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3 1833 00094 6654 

Gc 977.201 D85w 

W1LBON7 George R. , 1863- 

History of Dubois County 

from its primitive days, 













The Military, School, and Church History of the County, 

Geological Observations, 

Natural History and Plant Life 


County's Pioneer, Political and Institutional life. 




Copyright 1910, 



AM Rights Reserved. 

Price, prepaid, $4.00. Published by the Author, Jasper, Indiana. 

Allen County Public Library 
ii* Wayne, Indiand 






The writing of this history has been a self-assigned, pleasing task. If 
the reader gains from it as much satisfaction as the author has enjoyed in 
gathering and compiling the material he will consider himself amply repaid. 

For more than twenty-five years the author has, at every opportunity, 
secured and preserved data with a view of preparing a history of his 
adopted county that would accurately set forth not only its present condi- 
tions, but also the dominant factors that have developed them. 

The period covered is not far from a century. On its pages are the 
names of the builders of the county. Not only is it an epitome of the 
silent past — it is also a story of the splendid life of an ambitious, growing 
■county, hardly yet conscious of its ever expanding strength. 

In presenting this history the author desires to say that the work has 
been performed with extraordinary care, and at no small expense. The 
writer has been upon practically every farm in the county, and in every 
church and school house. He has penetrated its mines, explored its caves, 
and followed the meanderings of its principal rivers. Within its confines 
he has traveled over every highway. He knew personally hundreds of its 
pioneer families, from whom much valuable information was obtained. 
He examined thousands of pages of its local official records, original muster 
rolls, famih^ Bibles, wills, newspapers, old personal letters, passports, com- 
missions, land patents, deeds, and scores of inscriptions upon gravestones 
and monuments. He surveyed mile after mile of its original boundary 
lines, traversed thousands of its acres, and ran the level of many of its 

Add to this, his researches into the original official treaties, records and 
documents, at Frankfort, Vincennes, Springfield, Bardstown, Indianapolis, 
and Washington, and the reader will have a fair idea as to the means by 
which the writer arrived at his conclusions. 

If this opportunity should not be improved, a large amount of interest- 
ing data concerning Dubois county might be lost. 

This book contains twenty-one chapters. Each chapter is a unit in 
itself, covering one subject, or one line of thought upon a subject. In a 
sense each chapter is a separate book. 

In the writer's opinion the book should be read as the chapters are 
numbered, but any one chapter treating of a specific subject may be read 
without reading: the others. 


The chapter on Military History, after covering the record up to iS6i, 
considers the record made in the Civil War, by regiments, and this is, in a 
measure, self-indexed. The chapter on Church History, after covering the 
county as a unit, takes up, in detail, the local church history by townships ; 
hence, this is also, in a measure, self-indexed. The same plan prevails in 
a few other chapters. An examination of the book will soon show that it 
may be readily used as a local book of reference. 

The philosophy of the local history, as well as the history itself, is often 
considered. The institutional life of the people has been given special 

To many people, history is a dull, dry study. It is a difficult task to 
arrange a mass of data in such a manner as to hold the reader's atttention, 
unless the reader himself is a student of history, and searching for informa- 

This history is from the pen of one who knows his county at first hand, 
and interprets its story in a spirit of sympathy. 

Jasper, Indiana, April i, 1910. 

Primeval forests 


Waters ...... 




The Origin of Dubois County. 






Scenery 26 

Settlers. 26 

Traces 27 

Settlements 28 

Hosea Smith 29 

Indiana Gazette 29 

Western Sun 29 

Gen. Washington Johnson 32, 29 

Early citizens 34, 3°, 36, 37. 38, 39 

McDonalds 30, 38 

Piankishaw Indians 30 

Fort Butler 31 

Fort Farris 31 

Dubois county created 31 

Portersville, the count}' seat 32 

John Niblack 33 

Jasper, the county town 33 

Dr. Simon Morgan. 33 

Dubois county library 34 

Seal 34 

Organization day 34 

List of land owners 34 

Census of 1820 35 

Record of McDonald family 3^ 

Captain John Sherritt 39 

Coroner Robert Stewart 39 


Local Geology. 

Knowledge of natural objects add to our appreciation of them 41 

Exact location of Dubois county 4^ 

Of the soldiers' monument 42 

Size of Dubois county 42 

Altitudes of a few places 42 



Patoka river receives the surface drainage 42 

Slope of hills; cause . 42 

Report of State Geologist Cox 43 

Of State Geologist Blatchley 43 

The highland home of Mrs. L. L,. Cooper in Boone township 43 

Level tract northwest of Jasper 43 

The glacial drift 43 

Probability of oil and gas in Boone and Madison townships 43 

Patoka river during pre-glacial times; high banks of river on the south and 

probable cause 44 

Frog Island 44 

Enlow's mill 44 

Patoka Lake Plain 45 

Government ditches 45 

Lime stone deposits in Columbia township 45 

Stone coal 45. 4^ 

The great book of Nature, open and free, in Dubois County 46 


Local Geological Observations. 

Patoka mound. 47 

Infusorial earth 47 

Sand stone • • 47 

The Silver Well 47, 48, 49 

Annuity salt 48 

David Dale Owen appointed State Geologist 481 49 

Report of 1838 4S 

Vowell cave in Columbia township; mouth and interior 50 

Description of Vowell cave 50, 51. 52, 53 

■Geological data 53. 54- 55, 56. elc. 


Natural Scenery in Dubois County. 

An ideal spot for the artist, the poet, the scientist, and the novelist 63 

Buffalo trace and Buckingham's base line 63 

Southern railroad ; unfair to judge county from car window 63 

Totem rocks and Saltpeter cave with Indian relics 64 

Raven rocks near the line between Columbia and Hall townships ; size and 

color, nests of ravens 65 

Raven rock near the line between Dubois and Martin counties; discovered in 

1804 66 

Description of Wild Cat rock 67 

Blue Bird rock 68 

Han ging rock 68 

Piankishaw rock 69 

Indian Kitchen rock in Hall township 69 

Indian relics and mortars 69 

■Cliffs in their winter beauty 70 

The Barren. . . 
Buffalo Trace 



Dubois County as a Primeyal Forest. 



. . , 71 

•Gigantic iceberg _ ^ 

Three peculiar discoveries _2 

Cooper hill -2 

Patoka Lake Plain -, 

Yalue of county's original timber -2 

Topography of county _2 

Natural forest trees 79 7- 

Tulip poplar -,, 

Thick, dark forests. -, 

Forest undergrowth -^ 

Swamp land in Madison township -j^ 

■Corduroy roads -^ 

Forests of Dubois count)- one hundred years ago j4 

List of indigenous trees . 74, 75 

Milk sickness; cause 76 

A day of public prayer -6 

List of smaller varieties of vegetation 76, 77 

Effect on climate of the removal of vegetation ; on health 77 

Abraham Lincoln 

Daniel Boone 



Early Bird and Axi.^ial Life ix Dubois County. 

Forest birds 79 

Water birds 79 

Eagles 79 

Swans 80 

Ducks 80 

Woodpeckers 80 

Turkeys 80 

Ravens 80 

Paraquets 80 

Pigeon roosts at Huntingburg; at St. Henry 81 

Bee hunting 82 

Honey 82 

Bee habits 82, 83 

■Survival of the fittest ^i 

Deer 83 

Deer paths ^3 

Black bears ^3 

Wolves ^4 

Wild hogs ^4 

First entry on existing official records 84 

Other entries 84, 85 

Native products °5 

Fox hunting ''^ 



Pioneer liunters 

Indian burials . . . 
Piankisliavv Indians. 





Indian Titles and Original Surveys. 





Vincennes tract 

Indians and French at Vincennes 89 

Wabash Land company 89 

William Rector's base line. . . 9^ 

Government surveys 9^ 

Buckingham's base line 9^ 

Second principal meridian.. 92 

Initial point 9^ 

Rectangular system 93 

Printed instructions given the government deputy surveyors 93 

Government's knowledge of Dubois county land 94 

Surveyors 94 

Flagmen 95 

Surveyor's compass 95 

Blazed tree 95 

Surveyor's blaze 9^ 

Congressional townships 96 

Area of Dubois county 97 

Donations 98 

Three flags in Dubois county , 98 


Epitome on Pioneers and their Ethnography in 
Dubois County. 

Life in Dubois county 99 

Water, the great highway upon which pioneers traveled 99 

Creeks bear the names of early settlers 99 

Blazing a path through the forest 99 

The Buffalo trace and its importance as an overland route 100 

Buffalo Pond 100 

The first paper in Indiana loi 

Corduroy roads, forts and taverns ... loi 

Buckingham's base line loi 

The settlers in the north half of Dubois county loi 

In the south half of Dubois county loi 

Neglected graveyards loi , 102 

Religious history of Harbison township 103 

Piankishaw Indian villages : 103 

Isolation of Dubois county 103 

Wedding invitations 104 

German accent 104 



The Pioneers of Dubois County. Their Homes, Social 
Life, Labors, Characteristics and Nativity. 


Building sites 105 

I louse raising 105 

Dinner at house raising time 105 

Puncheons 106 

Clapboards 106 

Divorces 106 

Neighborly calls 107 

Spinning 107 

Industry of pioneer women 107 

Homespun clothing 107 

Stick chimneys 108 

The sugar camp loS 

Spelling matches 108 

Block houses 108 

Fort McDonald, Fort Farris, Fort Butler loS 

Oldest map of Dubois county 109 

The character of the pioneer of the Irish settlement 109 

Courts 109 

Judges 109 

Hon. Wm. E. Niblack no 

The pioneer doctor no 

Pioneer doctors at Jasper, Huntingburg, Ferdinand, Holland, Haysville, in 

Madison township I lo-i 1 1 

Fear of Indians before War of 1812 in 

Friendship . . i n 

The first adopted Red Man in Dubois county 112 

Pioneer merchants 112 

Court house at Jasper destroyed by fire 112 

Territorial penal laws 1 1 2-1 1 3 

Negroes 113 

The first newspaper in Dubois count}' 114 

Fires destroy valuable papers. 114 

The six townships and population of each nS 

Exports of county. n 5 

Our pioneers came from Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, 

Tennessee, Maryland, Georgia, Ohio and Pennsylvania 115-116 


Pioneer Life, Pastimes and Sports. 

Christmas festivity n? 

New Year n7 

The first Thanksgiving Day proclamation n 7 

Independence Day 117 

The spirit of 1776 117 

Revolutionary pensioners n 8 

Indian wars nS 



Observance of the Fourth at Jasper i ■ 8 

Program of the day ^ ' 9 

Father Kundeck's guards ii9 

Vigo, the fire engine ' ^9 

Natal Day celebrations by the German settlers 1 19 

Log rollings 120 

Quilting bees ; names of patch work 120 

Corn husking 120 

Dancing >20 

Early fiddlers and some of their selections 120-121 

Character of the pioneer fiddler 121 

Games. 122 

Shooting matches ' 22 

Drill days for the local militia J 22 

Militia laws 122 

Militia officers 122-123 

Election day at Jasper 123 

Fights 323 

The pioneer politician 1 23 

County clerk and recorder 1 24 

Goodlet Morgan's letter 124-125 

Jonathan Walker 125 

Two-wheeled vehicles 125 

First white boy born in Dubois county — Allen McDonald 126 


Pioneer Ways and Customs. Incidents of 
Pioneer Days. 

Character of the local pioneer 127 

The dress of the pioneer hunter 128 

Charms 128 

Cooking 12S 

Light 128 

The mansion house 1 29 

Wedding costumes of 1 840 129 

Wedding feasts 129 

Coffins 129 

Extract from a German book 129 

Friedman 1 29 

Horse-back riding 1 30 

Mills 130 

Brick houses 130 

Frame houses 1 30 

Beds 131 

Extract from Morgan's letter; schools, pupils, mail, Irish settlement, popula- 
tion, lawyers, physicians, various occupations, religious denominations, flat 

boats, log court house at Jasper, whiskey 131, 132, 133 

Apprentices 133 

Character of the pioneer blacksmith 133-134 

Products of the blacksmith 1 34 



Charcoal burning 134 

Pioneer blacksmiths in Dubois county 135 

Pioneer daj^s at Huntingburg 135-143 


Pioneer Highways and Means of Transportation. 

Natural land marks as guides to travelers 144. 

Buffalo trace 1 44 

Ox teams 145 

Caleche 145 

State roads 145 

Old Troy road 145 

Taverns . . . .' 145, 146 

Mail routes 146 

Revenue for State roads 146 

Road tax 146 

Ferries 147 

Patoka river, a highway 148 

Navigation in Dubois county 148 

White river 148 

Flat boats 149 

Products carried on flat boats ] 49 

Trips made 149 

Stories told by flat boat men.. 150 

Difficulty of travel 150 

Early citizens of Dubois county who owned flat boats 151 

Flat boat pilots 151 

Dangerous points in the Mississippi river ;' 15 r, 152 

Steamboats .' 152 

Jokes 152 

Pork 153 

Indentured servants 153 


When, Why, and How Jasper Became the County 

Town. Complete LIvST of Real EvSTate 

Owners Up to December 31, 1830. 

Removal of the county seat from Portersville to Jasper 154 

Copy of the Act appointing commissioners to re-locate the seat of justice in Du- 
bois county 154 

Supplement to said act 157 

Population of Portersville in 1830 15S 

Jacob Drinkhouse, the pioneer hatter I59 

Reasons why Jasper was made the county town i59 

The original town of Jasper 159, 160 

Court house fire 160 

Survey made of the county seat 160 

The Enlows 161 



Why the name "Jasper" was chosen i6i 

Writing sand i6i 

Erection of the first house in Jasper i6r 

Mrs. Nancy Weathers i6i 

Record of Testitnony 162 

Court held at the house of James H . Condict 162 

At the Cumberland Presbyterian Church 163 

First two story brick residence in Dubois county 163 

Real estate owners in Dubois county up to 1S31 163 

B. B. Edmonston, Sr. and Benj. R. Edmonston 167, 16S 

Esquire Henry Bradley's account of early days at Jasper 169 


Educational Work in Dubois County. 

The early schools, teachers and pupils 170 

Early books, methods and educational opportunities 171 

Rev. A. J. Strain and other school officials 173 

Old licenses 177 

Township libraries 179 

Legislative enactments . 180 

Graduates 1S4 

Prominent teachers 1S4 

Education in general 185 

Parochial schools 185 

Jasper College 185 

Ferdinand Academy ; 187 

Hon. A. M. Sweeney 191 


Very Rev. Joseph Kundeck, Vicar-General of Vin- 
cENNEs, Missionary to Dubois County. 

General appearance of Father Kundeck ; birth, education, missionary work in 

America; received by Dr. Brute, of Vincennes ; sent to Jasper 197 

St. Joseph's Hall 199 

First German Catholic church in the State of Louisiana 200 

Ferdinand; deed for the town of Ferdinand; engraved map 200 

Celestine 20 1 

Court house at Jasper; petition; price paid for labor 203 

Board of school examiners 204 

Sisters of Providence 204 

Visit to Europe; result 205 

St. Meinrad 205 

Death of Rev. Kundeck ; burial 206 

Loss to the community 206 



Church History of Dubois County. 


Early church services 207 

Early ministers 208 

Earl}' church houses 209 

The Rev. A. J. Strain 210 

List of early ministers of various denominations 210 

The Rev. John Strange 210 

The Rev. AVilson Thompson 210 

Earh- church deeds 211 

Impressive language used in church donations 212 

William Clark Kendall on pioneer daj'S 213 

Kundeck, Strain, Shively, Goodman, Nix, etc., leaders of their church creeds. . 214 

The Baily church house 216 

Origin of the Reformed Methodist church 218 

The Rt. Rev. August Bessonies, V. G 219 

St. Joseph's Cross at Jasper 220 

Early Catholic services 220 

The Sheritt graveyard 221 

Moral, religious and educational forces of pioneer ministers 222 

Detailed history of various churches in Dubois county arranged by townships — 

Columbia 222 

Harbison 224 

Boone 225 

Madison 227 

Bainbridge 230 

Marion 236 

Hall 237 

Jefferson 239 

Jackson.. 240 

Patoka 241 

Cass 247 

Ferdinand 253 


Dubois County— Her Courts, Officials and Quasi- 
Officials for One Hundred Years. 

County court organized 255 

Early county officials 255 

Early court scenes .... 255 

Jury spring 255 

Early president judges 256 

Fines remitted . . 256 

Early prosecutors 256 

Early law terms 256 

Mill dams 256 

Common law forms 256 

Adoption of the code ^S" 



Pioneer officers' salaries 257 

President judges, side judges, squires 257 

Court attractions 257 

L/ist of early lawyers 257 

Biographies of early judges 258 

Names of judges 260 

Probate courts 261 

Common pleas court 261 

List of prosecutors in the court of common pleas 261 

Walker murder trial 262 

Death of Sheriff Woolridge 262 

Weaver and Thurman trials 262 

A death penalty verdict 262 

Death of deputy sheriffs ; the Reeves case 262 

White Caps 263 

Judge Welborn 263 

List of prosecutors 263 

List of attorneys 263 

County officials 264 

John McDonald, a justice 265 

Early elections 265 

Republican county officials 265 

Voting power of the county in 1849 266 

Associate j udges 266 

Probate judges 266 

Notaries public 267 

Swamp land officials, 267 

Sheriffs 267 

Clerks ... 268 

Recorders 269 

Coroners 270 

Overseers 271 

Surveyors 271 

Treasurers 272 

Auditors 273 

Councilmen 274 

Justices 274 

Commissioners 278 

School officials 278-280 

Appraisers 278 

Assessors 278 

County Board of Health 279 

Judges 279 

Superintendents 280 

Truant officials 280 

State Senators 280 

Representatives 281 

State officials 283 

Congressmen 283 

Elections 284 

Leading Democrats of 1850 284 

Voting power of the county 284 



The Military History of Dubois County. 

, ,. PACE. 

Revolutionary soldiers 287 

Early guides and rangers. 287 

Military roads 288 

A fight with the Indians 2S9 

The militia of Dubois county under Indiana's first constitution 289 

The pioneers' " Forty-third regiment" 291 

Mexican War record . 


Civil War record 295 

Home guards 296 

Names of soldiers 297-302 

Original six townships 297 

Flag of the Twenty-seventh 309 

Medals for Lieut. W. W. Kendall 320 

Sword for Brig. Gen. Mehringer 3 ;o 

High Rock 337 

Bounties 338 

Relief 338 

Loyal Legion 33S 

Spanish War 340 

The monument 342 


Detailed Town and Township History of 
Dubois County. 

Columbia township 346 

Hillham 347 

Crystal 347 

Cuzco 347 

Harbison township 348 

Thales 349 

Kellerville 349 

Haysville 349 

Dubois 349 

Boone township 35^ 

Portersville 353 

Wm. B. Sherritt 354 

Madison township 354 

Millersport 354 

Ireland 355 

Bainbridge township 35^ 

Jasper 356 

Maltersville 359 

Marion township 359 

Hall township. 360 

Celestine 360 

Ellsworth 36 1 



JeflFerson township 361 

Birdseye 361 

Schnellville 362 

Mentor 363 

Jackson township 363 

St. Anthonj' 363 

Bretzville 364 

Kyana 364 

St. Marks 364 

Patoka township. 364 

Huntingburg 365 

Duff 367 

Cass township 368 

Zoar 368 

Johnsburg 368 

St. Henry 369 

Holland 369 

Ferdinand township 370 

Ferdinand 371 


Dubois County. Its Modern, Political, Social, Fraternal, and 

Commercial Life. 

Its growth into civil and political sub-divisions 372 

Public buildings ; past and present 373 

The New Court House 373 

Public and quasi-public institutions or associations 374 

County Fair 376 

County Medical society 376 

Mortuary statistics 377 

List of physicians 377 

Farmers' Institute 378 

Teachers' Institute 379 

List of postmasters 379 

Newspapers, past and present 379 

Courier 380 

Signal. ... . . . , 380 

Argus 381 

Independent 381 

Herald 382 

News 382 

Banks, state and national 382 

Secret, benevolent, fraternal, and social orders 385 

G. A. R 385 

W. R. C 387 

0. E. S 389 

F. O. F 387 

1. O. R. M 3S8 

A. S. E 388 

F. & A. M 389 



Secret, benevolent, fraternal, and social orders — continued: 

I. O. O. F 389 

Rebekahs 390 

C. K. of A 391 

Y. M. 1 391 

R. & A. M 392 

K. of P., etc 387 

Twentieth century club 392 

Music, band 392 

Transportation 394 

Resources 394 

Occupations 395 

Characteristics 395 


Military and Civil History of Captain Dubois. 


Toussaint Dubois, a native of France, disinherited by father 396 

Went to Lower Canada 397 

Came to Indiana Territory 397 

Became an expert at fur trading 397 

Gen. William Henry Harrison gave Dubois the rank of Captain in the Tip- 
pecanoe campaign 39^ 

Tecumseh and his brother, the Prophet 39^ 

The Prophet's Town 399 

Indians commit depredations 4°° 

Extract from Dillon's History of Indiana 399> 4oo 

Extract from Beard's Battle of Tippecanoe 399 

Annuity salt 399 

Dubois and the Prophet 4°° 

Mr. Barron and the Prophet 4°° 

Gen. Harrison's army at Vincennes 4°° 

Roll of Capt. Dubois' company of spies and guides 40i 

The march, the camp, the desire of Gen. Harrison to prevent hostilities 401 

The battle 4oi 

Absence of Tecumseh 402 

Burial of dead 402, 403 

Result of battle 403 

Tippecanoe battlefield 403 

Dubois county named in honor of Capt. Touissant Dubois 403 

Counties named in honor of faithful soldiers of Tippecanoe campaign 404 

Indian names 4^4 


Religion, occupation and property of Capt. Dubois 405 

Citizens of Vincennes 405 

Member of board of trustees of Vincennes University 4^5 

Use of lottery 4o6 

Copy of patent issued to Toussaint Dubois by Thomas Jefferson 406 



First marriage of Dubois 407 

Death and burial of first wife; her grave. 407 

E.'ctract from English's Conquest of Northwest Territory 408 

Children of Mrs. Dubois 40S 

Second marriage of Dubois 408 

Three sons 408 

Senator Fred. T. Dabois, of Idaho 408 

Estate of Jesse K. Dubois, near Springfield, 111 40S 

Oil painting of Dubois 409 

Silverware 409 

Mrs. Ophelia Dubois McCarthy 409 

Children and grandchildren of Capt. Dubois 409 

Last will and testament 410 

Provisions made for wife, children and slaves 410 

Arpent 411 

Signature 41 1 

Bond of Mrs. Dubois 411 

Tragic death of Capt. Dubois 412' 

Extract from the Western Sun 412' 

No record of burial 412 

Dubois county, his monument 412 




Alles, Capt. John J 322 

Atkiuson, James H 355 

Brademeyer, John S 33.> 

Berger, Henry 33^ 

Bridge over Patoka river 151^ 

*Baily Church m Hall Township 217 

='-Beatty Log schoolhouses 178 

Block, John SUj 

Bretz, Hon. John L -jgl, 279 

Buchlein, John B 35y 

Cabin in the Clearing 92 

Calumet Lake (Courtesy Jasper Herald) 358 

Comingore, Henry 114 

Convent of the Immaculate Conception 188 

Cooper, Rev. George C 175 

Corn. George P 340 

County Poor Asylum 376 

Court Houses 

*Portersville, 1S18 25, 373 

*Jasper, 1830 161 

Jasper, 187 b— 1909 202 

Jasper, 1910 374 

Cox, Hon. William E 283 

Cox, Rev. Sampson 215 

Dall, Henry 370 

Deinderfer, J. M 273 

I'epotat Jasper {CouTtesy Jasper Herald) 357 

Di)ane, Clement (Courtesy Jasper Courier) 380 

Dubois, Capt. Toussaint •■'20, 390 

•'Will of 410 

'■'Signature of 411 

Dubois. Mrs. T. 

*Graveof 407 

*Early Means of Transportation 147 

Eckert's Mill 102 

Edmonston, Hon. Benj. R 168 

'•'Signature of 168 

Edmonston, Col. B. B 266, 292 

Edmonston, Mrs. Col. B. B 38 

El v, Judge E. A 279 

Erny, William 356 

Fisher, Ben 363 

Flag of (Jo. "K," 27th Regiment 309 

*Plag of Co. "K," after Antletam 309 

Fisher, Capt. Morman 332 

'■Port McDonald J08 

Friedman Pioneer Home (Courtesy Jasper Herald) 130 

Friedman, Martin 273 

Fritz, Joseph 305 

Gehlhausen, John J ^ 368 

Geiger, Col. Jacob 138, 306 

Residence of 307 

Goodman, Rev. B. T 214 

Gramelspacher, John 299 

Greene, B. L 282 

Guckes, Capt. P. P 333 

Haberle, Capt. John Martin 311 

Haskin, Neman 269 

Hayes, William 174 

High Rock, Daviess county 337 

Hillsboro C. P. Church ". 229 

Holland High School 309 

Hoosier City • , 30/ 

Huntingburg Public Schools (Courtesy Huntingburg Signal) l''^!- 182 

Indian Ford, at Jasper (Courtesy Josper Herald) 1>^? 

'■Indian relics *;■'' 

Indian Kitchen Rock *'^ 

Inman. Thomas H 351 

Ireland C. P. Church 22'^ 

■•■Jacob's Graded school house l_2 

Jackie, Conrad 2^? 

Jail, at Jasper (1910) -"^ 



Jasper College 186 

Jasper M. E. Church (Courtesy Jasper Courier) 236 

Johnsou, Ed. C 365 

Jutt, George J 334 

Kemp, Beuj. K 271 

Kempf, Jacob 360 

Kendall, Lieut. W. W 320 

Koeneke, Rev. H V16 

Koerner, August H 274 

-Kundeck's, Rev. Jos. (signature) 203 

Kunz, Henry 369 

Leramon C. P. Church 226 

Lemmon, Capt. Johu M 304 

Litschgi, August 274 

Luekeu Schoolhouse ,.. 183 

*Maps of Dubois county 

-Firstcounty map, 1817 and 1830 158 

*Early settlements, up to 1830 162 

■:=Mapsof 1841, 1844, 1845, 1.S46 372 

-Map of 1861, Civil War Map 297 

<"Map, 100 years after settlement 285 

"Map of Vowell Cave 52 

='=Maple Grove Camp Ground 246 

Mehringer, John, Brig Gen 329 

Sword of 330 

Haute, Rev. Fidelis, O. S. B 234 

Melchior, William 174 

Morgan, D. G 346 

^'Morgan, Col. Simon (penmanshipi 33 

McDonald, Allen 126 

McDonald, Lieut. Hiram 304 

McMahan, Dr. Wm. R 377 

Niblack, Judge Wm. E 110 

Pioneer Home, Jasper (courtesy Jasper Herald) 155 

Raven Rock (Hall Tp.) 65, 66 

Raven Rock near Thales 67 

Rothert, Herman 141 

St. Joseph Church, Jasper 199, 231 

Salem's Church, Huntingburg 242 

Schnell, Henry .362 

Schreeder, Col. C. C 3.35 

Schroeder, Joseph 313 

Sherritt, Wm. B 354 

Sherritt Graveyard 221 

Shiloh C. P. church 228 

Shively, Rev. Jacob Banta 213 

Shively, Capt. Lewis Biram 323 

Soldiers' Monument, at Jasper 342 

Stewart, James G 129 

Stadler. Rev. Eberhardt 253 

Stork, Jesse K 341 

Strain, Rev. A. J 175 

Sweeney, Hon. A. M 193 

Thimling, Martin 348 

Traylor, Albert H 267 

Traylor, Hon. William A 281 

'•'Totem Rocks 64 

View in Vowell Cave 50 

Vignette (courtesy Huntingbury Independent) 286 

Welborn, Judge O. M 263 

Welman,Capt. R. M 310 

Wilson, Michael 60 

Wilson, George R. (Frontispiece) 5 

Wilson, Thomas B 340 

Young, William T 272 

*Pen drawings by the author. 



Primeval forests— Animals — Waters — Rocks— Scenery — Settlers — Traces— Settlements 
— Hosea Smith— /wo'/rtwa Gazette— Western Snn—Gen. Washington Johnson— Early 
Citizens — McDonalds — Piankishaw Indians — Fort Butler — Fort Farris — Dubois 
county created— Portersville, the county seat— John Niblack— Jasper, the "county 
town" — Dr. Simon Morgan — Dubois county library— Seal— Organization Day. 
List of Land owners— Census of 1820— Record of McDonald Family— Capt. John 
Sherritt — Coroner Robert Stewart. 

Portersville Court House (1818.) 

When the first year of the nineteenth century rolled around, what is now 
within the confines of Dubois county was practically one unbroken wilder- 
ness. White river quietly carried its clear waters down past the beatitiful 
sycamores, the white 
armed daughters of the 
primeval forest, that 
grew in grandeur below 
the site of Portersville 
and dipped their umbrel- 
la shaped leaves far 
across the water to drink 
in nourishment. The 
osprey fished on the 

wing, while the cat-fish played to its heart's content at the bottom of the 
river, without mtich danger of arrested sport. 

Patoka, still slow and sluggish, was then always bank full, the slowest 
and sleepiest stream in Indiana. Sycamore, maple, birch, elm, beech, and 
willow exerted themselves, gracefully bowing their heads across the .stream 
to shut out the rays of a mid-day sun and protect the flight of the wild 
heron on its mission up the stream. "Buffalo Pond," "Duck Pond," and 
other ponds, without name, swelled with original prominence, occupied 
twice, yes, thrice, their present space, while salamanders, frogs, water- 
snakes, aquatic insects, and marsh plants held their own with native sati.s- 
faction and contentment. The jolly, red-headed woodpecker and the noisy 
blue-jay, from the tree-tops on the hill-sides, vied with each other to break 
the quietness of the scene. 

Bruin slept unmolested in his wallows ii. Vowell cave ; the bald eagle 
reared its young on Pond Ridge, south of the present site of Birdseye, 
while the mountain laurel grew in luxury on rocky ridges of the water- 
shed. Nolan spring spent its crystal waters to slake the thirst of the 
Piankishaw Indian as he wooed his dusky mate, on his return from Salt- 
peter cave. With a confidence born of past experience, the wald cat slept 



with her young in the crevices of Wild Cat rock. The ravens built their 
rude and unsightlv nests in Raven rock and fed upon the wild bunnies ot 
the Columbian hills. Along Hall creek in Marion township, wild hogs ted 
upon the masts, and killed and ate rattlesnakes and copperheads. The 
finest poplar trees that grew in Indiana graced the hillsides, and furnished 
nesting places for the eagle and store-room for the wild bee. 

Turkeys, bob-whites, and pheasants were wild and fancy tree m the 
stunted black-jacks and barren tracts of the Hurricane's wake in Jefferson 
townshiD. Immense white oaks, the monarchs of the forest, grew in 
strength and beauty, where now stands the city of Huntingburg. Elks, 
deer, "and panthers idled away their time on the site of Jasper, while the 
otter, wild cat, weasel, and Canadian porcupine felt secure along the banks 
of the Anderson. MoUusks, mussels, and other crustaceous things lived 

about Frog island and explored the stony ledges 
at its base, while squirrels jumped from limb to 
limb of the over-hanging forest trees, or fed upon 
the wild mulberry that grew across the valley. 
Ducks, geese, snipes, and plovers lived, un- 
molested, about the ponds, swamps, and streams 
of Madison township, while the beaver, with its 
natural inclinations and tendencies, built, at its 
leisure, immense beaver dams near Shiloh. 
Wolves howled and fought in Harbison town- 
ship, and bears remained there until the cotton 
grew in the fields along White river. Buffaloes 
strayed from their beaten path and fed upon the 
tall grass that graced the borders of "Buffalo 
Pond." Marsh wrens, swamp sparrows, red- 
winged blackbirds, cranes, and aquatic fowls of 
various descriptions flew, on idle wing, or waded with indifferent care m 
Pigeon creek The shy gray fox lived in peace and happiness on the 
site of Ferdinand, while the opossum and raccoon reared their young along 
the banks of Flat creek. Diana would have been happy here. 

There were no white men in the lands. The streams, which made no 
noise and left no trail, were the only safe way to enter the wilderness of; 
Dubois county, except the "Buffalo Trace." The county slept in all its 
original grandeur, a diamond in the wilderness, unowned, unsung, and 
uninhabited by white men— a picture never to be seen again. But why 
waste words? Calliope, herself, could not do the picture justice. 

With a forest containing a fortune for all, if cared for, this "wild mother 
of ours," awaited the coming of the McDonalds. In 1801, they came, they 
saw, they conquered, and to-day Dubois county asks favors of none. 

That mysterious "call of the wild" took possession of the McDonalds 
in Kentucky. It would hear of no answer but gratification ; it acknowl- 
edged no result but success. Indiana was "the wild," the "Buffalo Trace" 

Capt. Dubois. 


I:k1 witlHt'V n k" '""""' '"?"^ '"' ^"^""^^^>' ^"^"^^^-d the means,, 
and ^^ th it all, Dubois county received its first permanent white residents 

and citizens. Tney followed the trace until they reached the site of Boone 

ownship, and there they made the first permanent white settlement withm 

he present imits of Dubois county. This was achieved before the Indian 

title was fully extinguished or the land surveved. In every sense of the 

word, It was an answer to the "call of the wild." 

The "Buffalo Trace," now obliterated, was such an important 
factor in the settlement, not only of Dubois county, but of other counties 
m southern Indiana, that it deserves more than a passing notice 

Why the buffalo is seen upon the seal of the state of Indiana is easily 
understood when one recalls that buffaloes ranged in countless numbers 
in Indiana. They made several paths through the state. One passed 
tlirough Dubois county. Of this one we shall write. The old "Buffalo 
Trace" was so important in pioneer days that William Rector was employed 
to make a survey of the east end of it, which he did in July, 1805 The old 
trace from the prairies in Illinois to the blue grass regions of Kentucky 
crossed White river at Decker's ferry, north-west of Petersburg, entered 
Dubois county near the Miley school-house, passed Fort McDonald went 
on south of Haysville, thence east, near I^udlow school-house, to Union 
valley, and entered Orange county within a hundred yards of the Southern 
railroad track m Columbia township. It pa.ssed near French Lick and 
Paoh. In Dubois county the trace practically paralleled what is now called 
■^Buckingham's Base Line." Milburn's spring, in Columbia township, and 
Fort McDonald, in Boone township, were camping grounds along this trace. 
This old "Buffalo Trace" is also known as the "Mud Holes," "Governor's 
Trace," "Kentucky Road," "Louisville Trace," and "Vincennes Trace," but 
the primary cause of the trail was the wild buffalo. Its trail was always 
near water or->wet places. 

The buffalo wallows along this trace caused it to be called, bv some, 
the "Mud Hole" trace. To-day a small branch of Mill creek bears the name 
"Mud Hole" creek. Gen. Harrison changed the trace in some places, in 
1801, and it is sometimes referred to as the "Governor's Trace." On one of 
his trips over this trace. Gen. Harrison lost his gold watch, which was 
found some years later. 

David Sandford, the government surveyor, who surveyed town one, 
south, range five, west, in Dubois county, in 1805, located the "Mud-Holes" 
at about one hundred rods east of the northwest corner of section three, 
that is, south of where Fort McDonald stood, and near Sherritt's graveyard'. 
In iSoi, a traveler along the "Buffalo Trace," through what is now 
Dubois county, would have noticed here and there big circular patches, 
where the grass was greener, thicker, and higher than anywhere else 
around. Those curious circles of superior grass were due to a cause that 
will never be seen again. They were the existing reminders of the buffalo 
days. Those rank and verdant patches of grass marked spots where the once 


common buffalo wallows were familiar and often welcome landmarks in the 
forest. Where a little stagnant water had collected, the ground being soft 
under the short grass, it was an easj- matter for the buffalo to make a mud 
puddle in which to cool himself. 

To accomplish this, a male buffalo — always a male that made the wal- 
low — would drop on one knee, plunge his horn, and at last his head into 
the earth, and make an excavation into which the water slowly filtered. 
Then, throwing himself on his side as flat as he could, he rolled vigorously 
around, ripping up the ground with his horns and hump, sinking himself 
deeper and deeper, and gouging his wallow out larger, until it was of 
dimensions to suit his purpose. The excavation would graduall}- fill with 
water until the buffalo was entirel}^ immersed, the water and mud, mixed 
to the consistency of mortar, covering him from his head to the tip of his 

A buffalo wallow was usually about twelve feet in diameter, and from 
two to three feet deep, and a male buffalo would complete one in half an 
hour. Sometimes there would be fifty or a hundred waiting for the leader 
to get through with his bath so they could have a chance at it. He usually 
took his time wallowing in the mud hole. When it suited him to come out, 
a frightful looking monster, dripping thick with ooze from his huge body, 
the male that had won the right to be next in rank entered the wallow for 
his bath. 

Over the "Buffalo Trace," through Dubois county, many thousands of 
buffaloes passed annually. They crossed the Ohio river at the Falls. From 
the Ohio river to "Big Bone Lick," and the "Blue Licks," in Kentucky, 
these animals had beaten a path wide enough for a wagon road. In Dubois 
county the buffalo's presence was only transient. He was seen going or 
coming, and then not later than 1808. Toward the close of the eighteenth 
century a very cold winter, continuing several months, froz^ all vegetable 
growth, starved the noble animals, and the herds never regained their loss. 

Their path made it easier for pioneers to travel in the forests, and ac- 
counts for the settlements in this county first appearing in the northern 
part. Notice that the first white man's path into the county, on foot, was 
not paralleled by rail until more than one hundred years had passed away. 
The "Buffalo Trace" was trodden from time almost immemorial. In turn 
the buffalo, Indians, "le coureur de bois," priests, French salt hunters, 
pioneers, soldiers, settlers, governors and mail-carriers trod its weary way 
Over this "Buffalo Trace" the government mails, in Dubois county, were 
first carried. The first mail over it was carried on foot, by Mathias Mounts. 
George Teverbough, a noted pioneer hunter, also carried mail on foot 
over this trace once a week. One week he traveled from Louisville to Vin- 
cennes and reversed his steps the next week. Lieutenants of the "Shawnee 
Prophet" "trod the Buffalo Trace," before 181 1, inciting the Piankishaw 
Indians against the whites. Pike count}', as well as Dubois county, was I 
first settled along this trace. Pike county at "White Oak Springs" and 
Dubois county at Sherritt's graveyard. 


Hosea Smith was a prominent pioneer along this trace. He was born 
in North Carolina, and came to Pike county as a pioneer and laid out a 
town at "White Oak Springs." Here, in 181 1, he was postmaster. Hosea 
Smith was count\- survej^or of Pike county for thirty years and has the 
distinction of having laid out three "county towns," Petersburg, 1817; 
Portersville, 1818: and Jasper, in 1830. He w^as also a justice of the peace, 
merchant, and farmer. In those days a surveyor was an important factor 
in county affairs. Near this trace, in Pike county, Samuel Pride and 
Hosea Smith built a fort, in 1787, which protected the white settlers from 
the Indians, who, at times, were troublesome. It is related that once when 
the garrison at the fort was at the point of abandoning it, Mrs. Hosea 
Smith saved the life of a child of the Indian chief by preventing the white 
guards from shooting it. She carried the child into the fort. The next 
day a treaty of peace was made. 

In the organization of Pike county, on the second Monday of Februarv, 
1817, the commissioners named in the act convened, as the law required, 
at the home of Hosea Smith, and proceeded to discharge their duties. The 
law also provided that all the courts were to be "holden at the house of 
said Hosea Smith" until the court house of Pike county was constructed. 

The hidiana Gazette, the first newspaper published in Indiana, bears 
date of July 4, 1804. In 1S06, the plant w-as destroyed. It was located at 
Vincennes. The owmer, Elihu Stout, determined to re-establish his paper 
and on July 4, 1S07, again issued his paper, which he then called The 
Western San. The paper thus founded, with few changes, has had a 
continued existence. It is Democratic in politics. The material for this 
paper was purchased at Frankfort, Kentucky, and carried over the "Buffalo 
Trace" on three pack-horses. Mr. Stout rode one of the horses and on the 
other two were loaded the type, ink and other fixtures and supplies. For 
years all the material used in the publication of The Western Sun passed 
through Dubois county over this old trace. The line of travel is the line 
of intelligence, and this old trace was certainly a line of intelligence in its 
day. The Western Sun printed the session acts of the territorial legis- 
lature, up until 1 8 14. It also printed the first Indiana Code. 

General Washington Johnson, one of the commissioners to select a site 
for the county seat of Dubois county was a native of Culpepper county, 
Virginia. He located at Vincennes in 1793. and remained there continu- 
ously in the active practice of law until his death, which occurred October 
26, 1833. He was one of the most prominent members of the bar during 
his day, was called by his fellow citizens to fill many offices of trust and 
profit under the territorial government and the borough of Vincennes. He 
was President Judge of the Vincennes circuit court. He served many 
terms as a member of the legislature from the county of Knox. He made 
the first compilation of the laws of Indiana territory. His book was the 
first law book printed in Indiana, and the paper used in the book was car- 


ried on pack horses through Dubois county, along the "Buffalo Trace." 
The IVesteni Sun printed the book, one page at a time. The book 
contains three hundred pages. 

There lived along this trace many early citizens. James Harbison, Sr., 
of this county, a pensioner of the Revolutionary War, who was born in 
1763, and who was nearly eighty years of age at the time of his death, was 
a "trace resident." Col. Simon Morgan, the Virginian and Whig, the 
first clerk of Dubois county, and a county official for twenty-three years, 
came here over this trace and lies buried near it in the Reed cemetery, 
south of Haysville. Judge Arthur Harbison, who bought land in Dubois 
county just twenty-five days after Capt. Dubois made the first purchase, 
and for whom Harbison township was named, lies buried on the trace. He 
was very influential in the organization of Dubois county, and was its first 
associate judge, having been an associate judge in Pike county. 

There were, until recently, many logs buried in a field in Columbia 
township, placed there by General Harrison's men, in repairing the old 
trace. There are numerous other items or incidents that might be men- 
tioned, showing the importance of the old trace, but the most significant is 
the settlement and organization of Dubois county. That is what makes 
the "Buffalo Trace" an essential factor in our county history. 

The McDonalds came to Dubois county in iSoi, and made a settlement 
at what is now Sherritt's graveyard. They were soon followed by others 
and built Fort McDonald, the strongest of all local forts, near the "Mud 
Holes," as a protection against the Piankishaw Indians, for at that date 
the Indians were the probable owners of the land. All of Dubois county, 
except a triangular piece two-and-one-fourth miles wide at the west end 
and seven miles long on the south side, in Cass township, was bought from 
the Indians, August 3, 1795, but doubts having arisen as to its correct 
boundaries, they were specifically defined b}^ the treaty of Fort Wayne, 
June 7, 1803. The triangle in Cass township was ceded by the Delaware 
Indians, August 18, 1804, and by the Piankishaws, August 27, 1804, at 
Vincennes. The hypotenuse of the triangle mentioned above was run by 
Surveyor Thos. Freeman, July 21, 1S02. Aside from the usual surveyors' 
blaze on trees, it seems in some places, the limbs of the trees were bent 
down and forced into the bodies of the trees, which, growing about the 
limbs, held them in place and formed a peculiar treat}' line mark. 

The land in the county was surveyed and divided into sections, thus 
giving pioneers the numbers and an opportunit}' to purchase their clear- 
ing from the government. 

Dubois county was once a part of Knox, then a part of Gibson, then a 
part of Pike, but by 18 18 it became strong enough to want a court of its 
own. Land about the "Mud Holes" had been entered, and there were 
settlers along White river, as well as southwest of the site of Ireland. A 
settlement had also been made near Haysville. 



Fort Butler had been built near the settlement, on the Buffalo Trace; 
and Fort Farris stood southwest of the present town of Portersville. Then 
it was that Dubois county applied for an organization of its own. 

The journal of the Indiana House of Representatives, under date of 
Wednesday. December 10, 1S17, reads as follows: "Mr. Daniel presented 
the petition of Thomas Case and Jacob Harbison, and others, praying for 
the formation of a new county, out of the county of Pike ; which was read 
and committed to a select committee, with leave to report by bill or other- 
wise; and thereupon Messrs. Daniel, McClure, Buntin, Campbell, Cham- 
bers, Lynn and Holman were appointed that committee." 

On Saturday, December 20, 1S17, Jonathan Jennings, governor of 
Indiana, approved, at Corydon, an act creating Dubois county. The full 
text reads as follows : 



Approved December 20, 1817. 

Section i. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, that 
from and after the first day of February next, all that parcel or tract of country lying 
in the eastern part of the present county of Pike, shall be formed into a new county, 
to be called by the name of Dubois, (to wit:) Beginning at a point on the bank of the 
east fork of White River, at which the center line of range six shall intersect said fork 
of White River; thence running south with said center line, until said center line 
intersects the present line dividing Warrick and Pike counties; thence east with said 
line, to the line dividing Perry and Pike counties; thence with said line to the line 
dividing Orange and Pike counties; thence with said line until it shall strike Lick 
Creek; and thence meandering down said creek until it empties itself into the east 
fork of White River; thence meandering down said river to the beginning. 

Sec 2. That General W. Johnson, of Knox county, Thomas Polke, of Perry county, 
Thomas Montgomery, of Gibson county, Richard Palmer, of Daviess county, and 
Ephraim Jourdau, of Knox count}-, be, and they are hereby appointed commissioners 
to meet at the house of William McDaiiiel [McDonald] near the Mud-Holes, on the 
second Monday of February, 181S, and proceed to select a site for the seat of Justice for 
said county, under the directions and provisions of an act passed in the year of our 
Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirteen, entitled "An Act providing for the 
permanent fixing of the seats of justice in all new counties herein to be established." 

Sec 3. That all suits, plaints, actions and proceedings which maj-, before the said 
first day of February next, have been commenced and instituted and pending in the 
now county of Pike, shall be prosecuted to final judgment and effect in the same man- 
ner as if this act never had passed. And whenever the seat of justice within the county 
of Dubois shall have been established, the person or persons authorized to dispose of 
and sell the lots at the seat of justice, shall reserve ten percentum on the net proceeds 
of the whole sale, for the use of a county library in said county; which sum or sums 
of money shall be paid over to such person as may be authorized to receive the same, 
in such manner and in such installments as shall be authorized by law. And until 
suitable accommodations can be had, in the opinion of the circuit court, at the seat of 
justice of said new county, all the courts of justice shall be holden at the house of 
William McDaniel [McDonald] near the Mud-Holes, in said county; after which time 
the circuit courts necessary to be held at the county seat, shall be adjourned to the 


same. And the county commissioners shall, within twelve months after the site of 
Slid seat of Justice shall have been selected, proceed to erect the necest^ary buildings 

Skc. 4. This act to take effect from and after the first day of February next f 1818.] 

On January 29, 1S18, an act was approved, by the same governor, at 
Corydon, detaching eighteen sections from the soittheast corner of Dubois 
county. The act reads as follows : 

Sec. 2. After the fifteenth day of February next, [181S], all that part of the county 
of Dubois included within the following boundaries, to-wit: Beginning at the south- 
east corner of township three south, and range three west; thence west with said town- 
ship line to the line dividing ranges three and four west; thence north with the same 
three miles; thence east through the center of said township to the line ranges two 
and three west; thence south with the same to the place of beginning, shall be attached 
to and form a part of the county of Perry, to all intents and purposes whatever, any 
law to the contrary notwithstanding. 

On January 17, 1820, an act was approved by the same governor, at 
Corydon, creating the county of Martin out of parts of the counties of 
Daviess and Dubois. That act took from Dubois county all that part of 
range three north of the present line between Martin and Dubois counties, 
and reduced Dubois county to its present size. 

Ephraim Jourdan was a private in Capt. Dubois' company of spies and 
guides of the Indiana Militia, from September 18 to November 12, 1811, 
covering the battle of Tippecanoe. Gen. W. Johnson was the prominent 
pioneer attorney heretofore mentioned. He was also in this battle under 
Col. Joseph H. Daviess, who was killed and after whom Daviess county 
was named. Johnson was quartermaster, promoted from the ranks, 
October 30, 181 1. Gen. W. Johnson was auditor of public accounts for 
Indiana territory, but resigned in 1813, the same year he was so commis- 
sioned. On Ma)'- 29, 1813, he was commissioned treasurer of Indiana ter- 
ritory and served until the state was admitted into the Union. In 18:3, 
he was also adjutant general of Indiana territory. Gen. Johnson was a 
state representative during the 6th, nth, 13th, and 14th sessions of the 
General Assembly, serving part of the time as Speaker. 

Apparently some of the commissioners appointed by the General As- 
sembly in December, i8i7,to locate a seat of justice for Dubois county 
were not present when the selection was made and the county organized, 
for the next legislature passed a "legalizing act" approving what had been 
done in their absence. 

About the time Dubois county was organized, John Niblack, of Fayette 
county, Kentucky, moved to Dubois county. He was appointed "County 
Agent" to complete the organization of the county. He secured Hosea 
Smith, a surveyor of Pike county, and laid out the town of Portersville, 
conducted the sale of lots and built the first court house and jail — both of 
hewn logs. This court house was two stories high ; the lower room was 
the court room, while the upper story was divided into rooms for jury pur- 



poses. There was a separate building for a clerk's office. The jail was also 
two stories high, the lower story being built two logs thick, to form a "dun- 
geon" for criminals of the worst class, such as horse thieves — then the most 
despised of all men. In those days imprisonment for debt was possible, 
and the upper story was used as a debtors' prison. These buildings have 
been removed. A piece of the old timber is on exhibit in the archives of 
the Soldiers' Monument at Jasper. 

The survey of Portersville shows a public square, which forced a pub- 
lic square upon Jasper, under a later law creating Jasper a "county-town." 
All this was a Kentucky idea and came through a Kentuckian being our 
first county agent. 

John Niblack was a progressive man and an active friend of education. 
He took an active part in building up Dubois county and was one of its 
associate judges. His son, Hon. Wm. E. Niblack, born at Portersville, in 
1822, w^as on the supreme /-^^ y j^ y 

bench of this state for /'^/^(/r/A^ ^?^^^^y/*5i_^<^^^^^^^J^ 
several j-ears. John Nib- 
lack lies buried in Sher- 
ritt's graveyard. His 
grand-father, Thomas Mar- 
grave, was a Virginia sol- 
dier in the Revolution. 

Land for the county 
seat of the new county had 
been entered by Jacob 
Lemmon, in 1814. It was 
on White river, which was 
soon declared a public 
highway and cleaned out 
by an act of the legislature, 
thus permitting boats to 
come up the river as far as the new county town of Portersville. Jacob 
Lemmon and Arthur Harbison, influential men in their day, secured the 
location. The "Irish settlement" was too close to the Pike county line to 
secure the county town, but it made itself felt, in 1830, when the county 
seat went to Jasper. A mile west of Portersville on the west side of section 
twenty is a strip of land often called "the Lemmon donation." This was 
donated to the county in order to secure the seat of justice at Portersville. 

There came to Dubois county, in 1S16, about the time there was talk 
of the organization of a new county. Dr. Simon Morgan, of Virginia, a 
graduate of a medical school in Philadelphia. He was following the "Buf- 
falo Trace" to St, Louis, but took sick when he reached the "Mud Holes" 
and was obliged to remain there for some time. He was prevailed upon to 
remain and accept the position of county clerk, then the most important 
position in the county. He did so, and served until his death, which 

Col. Morgan's Penmanship. 


occurred at Jasper, January 12, 184 1. He was also a colonel in the county 
militia and the leader of the Whig element in Dubois county. Adam Hope 
was the first sheriff. These were about all the officials then required. 

On Wednesday, January 28, 18 18, an act was approved by Governor 
Jennings incorporating a county library in the county of Dubois. This 
became a criterion, for several counties, previously organized, had acts 
passed creating libraries, in which they always referred to the Dubois 
county library. New counties embodied the library act of this county in 
their act of organization. 

The act stipulated that the qualified voters of the county of Dubois 
were authorized to assemble at the court house, on September 7, 1818, and 
every three years thereafter, and when so assembled they were to elect a 
president and seven trustees of the county library. The law created these 
eight men and the qualified voters of the county "a corporation and body 
politic," with a perpetual charter, by "the name and style of the president 
and trustees of the county library of the county of Dubois." The library 
was to have a seal. This seal was made of iron, and when hot was pressed 
upon the books. The board elected a librarian and a treasurer. The 
treasurer gave bond. The county agent paid over the ten percentum on 
the sale of the lots at Portersville, and the board was authorized by the act 
to "lay out the same in the purchase of books, maps, etc., and such other 
property, real or personal, as it may think the most conducive to advance- 
ment, etc." This act took effect July i, 1818, and was the origin of the 
Dubois county library. With the iron seal "D. C. L." was often burned 
upon the law books about the court house. The library, which to-day 
would have been very valuable and interesting, was lost in the court house 
fire, 1839. 

The names of all citizens who lived in this county on the da}^ it was 
organized may never be ascertained, but here are the names of all men who 
owned real estate in Dubois county, December 20, 1817, our "Organization 
Day" — the names occur according to priority in the purchase of real estate : 

1807: Toussaint Dubois, Samuel McConnell, Arthur Harbison and 
James Folley; 1810: James Farris ; 1812: Adam Hope; 1814: David 
Wease, John Thompson, John Walker, Jacob Lemmon, Wm. Shook, 
Edward Wood, Edward Greene, Jacob Harbison, Joseph Stubblefield, 
Henry Lacefield, Samuel Smythe and James Hope; 1815 : Ashbury 
Alexander, Issac Alexander, Hugh Redman, Sr., William Anderson, 
Thomas Anderson and John Coley ; 1816: Jonathan Walker, Nelson 
Harris, Ebenezer Sm3-the, Joseph Kelso, John Lemmon, Robert Stewart, 
Jesse Corn, James Harbison, Thomas Patton, William Hurst, James 
Payne, Thomas Pinchens, John Stewart, Jas. Greene and Samuel Greene ; 
1817: Samuel Kelso, Thomas Kelso, Edward Gwin, John Payne, James 
Kelly, Anthony McElvain, William Greene, George Armstrong, John 
Greene, John Cartwell, John Niblack, Jr., James Niblack, Andrew Ander- 
son, Joseph Corn, James Harris, Capt. John Sherritt, Edward Hall, Edmund 


Gwin, John Armstrong, Andrew Evans, Richard Wood, Reuben Mathias, 
Nicholas Harris, Henry Miller and Thomas J. Wethers ; in all sixty-four 
land owners. 

All of the land in the names of the real estate owners named above is 
in the northwest quarter of the county, excepting eighty acres, entered by 
Thomas Pinchens, at Union \^alley, October 18, 1816; eighty acres entered 
by Edward Hall, one mile north of Schnellville, August i, 1817, and one 
hundred sixty acres entered by Henry Miller, one mile northeast of Schnell- 
ville, December 6, 18 17. There where no individual real estate owners 
anywhere else in the county. And, thus, in 1817, Dubois county started 
on its career. 

The most authentic list of the pioneers of Dubois county is the census 
of 1820, the same being the first census taken after the organization of the 
county. This census was taken by Wm. Edmonston, and in his report he 
certifies that it was taken by actual inquiry at ever dwelling house in 
Dubois county, or by asking the heads of every family in the county. His 
compensation for taking this census was $29.20. The report shows that 
there were in the county at that time 241 boys under ten years of age; 88 boys 
between ten and sixteen; 26 boys between sixteen and eighteen; 118 men 
between eighteen and twenty-six; 118 men between twenty-six and forty- 
five; and 47 men over forty-five years of age. 

This report also shows that there were 220 girls under ten years of age, 
and 82 between ten and sixteen. There were 108 women between sixteen 
and twenty-six; 98 between twenty-six and forty-five; and 40 over forty-five 
years of age. At that time there were no foreigners in Dubois county. 
The report shows that there were 343 persons engaged in farming. The 
population of the county, in 1820, was 1168; all of whom were white per- 
sons, except eight. There were eight free black persons in the count}'. 
This does not include any Indians who may have been in the county at 
that time. 

In the family of Pioneer Eli Thomas were one negro boy under four- 
teen years of age, one negro man twenty-six years of age, and one negro 
woman twenty-six years of age. In the family of Pioneer Silvis McDonald 
were two negro girls under fourteen, and a negro woman not over twenty- 
six. Pioneer James Richey had in his family a negro woman not over 
twenty-six. Pioneer Wm. Brittain had in his family one negro man. 
All these colored people were listed as free, though perhaps not practically 

The following is an alphabetical list of the heads of the two hundred 
two families in Dubois county' in 1820: 



Nathaniel Applegate, 
Ashbury Alexander, 
Isaac Alexander, 
Thomas Anderson, 
William Anderson, 
George Armstrong, 
William Adams, 
William Acly, 
William Brittain, 
James Blagraves, 
Esther Blagraves, 
Harrison Blagraves, 
Jacob Binit, 
Dipinersy Brinton, 
James Butler, 
John Butler, 
James Brown, 
Margaret Brown, 
James Baily, 
Richard Black, 
Henry Barker, 
Zedekiah Bletcher, 
Peter Beard, 
John Beard, 
Nathan Brooks, 
Alexander Baker, 
Peter Bruner, 
Elizabeth Camron, 
Jacob Case, 
Philip Conrad, 
Emanuel Cissem, 
Eewis Combs, 
Jesse Corn, 
Joseph Corn, 
William Classon, 
Joseph Clarkson, 
Anna Curry, 
Archibald Constant, 
Beryman Combs, 
Benjamin Cox, 
Mary Campbell, 
William Cooper, 
William Conrad, 
Elizabeth Dofren, 

Michael Dofren, 
James Doane, 
Zery Davis, 
Hugh Dyer, 
Azil W. Dossy, 
Wm. Edmonston, 
B. B. Edmonston, 
James Edmonston, 
Andrew Evans, 
Joseph Enlow, 
Henry Enlow, 
James Farris, 
William Farris, 
Henry Frakes, 
Jesse Fitsjiles, 
Anna Green, 
Samuel Green, 
James Green, 
Elizabeth Green, 
Mossback Green, 
Wm. W. Gordon, 
James Hope, 
Sarah Hope, 
Arthur Hackens, 
James R. Haggins, 
Nicholas Harris, 
Wm. Harris, Jr., 
Wm. Harris, Sr., 
James Harris, 
Nelson Harris, 
Arthur Harbison, 
Jacob Harbison, 
Absolom Harbison, 
Wm. Hurst, Sr., 
Wm. Hurst, Jr., 
Abraham Hurst, 
Charles Hurst, 
Edward Hall, 
John Hall, 
Wm. Hall, 
Joseph Hall, 
Thomas Hall, 
Steven Haniby, 
John Haddock. 



Willis Hayes, 
Robert Hargraves, 
James Hargraves, 
William Hargraves, 
James Heddy, 
Felix Hoover, 
Thomas Helums, 
Moses Hill, 
John Hill, 
Thomas Hill, 
Job Hunggret, 
Abner Hobbs, 
William Hanley, 
David Hawkins, Jr., 
David Hawkins, Sr., 
John Hendrixson, 
Wm. Hendrixson, 
Josiah Hart, 
John Jason, 
Abner Jallif, 
Isaac Johnson, 
Adam Jameson, 
Gilbert Kellums, 
Philip Kimble, 
Jesse Kinsey, 
Samuel Kelso, Jr., 
Samuel Kelso, Sr., 
Samuel J. Kelso, 
Joseph Kelso, 
Joseph J. Kelso, 
Thomas Kelso, 
Jesse Lett, 
Henry Loisfield, 
John Lemmon, 
Jacob L,emmon, 
Mary Lemmon, 
John Laisbrell, 
John Louis, 
Margaret Lagstor, 
Levi P. Lockhart, 
George Linous, 
Reuben Mills, 
Simon Morgan, 
Sarah Morgan, 

David Morgan, 
Adam Miller, 
Henry Miller, 
Philip Miller, 
Reuben Mathais, 
Silvis McDonald, 
Alexander McDonald, 
Jane B. McDonald, 
James F. McDonald, 
Steven McDonald, 
Anthony McElvain, 
Ephragm McClane, 
Wm. McMahan, 
John McMahan, 
Joseph McMahan, 
James McKee, 
James Noble, 
Alexander Porter, 
Thos. Payne, Jr., 
Thos. Payne, Sr., 
James Payne, 
Wm. Ponix, 
Michael Pilgrins, 
Wm. Parris, 
Samuel Postlewaithe, 
Jesse Pets, 
Reuben Padgett, 
Geo. Poole, 
John Price, 
James Richey, 
Phoebe Risley, 
Joseph Rayse, 
John Rayse, 
Samuel Reade, 
Isaac Reade, 
Nathan Rice, 
Wm. Riley, 
John Riley, 
Thomas Scott, 
Ebenezer Smythe, 
Samuel Smythe, 
Moses Simmons, 
Adam Stutsman, 
Jacob Stutsman, 



Aaron Standridge, 
John Stewart, 
Robert Stewart, 
John Stubblefield, 
Capt. John Sherritt, 
William Shaok, 
Brice Summers, 
Richard Still well, 
Eli Thomas, 
John Tribby, 
Nanc}' Tolle3^ 
John Thomson, 
Thos. Tilony, 

Wm. Talan, 
C. John Twity, 
Woodruff Tuny, 
Isaac Walker, 
Jonathan Walker, 
Wm. Wineinger, 
Edward Wood, 
Zedekiah Wood, 
John Woods, 
John Williams, 
John Webb, 
Joel Webb, 
John White. 

The name of William McDonald, the head of the pioneer family, does 
not appear in the census, he having died in 1818. 

The family record of pioneer Wil- 
liam McDonald is as follows: 

Wm McDonald, Sr., born October 
10, 1765; died July 19, 1818. 

Jane B. McDonald, his wife, born 
March 31, 1775; died in 1834. 

David B. McDonald, son, born Feb- 
ruary 20, 1792. Alex McDonald, son, 
September 12, 1795. James F. Mc- 
Donald, son, born November 9, 1797. 
Mary F. McDonald, daughter, born 
December 19, 1799. Joanna H. Mc- 
Donald, daughter, and wife of Col. B. B. 
Edmonston, born January 27, 1S02. 
Napoleon B. McDonald, born May 5, 
1S04. John McDonald, born December 
5, 1806. Allen McDonald, born January 
15, 1809. Wm. McDonald, Jr., born 
January 9, 18 ri. Maria McDonald, 
born July 19, 1817. 

William McDonald. Sr., and his wife, 
Jane B., lie buried in Sherritt's graveyard. Many descendantsof William 
McDonald, Sr., live in Dubois county. 

The children of his son, Alexander, were as follows: W^illiam A., 
Mary, Marie, Esther, and Jane. Miss Jane McDonald, in 1841, became 
the wife of Jesse Traylor. She died in 1861. Her children are Senator 
Wm. A. Traylor, Ex-Sheriff Albert H. Traylor, Joel, Eockhart, Perry G., 
Louis, Ellis, Edward S., and Basil Traylor. 

Mrs. Col. B. B. Edmonston. 


William McDonald's daughter, Joanna H., became the wife of Col. B 
B. Edmonston. Allen McDonald, the first white boy born in Dubois 
count}', is the father of L,ieut. Hiram McDonald, Louis A., Mary A., Sarah, 
Leander, Alexander, Frances, Fletcher, Eva, and Oscar McDonald — and so 
the descendants run into many families. 

Thomas Sherritt, a British soldier, landed in America during the Ameri- 
can Revolutionary War. In the course of time he became an American 
soldier and remained in \^irginia at the close of the war. His son, /o/i 71, 
was born in Virginia, March 27, 1785, and came to Dubois county, in 1815. 
He entered land in 1S17. It is about a half milesouth of the "Mud Holes." 

John Sherritt came to Dubois county from Louisville, with one horse 
loaded with merchandise. At that time William McDonald had a cabin 
on the "Buffalo Trace." It was about sun down when John Sherritt rode 
up to the McDonald cabin. There were several Indians in the cabin, and 
Sherritt looked upon them with some degree of fear. After McDonald 
assured him that they would not harm him he entered the cabin and 
remained over night. 

The next morning he opened up his pack of goods and traded the entire 
stock to the Indians for fur. He then returned to Louisville and secured 
another supply. Two horses were required to transport his new stock. 
He entered land and upon it built the first store house in Dubois county, 
in 1817. 

On December 31, 1818, John Sherritt married Jane Brown, who was 
born June 2, 1800. She was the daughter of Pioneer Samuel Brown, who 
came to Dubois county from Virginia, in 181S, and died here the same 
year, of "milk sickness." John Sherritt and Jane Brown were the first 
couple to be married in Dubois county. Their children were, Eliza, 
William B., Samuel B., James W. , Thomas F., Sarah Jane, Margaret Ann, 
and John. 

Pioneer John Sherritt was commissioned captain in the state militia 
June 20, 1823. Capt. Sherritt died April i, 1849, and his remains were 
put to rest in the graveyard that bears his name. 

This graveyard is mentioned so often that it may be well to remember 
that it contains about one acre of ground, and is not under the supervision 
of any church. In 1909, its trustees were Henry Breidenbaugh, Lieut. 
Hiram McDonald and Hiram Horton. 

Robert Stewart was the first gunsmith in Dubois county. He was the 
grandfather of the Hon. Samuel H. Stewart, of Ireland, and the great 
grandfather of Judge John F. Dillon, of Boone township. 

Pioneer Robert Stewart settled on the Sherritt farm at an early day 
and erected a shop not far east of the Sherritt graveyard. Here he made 
and repaired guns for white men and Indians. The Indians would come a 
great distance and bring their families to visit Pioneer Stewart, the gun- 


smith, while he repaired their guns. To him the Indians were quite talka- 
tive, but not when other white men were around. To Stewart the Indians 
brought "virgin silver," from which he made ornaments for them and 
decorations for their guns. They gave him silver for lead, from which to 
make bullets for their guns. The Indians informed him that they obtained 
the silver at no great distance, and volunteered to show him if he would 
go with them. Mrs. Stewart would not consent to him going. The 
Indians may have obtained it at "Buck Shoals," the "Silver Well," or in 
section fourteen north of Jasper. It must not be inferred from this that 
silver is to be found in Dubois county in commercial quantities. 

After Capt. Dubois entered the land upon which Robert Stewart had 
built his gun shop, Stewart left the "Buffalo Trace," and on May 13, 1S16, 
entered land in section thirty-one, on Patoka river, in the Irish settlement. 
On August 18, 1818, Robert Stewart became the first coroner of Dubois 



Knowledge of natural objects adds to our appreciation of them — Exact location of 
Dubois county; of the soldiers' monument — Size of county — Altitude of a few- 
places — Patoka river receives the surface drainage — Slope of hills; cause — Report 
of State Geologist Cox; of State Geologist Blatchley — The "highland" home of 
Mrs. h. L. Cooper, in Boone township — Level land northwest of Jasper — The 
glacial drift — Probability of oil and gasin Boone and Cass townships — Patoka river 
during the pre-glacial times; high banks of river on the south and probable cause 
— Frog island — Enlow's mill — Patoka Lake Plain — Government ditches — Lime- 
stone deposits in Columbia township — Stone coal — The great book of Nature, open 
and free, iu Dubois county. 

It is well known that some knowledge of natural objects greatly adds 
to our appreciation of them, besides affording a deep source of pleasure in 
revealing the harmony, law, and order by which all things in this wonder- 
ful world are governed. Hills, plains, valleys, streams, and forests, when 
we begin to observe them, seem to become more than ever our compan- 
ions — -to take us into their confidence, and to teach us many a lesson about 
the great part they play, or have played, in the general order of things. 
Our admiration of the beauty of things about us is not lessened, but rather 
increased, when we learn what part they have played in the very formation 
of our homes, or of societ}' in general. 

Our own county becomes a subject full of life and interest when so 
considered, or when its past life, in the mineral world, is brought to light. 
The story of the hills, as written on their own rocky tablets, and on the 
very boulders lying loose on their sloping sides, and as interpreted by geol- 
ogists, is a long one ; for it takes us far back into the dim ages of the past 
and, like a serial story, may always be continued. To those who follow the 
stony science it is quite as fascinating as a modern romance, and a great 
deal more wonderful, thus illustrating the old saying, "Truth is more won- 
derful than fiction." 

From a geological and scientific standpoint there are man}^ things of 
interest in Dubois county. We shall not attempt to cover all or even refer 
to all. Situated, as it was for many years, away from the great highways 
of travel, it failed to receive, from geologists and other students of nature, 
the attention it deserved. Occasionally, it is mentioned in the daily papers 
b}' some correspondent possessing but a superficial knowledge of the 
county and it inhabitants, which usually results in an adverse criticism. 

To be technical, Dubois county covers 19' 3" latitude and 20' 15" longi- 
tude, though it is so located that it is twenty-two miles north and south 
and only twenty-one east and west. The minutes that measure its lati- 



tilde are on a great meridian passing through the poles of the earth ; 
hence, are longer than those used here in measuring its longitude, which 
are, in a general sense, on Buckingham's base line, a circle 38°, 2S' and 20" 
north of the equator, therefore a smaller circle, which also means short 
minutes of longitude. As a matter of reference in locating our county, 
let us add that our soldiers" monument is 38°, 23' and 56" north latitude 
and 86°, 56' and 27" west longitude from Greenwich. 

The altitudes of the count}- vary considerably. Here are a few places, 
mentioned because easily located : Birdseye, 71 1 feet above the sea ; Men- 
tor, 717; Kyana, 503; St. Anthony, 487; Bretzville, 529; Huntingburg (at 
station), 462; DufF, 467; Velpen (in Pike, near our line), 475; Johnsburg, 
500; Jasper (at station), 467; at river, 450. The foregoing figures were 
taken from the "Dictionary of Altitudes," issued by the Government. 
The profile of the Southern Railroad places the elevations higher than the 
reports to the general government show. The profiles may refer to the 
natural surface, while the government reports may refer to the track ele- 
vation; however, it does not matter for our present purpose. The U. S. 
Geological survey, more recent, and certainly far more accurate, places the 
town of Ferdinand 525 feet above the sea, and Johnsburg 486. Ireland is 
placed at 476; Zoar, at our county line, 563; Velpen, 490; and Otwell, 496. 
(These last two places are in Pike, but near our county line.) Railroad 
surveys place Bailey creek, south of Dubois, at 480 feet, and the banks of 
Dillon creek, near the Orange county line, at 523. Of course, Portersville, 
Haysville, Kellerville, Cr5^stal, and Hillham, all occupy higher altitudes 
than Jasper. The high hill just south of Kellerville is 265 feet above the 
waters of the east fork of White river, and about 700 feet above the sea. 

In 1835, the legislature of Indiana had levels taken in Dubois county 
preparatory to the Wabash and Erie canal surveys. These levels show 
the Patoka, at the dam at Jasper, to be 450 feet above the sea, and 123 feet 
below the waters of Lake Erie. What do all these altitudes indicate? 
You will notice that the elevation of Jasper at the river is lower than that 
of any other town mentioned. Apparently this makes Dubois county one 
basin or immense funnel, with Jasper as the center and Patoka river the 
opening through which nearly all the surface drainage of the county passes. 
To be technically as w^ell as grammatically correct, citizens of Jasper 
should use the preposition "up" in speaking of going to other towns in 
Dubois county, as "Up to Ireland," "Up to St. Anthony," "Up to Ferdi- 
nand," etc. 

The hills of Dubois county, as a rule, slope gently toward the south 
and southwest and are abrupt and steep on the north and northeast. It is 
said that the rains and winds which for countless ages have swept down 
upon Dubois county, have been from the south and southwest, thus reduc- 
ing the surfaces of the hills to gentle slopes. We mention this observation 
and others for what they are worth and leave the subject for the considera- 
tion of the reader. 


It is well known that miners of coal, in what are known as slope mines 
in Dubois county, prefer entering a hill on the southwest and driving their 
entries northeast, because in that way the water in the mines finds its own 
way out. 

As a general rule, nearly all of Dubois county is what is known as 
"highland," that is, land higher than that covered by the drift and alluvium 
of the glacial period. 

There is something peculiar about the level tract of land north and west 
of Jasper, and reaching past Otwell and down to Petersburg. Some of the 
earlier writers say there were no prairies in Dubois county, yet, in 1871, 
State Geologist Cox marks Boone township and the north half of Madison 
township in this county as "level tableland, formerly lake bottom and 
prairie." while in 189S State Geologist Blatchley's reports call it "Patoka 
Lake Plain." 

As a rule, all of this tract is level or nearly so. Rock is absent, 
quicksand is reached frequently only twelve feet from the surface, while 
in many places the basins of large ponds or lakes are plainly to be seen, 
and frequenth' need draining to become profitable for farming purposes. 
The "highland" home of Mrs. Josephine Cooper, in Boone township, is an 
exception. The glacial silt was exhausted before this high hill became 
covered. The height reached by the silt is plainh- to be seen, while at the 
sand near the foot of the hill water flows continuously. The hill is perhaps 
sixty feet above the plain around it, thus showing that ages ago before the 
silt covered the surrounding hills it was "monarch of all it surveyed," 
which it practically remains, since for miles around it becomes the beacon 
light to students of geology as they tread mother earth with hammer and 
sketch book. 

This level land northwest of Jasper belongs to that vast level area pro- 
duced in Indiana by the gradual melting of the great ice sheet reaching 
from here to Iowa, and eventually producing the prairies of Illinois and 
Indiana. Its eastern limit reaches to Monroe, Dubois and Posey counties. 
This is shown b}- bowlders sometimes found that are foreign to the high- 

Scientific men say that gas is sunlight stored away in the earth for 
ages, eventually to produce heat for man's accommodation, and that oil is 
liquified sunlight bottled up in the earth for the same purpose. Coal is a 
solid of the same source and preserved for the same purpose. If this be 
true, perhaps the silt from the glacial drift served as a cover to the reser- 
voir containing the deposits. The great coal fields of Indiana are below 
the level of this silt deposit. Notice that oil and gas are found in pockets 
below this silt deposit. The oil, gas, and salt wells at Loogootee, and 
thence around to Petersburg, seem to justify such a conclusion. This 
suggests that there might be oil and gas in Boone and Madison townships, 
in Dubois county. The drift and alluvial deposits of this territory vary 
in thickness from a few feet to twenty-six feet. The outlet to all this level 


land during glacial times appears to have been the low lands near Fran- 
cisco, and Princeton in Gibson county, which the Wabash and Erie canal 
engineers found in constructing the canal. 

The large level tract of land in Patoka and Cass townships, now drained 
by Hunley and Short creeks, is the bottom of what was an arm of the 
Patoka lake of glacial days. It reaches up to a point just south of the old 
Central M. E. Church cemetery, near the line between Patoka and Cass 
townships. Coal is found in Dubois, Pike, and Gibson counties down deep 
beneath this so-called Patoka Lake Plain. 

It is quite probable that during pre-glacial times Patoka river flowed 
northwest of Frog island and through what is now known as Buffalo Pond 
to the head waters of Mill creek, eventually emptying into White river 
through Mill creek. The silt on the watershed between these two streams 
is pointed out by geologists, and banks of the probable stream seem visi- 
ble. The observer will notice that, as a general thing, the high banks of 
Patoka river are on the south, or left hand side. The land south from the 
summits of Krempp's hill, Rees' hill, "Little Round Top" and Rieder's hill 
dropped through some movement of the crust of the earth, as the broken, 
abrupt rocks along Patoka river at Frog island and the iron bridge at 
Eckert's mill indicate. Thus Patoka river changed its course and followed 
the line of least resistance. Even to-day Patoka river above Jasper could 
be drained into White river at the mouth of Mill creek, at which place 
White river is lower than Patoka river is at Frog island. In fact, White 
river at Hindostan, that mysterious relic of the past, in Martin county, is 
only 438 feet above the sea. 

The dropping, ages ago, of the land upon which Jasper is situated and 
through which the artesian well was drilled, may have something to do 
with the failure of the gas company, at Jasper, to reach gas before the drill 
had gone 1,009 feet. 

Some geologists think that the change in the course of Patoka river 
was brought about by the advancement of the ice sheet during part of the 
glacial period, when the ice probably pushed as far south as Portersville, 
damming the streams and causing Patoka river to break through the nar- 
row gorge at Frog island. This gorge is about 190 yards at the north end, 
350 near the center, and about 200 at the south end. Rieder's hill, Jerger's 
hill, Stephenson's hill, west of Frog island, and Miller's hill and Herbig's 
hills, east of Frog island, were one continuous formation before Patoka 
river found its way south through the gorge at the island, and along the 
stony walls of the left hand bank. 

Perhaps it is but tracing God's design upon the trestle-board of history 
to predict that some day a concrete dam will be constructed across the nar- 
row gorge at Frog island. It would create a beautiful lake out of Buff"alo 
Pond and the low land around it. Enough power could be obtained to 
make Jasper the greatest manufacturing city in southern Indiana. 

All Patoka river water above is compelled to pass through this narrow 
gorge, thus raising its height. Height in water is essential to power. 


Water power was used in pioneer mills. Hence, Enlow's mill was built 
where the water had power. This old mill had much to do towards the 
selection of Jasper as a county seat. If you want to enter realms of spec- 
ulation and idle fancy, you might say "ice forced the county seat from Por- 
tersville to Jasper." 

This forcing- of the waters of Patoka southwest found resistance in the 
base of Conrad Eckert's hill and the silt in the rush found lodgment there. 
Thus to this very day, it may be seen when excavating for graves in the 
old graveyard "on the hill across the creek." Silt does not hold water, 
therefore the graves in that cemetery are not wet. But, let us remain 
closer to our subject. There are also evidences that Straight river and 
Hunlev creek flowed northwest past Otwell and emptied into White river. 
At any rate all these streams have been forced south, as is showm by the 
high banks on the south side. 

On tlie Huntingburg road, near the southeast corner of section four on 
Gramelspacher's farm and stretching west, is a depression, indicating a 
river basin at some remote period. 

A strange thing about the Patoka Lake basin, as seen to-day, is the 
fact that Flat creek, in Pike county, starts east of Petersburg, not far from 
White river and flows east about fifteen miles to Dubois county, turns 
south and empties into Patoka river, which in turn carries this same water 
west again, and only about five miles south of where it previously flowed 
east. Here we have within a dozen miles two streams flowing west with 
one between flowing east. 

There were many low places in the Patoka Lake Plain, and these the 
State government had drained by ditches it constructed fifty or sixty 
years ago, and which are know^n as government ditches. These may be 
seen in Boone and Madison townships with good sized forest trees now 
growing on the banks thrown up in the excavating. 

Dubois county has w^hat was knowm as the divide (watershed) between 
what pioneers called the "Wabash country" on the north and the Ohio 
river valley on the south. In the eastern part the limestone of Orange 
and Crawford counties meets the Mansfield sandstone of our own. 

Columbia township has plenty of limestone deposits and is in position, 
so far as materials are concerned, to be the first township in the county 
in improved roads. 

We might add here that in 1763 Col. Croghan first noticed coal in 
Indiana, "on the banks of the Wabash." In 1804 coal was noted in the 
land surveys of Dubois county. The northwest quarter of section twenty- 
six, west of Haysville, was reserved by the general government, because 
the surveyors found coal there over one hundred years ago. One writer 
of early days says: "In Dubois county, in 1840, Mr. John O. Green, a 
small boy on a deer-hunting trip with his uncle, saw a vein of "new coal" 
opened with a mattock. This was considered wonderful, and it was called 
new coal, or stone coal, to distinguish it from charcoal, which had been 


used for smithing. Even to this day we hear very old people use the term 
"stone coal." All this now seems strange in the light of discovery, for 
we now know that our county has many veins of surface coal, the thickest 
vein recorded being five feet. It is said 300 out of its 428 square miles 
are underlaid by coal, of which forty square miles are workable. 

At various places in Dubois county are to be seen objects of interest to 
geologists and other persons interested in nature and nature study. Our 
county is not devoid of many lessons nature teaches. Her caves open 
their mouths for you to enter; her mounds and Indian villages speak of 
the buried races of years ago. Native birds sing their sweetest carols; 
wild flowers show their brightest faces and send up their offerings of una- 
dulterated fragrance. Trees present their trunks to the eye and hand of 
man and bend their boughs to the wall of heaven. The finny tribe of our 
waters invite investigation and classification, while native wild animals 
tell the story of their lives in their plays and gambols in our green woods 
and native heather. The mineral world bares its bosom to the eye of 
man, so that he who runs may read. 

Suffice it to say that the great book of nature is as open and free in 
Dubois county as anywhere else, and that some day we hope some one will 
come this way who can read the history hidden in its waters and beneath 
its soil, and written upon its rocks and upon its green hillsides. 

All this teaches how little man knows and how wonderful and all-pow- 
erful must be the Hand that shapes our lives and rules the destinies of 
worlds beyond our own. 



Patoka Mound— Infusorial Earth— Sandstone— Silver Well— Annuity salt— David Dale 
Owen, State Geologist— Report of 1838— Vowell Cave in Columbia township- 
Description of Vowell Cave — Geological data. 

Two miles .south of Jasper, on Patoka river, in the east half of .section 
eleven, town two, south range five west, and north of the mouth of Straight 
river, is a peculiar body of land, sometimes referred to as "Patoka 
Mound." It is an ellipse in form, 800 feet long and 300 feet wide, and 
contains an area of four and one-third acres. This peculiar body of land 
stands thirty-five feet above the bottoms in which it is situated and forty- 
five feet above Patoka river. There is sandstone a few feet below the 
surface of the mound, and the whole formation has the appearance of a 
hill whose summit had been cut away by an iceberg. Geological maps 
show its location, but no geological reports have anything to say about it. 
Mounds are also found southeast of Holland. 

In sections twenty-six, thirteen, twenty-three, and twenty-four, in 
Ferdinand township, is to be found a bed of tripoli, or infusorial earth. 
Good tripoli is worth above seven dollars a ton. It is used for packing 
boilers, steam pipes and safes. It is a good non-conductor. It is called in- 
fusorial earth because it is made up of the remains of small water animals 
called infusoria, an evidence that water once covered the surface of Dubois 
county. The tripoli found near Ferdinand in "pockets" in the cherty 
limestone, forming the roof of coal K, is allied to both the flints and the 
sandstones. Its buff color is due to the presence of oxide of iron. Tripoli 
differs from sandstone and sharp sand more in physical than in chemical 
constitution. However, tripoli has for its basis the silicified skeletons of 
organic bodies, such as sponges, etc., showing that once upon a time it 
must have been covered by an ocean. It can be used as a polishing powder. 

The sandstone in Dubois county may some da)' become a valuable asset. 
Much of it could be used for building purposes. Rocks for the construc- 
tion of the aqueduct of the old Wabash and Erie canal over White river 
were taken from near Portersville. The rock is used in the construction 
of the piers of the railroad bridge between Petersburg and Washington. 


Salt was a valued condiment to all Indians, pioneers and early settlers. 
"He is not worth his salt" really meant something. In the early Indian 
treaties we read of the Indians selling their lands for salt to be supplied 


annually, and called "annuity salt." Salt was such an important item 
that all lands surrounding saline springs were reserved by the general 
government in the original surveys of Indiana. Early geologists gave the 
finding of salt careful consideration. 

New Harmony, Indiana, is one of the most remarkable towns in the 
state and its history reads like a romance. Of all the remarkable men 
that ever lived there, David Dale Owen stands pre-eminent. He was a 
great man for any country or any age — a learned Scotchman, a physician, 
a scientist and a philosopher. He was the father of American geology, 
the geologist of several states and a power in the scientific world. 

By an act of the Indiana legislature, approved February 6, 1837, David 
Dale Owen was appointed "Geologist of the State." He made reports in 
1837 and 1838, under the title, "Report of a Geological Reconnoisance of 
the State of Indiana." In this remarkable book Dr. Owen records many 
original observations about Indiana at large and, luckily, Dubois county 
in particular. 

He observes that "the eastern boundary or base of the coal formation 
is the most likely place to afford salt water; for we find the most product- 
ive salt wells throughout the western country occurring in the inferior 
members of the coal formation. Thus, should symptoms of salt water 
make their appearance in the counties of Perry, Spencer, Dubois, Martin, 
Daviess, Green, Owen, Clay, or Putnam, the encouragement to make a 
search for salt would be greater than if found elsewhere in the state." 

In talking about salt prospects he further says: "Borings for brine 
east of the second principal meridian [a line near Paoli] may yield salt 
water, but are not likely to afford as strong a brine as those west of that 
line, carried through the white sandstones lying at the margin of our coal 
basin." In another part of his report he recommends sandstone in pref- 
erence to limestone for building purposes. 

Dr. Owen also says "the greater part of Indiana must have been at 
some period of the earth's history, covered by an ocean; for most of the 
fossils in the limestone are of marine origin. None of the precious metals 
will ever be found in Indiana, unless in minute portions in bowlders, or 
in small quantities in combination with other metals, because the primi- 
tive and grauwacke formations in which alone productive mines of gold 
and silver ore occur, do not exist in Indiana." For the same reason it is 
not likely that anthracite coal will ever be found in Indiana. However, 
the part of his report, under date of 1838, dealing with Dubois county, is 
most interesting to us. He says: 

There is in this county a remarkable looking spot called "The Silver Well," where 
considerable diggings have been made in search of ore. To this locality I first directed 
my examinations. On approaching it I found masses of flint scattered over the surface 
of the country. The vegetable growth is stunted and thin, similar to that on an old 
clearing, although the whole was still, I found, in a state of nature. 

The excavations first exposed ferruginous clay, containing small nodules of iron 
ore. A stratum of flint, however, soon stopped the further progress of the digging. 



Of course, no silver was found, but some of this flinty rock may prove valuable as it 
has the appearance of being tolerably pure silex. Much of it, however, by the appli- 
cation of acid, showed by its effervescence a small percentage of carbonate of lime 
This admixture, if universal, would render it unfit for the use of the potter. Could it 
be found perfectly pure in sufficient quantities, it would be a most valuable acquisition 
to those engaged in the manufacture of the finer kinds of potter's ware. This article 
is now the great desideratum wanted at Troy. 

The stunted and barren-like appearance of this region originates evidently from 
the flinty nature of this rock, which, being intermixed with a stiff, tenacious, unpro- 
ductive clay, forms the basis of a very thin soil. The wild and barren aspect of the 
country occasioned by this peculiarity of soil, together with the appearance, as report 
will have it, of nocturnal lights, attracted the attention of the "mintral hunter" and 
induced him to enter upon a fruitless search after silver, which, as I remarked in my 
last report, could hardly be found in this part of the country. 

In the neighborhood of Jasper sandstone is the prevailing rock. At the mill on 
the Patoka, near town, the rock is rather slaty and contains numerous fossil plants, 
chiefly cilamites (arborescent horse-tails.) A mile or so below the mill a seam of coal 
is worked by the blacksmith of the place. It is overlaid by slaty clay (a kind of fire 
clay) exhibiting remarkable impressions of fossil plants. The deposit is, however so 
very much disposed to crumble, that it is almost impossible to collect them. 

The coal is near two feet thick and tolerably good. Another seam shows itself half 
a mile north of Jasper. This bed has a roof of sandstone. 

The hills continue to increase in height as j-ou ascend the Patoka, and are still 
capped with sandstone. You occasionally meet with specimens of brown oxide of iron 
in loose masses, lying on the declivities; I have, however, not yet been able to discover 
any important deposits of it. I was informed that on the Patoka, near the crossing of 
the old Mt. Sterling road, ore of this description exists in abundance, but I was unable 
to discover its locality. Deposits of the hydrated brown oxide of iron occurring in 
these ridges, amongst the sandstones of the coal formation, will usually be found, I 
fear, too much impregnated with sand to yield a profitable percentage in the furnace. 

At Stewart's mill, on the Patoka, the sandstones have already acquired the fine 
grain and white color of the Hindostan whetstones, which occur in a formation corre- 
sponding to the muriatiferous strata between that place and the "French Lick." 

Were the Patoka between Jasper and Stewart's mill a more considerable stream, I 
should pronounce that locality a favorable one for boring in search of salt water. 
But a better point for such works would probably be found on the east fork of White 
river, about the mouth of Lick creek, where the formation is similar, and a more plen- 
tiful supply of water may be expected. 

The first appearance of limestone containing the archiniedes, indicating the com- 
mencement of the sub-carboniferous group, presents itself in the deep hollows about 
two miles southwest of Stewart's mill. 

The high ridges between Stewart's mill and the French Lick are still composed of 
the same white sandstone formation which we have been tracing. In places they will 
afford good grits. In deeply excavated ravines the upper members of the sub-carbon- 
iferous group appear. The boundary line of the coal formation runs through this 
county nearly in a north and south course, keeping between half a mile and a mile 
from the line between Orange and Dubois. 

Dr. Oweti does not record the location of the "Silver Well." It is 
reported by old people now living in Dubois county that the "Silver Well" 
was in section one, town two, south, range six, west, in Madison town- 
ship, near the Armstrong ferrj- steel bridge. 




The eastern part of Dubois county contains many natural objects of 
interest. It is one of the best fields in Indiana for the naturalist, geolo- 
gist and botanist. One of the most interesting natural objects in Dubois 
county is Vowell cave, near the center of section twenty-two, in Columbia 
township, on the old State road, about one and one quarter miles from 
Crj^stal. The hill containing the cave is of crystallized limestone forma- 
tion. The stone has no technical name, not being pure enough for calcite. 
On the summit are many sink holes, or depressions, which collect the 
water that falls within their reach and permit it to permeate beneath the 

View in Vowell Cave. 

surface. The limestone in this hill has many crevices and the water, by 
constantly finding its way along and down these crevices, has caused sev- 
eral rocks to wear apart, and thus reveal the cave. The hill is covered 
with fine specimens of all the native trees, haid and soft wood, perennial 
and deciduous. They stand to-day in all the grandeur of nature. 

The mouth of the cave is an opening just large enough to permit visit- 
ors to scramble down, one at a time, for a distance of thirty-five feet and 
at an angle of about twenty degrees from the perpendicular. At twenty- 
five feet from the surface appears a tall crevice in the limestone rock, 
which is called Lawton's Tower. At forty feet are many unique rocks, 
two of which are called Tailor's Goose and Mollie's Rocking Chair. These 
rest on what is the general floor of the cave, and near the stream of water 
that flows on one side or the other of the cave. The temperature of the 
water here is 58 degrees Fahrenheit. At Maiden's spring it is 56 degrees 
and at Rose's spring 55 degrees. 


Beginning at the Tailor's Goose and going north is the Grand Recep- 
tion hall, one hundred feet long, thirtj^ feet wide and ten feet high. In 
here, as at various other places in the cave, are many "bear wallows," or 
lairs, in which bears hibernated many years ago. The bears have clawed 
them out the size of a large washtub. The prints of their monster claws 
can be seen very distinctly. In the wallows are debris of a bear nature. 

At one hundred thirty-five feet is Maiden's spring and its pictur- 
esque basin and walls. Here also are the Towers of Babel. These are 
tall, circular crevices in the limestone, about four or five feet in diameter 
and so tall that the visitors were unable, even with flash lights, to see the 
tops. There are many surface rocks and pieces of timber at the base which 
have dropped in from some opening on the summit of the hill, now closed 
and lost. 

At one hundred fifty feet is Roberta's Rock Bell, which, when 
struck with a small rock or hammer, rings throughout the cave. It is 
a splendid specimen of suspended limestone. Here also is Roberta's 
Grotto, a circular cavern east of the bell. A stream of water flows be- 
neath the bell and around a pillar. Near here are the finest specimens of 
stalactites, stalagmites and stalacto-stalagmites found in the cave. 

At two hundred twenty-two feet the stream flows in a deep crevice 
in the floor of the cave. This is called Hudson river. It is one of the 
prettiest sights in the cavern. Mickler's hall begins here and runs seventy- 
two feet — a long, broad, low hall, with a splendid, smooth ceiling, all of 
limestone. There is also a side route here. At two hundred seventy- 
five feet is Kendall's hall, similar to Mickler's hall, but angular, ending 
in Lover's Leap. At four hundred feet is Wilson's hall, a tall rugged 
specimen of subterranean excavation. It contains Rose's spring of cool, 
clear water. 

At four hundred forty-four feet begins Lottie's Parlor, which con- 
tains, at four hundred sixty-four feet, the Masonic spring, with its 
checkered floor From here one arm extends a little west of north for one 
hundred fifty feet. At six hundred feet the cave is practically closed 
and can not be explored farther without excavating. North of the Ma- 
sonic spring the stream was explored six hundred sixty-four feet from 
the mouth of the cave. Here it becomes too low for extended explora- 
tion without rubber suits. All water in the cave is crystal clear and cool. 
No fish are found, though it is reported fish have been seen in the cave. 

In the north arm of the cave are many side passages, under and upper 
passages, side rooms, crevices and caverns. 

After returning to the Grand Reception hall, it is fifty feet to McKin- 
ley's river, Harrison Point, Carrie's hall and the Fallen Rocks. One of 
these limestone rocks, thirty feet long, five feet wide and two feet thick, 
is almost like a rough ashlar. Here also is Mollie's hall, fifteen feet high, 
the Grand Canyon and several bear wallows. At one hundred twenty 


feet is the Auger Hole, and here also are the Four 
Cardinal Points. These are four crevices in the 
rock above, that follow the points of the compass 
from the center to the vanishing points. 

