious 
gunners, to make a noise for the crowd. The celebration was held on 
the present high school grounds. 

"The picnickers came with their baskets, and the gunner dis- 
charged his duty nobly. A stranger in our midst was introduced as 
Mr. Sawyer, an ex-congressman from Ohio." 

I had a life-long acquaintance with one of those early picnickers, 
Mrs. Rhoda Craig, a daughter of Thomas Allen, who buih the first 
house in Omaha. She often told the story of the first Fourth of July 
celebration there. Their fear of the Indians was so great that as 
soon as dinner was over, they hurried to their boats and rowed across 
to Council Bluffs for safety. 

Another pioneer woman was Aimee Taggart Kenny, who came to 
Fontanelle with her parents when a small child. Her father was a 
Baptist missionary in Nebraska, and his earliest work was with the 
Quincy Colony. I have heard her tell the following experience : 

"On several occasions we were warned that the Indians were about 
to attack us. In great fear we gathered in the schoolhouse and watched 
all night, the men all well armed. But we were never molested. Another 



318 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

time, mother was alone with us children. Seeing the Indians approach- 
ing we locked the doors, went into the attic by means of an outside 
ladder and looked out through the cracks. We saw the red men try 
the door, peep in at the window, and then busy themselves chewing 
up mother's home-made hop yeast, which had been spread out to dry. 
They made it into balls and tossed it all away." 

John T. Bell of Newberg, Oregon, contributed the following: 

"I have a pleasant recollection of your grandfather Allen. My 
father's and mother's people were all Southerners and there was a kind- 
liness about Mr. and Mrs. Allen that reminded me of my own folks 
back in Illinois. I often stopped to see them when going to and from 
Calhoun mill. 

"I was also well acquainted with Mrs. E. H. Clark, and Rev. Mr. 
Taggart and his family were among the most highly esteemed residents 
of our little settlement of Fontanelle. Mr. Taggart was a man of fine 
humor. It was the custom in those early days for the entire com- 
munity to get together on New Year's Day and have a dinner at the 
'College.' There would be speech-making, and I remember that on one 
occasion Mr. Taggart said that no doubt the time would come when we 
would all know each other's real names and why we left the States. 

"The experiences of the Bell family with the early Nebraska days 
were ones of privation. We came to Nebraska in 1856, quite well 
equipped with stock — four good horses and four young cows which 
we had driven behind the wagon from Western Illinois. The previous 
winter had been very mild and none of the settlers were prepared for 
the dreadful snow storm which came on the last day of November and 
continued for three days and nights. Our horses and cows were in 
the stable made by squaring up the head of a small gulch and covering 
the structure with slough grass. At the end of the storm when father 
could get out to look after the stock there was no sign of the stable. 
The low ground it occupied was leveled off by many feet of snow. 
He finally located the roof and found the stock alive and that was 
about all. The animals suffered greatly that winter and when spring 
came we had left only one horse and no cows. That lone horse was 
picking the early grass when he was bitten in the nose by a rattle snake 
and died from the effects. One of those horses 'Old Fox' was a noble 
character. We had owned him as long as I could remember and when 
he died we children all cried. I have since owned a good many horses 
but not one equalled Old Fox in the qualities that go to make up a 
perfect creature. 

"After the Civil war my brother Will and I were the only members 
of our family left in Nebraska. We served with Grant and Sherman 
and then went back to Fontanelle, soon afterward beginning the improve- 
ment of our farm on Bell Creek in the western part of the county. 
By that time conditions had so improved in Nebraska that hardships 
were not so common. I was interested in tree planting even as a boy 
and one of the distinct recollections of our first summer in Nebraska 
was getting so severely poisoned in the woods on the Elkhorn, when 
digging up young sprouts, that I was entirely blind. A colored man 
living in Fontanelle told father that white paint would cure me and 
so I was painted wherever there was a breaking out with satisfactory 
results. 

"Later the planting of Cottonwood, box elder, maple and other 
trees became a general industry in Nebraska and I am confident that 
I planted 20,000 trees, chiefly cottonwood. To J. Sterling Morton, one 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 319 

of Nebraska's earliest and most useful citizens, Nebraska owed a 
debt of gratitude. He was persistent in the advocating of planting 
trees. In his office hung a picture of an oak tree; on his personal 
cards was a picture of an oak tree with the legend 'Plant Trees' ; on 
his letterheads, on his envelopes was borne the same injunction and 
the picture of an oak tree. On the marble door step of his home was 
cut the picture of an oak tree and the words 'Plant Trees'; on the 
ground glass of the entrance door was the same emblem. I went to a 
theater he had built and on the drop curtain was a picture of an oak 
tree and the words, 'Plant trees' ; today the body of this useful citizen 
lies buried under the trees he planted in Wyuka Cemetery, near 
Nebraska City." 

Claim-Jumping and an Early Murder 

Fort Calhoun was the scene of one of the earliest murders in Wash- 
ington County — the date was in the month of June, 1855. From the 
most reliable data concerning this unfortunate affair, and which has 
found its way into the annals prepared by the Daughters of the 
American Revolution, we are permitted to here give in brief its history : 

In June of the year 1855, for the consideration of a one-ninth 
interest in the town, E. H. Clark contracted with the proprietors to 
put up a building on the town site for a hotel, said building to be 
24 by 28 feet, two stories high and with an ell of the same dimensions, 
the structure to be of hewn logs and put up in good style. The con- 
tract was in writing and as soon as the building was completed each 
member of the company was to deed Mr. Clark by quit-claim, his 
proportion of the lots to be taken indiscriminately from all parts of 
the town. He immediately, w^ith six men, commenced the getting 
out of the timber, boarding in the meantime with Major Arnold's 
family and laboring under many disadvantages, both for want of skilled 
laborers and teams. The men were newly arrived from Virginia none 
of whom had ever done manual labor but were out of money and must 
do something; so had imposed themselves on Mr. Clark as men from a 
timbered country and used to such work and as hands were not readily 
obtained in those days he had to submit, paying them $2 a day each, and 
their board. For teams he hired a yoke of oxen from the settlers as 
they could spare them from their own work. What lumber was neces- 
sary for the building had to be obtained from Omaha (where a mill 
had been started) at $60 per thousand and hauled in a circuitous route 
by the old Mormon Trail, a distance of eighteen miles. 

About August 10, the claim cabin of the town company having been 
vacated, one Charles T. Davis in a very unostentatious manner moved 
in and filed a claim on the town site and served a written notice on 
Mr. Clark to quit trespassing on the claim. The latter notified the 
company of his action and kept on drawing material on the ground 
for his building and after three days, Davis sued him for trespassing, 
fixing his damage at $100 for which he afterwards obtained judgment 
and Clark paid it. Mr. Clark then notified the company that he should 
sell his material and leave unless they took steps to put the title out 
of controversy. They returned word for him to go on with the work 
and they would guarantee the title. A day or so afterward, when 
engaged with all the neighbors in raising the building, a number of 
the company with some friends, ten or twelve in all, came up and 
wanted Clark to join them in removing Davis forcibly from the claim, 



320 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

which he declined to do. While parleying over the matter, a man was 
seen going at full speed on horseback from the claim cabin toward De Soto 
and as it was already known that the settlement at De Soto was to 
back Davis in his attempt to hold the Calhoun townsite (De Soto being 
a rival), Clark told the company the sooner they got over the better, 
if they were going, for Davis would soon have help from De Soto. 
They thought not and still insisted that all the settlers around Calhoun 
were interested and should go and assist. The talk was continued 
until dinner time and then the party went off to dinner and when return- 
ing they saw two wagon loads of armed men coming from De Soto 
and going into the house with Davis. It was thought by representatives 
of the company useless to attack them but they proposed that the entire 
party should go, so as to show as strong a force as possible in order 
to scare Davis off and that if he would not go that they would come 
again when he was not expecting it and put him off. To this the settlers 
agreed and all marched over to the house and were drawn up in line 
in front of the door which was closed. Col. Addison Cochran, as spokes- 
man, knocked at the door which was answered by Davis within, demand- 
ing what they wanted. Cochran told them he knew the claim belonged 
to the town company and they wanted him to leave peaceably and that 
if he did not, they should put him off by force. Davis' attorney, Potter 
C. Sullivan, replied claiming some legal ground for Davis' action and 
it was agreed that he should come outside and talk the matter over 
with Cochran. While they were talking, the door was opened and 
someone from the inside said he would like to "put a bullet through 
Thompson" — one of the party outside — whereupon some words passed 
when Thompson and the man making the remark, each drew their 
revolvers and fired at the same time but neither shot took effect. The 
line was drawn up about twenty-five feet from the door, and as soon 
as these shots were fired, a dozen guns were seen pointed from the 
cabin and shot after shot was fired upon Cochran and his retreating 
party, three of which shots took effect, one through the heart of John 
Goss, Sr., killing him instantly: one through the arm of H. C. Purple, so 
shattering it that it was two or three years before he recovered and only 
after seven surgical operations had been performed by the most skilled 
surgeons of Chicago. Both of these parties were the proprietors in 
the town site. The third shot took effect in the thigh of Mr. Thompson, 
who had words with the man inside, but it was only a flesh wound from 
which he soon recovered. When Mr. Goss fell, Mr. Clark was still 
standing before the door and his escape was miraculous, as bullets 
whistled on every side. He immediately ran to Mr. Goss' assistance 
and while holding his head a number of shots were fired at him and 
after laying him down and going in search of his son who returned 
to the body with him, the occupants of the house kept firing at them 
but with no effect though not over fifty feet distant. The escape of 
the two men can only be accounted for by the excited condition of those 
who held the guns. The body of Goss was put in a wagon and con- 
veyed to his home in Iowa and there buried. This sad affair was a 
terrible blow to the community and none knew what would happen next 
as it was feared that such feelings were aroused that many more would 
be killed by being waylaid or otherwise. 

The night after this affray, Davis sent his attorney, Sullivan, to 
Omaha, to compromise the matter, he doubtless fearing another attack. 
The town company agreed with Sullivan to arbitrate the right to the 
townsite, and that all hostilities on both sides, and all work on the 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 321 

site should be suspended until after the arbitration, which was to be 
by disinterested parties chosen, one from Bellevue, one from Nebraska 
City, and one from Glenwood. The time fixed was a month from that 
date and when the time came the arbitrators could not get together 
and in fact never did meet. Thus the matter rested till November 
when Davis, who all the time had not felt safe, made a sale, or pre- 
tended sale, to Major Anselum Arnold, Thomas J. Allen, Jesse Esttock, 
and James M. Taggart and they with Cassady and Test, John Goss, 
Mrs. John Goss, Sr., formed a new town company, taking Mr. Clark in 
as an equal proprietor, providing he should go on and complete his hotel 
building according to the original contract, which he did, and in March, 
1856, gave Col. George Stevens, then in the Douglas House at Omaha, 
a one-half interest in the building on condition he would move into it 
and open a hotel. This Colonel Stevens did during that month and the 
house was long celebrated as one of the best kept hotels in the West. 



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(By Courteiiy of Blair Tribune) 

First House in Which U. S. Court and District Court Was Held 
IN De Soto in 1859 as It Appeared Before It Was Torn Down 



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First Courthouse ix Blair as It Appeared Propped Up Prior to 
Erection of Present Building 



CHAPTER III 

COUNTY GOVERNMENT 

County Buildings — First Courthouse — Present Building — Various 
County Jails — List of County Officers — Valuations of County 
— Financial Statement for 1920, Etc. 

Washington County like other Nebraska counties has had various 
kinds of county governments — the precinct and later the township organ- 
ization form — first one and then the other. The of^ces of county com- 
missioners and the county supervisors are in reality about the same. 
As a general rule the affairs of Washington County have been well 
managed by representative citizens who had held local offices for the 
best interests of the tax-paying citizens. No great political or office- 
holding scandals have blackened the pages of its history of more than 
three score years. One thing is noticeable here — that when men pos- 
sessed the right qualifications for offices to which they have been elected, 
they have been allowed to remain in office so long as they did their 
official duties, and not changed for new men simply because it was some 
other man's turn to hold office, which has too frequently been the 
case in other sections of the state. 