At one hundred seventj- feet and under 
the east crevice are the Worshipful Master's Chair 
and Canopy. Nearby is a bear wallow and then 
comes Rock Island; and running from 
y it and under and around to Mollie's 
hall is Nellie's hall, seventy-five by 
forty feet, with many passageways. 
It is a splendid specimen of a dry 
excavation. At one hundred ninety 
feet is Little Round 
SHALL Top, Andrew's Slide and 

Devil's Flue. At two hun- 
dred twenty-five feet is 
Carrie's Iron, suspended 
from the ceiling. It is fif- 



C A UE rc-:-eRS'rBABEL(§K^cfS^OB£HrA's bell 


^\\ /I ct,2^£n^ 

Map of Vowell Cave. 


teen feet long, four feet wide and very much resembles a smoothing iron. 
Nearby is Frog Monument, apparently ready to leap on the intruders, 
and overhead is a fair sample of the modern crazy quilt. Here this arm of 
the cave closes, so far as passage way is concerned. Nothing has been 
removed from the cave. 

In some places in the cave the sides are draped and festooned with sta- 
lactites and stalagmites, sometimes hanging in graceful folds, or ribbed 
with corrugations, but they are in no wise equal to those in Marengo cave, 
in Crawford county. Some places on the roof stalactites hang similar to 
quill-like tubes, fragile as glass, each tipped with a drop of water which 
sparkles in the lamplight like a crystal jewel. Some parts of this cave are 
double-floored, the upper being dry and the lower one having a stream of 
water flow'ing through the greater part of its length. 

In the cave and in the crevices of the limestone are deposits of a sandy 
substance resembling what is wrongfully called "soapstone," mixed with 
wet sand. It is probably a siliceous shale — that is, a shale containing a 
large percentage of sand or silica. Sometimes these exposed deposits are 
fifty feet long, ten feet wide and two or three feet thick. It is on these 
that the bears clawed out their nests, their claws cutting fearful gashes in 
the banks. Occasionally small pieces of sandstone were found in the 
stream. They must have been washed in b}- water. 

This cave, like most of its kind, is an uncanny place to the average 
visitor. Here eternal darkness reigns supreme, and the fabulous Cimme- 
rian people of old could have lived within its confines in a darkness to 
suit their most fastidious nature. The walls and ceiling are of a terra 
cotta color, occasionally covered with a mineral deposit which glistens 
under the rays of reflectors and lamps. 

The cave, no doubt, has its origin in the slow, unceasing action of rain 
water upon the limestone strata in which it occurs. 

The existence of this cave has been known in the immediate vicinity 
for many years. In 1901, it was explored and measured. 

Subjoined are geological data obtained from personal observations, from 
interviews with miners, and geologists, and from official sources. Those 
who have a predilection for the study of geology may find them a source 
of pleasure and satisfaction. 

Mill creek in Boone township has cut a small valley through the coal 
and shales in section 27, thus producing a large admixture of bituminous 
matter in its alluvial bottoms. Jets, or balls of fire are produced by de- 
composition setting free inflammable gases. Often, two or more of these 
"fire balls" have been seen at onetime in Mill creek bottoms, moving with 
the uncertain motion of the wind and frequently with great brilliancy. 
The superstitious believe them to be the wandering ghosts of persons who 
have been drowned in the stream, or of Piankishaw Indians returning to 
claim their dead. 


The "will-o'-the-wisp" as this moving light is sometimes called, has 
been the theme of many strange and interesting stories. 

An object of great interest to a geologist is High Rock, in Daviess 
county, across White river from Boone township. It is 120 feet above the 
river, and overlooks the valle3^ Riven by a crevice from top to bottom, 
and bruised by storm and flood, it bears strong testimonj' to the good 
quality of the rock. A picture may be found in Chapter XVIII. 

State Geologist Cox records that the plateau west of Ireland is one- 
hundred-twenty feet above White river, and that the gently sloping bluffs 
on the north side of the plateau are from twenty to twenty-five feet above 
the level of the river, once forming the "coast" or levee embankment of 
the Mississippi river, for he says, the Mississippi ages ago flowed there. 

In the quick sand in wells in Boone township are found remains of 
shrubs and grape vines of enormous growth, indicating, perhaps, the 
luxuriance of a warmer climate. 

At a height of from one- hundred-ten to one-hundred-twenty-three feet 
above the low water of White river, east of Haysville, and on the old 
Harbison farm west of Haysville, also at Portersville, and at some other 
points, are to-day found "sand-bars," dating back to the long past, yet they 
are easily identified. It is evident that some ancient river flowed there. 
Gravel and bowlders torn from the most obdurate rocks at its source 
formed shallows and rapids, then, as to-day. West of part of Haysville is 
a bed of geodes, which probably came from the mountain limestones of 
Orange and Lawrence counties. There is also a bed of geodes on the Beck 
farm on the Jasper and Portersville road. 

The so called "rock houses" or "pot houses" found in Dubois county 
had their origin in this manner. Just beneath the massive sand rock, is 
often found a gray siliceous shale varying from two to twent5^-four feet in 
thickness. Often plant remains are found in this shale. On exposure it 
decomposes and is carried away by water and frost while the massive rock 
above remains. In such places Indians often made their homes, an 
example of which is found in section thirt^^-four, north of Holland. In 
this one upon the ancient hearthstones human bones were found mixed 
with alkaline tufa. Raven Rock, Kitchen Rock and others are also 
examples of this nature. 

The "Rock House" in section thirty-four north of Holland, is probably 
the location of the old Piankishaw Indian village of 1776, mention of which 
is made in Chapter XVIII. 

There is a "Rock House" near the mouth of W^olf creek at the Rock 
House ford across White river. Near here, Col. B. B. Edmonston found 
part of the skeleton of a mastodon. 

Official reports say in the "Rock House" in Hall township, droves of 
animals and whole tribes of Indians have been known to take shelter from 
the snows and storms of winter. 

There are "Rock Houses" south of Birdseye, and near by is an alum 


East of Haysville and near Birdseye is found loess, a deposit of fine 
yellowish earth. It is upon the highest hills, imperfectly stratified and 
from twenty to thirty feet in thickness. It is rich in plant food and is 
called bv many the walnut-level. Good timber is found in such locations. 
Though Patoka river is a narrow stream its bottoms are unusually large, 
ranging from one to three miles in width. It flows through what is some- 
times termed a loess deposit. As a rule the soil in Patoka bottoms is cold 
and impervious to moisture; hence it is very wet in winter and very dry 
in summer. Occasionally a sand bottom is found in Patoka valley. 

The summit of many of the hills along the eastern boundary of Dubois 
county is close to four hundred feet above the water in Patoka river. In 
going from Jasper to Birdseye the road passes over several ridges from two 
hundred fifty to three hundred feet above Patoka at Jasper. Points 
near Birdseye are said to be four hundred feet above Jasper, and eight 
hundred seventy-five feet above the sea. They are probably the highest 
points in the count3\ 

Davis creek in Columbia township is an interesting study for those who 
fancy the work of geologists. The creek enters Dubois county at the north- 
east corner, and goes direct southwest to Patoka river. It runs down a 
deep narrow valley, one of the prettiest in the county, and has cut its way 
down to the solid limestone, known as the upper member of the mountain 
limestone. The lower oolitic member, fifty feet in thickness, is the lowest 
and oldest exposed formation in the county, and consists almost entirely 
of wave worn crushed remains of shells, corals, crinoid stems, etc., pure 
and of a white stone color. It produces excellent lime. This valley has 
choice stone building material. Scientists tell us the supply of lime to be 
obtained in this valley will some day be a blessing to agriculturists. 

Union valley in Columbia township has practically the same formation 
as the Davis creek vallej' in the same township. 

There is a hill of choice glass sandstone near Celestine, and also one 
about a mile east of Hillham, in Orange county. 

Excellent rock for the construction of rock roads is found in Cass town- 
ship, and is used locally. 

"In many of the lime rocks found in Dubois county may be seen fossil 
shells and casts of animals, exclusively of marine origin. Prominent 
among these are the remains of gigantic fish, and chambered shells, such 
as the nautilus. Some are very fragile, showing that once upon a time this 
county was in the profound and quiet depths of a central ocean, remote 
from the influence of waves as well as from rocky or sandy bottoms, until 
some mighty current of disturbed and muddy waters impelled by earth- 
quake action overwhelmed these animals — the impure water putting an 
end to their life and burying them in the slimy bed deposited over the coal 
material." The eastern coast of this ancient sea was from five to ten miles 
east of Jasper. 


The coal in the western part of Dubois count}^ is generally a coking 
coal, indicating bog origin. The coal in the central part of Dubois county 
is about one-third block, the balance, coking or semi-block. This is held 
to indicate that the coal is of vegetable origin, incarcerated for a long 
period in sea water until pulpified and cast down. This theory is held to 
be reasonable because in beds of this coal are often found solid remains of 
marine animals, such as scales, teeth, and spines of fishes. Some block 
coal is found in the eastern part of Dubois county. Cannel-coal is also 
found in this county; near Ferdinand. 

In 1908, Mr. Sigfried, a miner, at work in a coal mine near Ferdinand, 
found imbedded in the coal what appeared to be a rock, six feet long, four 
inches wide, and two and one-half inches thick. In the rock were holes 
in straight rows. It was probably a piece of the stem of sigillaria, one of 
the coal forming fern-like plants that existed during the carboniferous age. 

While Dubois county was yet covered with a forest, thus preventing the 
rapid absorption of moisture, medicinal, salt, and other springs of like 
nature were found flowing. There was an "elm lick" in section 8, T. i S. 
R. 3 W. There was another "lick" in section 36, T. i N. R. 5 W. These 
springs were called licks because deer licked the rocks about them for salts, 
etc. In section 22, T. i N. R. 3 W. is Vowell Cave. A spring at its base 
is known as "blowing spring," because a strong current of air rushes out 
from the opening in the rock. There were other large springs in sections 
33 and 36, T. 2 S. R. 3 W., in section 36, T. i N. R. 5 W.. and in sections i, 
2, 4, 7, 10, 12, 13 and 14 of T. 3 S. R. 3 W., south of Birdseye. Many of the 
springs south of Birdseye flowed salty water. 

The "Toussaint Dubois spring" in Boone township flows a strong 
stream of pure water, among the purest to be found in Indiana. It flows 
into Mill creek. 

There is a supply of good potter's clay for common crockery, in Dubois 
county. It begins at the southern boundary of the county and extends 
north, reaching a depth of about eight feet at White river. 

The clay lying immediately below the coal in Dubois county is gener- 
ally siliceous and makes a fairly good article of fire cla}' . Some at Jasper and 
Huntingburg is more aluminous and makes a choice plastic clay well 
adapted for queensware potteries. 

Potter's and white clay are found in many parts of the county, par- 
ticularly in sections 15, 16, 21 and 22, north of Ferdinand; at Huntingburg; 
and at Fairmount Cemetery, south of Huntingburg. A fine potter's clay, 
four feet thick is found two miles east of Holland. Sand and white sand 
are found southwest of Huntingburg and west of Fairmount Cemetery. 

Near the top of Reservoir hill, whose elevation exceeds that of the court- 
house yard at Jasper by about one-hundred forty feet, is an out-crop of soft, 
unctuous light-gray shale. It is about twenty-three feet thick. In Reser- 
voir hill are four veins of coal, one being about three feet thick. Beneath 


each of these four veins of coal there is a layer of fine grained andverj' 
light colored fire-clay, from three to five feet thick. It would prove excel- 
lent for pottery or other refractory purposes. 

The shale mentioned above could be made into either vitrified or pressed 
front brick of high grade. This hill contains not less than thirty-five 
feet of good commercial clay, and the fuel necessary for its burning. 

The shale beds in section thirty-four, a mile west of Jasper, are of an 
excellent quality, and the fire clay in the old coal mines is also of a good 

At Huntingburg is a deposit of one of the best potter's clay known in 
southern Indiana. Potteries at Louisville, Evansville, New Albany, and 
other points obtain clay here. It is about six feet thick. The "Hunting- 
burg Pressed Brick Company" is making a bufi" front brick from a mixture 
of the potters' clay and the underlying fire clay. 

There is also a deposit of drab argillaceous shale, about twenty feet 
thick, west of Bretzville, and also west of Duff. 

On J. L. Schiller's farm in section six near Dubois occurs an outcrop of 
pale blue fire cla}-, about forty inches in thickness. The owner sometimes 
burns the clay in a kiln, and uses it as a fertilizer with good results. 

Material for the manufacture of bricks is abundant in all parts of the 
county. The under clays accompanying coal seam A are generall}- sili- 
ceous, and are suitable for the manufacture of firebrick. The under clay of 
coal seam K is usually plastic and affords choice material for potter's use. 

The soil of Dubois county is not of the best. Fair crops of corn, wheat, 
oats and grass are produced. Under draining is needed to develop a high 
value for the flat clay bottoms of Patoka. The reddish brown loam soil in 
the southern part of the county is excellent for cigar-leaf tobacco, and, at 
one time, much tobacco was raised and extensive tobacco warehouses were 
erected at Huntinburg, Ferdinand, and Holland. Except the northwest 
part of Dubois county the soil is known as residual soil. 

Iron ores are found in several localities in Dubois county — some very 
pure, but the quantity is not sufficient for mining purposes. At Klingel's 
mill in section 20, northeast of Jasper, the hill is known to geologists as 
Iron Mountain. Iron ore is found about Hillham, Dubois, Schnellville, 
Birdseye, Kellerville, Ferdinand, Holland, and in Fairmount Cemetery. 
The hill south of Kellerville is two-hundred-sixty-five feet above White 
river, and in this hill is found iron ore. It is not probable, hardly possible, 
that ores of the finer metals will ever be found in paying quantities in 
Dubois county. 

Iron ore is found in the following sections : 

Sections 13, 14, and 22, T. i N. R. 3 W. 

Sections 5, 6, 8, 9 and 17, T. i S. R. 3 W. 

Sections 10, 14, 20, 23, and 36, T. 2 S. R. 3 W. 

Section 3, T. 3 S. R. 3 W. 

Sections 34, 35, and 36, T. i N. R. 4 W. 



Sections 15, 16, 20, 21, 22, 28, 29 and 35, T. i S. R. 4 W. 

Section 34, T. 3 S. R. 4 W. 

Section 18, T. 2 S. R. 5 W. 

Sections 4 and 21, T. 3 S. R. 5 W. 

Sections 22, 23, and 27, T. 3 S. R. 6 W. (Abundant.) 

Ochre is found in Dubois county in the following sections : 

Sections 9 and 22 T. 2 S. R. 3 W. 

Section 35, T. i S. R. 4 W. 

Section 28, T. 3 S. R. 5 W. 

Surveyor Sandusky Williams found in a well in section 28, above, at a 
depth of seventeen feet, a bed of yellow ochre three feet nine inches thick. 
Under it is a four feet stratum of ochreous soapstone. This is in Cass 

Conglomerate sandstone, massive sandstone, and subcarboniferous 
limestone are the prevailing stones of the country. 

The massive conglomerate sandstone is a prominent feature in the 
eastern side of Dubois county. Like a massive wall it encloses the true 
coal basin. A spur of it also goes west and in many places forms the south 
bank of Patoka river. In this sandstone occasionally may be found small 
pebbles of quartz and jasper, indicating great age. In the sandstone 
between Huntingburg and Jasper are found petrified trunks of fern trees. 

Near Schnellville is a heavy bedded deposit of beautiful snow-white 
sand rock. It is valuable and makes excellent door and window caps, 
ornamental coping, cornice work, and even gravestones, and church altars. 

In 1887, a brown-stone quarry was opened at St. Anthon}' and operated 
on a small scale for two years. In 1894, it was re-opened for a few years. 
The stone occurs in a massive bed varying from ten to sixteen feet in 
thickness. It is overlaid and underlaid by shale. The length of the 
quarry floor is about eight hundred feet. Very large blocks of stone can 
be secured. A buff stone is also quarried near St. Anthony. It was used < 
in constructing the Catholic church there. The brown stone zone in 3 
Dubois county runs from a point northeast of Ferdinand to a point near 

Gray and buff sandstone has been quarried for local use at several 
points near Jasper. It is harder than the average Mansfield variety. St. 
Joseph's church at Jasper is built of sandstone obtained near the town. 

The earlier examples of stone buildings in Dubois county have a rep- 
resentative in the Catholic church at Ferdinand. It is built of a heavy 
bedded sandstone which lies just above the paint beds. Its color is white 
with streaks of grayish brown and reddish brown. Though somewhat odd, 
it is, no doubt, durable and the appearance is rather agreeable to the eye. 

In Columbia township is found a limestone that furnishes choice white 
lime. The hills containing Vowell cave contain such limestone. 

The lime used in the construction of St. Joseph's Church at Jasper 
was obtained from a limestone taken from sections five and eight, south of 



Flint or white flint sands are found in section 35 T. i S. R. 4 W., in 
sections 13, 15, 16, 21, 22, 23, and 24 in T. 3 S. R. 4 W. and in section 23, 
T. 3 S. R. 5 W. 

The subcarboniferous or conglomerate sand rock of Dubois county will 
yield an unlimited amount of stone suitable for superstructures as well as 
for foundations. Most of it when fresh from the quarry is soft enough to 
work readily, but it soon hardens by exposure. 

In 1902, and 1903, a number of bores were sunk for oil in the vicinity 
of Birdseye. In some quite a quantity of oil was developed in the car- 
boniferous limestone. The first well was put down in section twenty-four 
six miles south of Birdseye. The drill went down 1030 feet. Light colored 
oil was usually found in the bores, between 300 and 400 feet down. The 
wells were sunk as follows : 

The Eckert well, I, — 1030 feet ; 

The Gehlhausen well, — 1280 feet; 

The Hartwick well, I, — 1040 feet ; 

The Kitterman well, — 1000 feet ; 

The Hartwick well, II, — 995 feet; 

The Eckert well, II, — 1015 feet ; 

The Dixon well, — 1600 feet; 

The Bombolaski well, — 600 feet, (dry.) 

In all about thirteen bores were sunk at Birdseye. Oil was found, and 
some day this field may be re-opened, and work continued with some 
system. The oil found at Birdseye was of a very good grade. About 
$50,000 was spent in the drilling. 

In 1889, in search of oil or gas a well was sunk at Jasper to a depth of 
1009 feet, but no oil or gas, of value was found. For years water flowed 
from the pipe at the well. It was used by many as a laxative and diuretic. 
In appearance and properties, so far as could be judged without an analysis, 
it was fully equal to many similar waters which are used in sanitariums, 
with excellent curative results. 

Paint, paint beds, or paint stones are found in sections 32, 33 and 34 in 
T. 3 S. R. 4 W. and in section 21, T. 3 S. R. 5 W. 

Between St. Anthony and Celestine are beds of good mineral paint — 
red oxide of iron and clay. 

When the Anderson Valley Paint Mining Company was in operation, 
crushing oxide of iron, and grinding and preparing the paints, it furnished 
paints as follows : Light and dark butter-nut, maroon and light red metal- 
lic fire proof, brown and red Bismarck, and light and dark slate for cars, 
steamboats, bridges, roofing, etc. Light and dark yellow ochre, drab, 
Dubois stone, and raw and burnt sienna were recommended for house 
painting, wagons, plows, etc. 

The supply of mineral for the making of mineral paint in Ferdinand 
township is unlimited. The quality of the paint is eminently satisfactory, 



and challenges comparison with the best foreign competition. It should 
be developed, since there is now improved transportation facilities. 

In 1859-1860 — David Dale Owen, a noted state geologist, made investi- 
gations in Dubois county. He reports iron ore three and one-half miles 
south of Jasper, and near Kellerville, and says, "In this county they have 
limestone enough to supply kilns, and the eastern portion furnishes sand- 
stone for building purposes from the Millstone grit." During his survey 
of Dubois county, milk sickness prevailed to a considerable extent near 
White river. 

Michael Wilson, for nearly fifty years 
a miner in Dubois county says : 

"The coal deposits of Dubois county, 
although thinner than those of more 
favored districts will be found sufficient 
to supply home demand for mills, dwell- 
ings, etc., for a long time to come, if 
mine owners will not abuse their mines 
by grasping operations. 

The stratified rocks of Dubois county 
belong mainly to the coal measures, 
with a limited exposure of mountain 
limestone. With the exception of the 
extreme eastern boundry some coal may 
be found almost anywhere in the county. 
Some geologists contend that the entire 
area of the county is underlaid by 

Near Ferdinand is a coal thatlis com- 
pact, very hard, a dry .splint, and free 
from sulphuret. It is much valued for 
the forge. 
I have examined practically every one of the two hundred thirty-three 
coal openings in Dubois county, and feel safe in saying that the eastern 
limit of the coal area of the county passes west of Birdseye and through 
Union Valley in Columbia township. West of that line coal, more or less 
profitable for mining, may be found. Even the thinner veins may some 
day be operated. The coal in the eastern part of the county is in pockets, 
more or less, and sufficient for home consumption, only. The coal for 
transportation, if found in Dubois county, at all, will be found in the west- 
ern half of the county too deep for the ordinary slope mines. In Reservoir 
Hill at Jasper are four beds of coal, coal M, L, K, and A. Coal A in this 
hill is one hundred forty feet below the summit of the hill and lies. between 
a bituminuous shale, and a dark bituminous clay. This broken' hill has 
been my favorite study for nearly fifty years. In it are found sandstone, 
black slate, four veins of coal, iron nodules, different shales, hard flint}- 

Michael Wilson. 


limestone, black slate, plastic fire clay, hard fire clay, blue clay shale, 
shaley fire clay, clay with iron nodules, archimedes or " rock screws " and 
oolitic limestone. Lime for the erection of brick buildings at Jasper, was 
burned, at the foot of this hill sixty years ago. Jerger's Hill, east of Res- 
ervoir Hill has a similar formation, and the position of its clays have 
caused the north side of the hill to slide down. Reservoir Hill has an 
anticlinal formation. 

There are about nine different kinds of coal in Dubois county and, in 
thickness, the coal runs from a few inches to five feet. About three hun- 
dred square miles out of the four hundred twenty-eight, are underlaid by 
coal, bat only about one-tenth of the area of the county contains workable 

In my younger days I used to mine coal K in Reservoir Hill. It was 
block and semi-block, three feet thick and of a dull black color. The mid- 
dle part of the seam was excellent coal. Its specific gravity was 1.416 and 
one cubic foot would weigh 88. 50 pounds. Its composition was in the 
main as follows : 

White ash 2.50 

Fixed carbon 53-oo 

Water 4.00 

Gas 40-50 

Total 100.00 

The white ash and carbon formed the coke part of the coal. 

This is the heaviest coal I have noticed in Dubois county. On Davis 
creek in Columbia township is a small vein of coal with carbon at 53.50 
and weight at 81.62 per cubic foot. 

The coal bed found by the government surveyors near Haysville, in 
1804, contains cannel coal and semi-block coal. This coal is remarkably 
rich in gas, almost as much so as the celebrated " Boghead coal" of Scot- 
land. A cubic foot of this coal weighs 74.87 pounds. 

The coal at Bretzville weighs from 79 to 81 pounds to the cubic foot, 
that at St. Anthony weighs from 78 to 83, some near Ferdinand weighs 
77^ to the cubic foot. Near St. Henry is a vein three feet thick that 
weighs about 82 pounds to the cubic foot ; coal at Portersville, Celestine, 
and southeast of Ferdinand runs about 78 pounds to the cubic foot. The 
coal about the old " Rosebank " runs from 78 to 83 to the cubic foot. 

In the roofs of some of the coal mines in Dubois county are often found 
what we local miners call bowlders or nigger heads, but what geologists 
call pyritous iron balls. From one of these found in a mine near the south- 
west corner of Dubois county, besides more than twenty species of shell 
fish, was found a fish bone, about eight inches long. In it was inserted a 
row of large saw-edged teeth. This curious fossil was homogenous in its 


Some geologists think that such bowlders are formed from what was 
once the excreta of wonderful monsters endowed with the power and 
capacity to destroy and digest gigantic animals, for the reason that the bowl- 
ders contain the petrified remains and other solid remains of various ani- 
mals, such parts being hardest to digest. There are found portions of 
many different animals not likely to be found together except dead, and in 
the alimentary canal of some wonderful monster. If this be true, we have 
a proof that the ocean once covered a large part, or perhaps all of Dubois 

In m}^ sixty-five 5'ears' experience down deep in the mines of England, 
America and my own adoptedcounty of Dubois, I have found many things, 
strange and wonderful to say the least." 



An ideal spot for the artist, the poet, the scientist, and the novelist— Buffalo trace, and 
Buckingham's base line — Southern railroad ; unfair to judge county from car win- 
dow — Totem rocks and Saltpeter cave with Indian relics — Raven rocks near the line 
betw^een Columbia and Hall townships; size and color; nests of ravens — Raven rock 
near the line between Dubois and Martin counties: discovered in 1804 — Description 
of Wild Cat Rock— Blue Bird Rock and Hanging Rock — Piankishaw Rock— Indian 
Kitchen Rock in Hall township; Indian relics and mortars — Cliffs in their winter 
beauty . 

An ideal spot for the Indiana artist, a dreamland for the Hoosier poet, 
a place where the young scientist would revel and delight his soul, is surely 
amid the natural rocks and scenery in Dubois county. Here the future 
romancer may find abundant material for his novel, for here have been 
enacted wild scenes of adventure both in the exciting chase for game and 
in the study of the Indian. Here for years burned the camp fires of the 
red men and their trails traversed the hunting grounds over which their 
sway was undisputed until the white man came with the march of civiliza- 
tion and drove them toward the setting sun. Farewell to the! 

Here, also, is the "Buffalo Trace" — that mysterious, yet once plain 
and beaten path that guided the white man through the forest fastnesses 
of southern Indiana and blazed the way for the government surveyors. 
Instrumental in locating the "Buckingham Base Line," it gave the tech- 
nical name and number to millions of acres of Indiana farms and forests. 

The building of the Southern, between Jasper and French Lick, 
opened up to public travel places hereinafter mentioned. All are within 
thirty minutes ride from Jasper or French Lick, and an hour's ride by 
carriage, from their nearest railroad station. In the hands of skillful 
management these places could be made interesting spots to visitors at the 
Springs. Nature has made them attractive; the press can make them 

The railroads of Dubois county pass through its roughest territory. 
Its valuable lands lie beyond the eye of the railroad traveler, and visitors 
to the county misinform themselves, if they judge the county from what 
they see from the car window. 

There are many interesting rocks, caves, paths, bear wallows, springs, 
and mounds in Dubois county that are worth a careful study. Space for- 
bids a description of all, but among them maybe mentioned the following: 




In speaking of the Indians and these "Totem Rocks" let us introduce 
them by a quotation from Longfellow: 

"And they painted on the grave posts 

Of the graves, yet unforgotlen, 
Each his own ancestral totem, 

Each the symbol of his household, 
Figures of the bear and reindeer, 

Of the turtle, crane and beaver." 

Up on the side of "Pilot Knob," in Hall township, near the Hall 
schoolhouse, projects the cliff known as "Saltpeter Cave." Properly 
speaking it is a cliff of Mansfield sandstone about thirty feet high and two 
hundred feet long. It is situated about sixty rods south of the center of 
section twenty-four, town one, south, range three, west. The cliff projects 
beyond its base and nian}^ large rocks have broken themselves from its 
face, and gone tumbling down the hill-side. The cliff faces the east and 
extends north and south. It gets the name "Saltpeter" from the amount 
of nitrate of potash, or saltpeter, found in the rock, or in the dry sand 
which dropped from the side of the rock. Indians and early settlers were 

,• \ known to frequent the rock to obtain 

saltpeter, which formed an important 
constituent of their gunpowder. 

An old settler, by the name of Hous- 
ton, would gather up the dry dirt from 
under the rock and put it in a hopper, 
like our old-fashioned ash-hoppers, and 
after pouring water on it, catch the 
drippings and boil them, thus securing 
saltpeter. Much saltpeter remains in 
the hard rock to-daj-. Its taste is cool- 
ing and very salty. However, much of 
the rock has lost its original appearance, 
because men and boys would fill the 
large fissures in the rocks with kindling, 
apply the torch, run away, listen to the 
loud crackling, and look at the saltpeter 

TOXe^ OF Xi-iC 

OiS seen upon fherocUo 


Totem Rock. 

flashing briskly. Sheep and other animals frequently stand under the 
projecting rocks as a protection to the inclemency of the weather. 
Many years ago, an old settler, who had a terrible dread of cyclones and 
tornadoes, would rush under this rock for protection, whenever dark clouds 
hung in majestic awe and terrible outline in the western sky. The names 
of many early settlers may be seen carved, in rustic fashion and sprawling 
hand, upon the bare faces of the rock. 



Hunters after Indian relics while digging about this rock have found 
earthen ware, shells, arrow heads and other Indian makeshifts. On trees 
about this cliff are cut outlines of turtles. Upon a large rock that has 
fallen from the main body are distinctly cut in outline three turtles. 
They appear to be traveling in one di- 
rection, and maj' indicate, in the Indian 
language, some historical fact relative 
to the tribe of Indians that frequented 
the spot. Each totem, as cut in the 
rock, is twelve inches long and nine 
inches wide. There are other figures, 
not recognizable to any who have lateh- 
visited the spot. Not far away, but upon 
another rock, are holes in which the In- 
dians ground their corn. 


There are two rocks in Dubois 
county known as "Raven Rocks. ' ' They 
are about six miles apart. We shall 
describe each one separatel}'. 

Indian Relics Found in Dubois County. 

On October 23, 1S04, Levi Barber, a United States government surveyor, 





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Raven Rock, Hall To'wnship. 

discovered a large rock near the line between Columbia and Hall townships. 
It is located by him as being on the line dividing section sixteen and seven- 



teen, township one, south, range three, west, and sixty chains north of the 
south lines of said sections. The rock is in longitude 86°, 45', 43" west of 
Greenwich, and 38°, 26', 26" north latitude This rock is known as Raven 
Rock. It is about seventy-five feet high, shelving out from the base to the 
top, which projects about thirty-five feet beyond the base. The rock is 
massive, dark buff to brownish in color, composed of coarse, loosely 
cemented sand with some mica. 

The lower part of the ledge is characterized by numerous thin, wavy 
bands of iron ore running through the ledge in a most intricate fashion. 

Crevice in Raven Rock, Hall Township. 

In this rock are shelves, very difficult to reach, and on these, or, rather, 
in the crevices, the ravens built their nests up to the year, 1894. These 
nests were rough, constructed of large weeds, and sticks, and lined with 
hair or wool. Ravens resemble crows, but they are very much larger, 
being two feet from bill to tip of tail, which is round in shape. They 
feed on rabbits, eggs, etc. The people in the neighborhood did not like 
them and looked upon them as an ill omen. They were often seen five 
miles from the rock. "Arch Rock" and "Straight Rock," near by, are 
also worth a visit. Their names indicate their general outline. 


At Thales P. O. about ten miles w^est of French Lick, up near the line 
between Dubois and Martin counties, and on the line between Columbia 
and Harbison townships, is one of the greatest natural objects of interest 



in Dubois county. For beauty and majesty this rock is unsurpassed in the 
county. It is known to inhabitants of that neighborhood as Raven Rock, 
from the fact that ravens were known to have built their nests in the crevi- 
ces of the rock up to about 1820, and perhaps later. The greater part of 
the rock is in Columbia township. The rock is sixty-one feet high and 
three hundred fifty-five feet long. It is in the shape of an arc cut from a 
large circle. The top extends fifty or sixty feet beyond the base and could 
afford protection for a battalion of infantry, if necessary. A bed of coal 
fourteen inches thick exposes itself from the base of the rock. A spring 

Raven Rock near Thales. Find the Man and Boy. 

of water flows from the floor of the cave. Under the extending eaves are 
found large rocks that have fallen from the main body above. When 
struck with the foot one of these rocks echoes and re-echoes throughout 
the cave, producing a feeling akin to solemnity. On the side of this rock, 
water has worn a perfect circle, about two feet in diameter, in such a man- 
ner as to make it appear, at a distance, as a perfect large seal of the state 
of Indiana. Raven Rock is worth going a long distance to see. This 
rock was also discovered, in 1804, by L,evi Barber, United States govern- 
ment surveyor. It is situated thirty-eight chains north of the southwest 
corner of section eighteen, township one north, range three, west, in lon- 
gitude 86°, 47', 54" west of Greenwich, and 38°, 31', 17" north latitude. 


This rock, which is, no doubt, a continuation of " Raven Rock," just 
mentioned above, is a vast wall of stone, beginning at a point one-fourth 


mile north of the latter and extending northward one-fourth mile. This 
wall, or precipice, averages fifty feet in height. At the southern extremity 
there is a sheer fall of sixty feet. Here is the part of the rock which is 
most interesting and from which the name is derived. Long ages ago a 
large bowlder one hundred fifty feet in length and of nearly like thick- 
ness fell from the main ledge, leaving a yawning chasm, or gorge, sixty 
feet deep and one hundred seventy-five feet in length. The walls of 
this gorge are truly grand to behold, and remind the visitor of descriptions 
and illustrations of old castles, towers, etc., portrayed in ancient history. 
At the extreme southern part of this gorge, is a cave or cavern sixty feet 
in length. One can pass from the gorge to the outside, by going through 
this cavern. In here is a room which is perhaps twelve by fifteen feet in 
size. Its walls are of perfect stone, which one cannot help but think were 
wrought and finished by human hands. The huge bowlder, which reminds 
one of a miniature Pisa, inclines slightly westward from the ledge. Its 
top is covered with a thin coat of soil, and various shrubs and vines, and a 
few fair sized saplings cling there despite the forces which are constantly 
operating to remove them. From underneath the bowlder bubbles an ever- 
lasting spring of excellent water. / Farther down the ledge, is another spring 
equally as good. Extending backwards from the gorge are great cracks 
or crevices varying in width from eight to eighteen inches; in depth from 
forty to sixty feet ; and in length from seventy-five to one hundred feet. 
A fall into one of these chasms would certainly mean death. Old settlers 
say that at one time wild cats frequented this rock. There is no rea.son 
why it should not afford a safe retreat. While Raven Rock strikes the 
eye and fills the visitor with wonder and excitement, he is no less amazed 
when standing in the solemn silence of the gorge of Wild Cat Rock. 


Blue Bird Rock is located on Dillon creek, in Columbia township and 
faces the new town of Cuzco. It is on the side of a very steep hill. It is 
so named because blue birds in great numbers used to build their nests 
about or near it. This rock is seventy feet long, twenty wide and thirty 
high. It is located on a high hill, and overlooks Union Valley. It thus 
forms a very prominent landmark, and will be seen by thousands of people 
from the car windows on the Southern. 


Not far away, and in the same neighborhood, is Hanging Rock, on the 
Simmon's farm. The top projects twenty-four feet over the base. This 
rock is fifty feet high and one hundred twenty feet long. In the early 
days the pioneers, with their hounds, would run deer over the precipice, the 
fall killing them. A spring flows from the base of this rock. 


"the piankishaw rock." 


This is an overhanging rock about two hundred yards in length and 
about twenty feet thick, on the farm of Joseph Dudine, about a quarter of a 
mile southwest of Patoka river and about three hundred fifty yards south 
of the Southern railroad track. Many Indian relics have been found about 
this rock, indicating its use for camping purposes. 


Another interesting rock is situated in Hall township, in the northwest 

Indian Kitchen Rock, Hall Township. 

quarter of section twenty-six and the northeast quarter of section twenty- 
seven, township one, south, range three, west, and about one-half mile 
west of Roberts' Chapel. It is known as the Sand Cave or the Indian 
Kitchen Rock. This rock is forty-five feet high and projects thirty-six 
feet. It is several hundred feet long, and in the shape of a horse- shoe; 
really in shape of Niagara Falls. Springs of fine water flow from its base. 
The over-hanging rocks with massive trees growing near their edges, give 
the place a majestic appearance, while the prevailing quietness aids one in 
the study of its beauty, in recalling its history, and in imagining Indian 
rites there enacted. Many Indian relics have been found buried in the 
sand at the base of the rocks. Mortars cut into the large stones that fell 
from the main body ages ago may yet be seen. The largest measures 
about eighteen inches in depth and ten inches in diameter. Occasionally 
some faithful paleontologist finds a pestle in the sand nearby. 



In the winter time when ice hangs from the projecting cliffs of these 
rocks, in great white sheets finally forming gigantic pillars, and glistening 
in the light of the cold, pale December moon, in an awful stillness, broken 
only by the whistle of the wintry blast, one sees nature wrapt in an appar- 
ently endless sleep. 



The "Barren" — Buffalo Trace — Gigantic iceberg — Three peculiar discoveries — "Cooper 
Hill" — Patoka lake basin — Value of county's original timber — Topography of 
county — Natural forest timber — Tulip poplar — Thick, dark forest — Forest under- 
growth — Swamp land in Madison township — Corduroy roads — Forests of Dubois 
county one hundred years ago — List of indigenous trees — Milk-sickness; cause — 
A day of public prayer — List of smaller varieties of vegetation — Effect of the 
removal of vegetation on climate; on health — Abraham Lincoln — Daniel Boone. 

No young Dubois county nimrod that strolls with his shot gun or rifle 
through the scattered patches of woods that now stand like islands in a 
great sea of cleared land, can get a good, adeqtiate idea of the conditions 
that prevailed in the forests of Dubois county, in iSoi, when the McDon- 
alds found their way over the "Buffalo Trace" to the "Mud Holes" of 
Boone township. 

At that time the county was an immense forest in which open spaces 
were very few, very small and very far between. In Ferdinand township 
there was one small open space called the "Barren." 

On June 4, 18 14, a terrible tornado passed over Dubois county, follow- 
ing Patoka river. It was in the shape of a cone, with the apex downward, 
and as black as pitch, and "appeared to boil." It was about one mile 
wide, and destroyed much timber. Its path, the "barren," some ponds 
and the streams in the county were about the only places that admitted 
sunlight. Dubois county had one of the greatest hardwood forests in the 
Ohio valley. 

To pioneers the prospect was very disheartening because of the im- 
mensity of the labor involved in clearing the forests for farming purposes. 
The labor was so great that it can hardly be imagined by the citizens of 
the present day. It was the fear of this labor, between 1800 and 1821, that 
caused the greater part of the emigrants of that time to follow the "Buffalo 
Trace" to the prairies of Illinois, where nature had bared it for the plow. 
In Dttbois county for many weary years the pioneers had to fight nature 
with their axes before the ground was ready for cultivation. 

Some noted geologists claim that at one time a gigantic iceberg was 
plowing its way southward, and that it extended from the Jasper and Por- 
tersville road, in Dubois county, to Denmark, Iowa; that it melted and 
left the debris it had pushed down from the north to fill up the previous 


valleys, thus producing level land, which became prairies. In this con- 
nection, mention may be made of three peculiar discoveries in Dubois 
county, which tend to show a previous geological condition, namely: (i) 
In one of the boulders found near Holland was a large fish bone, with saw- 
edged teeth, at first supposed to be a jaw-bone, but later pronounced a 
caudal or dorsal armature of a ray fish. (2) North of Holland are some 
"rock-houses," caused by the washing away of a softer lower strata of 
sandstone. Reports have it that remains of animals and human bones 
have been found in these rock-houses. (3) Near the mouth of Wolf 
creek, in Harbison township, part of a mastodon's skeleton was discovered. 

The crown of the "Cooper Hill," in Boone township, was too high for 
the glacial debris to cover; otherwise all of Boone township and part of 
Madison township fell under this iceberg. The level land so produced is 
sometimes referred to as the "Patoka Lake basin." It may have been at 
one time prairie land, in fact is so regarded by some geologists; nevertheless, 
timber covered it at the time of the government surveys. It may not have 
been so very dense, and this may have had its influence in causing Boone 
township and Madison township to attract and hold the pioneers. 

For more than three generations the battle for mastery has steadily 
raged, and though the forest is at last completely conquered, it has been 
at best perhaps a losing fight. If this county's original timber stood where 
it stood in 1800, it would to-day be worth $7,500,000. In view of this, and 
of the present and future needs of the county, it would be a good policy 
to re-forest a part of the rough land in the eastern part of the county and 
restore it, as far as possible, to its old condition. 

The rough lands surrounding the head springs of the streams, and 
especially their valleys and banks, might be replanted. Perhaps no long- 
time investment would pay better, to say nothing of the improvement to 
the climate and general health. European experiences support this sug- 

It will be best to get a general idea of the topography of Dubois county 
and of its forest conditions as they existed when the McDonalds trod the 
"trace." They were the first pioneers of the county, and the first perma- 
nent white inhabitants of this section. The county is not level. Hills 
are numerous, with their surfaces sloping gradually to the southwest, in 
which direction nearly all streams, large and small, wend their way, in 
narrow valleys, which widen as the streams flow onward. For scores of 
miles in all directions from Fort McDonald the land was covered with a 
more or less dense growth of hardwood trees from one hundred to one 
hundred fifty feet high; their tops so interlaced, when in full foliage, that 
the rays of the sun seldom reached the ground. On dark days, in many 
parts of the county, the shade was so deep, that, in the forest, noon day- 
light was no stronger than twilight. 


In the early years of settlement much of this timber was very large, as 
will be seen by the following measurements of several varieties: 

Common Name. Diameter. First Limb at Total Height. 

Sweet Gum ^j4 feet. 65 feet. 125 feet. 

Sugar Maple 5 feet. 62 feet. 120 feet. 

White Oak 6 feet. 60 feet. 150 feet. 

Black Oak 6}4 feet. 75 feet. 165 feet. 

Sycamore 7 feet. 60 feet. 150 feet. 

Burr Oak 7 feet. 70 feet. 160 feet. 

Scarlet Oak 7 feet. 90 feet. 181 feet. 

Black Walnut 7 feet. 70 feet. 155 feet. 

Poplar (Tulip) 8 feet. 90 feet. 190 feet. 

As there was little market for the fine natural forest timber, what 
would now be worth millions of dollars, was destroyed by burning, or used 
for fence rails, in order to get it off the land and out of the way for culti- 
vation. Some of the best specimens of the original forest trees can, at 
present (1909), be seen within a mile of Fort McDonald's site. The tulip 
poplar was the queen of the forest. The sweet gum was her maid. In 
1908, a maple tree that stood south of Jasper was cut down. It contained 
2,445 feet of lumber. In 1909, one hundred twenty trees in Madison 
township were sold for $6,600, or $55 a tree. 

When the "county-town" of Jasper was laid out, there stood along 
what is now Mill street several giant tulip trees, eight feet in diameter. 
A very large one stood near the corner of 6th and Mill streets, another 
near the corner of 7th and Mill streets. Just south of Trinity Church 
stood two splendid specimens of the beech tree. Some of the finest and 
largest sycamore trees, in Indiana, stood along the banks of White river, 
west of the first "county-town" of Portersville. 

In the northeastern part of Jackson township w^ere several groves of 
most excellent chestnut trees. The groves covered parts of four sections. 
In section fifteen, at the mouth of Hunley's creek, was a large cane brake. 
Southeast of Maltersville was another cane brake. There were sassafras 
trees four and five feet in diameter. 

Underneath the giant forest trees in Dubois county stood other trees of 
the same or lesser species, striving upward to light, eager to fill the spaces 
left by lightning or tempest in the upper ranks. Great tall poplar, hickory, 
and sycamore trees for flag poles for political rallies were easy to obtain 
fifty years ago. The thick, dark forests were conducive to the production 
of tall trees. 

In some places under the forest trees, crowded thick masses of bushes, 
vines, and weeds, which, with fallen trunks, tops, and stumps, made a 
jungle impassible, in many places, unless a way was cut with the axe. 
Therefore, the paths of the buffaloes, bears, deer, and other wild animals 



were followed. However, in some places the forest undergrowth was 
annually burnt out by the Piankishaws. This undergrowth was not 
equally bad everywhere, but it prevailed generally. The heavy small 
undergrowth in Boone township marked a strong, deep, rich soil, far more 
lasting than soils in other parts of the county. 

In some parts of the county much of the ground, such as the "Patoka 
Lake" basin, in Madison township, was swampy and wet, especially in 
spring and autumn, and the pioneer splashed for long distances, ankle 
deep in water. It was difficult for a man on foot to traverse it, barely 
possible for a horseman, and impossible with a wagon, unless the way was 
first cleared with the axe. 

Under such conditions the opening of roads was of no small impor- 
tance. The timber cut on the road-bed was used to corduroy the road, 
the trunks being placed side-by-side, across the swampy locations, and 
earth heaped on them to make the road-bed even. Miles of such "cor- 
duroy" road existed in Dubois county, in the early years of its settlement. 
General Harrison rebuilt part of the old "Buffalo Trace," in Columbia 
township, in such a manner. "Corduroy" may still be found on Main 
street, in the town of Jasper, five hundred feet north of the court house 
and five feet under the street surface. 

It is said that no denser or more valuable forest could be found in the 
Ohio valley than that which shaded the soil of Dubois county one hun- 
dred years ago. Trees of nearly all sizes and kinds stood unmolested and 
mighty. On account of the desire of each tree for sufficient light and air, 
a uniform height was reached, though a tree three hundred years old stood 
by the side of one fifty years of age. Taking as a standard, the concentric 
circles found in the trunks, none of them was more than four hundred 
years old. Perhaps but few of those found here by the pioneers were 
standing when Columbus discovered America. 

Below will be found a fairly good list of the different indigenous trees 
found in the forests of Dubois county, and since the first settlement was 
made. Some trees may be named twice, since they are known by two or 
more names. The list is not given as a complete list. It is now perhaps 
too late to obtain that. It is given simply as a fairly good and complete 
list, to-wit : 

Aspen tree, — large-toothed. 

Ash, — blue, and white. 

Buckeye, — sweet. 

Beech, — red, white, water, and swamp. 

Basswood, — (white lin.) 

Birch, — red, white, water, sweet, and canoe. 

Balsam tree. 

Balm of Gilead, — (Paradise tree.) 

Cherry, — wild, black. 


Cucumber tree, — (yellow lin.) 

Cedar, — red, white. 

Cottonwood, — yellow and white. 


Chestnut, — rock, oak. 


Catalpa, — hardy. 

Dogwood, — flowering. 

Elm, — red, hickory, slippery, yellow, white, sour, and swamp. 

Gum, — sweet, sour, tupelo or black, red, and sweet-black. 

Haw tree, — black, yellow, and red. 

Hickory, — swamp, shellbark, white-heart, white, small-fruited, black, 
king-nut, and pig-nut. The Indian word for hickory was "pohickory." 


Hop hornbeam. 


Kentucky coffee. 


Locust, — black, honey, and oldfield. 

Maple, — black-sugar, hard, rock, sugar-tree, soft, red, and swamp. 

Mulberry, — red. 

Oak, — white, red, black, shingle, chestnut, burr, barren, post, chin- 
quapin, over-cup, yellow-bottom, blackjack, swamp-white, Spanish, pin, 
willow, scarlet, and live oak. 

Poplar, — yellow (or tulip), white, and blue. 

Pecan, — yellow and white. 

Persimmon, — (Virginia.) 

Plum, — wild red. 



Sycamore, — red and white (buttonwood or plane.) 


Sassafras, — red and white. 

Thorn-tree, — red-fruited, glandular, and cockspur. 

Willow, — yellow, white, and black. 

Walnut, — black and white (butternut.) 

Wild crab-apple. 

Practically all of these trees are deciduous trees. There were very few 
trees in Dubois county that could be classed as coniferous trees. 

Living for a long period in the shade of such a forest produced a 
depressing eflfect on some pioneers, and in many cases, caused sickness and 

The Kentucky coffee-nut trees were found in the rich woods along the 
valleys in Dubois county. They were the coarsest and burliest of all our 


pod-bearing trees. They had thick, clumsy twigs, and their branches 
were stout and stiff. The twice compound leaves were unusually large. 
The flowers on the trees were small, greenish-yellow, and salver form. 
The pods bearing the fruit were oblong, flattened, hard, pulpy inside, and 
contained several seeds. It is said the Kentucky pioneers on the "Buf- 
falo Trace" used these as a substitute for coffee, hence the common name. 
The other name is Gymnociad2is Canadeyisis. These trees grow tall when 
in the woods, but when in the open, they branch low and form broad tops. 
For years one grew on the southwest corner of Sixth and Jackson streets, 
in Jasper. 

The early settlers had to contend against chills and fever, and some- 
times milk-sickness. No settlement of pioneers wanted to admit that any 
one in its neighborhood had milk-sickness. The "Irish Settlement," in 
Madison township, located it at the "Mud Holes," in Boone township, 
while the settlers in Boone township placed it at Jasper, or in Madison 
township, and so it kept on moving. Near the "Camp Ground," in 
Patoka township, are graves of several pioneers whose deaths are attrib- 
uted to milk-sickness. 

The real cause of milk-sickness is still in doubt. Medical men of good 
scientific attainments, who have had opportunities of observing the disease 
for years, fail to agree as to its cause, but concur in the opinion that the 
disease was confined to those who had partaken of the flesh, butter, or 
milk of infected animals, and that this infection was confined to animals 
that fed in localities noted for dense shade, such as thickly-shaded jungles. 
Chills and fever, and milk-sickness (which was a peculiar form of malig- 
nant fever), caused so much sickness in parts of Indiana, from 1820 to 
1823, that the legislature, on Monday, December 31, 1821, passed an act 
setting apart Friday, April 2, 1822, as a day for public prayer to 

"God Almighty, that He may avert the just judgments impending our 
land, and that in His manifold mercies He will bless the country with 
fruitful seasons, and our citizens with health and peace." 

Chills and fever were more easily understood and acknowledged by the 
pioneers. The remedy used at the "Mud Holes" and in the "Irish Set- 
tlement" was to get above fever heat by drinking plenty of whiskey or 

The writer is no botanist, but gives below a list of some of the smaller 
varieties of vegetation as recalled by old pioneers. Some of these may 
have been transplanted from other states by the pioneers themselves. It 
is uncertain now. This list is not given as a complete list, simply as an 
index, namely: 

Briers, blackcurrent, blackberry, elderberry, gooseberry, hazel, Indian 
arrow, kinikinick, leatherwood, prickly ash, mountain laurel, raspberry, 
sumach, spicewood, wahoo, and wild rose. 


Bluegrass, foxtail, peppergrass, many kinds of sandgrasses, swamp- 
grasses, watergrasses and sedges. 

Wild cucumber, fox grapes, summer grapes, frost grapes, honeysuckle, 
poison ivy, strawberry, sarsaparilla, and the Virginia creeper, or trumpet 

White, blue, and yellow violets, yellow and white daisies, hollyhocks, 
anemones, spring beauties, four-o' clocks, touch-me-nots, larkspurs, blue 
bells, many varieties of golden rods, buttercups, asters, ladies' slippers, 
Johnny- jump-ups, foxgloves, wild morning glories, wake robins, mari- 
golds, adder's tongue, phlox, mist flowers, pinks, button flowers, sweet 
Williams, and Dutchman's breeches. Mistletoe is still found growing on 
elms, black gum, and oak trees. 

Here are a few of the weeds and other plants: Milkweed, cottonweed, 
iron weed, pigweed, ragweed, catch weed, jimsonweed, smartweed, poke- 
weed, bindweed, squawweed, thistle, nettle, mullein, dog fennel, ginseng, 
May apple, purslane, Indian turnip, skunk cabbage, burdock, sour dock, 
wild mustard, dandelion, spinach, careless, ground ivy, lobelia, calamus, 
horsemint, peppermint, catnip, white and yellow lilies, cat-tail flag, blue 
and yellow flags, plantain, crow's foot, wild parsnip, wild carrot, blood 
root, angelica, cotton, flax, Jerusalem apple, or wild tomato (the unculti- 
vated modern tomato), balsam apple, teazel, hoarhound, pennyroyal, 
sheep sorrel, night shade, ground cherry, cocklebur, .Spanish needle, beg- 
gartick, snakeroot, comfrey, and many kinds of rushes, burrs, pond weeds, 
ferns, and mushrooms. 

The number of trees, shrubs, vines and other plants producing nuts, 
berries, roots and other edible products was large, and wild animals found 
plenty of food. To the thinker the destruction of this once mighty forest 
has all the features of a long-continued tragedy. To some it seems like 
a crime against the past, the present, and the future. 

The removal of the greater part of such a tremendous vegetation has 
had a marked effect on the climate and on the general health. The orig- 
inal forests served as a moderator of the cold winds of winter and caused 
the spring to come on slowly and safely, thus protecting the fruits. Fifty 
years ago, in Dubois county, the fruit crops seldom failed. Upon scores 
of farms around Jasper were good fruit orchards, and nearly every farmer 
distilled apple and peach brandy. Pioneers seemed to need these drinks, 
and generally used them in moderation; practically all drank. 

In the early days the surface was saturated with moisture at nearly all 
seasons. The spring and summer rains and the winter snows remained 
longer on the ground, percolating slowly through the leaves and weeds to 
the creeks or streams. Patoka river, Straight river, Anderson river, Indian 
creek, Hunley's creek. Hall's creek. Fall creek, and practically all others 
were clogged with drift. Such a condition so retarded the current that 
these streams were practically bank full most of the year. They rose and 


fell more slowly, and after heavy rains pioneers waited sometimes for days 
before they could ford them. The constant moisture and shade moderated 
the heat of summer and tempered the winter's cold and snow. The sun 
and winds could not reach the ground to dry it. Extremes in the temper- 
ature were not so frequent then as now. The clearing of the soil and its 
exposure to the sun drove away much of the earlier types of sickness. 

The clearing away of the forest timber, while it is to be regretted, 
seems to have been a part of the eternal fitness of things. The necessities 
of civilization and population required it, and it has been well done. The 
destruction of the forests lost us the buffaloes, bears, deer, geese, ducks, 
pigeons, and indirectly shoals of bass, perch, and other fishes. All are 
practically gone. 

Abraham Lincoln, when a boy, hunted in the forests near Johnsburg 
and St. Henry. Upon many of the beech trees in Dubois county could be 
seen the scratches made by black bears in their attempts to climb the trees. 
Upon a beech tree in Columbia township was found cut, in sprawling 
characters, the name of Daniel Boone, the pioneer of Kentucky, but 
whether or not he cut it there himself, no one knows. It may have been 
placed there by some Kentuckian in memory of his ideal pioneer. Age 
had spread the letters until they were two inches wide. A beech tree was 
an ideal pioneer autograph album. Initials of lovers now dead for half a 
century are occasionally found upon them. These old autograph trees are 
touching memorials of lives and loves gone forevermore. 



Forest birds— Water birds— Eagles— Swans— Ducks— Woodpeckers— Turkeys— Ravens 
—Paraquets— Pigeon roosts at Huntingburg; at St. Henry— Bee Hunting- Honey 
—Bee habits— "Survival of the fittest"— Deer— Deer paths— Black bears— Wolves 
—Wild hogs— First entry on existing official records— Other entries— Native pro- 
ducts—Fox hunt— Pioneer hunters— Indian burials— Piankishaw Indians. 

In no other respect, perhaps, have there been greater changes in Dubois 
county, in its first century, than in that relating to its birds and wild ani- 

In I Sod, Dubois county was a grand wilderness. Through it ran its swol- 
len streams and the "Buffalo Trace." The forests were so dense that they 
were almost impenetrable. Here and there were marshes. Those in Madi- 
son township and along the "Patoka Lake" bottoms were like lakes, except 
that the marsh grasses and flowers gave them the appearance of fields. 
These conditions were favorable to two classes of birds, to-wit: those that 
love a dense forest and those that love the water. Both were to be found 
in Dubois county in the early part of the nineteenth century, in great 

It is difficult for the young people of this day and generation to realize 
how great has been the change, in this respect, in this county, within the 
last century — the life-history of the county. The change of topographical 
conditions has worked an almost entire change in the birds inhabiting 
the county. Many of the kinds that it formerly contained, such as the 
ivory billed and pilated woodpeckers, wild or passenger pigeons, wild 
turkeys and paraquets are now almost or entirely gone. 

One hardly thinks of the kingl)^ eagle, of which we have alwaj-s heard 
such fine stories, as being at one time found in Dubois county, yet both 
varieties, the bald and golden eagle, were in early days found here, and 
occasionally even in our day we hear of one being killed. The bald eagle, 
the bird of our coin, still rears its young in unfrequented spots of Indiana, 
and was once quite plentiful in Dubois county. In June, 1883, a bald eagle's 
aerie was found on "Pond Ridge," south of Birdseye. This king of birds, 
we are sorry to say, does not deserve the admiration he receives. He was 
simply a greedy robber, and spent a good part of his time deliberateh' tak- 
ing fish from the osprey, or fish hawk, which also lived along White, 
Anderson, and Patoka rivers. 

The stately swan, one of the largest of flying birds, whose wnngs, when 
spread, were sometimes eight or ten feet from tip to tip, used to make Du- 
bois count}^ a way-station in its long journeys between the tropics and the 


far North ; and along with him came no less than six different varieties of 
wild geese and at least twenty kinds of wild ducks. Old settlers in Dubois 
count}' tell of seeing ducks covering an acre of backwater at a time. Other 
water fowls, such as gulls, terns and even the great cormorant and unsightly 
pouched pelican belong to our list, while such visitors as the ibis and the 
roseate spoonbill from the tropics, and the snow bunting and great snowy 
owl from the arctic regions, were not altogether strangers to Dubois county. 

Occasionally a crane was found, sometimes of great size. One was 
killed that measured six feet and two inches from tip to tip, and stood five 
feet two inches high. 

There were here two very large members of the woodpecker family that 
are now growing scarce. One of them is occasionally found in this county, 
where woods still remain. This is the pilated woodpecker, log-cock, or 
wood-cock, which, including the tail, measures from fifteen to nineteen 
inches in length. He is a noble looking bird. Any one who has noticed 
the common "red-head" hammer may guess how this powerful fellow could 
make the bark and chips fly. The other one, known as the ivory bill, be- 
cause of his white beak, is still larger and yet more rare. Once he was 
found in Dubois county, but so far as is known, none exist here now. 

Another bird that is now very rare is the noble wild turkey, which was 
once so abundant that the early settlers frequently shot it from their cabin 
doors. It is not likely that there are an}' in Dubois county to-day. Wild 
turkeys were used by the pioneers for food. In the meat line turkeys and 
deer were the chief subsistence. They were so plentiful that it did not pay 
to kill the smaller game for food. If needed, a pioneer could kill a dozen 
or more wild turkeys in a day. Often a load of them would be taken, on 
foot, to Vincennes, and exchanged for a bag of salt, which would be car- 
ried back home. 

Squirrels were so plentiful that they had to be shot to save the ripen- 
ing corn. 

A bird not now found in the county is the raven. It looked like a 
crow, but was considerably larger. Ravens were seen at "Raven Rock," 
near Ellsworth, as late as 1894. Within later periods none have been seen 
in the state, with perhaps one exception. Once there were many in Col- 
umbia township, and two romantic rocks bear their name. 

Of the other birds that were once common here, but which are found 
no more, two will be mentioned — the Carolina paraquet and the wild pigeon. 
The paraquet was a small parrot, brightly colored with green, yellow and 
red, and was frequently found in large flocks, especially in the low lands 
around "Duck Pond" in Patoka township, and "Buffalo Pond" near Jasper. 
Their brilliant plumage and noisy chatter made them very noticeable, and 
so we find them mentioned by our pioneers. The Piankishaw Indians 
were fond of their feathers for ornamental purposes. They were wasteful 
and mischievous, destroying both the buds and the fruit of the orchards 
bej'ond all reason. Before the forests were cut away the fruit-trees grew 


better and bore more regularly. The pioneer set great value on his fruit 
crop. So he waged a war of extermination on the paraquet, and their 
going caused no sorrow. 

Almost every one has heard of the enormous number of wild pigeons 
formerly in this county. When they came it was by the million, the great 
clouds of them fairly darkening the sky. What has become of them is 
one of the mj'steries not explained. Like the robins, crows, and blackbirds 
they would select roosting-places, which they would occupy every nio-ht, 
and settle so thickly on the trees as to break down the branches. People 
would go with torches to these roosting-places, and with guns and clubs, 
wage warfare on the flocks. Then there would be a strange and exciting 

The poor, bewildered birds would be dazed by the glaring torches. 
Sometimes, at the report of the guns, the pigeons would rise in a vast 
■ swarm, only to settle again in a moment, and the thunder of their wings, 
followed by the cracking of tree limbs, as they came down, was like the 
sudden coming of a hurricane. The dead ones were carried awa}- by the 
hundreds by any one who came to the hunting. The shame was that 
hundreds were killed that nobody could use. They could be purchased 
for twenty-five cents a bushel delivered at j'our residence. 

About 1838, a famous pigeon-roost occupied the trees where Huntingburg 
now stands. The pigeons were so numerous that even large trees were 
broken down. People for many miles around secured all the birds they 
wanted at this roost. Louisville people came here to hunt. Goodlet Mor- 
gan, at that time assistant county clerk of Dubois count}', and a member 
of the county council of Pike county when he died, (Sunday, October 14, 
1907), reports that forest trees were stripped of their branches by the weight 
of the birds. The roost covered several hundred acres and was famous, 
even in those days of plenty, in the wild game line. These wild pigeons 
practicalh' located "Hunting" — burg. 

In the springtime, the wild pigeons were frequently so numerous that 
they appeared like so many floating clouds in the sky. They also had a 
roosting place near St. Henry, and almost destroyed a forest near there, by 
breaking off the limbs of the forest trees. 

John W. Kemp, of Cass township, says: "I can remember the pigeon 
roost in Cass township. Pigeons were so numerous they darkened the sun 
when in quest of food, going out in the morning and returning in the even- 
ing. The timber broke under their weight. Their excrement covered 
the ground to the depth of several inches. Jonathan Walker, the well 
known fist fighter, lived on the pigeon roost land." 

In 1875, the wild pigeons made their visit to this part of the country. 
Boys, then just beginning to carry a gun, well remember how it used to 
excite them to see the great flocks come streaming overhead. Every old 
gun was popping all the time, but as the pigeons were swift flyers and hard 
to bag when on the wing, the boys' warfare was chiefly noise. Wild pigeons 
were frequently in the woods in countless numbers, hovering close to the 


ground searching for beech-nuts, and the wind from their wings was con- 
tinually blowing the dry leaves about. When they would suddenly rise, on 
such occasions, a sound like a roll of thunder would result. Somewhere, 
perhaps, a few wild pigeons may still exist. They are supposed to be almost 
extinct. No wild pigeons have been seen in Dubois county for many years. 
The birds that zucre, are now, in the main, replaced by birds that love 
small wooded areas, thickets, and the open fields. The birds of our pioneers 
are practically gone. 

The "bee-hunter," or "bee-tracer," was a character among the pioneers. 
To be a successful bee-hunter one had to have some special gift in that line. 
To locate a bee-tree and recover many pounds of wild honey (often 
hundreds), was a piece of work to be looked upon with pardonable pride 
and pleasure, for a bee can outfly a pigeon. 

A bee-hunter had various ways of following his occupation. Having, 
with the keen eye of the pioneer, spied a bee flying by, he sat down and 
patiently waited for another bee to pass, and then carefully noted its course. 
Marking the spot where a bee was first seen by blazing a tree, he pro- 
ceeded to mark the place where a bee was last seen, in the same manner. 
Then ranging himself with the two blazed trees, he waited for another bee, 
which, if he had his range true, would soon pass him. Another bee, another 
blazed tree, and so on until the bee-tree was located. An ax would do 
the rest. 

The pioneer bee-hunter kept his sharp eye on the red and the sugar 
maple trees, where the wild bee went to get sap during the first warm 
spring days. He also watched the catkins of the willows along Mill creek, 
and other creeks in this county. The first spring honej^ was obtained from 
the flowers of the red maple and the golden willow. The dandelion, a wild 
and humble plant, not only furnished greens for the pioneers, but nectar 
for the wild bees in spring. Indian corn, catnip, and mint, (the latter 
brought here by Kentuckians, from the mint patches of Kentucky), were 
favorites of the wild bee, but the bloom it loved most was from the linden 
or bass-wood tree. From one of this kind the pioneer alwa3^s felt sure of 
getting a line on a bee tree. The basswood was a tall, smooth, light-gray 
tree found on rich lands, and it grew high enough to carry its deep-green 
crown far above the surrounding forest trees. Melissa, the goddess of 
honey, has placed her seal upon this tree and marked it as her own. The 
pioneer knew little and cared less about that, but he did know where to go 
to get a "line." Wild bees often went three or four miles in quest of honey, 
hence it required much skill to locate their hive. 

Sometimes the bee-hunter would bait the bees; that is, he would burn 
honey, or honey-comb, in the woods, which would attract the bees, and 
noticing their departure, he would range his line to the tree. Again bees 
visit certain places, usually low and muddy, to drink. Spying bees at such 
a place the bee-hunter would get his range on the bee. Many bees at a 


drinking place usualh- indicated that their hive was near by. If the bee 
flew low it meant he was near his hive. If he flew high it indicated that 
his hive was beyond the first strip of timber. 

Indians knew of the habits of bees and often Indians and pioneers found 
themselves after the same hive, only to find a bear in possession. A bear 
loves honey and when a bee-tree was located, it was always watched for 
bears. Judge Arthur Harbison and William Curry, each killed an Indian 
near the old "Buff'alo Trace" southwest of Hay.sville. The redmen had 
located a bee-tree and were gathering the honey, when the white bee-hunters 
came up. 

People marvel at what they call the wisdom of the wild honey-bee, yet 
there were some things it never learned from experience. It never knew 
when it had done its work, when it was time to quit, and that it was stor- 
ing up honey for the use of others. Gather and store honey as long as 
there was any to be had was its motto, and in that rule it was safe. 
Perhaps for it to do just this way was the design of Providence. 

The Indian, pioneer, and bear knew just when, where, and how to profit 
b)' the industry of the wild hone}' bee, and they ate its honey — and such 
honey as w^ould tempt the most fastidious appetite of an epicure — with evi- 
dent gusto and satisfaction. It was a fit reward for the success of their 
prowess. Frequently the bear found the honey, the Indian found both, 
and the pioneer found all. It w^as then a case of the "survival of the fittest." 

Before he was driven awa}^ by the woodman's ax, the primitive agent 
of civilization, the deer, like the other native animals, was at home in the 
woods of Dubois county. Occasionally deer would become frightened and 
run into the smaller towns. Dr. E. Stephenson used to relate that when 
was deputy count}' clerk, in the "forties," he shot two deer in Jasper 
from a window at the north side of the county clerk's ofiice. They were 
running down Main street, between Seventh and Eighth. 

The red deer were plentiful, and had paths across the divides in the 
hilly country and to springs and "deer licks" in the valleys. The deer 
path often became a path for human feet, then a bridle path, and finally a 
wagon road and public highway. The deer was inclined to be social, but 
suspicious, and well he might be. When a deer was killed, in the early 
days, only the skin and hams were taken. Sometimes the hunter kept 
the branching antlers to grace his cabin. 

One way the women had of cooking venison (or turkey) was by hang- 
ing it beneath a piece of bear meat, allowing the dripping grease of the 
bear meat to fall on the venison (or turkey) and thus season it by means of 
the rich grease of the bear. Mills were scarce, and frequently wild meat 
and hominy were the only articles of food. 

The black bears were plentiful in the forests of Dubois county, and left 
the imprints of their powerful claws upon many of our large forest trees. 
Bear wallows were often to be seen in the deep woods, and of all vicious 
wild animals that lived in this county, the bear has left his mark the most 
enduring even to this day. In Yowell cave, in Columbia township, are to 


be seen, at this time, bear wallows, or nests, or lairs, in which bears hiber- 
nated many, many years ago. They were clawed out of the soft floor of 
the cave to the size of a bath-tub. The prints of their monster claws may 
be seen very distinctly. 

The black bear was ever a troublesome and intrusive neighbor, while 
the wolf was dangerous and menacing. The latter was so undesirable that 
the first general assembly that met at Corydon, 1817, passed a law allowing 
a bounty on wolves, if killed within six miles of a settlement. If the wolf 
was under two months old the hunter got one dollar, if over, he got two 
dollars. The hunter had to produce the wolf scalp and both ears to prove 
his claim and get his bounty. Even so late as January 24, 1828, the Indiana 
legislature, in session at Indianapolis, made appropriations out of the state 
treasury to pay for their destruction. Wolves were often killed b}' hunters 
finding their dens, catching the puppies and making them cry. That 
would bring up the old ones only to be shot. 

Hogs were wild in the woods, and roamed in such great numbers that 
they were dangerous. One pioneer did lose his life, in Hall creek bottoms, 
through their viciousness. They were allowed to feed on the masts and 
roots and to care for themselves. About the only thing the pioneer would 
do would be to determine how many he wanted or needed, and when they 
became fat, proceed to supply himself. No one seemed to care ; they re- 
quired no trouble to raise and brought a very small price upon the market. 
However it is said that in 1S35, a flat-boat was loaded with pork and taken 
down to the southern markets. Wild hogs destroyed many rattlesnakes 
and moccasins. 

Hogs and other stock ran in the open woods and pioneers protected 
their property by cuts and marks upon the animals. In a little record of 
seventeen pages that, in some mysterious manner, escaped the court house 
fire in 1839 appears the following entry: 

"William Shoemaker marks his stock with a swallow fork on each 
ear and an underbit on the left ear, January 28, 1832." 

The above paragraph is a copy of the first entry in this old book and 
thus becomes the first entry on existing official records in Dubois county. 

Among other entries are the following : 

" Moses Kelso marks his stock with a split in each ear. — March 9, 1832." 

"Raleigh Horton marks his stock with a split on the right ear and 
under slope out of the left ear. — Sept. 18, 1832." 

" Abraham Corn marks his stock with a swallow fork and underbit on 
the left and a slit and underbit out of the right ear. — April 3, 1834." 

" Thomas Shoulders marks his stock with a crop and half crop on each 
ear. — February 4, 1837." 

The following pioneers have their " stock marks " recorded in this 
book : 

In 1832: William Shoemaker, Jacob Weidman, Ashbury Alexander, 
Jr., Thomas Alexander, Adam Miller, Robert Oxley, Moses Kelso, Alex- 
ander Bowling, John Bowling, Stephen Robinson and Raleigh Horton. 


1111833: Mecaja Hayes, Ewing Grimes, John Robinson, Martin 
Kemniell, Richard Harris, Jr., John Hart, Jonas Robinson, William 

In 1834: Johnston C. Main, Stephen Robinson, Abraham Corn, Elisha 
Paj-ne, and John Rasagrants. 

In 1836 : John Donald, Thomas Haj^es, George Parker, William Kelso, 
Elisha R. Jacobs, and William Jacobs. 

In 1837: Zachariah Myers, James B. McMurtry, Cedar Shoulders, 
Thomas Shoulders, Jacob Hurtsucker, Fidelia Hoffman, Benjamin Haw- 
kins, John Sherley, Charles Bogart, John Main, Adam Shy, Nicholas Small, 
Lewis Combs, Daniel Hawhee, Aaron Green, George Cox, Elijah Cox, 
Joseph Harmon, Jacob Kellams, x\lexander Shoulders, James Hutcheons, 
Amson Cavender, Thomas Pewsey, Thomas C. Hills, Zadock Tucker, John 
Harbison, Capt. John Sherritt, Nelson T. Penley, Jacob Fisher, John 
Fisher, George Thompson, William Goodman, Jacob B. Shivel3^ Oliver 
Haberly, Jesse Corn, Jr., Michael Burkhardt, Jacob Shandy, Thomas Har- 
ris, Election Athens, Marsulles Yeager, John McCausland, Joseph Peack, 
Joseph Enlow, and J. W. Powers. 

In 183S: Christopher Dammond, George W. Judson, John M. Beard, 
John Mauraunt, Sampson Cox, and George Abel. 

This list gives the reader reliable information of the class of men con- 
stituting the original resident pioneers of this county, between 1833 and 
1838. Not all were land owners, but resided here, which some land owners 
did not do. In a sense, the little record is a roll of honor. 

There are now living in Dubois county many descendants of these 

Early settlers brought the black rats, and later settlers, the brown rats, 
which drove out the black ones. Neither were natives. 

The native products consisted of wild game, fish, plentiful in every 
stream, paw-paws, wild plums, haws and small berries. 

The pioneer kept his squirrel rifle in a rack over the door and his 
hounds in the yard, and a blast from his horn and a call to Watch or Tyler, 
the hound by that name which was trained to lead the pack, always brought 
them. They were the signals for the chase that all well understood, and 
it may be said, parenthetically, that to the man who loves dogs and a fox 
hunt there is no other music so sweet as that of a pack of hounds on the 
trail of a fox on a frosty October night when there is naught to mar the 
melody. A "coon" hunt perhaps comes nearer to it than any other sport. 

The old-time fox chase would continue all night and would frequently 
take those engaged in it ten, fifteen, and sometimes, twenty miles away 
from their starting place ; and woe to the rail fence that was too high for 
the horses to jump. It was thrown down and left down. The pursuers of 
reynard were too eager in the heat of the chase to put up fences. For- 
tunately, in that day, such an act was not considered seriously. The pres- 
ent law of trespass had not evolved so as to punish the devotee of the 


The commissioners of Dubois county would pay out of the county treas- 
ury fifty cents for each fox scalp, with both ears attached, that hunters 
brought to their court. Occasionally a hunter killed a shy gray fox. The 
pioneer always wore the " brush " of this fox with pride, for he was hard to 
kill. The red fox lingered in Dubois county for years after the gray fox 
had disappeared. 

Pioneers claimed that a common fox could cover a mile in two minutes 
and twenty seconds, a fox hound in two minutes and forty seconds, and a 
gray wolf in three minutes. A first class grey hound can run a mile in two 

To save their fences from being torn down by men on the chase, pio- 
neers, in the course of time, often built their fences " horse high, pig tight, 
and bull strong." No fences bounded contiguous fields ; the settlers lived 
too far apart. Contiguous fences came into use in 1850, but are now rap- 
idly passing away, under the operations of the stock law requiring stock 
to be fenced in, not out. 

The pioneers of Dubois county, as a general rule, settled along the 
rivers and creeks. The country was then in a normal condition, an 
unbroken, dense forest of various kinds of timber, with a rank under- 
growth of bushes, vines, and weeds. It was a perfect jungle, and the 
hunter and pioneer, in order to pass through it, were compelled to follow 
the deer paths, which usually crossed ridges in low places. It was the 
natural abode of wild animals — the black bear, panther, wolf, lynx, wild 
cat and other smaller carnivorous animals. It was a hunter's paradise. 
It is said that there were more beavers on Patoka river than anywhere else 
in Indiana. Even to-day many signs of their industry are to be seen, 
mostly in the shape of " beaver dams." 

Among the mighty pioneer hunters in Dubois county might be men- 
tioned Robert Stewart, (who was also gunsmith for both Indian and Cau- 
casian), William Fisher, James Cox, Sr., Henry Bruner, John Mayraw, 
Nelson Harris, Sr., (the first land owner in Bainbridge township), Griffith 
Evilsizer, Isaac Alexander, Thomas Simmons, of Cass township, who was 
born in Kentucky, October 12, 1807, (Mr. Simmons shot black bears in 
Cass township), and Martin Mickler. Mr. Mickler, in his old age, was pre- 
sented with a medal for his prowess as a "mighty hunter." There is a 
story that once upon a time John Mayraw climbed a tree which was bent 
very low, over-hanging Patoka river, in order to get a shot at some wild 
turkeys across the river. He noticed a peculiar blazed spot on the upper 
side of the body of the tree, and that the tree w^as trying to grow over a 
dead piece of timber that had been pinned into its body. With the assist- 
ance of Nelson Harris, Sr., a few days later, the dead piece of timber and 
the new growth of the tree that was holding the timber in its place, were 
chopped away, only to find in the hollowed place beneath it the shrunken 
remains of an Indian child. 

On July 30th, 1909, road builders plowed up the remains of a Pianki- 
shaw Indian warrior, on " Indian Hill," where Patoka river, the Southern 


railroad and the Kellerville pike meet, about two miles from Jasper. He 
was of heroic stature, buried face dowmward, the head of the body being 
to the nortli. With the remains were found tomahawks, beads, arrow 
heads, and a copper spear. The spear was nearl}- nine inches long, one- 
half inch wide at one end, and tapering to a fine point. 

This Indian burial ground eventually became a " pigeon roost," and 
there are many inches of pigeon excrement above the original land surface. 
The Indian was buried about four feet below the original land surface. 

About two miles northeast of this Indian burial ground, and near the 
corner of Harbison, Marion and Bainbridge townships is an Indian cave. 
In this cave many beads, arrow heads, tomahawks, and other Indian relics 
have been found. 

The Piankishaw Indians were not savages as Indians are sometimes 
considered. The tribal village, Chipkawkay, was on the banks of the 
Wabash, at Vincennes. and the friendly influence of the French made itself 
felt. They got beads, crosses, blankets, hatchets, guns and trinkets at Vin- 
cennes. As a rule, the Piankishaw Indian buried his dead in the ground. 

The present generation cannot possibly have any clear conception of 
Dubois county at the time the McDonalds entered its dark shade with the 
determination to make a home for themselves and families. From our 
knowledge, gained by conversations with many pioneers now dead, and 
from ofiicial records and laws then enacted, we \vere able to record the 
obstacles that had to be surmounted. The constant daily toil and hard- 
ships endured by the first pioneers, in their heroic struggle to transform 
the wilderness into cultivated fields, deserved to be broken, occasionally 
by merry hunts and other recreations. 



Piankishaw— Patoka — Chip-kaw-kay— Vinceniies tract — Indians and French at Vin- 
cennes — Wabash Land Company — William Rector's base line — Government sur- 
veys — Buckingham's base line — Second principal meridian— Initial point — Rectan- 
gular system — Printed instructions given the government deputy surveyors — Gov- 
ernment's knowledge of Dubois county land — Surveyors — Flagmen — Surveyor's 
compass — Blazed tree — Surveyor's blaze — Congressional townships — Area of Dubois 
county — Donations — Three flags in Dubois county. 

"Piankishaw" is not a tribal name, but it means "those who have scat- 
tered out," or seceded from a main stock. The main stock was that of 
the Miami Indians. In 1902, there were three or four of the original 
stock [full blood] living in the Peoria Reserve, near Baxter Springs. The 
verb part of Pi-an-ki-shaw figures in this manner: "The men get scat- 
tered." It can be said of birds, cattle, hogs, fish, snow flakes, etc. Some 
Indians claim it means "a scattering about the head," as of hair, etc. It 
is claimed that the Piankishaw Indians came to Vincennes through the 
influence of Sieur de \^incennes, and that many of them were Catholics. 

"Patoka" is also an Indian word. Some Indians claim it means a 
"loggy bottom." In the language of the Fox Indians, "Patoka" refers 
to the "totem of the wolf," and is used in this sense, '' Patoka T^ meaning 
"Wolf, how deep is the water?" "How far does the water come up on 
you, wolf?" as though spoken to a wolf crossing a creek or river, 
"Patoka" may mean "how deep?" Both "Patoka" and "Piankishaw" 
belong to the Miami language. According to the Bureau of American 
Ethnology, "Patoka" means a hill or eminence. In Dubois county, which 
has the north branch of the Patoka river, you will observe the "high 
bank," or "eminence," on the left hand side of the stream. It is a deep 
stream, as streams are considered in Indiana, because it lies low in the 
valley, and but little above the Ohio river. There was a Fox Indian chief, 
in Illinois, called Patoka. 

Chip-kaw-kay, or Chip-kah-ki. This is the name of the village of the 
Piankishaws that stood at Vincennes in 1702 (or 1731.) It is probable 
that Vincennes was founded on its site between 1702 and 1731. Authori- 
ties differ as to the date. The Miami name of Vincennes was Chip-kah- 
ki-oon-gi. It is said to mean "Place of Roots." 

There is a traditional account to the effect that the descendants of the 
French founders of Vincennes had been granted a large tract of land, since 
called the "Vincennes Tract," in the year 1742, by the Indians of that 


neighborhood. In the year 1794, and again in 1817, the French residents 
of Vincennes made some fruitless efforts to obtain from the government of 
the United States an acknowledgment of the validity of this old Indian 
grant. The grant was for land in Illinois and Indiana. The Indiana part 
of the grant extended fifty-seven miles east of Vincennes. It ran from 
the mouth of White river to Point Coupee, on the Wabash river above 
Vincennes. It included all of Dubois county except 5,600 acres, which lie 
south of the old treaty line in Cass township. 

The French had lived at Vincennes probably a hundred years before 
the McDonalds came to the "Mud Holes" to erect their "cabin in the 
clearing," and probably had some kind of a peace treat}' or purchase 
agreement with the Indians, but when Indiana territory came under the 
American flag, in 1779, the \'incennes officials could produce no documen- 
tary evidences of their title. 

Indians and French, at Vincennes, had intermarried and lived very 
much in common. They belonged to the same church. Both races, at 
Vincennes, were idle and indifferent. Commanders at the old Fort were 
in the habit of assigning tracts of land about Vincennes to citizens for 
various reasons and considerations. Sometimes the allotments or assign- 
ments were in writing, but generally the}' were given orally. 

The "Vincennes Tract" was especially excluded from the limits of the 
Indian country by treaty of August 3, 1795; nevertheless, so uncertain was 
the French title to this tract that Congress would not recognize it as abso- 
lute, and proceeded to secure a new treaty with the Indians to confirm, or 
quiet the title. This new treaty was signed at Fort Wayne, Tuesday, 
June 7, 1803. The United States was represented by General William 
Henry Harrison, while the Indians were represented by the chiefs and 
head men of the Delaware, Shawnee, Pottawattamie, Eel River, Kickapoo, 
Piankishaw, and Kaskaskia tribes. The area of the "Vincennes Tract" 
was about 1,600,000 acres. 

On Wednesday, October 18, 1775, at Vincennes, the "Wabash Land 
Company," through Louis \'iviat, agent, secured a treaty with the Pian- 
kishaw Indians, which gave the company a claim to 37,497,600 acres of 
land in Indiana and Illinois, lying on two sides of the "Vincennes Tract" 
— the north side and the .south side. On the south the mouth of White 
river was the dividing line. This line extended in a southeasterly direc- 
tion. It was surveyed by Thomas Freeman, July 21, 1802, and struck 
Dubois county two-and-one-fourth miles north of its southwest corner. It 
cut a triangle from Cass township two-and-one-fourth miles by seven miles 
and contained 5,600 acres, more or less. 

The southeast corner of the "Vincennes Tract" was in Perry county, 
seven-and-one-half miles south of the southeast corner of Jefferson town- 
ship, .south of an eastern fork of Anderson river, and near the northeast 
corner of Leopold township, in Perry county. 


The "Wabash lyand Company" was composed of English, French, and 
American speculators, with Louis Viviat, an Illinois merchant, acting as 
agent. The following Piankishaw Indian chiefs and sachems signed the 
deed for their people, namely: 

Tabac (or "Tobacco"), 

Montour (a Piankishaw Indian chief j, 

LaGrand Conette, 


Tabac, Jr. (or "Tobacco, Jr."), 

LaMouche Noire (or "The Black Fly"), 

Le Mariugouin ("The Mosquito"), 

Le Petit Castor (or "The Little Beaver"), 


Grelot, Sr., and 

Grelot, Jr. — eleven in all. 

However, this deed was never approved by the United States. The 
agents of the company applied to Congress for a confirmation of at least 
a part of the claim, in the years 1781, 1791, 1797, 1804, and 1810, but all 
applications were rejected. 

It might be a little interesting to know how the Indians were paid for 
their lands. The land of this "Wabash Land Company" would have made 
more than one hundred counties the size of Dubois county. It was paid 
for, with five shillings in cash, and a collection of goods and merchandise. 
Taking the proportionate part of each item, item by item, and counting 
all fractions of an item as one unit, in order to mention the item, Dubois 
county, in 1775, in Indian valuation, could have been bought, on the 
basis of the "Wabash Land Company's" deed, for the following consider- 
tion, namely: 

One penny. 

Three blankets. 

One piece of stroud. 

Two shirts. 

Two star garters, 

One very small piece of ribbon. 

Four ounces of vermillion, 

One very small piece of housing, 

One very small piece of maltose, 

One fusil. 

Three large "buckhorn handle" knives. 

Three couteau knives. 

One brass kettle; weight, three-and-one-half pounds, 

Seventy gun flints, 

Four pounds of gunpowder, 

Fourteen pounds of lead, 


Three pounds of tobacco, 

One peck of salt, 

Twenty-one pounds of flour, 

One horse, 

One large silver arm band, 

One silver wrist band, 

One silver whole moon, 

One silver half moon, 

One silver ear wheel. 

One large silver cross, 

One small silver cross. 

One silver nose cross, 

One silver hair pipe. 

One silver brooch, and 

One silver earbob. 

This deed was never confirmed by Congress. It was made before there 
was an American Congress. In order that there might be no future 
trouble about the Indian title, a new treaty was made by General Harrison, 
at Vincennes. The Delaware Indians signed this new treaty Saturday, 
August i8, 1804, and nine days later the Piankishaw Indians signed it, 
thus perfecting the title in the United States. From the east line of the 
"Vincennes Tract" to Louisville, the "Buffalo Trace" was made the 
boundary line in this treaty, and it appears that William Rector surveyed 
the line July 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16, 1805. He also did some survey- 
ing of the base line, and there the base line is known as "William Rector's 
Base Line." 

The title to all land in Dubois county now seemed to be clear, and 
rested in the government of the United States, the Commonwealth of Vir- 
ginia, which had a title through General Clark's victory, having by ces- 
sion, March i, 1784, given her title to the United States. 

To sub-divide this wilderness into congressional townships, six miles 
square, was the work of the federal government, and the next most impor- 
tant step. This was done by deputy United States surveyors. Below are 
their names, date of beginning the work, and the territory assigned to 
each: Levi Barber, September 10, 1804, range three, west; Nahum Bent, 
September, 1804, range four, west; David Sandford, October 17, 1804, part 
of range five, west; Robert Stubbs and Jacob Fowler, October 24, 1804, 
part of range six, west; Arthur Henrie, 1805, range five, west, lying and 
being south of the south line of the "Vincennes Tract," as surveyed by 
Thomas Freeman, July 21, 1802; Augustus Stone, August 29, 1805, range 
six, west, the same being that part south of the "Freeman line," in Cass 

The government surveys were finished in 1805. The records show 
where the various section lines struck the "Buffalo Trace," and other 



smaller Indian trails, deer paths, creeks, mounds, cliffs, etc. Ebenezer 
Buckingham, Jr., surveyed the base line in 1804. For that reason pioneers 
and some acts of the early Indiana legislatures often referred to it as 
"Buckingham's Base Line." This base line and the second principal 
meridian govern all the surveys in Dubois county. 

The second principal meridian coincides with 86°, 28' of longitude west 
from Greenwich (England), starts from a point two and one-half miles 
west of the confluence of the Little Blue and Ohio rivers, runs north to 
the northern boundary of Indiana, and with the base line, in latitude 38°, 

A Cabin in the Clearing. 

28', 20" north, governs the surveys of Indiana and part of those in Illinois. 
The first principal meridian is the east line of Indiana. The two meridians 
are eighty-nine miles apart. The base line is twentj^-five miles north of 
Louisville, and strikes the Wabash river four miles above the mouth of 
White river. Where the base line crosses the meridian line is called the 
"initial point." It is near Paoli, in Orange county, twelve miles east of 
the Dubois county line. For the convenience of settlers, land offices were 
established in time, at Vincennes, Washington, and Jeffersonville. To 
these offices pioneers went to "enter land," as purchasing it from the gov- 
ernment was called. 

From "Buckingham's Base Line" townships of six miles square were 
run out and established by the government surveyors heretofore men- 
tioned. These townships were sub-divided into thirty-six sections of one 
mile square each, or six hundred forty acres. The survey of these sections 
was so made that they were also practically divided into quarter sections 


of one hundred sixty acres. When three corners of a quarter section 
were established, it was sufficient!}' established for the use of the govern- 
ment and pioneers. 

The survey of the wilderness into tracts of land as small as one hun- 
dred sixty acres was a great undertaking, but it was the wisest precaution 
that could have been taken, and resulted in early settlement, clear titles 
and boundary lines, and much convenience to future generations. If you 
ever lived in a state that has no rectangular system of surveys, you would 
certainly appreciate the Indiana system. 

In Dubois county a good surveyor can run out three-fourths of all the 
farms in the county without as much as ever seeing the deeds to them, 
and the larger the tracts, the shorter the deed. In Kentucky, for example, 
where the rectangular system of surveys does not prevail, farms have 
ever}' conceivable shape, and everybody's deed must be read and used to 
get the "calls" of the lines. There a farm can have any shape and any 
number of corners, and a large farm frequently has a deed as long as some 
"calls" in the deed itself. 

The rectangular system of surveys, as used in Indiana, was endorsed 
and urged by Thomas Jefferson, chairman, and Messrs. Williamson, 
Howell, Gerry, and Reas, members of a congressional committee on sur- 
veys. Jefferson lived to be president and signed the first patent for land 
ever issued in the county — the very land he had been so instrumental in 
having surveyed. 

The principle of the survey is a very interesting study, but since it is 
too technical for the general reader, it is omitted, except only such parts 
as all may readily and easily understand. The land was covered with 
forests, and trees were the most convenient things to be found, conse- 
quently they were utilized by surveyors and pioneers in the sub-division of 
the forest. 

Among the printed instructions given the government deputy survey- 
ors we find these: 

All those trees which your liue cuts must have two notches made on each side of 
the tree where the line cuts; but no spot or "blaze" is to be made on them, and all or 
most of the trees on each side of the line, and near it, must be marked by two spots or 
"blazes" diagonally or quartering toward the line. 

You will take care that j-our posts be well driven into the ground and that there be 
one or two sight trees marked between every quarter section corner; also at the section 
corners that there be marks for every section corner where they corner. 

The posts must be erected at the distance of every mile and half mile from where 
the town or sectional line commenced (except a tree may be so situated as to supply 
the place of a post), which post must be at least three inches in diameter and rise not 
less than three feet. All mile posts must have as many notches cut on two sides of 
them as they are miles distant from the town or sectional liue commenced, but the 
town corner posts or trees shall be notched with six notches on each side, and the half 
mile sectional posts are to be without any marks; the places of the posts are to be per- 
petuated in the following manner, viz: at each post the courses shall be taken and the 


distances measured to two or more adjacent trees in opposite directions, as nearly as 
may be, which trees, called bearing trees, shall be blazed on the side next the post and 
one notch made with an ax on the blaze, and there shall be cut with a marking iron 
on a bearing tree, or some other tree within and near each corner of a section, the num- 
ber of the section, and over it the letter "T," with the number of the township, and 
above this the letter "R," with the number of the range, but for the quarter section 
corners you are to put no numbers on the trees; they are to be distinguished by the 
mark "^ S." 

You will be careful to note in your field book all the courses and distances you shall 
have run, the names and estimated diameters of all corner or bearing trees, and those 
trees which fall in your line called station or line trees, notched as aforesaid, together 
with the courses and distances of the bearing trees from their respective corners, with 
the letters and numbers marked on them as aforesaid; also all rivers, creeks, springs, 
and smaller streams of water, with their width and the course they run in crossing the 
lines of survey, and whether navigable, rapid, or mountainous; the kinds of timber 
and undergrowth with which the land may be covered; all swamps, ponds, stone quar- 
ries, coal beds, peat or turf grounds; uncommon, natural or artificial productions, such 
as mounds, precipices, caves, etc.; all rapids, cascades or falls of water; minerals, ores, 
fossils, etc.; the quality of the soil and the true situation of all mines, salt licks, salt 
springs, and mill seats, which may come to your knowledge; — all are particularly to 
be regarded and noticed in your field books. 

The government and the state each have a record made as per these 
and more particular instructions, but Dubois county never purchased any 
but an abridged copy of it. By reference to the records made by the dep- 
uty surveyor you can learn the distance any and all creeks, trees, etc., are 
from any section corner; thus the government had an exact and complete 
knowledge of Dubois county before it had sold a single tract of land in it. 

The principles promulgated by the United States government in regard 
to surveys and surveying have been copied by state governments and other 
smaller political units. The government surveyors blazed or marked about 
ten thousand forest trees in Dubois county. More than a century has 
passed away since then, yet a few of the original trees remain, having 
withstood the hand of time and the more destructive hand of commerce. 
To-day one of these old trees, with its government surveyor's marks, is 
standing one-half mile north of the county seat. 

The marks, blazes, and bearings mentioned in these government in- 
structions were taken up and followed by Hosea Smith, John B. McRae, 
Gamaliel Garretson, Jacob Morendt, Miles Shuler, Gen. John Abel, Wm. 
E. Niblack, and other pioneer surveyors who worked in Dubois county. 
Thousands of government corners in Dubois county were perpetuated by 
county surveyors planting stones, properly marked, before the government 
trees were destroyed. The subsequent surveys in Dubois county rank 
above the average in Indiana. In pioneer days a surveyor was a busy and 
useful man. The surveyor was the advance agent of civilization, the 
pioneer of progress. From his work came the knowledge, and the plans 
and instructions, that eventually changed the forests to cultivated fields. 