County Buildings 

Washington County's first courthouse was erected at Fort Calhoun 
in 1856, of cottonwood lumber. It was built by subscription, and some 
declare it was also used for school purposes, but others dispute this 
claim. Governor L. Crounse once stated his experiences, when he was 
judge of the State Supreme Court and rode the circuit. Fort Calhoun 
was one of his stations and he held court here for the first time after 
his election. It was also in this building that the famous Senator 
Paddock was admitted to the bar. The building above mentioned 
served as seat of justice until the county seat was removed (by force) 
to De Soto, five miles north of Fort Calhoun, in 1858. The county seat 
remained at De Soto until the autumn of 1866. but no regular court- 
house was erected by the county at De Soto. From there the county 
seat was returned to Fort Calhoun, where it remained until 1869, then 
went to Blair. 

A courthouse was built at Blair. This building, however, was 
erected by a firm of contractors for school purposes, as a private specu- 
lation, but the school authorities failed to purchase it from the builders, 
hence when the county seat was moved to Blair, bought by the county 
and was used as the first courthouse there and continued in use as the 
home of the various county offices and courtroom until the present 
magnificent structure was built in 1889, an account of which follows : 

Present Courthouse 

June 14, 1889, the question of building a new courthouse was sub- 
mitted to the tax-payers of Washington County and the result was 
1,263 for bonding the county for $35,000, and the number of votes 
against the proposition was 874. 

323 



•^^4^- 




DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 325 

About the same time the City of Blair voted on a proposition to 
give $5,000 toward the courthouse building, in case a suitable structure 
was erected. The vote at that special city election stood 236 for and 
only 7 against the measure. 

The first committee on courthouse building was composed of the 
chairman of the board, the clerk and Thomas Wilkinson, whose duty 
it was to have properly printed and registered the several bonds which 
were to be floated upon the market. 

The county board ordered that the new courthouse should be erected 
on block No. 75, in the City of Blair — the so-called "JaW Block." 

The regular building committee was composed of the chairman of 
the board, E. M. Cook, of Lincoln Township; P. J. Gossard, of Sheri- 
dan Township. The chairman was then L. C. Weber, member of the 
board. A local man named Lou Vaughan was appointed by the board as 
superintendent of construction. Bids were advertised for and the follow- 
ing were received and acted upon : Tubus Schlup, $37,954 ; Robert 
McHale, $41,000; H. B. Dexter, $38,"l65 ; M. T. Murphy, $40,700; 
George Sutherland, $39,999; Fred Mingadodt, $37,439; Richards & 
Company, $35,842; Seeley & Son, $41,879; Lyone & Sweet, $36,900. 
Richards & Company were awarded the contract at $35,842. The building 
was constructed of St. Louis pressed brick, trimmed with Warrenburg 
stone. 

At the session of the county board held September 11, 1889, the 
site for the building was staked off and decided upon. The county sur- 
veyor was ordered to set the stakes. At the same session it was ordered 
that the numerous shade trees upon the courthouse square should be 
"boxed" in order to protect them from being bruised while building 
operations were going on. The people of Blair have always been 
passionately fond of shade trees and used much care to get them 
well started. 

The architect employed by the county to draw plans and carry for- 
ward the same was O. H. Placey, who, after the building was partly 
built, became offended and resigned, as is shown by the following clause 
in the record -book of the court board: (Date was November, 1889.) 

"And now comes O. H. Placey, architect, and announces to the 
board in open session, that from this time on, he positively refuses 
to have anything to do, in and about the further work and completion 
of the new courthouse, and bid the board good-bye and took his hat 
and passed out." 

The contract called for the completion of the building January, 1891, 
but for various good reasons it was not turned over to the county 
until March 24, that year. A long statement concerning the acceptance 
of the building is found recorded on page 220 of Book No. 3, Super- 
visors Records. 

The old courthouse was sold to F. H. Matthiesen February 3, 1891, 
for $725. 

The County Jail Buildings 

No matter how good a community may be, there is at times use for 
a jail. If it is not by reason of unruly citizens of the county in which 
it is situated, it is for some act of an unlawful character committed 
by persons coming in from outside communities, who must needs be 
punished and it is but wisdom to have provided some safe, secure place 
in which to confine such unruly persons until tried, or till a penalty has 
been paid for their illegal acts. 



326 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

An account of the pioneer jail for Washington County was given 
by an earlier writer of Washington County history, in which he 
remarked : 

"The county jail is located several squares from the courthouse and 
is, perhaps, less suited for jail purposes than any similar structure on 
the face of the earth, being small, inconveniently arranged, and the cells 
dark and unhealthy. It was built soon after the county seat was located 
at Blair, and cost some $8,000. For this sum an excellent jail build- 
ing, large enough to supply the wants of the county for a half century, 
could now be built. It seemed to be an absolute necessity, that counties 
in the West should pay some very expensive lessons, and Washington 
County in comparison with some of her neighbors, has passed through 
this experience at a moderate outlay." (This was written in 1876.) 

The first jail was situated on the north side of the public square; 
it was a two-story building and had a jailor's residence in connection. 
This jail building served until 1904, when the jail was torn down and 
the present modest brick one-story jail just to the east of the courthouse 
was built. 

It was the jail that was torn down in 1904, in which was placed 
a murderer from near Fontanelle, early in the nineties, for safe keeping, 
until he could have his trial for killing his foster father, Mr. Baldwin, 
in cold blood. Before time for his trial, he succeeded in making his 
escape by scraping the soft lime stone foundation stones of the jail, 
in the form of a circular hole large enough for him to crawl out. He 
was never again seen in this county. The hole in the jail wall was 
repaired but it ever afterward showed the outline of the hole and was 
pointed out to hundreds of people, as the place where the murderer 
made his escape with a table knife. 

The County Farm 

Washington County has always cared well for her unfortunate poor, 
but never encourages shiftlessness on the part of poor people. The 
needy cases have been sought out by the county authorities and all who 
are entitled to aid receive it. Many years ago it was thought the wisest 
thing to purchase a tract of land which is now known as the "Poor 
Farm." It consists of eighty acres, just outside the city limits of 
Blair. The last annual report shows there were only four inmates in 
the County House — all being men. 

The present superintendent and wife are Mr. and Mrs. Henry P. 
Hansen. 

List of County Officers — P.\st and Present 

County Clerks 

E. Mathers, 1857; Abraham Castetter, 1861; re-elected every election 
to 1869, when Peter R. Benner was elected and re-elected in 1871 and 
1873; E. C. Jackson, 1875; E. C. Jackson, 1877; T- S. Cook, 1879 
Thomas P. Lippincott, 1881; Joe S. Cook, 1883; Weslev J. Cook, 1885 
C. Rathman, 1887; C. Rathman, 1889; C. Rathman, 1891; C. Rathman 
1893; Watt Gauldrie, 1895; Watt Gauldrie. 1897; Watt Gauldrie, 1899 
F. W. Kenny, Jr., 1901 ; George H. Faber, 1903 ; George H. Faber, 1905 
M. R. Lippincott, 1907; Ove T. Anderson, 1909; Ove T. Anderson 
1911; Ove T. Anderson, 1914; Ove T. Anderson, 1916; Mary C 
Debel, 1918. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 327 

County Treasurers 

George Stevens, 1857; Lewis Tucker, 1858; E. N. Grennell, 1859; 
re-elected each election until 1863. when Alexander Reed was elected 
and continued in office until 1875, when J. H. Hungate was elected. In 
1877. J. H. Hungate; re-elected in 1879; Frank Harriman, 1881; Frank 
Harriman, 1883; H. C. Chapman. 1885; E. C. Tackson. 1887; E. C. 
Tackson, 1889; Joe S. Cook, 1891; Joe S. Cook. 1893; James H. Platz, 
1895; lames H. Platz. 1897; George H. Faber, 1899; George H. Faber. 
1901 ; "E. Z. Russell, 1903 ; E. Z. Russell. 1905 ; John F. White, 1907 ; 
John F. White. 1909; George Bruse, 1911; George Bruse, 1914; R. G. 
Allen, 1916; R. G. Allen, 1918. 

Sheriffs 

Orrin Rhodes and Hugh McNeely (the latter to fill unexpired term), 
1856; Hugh McNeely. 1857; Chester Lusk. 1860; Israel Swihart. 1861; 
Dan Case, 1868; A. T. Chapin, 1869; Rice Arnold, 1871 and re-elected 
in 1873 and 1875 ; T- W. Boggs. 1877 to 1881 ; W. D. Gross, 1883 to 1885 ; 
H. Schneider, 1885 to 1888; F. Harriman, 1889 to 1893; Claus Mencke, 
1893 to 1911; Alf A. Compton, 1911 to 1916; M. Mehrens. 1916 and 
re-elected in 1918. 

Prob.\te Judges 

Up to the seventies this county had the office of probate judge; 
these were the persons who served ; James A. Goodrich, 1857 ; Z. Jack- 
son, 1861 ; John S. Bowen. 1869 and re-elected 1871 ; Jesse T. Davis. 
1873 and re-elected in 1875. 

County Judges 

The following is a list of the county judges for Washington County: 
A. Perkins, 1877-81; E. N. Grennell, 1881-83; Alonzo Perkins, 1883-87; 
E. T. Farnsworth, 1887-89; P. Hammang, 1889-93; E. C. Jackson, 
1893-01 ; G. C. Marshall. 1901-07: Clark O'Hanlon appointed to succeed 
Marshall, serving until February, 1911 ; I. E. Eller, appointed to succeed 
O'Hanlon and served until 1918 ; E. B. Carrigan. 1918 to present date. 

County Surveyors 

Thomas Wilson, 1857, re-elected in 1858; George A. Bingham, 1861; 
V. C. Lantry, 1869; re-elected 1871; J. C. W. Kline, 1875; W. H. Hill, 
1881-89; W. C. Catherwood, 1889-91; W. H. Hill, 1891-1914; Christ 
Rohwer, 1914. 

County School Superintendents 

EH Bacon. 1857; D. McLacklin. 1858; Charles G. Bisbee, 1869, 
re-elected 1871; Charles Gross. 1873, re-elected 1875; I. N. Jones, 
1877-79; W. V. Miller. 1879-85; J- Henderson, 1885-97; G. C. Marshall, 
1897-01; Alfred L. Cook. 190r-05 ; J. H. Rhoades, 1905-14; N. T. 
Lund, 1914-18; Mabel Marsh, by appointment upon resignation of 
Mr. Lund. 



328 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

' Coroners 

Jesse T. Davis, 1861 ; Charles Emerson Tennant, 1869 ; H. P. But- 
ler, 1871 ; Dr. S. B. Taylor, 1873 ; E. C. Pierce, 1875-85 ; F. Macumber, 
1885-87; J. F. Pettegrew, 1887-89; E. G. Pierce, 1891-1914. 

Clerk of the District Court 

Up to 1881 the county clerk was ex-officio clerk of the court. Thomas 
P. Lippincott, 1881; E. C. Jackson, 1882; I. C. Filer, 1883-87; C. 
Schmachtenberg, 1891; Harland Fawcett, 1895-99-02; Theo. Haller, 
.1903-07; I. C. Filer, 1908-11; F. C. Jackson, 1911-18 and still in office. 

County Attorney 

Formerly there was the office of district attorney in Nebraska, but 
the law was changed and now a county attorney obtains instead. Those 
of Washington County have included these: L. W. Osborn, 1887; 
W. E. David, 1893; Clark O'Hanlon, 1894-96; W. C. Walton, 1897; 
Herman Aye, 1898-1900; Edmund B. Carrigan, 1902-10; Henry 
Menecke, 1912; George A. Dall, 1914; Henry Menecke, 1916; Grace 
Ballard, 1918. 

County Commissioners 

The following is a list of the county commissioners who have served 
in and for Washington County since its organization : 

David Franklin, A. Phinney, and John West, 1856; J. B. Wickshire, 
elected in 1857; E. A. Allen, 1858; E. B. Hamilton, 1859; John Parks, 
1860; John Evans and James Stewart, 1861 ; Silas Masters, 1862; Jacob 
Carter, 1863; James S. Stewart, re-elected in 1864; John A. Unthank, 
1865; W. B. Beals. 1866; Alonzo Perkins, 1867; Thomas Frazier, 1868; 
Watson Tyson, 1869; Wm. R. Hamilton and David Couchman, 1870; 
David Couchman re-elected 1871; Wm. R. Hamilton, 1873; H. J. 
Rohwer, 1874; Charles. Selleck, 1875; the board in 1876 consisted of 
these: W. R. Hamilton, H. J. Rohwer and Charles Selleck; 1877— 
H. J. Rohwer, Charles Selleck and W. P. Viele ; 1878— same as in 1877 ; 
1879— W. P. Viele, H. J. Rohwer and A. M. Bovee; 1880— H. J. 
Rohwer, A. M. Bovee and R. Blaco; 1881— R. Blaco, A. M. Bovee and 
H. J. Rohwer: 1882— R. Blaco, O. N. Unthank and H. O. Morse; 
1883— O. N. Unthank, H. O. Morse and R. Blaco; 1884— G. A. Cran- 
nell, Charles S. Griffin, F. E. Hall; 1885 — John Spencer, M. Cameron 
and S. C. Rose. 

At this date a change was made and one supervisor from each 
precinct in the county became a member of the county board, beginning 
in 1886 these officers were: Soren Jensen, Watson Tyson, Lee John- 
son, James W. Wild, M. Cameron, J. J. Smith, D. P. Scott, John Klotz, 
John Spencer, John Patrick, Patrick McCarty, L. C. Weber, C. H. 
Beckman. 

1887— J. W. Gaines, C. H. Beckman, W. R. Hamilton, L. C. Weber, 
John Patrick, Patrick McCarty, M. Cameron, W. Van Arsdale, W. G. 
Harrison, Thomas Crouch, John H. Maguire, F. M. Cook, James M. 
Wild. 

1888— E. M. Cook, Frank Jahnel, J. S. Stokes, Henry Osterman, 
L. C. Weber, J. M. Wild, P. J. Gossard, Theo. Haller, M. H. B. Rosen- 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 329 

balm, Thomas Wilkinson, M. Cameron, Joseph Johnson, Patrick 
McCarty. ' ' 

1889— L. C. Weber, Eugene Cook, Frank Jahnel, Henry Boucher, 
P. J. Gossard, Henry Osterman, W. G. Harrison, Joe S. Cook, Samuel 
Warrick, J. M. Souder, John Henrichsen, Thomas Wilkinson, O. V. 
Remington, L. C. Weber. 

1890— L. C. Weber, J. M. Souder, E. M. Cook, S. Warrick, J. S. 
Cook, W. G. Harrison, John Henrichsen, W. W. McKinney, Henry 
Osterman, P. G. Gossard, Henry Boucher, John Klotz and George Neff. 

1891 — W. G. Harrison, James Cruickshank, G. W. Neff, George 
Rohwer, Thomas Wilkinson, W. W. McKinney, E. M. Cook, L. C. 
Weber, P. J. Gossard, John Klotz, Henry Osterman, J. M. Souder and 
S. Warrick. 

1892— L. C. Weber, W. G. Harrison, Samuel Warrick, J. M. Souder, 
R. Broderson , T. B. Pawling, E. M. Cook, H. Savage, George Rohwer, 
James Cruickshank, Henry Osterman and Thomas Wilkinson. 

1893 — James Cruickshank, Joseph Hammang, George W. Matteson, 
H. J. Carpenter, George Rohwer, D. H. Npble, Frank Jahnel. 

From this date on the districts in the county were represented as 
follows : 

1894 — Frank Jahnel, Wm. Gray, G. Mehrens, George Drevsen, T. B. 
Pawling, W. W. McKinney, R. Broderson, W. R. Downs. 

1895— B. P. Miller, Chester C. Marshall, Henry Rohwer, James R. 
Smith, Tames Cruickshank, H. J- Carpenter, E. Castetter. 

1896_C. C. Marshall, T. B. Pawling, J. R. Smith, B. P. Miller, 
Frank Jahnel, William Gray, James R. Smith. 

1897— William Gray, W. D. Gross, H. Rohwer, G. M. Whitford, T. 
B. Pawling, W. W. McKinney, T- M. Whitford and R. Broderson. 

1898— M. Johnson, R. Broderson, W. D. Gross, T. B. Pawling, John 
D. Eakin, William Gray, Henry Rohwer. 

1899 — (Record of names not clear in Minute book.) 

1900— A. O. Pound, William Wilson, H. J. Carpenter, F. A. Reyn- 
olds, L. K. Davies, H. Rohwer. John Blaco. 

1901 — Messrs. Day, Meier, Blaco, Davies, Gray, Wrich and Wilson. 

1902 — John Blaco, Meier, Reynolds, Magnus Johnson, J. L. Day, 
Hy Wrich, Wm. Gray. 

1903— Henry Wrich, Joe S. Cook, P. T. Badgerow, H. D. Schoettger, 
F. A. Reynolds, Magnus Johnson, John Blaco. 

1904— Joe S. Cook, Hy Wrich, P. T. Badgerow, H. D. Schoettger, 
S. W. Cushman, Fred Echtenkamp, Lee Smith. 

1905 — Joe S. Cook, Lee Smith, P. T. Badgerow, S. W. Cushman, 
Fred Echtenkamp, H. D. Schoettger, Henry Wrich. 

1906— (No record.) 

1907 — Elected — E. W. Burdick, James E. Maher, Fred Ramser. 

1909 — Fred H. Heuermann, James E. Maher. 

1911— Elected— E. W. Burdic. 

1912 — James E. Maher, Fred Heuermann and E. W. Burdic. 

1913^ — James E. Maher, E. W. Burdic and Fred Heuermann. 

1914 — Same as above. 

1915 — Same as above. 

1916 — Same as above. 

1917 — James E. Maher, Fred Heuermann and Charles Nelson. 

1918 — Same as above. 

1919— Charles Nelson, H. C. Blaco and John F. White. 

1920 — Same as above. 



330 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Valuations in Washington County — 1920 

Farm Property 

Per 

Land Improvements Total Acre 

Arlington Township $4,829,650 $323,225 $5,152,875 $210 

Sheridan Township 4,222,890 299,750 4,522,640 225 

Fontanelle Township 5,159,440 410,450 5,569,890 224 

Richland Township 4,719,335 344,760 5,064,095 213 

Lincoln Township 4,908,075 330,920 5,238,995 210 

Grant Township 4,189,320 226,075 4,424,395 187 

Blair Township 4,028,760 341,360 4,367,920 169 

Herman Township 2.786,555 138,850 2,925,305 155 

Cuming City Township .. . 3,516,810 162,400 3,667,510 159 

Fort Calhoun Township . . 4,105,875 250,100 4,355,975 135 

De Soto Township 947,070 64,120 1,011,190 110 



Total $43,422,780 $2,982,010 $46,300,790 

City Property — 1920 

Land value Improvements Total 

Blair City $681,345 $3,183,175 $1,865,020 

Arlington Village 185,725 351,005 586,730 

Calhoun Village 82,110 115,100 197,260 

Herman Village 160,310 197,075 357,385 

Kennard Village 76,355 171,550 247,905 

Washington Village 46,400 49,550 95,950 

Total $1,232,295 $4,067,455 $3,301,250 

Total Valuations of Washington County — 1920 

Actual value Assessed value 

Real estate (farm property) $46,300,790 $9,260,158 

Real estate (city property) 3,301,250 620,250 

Personal property of county 9,769,820 1,953,964 

Railway terminal valuations 2,146,475 423,295 

Western Union Telegraph Company 24,275 4,855 

Telephone companies 94,770 18,954 

Insurance companies 335,425 67,085 

Pullman Car Company 2,685 537 

Express Company 4,785 957 

Total valuation of county $61,950,275 $12,390,055 

Financial_ Statement 

The following is a copy of the county treasurer's semi-annual state- 
ment in Washington County for the half year ending June 30, 1920: 
Name of fund Receipts Disbursements Balance 

State funds $75,727.41 $84,005.43 $5,.520.11 

County general 23,001.06 27,132.29 1,145.77 

County road 14,109.01 21,711.86 11,109.60 

County bridge 16,631.38 18,263.07 3,855.21 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 331 

Name of fund Receipts Disbursements Balance 

Advertising $ .20 $ .20 

O. & N. W. interest 325.31 $ 862.26 107.81 

O. & N. W. sinking 5,298.97 5,003.31 1,878.23 

S. & P. interest 805.21 925.71 463.19 

S. C. & P. sinking 4,004.38 10,013.90 640.54 

Soldier's relief 422.78 422.91 

County ditch 4,569.06 3.91 6,434.31 

Elkhorn drainage 200.50 650.00 12.12 

Burt and Washington county 

drainage 1,193.20 15,000.00 272.73 

Inheritance 9,442.65 2,201.18 9,881.69 

Di.strict .school 44,475.55 105,843.11 27,746.58 

School bond 10,412.67 1,032.46 13,746.77 

Blair City 4,867.07 10,288.74 3,180.33 

Arlington Village 3,015.70 2,875.50 2,086.96 

Kennard Village 644.47 1,788.01 174.11 

Fort Calhoun 858.92 1,378.00 431.71 

Herman Village 2,777.30 2,740.00 785.68 

Washington Village 237.49 347.60 

Fines 120.00 80.00 

Fees 3,177.32 1,624.00 1,590.75 

Redemptions 253.17 6,495.54 689.93 

Motor licenses 3.75 536.35 

De Soto ditch 346.33 346.33 

Calhoun ditch 320.88 320.88 

Interest on deposits 



Total $279,646.28 $319,841.95 $90,411.28 



CHAPTER IV 

RAILROADS OF THE COUNTY 

The Old Sioux City & Pacific — The Old Omaha & Northwestern 
— The Present Chicago & Northwestern System Through the 
County. 

For the earliest railroad projects in this and adjoining counties the 
reader is referred to the Chapter on Railroads found in the Dodge County 
section of this work. 

It may be stated in this connection, however, that in 1864 what was 
designated as the Northern Nebraska Air Line Railroad Company was 
organized, but nothing was done towards its construction. In 1867 the 
company was re-organized, consisting of John S. Bowen, John A. 
Unthank, Dean C. Slader, Jesse T. Davis and T. P. Kennard, the object 
being to build a railroad from De Soto to Fremont. A land grant of 
seventy-five sections of State land was donated the company in aid 
of the enterprise, and a temporary line was built from De Soto to the 
present site of the City of Blair. 

In 1868 the company disposed of its rights and franchise to John I. 
Blair, the great railroad builder and his able associates, who the follow- 
ing year completed the road from Missouri Valley, Iowa, to Fremont, 
Nebraska. Washington County aided this project by voting bonds to the 
amount of $75,000. 

The Present North and South Railway 

Evidently satisfied with the result of the above named company's 
operations, the people of this county in 1870 voted on and issued bonds 
to the amount of $125,000 in favor of what was styled the Omaha 
& Northwestern, and in 1872 this railroad was finished as far north 
as present Herman, this county, and a few years later was extended 
on to Sioux City. This road has long since been the paying property 
of the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha Company, and is closely 
allied with the great Chicago & Northwestern Railway Company. This 
gives the people of Washington County a direct outlet to the Twin 
Cities and the Great Lakes of the North, as well as to the South, via 
Omaha and Kansas City. 

The Chicago & Northwestern Railroad 

Prior to about 1900 the Fremont, Elkhorn & Missouri Valley Com- 
pany owned and operated the roads in this and adjoining counties, but 
at that date the consolidation with the "Northwestern" system took 
place. It was early in the eighties that the company built a branch 
line from Arlington, this county, to Omaha, via South Omaha, thus 
giving direct shipping facilities for live stock with the Omaha markets. 
This line runs through Washington Village, and has sidings at other 
points in the county today. So in fact, today every railroad within 
Washington County is under the control of the Chicago & Northwestern 
Railway Corporation. These lines connect with the Union Pacific both 
332 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 333 

at Fremont and Omaha; also at Fremont with the Hnes running to the 
great northwestern country, including the Black Hills and Wyoming 
districts. Indeed these roads are worth every dollar they cost the 
tax-payers back in the eighties. 

Present Mileage in Washington County 

The clerk's books at Blair show the county's mileage to be at this 
date (1920) as follows: 

The Chicago & Northwestern lines amount to 26.23 miles; The 
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha amounts to 24.70 miles; total 
mileage in Washington County, 50.93 miles. 



CHAPTER V 

AGRICULTURE AND STOCK RAISING 

General Facts — Comparative Agricultural Statistics — The 
Grange Movement — Annual Premium List — Registered Farm 

Names. 