The flagman of the government surveyors usually rode a horse and 
wore a red shirt that he might be seen better by the surveyor. Some of 
the helpers who "blazed" the trees were also on horses. Their marks 
were higher up on the trees than those who were on foot. The surveying 
corps camped near the center of a congressional township while on its survey. 
To one who loved the deep forest the occupation was a romantic one. 

The experienced surveyor and his pioneer woodsmen could easily find 
their camp without the aid of a compass. In fact, a surveyor's compass 
gets more credit than it deserves. It points ''toward''' the north; very 
rarely " to the north.''' Good surveyors use the needle but seldom. These 
experienced woodmen knew by the moss on the trees which way was ''to- 
ward the north," and they also knew that the long, thin limbs of a forest 
tree always grow on the north side. The surveyor knew, almost by in- 
stinct, when he quit his day's work, just what angle to take, and how far 
he had to go to reach camp. Having gone that distance, a shot from a rifle 
brought an answer from the camp and all was well. 

In September, 1830, when Hosea Smith laid out the "county-town" of 
Jasper, he found the old government trees standing. He was assisted by 
William McMahan, then the county agent, and by James McMahan and 
Abraham Corn, principal chainmen. 

To show how valuable a "blazed tree" was in pioneer days, this quota- 
tion is taken from an act of the Indiana legislature, approved January 8, 
1 82 1, authorizing the survey of the State line between Illinois and 
Indiana, namely: 

"The line is to be marked in the following manner; where the same runs through 
timbered land each sight tree to be marked with three notches on each side, and the 
trees at a convenient distance on each side to be blazed in such manner as will show 
on which side the true line runs, and at the end of each and every mile to mark two or 
more bearing trees, as nearly as may be in opposite directions, with a blaze and notch 
across the same, and note the kind of timber, estimated diameter, and course and dis- 
tance, etc." 

The "blazed tree" was a most important item to the pioneers. To 
"blaze" was to chip off from the trees with an ax or hatchet a portion of 
the bark of the trees, cutting sufficiently deep to take off a small portion 
of the wood beneath the bark. 

In blazing for a path very small trees were cut, while in blazing for the 
bounds of a lot or a town, or a farm line, larger trees were selected, the 
blaze being usually made breast high. When, however, as was often the 
case, lines were blazed by men on horseback, the blaze was high up on the 
trees. After such blazes were grown over and lines were hunted for it was 
necessary to look high up on the trees for them. County surveyors, 
failing to do this, often experienced much trouble in following old lines. 

In running a line or establishing bounds through a forest, the surveyor 
blazed in this manner: If a line went to the left of a tree designed to be 


blazed, the tree was blazed upon the right side; if to the right the tree was 
blazed upon the left side; if the line struck the tree direct it was blazed 
upon both the front and rear sides. In running a boundary line at a corner 
where two lines came together, either a monument was erected (a stake 
and four bowlders being usually regarded as such a monument), or a tree 
was blazed on all four sides; or, as was sometimes the case, three or four 
trees were scarred so as to indicate, as nearly as possible, the turning point 
in the line, that is, its corner, around which they grew. In Indiana the 
surveyor recorded the distance from one of these posts, or monuments, at 
every mile, thereby establishing the line with absolute certainty at that 
point and giving a secondary basis for the written description of the bound- 
ary required in title deeds and abstracts of claims. All our early "state 
roads" were so marked out. 

The permanency of the record made by blazing trees was quite remark- 
able, and it is a matter of fact that, in many cases of disputed lines or 
boundaries of lots in forest lands, the courts have held to the record of the 
blazes, and carefully drawn plans and formally attested title deeds have 
been set aside as containing possible errors. The wound of the blazed tree 
heals over, but never so completely that the scar will not be readily recog- 
nized by the experienced surveyor; therefore, as long as the blazed tree 
escaped the ax of the lumberman, so long such tree was an unquestionable 
record to the truth of the line. The surveyor's recorded figures may have 
been in error, and his written description may not have coincided with 
the line of his hatchet, but blazes were unchanging, and in a court of law 
they were indisputable evidence. They could not be made to lie, no cross- 
examination could confuse them, no argument could confute them. They 
fixed dates as accurately as they preserve inscriptions. The outer shell 
which had grown over the scar was cut away and the rings in the wood 
beneath the bark testified to the date. 

This whole subject is most interesting. Whether taken as an early 
landmark in the history of the county before roads were common, as es- 
tablishing bounds of farms, or settling disputed points in Indian treaty 
lines in cases before courts, the blazed tree was a factor of historic and 
legal importance that can hardly be overestimated. 

However, with all the instructions given by the government, the work 
of the deputy surveyors could not be very accurately done. There were 
too many obstacles in the way, and land was so cheap, a few acres, more or 
less, were not considered as a serious matter. The following illustrations 
will show. A congressional township should contain, as near as may be, 
23,040 acres. Here are actual results given by the government surveyors 

" Town one south, range three west, 22957.04. 

" Town two south, range three west, 22944.28. 

" Town three south, range three west, 23362.61. 


"Town one south, range four west, 23078.54. 

"Town two south, range four west, 23174.46. 

"Town three south, range four west, 23390.50. 

" Town one south, range five west, 23186.55. 

" Town two south, range five west, 23402.86. 

" Town three south, range five west, 23095.30. 

"Town one south, range six west, 22692.32. 

"Town two south, range six west, 22651.37. 

"Town three south, range six west, 22529.26." 

This variation of the practical surveys from the theoretical surveys 
accounts for the variations in our section lines and the "fractions" that 
bother so many people not acquainted with surveys. With all this, the 
surveys were a blessing to future generations, and all of us can say : 
" Well done, good and faithful servants." 

The law makes the government surveys absolute, final, and without 
appeal, and therein lie their force and effect. " It is well." 

The area of Dubois county, according to the original government surveys 
of 1804 and 1805, is 273976.40 acres, or four hundred twenty-eight square 
miles. The government survey of Dubois county, in 1804-5, shows many 
interesting things. Here are a few, which will tend to show how swampy 
and wet the county was, due in a measure, to its dense forest. " Buffalo 
Pond," about two miles northeast of Jasper, contained about seven-hun- 
dred acres. In its center was an island. A mile east of " Buffalo Pond " 
was a swamp of one hundred acres. Southwest of Jasper, now part of Jas- 
per, was another swamp of one hundred acres. Southwest of Ireland was 
a pond and swamp covering eight hundred acres, while near Shiloli was a 
swamp covering one hundred sixty acres. " Duck Pond " in Patoka town- 
ship covered two hundred fifty acres. There was a two-hundred-acre- 
swamp east of the "Devil's back-bone" in Madison township. South- 
west of Rose-bank was a swamp covering one hundred acres, and another 
one north of the mouth of Straight river with an area of three hundred 
acres. There w^as also a small pond recorded east of Huntingburg. A 
swamp of one-hundred-sixty acres is shown between Patoka river and 
Leistner's cut on the Southern railroad. By cutting away the forest, and 
draining the land, more than half of these tracts are cultivated fields. 
Fifty years after the government surveys of these swamps and ponds the 
state of Indiana made surveys, dug " state ditches," and drained many of 
these ponds and swamps. Dr. Ed. Stephenson, of Jasper, was appointed 
treasurer of the Swamp Land Fund, in Dubois county, in 1853, by Gov- 
ernor Joseph A. Wright, and about twelve hundred acres of swamp land 
was all that remained unsold fifty years after the government surveys. 

In 1850, seven ditches were dug to drain swamp lands. The digger 
took swamp land in payment for his services. At that time William Mon- 
roe acted as commissioner and let the contracts. 


The government surveys located many other interesting things. They 
show a "barren" in a small part of Ferdinand township, while at what is 
now the northwest corner of Harbison township David Sandford, the 
surveyor, records a "coal bed." It is a mile west of Haysville, on the 
Portersville road. No attempt is made to mention all. These few are 
mentioned simply to show how well the general government did things 
even in its infancy. 

After Indiana had been surveyed, the United States was very liberal in 
donating large tracts of land for various purposes. The names of these 
donations indicate their general purposes. Here are a few names given to 
certain lands: "Wabash and Erie Canal Lands," "Swamp Lands," "Saline 
Lands," "University Lands," "Seminary Lands," "School Lands," etc. 
The state of Indiana sold these lands under various acts of the general as- 
sembly, and patents were issued to the individual purchasers in the name 
of the state, the state having acquired its title from the general government. 
Some of these grants covered many acres of Dubois county land, the Wa- 
bash and Erie Canal alone covered 106675.53 acres. Of this amount 4034. 10 
acres were known as "first class;" 84721.65 acres as "second class," and 
17919.78 acres as "third class." The first grant to the Canal was made in 
March, 1827; the second in February, 1841; and the third in March, 1845. 
Government patents date from as early as 1803; 1809 being the first in 
Dubois county. Patents from the state date as early as 1816. Swamp 
land patents were issued by the Governor as early as September, 1850; and 
State University patents date from February, 1854. The canal issued its 
own patents. However, the greater part of Dubois county was retained 
by the United States government itself, and from it, patents were issued 
direct to the pioneer purchaser. The money it brought the general govern- 
ment was used largely in helping to defray the cost of the American Rev- 
olution, though Lewis Powers, James Harbison, Sr., and John Hills, were 
the only known resident revolutionary heroes. 

Lewis Powers, with Major T. Powers on September 10, 1830 bought 
from the United States the eighty acres of land which embraces Buchart's 
addition to Jasper. It also embraces part of Milburn's addition and the 
High School grounds. It is thought by old pioneers that the remains of 
Lewis Powers, the Revolutionary soldier, lie buried in "Renner's grave- 
yard" near Shiloh. 

Dubois county, as a part of Indiana, has always been 7iear the current 
of American national life, and its very beginning, as a part of the "Vin- 
cennes Tract," united it with wonderful achievements in the life and pro- 
gress of the nation. Three flags have been its emblems of government, 
and wars far from its wilderness, have played their part in its history. 
Early in the eighteenth century the French settled on the Wabash at Vin- 
cennes. A treaty signed at Paris, France, Thursday, February 10, 1763, 
ended French dominion and brought the British flag to Vincennes. In 1779, 
that flag was followed by the American standard, through the capture of 
Vincennes, by General Clark. He planted our flag in Indiana to stay. 



Life in Dubois county — Water the great highway upon which pioneers traveled — Creeks 
bear the names of early settlers — Blazing a path through the forest— The Buffalo 
trace, and its importance as an overland route — Buffalo pond — The first paper in 
Indiana— Corduroy roads, forts and taverns — Buckingham's base line — Settlers in 
the north half of Dubois county; settlers in the south half of Dubois county— Neg- 
lected grave-yards — Religious history of Harbison township — Piankishaw Indian 
villages — Isolation of Dubois county — Wedding invitations — German accent. 

It was said by Cicero that " not to know what happened before we were 
born, is to remain always a child, for what were the life of man did we not 
combine present events with the recollections of the past " ? 

The ptirpose of this history will be easily divined as we pass from 
chapter to chapter. A fair impression will appear of what has entered into 
the county's making from its earliest beginning in the wilderness down to 
the present time. To some there is no other romance more picturesque 
and strange than the story of actual life, and life in Dubois county has not 
been less romantic than life in surrounding counties. From the first foot- 
fall of the white man in her forest down to this hour, our county, as wild- 
erness, clearing, farm, and home has played well its part. 

If you carefully scan the pages of the history of the world j'ou will find 
water to have been the great highway upon which discoverers, explorers, 
and conquerers traveled. This holds true of races, families, tribes, and 
individuals, in going to new continents, countries, islands, territories, or 
even counties. Consider for a moment how many states and counties bear 
the names of rivers. As a rtile the rivers first bore the names and from 
them they passed to the state or county. In counties, settlements were 
frequently named in reference to creeks, and creeks bore the names of the 
early settlers or explorers. For example. Cane creek, Dillon creek. Hall 
creek, Hunle^^ creek. Green creek, Risley creek, and many others in our 
own county. When waterways were wanting forest paths had to be 
marked out or sometimes even cleared so that man or beast could pass 

No Hoosier pioneer, woodman, guide, forester, or camper-out needs 
to be told the meaning of blaze — he knows it as he knows his alphabet. 
Should we turn to the dictionary we would find it to mean : " To indicate 
or mark out, as by cutting off pieces of the bark of a number of trees in 
succession, as to blaze a path through a forest." In the early days when 
southern Indiana was nearly covered with forests, when cjearings were 


being made and when there were few or no roads, travel from place to 
place or from neighbor to neighbor was by means of the blazed paths 
through the forest. Hunters and woodsmen were in the habit of blazing 
their course through the deep woods in order that they might not become 
lost, but at any point that they might be able to retrace their steps by 
means of the blazed trees to their place of starting or of entering the 
woods. It is said that Father Kundeck, the founder of Ferdinand, blazed 
his way through the woods from Jasper, while prospecting for a suitable 
site to lay out a new town. 

It is pleasing to record that the animal world, in the shape of the buf- 
falo, now remembered upon the great seal of our state, served so efficiently 
as a guide to the pioneers of southern Indiana and our own county in par- 
ticular. It was the custom of this animal to travel in herds. The buffa- 
loes after feeding upon a species of short, sweet grass, on the prairies of 
Illinois, crossed the Wabash river below Vincennes, turned south and 
crossed White river at what was called " Rocky ford," passed through Pike 
county near Otwell. and through Dubois county near the Sherritt grave- 
yard ; marching on east through Union Valley in Columbia township 
into Orange county, they passed the initial point in the surveys of the 
Northwest Territory; thence going southeast they crossed the Ohio river 
at the " Falls," their destination being the Big Bone and Blue Licks as 
well as the present blue grass region of Kentucky. To these salt springs 
they came in armies too great to be counted. After feeding in Kentucky 
they returned to Indiana and Illinois over this same path. This was an 
annual occurrence. Near these licks in Kentucky their path was twenty 
feet wide. 

By their annual pilgrimage these wild animals kept a path opened 
through the forests of southern Indiana, which forest is said to have been 
one of the densest in the Mississippi valley. They thus marked the way 
on old mother earth for the coming of civilization. To day their cousins 
are following their worthy example in darkest Africa. 

This buffalo trace, sometimes called "Mud Hole Trace," was for many 
years the only overland route from and to the first capital of Indiana from 
the east. Gen. Harrison, the first territorial governor, and later the ninth 
president, went over this route in 1801, on his way to Vincennes, and for 
that reason it is frequently called the Governor' s Trace, or Vincen7ies 
Trace. George Rogers Clark Sullivan, who was prosecuting attorney of 
this circuit in pioneer days, found his way here by following this old trace. 
To-day evidences of it remain in some of our highways, which still follow 
the trace, in what are known as buffalo wallows in Columbia township, and 
in Buffalo Pond, near Jasper. Here the animal fed upon the wild cane, 
beds of which may be seen to this day. The buffalo himself is gone, and 
about all in the neighborhood of the pond that reminds us of his buffalo- 
ship is the gnat that makes himself so obnoxious on summer afternoons. 
But why dwell so long on this old buffalo path? Simply because it was 


the first all-land path to our own county, and over it traveled hundreds 
and hundreds of pioneers to this, Pike, and Knox counties, and to the 
Illinois country. Along this trail the emigrants traveled in search of land 
on which to settle. Along it came the power that conquered the wilder- 
ness and compelled it to yield up its hidden wealth to enrich humanity. 

The first paper in Indiana issued its first number July 4, 1804, at 
Vincennes. The type and files of this paper were destroyed by fire in 
1807. The outfit, type, paper, ink, etc., to re-establish the IVester?/. Sun 
were carried from Louisville over this trail on pack horses. For years 
afterwards all the paper used in its publication was carried over this trail. 
This route was traveled so much when civilization dawned that the mud 
holes in it were covered with corduroy. In some places its logs or rails 
remain to-day. 

It was along this path that the first cabin in the clearing stood in 
Dubois count3\ and where the county was organized. A fort for the pro- 
tection of settlers was erected, courts were first held here, and here our 
school system began. Taverns were erected for the wayfaring man, and 
gunsmiths plied their useful trade, to the satisfaction of the Indian as well 
as of the pioneer. The first graveyard found its silent acre by its side, 
while soldiers, emigrants, adventurers, governors, and ministers followed 
its weary way. Buckingham's base line, from which millions of acres of 
land in the Northwest Territory count their bearings, crosses this path 
time and again, its location itself being due to the buffalo trace. 

The north half of Dubois county first fell within the white man's 
power. The settlers came from Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Tennessee, and Kentucky, in 1802, all following the path 
of the buffalo. The southern part came within the pale of civilization at 
a later date through the efforts of our German friends. This is shown by 
actual dates and names of individual settlers. Though all these were lost, 
a student could demonstrate the correctness of the statement. For exam- 
ple, divide Dubois county into halves by an east and west line; that 
would be a line just south of Jasper. North of that line we have Hillham, 
Cuzco, Crystal, Haysville, Portersville, Ireland, Jasper, Dubois, Ellsworth 
— all of American origin, and only Kellerville and Celestine that bear evi- 
dences of the German. On the other hand, south of that line, we find 
Schnellville, St. Anthony, Bretzville, Huntingburg, Holland, Johnsburg, 
and Ferdinand, all showing foreign origin, while only Birdseye, Altoga, 
Kyana, St. Marks, and Duff show a mixture or an American source. 

Orange county, northeast of us, was settled by people from North Car- 
olina. In fact, it is named in honor of their home county away down in 
their native state. The same line of people came on west and found at 
least a temporary home in Dubois county. Some of their old cotton fields 
may be seen to-day, while rocks from their old cotton gin lie near the 
scenes of its early usefulness. Colored servants rest beneath the sod in 


forgotton fields. As a rule, the earlj' settlers were abolitionists, and their 
descendants were the first in Dubois county to answer Lincoln's call to 

Were all written records of their passage through our county obliter- 
ated, you could read its history in the private graveyard to be found on 
nearly every long-settled farm in northern Dubois, while the graceful wil- 
low, the tall pine, and the green cedar to be found near old established 
house sites bear evidences of southern tastes. 

In speaking about the south half of Dubois county, it is better to say it 
was colonized. The Germans, as a rule, came here in colonies, and imme- 
diately established places of worship and interment. Hence, private 
graveyards are not to be found, except where an American found a habi- 
tation and a home before our German friends found their way hither. 

The American pioneer came from a countr}- scarcely more settled, 
brought his horse, his ox, his cow, his dog, his gun, and his family, to 
remain as long as fancy dictated, then to move on with the firing line of 
civilization. The German came from his crowded home in Europe. He 
brought his belts of gold and his family, and settled down in the heart of 
the wilderness to remain; hence his work was permanent. 

Some of the pioneer graveyards are strange, sad places. Many are now 
open spaces, unfenced, with the roughest possible surface, while some are 
plowed over annually. Sometimes large forest trees have grown on the 
unkept graves, whose very existences are known only by the sunken sur- 
faces, and the smooth French Lick grit stones, upon which is the record 
in the scrawling characters of early days. Sometimes wanton bushes hide 
broken stones and wild running vines cover long forgotten names. From 
every sunken and dismantled grave there comes a tale. That, of course, 
is a myster}' forever. Some pioneers were put away in walnut coffins 
rudely constructed. Occasionally one is found in a good state of preser- 
vation, save that the ochre stain used on the cofl&n has disappeared. 

Frequently these old graveyards were in one corner of the farm, where 
surveyors often found them while locating property lines and corners. 
In some places in this county they have fallen into the hands of owners 
who, lacking in interest and sentiment, use them as lots upon which to 
feed their stock. In many cases the crumbling stones are hidden beneath 
shrubbery grown rank. Again dead trees support tangled and unpruned 
vines. Ivy runs wild over name and epitaph. For those forgotten graves 
without markers there is no bloom now save that of the "paradise tree," 
sorrel grass, mullein, and white clover. Time equalizes all things. What 
is left but mother earth ? These forgotten and desecrated graves may be 
but a phase in our county's history, but what a phase ! One that would 
put to blush a Chinese or an Indian — who do not allow the desecration of 
the bones of their ancestors. Is it possible that land in Dubois county has 


become so valuable that the graves of the very men who gave their lives 
to wrest and develop this county from the wilderness should be used for 
material or commercial purposes? 

Various church houses and parsonages came and went (as have the pio- 
neers) to be succeeded by structures of other religious denominations. The 
most striking illustration of this is the religious history of Harbison town- 
ship. It once contained several English speaking churches; now none re- 
main. At Haysville years ago was a well established Methodist Episcopal 
church and parsonage. Now the graveyard is all that remains of that con- 
gregation. The iron fences and granite headstones are being crushed to 
earth by the falling of forest trees. Its unmarked graves have been 
obliterated by the rains and snows of winter. The Methodist Episcopal 
church house has been "enlarged," "improved," and is now a village 
blacksmith shop, while a few crumbling logs are all that remain of the old 
parsonage. We are not measuring the relative worth or value of different 
church denominations, or even nationalities, but simply recording obser- 

The Scotch-Irish settlers of this county brought with them the Pres- 
byterian creed, and they have demonstrated some tenacity and staying 
qualities. Their location is in the northwestern section of the county. 

The construction of the Wabash and Erie canal near Petersburg made 
itself felt even this far from its bed, in that some of our pioneers reached 
here over this watery route. In one sense this far reaching effect is not 
surprising for 106675 53 acres of land in Dubois county were donated by 
the general government toward its construction. The grant contained 
thirty-nine per cent of the county's area. 

So isolated was the county that even in 1830, when Jasper became the 
county seat, not one forty-acre-tract south and east of the Southern rail- 
road had been entered. Buying land of the government was then called 
' 'enterijig it. ' ' 

Before 1800, there were two Piankishaw Indian villages near Jasper; 
one on what is now the Troy road at the hill north of Straight river, and 
one on the hill where the Southern railroad passes between Buffalo pond 
and Patoka river two miles northeast of Jasper. The roadbed cuts through 
the Indian burial ground. Both villages were located upon hills facing 
the south and toward small rivers. Whether this is a coincidence or was 
intentional can not now be ascertained, but it has been observed that the 
Indians in this locality buried their dead near flowing water. 

For years Dubois county was practically alone in the wilderness. No 
large navigable rivers touched her territory and transportation was always 
a factor in going to and from the county. The county did not lie in the 
lines followed by state or other great internal improvements. The Ohio 
river is one county south of us, the New Albany and Paoli "turnpike" one 
county east, the Baltimore and Ohio Southwestern railroad one county 


north, and the Wabash and Erie canal was one county west. Thus it sat 
isolated as it were from the great highways of travel, and in all the grand- 
eur of a primeval forest. Consequently the early settlers and emigrants 
were left to "reason in a circle," until the construction of the Southern 

Their isolation caused them to retain many customs of their native 
states or the country of their nativity. A few may yet be noticed, for in 
one part of our county a rather poetic, pleasing, and picturesque custom 
prevails of conveying and accepting wedding invitations. A friend of the 
high contracting parties is commissioned to invite friends to the wedding. 
He carries a staff as a badge of honor and "symbol of authority." Mount- 
ing his horse he rides from house to house as instructed. He delivers the 
invitation and the invited party ties a silk ribbon a yard long to the staff 
as an acceptance of the invitation and an emblem of joy over the favor be- 
stowed. Since each invited guest chooses any color of ribbon his fancy 
suggests, by the time the staff is returned to the prospective bride it bears 
all the colors of the rainbow with all their shades and tints. If the invited 
party has no ribbon at hand, the money for its purchase is given to the 
bearer of the invitation, who secures the article at the village store. Thus 
the children and grand children, even unto the fourth generation, have 
souvenirs galore. 

Another point noticed by strangers is that nearly everyone in Dubois 
county — the real American as well as the hyphenated American — has a 
German accent in his speech, or uses German idioms. Lapses in pronun- 
ciation have never been punished with death on the banks of the Patoka, 
as at the fords of the Jordan, where the shibboleth test is said to have cost 
forty and two thousand lives. 

Let us add that the gradual rise of Dubois county has been accomplished 
by phenomena of unusual interest and variety, and whatever contributions 
the county may make to the total of Indiana's achievement — as a state — 
are to be valued in the light of her history and development. The origin 
of the pioneers of the county, the influences that wrought upon them, the 
embarrassments that have attended the later generations in their labors, 
become matters of moment in any inquiry that is directed to their intel- 
lectual and social history. 

Dubois county has given to the state no great men, but it is not of so 
much importance that individuals within a county shall from time to time 
succeed and show unusual talent or genius, as that the general level of 
patriotism, education, manhood, honesty, and the cardinal virtues in full, 
shall be continually raised. 



Building sites — House-raising — Dinner at house-raising time — Puncheons — Clapboards 
— Divorces — Neighborly calls — Spinning — Industry of the pioneer women — Home- 
spun clothing — Stick chimneys — The sugar camp — Spelling matches — Block houses 
— Fort McDonald — Fort Farris — Fort Butler — Oldest map of Dubois county — The 
character of the pioneer of the Irish Settlement — Courts — Judges — Hon. William 
E. Niblack — The pioneer doctor — Pioneer doctors at Jasper; Huntingburg; Ferdi- 
nand; Holland; Haysville; in Madison township — Fear of Indians before war of 
1812 — Friendship — The first adopted Red Man in Dubois county — Pioneer mer- 
chants — Court house at Jasper destroyed by fire — Territorial penal laws — Negroes 
— The first newspaper in Dubois county — Fire destroys valuable papers — The six 
townships, and population of each — Exports of county — Our pioneers came from 
Kentuck}', North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, Tennessee, Maryland, Geor- 
gia, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. 

The first settlers selected btiilding sites in the timber and generally 
near springs. It may seem thoughtless for them to clear timber for a farm 
when they could have gone to land in Indiana or Illinois that had no tim- 
ber. But, it was not thoughtless. The pioneers came from a timber 
country and knew how to use the axe. They needed the wood for houses, 
stables, fences, and fuel. A yoke of oxen and a horse or two would raise 
a crop on the clearing. The pioneers were really wise in electing to settle 
in the forest. They raised nearly everything they had to eat and to wear. 

The pioneer, having hewn his logs, and having all things in readiness, 
passed word around and the neighbors gathered in, from a large section of 
country, to help raise the house A house-raising was an event that called 
for much rejoicing in the community of widely scattered settlers. It 
meant a new home, a new familj-, new neighbors, and new interests. It 
was an occasion for the keenest enjoyment, for the fullest and freest inter- 
change of innocent mirth and jollity, for unlimited cooking, and for the 
easing of the every-day burden of care and anxiety. 

The women cooked all day long on the day of the house-raising, and 
wonderful meals were the result. Here is a fair list of things the pioneers 
had to eat upon such an occasion. They had roast venison, roast pork, 
roast wild turkey, quail-pie, dried berry and pumpkin pie, — all baked in 



Dutch ovens on the hearth of a huge fireplace. The meat in those days 
was nut-fed, and had a juiciness and fine flavor that a present millionaire 
could scarcely buy at any price. No other mode of cooking gives food the 
same flavor it gets by roasting in the long-legged Dutch oven, over and 
under a bed of red coals. They also had turnips, potatoes, boiled green 
pawpaws, and baked beans. The different kinds of corn bread were baked 
in the old-fashioned Dutch ovens on the wide open hearths. They also 
had parched rye coffee, sweetened with maple sugar and made thick with 
yellow cream. Tea, of at least some flavor, was made from the bark of 
the spice bush which grew among the underbrush nearby. Sometimes tea 
was made of sassafras. Hunger was the "sauce" that made the food all 
that the heart could desire. Hardships were pleasures in those days, and 
the more people that could gather at a dinner, the more all would eat. 
The courage and self-reliance, the grand hospitality and unselfish friend- 
ship of the pioneer days were to be commended. 

During the house raising some men were splitting logs and making 
thick boards called puncheons. As late as 1907 there were still some to 
be seen in the county. These puncheons were fastened to the sleepers of 
a house by means of wooden pegs and thus made a floor. The ceiling of 
the room, if any at all, was made the same way. The roof was of four- 
foot clapboards made from straight logs, held in their places on the rafters, 
not by nails, but by heavy weight poles laid across them and fastened 
down at each end of the roof. 

A "china-closet" consisted of shelves laid on pegs which had been 
driven into the log walls. The furniture was made by the faithful, but 
not very skillful, hands of the husband, who was a " Jack-of-all-trades" 
and moreover was fairly good at them. 

Notwithstanding all these rude primitive surroundings the pioneers were 
as happy as the day was long. They had no cares of state to crush them 
to earth. The government looked after their best interests, jealousy and 
strife were strangers, and the people of every neighborhood were very 
strongly attached to one another. They frequently helped one another in 
work requiring several hands. They were seldom sick, for the active out- 
door life gave them good health; they ate their meals with keen appetites 
in thankfulness of heart, and they slept the sleep of the just. There was 
no call for suicide, and crime was almost unknown. Not many knew what a 
divorce meant, or had the means to procure one if they did, for in pioneer 
days, divorces were not granted by a local court, but by an act of the state 
legislature. Fashion made no demands on the pioneer purse or time. The 
old-fashioned flowers and the native wild flowers wafted their perfume 
through the open door all summer long. The birds sang in the woods, 
and many pioneers sang throughout the day while at their work. Except 
in rare instances it was a hearty, wholesome, honest existence, good to 
read about. 


Busy people seldom get lonesome and pioneer people were verj^ busy. 
There were many calls for neighborly acts in pioneer days when all were 
so dependent on one another for comfort and pleasure, and all gladly re- 
sponded to these calls. A woman with a family of little ones found it dif- 
ficult to get her thread spun ready for the loom ; when such a condition 
became known, three or four neighbor women would shoulder their wheels 
and wend their way along the bridle path to her home and give her a day's 

Every cabin had its spinning wheel and loom, and the women spun and 
wove all the clothing worn by their husbands and themselves. 

Pioneers often had to carry their corn fifty miles to get it ground into 
meal, and man)' a bushel has been carried on horse back from Boone town- 
ship to Vincennes. Later, some pioneers from near Washington carried 
their corn to mills on Patoka river. It might have been a hardship to go 
several days without bread of any kind, as they frequently had to do, but 
they had potatoes and meat, and the pioneer women knew how to make an 
excellent rye hominy, which they kept on hand to take the place of the 
"staff of life." Both the men and the women worked very hard all the 
time. They did not believe there was any other way to do if they suc- 
ceeded in redeeming their homes from savagery and from the wilderness. 

The women made the clothing their families wore, and also the bed and 
bedding. The raccoon and wild cat skins were made into caps, and the 
squirrel and rabbit skins, into gloves. There were hatters and other 
tradesmen in Dubois county not found here now. 

Women made garden, attended to the cows, dried meat before a great 
fireplace for summer use, and frequently lent a willing hand in the clear- 
ings. Ivove and hope sweetened and brightened every thing, and they did 
not seem ever to experience hardship or misfortune. But they had their 
full share of earth's ills, and now and then death cast its shadow 
among them. The grim monster is no respecter of persons. At times 
children especially suffered. Upon many headstones in the old pioneer 
cemeteries, one finds the birth and death dates painfully close together. 

The pioneer women raised buckwheat, and their buckwheat cakes and 
maple syrup were said to have been delicious. Maple trees grew all about 
the forests and gathering the sap was not a difficult undertaking. 

The men wore homespun shirts and when they went from home, they 
always carried their guns, in order that they might use every opportunity 
offered to get game for food. They drew their hunting shirt close about 
their waists, knotted the lower points in front, and such a bloused shirt 
made an excellent game-bag. As years went on new settlers came to the 
"Mud Holes " or to the " Irish Settlement " and soon became good help- 
ful neighbors. They built comfortable homes, raised good crops, were 
successful in their undertakings, and thus the county grew and pros- 



In pioneer days, if a young man could build a good " stick chimney" or 
a good " stone chimney " he stood almost as high in society as a pioneer 
miller or blacksmith. The very first chimneys were made with sticks. 
They were lined and made fire-proof by using clay. 

The sugar camp was the pride, the joy, the boon of every pioneer. 
Into a trough, rough-hewn, the sap was caught as it ran from the sugar- 
tree through an elder stem with the pith punched out. Emptied into bar- 
rels, it was conveyed on primitive sleds to the camp kettles for the purpose 
of being boiled into sirup or stirred into sugar. There were some excel- 
lent sugar camps along the " Buffalo Trace," and north of it in Columbia 
township. Frequently the " stirring-off " time was an opportunity for 
the young folks to gather together. From neighboring settlements the 
boys and girls would come, pair off, choose sides, and in pleasant, friendly 
rivalry contend for the deposit of maple wax to be found in the bottom 

of every kettle. This recalls to mind 
another pioneer pastime, namely, the 
"trap-matches," since called the "spell- 
ing-matches. " Pioneers may have been 
poor penmen, but as a rule, they were 
good spellers. 

The first settlers, after providing for 
their most urgent wants, built what 
were called block-houses. These houses 
were constructed of blocks of wood, ten 
or twelve inches square at the ends, and from fifteen to twenty feet in 
length. The ends were doved-tailed or double wedged, so that they could 
not be forced apart. The logs or blocks were placed one above the other 
as ordinary log houses are constructed, each block wedging down to one 
beneath it, so that when completed, a solid wall of wood ten or twelve inches 
thick, presented itself to the Indians or enemy. The chimney was usually 
built in the center, so that it could not be torn down. Port holes were cut 
in the logs; that is, small holes, large enough to permit a rifle being put 
through from the inside, aimed and discharged. These holes spread toward 
the outside, so that a rifle could be raised, lowered or aimed by one within 
the house without much danger from an enemy outside. In this way the 
pioneer shot plenty of deer, bears, turkeys and other wild game without 
going out of his house. Fort McDonald was similarly constructed, but 
much larger, for it held several families when the Indians were trouble- 
some. It was considered much as common property by the settlers. Fort 
Farris, near Portersville, and Fort Butler, near Haysville, were also block- 

William McDonald built a log house near the base line on the banks of 
Mud Hole creek, a branch of Mill creek. The map made by David Sand- 
ford, the government surveyor, in 1805, shows the exact location of this 

Fort McDonald. 


cabin. It is the oldest map of Dubois county in existence. At this place 
the commissioners, who were to locate a county seat for Dubois county, 
met and selected the land upon which Portersville now stands, perhaps 
because it is on the banks of White river, streams in those days being val- 
uable as means of transportation. Court was also held at the McDonald 
house until the first court house could be erected. 

The early pioneer was not a man sordid, gross, uncouth, or entirely illit- 
erate. Far from it. He belonged to a race of men intelligent, courage- 
ous, honest, freedom-loving, devout, and sincere. The pioneers of Du- 
bois county were generally self-made; consequently but few failed in life. 
As an individual our local pioneer was tolerant, but he kept his squirrel 
rifle handy to maintain his theocracy and eternal right to his possession in 
the wilderness He estimated his endurance by the time between the rising 
and the setting of the sun. He lived with nature. He was imbued with 
such wisdom as God bestows upon every free agent. He was under no 
control except his own judgment, and was subject to the rule of govern- 
ment where it did not conflict with the law of necessity — as he interpreted 
it. His self-reliance, born of necessity, was developed by his knowledge 
and the force of human wants. 

The lifehood of the early Scotch Irish settler, of the "Irish Settle- 
ment " was distinguished by an independence of character, never subtle, 
but radiant with open-handed and liberal charity for the judgment of 
others. He was greatest in inoffensive simplicity; he was always sincere 
because he could not be other than natural. His environments quickened 
his ardor for life's duties. Nothing ever led him to forget his manhood or 
his dignity, Though gentle and peaceable to a fault, woe unto the person 
that provoked him to anger, for then he would as soon fight as eat. 

Under the early laws there were various courts, now practically consol- 
idated into the circuit, though the commissioners' court represents a part 
of the early courts. All judges held their offices seven years. The 
" President Judge " was chosen by the Legislature and was usually some 
good lawyer. The "associate judges" and "probate judges" were 
chosen by the people. Clerks of courts and county recorders were chosen 
for seven years, justices of the peace for five years, and county sheriff's for 
two years. Among the local " associate judges " were B. B. Edmonston, 
Sr., Ashbury Alexander, Edward Wood, John Niblack, Daniel Harris, 
Henry Bradley, Willis Hays, Robert Oxley, Wm. Cavender, Col. Thomas 
Shoulders and Conrad Miller. Their service was under the first constitu- 
tion of Indiana. As probate judges we find the names of B B. Edmonston, 
Sr., Daniel Harris, Moses Kelso and Andrew B. Spradley. The first citi- 
zen and native of Dubois county to sit upon the bench, as a circuit judge, 
in this county, was the Hon. Wm. E. Niblack, who was born at Porters- 
ville, May 22, 1822, when that town was the "county town." After- 
wards he become a member of the Supreme Court of the state for twelve 


years. He was circuit judge from 1854 to 1858. He also served as a 
member of Congress previous to 1861, and from 1863 to 1875. He was a 
Democrat. Judge Niblack spent his early life on a farm, and when but 
sixteen years of age was sent to the State University. He was a surveyor 
for three years, and while following that occupation studied law. He was 

also a member of the Indiana 

senate. His widow, Eliza Anna 
Niblack, died at Indianapolis, 
August 13, 1908. 

A part of the life of every 
settlement was the pioneer doc- 
tor. Tireless, sympathetic, and 
ever ready to answer the call of 
the distressed, his humanity 
triumphed even over the severity 
of the winter storm. His jour- 
ney, by night may have been 
governed by the stars, or by a 
flash of lightning, yet he sped 
onward through the forest to the 
bedside of the sick one. If all 
human skill failed, his great soul 
^^ ^^^^ was the first to invoke Divine 

P ^^Hk M^^^k compassion and comfort to the 

' jm^^KK wm. '^M bereaved. His many hardships 

and his being frequently exposed 
to severe weather generally made 
the pioneer doctor .short-lived. 
Dr. Aaron B. McCrillus 
seems to have been the first pioneer doctor in Dubois county. He was 
long a leading citizen of Jasper, where he died of smallpox. May i, 1851, 
aged fifty. His widow and children laid out two large additions to Jasper. 
Dr. McCrillus is often mentioned as one of the founders of Jasper. He 
was also the first physician at Portersville. In 1S38 Dr. John Poison 
arrived at Jasper, and died there, April 26, 1842, at the age of thirty-two. 
Both Drs. McCrillus and Poison served as state representatives. Their 
remains lie buried in the old pioneer cemetery, south of Patoka river, at 
Jasper. Drs. Kruse, Montgomerj', and Stephenson were also pioneer 
physicians at the new county-seat. Dr. E. Stephenson was born January 
7, 1823, and died at Jasper, June 30, 1907. Dr. Kruse was the first physi- 
cian to introduce vaccination into Dubois county. 

Dr. Wm. Sherritt was an early physician at Jasper. He came to Dubois 
county as a physician in 1844, and practiced at Jasper and Haysville. He 
was also a pioneer politician. He moved to Paoli in 1847, where his remains 

Judge Wm. E. Niblack. 


lie buried. Dr. Sherritt died at Indianapolis in 1887. He was a cousin of 
Pioneer \Vm. B Sherritt. Dr. Sherritt was born in Virginia in 1820. 

Among the pioneer physicans at Huntingburg were Drs. Kruse, Schel- 
ler, Hughes, Beeler, Messick, Adams, and Welman. Dr. Welman moved 
to Jasper, where he died, February 14, 1884. Ferdinand's pioneer physi- 
cians were Drs. Seifert, Keller, Sunderman, and Kempf, The last named 
was a member of the faculty of the Kentucky School of Medicine. He 
died at Louisville, in 1880. Dr. Kempf was a member of the Indiana legis- 
lature in 1859. He was the author of "The Wandering Cainidae, or the 
Ancient Nomads," published in 1879. 

The early physician at Holland was Dr. Rust. About 1830, Dr. Spore 
became a physician at Haysville. Dr. William Sherritt was also an early 
physician at Haysville. About 1846 Dr. Edward A. Glezen located in 
Madison township. About 1852, he built the second building on the present 
site at Ireland. Dr. Glezen was born in Pennsylvania, May 20, 1824, and 
died near Ireland, February 11, 1901. The first physicians of the other 
towns in Dubois county can hardly be classed as pioneers. In 1850 there 
were but seven physicians in the county. Early physicians were often 
paid in farm products for their services. In 1850, Dr. Welman advertised 
in the Jasper Courier for hogs and cattle in return for professional services. 

Man}' of the settlers in the northern part of Dubois county lived in a 
state of alarm during the years preceding the war of 1812. They feared 
the Indians. One "Buffalo Trace" pioneer thus described how he worked: 
"On all occasions I carried my rifle, tomahawk, and butcher knife, with a 
loaded pistol in my belt. When I went to plow I put my gun on the 
ploughed ground, and stuck up a stick by it for a mark, so that I could get 
it quickly in case it was wanted. At night I had two good dogs. I took 
one into the house, leaving the other one outside. The one outside was 
expected to give the alarm, which would cause the one inside to bark, by 
which I would be awakened, having my gun always loaded. I kept my 
horse in a stable close to the house and through the house wall next to 
the stable there was a porthole so that I could shoot to the stable door." 

A lady pioneer of the Irish Settlement says: "My heart still goes back 
fondly to those early days, when the little cabin was gladdened by a neigh- 
bor stopping with a quarter of deer across his horse for us; or when we 
women friends met on the old bridle path — each of us, it might be, with a 
baby at the saddlehorn — to exchange the scant news of our forest homes. 
Every woman in the settlement could ride a horse sixty years ago. In 
those days whoever went to a postofhce brought away all the mail for his 
whole neighborhood, and faithfully distributed it. In those times, in a 
country sparsely settled, the "brotherhood of man" was a reality. The 
question of personal liking, of individual attractiveness, did not figure so 
largely as in older settlements. Every woman was your sister and every 
man was your brother, all were children of the wilderness and of inexor- 


able necessity. The memories of such times and such conditions are like 
memories of childhood, the family, the home. Good and bad, pleasant and 
painful, they are of one's very nature a part. I look back with love to my 
pioneer days." 

Lieut. Hiram McDonald, grandson of the pioneer William McDonald, 
reports that it was a common occurrence, in Boone township, to see a son or 
a daughter of the pioneer, walking by the side of the father carrying the 
long trusty flint-lock rifle, while the father held the plow. He also says 
that "A short time after my grandfather, William McDonald, settled in 
Dubois county, the Indians called on him, and insisted that the pale face 
should be initiated into the mysteries and secrets of the original Redmen. 
He consented, whereupon one of the braves killed a hawk, its head was 
cut off, and impaled on a tall pole, when all proceeded to the banks of Mud 
Hole creek. Pale Face McDonald was given the pole and required to hold 
the hawk's head above his own, while the Indians joined hands and danced 
about him in all their gruesome style. He thus became the first adopted 
Red Man in Dubois county, and lived to tell the tale to his future neigh- 

One of the earliest merchants in the county was George H. Profiit, of 
Portersville. He conducted a store there about 1825. He was a Whig 
and a member of the State legislature. He served as Congressman in 1839- 
1843. Congressman Proffit was below the medium size, short, slim, and 
spare. He had a good mouth, small head, high forehead, bony cheeks, 
dark eyes and light brown hair. He was quick and ready, a splendid ora- 
tor, and a power on the stump He was also our charge to Brazil, under 
an appointment made by President Tyler. His remains lie buried at Peters- 
burg. Congressman Proffit was born in New Orleans, 1800, and died 
at Louisville, September 7, 1847. Congressman Proffit and Judge Wm. 
E. Niblack reflect honor upon the old " county-town of Portersville." 

The Hon. Goodlet Morgan, the first assistant county officer of Dubois 
county, later a county commissioner, county clerk, and councilman of Pike 
county, and whom we freely quote, married a daughter of Congressman 
Proffit, on November 24, 1848. 

The burning of the court house at Jasper, August 17, 1839, destroyed 
the old court records, and the loss of the trustee's office, of Bainbridge 
township, by fire, caused the loss of much interesting matter relative to the 
early laws and law enforcement; therefore a synopsis of the territorial 
penal laws, in general, is given, since the county courts were governed by 
them. When these laws were in force, Dubois county was a part of Knox 
county, to-wit: — 

By the provisions of the territorial code of 1807, the crimes of treason, 
murder, arson, and horse stealing were each punishable by death. The 
crime of manslaughter was punishable according to the common law. The 
crimes of burglary and robbery were each punishable by whipping, fine. 


and, in some cases, by imprisonment, not exceeding forty years. Riotous 
persons were punishable by fine and imprisonment. The crime of larceny 
was punishable by fine or whipping, and in certain cases, by being bound 
to labor for a term not exceeding seven years. Forgery was punishable 
by fine, disfranchisement and standing in the pillory. Assault and bat- 
tery, as a crime, was punishable by fine, not exceeding $100. Hog steal- 
ing was punishable by fine and whipping. Gambling, profane swearing, 
and Sabbath breaking were each punishable by fine. Bigamy was punish- 
able by fine, whipping, and disfranchisement. The law provided for the 
punishment of disobedient children and servants by the following section: 

"If any children or servants shall, contrary to the obedience due to their 
parents or masters, resist or refuse to obey their lawful commands, upon 
complaint thereof to a justice of the peace, it shall be lawful for such 
justice to send him, or them so offending, to the jail or house of correction, 
there to remain until he, or they, shall humble themselves to the said 
parents' or master's satisfaction. And if any child or servant shall, con- 
trary to his bounden duty, presume to assault or strike his parent or master 
upon complaint and conviction thereof, before two or more justices of the 
peace, the offender shall be whipped, not exceeding ten stripes." 

Some of the earlier pioneers of Dubois county had been slaveholders in 
the south and they brought negroes with them. These negro remains are 
at rest in some of the pioneer graveyards of the county. It can not be said, 
as a fact, that these negroes were held as slaves after being brought to 
Dubois county, but they were servants who did as told. The court records 
of Pike county show that there were slaves in Pike county. On November 
28, 1817, Ede, a colored woman, of Pike county, became of her own free 
will, an indentured servant of Francis Cunningham for thirty years. She 
received $280 in money, and when her thirty years of service had expired 
was to get "a feather bed, bedstead and clothing and two suits of clothes." 
Bob and Anthony were two colored men who brought suit for their freedom 
in Pike county, in 1817. They won. This is mentioned here because suit 
was brought before Judges Brenton and Harbison. Associate Judge 
Arthur Harbison then lived in what is now Harbison township in Dubois 
county. He was the only judge in this county, to ever try a case concern- 
ing the liberty of a slave. The case was in the courts five years before it 
was finally settled. 

It is said that Eli Thomas, Silvis McDonald, William Brittain, and 
James and Eacey Ritchey, early pioneers, came from the south, and brought 
their negroes with them. This was not an unusual occurrence in Southern 
Indiana. An act passed by Indiana territor5''s law making body, in 1805, 
permitted slave holding, under certain restrictions. The law was abolished 
December 14, 1810. 



The first newspaper published in Dubois county was the American Eagle. 
The files of this paper were destroyed by fire, at Paoli, Indiana, previous 
to 1899, and, no doubt, much early information about Dubois county was 

Henry Comingore was the publisher of the American Eagle, at Jasper. 
He arrived there July 4, 1846, and began the publication of the Americaii 
Eagle, in what was the County Assessor's ofiice in the court house of 1845- 
1909. He continued the paper until 1848, and then moved it back to Paoli. 
There was no paper published in Dubois county for some time after the 
removal of the Avierican Eagle and legal notices had to be published in 
some near-by paper. The following notice appears in the American Eagle 

of July 2, 1852, after it had been 
moved from Jasper back to Paoli, in 
Orange county: 


The undersigned, treasurer of Dubois 
County, in the state of Indiana, is ready to 
redeem all the orders drawn on the treasurer 
of said county, and have been presented for 
payment, from the first day of March, 1844, 
to the 30th day of December, 1S48. 

Miles Shuler, Treas. D. C. 

Jasper, June 15, 1852. 

Miles Shuler also served the county 
as a deputy county surveyor. 

The paper was Democratic and 
supported Franklin Pierce for presi- 
dent and shows that Senator Benjamin R. Edmonston was the Deinocratic 
presidential elector for the first district in Indiana. Wheat, corn, oats, 
corn meal and potatoes were receivable on subscription to the Eagle as 
announced in its columns. 

Here is the Eagle's editorial on the death of Henry Clay: 

"The Hon. Henry Clay, died, at Washington City, twentj'-five minutes after 11 
o'clock, on Tuesday last. Another great man has fallen. Both houses of Congress 
adjourned immediately on the receipt of the news of his death." 

The Eagle was a four page, six column paper, and space was valuable. 
No other county near us has been more unfortunate in the loss of its early 
sources of information. Fire in the Knox county court house, fire in the 
Dubois county court house, the burning of the trustee's office of Bainbridge 
township, the thoughtless act of a clerk in the State House, at Corydon, 
in burning old documents to get rid of them, and the loss, by fire of the 
files of the Americayi Eagle make local historical research difficult. 

Henry Comingore. 


Since 1850 is about the close of what might be termed the "Pioneer 
Period" it might be well to state that at that time Dubois county had but 
six townships, namely: 

Columbia township, population 600 

Harbison township, population jcq 

Bainbridge township, population 1700 

Hall township, population 530 

Patoka township, population 1400 

Ferdinand township, population 450 

In 1850, there were three hundred forty voters in Bainbridge township. 
Then civil townships were much larger than at present. The town of 
Ferdinand had thirty-one houses, and one hundred fifty inhabitants. The 
population of Haysville was one hundred eighty-eight. Haysville had two 
stores, a ware-house, and a grocery. Huntingburg's population was two 
hundred fourteen. The population of Jasper was five hundred thirty-two. 

In 1830, when Jasper became the "county town," the population of 
Dubois county was 1774; in 1840, it was 3632; and, in 1850, 5430. In 
1850, the principal exports were hogs, cattle, horses, and corn. There 
were then in the county fourteen stores and groceries, four ware-houses, 
and one brewery; three Catholic, five Methodist, and two Cumberland 
Presbyterian churches; eight grist and saw mills and two carding machines. 
There were also fifteen blacksmiths, seventeen house-carpenters, five mill- 
wrights, three lawyers, seven physicians, three ministers and nineteen 

Nearly all of our early pioneers came from southern states. Not all 
families can be named here, but one or both branches of the following 
families came from states as indicated, namely: 

Kcnt2icky : Hope, Brooner, Simmons, Horton, Milburn, Chanley, Cox, 
King, Pruitt, Anderson, Green, Lemmon, Cassidy, Corn, Haskins, Wilhoit, 
Shively, Fisher, McMahan, Williams, Harbison, Rose, Ellis, Harmon, 
Kellams, Harris, McCune, Pendlay, and Kdmonston. 

North Carolina: Ha.skins, Lemond, Simmons, Brittain, Alexander, 
Dillin, Nicholson, Morgan, Hobbs, Norman, Pirtle, Small, Burton, and 

South Carolina : Brittain, Farris, Horton, and Traylor. 

Virginia: Harned, Wilhoit, Cato, Sherritt, Brown, Powell, Williams, 
Cooper, Hobbs, Taylor, Stewart, Harmon, Pendlay, Wineinger, and 

Tennessee : lyine, Cummings, Sanders, Hopkins, Cato, Potts, Brittain, 
Riley, Wineinger, Collins, L,ane and Owen. 

Maryland : Stephenson and Farris. 

Georgia : Burton. 


Ohio and Pennsylvania furnished several families. Scotland, England, 
Ireland, Switzerland, and France contributed a small portion. The various 
divisions of the German Empire contributed about one-half— these consti- 
tuted the later pioneers. From the above source came the pioneers that 
created and produced Dubois county, and their descendants are its citizens 
at this time. 



Christmas festivity — New Year— The first Thanksgiving Day proclamation — Independ- 
ence Day — The spirit of 1776— Revolutionary pensioners — Indian wars — Observ- 
ance of the Fourth at Jasper — Program of the day — Father Kundeck's guards — 
Vigo, the fire engine— Natal day celebration by the German settlers — Log rolling 
— Quilting bees — Names of patchwork — Corn husking — Dancing — Early fiddlers 
and some of their selections — Character of the pioneer fiddler — Games — Shooting 
matches — Drill days for the local militia — Militia laws — Militia officers — Election 
da}' at Jasper — Fights — The pioneer politician — County clerk and recorder — Good- 
let Morgan's letter — Jonathan Walker — Two-wheeled vehicles — First white boy 
born in Dubois county — Allen McDonald. 

Pioneers could feel the hardships, endure the disappointments, share 
the pleasures, and enjoy the successes of life, in true style. 

The drudging, narrow life of the pioneer was not lightened by the 
various legal holidaj's we now observe. Christmas festivity, if any at all, 
was enhanced by a barrel of hard cider, then far more plentiful than now-a- 
days. New Year was seldom considered as worthy of a celebration. Christ- 
mas, the great Christian holiday, as a rule, was so little thought of that 
the legislature, which met annually at the state capital, did not always 
adjourn, and some newspapers did not refer to the day at all. Thanksgiv- 
ing was practically unknown. The first formal proclamation for its ob- 
servance was not issued until 1839. Governor Wallace issued that procla- 
mation. There is no evidence that in pioneer days it ever became a 
general holidaj' in Dubois count)'. 

July 4th — Independence Day — however, was an inheritance dating from 
the beginning of the Nation. It was particularly and peculiarly dear to 
the heart of every American, and the holiday enthusiasm that now expends 
itself a half dozen times in the course of the year was then all concentrated 
on that occasion. The flush of victory during the Revolution had not yet 
passed away. Liberty was still sweet and heroes of the war 3'et lived. 

"The spirit of 76"— the patriotism that was keenly alive to its recent 
emancipation from the English king— occupied a much larger space in the 
American thought then than it does to-day, and the ever memorable 
Fourth was the time for it to go fancy free. The Kentuckian and his fore- 
father, the Virginian, transplanted to Dubois county, in the persons of the 
pioneers, knew what the liberty they enjoyed had cost beyond the mount- 
ains of their native commonwealths. Even in Dubois county, where the 


mode of life and meagerness of facilities were against demonstration, 
this spirit could not be suppressed, and the difficulties it sometimes sur- 
mounted are inspiring, and affords exceedingly interesting reading. 

The flag was " home-made," the only kind then to be had. The young 
man appointed as orator expended his best energies on a maiden effort, 
while his companion not only read the Declaration, but frequently played 
the fife, which, along with a drum or two, made noise and music for the 
occasion. Col. Simon Morgan or Col. B. B. Edmonston generally read the 
Declaration of Independence. Added to this, Dubois county had at least 
three Revolutionary pensioners among her pioneers, namely : Lewis 
Powers, James Harbison, Sr., and John Hills. These men could tell by 
actual experience of the hardships of the American Revolution. Then 
again some of General Harrison's men, who fought in the Indian wars, 
could occasionally be found among the pioneers. In Capt. Spier Spencer's 
company of " Mounted Riflemen," in the battle of Tippecanoe, were Henry 
Enlow, William Hurst, Sr., William Hurst, Jr., and James Harbison. 
Henry Knlow was a county commissioner of Dubois county. Capt. Spen- 
cer had eighty men, known as "Yellow Jackets" on account of the color of 
their uniform. 

At Jasper, the Fourth used to be a gala day. On such occasions, as 
old pioneers used to relate, the people of the little town and surrounding 
country came together and set the standard for the other settlements. 
The meat for the indispensable dinner was carved from fine buck deer, 
killed the day before by Nelson Harris, Sr., or some other pioneer hunter, 
at what is now Shiloh, two-and-one-half miles west of Jasper. The deer 
were roasted whole. The public banquet was spread on long tables set 
under the trees, and there was an abundance for everybody. The merri- 
ment of the festivities was enhanced by the performance of the Virginia 
dancers who did the reel, dressed up in grotesque garb, and bj' a grand, 
general dance open for all. The dancing was, we are told, continued until 
some time on the fifth. 

The Fourth was generally ushered in by the firing of muskets and 
rifles. Sometimes blacksmiths' anvils were used. They gave one report 
for each state. About ten o'clock the citizens gathered at the appointed 
place, sometimes at "Camp Edmonston," now Milburn's addition to Jasper, 
to hear the oration by the speaker, who was frequently a colonel in the 
state militia, or an invited member of the bar, then generally an itinerant. 
At noon a large and respectable company sat down to a barbecue, once 
very popular. A good part of the summer's afternoon was spent in the 
feast of reason and flow of soul that went with numerous toasts. 

Each pioneer was what he made himself. He was the architect of his 
own position in the community. He held his position of respect and con- 
fidence because he proved himself worthy of it. Being somebody's son or 
relative had no influence upon the pioneers. Each was the architect of 
his own fortune. Mollycoddles, whipper-snappers, blatherskites, nincom- 


poops, and ninny-hammers had no position or respect, either upon days of 
merriment or of work. The pioneers believed in plain living and high 

The programs of these Fourth of July occasions varied slightly, but 
certain features were rigidly established. The Declaration of Independ- 
ence had to be read ; there had to be an oration of the old-fashioned pecu- 
liar patriotic stamp which belonged to that day and people. The best 
orator was he who could talk the loudest and longest. Among the toasts 
usually responded to were the following: "The Day We Celebrate;" "It 
will never be Forgotten so long as the Genius of Liberty has a Tabernacle 
in which She can Dwell ; " "The Soldiers, Patriots, and Statesmen of the 
Revolution ; " "Washington ; " "LaFayette ; " "The Congress of the United 
States;" "The Next Legislature;" "Indiana;" "Dubois County;" etc. 
The settlers were thoroughly American, and they came from south of the 
Ohio river, where oratory has its home. The Kentucky element in the 
early celebrations was never satisfied until one or more orators responded 
to a toast entitled "The Fair." 

The demonstrations on the great national holiday became more impos- 
ing as the town grew. Later began the custom of going to the scene of 
exercises in a public procession, in which "Father Kundeck's Guards" of 
one hundred men presented a conspicuous figure. That, however, was 
late in the "fifties." 

This idea of a Fourth of July celebration practically continued until 
after the Civil War. During the later years it was also customary for the 
volunteer firemen to parade, dressed in the regular "Nose" uniform of 
black trousers, red shirts, fireman's cap or hat, and with old fire engine 
"Vigo," in perfect order. In the afternoon the various members would 
have a contest to determine which could get " first water" and throw the 
biggist and largest stream, a strenuous competition which sometimes ended 
in a fight. Practically all of this was discontinued before 1880. The 
earlier celebrations were held from patriotic impulses, and were not given 
for commercial purposes. 

"Vigo " was the name of the first fire engine owned by the city of 
Terre Haute, in Vigo county, named in honor of Francis Vigo, prominent 
in the early history of Indiana. Jasper bought it, during the " sixties," 
and after the construction of the water system, resold it to the city of 
Terre Haute, which city desired it on account of its old associations. 

After the German settlers began to buy land and live near Jasper there 
were great " Natal Day " celebrations, of a different order, on the Troy 
road, two miles south of Jasper ; in fact at almost every grove and farm 
house, particularly about the intersection of the Troy and the old Hunt- 
ingburg road. Great celebrations were also held at the " Cedar Garden," 
north of Jasper, and the brilliantly painted omnibuses were kept busy 
carrying people from the town to the grove. On a hill south of Jasper 
was another beer garden, with a tramway on which to haul common beer 


from a deep cellar at the base of the hill to the garden on the summit. It 
was regular and busy ; so was the crowd. All this passed away soon after 
the Civil War. 

Apple brandy, peach brandy, and corn whiskey were not subject to a 
government tax in the pioneer days. Many farmers made their own liquor, 
in fact nearly all the German farmers did. They began to come into 
Dubois county about twenty-five years later than the time of the arrival of 
the original settlers. Nearly every farmer had cows, and a distillery. 
The posset cup was in every house and liquor was an article that entered 
into the economy of the home. 

The usual social functions were the "log rollings." the "huskings," the 
"quiltings" and the dance that followed upon these gatherings. These 
were scenes as happy as those born of the poets' muse. There was, also, a 
chivalry as glowing as that described in Scotts' border stories. Pleasure 
was pursued as it was by Arthur and his knights when they went in quest 
of the Holy Grail, and, generally, happiness was unalloyed. Gallantry 
reigned supreme, for the blood of the southern cavalier came with the early 

The corn husking and quilting "bees" were highly enjoyed. The neigh- 
boring farmers, with their sons, would assemble in the morning at the place 
appointed for the husking, gather the corn and put it in large piles. The 
ladies would also gather in and make a quilting. They would suspend a 
rectangular frame by cords fastened to hooks in the ceiling, fasten the quilt 
to it and the quilting began. Anyone who was born and reared amid such 
scenes of country life as these, remembers the old fashioned quilts, and the 
beauty about them. They were a sort of mosaic — made up of many pieces 
of many colors. There were the "Nine Patches," "The Diamond," "The 
Lone Star," "The hog Cabin," "The Fruit Basket," "The Irish Chain," 
''The Ocean Wave," "Brick Pavement," "Broken Dishes," "The Tulip," 
"Wild Rose," "The Box," "The Puzzle," "Double-F-Nine Patch," "Spider 
I^eg," "Johnnie Around the Corner," and many others. All homely 
pictures, but as beautiful as those of the "Old Sweep at the Well," and the 
porch trellised over with morning glory vines. 

The older women would prepare and set a dinner, which with the mod- 
ern cuisine parlance added, might do credit to Delmonico's. When supper 
time came another meal, equally elaborate, was prepared. 

After the supper came the husking, which consisted in removing the 
shucks from the corn where it had been thrown into piles. Then followed 
the dance in which all boys and girls participated. One fiddler would 
furnish the music. Samuel Jackson, of Columbia township, was a great 
violinist. He made his own violins. Among the other pioneer fiddlers may 
be mentioned James Trusty, Marquis Sullivan, Jackson Davisson, Robert 
Cox, William B. Sherritt, Enoch Abell, John Linch, John Cox, Tram Sum- 
mers, Smith Mclntire, Robert Howard and William Conley. Robert Cox 


weighed three hundred pounds, yet he could play the fiddle with any of 
them in Jackson township. When he started he never quit until he broke 
every string on the instrument. 

Wm. B. Sherritt, of Boone township, is said to have been a most excel- 
lent performer on the violin. 

As rough as some pioneers may have been, those who used a violin 
could play with a great deal of harmony. There may not have been much 
style but there was music — pure unadulterated pioneer American music. 
These old-fashioned violinists practically passed away before 1875, but 
here are some of their selections: "Love among the Roses," "Natchez 
under the Hill," "Leather Breeches," "Gray Eagle," "Girderoy," "Clear 
the Track," "Forked Ear," "Roaring River," "Coming from the Ball," 
"John, Come Along," "Stony Point," "Old Dan Tucker," "Old Zip Coon," 
" 'Possum Up a Gum Stump," "Irish Washerwoman," "Going Down to 
Shipping Port," "Always Drunk, Seldom Sober," "McLoud's Reel," "Old 
Virginia Reel," "Chase the Squirrel," "Big Fat Gal," "Going Down to 
Hughes to get a Jug of Whiskey," ''Hog Eye," "The Girl I Left Behind 
Me," "Nigger-in-the-Wood-Pile," "Katie. Put the Kettle on. We'll All Take 
Tea," "White River," "Jennie in the Low Grounds," "Paducah," "Arkansas 
Traveler," "Devil's Dream," "Early Settler," "Pop Goes the Weasel," 
"Rosin the Bow," "Drunken Hiccough," "Turkey in the Straw," "Rye 
Straw," "Drink at Mid-night," "Eighth of January," "Cross Roads," "Red 
Bird," "Uraine Hornpipe," "College Hornpipe," "Fisher's Hornpipe," 
"Cooper's Hornpipe," "Delaware Hornpipe," and dozens of others. 

The pioneer fiddler was a character and a valuable factor in all the 
festivities of the settlements. Sometimes he was an eccentric genius, but 
he could hold his own against any criticism we may make, and he could put 
to blush many a village brass band. It was part of the pioneer life. 
Thomas Jefferson, Governor Whitcomb, General Lew Wallace, and many 
other distinguished men were players upon the violin. The typical pioneer 
fiddler could make his fiddle talk. He held his violin like a Scotch- 
man. The arm, long, bony and sinewy, was stretched forwards, down- 
wards and outwards from the shoulder, and at full length. No wrist move- 
ment was made; a very little at the elbow, but some more at the shoulder. 
He never used notes, but he knew how to inject into the tune a multitude 
of flourishes and "grace notes" in keeping with the jovial spirit of the 
occasion. He usually held his fiddle on his breast, and his bow in the 
middle. Rosin was used with a lavish hand. 

There was no orchestra in the county in those days, but a pioneer 
fiddler, who sometimes wore only one "gallus," and called the "figures," 
in a loud voice could arouse emotions in the heart of the young pioneer 
and make it respond to a degree beyond that which the modern orchestra 
can do in its rendition of selections from Chopin, and Wagner and Mozart. 
It was, to the pioneer, music sweeter than Beethoven's Fifth Symphony 
and it kindled anew the fires of human sympathy and human love. 



Later, German pioneers played the accordion. These old-time gather- 
ings, in time, wore away and gave place to other sports and pastimes. The 
Mexican War came and went and with it conditions materially changed. 
It was proper to have these gatherings. There must be some diversions 
to soothe life's cares and to smooth the weary rounds of time. One kind 
was the marble game, which even old American men played. With some 
pioneers it was an easy thing to "knock the middler," or with a single shot 
to "clear the ring." Then again, there were the cock-fights and the shoot- 
ing matches. 

By nature and habit, before game came to be scarce, the Dubois county 
pioneer was a good shot with the rifle, and the shooting match was a 
popular form of sport, and incidentally was somewhat profitable to the man 
who was lucky enough to get first choice, which was a hind quarter whether 
it was beef or mutton. Each of those who were to take part in the shoot- 
ing match would pay his part of the amount it took to buy the animal. 
Two judges were selected and then a third man in the event the two failed 
to agree, and the shooting began. When the squirrel rifle was used the 
distance would be fifty, seventy-five, and sometimes one hundred yards, 
and off"-hand, but when the target rifle, a heavier piece, was used it would 
be one hundred or one-hundred-fifty yards, and with what was known as a 
rest, that is, the position would be lying on the breast, with the gun placed 
on a log. In this way complete steadiness and a more accurate aim could 
be secured. 

Turkej'S were shot for, but in a different manner, the distance being 
greater, and the bird was shot at, instead of a mark. The winner was the 
one who either killed the turkey or drew blood above the knee. 

Drill days for the local militia were days of importance to the earlier 
American pioneers. Their practice grounds were at the southwest corner 
of Harbison township; in section three, southwest of Jasper; in section 
thirteen, two miles west of Schnellville, and at other places, or convenient 
"clearings." These drill days were of inestimable value. It will be 
observed that even as late as the call to arms, in 1861, the old American 
stock, descendants of the cavaliers of Virginia, Kentuck3\ Tennessee, and 
the two Carolinas, were the first, in Dubois county, to respond. Haysville 
furnished the first company. 

From the first settlement of Dubois county up until the second constitu- 
tion of Indiana was adopted, there were militia laws calling for various 
musters. A rigid compliance with these laws accounts for so many captains, 
majors, colonels, and generals in pioneer daj^s. General muster occurred 
in autumn. There were also company musters, regimental musters, and 
brigade musters. 

The militia officers wore gorgeous uniforms. A blue coat made of the 
usual homespun blue jeans, cut swallow-tail, with stripes of red tape sewed 
on the breast, with two rows of brass buttons, and with high brass-tinseled 
epaulets, was a conspicious part of the uniform. To this add trousers of 



Put imo this uniforn, , f !' I ^'°" ^'^'''' ""^ Complete uniform. 

mention'ed Major P™:Cr HaTd^ffcaTl^^^^^^^^^^^ 

Jacobs Cant rr^^ n^ ^ tm- 1 ,. ' ^^P"^- Jo^^ Sherntt, Capt. Elisha 

disputes anH !rn/ f u days, were generally set apart to settle old 

s«s "4ht eS :u .rule'" rr' '"'" "'"^ '^^^"^"- ^ ^^'^ '^^ 
battery suits filed ,„»,, , ^ i ""^ "'"" "° Provoke, or assault and 

da ^ for persona? ad " '"''" "'-"■ P"'"*"^- "ti"^«d the muster 
became coun^voffir''"'™'""'' "^^ °'S'='="= °f '^e militia generally 
genemUv c o'L tV 7 "'"''"' "^ "'^ ^'^'^ legislature. Muster days 
becaTse of thet , f ? " ^''''" ""'' ^"^°P' f™™ »""'- duti s 

when go^ngTo mustt °""''"°°- ^"^^■'"^" "°^^^'' -"'«- -" fr-' 

which thevl'v'ed' 1'^°"::"' °°' '"^'"'^'"'^ '° ™'^ '" ''■^ '°--hip in 
wnicli they lived, but could vote anywhere in the county The ?reat 

wa^a";: tt T7r "",^' ""^ ^°""'^-'°-" °f Jasper 'Ellctiofda; 
fTeeln'rr iftf ?' ■'T''^ '"' "'^•^- ""'^'^^"^ '° Jasper to exercise the 

iTwas ,7" , ™ • '""^ '° '" '^^ ''^^'' "™^' °" ^^x^h occasions. 

It was also a time set apart by custom to settle disputes by fist-fiehts 

sTyteTd'tT :T', '" ''^' ™^-- ^'^'''-^ -- commo:, but n good 

Xr ti?e oth ". ''f ""^^'^ ' ''°^™ ^8'^''' ^"W '^ke place, one 
enough • the fi\T "',;" °"' °' ""^ combatants would yell •'hold-on. 
The mainttH^ °"i "°P' '"^ the difficulty was settled and at rest 
of thH ^hH S™""'^ "•'"^ ™der a large tree near the northwest corner 

these If'." ^"7f- ^^''"y™"^^^ -0"W assemble to witness 
these fights and an elevated lookout was at a premium 

wa.s crned"'" T"""" u\ '" '^^'"didates for office to form a caravan, as it 

custom rv' in n^b™"" ""'°"«'' '"^ ^°""'^- '°S^"^"- " -- ■"" 
a^d mach n y, '™"'-'' P"""" '° '"^'5. to make party nominations, 
and machine politics was unknown. 

The pioneer politician was, in a sense, a self-made man, and he generally 
d.d a good job m the making, at least he had the right to think so himself, 
and to get as many others as possible to think likewise. He was tauo^ht by 
experience to rely upon himself and to meet an emergency quickly and 
with energy. The field was open to all and any one could enter the race 


at will. The results were good. Perhaps there is no other county in 
Indiana whose official records, in its early days, were so faithfully and cor- 
rectly kept, according to law, as those of Dubois county. 

Col. Simon Morgan was the first clerk and recorder of Dubois county. 
He served from 1818, until his death, at Jasper, January 12, 1841. His son, 
Goodlet Morgan, was born in Dubois county, February 26, 1825. Goodlet 
Morgan was his father's assistant at the court house. On August i6th, 
1899, Mr. Goodlet Morgan, in a letter to the writer said: 

My father, who was clerk and recorder, put me to writing in the office about 1836. 
I continued to do so until 1839. By this means I got to know a great many of the people, 
for, at that day, at least that was the case in Dubois and Pike counties, the clerk's office 
was where nearly all the clerical business was done. The clerk wrote the wills, made 
the settlements for administrators, guardians, etc. Of course, then the clerk wielded 
a much greater influence, especially in politics, than at the present day. 

My father's office was headquarters for the Whigs, he being a strong partisan, and 
the principal leader of the Whig party at that time, in Dubois county. The Edmons- 
tons and Barker families were the acknowledged leaders of the Jackson men, for at 
that time men were known politically either as Clay or Jackson men. Politics was "red 
hot." Men were thoroughly in earnest and maintained their beliefs both with tongue 
and fist. I have myself seen in Jasper as many as fifteen or twenty men fighting on 
the first Monday in August, which was then general election day; generally over 
politics. Then there was nothing like the methods used to secure votes that prevail at 
present. Men could neither be bought or intimidated to voteagainst their convictions. 
They seldom changed their politics. The parties were pretty equally divided and 
success depended largely upon the personal popularity of the candidate. In 1836, 
General Harrison was the Whig candidate for President and Martin VanBuren was the 
Democratic candidate. My father sent me with the "Harrison tickets" to Columbia 
township. I was only eleven years old. The election was held at the house of Ensign 
Philip Conrad — "Uncle Phil" as he was generally called. The ballots were put into a 
hat; the voters filled the room, where the votes were received. There was no fighting 
or trouble for they were nearly all of one mind. The votes, when counted, stood thirty- 
six for VanBuren and three for Harrison. The three Harrison votes were cast by 
Ensign Philip Conrad, one of his sons, and Richard Kirby. Philip Conrad was an 
ensign in the 43d Indiana militia, and a personal friend of General Harrison. Conrad 
was commissioned an ensign, February i, 1826. He was born in Pennsylvania about 
1774, and came to Dubois county in 1816. Mr. Conrad died at the age of eighty-seven 
and his remains lie buried in Columbia township. He was a noted pioneer fist-fighter 
even until the year of his death. 

By the way, VanBuren's name was never mentioned, but when the whiskey began 
to operate there was one continuous yell for General Jackson. As to the personality of 
the voters; there were two-thirds of them dressed in buckskin with coon-skin caps and 
moccasins. Each man came to the polls with his long rifle and hunting knife. Each 
had likely killed a deer on his way to the election. Before then I had seen a number 
of persons partially dressed in buckskin, but never so many together. At the time of 
which I speak the county was sparsely settled. In 1840, I think, there were fewer than 
six hundred voters at the presidential election. The south part of the county — what 
was then Patoka and Hall townships — with Columbia township, in the east, was almost 
an unbroken forest. [NOTE — The tax list of 1838, which was destroyed by fire August 
17, 1839, showed listed for taxation 21,960 acres of land at 1112,453. The area was 
about the size of Bainbridge township, and less than one-twelfth of the entire county. 
— WilvSON.] In the southern part of the county there were very few roads, and many 


of the principal streams were without bridges. In Patoka and Hall townships the lead- 
ing family names were: Bolin, Hendricks, Cox, Lemmon, Miller, Able, and a notable 
and well known fighter, Jonathan Walker; also an Englishman by the name of Robert 
Oxley, a county commissioner. The families of Cox, Bolin, Hendricks, Able, Kemp, 
Lemmon, Walker and Oxley were exceptionally large physically. The men were 
generally over six feet high, and their weight ran from two hundred twenty-five to two 
hundred seventy-five pounds. All took pride in their manhood . They had many hotly 
contested fights, but finally Walker was acknowledged to be the champion, not only of 
Dubois county hut of Pike. He wore the belt until the day of his death. 

Then people, as a rule, were brave, generous, and hospitable. All were great 
hunters and lived well for that day. The principal amusements — and which were 
participated in by nearly all — were shooting matches, horse racing, fox chasing, wood 
chopping, foot racing, jumping, wrestling, winding up with a dance, usually called a 
"hoe down." 

As a matter of fact people had more leisure, lived easier, were more upon an equality 
and enjoyed themselves better than at the present time. It did not require that con- 
stant and persistent exertion to live, and live well, that it does now. The woods were 
full of game, such as deer, turkey, and wild hogs. The clothing was principally made 
at home. A patch of flax and cotton, and a few sheep furnished the clothing; that is, 
all that was required. Cotton was then grown successfully in Southern Indiana. 
There was a cotton mill at Portersville. Everybody raised cotton. Each family had 
a large wheel, a small one and a reel, and a loom. The women carded, spun, and wove 
the cotton, wool, and flax out of which they made the clothing for themselves and 
their families. 

There were several tan yards in the county. Hides were tanned on shares; the 
tanner took one-half for his work. The shoemaker went from house to house, and 
made the shoes for the family for winter use. There were comparatively few goods 
bought out of stores for dress, either for men or women. Calico sold for thirty-seven 
cents a yard, and other goods in proportion. Ladies' dresses were then made out of 
six-yard patterns. Buttons or drawstrings were used. There were no hooks and eyes. 
The cooking was done in iron vessels, in a fire place. I do not recollect of ever seeing 
a cooking stove in Dubois county up to 1839. I never saw a carpet, except home made 
ones, and few of them, until 1841, when I first traveled on a steamboat. 

The Jonathan Walker referred to by Mr. Morgan finally became the 
defendant in what was probably the first murder case in Dtibois county. 
About 1840 he was indicted and tried for the murder of Henry Hudeman, 
a shoemaker at Huntingburg. He was acquitted. Walker was one of 
those large, robust pugilistic fellows who could attract attention in any 
crowd on account of his physical vigor. His fighting abilities were of the 
highest order. He was known from one end of the "Buffalo Trace" to the 
other. He was feared by all. Hudeman was the first person buried in 
the old cemetery in the southeastern part of Huntingburg. Wm. Bolin and 
Henry Kemp, of Cass township, are said to have been about the onl)^ men 
who could equal Walker in a fight. Benjamin Cox, mentioned herein- 
before, is said to have been the wealthiest man in Dtibois county in his day. 

In the early days before 1840, about the only vehicles were two-wheeled 
contrivances, of domestic manufacture, of wood, and without any metal 
whatever. They were used for hauling wood, produce, and almost any- 
thing else. In these carts, the man, wife, and children would huddle 



Pioneer Allen McDonald. 

together and jostle along, the horse maintaining a brisk trot, while the 
heads of the entire family were bobbing up and down at a lively rate. 

The early American pioneer got all out of life possible. The com- 
mercial and religious thoughts, as a rule, came into the county with the 
German pioneers to remain. 

Allen McDonald was the first white boy born in Dubois county. He 
was born near the "Buffalo Trace," Sunday, January 15, 1809. He was a 

son of William McDonald, who was born 
in Scotland, October 10, 1765, and his 
wife Jane B., who was born in Hamburg, 
Germany, March 31, 1765. They settled 
in Dubois county, in 1801, at the "'Mud 

Assistant County Clerk Goodlet 
Morgan, from whom we have herein- 
before quoted, in a letter to the writer, 
under date of Sept. ist, 1899, among 
other things says: 

My father (Col. Simon Morgan) when he 
came to Dubois county, before he was married 
to Miss Rose U. Reed, made his home with the 
McDonalds. In this connection I will give 
you an item with reference to the late Allen 
McDonald. He and a Mr. Patton, a Southern 
man, were rivals for the favor of a Miss Louisa Scott, a very beautiful girl . This rivalry 
resulted in a quarrel in which Allen McDonald struck Patton. For this assault Patton 
challenged Mr. McDonald to fight a duel. McDonald accepted and chose rifles as the 
weapons, distance sixty yards, off hand. The seconds were chosen. I think my father 
was Mr. McDonald's second. All the parties appeared upon the ground, except the 
challenger, Mr. Patton, but it was for no want of courage that Mr. Patton did not appear. 
The Scotts got word about the duel and had him arrested and bound over to keep the 
peace. However, his failure to appear could not be satisfactorily explained and the 
impression got abroad that he had shown the "white feather"— but he got the girl, 
left Dubois county, and went to Mobile, Alabama. I presume this was the first and 
last challenge that was ever given in Dubois county. I am satisfied that if the duel 
had been fought Patton would have been killed, for Allen McDonald was a "dead shot" 
and as brave as a lion. Courage in the highest degree was a quality possessed by all of 
the McDonald family. 

In this connection it is well to remember that the acts of the early 
legislatures of Indiana have many sections in them pertaining to duelling, 
and the laws compelled officials to take the "duel oath." Allen McDonald 
lived a long and useful life in Dubois county and his remains are buried in 
the Sherritt graveyard a few rods from where he was born, and not far 
from where he stepped off the sixty yards in preparation for the duel. In 
1835, Allen McDonald married Miss Minerva Hays, who was born in 
Buncombe county. South Carolina, in 1815, and came to Haysville with her 
parents in 1818. Haysville was named in honor of her father. Associate 
Judge Willis Hays. Their descendants are, to-day, among the best citizens 
of Dubois county. 



Character of the local pioneer — The dres.s of the pioneer hunter— Charms— Cooking — 
Light— The "mansion-house" — Wedding costumes of 1840— Wedding feasts— Cof- 
fins— Extract from a German book — Friedman — Horse-back riding — Mills — Brick 
houses — Frame houses — Beds — Extract from Morgan's letter: schools; pupils; mail; 
Irish settlement; population; lawyers; physicians; various occupations; religious 
denominations; flat boats; log court house at Jasper; whiskey — Apprentices — Char- 
acter of the pioneer blacksmith — Products of the blacksmith — Charcoal burning — 
Pioneer blacksmiths of Dubois county — Pioneer Days at Huntingburg. 

The present generation is no more like its predecessor than the 
present environments are like those of fifty years ago. The pioneer's life 
was a reflection of his environments. Some of our oldest inhabitants from 
their present standpoint in life, looking back through the vista of time and 
under the searchlight of memory, are able to dispel the gathered mists of 
years, and furnish us with information concerning our local settlers. 

Our local pioneers, when properly recorded, stand out in bold relief 
amidst the scenes incidental to pioneer life in the wilderness of Dubois 
county. As a general rule, they were intelligent, resolute, self-reliant men. 
They learned to use all of their senses, as a means of self-defense, and as a 
helping hand in the chase for wild game. Pioneers, as well as sailors, sur- 
veyors, hunters, and Indians, used their eyes on long distances, and seldom 
needed glasses. Their sense of hearing was also highly cultivated. They 
could line a bee tree with wonderful distinctness and accuracy, and knew 
the causes of the various noises one hears in the forest, on the streams, or 
across the fields. They well knew that the crackle of a twig conveyed a 
warning and that the flutter of a leaf sent a message. From a business 
standpoint they knew just how to barter off" their winter peltry. As many 
as three-fourths of them could write their names and nearly all could read 
the printed page, A majority of them had no capital but their brain and 
muscle — brain to plan and direct, and muscle to execute the work. Pio- 
neers were men of brawn, and the world long ago learned to make way for 
determined men. 

By force of circumstances the pioneer was a good marksman, even with 
his primitive "shooting irons." With the pas.sing of the mighty 
hunter of pioneer days, the fox chase and coon hunt that were so popular 
then, are now almost obsolete, and very few localities, in the county, now 
have any devotees of the .sport. However, many people in this county, 


who are not yet ready to call themselves aged, recall the later pioneer 
hunter, who was also a man of mark in his day. They can also recall 
the paraphernalia which made him a conspicuous figure in the community. 
When not on the hunt, above the door of his humble cabin, resting on 
wooden hooks, could be found his rifle, fully five feet in length, and wholly 
unlike the factory-made repeating arms of to-day. Hanging from the gun 
or one of the pegs, was the shotpouch, usually made from the skin of 
some animal, tanned with the hair on, and in many cases with the bushy 
tails of raccoons or squirrels depending from each corner. When armed 
with his long rifle and accoutrements, wearing his hunting jacket and 
'coon-skin cap, the pioneer huntsman was a formidable looking individual. 

But there was usually another side to his character, and seated by his 
own fireside or that of a neighbor, he became companionable and even 
garrulous. The theme of his garrulity was always his own prowess. No 
other man could describe with greater gusto feats with his rifle, and hair- 
breadth escapes. No home was safe without its trusty rifle. 

It often happened that the man who prided himself on his marksman- 
ship was also a patron of the chase. In that case he kept a pack of lanky 
hounds about his premises, as well as a squirrel dog, which was usually a 
cur of uncertain breed. 

Among the articles of dress of the pioneer hunter let us mention deer- 
skin breeches, erkin, 'coon-skin cap, buffalo-hide buskin, the "brush " of a 
fox^a gray fox if possible, because it required greater skill to kill it— doe- 
skin pouch, a powder horn, and a belt made of otter skin. If he were, also, 
a trapper he had a batteau (boat). In his hunts he frequently gathered 
calamus root and ginseng. He also carried part of a "she-she-note" 
plant because it was considered a charm against the bite of the rattlesnake. 
An Irish potato, or a buckeye, was also carried to cure rheumatism. His 
flint-lock rifle was a constant companion. Sometimes furs and feathers 
were worn, partly in imitation of the Indian, but never seriously, as an arti- 
cle of dress. Occasionally he carried a basket, home-made, of birch splints. 
In it was a dinner of jerked venison and corn-pone. These he ate while sit- 
ting in a boscage waiting for a deer, on its way over a divide or to a lick. 
In spring on his way home he filled his basket with greens ; in the autumn, 
with pawpaws. His good wife, always dressed in a course hempen apron, 
announced dinner by a loud blare of the dinner-horn, or a blast of the cow 

The dinner-pot usually hung from a crane over the fire-place. A long- 
legged skillet rested upon the logs in the fire. At night a piece of cotton 
wick placed in lard furnished a light, if more light was needed than that 
furnished by the fire-place. 

The houses were often rudely constructed. A double-log-house was 
two log houses about ten feet apart with one roof extending over both. 
Such a house was called a mansion-house. Pioneer John Stewart, who 
lived at Ireland, in his will refers to his mansion-house in order to desig- 
nate a part of his farm. 



Pioneer James G. Stevi^art. 

In 1840, a lady's wedding costume generally consisted of a calico dress, 
well made, and a very fancy cap made of bobbinet. It consisted of a crown 
plaited in full with a ruffle around the front. Sometimes a ribbon was 
worked through the ruffle. A man wore a blue jeans suit, made cutaway 

The wedding feast of those daj^s consisted of every variety of wild 
game, turkeys, chickens, geese, boiled cabbage, beans, potatoes, boiled 
ham, pumpkins, turnips,- — all this with 
primitive trimmings of pie — chiefl}' crust, 
— cake, jelly and doughnuts. The last 
named were considered indispensable. In 
1830, coffins were made of heavy wood, 
pinned together with wooden pegs. Ordi- 
nary, fine, yellow clay was frequently dis- 
solved in water, and applied to the wood 
to give it the appearance of having been 
painted with ocher, or some other mineral 
paint. Sometimes the coffins were made 
of black walnut. In some soils in Dubois 
county these have not yet decayed. 

A German traveler by the name of 
Frederick Gerstaecker, who had explored 
as far west as St Louis, passed through 
southern Indiana on his way from Louisville to Vincennes. In a book 
written by this man, printed in the German language, and published in 
Germany, is found this paragraph, which throws some light upon our 
early pioneers : — 

I arrived about the nth December, at Friedman's farm. The proprietor was a Ger- 
man in good circumstances in Indiana ; his property, though not large was very pro- 
ductive, and his cattle were very fine. He was the only German settler whom I fell 
in with in my march through Indiana, although there are several in that state. The 
sound of my mother tongue fell doubly sweet on my ear after so long a privation. I 
remained to dinner, and then set off in good spirits, on a road which improved as I 
advanced toward Vincennes on the Wabash. 

It can not be positively stated that this paragraph refers to the family 
of that name in Dubois county, but it is known that when Jasper became 
the county town, in 1830, some travelers from Vincennes to Louisville, 
began to leave the " Buffalo Trace," about where Otwell — once called 
Pierceville — now stands, passed through the " Irish settlement " at what 
is now Ireland, and then pressed on to Jasper. Leaving Jasper they 
passed over what is now called the New Albany road, and two miles out on 
this road is where the German pioneer, Joseph Friedman, settled in the 
year 1837. His descendants are leading citizens of the county. About 
two hundred yards south of the New Albany road stands a .sub.stantial log 
house that was erected over seventy years ago. It is not occupied but it is 
in a good state of preservation. This was the residence of Joseph Friedman, 



the pioneer. His son, Martin Friedman, more than eighty years of age, 
lives at Jasper. At this old pioneer home, Martin Friedman, when a boy, 
dug, with a hatchet, a well, twenty-two feet deep. He also carried the 
stone and walled up the well. The well may still be seen. It is men- 
tioned here as one of manj^ achievements illustrative of the patience and 
perseverance of the pioneers, under a most adverse environment. 

Both the American and the German pioneer despised nothing else so 
much as falsehood and meanness, and they feared nothing except coward- 
ice. They seemed to 
covet nothing that was 
a neighbor's except his 
kindness of heart and 
primitive gentleness of 
manners and hospital- 
ity. They never forgot 
a friend or an enemy. 
They became satisfied 
with themselves only 
when they had learned 
and reached their limi- 
tations, and made the 
best of them. 

There were no bug- 
gies in Dubois county 
before 1839. Everybody rode on horseback. The ladies of that day were 
fine riders. Grinding was done principally at horse-mills. There was 
such a mill and also a tanyard on the Jasper and Portersville road, owned 
and operated by Joseph McMahan. They were on the Niblack farm, in 
what is now Boone township. These were very extensively patronized. 
About 1820, the Enlows constructed a water-power mill on the Patoka ; 
later, the Poisons built a water-power mill at Dubois — originally called 
Knoxville, by the Kelsoes. About 1840, and for many years after that, 
lumber was principally sawed by hand; also called " whipped-sawed." 
This was done bj^ resting the log in some elevated position. One man 
stood under the log to pull the saw down, another stood on the log to pull 
the saw up. 

Until 1845, but very few brick houses were to be found in Dubois 
county. About that time German pioneers began to arrive, and some of 
them built brick residences on their farms. St. Joseph's Hall, at 
Jasper, is a pioneer brick structure. A few frame buildings began to 
appear about 1845. The majority of the houses were of logs, one story 
high. The roofs were of clapboards secured by weight poles on top. The 
doors were frequently hung by means of wooden hinges, and fastened by 
a wooden latch, which was raised by a string. The string hung on the 
outside in the daytime. At night the pioneer pulled in the string. Many 

Friedman Pioneer Home, near Jasper. 


houses were constructed without the use of a single nail. Nevertheless, 
some of these old pioneer homes were comfortable, being cool in summer 
and warm in winter. Some were more expensive than these, but by far 
the greater number of houses contained but one or two rooms. The floors 
were generally made of puncheons — that is, logs split in two, and hewed 
flat with an adz. A few may yet be found in old abandoned houses. 
Often the bedsteads were made of forked sticks. It mattered not how 
poorly the people were lodged, they had plenty to eat, as a rule, and they 
were contented and happy. 

When the German pioneer came, a better grade of beds was introduced. 
His bed was generally built b}^ means of four wooden posts, four or five 
inches square and five feet tall. These were fastened together by timbers 
of the same type. Into these timbers was driven a row of wooden pegs, 
and around these pegs was strung a rope, in such a waj^ as to form a per- 
fect lattice work of very taut rope securely fastened. Upon this rope was 
placed a tick filled with straw or shredded corn husks; then came a tick 
(sometimes two) filled with feathers, — all together forming an excellent 
bed. Beneath this bed was another, called the " trundle-bed," the frame- 
work of which was low enough to slide under the higher bed. At night, it 
was brought out, and the youngsters of the household slept on it. Houses 
were small and some families were large, hence the need to economize. 

While speaking of these pioneer ways and days, let us again quote from 
Mr. Morgan's letter, written to the writer, August 16, 1899. He is excel- 
lent authority. He was in position to know whereof he spoke. 

In 1S37, the educational advantages were very limited, generally a subscription 
school for three months, in the winter, and very few of them. I never went to school 
myself more than three months but that was an exceptionally good one. 

The school-house was on the road between Jasper and Haysville, about five miles 
from Jasper. It was built of hewn logs; size, eighteen by twenty-four feet. The floor 
and seats were made of split puncheons. There was a large fire-place in one end. A 
log was cut out of the other end for light. A plank was put in front of this upon which 
to write. The teacher's name was Thompson. He was a scholar and a man of fine 
presence, and the best penman I ever saw. It has always been a mystery to me how a 
man of Thompson's ability ever drifted into Dubois county as a teacher. The pay was 
small, and there were few if any, that could interest him. He lacked the happy faculty 
of adjusting himself to his surroundings, consequently he was not popular. 

Among the pupils who attended that school were the late Judge Niblack, William 
B. Sherritt, Joseph Stubblefield, William Brown, and the Hortons, Kelsoes, Brittains, 
and Haddocks. This was in 1837. Some may yet be living. 

The means of information were very limited. I do not think there were one hun- 
dred newspapers taken in the county. Mail was carried on horseback from Vincennes 
to Paoli, once a week. Perhaps there was also one to Boonville. That was the extent 
of the mail facilities. B. B. Edmonston, Sr., father of Benjamin R. Edmonston and 
Col. B. B. Edmonston, was postmaster from 182S to 1S40. Letter postage was 
twenty-five cents on letters sent out of the state; within the state, ten cents. As an 
illustration, as late as 1S44, in the presidential election, when Polk and Clay were the 


candidates, it was not known for four weeks after the election which man was elected. 
Men depended upon public speakers and influential leaders for their political informa- 
tion. Oratory was a far greater power in those days than now. 