Washington County is among Nebraska's finest agricultural districts. 
From the early times the county has been noted for its rich soil and 
excellent annual crops. At first small grain was the larger of the 
crops grown, but as time went on, corn became the staple as it still 
continues to be. Stock -growing has for many years been a leading and 
most profitable farm industry. The present beautiful rural scenes — the 
well tilled fields, the great pastures of clover and alfalfa, the orchards 
and general departments, even to the poultry yards, each and all show 
the passerby a scene of thrift and prosperity seldom observed in the 
state. Aside from the few manufacturing concerns in the City of Blair, 
this is almost exclusively a farm county. With the passing years the 
farmers have paid oiif the former debts contracted — have made the best 
of improvements in way of farm buildings, including the modern silos, 
the neat poultry and hog houses, the many miles of stock-tight wire 
fencing, etc., have made farming a pleasure in place of a drudge. To 
be the owner of a Washington County farm is to be an independent, 
prosperous and contented person, whose lot has been cast in pleasant 
places. 

County Fairs 

There were at least two attempts at Agricultural Annual Fairs in 
Washington County prior to the one two years ago which has brought 
into existence a society that will doubtless remain permanent for the 
good of every agriculturist within the "Kingdom of Washington." Along 
in the seventies a fair society was organized and grounds secured to 
the northeast of the City of Blair. After a few years of success that 
society went down. Again another society was formed and had its 
grounds to the southeast of the City of Blair and there many good 
annual exihibits were had, but in time that too, for various reasons, suc- 
cumbed to the almost inevitable in county fairs and also died. No trace 
of the grounds covered with improvements is to be seen today at Blair. 

Second Annual Premium Lists 

Within the handsome second annual premium lists of the Washington 
County Agricultural Society (1920) appeared this announcement, and 
is indeed worthy of preservation in the county's annals : 

"Washington County is recognized as one of the richest counties 
in Nebraska. In soil, rain fall and general climate conditions it is not 
excelled by any county in our state or in adjoining states. The farmers 
of Washington County are progressive, alert, and at least equal in their 
methods and achievements to those of any other locality in the great 
Middle West. 

334 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 335 

"It is therefore desirable that once every year the splendid products 
of our county should be displayed in a county fair, not in a spirit of 
boasting of what has been accomplished, but rather in the spirit of 
emulation with a desire and aim at greater achievement and perfection. 

"A fair rightly conducted is educational. If by comparison we 
find ourselves in the front rank in our line of endeavor, we know that 
our methods are right and we emphasize them ; if to improve our own 
methods. 

"The Washington County Agricultural Society was organized for 
the purpose of stimulating greater interest in the almost unlimited agri- 
cultural possibilities of our county, to improve the live stock and other 
products of the farm, to promulgate better methods in food and feed 
conservation, to promote domestic science and art-craft and to foster 
and encourage anything that will tend to the highest possible develop- 




Cattle 

ment of the resources of our county and thus promote the prosperity 
of its people. 

"With all these ends in view we will hold our second annual fair at 
Arlington, September 22, 23 and 24, 1920. You are cordially invited 
to attend and participate in the exhibition. The premiums herein ofifered 
are not intended as the main object of exhibiting your products or work, 
but merely as a recognition of its merits as compared with those of 
your neighbors. 

"We realize the need of co-operation. A few cannot innaugurate 
a successful fair. It requires the co-operation of all the 'live wires' in 
the county. Counting on your participation, we hope to have a fair 
worthy of the name 'Washington County.' " 

Comparative Agricultural Statistics 

According to the assessor's books for 1880 the following returns on 
agricultural products for Washington Countv were made : Spring wheat, 
18,165 acres, 217,980 bushels; corn, 35,876 acres, 1,400,000 bushels: bar- 
ley, 205 acres, 2,460 bushels; oats, 5,016 acres; 235,750 bushels; buck- 
wheat, 66 acres raised 585 bushels ; sorghum, 106 acres produced 10,357 



336 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

gallons of syrup; flax, 211 acres, 1,776 bushels; broom corn, 9 tons; 
potatoes (Irish), 543 acres yielding 39,706 bushels. 

The number of fruit trees in the county in 1879 was 387, mostly 
apple, pear, plum and cherry trees. Number grape vines, 13,000 vines. 

Assessor's Statistics in 1920 

According to the assessor's books and reports for 1920 the following 
figures have been compiled for Washington County: 

Yearling steers, 2,998; yearling heifers, 3,079; two-year-old steers, 
1,092; two-year-old heifers, 2,060; three-year-old steers, 52; cows and 
calves, 1,559; dairy cows, 1,267; milk cows, 5,973; bulls, 573; fat cattle, 
2,329. 

Horses — Yearling colts, 464; two-year-old colts, 428; three-year-old 




Threshing 

colts, 399; work horses, 5,194; range horses, 118; ponies and plugs, 
1,480; stallions, 19; mules, 1,068. 

Hogs — All ages and weights, 25,879. 

Sheep and Goats— 1,997. 

Stands of Honey Bees — 435. 

Poultry — Dozens on hand, 11,791; dogs owned, 1,317; automobiles, 
2,062. 

Bushels of wheat, 6,590; bushels of corn, 360,315; oats, 120,665; 
potatoes, 816 bushels ; alfalfa hay, 5,718 tons. 

Total actual value in county, $9,266,275. 

Assessed value of all property in county, $1,853,255. 

Registered Farm Names 

About 1910 the Legislature of Nebraska enacted a law ordering the 
county clerks of the state to keep in their offices a record book in which, 
for a small fee, any land-owner in the county might select a name for 
their farm, providing it was not already selected by another within the 
county — no two farms in a county to have the same name. In this county 
the following have taken advantage of this wise provision: 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 2,2,7 

July 1, 1911, the first farm name was recorded in Washington 
County — that of S. W. Stewart in Lincoln Township, in section 13, 
township 18, range 10, the same to be styled "Cloverdale Farm." 

"Pleasant Dale Stock Farm," September 11, 1911, in De Soto Town- 
ship, in section 20, township 29, range 18, by W. D. Hughes. 

"Green Valley Stock Farm," November 13, 1911, by A. D. Reeh & 
Sons, in the north half of the southwest quarter of the northwest quarter 
of section 13, township 18, range 10. 

"Pine Valley Farm," by Henry Rohwer, in Calhoun Township, sec- 
tion 5, township 17, range 12, on December 21, 1911. 

•'Oak Hill Farm," December 28, 1912, by j. A. Dowden, in section 
24, township 18, range 11. 

"Woodlawn Farm," by Leslie E. Cooper, March 20, 1914, in Arling- 
ton Township, section 25, township 17, range 10. 

"Hillcrest," by R. A. Davies, April 22, 1914, in Arlington Township, 
section 18, township 17, range 10. 

"The Oaks," by J. A. Dixon, in section 18, township 17, range 10. 

"Pleasant View Farm," May 2, 1914, by C. L. Husk, in section 16, 
township 19, range 11. 

"Golden Gate," in Arlington Township, in section 20, township 17, 
range 10, by Cortez U. Cook. 

"Walnut Grove Farm," June 5, 1915, by Peter Peterson, in Richland 
Township, in sections 24, 25 and 26, of township 17, range 11. 

"Fairview Farm," by Jens Christensen, in Blair Township, in section 
28, township 18, range 11, September 18, 1915. 

"Valley View Farm," in Blair Township, by Jens L. Petersen, in 
section 10, township 18, range 11, August 31, 1915. 

"Plain View Farm," April 9, 1918, by John M. Compton, in section 
27, township 19, range 11. 

"College View Farm," by Nels Nelson, section 22, township 11, 
range 18. 

The Grange Movement 

The Grange or Patrons of Husbandry Order which spread from 
coast to coast in the '70s and '80s, and was the greatest order ever yet 
supported by the thrifty farmers of the United States. In Washington 
County this order was organized in the autumn of 1873, when Washing- 
ton Grange No. 130 was formed at or near Fontanelle, and so rapid was 
its progress that in the spring of 1877 there were seventeen granges in 
the county, with an average membership of thirty, making a total of 
500 members in the county, of which 400 were voters and 100 ladies and 
young men. In 1874 the largest Fourth of July celebration ever held in 
the county was under the auspices of the Patrons of Husbandry. It 
was held at the head of New York Creek. 

Many farmers were benefited for years by their membership and 
interest taken in the work of the organization. Finally, other methods 
developed among farmers, co-operative stores and grain elevators 
obtained in the country until at present the Patrons of Husbandry are 
seldom spoken of. The present system of farmers uniting and owning 
their own joint stock stores and grain warehouses and stock yards, by 
which they believe they get higher prices for produce, as well as pur- 
chase at a much less rate such articles as they need in their homes and 
on the farm. Fremont, Scribner and other places in Dodge County do 
an extensive business in this way. Washington County also has its 
co-operative unions and handle much grain and livestock in this same 
manner. 



CHAPTER VI 
THE ATTORNEYS OF THE COUNTY 

In all parts of the civilized world the legal profession is in constant 
demand — especially is this so of later years, when great state, interstate 
and international questions must be solved. New laws governing our 
own, as well as foreign people coming to our shores, have to be enacted 
and executed under our constitutions — state and national — and this is 
largely the work and duty of a well-read and practical expounder of the 
law. It is no sign because a person "goes to law" that they are mean 
and quarrelsome, for the rights of all citizens in this country must be 
respected and the law vindicated for the poor as well as for the rich. 
This is the business of the attorney-at-law. 

There have been many lawyers in Washington Couaty since its 
organization. The record they made before passing away from here has 
not been kept, except in the few instances where obituary notices, or 
removal notices have been published in local newspapers. There are 
but few now living within Washington County who remember the ear- 
liest lawyers who practiced when courts were held at Fort Calhoun and 
De Soto, before the removal of the county seat to Blair. However, the 
author of this work is fortunate in having the memory of Judge I. C. 
Eller, still a resident of Blair (and who has practiced the profession of 
a lawyer in this county since 1880), to prompt him in the personnel of 
these various members of the Washington County Bar. From an inter- 
view had with Judge Eller recently, as well as from other sources, this 
may be said concerning the past and present lawyers of this county : 

When Judge Eller came here in 1880. he found Elias H. Clark, who 
had located at Fort Calhoun in 1856. He surveyed and platted the Vil- 
lage of Fort Calhoun and was active in all the public interests of this 
newly formed county. He practiced law until Blair had got to be quite 
a village, down at Fort Calhoun and De Soto. About 1904 he moved 
from Blair to Omaha ; he is now deceased. The early history chapters 
of. this work has further in regard to this man who was among, if not 
the first attorney within the county. 

In Bell's Centennial History of Washington County he mentions the 
following lawyers of this county: At Fort Calhoun is named — E. H. 
Clark, Levi Kime, Clark Irvine, George W. Doane, W. W. Toole, E. N. 
Grennell and John D. Howe ; also United States Senator A. S. Paddock, 
who was admitted to the bar while a resident of Fort Calhoun. 

At De Soto was listed P. C. Sullivan, Charles D. Davis, Thomas P. 
Kennard, Roger T. Beal, Jesse T. Davis, John Carrington and 
W. W. Foote. 

Levi Kime, noted above,' was a partner of E. H. Clark at Fort Cal- 
houn back in territorial days in Nebraska. 

George W. Doane settled at Fort Calhoun late in the '50s, established 
his law practice and was very successful. Late in the '60s he moved to 
Omaha and was often elected as judge of the Third Judicial District 
and resided at Omaha. 

Eleazer Wakeley established his residence in De Soto in 1857-58 
and when the county seat was moved he followed it and practiced law. 
He was from Wisconsin and was appointed a supreme judge for the 
338 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 339 

Territory of Nebraska, under James Buchanan. He moved to Omaha, 
practiced law there and was elected jud^e of the District Court. He 
was the father of Judge Arthur C. Wakeley, present judge. 

Roger T. Beal came with the elder Wakeley to this county as his 
clerk, and remained until about 1869, then went to Omaha, where he 
died in the early '70s. During Beal's practice in this county, he asso- 
ciated himself with Edwin A. Allen in the practice of law at De Soto. 
He dealt in real estate and especially in tax-title lands, in which he 
made much money. 

Edwin A. Allen, a bachelor, was appointed as receiver of the land 
office in Western Nebraska and died a few years ago ; once an attorney 
here. 

Another very earlv lawyer in Washington County was Hon. Thomas 
P. Kennard who established a law business at De Soto in the '50s and 
remained till Nebraska was admitted to the Union, when he was elected 
secretary of state. He died in the spring of 1920. 

Jesse T. Davis settled at De Soto about 1856. He studied law and 
was admitted to practice in this county. He became coimty judge and 
held other county positions. When the county seat was moved to Blair 
he went there and practiced until he removed to Washington or Oregon, 
where he died about 1900. He was an able man and enjoyed a good law 
practice. 

In the early days of the county. Gen. John S. Bowen of Philadelphia 
settled between Arlington and Kennard. When the railroad was built 
through the county it went directly through his farm. He farmed and 
attended to his law practice; he was an able lawyer and well liked by 
the community in which he located. He was later employed by the rail- 
road company and moved to Blair, served as county judge of this county 
and had a large law practice until about 1880, when the Sioux City 
Railroad Company and its successors employed him as their land agent 
to handle their real estate in Washington County. This position he held 
until death, about June, 1889. 

John Carrigan settled at De Soto late in the '60s. He was a returned 
Civil war soldier and he died in 1880. He was a great criminal lawyer. 

Martin Ballard, father of the present county attorney, Grace Ballard, 
practiced law in Blair till 1885, when he moved to Chadron, Nebraska, 
where he died. He was associated in Blair with Wellington C. Walton, 
who came here about the time Blair was laid out. Walton was admitted 
to the bar about that date. He came here from Michigan and built up a 
large law practice in Blair, where he remained until 1917, when he died. 
He was also judge of the District Court at one time here. His daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Farnham, still resides in Blair. 

Luther Washington Osborn, a native of New York State, settled in 
Blair about the year of its organization, and became a partner of 
John Carrigan in law until Mr. Carrigan died in 1880, after which he 
had numerous partners. One of his associates was William H. Farns- 
worth, who read law under Mr. Osborn and practiced law until 1890; 
he moved from Blair to Sioux City, Iowa. Mr. Osborn enjoyed a lucra- 
tive law practice many years in this county. He was appointed by 
President William McKinley as Consul-General to the Samoan Islands, 
where he died and was brought to Blair for burial. He was a brilliant 
man, honored his profession and had legions of friends. 

Potter C. Sullivan laid out the old Village of De Soto in the early 
'50s and practiced law there a number of years successfully. 

Judge Edward C. Jackson was elected county clerk about 1875 for a 
four-year term. He was a partner with William H. Eller about 1879, 



340 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

continued until 1881. Judge Jackson was appointed clerk of the Dis- 
trict Court and served till elected county treasurer, then for eight years 
was county judge of Washington County. He practiced law for a time 
with Colonel Osborn. In 1911 he was appointed clerk of the District 
Court and then elected to the same office and is still serving. 

William H. Eller read law under Carrigan & Osborn ; was admitted 
to the bar in 1878, continuing until 1892, when his health failed and he 
moved to South Carolina and became a Baptist minister there. At one 
time he owned a Keeley institute or "cure" for drunkenness, but later 
sold out at an advance of the amount invested in the concern. 

Judge I. C. Eller, brother of William H. Eller, just mentioned, came 
from Iowa in 1880 and read law with his brother and was admitted at 
Tekamah, Nebraska, in the autumn of 1882. He at once commenced the 
practice of law. He was clerk of the District Court for eleven years; 
served as county judge eight years and engaged in realty and title 
specialty cases. (See his biographical sketch elsewhere.) 

Ed T. Farnsworth read law under Colonel Osborn and in 1882 was 
admitted to the bar and practiced until 1888 in this county and then 
moved to Douglas County, where he still practices law. 

John Lothrop, of Michigan, came to this county in 1880 from South 
Dakota and has practiced law in Blair ever since. 

David Z. Mummert came in from Illinois, read law under Judge Wal- 
ton and was admitted to the bar about 1887 — or 1888; he still practices 
and makes tax-titles his specialty. 

Clark O'Hanlon, a Washington County boy, born in 1869, read law 
under Colonel Osborn at Blair and was admitted to practice early in the 
'90s; at one time he was a partner of Colonel Osborn. He has held 
many important positions in this county; attorney several terms ; county 
judge from 1908 to 1911. He is now associated with his son. Reed 
O'Hanlon and William J. Maher, as the firm of O'Hanlon, Maher & 
O'Hanlon. The elder O'Hanlon is counsel for the Commonwealth Life 
Insurance Company of Omaha, where one-half of his time is spent. 

Henry Mencke is a native of Washington County, Nebraska, born in 
the '70s and reared in Blair. He graduated from the Blair High School. 
His father was sheriff of Washington County many years, and under 
him he received his first instructions in public office. He read law under 
Judge Walton and was admitted to the bar about 1902. 

Edmund Burke Carrigan. son of John Burke Carrigan, read law with 
Judge Walton and was admitted to the practice of law at Blair. He con- 
tinued in law until 1918, when he was elected county judge, which posi- 
tion he still holds. 

Perry Selden was admitted to the bar about 1882. Most of his life 
was devoted to newspaper work. He was with the Blair Pilot as editor 
and proprietor; was county judge in the early '80s and mayor of Blair 
several terms. He died about 1896. 

William S. Cook, of Arlington, has a fine farm and resides there 
most of his time. He read law and was admitted to the bar and is still 
in the practice, at Arlington, but resides on his farm. His son, J. C. Cook, 
is present county attorney of Dodge County and very successful in his 
practice of criminal cases. 

Another lawyer of this county who should not be overlooked was 
Alonzo Perkins, who first practiced at Fort Calhoun, then in Fontanelle, 
after which he moved to Blair; was elected county judge in 1878, served 
ten years; was admitted to the bar at Blair, practiced in Herman and 
Blair; was mayor of Blair in the '80s and died in Portland, Oregon, 
in 1919, aged ninety-three years. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 341 

Present Pr.\cticing Attorneys 

In the autumn of 1920 the following attorneys were resident lawyers 
of Washington County: 

Grace Ballard (county attorney), E. B. Carrigan, W. S. Cook, 
A. C. Debel, I. C. Eller, E. C. Jackson, John Lothrop, William J. Maher, 
Henry Mencke, D. Mummert, Clark O'Hanlon and Reed O'Hanlon. 



CHAPTER VII 

PHYSICIANS OF THE COUNTY 

Concerning the Science of Medicine — Its Advancement — Sur- 
gery — Old-Time Physicians — Saddle-Bags — Long Drives — The 
Medicine Chests — List of Physicians — The County Medical 
Society — Present Physicians — The Hospital. 

No community is ever exempt from the need of a "family doctor." 
In all ages of the world's history there has been need of physicians to 
heal the sick. The Science of Medicine is among the greatest and most 
useful of all the professions. When in full health we are sometimes 
heard to speak lightly of the physician, but when the sick chamber 
encloses us — when the hand of death is reaching out towards our form, 
it is then that we seek aid from the best doctor known in the community. 
The science and understanding of medicine have greatly advanced for 
the better within the memory of many now living. Especially in surgery 
the strides have been wonderful in the last forty years. There are numer- 
ous "schools of medicine," but each and all have their friends and their 
merits. In the early days in- Washington County, Nebraska, the allo- 
pathic school of medicine was almost universally used, with now and 
then an herb doctor. A little later, several homeopathic physicians set- 
tled in the county and built up a good practice. Today the number of 
schools of practice has come to be many, but still by a large majority 
the standard is the allopathic physician. 

Physicians, as a rule, are all too busy to leave any record of their 
practice, even no data as to when they located in a given place. It is to 
be regretted that we have not a personal paragraph on every doctor who 
has ever practiced within this county, but such is the case. The earliest 
physicians of the county have long since ceased to practice and nearly 
all of the pioneer doctors are deceased. 

Among the early physicians of the county are recalled the names of 
Drs. J. P. Andrew, William Moore and Charles Lawrence, all of whom 
practiced medicine at Fort Calhoun prior to 1876. 

Up to the last-named date, at De Soto were Doctors Cutts, McLaugh- 
lin, John Glover, Doctor Cannon, Charles Emerson Tennent, F. H. 
Longley and S. H. Fawcett. 

From bits of information gleaned from the records of the Washing- 
ton County Medical Society, now in the hands of Dr. G. A. Langstaff, 
of Blair, and from other reliable sources, the writer has compiled the 
following imperfect list of the physicians who have at some time or 
other practiced medicine within Washington County. The mere men- 
tion of their names will bring to mind some recollection of the good 
doctor who used to travel, perchance by horseback, with his saddle-bags 
thrown over his horse's back. Another will recall a dreary night-drive 
with the pioneer doctor, against a severe wintry wind, to some distant 
part of the county. Some middle-aged man or woman will recall when a 
child the face of another doctor who frequently visited at their place in 
the '60s or '70s, driving in an old weather-beaten bugg}', carrying with 
him a medicine chest filled with remedies that were strong and unpleasant 
to the taste, and were not mixed in tablet form as today, but had to be 
342 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 343 

administered, because that was as far as medical science had gone at that 
date. Another scene may pass before your vision. You may remember 
that night when a dear mother or father was not expected to Hve from 
hour to hour, and you recall how after hours of patient waiting and 
prescribing for the sick one, the doctor looked up and assured the family 
that the worst was over and that the ill one would recover. The physi- 
cians have been no better nor worse in this county than in any other. It 
should be said that most all of these doctors were honorable persons and 
did the best they knew how. 

Without much attention being paid as to the dates the doctors of this 
county commenced or quit their medical practice, the long list of physi- 
cians known to have been here a greater or less period have been as 
follows : 

Doctor Langley, Doctor Post (a druggist). Doctor O'Linn died in 
1880 in Blair, Dr. W. H. Palmer, of Blair, still surviving but not in 
active practice, and is the only one of the older physicians of the county 
now living. 

Dr. Samuel B. Taylor, Dr. Byron F. Monroe (homeopathic), 
Dr. Parris G. Cooper of Cuming City, Silas H. Fawcett moved from 
De Soto to Blair where he practiced; Dr. Samuel G. Glover, Arlington; 
Doctor Hadley, Dr. J. P. Andrew, at Fort Calhoun in an early day, and 
was the father-in-law of pioneer lawyer E. H. Clark; Doctor Love of 
Herman practiced there before the '80s. 

The names of other physicians of Washington County will appear 
in the following account of the County Medical Society — see below : 

Washington County Medical Society 

This society was organized January 20, 1903, at Dr. M. D. Bedal's 
office in the City of Blair. Those present at the first meeting were 
Doctor Bedal, Doctor McDonald of Fremont, Dr. H. Noble of Blair, 
Dr. W. H. Palmer, Dr. E. R. Stewart of Blair, Dr. J. F. Curtis of Fort 
Calhoun, Dr. P. J. Clark of Herman, Dr. G. A. Langstafif of Blair. 

The first president of the society was Dr. M. D. Bedal; secretary, 
Dr. G. A. Langstafif, who has served most of the years since the society 
was formed ; Dr. W. H. Palmer, vice-president ; Dr. P. J. Clark, treas- 
urer ; Dr. E. R. Stewart, delegate. The censors were Dr. J. F. Curtis, 
Dr. W. H. Pruner and Dr. C. O. Robinson. In 1911 the total member- 
ship was eleven and today it is only nine. 

The present (1920) officers are: Dr. L. J. Kilian, president; Dr. E. 
R. Stewart, vice-president; Dr. G. A. Langstafif, secretary; Dr. James 
B. Anderson, delegate. Board of censors — Drs. A. J. Cameron, E. R. 
Stewart and J. V. Hinchman. 

The society meets the first Tuesday of each month at Blair. Every 
physician in the county is a member of this society save one, and he is 
not really eligible. 

In the spring of 1920 the membership included the following physi- 
cians : Drs. R. J. Murdoch. G. A. Langstafif, E. R. Stewart, L. J. Kilian, 
J. V. Hinchman (all practicing at Blair at present), A. J. Anderson, 
Kennard, E. S. B. Geessaman, Fort Calhoun, A. J. Cameron, Herman. 
Others are Drs. Marie Anna Nielsen, William H. Pruner, Kennard 
(now deceased), Somers Pettingill, Fort Calhoun, later of California; 
Marshall B. Bedal, Charles O. Robinson of Blair, recently removed from 
county ; P. G. Grimm, at Blair five years, was only an honorary mem- 
ber of the society. L. L. Burnstein, now in California, practiced in the 



344 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

county six years; A. W. Fees (homeopathic) was formerly a member, 
but not at this time ; W. G. Orr, for a short time only ; Dr. Marian Orr 
Wilson, Dr. W. R. Wagner, Blair. 

The oldest doctor in years of practice in the county at this date is 
Dr. J. V. Hinchman. Dr. H. Noble died at Blair and Doctor Bedal died 
after removing from this county. Doctor Robinson is gone. 

The City Hospital 

A few years since the old two-story brick school building in the 
central part of the city was purchased and converted into a private hos- 
pital. Diilferent ones had charge until 1917, when it passed into the 
hands of Mrs. F. A. Washburn, who continues to conduct it. While it is 
not large, it does supply the demand for any ordinary hospital cases. 
Local physicians may take patients there and operate on them, in most 
cases as well as though they were operated on in Omaha. 