The western part of Bainbridge township [now known as Madison township] in 
which was the " Irish Settlement " was far in advance of any other part of the county 
in improvements and enterprise. I have heard both the late Judge Embree and Judge 
Pitcher say that it was in advance of any other settlement in their judicial district, 
which then embraced eleven counties. They had well cultivated farms and fine 
orchards. Their houses and barns were comfortable and commodious. In fact, they 
had all the old necessities of life and many of the luxuries. They were generally mem- 
bers of the church, and did not indulge in the common popular amusements of that 
day. The principal families were the Armstrongs, Greens, Andersons, Alexanders, 
Woods, Stewarts. Harrises, and Corns. The next settlement in point of improvement 
was in Harbison township [part of which is now called Boone.] The families which 
were good farmers and which I knew were the Kelsoes, Harbisons, Lemmons, Brit- 
tains, Hopes, Harrises, Farrises, Niblacks, Haddocks, Hutchenses, Sherritts, and 

There was very little increase in the population of Dubois county, by emigration 
until the Germans commenced settling there, about 1837. I think the first of the early 
German settlers I knew were the Gramelspachers, Goetzes, Hoflfmans, Jergers, and Opels. 

The first resident lawyer that settled in Dubois county was Judge h. Q. DeBruler. 
I think it was in 1839. A number of lawyers attended the courts. They went to all 
the counties in that judicial district on horseback. Among these lawyers were Pitcher, 
Breckenridge, Simpson, Battell, Ingle, Edson. The first circuit judge of Dubois 
county was Judge Goodlet, assisted by Judge Arthur Harbison and Judge Farris as his 
associates. The first sheriff was Adam Hope. Col. Simon Morgan, my father, was 
clerk from the organization of the county, in 1818, until his death, in 1841. 

The only physician up to 1839, was Dr. Aaron B. McCrillus, who settled in the 
county, about 1820. His practice extended into Daviess, Martin, Pike and Crawford 
counties. He accumulated quite a fortune. About 1838 or 1839 Dr. Comstock and 
Dr. Poison commenced to practice. Both Polston and McCrillus were elected state 
representatives, McCrillus for Pike and Dubois, and Poison for Dubois and Crawford. 
In Jasper, the Grahams, John Hurst and Foster and Johnson were selling goods in 1839. 
James McDonald kept a boarding house and hotel. After him a man by the name of 
Condict conducted a hotel; William Hill had a saddler's shop and Charles Panker a 
saloon. In the lower part of Jasper, on the bank of Patoka, was Carr's chair factory. 
The Enlows owned and run the grist mill on Patoka. The streets of Jasper were full 
of stumps in 1S36-1839, and the town was very sickly. 

In religion the principal denominations were the old regular Baptists and the Cum- 
berland Presbyterians. The latter church held camp-meetings in the fall of each year. 
The camp-ground was built in a hollow square. The cabins were built of logs, and the 
campers extended the most generous hospitality to all. The pulpit and seats were in 
the center of the square. The meetings were held principally in Harbison and Bain- 
bridge township [now part in Boone and part in Madison.] They had some very able 
preachers, amongst whom were the Revs. Hull, Downey, McCluskey and Hiram A. 
Hunter, The latter was a natural orator and revivalist. All preached a literal hell's 
fire, and that the straight and only road to heaven led through their own church doors. 
These men exercised a wonderful influence for good in their day, for they were honest, 
sincere and terribly in earnest. 

On September 18, 1896, Mr, Morgan in a letter to the writer had this 
to .say: 


In 1S19, Col. Simon Morgan and Jacob Harbison ran a flat boat loaded with pork 
from Portersville, on White river, to New Orleans, and then walked back to Porters- 
ville, there being few, if any, steamboats on the Mississippi river in those days. 

My recollection of the first court house at Jasper is that it was a hewn log-house, 
two stories high, with stone chimneys at each end. The front was toward the south. 
There were two doors and four windows in the lower story, which was one large room, 
used for holding court; the upper story was divided into two rooms by a partition. 
The west room was used for the clerk's and recorder's oflBce; the east room for juries. 

In another letter to the writer under date of September i, 1899, Mr. 
Morgan has this to say: 

In early times it was customary for every person to keep whiskey in the house and it 
was expected. It would have been a want of common politeness not to ask every visi- 
tor to take a drink. There was no odium attached to making, selling, or drinking 
whiskey in 1837. Major John Haddock, who was an elder in the Cumberland Presby- 
terian church, operated a distillery on his farm near the " Buffalo Trace." 

Between 1840 and 1850, poor boys among the pioneers, in Dubois 
county, were frequently bound over by the "overseer of the poor" to 
some farmer to learn farming. Generally the agreements were in writing, 
and, as a rule, stipulated that the apprentice serve and obey his master 
faithfully until the young man reached his majority In return for this, the 
apprentice was to be clothed and provided for, and taught the occupation 
of farming. He was also, to be taught to " read, write and cipher to the 
double-rule-of three." He was to be taught obedience to law and order, 
industry and morality, and when he arrived at the age of twenty-one the 
master was to give him "two suits of clothing, one to be of Kentucky 
jeans, and each to be worth twenty-five dollars." 

Sometimes the apprentice was to get a " young horse well broke for 
use." Sometimes the boy contracted " not to play at cards, dice, or any 
other unlawful game," or to "contract matrimony." Frequently he 
agreed not to "haunt or frequent towns, tippling houses, or places of 
gambling." One apprentice, who seems to have known how to drive a 
bargain, was to receive a "good horse, saddle and bridle, a cow, two 
sheep, a sow and pigs," when he became twenty-one. These old appren- 
tice agreements make interesting reading now, and were valuable in their 
day. In these old papers are some very proud family names. Many of 
these poor apprentice boys became the sires of prominent families in Dubois 
county. These boys were daunted by no danger, baffled by no difficulty, 
and discouraged by no adversity. They had the true pioneer spirit. 

" He that hath a trade," said Poor Richard, "hath an office of profit 
and honor." Among the pioneers perhaps the most valuable men were 
the old-fashioned blacksmiths. They had charcoal faces but noble souls; 
by birth strong and fearless, and by nature, gentlemen. They did not only 
the ordinary work of a blacksmith, but made axes, sickles, locks and keys, 
adzes, augers and chisels. Bullet molds, rifles, lock, stock and barrel, 
with silver engraved mountings, were their products. 


In the old English legend of the king's banquet to the trades, the 
blacksmith was placed at the head of the table as the maker of tools for all 
other tradesmen. 

In the settlement of Dubois county, in line with the farmer, or bread 
grower, the blacksmith ranked of vital importance. Where his rude cabin 
stood mattered not, people could always find the blacksmith's shop, even 
in an unbroken forest. It has located many cities in America. In this 
county, with its gable-end to some road, its great double doors were always 
wide open. Its rough forge was built of stones and plastered with mud. 
Such a primitive blacksmith shop stood in Boone township, on the " Buf- 
falo Trace." There was also one in the " Irish Settlement," not far from 
the present poor asylum. It was difficult in those days to separate the 
trades of a blacksmith, gunsmith, and locksmith. 

The pioneer blacksmith made all of his own tools, except his bellows, 
anvil, vise, and files. Nothing but bar iron was to be had, and it required 
a trip to lyouisville to get it. The cost was about seven cents a pound, 
and the smallest size measured an inch or an inch and a half. 

Nearly all forge work, in those days, was paid for in trade. Emigrants 
passing through the county sometimes paid in "tilt-hammer-iron," or iron 
hammered out by a tilt-hammer, operated by water-power. This kind of 
iron was highly valued by pioneer blacksmiths. It was split up into little 
bars with a cleaver, and saved for horseshoes and horseshoe nails. As 
" trade" was the common money of the time, the blacksmith's home was 
always well stocked with flour, bacon, pork, lard, all vegetables in their 
season, apples, pumpkins, and other produce. 

Before the pioneer blacksmith could have a blazing forge, however, he 
had to make his own fuel — charcoal. Coal taken from the earth, as late 
as 1837, was called stone-coal in Dubois county. John O. Green, in 1840, 
when he was a small boy on a deer-hunting trip, in this county, with 
his uncle, reported seeing a vein of coal opened with a mattock. In 1804-5, 
however, government surveyors located coal beds in Dubois county. 

Charcoal burning was common in pioneer days. Sometimes it was 
done by the apprentice boy of the blacksmith. A charcoal pit was made 
by marking off a circular space, fifteen or twenty feet in diameter, and then 
cord wood was piled, on end, all over it. The center was filled with chips, 
and openings for fires were left on each side of the huge pile of wood. 
The wood was banked in and fire was started. The pit required watching 
for several days; whenever the fire seemed about to break out, it was cov- 
ered with earth and subdued. Thus the wood was charred. Sugar-tree, 
beechwood, and wild cherry made good charcoal. Wild cherry seemed to 
have made the finest. Wild cherry trees were not so plentiful though, 
because the Indians used to strip the bark from them for their wigwams. 

In every sense of the word the pioneer blacksmith was a useful man. 
He made plows, rakes, corn hoes, grub hoes, hammers, wedges, harrows, 


mattocks, chains, rude bacon-grease lamps, pokers, shovels, tongs, flax- 
hackles, hinges, fire-dogs (or andirons), butcher knives and the like. He 
was even called upon by the sheriffs, who often had the handcuffs upon 
prisoners, enroute to the state prison, united by an iron chain so welded 
together that they had to be cut apart by another blacksmith at the prison. 
In pioneer days, farmers made their own handles to all farm imple- 
ments, shaping them with a drawing knife, and shaving them down smooth 
with pieces of flint, or perhaps broken glass. "Store" horseshoes were 
unknown before 1835, in this county. Pioneer blacksmiths orginated the 
saying, which all blacksmiths believe, namely: "Only two blacksmiths 
ever went to the place of eternal torment — one went for hammering cold 
iron and the other went for not charging enough." The pioneer miller 
was about the only man that divided honors equally with the pioneer 
blacksmith. Among the pioneer blacksmiths in Dubois county may be 
mentioned William Miles, at Jasper, in 1837. He obtained stone-coal in 
the bed of Patoka, south of Jasper. John E. Hacker was also a black- 
smith at Jasper. Bernard Niehaus was a pioneer blacksmith at Huntington 
— as Huntingburg was first thought of. To induce him to move to Hunting- 
burg the founder of the town, Jacob Geiger, gave him a town lot. Matthew 
Haven was Ferdinand's pioneer blacksmith. Rudolph Mohlenkamp has 
the honors for Holland. Robert Stewart seems to have been the pioneer 
gunsmith of the " Irish settlement." Blacksmith Hatch was the pioneer 
tradesman at Haysville, probably in the entire county, excepting Robert 
Stewart, the gunsmith at the Sherritt's graveyard on the " Buffalo Trace." 

In the south half of Dubois county, pioneer life centered around Hunt- 
ingburg. It came almost a quarter of a century after the pioneer life at 

One of the pioneer physicians of Dubois county was Dr. J. H. Hughes, 
a prominent citizen who resided at Huntingburg. His son, Dr. Daniel 
Hughes, taught the village school, and later moved to Illinois and began 
the practice of medicine. 

In 1884, the Huntingbjirg Argus published a series of articles from the 
pen of Dr. Hughes. From these articles the following is taken: 

At an early day in this century Col. Jacob Geiger came from Louisville, Kentucky, 
to this section of Indiana on a grand bear hunt. He was so well pleased with the groves, 
hills and fair valleys which he saw here that he bought large tracts of land from the 
government near the present town of Huntingburg. Afterward, Col. Geiger manu- 
mitted his slaves, came here and established the village of Huntingburg in 1837. Thus 
the town gained its name from an early hunting expedition made from a sister state. 

Col. Geiger deserves more than a passing notice, and I am sorry that I have not data 
by me to do him justice. He was not a large man but was very active and spry, even 
in his old age. He wore his hair in a queue and always carried a gold-headed cane. 
He and Col. Wm. G. Helfrich, his son-in-law, were of the old school and very courtly 
in their manners toward the ladies. The latter gentleman had been a colonel in the 
Prussian army and carried himself with a military air. He was for a long time a justice 
of the peace, and was noted for his mild and fair-minded administration of the law. 


Col. Geiger gave all his colored families houses and lands of their own, and they 
soon became expert truck farmers. Their sweet potatoes were famous for miles around, 
and the young folks thought that none but colored people could grow that vegetable. 
I well remember "Black Sam," and "Black John," as they were familiarly called, but 
I believe the only one left is Samuel Pinkston, who has lived a long and respected life, 
and has reared a large family of children aud grandchildren. 

All of the boys were afraid of Col. Geiger and his cane. If the colonel saw a boy 
loafing away his time he would call out, "Run, you little devil, go home, your mother 
wants you." Everyman, I suppose, has his hobby. Perpetual motion was the colonel's. 
He had a shop and tools and worked at his apparatus many hours. One morning I was 
hurrying home to be ready for my regular 9 o'clock ague, when the colonel captured 
me, and made me turn a grindstone while he sharpened his tools. I had no chill that 
day — it took me all day to cool off. With all his seeming crossness to the boys, he was 
really our friend and did us many little kindnesses. 

Col. Geiger formerly lived in a frame house north of town, but in 1850 he built the 
brick now [1884] occupied by Capt. Morman Fisher. Dr. W. R. McMahan and Capt. 
Fisher each married a daughter of Col. Helfrich, and therefore a grand daughter of 
Col. Geiger. 

Mrs. Mary A. Blemker, one of Col. Geiger's daughters, has been identified with Hunt- 
ingburg and its interests since its founding. She first married John L. Done, and 
then Jacob W. Blemker, the father of Ernest J. Blemker. She was for many years 
postmistress of the town, and kept the postoffice at the northeast corner of Fifth and 
Jackson streets in the old hotel, which has long since been converted into a 
brewery. Mrs. Blemker, who is getting quite aged, is a great reader and a close student. 
No lady in southern Indiana is better informed in church history or politics. She has 
been the life and stay of the Christian church, and that denomination in Dubois county 
owes its preservation and success almost entirely to her efforts. 

Colonels Geiger and Helfrich built the first steam mill in this part of the state. 
There were numerous water mills on the different creeks around, but Huntingburg had 
the only steam mill, which was a great institution in those days, and placed the town 
far ahead of its neighbors. The grinding done at that mill was astonishing. It had 
two sets of burrs and ran almost day and night. It ended all the horse mills in 
the county, the last of which was that used on the Curry farm. 

The honesty of the people was proverbial. There were no locks or bars, and when 
a farmer wanted a grist of meal he would put a boy and a bag of corn on a horse and 
start him for the horse mill. The boy would toll the corn himself, put it in the hopper, 
hitch in his old horse and grind away. If the boy had an early start and not too far to 
go he would return home the same day. But the steam mill changed all this. I have seen 
people bring wheat and corn to mill by every means of conveyance. Some carried 
their grists two or three miles on their backs; others brought theirs in wagons of the 
most primitive nature. The wheels were round blocks of wood sawed from big logs, 
the only iron about them being the linch pins. Soft soap was used as the lubricator, 
and the squeak and noise they made were terrific. These trucks were usually drawn 
by oxen, but sometimes a horse, or even a cow, was made to draw them. Many a time 
I have seen the good housewife come to mill with a sack of corn on a horse, riding 
astride, and showing a goodly length of stocking above the wooden shoe. This mill, 
the pioneer steam mill of Dubois county, was situated a short distance west of the 
present railroad depot, near what is the center of section 34. 

One of the early settlers was Mr. Fallon, who lived here a number of years and 
reared a large and interesting family. He was a carpenter and builder by trade, and 
some of his sons displayed marked genius as painters and builders. Mr. Fallon moved 
to Iowa, where he and his wife soon died and his family became scattered. Frank, his 


eldest son, moved to Meridian, Mississippi, soon after the Civil War and became a lead- 
ing and successful merchant. George served four years in the 25th Indiana, and was 
its adjutant when mustered out. He is now a wealthy and honored citizen of Hender- 
son, Kentucky. Henry was in the Confederate army and served during the war as 
major of the 5th Arkansas. Alonzo and Green were members of Kentucky' Union regi- 
ments and Gum was killed before Atlanta while serving on the staflF of some general 
officer — Major-General Jeff. C. Davis, I believe. 

Among Huntingburg's most deserving names, we find that of Herman Behrens, the 
father of John H. Behrens, and the Behrens Bros., also of the wife of your present 
worthy postmaster. Col. C. C. Schreeder. Mr. Behrens was the pioneer merchant of 
the place and for many years did a large business on Geiger street opposite the Market 
lot. He was a generous, obliging man, and there are many alive to-day who have 
reason to bless the name of Herman Behrens. He was, in fact, too liberal, as his ulti- 
mate failure in business was due to his generosity more than all other causes. He 
saved a good-sized farm southeast of town out of the wreck, and was enabled to end 
his days in plenty and comfort. 

Rockport and Grandview were the shipping points on the Ohio river, and the 
produce, consisting principally of salt pork, hides and pelts, game, butter, and eggs, 
was conveyed to the river by ox teams, which brought back boots and shoes, dry goods 
and groceries, miscellaneous goods, and plenty of whiskey. The whiskey was retailed 
at twent^'-five cents a gallon, sold by every dealer, and was as much of a commodity 
as molasses. The sale of ready-made clothing was not thought of then. The jeans and 
cloth were bought at the stores, or often made on looms at home, dyed with maple and 
walnut bark, and made into suits by the good wife. If they did not fit well, they were, 
at least, stoutly sewed and warranted not to rip. Many of the pioneers were not able 
to buy store shoes for their families, but would save up their beef hides and take them to 
the local tanner to be tanned, and would then manufacture their own shoes. One pair 
had to last a year, and many a restless boy has had frost bitten toes. 

This sketch would not be complete without mentioning some of the pioneers who 
used to frequent Huntingburg in the early days. Among them we can call to mind 
Bob Oxley, Ben Taylor, John Pirtle, and Uncle Bill Whitten, who is an 1S12 pensioner, 
and who still lives. One of these veterans told me that when he was a bo}* he walked 
four miles to see a wagon track, and could not conceive how a wagon with four wheels 
could turn around. 

It was very customary, and quite the thing in those days, for a man to become 
intoxicated, occasionally. The cheapness of whiskey, five cents a pint, enabled our 
early friends to indulge to their hearts' content. Many a bout of fisticuffs have those 
old patriarchs taken, when enthused by liquor, to decide their physical manhood. But 
sometimes the ludicrous side turned up, as the following story will show: Uncle Ben 
Taylor came to town one day, and, of course, became intoxicated. He bought a calico 
dress pattern, a lot of tin cups, two wooden buckets, and a couple of bottles of whiskey 
at Rothert's store. Before starting home he tied one end of the strip of calico to his 
mare's tail, strung the tins around her neck, and with a bucket on each arm, started 
out of town on the full run, yelling like a Comanche Indian. Now, as it happened, 
there was a big stump near the Lutheran church, and the mare being blind, could not 
see it, nor could Ben see it. There was a collision. Neither Ben nor the mare was 
killed, although there was a wreck of everything except the whiskey. When Ben stop- 
ped rolling, he raised himself on one elbow and yelled out, "Say, boys, didn't I make 
that stump sing heaven?"' 

Dr. Hughes continues as follows: 

" Owing to the detached situation of the houses, and to the buildings 
being made of brick, Huntingburg has suffered very little from fires. 




Frame houses were the exception, and it seemed that a man could not be 
too poor to build a brick house. I have actually seen corn scattered in the 
mud, and hogs tolled in to root, and in that way work the mud ready for 
the moulds. The houses were substantially built. Theonly one destroyed 
was the one built in 1848, at Fifth and Walnut streets, by Dr. J. H. 
Hughes, my father, which had its middle walls cracked by the earthquake 
of that year. Early fires destroyed the Lutheran parsonage at Third 
and Walnut, Bohmer's blacksmith shop on Jackson street, and Dan Brand- 
enstein's new brick on Fourth and Main, that he was just finishing. 
Brandenstein's house fronted east, and when the owner rebuilt, he faced 
his new building south, as it is to-day [1884]. 

" Well do I remember how I earned my first dollar. Who does not? 
Father had taken a yoke of cattle and an old dump cart in payment for a 
doctor bill. I got a job of hauling brick for the new store house at Fifth 
and Geiger, of Leonard and William Bretz. They paid me a paper dollar 

Col. Jacob Geiger. 

on the State Bank of Indiana. Ernst Blemker gave me two silver half 
dollars for it. Moses ! wasn't I happy ! It was mine — all mine, for had I 
not earned it ? 

" The Christian or Campbellite denomination, although the weakest in 
numbers and finance, has built the largest number of churches. Its first 
church was a hewn log structure which stood on Jackson street, where 
Blemker' s leather store now stands, and was used as a school house and 
town hall at the same time. They afterwards built a brick on the 
same lot, which they were unable to finish, and let it stand until it was 
about ready to tumble down, when it was sold. A frame building was 
next built out where the railroad crossing now is. This second building 
was later utilized as a depot until the present depot was erected. The 
congregation's final effort is a neat brick structure standing near Mrs. 
Blemker' s residence on Blemker hill. My recollection of the ministers of 
this church is better than those of the German churches, because my par- 
ents were members of the Christian church, and I was associated with 
its ministers more. 

"The manners and usages of those days have changed materially. Peo- 
ple must not think that I cast any reflections on the memory of those good 


men when I assert that I have often seen the decanters and glasses set out 
after preaching was over, and all would engage in a "square dram" 
before partaking of the noonday meal. If the German ministers wanted 
their weekly keg of beer, they had it, and a jug of bitters could be found 
in almost every house. In those days people came early to church on 
Sundays, and brought their produce with them. They did their trading 
before the church bells rang, and thereby saved an extra trip to town with 
their marketing. 

"The Rev. Green Cato and the Rev. Jacob Banta Shively were two of 
the early Christian ministers, the former living to a very great age, and died 
leaving numerous descendants. Jacob G Cato is a son of the Rev. Green 
Cato, and a namesake of Col. Jacob Geiger, who presented him with a 
four-acre lot lying near the old graveyard. Mr. Cato is also a son-in-law 
to Rev. Jacob B. Shively, who was the father of the gallant Captain Lewis 
Biram Shively, killed at Peach Tree Creek, near Atlanta, on July 22, 1864. 
Captain Shively was a true, noble patriot and was greatl}' beloved by both 
citizens and soldiers. The local Grand Army post bears his name. Thirty 
years ago a little red-headed bo}- shared my seat in the old log school 
house, and it was neck to neck in our studies. That boy was Silas Beard, 
a protege of Mrs. Blemker, and he is now an able minister of the Christian 

" The Lutherans began worshiping in a neatly hewn log chapel built in 
1842 and surmounted by an uncovered bell presented by Col. Geiger. I 
have helped toll that bell for many funerals and have hit it many times 
with snow balls. The enterprising society built a large comfortable brick 
church on the same lot, about 1858, and took the old house for school pur- 
poses. Of its early ministers, I remember two very well. Rev. Conrad 
Reisch and Rev. Mr. Baurmeister. It was customary for the German min- 
isters to teach their parochial schools, and the former was my first 
instructor in German. Few knew that Rev. Conrad Reisch was a finely 
educated, scientific man and that here in the Hoosier backwoods, far from 
the deep blue sea, this devoted man worked out and solved problems in 
ocean navigation and improved the instruments of that day. His name 
lives among those of learned men. 

" The German Methodists first occupied a small frame church, which was 
also set aside for school purposes when the present large, handsome brick 
structure took its place. Too much praise can not be given these worthy 
people, who from small beginnings have erected a large and flourishing 
societ3^ Among the early prominent members are Mr. John Brandenstein, 
Mr. Adolph Katterhenry and Mr. Ernst J. Blemker. 

" The Reformed Evangelical society began man}' j^ears ago in a small 
way in a little brick chapel at what is now the corner of Third and Chestnut 
streets. About 1852, this little church was torn away and a handsome 
brick building erected in its stead. They also built a frame schoolhouse 
in connection with their church. Among the old members who still wait 
on this shore of eternity are Christopher Dufendach, Fred Arensman, 
Gerhard Koch, Sr., and Gerhard H. Niehaus. The latter gentleman is 
one to whom Dubois county owes a lasting debt of gratitude for his many 
useful public services. Rev. M. Fischer, Mrs. C W. Dufendach' s father, 
was one of that denomination's most worthy and talented ministers [1884]. 

" The little Catholic chapel, built in i860, that has stood for so many 
years all solitary and alone, is now being supplanted b^^ a large church a 
block farther east. This congregation lost a valuable church friend in the 


person of Major Del Fosse, who was killed in Kentucky during the war, 
Mrs. Herman Rothert is also a staunch and valuable supporter of this 

" The religious interests of Huntingburg are well cared for, and when 
the English Methodists complete their church it will give the town six 
large commodious edifices, with sufficient seating capacity to accommodate 
the whole population. The people should feel proud of this, for what 
other little city can seat its entire population and its country membership 
in its churches? 

' ' If any of the school children should take the trouble to look into the 
door yard of the half-frame-half-log residence in the extreme southwest 
corner of the town they will probably see a small log cabin about 12 by 14, 
with a door in the west end. In that diminutive room, in 1849, a little hump- 
back tailor by the name of Dan Brown taught the first school which I ever 
had the honor of attending. I remember Brown well, not for his great 
learning and kindness, nor his humpback, but for his unmerciful floggings. 

" But I believe that all teachers occasionally have a pupil who believes 
that he is wrongly treated. The last time I was in Huntingburg one of 
my former pupils, a strapping big young fellow, stepped up to me with, 
" By jingoes, Dan, I thought that when I used to go to school to you that 
I would thrash you when I got big enough, but I don't believe I am big 
enough yet." 

" Who remembers Modruski, the old Prussian soldier, who always wore 
his coat buttoned up to his chin, even on the hottest days, and who taught 
us to pronounce such words as tomato, potato, mosquito, with the accent 
on the first syllable ? How " old Mod " used to rail at us twenty times a 
day, ' Herr Gott! Des poys, des poys! ' 

"And those other dear old German teachers, Baurmeister, Exstine, and 
Reisch. Does anybody recall the time when Father Reisch punished a 
certain boy for giving a pretty, rosy-cheeked girl an apple in exchange for 
a kiss? How many think of the times we used to have in the early fifties 
playing fox and hounds in the thickets in the center of town ? And that 
funny old Yankee, Ike Pike, who sopped his meat in molasses and could 
not tell a tomato plant from a rag weed ? 

" Wonder if Henry Blemker, who is now a prosperous merchant in 
Evansville, is ashamed of having taught school in the old election house? 
By the way, the old ranch is one of the land marks of the place. It was 
standing there thirty-six years ago on a lot presented to the town by Col. 
Jacob Gsiger, and has been used for various purposes, school house, resi- 
dence, butcher shop, theater, ware-house, town hall, court house, etc. I 
understand that a city hall, facing Geiger street, is to be erected on this 
same lot [1884]. 

" Dr. W. R. McMahan and the writer shared the same spelling book, ate 
hard-tack and salt pork in the same army, heard the same cannon boom, 
came very near joining the regular army together, and adopted the same 
profession. We attended the school in a little log cabin on his father's 
farm, and ex-County Treasurer James E. Spurlock wielded the birch and 
tried to make presidents of all of us. Eawyer Elijah Boyles and his brother 
Dr. Saml. Boyles each taught school in Huntingburg as did also County 
Treasurer William Bretz, Dr. Osborn, and Esq. E. R. Brundick, whom I 
first remember as a stout country boy currying hides in Blemker' s tannery. 

' 'Among the early medical men of Huntingburg were Drs. J. H. Hughes 
and Isaac Beeler. Beeler was a student of Dr. Hughes and afterward his 



partner. Dr. J. H. Hughes had an 
extensive practice, much of it along the 
Patoka river and its tributaries. In the 
summer and fall months he would have 
flat boats built at the various water mills 
and load them with hoop poles, staves, 
corn and such other products as the new 
countr}' afforded, taken in payment of 
doctor bills, and when the fall floods 
came, these boats were taken south. 
He usually wintered in New Orleans 
on account of his health, and would 
return in the spring. Dr. Isaac Beeler 
was a successful physician and made 
considerable money which he subse- 
quently lost in an unfortunate tobacco 
deal. He died a few years ago and left 
a large family of boys and girls who are 
growing into useful men and women 
under the excellent care of his widow. 
Dr. Fred Scheller, of Evansville, was 
also a resident aw^hile, as were Dr. Mas- 
sick and Dr. Taylor. 

"The most gentlemanly and enter- 
prising editor of the Signal, Mr. E. 
Pickhardt, was at one time a leading 
merchant. He began business many 
5'ears ago in the Shawley building near 
the Evangelical Association Church. 
Mr. Eeonard Bretz is the oldest living 
pioneer merchant, having been in busi- 
ness in one spot. Fifth and Geiger, for 
about forty years. He and his brother 
William, now deceased, built up an 
extensive trade, and by fair, square dealing established sound names. 

" Herman Rothert, the tobacco prince of Dubois count}', is the only son 
of Gerhard Rothert. Gerhard was among the first citizens who helped 
Geiger start the town. Herman Rothert began business in a small way 
with a few dollars capital. At first he traded in coon skins and whiskey 
and carried a small line of notions As his capital increased he branched 
off into other channels of trade until finally he and his energetic wife ran 
a hotel, store, pork house, and a tobacco factory at the same time. Those 
were their working days, and now they can lay off, and enjoy the wealth they 
amassed [18S4]. Almost everybody knows Herman Rothert, but they do 
not know that he is tender-hearted. I do. One time the young folks 
were giving an elocutionary entertainment in the old school house, and the 
subject was William Tell. Mr. Rothert was most intensely interested in 
the exercises, and when the line was recited which says, " What! make a 
father murder his own child?" he boohooed — right out in meeting. 

" The Dufendach boys, Henry and C. W. , are younger merchants, but 
they are natives of the town and are both prosperous and popular. A. H. 
Miller is known the county over, and besides being a live druggist and 
business man, sustains an excellent reputation as a lawyer, being hard to 

Herman Rothert. 

Herman Rothert, one of Dubois county's 
most prominent men, was born in Hanover, 
Germany, October 28, 1828; came to America 
in 1844 and shortly afterward located in 
Huntingburg, where his father, Gerhard 
Rothert, had settled a few years before. After 
conducting a hotel and general store for a 
number of years he devoted most of his time 
to the buying and rehandling of tobacco, in 
which business he remained until 1889, when 
he removed to Louisville, where he died 
February 25, 1904. 


beat in a law suit. Mr. Ernst Blemker's tannery dates back to the earliest 
recollections, and Mr. John Brandenstein's saddle and harness shop is one 
of the ancient institutions. The same may be said of Michael Jandebeaur's 
tin shop. Shawley, Rauscher & Co. built the old steam mill on Jackson 
near Third many years before the new mill near Fourth street was thought 
of. The new one was originally a tobacco warehouse, built by Bohmer. 
Paul Gerken, his son, John, and also Henry Roettger were prominent farm- 
ers living near town. There are many other trades and businesses that 
could be mentioned, but I have not the time now. In conclusion I will 
say that Huntingburg has turned out a great many useful men, and to its 
honor, few, if any, bad ones." 

The foregoing reminiscences of Dr. Hughes, written in 1884, are cer- 
tainly worth preserving. 

Mr. Otto A. Rothert, an authority on the pioneer history of Hunting- 
burg, says: 

Traditions, in some cases, vary slightly as to who were the first, among Hunting- 
burg's citizens, in their respective occupations. John Bird, it is said, came here in the 
early days from Bardstown, Kentucky, and was the first white man to make a per- 
manent home on the site now occupied by the town. He sold his "squatter right" to 
Col. Jacob Geiger, about 1840, and a few years later moved to near Velpen, where he 

Capt. John L,. Done (also spelled Donne), a steamboat captain, who married Col. 
Geiger's daughter, Mary Ann, in 1824, is sometimes referred to as the first store keeper 
of the village. However, his business was so limited in extent and time that Herman 
Behrens is usually regarded as the first merchant. Among those who followed Herman 
Behrens were William and Leonard Bretz, Herman Rothert, Daniel Brandenstein, Rev. 
Heiden and Ernst Pickhardt. 

The first inn keeper was William Laswell, Sr. His place was opened only when a 
stranger happened to be in the village and wanted meals and lodging. Mrs. Mary A. 
Blemker is credited with conducting the first hotel. After she discontinued the business, 
Herman Rothert conducted the village tavern in connection with his store. Mrs. Capt. 
L. B. Shively was also among the town's first hotel keepers. Laswell's son-in-law, 
Massick, was the first resident to bear the title of doctor. 

The first church house built in Huntingburg was a log structure erected in 1842 by 
the German Evangelical congregation. This building was known as the Lutheran 
church. The first and only bell that hung in the cupola of this house was presented 
by Col. Jacob Geiger. By a strange coincidence, the first funeral for which this bell 
tolled was that of the donor's daughter, Mrs. Helfrich. This same bell is now hanging 
in Salem's church. This congregation's first minister, and therefore, the first regular 
preacher to locate in the village was the Rev. Mr. Lauer, who wrote the first constitu- 
tion of this organization. He was succeeded by Rev. Mr. Hunderdorse and Rev. Mr. 
Strater, each of whom remained only a few years. They in turn were followed by Rev. 
Conrad F. L. Reisch, who also served as the town's first music teacher. 

The first grist mill was operated by Col. Jacob Geiger and his son-in-law. Col. Wm. 
G. Helfrich. After Col. Geiger's death, Shively and his son-in-law, Jacob Rauscher, 
built a new mill. Louis Krebs started another one some time later. 

The first shoemaker was Henry Hudeman. He was killed while engaged in a fight 
with Jonathan Walker, and a man by the name of Taylor, near where the St. George 
Hotel now stands. The first thing Taylor did after the bloody battle was over was to 
make his escape to parts unknown. Walker was arrested for murder, the first com- 
mitted in Huntingburg. He was tried and acquitted, for the jury decided that Taylor 


not only struck the first, but also the fatal blow. Hudeman was the first person buried 
at First and Jackson streets in the square which had been donated to the town a short 
time before by Col. Jacob Geiger for a public burying ground. Peter Behrens, it is 
said, was the next shoemaker. 

The first carpenter and cabinetmaker was Gerhard Rothert, in which occupation he 
was soon followed by Mr. Burk and others. The first wagon makers were Henry 
Roettger and Adam Arensmann. The first blacksmiths were Henry Hoevner and Ben 
Niehaus, who were later succeeded by Louis Krebs and INIichael Dittmer. The first 
teamsters were Jacob Bauer and Henry Roettger. John Brandenstein was the first 
saddler; Gustav Lutz, the first gunsmith; Ernest J. Blemker, the first tanner; and 
William Wessell, the first tailor. Herman Rothert was the first buyer of leaf tobacco. 
Tradition also says that the first farmer in town, who always appeared bright and early 
on all occasions, was Paul Gerken. He farmed near the southern edge of the village, 
and with his son, John Gerken, was a prime mover in the social life and the business 
progress of Huntingburg. 



Natural landmarks as guides to travelers — Buffalo trace — Ox teams — Caleche— State 
roads — Old Troy road — Taverns — Mail routes — Revenue for state roads — Road tax 
— Ferries — Patoka river, a highway — Navigation in Dubois county — White river — 
Flat-boats — Products carried on flat-boats — Trips made— Stories told by flat-boat 
men — Difficulty of travel — Early citizens of Dubois county who owned flat-boats — 
Flat-boat pilots — Dangerous points in the Mississippi river — Steamboat.' — Jokes 
— Pork — Indentured servants. 

During the first year of the nineteenth century no white man lived 
permanently within the present limits of Dubois county. There were no 
roads, no bridges, no paths, but those of wild men and beasts — nothing to 
indicate the presence of civilization. The woods had never felt the edge, 
nor heard the sound of an ax. The trees and brush grew thick, and the 
ground was covered with a tangled mass of briers, vines, and creepers, 
making it almost impassable for man or beast. 

It is related that the early Catholic priests in traveling from one part 
of southern Indiana to another traced their ways by blazes upon trees. 
In 1840, Father Bessonies was sent from Vincennes to Leopold, in Perry 
county. The entire southern part of Indiana was then very sparsely 
settled and mostly covered by forests. He spoke the English language 
very imperfectly. The chapel to which he was directing his steps was 
unnamed, and situated in the woods. The way to it at that time would 
have puzzled even an experienced back-woods man. Father Bessonies 
was told to go to Jasper, and there get further directions from Father 
Kundeck. He arrived safely at Jasper. From there he traveled by a map 
drawn by Father Kundeck. His route was indicated by lines traced from 
one natural landmark to another, such as creeks, hills, rocks, etc. 

The pioneers of Dubois county found Indian trails, deer paths, the 
"Buffalo Trace" and other paths, which when widened proved lines of 
travel. Many of these afterward became permanent, through travel, legis- 
lation, and improvement. Part of the state road leading from Haysville 
to near Crystal is on the old " Buffalo Trace." The old trails in many 
places, have become, by the labors of three generations, the public high- 
ways of to-day. The first generation cleared the forests and filled in the 
wet places with logs, forming corduroy. Surface roads followed; finally, 
in 1903, rock-road building began. There never were any toll-roads in 


Dubois county. There were only about three months in the year when 
traveling was sure and safe : a month in mid-winter when the ground was 
frozen, and two months in summer, when it was dry. 

The roads became the lines of transportation, which was generally 
carried on by ox teams. Troy and Louisville, via Paoli, were the gates to 
the outer world. It often required three days to go to Troy, on the Ohio 
river. Often the teamsters on the road would double up their teams, and, 
with six and sometimes nine yoke of oxen to one wagon, would pull it a 
short distance and then go back and hitch to another one and thus advance 
until they found a stretch of good road upon which all could move alono- 
at one time. Very often they had to " tack " to the right and left, not to 
find the road, but to get out of it, and find places where the mud was 
thick enough to bear. These old pioneer teamsters, in accordance with 
the common lot of all, have departed, one by one, until nearly all of them 
have passed away. 

Some pioneers used a caleche as a means of travel. A pioneer caleche 
was a two-wheeled affair, the wheels being mere disks cut from a log ; the 
bed was a raised platform with side boards kept in place by wooden pins ; 
but it was useful, and a necessity. 

Often one hears old people refer to old roads, in Dubois county, as 
"state roads." There was a time when state roads were located and built 
through the wilderness by order of the state legislature. The old town 
of Troy, in Perry county, on the Ohio river, was a prominent place in the 
early history of Indiana. In 1829, the legislature of Indiana passed an 
act to locate a " state road "from Troy to Washington. This act named 
James Carnahan, of Daviess county, Jared Bowling, of Dubois county, 
and Thomas Pride, of Pike county, commissioners to view, locate, and 
mark the road. They were instructed, by the act, to meet at Troy, on the 
first Monday in May, 1830, to be sworn in and to begin their work. The 
road was to be thirty feet wide, and to cross White river, at Casee's ferry. 
To this day, a road leading out of Washington is referred to as the old 
Troy road. Other old roads through Dubois county had a similar origin. 
A new state road in pioneer days was considered as much of an advance 
movement as a railroad is at this time. 

It should be remembered that even state roads in those days had no 
bridges. As late as 1824, judges and attorneys in going from one county 
to another had to swim their horses across all streams. 

In 1825, the seat of government was removed from Corydon to Indian- 
apolis. Though the distance was only one hundred twenty-five miles, 
such was the state of the roads that it required about ten days to make 
the journey in a wagon. 

There was no need of a carriage or buggy, and there were none in the 
county. Travelers "put up" at the nearest house, when night came on. 
In 1812, William McDonald "kept tavern" on the "Buffalo Trace." This 
is the first record we have of an inn or tavern in the county. Sometime 


afterwards, Gibson Brown, and later, James S. Brace, conducted a tavern 
at Haysville. The local roads of the county were made, as a rule, by 
individuals, by the pioneer interested in getting to his neighbor's house, 
to a blacksmith's shop, to mill, to a store, school-house, church, or a half- 
cleared burying ground. These pieces of roads finally became united and 
formed a public highway. That accounts for the old highways of the 
county being crooked, and passing mills, graveyards, old church-houses, 
springs, etc., they thereby formed the groundwork and the location of the 
future roads of the county. 

The old state roads became mail routes, and in time the stage coaches 
came. An old map published in 1838, shows that Jasper had mail routes 
leading to Paoli and Petersburg, to Mount Pleasant in Martin county, to 
Mount Pleasant, in Crawford county, to Fredonia, in Crawford county, 
and to Rockport, in Spencer county. From these centers mail continued 
forward to its destination. With the old stages have disappeared the old 
taverns, with their uniform charge of twenty-five cents for a bed or meal, 
and a"fip"for a " dram "—prices set by law. " Fip " is a contraction 
of " fippenny bit," a Spanish coin, worth six and one-fourth cents. These 
charges seem low, but several rich men in Dubois county can trace their 
father's fortune to these old taverns. Pork was bought at $1.25 per hun- 
dred, eggs at three cents a dozen, whiskey at twenty-five cents a gallon, 
and all other supplies at correspondingly low rates. As late as 1850. corn 
meal sold at Jasper, at twenty-five cents a bushel; butter, ten cents a pound ; 
chickens, twelve cents apiece ; eggs, six cents a dozen ; lard, seven cents a 
pound; potatoes, twenty cents a bushel; and wheat, fifty cents a bushel. 

It was not until four years after Indiana had been admitted as a state 
that any definite system of roads were projected within her borders. It is, 
therefore, no surprise that Dubois county had poor roads in her pioneer 
days. State roads were in demand, and by an act of the legislature in 
1820, twenty-six state roads were projected. Most of these were in the 
southern part of Indiana. 

The state's revenue for the opening and the maintaining of these roads 
was derived from three distinct sources. The first was known as the 3 per 
cent, fund, and was of the nature of a donation from the general Govern- 
ment. Out of the sale of public lands 5 per cent, was set aside for purposes 
of internal improvement. Of this, 2 per cent, was to be expended by the 
United States on works of general benefit — such, for example, as the 
National road — and the remaining 3 per cent, was given to the state for 
improvements within her borders. With the acreage of the state running 
up into millions and the most of it selling at $1.25 per acre, the resulting 
3 per cent would make no mean gift, and as early as 182 1 we find $100,000 
of this fund appropriated and apportioned out among twenty-two roads in 
sums ranging from $1,000 to nearly $9,000. 

The other sources of maintenance were both internal. One was a sys- 
tem of taxation on real estate in general as a road tax, "an amount equal to 



half the amount of state tax." Town lots were assessed "an amount equal 
to one-half the county tax," and non-resident land owners were assessed 
an amount equal to both one-half the state and one-half the county tax. 
The land owner was entitled to discharge such road tax in work on the 
roads. In addition to this real estate assessment there was a personal 
tax which made it incumbent on all male inhabitants between the ages of 
twenty-one and fifty, except ministers and sundrj^ others, to work the 
roads two days in a year. This was a state law, and under it some of our 
state roads were cut out through the forests. Traveling was a hardship 
not onl}- in Dubois count)', but in adjoining counties. Innumerable stubs 
of saplings sharpened like spears by being shorn off obliquely waited to 
impale the unlucky traveler who might be pitched out upon them. The 
probability of such an accident was considerablj- increased as the lumber- 
ing wagon plunging over a succession of ruts and roots, described an 

Early Means of Transportation. 
Horseback, 1820 ; Wagons, 1855 ; Coaches, 1870. 

exhilarating see-saw with the most astonishing alternation of plunge, 
creak, and splash. Streams had to be crossed sometimes by unsafe fording 
and sometimes b)' very rude ferries. 

It did not pay the ferrymen to keep constant watch for travelers, for 
sometimes a whole day would pass without making a single crossing. But 
he would generally be at work near by, perhaps in his "clearing," and the 
traveler would "hallow the ferry" until the ferryman came. 

Most of the year a journey over these roads was simply a slow, labori- 
ous wallowing through mud. In parts of the county, the low land was 
passable only by the use of corduroy, and this corduro)' of poles, laid side 
by side, stretched out for a mile at a time. It was often weighted down 
with dirt to prevent the poles from floating off when high waters came. 
Aside from the work the state did on our state roads the pioneers did much 
work upon them. Even then they were hardly more practicable than the 
drift-choked streams which the legislature gravely declared navigable. 


Such roads were, with the exception of outlets furnished by Patoka and 
White river, the only means of transportation for Dubois county. How 
seriously it handicapped commerce and held in check the influences that 
are essential to modern development any one can readily see. Yet, so they 
remained, with but slight improvement, except as to bridges, until Feb- 
ruary 14, 1879, when the first train ran into Jasper. 

On January 22, 1829, the governor of Indiana approved an act of the 
thirteenth Indiana legislature, which declared all that part of Patoka river 
below Enlow's [Eckert's] Mill to be a public highway and that it shall be 
the duty of the boards doing county business [now called county commis- 
sioners], in Dubois and Pike counties, respectively, to cause the said high- 
way to be laid off into road districts, appoint supervisors, set off hands, and 
cause all obstructions therein to be removed, and the same to be kept free 
from obstructions in the same manner as other highways are opened and 
kept in repair. In 1828 the legislature had appropriated $300 to have 
Patoka river cleaned out, and named John R. Montgomery, of Gibson, a 
commissioner to carry out its orders. The same legislature appropriated 
$1000 to have the east fork of White river cleaned out. These acts show 
that rivers, even though as small as Patoka, were valuable as highways for 
the transportation of the products of a county or state. 

Navigation in Dubois county seems odd, yet, in 1850, Patoka river was 
considered to be one hundred miles long, fifty yards wide, and navigable, 
in high water for over sixty miles. Patoka is deep for its width but nar- 
row for its length; it drains but a small land area, as the White river and 
the Ohio river are not far away. Patoka river is a very crooked stream. 
By actual measurement it is thirteen miles, three thousand seven hundred 
ninety-one (3791) feet, as it meanders, from the iron bridge at Dubois, down 
to the site at Klingel's mill. From the Klingel mill site to Eckert's mill, 
as Patoka meanders, it is six miles, three thousand three hundred fifty-six 
(3356) feet, and from there to the railroad bridge, down the river, it is six 
miles, five thousand fourteen (5014) feet. These measurements certainly 
indicate a very crooked stream, since in running six and one fourth miles 
south and seven miles west, the water actually travels a distance of twent}^- 
seven miles, sixteen hundred one (r6oi) feet. 

The water below the dam at Dubois and the top of the marble tablet 
in the north abutment of the iron bridge at Eckert's dam, are on a level. 
The average fall of the water of Patoka, is one foot to the mile, as the 
river meanders. Anderson river was considered navigable for flat-boats, 
in high water for thirty miles. In some of the old laws the east fork of 
White river was called the " Embarras Fork." The Indians called White 
river Wahpihani. Anyone erecting dams or otherwise impeding naviga- 
tion on streams declared "navigable " were subject to a fine of from ten 
dollars to five hundred dollars. 

The act appropriating one thousand dollars to have the east fork of 
White river improved also provided that it should be "worked" by the 


various counties through which it ran. "Boards of justices" were to 
appoint supervisors and establish districts, and citizens within two miles 
on either side were to work the river three days in each year. White 
river was declared navigable in 1820, and was considered a great factor in 
the early settlement of Dubois county. 

It should be borne in mind that not only did water facilities for trans- 
portation mean vastly more then than they do in this era, but that owing to 
the almost impassable roads, the streams were considered necessary to the 
future development of the country. 

One of the first means of gaining a knowledge of the world, and of 
bringing the news home in early days was the flat-boat. Flat-boats were 
made by native carpenters. They were from twenty to twenty-five feet 
wide, from seventy-five to one hundred twenty-five feet long, and from 
five to seven feet high. The high tulip poplars that abounded in the 
forests of Dubois county, easily worked with the ax, afforded good timbers, 
long and broad enough for the sides, and the simple attaching of planks 
to these for the bottom, ends, and deck, could be readily accomplished by 
the pioneer with such tools as were at his command. When finished it 
was a mere float, flat-bottomed, but strong enough to stand any amount of 
ordinary thumping as it drifted down with the current. It was the best 
craft for our rivers because of its light draft, its carrying capacity and its 
cheapness of construction. Eight hundred flat-boats have entered the 
Ohio river from the Wabash in one month, during pioneer days. It is 
estimated that such crude boats carried south from out the Wabash valley 
one million dollars' worth of produce annually. Three hundred barrels of 
pork were often on one flat-boat. 

The stern of the flat-boat was occupied as a kitchen, and sleeping 
room. On top of the boat were great long oars, working upon pivots, 
which boatmen used in directing and propelling the boat. The front oar 
was called a " ganger," the one in the rear was called the "steering oar," 
and was handled by the pilots. The two on each side were called ' 'sweeps. 

Flat-boats began to run down Patoka river, in Dubois county, in the 
early "thirties." The boats were loaded with various products of the 
country, such as corn, hides, bear meat and bear oil, "deer-saddles," hoop- 
poles, pork, beans, venison, staves, lumber, cabbage, and potatoes. The 
flat-boat owner would sell his goods at Memphis, or at New Orleans; sell 
his boat, if possible, and then begin his long, tedious journey homeward 
on foot through tangled everglades, swamps, and canebrakes, for he 
always kept as near the river as possible. Thus he walked and toiled for 
months before he reached home, yet he thought but little of his long walk 
and great hardships. This was in the days before steamboats became 
numerous on the large western rivers. When he and his boatmen returned 
home, they would be the center of local intelligence, and neighbors, for 
miles around, would "gather in" to hear wonderful tales of travel, stories 


Strange and true, and have the cities along the Mississippi pictured to 
them in the peculiar vernacular language of the flat-boat-man. Great 
would be their stories of the " Father-of- Waters " and its banks of cotton 
and sugar-cane. They brought back dark pictures of slavery, and ink- 
lings of the approaching of the great civil conflict. 

In the leisurely forties, the stories told by the flat-boat-man were the 
joy of the .settlements. He was the sovereign guest for whom the log fire 
burned brightly and the grease lamps did their utmost to add light to the 
occasion. He was given the best chair, and sat between the two sources 
of light. Each member of the pioneer family would hospitably struggle to 
be first with the welcoming hand. When the pioneer family was comfort- 
ably seated, all, with eager ears, would listen to the tale of his trip to New 
Orleans. Everything in those days was remembered, and discussed between 
whiles. All listened attentively and kept alive the pleasures of the stories 
told by talking it over and over. For adventure to make the young pio- 
neers sit stark, sta5'ing awake till cockcrow in the morning, for romance 
to bind them fast in fetters of deepest fascination, for mystery to tantalize, 
baffle, and inspire them to see the world, the tales told by the returning 
flat-boat-man had no equal. 

The pioneers believed that people who could radiate sunshine and carry 
gladness and good cheer wherever they went, although they were poor, 
were of infinite greater value to society than the man of money, who pau- 
perized everything he touched, and everybody who came in contact with 
him, by his close, contemptible methods. Largeness of heart and gener- 
osity of soul were qualities appreciated by early settlers. Cheerfulness 
was a potent factor of success, and pioneers recognized its power. 

Their lives spanned an era when people did not have to depend on rich 
furnishings, costly tapestry, and gold plate for good cheer. Character was 
so enriched by travel and by the upward growth of the settlement that 
surroundings, however costly, would have been considered but a cheap set- 
ting for a real precious stone. A good observer and a good talker were 
always appreciated. 

Flat-boating was continued at intervals until 1877. The combined 
results of these trips to the Southland in the days of slavery formed a great 
factor toward its elimination. Lincoln's flat-boat trips had much to do in 
developing in his mind adverse opinions on slavery. After a flat-boat was 
built and loaded it remained until the rains raised the water in the river, 
and then amid the waving of handkerchiefs, the music of the band, and 
the goodbyes of their friends, the boatmen cut the boat from its anchorage, 
and the long voyage to New Orleans began. Frequently a fallen tree would 
retard the boat until the hardy ax-men could cut the drift loose. This 
was an exceedingly dangerous undertaking and occasionally an ax-man 
would lose his life by falling into the river and floating beneath the drift- 
wood before assistance could reach him. Gerhardt Schroeder, of Jasper, 



lost his life in such a manner. After the flat-boat reached the Wabash 
river, the ax-men would return home, and the captain and his crew would 
continue on their voyage. 

Among the early citizens of Dubois county who were the owners, or 
took flat-boats down Patoka river, may be mentioned CarlBuchart, Francis 
X. Eckert, Ignatz Eckert, George Kapp, Sr. , Jesse Corn, Sr., Jos. Fried- 
man, Sr. , John Mahan, Wm. Hardin, Younger Hardin, Thos. Poison, Dr. 
J. H. Hughes, Robert Poison and John Buchart. 

When we reflect that the trip to New Orleans, upon a flat-boat, meant 
a voyage of over one thousand miles, we begin to realize its magnitude. 

The boats that went down from Jasper were usually built on the banks 
of Patoka in the neighborhood of the bridge southeast of the town. To 
launch one of these boats was no small undertaking, and always very dan- 

Patoka River, near Duff. 
Such Bridges were Raised to Permit Flat-boats to Pass Under Them. 

gerous. Henry Kunkler, a workman, lost his life on the south bank of 
Patoka, near the stone quarry, at Jasper, while launching a boat. It was 
no small undertaking to pilot a boat successfully to the southern markets. 
Occasionally one would sink, and with its cargo, be a total loss to its 
owner. A cargo was often worth $3000. Among the early flat-boat pilots 
were Capt. John G. Eeming, Joseph Shuler, Sr., Francis Lechner, Jesse 
Corn, Sr., Ignatz Eckert, Chas. Osborn, Sr., and Michael Dennis. 

These pilots were autocrats, and their word was law while in command. 
This was to avoid loss, for there were many dangerous places on the river. 
Two dangerous points in the Mississippi river for all the boatmen were: 


" Old Town Bend " where the current sat into the timber, and it is said by 
boatmen that no flat-boat ever went around the bend without having every 
man of the crew on " the sweeps" and oars. The other was Coal creek. 
The current of Coal creek would shoot the boat across the river and into 
the opposite bank. 

One year nine boats left Jasper for the south. Pilot Ignatz Eckert took 
the last boat from the "port of Jasper" in 1877. Occasionally, during 
high water, a pilot could reach the Wabash river on the fifth day out from 
Jasper. This, however, was a good run. Sometimes the boatmen were 
compelled to raise the huge wooden bridges that crossed Patoka river, in 
order to let their boat go under. 

After steam-boats became numerous on the large rivers, a trip home 
from New Orleans was one of pleasure rather than toil. The flat-boat-man 
would sell his cargo, and boat in New Orleans, and come to Troy or Rock- 
port on a steamboat. Sometimes he was a victim of the gamblers who 
were plentiful on the steam-boats of the early days on the Mississippi. The 
pioneer boatmen of Dubois county always looked upon the bright side of 

He early learned: 

Laugh and the world laughs with you, 

Weep and you weep alone. 
For the sad old earth must borrow its mirth, 

But has grief enough of its own. 

It was in keeping with this spirit that caused so many jokes to be told 
upon the cook of these boats. The cook was usually a "green hand" 
and upon him all tricks possible were played. He was a fit subject upon 
which to perpetrate any joke that originated in the fertile imagination of 
the deck hands. These began to show themselves after the boat had 
reached the Mississippi river. The following will serve to illustrate their 
general nature: Imagine the boat about to anchor for the night. The 
pilot gives his men the signal, and all appear before him in a column, and 
with a look of intense earnestness upon their faces. The pilot calls each 
workman by his particular occupation and asks him a series of apparently 
important questions. Finally he says, "Mr. Cook, have you enough 
bread for to-morrow?" "Yes, sir." " Have you enough meat?" "Yes, 
sir." "Coffee?" "Yes, sir." " Have you your stove ready ?" "Yes, 
sir." " Did you grease the anchor?" " No, sir." " What!" exclaimed 
the pilot, "you let us run into the Mississippi river all day, ready to 
anchor for the night and criminally neglect to grease the anchor?" The 
pilot grows angry, the cook gets nervous, and frightened, and is sent post 
haste down into the kitchen for the grease. He soon returns, cup and 
brush in hand and begins to grease the anchor. Then the sailors set up a 
3'ell, such as would frighten a Comanche Indian, grab the cook and plunge 


him into the river, drag him out, and he never hears the end of the gibes 
at his expense, until the next landing is reached, and he supplies "the 
sailors " with a gallon of whiske3\ 

The building of the railroads in the county ended the profits of flat- 
boating. Flat-boats were also piloted down White river. Capt. John G. 
Leming, of Portersville, was a " White river pilot." 

In 1S19, Col. Simon Morgan and Jacob Harbison took a flat-boat load 
of pork from Portersville to New Orleans and returned home on foot. In 
pioneer days it was not such a difficult matter to get a flat-boat load of 
pork, for hogs were plentiful. Through most of the year the pioneer paid 
no other attention to his hogs than to ascertain where they ranged, visit 
and salt them occasionally, mark the young ones, and shoot or drive up 
such as had grown fat on the nuts or mast in the fall of the year. If 
killed at the time, the meat was u.sed for home consumption, being too 
oily for the southern markets; but when hogs had been fed on corn for six 
or eight weeks their former mode of feeding had no bad effect upon the 
meat. Sometimes immense numbers of these hogs were to be found away 
from any settlements. They were as fierce, and when attacked almost as 
dangerous, as the bear or the panther. When full grown, wild and 
unmarked, they were shot as other game, with but little scruple; but not 
unfrequently very serious quarrels arose as to the alteration of marks and 
other evidences by which an ownership in those animals was claimed. 

The father of Joseph Shuler, the pilot mentioned above, came to 
America as an indentured servant, and was to work three years to pay for 
his transportation to America. He worked two years, and then his pur- 
chaser died and he was liberated. This incident certainly indicates the 
cost of transportation in pioneer days. Joseph Shuler, the pilot, served 
Dubois county as a county commissioner and died March 14, 1905. 





UP TO DECEMBER 31, 1830. 

Removal of the county-seat from Portersville to Jasper — Copy of the act appointing 
commissioners to re-locate the seat of justice in Dubois county — Supplement to said 
act — Population of Portersville in 1830 — Jacob Drinkhouse, the pioneer hatter — 
Reasons why Jasper was made the county-town — The original town of Jasper — 
Court-house fire — Survey made of the county-seat — The Enlows — Why the name 
"Jasper" was chosen — Writing sand — Erection of the first house in Jasper — Mrs. 
Nancy Weathers — Record of testimony — Court held at the house of James H. 
Condict; at the Cumberland Presbyterian church — First two-story brick residence 
in Dubois county — Real estate owners in Dubois county up to 1831 — B. B. Ednion- 
ston, Sr. — Esquire Henry Bradley's account of early days at Jasper. 

The thirteenth General Assembly of Indiana (1828) passed an act, 
which was approved by Governor Ray, Monday, January 19, 1829, for the 
removal of the county seat from Portersville to Jasper. The act named 
the following commissioners and defined their duties: 

Thomas Vandever, of Spencer county. 

William Hoggatt, of Orange county. 

Thomas Cisall, of Martin county, 

William Hargrave, of Pike county. 

Ebenezer Jones, of Daviess county. 

For some reason the seat of justice was not moved from Portersville to 
Jasper, under this act, so the fourteenth General Assembly which convened 
at Indianapolis, December, 1829, passed another act for the removal of the 
county seat to Jasper. This new act repealed the old act of the year before, 
and named Adam Shoemaker, of Perry county, as one of the commissioners 
in place of William Hargrave, of Pike county. This new act was approved 
Thur.sday, January 21, 1830, and since it marks an important epoch in the 
history of Dubois county its full text follows. Its historical information 
and peculiar language make it worth a careful reading. It follows: 


Approved January 21, 1830. 

Section i. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, That 
Thos. Vandever, of Spencer County, William Hoggatt, of Orange County, Adam Shoe- 
maker, of Perry County, Thomas Cisall, of Martin County, and Ebenezer Jones, of 



Daviess County, be and they are hereby appointed commissioners to re-locate the seat 
of justice of Dubois county; who, or a majority of them, shall meet at Portersville in 
said county, on the second Monday in August uext, or on any day thereafter, which 
they, or a majority of them, may agree upon; and after being duly sworn, faithfully 
and impartially to discharge the duties to them assigned by this act, the said commis- 
sioners, or a majority of them, so assembled and sworn, shall proceed to select, as near 
the center of said county, as an eligible situation can be had, the most eligible situation 
for a town and seat of justice for the said Dubois county; and shall procure, by dona- 
tion or purchase, a quantity of land at least sufiBcient to lay out a town, with a number 
of lots equal to the number in Portersville, the present seat of justice of said county; 
and the land, so by donation or purchase obtained for a town and seat of justice of said 

Pioneer Home, on Patoka River. 
At this Site met the Founders of Jasper, 1830. 

county, shall not be liable to execution, or be sold to discharge any judgment, which 
now exists, or may hereafter be obtained, against the said Dubois county; but it is 
applied to, and is hereby reserved for the special purpose for which the same shall be 
purchased or donated, free and exempt from any execution, in any manner whatever, 
issued against the said Dubois county, by virtue of any judgment, now existing, or 
which may hereafter be obtained. 

Sec. 2. After the re-location of said county seat, by the commissioners, pursuant 
to the provisions of the first section of this Act, it shall be the duty of the county agent 
of said county, so soon as convenient, to lay off, or cause to be laid off, a town on said 
re-location, on a plan as nearly similar as may be, to the town of Portersville in said 
county, and with a corresponding number of lots; and any and every person, who shall 
be the owner or owners of any lot or lots, in Portersville the present seat of justice in 
said county, which shall have been originally purchased of said Dubois county, and 
paid for in whole or in part, (whether sold on execution or otherwise) on making com- 
plete payment therefor, if only part shall have been paid, such owner or owners, his, 
her, or their legal representatives shall have the privilege of exchanging the same, for 
other lot or lots, correspondingly situated in said new town, laid off by said agent as 


aforesaid, by filing with, and acknowledging, before the Recorder of said Dubois county, 
his, her or their application for that purpose, within thirty days from and after the time, 
that the said commissioners shall report their proceedings to the Board of Justices of 
said Dubois county; which application filed and acknowledged as aforesaid, shall by 
said recorder be entered on record at the expense of said county; and for which said 
recorder shall be allowed and paid the sum of twenty-five cents for each application 
thus made, filed and recorded; which application shall have the effect, both in law and 
equity, of an absolute release of all the right, title and interest of said applicant, in 
and to such lot or lots; and it shall be the duty of the agent of said county, on being 
presented with the said recorder's certificate of such reliquishment and application, to 
execute to such applicant, a good and sufficient general warranty deed or deeds, to the 
same number of lots thus relinquished in the new town, correspondingly numbered and 
situated with those relinquished in the town of Portersville aforesaid. 

Skc. 3. Said Commissioners shall also, at the time they re-locate said county seat, 
value the donations (if any) which were given by individuals to the said county of 
Dubois, for the seat of justice at Portersville, exclusive of the improvements thereon; 
and the value thereof, thus assessed by said commissioners, shall be refunded to the 
person or persons who donated the same, or to their legal representatives; if such 
donation or donations cannot be returned uninjured by incumbrances, to the person or 
persons who donated the same, or to their legal representatives. But if such donation 
or donations can be returned unincumbered, or any part thereof, and the donor or 
donors thereof, or their legal representatives, choose to take them back, such donation 
or donations may be returned to the original donors, or their legal representatives; and 
if the whole shall be returned, it shall be in full discharge of all claims, which the 
donor thereof shall have against said county, on account of such donation; and if a 
part only shall be returned, it shall be in full discharge of so much of the donor's claim 
against said county, as the board of justices of said county, and said donor, or his legal 
representatives, shall agree on. 

Sec. 4. Any person or persons, being the owner of any lot or lots in the town of 
Portersville in said county, on which any buildings or improvements may have been 
erected or made, previous to the passage of this act, and who shall feel him, her, or 
themselves aggrieved by the re-location of said county seat, may at any time, within 
twelve months after the passage of this act, make application to the board of justices 
of said county, to have the said lot or lots, and buildings or improvements thereon 
valued; and if any application or applications shall be so made, to the said board of 
justices and to their first session, held one year after the passage of this act, they shall 
appoint three commissioners, who are not residents of Dubois county, neither of whom 
shall be interested in said town of Portersville, or of kin to any person interested in 
any lot or lots therein; which commissioners, so appointed, or a majority of them, shall 
meet at the said town of Portersville, on any day, within thirty days after the appoint- 
ment, which they or a majority of them may agree on, or the board of justices direct; who, 
after being duly sworn, faithfully and impartially to discharge the duties enjoined on 
them by this act, shall, so soon as convenient, proceed to view and value the lot or lots, 
for which application shall have been made to have valued, together with the improve- 
ments thereon; and also to view and value the lot or lots obtained therefor in exchange; 
and shall under their hands and seals, certify the value of each to the clerk of the 
Dubois circuit court, who shall lay the same before the board of justices of said county, 
at the session next after it shall have been received; and if the difference in value shall 
be in favor of any lot or lots, in the town of Portersville, the difference in value so 
ascertained, shall, by the said board of justices be allowed to the owner or owners of 
such lots, and be paid as is provided for the payment of donations, by the second sec- 
tion of this act; and if the difference in value so ascertained, shall be in favor of any 


lot or lots, obtained in exchange, such difference in value shall, by the owner or owners 
thereof be in like manner paid to the board of justices of said Dubois county, within 
six months after such differences shall have been ascertained; and for thus valuing said 
lots, and so certifying the value thereof, said commissioners shall be allowed such 
compensation, as said board of justices shall deem just and reasonable. 

Sec. 5. The sheriff of Dubois county shall in due time notify the commissioners 
by this act appointed, and to be appointed by virtue hereof, of their respective appoint- 
ments, and of the time and places, at which they are by this act required to meet; for 
which he shall be allowed such compensation as the board of justices of said county 
shall deem just and reasonable, to be paid out of said county treasury; and the com- 
missioners appointed by the first section of this act shall receive for their services two 
dollars and fifty cents each for every day they shall be necessarily employed in dis- 
charging the duties enjoined on them by this act, and traveling to and from the place 
at which they are required to meet; they shall report their proceedings to the board of 
justices of Dubois county, and shall receive the compensation herein allowed, out of 
the said Dubois county treasury. 

Sec. 6. The circuit and other courts of said Dubois county shall be holden at 
Portersville, the present seat of justice of said county, until suitable buildings for their 
accommodation shall be erected at the seat of justice re-located. As soon as practic- 
able, the board of justices of said county shall commence the erection of the necessary 
public buildings at the seat of justice re-located; and after the court house shall be 
completed, so as to afford suitable accommodations for the courts, the circuit courts of 
said county and courts transacting the county business, shall be held at the seat of 
justice, as located by the virtue of this act. 

This act shall take effect and be in force, from and after the first of June next; and 
the act entitled "An act Appointing commissioners to re-locate the seat of justice of 
Dubois Count}-," approved January 19, 1829, is hereby repealed. 

It seems that there were still some doubts as to the re-locating of the 
county seat being for the best interests of the county, for nine days after 
the governor approved the above act he approved a supplement to it which 
the legislature had passed the very day he had approved the main act. 
This supplement reads as follows: 


Approved January 21, 1830. 

Section i. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, That 
the commissioners appointed by the act to which this is a supplement, shall, after 
meeting at the town of Portersville, and taking the necessary oath, examine the situa- 
tion of the county; and after having selected the most eligible situation for a seat of 
justice for said county, agreeable to the provisions of this act to which this is a supple- 
ment, they shall endeavor to ascertain, whether the interest of said county would be 
promoted by re-locating the said county seat or not; and if in their opinion the interest 
of said county would be promoted, by a re-location of the seat of justice of said county, 
they shall proceed to re-locate the same, agreeably to the provisions of this act. But 
if they shall consider that the interest of said county would not be promoted by so 
re-locating said seat of justice they shall desist from making such re-location, and shall 
make to the board of justices of said county a report of their opinion, relating thereto, 
and of their proceedings thereon, by virtue of this act. 



The reader will observe that the law changing the county seat to 
Jasper is unique. It accounts for the public square at Jasper. Porters- 
ville had one. It also shows the reason why town lots near Patoka river, 
at Jasper, are not numbered in regular order, an attempt being made to 
number them as they were sold, or numbered at Portersville. 

The map on the left shows Dubois county as organized December 20, 

1817, and Portersville, founded in 1818, as the "county-town." It locates 
the "Buffalo Trace," the "Mud Holes" and McDonald's Cabin. The 
map on the right shows Dubois county in 1830, when Jasper became the 
"county-town." Perry county took part of Dubois county January 29, 

1818, and Martin county took part January 17, 1820. The black part on 
the map on the right indicates all the land that individuals had purchased 
from the government up to December 31, 1830. At that date all the white 

1817 First Maps of Dubois County- 


part and nine-tenths of the black part was a wilderness. The "Irish set- 
tlement" lies northwest of Jasper, as shown on the map. Notice how 
separate and distinct it is from the Portersville settlement. These maps 
are compiled from official records, and are, in fact, the first maps of the 
original county ever published. 

At that time, 1830, there were 1774 inhabitants in Dubois county, prac- 
tically all in the northwest quarter of the county. The town of Porters- 
ville, including the settlement around it had a population of about fifty 
when the county seat went to Jasper. In a year or two Jasper passed it 
in population, and in 1839, when the county court house burned, the pop- 
ulation of Jasper was estimated at one hundred fifty. In the old records 
the first county-house at Jasper is not referred to as a "court-house," but 
as the " clerk's and recorder's office." 



It is said that at the first term of court held at Jasper, a man b}- the 
name of Jacob Drinkhouse was sent to the state's prison on what was 
entirely circumstantial evidence. He served seven months and was then 
pardoned. It was learned that he was innocent of the specific charge. 
Drinkhouse lived at Portersville and was a pioneer hatter. He made 
coonskin caps for the early settlers. David Harris misplaced fifty dollars, 
and Drinkhouse was thought to have taken it. The Harris famil}' after- 
wards found the money. Drinkhouse was not generally trusted, and evi- 
dently the jury thought the punishment should fit the man and not the 

The Old Indian Ford at Jasper. 

Among the twelve men who agreed to build a court house, at Ja.sper, on 
condition that the county seat be moved from Portersville, were B. B. Ed- 
monston, Sr., Major T. Powers, Jacob Enlow, Joseph Enlow, Benjamin 
Enlow, and Henry Enlow. These same men, and sundry others, gave as 
their reason for having the county-seat located at Jasper, its central loca- 
tion. The "Irish settlement" west of Jasper, also approved of the 
removal. In fact it was a contest between the "White river pioneers" 
and the " Patoka river pioneers " for the county-seat. Jasper became the 
county-seat because its site is near water (a consideration at that time) 
and near the center of the county, and because a mill had been erected, on 
Patoka, at the place where Eckert's mill now stands. Why was Enlow' s 
mill built at that site? An Indian trail left the "Buffalo Trace," near 
Otwell, came on through the " Irish settlement," and crossed Patoka river 


at a ford below where the mill stands, and at the foot of Mill street in Jas- 
per. It crossed the river at the ford and then divided. For many years 
after Jasper became the county-town there was no way to cross Patoka 
river except at the ford. Above the ford the mill dam was erected, the 
mill built, and thus the town began. Many old citizens now living remem- 
ber the old ford. 

The original town of Jasper is situated on the west half of the north- 
east quarter, and ninety-nine feet along the west side of the east half of 
the northeast quarter of section thirty-five, and on the southwest quar- 
ter of the southeast quarter of section twenty-six; all in town one, south, 
of range five, west. The east half of the northeast quarter was bought 
from the United States August 25, 1820, by Benjamin Enlow. It is upon 
this tract that the Enlow mill was erected. That accounts for but ninety- 
nine feet of this tract being included in the donation. The west half of 
the northeast quarter was entered April 17, 1830, by Jacob Enlow and 
Elijah Bell. Out of this tract the Enlow's kept a part, since known as 
" Enlow's Reserve," but now within the town limits. The southwest 
quarter of the southeast quarter in section twenty-six, was bought from 
the United States, March 12, 1830, by Joseph Enlow. The original town 
contained one hundred two acres. 

The original deed of donation and the record of it were lost in the 
court house fire of August 17, 1839. This information is based upon the 
affidavit of Col. Simon Morgan, as recorder, in the "Record of Testi- 
mony," a book in which are re-recorded many old deeds, previously record- 
ed in the destroyed records. 

In September, 1830, Hosea Smith, the surveyor of Pike county, laid 
out the town of Jasper. He had previously laid out Petersburg and Por- 
tersville as "county-seat towns." He was assisted by William McMahan, 
the " Agent for Dubois County," who conducted the sale of the lots in the 
new town, and James McMahan and Abraham Corn, principal chain-car- 
riers. The land was covered with a forest at the time of the survey. 
The Enlows had not received their title deeds from the government to the 
main part of town until nearly ninety days after the enabling act had been 
approved by the governor. However, they had the papers about four 
months before the actual survey of the town began. " The Enlows " so 
often spoken of in connection with the settlement of Jasper were Jacob and 
Elizabeth, his wife; Benjamin and Fanny, his wife; Joseph and Elandor, 
his wife, and Henry Enlow, who became a county commissioner. Nancy 
Enlow was born September, 1798, and died at Jasper, May 9, 1840. Her 
grave is at Jasper. Joseph Enlow was born November 4, 1766, died at 
Jasper, and his remains are buried in the town cemetery. Mrs. Elandor 
Enlow seems to have been above the ordinary, for she could write her 
own name, a thing not all women of her time, in this county, could do. 



Mrs. Hayes, a distant relative of the Enlows, and the wife of William 
Hayes, at one time a school examiner of Dubois county, gives this account 
of the naming of the new "county-town," — "The commissioners were 
going to call the new town 'Eleanor' or 'Elandor,' in honor of Mrs. 
Elandor Enlow, wife of Joseph Enlow, one of the donors, when that good 
lady said, 'No, wait, let me select a name,' and going for her Bible, she 
soon returned and suggested the word — and the word was 'Jasper,' — and 
thus the town was named." \_Revelations , Chapter 21 , Verse ip]. 

All the early records in the court house were written with a goose quill 
pen, and even as late as 1S65, "writing sand" was used to absorb the sur- 
plus ink, for the same purpose for which blotters are used to-day. The 
prepared sand came in small boxes, resembling pepper-boxes, and it was 
used in about the same manner. The sand was left on the paper long 
enough to absorb the surplus ink, then it was returned to the box for 
future use. 

Mrs. Nancy Weathers, a daughter of Col. B. B. Edmonston, was born 
on the banks of White river, about three miles above Haysville, in Har- 
bison township, May 30, 1829. She is authority for the statement that 
"the first house erected in the original 
town of Jasper was built on lot 153, by 
B. B. Edmonston, Sr., about 1830. It 
was torn down in 1905. The house 
became the first postoffice at Jasper and 
its owner was the first postmaster. Mail 
then came from Vincennes and Paoli 
once a week. B. B. Edmonston, Sr., 
died at Jasper, and his remains are at 
rest on what was his farm on White 
river. He was at one time, a probate 
judge and also an associate judge." 

Mrs. Weathers attended her first school, in a log school house where Kel- 
lerville is located. Her second school-room was in the first court house, 
at Jasper, and Col. Simon Morgan was her teacher. That was in 1838. 
Mrs. Weathers says further: "The first church house at Jasper was the 
Cumberland Presbyterian, a log building, afterwards replaced by a frame 
building, on lot number eighty-three. Much trade was carried on between 
Jasper and Troy. Ox teams were used and three or four days were required 
to make a trip. Frequently four oxen, and often eight, were required to 
each wagon." 

The loss of the court house, by fire, caused the loss of much valuable 
information concerning the early history of the county; however, some of 
it is preserved in the "Record of Testimony." In it is found the follow- 
ing affidavit of Col. Simon Morgan, then clerk and recorder, made before 
President Judge EHsha Embree, of this circuit, namely: 

First Jasper Court House, 1830. 



"Be it remembered that on the i6th day of November, in the year 
1840, John Hurst, agent for Dubois county appeared in open court, by his 
attorney, L. Q. DeBruler, and produced here in open court the following 
testimony relative to the existence and destruction of certain deeds of con- 
veyance and the records thereof from Jacob Enlowand wife, and Benjamin 
Enlow and wife to William McMahan, agent for Dubois county, which 
testimony is as follows, to-wit: 

State of Indiana, 

Dubois County. 
Simon Morgan, being duly sworn, says that in the year of our Lord, 1830, Jacob 
Enlow and Elizabeth Enlow, his wife, donated to William Hoggatt, Adam Shoemaker, 
Thomas Vandever, Thomas Cisall and Ebenezer Jones, commissioners appointed by the 
Legislature of the state of Indiana to locate the county seat of Dubois county, and to 
receive donations therefor, the following tract or parcel of land lying and being in 
said county of Dubois, state aforesaid, to-wit: The west half of the northeast quarter 
of section thirty-five, township one south, range five, west, containing eighty acres, 
for and in consideration that the county seat of said county was located at this place 
where the town of Jasper, in said county is now situated, etc., that afterwards, to-wit: 
On the night of the 17th of August, 1839, the said deed and the record thereof, were 
wholly destroyed by fire by the burning of the clerk's and recorder's office in the town 
of Jasper, in said county. 

A similar record is made of a six-rod-tract along the west side of the 
east half of the northeast quarter, of said section which was donated by 
Benjamin Enlow and his wife, Fanny, and Jacob Enlow, and his wife, 
Elizabeth. The deeds were made in 1830, and had been recorded by 
Simon Morgan, recorder, but both deeds and records were lost in the fire. 

After the fire, court was held at the house of James H. Condict, who 
conducted a hotel on lot 57, at the southwest corner of Fifth and Jackson 
streets, at Jasper. At that time the county commissioners were Henry 
Enlow, the soldier; Robert Oxley, an Englishman; and John Donald, a 


e Cum- 

id Mill 

es, one 
vn lost 

•iirg on 

o story 
ii6, in 
put up 

. The 
he pio- 
. The 





160. CO 





"Be it remembered that on the i6th day of November, in the year 
1840, John Hurst, agent for Dubois count}^ appeared in open court, by his 
attornej^ L. Q. DeBruler, and produced here in open court the following 
testimony relative to the existence and destruction of certain deeds of con- 
veyance and the records thereof from Jacob Enlowand wife, and Benjamin 
Enlow and wife to William McMahan, agent for Dubois county, which 
testimony is as follows, to-wit: 

State of Indiana, 

Dubois County, 
Simon Morgan, being duly sworn, says that in the year of our Lord, 1S30, Jacob 
Enlow and Elizabeth Enlow, his wife, donated to William Hoggatt, Adam Shoemaker, 
Thomas Vandever, Thomas Cisall and Ebenezer Jones, commissioners appointed by the 
Legislature of the state of Indiana to locate the county seat of Dubois county, and to 
receive donations therefor, the following tract or parcel of land lying and being in 
said county of Dubois, state aforesaid, to-wit: The west half of the northeast quarter 
of section thirty-five, township one south, range five, west, containing eighty acres, 
for and in consideration that the county seat of said county was located at this place 
where the town of Jasper, in said county is now situated, etc., that afterwards, to-wit: 
On the night of the 17th of August, 1839, the said deed and the record thereof, were 
wholly destroyed by fire by the burning of the clerk's and recorder's office in the town 
of Jasper, in said county. 

Eckert's Mill, 1910. 

A similar record is made of a six-rod-tract along the west side of the 
east half of the northeast quarter, of said section which was donated by 
Benjamin Enlow and his wife, Fanny, and Jacob Enlow, and his wife, 
Elizabeth. The deeds were made in 1830, and had been recorded by 
Simon Morgan, recorder, but both deeds and records were lost in the fire. 

After the fire, court was held at the house of James H. Condict, who 
conducted a hotel on lot 57, at the southwest corner of Fifth and Jackson 
streets, at Jasper. At that time the county commissioners were Henry 
Enlow, the soldier; Robert Oxley, an Englishman; and John Donald, a 

Dubois Count> 1-aild Owners. 1830. 


1840, . 


said CO 
of sect 
for and 
On the 
of Jasp 

a % 


east 1: 



well known pioneer. Between 1841 and 1844, court was held at the Cum- 
berland Presbyterian church on lot 83, at the corner of Sixth and Mill 

In 1850, Jasper had five stores, three groceries, two ware-houses, one 
brewery, one distillery, and a population of 532. In 1849, the town lost 
in population through a cholera epidemic. 

In 1S50, mail arrived at the Jasper postoffice from Paoli on Wednesday; 
from Troy, New Albany, and Rockport on Thursday; from Petersburg on 
Friday; and from Leavenworth on Saturday. 

In 1849, Joseph and Sophia Gramelspacher erected the first two story 
brick residence in Dubois count5\ It stands to-day on lot number 116, in 
Jasper. The scaffolding used in the erection of this building was put up 
on the ontside of the building and it was held in place by hickory withes, 
nails being too expensive and practically not to be had. 

At the close of the year 1830, when Jasper became the "county-town," 
the following men were the only real estate owners in Dubois county. The 
list is chronologically arranged and serves to show the names of the pio- 
neer land owners in Dubois county in the order of their purchases. The 
figures following the name refer to acres. 

IX THE YEAR 1807. 

Ma\' 7 — Toussaint Dubois 320.00 

May 29 — Samuel McConnell 160.00 

June I — Arthur Harbison 160.00 

November 6 — James Folley 160.00 

IX THE YEAR 1 8 10. 
August I — James Farris 572.00 

IX THE YEAR l8l2. 

February 3 — Adam Hope 160.00 

IX THE YEAR 1814. 

March 30 — David Wease 160.00 

April 6 — John Thompson 160.00 

June 15 — John Walker 160.00 

September 19 — Jacob Lemmon 493.00 

October 3 — William Shook 160.00 

October 8 — Edward Greene 160.00 

October 8 — Edward Woods 160.C0 

October 10 — Jacob Harbison 160.18 

October 17 — Jos. Stubblefield 319-44 

November 28 — Samuel Sraj^the i6d.oo 

November 29 — James Hope 160.00 

IN THE YEAR 1815. 

13 — Ashbury Alexander 160.00 

13 — Isaac Alexander 160.00 

9 — Hugh Redman, Sr 160.00 

6 — Wm. and Thos. Anderson 160.00 

November 24 — John Coley 160.00 












September 30 

September 30 

September 30 

September 30 

October i 

October 18 

December 23 

December 23 






IN THE YEAR 1816. 

—Samuel Smythe 4S9.00 

—Jonathan Walker 160.00 

—Nelson Harris 160.00 

— Ebenezer Smythe 160.00 

—Joseph 160.00 

—Robert Stewart 160.00 

—John Lemmon 160.00 

—Jesse Corn 160.00 

—James Harbison 160.00 

—Thomas Patton 160.00 

—James Harbison 160.00 

—James Payne 160.00 

-William Hurst 160.00 

—Joseph Kelso 503. 20 

—Thomas Pinchens 80.00 

—James and Samuel Green 156.00 

—John Stewart 160.00 

IN THE YEAR 1817. 

January 4 — Thomas Kelso 160.00 

January 4 — Samuel Kelso 160.00 

January 14 — Edwin Gwin 80.00 

February 4 — John Payne 160.00 

February 11 — William Hurst 160.00 

February 1 1 — James Kelly 160.00 

February 20 — Anthony McElvain 80.00 

March 20 — William Greene and George Armstrong 160.00 

March 20 — John Greene and John Cartwell 80.00 

March 22 — John Niblack, Jr 160.00 

April 30 — James Niblack 80.00 

May 8 — Andrew Anderson 160.00 

May 17 — Joseph Corn 80.00 

June 26 — William Hurst 160.00 

July 18 — James Harris 80.00 

July 21 — Capt. John Sherritt 160.00 

August I — Edward Hall 80.00 

August i6- 
September 29- 








November 24 

November 28 








1 1- 



















September 14- 

September 19- 

September 24- 

October 19- 

October 19- 

November 17- 

November 17- 

November 17- 

December 12- 

December 12- 

















-William Greene and George Armstrong 160.00 

-Edmund Gwin 634.00 

-John and James Niblack 160.00 

-Andrew Evans 160.00 

-John Anderson 80.00 

-Hugh Redman and Hugh Eacefield 80.00 

-Richard Wood 236.20 

-Edward Wood 160.00 

-Nicholas Harris 160.00 

-Reuben Mathias 160.00 

-Joseph Kelso 160.00 

-Henry Miller 160.00 

-Samuel Kelso 160.00 

-Thomas J. Weathers 160.00 

-Joseph Little 80.00 

-George Armstrong and William Greene 80.00 

IN THE YEAR 1818. 

-Peleg R. Allen 454-95 

-Samuel G. Brown i39-Oo 

-James Jackson 160.00 

-Samuel Brown 13-88 

-Richard Hope 160.00 

-William Wineinger 80.00 

-William Edmonston 80.00 

-Joseph Kinman 80.00 

-Bazil B. Edmonston. 158.28 

-Thomas Hope 160.00 

-Richard Hope, Sr 160. 00 

-James Gentry 160.00 

-Abraham Hurst 79-48 

-Eli Thomas 160.00 

-William Wallace 329-76 

-John Hendrixson 80.00 

-James Jackson 320.00 

-Davis Williams 82.70 

-William Karris 160.00 

-Daniel O'Blenis 640.00 

-John Evans 80.00 

-John McMahan 80.00 

-William Gibson 640.00 

-Samuel Gibson 160.00 

-George Hawkin 80.00 

-Willis Hayes 80.00 

-Moses Kelso 160.00 


IN THE YEAR 1819. 

January 25 — David Hawkins 80.00 

February 4 — Jonathan Harned 40 00 

February 14 — Jonathan Harned 40.00 

February 26 — Jacob Stutsman 160.00 

August 9 — William Clossom 160.00 

November 27 — Phillip Kimmel 80.00 


July 10 — William Adams 40.00 

August 1 1 — John Anderson 80.00 

August 25 — Benjamin Enlow 80.00 

August 29 — Jesse Lindsey 160.00 

September 29 — John Armstrong and Eli Thomas 80.00 

October 25 — Joseph Rice 120.00 

IN THE YEAR 1822. 

January 28 — B. B. Edmonston 80.00 

July 22 — Moses Ray 160.00 

August 14 — Samuel Nicholas 112.80 

December 22 —William Hough 80.00 

IN THE YEAR 1824. 

March 2 — John Lemmon 40.00 

March 8 — John lyemmon 40.00 

March 8— Wm. Kelso 80.00 

September 27 — Richd. W. Postlethwait 40.00 

October 23 — Henry W. Schroerluker 160.00 

December 28 — Willis Hobbs 80.00 

IN THE YEAR 1 825. 

January 2 — Edward Mosbey 155.80 

August 25 — John Hart.. 40.00 

August 29 — John Hart 40.00 

September 27 — William Chapman 80.00 

November 1 1 — Samuel Kelso 80.00 

IN THE YEAR 1826. 

July 1 1 — John Lemmon 80.00 

August 16 — Daniel Harris 80.00 

IN THE YEAR 1828. 

September 19 — Samuel Main 86.00 

October 23 — Jacob Weedman 80.00 


IN THE YEAR 1829. 

May 2 1 — Nicholas Mills 80.00 

June 27 — John Anderson 160.00 

IN THE YEAR 1830. 

March 12 — Joseph Enlow 80.00 

April 15 — Zach Dillon 80.00 

April 17 — Jacob Enlow and Elijah Bell 80.00 

September 10 — Major T. and Eewis Powers 80.00 

September 16 — Barnett Allen 80.00 

The above represents all the land entered or purchased by individuals 
at the time Jasper became the "county-town." The area of the land thus 
owned is 21035.67 acres. If it had been in one body it would have made 
a township practically the size of Marion township, at this time. On 
November 17, 18 18, William Gibson entered section twenty-one, in Patoka 
township. It was the first full section entered by one man, in Dubois 
county, and remained, in one body, longer than any other section in the 
county. Joseph Kelso was the largest landowner, having 823.20 acres. 
Not all of these real estate owners lived in Dubois county, but the greater 
number of them lived upon the land they purchased, so that the list of 
landowners given above is practically a list of Dubois county pioneers up 
to January i, 1831. The first entry was made in 1807. In the years 1808, 
1809, 1811, 1813, 1821, 1823 and 1827 no one purchased any land in 
Dubois county. The entire area of Dubois count}^ is 273976.40 acres, or 
428 square miles, according to the original government surveys. There 
are many old citizens in Dubois county, at this time, who are well down 
the western slope of life, with the hill-tops of the future looming upon the 
horizon of the great beyond, that can recall to mind many of the pioneers 
named hereinbefore, or whose names appear upon the accompanying map. 

The B. B. Edraonston, Sr. , mentioned as a pioneer of Jasper, was the 
father of the late Hon. Benjamin Rose Edmonston, who was a member of 
the Constitutional Convention, of Indiana, in 1850. Benj. R. Edmonston 
was a man of large physical frame and great personal courage. He was 
devoted and strong in his attachments to principles or friends and ever 
ready to defend them. He was always bitter in his denunciations of what 
he considered wrong. These traits in his character fitted him to be a leader 
in the days of the early settlement of Dubois county, when personal 
encounters often settled the political status of a neighborhood or county. 
Many times before he was of age he demonstrated his physical strength in 
" fist and skull " encounters with the champions of his political opponents, 
as was customary in pioneer days. Benj. R. Edmonston was a man weigh- 
ing over two hundred pounds and when flat-boating was the means of trans- 
portation, he would frequently shoulder a barrel of corn and carry it upon 



the boat — a feat ordinarily requiring two men. He had more than an aver- 
age intellectual ability, although having but the scant education the public 
schools of that day afforded. He was a successful public debator and ' 'stump 
orator" of his time, in the then first congressional district. He was once a 
presidential elector of that district, and cast his vote for James Knox Polk. 
His style was fervid and pointed, more calculated to arouse enthusiasm in 

his own party than to win over persons 
from the opposite party. Edmonston 
had red hair, a florid complexion, and 
usually wore a red flannel shirt. His 
friends called him "Red Rover." He 
was a native of Buncombe county. 
North Carolina, and was always jealous 
of the honor of his native state. His 
political speeches were spiced with his 
own solos — he being a good singer. He 
was born March 8, 1807, and died in 
August, 1856, and his remains lie buried 
in Harbison township Benj. R. 
Edmonston was a member of the house 
during the 20th, 24th, 28th, and 33d 
sessions and he was a state senator during 
the 29th, 30th and 31st, sessions of the 
Indiana legislature. He was a brother 
of Col B. B. Edmonston, many years a county clerk. At the time Benj. 
R. Edmonston died he was serving the state as one of its Canal commis- 
sioners. He also served Dubois county as sheriff. His first wife was a 
daughter of Josiah Gwin, a pioneer. His second wife was a daughter of 
Dr. J. T. Poison, also a pioneer. A daughter of the first Mrs. Edmonston, 
became the first wife of Clement Doane, the late editor of ih& Jasper Cour- 
ier. Hon. Benjamin Rose Edmonston was a typical successful Dubois 
countj^ pioneer. 

Hon. Benj. Rose Edmonston. 





Signature of Hon. Benj. Rose Edmonston. 

The signature above is an exact reproduction from the original engrossed 
sheepskin copy of the state constitution, now on file at Indianapolis. In 
the constitutional convention that framed the present constitution of Indi- 
ana, Benj. R. Edmonston moved that the senate consist of fift)' members 
and the house of one hundred. It so remains to-day. 


Esquire Henr}' Bradle}^ of Jefferson township, says: 

In 1S40 and 1841 I went to school at Jasper, and at noon the children played over 
all the ground where the court house now stands. We never thought a brick and 
stone building would ever stand there, neither did it ever occur to me, as we played 
where the soldiers' monument now stands, that some day a monument would be erected 
there to commemorate the achievements of a Civil War in which I would take part. 
I was then about twelve years of age. Prof. Cheaver taught school at the southeast 
corner of the public square. He taught school in his front room and lived in the back 
room. My schoolmates were Martin Friedman, John Friedman, Ignatz Buchart, Henry 
Holthaus, Samuel B. McCrillus, the Edmonstons, Enlows, Shulers, Grahams, Gramels- 
pachers and Ballards. 

The early settlers about Jasper as I now recall were Silas Davis, a United Brethren 
minister, Henrj' Barker, Joseph Barker, Charles Buchart, B. B. Edmonston, Benj. R. 
Edmonston, Major Powers, Samuel Graham, John Graham, Benj. Enlow, Miles Shuler, 
Jacob Weedman and Benj. Hawkins. 

I distinctly remember the old log court house and the old log church house. I 
used to go to mill at Jasper. Often I went to Reiling's mill, four miles above Jasper. 
I had to turn the bolt by hand to get flour for bread. Jasper had an old water mill. 
William Monroe was the miller. The old wooden bridge across Patoka had a puncheon 
floor. I used to pull flax, spread the rack, use the swingle, and spin flax linen for pants, 
shirts, gallowses, flax aprons, and flax dresses. I remember when Joseph Gramels- 
pacher built what in those days was the largest brick house in Dubois county. It is 
standing to-day, and was once called "Hotel Daniel." 




The early schools, teachers, and pupils — Early books, methods, and educational op- 
portunities — Rev. A. J. Strain and other school officials, old licenses, township libra- 
ries, legislative enactments — Graduates, prominent teachers, and education in 
general — Parochial schools, Jasper College, and Ferdinand Academy — List of paro- 
chial schools in Dubois county. — Hon. A. M. Sweeney. 

The first official record of anj' interest in public school work in Dubois 
county is shown in a memorandum in the oflBcial records of the Secretary 
of state to the effect that on December loth, 1818, James Karris was com- 
missioned a trustee of the "Public Seminary of Dubois County." 