CHAPTER VIII 

BANKING IN WASHINGTON COUNTY 

Early Banks in Nebraska — First Banking in Washington County 
— Plateau State Bank — The Herman State Bank — Washing- 
ton State Bank — Farmers & Merchants Bank, Kennard — 
Home State Bank — Arlington State Bank — First National 
Bank — Washington County Bank — Citizens State Bank — 
Fort Calhoun State Bank — State Bank, Blair — Farmers State 
Bank, Blair — Bank Summary. 

The early banks in Nebraska were established by specific acts of the 
Legislature, naming the incorporate powers, capital and place of busi- 
ness. June, 1856, the Legislature chartered the Platte Valley Bank of 
Nebraska City, the Fontanelle Bank of Bellevue, the Bank of Florence, 
the Bank of Nebraska at Omaha and the Nemaha Valley Bank at Browns- 
ville. There was great hostility, even here in the wilds of frontier 
Nebraska, against "wild-cat banks" and foremost among the men who 
fought them hard was the late Hon. J. Sterling Morton. 

The first general regulatory banking law was that approved March 
29, 1889. An act approved April 8, 1895, created a banking board 
composed of the state auditor, state treasurer and attorney-general. 
This act provided for the chartering of all banks operating under state 
law by the banking board. A general banking law approved March 25, 
1909, repealed the existing laws and provided for the banking board to 
consist of the governor, as chairman, the auditor and attorney-general. 

The first State Bankers' Convention of Nebraska assembled at Omaha 
January 22, 1890. The complete organization, however, was not effected 
until 1900, so far as the present group system obtains. 

First Bank in Washington County 

"The Banking House of A. Castetter" at Blair, a private bank owned 
by A. Castetter, was incorporated in 1898, but had been doing business 
as a private concern since 1869. When incorporated its first president 
was A. Castetter, its manager was F. M. Castetter and F. H. Claridge, 
cashier. The present officers are : F. H. Claridge, president ; Mary J. 
Cook and Clarkson Haller, assistant cashiers. 

At first the capital was $60,000, but its present capital is $100,000. 
It also now carries a surplus of $32,000, with resources and liabilities 
amounting to $1,240,000. Its recent deposits are $970,000. 

This concern is located in a brick bank building erected in 1877 and 
now valued at $8,000, besides fixtures, etc., amounting to $6,000 more. 
It has been stated by some that this was the earliest bank in Washington 
County, but its own officers do not so affirm, but say the earliest attempt 
at banking in this county was at De Soto in 1858, when the "Waubeek 
Bank of De Soto" was established. About that date the same village 
had two other banks (so-called) — the Bank of De Soto and Corn 
Exchange Bank — but all three were short lived, the Waubeek lasting 
longer than the other two mentioned. Nothing definite is now to be had 
of the founders and final outcome of their pioneer projects. De Soto 
345 



346 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

went down eventually and all early history, if ever recorded, went down 
too ! But to keep history straight it should be understood that the Wau- 
beek Bank at De Soto was Bank No. 1 of Washington County and the 
next and first to become a permanent fixture in the county was the bank- 
ing house of A. Castetter, established in 1869 at Blair. 

The Plateau State Bank 

This bank is situated at the Village of Herman and was established 
in 1888 by G. C. Latta, president, and W. H. Clark, cashier. 

The 1920 officers are : G. C. Latta, president ; E. W. Burdic, vice- 
president ; Earl C. Burdic, cashier; George W. Stangel, assistant cashier; 
La Verne Lowe, assistant cashier. 

This bank at first had a capital of $20,000, which has been increased 
to $50,000, with a surplus of $10,000. Its recent deposits amounted to 
$600,000. 

The statement issued by this bank May 15, 1920, shows resources 
and liabilities amounting to $762,388.70. At that date its deposits were 
$593,457.78 and its undivided profits were $24,325.71. Amount of cash 
on hand was then $80,611.31. 

The Herman State Bank 

This bank was established at Herman in September, 1907, and its 
first officers were : E. P. Hanson, president ; Charles Nelson, vice-presi- 
dent, and Charles Bott, second vice-president. The same officers still 
serve in their respective capacities and to the list should be added Fred 
Robertson, cashier, and assistant cashier, T. R. Swanson. 

The original capital was $15,000, which is now $30,000, with a sur- 
plus of $2,000. Its recent deposits were $257,000. 

This bank owns its own building erected of Bedford stone in 1919 
at a cost of $18,000. 

On September 2, 1916, at noon, an attempt was made to hold up this 
bank. The bank's officers armed themselves and with the assistance of 
the county sheriff the robbers were arrested and sentenced to two years 
in the penitentiary at Lincoln. 

Washington State Bank 

The Washington State Bank at the Village of Washington was estab- 
Hshed April 5, 1904. Its first officers were: H. B. Waldron, president; 
Henry Simonson, vice-president ; W. T. Waldron, cashier. 

The officers of today (1920) are as follows: Jabe B. Gibson, presi- 
dent; George T. Hedelund, cashier, and H. E. Lyons, director. 

This bank was established on a capital of $10,000, which has increased 
to $15,000, with a surplus of $3,000. Its recent deposits amounted to 
$190,000. 

Farmers & Merchants Bank — Kennard 

This bank was established April 16, 1898, by officers as follows: 
Magnus Johnson, president ; John Japp, vice-president ; W. H. Harrison, 
cashier. 

The 1920 officers are: Magnus Johnson, president; C. A. Schmidt, 
vice-president ; G. E. Krongberg, cashier ; F. W. Vybiral, assistant cashier. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 347 

The original capital was $10,000; present capital is $30,000, and a 
surplus is carried of $7,000. 

Recent reports show deposits to the amount of $290,000. The 
resources and liabilities are now $412,000. 

In 1911 a red brick building was erected as the home for this bank. 
Its value is more than $6,000. 

In 1904 in the old building this bank lost $3,000 by yeggmen blowing 
open the safe. 

Home State Bank 

This banking house is situated at the Town of Kennard, and was 
organized in 1915 by John Blaco, J. C. Neal, A. L. Cook and others. 
The first officers were: John Blaco, president; William Jahnel, vice- 
president; J. C. Neal, cashier, who died in the spring of 1917. 

The present or 1920 officers are: William Jahnel, president; J. F. 
McCann, vice-president ; M. T. Cederlind, cashier. 

The first and present capital is $15,000; present surplus, $2,500; 
resources and liabilities amount to $140,000. 

In the spring of 1915 a brick bank building was constructed and is 
valued at about"$6,000. 

The deposits in this bank in the month of June, 1920, were $100,000. 

Arlington State Bank 

The Arlington State Bank whose charter number is 12, was organized 
in the month of April, 1890, by T. E. Stevens, president ; H. Chapman, 
vice-president; H. W. Schoettger, cashier. 

The present officers are : C. C. Marshall, president ; H. W. Schoett- 
ger, vice-president ; R. E. Planck, cashier ; L. E. Peterson, assistant 
cashier. 

This bank started on a capital of $25,000 but now has $30,000, with 
a surplus of $30,000. 

Its reports show recent deposits amounting to $542,416.15 and 
resources and liabilities amounting to $671,732.29. 

In June, 1891, a brick bank building was finished and is valued at 
$6,000." 

First Nation.m. Bank — Arlington 

This bank was established May 26, 1891, with officers as follows: 
George H. Jewett, president; J. T. May, vice-president; Otis M. Dye, 
cashier. 

The present officials are: J. T. May, president; Fred De Weber, 
vice-president; G. I. Pfeififer, cashier; F. W. Pfeiffer, assistant cashier. 

This bank started on a $50,000 capital but reduced to $25,000, with 
a surplus of $6,000. Its resources and liabilities are $250,000 and 
recent deposits were $200,000. 

A fine bank building was erected in 1913 and is valued at $5,000. This 
bank succeeded to the old Bell Creek Valley Bank, a private bank, at 
Arlington when the town was known as Bell Creek. It was the first 
bank of this vicinity. 

Washington County Bank — Fort Calhoun 

This bank was established in 1889 on a capital of $5,000, but today it 
has $30,000, wath a surplus of $6,000. Its recent reports show deposits 
to the amount of $250,000. 



348 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

This bank was established or started by Henry Rix. The present 
officers are as follows : Henry Rix, president ; Ernest Rix, cashier ; 
May Rix, vice-president. 

In 1905 a $20,000 brick bank building was constructed for this 
concern in which a general banking business is transacted after a 
modern method. 

The Citizens State Bank — Blair 

The Citizens State Bank at the City of Blair was organized May 18, 
1904, by F. H. Matthiesen and D. Z. Mummert. 

The first officers of this banking house were: F. H. Matthiesen, 
president ; M. Matthiesen, vice-president ; D. Z. Mummert, cashier. 

The present (1920) officers are: A. R. Brock, president; George 
Bruse, cashier; E. R. Brock, assistant cashier. 

The capital at first was the same as today — $50,000. It now has a 
surplus of $10,000. Recent reports show deposits amounting to 
$504,178.47. 

The present resources and liabilities are $579,812.38. 

In conjunction with this bank is also the Citizens Savings Bank, 
whose charter is numbered 989; has a capital of $12,500; surplus of 
$2,500. 

The combined statement of these two banks shows resources and 
liabilities amounting to $836,128.79. Their combined loans amount to 
$571,601.10; they carry $35,000 in Liberty Bonds and have cash and 
sight exchange to the amount of $202,174.71. Total deposits in the 
combined concerns is $728,389.75. 

Fort Calhoun State Bank 

This bank was organized at the Village of Fort Calhoun, December 
14, 1914. The first officers were Henry Rohwer, president ; William P. 
Cook, cashier. The same persons hold the same positions today. 

The first capital was same as today — $20,000, but now they have a 
surplus of $4,000. Recent reports show this bank to have deposits in the 
sum of $225,000. 

The present resources and liabilities are $287,496.31. 

The loans and discounts amount to $176,288.50. 

One special feature in this bank is the fact that they are carrying 
undivided profits amounting to $40,644.50. 

This bank moved into the new brick building they had erected on 
December 14, 1914. The building and fixtures are valued at about $7,800. 

The State Bank — Blair 

The State Bank at Blair is the successor of the old Blair National 
Bank, and was organized January 3, 1916, with officers as follows: 
C. A. Schmidt, T. E. Stevens, Thomas Finnell, A. C. Roberts and 
C. J. Schmidt. 

This bank carries the same stock as when organized — $50,000, but to 
this they have the use of $50,000 more in surplus and undivided profits, 
which makes them a financially strong concern. Their resources and 
liabilities amount to $1,219,962.61. Recent deposits are $980,635.72. 

A most excellent brick bank building is owned by this company; its 
value is about $11,000. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 349 

The present (1920) officers are as follows: C. A. Schmidt, president; 
T. E. Stevens, vice president; A. C. Roberts, director; C. J. Schmidt, 
director; Thomas Finnell, cashier; C. J. Schmidt and D. J. Hundahl, 
assistant cashiers. 

Farmers State Bank — Blair 

The Farmers State Bank at the City of Blair was organized Septem- 
ber 27, 1919, with first officers as follows: John H. Gibson, president; 
E. B. Redfield, vice-president ; W. F. Gutschow, assistant cashier. 

The same set of officials are still holding their respective positions. 

The original and present capital stock is $35,000. The surplus and 
undivided profits amount to $10,716.13. 

The present resources and liabilities amount to $153,848.42. 

The deposits in July, 1920, were $97,221.28, but one month earlier the 
bank had deposits amounting to $108,382.11. 

This bank has the confidence of the entire community in which it 
operates and stands high in banking circles of Nebraska. 

County Summary of Banks 

The following is a summary of all banks in Washington County, 

Nebraska, showing the name, date of organizing, present capital and 
surplus; also present (recent) amount in deposits. 

Date Capital Surplus Deposits 
The Banking House of A. Castetter, 

Blair 1869 $100,000 $ 32,000 $ 970,000 

The Plateau State Bank, Herman. . . . 1888 50,000 10,000 660,000 

The Herman State Bank, Herman . . . 1907 30,000 2,000 257,000 
Washington State Bank, Washington 

Village 1904 15,000 3,000 190,000 

Farmers & Merchants Bank, Kennard. 1898 30,000 7,000 290,000 

Home State Bank, Kennard 1915 15,000 2,500 140,000 

Arlington State Bank, Arlington 1890 30,000 30,000 542,416 

First National Bank, Arlington 1891 25,000 6,000 200,000 

Washington County Bank, Fort Cal- 
houn 1889 30,000 6,000 250,000 

Citizens State Bank, Blair 1904 50,000 10,000 504,178 

Fort Calhoun State Bank, Fort Cal- 
houn 1914 20,000 4,000 225,000 

The State Bank, Blair 1916 50,000 50,000 980,635 

Farmers State Bank, Blair 1919 35,000 10,716 97,221 

Totals $480,000 $172,716 $5,306,450 



CHAPTER IX 

WASHINGTON COUNTY NEWSPAPERS 

Newspapers of Blair — The Register — Washington Democrat 
(Defunct) — The Pilot — The Enterprise — The Tribune — The 
Times — The Courier — Kennard Weekly News^Herman Record 
— The Calhoun Chronicle — The County's Earliest Newspapers 
— The De Soto Bugle — De Soto Pilot — The Sun — Enquirer — 
Register — Nebraska Pioneer — Cuming Star. 

Newspapers of Blair 

From what seems to be reliable sources it is believed that the first 
newspaper in Blair was the Register, established in May, 1869, by Hilton 
& Son. January 1, 1870, L. F. Hilton, junior member of the firm, 
became editor and proprietor, publishing the paper until the following 
spring, having an actual circulation of 1,200 paying subscribers in Wash- 
ington, Burt and Douglas counties. At this time the publication was 
suspended and the material sold under foreclosure of mortgage. 

The next paper established in Blair was the Republican, started in 
June or July, 1870, as the Blair Times, by a stock company consisting 
of W. H. B. Stout and other citizens of Blair. Its first editor was 
J. C. Lillie. Gen. John .S. Bowen succeeded Lillie as editor and edited 
a most e.xcellent paper. After numerous changes in proprietorship the 
property passed into the hands of C. B. Sprague in August, 1880, he 
succeeding Vic Lantry and others. Sprague changed the name from 
Times to Republican, also changed it to a republican organ. In 1904 it 
was purchased by Theo. T. Osterman and changed to a democratic 
paper and called the Democrat ; it was merged with the Courier in 
1907, and absorbed the Tribune in 1917 and the name "Democrat" 
dropped. The Tribune was founded by \Y. R. Williams in 1907 and has 
been in the hands of the present owner, Thomas T. Osterman, since 1917. 

Then the Tribune derives its ancestry from the old Times, established 
in 1870. Politically, it is democratic. Subscription rate $2 in advance. 
It circulates mostly in Washington County; is a six-column, eight to 
twenty-page all home print paper. It is published every Thursday. 
The office from which it issues is equipped with a linotype, drum 
cylinder press, folder, gordon jobber, etc. 

The building is owned by Thomas T. Osterman, and it is a frame 
structure. 

The Blair Pilot 

It is believed generally by the newspaper craft of Washington 
County that the first newspaper published in this county was the one 
known as the Register, just prior to the Pilot of today. It appears that 
what is now known as the Pilot was established at Tekamah, Burt 
County, in 1871, by J. Y. Lambert, but it was removed by him to Blair 
in 1874. In 1875 George Sutherland purchased it and L. F. Hilton 
became its editor. In 1879 Mr. Sutherland sold to B. F. Hilton, and 
son, L. F. Hilton. Finallv it became the property of the Pilot Printing 
. 350 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 351 

Company, with L. A. Williams as its editor. The present owner, 
Don C. Van Deusen, purchased the paper July 1, 1907. This was at 
one time a progressive republican journal, but at present does not 
advertise its politics, but is supposedly "independent." 

The Pilot circulates mostly in Washington County; is printed each 
week on Wednesday and its subscription rate is $2 per year in advance. 

It is well equipped as a modern printing office, with a modern 
linotype, propelled by an electric motor ; a Standard Babcock six- 
column quarto cylinder press, purchased in the summer of 1919. It 
also has a folding machine, two jobbers, a paper cutter, a stapler, and 
everything found in offices in places the size of Blair at this date. 

Mr. Van Deusen, proprietor, owns the brick building in which his 
plant is kept ; it is a good brick structure. 

The Washington Democrat — Defunct 

This newspaper was established by Blue and Sampson, September 
22, 1881, in Blair, but November 28, that year, it was moved to Bell 
Creek (now Arlington), where after a five-months struggle it ceased to 
exist. Politically, this was a democratic organ, but in those times demo- 
crats were not very numerous in Washington County ! 

The Blair Enterprise 

This newspaper was established at Kennard in 1896 by E. L. Tiffany, 
of Kennard, who sold in 1913 to L. F. Hilton, of Kennard, who moved 
into Blair in August, 1913. Politically, it is an independent republican 
journal with a circulation in Washington County, mostly. In form and 
size it is of the eight-page six-column size. It is published each Thurs- 
day (originally on Friday). Its yearly subscription rate is $1.50 in 
advance. 

This office is equipped with up-to-date machinery, including a lino- 
type, job presses, paper press, paper cutter, imposing stones and proof 
press. Local news, of course is the main object of newspapers in 
this sized towns and cities. This paper a few years ago, published por- 
tions of Bell's History of Washington County, written in 1876. and 
from its columns, containing such historical items, the publishers of this 
later history are greatly indebted. 

The Blair Courier 

The Courier was established at Blair the summer of 1889, Vol. 1, 
No. 18 bears date November 2 of that year. It was established by the 
Blair Publishing Company with W. H. Eller, associate editor, S. L. 
Hamilton, secretary and B. C. Maynard, manager. It was a six-column 
folio, and politically, it was democratic. It was a well edited paper and 
had an excellent circulation. It was merged in 1907 with the Democrat. 

The Kennard Weekly News 

This enterprising local newspaper was established at the Village 
of Kennard, June 14, 1916, and is an independent local journal with no 
special political trend. The paper was started by its present owner 
and editor. Otto F. Olsen. It is an eight-page, six-column paper and 
circulates within a radius of about six miles of Kennard. Its sub- 



352 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

scription rate is $1.50 per year in advance. Its publication day is 
Wednesday of each week. 

The equipment of the News office consists of modern appliances 
including one 10 by 15 Chandler & Price jobber; one Diamond cylinder 
news press and one 13-horsepower Mogul kerosine engine, with such 
other fixtures as make up a modern printing office. 

The News aims to give the local happenings within the radius of 
its circulation and to have the same in readable shape such as will be 
interesting and instructive to the subscribers. 

The Herman Record 

The Herman Record was established October 14, 1908, and among 
its publishers and owners have been: F. L. Fassett, Paul E. Hubbell, 
and present owner, H. L. Swan. 

It is non-political ; circulates in Washington County mostly ; is an 
eight-page, six-column paper with six pages home print. It is pub- 
lished every Thursday at $1.50 per year in advance. 

This newspaper is published in Rooms 1, 2 and 3 in Plateau Bank 
Building. Its outfit includes a good cylinder press, two jobbers and a 
modern linotype. 

The Record is a well edited and neatly printed paper and is duly 
appreciated by the large list of well satisfied patrons who find all the 
news of the community each week. 

Danish Lutheran Publishing House Papers 

The Danish Lutheran Publishing House at Blair publish and print 
the following publications that go broadcast all over the United States 
and Canada : 

Danish Lutheran Kirkeblad is now 50 years old — published in Blair 
for 30 years. 

The Danskeren (a newspaper) was published in Wisconsin until 1899 
since which it has been published in Blair, Nebraska. Since 1903 its 
editor has been Rev. A. M. Andersen. Subscription rate is $2 a year. 

Our Lutheran Youth — (for young people) a semi-monthly is now 
15 years old. 

Bornebladet is now in its thirty-first year of publication. This is 
a Danish Sunday school paper. 

The Little Lutheran — (a Sunday School in English) in its eighth 
year of publication. 

Cedar Falls, Iowa, and Blair, Nebraska, are the only two points in 
America where church papers are published by the Danish Lutheran 
Church. Their mailing list is immense — their postage bills are more 
than $800 per year, all told. 

Washington Count\''s First Newspapers 

The first newspaper published in Washington County, Nebraska, 
was the De Soto Bugle, established in 1856 at the little pioneer Village 
of De Soto, by Hon. Isaac Parrish, who in a speech over in Harrison 
County in 1859 declared that there would be railroads over the Rocky 
Mountains to the far oflF Pacific Coast within a score of years. The 
people called him "daflfy," but it was only half that length of time 
before the Union Pacific Railroad was completed. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 353 

The next newspaper started in this county was the De Soto Pilot, 
established in 1857 by Merrick and Maguire; the third paper was the 
Washington County Sun, established in 1858 by Potter C. Sullivan, 
and the fourth paper was the De Soto Enquirer, established in 1858 by 
Z. Jackson. No other attempt at starting a newspaper in this county 
was made until 1869, when the Register was established at Blair, by 
B. F. Hilton and son. In 1870 the publication of the Blair Times was 
undertaken by a company made up of a number of citizens of the 
county, as will be seen by reference to the history of that paper else- 
where in this chapter. 

The Nebraska Pioneer, a weekly newspaper was started under the 
management of a Mr. Dimmick, at Cuming City in 1857, and soon 
was numbered among the dead enterprises of the young "city." 

The Cuming City Star flashed out and made the second newspaper 
attempt in Cuming City, the date of its issue being 1858. It was a good 
weekly paper edited by L. M. Kline. This paper remained as long as 
there were any hopes for the town's future greatness. 

The Calhoun Chronicle 

Fort Calhoun's present local newspaper is the Chronicle, established 
about 1914 and is now conducted by its owner, Frank C. Adams. It 
is a six-column folio sheet, published each Thursday at a subscription 
rate of $1.50 in advance. Further data concerning this publication was 
not furnished the historians. 



CHAPTER X 

POLITICAL AFFAIRS OF COUNTY 

Presidential Elections — Special Elections — Lists of Senators — 
Representatives in State Government, Etc. 

At Special Elections 

In 1883 at a special election the issue was on "Township organiza- 
tion" and it stood as follows : For "Township organization," 994 ; 
against the measure, 436. 

In 1886 a special election was held on the question of voting on 
courthouse bonds and the result was: For bonds, 500; against 
bonds, 1,256. 

In 1894 the question again came up before the people at a special 
election as to whether Washington County should be governed under 
the township system or not. The votes stood: For organization, 1,165; 
against township organization, 601. 

In 1889 a special election was held in this county on the question 
of selling the Poor Farm. The result at that election was for sale of 
County Farm, 501 ; against sale of County Farm, 1,528. 

Politics of Washington County 

Without entering into a detailed account of the various political 
campaigns had in Washington County since its organization, the follow- 
ing election statistics will show the general politics of the county and 
results at the presidential election, beginning with centennial year — 1876: 

1876 — The Republican candidate, Rutherford B. Hayes, received a 
majority of 512 in the county. 

1880 — James A. Garfield, republican candidate, received a majority 
of 790. 

1884 — James G. Blaine, republican candidate, carried the county. 

1888 — Benjamin Harrison, republican candidate, carried this county 
by 331. 

1892 — Benjamin Harrison, republican candidate, carried the county 
by 340. 

1896 — William McKinley, republican, carried the county by a hand- 
some majority. 

1900 — William McKinley, republican, again carried the county over 
William Jennings Bryan. 

1904— -Theodore Roosevelt carried county. 

1908 — William Howard Taft, republican, carried the county by 129. 

1912 — Woodrow Wilson, democratic candidate, carried the county by 
a safe majority. 

1916 — ^\'oodrow Wilson, democratic candidate, carried the county 
again. 

Representation 

It will be remembered that Washington was one of the original 
counties in Nebraska Territory, and that the first Legislature convened 
354 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 355 

in Omaha in the winter of 1854-55 and consisted of eight councilmen — 
four from each side of the Platte River — and thirteen representatives, 
Washington County sending as councilman, James G. Mitchell, and as 
representatives, Anselum Arnold, and A. J. Smith. 

The first county officers for this county were appointed by the 
governor as follows: Stephen Cass, probate judge; Thomas Allen, 
sheriff ; George W. Neville, clerk ; George Martin, treasurer ; Z. Jackson, 
registrar, and Thomas Wilson, surveyor. 

Since that date the following have been elected to the positions 
designated: Councilmen — William Clancy, 1856; E. G. Scott, and George 
W. Doane, floater, 1858; John A. Unthank, 1860; E. A. Allen, and 
Frank Welch, of Burt, 1862 ; John D. Neligh, of Cuming, floater, 1866. 