In a measure the constitution of i8t6 provided for the maintenance of 
public schools. Fines, and money paid as an equivalent by persons exempt 
from military duty, except in time of war, were to be applied to the support 
of county seminaries in the county wherein they were assessed. This 
money was held in trust by a seminary trustee, appointed by the Governor 
of the state. Afterwards the county commissioners appointed him, and 
sometime later he was elected by the voters at a general election. When 
the funds of a county warranted it, the legislature would incorporate a 
seminary for the county. 

There is no official record in Dubois county, of its public schools prior 
to September 12, 1866, except such as appear in the form of reports scat- 
tered about the various offices to whose incumbent such reports were made. 

The first schools in Dubois county, like those in other counties in the 
state, were of the subscription kind. The school houses were of the same 
style as the dwellings of those days; of logs, with a large fireplace at one 
end, and a shelf used for a writing desk at the other. The school house 
often served as a church and the teacher often served as a minister. 

School houses were built by the able bodied men in the district. The 
first school houses in Dubois county were made of logs, and about twenty 
feet by twenty-four. The roof was of boards pinned down with wooden 
pins. The rooms were eight feet high, and the fioors which were made of 
puncheons had to be at least one foot above the ground. A puncheon was 
a combination between a log and a board. It was generally between three 
and six inches thick and laid down loose. The seats in the school-room 
were made of one-half of a small log, supported by four or six wooden pins 
for legs. 


Such was the beginning of the present district school and school houses. 
The school term seldom exceeded sixt}' days, and the wages paid teachers 
were very modest. The books were Webster's Blue-back Speller, DeBald's 
or Pike's Arithmetic, and Olney's Geography and Atlas; The English 
Reader, American Preceptor, Peter Parley's Readers, Swiss Family Robin- 
son, and both Testaments. A few pupils had Grimshaw's History of 
England, Flint's Natural History, Emma Willard's History of the United 
States, Kirkham's Grammar, and Smiley's Arithmetic. 

Beginning with 1824 and for many years thereafter, there were three 
school trustees for each township. These three trustees examined teachers 
in regard to their ability to teach reading, writing, and arithmetic. In 
arithmetic to learn as far as the ''rule of three" was a mark of scholarship 
in pioneer days; w^hile to be able to solve problems under the ''double rtde 
of three'" was a great credit and distinction to any one. The " rule of three" 
was presented about page seventy-five in the arithmetics. 

In the county recorder's office is an old contract record wherein are 
recorded contracts between parents and employers stating that the boy in 
question should, in return for his services, be fed, furnished with clothing 
and educated as far as the "rule of three " or the "double rule of three ." 

William Clark Kendall, who became a citizen of Dubois county, Febru- 
ary 14, 1822, says: 

I lived then seven miles southeast of Jasper on Grassy Fork about two miles up 
the branch from where it flows into Hall's creek, then called "Rock House creek," from 
the fact that many sand stone bluffs were to be seen along its banks. Under these 
bluffs hogs and sheep were housed in winter. 

The chances for schooling those days were poor indeed. The neighbors would get 
together and make up a subscription school of from eighteen to twenty- four pupils and 
then hire a teacher for a stated sum for each pupil. Usually from $1.50 to $2.00 per 
pupil, and sixty days to a term. Then they would build a log school house. It would 
look very crude to-day. The floor was laid with puncheons cut out of logs. Trees were 
so plentiful that none but the straightest and easiest splitting timber was used. The 
seats were small trees split into halves, Each half had pegs driven into it, these form- 
ing the legs of the seat. The fire place at one end of the house was large enough to 
take in logs six feet long. The larger boys cut the wood for the school use. For a 
window a log was cut out of one side of the house. That constituted the only window. 
In cold weather greased paper was pasted over the long window. We had but few 
books. Spellers, arithmetics, and some very inferior readers were all we had, except 
occasionally a New Testament. 

School terms were short: sixty days, once every two years. Elijah Linzy, John 
Bowls, and Silas Riley were my teachers. We had a spelling book, arithmetic, Testa- 
ment, outline history and any other kind of a book that happened to be in the neigh- 
borhood. Goose quills were used for pens. We made our own ink by boiling red oak 
bark and sumach berries, then adding a little copperas. School opened by sun up and 
i did not close until sundown. There was no recess except one hour at noon. One 
( pupil recited at a time, because each was likely to have a different book. 

The teacher occasionally used a hickory branch to punish us. As a rule, we knew 
when he used it. School houses were built near a spring, so that we could get good 
water. In those days the teachers often brought their rifles to school with them. 


They were flint locks, and shot a ball, sixty to sixty-five to the pound. Peddlers would 
often go through the settlements and exchange lead and powder for game and pelts. 
They frequently went on horseback and exchanged their purchases at Louisville. 

The New Testament served as a favorite reader. The spelling lesson 
caused the greatest interest. To stand at the head of a spelling class was 
the highest ambition. Many pupils could spell all the words in the book, 
though many of them they neither understood nor used. To walk five or 
six miles to school was a very common occurrence. 

Pupils were permitted to study as loud as they pleased, and manj' 
thought that the more noise the pupils made in studying their lessons, the 
better they would know them. There would be bits of "a-b, ab; " " i b, 
ib;" "i2 times 12 are 144;" "cancel and divide;" "In the beginning, God 
said let there be light, and there was light," and various other noises in 
the room at the same time, all while school was in session, and perhaps 
while the teacher was explaining long division to the larger boys and girls. 

Pupils wrote with goose quill pens, sharpened by the teacher. The 
pupil usually caught his own goose and brought the feather to his teacher 
to be dexterously converted into a quill pen. The school master had a 
particularly sharp pen-knife, made especially to do this work. To be able 
to make and mend quill pens was one of the essential qualifications of a 
teacher in early days. Wanting in this it would have been useless to 
make application to the patrons of any district school for the opportunity 
to "board 'round" and instruct the j^oung. It is said it was a pleasure to 
watch those old time school masters make a pen. The quills were often 
saved up at home, a small flock of geese being kept for that express pur- 
pose, as well as to furnish the down for the feather bed. 

The teacher would put on his glasses, select a good quill, open his knife 
and carefully feel the edge. Then he would reach down and strop the 
blade of the knife dexterously a few times on his home-made cow-hide 
boots. First, he would cut off a portion of the feathered end to make it 
the desired length. The remaining feather portion of the quill was notched 
by way of ornamentation and then, with one dexterous scoop of the knife, 
he would give shape to the pen. After a few more careful cuttings a slit 
was made in the end and the point of the pen formed. The teacher always 
remained after school hours to go around and mend all the pens for the 
writing class and set copies in their copy books. Occasionally a pupil 
more ingenious than the rest, learned to keep his own pens in order, but 
this was rare. The sentiments expressed and the lore displayed by the 
teacher in the writing of these copies, had a great deal to do in the matter 
of creating a good impression among his school patrons. 

The old time school master may have been a little rough in his way, 
but he usually had a rough set of boys in the country district school over 
which he was called to preside. The first day he assumed control fre- 
quently decided whether or not he was master of the situation. His physi- 


cal proportions were critically measured by the larger boys and his manner 
closely observed. Any indication of physical or moral weakness would be 
detected and taken advantage of whenever opportunity offered. But the 
teacher usually came off victorious. If he managed to get along well until 
Christmas and then gave the "scholars" a good "treat" of candy and 
apples, he was thereafter "a hale fellow well met," and all his troubles 

Sand did the work of a modern blotting pad. School began at "sun 
up" and closed at "sundown," and he who arrived at the school house 
first recited first, and so on one at a time. There was no recess except at 

Frequently, when a pupil wanted assistance on a difficult problem, he 
took it to his teacher, who looked over it until he found an incorrect figure, 
which he marked; he then returned the work to the pupil without a word 
of explanation. 

One of the first teachers in Dubois county was Col. Simon Morgan, 
He taught school in Fort McDonald, in the court house at Portersville, 
and also in the log court house at Jasper. About 1820, a school was taught 
near Haysville, and alsoat Shiloh, west of Jasper. Before this county was 
organized a school was taught near where Ireland now stands. One was 
taught in Jefferson township, north of Schnellville, about 1820. 

Many pioneers had an idea, and it prevailed long and strong, that a 
school house should be situated out of the villages and in the woods away 
from a public road, so that travelers would not disturb the "scholars," as 
pupils were then called. Many early school directors in Dubois county 
supported this idea, and the result was that nearly all of our pioneer school- 
houses were in the forests away from a public road. To a certain extent 
the same though was applied to church houses. Often the school house 
was used for church purposes. At Dubois and at Haysville the school- 
houses were nearly a mile from the villages. The idea was finally aban- 
doned and school-houses began to be erected along the highways. 

Under a provision of the constitution of 1816, John McCausland served 
in the capacity of county school examiner from 1843 to 1853. From 1853 
to 1857, Rev. Joseph Kundeck, Rev. A. J. Strain, and George W. Fallon 
served as school examiners. S. J. Kramer succeeded Mr. Fallon, and the 
others continued. For the year 1858, Rev. A. J. Strain, Capt. Stephen 
Jerger, and S. J. Kramer served; for 1859, Rev. A. J. Strain, William 
Hayes, and John B. Beckwerment served; and for 1861, Henry A. Holt- 
haus succeeded Rev. A. J. Strain. 

In 1 86 1, the law was changed, and only one school examiner was 
required. On June 5, 1861, Rev. A. J. Strain was appointed and he served 
until his death February 2, 1873. On the seventh day of the following 
March, Mr. E. R. Brundick was appointed. 



A law was passed, which went into effect March 8, 1873, providing for 

the appointment of the first county school superintendent on the first 

Monday of June, 1873, and bi-ennially thereafter. Mr. Brundick was 

appointed, and held until June 2, 1879, 
when the Rev. Geo. C. Cooper became 
his successor. On June 6, 1881, the 
Hon. A. M. Sweeney was appointed 
and served with great success, until 
June, 1889. Geo. R Wilson served 
from 1889 until June, 1903, when 
Prof. Wm. Melchior took charge. 

The great and substantial influence 
of the work of the Rev. Joseph 
Kundeck upon the schools of Dubois 
county is shown in his biographj' in 
Chapter XV. Some pioneer parochial 
schools are also mentioned in his bio- 

William Hayes served as school 
examiner for two years from the first 
Monday in March, i860. He was 
appointed by the county commis- 
sioners. Mr. Hayes was born at 

Haysville, October 4, 1834, and died at Jasper, November 3, 1874. 

On June 2, 1879, the Rev. George C. Cooper, of Haysville, became 

county superintendent and served for two years. He was born August 

6, 1845, and died at Oakland City, 

September 30, 1904. He was a son of 

William B. and America Cooper, and 

was reared on a farm near Haysville. 

Early in life he became studious and 

acquired an excellent education. Mr. 

Cooper taught school twenty-five years. 

It was a great pleasure for him to look 

back and see how many of his students 

made a success in life. In his youth he 

became a member of the M. E. Church, 

and was licensed to preach at the age of 

twenty. His remains are at rest in the 

cemetery at Portersville. 

The Rev. Geo. C. Cooper was a public spirited man. He took part in, 

and pursued whatever he thought was for the general betterment of 

humanity. His influence in the school, in the church, and as a citizen 

was always uplifting. He was an able advocate of education, the friend 

Supt. William Melchior. 

School Examiner William Hayes. 



and counsellor of a broader life and wider sympathies. It was this element 
in his character perhaps that will be longest remembered. He was a 
citizen of the community in the breadth of his feeling and in the operation 

of his example, and so he played well his 
part in the half century that was given 
to his active life here. A man of deep 
and strong convictions, George C. 
Cooper strove always for better things, 
for things that touched life widely, and 
so he persevered to the end. He was 
never cold or unsympathetic to any sug- 
gestion or project that had the qualities 
of progress. He could be counted on to 
lend a helping hand. And so his well- 
rounded life came to its end. 

The Rev. Andrew Jackson Strain 
probably did more for the educational 
advancement of the general public in 
Dubois county than any other man con- 
nected with its early history, and 
deserves more than a passing notice. 
He was born January 18, 1821, at Prince- 
ton, Indiana, and died February 2, 1873, 
of pneumonia, at Ireland, Indiana. On 

Rev. Geo. C. Cooper. 

Februarj' 4, the funeral services were 
conducted by the Rev. Ephraim Hall, a 
Cumberland Presbyterian minister. 
Rev. Strain was ordained as a minister 
of the Cumberland Presbyterian church, 
October 10, 1847, and Shiloh, Lemmon, 
Jasper, Hillsboro, Lebanon, Ireland, 
Gray's, Hopkin's, and McMahan's were 
congregations under his charge. 

At Jasper, on August 29, 1850, he 
married Miss Elvira Jane Lemonds, the 
Rev. Thomas Walker, officiating. A 
daughter, Mary Eva, now Mrs. John 
Sides, of Fort Branch, Ind., and a son 
James Eugene Strain, of Nevada, Mo., 
are their children. This wife died April 
4, 1868. She was a daughter of the 
Hon. George W. Lemonds, who was 
postmaster at Rockport, for manj^ years, 
and who represented Dubois county in 
the legislature of 1845-6. 

Rev. A. J. Strain. 


Miss Elbina G. Banta, of Ireland, Ind., became his second wife, July 
5, 1870, Rev. James Blackwell performing the ceremony. She died in 
August, 1908, at Zenda, Kansas. 

Rev. Strain for a long time lived at Jasper, but about 1868 moved to 
Ireland. His parents originally came from old Ireland, but came to Indi- 
ana direct from Eastern Tennessee. They never resided in Dubois county. 
The maiden name of Rev. Strain's mother was McMullin. Rev. Strain 
was school examiner of Dubois county from June 5, 1861, until his death, 
February 2, 1873. He had served several years before this as one of a 
board of school examiners, operating under an old law. 

Rev. Strain was about six feet tall; weight, about two hundred forty, 
blue eyes, with black and gray hair. His favorite hymn was " There is a 
land of pure delight where saints immortal reign." His favorite text was 
the twenty-third Psalm, " The Lord is my Shepherd; I shall not want, 
etc." He was very fond of saying " Hew to the line, let the chips fall 
where they may," and "A good name is more honorable than great 
riches." In politics he was classed as a " war democrat." He was a 
Mason and an Odd Fellow. He was a school mate and personal friend of 
the Hon. Oliver P. Morton, the great war governor of Indiana. Rev. 
Strain was instrumental in raising many troops for the Northern Army 
and was a great benefactor to the soldiers' widows and orphans. 

During the year 1907, meetings were held in several of his old churches, 
in Dubois county, to stamp anew his work, mission, and memory upon the 
minds of the present generation, and large paintings were hung in the 
churches to acquaint the young with his features. 

In Rev. A. J. Strain was seen one of the mightiest pioneers in the edu- 
cational and religious work in Dubois county. The northwestern part of 
the county, to this day, reflects his religious work, and his influence for 
good is still felt throughout the county. He was a collossal figure in his 
chosen field of labor, striding onward, head and shoulders above his con- 
temporaries. His grand, manly character, his splendid achievements in 
public life, and his princely qualities as a private citizen, commanded 
unstinted admiration. In his day he was hardy, enterprising, irresistible; 
an able expounder of his religious, political and educational views, and a 
most typical representative citizen. He gloried in the cause of the Union, 
and was a true friend of the soldier during the Civil War. His teachings 
had a good effect upon the citizens of the county at large. 

At the time of his death it was generally remarked that he was, in 
every sense of the words, a just and good man. He was so lovable in his 
character and gentle in his disposition, that at his death the children of a 
county wept. What higher tribute could be paid to any man ? Nature 
had endowed him with a fine physique and stamped upon his brow, 
strength, grace, culture and dignity, such as would have marked him as 
distinguished in any assembly of men. In the soil of old Shiloh cemetery 


SO rich in the mold of pioneers, ministers, officials, teachers, and good citi- 
zens, and within the shadow of his own church, a shrine rich in venerable 
traditions of worship and associations, in the long dreamless sleep into 
which all of us sometime must sink, reposes the body of Rev. Strain 
whose memory a county fondly cherishes. There is a monument at his 
grave, but Father Strain still lives in the memories of all who knew him. 

It is not the privilege of many men to organize great educational and 
religious movements and then to lead them through a quarter of a century 
of successful developments, but such was the privilege of Rev. A. J. Strain. 

Before 1873, the examination passed by the applicant for a teacher's 
license was not difficult. The difficulty was in getting the teachers. The 
applicant usually called on the county examiner, who asked a few ques- 
tions, which were answered orally, wrote a few lines as a sample of his 
chirography, and remained for dinner. After dinner, if the examiner was 
satisfied with the applicant's knowledge, he wrote out a license and handed 
it to him. It was generally written upon a piece of foolscap paper about 
eight inches square. 

Here is a sample of a license from the original, still in possession of its 
owner, Lieut. William Wesley Kendall: 

This certifies, that I have examined Wesley Kendall, relative to his qualifications, 
to teach a common school as required by the school law of Indiana and find him quali- 
fied to teach orthography, reading, writing, and arithmetic, as far as interest, and he 
supporting a good moral character, I therefore license him to teach the branches above 
named for the term of three months. A. J. Strain, S. E. 

July 29, 1856. 

Under this license, Mr, Kendall taught in the old Beatty school-house, 
in Columbia township, near the " Beatty Spring," and on the last day of 
school had a drill or muster of old soldiers, who formed a " hollow square," 
and listened to addresses. Mr. Kendall thus describes the old school-house 
which was a fair sample of all, even as late as 1861: 

The house was seven logs high and eighteen feet square. It had a low ceiling and 
a poor floor. The only door it had was under the eaves and near the northeast end. 
The house was covered with clapboards. The walls were chinked and daubed. The 
door-shutter was two boards, as long as the door was high. The window was one log 
high, and eight feet wide — simply one log sawed out of the wall. Some of the panes 
of glass were out; greased paper was used as a substitute for such broken panes. The 
writing desk was a long board supported by two pins in the wall. The seats were 
made of poplar poles or small logs split open. Wooden pins or sticks were driven in 
for legs. 

The pen sketch shows the school house as it stood in 1861, and as it 
stood, when used for other purposes in 1891. 

Lincoln City, in Spencer county, the boyhood home of Abraham Lin- 
coln, is twenty-one miles south of Jasper. Conditions there and in Dubois 
county in pioneer days were practically the same. This is what the 
immortal president says of his early educational training: 



We reached our new home about the time the state came into the Union. It 
was a wild region, with many bears and other wild animals still in the woods. There I 
grew up. There were some schools, so called, but no qualifications were ever required 
of a teacher beyond "readin', ritin' and cipherin'," to the rule of three. If a 
stranger supposed to understand Latin happened to sojourn in the neighborhood, he 
was looked upon as a wizard. There was absolutely nothing to excite ambition for 
education. Of course, when I came of age, I didn't know much. Still, somehow I 
could read, write and cipher to the rule of three, but that was all. 

In 1885, there 
were ninety-six pub- 
lic school-houses in 
Dubois county, 
accommodating 3,485 
pupils. One hundred 
eleven public school 
teachers were em- 
ployed. In 1907, one 
hundred fifty-two 
public school teachers 
were employed at a 
cost of $47,947.16. 
In addition to this 
sum $23,886.35 was 
expended for repairs, 
buildings, and sup- 
plies. There were, in 
1908, six thousand 
nine hundred ninety- 
ninechildren of school 
age. All of these 
were white except 
two. About $500,000 
is invested for educa- 
tional purposes by the 
various educational 
institutions of the 
county — public and 
private or parochial. 
Education has moved forward rapidly since 1873, when the new educa- 
tional laws became effective. In 1907, the congressional township school 
fund in Dubois county was $15,678.92. This fund was derived from the 
sale of all sections numbered sixteen. The common school fund derived 
from all other sources was $77,717.97. The total permanent school fund 
credited to Dubois county was $93,396.89, in 1907. 

Beatty Log School-houses. 


Three large medals were awarded to the different educational institu- 
tions in Dubois county for exhibits at the World's Fair at Chicago, 1893. 
Jasper College, Ferdinand Academy, and the district schools of Dubois 
county were recognized in this manner. 

Almost since the adoption of the present constitution, Indiana has had 
a system of township libraries that has been valuable for the diffusion of 
general information. Each library comprised about three hundred vol- 
umes of the best works in all divisions of literature. They were distri- 
buted to counties according to population. Each of the original town- 
ships in Dubois county, had a library, but when the county was divided 
into twelve townships the books were divided without proper care, and 
thus much of their value was lost. At first the books were widely read 
and were a valuable source of knowledge for many years; now, however, 
they are neglected, and, in some townships, lost. 

Many years ago an adverse criticism concerning the educational qual- 
ifications of the citizens of Dubois county secured considerable publicity. 
The criticism was uncalled for, since those it mentioned had long ago 
passed to their rewards, and it was unjust to begin with, for an examina- 
tion of the first deed record in the county shows that eighty-five per cent 
of the men, and seventy-five per cent of the women, who sold real estate 
could write their names, to say the least, and in pioneer days writing was 
not taught until the student could spell and read. Frequently no attempt 
was made to teach writing until the child reached what is now known as 
the third grade. The adverse criticism was probably brought about through 
the early German pioneers being unable to write English. Practically all 
of them could read German, and write in their native language. By the 
census of 1840, it appears that one-seventh of the whole adult population 
of the state was at that time unable toread, and probably one-half of those 
w^ho could read, did so very imperfectly. Taking that as the standard 
for the entire state, the adverse criticism mentioned is not well founded. 

Education was limited in Indiana prior to 1851. In 1848, eighteen 
trained teachers were sent into Indiana from Vermont. Evidently, there 
were other counties besides Dubois that needed educated people. 

The tax for a free school system, when properly utilized, is, without question, the 
most important and valuable that is ever levied upon any citizen, for it is returned to 
him many-fold, by creating an intelligent and moral community, and thereby increas- 
ing the value and security of property, and diminishing the expense of crime and pau- 
perism — two very expensive burdens upon the general public. The cost cf vicious 
legislation and absurd schemes, which a well informed constituency would not endure 
for a moment, has been five-fold the expense of giving a good education to every child 
in a state that has no strong educational system. 

Prior to 1850, in Indiana, the above paragraph would not have been 
accepted as true. In Augtist, 1849, the voters of Indiana, by a small 
majority, voted for the establishment of free schools, and a constitution 


required them, yet the law was not to take effect except in counties where 
the majority of the voters agai7i gave their suffrages in its favor. The 
politicians of Indiana, in those days were far behind the spirit of the age, 
and in many cases where the benefits of free schools were most needed 
they were really delayed. 

The industry and enterprise required, even from the children of the 
early settlers, frequently enabled them to become useful and respectable 
citizens with but little instruction from schools. 

The ninth article of the first constitution of the state of Indiana, 1816, 
made it the duty of the general as.sembly to pass such laws as would be 
calculated to encourage intellectual, scientific, and agricultural improve- 
ments, and to provide, by law, for a general system of education, ascend- 
ing, in a regular gradation, from township schools to a State University, 
wherein tuition was to be free and equally open to all. "These require- 
ments of the constitution on the legislature, which its members were bound 
by oath to support, did not leave the establishment of free schools to them 
as a choice, but made it incumbent upon them as a duty, and no citizen, 
knowing the injunctions of the constitution, had any right to ask them to 
be violated. He could leave the state if he so desired, but while he lived 
in Indiana, and attempted to induce his representative to violate his oath, 
and vote against free schools, he was an accomplice in the crime." These 
thoughts and principles caused many heated political discussions prior to 
1850, but finally with the new constitution beginning November i, 185 1, 
the free schools of Indiana commenced their onward march, and Dubois 
county fell into the line of progress. The passage of the 1852 school law 
and the creation of the office of State Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion formed the beginning of a progressive educational policy. 

No school land was sold prior to 1820, but when sales began, the United 
States materially assisted the Indiana common schools On February 6, 
1837, an act was passed by the Indiana general assembly relating to the 
money received from the United States for school purposes. That act 
named A. D. McPhaillis as county school commissioner of Dubois county, 
with power to handle the money, about four thousand dollars. This act 
marked the beginning of a new era in the history of education in pioneer 
days, in Dubois county. 

On February 17, 1838, an act of congress was approved with a view of 
distributing surplus revenues of the United States to the various states. 
When Indiana received its part, it was distributed to the various counties, 
by an act of the general assembly, approved February 18, 1839. In that 
act Major Daniel Harris is named as the loaning agent for Dubois county. 
He was re-appointed for a second year. 

The schools of the city of Huntingburg had their origin in 1846. On 
January 12, 1846, Col. Jacob Geiger, and his good wife Elizabeth, deeded 
to the " Trustees of the third school district," lot number five in Hunting- 



burg. The lot contained one-half acre. Col. Geiger, at his own expense, 
erected a school-house It was of hewn logs. Prof. Pike was the first 
teacher. A native of Europe, by the name of Modruski, taught school at the 
residence of Jacob Biemker. There were but few .schools in the southern 
part of Dubois county, prior to these two. 

The Huntingburg high school was organized in 1882. It was commis- 
sioned in 1887, and its superintendents under the commission have been 
F. S. Morganthaler, J. T. Worsham, F. D. Churchill, F. B. Kepner, and 
J. P. Richards. 
Huntingburg has the 
best public school 
buildings in the 

On August 5, 1845, 
Henry Kemp and 
Sarah, his wife, dona- 
ted to " all persons 
while inhabitants of 
school district number 
five," one acre, in sec- 
tion thirty-two, near 
Mt. Zion, in Cass 
township. The deed 
stipulated that this 
included "The Sab- 
bath Seminary." 

About two miles 
east of Celestine on 
the Newton Stewart 
road stood a school 

house. Among the Public School, Huntingburg. 

teachers from i860 to 1873 were John Meisner, John Poison, Chas. W. 
Ellis, Mrs. Mary Kelso Stewart. Jacob Gosman, Thomas J. Nolan, Marion 
Morgan and Francis M. Sanders. 

Near Ellsworth stood the old " King school-house," built about 1864. 
Those who taught school there were Mary A. Ellis, Chas W. Ellis, Cath- 
erine Beatty, George Monroe, Ettie Monroe, Lafayette Ellis, Francis M. 
Sanders, Thomas J. Nolan and Rev. William Jones, ending February 7, 

One of the earlv successful and scholarly teachers in Dubois county 
was Prof. Thompson, who conducted a school on the Jasper and Haysville 
road, five miles north of Jasper, about 1837. 

About 1820, a school-house was built east of Haysville, and Moses 
Kelso was in charge as teacher. About the same date Prof. Sweeney and 



Prof. Claussin taught school nearShiloh, in Madison township. A school 
was also taught south of Shiloh on Patoka river, about the same date. 

At, or near the place where now stands the Jacobs' graded school-house, 
in section thirty-six in Hall township, once stood an old log school-house. 

t ^>*^ f 

Huntingburg Public School-house. 

known as the " McMickle school-house." The old house was built about 
1858. The early teachers and the date of their teaching in this old school- 
house are shown below: 

Jefferson Palmer, 1858-1859; James Houston, 1859-1860; Arthur Sel- 
lers, 1860-1861; Louis Walls, 1861-1862; Charles W. Ellis, 1862-1863; 
Sarah C. Hardin, 1863-1864-1865; Richard B. Gass, 1865-1866; Peridine 
Poison, 1866-1867; Sarah A. Shoulders, 1867-1868; George C. Greene, 
1868-1869-1870; Houston Able, 1870-1871; Thomas J. Nolan, 1S71-1872; 
George Peterson, 1872-1873; Thomas J. Nolan, 1873-1874; Wm. W. 

Gullett, 1874-1875; Wm. Butler, 1S75- 
1876; Sarah J. Kendall, 1876-1877; 
Belle Lindley Kellams, 1877-187S. 

The early schools at Jasper were 
taught in the court-house by Col. Simon 
Morgan. Later, a school was taught by 
Prof. Cheaver at the southeast corner of 
the public square. When the Germans 
began to arrive parochial schools took 
the lead, under the care of Rev. Joseph 
Kundeck. The public schools of Jasper 
were commissioned in 1898, and their superintendents, under the commis- 
sion have been E. F. Sutherland, Bertram Sanders, W. E. Wellman and 
S. P. Shull. 

Jacob's Graded School, Hall Township. 



The first part of the present public school building in Jasper was 
erected in 1872. On January 27, 1873, it was first occupied. The first 
teacher to occupy it was the Hon. Bazil L. Greene. In 1891, the west 
wing was built, and in 1908 the east wing was erected. The various 
parochial educational institutions at Jasper limit the public school attend- 

On July 16, 1855, the board of trustees of Ferdinand township ordered 
a meeting to be held on August 6, 1855, to divide a school district in that 
township. The result was the organization of what is now District No. 3, 
commonly known as the Lueken school. On December 4, 1S55, a contract 
was closed for the erection of a school-house for the sum of $107.00. the 
house to be erected on or before May, 1856. On June 9, the house was 
received and paid for. 

This was the beginning of what is now the only log school house in the 
county of Dubois. To-day the house is in a good state of preservation. 
Several years ago it was covered with weatherboards, and the walls and 
ceiling plastered. A 
porch extends along the 
entire south side of the 
building. The house 
stands in what was origi- 
nally the geographical 
center of the district, 
and it was so located 
regardless of highways. 
There is now no public 
road leading to the 
school grounds. The 
house stands on a very 
pretty elevation, and in 
the center of the sur- 
rounding forest. Atone 
time Prof. Clement 
lyueken was trustee of his township, and while such was also teacher. 
He saw that his school was well supplied with all necessary maps, charts, 
and other school supplies. 

The pupils who attend this school are of German descent, honest, 
obedient, and industrious. The attendance the year around is over ninety- 
nine per cent of the enrollment. The first teacher was Prof. Francis Gehl- 
hausen, who closed his first term of sixty-three days on April 13, 1857. 
He received $65 for the entire term. The next two years he received S70 
for each term of sixty-three days. On April 25, i860, he received $95 for 
sixty-three days — his fourth term, and this was followed by $63, for each 
of two more terms. 

Lueken School-house. 


In the autumn of 1862, Prof. Clement Lueken began to teach school 
in this log school-house, and he taught in this same room for more than 
forty years. 

In 1887, common school diplomas were first issued in Dubois county. 
Miss Maggie A. Wilson, of Jasper, was the first graduate. Her diploma 
bears date of March 26, 1887. The common school graduates are numer- 
ous; not all their names can be mentioned, but the first eighty-two follow: 
Mary Anderson, Valentine L. Bamberger, James T. Bean, Milton L,. 
Borden, James L. Bates, William Bretz, Daniel Bretz, William C. Bodkin, 
Mollie Bonner, Andrew M. Blunk, Philip J. Bamberger, Nannie Beeler, 
Nina M. Conrad, Flora Corn, Maggie E. Corn, Wm. N. Curry, Emma 
Colvin, Jacob B. Cato, Lillie Corn, Phineas Clark, John Cummings, Eva 
DeBruler, Elfa Dillon, Clement Doane, Jerome DeMotte, Ella Dillon, Tillie 
Deerhake, Louis F. Drach, Lenhart Downs, Louis Dillon, Lillie Ellis, E. 
E. Ellis, W. W. Ellis, Clara Fisher, Anna Fromm, Nellie Gresham, Virgil 
R. Greene, Grace Glezen, Albert D. Glezen, Jas. W. Gatten, Carrie Garber, 
Ed. W. Jeffers, Jno. H. Karaman, Effie Krutzinger, Efiie Koch, Effie Kelso, 
Wm. L. Kiper, Flora Leighton, Louis Lukemeyer, I. B. Lemmon, Wm. 
Line, Louis Landgrebe, Lina Meyer, Stephen Miller, Chris. Mauntel, 
Nannie McMahan, Chas. E. Miller, Chas. H. Miller, Wm. Melchior, Willa 
McMahan, Lelia Murray, Minnie Maris, Kingsley Niemoeller, Vernor 
Nolan, Edith Rose, Leo Roettger, Samuel Stewart, Fred. A. Stewart, 
Jos. E.Stutsman, Wesley Stork, Henry S. Simmons, Mary Smith, Minnie 
Stewart, Mattie Sanders, Lydia Troyer, Jessie Traylor, Bomar Traylor, 
Alice Todd, Maggie A. Wilson, Ernest Warring, Maud Williams, Leon 

Among the first high school graduates of Huntingburg were — Anna 
Katterhenry, Leo. H. Fisher, Otto Winkenhoefer, Dr. Adah McMahan, 
Willa Bretz, Helen H. Montgomery-Fisher, Lina Meyer-Katterhenry, 
Charles Miller, Lydia Troyer-Dufendach, Nancy H. McMahan. 

Among the first high school graduates of Jasper were — Mayme Sweeney- 
Koerner, Augusta Clark, Arch Doane. Flora Traylor, Eugene Sutherland, 
Anna Gosman, Waverley Bretz, Ross Bretz, Edgar Traylor, Robert Eckert, 
Alma Buettner, Olga Buettner, Joseph Seng, Minnie Judy, Glenn Suther- 
land, Scott Hunter, Edward Kempf, E. E. Eifert, Omer Stewart, Cicero 

Many well-known men and women have been identified as teachers, 
with the common schools of Dubois county. Among them may be men- 
tioned: Judge John L. Bretz, Surveyor Arthur Berry, Rev. Sampson Cox, 
Congressman W. E. Cox, Rev. Geo. C. Cooper, Mrs. L. L. Cooper, 
Corporal John C. Deindoerfer, Marvin DeBruler, Editor Ben Ed Doane, 
Rev. Chas. W. Ellis, Maj. Wm. L. Edminston, Hon. Henry C. Fink, Hon. 
Bazil L. Greene, Capt. Philip Guckes, Mrs. M. A. Gutgsell, John W. 
Greene, W. W. Gullett, Henry A. Holthaus, Jacob Hessemer, A. A. 


Hesseraer, Miss Sophia Hastedt, Miss Emily Hope, Miss Dorsia Hope, 
Miss Mary Jutt, Lieut. W. W. Kendall, Prof. O. L. Kelso, F. B. Katter- 
henry, Surveyor Benj. R. Kemp, Hon. H. M. Kean, Prof. Clement Lueken, 
Mrs. Jacob H. Lemmon, James H. B. Logan, Mrs. Kate Hayes-Lottes, 
Senator R. M. Milburn, Col. Simon Morgan, John E. McFall, Esq., Prof. 
F. S. Morganthaler, John T. Melchior, F. B. Mueller, Samuel C. Newton, 
Sergeant Thos. J. Nolan, Dr. W. R. Osborn, Mrs. Maggie Nohr-Reifel, 
Hon. Andrew M. Sweeney, Senator M. A. Sweeney, Mrs. Anna Cooper- 
Strain, Mrs. E. G. Strain, Senator Wm. A. Traylor, Rev. Wm. M. Whit- 
sett, F. B. Waldrip, Mrs. J. Melchior- Whitehead, Alvin T. Whaley, 
Surveyor W. T. Young, and County Supt. Edgar N. Haskins, of Vincen- 

There are parochial schools in the townships of Boone, Cass, and 
Harbison. In the latter they are located at Hay.':ville, Kellerville, and 
Dubois. These parochial schools are in charge of Protestant churches. 
The Catholic church has parochial schools in Ireland, Jasper, Dubois, 
Celestine, Schnellville, St. Anthony, Huntingburg, St. Henry, and 
Ferdinand. All of these schools are well attended, and an effort is made 
to keep them up to the standard of the common public schools. 

The strongest and most prominent private institutions of learning in 
the county are "Jasper College," for young men, and the "Convent of the 
Immaculate Conception," for 3-oung ladies, at Ferdinand. 


Though Jasper College is in years but an infant institution, its existence 
forms nevertheless the realization of a fond hope entertained and ex- 
pressed by Rev. Joseph Kundeck. With the death of that zealous priest, 
the plan of founding an institution of learning on the very site where now 
stands Jasper College, gradually fell into oblivion, only to be resurrected 
by the total destruction by fire of the world renowned St. Meinrad's Abbey. 
The citizens of Jasper sent a delegation to the abbot of the institution, 
proffering large sums of money towards the erection of an institution in or 
near Jasper by the authorities of St. Meinrad' s Abbey. The proffer resulted 
eventually in the erection of a college at Jasper for secular students. 

The Fathers of St. Meinrad had observed that young men and boys 
who did not study to prepare for the holy ministry, very reluctantly 
attended an institution which was not easilj' accessible; and they had 
noticed furthermore, that such students, to receive proper attention, ought 
to be under the guidance and tutorship of a faculty whose time could be 
almost exclusively devoted to their specific interests. These reasons alone 
were deemed sufficient to justify the separation of the secular department 
from the ecclesiastical; and it was determined to make preparations to con- 
duct a college at Jasper. Accordingly, Jasper College was opened for the 
reception of students on September 12, 18S9. 


1 86 


The ceremonies of the opening on that day, despite the ver}' inferior 
number of students in attendance, were made as imposing as circumstances 
would permit. A large number of Jasper's citizens were present to hear 
addresses made by the then prior of St. Meinrad's Abbey, Rev. Luke 
Gruwe, O. S. B , by the Prefect of the new college, Rev. F. A. Schmitt, 
O. S. B., and by the Hon. A. M. Sweeney. 

Jasper College at that time was a two story brick building erected but 
a few months previous. St. Meinrad's College had been known to possess 
a large class of so-called commercial students, and, as a consequence, the 
opening of Jasper College, if we take the then mere handful of its students 
into consideration, was certainly inauspicious enough. In the meantime, 

Jasper College. 

however, the college was incorporated under the laws of the state of Indi- 
ana, in conjunction with St. Meinrad's College, and empowered to confer 
the usual academic degrees. 

As time wore on, the new institution became widely known, to such a 
degree, that at the resumption of studies a year later than the opening, 
the largely increased attendance of students premonished the advisability 
of preparing at once accommodations for future pupils. That the college 
building would soon become too small was evident. The house then used 
for collegiate purposes, however, could not be conveniently enlarged, since 
the original and subsequent design had been that it should be occupied 
only temporarily as a college. 

For this reason steps were immediately taken to secure a location for the 
building of a new structure. After examining various sites in the neigh- 
borhood of Jasper, a selection was made affording a broad incline of land 
on the west side of the town. The selection was made for the fine view 


which the chosen site commanded of the surrounding country. Standing 
on the incline, the eye could gaze upon the beautiful scenery in the near 
distance, while the far away hills and woodlands produced a picturesque- 
ness, which, as was wisel}' thought, would be a feature of inestimable 
value for an institution of learning. A portion of the site belonged to the 
St. Joseph's congregation. This portion, the Rt. Rev. Bishop Chatard 
donated to the college authorities. Near the beginning of the summer of 
1890, work on the new college was begun. 

The new college buildings are substantially constructed of brick and 
native sandstone, with Bedford limestone and Lake Superior sandstone 
trimmings. The main building is three stories high, exclusive of the attic. 
In 1905, a large addition was erected at the east end. Three distinct dor- 
mitories are furnished in a manner that insures healthfulness and comfort. 
The college possesses a spacious and neatly constructed chapel for divine 
services. The college properties are valued at $66,000. 

The first graduate was Gustav A. Gramelspacher. Other early graduates 
were Dr. Wm. Friedman, Conrad Krempp, John Zehnder, Roswell Carter, 
John Garaghan, Leo Jahn, John Sum, Jos. Sermersheim, Mark Weedman, 
John Birk, Anthony Griesan, and Philip Schneider. 

Many of the prominent young men of Dubois county are graduates of 
this college, among them may be mentioned Gustav A. Gramelspacher, 
Prof. John Teder, Rev. Jos. Sermersheim, Rev. Philip Schneider, Harry 
Melchior, Wendolin Leighton, Leo Jahn, Omer Kuebler, Wm. Gosman, 
Edward Kunkler, Albert Schuler, John Steinhauser, Frank Steinhauser, 
Martin McFall, Alphonse Sermersheim, Alois Sermersheim, Hugo Mel- 
chior, Oscar Salb, Leo Sweeney, Albert Sturm, Victor Sturm, and Ray 

In 1908, the enrollment was 123. 


It was late in the evening of August 20, 1867, when a rough little 
spring-wagon entered the village of Ferdinand. The conveyance which 
had been expected with eagerness by the inhabitants was occupied by four 
Benedictine Sisters, the founders of what is now the beautiful convent of 
the Immaculate Conception. The sisters were: Sister Mary Benedicta 
Berns, as Superior, born in Coblentz, Prussia, January 18, 1846. She had 
entered the convent St. Walburg, Covington, Ky., Sept. 5, 1861; Sister 
Maria Xaveria Schroeder, born in Dinklage, Oldenburg, April 17, 1844, 
entered St. Walburg's Jan. 27, 1866; Sister Mary Rose Chappelle, born in 
Cheshire, Gallia county, Ohio, April 15, 1848, entered St. Walburg's con- 
vent, December 8, 1865, and Sister Mary Clara Vollmer, a novice, who 
received the habit in convent St, Walburg's, August 10, 1867. She 
returned to convent St. Walburg's, Covington, Ky., March 22, 1869. 

1 88 


At the request of the Benedictine Fathers, they had left their home in 
Covington, Ky., to take charge of the schools at Ferdinand, which had 
been heretofore under the direction of the Sisters of Providence. They 
took up their abode in a little cottage of three rooms which had been pre- 
pared for them, and which was to be their future home. The forests 
extended very near to their cottage door, and of course, ' ' poverty was king, 
and scarcity, queen." The sisters had to content themselves with clearing 

the land for a yard and a 
garden. In the fall, an 
addition of two rooms 
and a chapel was made 
to the cottage, in the 
latter of which Hol)^ 
Mass was celebrated the 
first time, December 8, 
of the same year. 

An addition to the 
school house being in 
process of erection, the 
schools were not opened 
until late in autumn. 
Confident of divine 
assistance, the sisters 
willingly entered the field of labor, devoting themselves with untiring zeal 
to the education of the children. 

Many were the hardships and privations the young community had to 
endure during the early times, but the sisters were not in the least discour- 
aged or discontented, and cheerfully submitted to a laborious life in order 
to lay the foundation of an institution which was to propagate monastic 
life and principles. 

Several postulants petitioned for admittance. The constitution for 
the government of the community was drawn up by Rt. Rev. Martin Marty, 
and an order of the day was written out by him. Rev. Father Chrysostom 
was the spiritual director and founder of the community. 

In order to obtain room for the postulants who asked for admittance to 
the convent, as well as for the young ladies wishing to take their abode 
there for the purpose of completing their education, it was necessary to 
enlarge their dwelling place. In the summer of 1868, Father Chrysostom 
laid the corner stone for a spacious brick addition. During the year, 1869, 
the building was constructed to such an extent, that in the fall of that year 
a part of it could be used, the remainder being completed in 1870. Rev. 
Father Bede O'Connor consecrated the new chapel. Eight postulants had 
joined the little community, and Ven. Sister M. Clara had returned to her 
Covington home. 

Ferdinand Convent. 


The sisters now redoubled their efforts, in order to remove their pecuni- 
ary burdens, and not only did they succeed, but by the year 1872, they 
were able to buy sixty-four acres of land adjoining the convent grounds. 
The house on the farm was then repaired and placed under the charge of 
two sisters. Orphans, the aged, and the infirm were admitted and received 
every attention which Christian charity can bestow. 

In a short time the community had so increased that the Superiors were 
enabled to establish branch houses in Standing Rock, Dakota, 1878, and 
St. vScholastica, Arkansas, in the same j^ear. They also took charge of the 
parochial schools at St. Meinrad, 1876; Rockport, 1877; Fulda, 1879; St. 
Anthony, 1879; and St. Henry, 18S1. 

The community increased so rapidly that by the year 1882, the building 
was entirely too small, and the plan of a new and massive building was 
drawn. This was to be erected on a hill, at the east end of the town. But 
the entire hill was covered with a primitive forest, and again, the sisters 
had to labor hard and patiently in order to overcome all obstacles to the 
erection of their beautiful and quiet abode. 

Under the able direction of Rev. P. Eberhard, the work on the new 
convent was begun in 1883, and the year 1887 witnessed its completion, at 
a cost of $80,000. Its location on a slight eminence overlooking the town 
of Ferdinand, yet sufficiently distant as not to be disturbed by the din and 
noise of traffic, and surrounded by a natural palisade of forest trees, renders 
it a fit abode for those given up to a life of solitude and prayer. It is built 
rectangular in form, occupying a ground space of 186 by 160 feet and the 
outer walls enclose the convent-chapel, situated in the center of the ground 
proper. The cost of the convent as it stands to-day, together with the 
furnishings, has reached approximately $130,000, A large and handsome 
addition was made to the building in 1903, since the comfort of the increased 
community demanded more spacious apartments, and at present, prepara- 
tions are in progress for the annexation of a more roomy cooking department. 

Including the places mentioned above, the sisters now have charge of 
twenty-six parochial and public schools, at the following places: Indian- 
apolis (Assumption school), Evansville (St. Joseph's school), Madison 
(St. Michael's school), Tell City, Bradford, Cannelton, Celestine, Troy, 
Floyd Knobs, Hauptstadt, Ireland, Mariah Hill, St. James, St. Philip's, 
St. Thomas, Schnellville, Starlight, Huntingburg, Poseyville, and Rock- 
port, of this state. The aggregate number of children in these schools is 
about 2,500. In all these places the sisters also have the care of the altars 
and vestry of the church. 

Though the work of education is the chief object of the community, 
some sisters are constantly engaged in the preparation of church vestments. 
One of these vestments was sent to the World's Exposition in Chicago, 
1893 and drew a gold medal. Much attention is given to silk and gold 
embroidery work. 


The beautiful art of music is carefully fostered, particularly choir music. 
Choral chant has a firm foothold here, as it also has in the Benedictine 
order at large. The study of choral chant, as well as the training of chil- 
dren for singing it, receives careful attention. 

The convent chapel, though not large and not richly fitted out, is tastily 
and worthily furnished. The beautiful high altar, in Gothic style, donated 
by a benefactor, is surmounted by several costly statues of artistic work- 
manship, imported from Munich, representing the Immaculate Conception, 
St. Benedict, and St. Scholastica. In addition to these, a number of hand- 
some statues of considerable size, representative of some of the most noted 
saints of the order, adorn the chapel. 

A beautiful large pipe organ which is placed in the gallery of the chapel, 
renders the accompaniment for the convent choir. 

The community now numbers one hundred fifteen sisters, twelve 
novices, and seven postulants. 

Thus, by the teaching of young children, as the chief object of their 
life's work, the sisters of Ferdinand strive to serve the Divine Master through 
the little lambkins of His flock, and to follow out the Divine precept: 
' 'Suffer little children to come unto me, for theirs is the kingdom of Heaven. ' ' 

The smaller parochial schools of Dubois county are so closely connected 
with church work that they can be better considered in connection with the 
religious work of the county. Some are mentioned in the chapter on Rev. 
Joseph Kundeck, a prominent school man of pioneer days. In some 
instances the smaller public and private schools are closely related, and 
they are so closely identified with the home and social life of the people of 
the townships in which the buildings are located, that they will be men- 
tioned in the chapters devoted to the townships or civil divisions of the 

The following is a list of parochial schools of Dubois county: St. John's 
Evangelical Lutheran parochial school; Emanuel's parochial school; Paro- 
chial school of Evangelical Lutheran St. Paul's church; Lutheran St. John's 
church parochial school (Evangelical); St. Mary's parochial school; St. 
Joseph's (Jasper); Jasper College; St. Celestine's parochial; Sacred Heart's 
parochial; St. Anthony's; St. Mary's; St. Jacobi's parochial school of the 
German Evangelical St. Paul's church; Deutsche Evangelical Augustana 
school; St. Henry's; Academy of the Immaculate Conception, and Ferdi- 
nand parochial. The parochial schools of the county are estimated to be 
worth a quarter of a million dollars. These schools employ thirty-seven 
teachers. In the common branches, the average enrollment is looo pupils; 
in the higher branches the average enrollment is 75. It costs $12,775 per 
year to support these parochial schools. 


The biograph}^ of one man is often the history of an effort, an enter- 
prise, or a community. It is remarkable to what extent the career of one 
ambitious young man may affect those coming in contact with him. Prob- 
ably one-half of the citizens of Dubois county, who are now in the prime 
of life, and active in its affairs, were pupils of the schools when Prof. 
Andrew M. Sweeney was County Superintendent. His administration has 
left its lasting impression upon the citizenship of this county, and his zealous 
labors here honor him still; hence, though he is no longer a resident, we 
feel justified in recording in this history, for the benefit of other poor, 
aspiring, and ambitious young men, a rather length)' account of his career, 
as the author of this work has had a long and intimate relationship with 
him as his student and friend. 

Hon. Andrew M. Sweeney was born November 26, 1853, at Cincinnati, 
Ohio, being the eldest of a family of nine children born to Michael and 
Harriet (Read) Sweeney, both natives of Ireland. The father was born 
in the County Limerick, and the mother in the County Sligo, but they met 
and married at Cincinnati, Ohio, in February, 1853. About i860, the 
father, to withdraw his children from what he considered contaminating 
influences, moved his little family from the city to what was then almost 
a western frontier, and drifted from place to place in search of employment 
through southern Indiana and Illinois. In these sections, for fully a 
quarter of a centur}', he followed the humble occupation of a railroad 
grader. Educational facilities were very limited, the family circle was 
enlarging, and our subject's services were needed, hence he did not get to 
attend school, excepting a few weeks, until he was past fifteen years of 
age. At that time, March 19, 1869, through the benevolent kindness of 
the Franciscan Fathers, who had just founded St. Joseph's college in 
Teutopolis, Illinois, near which town he was at work driving a cart in 
the building of the Vandalia Railroad, he learned his letters and remained 
under their tutelage about three years working for his tuition. 

In 1886, when he was a candidate for State Superintendent, his Alma 
Mater, in Illinois, celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary of its founding. 
He was chosen the orator for the occasion. In introducing Mr. Sweene}- 
to the large audience, the presiding officer, his former professor, among 
several complimentary remarks, said: 

He came here a very poor boy, and we hesitated, on account of his age, illiteracy, and 
environment, to admit him, but concluded to give him the chance for which he begged, 
and we never have regretted it. By sincere devotion to his studies, and being gifted 
with extraordinary memory and superior talents, he soon became our ideal and model 
student, and he set a pace and standard for excellence in scholarship here that has not 
been exceeded by any other student who has entered these halls since his departure 
over twenty years ago. Therefore, to-day, with pardonable pride and peculiar pleasure, 
as his quondam teacher, I introduce him as our most distinguished and successful 
lay graduate. 


Thereafter he studied one year at St. Meinrad's College, Spencer 
county, Indiana. He developed a decided talent for languages, and is profi- 
cient in English, Latin, Greek, German, Dutch, Gaelic, French, and Sign 
L/anguage. Had he followed the earnest wishes of his parents, he would 
have studied for the church, but he preferred a business career. During the 
vacations of the years in which he attended school, he earned money for 
his clothes and books by working as a section hand on railroads with his 
father and brothers. His advent into Dubois county was as a section hand 
on what is now a branch of the Southern Railroad extending from Rock- 
port to Jasper. This railroad passes directly through the Thomas Lincoln 
farm in Spencer county, and while laboring there, in 1870, our subject says 
he took occasion to study the adverse circumstances, the striking evidences 
of the galling chains of poverty from which Abraham Lincoln had to eman- 
cipate himself, and which so well prepared him to emancipate millions of 
his suffering fellow beings from the chains of slavery. This accidental 
opportunity to study the life of Abe Lincoln bore good fruit, for it renewed 
young Sweeney's flagging energies, so that once again he hoisted his 
lonely sail, resolved to breast the winds and tides of adverse fate in quest 
of an education and the haven of success. 

After spending four years as a diligent student, thus acquiring a fair 
fund of knowledge, being naturally ambitious, he felt that he was capable 
of playing a more conspicuous part in the world's affairs than that of an 
unskilled workman; therefore, to advance himself mentally and be self- 
supporting at the same time, he entered the ranks of the teachers of the 
public schools. He taught his first school, when not quite twenty, in a 
one room building about one-half mile north of the town of Kyana in this 
county, the term beginning October 6, 1873, and lasting one hundred days. 
In September, 1874, when not quite twenty-one years old, he was chosen 
principal of the Jasper High School, and remained in charge of these schools 
until June, 1 88 1 . He has often told his intimate friends that he would have 
had to decline the offer of this coveted position, had not Henry Beckman, 
of Ferdinand, who was almost an entire stranger to him, believed his appeal 
and given him credit for suitable clothes to teach in the capital of Dubois 
county. Mr. Beckman says that the bill was promptly paid, and he has 
always been glad that he extended the credit to one who proved so worthy. 
On August 6, 1878, Mr. Sweeney married Helen E., daughter of Sebas- 
tian and Stephania (Lambert) Kuebler, of Jasper. Seven children resulted 
from this union, four of whom survive, Robert E., Clarence S., Carl E., 
and Lucile M., now residents of Indianapolis. 

In June, 1881, he was elected County Superintendent of Schools of this 
county, and occupied that position until June, 1889, when he refused to 
accept a fifth election to that place. In 1883 he organized "The Dubois 
County Teachers' Association." In 1885, he was elected president of 
" The Southern Indiana Teachers' Association," at Washington. In 1885 




and 1886, at the request of State Superintendent J. W. Holconib, he pre- 
pared "The Township Institute Outline" for the state. By 1886, on 
account of his activity in public school affairs, lecturing, County Institute 
work, and campaigning, he had acquired a state-wide reputation as an 
educator. In that year, he was nominated, over four strong competitors. 
Prof. J. W. Holcomb, the incumbent, being one of them, for vState Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction, but was defeated with the other candidates 
on that ticket in the election that fall. He has the distinction of being the 
only Catholic ever nominated for that oflfice in the history of the United 
States. Having rung all the changes on the public school system of the 
state, from primary teacher to the State Superintendency, in sixteen years, 
seeing no more to conquer there, he determined to quit school work, and 
enter the practice of law. 

In 1890, he refused the nomination to Congress in the Third District, then 
his home, and he likewise refused the nomination to Congress in the Seventh, 
the Indianapolis District, in 1904. In 1901 and 1903, he declined to be 
considered as a candidate for Mayor of Indianapolis. In 1904, he was 
prominently mentioned by his party papers for the Governorship, but he 
did not run, as the position he then held, president of the State Life, was 
worth four times the salary paid the Governor. 

During part of 1889 and 1890 he practiced law successfully at Jasper 
in partnership with Hon. John h. Bretz; but, in the elections in November 
of the latter 3^ear, this law firm was disorganized by the voters, Mr. Sweenej' 
being elected Clerk of the Supreme Court of the state, and Mr. Bretz was 
given a seat in Congress. Mr. Sweeney assumed the duties of Clerk of the 
Supreme Court November 22, 1890, and served until November 22, 1894. 
He declined a renomination, and that year the Republicans carried the 
state by a landslide of nearl}' 100,000 votes. During his incumbency as 
Clerk of the Supreme Court, he saw the great need of immediate relief for 
that body, which was nearly five years behind its docket. In December, 
1890, he undertook a task in which three of his predecessors had failed. 
He had a bill prepared by Judge Byron K. Elliott, then of the Supreme 
Court, and one of Indiana's greatest legal lights, providing for an Appel- 
late Court, consisting of five judges, to assist the Supreme Court. Mr. 
Sweeney had this bill endorsed by the Indianapolis Bar Association, by 
letters of approval from leading jurists in every county of the state, and 
he succeeded finally in securing its passage by the Legislature then in ses- 
sion, which makes him largely responsible, and entitled to great credit, 
for the establishment of our present splendid Appellate Court, which was 
organized March 17, 1891, he being named as clerk of the new court, which 
largely increased the emoluments of his office. 

When his term as Clerk of the Supreme and the Appellate Courts was 
drawing to a close, seeing that Indiana had no life insurance company, 
and believing this to be a great business and one in which he could capi- 


talize the extensive acquaintance and fair reputation he had gained in the 
state, he concluded to enter that great field of human endeavor. On Sep- 
tember 5, 1894, in conjunction with Samuel Ouinn and Wilbur S. Wynn, 
he founded the "State Life Insurance Company," at Indianapolis, a mutual 
company; was chosen its first president, and occupied that position for 
more than twelve years. While he was president, the company met with 
unusual success, and advanced from almost nothing to have over 
$So,ooo,ooo of business upon its books, an office force of about seventy- 
five persons, a million dollar home office building paid for, with branch 
offices in thirty-six states, and cash assets of nearly $7,000,000. It is said 
to have been the most successful company of its kind, for its years, ever 
organized in the United States. It may be said truthfully that nearly 
every life company, mutual or stock, organized in the United States in the 
last fifteen years, copied the plans of the State Life of Indiana, and "imi- 
tation is sincerest flattery." 

In 1S98, Mr. Sweene}^ was chosen a member of a committee of educa- 
tors and business men of Indianapolis whose duty it was to formulate and 
recommend, to the committee of law3'ers then framing a new City Charter, 
a system for the government of .schools of that city. At the instance of 
the Commercial Club, he was nominated, under that charter, as a candidate 
for School Commissioner, and elected. This Board was organized January 
I, 1900, and he was elected vice-president. He was re-elected in 1902, for 
four years, and again, in 1906, for four years, serving ten years, during 
six of which he was president of the Board, although the only Democratic 
member elected in that decade. At his second re-election, he is said to 
have received the largest individual vote ever given a candidate for any 
office in the history of that citj'. In November, 1902, he and two other 
members of city school boards, founded " The Indiana Association of School 
Boards," and Mr. Sweeney was elected its first president. 

In concluding this biographical sketch, and from our personal knowl- 
edge of our subject, we feel justified in saying that Mr. Sweeney's distinct 
and pleasing personality was his platform, and through it his rapid and 
unusual success was largely attained. It smoothed the flinty pathwa}' up 
which he toiled from pinching poverty to prominence and comparative 
wealth; it was strongly in evidence in his course from the shovel on the 
section to a soft seat in the State House ; nor was it wanting in his achieve- 
ments as student, as educator, as politician, and as business man in found- 
ing and building one of Indiana's greatest financial institutions, the State 
Life Insurance Company, all of which he compassed within a period of 
twenty-five years, and before he had reached forty-one. In the confidence 
of friendship, he candidly admits that, possibly, the erection of a one 
hundred thousand dollar palatial home in Indianapolis may have been a 
mistake, yet he pleads justification in that it was the realization of dreams 


that he had had and fondly cherished for forty years, from the times when 
his bed was a pallet of straw in the lofts of shanties on the banks of rail- 
roads in either southern Indiana or Illinois. 

The recital of the facts in this sketch may have the air of romance, 
but they are, nevertheless, the plain truth about one whose identity with 
Dubois county will not be soon forgotten, and " truth is stranger than fic- 
tion." It certainly portrays the great possibilities of a determined Ameri- 
can youth, who, soon after he learned Latin, adopted as the motto of his 
life, aut viam invejiiam, autfaciani — " I shall find a way or make it." 



General appearance of Father Kvindeck; birth; education; missionary work in America; 
received by Dr. Brute at Vincennes; sent to Jasper — St. Joseph's Hall — First Ger- 
man Catholic church in the state of Louisiana — Ferdinand — Deed for the town of 
Ferdinand — Engraved map — Celestine — Court house at Jasper; petition for same; 
price paid for labor — Board of school examiners — Sisters of Providence— Visit to 
Europe; result — St. Meinrad — Death of Rev. Kundeck; burial — Loss to the com- 

The subject of this sketch is probably the most remarkable man that 
ever lived and died in Dubois county. His labors have left a lasting impres- 
sion upon southern Indiana. In the arts of war, this man would have been 
a general. In the commercial world he would have been a "captain of in- 
dustry. ' ' In the religious world, he was both. He asked no rest, acknowl- 
edged no fatigue, and knew no such word as fail. A scholar and a gentle- 
man in the wilderness of Dubois county as well as in the dignified courts 
and crowded cities of Europe was he. Of him it may be said: 

None knew him but to love him, none named him but to praise. 

Father Kundeck was five feet, ten inches high, with a broad forehead, 
oval face, aquiline nose, round chin, small mouth, light brown hair and blue 
eyes. He would be classed as of light complexion. Upon the street, in 
citizen's dress, as well as before the altar in the dignity of his cloth, he 
commanded and received the confidence and respect of all men. His labor 
for the spiritual is so closely connected with his labor for the temporal 
welfare of his people that no attempt shall be made to separate them. 

Rev. Joseph Kundeck was born in Johannich, province of Croatia, in 
the empire of Austria-Hungary, Friday, August 24, 1810. He pursued his 
studies in the diocesan seminary of Agram, Croatia. After his ordination 
to the Catholic priesthood he labored for two years as the assistant to the 
pastor of Petrinia, in his native diocese of Agram. 

Hearingof the needs of the missions in the United States, and not finding 
sufficient work in his native land for his zeal and ability he resolved to dedi- 
cate his life-work to the American missions. Through the efforts of the 
newly founded Leopoldine Society, of Vienna, his attention was directed to 
Indiana. In the year 1837, he bade farewell to his mother, his father- 
land, friends, and fellow-priests in order to dedicate his life to the missions. 


Dr. Brute had shortly before been appointed the first bishop of Vincennes. 
The diocese of Vincennes comprised, at that time, the whole of the state of 
Indiana and nearly all of Illinois. Dr. Brute was only too happy to receive 
the young- missionary into his new and poor diocese. The question arose 
as to where the young priest might be placed. The bishop's attention was 
directed to Dubois county, where lately about fifteen families had congre- 
gated, especially around the town of Jasper. Most of these had just arrived 
from Baden, Germanj^ and were not able to speak or understand the 
English language. They were for that reason, more or less, deprived of a 
satisfactory pastorate, for there were no German priests near. 

This little flock, commensurate with their means, had erected a little 
log church near the banks of Patoka river. Here they congregated every 
Sunday to attend to their simple devotions. Once in a while, but rarely, a 
missionary looked after the wants of the scattered Catholics in the virgin 
forests of Dubois county, and said mass for them. The first priest to visit 
them was the Rev. Maurice De St. Palais, then stationed at Mount Pleasant, 
or St. Mary's, north of White river. He afterwards became the third bishop 
of Vincennes. He did all in his power for the little flock. Although Rev. 
Palais was unable to speak the German language he encouraged them to 
persevere. It was due to his influence and advice that Father Kundeck 
was sent to Jasper to take charge of the little congregation. With great 
courage and fervent zeal the Rev. Kundeck undertook the task, which was 
to bring such great results, not only for the Catholic church, but also for 
the town of Jasper and county of Dubois. 

It is said the Rev. Maurice De St. Palais first held services, at Jasper, 
about where the Southern railroad crosses Mill street, at the residence of 
Mr. Matsells. When Father Kundeck came he held services, on lot num- 
ber 118, at the northwest corner of Seventh and Newton streets, and lived 
on lot number 153, at the southwest corner of Ninth and Newton streets, 
and, later, on lot number 12, at the corner of Tenth and Main. He finally 
lived and died in a log residence about one hundred yards southwest of 
the new St. Joseph's Church. He built the present parsonage, but died 
before he could occupy it. 

Father Kundeck arrived at Jasper, accompanied by the Rev. Maurice 
De St. Palais, who installed him as the first pastor of St. Joseph's church in 
the spring of 1838. In Jasper the young priest found fifteen families, a poor 
church and very poor prospects for the future. The families were poor, 
for they had used all of their money in entering their lands, as buying 
lands from the government was called, and in building their log cabins. 
Under the circumstances they had nothing to offer their new pastor but their 
good will. This was sufficient for Father Kundeck. By superior knowl- 
edge and strenuous activity, supported by a peculiar eloquence of his own, 
he succeeded so well, that in the short period of two years he began to 



devise ways and means for building a spacious brick church. This, by 
dint of perseverance, he accomplished. It is in use to-day for hall and 
school purposes and is known as St. Joseph's Hall. 

Through his influence a great number of new settlers arrived, and 
bought farms in the vicinity of Jasper. In the years 1840 and 1841, the 
new church was put under roof, new emigrants assisting. Each family 
was obliged to furnish a certain amount of bricks. Many had no convey- 
ances of any kind. They carried bricks to the building place. All the 
labor, such as burning lime, hewing and hauling timber, was done by the 
members of the congregation. Some hauled sand and stone, others dressed 

Old St. Joseph's Church, at Jasper. 

the rough timbers into joists, flooring, rafters, and boards. In short, they did 
everything that could be done by unskilled labor, gratis. Money could not 
be obtained by many. For his own support Father Kundeck acquired land 
which he rented out to some of his people. In this way he secured his own 
modest living. The county records show he bought many tracts of land 
from the United States, and was one of Dubois county's largest land owners 
in his day, The old St. Joseph's church built by Father Kundeck stands 
to-day, a monument to his industry and good workmanship. ■> 

The labors of Father Kundeck were not confined to Jasper and vicinity. 
We might call Jasper his headquarters for, from it, he traveled in all direc- 
tions, over to Illinois, and as far east as Madison. Railroads were, in those 
days, unknown in Indiana, hence these trips were made on horseback. In 
addition to these sporadic excursions he made regular trips to Ferdinand, 
Troy, Celestine, Fulda, and Mclyoughlin. 


So much labor finally undermined his health, in spite of his strong con- 
stitution. He went to New Orleans in order to restore his shattered health 
in the Southern clime. His stay in the South w^as not spent in idleness. 
Seeing the German Catholics were neglected, he congregated them and 
built for them at New Orleans, the first German Catholic church in the 
state of lyouisana. At the same time he was not forgetful of his congre- 
gation in Indiana. He appealed to the generosity of the Catholics of New 
Orleans. His appeal was not in vain. He returned with better health and 
a lighter heart in the spring of 1844, having been in the South about one 
year. With the money collected in New Orleans he was able to build a 
stone church at Ferdinand. It was always his plan to concentrate the 
scattered Catholic families in order to be better able to minister to their 
spiritual wants. For this purpose he bought a large tract of land, which 
he laid out into lots. From the sale of these lots he derived a sum sufii- 
cient to complete the church. This was the way in which the towns of 
Ferdinand and Celestine were founded by him. The towns helped the 
church; the church helped the towns. Ferdinand was named in honor of 
the then reigning emporer of Austria — Ferdinand. Celestine was named 
after Bishop Celestine De la Hailandiere, of Vincennes. 

Father Kundeck's deed for the town of Ferdinand, written by himself, 
and acknowledged before Col. Bazil B. Edmonston, county recorder, Wed- 
nesday, March 18, 1S40, is unique. The deed in full is as follows: 

State of Indiana, 

Dubois County. 

Whereas, I, the undersigned, viewing the multitude of Germans coming on, both 
from Europe and all thepartsof the United States and settling them in different townships 
of the County of Dubois, in Indiana, to promote their spiritual welfare in building a 
German chapel — by opening a school in their maternal language for their offspring pro- 
ducing so a true temporal and acternal happiness among them and making good moral 
citizens of them to the adopted land of promise — I deliberally resolved to lay off a new 
town under a German name "Ferdinand" out of this reason, that they can pronounce 
it easily, impress on their minds and find it out accordingly. 

The above named town "Ferdinand" is situated in the state of Indiana, Dubois 
county in township No. three, south, of range No. four, west, in the section twenty- 
eight lying generally in southwest quarter and some lots in section thirty-three of the 
same township in northwest quarter and northeast quarter of northwest quarter, com- 
prehending in all two hundred and seventy six lots, besides chapel's reserves. 

The town is laid off with five north and south streets through the whole length of 
town, every one of whom number fifty feet in width, except one, the main street, nom- 
inated Ohio street which is eighty feet wide. The first of them, northeast, is named 
Caroline street; the second one Maryland; the third, Ohio street; the fourth, Virginia 
street; the fifth, Missouri street. 

The number of the east and west streets are ten, each of them is forty feet wide 
except the other one main street named Indiana, being sixty feet wide. The names of 
them are as follows: Beginning from the northeast corner, the first one, Washington 
street; the second, Jefferson street; the third, Jackson street; the fourth Vienna street; the 
fifth, the said Indiana street; the sixth, Schoenbrum street; the seventh, Europe street ; the 
eighth. Stranger street; the ninth, Lafayette street; the last Leopold street, with these 


remarks: That neither Indiana or Caroline street do cross the chapel's reserve, consist- 
ing of the said streets and of twelve lots more, as it can be seen in the adjoined-to-it- 
town plat. Each lot of that new town contains ninety-nine feet, square, nothing more nor 
less. Being almost all the lots corner lots there are no lanes or alle5's in the town and 
no public square, not being a county'' s town. A parcel of the lot designated by its 
number, two hundred and sixty-five is lying in the southeast corner of east half of 
southeast quarter in section twenty-nine, the same township. 

The said and above described chapel's reserve I do hereby, with these presents, grant 
and donate with all my titles and claims forever and ever to the Catholic German con- 
gregation belonging to this parish to the purpose of a Catholic chapel and a Catholic 
German and American school house on it, to-wit: for both languages, their native and 
American, being subject always to the inspection of the Catholic bishop of Vincennes; 
still reserving to me the power of disposing of it as long as I will reside among them, 
donating and granting a full right to the said congregation of Catholics to form some 
alleys or lanes out from their reserve round about the same reserve, when necessary. 

To the credit so it is before every court of the United States or any magistrate 
whatsoever, I give my hand and my usual seal. 

Given in Jasper, Dubois county, Indiana, the eighteenth day of March, Anno Domini, 
one thousand eight hundred and forty. Joseph Kundek. 

Father Kiindeck always wrote his name without "c." Accompanying 
this deed was an engraved map of Ferdinand, one of the finest ever used 
in the county. These words appear upon it, 

Plan Der Stadt Ferdinand in den Nordamerikanischen Frei-Staaten Indiana. Graf- 
schaft Dubois, angelegt am S Janner, 1840. 

Father Kundeck was also the founder of Celestine, in Hall township, 
and acknowledged his plat Thursday, November 16, 1843. He also laid 
out the first addition to the town of Jasper, under the date of November 
29. 1855. 

The reader wmII observe that Father Kundeck was untiring in his labors, 
not only for the spiritual but for the temporal welfare of his congregations. 
His success surpassed all expectations. In the territory where he had 
started with fifteen families and a small log church, there were now four 
spacious churches and around each of them many Catholics. Within six 
years Father Kundeck built St. Joseph's, at Jasper; St. Ferdinand's, at 
Ferdinand, St. Boniface's, at Fulda, and St. Pius,' at Troy. This shows 
him to have been a man of restless activity, paired with tenacity of pur- 

Father Kundeck' s labors had an indirect influence on the development 
of Dubois count}', and a direct influence on Jasper, "the county-seat town." 
No exertion was shunned, by him, to make Jasper the center of all business 
of the county. The old part (east three-fifths) of the brick court house, 
at Jasper, was a testimony of his zeal. It was, in its day, considered one of 
the most substantial public buildings in Indiana. 

The first court house built at Jasper, and all its valuable records, were 
destroyed by fire, on Saturday night, August 17, 1839. This necessitated 
the building of a new and substantial court house. The board of county 






commissioners appropriated a sum for a new building, and Alexander McK. 
Groves, the contractor, started to construct the building, but quit when he 
had completed the foundation. In this manner it came to a standstill. 
Then it was that Father Kundeck stepped in and offered to complete the 
court house. After consulting with men of experience and with mechan- 
ics, who offered to do the work cheaper under his management than for 


Rev. Kundeck's Penmanship. 

any one else, for they knew his sterling honesty, he filed a petition with 
the board of commissioners in which he agreed to complete the court house 
by December i, 1845. The petition reads as follows: 

State of Indiana, 

Dubois County. 
To the Honorable Board of County Commissioners, 

Gentlemen: I view with deep solicitude the happy progress and benefit of oui 
county. To promote the same as much as it lies in my power, is my sincere motto 
Hence seeing the putting up of a new court house delayed, yea, the whole work nearly 
prostrated, I have the honor to offer to the Honorable Board to prosecute the said work 
and to complete it with the following conditions: 

1st. I ask for the completion of the said court house the round sum of six thou- 
sand dollars, the foundation being accepted. 

2nd. I want to put up a course more of the cut stone foundation with a step to it. 
3rd. I will try to finish the whole work till the ist. day of December, 1845. 
4th. I want from the present session of your honorable body one thousand dollars 
m the county orders, certified by the auditor of the county to enable me to buy many 
appurtenances at Pittsburg, to the credit of a good security when demanded. 

5th. I humbly ask from you, honourable gentlemen, for the fair consideration that 
I intend to undertake the job only when nobody wants it, or when you have nobody 
e se worthy of your trust, that the county's interest may not be at stake, as I drew 
along with me many residents in the county, whose not only spiritual welfare, but the 
temporal benefit is concentrated at the bottom of my heart, and as I am now yours at 
large, and the county is my new Fatherland, so I sincerely wish to see it grow up in 
prosperity and respectability. 

Finally having explained my sentiments to your honourable body, I have the honour 
to remain with imparted regret and esteem. 

Yours Honouris, most humble and obedient servant, 

Joseph Kundeck. 
A citizen of the said state, county and town of Jasper. 


Father Kundeck's offer was accepted and the court house completed as 
stipulated. This undertaking was the foundation of Jasper's growth and 
prosperity, and it gained for Father Kundeck the esteem and confidence of 
all, irrespective of church, creed or nationality, because he had undertaken 
and completed a work none other dared to undertake. 

The court house contract entered into, bears date of Tuesday, Decem- 
ber 3, 1844. It is signed by Joseph Kundeck, as contractor and John Hurst, 
John Cave, Joseph Schneider, Jesse Corn, Jr., John D. Noble, Elijah Ken- 
dall and Giles N. Lansford, known as a "Board of Justices-of-the-Peace, 
doing county business for the county of Dubois." The specifications for 
the work would be a credit to a modern architect. It was carefully and skill- 
fully drawn, and it was followed to the very letter, even to the finial on 
the steeple. 

Some of the lime in the building was burned from the rocks obtained 
at the foot of Rieder's hill, north of Jasper. 

To show the price paid for labor in 1845, we add that Michael Marandt 
was paid $28.00 for the two lower stone columns in the front of the court 
house hall. This included the stone caps to the columns. For the two 
upper ones, which were in two parts, he got $30.00. He dressed the col- 
umns in a quarry near Jasper. 

The confidence of the people in Father Kundeck is shown by another 
incident. A law had been passed for a board of school examiners for each 
county. The duty was to examine teachers of the county and to issue to 
them certificates setting forth their ability to teach. Father Kundeck was 
appointed on this board. Some of the aged citizens pride themselves, 
to-day, on having in their possession certificates signed by him as a mem- 
ber of the board of examiners. That Father Kundeck was a man who 
took great interest in the education of his church members is shown by 
his engaging the Sisters of Providence in 1844 for his school of little boys 
and girls. Sisters of this order still conduct the schools of St. Joseph's 

When the first railroads were being built in Indiana, Father Kundeck 
took great interest in trying to get one to reach Jasper. Hearing of a road 
being contemplated from Evansville to Indianapolis, he with Dr. E. Steph- 
enson, and other public spirited citizens rode to Petersburg, and pledged 
to the company a subsidy of $50,000, to be voted by Dubois county. Pike 
county bid more, and the road was partly constructed, but never completed. 
Part of its old road bed may be seen east of Petersburg and east of Wash- 
ington. Later, a railroad was constructed on the banks of the old Wabash 
and Erie canal, and Petersburg secured a railroad. Father Kundeck's efforts 
in this connection show that he realized the importance of railroads in the 
development of a country and the spreading of its commercial interest. 
The Southern extension to French Lick, completed in 1907, represents 
Father Kundeck's dream. 


Where many a one would have considered his labors complete, Father 
Kundeck looked at them as only begun. His aim was not to found parishes 
and towns, but also to give them permanency. He knew the scarcity of 
priests, and the difficulty the bishops had in supplying congregations with 
good pastors. After serious consideration he concluded to give his congre- 
gations into the hands of a religious order. For this purpose he entered 
into negotiations with the "Provincial of the Redemptorists," but without 
success. Not baffled by this he turned his eyes to Europe, where he hoped 
to realize his plans. 

Father Kundeck can properly be called a church builder and organ- 
izer of congregations. Even in his moments of relaxation from labor, his 
extraordinary powers were fruitful in the matter of building churches and 
organizing congregations. In the spring of 1S51 he started from his home 
at Jasper, to re-visit Europe, his native country, meet again the friends of 
his childhood, and look upon scenes familiar and dear to him in his youth- 
ful days. 

On his way he stopped over at Madison, Indiana, and seeing the Ger- 
man Catholics there without any church, he tarried there long enough to 
inaugurate and put under way the erection of a church for their use. 
This gives him the credit of being the chief instrument in the erection of 
the first German Catholic church in the city of Madison. After this delay- 
ing and postponing, for a season, the anticipated pleasures of his visit to his 
native home, he started anew on his journey to Europe in the fall of 1851. 

In Europe he traveled in Germany, Italy, Austria and Switzerland to 
get priests and help for his missions, in America. One of the relics of 
this trip is an old passport, which shows that the traveler, in those days, 
was very much annoyed by tiresome regulations and restrictions. When- 
ever he arrived at a new city he had to have his pass revised by some official. 
According to this pass Father Kundeck reached London, Friday, November 
28, 1851. He traveled all over Europe and left Havre, for England, Sat- 
urday, May 7, 1853. 

Father Kundeck succeeded in getting priests and students of theology 
in Prussia and Austria. He then went to Switzerland. There he visited 
the renowned Abbey of Einsiedlen and persuaded the abbot to send some 
of his monks to Indiana to take charge of the missions. It was due to him 
that these fathers founded the little monastery at St. Meinrad, which has 
grown into an abbey, and into an educational center of the Benedictine 

Abbot Henry IV, of Maria Einsiedlen, Switzerland, had entertained 
the project of sending a colony of his monks to America, and of establish- 
ing here a monastery, in connection with Einsiedlen. The initiatory steps 
were taken in 1852. The immediate cause was the visit made by Father 
Kundeck, who was then known as a Vicar-General, representing Bishop 
de St. Palais, of Vincennes. He convinced Abbot Henry that great good 


could be achieved by comparatively small efforts and so perseveringly did 
he plead the cause that the abbot resolved to grant it, and to center his 
monks in the diocese of Vincennes The abbot received the sanction of 
Pope Pius IX in this undertaking. Several of the fathers placed them- 
selves at the abbot's disposal for the founding of St. Meinrad's. They 
bought one hundred and sixty acres of land, in Spencer county, on Friday, 
August 12, 1853, and began work. Father Kundeck became the first and 
best friend of St. Meinrad's abbey. 

In June, 1853, Father Kundeck returned to Jasper and was received 
with all the pomp possible in those days. After his return he did not ven- 
ture upon any new undertakings as his health had begun to fail. At first 
he suffered from repeated attacks of colic. On March 19th, 1857, an abscess 
formed on his right leg, which baffled the skill of the physicians. A visit 
to Frenck Lick did not benefit him. In October the limb was lanced and 
although this relieved him, the wound never healed. On Friday, the 4th 
day of December, 1857, exhausted by his long sickness he delivered his soul 
to his Maker for whose glory he had labored so faithfully. His remains 
were buried in St. Joseph's cemetery, at Jasper, on Sunday, December 6th, 
1857, amidst an immense concourse of people from the whole county. 

Father Kundeck was a remarkable man. He did much for the Catholic 
church wherever he labored, and left behind him permanent and enduring 
evidences of his work. He was held in high esteem by all classes in Dubois 
county, and was sincerely beloved by the members of St. Joseph's congre- 
gation. His death caused general sorrow in and around Jasper, and his 
memory is still fresh in the minds of many of the people of Dubois county. 

The solemn obsequies were conducted by Father Ulrich, who preached 
the sermon, and Father Chrysostom who celebrated mass, assisted by 
Fathers Bede and Isidor. 

Over the grave where his mortal remains lie buried stands a fine monu- 
ment. A short sketch of his life is carved upon it, together with the fol- 
lowing scriptural texts: "At the command of thy mouth all thy people 
shall obey." " I am thy servant and son of thy handmaid." " Hold the 
form of sound words, which thou hast heard of me in faith, and the love 
which is in Christ Jesus." 

In Father Kundeck' s death his church suffered an irreparable loss, the 
state lost a worthy and public-spirited citizen, and Jasper a man of real 
worth and great merit. The sympathy of this man was genuine and his 
alms-giving was just and generous; and many an unfortunate fellow- 
traveler and pioneer was helped over the rough places of life by his timely aid . 

He baptized the babe, taught the child, encouraged the youth, guided 
the man, counseled the aged, and buried the dead. His labors extended 
from continent to continent and from birth to death. God, in his infinite 
wisdom, called him to eternal repose, at age forty-seven and he now peace- 
fully sleeps in the soil of his adopted county. 



Early church services — Early ministers — Early church buildings — The Rev. A. J. Strain 
— List of early ministers of various denominations — The Rev. John Strange— The 
Rev. Wilson Thompson — The Rt. Rev. August Bessonies— Early church deeds — 
Impressive language used in church donations — William Clark Kendall on pioneer 
days— Kundeck, Strain, Shively, Goodman, Nix, etc., leaders of their church creeds 
— The Bailey log church— Origin of the Reformed Methodist Church— St. Joseph's 
cross at Jasper — Early Catholic services — The Sherritt graveyard — Moral, religious, 
and educational forces of pioneer ministers — Detailed history of various churches in 
Dubois county arranged by townships — Columbia, Harbison, Boone, Madison, 
Bainbridge, Marion, Hall, Jefferson, Jackson, Patoka, Cass, and Ferdinand. 

In the pages devoted to the religious organizations in Dubois count}' it 
is our desire to record the facts as thej- have come down to us without 
favor or reflection. "My mouth shall speak the praise of the Uord" — (Ps. 
145 : 21.) Pioneers did not spend their time in uninterrupted scenes of 
sylvan pleasures and work, but paid some attention to the world beyond, 
as the present church organizations in this covmty bear evidences. 

Little minds are interested in the extraordinary ; great minds in the 
commonplace. Those small congregations of nearly a century ago labored 
hard, and the churches of to-day in Dubois county are the result. There 
could well be a thousand pages of details, for details are in numbers as the 
sands of the sea, but enough only is given to indicate the source whence 
came our church organizations, and to serve as a guide to what may be 
expected of the future. 

In the settlement of Dubois county, the pioneer minister was not far 
behind the pioneer cabin builder. In fact an opening in the forest made 
by the woodman would hardly appear before a pioneer minister would 
come along to attend to the needs of the soul. The first minister to put in 
an appearance visited Fort McDonald soon after it was erected. He was a 
member of the Cumberland Presbyterian church. He was followed bj^ 
others of the same denomination, and by Methodists, Baptists, and Catholics. 
While these pioneer ministers were making their way from one settlement 
to another, the pioneer settlers were clearing their land and putting in 
their crops under many difficulties and amidst many dangers. 

The Cumberland Presbyterian church was the first to appear upon the 
frontier in Dubois county. In 1818, that denomination began holding 
services in the county. Perhaps the first regular services were held at 
Shiloh camp meeting ground, said by some to have been in the Irish set- 


tlement in section 25, southwest of Ireland. At any rate, it was the fore- 
runner of the present Shiloh in Madison township. This is considered the 
second church organization of the Cumberland Presbyterian denomination 
in the state of Indiana. One thing seems certain, and that is, that the 
Presbytery for Indiana was organized at Portersville, Tuesday, April 18, 
1826, and its fourth meeting was held at Shiloh church, October 2, 1827. 

When Jasper became the county seat, a Cumberland Presbyterian 
church was built of logs. Later, a frame one was built, which was torn 
down in 1886. The timbers of the latter became a part of a dwelling house 
on "Little Round Top" at Jasper. 

While Dubois county was yet a part of Knox county, and the early set- 
tlers were moving into the wilderness, devout Christian families feeling the 
loss of religious services, would write back to their former homes and 
earnestly solicit some one to come and hold religious services for them. 
The distance and hardships were great, but ministers finally came. [Luke 

Then there were no railroads in the United States ; no telegraphs ; no 
canals west of the Allegheny mountains. Then fire was produced by strik- 
ing a piece of steel with flint, the spark emitted being caught upon a 
spongy substance called "punk," found in knots of hickory trees. The 
wooden shovel-plow was the only cultivator. Worship was generally 
conducted, in fair weather, from a stump, for a pulpit, where conveniences 
were greatest for sitting upon the ground. Sometimes the minister stood 
in the door of a cabin, with the auditors seated promiscuously around, each 
with his rifle conveniently near, in case of opportunity for killing wild 
game, or of intrusion by the Indian. 

Among the pioneer ministers of the Cumberland Presbyterian faith 
were William Harris, Wm. Chapman, Alexander Chapman. John Barnett, 
William Barnett, Finis Ewing, Dr. James Johnson, John M. Berry, Aaron 
Shelby, David Lowry, Henry Delany, John Edmonston, Hiram A. Hunter, 
William L}'nn, Thomas Porter, William C. Long, and Alexander Downey. 
All came frequently except the first six mentioned. They were here only 
for camp meetings. The Rev. David Lowry is said to have been the first 
circuit rider. After him, came Messrs. Hunter, Downey, and Lynn, in the 
order named. The circuit extended from the Ohio river as far north as 
Terre Haute and far enough east to embrace Jasper. 

One could hardly record the early history of Dubois count}' and not 
mention the itinerant ministers who contributed so much to the establish- 
ment of good order, quiet, intelligence, morality, and religious sentiments 
among the first settlers. Dubois county owes much to its earl}' itinerant 
ministers— Cumberland Presbyterians, Methodists, and Baptists. Their 
systems carried their church work into every settlement in the countj', 
and where two or three were gathered together, there was a minister or 
exhorter in their midst. 

The itinerant ministers were on their knees at the bed-side of the dying 
man, and at the grave their voices were heard in songs of praise. Some 


denominations waited for people to come up from the wilderness to wor- 
ship, but the Baptist, the Presbyterian or the Methodist preacher mounted 
his horse, proceeded to the cabin-in-the-clearing, held his meetings, 
preached the gospel, and when he departed, he left the Bible and the hymn 
book to keep the people in touch with his labors. 

The forests of Dubois county were not settled without much sickness, 
many deaths, and great suffering among the people. Malaria, milk sick- 
ness, and cholera were dreadful in their results. Ministers were useful in 
many lines. 

Man}^ of the early ministers spoke of the "zigzag forked lightnings," 
the hell of brimstone and fire — a literal hell and damnation kept in proper 
condition by a forked tail devil and an army of imps. Some in beginning 
the sermons, were slow, deliberate and cautious, thus feeling their way to 
the hearts of the audience, until their emotions would take charge of their 
tongues ; then they would throw their whole soul into the subject, and 
close with such appeals to the congregation as left but few dry eyes at the 
singing of the closing hymn. 

These itinerant ministers usually had a strong ph5'sique, expanded 
lungs, clear and powerful voices, reaching to the verge of the camp ground, 
the eyes of eagles, and both a moral and a personal courage that never 
quailed. Their chief characteristic was good common sense. Most of them 
knew how to feed babies with the "milk of the Word," and how to hurl 
the terrors of the law at old sinners. They seemed to know that old blood 
never runs in young veins. 

Most of these ministers were strong in doctrine, but their great forte 
was in exhortation. They knew how to bring the mourner before the 
altar. They talked with the force of a strong and masterful conviction, 
and thej^ were sincere ; thus they won the good graces and confidence of 
their hearers. The pioneer minister was the compass of heaven, for he 
always pointed to the sky. Dubois county owes man}' of these itinerant 
ministers a heavj' debt of gratitude for their efforts to form society on the 
basis of morality, education, and religion. 

The circuit riders were constant and untiring in their labors. They 
conducted religious services almost daily. The home of some good settler 
served as a gathering place in the absence of a meeting-house or a school- 
house. Such a residence soon became known as the preaching place of 
the communit5^ 

Shiloh was one of the largest religious organizations of its day in Indi- 
ana. Ashbur}' Alexander was one of its strongest elders and supporters. 
Rev. James Ritchey, Sr., was an elder in the same congregation ; so were 
Joseph I. Kelso and John Niblack. The Presbyterians seemed to gather 
near the "Irish settlement," while the Methodists found their favorite loca- 
tion near Haysville. 

By 1833, the Cumberland Presbyterian membership in Dubois county had 
grown so that each church could support a minister. Rev. James Ritchey, 


Sr., was chosen for Shiloh church. A few years later the Rev. H. A. 
Hunter became its pastor. Later, he became a pastor at Portersville, and 
also taught school there. 

The most prominent minister of the Protestant faith that has ever been 
located in Dubois county was the Rev. Andrew J. Strain. He lived at 
Jasper for many years. He was a leader in every public and patriotic 
enterprise worthy of support. The public schools of Dubois county owe 
him a debt of gratitude for his efforts in their behalf in the early days of 
the common school system. 

Among the pioneer ministers of different denominations were the Rev. 
Johnson C. Main, a United Brethren, who lived near Huntingburg, and 
who died in 1842 ; Rev. John Strange, a Methodist, who entered the con- 
ference in 1811, and died December 2, 1832; Rev. Wm. K. Richards, Rev. 
John Mickler, Rev. James B. Admire, a Methodist; Rev. John W. Julian, 
Rev. James Blackwell, Rev. Edward Hall, Rev. Benj. Hall, Rev. Metcalf, 
Rev. Wm. Mavity, a Methodist ; Rev. James St. Clair, Rev. Silas Davis, 
a United Brethren minister; Rev. Harry Davis, Rev. Strain, a Baptist; 
Rev. Jacob B. Shively and Rev. B. T. (Bird) Goodman, Christian ministers ; 
Rev. Powell and Rev. Smith, both Methodists. Smith had been to the 
Holy Land and was a favorite minister. Rev. Thomas Hill was a Baptist. 
Judge Willis Hays, founder of the Haysville M. E. church, was a minister. 

The Rev. John Strange mentioned among the pioneer Methodist camp 
meeting ministers was a great orator. In the summer time there were 
always camp meetings, and the attendance was large, including the repre- 
sentative men of the vicinity. These furnished rare inspiration for ora- 
torical display, and the Rev. Strange never failed to improve them. His 
hair was black and his eye piercing; his voice musical and capable of every 
modulation. Withal he was intensely imaginative and often highly dra- 
matic. When at his best in his line, if his theme was the endless punish- 
ment of the wicked his portraiture of everlasting burnings were fearful 
beyond description, and it was not uncommon for scores of the rough 
characters, who had come to disturb the meetings, to fall as dead men 
under the dramatic touches of the minister. On the other hand, when the 
theme was the lives of the redeemed, he could make the fields beyond the 
swelling flood a great deal greener and the living water much sweeter, and 
the fruits of the tree of life much more delicious than ever before described, 
and the emotion of the congregation would become uncontrollable. 

There used to be Methodist churches at Thales; at Haysville in Harbi- 
son township; and at Shiloh and Robert's Chapel in Hall township. The 
Methodists were pioneers in church work in the northeastern part of 
Dubois county, but most of them moved west, and the Germans who bought 
their farms are members of other religious organizations. 

The best known, and by far the most popular Baptist minister in early 
times, was the Rev. Wilson Thompson. He was born in Kentucky in 1788. 
In 1818, he made a quasi-missionary tour through this part of Indiana, and 
charmed everybody with his unusual eloquence. He died in 1866. 


The Methodists and Baptists were not far behind the Cumberland Pres- 
byterians in their religious efforts in Dubois count}'. A class of Metho- 
dists was organized at Jasper as early as 1S32. The Baptists held religious 
services on the banks of the Patoka river as early as 1838. 

Church services vi'ere held long before church buildings were erected, 
but the dates subjoined will serve to establish permanent organizations. 

On June 8, 1S39, John P. Farris sold fort}' acres in section thirtj'-five, 
one mile from Haysville to the "Trustees of Union Meeting House." On 
June 8, 1 841, he sold land to " Trustee of Union Church." 

On December 7, 1839, James Hawkins, John Donald, Capt. John Sher- 
ritt, Joseph McMahan and Samuel Kelso were elected trustees of a semi- 
nar}' called " The Bible Institute.'''' 

On March 18, 1842, Moses and Mar}' Kelso sold to John G. Sourdeck, 
John C. Shelling, and John Price, trustees of the " Meeting House in the 
Town of Haysville" lot ten (10) in Haysville. 

On March 13, 1848, Samuel Wineinger sold to Samuel Scarlet, Enoch 
Blagraw, and Charles Bruner, trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
three acres of land at Hillham, for the " Eove of God and the advancement 
of His glory." On June 25, 1849, Samuel Jackson sold land in the same 
locality for " The Love of God." 

On August 14, 1848, lot twelve (12) in Huntingburg was sold by Sam- 
uel Main to William Lukemeyer, Adam Trusman, and Charles Quelmalz. 
trustees of a Methodist Episcopal Church. 

On March 20, 1849, John Boyles sold to Hugh H. Boyles, Elijah Ken- 
dall, and Thomas Shoulders, trustees of a Methodist Episcopal Church, 
two acres in section thirteen, two miles west of Schnellville, for the "Love 
of God." 