State Senators 

Jesse T. Davis, 1866; W. F. Goodwill, of Burt, floater, 1868; B. F. 
Hilton, 1870; L. W. Osborn, 1872; Waldo Lyon, of Burt, floater, 1874; 
L. W. Osborn, 1874; George F. Blanchard, 1877; S. B. Taylor, 1881; 
Charles Sang, 1883; Henry Sprick, 1887; John Dern, 1889; M. J. 
Brown, 1891 : John Thompson, 1893; S. W. Hayes, 1897; W. D. Haller, 
1897-09; Fred Volpp, 1909-13; Geo. F. Wolz, Wallace H. Wilson, 
1915-17. 

State Representatives 

William Connor, Elisha P. Stout and James Stewart, 1856; P. C. 
Sullivan, R. H. Peterson and James S. Stewart, 1857; P. G. Cooper, 
L. M. Kline and Charles Davis, 1858; James S. Stewart and John S. 
Bowen, 1859; Giles Mead and Henry W. DePugh, 1859; E. A. Allen 
and John S. Bowen, 1861 ; L. R. Fletcher and Dean C. Slader, 1862. 
[By act of Congress the session of 1862-63 was dispensed with and the 
amount it would have cost was applied to "war purposes."] John 
Evans and H. J. Rohwer, 1863; H. M. Hitchock and Nevin McCandlish, 
1864 ; E. H. Clark and Charles Eisley, 1865 ; A. S. Warrick and Dr. L. J. 
Abbott, territorial and John A Unthank and Dean C. Slader, state repre- 
sentatives. 1866; there were two sets elected on account of a State 
Constitution having been drafted ; W. H. B. Stout and Christian Rath- 
mann, 1868; Elam Clark and H. C. Riordan, 1870; Henry Sprick, 1872 
^a new apportionment having given the county but one member of the 
House — E. S. Gaylord, in 1874. 

In July, 1866, a special session of the Legislature was held in which 
Frank Welch of Burt County represented Washington County as senator 
and William R. Hamilton, D. McDonald and ThomasR^XVilsoiij^ as 
representatives. Since that date the following have included' the mem- 
bers of the House from this county : 

W. R. Hamilton, 1866; Elam Clark, elected in 1871; H. C. Riordan 
1872; E. S. Gaylord, 1875-76; P. Seldon, 1877; Giles Mead, 1879; 
J. C. Homer, 1883; Richard Blacp. 1885: |ohn H. Cameron and Watson 
Tyson, 1887: John H. Cameron. 1889; William S. Frost, 1891; William 
D. Haller. elected in 1893, 1895, 1899 and 1911; I. C. Filer, 1907; 
Henrv Rohwer, 1901 ; W. G. Harrison, 1903 ; H. D. Schoettger, 1907-09 ; 
William D. Haller, 1911; H. H. Herzog, 1911; Claude C. Van Deusen 
1913: Claude C. Van Deusen, 1915; Albert H. Miller, 1917. 

Governors of Nebraska 

The reader is referred to the Dodge County section of this work 
for a list of the governors of Nebraska. (See index.) 



CHAPTER XI 

PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS 

First Public Schools in Washington County — Later Develop- 
ments IN Matters of Education — The Fort Calhoun Schools 
— The De Soto Schools — Fontanelle Schools — Cuming City 
Schools — Blair City Schools — Other Schools in the County 
— Condition of Public Schools in 1920 — Superintendent's 
Report — School Buildings-^Teachers — Pupils — Wages — Paro- 
chial Schools — The College. 

The first public school taught in what is now Washington County, 
was probably the one taught at Fontanelle in the winter of 1855-56 by 
Miss Emily Strickland. It was about that date, at least in 1856, that a 
school was taught in the Village of Fort Calhoun, although the first public 
school record and warrant is dated in 1866. Early records were usually 
carried in "poor memories" and not in books of paper. 

De Soto certainly had a public school in 1860 in a new school house, 
22 by 40 feet in size, but it is known that it had several terms of school 
before that date. 

If the Mormon settlement of 1846-47 had any schools they left no 
record of them. 

Coming to this country as they did, the pioneer settlers carried with 
them, no doubt, the notions of schools they had been used to in the 
several states in the East and South from which they had emigrated. 
Hence it was no easy matter to estabhsh the free common schools here 
on the start. It will also be remembered that the free school had not 
been tested out only about a dozen years anywhere, and some still 
clung to the idea of private schools at private expense. But by the 
close of the Civil war things had materially changed in this respect and 
the schoolhouses were among the things called "necessity" as they have 
been ever since. To begin with, rough log houses answered for school- 
houses — slabs made good enough seats and desks, while very hot and 
very cold schoolhouses were the common structures to attend school in. 

Later the frame and, still later, the occasional brick schoolhouse, 
was provided in this county. Maps and charts were purchased by the 
school boards and now and then a globe and patent blackboard inserted. 
Of more recent years, the accommodation of pupils and teachers has 
come to obtain largely and many of the latest buildings are indeed models 
of schoolhouse architecture. In this connection to illustrate the point 
sought to be made by the writer, a minute description of one of the late 
schoolhouses of Washington County, standing at Cuming City, which 
was dedicated in 1916, is here given: (We quote from the Enterprise 
of that year.) 

"The new rural high school in Cuming City, District No. 6, was 
dedicated last week with appropriate ceremonies. Dr. A. O. Thomas, 
state superintendent, was present and delivered the address and gave 
the following description of the building to us : 'This school is built 
after our community center plans. There are three fine rooms on the 
main floor and three well lighted and well ventilated basement rooms; 
two large rooms on the main floor are thrown together for social func- 
356 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



357 



tions of the community. The building is beautiful in design and con- 
forms to the high standards of architecture in light, heat and ventilation. 
The building is situated in a beautiful grove located on the Washington 
Highway between Omaha and Sioux City. There is no school in the 
state, not even in our cities, which presents more perfect appointment 
and more up-to-date and satisfactory arrangement. There is a play 
room in the basement and laboratory for domestic science and manual 
training, then beside an up-to-date furnace and ventilating apparatus. 
The school has an enrollment of fifty pupils with two teachers carrying 
nine grades of work.' " 

Conditions of Schools in 1876 

From the school records of Centennial year — 1876 — the following 
may be of interest after the flight of forty-five years : 




Log Schoolhouse 

"At the present time there are within the county forty-six school 
districts each provided with a good house for school purposes, varying 
in cost from $500 to $15,000. These houses will compare very favorably 
in appearance and accommodations with the schoolhouses in many of 
the older states and are well supplied with maps, charts, globes — in fact, 
all the necessary apparatus for teaching upon the most approved modern 
principles. There are annually employed in the county seventy-four 
teachers, male and female, and the total number of children of school 
age is 2,323. The amount of wages paid to teachers for the fiscal year 
ending July 1, 1876, was $11,627; value of all school property, $49,970. 

The First Courthouse and School Building 



W. H. Woods, of Fort Calhoun, states that Bell's History of this 
county compiled in Centennial year, says : "A day school was opened by 
Miss Graham in 1856." And Benjamin Miller remembers well going 
to school to Miss Rhodes in 1865. But the first warrant we find recorded 
is marked No. 1, August 1, 1866, for $190 to Miss Jennie Rhodes for 
school term beginning May 14th and ending August 6th and the same 
is signed by T. Bradley, clerk pro tern of the board of education. 
Receipts were found also for nine weeks board due to E. H. Clark for 
boarding teacher at $4 a week, and washing bill amounting to $6.40." 

Bell's History also states that a courthouse of cottonwood boards 
was built on the present school campus, by subscription, in 1856. E. N. 



358 DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 

Grennelle claims it was a schoolhouse, but he then Hved in De Soto, and 
the Clarks and others who gave the money, tell us that it was a court- 
house, and the late Governor L. Crounse told us that when he was 
circuit and supreme judge in this district, he held his first term of court 
in Washington County, in that building. In this building Senator Pad- 
dock, who homesteaded and studied law on the old Logan Fontanelle 
summer camp-ground, was in that building admitted to the bar and A. P. 
Allen told us that when the committee from the State Bar Association 
asked Paddock how much his fighting weight was, the color of his hair, 
etc., they asked him how much money he had and when they adjourned 
to Allen's store where the railway track is now — west of the depot — 
Paddock threw a $20 gold piece, on the counter and said: "Mr. Allen, 
these gentlemen look weary ; never mind the change." 

After the new building was erected the cottonwood became a tene- 
ment house and was accidentally burned dov/n by a pan of hot ashes. 
The new building was one room frame. Hans Rohwer cut the sills and 
hewed them with a broad axe — the pine timber was hauled from 
Des Moines in wagons. Through the kindness of August Schroeder, we 
last month gave portions of these sills to E. E. Blackman for the His- 
torical Society, both fine and sound, this year, 1919. Hans Schwager 
bought the building some years ago for a barn on his farm south of 
town and this year tore it down to make room for a new residence 
by Mr. Schroeder. 

Blair Public Schools 

Blair, the seat of justice for Washington County, has always prided 
itself on its educational institutions, including its most excellent public 
schools. It was said of its schools in 1911 : "Blair has long been known 
for the effective work of its public school system. Three school build- 
ings, including the high school, costing $20,000, offer advantages of a 
superior nature to the pupils of the locality. A most competent corps 
of teachers and an admirable system of management of the school 
work, all tend to show a higher and better work and broader results 
with each successive year." 

As an historic fact of some interest it may be stated that the first 
teacher in Blair was Miss Sarah E. Kibbey, who opened the school in 1869. 

Fort Calhoun School Grounds 

One hundred and sixteen years ago (1804) the famous explorers, 
Lewis and Clark, pitched their camp on the present site of Fort Cal- 
houn, and for a time made headquarters in this vicinity, as is shown by 
their reports to the government. 

In the school grounds at this place is a massive granite tablet weigh- 
ing many tons, erected by the Sons and Daughters of the American 
Revolution, marking the spot where the great and original pathfinders 
made their temporary abode. 

Across the campus of this same school grounds are low undulating 
ridges, which are all that remain of the sunken ramparts of old Fort 
Atkinson. This army post was built by Brevet Brigadier General Atkin- 
son in 1819-20 and at that time the nearest supplies were brought from 
stations at St. Louis. Prairie Du Chien and the Pacific Coast. At that time 
Fort Atkinson was only about a half mile from the Missouri River, 
but the changing channel has now left the site of the old fort several 
miles inland. 



DODGE AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES 



359 



Those were days of tragedy, action and romance. Calhoun as it was 
afterward named was the scene of many a fierce struggle, of hardships 
and stirring events incident to frontier life. 

Superintendent's Report — 1920 



The subjoined are facts taken from the annual report of the county 
superintendent of public schools for Washington County, July, 1920: 



No. 

Dist. 
1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 

16. 

17. 

18. 

19. 

20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 
36. 
37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 



Name 



Kind of 
Schoolhouse 



Blair City 4 brick, 1 frame 

Cruickshank 1 frame 

Fort Calhoun ....1 frame 

Whitford 1 frame 

Fontanelle 1 brick 

Cuming City 1 brick-frame 

De Soto 

Long Creek 1 frame 

Garryown 1 frame 

Masters 1 frame 

Brinkman 2 frame 

GoU 1 frame 

Pleasant View ...1 frame 

Telbasta 1 frame 

Hilgenkamp 2 frame 

Brewster 1 frame 

Hewett 1 frame 

Kindred 1 frame 

Summers 1 frame 

Sutherland 1 frame 

Thone 1 frame 

Herman 1 brick 

New England 1 frame 

Arlington 1 frame 

Wranch 1 frame 

Lecrone 1 frame 

Colby 1 frame 

Maney 1 frame 

McCarthy 1 frame 

Oram 1 frame 

March 1 frame 

Dornacker 1 frame 

Belle Center 1 frame 

Hancock 1 frame 

Rispin 1 frame 

Hill Creek 1 frame 

Lallman 1 frame 

Nefif 1 frame 

Rose Hill 1 frame 

Vacoma 1 frame 

Mattes 1 frame 

Bisbee 1 frame 

Slader 1 frame 

Bono 1 frame 



Enroll- 
ment 
847 
10 
142 
26 
51 
53 

24 
44 
33 
14 
33 
34 
33 
20 
23 
23 
13 
30 
34 
11 
165 
38 
242 
45 
14 
23 
24 
51 
22