On October 15, 1S49, Isaac Alexander sold to Samuel Dillon, Sr., Ash- 
bur}- Alexander, Madison Armstrong, Lewis Greene and Andrew F. Kelso, 
" trustees Shiloh ^Meeting House" six acres of land in section twenty-nine, 
southeast of Ireland. This is the historical Shiloh used years before a 
deed was made. Shiloh was so named by the Rev. A. J. Strain. He was 
ordained there, October 10, 1S47. [Joshua, 18:1.] 

On August 8, 1850, Judge Willis Hays sold one-fourth of an acre adjoin- 
ing Haysville, to the "trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church." 

On September 16, 1850, Bamberger and Bretz sold to Philip Jacob 
Bretz, William Bretz and Valentine Limp, trustees of St. Paul's Lutheran 
Reformed Church, land in section thirty-three east of Bretzville. 

The records show that the Methodists were more exact in having fee 
simple deeds to their church properties than other denominations. 

The Chinese locust, " Tree of Heaven," " Paradise tree," or " Metho- 
dist tree," known by all four names — is found in many of the adondoned 
pioneer cemeteries, and curiously enough in practically every pioneer 
Methodist settlement. 

The first Christian church buildings in Dubois county were erected on 
Indian creek about one mile from Bretzville. They were of logs. The 


congregation finally tore them down and built a frame structure near 
where the depot stands at Huntingburg. ' The log buildings were known 
as the Indian creek churches. 

In 1850 a Christian church was built one-half mile west of Schnell- 
ville. It was known as the Bethlehem church. Bethlehem lodge of 
Masons, at Birdseye, perpetuates its name. 

Rev. Jacob Banta Shively, Rev. B. T. Goodman (also known as " Bird " 
Goodman), Rev. Lewis Wood, Rev. Abner Hobbs, and Rev. Green Cato 
were early Christian ministers in Dubois county. Rev. Shively's work 
extended from 1828 to 1868; Rev. Goodman's from 1837 to 1873; Rev. 
Lewis Wood's from 1835 to 1859; Rev. Abner Hobbs from 1835 to 1856. 
The Rev. Green Cato also served several years. Rev. Lewis Wood died in 
1859. There are about five hundred members of the Christian church in 
Dubois county. 

The pioneer women were Christians in a marked degree. Brave women 
in the cause of Christ made brave men in the field and forest. The pri- 
mary studies of pioneer women, as they saw them, were the three " C's " — 
church, cooking and children. It was their hearts' desire and their hands' 
endeavor to make the world better. 

The language used in some of the pioneer donations for church pur- 
poses in Dubois county shows an intensity of purpose seldom found at 
present. John Armstrong and his good wife, Jane, in 1853, deeded Mt. 
Zion in Madison township, to James Anderson, James Stewart, William 
Rose, George Washington Armstrong, and Barton Armstrong, trustees. 
The language in this deed follows. It will serve as a sample : 

John Armstrong and Jane Armstrong, his wife, for the love of God and a desire to 
glorify Him among men, do give and release, confirm and convey unto them, the said 
trustees, in trust and their successors in oflSce, for the uses and purposes herein after- 
ward mentioned all the estate, right, title, interest, property claim and demand whatso- 
ever, either in equity or law, which he, the said John Armstrong, and his wife, Jane 
Armstrong, have in, to, or upon, all and singular, a certain lot or piece of ground or 
land situated in and being in the county of Dubois (here the land is described), together 
with all and singular the meeting-house with "grave yard -house," woods, ways, waters 
and privileges, hereunto belonging, to have and to hold all and singular, the above 
described lot or piece of land situate and being as aforesaid together with all and sin- 
gular the Mt. Zion meeting-house, grave yard-house, woods, ways, waters, and privi- 
leges, thereunto belonging in any wise appertaining unto them, the said trustees, and 
their successors in office, in trust forever. That they shall build or cause to be erected 
from time to time with the approbation and co-operation of the above said Mt. Zion 
Presbyterian church in connection with the Salem, Indiana, Presbytery and that gen- 
eral assembly of the Presbyterian church, usually styled "constitutional" or "new 
school;" such house of worship, parsonage house, dwelling, and other buildings as 
may be deemed useful and necessary to advance the Redeemer's Kingdom on earth 
among men, and for the comfort and benefit of their minister or pastor in charge or 
under the employ of the above said Mt. Zion church or sanctioned by the above said 
presbytery in the above specified assembly, etc. 

William Clark Kendall, who came to Dubois county in 1822, when he 
was one year old, has this to say of pioneer days, churches, and ministers : 


In my early days there were no public roads leading to Jasper. A horse path served 
the purpose. Wagons were not in use. The trees were blazed along the path to serve 
as guides. Father was a mighty hunter and knew all the surrounding country. Theie 
were four families on the path between our settlement and Jasper. There were no 
bridges across the creeks. The traveler waded, or swam his horse. 

Occasionally we saw a friendly Indian. I remember when I was about eighteen 
years old an Indian minister preached in our neighborhood on Grassy Fork. He could 
read. There were no houses of worship. We gathered at the log cabin of a settler, first 
at one place, then at another. We had religious gatherings often; preaching every four 
or six weeks. The Methodists were the pioneers in our section. Edward Hall and 
William Mavity were my favorite ministers. I can not recall more than two denomi- 
nations an)' where near the neighborhood where I lived in Dubois county. That is, 
not more than two until I was passed fourteen years of age. They were the Methodists 
and the Regular Baptists. These denominations held church services in dwelling 
houses most convenient to the members of the congregation. At one time the circuit 
rider had work assigned covering eight weeks, making at least one appointment every 
day and sometimes tv\ o, or even three, a day . The members generally took their trusty 
guns and dogs with them. The salary for such a minister was never more than $300 a 
year. When the countrj- filled up and people became more able to build houses of 
worship more denominations came into prominence, and buildings worthy of the cause 
of Christ were erected. 

As has been said before, the English Protestant churches of Dubois 
count}- had their great leader in the person of Rev. A. J. Strain. He also 
served as county school examiner and died while holding that position. 
He was pastor while most of the Cumberland Presbyterian churches in 
Dubois count}' were erected. 

The German Protestant churches of the county found a pastor and leader 
in Rev. Christian Nix, of Haysville. He was a pastor in Dubois county for 
twenty-nine years, and was serving in that capacity when he died in 1882. 

There are practically no members of 
the Jewish faith in Dubois county. 

Among former citizens of Dubois 
count}' who have worked in foreign mis- 
sionary fields may be mentioned Miss 
Ida Ellis and Miss Lillian Greene. 

The Rev. Jacob Banta Shively, a pio- 
neer minister of the Christian church, 
in southern Indiana, was born near Har- 
rodsburg, Kentucky, December 25, 1797- 
of German parentage. He lived in his 
native state until about 1824, when he 
moved to Orange county, Ind. About 
1829 he moved, with his family, to Dubois 
county and was one of its pioneers. He 

was a minister of the gospel and a farmer. His first cabin was built on 
what is known as the Temple farm, located on the Troy and Jasper road. 
Here it was that his ministry began in Dubois county, preaching in the 
homes of the people scattered over several miles of territory. As soon as 

Rev. Jacob Banta Shively. 



a sufficient number had settled around him , he organized them into a church, 
which they called "The Indian Creek Christian Church." Meetings were 
held in cabins and groves, for a number of years, but finally a log house 
was built in which to worship. It was located north of the Temple farm 
and as long as it was used it had nothing but a ground floor. The house 
has long since crumbled to dust. An old burying ground lies near where 
the old church stood. 

In the fall of 1840, Rev. Shivel}^ sold his farm to John Temple, and in 
March, 1841, he moved on a farm he had previously bought about one mile 
south of Huntingburg, where he lived the rest of his days. 

A new log church building was erected two miles north of the old one on 
Indian creek and meetings were held there, until the organization was 
transferred to Huntingburg, in 1852, where it still remains, having had a 
continuous existence for at least sevent5^-five years. 

The Rev. Jacob Banta Shively united with the church, in 1818, in 
Montgomerj' county, Kentucky, and was soon brought into notice as a 
sweet singer. The solemn earnestness of his looks and the dazzling l)right- 

ness of his eyes are still fresh on the 
tablets of memories in this county. 
Before coming to Indiana he had served 
God in Bath, Fleming, Bourbon and 
Montgomery counties in Kentucky. He 
was ordained to the ministry by the Rev. 
David Stewart, of Marengo. Rev. 
Shively was a preacher of acknowledged 
ability. He had a commanding appear- 
ance, was five feet eight inches tall, had 
coal black hair, piercing black eyes and 
very regular features. He preached, and 
built churches in the counties of Dubois, 
Perry, Spencer, Warrick and Pike, and 
when time permitted, he traveled and 
proclaimed the Word, in Orange, Craw- 
ford, Daviess, and Posey counties. 

For his life's work, he received a 
mere pittance. Sometimes a good sister 
would present him with a pair of home-knit woolen socks, or, perhaps, 
home-made jeans, enough to make a pair of trousers, and sometimes he 
would receive a few dollars for his work. He depended upon his familj^ 
for support. 

His wife was Miss Anna Mavity, a Virginian, by birth. They were 
married, February 5, 1817. Rev. Shively died, at Huntingburg, Februar}' 
II, 1868. 

Rev. B. T. (Bird) Goodman, a great singer and leader of the Christian 
church was born in Barren county, Kentucky, June 5, 1807. He moved 
with his parents to Marengo, Indiana, in the autumn of 1825. In the spring 

Rev. B. T. Goodman. 



of 1831 he married Miss C5'nthia Cummins, sister of the late Charles Cum- 
mins. He moved to Dubois county, in 1834, and entered land near Bretz- 
ville. His first work in the ministry dates from 1837. He was a member 
of the Indiana legislature, several terms. He was a Democrat. He moved 
to where Schnellville now stands in 1847. He moved to Crawford county 
in i860, and was again elected to the lower house of the legislature. Gov. 
O. P. Morton appointed him, in 1863, to fill Capt. W. W. Sloan's unexpired 
term in the legislature. He was appointed enrolling officer during the Civil 

Rev. Goodman delivered addresses over all southern Indiana encourag- 
ing young men to enlist in the service of their country. He was a minister 
for thirty-six years, and was instrumental 
in the conversion of several hundred 
people. His first wife died in April, 
1863. Rev. Goodman married his second 
wife, Mrs. Sallie Philips, in September, 
1868. He moved to Huntingburg in 
187 1, and died there, December, 1873. 
He was instrumental in giving the town 
of Birdseye its name. His ablest and 
most prominent successor in the work of 
the Christian church in Dubois county 
is the Rev. Sampson Cox, of Birdseye. 
The cloth, the vows, and the traditions 
of Father Shively descended unto the 
Rev. B. T. Goodman, and were by him 
handed down to the Rev. Sampson Cox. 

The German Methodists established 
themselves in Dubois count}^ in 1S43, 
and their congregations are now found 
in the southwestern part of the county. 
The Rev. Henry Koeneke and the Rev. Conrad Muth were the first 
German Methodist missionaries in the county. 

In a general way it may be said that, in the early days, the English 
Methodists occupied the northeastern part of Dubois county ; the Cumber- 
land Presbyterians, the northwestern part ; the Chri.stians, the southeastern 
part; the German Methodists, the southwestern part, and the Catholics 
and the Lutherans, the central part. These lines have not been entirely 
obliterated even to this da5\ 

Pioneers were sometimes affected with what was known as the "jerks." 
This was a peculiar affection brought about by heavy and long tension of 
the nervous system during exciting religious revivals. It affected emo- 
tional sinners. It made itself known by a jerking, and violent contortion 
of the body. Its cause has never been fully understood. Emotional peo- 
ple were easily affected. It was commonly seen at protracted camp meet- 
ings, where emotional sermons were delivered, day after day. 

Rev. Sampson Cox. 



In Hall township, facing the rising sun, bounded on the southwest by 
a pasture and on the northeast by a woodland, stands one of the most inter- 
esting examples of the pioneer log churches now in Dubois county. It 
is not old, having been built as late as 1874, yet there is something about 
its very make up that is food for thought, and a splendid subject for medi- 
tation. The lessons taught bj' the past are here brought out to the eye in 
a manner that impresses them upon our memories, never to be forgotten. 
It was built at a time when the citizens of Dubois county were beginning 
to recover from the loss by death, and the burden of debt, caused by the 
Civil War, and, at a time when there was a general revival of religious 
work throughout Dubois county. The fact that this log building, 
with but four windows and a door, was built as late as 1874, in this county, 
is proof that the people of that community waited not on the manner of 

doing, but did. Their religious impulse 
was strong, and they cared not for the 
modern structures of architectural beauty. 
The floor was made of puncheons. The 
altar or pulpit was a single upright piece 
with a short board nailed horizontally 
across its upper end. This held the Holy 
Bible. The seats were made of small sized 
poplar trees split into halves, and held at 
the proper height by four sticks driven 
into the auger holes made for their recep- 
tion. The house was covered with clap- 
boards. It had no ceiling. All these things 
are here to-day. The door is open as if 
inviting the faithful to return to the days 
of 3'ore. The birds, after their day of song 
on the wing, or in the surrounding forest, 
return to the building at night and 
safely rest upon the timbers under the roof. These timbers are poplar 
saplings, and not the sawed timbers of to-day. 

Occasionally a slow, solemn procession winds its wearj^ way along the 
creek, and across the pasture field. It is the concourse of mourning friends 
bringing the remains of some member of the congregation to its last rest- 
ing place. The Baily grave-3'ard was started in 1863, Esquire Wm. H. H. 
Pinnick, burying the first child there in that year. 

The record creating the congregation reads as follows: 

Rev. H. Koeneke. 

We, the Disciples of Christ whose names are herein enrolled do this day con- 
gregate ourselves together on the North Fork of Brushy Pond Creek, Dubois Co., 
Ind., taking the Bible, and Bible alone for our rule and faith of practice. 

This, the 21st. day of March, 1869. 

The record does not record it, btit it is very likely that these religious 
people had read verses 15, 16, and 17 of the apostle Paul's second letter to 


Theelders were Wm. H. H. Pinnick and Jonathan Kesterson- the deacons 
were ba.nue BaUy and Dyar D. Burton. In addition to the ablve he fo, 
lowmg family appear on the reeord: Sanders. Parson Mclve 
Curtrs, Gnllett, Andre. Taber. Nicholson, Williams, Conrad Hembrel 
Chanley, Frentres, Wineinger, Goodman. Campbell. Blum, Zeh . fnd W ' 
It appears that the Rev. Benjamin T. Goodman, who died at HuntinJbnr. 
December ,873, was the spiritual directorat the organization. LatefRev 
Thos A. Cox and Rev. Benj. F. Nicholson served as ministers. ' 

iliis log building stands on a 
hillside, about three-fourths of a mile 
west of the Bender school-house. Nearly 
all the members of the old congrega- 
tion have passed away, gone to other 
churches, moved to other fields of use- 
fullness, or scattered to the four winds 
of heaven. 

At one time there were two church , . _ ^ 
organizations in Harbison township that 

are now disbanded Baily Church, Hall Township. 

The Methodist church at Hickory '' ''''"'"■ '' '*""'■ '' """ 

Mar i ;Llt f y- ?• n ' 7^"""'^ '" "^^ ^'^^^ '«55. Its fonnders were 
t^a cond ct 7' ^ ,!"'"■ ""^ ''''' «™''- Some of the ministers 

that conducted services there were Rev. Vancleve. Rev. Wright Rev Will- 

r Slrf-L^r- ^^^-"•/."'^ ^-- «"''-<•■ The,,e we're ;o„::o7th'e 

fircf „.,-. • 4. , --^iiiiciiu. xnese were some ot tin 

be T ^T'-T.7 "'"'^ ^°"°"'"'- Som<= of the well known old mem- 
bers were Dav.d Morgan, Samuel Morgan, Martin Decker, Frank Potts 

ThTbui d, ■ ^°'" ''"'''' ^°'" ^"'=' ^'•■"^" '^°-' -'i H-->- G-v s 

mot-edt CO'sTaT '"" '™^' '" ''''' '"' ''^ ''"' "-'"-'■ b™^"-' ''-' 

The Christian church at Thales P. O. was founded in the year 1880 and 

organued by Rev^ Lit.ell, Absalom Cooper, Edward Bridges' and Wa'rren 

rTm. r^ r,""°V"^'^ "'°'''"^" ""^'^ K*^^'- 1-"'*^"' R"'- Sherman, 
Rev. Mavity, Rev. Bex, Rev. Floyd, and Rev. William Cox. The leadino^ 

members were: John Davis, F. B. Waldrip, Anthony Bridges, Low 

tZh'^J " ^°°^"- ^"""^ ^""'- ^^"'^l Shervick, and James White 

1 ne building was removed in i8g8. 

^nIll'Z°^T P,7"'=Se °f many men to organize religious movements 
'ood fort '"7' '•'■■""f "-"y y-- of their early lives, but that was the 

relirii?:""' , M '"'°" °' ''""^^y" L*^ "'-' "™ movements, 
no e 7 '^"'"-.Newton's had a humble beginning, and its future was 

soTelv r; 77 k'' ,' ""'"^ °^ ''' conception. It was intended to be 
heard of b' ,1 ' , •' ? ^^^"""^-^ Methodist church of Birdseye was 
heard of by other religiously inclined people and they followed its example 

and re^e^rb , .' T7 "1°^''" ^'f-made, and acquire positions of honor 
and respectability before the world. Like men. they sometimes begin life 
.n the lonely valleys, surrounded by the primeval forests. An example 


easily found is the case of the Reformed Methodist church. This church 
had its origin in a little district school-house in Dubois county, since 
abandoned by the school authorities and now owned by the church organ- 
ized within its narrow confines. Its original record reads, in part, as fol- 
lows : 

On the 30th day of January, A. D. 1877, Rev. William Newton, of Dubois county, 
Indiana, and ten others, met at Hobb's school-house two miles southwest of Birdseye 
in order to devise some means for counteracting what they considered the errors pre- 
vailing in the then existing ecclesiastical bodies in this country, and after prayerful 
deliberation they decided to form themselves into a church which should be liberal in 
government and yet strict in doctrine. They, therefore, took the Scriptures for their 
guide as to doctrine and discipline, which will be seen by their church law, and being 
citizens of a country in which the people govern themselves, they chose a form of 
church government which should be something similar to that of the nation; and with 
this end in view, it was declared that no rule for the government of the church should 
be binding without the consent of three-fourths of the members of the church at the 
time of the adoption of said rule. And it was further declared that the ministers should 
be the servants of the church, and not the arbitrary rulers. With this thought upper- 
most in their minds, the several churches choose their ministers yearly, without having 
any special mode prescribed by the general church. 

For the preservation of harmony, union, and purity, the several congre- 
gations hold regular church meetings once a month, usually on Saturday, 
when they select a chairman, who proceeds to ask the following questions: 

1. Are any of the members sick or in distress? 

2. Are any of our members walking disorderly? 

3. Are there any charges? 

4. Are there any recommendations for license to exhort? 

5. Are there any recommendations for deacon's or elder's papers? 

6. Do peace and harmony prevail? 

7. Is there any other business? 
Each subject is carefully disposed of. 

Soon after the first church was organized other ministers were added to 
It, among whom where Peter Newton, W. W. Eastman, James P. Walton, 
George W. Aders, and James Kendall. The exhorters were Randolph Car- 
ter and Sister Nancy E. Eashbrook. In May, 1878, Rev. J. E. Walton, an 
ordained minister of the M. E. church, from Van Wert county, Ohio, 
entered the church at Friendly Zion, in Crawford county. The church 
now numbers many ordained elders. 

The first annual conference was called at Hobb's schoolhouse, the cradle 
of the church, on December i, 1877. The conference was opened with 
singing and prayer by Rev. Isom Smith, elder in the General Baptist 
church. Rev. Peter R. Newton was elected president and J. W. Jacobs, 
secretary, of the conference. The roll was then called as follows : Elders, 
Peter R. Newton, W. W. Eastman, James P. Walton, George W. Aders; 
local preacher, James Kendall; exhorters, Wm. Newton, Randolph Carter, 
Nancy E. Eashbrook ; lay delegates, John G. Pollard, Milton Waddle, J. 
W. Jacobs, James K. Mynett, Eewis Pugh, and Harrison Nicholson. 


The committee on church government was called and submitted the 
Articles of Faith and Rides and Re^^iilations, which were unanimouslj^ 

The following charter members of the church lived in the imme- 
diate vicinity of Birdseye : 

William Newton, Jeremiah W. Jacobs, John G. Pollard, Joseph B. New- 
ton, Peter R. Newton, Lucinda J. Newton, Margaret J. Finney, Nancy M. 
Newton. Garriel E. Garland, lyucinda J. Garland, Thomas G. Finney. 

The local organization is not prosperous at present. 

Peter Newton, a prominent member, was born in Crawford county, 
Indiana, in 1825. He died at Birdseye, April 13, 1906. 

An example of the Catholic pioneer missionary work in southern Indi- 
ana is found in the life and work of the Rt. Rev. August Bessonies. who 
was born June 17, 1815, at Alzac, department of Lot, in the southwest of 
France, and who died at Indianapolis, February 22, 1901. He was a vicar 
general, and a nobleman by birth. In 1839, he came to America under the 
care of Father Brute, the first bishop of Vincennes. He founded the town 
of Leopold in Perry county and named it in honor of Leopold I, King of 
the Belgians. He built Catholic churches at St. Mary's (six miles from 
Leopold); on Anderson creek ; on Little Oil creek; and where Tell City 
now stands. He used to say mass on Sunday at Derby and Leopold ; on 
Monday at Leavensworth ; on Tuesday at Corydon ; on Wednesday at 
Newton Stewart ; on Thursday at Jasper ; on Friday- at Taylorville ; on 
Saturda}^ at Rockport. It was on these trips, and while on his waj- to and 
from Vincennes that he became identified with the earl}' pioneer life of 
Dubois county. He had as man}' friends among the non-Catholics as in 
his own church. In 1884, Father Bessonies was raised to the dignity of 
a Monsignor, which made him an honorary member of the papal house- 
hold, by Pope Leo XIII. 

In 1S38, Rev. Joseph Kundeck, of Vincennes, arrived at Jasper to look 
after the spirtual interests of the fifteen families of the Catholic faith living 
there His locating at Jasper proved to be the farthest reaching event in 
the early history of the county. He founded several towns in Dubois 
county, enlarged Jasper, erected several Catholic churches, and built the 
first brick court house in the county. He served for many years as county 
school examiner, and in many ways showed himself to be a leader among 
men of any and all religious denominations. To his early labors are due 
the large German Catholic congregations in the county, congregations 
numbering into the thousands, and possessing church and school properties 
valued at a million dollars. 

The early Catholic churches of Dubois county are so closely interwoven 
with the life of Rev. Joseph Kundeck, that his biography should be read 
in this connection. The reader is referred to the chapter on Rev. Kundeck. 

The early Catholics that came to Dubois county were very sincere and 
devout Christians. Their passage to America from their Fatherland was an 
epoch in their lives, and all incidents of the voyage were long remembered. 


On the 25th of March, 1847, eleven families emigrated from the town 
of Pfaffenweiler, Gross Herzogthum Baden, to the United States (via Rot- 
terdam, Havre and New Orleans.) Among the families w^ere the Eckerts, 
Becks, Kieffers, Schmidts, Erbs, Schubles, and George Bauman, a sculp- 
tor. During the first week of their voyage on the Atlantic a most danger- 
ous storm reminded all on board the ship that perhaps the}' were nearer 
death than they were to the cherished shores of America. In this time of 
peril, the pious George Bauman vowed to erect a cross near the church of 
that congregation wherein he would make his future home. Arriving at 
Jasper, Mr. Bauman, in union with a Mr. Heim of Tell City, Indiana, and 
Frank Beck, fulfilled his vow. Joseph Gramelspacher, father of ex-county 
Auditor John Gramelspacher, aided these men materially in carrying out 
their design. Up to this day the cross stands south of St. Joseph's church, 
and bespeaks the faith of these Catholic pioneers of St. Joseph's congrega- 

''The Diocese of Vincennes,'" a history by Rev. H. Alerding, says that 
in 1834, only two or three Catholics were found at Jasper. Rev. St. Palais 
visited them. Services were held on the banks of Patoka river; later, on 
lot No. 118 in the town of Jasper. In 1840 and 1 841, the first brick church 
was built at Jasper. It is now used as a parochial school and for music 
and lecture rooms. Its erection antedates that of the court house of 
1845-1909. Both were built by Rev. Joseph Kundeck. 

At Huntingburg, Catholic services were first held October 20, 1859; at 
Ferdinand, April 22, 1840; at Celestine, in 1842; at St. Anthony about 
i860; at St. Henry in 1862; at Schnellville, November 10, 1873; at Ireland, 
February 15, 1891 and at Dubois, December 24, 1899. 

Any close observer of buildings can readily see the resemblance among 
the old cathedral at Vincennes, the old St. Joseph's church at Jasper, and 
the court house of 1845-1909. The two last named were copied from the 
cathedral. Of all the church property in Dubois county, that of the 
Catholics is by far the most extensive, and represents many hundred 
thousand dollars. 

The Lutheran church has some of the finest buildings in the county. 
The German Evangelical Salem's church, at Huntingburg, erected in 1890, 
cost $25,000. It is a handsome edifice. 

There are more than fifty church buildings in the county, valued at 
more than one million dollars, and they represent as much as one-tenth the 
assessed value of the county. For the number of church buildings in the 
county, Huntingburg ranks first. For the size of congregations Jasper and 
Ferdinand rank first. 

The early cemeteries of Dubois county are an index to the religious 
inclinations of its people. Church organizations often had burial grounds, 
but no church edifices; residences, school-houses, and campgrounds being 
used as places of worship. The Sherritt grave-yard, Shiloh grave-yard. 


and the pioneer grave-yard at Jasper, contain the graves of many leading 
pioneer citizens. The Sherritt grave-3^ard was the first burial ground used 
by Caucasian inhabitants of the county. Here lies the advance guard of 
civilization in Dubois county. 

Here at the Sherritt grave-yard is a place where those who love to 
dwell upon the past history of the county may find fooa for thought. If 
you are like Sir Walter Scott's Old Mortality, you may brush away the 
moss from the French Lick headstones, and read beneath, " Born 1765," 
"Born 1776," "Died 1815," "Died 1825," and any number of similar 
dates. Beneath your feet lie the remains of many hardy pioneers, whose 
graves are unnumbered 
and unmarked, save by 
the ivy that the blasts 
of a hundred winters 
have not eliminated. 
The dignity and elo- 
quence of the names on 
the mossy marbles jus- 
tify the pride of the liv- 
ing who loyally trace 
the most valued influ- 
ences of their lives to 
the time when they 
knew and loved those 
now beneath the sod. 

Here lie in peaceful slumber the early McDonalds, Niblacks, Sherritts, 
Haddocks, Kelsoes, Traylors, McCrilluses, Tollys, Churchills, Cavenders, 
Harbisons, Flints, Butlers, Bixlers, Breidenbaughs — soldiers, judges, sur- 
veyors, pioneers, commissioners — and a long line of others whose names 
have been obliterated from the headstones by the effacing fingers of time. 

Touching the enclosure on the south side is the first field cleared from 
the primeval forest; touching the same enclosure on the north was built 
the first rude cabin of the McDonalds, while on the east stood their first 
double log cabin, and in it was born the first white male native of the soil, 
that now constitutes Dubois county. That child was named Allen McDon- 
ald. He was a child of a Scotch father and a German mother. 

Let those who now own fine farms and homes in Dubois county pause 
here for a moment, and pay their respects to the bodies now crumbling in 
death, who, when in life, directed the axe that cleared the forest and held 
the rifle that stayed the Indian, or felled the bear and the panther. Their 
labors and their efforts to advance civilization on the frontier in their days 
deserve a fitting memorial. 

Mrs. John McDonald, who came to Dubois county about 1802 was the 
first white person buried at Sheriffs grave-yard, and the first in the county. 

Sherritt's Grave-yard. 


William McDonald, the pioneer who was born in Scotland, October lo, 
1765, and who died in Dubois county, July 19, 1818, lies buried at Sher- 
ritt's. He had a son, John, born in 1806, who died April 21, i860. His 
remains are also at rest at Sherritt's. Here also lies the remains of Allen 
McDonald, the first white male child born in the county. 

It is generally conceded that the Presbyterian ministers of pioneer days 
were the best educated Protestant men in the earh^ settlements. They 
seemed to be the leaders in educational movements. There were few highly 
educated Methodist or Baptist ministers in pioneer days, and the Presby- 
terians were called on to serve as teachers. Schools generally came with 
Presbyterian churches. Most of the seminary teachers throughout Indiana 
were Presbyterians. The leading spirit of free schools in Dubois county, 
when forming under the present constitution, was the Rev. A. J. Strain, a 

The parochial school system of Dubois county was founded by the Rev. 
Joseph Kundeck in 1840, and these two systems — free and parochial — the 
first championed by the Rev. Strain, the second by the Rev. Joseph Kun- 
deck, have been in existence in the county for three-quarters of a century. 

The moral, religious and educational forces of the pioneer ministers 
played no minor part among the forces that have evolved the present 
county from the crude material of a hundred years ago. Though their 
syntax was often faulty, and their language often inelegant, the common 
people heard them gladly, and cultured people never failed to attend 
church services, with pleasure and profit. The earlier ministers won 
their way deep into men's hearts to remain there in a greater degree than 
is done to-day. 

In the Valhalla of the peaceful soldiers of the cross these pioneer min- 
isters will rest with honors. 

A detailed history of various leading churches in Dubois county is sub- 



Since about 1840 the Methodists have had an organization of some 
kind at Hillham. Their early services were held in a grove and their 
camp meetings were well attended. A log church building was erected and 
was used for many years. In 1848 and 1849 real estate was purchased at 
Hillham from Samuel Wineinger and Samuel Jackson 

The present congregation of Methodists at Hillham was organized 
about 1884. Their church property is valued at $1,000. On October 9th, 
1899, their building was destroyed by fire, and a year later the present 
building was erected. The United Brethren people also use this same 
edifice for their services. 


Among the ministers who have served at Hillham may be mentioned 
the follovi'ing: John Kesling, George Walker, William Maple, James 
Admire, William K. Richards, John faster, Benjamin Julian, John Walts, 
N. E. Boeing, Elijah Whitten, Henry S. Talbot, Jacob Stalard, John 
Julian, M. F. Woods, Rev. Culmer, W. W. Rundle, E. Gaskins, Rev. 
Winn, Wm. Blue, Allen Julian, John Kiser, Frank Hutchinson, John 

In 190S, the trustees were Wm. L. Harrison, Solomon W. Clapp, Lewis 
Crowder, Grant D. Morgan, and M. Eester Wineinger. 


The Davis creek Regular Baptist church was organized on the first Sat- 
urday in May, 18S3, with about thirty members. The church property is 
worth about $400. Its first trustees were Enoch Cox, Columbus Harbison, 
and W. B. Shipman. Its early pastors were Peter Baker, Joseph Allen, 
and J. E. Baker. In 190S, there were sixty-four members, the Rev. J. B. 
Emmans was paster and Wm. R. Combs was the church clerk. The 
church is located at Crystal. 


This church was organized in 1S80. Among its first trustees were 
Benjamin Simmons and Wm. A. Wineinger. The present building was 
erected in 1888 at a cost of about $500. The church membership is about 
fifty. There are about thirty members in the Sunday school. 

The following ministers have served the congregation: Revs. Blue, 
Pinnick, Winn, Haskins, McXorton, Vancleve, Sidebottom, Ragsdale, 
Morgan, Carnes, and Stiles. Rev. Geo. Stiles was serving in 1908; M. E. 
Wineinger, Wm. H. Nicholson, Jos. E. Beatty, B. B. Simmons, and Thos. 
J. Parsons were serving as trustees. 


In 1898, a Methodist church was erected at Crystal at a cost of $600. 
The church has about forty members, and a Sunday school class of twenty- 
five pupils. Revs. Coleman, Ragsdale, C. P. Zenor, Huring, Charles 
Dobson, A. Erickson, and George Stiles have been ministers on this work. 
Among the trustees of the church are W. H. Payton and Wm. L. Goss, 
Sr., Thomas Pinnick, Sandford Davidson, and Andrew W. Cave. The 
parsonage at Crystal is in charge of the following trustees: Solomon W. 
Clapp, Lafayette Davidson, Wm. L. Goss, Samuel Kerby and Thomas J. 
Parsons. In 1908, Rev. W. S. McMichael was a pastor at Crystal. 




In 1882, fifteen families organized the "Evangelical Lutheran St. John's 
Congregation," near Kellerville. David Raab, Henry Meyer, and John 
Arnold were the first trustees. In the beginning the Rev. G. Loewenstein, 
of Holland, served the congregation. Rev. W. Rein, of Canada, became 
the first resident pastor, in 1884. He remained until May, 1S85, when the 
Rev. F. J. lyange, a student of theology from Capital University of Colum- 
bus, Ohio, was called. He entered upon his charge on September 13, 
1885, and is enjoying the confidence and love of his congregation at this 
time, 1909. There are fifty voting members, one hundred fifty communi- 
cants, and two hundred thirty members. The congregation has a fine 
church, parsonage, and school house, without debts. These buildings are 
valued at $5000. 

Emanuel's Lutheran church, south of kellerville. 

In the northeast quarter of the northwest quarter of section two, south 
of Kellerville, stands the Emanuel Lutheran church. It was organized 
under the Rev. C. Risch, in 1853. A church was erected in 1863, under 
the charge of the Rev. C. Trauth. The tower was added in 187S, when 
the Rev. A. Sterger was pastor. There are about two hundred communi- 
cant members. It supports a parochial school of twelve pupils. The school- 
house was bought of Harbison township about 1889. In 1891, a handsome 
modern parsonage was erected. The congregation owns forty acres of land, 
and it is one of the largest church land owners in the county. Rev. M. 
Rein, Rev. J. J. Keerl, and Rev. Henry Hessemann have served as pastors. 
Among its well known members who have served as trustees may be men- 
tioned Andrew Thimling, J. G. Hemmerlein, Martin Barr, Christ Hagen, 
and John L. Hemmerlein. 

This is one of the oldest Lutheran church organizations in Dubois 
county. Formerly many citizens of the town of Dubois worshiped here. 


This church was founded in 1901, during which year the church build- 
ing was erected. There were about thirty families in the original organi- 
zation. The pastors have been the Rev. J. C. Krellmann, the Rev. G. 
Vogtlin, the Rev. G. Howe, the Rev. W. Holz, and the Rev. Wm. Cramm. 
St. Peter's congregation is associated with the Evangelical church, and of 
the Indiana district of the Evangelical Synod of North America. In 1906, 
the congregation built a new parsonage at a cost of $1550. In 1907, there 
were one hundred forty-seven communicant members, a Sunday school of 
sixty pupils and a Ladies' Aid Society of forty-two members. The prop- 


erty of the congregation is valued at $5000. Besides supporting its own 
congregational expenses, the congregation is greatly interested in mission- 
ary work, orphans' homes, and other charitable institutions, to which it 
has always given a helping hand. The church has a school in connection. 


This church was started in the early forties. Its first constitution was 
framed by the Rev. John Herrmann and adopted on October 15, 1848. 
From 1853 until 1882, the Rev. Christian Nix served the church. Among 
his successors were Rev. Adolphus Baur, Rev. John Lautenschalger, Rev. 
Henry Grabau, Rev. Julius J. Keerl, Rev. W. W. Arndt, and Rev. G. W. 
Stock. This church has the largest congregation in Harbison township. 
The cornerstone of a frame church was laid on December 15, 1867, and the 
edifice was dedicated September 13, 1868. This building was destroyed by 
a storm, January 15, 1906. A new church was erected in 1907 and dedi- 
cated June 16, 1907. The church properties are valued at $20,000, This 
is a flourishing and financially strong congregation. It has a parochial 
school with an average enrollment of thirty-five pupils. 



The Presbytery for Indiana was organized at Portersville, Tuesday, April 
1 8, 1826. There were present nearly all the prominent men of the church 
then in Indiana. This indicates that the Presbyterians were early in 
Dubois county and that they were strong in and about the early "county- 
town" of Portersville. The Rev. Hiram A. Hunter was a well known 
pioneer minister in this congregation, at a time when a Union church stood 
about three miles southwest of Portersville. 

On April i, 1876, Rev. Geo. C. Cooper, Richard F. Milburn, and Simon 
Bixler were the leaders in the organization of the present Union chuich at 
Portersville. Mr. Bixler, a Methodist, had $300 of funds derived from the 
sale of the Methodist church at Haysville, and Mr. Milburn, a like sum 
derived from the sale of the old Union church in Boone township. This 
money with assistance from IvUtherans erected the church. 


The Evangelical Lutheran St. John's congregation, of Boone township, 
Dubois county, Indiana, was organized August 21, 1892, bj- the Rev. H. 
Hennings, a Lutheran minister of Stendal, Pike county, Indiana, and a 
member of the Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of Ohio and other states. 

The following were original members: Jacob Frick, John Bauer, 
Philip Voelkel, Peter Doersam, J. D. Raab, Frederick Frank, Daniel 




Tramback, Herman J. Wiesmann, Frederick W. Wiesmann, Andrew 
Braun, Michael Hacker, and John Mann. The first services were con- 
ducted in the Miley school-house. In 1S93, a church was erected, and a 
year later, a parsonage. Jacob Frick, Andrew Braun, and Herman J. 
Wiesmann were the first trustees. On September 15, 1892, a German Sun- 
day school was organized under the leadership of Philip Voelkel. In 1908, 
there were sixty pupils and Christian Hoffmann was superintendent. 
There are fifty-two voting members in this congregation. The property 
value is $3,220. These ministers have served: Rev. H. Hennings, 1892- 
1S93; Rev. H. G. Koenig, 1893-1897; Rev. Gustav Route, 1897-1900; 
Rev. Wm. Grabermann since 1900. In 1908, the elders were John Kck, 
Sr., and Andrew Braun, Jr.; thedeacons were Charles Weisheit and Philip 
Mann, and the trustees were Christian Hoffmann, George Frederick Mann, 
and Samuel Himsel. 


One of the old sustained land marks in Protestant church history in 
Dubois county is Lemmon's church, in Boone township. It was built by the 
Cumberland Presbyterians. This church was founded in i860, by the fol- 
lowing trustees: Richard Harris, Hamilton McCain, Capt. John M. Lem- 
mon, David Lemmon, Jacob Ivcmmon, Sr., Elijah Ivcmmon, Sr. , and 
Mordica Hopkins. It was dedicated by the Rev. Andrew J. Strain in i860, 
and he remained its pastor until his death, February 2, 1873. The older 
members of this congregation still honor his memory. 



This church was erected in 1870, at a cost of $1,200. At this date it is 
abandoned. It is included in the Otwell circuit, and has, in general, been 
served by the same ministers as served the Methodist church at Ireland. 


Shiloh camp ground was for years a place of Protestant worship, and 
here gathered the Armstrongs, Alexanders, Andersons, Dillons, Stewarts, 
Normans, McMahans, Kelsoes, Roses, Brittains, and many other pioneer 
families from the northwest quarter of Dubois county. It is said that the 
most eloquent sermons of pioneer days were delivered at Shiloh. I,og 
houses or huts were erected forming a hollow square, and in this square 
church services were held. This was long before a meeting-house had been 
erected. A deed, in fee simple, to the ground was not made until October 
15, 1849, when Isaac Alexander sold six acres to the trustees of Shiloh 
Meeting House. The church edifice was built in 1849. A cemetery 


was started in what was once the hollow square, in i860. Miss Minerva 
Kdmonston, a daughter of Col. B. B. Edmonston, was the first to find a 
grave at Shiloh. She died August 10, i860. Shiloh is the fountain head 
of Presbyterianism in Dubois county, but the church property is slowly going 
to decay. An effort is being made to preserve the burial grounds. It is a 
favorite spot for interments. Protestants, strict in their church creed, both 
at Ireland and Jasper, favor Shiloh as a burial ground. Here lie the remains 
of many of the most prominent pioneer families associated with Jasper and 

Shiloh Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 

the " Irish Settlement." There is more in Shiloh than meets the eye, and 
its preservation is almost a sacred duty of future generations. Protestants 
worshiped near Shiloh as earl}^ as 1835. 

On June 4, 1908, the trustees of the Shiloh Meeting House deeded the 
property to " Ireland lyodge No. 388, Ancient, Free, and Accepted Masons," 
under certain conditions, including keeping the house and cemetery in 
proper condition, etc. 


There used to be a church east of the Hobbs graveyard, called "Beech 
Point," but it has long since passed awa}'. 

Rev. A. J. Strain who was ordained a minister at Shiloh, October 10, 
1847, by Rev. Hull, was a prime mover in the organization of this congrega- 
tion. He early held services on the Mark's farm on the Huntingburg road 
in Bainbridge township, and also at the "school house in the bend." 
These were aids to this congregation and the one at Shiloh. 



The Hillsboro congregation was 
organized about 1S56 and its ministers 
have been the same as at the Shiloh 
and Ireland Cumberland Presbyterian 
churches. The present church at Hills- 
boro was erected about 1874. It is 
valued at $1,000. It has about twenty- 
five church members and about fifty Sun- 
ila}' school members. 

Hillsboro Cumberland Presbyterian Church 


This church was erected about 1S85, but the congregation was organized 
in 18S2. It has a membership of eighty and a Sunday school of seventy- 
three pupils. The church is now a Presbyterian church. The property 
is valued at $3,500. In 
1908, Dr. L. B. W. 
Johnson, James L. Nor- 
man, and Wm. B. Mor- 
gan were its trustees. 

This church has been 
served by the following 
ministers: S. J. Martin, 
April, 18S1 to October, 
1884; N. F. Gill, April, 
1885 to May, 1890; R. 
C. Buchanan, May, 1890 
to August, 1S90; D. W. 
Cheek, October, 1890 to 
October, 1892; W. H. 
Jackson, November, 
1892 to October, 1894; 
J. I. Gregory, November, 1894 to December, 189S; T. C. Metcalf, Febru- 
ary, 1S99 to February, 1900; E. E. Banta, April, 1900 to October, 1902; 
R. C. Estel, February, 1903 to February, 1904; T. W. Wells, April, 1904 
to April, 1906; J. T. Means, May, 1907 to October, 1907; J. O. Ashborn, 
May, 1908 to . Rev. E. E. Banta died in August, 1908. 

Ireland Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 


x\ church was erected in 1S68. The congregation was organized in 
1866. Among its first trustees were Israel Adams. Thomas Kellams, and 
Benjamin Dillon. There are about one hundred twenty members. The 
Sunday school has a hundred pupils. The church property is valued at 
$1,200. Among the later trustees are Albert H. Stewart, W. P. Ander- 
son, and A. R. Horton. 


These men have served as ministers : O. A. Barnett, O. H. Tansy, B. 
F. Johnson, W. F. Smith, Geo. D. Wolfe, J. D. Jeffery, W. P. Wallace, C 
D. Whittell, G. K. Winn, J L. Simms, J. T. Edwards, C. E. Ketcham, F. 
T. Horn and W. G. Morgan, (190S.) 


In 1890, about eighteen farmers living near Ireland asked Father Fidelis, 
O. S. B., pastor at Jasper, to build a little mission church at Ireland. The 
plan met with favor, and a subscription was taken. Four acres of ground 
were bought adjoining Ireland and the erection of a small frame church 
was begun. Services were first held in this new church February 14, 1891, 
by the Rev. Father Fidelis, but he immediately turned over the care of the 
mission to the professors of the Jasper College, and the Rev. P. Dominic 
Barthel, O. S. B., or some other professor made weekly visits to Ireland on 
Sundays covering a period of five years. 

In 1894, a parsonage was erected. In 1S99, this parsonage was turned 
over to the Sisters of St. Benedict as a residence, and they opened the paro- 
chial schools. Rev. P. Martin, O. S. B., took charge of the work in 1S95. 
In 1903, the people made preparations to build a larger church and the Rev. 
Anthony Michel, O. S. B., was called to be the first resident pastor of St. 
Mary's. He built a new and larger church of brick. Rev. Anthony found 
forty-five Catholic families when he took charge of the place September 28, 
1903. He began at once to make the plans for a new church and gathered 
the necessary materials and funds, and on August 15, 1904, the corner stone 
of the church was laid by the Rev. Athanasius Schmitt, Rev. Dominic 
Barthel. and Rev. Anthony Michel. The building is forty-eight by one 
hundred eighteen feet, of brick with Bedford stone trimmings, and slate 
roof. It was frescoed in 1905, and used for divine services for the first 
time on Christmas, 1905. Only $11,000 in cash was paid for the building, 
but members donated much in labor and material during its construction. 
There were sixty-three families in this congregation in 1906; the member- 
ship was three hundred sixty. A new up-to-date parsonage was erected in 
1906, and in 1908, a $1,500 altar was placed in the church. 

The old frame church has been converted into a parochial school build- 
ing, and the school enrollment is sixty-five. 



On April 8, 180S, Bardstown, Kentucky, was made the see of a Catholic 
bishop, and Indiana was under his jurisdiction until 1834, when the diocese 
of Vincennes was established. The Right Rev. Simon Gabriel Brute was 
the first bishop of the newly created diocese, and he is said to have been 


highly distinguished for talents, learning, and piety. His zeal for the 
spreading of the Catholic faith was so great that before his death, which 
occurred in July, 1839, he had established Catholic churches at about 
twenty-five points in Indiana. Jasper was one of them. 

St. Joseph's Catholic Church. Jasper, 1908. 

The early Catholic church history of Jasper and the life of the Rev. 
Joseph Kundeck are so closely connected that the reader is referred to- 
Chapter XV, devoted to the Rev. Kundeck personally, for the earlier 
histor}' of St. Joseph's cliurch. The following sketch will deal mainly 
with the modern achievements of the congregation. 


The massive stone church, at Jasper, is dedicated to St. Joseph. It is 
one of the largest churches in the Ohio valley. Though this great edifice, 
including grounds, is worth about one-quarter of a million dollars, it was 
built by the Catholics of Jasper. 

The Rev. Fidelis Maute, O. S. B., began the erection of St. Joseph's 
church. On September 14, 1868, Bishop St. Palais laid the corner stone. 
After the death of Father Fidelis Maute, O. S. B , the work was taken up 
by Father Stephan Stenger and Father Basil Heusler, O. S. B. 

Except for the ornamentation, the materials used in the construction of 
St. Joseph's were prepared and put in place by the members of the con- 
gregation, which for four decades have been making sacrifices of all kinds 
to realize the ambition of their lives. Besides the vast amount of labor 
contributed, $100,000, in cash, have been raised and $50,000 more will be 
necessary to complete the work entirely. 

When Father Fidelis Maute, O. S. B., conceived the idea of the great 
structure he was anxious that it be built in a most substantial manner, and 
certainly his wishes have been followed. The tile roof is supported by 
huge trees, the largest in southern Indiana, that serve as imposing ninetj^ 
foot columns. The roof structure is composed of forest trees used as 
rafters and braces. Between the outer roof and the ceiling there are over 
1,000,000 feet of the finest hardwood in the state. There is an immense 
amount of stone in the structure. The story is that after farmers had 
hauled stone for months and had all the surrounding land covered, they 
thought there was enough for the entire structure. Instead, there was 
only half enough for the foundation. 

The foundation and walls of the church went up under the direction of 
Father Fidelis Maute, O. S. B., who after preaching a sermon Sunday 
morning, announced who had been selected to work during the coming 
week. By this means about one-seventh of the entire congregation labored 
each week. Father Fidelis Maute, O. S. B., not only assigned the men to 
work, but he, the busiest, directed it all. Year after year this continued 
until gradually the structure took shape. 

The dimensions of St. Joseph's are eighty-five feet by two hundred 
four feet. From the foundation to the eaves is sixty-seven feet and from 
the floor in the interior to the ceiling is ninety feet. Some walls are four 
feet thick; others are six. The steeple is two hundred twenty feet high. 
The chime of bells in it, with their hangings, weigh twelve tons Its son- 
orous and grand voice may be heard, with a favorable breeze, ten miles 
from the church. 

The church can seat twelve hundred people on the ground floor, and 
another five hundred can find standing room. 

Father Basil Heusler, O. S. B., now in charge, is doing all he can to 
beautify the great structure, unfinished at the death of the Rev. Fidelis 
Maute, O. S. B. 


Besides putting in a splendid heating system, there have been added 
fine art windows. Over the entrance is an art window showing Christ feed- 
ing the multitude. It cost $600. Near the altar is another of the Good 
Shepherd that cost $475, while on the other side is the Nativity of the 
Lord, that cost $450. Over the center altar is a small window, the glass 
in which cost $300. The other smaller windows cost $175 apiece, and the 
side windows $300 apiece. These windows were put in through the efforts 
of the Rev. Stephan Stenger, O. S. B., while he served as rector. 

The windows are not the most expensive part of the ornamentation. 
The three altars are especially fine, being constructed entirely out of Italian 
marble. The high altar with the two groups, each seven feet high, cost 
$19,000. The side altars, one crowned with the Blessed Virgin, the other 
with St. Joseph, the patron saint of the church, cost $6,000 apiece. The 
railing separating the sanctuary from the church auditorium is of onyx and 
brass that cost $1 ,000. The other decorations are proportionate in expense 
and beauty. 

When Father Fidelis, O. S. B., died, he had not made any provision 
for properly heating and lighting the vast structure. At present, elec- 
tricity is used for the illumination. The immense organ is operated b}- 
water power. 

The congregation of St. Joseph includes five hundred fifty families, or 
about three thousand communicants. In Jasper, ninety per cent, of the 
inhabitants are Catholics and Dubois county is one of the strongest Catholic 
districts in the state. They have made many sacrifices to construct this 
magnificent edifice. The monastery at St. Meinrad has received considerable 
aid from these people. It is thought that the aggregate amount of Catho- 
lic property in the county of Dubois is worth nearly $1,000,000. 

The Jasper congregation is one of the wealthiest in the county, supports 
the largest parochial school system, and has the most valuable church 
grounds in the county. The parochial school buildings, St. Joseph's hall, 
and the parsonage are among St. Joseph's possessions. Just west of St. 
Joseph's church is the Jasper College for men. 

Dating from its organization the following ministers have been in charge 
of St. Joseph's congregation : Rev. Joseph Kundeck, October 14, 1838 to 
January, 1S58; Rev. Beda O'Connor, O. S. B., January, 1858 to November, 
i860; Rev. Ulrich Christen, O. S. B., November, i860 to February, 1865; 
Rev. Wolfgang Schlumpf, O. S.B., February, 1865 to July, 1865; Rev. 
Fidelis Maute, O. S. B , July 1865 to June, 1897; Rev. Stephan Stenger, 
O. S. B., June 1897 to September, 1S98; Rev. Basil Heusler, O. S. B., since 
September 8, 1898. 

The Jasper College and Sisters' residence each have private chapels for 
use of pupils and instructors. The chapel at the college was dedicated 
September 27, 1908. 




Rev. Fidelis Maute was born in 1837, in Inneringen, Province Hohen- 
zollern, [Sigtnaringen, Prussia.] He received his classical education in 
Hedingen, near Sigmaringen and Maria Einsiedlen. His theological 
studies he finished in Mainz. In 1861, he left for America. On June 21, 
he landed at New York, and on the 29th he arrived at St. Meinrad, Indiana. 

Rev. Fidelis Maute, O. S. B. 


He made his profession at St. Meinrad, September 8, 1863, and 
ordained January 2, 1864. He died June 22, 1897. 

The character of the Rev. Fidelis Maute possessed such length and 
breadth, and his life was so full of church activity that any attempt to epito- 
mize them must seem narrow and insufficient. His death left upon the town 
of Jasper a marked sense of vacancy, a feeling that one was gone whose 
place could not well be filled. 


The basis upon which rests the splendid life record of Father Fidelis 
was a hearty, brave, strong, and genuine manhood. His sincerity was so 
deep and thorough that it was never questioned. To many his word was 
law. He met all comers with the truth. No one could come in contact 
with him without feeling the genuineness of his nature. If he was for a 
man or measure it was known and felt. He thought not of himself but of 
his church. 


Older readers will well remember the name of Col. B. B. Edmonston, 
for a long time one of the most prominent officials of Dubois county. His 
hospitable home stood at the west end of Eighth street in the town of Jas- 
per, and here he fed and housed hundreds of guests. His residence has 
been moved aside to make room for the extended boundaries of the town 
and in what was once a corner of his front yard now stands Trinity church, 
an object of pardonable pride and pleasure to many of the Protestants of 
Jasper. The church buildings are used by the Presbyterians and Euther- 
ans, and are valued at $6,000. The building has a Sunday school annex, 
library room, chime of bells, artistic memorial windows, and good seats. 
There are no debts. The principal initiative donors were Eckert Brothers, 
Friedman Planing Mill Company, Frank Joseph, W. S. Hunter, Wm. A. 
Traylor, *Geo. R.Wilson, August H. Koerner, Herman Eckert, Philip Dilly, 
and John Gramelspacher, each contributing one hundred dollars. Scarcely 
half of these were members of the church, thus showing Trinity to have 
been built from a standpoint of public spirit. 

The Trinity church organization of Jasper is composed of the German 
Evangelical Lutheran Trinity Congregation and the Cumberland Presb)^- 
terian Trinity Congregation. German services are held on the first and third 
Sundays. English services are held on the second and fourth Sundays. On 
the fifth Sundays the time is divided. The deed bears date of July 30, 
1898. Trinity church was erected in 1898. 

This church supports a Sunday school, and a Young People's Society of 
Christian Endeavor. The Commercial club and the Ladies' Aid Society 
contribute valuable service to the church. 


The Methodist Episcopal church at Jasper was organized about 1S32. 
Meetings were held at the residences of Dr. Aaron B. McCrillus and Benja- 
min Enlow. The Reverends Cartright, Talbot, and Ravenscroft were its 
early ministers. Rev. Ravenscroft's circuit extended from Madison to 
Newburg, both on the Ohio river, to White river. He arrived at Ja.sper, 
on horseback, traveling through the forest without road or bridge. About 
1836, a Protestant church was erected on lot 83, at Jasper. When the 
court house was lost by fire, in 1839, this building was used as a court 

=^'Not a member of any church. 



house and served as such for six years, 
during which time church services 
were held at residences and in groves. 
Lot 83 was sold and a new site was 
purchased on west Sixth street, where 
a brick church edifice was erected. 
The Methodist Episcopal church 
property is estimated to be worth 

The church building on lot 83 was 

used b}' the Rev. A. J. Strain, as a 

place of worship for many years, and 

received its main support from the 

Cumberland Presbyterians. The 

money to erect the building was 

obtained by subscriptions from the 

"Irish Settlement," through the 

eflforts of the Rev. Alexander Downey. In connection with the Methodist 

Episcopal church at Jasper are the Sunday school, the Epworth League, 

and the Ladies' Aid Society. 


Jasper Methodist Episcopal Church. 


The first move to build a Catholic church at Dubois was made at St. 
Celestine's church at Celestine, Sunday, September 17, 1899. At that time 
the people at Dubois and vicinity belonged to the Celestine congregation. 
Another meeting was held September 21, 1899, the Rev. Charles Bilger and 
Mr. Bernard Rowekamp taking the initiative. About four acres were donated 
by John Seng, October 13, 1899 and George Dekemper, Henry Dudine. 
John Kempf, and Charles Nordhoff were selected as the building committee, 
Contractor John M. Schmidt of Jasper erected the church, and services 
were first held, December 24, 1899. A parsonage was also built, and by 
the end of January, 1900, all had been paid for. The building was dedi- 
cated June 7, 1900 by the Rt. Rev. Bishop O'Donaghue, of Indianapolis. 

Rev. Charles Bilger, an organizer and energetic minister, was pastor of 
both the Celestine and Dubois congregations, until July 4, 1902. Services 
were held at Dubois once a month, but since July 4, 1902, St. Raphael's has 
had a 'resident pastor and regular services each Sunda3^ The Rev. E. J. 
Zirkelbach was pastor for two years previous to July 4, 1906. During his 
term, the cemetery as at present located, was established. Rev. Richard 
Hoeing succeeded the Rev. E. J. Zirkelbach, and under his care the parish 
is prospering. Among the early church trustees are the following well 
known citizens: Joseph Friedman, Joseph Segers, John Fischer, and Her- 
man Teder. The membership exceeds four hundred. The school enrolls 


about seventy-five pupils. The parish takes an interest in Indian and 
Negro missions, and in orphan children. lyiberal contributions are made 


In the year 1SS8, the members and friends of the Methodist Episcopal 
church in Harbison and Marion townships erected a substantial and com- 
modious frame church building at Dubois, but its membership is small. 
Many of its original founders have moved away or have gone to their rewards. 
The Rev. Charles W. Kllis was one of its strong supporters. He moved 
away in 1891. The property is estimated to be worth one thousand dollars. 

In 1908, the trustees were Randolph H. Allen, David S. Morgan, Jasper 
P. Mynett, Thomas Poison, and M. L. Wineinger. 



Upon one of the many points in Hall township stood Robert's chapel, a 
Methodist Episcopal church. It stood there for twenty years, a beacon 
light to the surrounding country. A log church was built where Robert's 
chapel stood about the years 1 858-1 859. The leaders in this enterprise were 
James Kendall, Wm. Jacobs, and others. It is said that James Kendall 
hewed the logs and James Ellis hauled them with a yoke of cattle. The 
log house stood for some years without door, shutter, or window sash. 
Isaac Harmon put in the door and windows about 1862-63. The house 
never contained a stove. The lumber used in its construction was sawed 
by a little water-power mill known as McMahel's mill. It stood on the 
banks of Lick Fork creek. The first services were conducted by that 
pioneer preacher, Rev. A. O. Barnett. 

It was said by John A. Roberts, who died in 1859, and on whose land 
Robert's Chapel stood, that it was named in honor of Bishop Roberts. 

The frame church was erected and dedicated during the summer of 1879. 
The new house was built through the efforts of Levi K. Ellis, Valentine 
Roberts, John W. Coble, James M. Ellis, Lafayette Ellis, Wm. Ellis, the 
two Geo. W. Roberts and many other earnest men, and their wives. Saw- 
logs were cut and floated down Lick Fork creek and Patoka river to 
Dubois, where Rev. Chas. W. Ellis, now a capitalist of Greencastle, sawed 
them into lumber, gratis. Mr. George W. Roberts, Sr., built the church. 
Services were conducted by Rev. Thomas Mann, the pastor at that-time. 

In this church worshiped the following families : Ellis, Parks, Kellams, 
Jacobs, Nolan, Coble, Maudlin, Line, and a host of others who lived in the 
neighborhood of Ellsworth. 

The house stood in a commanding position by the side of the public 
road, and it was often a subject for contemplation by travelers. It was 
torn down, in 1908, for lack of church membership in the neighborhood. 



The class of Methodists who founded the first church in Hall town- 
ship for years controlled the destiny of Hall township to such a degree 
that an extended mention is in order, even though the house and congre- 
gation have passed away. 

About 1843, James Kendall (father of Lieut. W. W. Kendall), Elisha 
Jacobs, Benjamin Hawhee, Joel Mavity, and Page Mavity concluded to 
erect a log meeting house to be used for school and church purposes. 
David Morgan Wise owned forty acres in the southwest corner of section 
three about three miles from Celestine. It was the home of his grand- 
father David Morgan, a retired Methodist minister, who had spent fifty 
years in the ministry. Upon this tract of land the first Methodist church 
in Hall township was erected. The first house proved to be too small, and 
the site was unfavorable. In due time a larger house was erected at the 
half mile corner between section three and four on the New Albany road, 
on the land of Thomas Fleming. In this new log church the first services 
were held by Rev. Kisting, who named the new structure Shiloh. The 
first meeting lasted fifteen days. This house was used for school purposes. 
It was also headquarters for the local philomathical society, called the 
"Shiloh Polemic Society," the main subjects discussed bearing on 
polemics. The discussions were thought to be masterful efi"orts. 

Among the teachers who taught school at Shiloh were Alexander 
Shoulders, Samuel H. Jacobs, John Z. McMahel, Aaron McCarty, Jane 
Coplinger, and William Jones — all pioneers. 

In 1872, the old log house was torn down and a frame erected, but about 
1896, this was torn down, the beautiful grove cut away, and the lot now 
forms part of a field. The influence of this church and school was felt in 
its pupils and in their social, political, and military history as well as in their 
citizenship in general. It served well its purpose and then passed away. 

ST. Joseph's general baptist church in hall township. 

The estimated value of this propert}^ is $700. It was constructed about 
1 868. The membership numbers about fifty, and services are held monthly. 
Elders Abbot, Simon Wood, G. B. Campbell, Lon Wood, Wm. Chessar, 
and W. F. HighfiU have been associated with St. Joseph's. 

Among the families worshiping here are those of Isom Smith, Jackson 
Gross, Mary E. Gross, Henry Bradley, G. W. Nelson, Nancy Bradley, Steven 
Sanders and wife, James H. Deal and wife, Jesse Adkins and wife, Charles 
Dearborn and wife, William Adkins and wife, Delbert Adkins and wife, 
and John Ferguson and wife. 

This church is situated in the southeast corner of Hall township. 

ST. celestine's catholic church at celestine. 

The parish of St. Peter Celestine derived its name from the second 
bishop of the formerly called Vincennes diocese, namely Celestine de la 


Hailandiere. It was founded in November, 1843, by the pioneer resident 
priest of Dubois count}-, the Rev. Joseph Kundeck. He began with fortj-- 
six families under the leadership of Bonifatius Fehrn and Bernhardt IMer- 
kel. emigrants from the grand duchy of Baden, Germany. 

The roster of the pastors is subjoined: Rev. Joseph Kundeck. Novem- 
ber, 1S43 to September, 1849; Rev. Math. Lestner, September, 1849 to Feb- 
ruary, 1S50: Rev. Joseph Kundeck, February, 1850 to April, 1851; Rev. 
John Merl, April, 1851 to May 4, 1853; Rev. Joseph Kundeck, May, 1S53 
to September 15, 1853; Rev. Joseph Neuber, October 2, 1853 to May 28, 
1854; Rev. Joseph Kundeck, June, 1854 to November 18, 1854; Rev. Joseph 
Wirz, December 3, 1854 to October 7, 1855. 

(Here several Benedictine fathers served until the arrival of the next 
resident pastor.) Rev. Joseph Meister, August 31, 1859 to February, 1865; 
Rev. B. Brunding, June, 1865 to November, 1877; Rev. Alex. Koesters, 
June, 1878 to June 6, 1883; Rev. Joseph Fleishman, June, 1883 to February, 
1891; Rev. Charles Bilger, February 3, 1891 to the present time. 

In 1S55, the membership was one hundred families; 1867, one hundred 
forty-two families; 1891, one hundred eighty-two families; 1899, two hun- 
dred six families. In 1899, the erection of St. Raphael's church at Dubois 
reduced the membership to one hundred forty-seven families. The church 
properties and grounds are valued at $30,000. 

This church has in its archives a most excellent oil painting which once 
hung in a cathedral in the city of Mexico. After the capture of the 
city in the Mexican War, an American soldier cut the picture from its 
frame, with his sword, and carried it back to this countr}- with him. Dan- 
iel Woelker had the picture in Louisville, and sold it to Bernhardt Merkel 
for fifteen dollars. Mr. Merkel donated the painting to the church. Its 
real value is not known. 



In 1 90S, this church had a membership of seventy-five, and a Sunday- 
school of fifty pupils. The building was erected in 1886, and is valued at 
$1,200. Wm. Koerner, James E. Glenn and David Petitt are the trustees. 

The Inman, Boston, Petitt, Koerner, Smith, Baxter, Taylor, Glenn, 
and Zimmer families are the main supporters of the church. The church 
honors the name of the Inman family, pioneers of the town. 

The following ministers have been in charge of the church: Revs. 
Baan, Bubler, Barnett, Miles, Kiper, Robinson, Crow, McKee, McMichael, 
Maupin, Roof, McCowen, Bostic, and Erkson, though not in the order 
named. In 1908, the Rev. L. G. Black was pastor. Rev. McKinley was 
pastor in 1909. 



The Christian church at Birdseye was erected in igo8, and dedicated on 
May 24th of the same year. It is valued at $1,000. The membership is 
one hundred. Rev. Sampson Cox was a resident minister in 1909. 


This church was organized by the Rev. h. Wood in 1889. The prop- 
erty is valued at $1,000. There are forty members. Among its pastors 
were the Rev. h. Wood, Rev. Wm. Chessar, Rev. Raymond Selby, Rev. 
O. E. Johnson, Rev. E. Cox, Rev. G. B. Campbell, and others. The church 
belongs to the "Flat Creek Association." In 190S, the trustees of New 
Hope General Baptist church were Reuben F. Bates, John Potts, and Sam- 
uel B. Gilliat. In 1909, Rev. Haydon was minister. 


The Bethlehem congregation has its church immediately north of the 
village of Mentor. Its first trustees were Alvin T. Whaley, Levi M. Grant, 
and Bazil B. Abell. James Kellams, A. A. Leonard, William Pruitt, and 
Theodore Whaley have also served as trustees. The church building was 
erected in 1897 at a cost of six hundred dollars. There are about one hun- 
dred members, and services are held twice a month, usually. The first 
minister was the Rev. Sampson Cox, one of the best known Christian min- 
isters in southern Indiana. The Rev. Thomas Stalling has also served as 
a minister. 

A cemetery adjoins the church. The location was selected in 1S67, by 
James E. Sanders, Sr., and Marion Sanders, Sr. The remains of Mary 
Sanders were the first to find a resting place there in April, 1867. 


The Schnellville congregation had its origin in families once belonging 
to the St. Anthony congregation. On November 10, 1873, Bishop de St. 
Palais visited Schnellville and consented to the erection of a small church. 
It was under the direction of Rev. P. Placidus Zarn, O. S. B. On May 4, 
1S76, services were held at Schnellville for the first time. St. Meinrad 
supplied the ministers until December, 1882, then the Rev. Joseph Villinger, 
O. S. B., became the first resident pastor. There is a good frame church 
and parsonage, and a fairly prosperous congregation, constantly on the 
increase. The church schools are under the care of Benedictine Sisters. 
The church property is estimated to be worth $12,000. 



The property of this church is valued at $400, but the congregation is 
disorganized and disbanded. 



The members of this congregation previous to 1864 belonged to the 
churches at Celestine, Jasper, and Ferdinand. In 1864, the Rev. Joseph 
Meister formed St. Anthony's congregation and built a log church and 
a log parsonage. There were about forty families in this congrega- 
tion in 1864. Father Meister lost his life February 25, 1868, a tree falling 
upon him while the woods about the church property were being cleared 
away. He was born in Switzerland, July 11, 1793. Rev. Joseph Kauf- 
mann served as pastor from July, 1868, until December, 1869. The Bene- 
dictine Fathers of St. Meinrad then took charge, and the following fathers 
have been at St. Anthony: P. Eberhardt Stadler, P. Placidus Zarn, P. 
Conrad Ackermann, P. Maurus Helfrich, P. Henry Hug, P. Benedict 
Brunet, P. Alphonse Leute, P. Basil Heusler, P. Simon Bosler, and P. 
Clement Klingel. 

A new stone church was erected in 1881; it is fifty feet by one hundred 
six, and a handsome structure. The congregation has a handsome par- 
sonage, and an excellent school house, probably the best, for a congrega- 
tion of this size, in the county. 


The St. John's Evangelical Congregation at Bretzville was organized 
in 1848 by about twelve early German settlers. Jacob Bretz, Sr. , and 
Peter Bamberger, Sr., jointly donated an acre of land for the site of a 
church and a cemetery. The church was constructed of logs and had a 
board roof. At first the congregation was served by ministers from Hunt- 
ingburg. The earlier ones were Rev. Ruscb, Rev. Bauermeister, and Rev. 
Onkeli. Peter Bamberger, Sr., Jacob Bretz, Sr., and Jacob Limp were 
among the earl}- trustees. 

In 1 87 1, the membership reached about thirty and a new house was 
erected at Bretzville. The church and parsonage cost about $2,500. Rev. 
Karl Ritzman was the first resident pastor. Rev. E. Mahlberg was in 
charge in 190S, and Philip Bamberger, Jacob H. Bretz, and Jacob Bretz, 
Jr., were trustees. 



This church was founded in 1843 with about thirty members. The 
following were the trustees: W. G. Helfrich, Herman Behrens, Henry 
Roettger, Paul Gerken, Jacob Eimp, Christ. Schuermann, Gerhard Rothert, 
and Fred Kruse. In 1908, there were more than two hundred families 
connected with the church. Originally the church organization was 
known as the "German Evangelical Lutheran and Reformed Church," 
which name was afterwards changed. The first house of worship was a 




.^r=TnL"-:»r^': ■^.•/ , ^« li- ^ .--III.. , ,- 

Salem's Church, Huntingburg. 


little log house. A handsome brick building succeeded it, and served until 
the present building was erected in 1890. The present immense and 
beautiful structure is supplied with electric lights, steam heat, grand pipe 
organ, and three melodious bells. There is an elegant parsonage. The 
church property is valued at $30,000, and is one of the finest in the county. 
Connected with this church is a large Sunday school, a thriving Young 
People's Society, an active Ladies' Aid Society and a very successful Sick 
Benefit Society. These men have been pastors: Rev. W. Lauer, Rev. C. 
F. Risch, 1854; Rev. M. Schrenck, 1858; Rev. W. Bauermeister, i860; 
Rev. D. Ankele, 1865; Rev. Fred Weissgerber, 1869; Rev. C. Spathelf, 
1878; Rev. Val. Ziemer, 1881; Rev. P. Scheliha, 1886; Rev. H. Wulf- 
mann, 1896; Rev. G. A. Kienle, 1903; and Rev. Paul Repke. 

This church congregation is one of the wealthiest among the Protestant 
churches of the county. In 1908, the following men were trustees: Philip 
Partenheimer, Walter F. Bretz, John Mutchman, Conrad Landgrebe, 
Philip Bamberger, John H. Kreke, Wm. Borner, John Burghof, and Her- 
man Steinker. 

For many years this church used a pipe organ constructed by C. Korn- 
rumpf, a member of the congregation. For perfection, tone, mechanical 
construction, and workmanship it was the pride of the town and known 
throughout the state by lovers of instrumental church music. 


In 1871, Huntingburg and Jasper were organized into a mission with 
the Rev. N. E. Boring as minister. The Huntingburg charge was organ- 
ized in 1872. The Rev. James Moore was the first minister. The record 
of ministers on the charge is incomplete, but these do appear: James 
Moore, James B. Holloway, Geo. D. Wolfe, S. F. Anderson, John Woods, 
J. T. Edwards, J. B. Thomas, Thos. G. Beharrell (an Englishman, who 
died in 1908); John W. Payne, W. P. Wallace, John Royer, J. E. Fisher, 
J. S. Washburn, F. L. Priest, and J. A. Breeden (1908.) 

The church Ijuilding is of brick, in good condition and valued at $4,500. 
It was dedicated in August, 1894, by Bishop Bowman. Its first trustees 
were Dr. G. P. Williams, Wm. Elshoff, P. T. Gresham, S. C. Miller, and 
E. W. Blemker. The parsonage is valued at $1 ,500. The church member- 
ship in 1908 numbered one hundred seventy-eight. 


The early history of this congregation is almost the same as that of the 
Zoar's Methodist Episcopal church, in Cass township. During the years 
1S50-1851 a small frame church was built at Huntingburg. The early 
members were Adolph Katterhenry and wife, Adam Arensman and wife, 
E. J. Blemker and wife, John Brandenstein and wife, and Wm. Eukemeyer, 
Jacob Blemker, and Rudolph Blemker. In 1864, a good substantial brick 


church was erected. There is a flourishing Sunday school connected with 
this congregation, and much interest is manifested in the work. 

The three German Methodist congregations in Dubois county are at 
Zoar's, Holland, and Huntingburg. The origin was at Zoar's and dates from 
1843. This church has about five hundred members in Dubois county. In 
1 85 1, Rev. John H. lyukemeyer became the minister in charge. Up to that 
date the church had been connected with one at Boonville. 


This congregation was established in the year 1850 and a small brick 
church was built, but it soon became too small to accommodate its mem- 
bership. A new and larger house was erected in 1866, and dedicated by 
the Rev. Chris. Wessling of Warrenton. A more modern and spacious 
building was erected in 1904. Among the leading communicants of this 
church are the Miessners, Dufendachs, Salats and Katterhenrys. This 
congregation annually holds a camp meeting in connection with the church 
at the "Maple Grove Camp Ground." Its principles and doctrines are 
similar to those of the Methodist Episcopal church. Emanuel's church 
has a membership of two hundred and thirty-five and its church property 
is estimated to be worth $20,000. The Sunday school has two hundred 

In 1908, Eouis Hemmer, Ben Niehaus, Eouis Wessel, John Reutepohler, 
and Frank G. Katterhenry were trustees. The following ministers have 
served the members: J. Trometer, A. Nickolai, G. Platz, P. Bretsch, J. 
Esch, C. Glaus, B. Uphaus, F. Wietkamp, Fr. Schuerman, P. Burgener, 
G. Fraenzen, Wm. Bockman, J. Kiper, Wm Wessler, M. Maier, M. Hoehn, 
C. Wessling, J. Fuchs, H. E. Fischer, G. Scbmoll, and S. J. Euhring. 


On October 20, 1859, the Rev. P. Bede O'Connor said mass, at Hunt- 
ingburg, for the first time. In August, i860, the corner-stone for a new 
church was laid. Pastors of Ferdinand and Jasper served the church until 
1873, when fathers from St. Meinrad took charge. 

At present this congregation has very valuable church property, a hand- 
some brick edifice having been erected. It has excellent parochial schools, 
and bids fair to retain a strong following in its locality. Rev. Simon Bar- 
ber has made the church very popular and progressive. He took charge in 


This church was erected at the northeast corner of Third and Main 
streets in the city of Huntingburg, and the class of members was drawn 
principally from other denominations. The congregation was a small one 


and the conference decided to sell the property, which was worth about 
SSoo. In 1908, John W. Kemp, Wm. L. Wood, and Frank T. Brown 
were trustees. 


The Christian church at Huntingburg is a direct descendant of the first 
Christian churches in Dubois count}-, the ones on Indian creek, near Bretz- 
ville. Its property- is valued at 83,000. There are two hundred fifteen 
members. Among its early ministers were the Rev. Jacob Banta Shively, 
Rev. B. T. Goodman, Rev. Abner Conner, Rev. Henry Kays, and Rev. 
Green Cato. Mrs. Blemker was for years one of its great workers. 


In pioneer days camp meetings were the great religious occasions of the 
year. The "Shiloh Camp Ground," near Ireland, was the leading place 
of worship. As such it has passed away. At present the only camp 
ground in Dubois county is the "Maple Grove Camp Ground," about four 
miles west of Huntingburg. It is under the supervision of the Evangeli- 
cal Association of North America. This denomination belongs to the so- 
called Methodistic churches. Its principles and doctrines are similar to 
the Methodist church proper, only somewhat more rigid. It dates its origin 
back to about 1793. Jacob Albright, the founder of the church, realizing 
the so-called degenerate conditions of the churches at that time, began to 
preach the word of God in a new light. 

Jacob Trometer, who found his way to Dubois count}- in 1841, was the 
first ordained minister of this church. He began his labor as a missionary 
a few miles west of Huntingburg, preaching to the Germans of that 
vicinity in private houses, even in log huts or barns, as there was no place 
of public worship. After a year and a half of hard and earnest labor he 
was pleased to see his ideas of religion gain favor with the people and the 
Lord gave him a goodly number of souls for his hire. These he received 
into communion with the church after they had been converted to his faith. 

In 1S43. Revs C. L,inder and Andrew Nickolai, of the Mt. Carmel 
circuit, to which Huntingburg had been added, preached alternately as 
often as the means of travel permitted — to the little flock that had been 
gathered near Huntingburg. The latter held the first protracted meeting 
in the house of Mr. Gerhard Niehaus, where a number of communicants 
w-ere added and the organization of a congregation completed. In the 
latter part of 1843, this newly founded congregation bought a tract of 
timber land containing forty acres about four miles west of Huntingburg 
on which to build a church and lay out a cemetery and camp ground. 
Twenty-five acres have since been sold. Work on the church was at once 
begun and a log structure was built. This was dedicated to God's services 



by A. B. Schaefer, presiding elder, in the autumn of 1S44. The cemetery 
and camp ground were also laid out a few years later. Services were then 
regularly conducted in the old log church and a large-sized congregation 
established. As the membership increased the church became too small. 
A new and larger frame building was erected in 1880, at a cost of about 
$1,600. This is the church now standing just south of the beautiful maple 

Emanuel's church at Huntingburg unites with this congregation in 
holding camp meetings. 

The history of this ground is one of interest as well as of growth. It 
was laid out soon after the land was purchased, and log huts to the number 

of about twenty-two were built, which 
served as temporary homes for the 
people camping there during the week 
of the meeting. These were, one by 
one, replaced by frame structures and 
others were added. The first annual 
camp meeting was held in 1847, when 
Long was the principal speaker. 
Meetings were held there each year 
until 1889, when for five or six years 
no meetings occurred. In 1897, 
interest in the camp meeting was 
revived and a very successful one was 
held. There are now many pretty 
frame cottages, many of them two 
stories high. 

A large number of people from a 
distance come to spend the week at 
this camp ground. A large three-story frame hotel has been erected to 
accommodate persons from distant places. It will accommodate over a 
hundred people. The dining hall is large enough to seat at the table eighty- 
four persons at one time. A deep interest is felt in this meeting over the 
entire Louisville district. It is estimated that between 3,000 and 4,000 
people attend each year. Good speakers, including pastors, professors, and 
bishops are annually in attendance, and much good is being accomplished. 

Maple Grove Camp Ground. 


This church property at Duff is valued at |6oo. There are about forty 
members in the congregation. For many years the Rev. Henry Kays 
served as minister. 



This church was organized July 5, 1896. In 1897, a church was built 
at a cost of $2,000. In 1908, the membership consisted of twelve families. 
It is composed of former members of the " Evangelical Augustana Congre- 
gation" of Holland, which congregation is its founder. 


This congregation began to hold services at Duff in 1888. In 1896, the 
house was destroyed by a storm, since which time services are held at the 
school house, as per arrangement with the school authorities, some of the 
church material having been used in the construction of the school house. 
There are about forty members in the congregation. In 1908, Elder Louis 
Fleener was the minister, and P. M. Eemond, Wm. Maxey, and Peter 
Small were trustees. 

E. E. Small, D. T. Riley, and Chas. H. Osborn are well known mem- 



This church has passed away, but its past is so closely connected with 
its successors that a full history is given below. 

The early history of the Central German Methodist church, which stood 
two miles northeast of Holland, Indiana, is closely connected with the 
derelopnient of the Methodist church in many places in southern Indiana. 
The first Methodist ministers in this part of the state came from Evans- 
ville, by way of Boonville, as early as 1838. Five years later (1843) two 
missionaries, H. Koneke and C. Muth, came to Pike and Dubois counties. 
They found a number of German families near Zoar, and also several living 
in the vicinity where the Central church was later erected. These men 
made most of their visits here on horseback from Evansville and Boonville. 
Not having a public place to hold their meetings they met first in the 
homes of the people who would admit them. The first meetings in Zoar 
were held in the home of H. W. Katterjohn, who lived about a mile east of 
the boundary line between Pike county and Dubois county. At about the 
same time H. H. Fenneman permitted them to preach in his house, which 
stood about one-half mile south of the church. 

In the spring of 1844, they won eight converts and in the fall of the 
same year thirty-three others were converted in this community. A society 
w^as then organized and called Evansville mission, belonging to the Cincin- 
nati district of the Ohio conference. In 1846, this field was separated from 
Evansville and was called Boonville mission. During the next few years 
churches were built at Zoar and Huntingburg, while in the center they con- 
tinued to hold the meetings in the homes of the people. In 1851 , the name 


of this field was again changed and called " Huntingburg mission," and 
Rev. J. H. Lukemeyer (who still lives — 1908) was made the first pastor. 
To this mission belonged Huntingburg, Zoar, Cannelton, Rome, Rome 
settlement, and Oil creek. They numbered in all about sixty in member- 
ship in these places at that time. This mission was again divided in 1852 
because the field was too large. Huntingburg, Zoar, Santa Claus, and 
"Center" were retained. 

At the regular session of the quarterly conference at the home of Wil- 
liam Kuck, April 3, 1856, " It was decided (literal translation of German 
church record) that a brick church should be built in the 'Center,' on the 
lands of William Kuck and Herman H. Feldwisch or near ' Bob's field,' 
which shall cost not less than $600."* 

The following persons were appointed as a building and subscription 
committee: H. E. Finke for Zoar, Philip Doerr for Center, and E. J. 
Blemker for Huntingburg. The brick used in the construction of the 
church was made and burned on the farm of Herman H. Fenneman one- 
half mile south of the church. William Kuck donated the ground on 
which the church was built. No statement as to the size of the church is 
to be found. It was about twenty-two by thirty feet. The entire struct- 
ure was of brick. It had no steeple. Practically all the work, except the 
masonry, was done by the members and their time donated. The record 
does not report the actual cost of the building. John Hoppen, presiding 
elder, and John Ficken, pastor, dedicated the church October 22, 1859. 
The dedicatory sermon was preached by the elder. 

In i860. Rev. Ficken began to teach the children of the congregation, 
giving lessons in the German language. The membership continued to 
grow in number, influence, and wealth. Several camp meetings were held 
by this congregation on the Maple Grove camp ground of the Evangelical 
Association between 1855 and i860, at which they secured a number of 
converts. This congregation and that at Zoar decided June 21, 1862, to 
build cottages and lay out a camp ground of their own, near Zoar, where 
meetings were held annually until the buildings were destroyed by fire in 
1 87 1. In 1 88 1, the first frame Methodist church was erected at Holland. 
Shortly after this the brick church in the center was taken down, the lot 
given back to William Kuck, and all the members attended church at Hol- 
land. The growth and progress of the Methodist church in this community 
was slow but continuous. In 1901, the total membership, including Hunt- 
ingburg, Holland, and Zoar, was 383. Their members to-day include some 
of the best citizens in the community, standing for the highest in educa- 
tion and morality, and imbued with the spirit of progress and achievement. 

*NoTE—" Bob's. Field" was a part of the farm of Herman H. Feldwisch, having been cleared by Bob 
Bolin, who later moved west, where he was killed by the Indians. 



In the house of H. W. Katterjohn, a class was organized in 1844. The 
young congregation grew rapidly in membership. In 1848, a church 
was erected at a cost of $27.50. H. W. Katterjohn donated the two acres 
of land upon which it was erected. On July 8, 1848, the fourth quarterlj^ 
conference was held at Boonville. They also arranged a camp ground. 
The buildings were lost by fire. In 1871, a new brick church was erected. 
The congregation numbers eighty-four. There is a Sunday school and 
an Epworth League. These men have served as ministers: H. Koeneke, 
C. Muth, John lyukemeyer, Louis Miller, John F. Severinghau-;, C. G. 
Friische, George Kalesch, W. Bockstahler, H. Bau, and John Floerke. 

The following men have served as trustees: August Mangel, Ernest 
Finke, Fred Hemmer, August Sakel, August Weitkamp, Henry Huells- 
meyer, and W. Katterjohn. Church services are conducted in the German 
language. The property is valued at $3,000 Rev. Edward H. Hildebrand 
and Rev. Charles J. Schweitzer, two promising young ministers, were mem- 
bers of this congregation. The first members of the Zoar's church were 
Herman W. Katterjohn and his sons, William and Adolph, and their 

Among the early ministers of this church were the Rev. M. Mulfinger, 
Rev. John Hoppen, Rev. G. M. Busch, Rev. Fred. Heller, Rev. C. F. 
Heidmeyer, Rev. C. Wyttenbach, and Rev. Chas. Derking. 


The history of this church began in 1843, when the Rev. H. Koeneke 
and the Rev. C. Muth came to Dubois county as ministers. H. H. Fen- 
nemann, who lived about four miles from Huntingburg, was the first one 
to welcome them to his home. About the same time, they began to hold 
services at the house of H. W. Katterjohn, at Zoar, and a few German 
families who were living there joined the church. A congregation was 
organized and a church building erected in 1858, It was known as the 
Central Methodist Episcopal church and stood northeast of Holland. How- 
ever, most of its members finally found homes in and around ' ' Kunz-town , ' ' 
now known as Holland. In 1880, a new church was erected at Holland, 
but in a few years it was destroyed by a tornado. The house was re-built. 
This congregation is in a very prosperous condition. It has a good Sun- 
day school and an Epworth League. In 1907, a modern parsonage was 
erected at Holland. The Zoar Methodist Episcopal church and this church 
are served by the same pastors. The trustees include these well known 
citizens: Herman Hemmer, Henry Rothert, Wm. Blesch, John Fenne- 
mann, and Ernst Werremeyer. The church property is valued at $3,000. 
The membership is one hundred forty-three. These are among the mem- 
bers: The families of Kunz, Hemmer, Fennemann, Feldwisch, Wibbeler, 
Wellemeyer, Steinkamp, and others, all most excellent citizens. 




FOUNDED 1852. 

From a most excellent history of this church, published in German in 
1902, we cull the following facts: 

The present German Evangelical Lutheran St. Jacobi's church was 
built during the years 1874 and 1875, and was dedicated in the year 1876. 
The edifice is a neat structure of brick and cost about $5,000. The corner 
stone was laid (the exact date is not known) in the year 1S74, by the pastor 
of the congregation, the Rev. D. J. Warns, assisted by the Rev. Wm. 

The congregation was organized about twenty years before in Pine Grove, 
Furnace, Ohio. The constitution was framed and adopted on the 4th of 
November, 1 85 1. Thefirst subscribers were: Henry Finke, Henry Meyer, 
Henry Schlottman, Christian Henke, and Henry I^ippoldt and after these 
men came to this new region, the few families soon followed them. 

Their first pastor and founder was the Rev. Wm. Bauermeister, who 
served the congregation from 1852 to 1857. There was no church edifice. 
Services were held in a room on the farm of Herman Niehaus. 

In the year 1853, Mr. Henry B. Kamman and some of the members 
built a church of logs, which cost $65.00. Holland was then a dense forest 
and these pioneers had to undergo many hardships, but their unswerving 
faith gave them strength, and to-day this congregation, which began with a 
rude log cabin, is in a flourishing condition. Besides the pretty brick church 
building, it has a parsonage and a parochial school building, each of which 
cost over a thousand dollars. From ten to twelve members it has grown to 
nearly three hundred. Much of this progress is due to the present pastor, 
the Rev. A. Popp. These seven pastors have served the congregation 
since its existence up to the present time: Rev. Wm. Bauermeister, from 
1852 to 1857; Rev. Frederick Eppling, from 1857 to i860; Rev. F. A. Graetz, 
from 1861 to 1865; Rev. D. J. Warns, from 1865 to 1878; Rev. W. L- 
Fisher, from 1878 to 1882; Rev. G. Loewenstein, from 1882 to 1900; Rev. 
A. Popp, from 1900 to . 


The Evangelical Augustana Congregation was organized with thirteen 
families on August 28, 1881, at Holland. J. H. Meyer, H. H. Eggers, G. 
H. Meyer, and H. J. Meyer were its first trustees. In 1882, the congre- 
gation erected a church and joined the "German Evangelical Synod of 
North America." In 1900, a parsonage was purchased. The property of 
the congregation is worth about $3,000. There are thirty members. This 
church founded St. Paul's church at Duff. The following ministers have 
served: Rev. Val. Ziemer, 1881-1889; Rev. H. Juergens, 1889-1897; Rev. 
G. Nussmann, 1897-1899; Rev. J. Varwig, 1899-1902; Rev. J. Wullsch- 
leger, 1902-1904; Rev. J. Bryse, 1904-1907; and Rev. Ph. Frohne, 1907, 


(German Evangelical Synod of North America.) 

This church is located about one mile north of Holland. It was organ- 
ized December 26, 1845, and the first services were held in the new church 
building in 1 846. The first pastor was the Rev. Wm. Hunderdrosse. Among 
the organizers of this church were John Rothert, George Meyerholtz, 
Herman Weitkamp, John Steinkamp, and John Overbeck. 

John F. Schlundt, M. Mehl, H. Ludwig, Val. Ziemer, H. Juergens, 

A. Merkle, C. Roth, and I. Neumann have served as ministers. 

The corner-stone of the present church was laid April 4, 1869, and the 
dedication occurred, October 10, 1869. It was repaired in 1905. The seat- 
ing capacity is three hundred fift3\ There is a parsonage, a private school 
house, and forty acres of land. The property is valued at $4,000. Fifty- 
two families worship here. 


The early services of this congregation were held at residences of its 
members, but about 1842 the congregation was organized. A "Sabbath 
Seminary" had been organized previous to 1845. A church building was 
erected in 1854. At present, the property is valued at $800, and in 1908 
there were forty members. 

Christ. Garman, Wm. Cooper, John M. Kemp, Green A. Kemp, James 
Meyers, Jacob Garman, and Jefferson Norris were early trustees. In 1908, 
the trustees were W. F. Kemp, N. J. Kemp, John Wibbeler, Milton Grif- 
fin, and Sylvester Ellis. 

Among the ministers who have served this congregation may be men- 
tioned the following, but not necessarily in the order named: Geo. W. 
Walker, James Corwine, Nisbet, Levi Gifford, Aaron Song, David Morten, 

B. F. Holloway, O. A. Barnett, James Noble, I. N. Tompson, N. E. Bor- 
ing, John Clippenger, W. H. Davison, C. C. Edwards, John Wood, John 
Bruner, John Tansy, Francis Walker, Lawrence Jones, O. H. Tansy, J. 
V. Moore, R. A. Kemp, W. F. F. Smith, B. F. Julian, F. A. Heuring, S. 
F. Anderson, J. D. Kiper, John Crowe, O. E. Thomas, John Royer, J. E. 
Fisher, J. S. Washburn, W. W. Reid, F. L. Priest, J. A. Breeden, and 
W. F. Davis (1908.) 

Mt. Zion is a Methodist Episcopal church. 


This is one of the oldest church organizations in Dubois county, dating 
from 1832. In the beginning members permitted the use of their resi- 
dences for services. In 1875 the present church building, valued at $1,200, 
was erected. There were, in 1908, thirty-three members, with a Sunday 
school class of twenty-five. The trustees in 1908 were C. C. Stone, J. W. 
Kemp, and Robert Kemp. 


Among some of the first ministers were Aaron Farmer, Lyman Chit- 
tenden, Jacob Schammerhorn, and Isaac Haskins. Henry Brooner, J. R. 
Stone, and Wm. Hendrickson were early trustees. 

The list of men who have served this congregation as ministers is a 
long and honorable one. Among the names appear those of Silas Davis, 
Wm. L. Demumbrum, John Richardson, Jas. W. Fowler, James Demum- 
brum, Hiram Lashbrook, J. D. Current, Thomas Bell, Ed. Snyder, J. W. 
Gilley, A. A. Condo, John Winklepleck, Wm. Rosenberger, J. T. Hobson, 
Wm. Hobson, Morton Hobson, Wm. Grayhill, John Elliott, Isaac Heistand, 
James Jamison, Wm. Green, E. Thomas, M. C. Patterson, and Felix 
Demumbrum, though not in the order named. 

Mt. Vernon is a " United Brethren in Christ " church. 

Commenting upon the church history in the neighborhood of Mt. Zion 
and Mt. Vernon, John W. Kemp, a prominent citizen of the locality, says: 
"The preaching places when I was a boy were at the Enlow's, Hiram 
Cook's, Cup Creek; Henry Kemp's, Wm, Hendrickson' s. Pleasant Hill 
(Warrick county); Rockport, Grandview Dale, Air's settlement near 
Mariah Hill (Spencer county); and at Tunison's (Perry county). Min- 
isters preached for the good of the souls of men and held protracted ser- 
vices during harvest. There was no church structure in the neighborhood. 
The log school house on the farm of Henry Kemp was used as a meeting 
house by both the United Brethren in Christ and the Methodists. Bishop 
Daniel Shuch was a noted pioneer minister of the Mt. Vernon class." 


The St. Henry congregation was organized in 1862 by Rev. Chrysostoma 
Foffa. At that time it consisted of twenty-five families, who after a strong 
effort completed the building of a neat stone church. From 1863 to 1871, 
Rev. Benedict Brunet, from St. Meinrad, visited the mission. From 1871 
to 1878, the O. S. B. fathers either from St. Meinrad or Mariah Hill visited 
St. Henry regularly. From November, 1878, to August, 1879, Rev. B. H. 
Kintrup of Huntingburg had charge. Rev. Pius Boehm then attended 
until January, 1880, when he was appointed the first resident pastor of St. 
Henry's church. He was followed in 1885 by Rev, W. Wack and the fol- 
lowing pastors in the order named: Rev. Unversagt, Rev. F. Segmuller, 
Rev. Koesters, Rev. J. Ziegenfuss, Rev. Hundt, Rev. Fichter, Rev. P. 
Hommes, and Rev. Joseph Schoeigman. 

The congregation has good church property valued at $6,000 and its 
parochial schools have been in charge of Benedictine sisters, practically 
continuously since 1881. Eighty families, embracing four hundred fifty 
people, worship at St. Henry's. July 15th is patron day of the church. 




This congregation was founded by the Rev. Joseph Kundeck, and more 
extended mention is made of its early history in the chapter devoted to the 
life and character of Father Kundeck. Divine services were first held at 
Ferdinand on April 22, 1S40, eleven families then forming the congrega- 
tion. A log church was built in 1840, and a year later a larger log church 
was erected. 

On May 30, 1847, Rev. Joseph Kundeck laid the cornerstone for a new 
stone church. The church was completed in 1848. From 1839 to 1853 
secular priests attended at Ferdinand. In 1853, the Benedictine fathers 
took charge. Among the secular priests were Fathers Opperman, Meink- 
mann, Fischer, Doyle, Contin, Peters, and Stapp. Among the Benedic- 
tine fathers may be mentioned Fathers Christen, Hobi, Schlumpf, and 
Foffa. Perhaps the one best and longest known was 
the Rev. P. Eberhardt Stadler, O. S. B., who served 
from 1 87 1 until the day of his death, June 28, 1898. 

Father Eberhardt was born February i, 1830, in 
Switzerland and there received his education. He was 
ordained in 1857 and came to America in 1869. From 
1870 to 1 87 1 he served at St. Anthony. 

In the death of Father Eberhardt his church lost an 
able, independent, influential, and honorable member, 
who by his labors endeared himself to his associates, and 

. Rev. Eberhardt Stadler 

who by the constant exercise of the highest mental and 

moral qualities, which he so completely possessed, entrenched himself in 

the confidence and esteem of all who knew him. 

The history of this church at Ferdinand is one of continued progress 
and improvement. Each year finds new improvements and enlargements. 
This church is well supplied with all the sacred vestments and vessels 
necessar\- for its use. 

The handsome stone church, the brick parsonage, brick school houses, 
brick chapels, brick convents, fine farms and other properties, worth 
several hundred thousand dollars, are kept in the best of condition. 

Since the death of Father Eberhardt, Father John B. Scharno has had 
charge. This congregation is one of the largest in Dubois county; prac- 
tically all of Ferdinand township worship here. For many years Prof. 
John B. Muller was organist and teacher. 

On June 19, 1870, St. Ferdinand's church was dedicated by the Rt. 
Rev. Bishop Luers of Ft. Wayne. On June 3, 1876, the corner stone for 
the "Chapel-of-the-Seven-Dolors" was laid by Abbot Martin. The same 
was blessed by P. Prior Fintan on March 23, 1S77. Up to 1867 the Sisters 
of Providence had charge of the school. Since then the Benedictine sisters 


have had charge. Their chapel was blessed Jul)' ii, 1870, and on Januarj' 
21, 1S71, their convent was blessed. The convent of the Immaculate 
Conception is one of the greatest Catholic institutions in Indiana and it is 
closelj' related to the St. Ferdinand's church — in fact it is a child of the 

The congregation membership at Ferdinand is about two thousand. 


Perhaps the most deeply religious organization in the county outside 
of the churches proper is the "Convent of the Immaculate Conception" at 
Ferdinand. This convent, combined with the "Academic Institute," was 
founded by the Benedictine sisters of Covington, Kentucky, of which 
order, three sisters, under the guidance of Mother Benedicta, arrived near 
the site of the present edifice, August 20, 1867. They occupied the l5uild- 
ing previously erected as the dwelling for the sisters, but spared no efforts 
to improve the humble home so as to include a handsome chapel, and other 
aids. The chapel was blessed by the Rev. Bede O'Connor, O. S. B., July 
Ti, 1870. 

Mother Benedicta was an able and energetic woman imbued with the 
spirit of fortitude, and it was by such that the sisters were enabled to 
begin the erection of their present home in 1883. This edifice built under 
the auspices of Mother Agatha is located on a hill just east of Ferdinand. 
Without its additions, the original building was one hundred sixty feet by 
one hundred eighty-six. The convent proper includes a court, which is 
partly occupied by the chapel. The original building was completed in 

A short distance from the convent stood St. Joseph's Home, which has 
been discontinued. It was a charitable institution and received the aged 
and infirm. 

Various missions have been opened by the Benedictine sisters, and a 
number of public and parochial schools are conducted by them. With the 
exception of Indianapolis, and a few other places their labor is confined to 
southern Indiana, the schools of which reap the benefits of these teachers. 
Standing on the steps of the Convent of the Immaculate Conception, at 
the proper hour, and looking over the broad expanse of farm land one can 
almost feel the spiritual significance of the great painting — "The Angelus. ' ' 

Further mention is made of this institution under the chapter on Edu- 
cation, page 187. 



County court organized — Early county officials — Early court scenes — ^Jury spring — Early 
"president judges" — Fines remitted — Early prosecutors — Early law terms — Mill 
dams — Common law forms — Adoption of the code — Pioneer officers' salaries — Presi- 
dent judges, side judges, squires — Court attractions — List of early lawyers — Bio- 
graphies of early judges — Names of judges — Probate courts — Common pleas court — 
List of prosecutors in the court of common pleas — Walker murder trial— Death of 
Sheriff Woolridge — Weaver, and Thurman trials — A death penalty verdict — Death 
of deput}- sheriffs, the Reeves case — White Caps — Judge Welborn — List of prose- 
cutors — List of attorneys — County officials — John McDonald, a justice — Early elec- 
tions — Republican county officials — Voting power of the county in 1849 — As- 
sociate Judges — Probate Judges — Notaries public — Swamp Land officials — Sheriffs 
— Clerks— Recorders — -Coroners — Overseers — Surveyors — Councilmen — Justices — 
Commissioners — School officials — Appraisers — Assessors— County Board of Health 
— Judges — Superintendents — Truant officials — State Senators — Representatives — 
Slate officials — Congressmen — Elections — Leading Democrats of 1S50 — Voting 
power of the county. 

In accordance with the act of the legislature creating Dubois count}', 
the first court was held at the house of William McDonald, in August, 1S18. 
It was a circuit court and the "president judge" was Jonathan Doty. Arthur 
Harbison was one of his associates, having served as such in Pike county. 
Judge Doty was born in Somerville, New Jersey, and he was a graduate of 
Princeton. He died February 22, 1S22, while judge of his circuit. Col. 
Simon Morgan was clerk and Adam Hope was sheriff. It is quite likely 
but one term of court was held at the " Mud Holes," the log court house 
having been completed, at Portersville, in t8i8. 

From McDonald's house court adjourned to meet at Portersville. This 
village had but one hotel, then called a tavern. The judges and lawyers 
took possession of the tavern, while witnesses and jurors had to go else- 
where. Accommodations were not to be had, so when men were summoned 
as jurors they knew that they had to go prepared. It was before the day 
of matches, so each one took with him steel, flint, punk, and powder; balls, 
gun, salt, bread, a dog, a horse, and a blanket. The blanket frequently 
consisted of a bear's hide, such as is now called a robe. 

The jurors spent the night at "Jury spring," about one-fourth of a 
mile south of Portersville, with no shelter save their bear skins and the blue 
canopy of heaven. They told jokes and played games until sleep over- 
came them. Early in the morning they were out for wild game, which was 


plentiful and furnished good meat. When court opened they were ready 
to serve as jurors and decide the "weighty case according to law and evi- 

In the center of the court house at Portersville a small space was railed 
off, and within the rails sat the judge, and Clerk Morgan, in all their origi- 
nal official dignity, while court was in session. After court adjourned dig- 
nity was laid aside and each was himself again. 

After Judge Doty came Judge Daniel, Judge Goodlet, Judge Hall, Judge 
Battell and Judge Embree. Their commissions are dated as follows: 

Judge Jonathan Doty, April lo, 1819. 

Judge Richard Daniel. [No date given.] 

Judge James R. E. Goodlet, February 21, 1822, and January 20, 1S25. 

Judge Samuel Hall, December 12, 1831, 

Judge Chas. I. Battell, April 20, 1835. 

Judge Elisha Embree, December 11, 1835. 

Judge James Lockhart, December 13, 1845. 

Judge Alvin P. Hovey, May 31, 1851. 

Those following came under the second constitution of Indiana. 

During Embree's term the court house, at Jasper, was destroyed by fire. 
Since 1839, the court proceedings are easily obtained, hence are but slightly 
mentioned here. 

In the pioneer days, governors of Indiana frequently remitted a fine 
that had been placed against a defendant in the circuit courts. The state 
records show that on April 11, 1820, the governor of Indiana "remitted a 
fine of twenty dollars inflicted on John Cherry for an assault and battery on 
George Mitchelton." On May 16, of the same year, he "remitted a fine of 
fifty dollars inflicted on Absalom Harbison for assault and battery." The 
Dubois county records on these two cases were lost by fire. In 1843, Wm. 
Spurlock was fined twenty dollars for betting. On March i, 1844, the 
governor remitted the fine. This seldom occurs at present. 

Among the early prosecutors were Lieut. George R. C. Sullivan, Eben 
D. Edson, John Engle, and James Lockhart. (1842). 

Under the first constitution of Indiana the court dockets were filled 
with such cases as "covenant," "trover," "foreign attachment debt," 
"assumpsit," etc. The records frequently read "In the peace of God" 
"three times solemnly called" "defendant in mercy" "made oath on the 
holy evangels of Almighty God," etc. Suits to establish mill sites or "mill 
seats" were frequent and permission was generally given. After the leg- 
islature quit granting divorces, divorce cases soon found their waj^ into the 
local records. 

Up to May 9, 1853, courts were conducted under the old common law 
forms and the celebrated and imaginary individuals, John Doe and Richard 
Roe, were banished from courts with the change. The new code required 
the cases to be conducted in the name of the real parties to the suit. With 


the passing away of the old form the courts have lost some of their gran- 
deur, and perhaps some of the elements of justice and right. When the 
new code was adopted many attorneys retired from the practice. Some re- 
garded the innovations as something next to a sacrilege. They never be- 
came reconciled to the new code, though the new code has resulted in good 
and made court proceedings easier. 

Pioneer judges received a salary of $700 per year; sheriffs, $50, and pros- 
ecutors, $100. 

In the pioneer days of Dubois county the circuit court was composed of 
a "president judge," elected by the legislature, w^ho presided at all the 
courts in the circuit, and two associate judges, elected in each county by the 
people. These "side judges," as they were then called, made no pretensions 
to any particular knowledge of the law, but still they had the power to over- 
rule the presiding j udge, and give the opinion of the court. No great amount 
of knowledge was required to qualify one for duty as a clerk of the court, 
still those in Dubois county were well qualified for their work. They were 
good scribes with goose-quill pens. The sheriffs were elected by the people, 
and seemed to have been selected as officials on account of their fine 
voices to call the jurors and witnessess from the groceries on the public 
square, and their ability to run down and catch offenders. 

Young lawyers were then called "squires," by everybody, old and 
young, male and female. A squire was an important personage, and gen- 
erally became a member of the state legislature. 

There were no caucuses, primaries, or conventions then, and each can- 
didate brought himself before the people, and if defeated could blame no one 
but himself. Citizens in early days thought the holding of a court a great 
affair. People came miles to see the judges and hear the lawyers plead, 
as it was called. Lawyers were licensed as such, and the license was signed 
by the judge of the circuit. The first courts were held under the first con- 
stitution. The present code did not go into effect until May 9, 1853. 

It is said, to the credit of young lawyers, who practiced under the first 
constitution, that they almost committed to memory the few law books 
they had, not forgetting the constitution of Indiana and that of the United 

Among the earlier lawyers who practiced law at the Dubois county bar 
were Judge Richard Daniel, Judge Davis Floyd, Judge James R. E. Goodlet, 
Judge Samuel Hall, Hon. Thomas H. Blake, John Fletcher, John H. 
Thompson, Ebenezer McDonald, Hon. Jacob Call, Lieut. George R. C. 
Sullivan, Hon. William Prince, Judge David Raymond, Hon. John Law, 
John Pitcher, of Rockport; John Mclntire, of Petersburg; Reuben Kidder 
and Charles Dewey, of Paoli; John A. Brackenridge, of Boonville; A. J. 
Simpson, of Paoli; Eben D. Edson, Elijah Bell, Elias Terry, of Washing- 
ton; John Engle and L. Q. DeBruler, of Jasper. 


In the above list are found some of the best lawyers of their daj' in 
Indiana. Many of them lived in Vincennes. Practically all named above 
became prominent in early Indiana politics. A few brief biographies follow: 


Hon. John Law was a native of Connecticut. As a lawyer he stood de- 
servedly high. He was kind, courteous, and popular; large, fine looking, 
urbane, hospitable, and generous. His mind was of a high order, and he 
did much to bring the state up to its present standard of prosperity and 
general intelligence. He is the author of "The Colonial History of Vin- 
cennes." (1858). Judge Law was born October 24, 1796. He died at 
Evansvillle, October 7, 1873, and his remains are at rest at Vincennes. 
Judge Law was prosecuting attorney, judge of Knox county, receiver of 
public moneys for his district, United States Commissioner to adjust land 
titles in the Vincennes land district, and twice a member of Congress. 


Judge Lockhart became a member of Congress, like his predecessor. 
His home was at Evansville. In person Judge Lockhart was much above 
medium size, large and portly, forehead prominent, hair and eyes dark. 
He was a man of acknowledged talents, a forcible speaker, a sound lawyer, 
and a good judge. He made no pretense to what is called eloquence, but 
was rather a matter of fact, straight-forward speaker, and much endeared to 
his friends. He was a valuable member of the last Con.stitutional Convention 
of Indiana, one who stood by the ancient land marks with great firmness. 
He was a stong advocate of the grand-jury sj'stem. In one of his speeches 
before the convention, in support of the grand-jury system. Judge Lock- 
hart said: 

"During my brief career at the bar I have prosecuted for the state, and 
can bear testimony to the high and honorable bearing of the citizens who 
usually compose the grand-juries. Let them receive the charge of the court, 
examine the statute law of the state, hear the evidence of the witnesses, 
and, my word for it, ninetj' out of a hundred of their decisions will prove 
correct. Malicious prosecutions, to be sure, may sometimes be preferred, 
but abolish the grand-jurj^ system and there will be ninety-nine malicious 
prosecutions preferred to one made by the grand-jury." 

When Judge Lockhart was on the bench in Dubois county. Judge Wm. 
Cavender and Judge Thomas Shoulders were his " side judges." At that 
time Lockhart' s circuit embraced the counties of Crawford, Dubois, Gib- 
son, Perry, Pike, Posey, Spencer, Vanderburg, and Warrick. 


Judge Hovey was a good lawyer, a member of the last Constitutional 
Convention of Indiana, a United States District attorney, a member of the 
Supreme Court of Indiana, a general in the Civil War, and died while Gov- 


ernor of Indiana. His remains lie buried near Mt. Vernon, in Posey coun- 
t}', which was his home. During the Civil War he was commander of the 
24th Regiment mustered at Vincennes July 31, i86r, in which were many 
soldiers from Dubois county. By the close of the Civil War Judge Hovey 
became a brevet major general U. S. A\ He was our first judge under the 
new code. (1S53). Judge Hovey had no "side judges." 


William Prince was a state senator in 18 16. He at one time was lead- 
ing attorney of Vincennes and was elected "president judge" of the Knox 
county circuit court in 18 17. Princeton is named in his honor. After a 
noteworthy career he died in 1824, after being elected a member of Con- 


G. R. C. Sullivan was a Kentuckian, and lived at Vincennes. He was 
several times a member of the legislature and also served as prosecuting 
attorney, coming to this county over the old "Buffalo Trace" from Vincen- 
nes. He died at Quincy, Illinois. G. R. C. Sullivan was a member of 
Capt. Dubois' company in the battle of Tippecanoe, and was a lieutenant, 
May 16, 1812. 


Gen. Johnson was a Virginian and located at Vincennes in 1783, being 
the first member admitted to the bar of Knox county. He filled many 
public offices, and compiled the first code of laws of the territory of 
Indiana. Gen. Johnson was one of the commissioners appointed to organize 
Dubois county. He was the "father of Masonry" in Indiana, being the 
prime mover in establishing Vincennes Lodge No. i, F. & A. M., March, 
i8c9 He died October 26, 1S33. [See pages 29 and 32.] 


Richard Daniel's home was in Gibson county and he represented his 
county in both branches of the Indiana legislature. He it was who, at the 
second ses.sion of the Indiana general assembly, presented the petition of 
Thomas Case, Jacob Harbison, and others praying for the formation of 
Dubois county. He presented the petition on Wednesday, December 10, 
18 17, at Corydon, then the capital of Indiana. It was read and committed 
to a select committee, with leave to report by bill or otherwise. The com- 
mittee was composed of Daniel and Campbell of Gibson county; McClure 
and Buntin of Knox county; Chambers, of Orange county; Lynn, of Posey 
county; and Holman, of Waj^ne county. [See page 31.] 



This attorney came to Indiana soon after the organization of the state 
government. He served as "president judge" of Knox county. He was a 
member of Congress, being elected in 1824. 


Hon. Thomas H. Blake was a widely known attorney and a member of 
Congress, in 1827 and 1829, serving in the district in which Dubois county 
is situated. 


Hon. W. E. Niblack, born at Portersville, was one of the most promi- 
nent attorneys ever connected with Dubois county. He was a circuit judge, 
congressman, and for years a prominent member of the supreme court of 
Indiana. Extended mention is made of Judge Niblack on pages 109 and 1 10. 

These few biographies will serve to show the high standing of the men 
who early practiced law at the Dubois county bar. Doubtless they had 
much to do toward the excellent records that were kept by the officials in 
the earlier days of the county. 

When the court house was destroyed by fire, in 1839, a considerable 
part of the records were perpetuated by the affidavits of different persons. 
This was mostly concerning titles to land and many deeds were recorded a 
second time. Judge Elisha Embree was "president judge" at the time. 
His "side judges" were Judge Henry Bradley, and Judge Willis Hays, the 
founder of Haysville. While the first brick court house was under construc- 
tion courts were held in the house of Condict, and in the old Cumberland 
Presbyterian church. 

Such were conditions for six years. 

The complete list of judges connected with the courts of Dubois county 
is given in connection with other officials of the county. Judge Niblack 
followed Judge Hovey, and after Judge Niblack came Judge Ballard Smith, 
of Cannelton, said to have been polished, educated, and possessed of liter- 
ary ability. Judge M. F. Burke, of Washington, became judge in Febru- 
ary, 1859. He died May 22, 1864, and Judge James C. Denny held the 
July term of court, in that year. John Baker became judge in January, 
1865, and served six years. Newton F. Malott, of Vincennes, became his 
successor. The district was changed in 1873, and Oscar M. Welborn, of 
Princeton, was commissioned judge. Judge Zenor, Judge Ely and Judge 
Bretz have succeeded him, in the order mentioned. 

The settlements of estates were attended to, originally, by a probate 
court, which had exclusive jurisdiction and control. Probate judges were 
men gifted more in good sense and judgment than in the intricacies of law. 
The first commission issued, as shown by the state records, to a probate 



judge in Dubois county, is dated August 25, 1829, and bears the name of 
B. B. Edmonston, Sr. There were but four probate judges in the county, 
during the existence of that court, namely, B. B. Edmonston, Sr., Daniel 
Harris, Moses Kelso, and Andrew B. Spradley. The probate court ended 
with the new constitution, and all probate matters went to the court of 
common pleas, which existed for twenty years. There was also a "court 
of conciliation." Probate judges were ex-officio its judges. Lemuel Q. 
DeBruler was the first judge of the "common pleas court" of Dubois 
county. It was held in January, 1853. His successors were Col. John 
James Key, Judge Charles H. Mason, 
Judge David T. Laird, Judge Mason, 
and Judge M. S. Mavity. 

Since 1S73, when the court of 
common pleas was abolished, the 
circuit court has jurisdiction over 
practically all cases, except those in 
which justices-of-the-peace have 
exclusive jurisdiction. Outside of 
such cases and offenses which did not 
amount to a felony the common pleas 
court had original jurisdiction, in its 
day. The "common pleas court" did 
not need the intervention of a grand 
jurv, state prosecution beirg insti- 
tuted by affidavit and information. 

The men who served as prosecu- 
tors in the courts of common pleas in Dubois county and the dates of their 
commissions follow: 

Wm. A. Waddle, November 5, 1852. 

Joshua B. Huckeby, November 9, 1854, 

John J. Key, October 28, 1856. (He did not qualify.) 

Christ A Rudd, March 3, 1S57, vice Key. 

J. B. Maynard, August 6, 1857, vice Rudd. 

Wm. H. Blunt, November 20, 1857. 

George P. Derves, November i, 1859. 

Wyley Adams, October 26, i860. 

Wm. C. Adams, November i, 1862. 

J. J. McAllister, November 4, 1864. 

Sydney B. Hatfield, November i, 1866. 

John W. Buskirk, November 3, 1868. 

Wm. Farrell, June 14, 1869. 

John C. Schafer, October 24, 1870. 

John C. Schafer, October 28, 1872. 

Judge John Bretz. 


One of the first great murder trials in Dubois county was that of the 
state against Jonathan Walker, a well known pioneer. He was accused of 
causing the death of Henry Hudeman, a citizen of Huntingburg, but was 
acquitted by the jury. 

Once during a term of court pioneer Jonathan Walker, a hero of Tip- 
pecanoe, made a wager that he could crawl, on his hands and knees, in the 
snow, mud and slush, from the court house south to Patoka river, swim 
the river, and then return to the court house, on his hands and knees. 
Walker won. 

In the summer of 1842, Sheriff Thos. Woolridge was shot by Zachariah 
Dillon. Both were very prominent, and the trial was a noted one. Dillon 
was sentenced for two years in the state prison, but was pardoned, greatly 
to the joy of his friends. 

At the June term, 1861, Mrs. Amanda Weaver was sentenced to prison 
for life, charged with causing the death of her own child. 

Probably fewer than twenty murder trials have ever been before the 
courts of Dubois county. 

John J. L- Thurman, of Kyana, was the only man upon which a Dubois 
county jury ever placed the death penalty. 

At the September term, 1893, John J. L. Thurman was found guilty of 
shooting W. Henry Wright, near Kyana, September 3, 1893, and the jury 
placed his punishment at death. He was granted a new trial, and at the 
January term, 1894, he entered a plea of guilty of murder in the second 
degree, and Judge Zenor placed his punishment at life imprisonment. 
While in prison he killed a fellow convict. There seemed to be a question 
of his soundness of mind. It was the judgment of Judge Welborn that he 
should be given a new trial. The jury that found him guilty of murder 
in the first degree was composed of good and lawful men, citizens of Dubois 
county, namely: George Schnaus, Joseph Kuebler, Martin Lampert, 
Andrew Gerber, Joseph Friedman, Sr., George Wenning, John Jackie, 
Bernard Burke, I^ouis Pfister, John T. Corn, Charles Sollga, and John 
Geier. Their verdict read as follows: 

We the jury find the defendant guilty as he stands charged in the indictment and 
fix his punishment that he suffer death. — Joseph Frikdman, Foreman. 

On Monday afternoon, June i, 1885, deputy sheriffs John E. Gardner 
and William Cox attempted to arrest John and George Reeves, on the New 
Albany road two miles east of Jasper. The two deputies were fatally 
wounded and the Reeves escaped, only to be captured sixteen years later. 
In the second arrest, George Reeves lost his life while attempting to escape. 
In 1901, John Reeves was tried for the killing of the two deputy sheriffs 
and was sentenced to the state prison, at Michigan City, the jury finding 
him to be forty-four years of age. The case was tried under Judge Duncan, 
called specially, and the trial was one of the most noted criminal cases ever 
before the Dubois county court. 



In many of the cases in the courts of this county the questions involved 
are as fine and as difficult to handle as those found in courts more promi- 
nent in the state. 

Dubois county has the distinction of being one of the first counties in 
Indiana to relieve itself of "whitecap cases." A few cases of this kind in 
the county eliminated the tendency of its citizens in that direction. 

During the many years in which Judge Welborn presided over the 
circuit court of Dubois county the members of the bar had a training prob- 
ably second to none in the state. He was a man whose mind was well 
trained for the position and he commanded the respect and confidence of 
all. He was clear, logical, painstaking, 
patient, and considerate. He had great 
respect for the verdict of a jury, but 
would set it aside without hesitation, if 
he thought it to be wrong. He tem- 
pered justice with mercy, and had an 
abiding faith in the common people. 
He was judge of the Gibson county 
court until October 24, 1909. He served 
thirty-six years. 

Among the men who lately served as 
prosecuting attorneys were John C. 
Schafer, Wm. Trippet, Arthur H. Tay- 
lor, John ly. Bretz, Thomas H. Dillon, 
Wm. E. Cox, lyco H. Fisher, Kerr 
Traylor, Bomar Traylor, and Harry W. 

The bench and bar of Dubois county 
have been represented by men who have 
made their mark in the affairs of the 
state and nation, in arts of peace, and 

upon the field of battle. They have found their way to the legislative 
halls of state and nation, to the supreme bench and to the executive chair. 

Within the period of time since 1875, the following practicing attor- 
neys have been identified with the Dubois county bar, and at the time 
were residents of the county: 

Judge Oscar M. Welborn. 

Robert W. Armstrong, 
John L. Bretz. 
Bruno Buettner. 
Frank L,. Betz. 
William Elijah Cox. 
Clement Doane. 
Thomas H. Dillon. 
John F. Dillon. 

C. Hall Dillon. 
Jay DeBruler. 
Capt. Morman Fisher. 
Leo H. Fisher. 
Virgil R. Greene. 
A. L. Gray. 
Winfield S. Hunter. 
Horace M. Kean. 


JohnE. McFall. William A. Traylor. 

Arnold H. Miller. Boraar Traylor. 

Richard M. Milburn. Kerr Traylor. 

A. M. Sweeney. John F. Tieman. 

Michael A. Sweeney. Oscar A. Trippet. 

Charles H. Schwartz. 
The rulings of the courts in Dubois county have been generally 
accepted as correct and just, very few appeals having been taken to the 
supreme court. The first appeal appears to have been heard at the May 
term, 1S32, in a case of Harbison against the heirs of Jacob Lemmon, 
deceased. It seems that Jacob Lemmon conveyed to Harbison a tract of 
land for a valuable consideration; and that on the same day, Harbison 
bound himself by bond to re-convey the land, etc. 

The supreme court entered into a learned discussion of the case, quot- 
ing English laws and doctrines, and finally reversed the decree of the 
lower court. 


Names of many men who have been preferred by the voters of Dubois 
county or appointed by the proper power, and who have served the countj' 
as commissioned civil ofiicers since its organization follow. 

It is but proper to remark that the specific duties of various officers 
changed since the organization of the county. Some offices have been 
abolished, and others were not created until the present constitution went 
into effect, November i, 1851. Formerly the offices of county coroner, 
county surveyor, and justices-of-the-peace were more important or more 
preferred than they appear to be at this date. 

Associate judges were elected to assist the "president judge" in the 
early courts. Justices-of-the-peace also constituted a court somewhat sim- 
ilar to the present county commissioners' court. Probate judges are no 
longer elected. The circuit judges now perform their duties along with 
their various other duties. 

The offices of county clerk and county recorder were originally united, 
one ofl&cer holding both positions. The count}' sheriff collected taxes, in 
place of the county treasurer. 

The official records made by the county officials prior to August 17, 
1839, were destroyed by fire, on that date. 

Formerly the office of coroner was an important one, originating under 
the common law of England, and brought into Indiana laws through the 
territorial laws. 

County school superintendents are not commissioned officers and were 
not known as superintendents until 1873. They do not class as constitu- 
tional oflScers, and frequently not even as county officers. 



On April 5th, iSro, William Heury Harrison, governor of Indiana territory, appointed 
John McDonald a justice-of-the-peace of Knox county. This is probably the first 
civil official appointed within the present confines of Dubois county. This appoint- 
ment is recorded in "Record One" of the territorial records of Indiana Territory, now 
kept in a glass cabinet under lock and key, in the State House, at Indianapolis. 

On January 13, 1818, the governor of Indiana issued a "-urit of elec- 
tion" for holding the first election in Dubois county for the purpose of 
electing a county clerk and recorder, associate judges and commissioners, 
etc. On March 23, 18 18, another writ of election was issued to elect an 
associate judge. 

This is a long list of public servants and it, in a measure, represents the 
life and thought of the citizens of the county. The early county oflScials of 
Dubois county w^ere whigs, represented by Col. Simon Morgan, their great 
leader in Dubois count}-. They were suc- 
ceeded b}' democrats, represented origi- 
nally, by Col. B. B. Edmonston and his 
following. Occasionally a republican 
became an official, as is shown by the 
names, Associate Judge Ashbury Alex- 
ander; John G. Leming, a recorder; 
Rev. George C. Cooper, a .school superin- 
tendent; Harrison Morgan and Samuel 
H. Dillon, county commissioners; Hon. 
Samtiel H. Stewart, Judge Alvin P. 
Hovey, and county councilman Wm, 
Harbison, and a few others. 

Col. Bazil Brook Edmonston, the 
"Father of Dubois County Democracy" 
was born November 6, 1S02, in Bun- 
combe county, North Carolina, and came 
to Dubois county about 1808. On Sep- 
tember 7, 1826, he married Joanna H. 
McDonald, who was born January 27, 
1802, in Kentucky. Col. Edmonston 
died July 23, 1888, and his remains and those of his wafe lie buried at 
Shiloh. He moved to Jasper in 1837. Previous to that time he lived on 
a farm at Kellerville. Mrs. Edmonston was a member of the Cumberland 
Presbyterian church, and a woman of high esteem. She was the first 
white girl pioneer of the county. Col. Edmonston was w^hat was known 
as an "Ironside Baptist." 

The original officials of Dubois county were whigs, but in time Col. 
Edmonston representing democracy came into power. He was the prin- 
cipal county official for years, and being such when the German pioneers 

Col. B. B. Edmonston. 


began to arrive he won them to his political belief and there they and their 
children have remained; hence his title, "Father of Dubois County Demo- 


About 1840, the tide of American emigration changed, individual 
American settlers came but sparingly, while many original American pio- 
neers began their move toward the setting sun, to the "Illinois country," to 
"bleeding Kansas," or to follow the trail of the "forty-niner" to California. 
Then came the Germen in colonies, and their advent and permanent settle- 
ment in Dubois county are shown by the German names of the county 
officials, beginning under the second constitution of Indiana. 

In August, 1849, the voters of Dubois county numbered seven hundred 
ninety-nine, and their vote for governor was as follows: Joseph A. Wright, 
604; John A. Matson, 191, and James H. Cravens, 4. 

Since the organization of Dubois county, in 1818, the following civil 
county officials of Dubois county have been commissioned by the gov- 
ernor of Indiana. Following their names are the dates of their various 
commissions. Their official terms often began later: 


Authur Harbison, February 28, 1818. 

Jeremiah Jones, February 28, 1818. 

William McMahan, August 9, 1819 {vice Jeremiah Jones, resigned.) 

Col. B. B. Edmonston, August 27, 1823. 

William Green, August 27, 1823. 

Col. B. B. Edmonston, September 8, 1824. 

Ashbury Alexander, September 8, 1824. 

Edward Woods, February 15, 1830 {vice B. B. Edmonston, resigned, 
December 15, 1829.) 

Edward Woods, August 29, 1831. 

John Niblack, August 29, 1831. 

Daniel Harris, April 24, 1835 {vice^o\\v, Niblack, resigned.) 

Henry Bradley, September 4, 1837. 

Willis Hays, September 4, 1837. 

Robert Oxley, October 31, 1842 {vice Henry Bradley, resigned.) 

Wm. Cavender, August 21, 1845 (for seven years.) 

Col. Thomas Shoulders, August 31, 1845 (for seven years.) 

Conrad Miller, September 4, 1850. (Here the new constitution changed 


B. B. Edmonston, Sr., August 25, 1829. 
B. B. Edmonston, Sr., August 22, 1837. 

Daniel Harris, January 11, 1841 {viceV>. B. Edmonston, Sr., deceased.) 
Moses Kelso, October i, 1841 (for seven years.) 

Andrew B. Spradley, September 16, 1848. (Here the new constitution 
changed courts.) 




Wm. C. Graham, January 15, 1839. 
George A. Lepper, January 30, 1843. 
Henry Comingore, January i, 1847. 
Albert E. Riddles, February 2, 1852. 
Henry A. Holthaus, May 8, 1854. 
Spangler J. Cromer, August 7, 1857. 
Henry A. Holthaus, June 12, 1858, 
Bruno Buettner, February, 1859. 
John G. Stein, March 26, 1862. 
Andrew J. Becket, June 13, 1862. 
(There are hundreds of later notaries, 
pi}' as pioneers of this county.) 

The above are given here sim- 


Wm. Monroe, March 5, 1853. 
Dr. Edward Stephenson, June 



Sheriff Albert H. Traylor (1890.) 

Adam Hope, August i8, 1818. (He 
had also been first sheriff of Pike county.) 

Thomas Hope, October 7, 1819 {vice 
Adam Hope, deceased.) 

Jos. Clarkston, August 21, 1S20. 

Jos. Clarkston, August 20, 1822. 

Wm. Edmonston, September 8, 1824. 

Wm. Edmonston, August 30, 1826. 

Daniel Harris, August 28, 1828. 

Daniel Harris, September 8, 1830. 

Col. Bazil B. Edmonston, August 24, 1832. 

Col. Bazil B. Edmonston, August 22, 1834. 

John Hart, August 25, 1836. 

James McDonald, September 4, 1837. 

Thomas Wooldridge, August 15, 1842. 

John Hart, September 28, 1842 {vice Thomas Wooldridge, killed.) 

Henry W. Barker, August 18, 1843, 

Henry W. Barker, August 21, 1845. 

Robert Herr, August 30, 1847 (died July 11, 1849.) 

Wm. Mahin, July 17, 1849. 

Wm. Mahin, August 20, 1849. 

Wm. Mahin, August 23, 1851. 

Brig. Gen. John Mehringer, November 3, 1852. 

Brig. Gen. John Mehringer, November 10, 1854. 


Jacob Harmon, November 6, 1856. 

Jacob Harmon, November 3, 1858. 

John Weikel, October 29, i860. 

John Weikel. November 6, 1862. 

Henry Mauntel, October 27, 1864. 

Henr}' Mauntel, October 31, 1866. 

Tobias Herbig, November 25, 1868. 

Tobias Herbig, November 4, 1870. 

John Weikel, October 28, 1872. 

John Weikel, November 3, 1874. 

Bazil B. L. Edmonston, July 31, 1875 (vice Sheriii Weikel, deceased.) 

George Cox, November 6, 1876. 

George Cox, October 24, 1878. 

Frank Joseph, October 25, 1880. 

Frank Joseph, November 21, 1882. 

George Cox, November 13, 1884. 

Ferd. vSchneider, November 8, 1886. 

Ferd. Schneider, November 15, 1888. 

Albert H. Tray lor, November 15, 1890. 

Albert H. Traylor, November 17, 1892. 

Henry Cassidy, November 12, 1894. 

Henry Cassidy, November 14, 1896. 

Herman H. Castrup, November 15, 1898. 

Herman H. Castrup, November 13, 1900. 

Victor V. Cassidy, November 25, 1902. 

Victor V. Cassidy, November 23, 1904. 

Ferd. Vollmer, November 14, 1906. 

Ferd. Vollmer, 1910. 


Col. Simon Morgan, August 18, 1818. 

Col. Simon Morgan, August 25, 1825. 

Col. Simon Morgan, July 29, 1832. 

Col. Bazil B. Edmonston, September 4, 1838, for seven years. This 
election was held to be illegal, and Col. Simon Morgan was commissioned 
clerk of the circuit court, August 20, 1839 

Col. Bazil B. Edmonston, August 15, 1842, for seven years (vice Col. 
Simon Morgan, deceased.) 

Col. Bazil B. Edmonston, August 24, 1846. 

[On November i, 1851, the new state constitution went into effect, and 
the offices of recorder and clerk could not be held by the same officer.] 
Under the present constitution the following men have been commissioned 

Col. Bazil B. Edmonston, November 3, 1852. 

Col. Bazil B. Edmonston, November 6, 1856. 

Henry A. Holthaus, October 29, i860 



Henry A Holthaus, October 27, 1864. 
Col. Bazil B. Edmonston, November 25, 1868. 
Col. Bazil B. Edmonston, October 28, 1872. 
Peter J. Gosman, November 6, 1876. 
Peter J. Gosman, October 25, 1880. 
Bazil L. Greene, November 13, 1S84. (Never served.) 
Jos. I. Schumacher, August 20, 1885 {vice clerk-elect Green, who 
died August 6, 1885. J 

Ignatz Eckert, November 8, 1886. 

Ignatz Eckert, November 15, 1890. 

Herman Eckert, November 12, 1894. 

Herman Eckert. November 12, 1898. 

John P. Huther, November 21, 1902. 

John P. Huther, November 14, 1906. (Term expires January i, 1911.) 


Col. Simon Morgan, August 18, 18 18. 

Col. Simon Morgan, August 25, 1825 

Col. Simon Morgan, July 23, 1832. 

Col. Bazil B. Edmonston, Aug. 23, 1839 

Col. Bazil B. Edmonston, Aug. 24,1846 

[Indiana's second state constitution 
became effective November i, 1851, and 
the offices of clerk and recorder were no 
longer to be held by one official.] The 
following men have been county record- 
ers under the present constitution: 

John B. Pfaff, November 3, 1852. 

Stephen Jerger, November 6, 1S56. 

Stephen Jerger, October 29, i860. 

August Eitschgi, November 6, 1862. 

August Litschgi, October 31, 1866. 

George J. Jutt, Jr., November 5, 1870. 

George J. Jutt, Jr., November 3, 1874. 

John G. Leming, October 24, [878. 

Nenian Haskins, November 21, 1882. 

Nenian Haskins, November 8, 1896. 

Brittain Leming, November 15, 1890. 

Theodore Stephenson, appointed by the county commissioners vice 
Brittain Eeming, deceased. (No commission ever issued.) 

Philip Dilly, November 12, 1S94. 

Philip J. Kunkel, Jr. November 15, 1898. 

Philip J. Kunkel, Jr. December 29, 1902. 

JohnH. Judy, November 14, 1906. (Term expires January i, 191 1.) 

Recorder Nenian Haskins (1882.) 



(Originally " fence viewer" and "overseer of the poor" in addition to 
his other duties.) 

Robert Stewart, August 18, 1818. 
William Pinnick, August 21, 1820. 
Samuel Postlethwait, 20, 1822. 
David G. Brown, September 8, 2824. 
David G. Brown, August 30, 1826. 
John Brittain, September 8, 1830, 
Capt. Elijah Kendall, August 24, 1832. 
Abraham Baker, August 23, 1839. 
Abraham Baker, August 13, 1841. 
Abraham Baker, August 18, 1843. 
John G. Brittain, August 24, 1844. 
Joseph Briggs, August 21, 1845. 
Willis Niblack, August 24, 1846. 
Thomas Hart, August 20, 1849. 
Stephen Stephenson, August 23, 1851. 
William H. Green, November 3, 1852. 
William H. Green, November lo, 1854. 
William Schulterman, November 6, 1856. 
William Schulterman, November 3, 1858. 
J. W. Taylor, October 29, i860. 
Charles Kraus, October 28, 1861. 

Harvey Nicholson, October 30, 1863. 
John G. Allen, October 27, 1864. 
John Fuhrman, January 4, 1866. 

Reinhardt Rich, October 31, 1866. 

Charles Birkemeyer, November 25, 1868. 

George Cox, November 4, 1870. 

George Cox, October 28, 1872. 

George Cox, November 3. 1874. 

Michael Hochgesang, November 6, 1876. 

Michael Hochgesang, October 24, 1878. 

Anton Karlin, October 25, 1880. 

Anton Karlin, November 21, 1882. 

Moritz Fritz, November 13, 1884. 

John F. Meinker, November 8, 1886. 

John F. Meinker, November 16, 1888. 

Bernhardt Auffart, November 15, 1890. 

John F. Meinker, November 17, 1892. 

Dr. Orville A. Bigham, November 12, 1894. 

Dr. Orville A. Bigham, November 14, 1896. 

Philip A. Guckes, November 15, 1898. 

Philip A. Guckes, November 13, 1900. (Died January 17, 1910). 



John F. Meinker, November 25, 1902. 

John F. Meinker, December 29, 1904. 

John F. Meinker, December 3, 1906. 

John F. Meinker, 1910. 

Under the territorial government and under the first constitution of 
Indiana "Overseers of the Poor" were important officials. Capt. Tous- 
saint Dubois, after whom Dubois county was named, was appointed an 
overseer of the poor for Knox county, in February, 1797. 

The records made by " overseers of the poor" in early days make 
strange reading in the light of the present day. The records made by 
Dubois county overseers, previous to the court house fire, are lost; however, 
here are two samples, taken from the Knox county records: 

I, Jeremiah Mayo, one of the directors of the poor house for the county of Knox, 
do certify that I sold on Monday, the loth December, 1827, to the lowest bidder, viz., 
Phillip Catt, for |24oper annum, a pauper by the name of Bill Catt. 

Here is another: 

Farmed out on the 24th November, 1827, Allen and Patsey Biddy to Martha Hol- 
lingsworth for one year at|4o.oo. 


(Surveyor Smith, of Pike county, made surveys in Dubois county as 
late as 1830.) 

John B. McRea, August 18, 1818. 

Gamaliel Garretson, December 8, 1830, for 
five years. (No further record under old 

Jacob Morendt, December 7, 1852. 

Jacob Morendt, November 10, 1854. 

Benjamin R. Kemp, November 6, 1856. 

Benjamin R. Kemp, November 3, 1858. 

Benjamin R. Kemp, October 29, i860. 
(Resigned October 17, 1862, and became 
state representative.) 

Sandusky Williams, November 6, 1862. 

Sandusky Williams, October 27, 1864. 

Sandusky Williams, October 31, 1866. 

Arthur Berry, November 25, 1868. 

Arthur Berry, November 4, 1870. 

William R. Osborn, October 28, 1872. 

William B. Pirkle, November 3, 1874. 

Frank Quante, November 6, 1876. 

Henry Berger, October 24, 1878. 

Henry Berger, October 25, 1880. 

Michael Wilson, November 21, 1882. 

Surveyor Be nj. R. Kemp (1856.) 



George R. Wilson, November 13, 1884. 
George R. Wilson, November 8, 1886. 
Edmund Pickhardt, November 15, 1888. 
Henrj' Berger, November 15, 1890. 

Henry Berger, November 17, 1892. 

William T. Young. November 12, 

William T. Young, November 14, 

William T. Young, November 15, 

William T. Y^oung, November 13, 

George P. Corn, December 29, 1902. 
(Mr. Corn never qualified as county 
surveyor and Mr. Young held over.) 

William T. Young, December 29, 

John M. Schnarr, November 20, 

William T. Young {vice Surveyor 
Schnarr, deceased; commission issued 
March 2, 1908. Mr. Schnarr's term 
would have expired January i, 1909.) 
Surveyor William T. Young. Otto E. Waldrip (never accepted.) 

County Surveyor, 1894. Mr. Young died at j^ Q Eaudgrebe, I9IC. (No COm- 

Ireland, Ind., March 21, 1909, and lies . . . ' 

buried at siiiioh Cemetery. mission has been issued.) 


All under the present constitution: 
Dominick Erny, December 7, 1852. 
Edward Stephenson, November 10, 1854. 
Edward Stephenson, November 6, 1856. 
B. R. E. Niehaus, November 3, 1858. 
Theodore Sonderman, November i, 1859. 
Theodore Sonderman, October 28, 1861. 
Edward Stephenson, October 30, 1863. 
Edward Stephenson, January 4, 1866. 
William Bretz, October 25, 1867. 
William Bretz, November 4, 1870. 
Edward Stephenson, October 28, 1872. 
James E. Spurlock, November 3, 1874. 
James E. Spurlock. November 6, 1876. 
Ignatz Eckert, October 24, 1878. 
Ignatz Eckert, October 25, 1880. 



Wm. H. Bretz, November 21, 1882. 

Will. H. Bretz, November 13, 1884. 

Christian H. Rudolph, November 8, 

Christian H. Rudolph, November 15, 

Jacob Burger, Jr., November 15, 

Jacob Burger, Jr., November 17, 

Edward A. Bohnert, November 12, 

Edward A. Bohnert, November 14, 

Charles Moenkhaus, November 15, 

Charles Moenkhaus, November 13, 

Wm. F. Beckman, December 29, 1902. 
Auditor J. M. Deinderfer (1874.) ^^^^ F.Beckman, November 23 , 1904. 

Joseph Gerber, November 14, 1906. 
Joseph Gerber, 1910. 


All under the present constitution: 

Dr. Samuel B. McCrillus, December 
7. 1852. 

Brig. Gen. John Mehringer, Novem- 
ber 6, 1856. 

Brig. Gen. John Mehringer, Octo 
ber 29, i860. 

Charles W. DeBruler (sworn in Sep- 
tember 7, 1863; no commission issued.) 

Theodore Sonderman, October 30, 

Martin Friedman, October 25, 1S67. 

August Litschgi, November 5, 1870. 

J. Michael Deinderfer, November 3, 

I. Schuhmacher, October 24, 1878. 

I. Schuhmacher, October 30, 1883. 

John Gramelspacher, November 8, 

Auditor Martin Friedman (1867.) 



Auditor August Litschgi (1870.) 

John Gramelspacher, November 15, 

August H. Koerner, November 12, 

August H. Koerner, November 12, 

Michael A. Sweeney, January 6, 1904. 

Michael A. Sweeney, December 30, 
1907. (Term expires January i, 1912.) 


Under an act approved March 3, 1899, 
the "County Council" was created. 
The following men have served as mem- 
bers of the County Council: B. F. 
Lansford, Felix Schneider, John Fleck, 
William Heitman, Henry Landgrebe, 
Charles Egg, Solomon Clapp, and Isidor 
Schuhmacher. The foregoing men 
served by reason of appointment made 
by the circuit court. Since 1900 the following men have served by reason 
of election: J. Herman Beckman, Charles Egg, Jacob H. Seng, Phillip 
Schwenk, Joseph Friedman, Sr., James J. Cunningham, William Heit- 
man, Andrew Krempp, Frank Zimmer, 
George P. Wagner and William Harbi 
son (1908.) 


(Originally similar to county com- 

Thos. Hope, May 29, 1818. 

Ashbury Alexander, May 29, 1818. 

William Craig, May 29, 1818. 

James Hope, September 22, 1818. 

Lyman G. Austin, September 22, 

James Hope, January 16, 1819. 

Eynian G. Austin, January 16, 1819. 

John Stewart, May 11, 1819. 

William Shook, July 8, 1819. 

Eli Thomas, July 8, 1819. 

James Folly, December 17, 1819. 

William Hurst, September 24, 1820. 

Richard Black, June 28, 1821. 

Auditor August H. Koerner (1894.) 


Ashbury Alexander, September 6, 182 1. 
George Armstrong, September 6, 1821. 
Robert Hargrave, September 6, 1821. 
Thos. Hill, September 6, 1821. 
James R. Higgins, December 18, 1821. 
William Green, March 26, 1822. 
Wm. Movity, June 18, 1824. 
lycvi P. Lockhart, October 15, 1824. 
Eli Thomas, October 15, 1824. 
John Beard, April 22, 1825. 
Patrick Dougherty, May 3, 1825. 
John B. McRae, April 2, 1825. 
Thomas Hope, April 2, 1825. 
James Hope, April 2, 1825. 
Willis Niblack, April 2, 1825. 
Nathaniel Harris, March 28, 1826. 
Joseph Ruder, August 26, 1826. 
Levi P. Ivockhart, August 26, 1826. 
William McMahan, February 5, 1827. 
Vincent Rust, June 11, 1827. 
Henry Bradley, November 17. 1828, 
Benjamin Hawkins, November 17, 1828, 
Thomas Paine, January 12, 1829. 
Enoch Edmonston, July 7, 1829. 
William Green, July 7, 1829. 
Henry Minder, April 5, 1830. 
Richard Kirby, September 8, 1830. 
Willis Hubbs, September 8, 1830. 
John Beard, September 8, 1830. 
Davis Williams, November 28, 1830. 
Guy Henton, May 5, 1831. 
James Hosse, May 5, 1831 
Nath. Applegate, September 14, 1831. 
Frederick Anse, May 3, 1832. 
Josiah Reeder, May 3, 1832. 
Zachariah Dillon, June 23, 1832. 
Jas. Roberts, June 23, 1832. 
John W. Lewis, February 15, 1833. 
Enoch Edmonston, June 16, 1S33. 
Wm. P. Dickson, June 5, 1835. 
John A. Norman, June 27, 1835. 
Robt. Oxley, June 27, 1835 
John Beard, February 25, 1836. 
John Hurst, November 14, 1836. 


John Shepherd, November 29, 1836. 

Richard L. Kirby, November 29, 1836. 

Harrison Blagraves, June 13, 1837. 

John Howard, June 13, 1837. 

Zedakiah Wood, June 13, 1837. 

Josiah Reeder, June 23, 1837. 

Daniel Hoskins, July 22, 1837. 

John Combs, Fedrnary7, 1839. 

Rev. Benj. T. Goodman, April 16, 1840. 

Jessie Corn, Jr., August 11, 1840. 

Samuel Postlethwait, August 11, 1840. 

Thomas Wooldridge, August 17, 1840. 

Shiloh Poison, April 2, 1841. 

John Beard, May 28, 1841. 

JohnD. Noble, October 15, 1841, 

Andrew B. Spradley, December 15, 1841. 

John Hurst, December 18, 1841. 

Capt. Elijah Kendall, April 22, 1842. 

John Cave, April 22, 1842. 

John Combs, Sr., June i, 1842. 

Giles Lansford, August 15, 1842. 

Daniel Harris, August 15, 1842. 

Capt. Elijah Cox, August 31, 1842. 

Joseph Schneider, July 8, 1844. 

Simon B. lycwis, February 20, 1844. 

Authur ly, Blayrden, February 20, 1844. 

John F. Combs, September i, 1845. 

James Stewart, October 3, 1845. 

Jesse Corn, October 3, 1845 

John B. Pfaff, October 11, 1845. 

Dennis Ahler, October 24, 1845, 

Alex. Shoulders, February 20, 1846. 

James C. Boyles, July 17, 1846 (for five years.) 

Wm. H. Cox, February 3, 1847. 

Joshua C. Chiener, February 3, 1847. 

John Hurst, March 31, 1847. 

John Cave, April 22, 1847. 

Capt. Elijah Kendall, April 22, 1847. 

Daniel Harris, April 22, 1847. 

Ben Maxey, May 24, 1847. 

Conrad Miller, August 24, 1847. 

John Russell, December 17, 1847. 

John Pace, September i, 1848. 

Major T. Powers, February i, 1849. 


Garrett Hoffman, July 7, 1849. 

James S. Brace, October 22, 1849. 

Henry Long, December 10, 1849. 

Robert S. Poison, September 4, 1850. 

John B. Pfaff, November 23, 1850. 

Samuel W. Postlethwait, November 23, 1850. 

Gerhardt H. Stein, February 3, 1851. 

James Beatty, March 26, 1851. 

Robert Oxley, April 29, 1851. 

William H. Taylor, June 16, 1851. 

William G. Helfrich, July 22, 1851. 

Thomas Lewis, November 11, 1851. 

John Crook, November 11, 1851. 

Wm. Hendrickson' March 16, 1852 (four 3'ears.) 

Steven Rose, August 24, 1852 (four years.) 

Wm. A. McDonald, December 23, 1852. 

Matthew B. Dillon, December 23, 1852. 

Francis Brilage, December 23, 1852. 

David G. Conlej-, February 5, 1853. 

Isaac Damwood, Maj- 4, 1853. 

John G. Hoifman, May 25, 1854. 

Wm. Schulteman, May 25, 1854. 

Robert M. Beaty, May 25, 1854. 

Samuel White, April 27, 1855. 

Leroy Cave, April 27, 1855. 

Wm. Schuntermann, April 27, 1855. 

Richard L. Hardin, October 5, 1855. 

James S. Brace, October 5, 1855. 

Wm. Stackhen, November i, 1855. 

John H. Hughs, May 5, 1856. 

Steven Rose, May 5, 1856. 

Jacob Alles, May 5, 1856. 

Wm. H. Taylor, May 5, 1856. 

James S. Brace, May 5, 1856. 

Andrew Able, January 6, 1857. 

Dominick Eckert, February 3, 1857. 

Henry Lange, February 14, 1857. 

Andrew B. Spradle3^ February 14, 1857. 

Wm. G. Helfrich, February 14, 1857. 

Sam B. Postlethwait, February 23, 1857. 

Henry E. Newcomb, February 11, 1858. 

James Houston, May 17, 1858. 

John G. Hoffman, May 17, 1858. 



(There are hundreds of later justices-of-the-peace. The above are given 
here simply as pioneers in this county. Previous to the new constitution, 
November ist, 185 1, their duties were similar to the county commissioners 
of to-day.) 


Names of men who have served as county commissioners : Henry 
Enlow, Robert Oxley, John Donnell, Abraham Corn, Lewis B. Woods, 
Arthur L. Blagraves, Major T Powers, Joseph Friedman, R. M. Davis, 
Casper John, Anson Cavender, B. R. L,. Niehaus, Henry Long, A. F. Kelso, 

Lewis Greene, Harvey Nicholson, R. 
L. Kirby, John B. Bickwerment, Wm. 
H. Greene, Robert M, Davis, Gerhard 
Niehaus, John Mehne, John G. Stall- 
man, Samuel Main, Harrison Morgan, 
John B. Gomam, Joseph Schuler, Henry 
Schnell, John L. Hoffman, Camden Cox, 
Wm. C. Brittain, Eli Abell, Joseph Heitz, 
John J. Alles, Samuel H. Dillon, August 
H. Koerner, Joseph Fritz, Conrad 
Jackie, Joseph Schroeder, Herman 
Teder, Henry Landgrebe, Henry Wehr, 
John B. Luebbers, and Fred Alles. 

The following justices-of-the-peace 
also served as a board of county com- 
missioners in 1843-5 • Daniel Harris, 
Samuel Postlethwait, Jesse Corn, Jr., 
John Cave, John D. Noble, John Hurst, 
Elijah Cox, Giles N. Lansford, Elijah 
Kendall, A. B. Spradley, John Combs, 
Commissioner Conrad Jackie. Joseph Schneider, and Simon B. Lewis. 


This was the beginning of the free school system. 

James Farris was commissioned trustee by the governor of Indiana, 
December 10, 1818. (No more commissions were issued for this position.) 

Henry W. Barker, October 30, 1863. (No more commissions were issued.) 


Wm. W. Kendall, November 17, 1892. 

Wm. W. Kendall. (Second commission absent.) 

Wm. H. Kuper, November 13, 1900. 

Wm. H. Kuper. (Second commission absent.) 



John Klem. Mr. Klem died in 
November, 1909. In January, 1910, 
Robert McCune was appointed his suc- 
cessor. (No commission issued.) (The 
county assessor's office is not a constitu- 
tional office, and commissions are not 
issued unless requested, and the election 
certified to.) 

The following officials, more or less 
county officers, served in the positions 
as indicated : 



JudgeE. A. Ely (1895.) 

Dr. Toliver Wertz, Dr. H. C. Hobbs, 
Dr. W. H. Wells, Dr. E. J. Kempf, Dr. 
John P. Salb, Dr. B. B. Brannock, Dr. 
Joseph F. Michaels, Dr. G. W. Traylor, 
Dr. Michael Robinson, and Dr. A. F. 


h. C. DeBruler, 1853 ; Col. John J. 
Key, 1861 ; Chas. H. Mason, 1862 ; David 
T. Laird, 1863; Chas. H. Mason, 1870; 
Milton S. Mavity, 187 1. (This court 
was abolished in 1873.) 


Jonathan Doty, 1818; Richard Dan- 
iel, 1819; James R. E. Goodlett, 1820; 
Samuel Hall, 1832; Chas. I. Battell, 
1835; Elisha Embree, 1836; James y 
Lockhart, 1846; Alvin P. Hovey, 1853; 
W. E. Niblack, 1854; Ballard Smith, \\^^ 
185S ; M. F. Burke, 1859; Jas. C. Denny, 
1864; John Baker, 1865; N. F. Malott, 
1871; O. M. Welborn, 1873; Wm. T. 
Zenor, and E. A. Ely, 1895; John L,. 
Bretz, 1910. 

Judge John L. Bretz, 



The following men have served as school- examiners or county school 
superintendents of Dubois county: 1843, John McCausland; 1853, Rev. 
Joseph Kundeck, Rev. A. J. Strain and George W. Fallon ; 1857, Rev. Jos. 
Kundeck, Rev. A. J. Strain and S. J. Kramer; 1858, Rev. A. J. Strain, 
Stephen Jerger and S. J. Kramer; 1859, Rev. A. J. Strain, William Hays and 
J. B. Beckwerment; i860, Wm. Hays, J. B. Beckwerment and Henry A. 
Holthaus; 1861, Rev. A. J. Strain; 1873, E. R. Brundick. (Here the law 
was changed and the county superintendent took charge.) The county 
superintendents were as follows: 1873, E. R. Brundick; 1879, Rev. Geo. 
C Cooper; 1881, Hon. A. M. Sweeney; 1889, George R. Wilson; 1903, 
Wm. Melchior (1910). 


The following men have served as truant officers for Dubois county : 
Eieut. W. W. Kendall, John Meschede, Col. J. H. Johnson, Thomas H. 
Parks, Charles H. Osborn (resigned), C. C. Baggerly, Levi E- Jacobs and 
Christ. Parks (1910.) 

Col. Johnson has the distinction of having won the praise and 
special mention of the state superintendent of public instruction in his 
official report to the general assembly of Indiana, touching upon the truancy 
law and its enforcement. This is an honor not often bestowed. 


The Indiana territorial government came into existence July 4, 1800, 
and ended November 7, 1816. 

Before the organization of Dubois county, the people who lived within 
the present confines of the county were represented in the general assem- 
bly of Indiana by senators and representatives from Pike and Gibson 
counties. Even since the county's organization, these legislators have not 
always been citizens of Dubois county. Their names and years of service 
follow : 


William Prince (of Gibson county), 1816. 

Isaac Montgomery, 1817, 1818 and 1819. 

Richard Daniel, 1820 and 1821. 

Daniel Grass, 1822, 1823, 1825 and 1826. 

Isaac Montgomery, 1S26, 1827 and 1828. 

David Robb, 1829, 1830, 1831 and 1832. 

Elisha Embree, 1833 and 1834. 

Thomas C. Stewart, 1835, 1836 and 1837. 

John Hargrove. 1838, 1839 and 1840. 

Smith Miller, 1841, 1842 and 1843. 

Benjamin R. Edmonston, 1844, 1845 and 1846. 



Smith Miller, 1847, 184S and 1849. 

Rev. Benjamin T. Goodman, 1850 and 185 1. 

W. Hawthorne, 1853 and 1855. 

John Hargrove, 1857, 1858 and 1859. 

Col. Thomas Shoulders, 1861. 

Allen T. Fleming, 1863. 

James Barker, 1865 and 1867. 

Aaron Houghton, being ineligible, Wm. H. Montgomery was seated, 1869. 

Leroj' Cave, 1871 and 1873. 

Henry A. Peed, 1875 and 1877. 

William A. Traylor, 1879 and 1881. 

James H. Willard, 1883 and 1885. 

Oscar A. Trippet (resigned), 1887. 

William A. Traylor {vice Trippet 
resigned), 1889. 

John Sweeney, 1891 and 1893. 

Michael A. Sweeney, 1895 and 1897. 

Ephraim Inman, 1899 and 1901. 

Richard M. Milburn, 1903 and 1905. 

John Benz, 1907. 

Samuel Benz. (Special session, 1908.) 

Samuel Benz, 1909. 

[Note — Under the first constitution 
senators were elected for three years, 
and representatives for one year. 
Annual elections were held on the first 

Monday in August.] Senator Wm. a. Traylor (1889.) 


Edmund Hogan (Gibson Co.), 1816. 
John Johnson (Gibson Co.), 1816 and 1818. 
James Campbell (Gibson Co.), 1817. 
Richard Daniel (Gibson Co.), 1817 and 1818. 
Robert M. Evans (Gibson Co.), 1819. 
John W, Maddox (Gibson Co.), 1819. 
David Robb (Gibson Co.), 1820. 

(The foregoing persons were indirectly representatives of Dubois 

Thomas Vandever, 182 1. 
John Daniel, 1822. 
David Edwards, 1823. 
Wm. McMahan, 1S25. 
John Daniel, 1825 and 1826. 
John Johnson, 1826 and 1827. 
James Riche}', 1828. 




Thomas C. Stewart, 1829 and 1830. 

George H. Proffit, 1831 and 1832. 

William M. Wright, 1833 and 1834. 

Benj. R. Edmonston, 1835. 

George H. Proffit, 1836. 

Dr. Aaron B. McCrillus, 1837. 

George H. Proffit, 1838. 

Benj. R. Ednionstou, 1839. 

Dr. Aaron B. McCrillus, 1840. 

Dr. John Poison, 1841. 

Benj. R. Edmonston, 1842 and 1843. 

Silas Davis, 1844. 

George W. Lemonds, 1845 and 1846. 

Rev. Benj. T. Goodman, 1847. 

Benj. R. Edmonston, 1848. 

Hon. B. L. Greene. 

Of Jasper, Ind., born October 1, 1850, died 
August G, 18S5. Served as deputy clerk for 
many years; also as state representative. He 
was clerk- elect of Dubois county at the time 
of his death. He was also clerk of the town 
of Jasper for many years, and was the first 
teacher in the brick public school building in 

Ernst W. Pickhardt, 1891. 
John L. Megenity, 1893. 
Wm. A. Wilson, 1893. 

Henry W. Barker, 1849. 

Silas Davis, 1850. 

Henry W. Barker, 1851. 

Gen. John Able, 1853. 

John S. Martin, 1855. 

Col. Thomas Shoulders, 1857. 

Dr. M. Kempf, 1858 and 1859. 

Allen T. Fleming, 1861. 

Benj. R. Kemp, 1863. 

A. J. Becket, 1865. 

John Weikel. (Special session.) 

Bazil B. L. Edmonston, 1867. 

Leroy Cave, 1869. 

Richard W. Stephens, 1871. 

Henry A. Peed, 1873. 

Andrew J. Gosman, 1875 and 1S77. 

Thomas Hart, 1879. 

Samuel Hargrove, 1881. 

Capt. Morman Fisher, 1883. 

Bazil L. Green, 1883. 

Capt. Mormon Fisher, 1885. 

Lemuel R. Hargrove, 1885. 

Thomas B. Buskirk, 1887. 

Thomas M. Clarke, 18S7. 

Ernst W. Pickhardt, 1889. 

James H. Willard, 1889. 

Ephraim Inman, 1891. 



A. W. Porter, 1895. 

Samuel H. Stewart, 1895. 

Perr}' McCart, 1897. 

Frank Pinnick, 1897. 

Capt. Sasser Sullivan, 1899. 

Dr. Peter L. Coble, 1901. 

David DeTar Corn, 1903. 

Horace M. Kean, 1905. 

Dr. Peter L. Coble, 1907 and 1909. 

Note — Hon. Benj. R. Edmonston, of Haysville, represented Dubois 
county in the constitutional convention which was held at Indianapolis 
from October 7, 1850 until February 10, 1851, and which framed the present 
constitution of Indiana. Hon. A. J. Gosman, of Jasper, introduced the 
bill for the erection of the present state house. 


Hon. Andrew M. Sweeney, of Jasper, clerk of the supreme court of Indi- 
ana, from 1890 to 1894. 


At a congressional election held August 18, 1821, Dubois county was a 
part of what was then known as the first congressional district. It 
remained in the first district until Feb- 
ruary 20, 1867, when it became a part of 
the second. On March 9th, 1895, it 
became a part of the third congressional 

Our first congressman was William 
Hendricks, who served until 1823. 
William Prince was then elected, but 
was killed b}' a steamboat explosion 
while on his way to Washington. Jacol) 
Call was chosen to fill the vacancy. 
Ratliff Boone, of Warrick county, rep- 
resented the district from 1825 to 1827, 
Thos. H. Blake from 1827 to 1829, then 
Boone served again until 1839. George 
H. Proffit served until 1843, when Robert 
Dale Owen succeeded him. Elisha 
Embree succeeded Owen in 1847, and 
served until 1849. Nathaniel Albertson 
was our congressman from 1849 to 1851. 

He was succeeded by James Eockhart, Congressman Wm. E. Cox (1910.) 

who in 1853, was succeeded by Smith Miller, who served until 1S57, when 
Lockhart succeeded him, and died in office. Wm. E. Niblack filled the 
vacancy and served until 1861. John Laws served until 1865, when Judge 


Wm. E. Niblack again entered Congress and served until 1873. However, 
on February 20, 1867. Dubois county became a part of the second congres- 
sional district with Michael C. Kerr as representative, until 1873. In 1873, 
Simeon K. Wolf became a congressman, succeeded, in 1875, by James D. 
Williams, who resigned, and Andrew Humphreys was appointed to fill the 
vacancy. In 1877, Thomas R.Cobb became the congressman in this dis- 
trict. He served until 1887. John H. O'Neil then served until 1891, when 
John L. Bretz entered congress. Alexander M. Hardy served in the 54th 
Congress from 1895 to 1897. Dubois county became a part of the third 
congressional district March 9th, 1895, and Wm. T. Zenor entered as con- 
gressman. He served until 1907, when he was succeeded by Wm. E. Cox. 
Of this list of congressmen, three were born in Dubois county: Niblack, 
Bretz and Cox. Geo. H. Proffit was once a Dubois county citizen and lived 
at Portersville. [Page 112.] 


Dubois county has been democratic almost since its organization. Dur- 
ing its first twelve years the whigs had about an equal number of voters, 
but since 1840, the democratic party has been in control. 

In 1840, the total number of voters in Dubois county was 702, but in 
1846, only 673 votes were cast. In voting for or against a constitutional 
convention, August 6, 1849, 547 voted for the convention and 259 against 
it, a total vote of 806. 

In 1850, the leading democrats in Dubois county were Judge A. B. 
Spradley, Henry Brenner, and Martin E. Meyers of Patoka township; Jacob 
Herman, Col. B. B. Edmonston, and Gen. John Mehringer of Bainbridge 
township; Thomas P. Hope, Andrew Able, and Samuel White of Harbison 
township; D. M. Davis, Leroy Cave, and Harvey Nicholson of Columbia 
township; Thomas Shoulders, Joseph Striegel, and Capt. J. J. Alles, of 
Hall township; and John B. Gohman, Fred Neudeck, and Dr. M. Kemp of 
Ferdinand township. 

The political standing of Dubois county since 1856 is shown by the sub- 
joined table: 

Deu. Rep. All Others. Total 

1856 1224 226 . . . 1450 

i860 1349 301 20 1670 

1868 1986 501 ... 2487 

1872 1776 590 . . . 2366 

1874 2148 496 . . . 2644 

1876 2364 711 ... 3075 

1878 2260 660 49 2969 

1880 2466 908 12 3386 

1882 2340 747 21 3108 

1884 2710 1018 7 3735 


^Jfartiii County: 
Daviess gS 

k A 















— r 








«^ ^ 







M .- J 


Wm. E. Niblack again entered Congress and served until 1873. However, 
on February 20, 1867. Dubois county became a part of the second congres- 
sional district with Michael C. Kerr as representative, until 1873. In 1873, 
Simeon K. Wolf became a congressman, succeeded, in 1875, by James D. 
Williams, who resigned, and Andrew Humphreys was appointed to fill the 
vacancy. In 1877, Thomas R.Cobb became the congressman in this dis- 
trict. He served until 1887. John H. O'Neil then served until 1891, when 
John If. Bretz entered congress. Alexander M. Hardy served in the 54th 
Congress from 1895 to 1897. Dubois county became a part of the third 
congressional district March 9th, 1895, ^"^ Wm. T. Zenor entered as con- 
gressman. He served until 1907, when he was succeeded by Wm. E. Cox. 
Of this list of congressmen, three were born in Dubois county: Niblack, 
Bretz and Cox. Geo. H. Proffit was once a Dubois county citizen and lived 
at Portersville. [Page 112.] 


Dubois county has been democratic almost since its organization. Dur- 
ing its first twelve years the whigs had about an equal number of voters, 
but since 1840, the democratic party has been in control. 

In 1840, the total number of voters in Dubois county was 702, but in 
1846, only 673 votes were cast. In voting for or against a constitutional 
convention, August 6, 1849, 547 voted for the convention and 259 against 
it, a total vote of 806. 

In 1850, the leading democrats in Dubois county were Judge A. B. 
Spradley, Henry Brenner, and Martin E. Meyers of Patoka township; Jacob 
Herman, Col. B. B. Edmonston, and Gen. John Mehringer of Bainbridge 
township; Thomas P. Hope, Andrew Able, and Samuel White of Harbison 
township; D. M. Davis, Leroy Cave, and Harvey Nicholson of Columbia 
township; Thomas Shoulders, Joseph Striegel, and Capt. J. J. Alles, of 
Hall township; and John B. Gohman, Fred Neudeck, and Dr. M. Kemp of 
Ferdinand township. 

The political standing of Dubois county since 1856 is shown by the sub- 
joined table: 


1856 1224 

i860 1349 

1868 1986 

1872 1776 

1874 2148 

1876 2364 

1878 2260 

1880 2466 

1882 2340 

1884 2710 


All Others. 



























■/ifunoj lY^of/^uiJjQ J II finntorj pjoj,mj.iQ 

Pikr (jOtinJy 












Dem. Rep. All Othkks. Total 

1886 2710 I02I 41 3772 

1888 2784 I22I 19 4224 

1890 2398 689 512 3599 

1892 282 1 1073 204 4098 

1894 2610 1 149 146 3905 

1896 2907 1206 60 4173 

1898 2214 986 67 3267 

1900 3112 1345 38 4495 

1902 2578 1044 46 3668 

1904 3053 1384 49 4486 

1906 2660 1363 59 4082 

1908 3344 1397 104 4845 

In 1872, when the county had six townships, the political force was rep- 
presented as follows: 

Dem. Rep. 

Columbia 174 75 

Harbison 200 in 

Bainbridge 385 130 

Hall 281 73 

Patoka 426 188 

Ferdinand 310 13 

Totals 1776 590 

In 1907, the voting power of Dubois county was as follows: Columbia, 
282; Harbison, 308; Boone, 248; Madison, 308; Bainbridge, 771; Marion, 
221; Hall, 247; Jefferson, 441; Jackson, 280; Patoka, 973; Cass, 352; Ferd- 
inand, 412. Total in county, 4S45. Patoka, Cass, and Ferdinand town- 
ships each had one colored voter. There were but three in the county. 

In 1908, there were 4845 votes cast in Dubois county. 

Sebastian Anderson was the first republican county chairman to organ- 
ize Dubois county by precincts. Since then the chairmanship of the 
republican county central committee has been held by the following repub- 
licans: Sebastian Anderson, Chas. J. Hubbard, Dr. Wm. R. McMahan, 
lyouis H. Katter, and John F. Mehringer (1910.) 



A military history of Dubois county — Revolutionary sol- 
diers — Early guides and rangers — Military roads — A 
fight with the Indians — The militia of Dubois county 
under Indiana's first constitution — The pioneers' "For- 
ty-third Regiment" — Mexican War record — Civil War 
record — Names of soldiers by regiments — Original six 
townships — Home guards — Loyal legion — Flag of the 
Twenty-seventh — Medals for Lieut. W. W. Kendall — 
Sword for Brig. Gen. Mehringer — Bounties^Relief — 
High Rock — Spanish War — The monument. 


This long list of names and dates is necessarily incomplete. 
The government and state muster rolls are incomplete. 
Thousands of names are on the rolls without any given 
residences. It is very diificult, indeed, to obtain accu- 
rate information, since some of the soldiers have lost 
their 7var papers and know their identity only by their 
more reliable and thoughtful comrade's identity and rec- 
^^^ ord. Many sources of information open were faithfully 

consulted, yet, some soldiers who well deserve extended and honorable mention 
may have been undiscovered. It would take Moses the great historian, judge, and 
general of Holy Writ to record the names, pass on the records, and lead the sol- 
diers of Dubois county out of the wilderness of names found on the pages of the 
government muster rolls. Only an inspired pen can do that. 

The military history of Dubois county is a long and honorable one. 
Hundreds of pioneers had personal records of bravery and daring worthy 
of record. Manj^ came from the "dark and bloody" ground of old Ken- 
tucky and carried with them the "Kentucky rifle" made famous on the 
battlefield of New Orleans. Tennessee, "the state of Franklin," the "vol- 
unteer state," "the home of Jackson," a state of marksmen, and men of 
bravery, — sent its portion to Dubois county. Add to these the cavaliers of 
Virginia and a homogeneous race of men with soldiery tendencies and bear- 
ings ; and fearlessness must result. Such were the patriarchs of Dubois 
county, and their sons did honor to the name. Alternate these sons with 
the sons of old Germany, noted for their fortitude, courage, and endurance, 
and you have a regiment of soldiers that would have been saluted hy the 
"I/ittle Corporal" with delight, and ordered to the brunt of battle. 

Dubois county is named in honor of a soldier of the Tippecanoe cam- 
paign, and its "Buffalo Trace" in the northern part of the county, became 
a "military road" in Indian campaigns. It was along this trace that the 


first Federal soldiers lived. Their names were Lewis Powers, James Har- 
bison, Sr.. and John Hills — ah Revolutionary War survivors more than 
sixt3'-tliree years of age. when citizens of Dubois county. 

For services in the American Revolution, James Harbison volunteered 
in Botetcourt county, Virginia, in 1780, under James Robinson. Harbison 
joined Morgan's regiment near Ramsour's Mill, and was in battle at Island 
Ford, on Yadkin river. He served six months. He married Rachel Hem- 
bree in Knox county, Tennessee, in September, 1825. While a resident of 
Dubois count}', he was allowed a pension November 13, 1832, aged sixty- 
nine. He died October 6, 1841, and his grave is near the southeast corner 
of section 29 on the old "Buffalo Trace," in Harbison township. His 
widow was allowed a pension August 3, 1853, while she was a resident of 
Dubois county, and when she was seventy- years of age. 

A few words may be recorded relative to the pioneer "rangers," 
"guides," "scouts," "half-breeds," "squatters," and friendly Piankishaws, 
that had to do with the wilderness in southern Indiana. To understand 
properly the situation, it will be necessary to include territory beyond the 
present confines of Dubois count}'. 

Here is an outline of the earlier conditions: 

There was an Indian village at the confluence of the two forks of White 
river. The Indians there were Delaware Indians. There was a Pianki- 
shaw Indian village near Holland, probably northwest of Holland and 
north of Zoar. Remains of it are occasionally found to this day. There 
was a string of Indian villages extending east and west in southern Indi- 
ana about that latitude. This is shown by the Indian burial grounds 
found south of Patoka river. These Indian villages were frequently only 
a long line of wigwams following a small creek, or line of springs near 
good hunting grounds. 

The "Buffalo Trace," so often mentioned, was the largest and best route 
traveled by Indian or white man in southern Indiana, but it was not the 
only one. There was an Indian trail which led from Rockport (called 
"Yellow Banks," in pioneer daj^s) to the headwaters of "Little Pigeon" 
creek, and to the Indian village mentioned, near Holland. From there 
the old trace led to a large spring, then along a branch to South Patoka 
river, thence north across North Patoka, in Pike county, and across the 
"Buffalo Trace" over to the village of the Delawares, at the "forks of 
White river." 

There was another route which led from the Ohio river, near the mouth 
of Blue river, to the "Buffalo Trace," near Paoli. The "Buffalo Trace" 
reached the Ohio river at Louisville. There was another trace leading 
from Henderson (once called "Red Banks") north to Vincennes. These 
trails led north from the Ohio river, and Kentucky pioneers reached Indi- 
ana over them, and occasionally some met death from the Indians that were 
constantly' skulking near them. 

To guard travelers coming into Indiana territory, "rangers" were put 
on duty on these trails, b}' order of Governor William Henry Harrison. 


As an extra precaution, new "niilitarj^ routes" running east and west, were 
cut through the wilderness. The logs were not removed, but the trees 
were '"blazed," and the trace opened six or eight feet wide, making room 
for "foot-soldiers" only. One of these routes was cut out south of Patoka 
river, in 1807. It is quite likely that the road leading from Otwell, toward 
New Albany, and crossing Patoka river at a ford, at Jasper, was one of 
these routes, thus accounting for the location of the "Irish Settlement" 
and the town of Jasper. These routes were cut out under command of 
Col. Wm. Hargrave, who had the direction of all the "rangers" in this part 
of Indiana. The "rangers" were required to go over their routes two or 
three times a week and to report to the commander, who in turn made his 
report to the governor at Vincennes. Settlers were urged to locate near 
these routes, so that the "rangers" or "scouts" could keep in touch with 
them and render assistance when necessary. John McDonald and Wm. 
McDonald were "rangers," and "Fort McDonald," in Boone township, was 
much in use in those days. 

The "rangers" or "scouts" guided settlers along the routes, from one 
fort or settlement to another. They also took charge of the misguided 
men and women who were lost in the wilderness through the failure of 
Aaron Burr's conspiracy', assuring them that if they settled in Indiana ter- 
ritory and became good citizens, the government would not molest them. 
Perry and Spencer counties had a few such pioneers, but it is not likely 
any settled as far north of the Ohio river as Dubois county. 

The "military roads" in Dubois county prior to 1804 can be located, 
but it is difficult to locate those cut out by white "rangers" after the gov- 
ernment surveys had been made. Orders were issued to cut out a route 
"south of Patoka river, a distance of forty miles as the river runs." The 
orders also convey the information that if the route is cut out too close to 
Patoka river, many abrupt banks and steep gorges will be found. 

In the old military orders issued at Vincennes, prior to the battle of 
Tippecanoe, the "Mud Holes" in Boone township are often mentioned. 
Mention is made of British "scouts" being seen along these old military 
routes, and of hunters in the employ of Canadian fur companies. 

The Buffalo Trace is called the KenUicky Road by Surveyor Ebenezer 
Buckingham. It is called Louisville Trace by Surveyor David Sandford. 
Others call it Road to Vincennes, Mud Hole Trace, Governor s Trace, Har- 
rison Road, etc. John Gibson, secretary of Indiana territory, in 1807, re- 
fers to it in his military orders as the Old Indian Road and as the Clarks- 
ville and Vincennes Road, and locates all other "traces," with reference 
to this one — the principal one. 

Among the scouts, "half-breeds" and friendly- Indians who were rang- 
ers on these old traces, were "Ell Ernst," "Hogue," "Fu Quay," "Ben 
Page," "Baily Anderson," "Twenney," "Swimming Otter," and "Yellow 
Bird". The Indians belonged to the Piankishaws, Cre-as, Delawares, and 


About the year 1S04, a skirmish with the Indians is said to have taken 
place in Dubois county, probably in Harbison township, near the corner 
of what is now Bainbridge and Marion townships. Seven Indians had 
captured two women and two children in Kentucky six daj's before and 
had brought them north. Eight Kentuckians were in pursuit. They 
were joined by John and Wm. McDonald. Capt. John Enlow and John 
Risley were with the white part}'. The Indians and their captives were 
located on the bank of Patoka river, in section five, by Wm. McDonald, 
from whom they had stolen a horse. With the Indian warriors was an 
Indian "medicine man," making eight Indians in all. Four Indians were 
shot outside of their tepee; one of them in Patoka river. The other four 
— three of whom had been wounded b}- wild animals two nights before — 
were captured, and finally' killed. It is said the eight dead Indians w^ere 
thrown into a gulch at Patoka river, near their camp. 

John Risley was wounded in the skirmish, but finally completely recov- 
ered. A creek in Boone township bears his name. John Risle3'"s name 
appears upon the muster roll of "Captain Walter Wilson's Companj- of 
Infantry, of the Indiana Militia," recruited for the "Tippecanoe campaign" 
in iSii, but he did not remain. He and five others left the compan}- Oc- 
tober 24, 181 1. 

John McDonald was a member of Capt. Park's company of "Light Dra- 
goons" and was in the battle of Tippecanoe. 

There were several friendly Piankeshaw, We-a, and Delaware Indian 
"scouts" on duty along the old "military routes," and a few "half-breeds" 
that could be trusted. 

William Fisher, of Patoka township, was a soldier in the Indian War 
of 1812. William Whitten was a pensioner of the War of 1812. Benjamin 
Sanders served in the War of 1812, Thomas Y. Riley in Indian expeditions 
of 1827, and Ensign Philip Conrad in Indian Wars. 

In the muster roll of soldiers in the Indiana militia who participated 
in the battle of Tippecanoe, appear these names familiar to Dubois county: 
Capt. Toussaint Dubois, G. R. C. Sullivan (an attorney). General W. John- 
son (an attorney), Henry Enlow, William Hurst, Sr., William Hurst, Jr., 
Beverly Hurst, James Harbison, James Stewart, Jonathan Walker, John 
Risley, William Wright and John McDonald. 

While Indiana was a territory, a militarj' system was devised which 
gradually grew into one of considerable importance and efficienc}-. It was 
in high repute, and was the surest and quickest way to civil and political 
positions, as late perhaps as 1838. Gradually, however, the interest, which 
had been felt in maintaining the militia, weakened and failed to secure that 
sacrifice of time and means upon which its success had depended; so that 
by 1840 the state militia was practically abandoned, and the military spirit 
of the people was not again aroused, until the declaration of war against 
Mexico, in 1846. Still, in Dubois county, some military spirit existed, and 


all aspirants for county political honors and places were solicitous to make 
stepping stones of militia offices, and one reads of Colonel Morgan, Colonel 
Edmonston, Colonel Shoulders, etc., as county officials. 

The first constitution of the state of Indiana was ordained and estab- 
lished at Corydon, Indiana, on Monday, June lo, 1816. It remained the 
constitution until November i, 1851. Under this first constitution, it was 
provided that all free, white, able-bodied male persons, resident in the state 
of Indiana, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, with few excep- 
tions, shall constitute the state militia. On certain days during the year 
men were required to muster (now called drill). They elected their own 
officers; captains and subalterns were elected by their respective compa- 
nies ; majors were elected by those persons within their respective battal- 
ion districts subject to perform militia duty; colonels were elected by those 
persons within the bounds of their respective regimental district subject 
to perform militia duty; brigadier generals were elected by the commis- 
sioned officers within the bounds of their respective brigade; and, major 
generals were elected by the commissioned officers within the bounds of 
their respective divisions. 

The organizations were squads, companies, battalions, regiment, etc. 
Dubois county had her share of pioneer soldiers. The annual muster was 
held on the first Saturday m May. This was called brigade or battalion 
muster, and was held a mile southwest of the court house, between the 
Huntingburg road and the railroad. Here all able-bodied men met and 
drilled, and went through all the evolutions of soldiers. The four days 
following such an annual muster, or county muster, were given up to 
sports, such as shooting-matches, foot-races, wrestling, jumping, and fre- 
quentl}^ a few genuine fist-fights. 

These embryo soldiers camped in the woods near by, killed game for 
meat, and brought their "corn-dodgers" with them, or they would go to 
the "Enlow Mill" (which stood where Eckert's Mill now stands), and get 
corn meal and bake their own "hoe-cakes." They enjoj^ed these cakes and 
wild meats. 

The company musters were semi-annual, and lasted for one day each. 
There were many "company muster grounds" throughout the countj^ At 
the crossing of the Jasper and Schnellville road with the St. Anthony and 
Celestine road, at Portersville, at Major Haddock's farm, near the corner 
of Bainbridge, Boone, and Harbison townships, and many other places, 
company musters (or drills) were held. Squad musters were local and con- 
vened at the call of their captains in that vicinity. 

Captains and lieutenants drilled squads of twenty-five or more; majors 
drilled companies of one hundred men, or more; lieutenant-colonels drilled 
battalions of two hundred, or more; colonels drilled regiments of one 
thousand, or more; and, generals, brigades of two thousand, or more. 

When these muster days, or drill days occurred, and the native was the 
possessor of a rifle, he was required to bring it to the muster-ground. If 


he had no gun he practiced the drill with a stick the size of a rifle. The 
guns used in those days were of the style known as "long-barrel, full- 
stock, single-trigger, flint-lock or scrape-fire." 

The manual of arms is too lengthy to describe, and the evolution of the 
soldier can be imagined better than told. Under this old military system, 
among man}^ others, the following citizens rose at least to local distinc- 
tion: Col. B. B. Edmonston, Col. Thos. Shoulders, Captain Elijah 
Kendall, Captain John Sherritt, Capt. Elisha Jacobs, Capt. Cox, and many 
others. Strange as this may seem in the light of military regulations of 
the present day, these musters created the spirit of patriotism that made 
itself felt in the Mexican and the Civil Wars. 


It appears that under the first constitution of Indiana, there was a reg- 
iment of the Indiana militia in Dubois county known as the "43d Regi- 
ment." For nearly twenty 3'ears this regiment was in existence, but passed 
awa}^ with the gradual loss of interest in military affairs previous to the 
Mexican War. 

Among the officers of this regiment were the men named below. The 
date of each man's commission is given. The commissions were signed 
by the various governors of Indiana: 


Simon Morgan, December 15, 1822. 
Joseph I. Kelso, May 10, 1824. 
Bazil B. Edmonston, January 19, 1829. 
James McElvaine, February 27, 1832. 
Thomas Shoulders, June i, 1835. 


Thomas Anderson, December 15, 1822. 
Samuel Kelso, January 19, 1829. 
Daniel Haskins, June i, 1835. 
Thomas Wooldridge, June i, 1838. 


William Edmonston, December 15, 1822. 
John Haddock, January 19, 1829. 
Daniel Harris, January 24, 1833. 


John Sherritt, June 20, 1823. 

Jacob Case, June 20, 1823. 

Samuel Postlethwait, June 20, 1823. 



Felix Hoover, June 20, 1823. 
James McElvaine, June 20, 1823. 
Eli Thomas, July 14, 1824. 
Enoch Edmonston, August 25, 1824. 
Thomas Fowler, August 25, 1824. 
William Shook, April 15, 1825. 
Archibald Edmonston, June 18, 1825. 
John Harvey, February i, 1830. 
Archibald Edmonston, August 24, 1830. 

Samuel Kelso, August 24, 1830. 
Thomas Shoulders, September 21, 

Jacob Enlow, February 7, 1831. 
Burr Mosby, September 3, 1831. 
Daniel Haskins, February 27, 1832. 
John Hart, December 12, 1832. 
Richard Harris, April 6, 1833. 
John Cave, July 11, 1833. 
Zachariah McCallister, January 20, 


Samuel Postlethwait, November 25^ 


John Hendrickson, Ma}' 13, 1836. 

Jacob Kellams, June 10, 1836. 

James Orender, August 4, 1836. 

Samuel Postlethwait, September 26, 

Elijah Kendall, August 10, 1838. 

James Stewart, September 5, 1838. 

Col. B. B. Edmonston. 

Born in Buncombe county, N. C, No- 
vember 6, 1802 ; clerk of Dubois county for 
twenty-eight years: served also as associate 
judge, recorder, sheriff, representative, and 
in many other positions of trust and honor. 
He died, blind, at Jasper, Indiana, July 23, 


John G. Brittain, June 20, 1823. 
Bazil B. Edmonston, June 20, 1823. 
Andrew Anderson, June 20, 1823. 
Alexander Baker, June 20, 1823. 

Arthur Blagraves, June 20, 1823. 
James Hendrickson, July 14, 1824. 
Stephen McDonald, April 15, 1825. 
Reuben Cave, June 18, 1825. 
William Riley, February i, 1826. 
David Eemmon, October 30. 1S29. 
Richard Ballard, February i, 1830. 
Andrew C. Morgan, August 24, 1830. 
Martin Kellams, August 24, 1830. 
Elijah Kendall, September 21, 1830. 


James McElvaine, September 3, 1831. 
William Wilson, February 27, 1832. 
John Beard, April 25, 1832. 
John Duffram, April 6, 1833. 
Thomas Treadwa}', July 11, 1833. 
James B. McMurtry, November 25, 1825. 
Henry Enlow, September 26, 1836. 
Alexander Shoulders, September 26, 1836. 
Matthew Combs, August 10, 1838. 


Frederick Harris, June 20, 1823. 

William Pinnick, June 20, 1823. 

Jesse Lett, June 20, 1823. 

Joel Mavity, June 20, 1823. 

James Harbison, June 20, 1823. 

William Hurst, May 10, 1824. 

Bonaparte McDonald, September i, 1824. 

Benjamin Hawkins, April 15, 1825. 

Philip Conrad. February- i, 1826. 

John Doffron, February' i, 1830. 

Armstrong Ritchey, August 24, 1830. 

Jacob Wineinger, August 24, 1830. 

Henderson Reed, September 21, 1830. 

Jonathan Werdman, Februarj^ 27, 1832. 

Joel Mavity, April 5, 1832. 

Andrew Farris, April 6, 1833. 

James Kirb}-, Jul}' 11, 1833. 

Jacob Enlow, November 25, 1835. 

Jeremiah Kendall, September 25, 1836. 

Jacob Enlow, September 26, 1836. 

Philip Conrad, ensign, lived on the "Buffalo Trace," in Columbia 
township, near the Orange county line. His remains lie buried, on a high 
hill, north of the railroad track, and just west of the Orange county line. 

In addition to the Dubois county oflBcers in the 43d Regiment, Captain 
Hugh Redman and Ensign John Russell were in the 38th, and Captain 
John Harden and Ensign Joseph M. Kelso were in the 39th. Their mili- 
tary commissions bear date of December 13, 1822. Captain William Mc- 
Donald, and Captain Samuel Scott were in the 49th Regiment, and their 
commissions are dated August 25, 1824. 

The "Pioneers' 43d Regiment" contains the names of men in Dubois 
county who did things up to 1840, and many prominent families in the 
northwestern part of Dubois county can recall the names of some of those 
pioneer soldiers. Practically all of its members were American pioneers, 
and some of the famil}- names are still with us. 


General John Abel, of Haysville, served as an officer in Ohio. He 
was a member of the Indiana legislature of 1853. He died September 2, 


The Rev. Joseph Kundeck, of Jasper, had a company of one hundred 
men. These he frequently commanded personally. They drilled on the 
public square at Jasper, or on the church lot at St. Joseph's Church. These 
men were uniformed and supplied with arms. William Burkhart was cap- 
tain and Michael Reis was lieutenant. This was early in the fifties, before 
the Civil War. 

With the Mexican War came actual service before the enem5\ 

The principal representation Dubois county had in the Mexican War, 
was in Company "E" of the "Fourth Indiana Foot Volunteers." About 
one-half of Company "E" were young men from the south half of the 
county. The company was organized in the month of May, 1847, at Rock- 
port, by Capt. J. W. Crook. Frequently men when enlisting are careless 
about seeing that their home county is credited with their enlistment. 
Company "E" marched from Rockport to near Jeffersonville, a distance 
according to the original muster roll, of one hundred thirty-five miles. 
It arrived at Jeffersonville, June 8th, 1847. In 1848, when the company 
was mustered out, the roll showed fifty-seven officers and men. 

Company " E " contained these soldiers from Dubois county : 

James G. (Gardner) Beebe (aged 20), private. 

Vincent Bolin (22), private. 

Samuel Beardsley (19), private. 

lyUther Cox (19), private. 

Adam A. Dempy (22), private. 

Thomas Enlow (19), private. 

Alfred H. Fisher (24), private. 

James A. Graham (21), Second Lieutenant. 

James Green (Died in Mexico), private. 

Rodolphus B. Hall (21), Fourth Sergeant. 

John B. Hutchens (24), Third Corporal. 

William Hart (28), private. 

Jacob Hoover (21), private. 

Pleasant Horton (killed in battle), private. 

Martin B. Mason (23), Second Sergeant. 

James McElvaine (wounded and died in Mexico.) 

John Mehringer (21), private (Brig. Gen. Mehringer.) 

David Merchand (41), private. 

Hiram Main (26) (Died in Mexico), private. 

James N. McKowin (33), private. 

David Iv. Matthews (Died in Mexico), private. 

Joseph Grinder (Died in Mexico), private. 

William Postlethwait (18), private. 

Samuel Postlethwait (24), Fourth Corporal. 


Robert W. Sherrod (21), private. 

Richard Stillwell (28), private. 

William Stillwell (23), private. 

Lewis Biram Shively (22), private. 

Harrison Wade (33), private. 

Gardiner Wade, private. 

Lieutenant James A. Graham and Lewis Biram Shivel}^ were the organ- 
izers of the men from Dubois county. C. C. Graham and Charles S. Finch 
were also lieutenants. John W. Crook, of Rockport, was the captain. 
The regiment was under the command of Col. Willis A. Gorman. It 
started for New Orleans, from New Albany, Indiana, in Jul}', 1847, after 
about one month's drilling. It did guard duty along the Rio Grande River 
until early in 1848. It then went to Vera Cruz and then to Pueblo. Here 
it remained for some time. The regiment had several skirmishes with 
Mexican guerillas and had a sharp fight at Huamantla. The regiment 
was mustered out July 20, 1S4S, at Madison, Indiana. A large number of 
those who returned were well known by many citizens now living in 
Dubois county. 

In addition to the men named before, the following late citizens of 
Dubois count}' saw service in the Mexican War — Valentine Moessmer, of 
Jasper; Adam Sahm, of Jackson township; George F. Schurz (who was a 
merchant near Bretzville, and died May 17, 1871); Benjamin Owen, of Col- 
umbia township (who was first lieutenant of Company "I." 3Sth Indiana, 
and who was also a soldier in an Eastern Tennessee Union regiment); 
Henr}' Phillips, also of Columbia township, a soldier in the 3d Indiana; 
Anton Brelage, of Marion township, who was a member of Co. " C," 3d 
Indiana; Ex-County Surveyor Arthur Berry, of Ireland ; Robert M. Beaty, 
and Anzel Lilory. Fred. A. Neudeck, of Jasper, was a teamster in the 
Mexican War. 

CIVIL WAR — 1 86 1- 1 865. 

During the Civil War, the militia in Dubois county consisted of one 
thousand four hundred ninety-one men. There were seven hundred 
eighteen volunteers, but one hundred sixty-two were exempt from 
service through physical defects. There were six hundred ninetj' volun- 
teers in the service credited to Dubois county. One thousand two hundred 
fifty-seven men in the county were subject to draft, if needed. It 
appears that there was, at that time, no one in the county conscientiously 
opposed to bearing arms. Bruno Buettner was provost marshal and Dr. 
Matthew Huber, surgeon; both of Jasper. 

Dubois county did not support Abraham Lincoln for the presidency. 
In his first campaign he received three hundred one votes to thirteen hun- 
dred forty-seven for Stephen A. Douglas. Four years later Lincoln 
received two hundred six votes, while McClellan received fourteen hundred 
sixty-four votes. However, when the question of the preservation of the 


Union was presented, the county's loyalty to the flag was soon apparent. 
The fall of Fort Sumter aroused the public and realizing that, in the event 
of war, southern Indiana might become the battle ground, the citizens of 
Dubois county early began the organization of "Home Guard" companies. 

On April 20, 1861, a meeting was held at the court house, at Jasper, 
and steps were taken toward organizing a company. In a few days, sixty- 
five men were enrolled as a company of "Home Guards." John Meh- 
ringer was captain; W. C. Adams, Stephen Jerger, and Dr. R. M. Welman 
were lieutenants; John Salb and August Litschgi were sergeants; and 
Romold Beck, C. W. DeBruler, A. Harter, and Rudolphus Smith were 
corporals. This was the beginning of what eventually became Company 
"K," of the 27th Indiana. 

Meetings for the purpose of organizing "Home Guard" companies were 
held throughout the county, and the cause of the Union always had gener- 
ous support. The "Ireland Home Guards" were organized May 4, 1861. 
Its officers were Arthur Berry, captain; William Hart, first lieutenant; and 
Harvey Green, second lieutenant. Benj. Dillon, James E. Brittain, W. B. 
Rose; and R. E. DeBruler were sergeants. Capt. A. Berry entered the 
services of the United States as a lieutenant with Co. " K," 27th Indiana. 
Many of the Mexican soldiers were in position to utilize the experiences 
gained in Mexico and their names frequently appeared in the roll of honor 
of the Civil War. 

The "Haysville Home Guards" were organized early, and were soon 
in the army. 

Among the citizens of Dubois county who assisted in the organizations 
of companies, and thus performed a loyal duty, may be mentioned Dr. S. B. 
McCrillus, C. W. DeBruler, Rev. B. T. Goodman, Rev. A. J. Strain, 
Andrew F. Kelso, Harvey Green, Wm. B. Rose, Dr. Glezen, W. C. Adams, 
and Bruno Buettner. 

In the early days of the Civil War patriotic young men from Dubois 
county rushed to the nearest railroad station and river towns, and there 
enlisted, without even seeing that they were credited to their own county. 
Other counties thus get credit for their services. Frequently these volun- 
teers were the flower of young manhood, the bravest of heart, and quickest 
of mind. It would be a pleasure indeed to record their names, but in 
many cases it cannot be done. Frequently the original "muster in" and 
"muster out" rolls fail to record whence they came, and thus they 
fall to the credit of the place of rendezvous, if to any place. These young 
men were making history, not writing it. One who knows the family 
names of Dubois county can easily recognize those who might be from this 
county, as he runs down the long army rolls, now musty and dim with age 
and slowly failing under the destructive hand of time. Again, any one 
familiar with the chirography of the soldier-citizens of Dubois county, has 




no trouble in recognizing the writing on these long rolls of honor. The 
writing appears a little bolder and more youthful than of later years, but 
the individuality is there too plain to be overlooked. 

From 1848 up to 1873, Dubois county had but six townships, and since 
its greatest military record occurred during that period, to understand it 
properly and to give credit to whomsoever credit is due, it will be necessary 
to remember the civil divisions of the county as they then existed. There 
were six townships, 
namely, Columbia, Har- 
bison, Bainbridge, Hall, 
Patoka, and Ferdinand, 
and their locations were 
as shown on the map 

The record made by 
Dubois county men will 
be taken up by regi- 
ments, as far as possible, 
following this miscel- 
laneous list of Dubois 
county soldiers. 

Among soldiers, 
more or less identified 
with Dubois county, 
who took part in the 
Civil War, in organiza- 
tions containing but few 
menfrom Dubois county, 

or whose company and regiment are not known to the writer, may be 
mentioned the following: 

Corporal William T. Adkerson, 149th Indiana. 

George Adams. 

Sergeant James M. Alford, of Ireland, Co. " E," 6th Indiana Infantry. 

Sergeant William A. Ault, Co. " G," District of Columbia. 

Sergeant Leonard Welb Arm.strong, Co. "G," 143d Indiana and ist 
Indiana Cavalry. 

Sergeant Gilbert H. Abell, of Birdseye. 

Samuel Andrews, of Co. " G," 49th Indiana, and his five sons, of Colum- 
bia township. 

Peter Altmeyer, Co. " H," iSth U. S. Infantry, killed in battle. 

Walter Beatty. 

William H. Byrum, Co. " I," 5th Tennessee. 

J. M. Burlingame, Co. "I," 26th Ohio. ^ 

Rev. James T. Bean, chaplain. 



William Brown, Co. " E," igth. Kentucky. 
Peter Bellner, Co. " G," 4th Cavalry, Kentucky Volunteers. 
John H. Brown, Co. " D," Tennessee. 
Samuel A. Batman, Co. " B," i6th Regiment. 
Capt. Casper Blume, 2d and 4th Kentucky and regular army. 
Mathias Beard, Unassigned. 
Henry Beike, 6th Indiana Battery. 

Ezekiel T. Bement, Co. " M," 13th Kentucky Cavalry. 
William Brannecker, Co. "H." 
Martin Bluemel, of Jasper. 
Samuel A. Batman, Co. " B," i6th Indiana. 
Daniel Bradley. 
George W. Beatty, 

John Bearman, Co. " K," 6th Indiana. 
Alex. Barrowman, Co. " K," 133d Illinois. 
G. W. Bockting, Co. " H," 12th Kentucky. 
E. H. Baxter, Co. " B," 9th Kentucky. 
Gilbert Burres (colored), Co. " G," io2d Indiana. 
James Conley. 

ist Eieut. Stephen T. S. Cook, Co. " H," 7th Kentucky. 
Andrew J. Cole, Co. " H," 2d Colorado. 
Thomas S. Cook. 

Joseph Colligan, Co. " B," 46th Indiana (according to his monument.) 
G. G. Denbo. 

C. W. Dufendach, Co. " F," 136 Indiana Infantry. 
Sergeant Robert Donahoe, Co. " F," 22d Regular. 
Eliot Davison, Co. "B," 17th Kentucky. 
Joseph F. Drash, Co. " D," ist Indiana Cavalry. 
Isreal Dearing. 

Major F. Delefosse, 12th Kentucky Cavalry. 
John A. Davison, Co. "C," 36th Ohio. 
Thomas J. Downs, Co. "E," 120th Indiana. 
Matthew A. Dowling, Co. "J," 46th Pennsylvania. 
Garrett Dean. 

Perry Evans, Co, " F," 144th Indiana. 
David Exline, Co. " H," 7th Virginia. 
Major William E. Edminston, 148th Ohio. 
John Q. Flint, Co. " K," i52d Indiana. 
R. S. Foster 

Henry W. Farber, of Birdseye. 
Joseph F. Faulkner, Co. " F," 49th Illinois. 
Fred. Fandel, Co. "E," 2d Virginia Cavalry. 

Sergeant John Gramelspacher, Regular in Co. " E," 2d Battalion, 15th 
U. S. Infantry, also known as John Greener, 



Maze Goodman. 
Benjamin Goodman. 
Marcus Gassert, Co. ' 
John Gillaland, Co. " 
William Gross, Co. " 
Benjamin Griffith, Co 
Christian Garber, Co. 

' E," loSth Ohio. 
E," 35th Kentucky. 
F," 37th Ohio. 
. "E," 173d Ohio. 
"A," 6th Indiana Cavalry. 

Adam Gable, Co. "I," 53d Ohio (according to his monument.) 
Wilson Hobbs. 
Thomas H. Hall. 

Peter Hoover, Co. "D," 15th Iowa. 
Lawrence P. Hemmerlein, Co. "D," 
13th Pennsylvania. 

A. J. Hubbard, Co. "K," 128th 

Frank Hadit, Co. 

J. G. Huser, Co. " F. 
August Hund, Co. 
Joseph Heatty 

Hugh Hopkins, of Haysville. 
Benjamin Heitman, Co. " H, 
Battalion, i8th U. S. Infantry. 

Benjamin Hagen (colored), 
"G," looth Indiana Infantr5^ 
Benj. Inman. 

Jacob Jester, Co. "A," S6th 

John Jackie. 

James M. Johnson, Co. "D," 35th Indiana. 

James D. Kiper, Co. "I," 27th Kentucky. 

i Sergeant Lytel Kays, Co. "F," 6th Kentucky Cavalry. 
Michael Ketzner, Co. "E," ist Indiana Cavalry. 
John Knust, 6th Indiana Battery. 
Karl Krueger, 6th Indiana Battery. 

Henry Kerstiens, Co. "H," 3d Battalion, 18th U. S. Infantry, died in 

General Kelsey (colored), Co. "H," 12th U. S. Artillery (according 
to his monument.) 

F. E. Lemond, Co. "G." 

David Eaughlin. 

Brittain Leming, Co. "D," 64th Ohio. 

B," 74th New 

H," i2th Ohio. 
Co. "H," 183d 




Auditor John Gramelspacher (1886.) 


Joseph Lueken, Co. "H," 3d Battalion, i8th U. S. Infantry, killed by 

bombshell. ,. , . 

JohnH. Lueken, Co. "H," 3d Battalion, i8th U. S. Infantry, died m 


James McMahel. 

Wm. H. Miller, Co. "I," ii6th and 55th Illinois. 
Lieut. Marion Martin, Co. "E," 173d Ohio. 
Charles Mahler, 6th Indiana Battery. 
Louis Miller. 

Aaron Mosbey, of Ireland. 
Edw. McGivney, 4th Kentucky. 
Martin Miller, Co. "B," 14th Ohio. 
John H. Manley, wagoner, Co. "K," 79th Indiana. 
Adam Meyers, Co. "A," 4th Ohio. 
James Murry, Co. "A," 114th Ohio. 
C. W. Mears, Co. "K," 14th Indiana. 

Fred Mandel, Co. "G," 2d West Virginia Volunteer Cavalry, died 
September 30, 1908. 

JuHus Nordhoff, Co. "F," 9th Ohio. 
John W. Nicholson, Co. "K," 13th Indiana. 
Wm. Noble. 
Andrew Nicholson. 

James Overbee, Co. "F," 21st West Virginia; also eleven years in U. 
S. army. 

George Oeding, Co. "D," i8th U. S. Regulars. 
John Pendley, Co. "B," 145th Indiana. 
Allen Paddock, Co. "F," 6th Kentucky Cavalry. 

Thomas H. Parks, Co. "A," 5th Cavalry, 90th regiment, then trans- 
ferred to the 6th Cavalry. 

Aaron Roberts, Co. "F." 

John W. Rose. 

August Ramsbrok, 5th Kentucky (as a musician). 

Geo. W. Riley. 

Robert Raney, Co. "G," ist Kentucky Cavalry. 

Andrew Reister, Co. "F," 120th Indiana. 

T. B. Ridenour, Co. "G," 51st Ohio. 

Samuel Shoulders. 

B. T. Shoulders. 

Corporal Wm. F. Simmons, Co. "E," i8th Indiana. 

Charles Seth, Co. "A," 17th Indiana. 

Joseph Schnell, Sr., Co. "E," 34th Kentucky. 

Jacob Sappenfield, Co. "K," 15th Iowa. 

John C. Smith, Co. "B," 6th Missouri. 


Xavier Strohmeyer, 6th Indiana Battery. 

Jacob Sigerst, Co. "K," 27th Missouri. 

Corporal Frank Senninger, Co. "C," ist Missouri (also known as 
Peter Schmidt). 

Stephen Sutton, Co. "K," 4th Cavalry. 

Herman Schmutz, Co. "D," 9th Illinois. 

Frank Simmons. 

Christ Siebe, Co. "G," ist Indiana Cavalry. 

Charles Shurig, Kentucky Home Guards. 

Second Lieutenant Joseph Seacat, Co. "H," Sist Indiana. 

Albert Schnell. 

Anzley Sutton, of Ellsworth. 

Peter Seiger, Co. "B," 146th Indiana. 

John Travis, Navy. 

Thomas Finkel, Co. "B." 

Henry Timmerman, Co. "H," i8th U. S. (according to his monument). 

Andrew J. Vest, Co. "E," 148th Ohio. 

James Warring, Co. "F," 145th Indiana. 

A. J. Walters. 

G. H. Walderman, Co. "A," 23d Kentucky. 

Capt. H. E. Wheat, Co. "B," nth Missouri Cavalry. 

Fred. E. Wamhoff, Co. "D," ist U. S. Cavalry. 

Geo. W. Wilder. 

Ernest Werremeyer, Co. "K," 83d Ohio. 

Edward Walter. 

Dr. Nelson H. Wilson, Co. "K," 145th Indiana. 

Wm. Wernke, Co. "G," 136th Indiana. 

Alfred A. Young, Co. "F," 144th Indiana. 

Frank Zimmer, of Birdseye. Not enlisted, but with the army. 

Captain Blume, of Hall township, mentioned before, was born Septem- 
ber 19, 1831, in Germany. He entered the regular army of the United 
States, in 1854, and served five years, taking part in Indian fights in 
Nebraska, Kansas, Wyoming, and Dakota. He enlisted in the 4th Ken- 
tucky Cavalry, and was elected first lieutenant, and soon became captain. 
It is said he was the first Union man on the field at Chattanooga. 

There were many citizens of Dubois county who served in the armies 
of European nations. Simon Birkle, of Jasper, was the possessor of a medal 
given him by the authorities of his country. 

The "Haysville Home Guards" were organized in April, 1861, with 
forty-three members. Its ofiicers were Rev. J. F. St. Clair, captain; W. 
Gray, J. M. Markley, and T. Stalcup, lieutenants; Dr. Bratcher, E. E. 
Bruner, John Milburn, and Nat. Chattin, sergeants. From the "Haysville 
Home Guards" came the first volunteers for actual war. The first Dubois 
county volunteers in the United States service came from the northern part 


of the county, from along the "Buffalo Trace" in Columbia and Harbison 
townships, from Haysville, Portersville, and vicinity. Some men from 
Dubois county became members of Captain Lewis Brook's Company "C," 
of the 14th Indiana, organized at Loogootee, April 23, 1861, and mustered 
in June 7, 1861. 

Others joined various companies of the 24th regiment. Dubois county 
was slow to realize the value of taking credit for its volunteers. Had 
proper care been taken there could have been a "Dubois count}- Regi- 

At the close of the Civil War many of the soldiers had a wanderhist 

and sought their fortunes in western states; thus all trace of them is lost. 
The population of a county changes so much, in half a century, that it 
is impossible to tell accurately or mention all the regiments in which 
Dubois county had soldiers during the Civil War. However, among the 
regiments of Indiana cavalry and infantry containing Dubois county sol- 
diers the following may be mentioned: 


This regiment served from August 16, 1861, until August 28, 1865. Its 
services were rendered in Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, Virginia, and 
Georgia. It was in the fights at Pea Ridge, Elkhorn Tavern, Cotton 
Plant, Port Gibson, Champion Hills, Black River Bridge, Vicksburg, Baton 
Rouge, Opequan, Fisher's Hill, and Cedar Creek. 

Daniel Nicholson, of Columbia township, was a member of Company 
" E," of this regiment, and served from August 16, 1861, until August 18, 
1864. He is credited to Martin county on the ofl&cial muster rolls. Gran- 
ville Elkins was also a member of this company and served from July 14, 

1864, until August 28, 1865. John Cobb and Wm. M. Cave were members, 
mustered in July 18, 1864. Cobb was mustered out August 28, 1865, but 
Cave died of wounds, at Cedar Creek, Georgia, November 20, 1864. 
Wm. Harned was a member of Company "H." 


This regiment was oganized August 15, 1861 and served until July 24, 

1865. It saw service in Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, Tennessee, Geor- 
gia, and the two Carolinas. It took part in the historic battles of Pea 
Ridge, Perryville, Stone River, Cbickamauga, Mission Ridge, Tunnel Hill, 
Resacca, Rome, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek, Atlanta, 
Jonesboro, Savannah, Averysboro, Bentonville, and numerous smaller 
engagements; certainly a brilliant record. 

In Company "A" was Louis D. Mayer. Levi, Peter, and Bernard 
Chastain, of Columbia township, were members of Company "D" of this 
regiment from September 21, 1864, until July 5, 1865. Francis Buchta, of 
Harbison township, was a member of Company "H" from September 26, 


1S64, until July 19, 1S65. Cass Davis was also a member of Compau}' "H." 
James Bateman, of Hall township, served in Company "I" from Septem- 
ber 21, 1864, until May 26, 1865. James Collins, of Patoka township, 
served from September 21, 1864, until July 5, 1865, in Company "I." Ma- 
thias Kingel, of Jasper, was also a member of Company "I," from October 
7, 1S64, until July 24, 1865. 


This regiment served from July 29, 1861, until July 23, 1S65. It saw 
service in Kentucky, Mississippi, Georgia, and the Carolinas. It was 
mustered in at New Albany and mustered out at Louisville. It partici- 
pated in the battles of Fort Henry, Shiloh, luka, Thompson's Hill, Ray- 
mond, Champion Hills, Atlanta, and Bentonville; in the sieges of Corinth 
and Vicksburg, and in "Sherman's March to the Sea." 

Corporal Samuel M. Nash served in Company "H" of this regiment 
from July 27, 1861, until July 23, 1865. Wilford Sanders, of Columbia 
township, was a member of Company "K," from July 29, 1861, until April 

26, 1864. Corporal Daniel H. Burt served in Company "H" from July 

27, 1861, until July 23, 1865. John Waddle was also a member of Com- 
pany "H." James Kellams, of Birdseye, was commissioned second lieu- 
tenant of Company "H," May r, 1865. 

All of Company "G" of this regiment are credited to Floyd county, 
but the following men, and probably more, were from Dubois county: 
Sergeant George S. Kendall, James Tussey (killed). John Friedman, 
Conrad Bates, Wm. C. McMahel, Salem Curtis and James A. Denbo. 

Capt. John G. Leming, ex-county recorder, was in Company "A." 


This regiment was mustered in at Vincennes, July 31, 1861, and served 
until November 15, 1865. Alvin P. Hovey, later Governor Hovey, was 
its colonel. It served its country in Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mis- 
sissippi, Louisiana, Alabama, and Texas. It took part in the sieges of 
Corinth and Vicksburg, in the battles of Port Gibson, Champion Hills, 
Shiloh, Blakely, and others. Hovey became a brigadier general, and 
Major Spicely became colonel. 

In Company "E," of this regiment, were several men from Dubois 
county. John M. Lemmon served as first and second lieutenant and on 
December 29, 1863, was commissioned captain. He was mustered out 
November 22, 1864. Adolphus Harter, of Jasper, was a member of the 
regimental band. Second-Lieut. Hiram McDonald, of Company "D," son 
of Allen McDonald, and grandson of William McDonald, the pioneer, was 
a member of this regiment. He was also orderly-sergeant of Company 
"H" of the same regiment. He was mustered out December 10, 1865. 
Eleven R. Huff, of Birdseye, was a member of Company "D." He was 



Lieut. Hiram McDonald. 

Co. D. 24th Indiana Volunteers, 
son of Allen McDonald, and grandson 
of the pioneer, William McDonald. 
Born December 13, 1837. Enlisted in 
1861, and served in the Civil War until 
December 10, 1865. Was also Orderly- 
Sergeant of Co. H, 24th Indiana Vol- 

mustered out at Galveston, Texas, Novem- 
ber 15, 1S65, and received his discharge at 
Indianapolis, December 6, 1865. Mr. Huff 
first enlisted in Company "H," 67th Indiana, 
November 23, 1864, as a recruit. Dr. Geo. 

B. Montgomery became regimental surgeon 
August I, 1865. 

In Company "B" was Wm. T. Pinnick. 
In Capt. John M. Lemmon's Company "E" 
were the following men from Boone township: 
Corporal James M. Rose, Corporal George 
Hopkins, Waggoner John Haddock, Robert 
A. Brenton, Lafayette Brittain, John Breiden- 
baugh, Thos. L,. Brown, Wm. C. Cooper, 
John R. Dixon, John Edans, Corporal Thomas 
Harris, Samuel C. Harris, John Himsel, Har- 
rison Howard, E. E. Inman, Benj. H. Kelso, 
Sergeant Jacob H. Lemmon, Corporal Shelby 

C. Eemmon, Hadley McCain, William Mc- 
Donald, Sergeant Aaron B. McElvain, John 

J. Rudolph, Thomas Turner, Wm. H. Wood, Edward B. Wood, James A. 
Wood, George F. Dickson, Harrison Harbison (died at Baton Rouge, July 
14, 1864), W. W. Eemmon, W. S. Lemmon, and Corporal C. W. Lemmon, 

Capt. John M. Lemmon was born November 22, 1837, in Dubois county. 
His parents were pioneers from Kentucky and lived near Portersville. 
After the Civil War he made his home 
in Dubois county for many years, and 
died at Washington, Ind., March 27, 

In Company "I" were John Meyer, 
Eleven R. Huff, John Himsel, George 
Himsel, Benj. A. Simmons, George 
Meyer, Wolfgang Meyer, Corporal John 
Straber, James Ballard, Corporal Peter 
Sendleweck, Michael Hacker, Robert J. 
Owen, Christian Senning, George W. 
Walker,- Enoch E. Inman, John H. 
Davis, and Sergeant James B. Freeman. 
Sergeant Freeman was also in Company 
"K," nth Indiana. 

Eleven R. Huff was transferred to 
Company "D" in August, 1865. Orig- 
inally he was in Company "H," 67th 
Indiana. ^ . .. ,, t 

Capt. John M. Lemmon. 



Levi Bridgewater was in Company "G." Robert D. Callahan, once of 
Jefferson township, was first lieutenant of Company "H." He was also 
in Company "K" of the 67th regiment. 

According to his monument, Vincent Bolin, a Mexican soldier, was a 
member of this regiment. Napoleon B. McDonald was a member of 
Company "H." Egedias Zink was in Company "K," according to his 
monument. John Schnarr was a member of the 24th. 


This regiment was organized at Evansville on July 17, 1861, and 
mustered into service, for three years, at the same place, on August 19, 
1861. It was engaged in Missouri, 
West Tennessee, Mississippi, Georgia, 
and the Carolinas. During its term of 
service this regiment participated in 
eighteen battles and skirmishes. It 
traveled 6,980 miles. The regiment par- 
ticipated in the attack on Fort Donelson 
and after the surrender occupied the 
fort. It took part in the battles of 
Shilob, Hatchie River, Jonesboro, Snake 
Creek Gap, Savannah, Rivers' Bridge, 
Bentonville, and others, and the sieges 
of Corinth and Atlanta. It was mus- 
tered out July 17, 1865, at Louisville. 
Among the Dubois county men in this 
regiment were Wm. Elkins (who was 
also a member of Company "I" of the 
91st Indiana); David Milburn and 
Jerome B. Vowell, of Company "B;" 
Robert L. Scott, of Company "C;" 
Frank F. Kinchel, Vincent Bolin, Geo. 
Bolin, Henry Fangmeier, J. N. Morris, Fred. Millenkamp, Wm. Kinner, 
Wiley Smith, Wm. L. Wood, Wm. H. Wilson, Sylvester Ellis and Denton 
Sumner, of Company "E;" Wm. Thies, Joseph Fritz, Geo. Frick, Her- 
man Dieckmann, Karl Burgdorf, Anthony Balch, Christ. Behrman, Peter 
Bamberger, Joseph Greener, Henry Prior, Herman Prior, Jacob Rohr- 
schelb, Henry Steinecker, John G. Segers, Joseph Gasser, Joseph Greener 
(according to his monument); Sergeant Geo. W. Kessner, Herman Wam- 
ling, Fred Klausmeyer, and probably Wesley Bastell and Adam Buechlein, 
Jr , of Company "K." 

Dr. T. J. Johnson, of Huntingburg, was commissioned assistant surgeon 
of the 25th regiment, September 26, 1862. 

Jesse B. Kessner, of Huntingburg, was a bugler and member of the 
25th Indiana. 

Joseph Fritz. 



This regiment served from August 31, 1861, until January 15, 1866, in 
the states of Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, and 
Alabama, and under Generals Fremont, Grant, Heron, and Smith. 

During the last year of its service, Samuel R. Henry, of Ireland, was 
a member of Company "A," and Napoleon B. Roach, of Hall township, 
was a member of Company "I." 

From Company "F," John B. Farris, of Huntingburg, was mustered 
out January 15, 1866, as first sergeant, having entered as a private, August 
30, 1861. 


This regiment contained Company "K," of Jasper, and its history, as 
a regiment, for the honor of Company "K," is given in full. 

"The Twenty-seventh Regiment was organized at Indianapolis on the 
30th of August, 1861, and was mustered into service for three years, at 
the same place, on the 12th of September, 1861. Leaving the capital of 
Indiana on the 15th of September, it moved to Washington City, and in 
the following month was transferred to Banks' Army of the Shenandoah. 
During the winter the regiment was quartered in huts at Camp Halleck, 
near Frederick City, Maryland, whence it moved early in March, 
1862, across the Potomac into the Shenandoah Valley. It marched into 
Winchester upon the evacuation of that place on the gth of March, and, 
just after the battle of Winchester Heights, joined in the pursuit of Jack- 
son's defeated army. On the 23d of May, it was engaged in the battle of 
Front Royal and formed part of the column that made the famous retreat 
on the Strasburg road the following day towards Winchester, reaching 
Winchester that night. A furious battle was fought on the morning of the 
25th, in which the Twenty-seventh participated. The brigade to which 
it was attached — Gordon's — withstood the assault of twenty-eight Confed- 
erate regiments for three-and-a-half hours, and repulsed them. An at- 
tempt to check a flank movement on the right, was gallantly seconded by 
the Twenty-seventh; but the Confederates had massed such a force that 
our army could not resist it longer, and was forced to fall back into the 
town, engaging the enemy in the public streets. The retreat beyond Win- 
chester was safely conducted, and the regiment crossed the Potomac at 
Williamsport on the 26th of May. 

"Soon after, the regiment again marched into the Valley, and from 
thence to Culpepper C. H., via Front Royal, where it became part of 
Banks' Division of Pope's Army of Virginia. On the gth of August, 
the regiment marched from Culpepper C. H. to Cedar Mountain, eight 


miles distant, and participated 
that day in the battle of Cedar 
Mountain. After this battle 
it was withdrawn to the north- 
side of the Rappahannock, 
and after the Confederate 
army had forced its way 
through Thoroughfare Gap 
and across the Potomac, the 
regiment as part of the 12th 
Corps, joined in the Marj'land 
campaign. At the battle of 
Antietam, on the 17th of 
September, it was actively 
engaged, sustaining a heav)^ 
loss. After this engagement 
the regiment was placed on 
picket duty, the companies 
being stationed along the east 
bank of the Potomac, from 
Harper's Ferr}- to the mouth 
of Opequan creek. During 
the winter it moved to the 
vicinity of Fairfax Station 
and Stafford C. H., and was 
not actively engaged with the 
enemy until the campaign of 

"Marching with the army 
of the Potomac across the 
Rappahannock, it partici- 
pated in the great battle of 
Chancellorsville. On the 3d 
of May it was conspicuously 
engaged as part of the 12th 
Corps, suffering a severe loss 
in killed and wounded. It 
next proceeded northward in 
pursuit of the invading arni}^ 
of Lee, marching with the 
1 2th Corps through Maryland 
and part of Pennsylvania to 
Gettysburg. In the decisive 


battle at this place, it bore a distinguished part, participating in the resist- 
ance to the grand assault of the Confederates on the 3d of July. The 
regiment in this engagnient sustained heavy losses. After the battle it 
followed the retreating enemy to the Potomac, after which it rested until 
SeptemV)er, when it was transferred to the West with the 12th Corps. 
Here it became a part of the 20th Corps, and was stationed at Tullahoma, 
Tennessee, during the autumn and winter following. A portion of the 
regiment re-enlisted at Tullahoma, Tennessee, on the 24th of January, 
1864, and soon after proceeded to Indiana on veteran furlough. Return- 
ing to the field it joined Sherman's army in time to participate in the bat- 
tle of Resaca, on the 15th of May. In a fair open fight in this engagement, 
the Twenty-seventh defeated the Thirty-second and Thirty-eighth Alabama 
regiments, killing and wounding a large number, and taking about one 
hundred prisoners, including the colonel of the Thirty-eighth Alabama. It 
also captured the battle-flag of that regiment. The loss to the Twenty- 
seventh was sixty-eight killed and wounded. The regiment participated 
in the marching and in all the skirmishes, battles, and assaults of Sherman's 
army in its Atlanta campaign, and upon its conclusion moved with the 
army to Atlanta. On the 4th of November, 1864, the non-veterans were 
mustered out of service, and the veterans and remaining recruits were 
transferred to the Seventieth regiment. After the consolidation, the men 
of the old Twenty-seventh served with the Seventieth regiment in the 
campaign through Georgia and the Carolinas, and on the muster-out of 
that organization, were transferrrd to the Thirty-third regiment, in which 
they continued to serve until the 21st of July, 1865, when the Thirty-third 
was mustered out of service at Louisville, Kentucky. Returning home 
with that organization, the veterans and recruits of the Twenty-seventh 
were soon after finally discharged." 

In the military history of Dubois county Company "K," of the 27th 
Regiment, deserves more than a passing notice. This Company was com- 
posed mostly of young men of German parentage. The three commis- 
sioned officers and at least ninety of the men could speak the German 
language. For that reason, German was mostly used in the every day 
conversation between members of the company. All could understand the 
English language and nearly all could speak English, for many were born 
in America. Company "K" was the first full company recruited in Dubois 
county for the Civil War. It was organized as a militia, or "Home Guard," 
company and frequently met to drill and otherwise perfect its organization. 
Some had been members of "Father Kundeck's Guards." In August, 
1 86 1, the company voted to enter the United States service and soon after- 
wards went into camp at Jasper. This camp was called "Camp Edmon- 
ston," because it was upon the homestead of Col, B. B. Edmonston, who 
was an officer under the militia laws of Indiana, during its constitution of 
i8i6. The camp was one-eighth of a mile south of where, at present, 



Stands Jasper College. At this camp, on August 5th, 1861, John Meh- 
ringer, then county auditor, and a veteran of the Mexican War, was elected 
captain. Dr. R. M. Welman was chosen first lieutenant and Stephen 

Flag of Co. K, 27th Regiment, 


Jerger, second lieutenant. Lieut. Jerger was count}' recorder, and had 
been re-elected, but refused to serve. The non-commissioned officers of 
the company were selected later. 

On August 6th, 1861, the ladies of Jasper gave the company a farewell 
dinner on the Court House grounds. At this dinner a flag was presented 
to the company. It was made by the 
same ladies that served the dinner, 
among them being Miss Cecelia Benkert, 
Mrs. R. M. Welman, Mrs. John B. Mel- 
choir, Mrs. John Mehringer, and Mrs. 
A. J. Strain. This flag became historic. 
It had been placed in worthy hands. 
After the flag of the 27th had been 
through two battles, on Pope's retreat, it 
was badly torn. When the 27th reached 
Washington, D. C, the regimental flag 
was sent back to Indianapolis and a 
requisition was made for a new flag. 
Before the new regimental flag arrived, 
the regiment was again ordered to the 
front. For want of a regimental flag. Flag of Co. k 27th Regiment, 

=> o ' after Antietam. 



the regiment used the flag possessed b}^ Company "K," and as such carried 
it through the battle of Antietam, Maryland, September 17th, 1862. 

Company "K" left Jasper on August gth, 1861, for Indianapolis. It 
reached Loogootee, by wagons, then went bj^ rail to Indianapolis, and 
arrived there August loth. It then became a part of the 27th, and was 
mustered into service September 12, 1861, with Silas Colgrove as colonel. 
It was mustered out November 4, 1864. Though Company "K" differed 
somewhat from the other companies in the regiment, it always com- 
manded the respect of the other companies. There was never any 
doubt concerning its bravery, which may be seen by its loss ratio. Its 
men were always ready for duty. The battle loss of Company "K" is 
remarkable. Only one hundred two names were ever on its muster roll. 
Of these twenty were killed or mortally wounded in battle. This was the 
highest per cent of any company in the regiment, and only two other 
companies from Indiana, in any regiment, lost more. Company "B," 19th 
Indiana, lost twenty-five men out of one hundred fifteen, or 21 7 per cent; 
Company "H," 30th Indiana, lost twenty-two men out of one hundred 
three, or 21.3 percent. Next to this, from the whole state of Indiana 

stands Company "K," with a battle loss, 
of 19.6 per cent. The company also 
lost ten by disease, so that almost one- 
third of all who enlisted in the companj' 
gave their lives for the flag, a sacrifice 
not often surpassed by a single com- 
pany, in modern warfare. 

Company "K" also had forty -four 
different men wounded in battle. Sev- 
eral members were wounded twice, and 
one member was wounded three times, 
each time in a different battle. Of those 
wounded in battle two lost legs and two 
lost arms. Capt. Welman was wounded 
at Winchester, Va., May 25th, 1862, and 
Capt. Jerger succeeded him. After 
Capt. Welman was wounded he resigned 
and came home. He was mustered in 
as a surgeon of the 9th Cavalry May 
18, 1864, and mustered out August 28, 
1865, as a major. Capt. Jerger lost his 
right leg, at the battle of Chancellorsville, Va., while leading Company 
"K" in a charge upon the enemy. 

Dr. R. M. Welman died at Jasper, February 14, 1884, and a monument 
is erected to his memory in Shiloh cemetery, where he lies buried. He 
was a man universally respected, at the time of his death, and the county 

Capt. R. M. Welman. 



lamented the loss of his professional services. He was a man of sterling 
integrity and unflinching devotion to his country and his friends. He was 
brave, courageous, and noble in his nature. His cordial manner and gen- 
tle nature are to this day recalled by those who knew him. Dr. Welman 
was a man of positive convictions, and no one ever doubted his sincerity. 
All respected him because he was open, fair, fearless, honest, and true 
to his convictions. He was a Mason, and a republican, and was often 
called upon by his party to represent it upon the ballots. 

Lieut. Arthur Berry was a native of Mason county, Kentucky, and had 
been a Mexican soldier. He died November 26, 1875, in Pike county and 
his remains lie buried at Alford in that county. Before he died he was 
county surveyor of Dubois county and county superintendent of schools 
of Pike county. After resigning fram Co. "K," he became a member of 
Co. "F," Tenth Indiana Cavalry, and was commissary sergeant. Lemuel 
L. Kelso was second lieutenant of the same company. They were mustered 
out August 31, 1865. 

Of all the members of Company "K" not more 
than a dozen are now known to be living. At the 
close of the war its members scattered to various 
parts of the world to seek their fortunes and await 
their rewards at the hand of time. They are 
slowly answering their last roll call while leading 
honorable lives and filling responsible positions in 
their old homes or in the land of their adoption. 

The members of Company "K" who were 
citizens of Jasper a few years ago materially as- 
sisted in the erection of the handsome Soldiers' 
Monument that now stands upon the spot, in the 
public square, where the ladies of Jasper presented 
the flag, August 6, 1861. 

The commissioned and non-commissioned officers of Company "K" 
were as follows: John Mehringer, captain, promoted to major of the 27th, 
before he was commissioned as captain. Dr. R. M. Welman, commis- 
sioned captain, August 30, 1861, wounded at Winchester; resigned Sep- 
tember 30, 1862. 

Stephen Jerger, commissioned lieutenant, August 30, 1861; promoted 
captain, October i, 1862; lost a leg at Chancellorsville; discharged August 
9, 1863. 

Arthur Berry, commissioned lieutenant, August 30, 1861; resigned in 
December, 1861. 

Joseph Mehringer was a sergeant. He died in January, 1862. 

John Martin Haberle entered as a sergeant; promoted second lieuten- 
ant, January i, 1862; first lieutenant, October i, 1862; captain, January 
I, 1864; wounded at Gettysburg; mustered out, November 4, 1864. 

Capt. John Martin Haberle- 


Sergeant George Mehringer was wounded at Chancellorsville; 
mustered out September i, 1864. 

Sergeant John B. Melchoir was wounded at Cedar Mountain; discharged 
April 21, 1863. 

Sergeant Thomas Knox was discharged for disability in December, 1862. 

Corporal Fred. Vogel was wounded at Chancellorsville, and was mus- 
tered out September i, 1864. 

Corporal Andrew Stiegel was color guard; promoted sergeant; was 
wounded at Gettysburg and Resaca; mustered out September i, 1864, 

Corporal Ferd. Grass was discharged for disability, October 14, 1862. 

Corporal David Berger was wounded at Antietam and was mustered out 
September i, 1864. 

Corporal James C. Thomas was wounded at Gettysburg and New Hope 
Church, and was mustered out September i, 1864. 

Corporal Fred. Gitter was promoted to sergeant and became a veteran. 

Corporal Gregory Haller was killed at Antietam, September 17, 1862. 

Corporal F. X. Sermersheim was promoted sergeant; wounded at Antie- 
tam and Gettysburg and re-enlisted. 

Conrad Eckert entered the service as a drummer; went into the ranks; 
promoted to corporal; wounded at Cedar Mountain; discharged October 6, 

August Donnerman entered as a private; promoted corporal in 1863; 
wounded at Peach Tree Creek, and re-enlisted. 

Julian Hoffer entered as a private; promoted to second lieutenant Octo- 
ber I, 1862; wounded at Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863; died in July, 1863. 

Wm. E. Kemp was promoted corporal; mustered out September i, 1864. 

John H. Eansford was promoted corporal; wounded at Chancellorsville 
and New Hope Church and re-enlisted. 

Conrad Mehne, promoted to corporal and to sergeant; killed at Gettys- 
burg, July 3, 1863. 

Joseph Roelle, promoted corporal in 1862 and orderly-sergeant in 1864, 
and re-enlisted. 

Eeander Jerger was a recruit; mustered in February 24, 1862; at once 
promoted to second lieutenant; promoted first lieutenant July i, 1864; and 
mustered out November 4, 1864. 

The members of Company "K" were John Ackermann, Anton Berger, 
Anton Buchart, Conrad Beck, David Bradley, Joseph Berger, Cole Burton, 
James Burton, Bernard H. Casteins, John Conrad, James Cave, James A. 
Cooper, Barney Cullen, Edward Duffey, James Duffey, John Donnelly, 
Xavier Donhauer, James Dillon, August Donnermann, Fred. Dorn, Celes- 
tine Eckert, Thos. Evans, Jos. Evans, Edw. Evans, John Fuhrmann (lost 
a foot), Rudolph H. Grim, Jacob Gardner, John E. Gardner, Paul Goepp- 
ner, Friedolin Hage, Leonard Haller, Bernard Hock, H. K. Hendrick- 
son, Wm. Harbison (lost an arm), Abednego W. Innman, Benj. F. Kemp, 



Jas. H. Kemp, Wesley Kemp, David B. Kemp, Silas D. Kemp, Henry 
Kunkler, Bernard Knust, Henry Lange, Michael Laikauff, John Meistner, 
Jacob Mathias, Joseph Meyer, Wm. Monroe, Cyrus Norris, John Noble, 
Lawrence Offer, Ferd. Oestreich, Addison Padgett, Joseph Rice, Rhein- 
hardt Rich, Wm. Richter, Rudolph Reisin, Tho.s. Stillwell, Christ. Schra- 
ker, Paul Schmidt, Andrew Schuble, Joseph Schroeder, John Seifert, Eli 
Stollcup, Richard Suddeth, Wm. Suddeth, Peter Siebel, Daniel Siebel, 
Mathias Schmidt, Fred. W. Schmidt, Geo. W. Stringer, John J. Smith, Jos. 
Schindler, Ferd. Schumacher, Orbagast Volmer, Geo. Vunder, Fred. 
Winder, Thos. S. Weldon, Ransom H. Wallace, Geo. Yochim (killed at 
Cedar Mountain.) 

When Company "K's" time expired 
the following soldiers from Dubois 
county became members of Company 
"G" of the 70th Indiana, under com- 
mand of Col. Benjamin Harrison, after- 
wards President of the United States — 
Sergeant Frederick Gitter, Sergeant F. 
X. Sermersheim, Reinhart Rich (musi- 
cian), John Ackerman, James Burton, 
Edward Duffey, Corporal August Don- 
nermann, Celestine Eckert, Benj. F. 
Kemp, David B. Kemp, John H. Eans- 
ford, Jacob Mathias, Joseph Rice, 
Joseph Roelle, Geo. W. Stringer, Thos. 
S. Welden, Ransom H. Wallace, Anton 
Berger, and John E. Gardner. Some 
became members of Company "E," 
Thirty-third Indiana. Some of these 
Dubois county soldiers assisted in the 
making of two brigadier generals — Col. 
Mehringer and President Harrison. 

Among the members of the regimental band of this regiment were 
George Friedman, Michael Jandebeur, Mathias Schmidt, Ferdinand Schu- 
macher and Isidor Schumacher, all of Dubois county. 

W. E. Kemp was a member of Company "E." 

The 27th has two flags deposited with the state of Indiana. Their 
records read: (i) "National flag; silk; faded and nearly worn out; inscri- 
bed '27th Regt. Indiana Vols;' original staff gone; rough one improvised." 
(2) "Regimental flag; blue silk; much worn and torn; inscribed '27th 
Regt. Indiana Vols.;' original staff gone; rough one improvised." 

Michael Jandebeur, of Huntingburg, a member of the 27th, was born 
April 18, 1826, in Aschaffenburg, Baiern, Germany. His career taken 
altogether is a remarkable one. His brother was prime minister 


Joseph Schroeder. 


of Baiern, and the author of numerous law books. Michael Jandebeur 
served four years in a European army, including the Rebellion of 184S. In 
1S54, he came to America, and at the beginning of the Civil War enlisted 
as a musician in the regimental band of the 27th. 


This regiment served from September 15, 1861, until December 8, 1865, 
in the states of Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Texas. It took part 
in the sieges of Corinth and Atlanta, in the pursuits of Bragg, and of Hood, 
and in Rosecrans' campaign in Tennessee. George Boehn was in Company 


Among the soldiers of this regiment was Nicholas Cox, of Hall town- 
ship, who served from November 19, 1864, until his death at Nashville, 
June 4, 1865. He was a member of Company " G." 

Frederick Tegmeier was a member of Company " I " from October 17, 
1864, until June 21, 1865. Frederick Eahue, of Ferdinand, was a member 
of Company "I" from September 24, 1864, until his death at Jefferson- 
ville, June 16, 1865. Other members of the company, from Ferdinand, 
were John and Andrew Madlon, who served from November 16, 1864, 
until October 17, 1865. Frank Bronim was also a member. 


This regiment was organized at Indianapolis and served from August 
24, 1861, until December 4, 1865, when it was mustered out. It saw ser- 
vice in Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Texas; in the siege of Corinth, 
pursuit of Bragg; in Rosecrans' campaign, and against Atlanta. Its resi- 
duary battalion saw service in Tennessee and Texas in 1864 and 1865. 

Corporal John C. Deindoerfer, of Jackson township, was a member of 
Company " B " from August 18, 1862, until mustered out June 14, 1865. 

John Buder, of Cass township, served in Company " A " from October 
20, 1862, until December 4, 1865. 

Frank Senninger was a member of Company "A" from August 24, 
1861, until October i, 1862. 

Frederick Grote was a member of Company " K." 


From its organization, at Indianapolis, September 16, 1861, until mus- 
tered out, July 21, 1865, this regiment saw service in Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Georgia and in the Carolinas. It was in "Sherman's March to the Sea," 
and fought against Cumberland Gap and Atlanta. 

In Company "E" of this regiment were veterans of Company " K," 
27th Indiana, namely — John Ackerman, James Burton, Anton Berger (acci- 
dentally killed at Jasper, January 18, 1908); Corporal August Donner- 


mann, Edward Duffey, Celestine Eckert, John E. Gardner, Fred Gitter, 
Corporal John H. Lansford, Jacob Mathias, Reinhardt Rich, Joseph Roelle, 
Joseph Rice, Sergeant F. A. Serniersheim and George W. Stringer, Benja- 
min F. Kemp, and David B. Kemp. Some of these men were also mem- 
bers of Company " G," of General Harrison's 70th Regiment, and had 
been transferred to this regiment, out of which they were mustered July 21, 
1865, at lyouisville. The 70th Regiment w^as mustered out of service at 
Washington City, June 8th, 1865. 

Andrew J. Harbison, Benjamin F. Lansford, and John Donahoe enlisted 
in Company "E," 33d, originally. 


This regiment was organized at lyawrenceburg, and served from Sep- 
tember 18, 1861, until October 27, 1864, when it was mustered out at 
Louisville. It saw service at the mouth of Salt river, along the Louisville 
and Nashville railroad, at Bowling Green, Nashville, Murfreesboro, Fay- 
etteville, Huntsville, Tuscumbia, Athens, Chattanooga, and Stevenson. 
It was engaged in the fierce fight at Stone River, and participated in the 
Chattanooga campaign. It was in the fights at Chickamauga, Resaca, Dal- 
las, Kenesaw Mountain, Chattahoochie river, and Peach-tree creek. It 
was in "Sherman's March to the Sea," and in the Carolinas, as far as 
Goldsboro. James Spencer, of Birdseye, was a member of Company B. 

James J. Cunningham, now of Birdseye, enlisted as a musician in Com- 
pany " H," October 18, 1861, and was transferred to the Veteran Reserve 
Corps, January 15, 1864. On the muster roll he is credited to Decatur 


This regiment was organized at New Albany and served from Septem- 
ber 18, 1861, until July 15, 1865, when it was mustered out at Louisville. 
It was in the champaign against Bowling Green and Nashville, and made 
rapid marches to intercept Morgan's Cavalry. It took part in the battles of 
Perryville, Ky., Stone River, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, and Mis- 
sionary Ridge. The regiment re-enlisted at Rossville, Georgia. It was 
engaged in the Atlanta campaign, including Jonesboro. It took part in 
the Georgia campaign, and in the Carolinas, participating in all its bat- 
tles of note, including Bentonville. This regiment fought in sixteen engage- 
ments and lost in killed and wounded 579 men. It ranks next to the 27th 
in the number of men killed in battle. B. F. Scribner and D. F. Grifiin 
were its colonels. 

Among Dubois county men in this regiment were Benjamin Owen, of 
Company "I," who entered September 18, 1861, and on September 30, 1864, 
was commissioned first lieutenant, and honorably discharged May 15, 1865. 
He has also a Mexican War record. Wm. H Green, of Boone township, 


was a member of Company "E." Henry Weisheit was a member of Com- 
pany "C" during its last year of service. John Barnes, of Dubois, served 
with Company "C" during its last year. Washington Kellams was in 
Company "I," entering September i8, 1861. John Fillinger, of Marion 
township, was a member of the same company. Jonathan R. Brown 
and Jackson Goodman, of Hall township, enlisted in Company "E," 
October 11, 1861. John W. Jacobs served in Company "K," after Octo- 
ber 24, 1864. Quinton Able, John Ingram, John H. Sollman, and Martin 
Kellams were also members of this company. In Company "I" was 
Joseph Prechtel, of Hall township. Henry Bradley, of Jeff erson township, 
became a member of Company "D," September 20, 1864. Martin B. Eck- 
ert, of Birdseye, was mustered in as a private of Company "K" on Sep- 
tember iS, 1861, and on May i, 1865, was commissioned second lieutenant 
of his company. Wm. G. Rober.son, a first sergeant, Elijah Atkins, John 
W. King, John Nash, First Sergeant Samuel Shoulders (killed at Jones- 
boro), Wm. W. Shoulders, John Schnell, George W. Riggle, Henry C. 
Riggle, and Manuel Huff, were soldiers in Company "K." During the 
last year of its service, George Boyles, of Birdseye, was in Company "A;" 
so was Andrew Gearner, of Madison township, from September 2, 1862, 
until his discharge. 

In Company "F" was George W. Worman, of Schnellville. Joseph 
Brackley, of Celestine, was in Company "H." 


The 42d Regiment was organized by Colonel James G. Jones. It was 
mustered out July 21, 1865. It participated in the following campaigns: 
In 1861, in Kentucky; in 1862, in Kentucky and Tennessee, and in the 
pursuit of General Bragg; in 1863, in Rosecrans' campaign in Tennessee, 
and in 1864, against Atlanta, in pursuit of General Hood, and in " Sher- 
man's March to the Sea." In 1865, it was in the campaigns through North 
and South Carolina. 

This regiment participated in battles and skirmishes as follows: War- 
trace, Perryville, Stone River, Elk River, Chickamauga, Lookout Moun- 
tain, Missionary Ridge, Ringgold, Rocky Face Bridge, Resaca, Alatoona, 
Kenesaw, Chattahoochie, Peach-tree, Atlanta, Jonesboro, Savannah, 
Charlestown, Black River and Bentonville. 

There were Dubois county soldiers in Company " H " of this regiment. 
They were mustered in with the regiment at " Camp Vandersburg," near 
Evansville, October 9, 1861. 

The commissioned officers of Company " H " during the entire time of 
its service were as follows: Captains: James H. Bryant, Gideon R. Kel- 
lams, Allen Gentry, and Wm. W. Milner. First Lieutenants: G. R. Kel- 


lams, Adam Haas (of Jasper), William W. Miluer, and Joseph C. Nix. 
Second Lieutenants; Adam Haas, Allen Gentry, and James B. Payne 
(then of Jasper.) 

The enlisted non-commissioned ofl&cers at the time of the company's 
enlistment were: First Sergeant, Joseph D. Armstrong. Sergeants, Wil- 
liam R. Osborn, John Haas, William W. Milner, and James Roberts. Cor- 
porals, Stephen L,emond, Henry Flisherman, A. C. Haady, Joseph C. Nix, 
Allen Gentry, John Roberts, Charles Oskin, and Benjamin F. Miller. 
Musicians, Willis Niblack and William Hedspeth. Wagoner, Richard 

Adam Haas, of Jasper, was commissioned first lieutenant March 4, 
1863, and on March i, 1865, James B. Payne, later of Madison township, was 
commissioned second lieutenant. Among the soldiers in Company "H" 
were the following men: Willis Bolin, Ezekiel Beard, Albert Bolin, James 
Bolin, Robert L. Bolin (unassigned), Henry Castrup, Joseph R. Fisher, 
John Fisher, Wm. J. Fisher, Uriah Fisher, Henry Hunnefeld, Wm. Koch, 
Henry Kokemore, Peter N. Lemond, Jas. R. M. Lemond, Wm. H. Lemond, 
Corporal Steven I,emond, Reason B. Miller, Christian Martins, Jas. Miller, 
Adam M. Osborn, Sergeant Wm. R. Osborn, Sergeant John B. Osborn, 
Wm. F. Rothert, Corporal John F. Tieman and James Williams. 

In Company "B" of this regiment were F. W. Rothert, Frederick 
Hemmer, Henry H. Katterbenry, Daniel Rauscher, Christian Rauscher, 
Jefferson Simmons, Wm. F. Songer, Henry Steinman, Henry Sunderman, 
John L,. Schmidt^ Wm. Winkenhoefer and Fred. Wibking 

In Company "G" were Josiah D. Pride, and Thomas R. Green. 

In Company "I" were Sergeant Benj. F. Clark, Josiah Colvin, Hiram 
Collins, Ivcvi Hale, Wm. Jones, John lyichlyter, Sergeant Daniel Milton 
(died, December 18, 1908), and Corporal Addison N. Thomas. 

John Ivichlyter lived in Pike county when he enlisted. He was wound- 
ed at Stone River, and died at Nashville. 

Wm. C. Sieckman was probably in Company "K." 

Bernard Knust was a member of this regiment, being transferred from 
Company "K," of the 87th Indiana, June 9, 1865. 


This regiment served from September, 1861, until June 14, 1865, in 
Kentucky, Mississippi, and Arkansas. During its last year of service Levi 
K. Ellis, once of Ellsworth, was a member of Company "E." 


This regiment was organized at Fort Wayne, and nearly all Dubois 
county men that were members were recruits sent to it when it was re-or- 
ganized in 1864. It was mustered out September 14, 1865. The regiment 
rendered services in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi. The last 
year's services were rendered in Eastern Tennessee. 


In Company "B" were Andrew Heichelbeck and Erhardt Lichauer. 

In Company "D," during the last year of its enlistment were these men 
from Harbison township: Philip Baecher, Thos. Clements, Andrew Doer- 
hoefer, Samuel Feagley, Wm. E. Hays, Ezekiel Hays, Richard Harbison, 
Francis Miller, Charles Miers, Rupert Naegele, John Refenier, Thos. Self, 
and John M. Turner. 

In Company "G" were Michael Demuth, Sebastian Deindoerfer, John 
Schmidt, Jacob Geis, Sr., Herman Kemper, and Henry King. 

In Company "H" was John Ruprecht. His monument so records it. 

In Company "I" were Wm. H. Kellams and Peter Newton. 

In Company "K" was George Segers. 


This regiment was mustered in at Camp "Joe Holt," near Jefferson- 
ville, November 21, 1861, and served until September 13, 1865. John W. 
Ray, James Keigwin, and James Leeper were its colonels. It was mustered 
out at Louisville. On December 13, 1861, it reached Bardstown, Kentucky, 
and went into camp of instruction. On the 12th of January, 1862, it 
started on the march for Cumberland Ford, arriving there on the 15th day 
of February, where it remained until June. While at that place the regi- 
ment was severely scourged bj' disease, losing by death a large number of 
its members. On the 14th of March, a part of the regiment was engaged 
in a skirmish at "Big Creek Gap," Tennessee, and on the 23d of March, 
in an ineffectual attempt to take Cumberland Gap. On the 12th of June it 
marched with Gen. Morgan's forces toward Cumberland Gap, and on the 
i8th it occupied the Gap, the Confederates having evacuated it the same 

The regiment remained at Cumberland Gap until the night of the 17th 
of September, when the works were abandoned, the enemy having cut off 
the communication with the rear, preventing the garrison from obtaining 
its supplies. The Forty-ninth marched with Gen. Morgan's army on its 
retreat to the Ohio river through Eastern Kentucky. During the march 
the troops subsisted mostly upon green corn. After a march of sixteen 
days the regiment reached Greenupsburg, Kentucky, on the 3d of October, 
whence it moved to Oak Hill, Ohio. Here it was refitted, and in a 
few days started for western Virginia, going up the Kanawha as far as Coal 
Mouth. Returning from this expedition it embarked on transports at 
Point Pleasant on the 17th of November for Memphis, arriving there on 
the 30th of that month. 

On the 19th of December, 1862, it embarked, with Sherman's army, on 
the expedition to Vicksburg, landing at Chickasaw Bayou on the evening 
of December 26th, and engaging in the five days' battle that followed. It 
lost fifty-six in killed and wounded. The attempt to storm the Confederate 
works being unsuccessful, the regiment re-embarked on transports and left 


Chickasaw Bayou, on the 2d of January, 1S63, and proceeded to Milliken's 
Bend. From this place it started in steamers on the expedition against 
Arkansas Post, in the reduction of which place, on the nth of January, 
the Forty-ninth performed its part. 

Returning to Young's Point, it assisted in digging the canal across the 
point, remaining in that vicinity until the 2d of April. It then moved 
with Grant's army in its march to the rear of Vicksburg, and on the ist of 
May participated in the battle of Port Gibson; the battle of Champion Hills, 
on the i6th of May; that at "Black River Bridge," on the 17th, and the 
siege of A'icksburg, including the assault on the enemy's works on the 22d 
of Ma)'. After the fall of Vicksburg the regiment marched to Jackson, 
taking part in the seven days fighting at that place and vicinity. Return- 
ing to Vicksburg, the Forty-ninth embarked on the loth of August for 
Port Hudson and from there proceeded to New Orleans, where it was 
assigned to the "Department of the Gulf." Moving to Berwick's Bay, it 
took part in the expedition up the Teche, going as far as Opelousas. In 
December it went to Texas, and at Indianola February 3, 1864, four officers 
and one hundred sixty-seven men re-enlisted. In April, 1864, it went to 
Louisiana to re-inforce Bank's arm5\ It reached Indiana, on veteran fur- 
lough, July 9, 1864. When the furlough expired it went into camp at Lex- 
ington, Kentucky, until it returned to Louisville to be mustered out. 

An officer of Company "A" in the 49th was voted a medal of honor by 
Congress. The death of two privates of Company "I" are commemo- 
rated in bronze. 

On the 27th of September, 1861, Company "A" was organized in the 
eastern part of Dubois county. The commissioned ofiicers of Company 
"A" during its services were: Captains, Arthur J. Hawhee (who was 
promoted major and then lieutenant colonel of the 49th) and James C. 
McConahay. Its first lieutenants were Thomas A. Fleming, James C. 
McConahay, George W. Christopher, and William W. Kendall. Its sec- 
ond lieutenants were James C. McConahaj', George W. Christopher, Jere- 
miah Crook, and Allen H. Young. 

The enlisted men of Company "A" were as follows: First Sergeant 
George W. Christopher. Sergeants: Jeremiah Crook, Allen H. Young, 
George F. Carter (died February 7, 1863) and Elisha C. Pace. Corporals: 
William W. Kendall, John Chorice, Jacob Sillings, John F. Patterson, 
David S. Benham, John M. Denbo, Nathan P. Gilliatt, and Robert Par- 
sons Musicians: Harry, Jesse and George W. Stroud. Wagoner: Jos- 
eph Denbo. The muster roll does not give the residences of all the pri- 
vates, but so far as known the following men were from Dubois county: 
William H. Buford, Sergeant John M. Benham, Dyar D. Burton, Cor- 
poral George Cox, John Chorice, William Cox, John Cox, Jr., William B. 
Curtis (died April 4, 1864), Stephen Edwards (died at Millikins Bend, 
March 23, 1863), Wiley Edwards, David Edwards (died November 22, 



1S63), Sergeant James M. Ellis, James W. Ellis, Corporal Jefferson Flick, 
Corporal Samuel B. Gilliatt, William C. Goodman, Levi M. Grant, Louis 
Hawhee, Corporal Allen A. Hatfield, Andrew J. Hollowell, Thomas Jones, 
Corporal John W. Kellams, John W. King (died at Cumberland Gap, 
August 15, 1863), John W. Mason, James Mason, Green C. Mason (killed 
at Baker's Creek, Mississippi, May 16, 1863), Samuel H. H. Mavity, Mar- 
quis W. Maxwell, John Miles, George W. Nelson, Thomas J. Nolan (also 
of the First Wisconsin Battery), John Pollard, David J. Pruitt (died at 
Cumberland Ford, April 7, 1862), Shelby Pruitt, Alvadez Reynolds, Blu- 
ford Reynolds, James S. Roberts (died at home, January 6, 1862), Corporal 
William F. Robertson, Hiram K. Ruth (died at Cumberland Ford, March 
3, 1862), Allen T. Trusty, Sergeant James W. Trusty, James M. Andrews, 
George Conrad, Pharaoh Frentress, Peter F. Gyger, Nicholas Hatter, 
William Morgan, Martin Meyer, Samuel K. Nelson, Robert W. Potts, 
John Siefert, John Parsons, Thomas W. Black, Conrad Geier, Thomas 
Kellams, John Kellams, Thomas Jones, Robert Parsons, John Siefert, 
Michael Weber, and Leander West. There were in all one hundred forty 
men in Compan}^ "A." Twenty-three, officers and men, were lost. 

On June 18, 1863, William W. Ken- 
dall was commissioned first lieutenant 
by Governor O. P. Morton. He was in 
command of the company at Louisville, 
when it was mustered out. Lieutenant 
Jeremiah Crook died August 13, 1863. 
Jeffersonville got credit for Company 
"A." The original "muster in" roll 
of the company shows name after name 
that appears to come from Dubois 
county, but are not credited to the 
county. Company "A" was re-organ- 
ized at Indianola, Texas, February 3, 
1864, with James C. McConahay as cap- 

Lieutenant W. W. Kendall, of Com- 
pany "A," was a typical soldier, one 
who knew no fear and no word but duty. 
He was a veteran volunteer and a mili- 
tary conductor on the L. F. & L. railroad. 
In February, 1894, Congress pre- 
sented a medal to Lieutenant Kendall. It was of bronze. About ten 
years later Congress recalled the bronze medal and in its place presented to 
him a gold medal in May, 1905. It is an artistic token, handsomely 
encased, of beautiful design, of intrinsic worth and value, and a badge of 
honor worthily bestowed. Later, by a third resolution of Congress, the 

Lieut. W. W. Kendall. 


bronze medal was returned to him; thus he has two medals, but can wear 
only one at a time. lyieutenant Kendall is a member of the " Medal of 
Honor I^egion," one of the most select military organizations in America. 
In the records of the United States government concerning the engage- 
ment at "Black River Bridge," Col. James Keigwin of the Forty-ninth 
Regiment, after recording the fact that Captain McConahay, of Company 
"A," fell wounded, says: 

After Captain McConahay fell, Sergt. William Wesley Kendall, who is one of the 
bravest of the brave, and always proved himself such in every engagement, led the 
company in the fight, and was one of the first in the works. I would recommend him to 
the commanding general for promotion for the gallant conduct he has displayed in 
every skirmish and battle the regiment has been engaged in since its organization. 

Captain McConahay was from Jasper, being a teacher when he enlisted. 
He recovered from his wounds, and died a few years ago at Washington 

In Company "C" was George Opel, of Jasper, who died in Dubois county, 
September 30, 1863. 

In Company "E" were Jefferson Sketo, Jacob Hays, Jas. A. Gardner, 
Thomas Jeffers, and Albert Clark. Clark's home was at Jasper. He died 
September 9, 1862. Thomas J. Dugan was second lieutenant of this com- 

In Company "F" was Enos Jasper Mingiers, also of the 53d Indiana. 

In Company "G" were corporal Martin Mickler, corporal Edward W. 
Moore (died at Vicksburg, July 19, 1863.) William Andrews, Samuel 
Andrews (died at Bardstown, May 10, 1862.) Bazil B. Decker (died at 
Chickasaw Bayou, December 21, 1862.) William H. Innian, Eeroy T. 
Inman (died at Cumberland Ford. April 20, 1862.) Benj. Kesterson (died 
at Cumberland Ford, April 3, 1862.) David S. Morgan, Thomas Pinnick, 
Robert W. Potts (also of Co. "A"), Jesse W. Potts, John W. Simmons. 

In Company "H" was S. S. Sturgeon. 

Company "I" was oganized in Hall and Columbia townships, in the 
neighborhood of Celestine. It elected ofl&cers at Jasper, November 4, 1861, 
and seventeen days later was mustered in as Company "I" of the 49th 
Indiana, near Jeffersonville. Its first officers were, — Capt. John J. Alles; 
first lieutenant. Dr. John F. B. Widmer; second lieutenant, Edward Buc- 
hart. On November 5, 1861, this company was entertained at the Indiana 
Hotel, at Jasper, and was addressed by the Rev. A. J. Strain. The com- 
pany went to Jeffersonville by the way of Eoogootee. 

The commissioned officers of Company "I" during its service were: 
John J. Alles, captain. Its lieutenants were Dr. John F. B. Widmer (who 
was promoted assistant surgeon of the 49th) and Augustus H. Letourmy. 
Its second lieutenants were Ed. Buchart, Augustus H. Letourmy, and 
Amasa P. Niles. 



Capt. John J. Alles, of Company "I," belongs to a family of military 
men. He was born in Prussia, April 23, 1824. He took part in fourteen 
battles, and was wounded by a shell at Vicksburg. Before the Civil War 
he had been in a military expedition to Cuba. 

The enlisted men of Company "I" were as follows: First Sergeant 
Augustus H. Ivetourmy. Sergeants: Henry Shoulder, Wm. G. Wolff, 
Henry Schnell, and Amasa P. Niles. Corporals: Thomas H. Hill, John 
H. Huffman, David Spielmeier, Wm. Gasser, Noah Whaley, Arthur Sand- 
ers, George Mayr, and John Klem. Musicians: Michael Durlauf, Sr. (of 
Jasper) and Henry Heil. Wagoner: Joseph Bates. He became a sergeant. 
Michael Durlauf, Sr., was an expert snare drummer, one of the best in the 
Union Army. The muster roll does not give the residences of all the private 
soldiers, but so far as known the following men were from Dubois county, — 
Joseph Bates, Jeremiah Black, Xavier Burkett, Louis Brang, John Kolb, 
(died at Carrolton, La., August 19, 1863), John R. Conner (died at JefTer. 

sonville, December 22, 1861), Nathaniel 
Conner, John Cravens (died of wounds, 
June 30, 1863), Henry Enlow (died at 
Bardstown, Ky., March 14, 1862), Wm. 
Enlow. Conrad Geier, George W. Good- 
man, Jesse Goodman, Charles Hatter, 
Nicholas Hatter, John Henze, Joseph 
Hickner, George Hasenauer, 

(wounded). Sergeant Frederick Hoff- 
man, Michael Hass (died at London, 
Ky., April 7, 1862), Anthony Kaup, 
Corporal John Kempf; John and Nich- 
olas Kremer, both killed at Champion 
Hills, May 16, 1863; death scene is com- 
memorated on front plate of Soldiers' 
monument at Jasper. It is not reported 
where they were buried. Francis 
Kreger, Bernhardt Kramer (died at 
Carrolton, La., October 11, 1863), George 
Laudner (killed at Chickasaw Bluffs, December 28, 1862), Corporal Michael 
Liesmann, Francis Mathias, George McMickle, Joseph Mathias, Allen 
McCune (died at Bardstown, Ky., in 1862), Corporal John McCarty, John 
R. Mickler, Ferdinand Moerder (died at Bardstown, June 30, 1862), Cor- 
poral Jacob Miller, Sr., Jacob Miller, Jr., Joseph Miller (drowned at Iron- 
ton, Ohio, November 19, 1862), Timothy Nolan, Anton Oxenbauer, Rochus 
Reusz, William Sanders (died at Vicksburg, July 20, 1863), Jeremiah 
Sanders, James E. Sanders, John Siening, Henry Sermersheim, Anton 
Schneider, John Spielmeier, Charles Seller, John Seifert (transferred to 
Company "A"), Henry Stratman, Jos. Sprauer, Wm. Waddle, Francis 

Capt. John J. Alles. 

Co. I, 49th Indiana Volunteers. Elected 
captain November 4, 1861, at Jasper, Ind., 
and served during the war. Mustered into 
service November 21, 1861. Capt. Alles served 
many years as trustee of Hall township and 
as county commissioner of Dubois County. 



Watson, Sebastian Weber, Dominic Zug, Charles Zehr, Wm. Zehr, John R. 
Atkinson, Samuel Betters, Lorenz Geil, Michael Weber, Thomas Hill, 
Leonard J. White, John Hoffman, Henry Shoulders, and Henry Heiles. 


This regiment served from February i, 1862, until September 10, 1865. 
Many members re-enlisted February 27, 1864, at Canton, Mississippi. 
Some were temporarily assigned to the Eighty-ninth Indiana. The 52d 
fought in Tennessee, Mississippi, Arkansas, Missouri, and Alabama. 

In Company "A" was Louis Hendrixson, of Harbison township, and in 
Company "E" was Hiram Johnson, of Boone township. 

In Company "D," of this regiment, was Bedford Phillips, of Columbia 
township, a veteran, who served in Company "F," of the Fiftieth Indiana 
from November i, 1S61, until he became a member of this regiment, from 
which he was mustered out June 4, 1865. 


This regiment was organized at New 
Albany, in January, 1862. Recruits of 
the Sixty-second regiment, then organiz- 
ing at Rockport, were added to it and 
the regiment was mustered in February 
26, 1861, with Walter O. Gresham as 
colonel and William Jones, of the Sixty- 
second, as lieutenant colonel. It guard- 
ed prisoners for one month at Indian- 
apolis. It was sent to Missouri and then 
to Tennessee, and joined in the siege of 
Corinth. It was in the battle of Hatchie 
and charged the Confederates through a 
burning bridge. It took part in the 
sieges of Vicksburg and Atlanta. Many 
of its members re-enlisted at Hebron, 
Mississippi. It took part in all the bat- 
tles and skirmishes of the Atlanta cam- 
paign. It took part in the battles of Nickajack creek, Peach Tree creek, 
and Kenesaw Mountain, and in the march to Savannah, through the Caro- 
linas, to Goldsboro. It was mustered out at Louisville, July 21, 1865. 

In this regiment were many Dubois county soldiers, including the 
company commanded by Capt. Lewis Biram Shively, of Huntingburg. 

In Company "B" was John Seaton. 

In Company "C" were Vitus Schmidt, Valentine Schmidt, and Ch. 

In Company "D" was James Kellams. 

Capt. Lewis Biram Shively. 


In Company "E" was Geo. W. Kellams. 

Company "F" started out with eighty-three men and received many 
recruits during its service. The original enlistment of Company "F" con- 
tained several men from Dubois county. The officers of Company "F" 
were as follows: Captain Alfred H. McCoy (resigned December 3, 1862), 
Lewis Biram Shively, of Huntingburg, was commissioned captain, Decem- 
ber 4, 1862. He was killed at Atlanta, July 22, 1864. Henry Duncan 
then became captain, and was promoted major. Lieut. Thomas N. Robert- 
son then became captain. Among the enlisted men from Dubois county 
were Thomas N. Robertson, first sergeant, who became captain, Sergeant 
John N. Bristow; James F. Bryant and Thos. W. Howard, of Haysville; 
Richard Faunderhafer, of Huntingburg, killed at Big Shanty, Georgia, 
June 17, 1864; Wm. J. Henry, Sergeant John H Jackson, Joseph Miles, 
Anton Gotschenck, James W. Mayo, John Mayo, and C. Vonderhofen. 

Captain Lewis Biram Shively, of this company, had seen service in the 
Mexican War, and was a brave soldier. His home was at Huntingburg. 
In 1847, when men were needed for the Mexican War, Capt. Shively, then 
only twenty-two years old, with others in Dubois and Spencer counties, 
organized a company commanded by Capt. Crook, of Rockport, and went to 
Mexico, under Gen. Jos. Lane. In the Civil War, Capt. Shively recruited 
Co. F, 53d Indiana Volunteer Infantr)', and was, in time, made captain. 
He was in many of the bloody battles before Atlanta, where he was killed, 
at the head of his company. He lies in an unknown grave. His remains 
could not be identified, having been exposed to the sun for three days 
before burial. He was a son of Rev. Jacob Banta Shively, and Anna 
Shively, born June 7, 1825. 

In Company "G" were Thos. H. Highfill and John W. Long. 

In Company "I" were Dr. G. P. Williams, sergeant, and also Benj. F. 
Whittinghill, of Columbia township. Sergeant Williams enlisted in 
Company "I." His service, however, was short lived, for at the end of 
six months, greatly to his disappointment, he was discharged by reason of 

In Company "K" was John Freed, of Hall township. Enos Jasper 
Mingiers, of Jefferson township, was a member of this regiment. 


The Fifty-eighth Indiana was mustered in, as a regiment, December 
17, 1861, and mustered out July 25, 1865. The regiment was organized 
by Col. Andrew Lewis. This regiment participated in the following cam. 
paigns: In 1862, in Tennessee and Kentucky, the siege of Corinth, and in 
the pursuit of Bragg. In 1863, Rosecrans' campaign in Tennessee, the 
relief of Chattanooga, and in the campaign in east Tennessee. In 1864, 
against Atlanta and in "Sherman's march to the Sea." In 1865, it served 
in the two Carolinas. 


Among the Dubois county soldiers in this regiment were the following 


In Company "B" were Jesse M. Lillpop and Isaac A. I^ockwood. 

In Company "C" were Sergeant Albert H. Stewart, mustered out first 
sergeant, July 25, 1865. Corporal Nemon Green, who died at Corinth, 
Miss., June 3, 1862. Corporal Jonas Robinson, a veteran, mustered out as 
sergeant. Albert R. Woods (a musician), Thornton C. Botkins, John G. 
Crozier, Robert Chew (killed at Stone river), Joseph Chew, Thos. P. 
Dickson, Robert Dickson, missing in action at Chickamauga (a head-stone 
bears his name in the National Cemetery, at Chickamauga), Aaron Green 
(killed at Chickamauga), Wm. Q. Green (died at Corinth, Miss.), Und- 
say Holder (killed at Chickamauga), Sergeant Ezekiel S. Hadlock, Cor- 
poral John B. Hadlock, Wm. A. King (died at Murfreesboro, Tenn.), and 
Henry Trusty, killed at Stone river, December 31, 1862. 

The Dubois county members of Company "E" (sharpshooters) came 
from the " Irish Settlement " at Ireland, and many were sons of the origi- 
nal settlers. On October 11, 1861, the night before they left to join their 
regiment, the citizens of Ireland gave them a banquet. The company was 
mustered in at Princeton, November 12, 1861. The officers of Company 
" E " during its service were as follows: Captains — Daniel J. Banta, 
Asbury H. Alexander, George W. Hill, and Jacob E. Voorhees. The first 
lieutenants were Asbury H. Alexander, George W. Hill, Jacob E. Voor- 
hees, and Dr. William R. McMahan. Its second lieutenants were Jacob E. 
Voorhees, Francis B. Blackford, George W. Hill, William R. McMahan, 
and Arthur Mouser. Lieutenant Blackford was killed at the battle of 
Stone river. On the day the company was mustered in these men were 
the non-commissioned officers: Sergeants, John P. Norman, Albert G. 
Austin, Charles O. Glezen, William R. McMahan, and Francis B. Black- 
ford. The corporals were Gilbert Armstrong, Benjamin Dillon, William 
Mathews, Arthur Mouser, John B. Brenton, Enoch M. Austin, Columbus 
N. Lemmons, and Robert Stewart. Hamilton W. Glezen was a drummer 
and Thomas Houston Green a fifer . The company ' s wagoner was Abraham 
Baits. Among the sharpshooters enlisted appear these names: Caleb 
Andrews, Florence Anstett, Jabez Art, Jerry Alexander, William H. H. 
Botkins, Thomas Beadles, Michael G. Bussey, Francis M. Boyles, Henry 
K. Brenton, Jesse C. Corn, Charles Cavender, Newton Cavender, Edward 
Cook, Samuel H. Carr, John R. Condiff, John W. Dickson, Joshua C. 
Duke, Madison A. Green, Aslier M. Green, Robert Green, Patrick Gal- 
leger, George W. Hill, Valentine E. Hobbs, Sylvanus W. Hurst, Charles 
L. Hollon, James Hollon, Alfred Haskins, Enoch Inman, Willis T. Inman, 
Thomas C. Johnson, William N. Kelso, Benjamin C. Kelso, John B. Nelson, 
William Nance, Tennessee Pirtle, Thomas J. M. Rose, John Urich, Adam 


Miller, Obediah Main, Louis Main, William Main and Milroy Robertson. 
These men saw considerable hard service. Twenty-four men out of all who 
served in Company " E " were lost by death. 

Charles ly. HoUon, Thomas Houston Green, Gilbert Armstrong, and 
William Matthews became sergeants. Robert Green died at Evansville, 
May i6, 1862. John B. Nelson died, at home, in February, 1865. Thos. 
J. M. Rose became a member of the Marine Brigade. The services ren- 
dered by Sergeant John P. Norman, at Stone river, if properly received 
at the time, would have won for him a commission. 

In Company " G " was Milton Holder, also of Ireland, who served 
three j^ears. 

In Company "I" was Madison Battles, of Madison township. 

In Company " K" were Robert J. King, of Hall township, and George 
Evans, of Columbia township. 


This regiment was organized at Gosport, for three years' service. It 
was mustered in February 11, 1862, and out July 17, 1865. Its services 
were rendered in Mississippi, Tennessee, Georgia, and in the Carolinas. 
This regiment has a hard-service record; out of about 1,700 men, its killed, 
wounded, missing, and lost amounted to 793. It traveled 13,659 miles. 

Joseph Bird, of Huntingburg, was second lieutenant of Company " F " 
and in the same company were Ephraim Overbee, of Ireland, a veteran, 
and Dr. J. S. Faulkner, of Birdseye. 


This regiment was organized at Evansville under command of Col. 
Richard Owen, in March, 1862, and was mustered out on March 21, 1865. 
It served in Kentucky, in the expeditions against Vicksburg; up Red 
river, and in Louisiana and Texas. 

In Company "G" were Herman H. Schmidt and Rudolph Peters, of 
Patoka township. 


This regiment was mustered in at Evansville (except Company " K") 
in August, 1862, with John W. Foster as its colonel. Company " K, " 
of Dubois county, was mustered in September 10, 1862, and joined the 
regiment in the field in Kentucky. In April, 1863, the regiment was 
mounted, by order of General Burnside. At Mulberry Gap, Company 
" K," numbering only forty-five men, expelled a whole Confederate regi- 
ment in a night attack. The regiment took part in engagements at Mad- 
isonville, Vanderburg, Dixon, Blountsville, Rheatown, Bristol, Walker's 
Ford, Bean Station, Powder Spring Gap, Skagg's Mill, and Dandridge. 
In April, 1864, the regiment was dismounted. It took part in the battle of 


Resaca, and in all the skirmishes and battles leading up to the capture of 
Atlanta. It took part in the pursuit of Hood, in the battles of Columbia, 
Franklin, Nashville, and Fort Anderson. It was mustered out at Greens- 
boro, June 22, 1865. 

In Compan}' "D" were James Gentry, E. J. Harris (Samuel Hagen), 
and Corporal Francis Marion Reck. 

In Company "G" was Matthew Burton, of Hall township. He was 
also in the 120th. 

Local interest in this regiment centers mainly in Company "K," com- 
posed largely of Dubois county men. 

This company was organized in Dubois county. Its officers for the 
whole time of its service were as follows: 

Captains — x\ndrew J. Beckett, of Jasper, John W. Hammond and 
Robert H. Walter. 

First lieutenants— John H. Lee, Philip P. Guckes, Robert H. Walter, all 
of Jasper, and Redman F. Laswell, of Huntingburg. 

Second Heutenants— Philip P. Guckes, Robert H. Walters, and Wm. P. 

Lieutenant Redman F. Laswell, of Huntingburg, was transferred to 
Company "I," of the 120th Indiana, June 20, 1865, of which company he 
became captain July i, 1865, and was mustered out December 15, 1865. 

The following members of this company were from Dubois county: 

First sergeant— Robert H. Walter. Sergeants— Joseph Fisher, Wm. 
M. Anderson, Redman T. Laswell, and Martin L. Patterson. Sergeant Pat- 
terson was from Haysville and was killed by guerillas in Rhea county, 
Tennessee, January 28, 1864. 

Corporals— Louis M. Vowell (died at Madisonville, Ky., December 21, 
1862), Peter Huffman, and Albert Beck, Geo. H. Cisil, Burr Mosby (a 
sergeant), John L. Potts, Raymond Ferrebach, and Geo. C. Green; Wm. L. 
Goss, of Haysville, was a musician, Robert J. Bailey, of Haysville, was the 

Privates— Andrew Able, Corporal John Apple, Thomas Beare, died at 
Knoxville, Tennessee, February 15, 1864; Frederick Beck, of Ludlow (now 
Kellerville), died at Woodburn.Ky., February 14, 1865; Wm. Bradley, John 
Bristo, John Baecher, John Borman (corporal); Wm. Chatten, Enoch B, 
Cooper, Elvin Damewood, a corporal, Wm. Davis, transferred to Relief 
Corps; John Dyer, John Edens, John E. Ellis, Geo. W. Gasaway, of Por- 
tersville, killed at Pumpkin Vine creek, May 28, 1864; John Graves; George 
Hagen, died in Georgia, July 21, 1864; Levi S. Hanger, died in Anderson- 
ville prison, August i, 1862; Benj. F. Harned; Geo. Harmon, died at 
Knoxville, Tennessee, March 23, 1864; Conrad Hoffman; August Kloster- 
man, of Huntingburg, died at home, November 13, 1864; Henry Land- 
grebe, W^m. J. Lansford, Wm. J. Lawrence; John Loudner, died at Mar- 
ietta, Georgia, July 26, 1864; Joseph Lobby, of Jasper, died at Knoxville, 


Tennessee, December 12, 1863; John Leppold, Conrad Mader, Geo. Meyer, 
Daniel Mangold, Jonathan Milburn, died in Andersonville prison, August 
6, 1864; James K. Mynett, of Haysville, was transferred to Relief Corps; 
John McCarty, Francis McElroy, Julius Nix, Charles Osborn, Fred H. 
Poetker, a corporal; Henry Rudolph, of Portersville, died of wounds, Feb- 
ruary 22, 1864; Wm. Roettger, Frederick Simmons, Henry Sumner, died 
at Madisonville, Ky., May 24, 1863; Jos. Schoecker, George Teufel, died 
at Woodbury, Ky., May 24, 1863; Philip Wisebach; Wm. H. Wood, died 
at Henderson, Ky., January 28, 1863; Henry Wiseman; and Jonathan 
Wineinger, a corporal. There were some unassigned recruits whose resi- 
dences were not given. Some of them may have been from Dubois county. 
Out of all men in the company, twenty-four died in the service. George 
Meyer, of this company, was in Ford's Theatre on the night Abraham 
lyincoln was assassinated. 


This regiment was recruited at Camp Noble, near New Albany, and 
was mustered in August 19, 1862. Gen. I,ew Wallace was its provisional 
colonel. It was mustered out at Washington, June 3, 1865. Some of its 
members joined the 59th regiment. This regiment rendered service in 
Kentucky, where many members were captured. It also rendered service 
in Mississippi, Tennessee, Georgia, saw heavy fighting about Atlanta, and 
took part in "Sherman's march to the Sea." 

Alfred Krutsinger, once of Birdseye and Jasper, was a corporal in Com- 
pany "A." 

Isom Smith, of Birdseye, was a member of Company " G." 


This was a South Bend Regiment mustered in for three years, August 
16, 1862. It saw service in Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alabama. 

In Company "D" was Primley Senica, of Jefferson township, who 
entered as a corporal, and was wounded at Stone river. He was also sec- 
ond lieutenant Company " E, " 12th Cavalry (127 regiment.) 


This was a Fort Wayne regiment enlisted August 21, 1862, for three 
years. Its services were rendered in Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and 
in the Carolinas. It was in the pursuit of Bragg, Rosecrans' campaign, 
the relief of Chattanooga, the siege of Atlanta, and " Sherman's march to 
the Sea." 

Samuel Anspach served from vSeptember 26, 1864, to June 9, 1865, in 
Company " B." 



In Company " D" were James A. McWilliams, of Hall township, John 
Rackriegel and Francis Buechler, of Haysville. These were also in Com- 
pany " D," 22d Indiana. 

In Company " I " was Nathan Sanders, of Jefferson township. 


The regiment was organized at Princeton. It was mustered in Septem- 
ber 5, 1S62, and served until June 22, 1S65. It participated in the pursuit 
of Generals Bragg and Hood, in the fights around Atlanta and Wilming- 
ton, and also saw service in Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and North Car- 

In Company " B " were Gabriel Dickens and Albert Mosier, who were 
transferred to the 129th Indiana. John A. Evans, of Columbia township, 
was also a member. 

Henry Kirchhoff , of Jackson township, was a member of Company " F. " 
In Company " H " was Jesse Spragans, of Jefferson township. 


This was a New Albany regiment 
mustered in August 29, 1862, and served 
until June 13, 1865. It was in the bat- 
tles of Stone river, Liberty Gap, Chick- 
amauga, Resasca, Dallas, Rocky Face, 
Kingston, Bald Knob, Kenesaw, Mari- 
etta, Jonesboro, Lovejoys, siege of 
Atlanta, etc. 

In Company "D" was Sergeant James 
A. Hughes, of Jefferson township; in 
Company "G" were Anthony' King and 
J. B. Haven, and in Company "H" was 
James Riggle, Sr., of Kyana. In Com- 
pany " K" served Harding M. Chew- 
ning, of Jackson township. 

Levi M. Hanger was a member of 
this regiment. 

Brig-Gen. John Mehringer. 



This regiment was recruited from the counties about Evansville, It 
rendezvoused at Evansville. It was mustered in October i, 1862, as a 
battalion, containing seven companies. John Mehringer, of Jasper, was 
its colonel. Additions were made to the battalion until the regiment was 
complete. The regiment rendered service in Kentucky, East Tennessee, 




against Atlanta, against Wilmington, in the pursuit 
of Hood, and in North Carolina. It was in the fight 
at Pine Mountain, New Hope Church, Kenesaw 
Mountain, Decatur, Peach Tree creek, Atlanta, Utoy 
creek. Franklin, and Nashville. 

In Company "E" were Sergeant John Herman 
Beckmann, Gerhard Kluessner, George W. McKas- 
son, Klias Beard, George Begle, John P. Demuth 
(who died November 7, 1864), Aaron Flat, Joseph 
Kartman, Francis Kometscher, Joseph Kolda, Her- 
man Prieshoff, and Albert Teder, who died April 8, 

In Company "I" were Thomas Dove, Wm. Elk- 
ins, John Vowell, Harrison Treadway, and John J. 

In Company "K" was Joel M. Morgan, also of the 

General Mehringer was born in Germany, in 1826, 
came to America when a child and settled at Jasper, 
where he worked at his trade— that of a "ship-car- 
penter." When the Mexican War began he enlisted 
in Company "E," Fourth Indiana Foot Volunteers, 
as a private. He took part in the battle of Pueblo. 
On June 20, 1848, he was honorably discharged at 
Madison, Indiana. A few years later he was elected 
sheriff of Dubois county, and later, auditor of the 

He entered the Civil War as captain of Company 
"K," 27th regiment. He never was commissioned 
captain, being immediately promoted to the rank of 
major, and later was commissioned as colonel of the 
91st by Governor Morton. On March 13, 1865, Colo- 
nel Mehringer was commissioned a brevet brigadier 

As colonel of the gist regiment Col. Mehringer 
was in command of the third brigade of the twenty- 
third army corps in the Atlanta campaign, and in the 
Tennessee campaign against General Hood. He was 
honorably discharged at Salisbury, N. C, June 26, 
1865. At that time the privates and non-commis- 
sioned officers in his command presented to him a 
handsome gold mounted jeweled sword, which with its 
trappings cost one thousand dollars. It bears appro- 
priate inscriptions. General Mehringer was acciden- 
tally killed, at Louisville, October 22, 1906. His 
remains are at rest in St. Joseph's cemetery, at Jasper. 



This regiment rendezvoused at Madison, and was mustered into the 
service in the month of September and October, 1862. It took part in the 
engagement at Jackson, Mississippi, in the siege of Vicksburg, in the bat- 
tle of Nashville and the attack at Mobile. It was mustered out at Memphis 
August 10, 1865. The 93d traveled 7,432 miles, in the states of Tennes- 
see, Mississippi, Alabama, etc. 

In Company "G" were Lieut. James K. P. Connor, Sergeant Reuben 
F. Bates, Corporal Francis M. Sanders, Corporal David I. Conley (died at 
Chickasaw Springs, Miss., April 9, 1863), Corporal James F. Boyles, 
Michael Chanley, James C. Damron, Cornelius Anspach (died at home Feb- 
ruary 28, 1864), Wm. H. Andry, John Andry (died at Lagrange, Tennes- 
see, January 13, 1863), John H. Boyles, Geo. W. Bradley, Jos. W. Gar- 
land (died at Memphis, Tenn., February 25, 1864), Daniel N. King, 
Martin C. Kellems (died in Columbia prison, S. C), Jos. W. Lindsey, 
Milton Waddle, Wilford Waddle, and John R. Cazee, all of Dubois county. 

In Company "H" were Alfred M. Williams, Theopholus Spurlock, 
Thos. E. Moore, Joshua Pruitt, Abraham Dewitt, Solomon F. Dewitt, and 
Lieut. Wesley Shoulders. 

In Company "K" was James M. Ingle, of Birdseye. 


This regiment served in Tennessee, Mississippi, Georgia, and in the 
Carolinas. It fought against Vicksburg and Atlanta, for the relief of Chat- 
tanooga, and marched with Sherman to the Sea. It served from Septem- 
ber 20, 1862, until June 9, 1865. 

In Company "G" were Josephus Peyton and Nelson Roberts, of Colum- 
bia township. Sergeant Thos. Simmons died at Lagrange, Tenn., Feb- 
ruary 15, 1863. 


This regiment served from August 17, 1863, until February, 1864, in 
East Tennessee, and in and about Cumberland Gap. 

In this regiment were John B. Slater, of Company "K," and John M. 
Edwards, of Company "A." 


This regiment was known as the Tenth Cavalry. Its fighting was done 
in Tennessee, Alabama, and Mississippi, in the years 1864 and 1865. It 
took part in the pursuit of Hood and against Mobile. It was mustered in 
February 2, 1864, for three years, but was mustered out August 31, 1S65. 
Its first camp of rendezvous was at Vincennes; its second at Columbus. 
This cavalry fought in the battle of Pulaski, September 28, 1864. Part of 


John S. Brademeyer. 

it fought at Decatur, Nashville, Little Harpeth, Reynold's Hill, and Sugar 
creek. Part of the regiment was engaged in the battles of Flint River, 
Indian creek, Courtland, and Mount Hope. It lost several men by the 
explosion of the steamer Sultana and also by a rail- 
road collision. It was mustered out at Vicksburg, Mis- 

In Company "F" were Sergeant L. L. Kelso, Samuel 
H. Carr, John Daffron and Henry H. C. McDonald, Wm. 
Burrall, Chas. Osborn (died at Cairo, 111., May 6, 1865), 
John Pitman, and James A. Woods. 

In Company "G" were John C. Gorman, Wm. C. 
Pirkle, and John Smith. 

Company "M," of this regiment, was in charge of 
Dubois county men. Morman Fisher was captain, and Wm. F. Kemp was 
lieutenant. (Lieut. W. F. Kemp died March 16, 1909, near Huntingburg.) 
Their commissions were dated March 8, 1864, and they served with the 
regiment until mustered out. In Company "M" were the following men 
from Dubois county: 

Alfred Absher, Andrew Armstrong 
(died at Cahaba prison, Ala., March 16, 
1865), Richard Armstrong, Marcus L. 
Banta (died at Pulaski, Tenn., July 11, 
1864), Corporal John Simon Brademeyer, 
Theodore E. Bissey (died at Baton 
Rouge, La., April 26, 1865), Wm. Bock- 
man (died at Nashville, Tenn., Decem- 
ber 8, 1864), Henry J. Brademeyer, 
Hyson Brittain, Calhoun Brown, Quar- 
termaster Sergeant Robert Brown, Cor- 
poral Otto Brandenstein, John P. 
Brooner, Sergeant Alfred Cox, Charnal 
Clark, Wm. M. Dunmott, Sergeant 
Thomas Dillin, Jesse Evans, Joseph 
Everhardt, Henry W. Feldvvisch (died 
at Audersonville prison, March 4, 1865), 
John P. Foote, John A. Green, James 
Grimes, James Hampton (a farrier), 
William Tolbert Haskins, Jackson Hen- 
derson, Jonathan Hopkins, T. John Huff, Corporal Hymulus Hobbs, 
Sergeant Gerhard Koch, Corporal John W. Kemp, Wm. B. Lunsford (died 
in a Mississippi prison, February 16, 1865), Jesse S. Milburn, Albert E. 
Mosbey, Isaac L. Meyers, Geo. R. Mosbey (died at Pulaski, Tenn., July 
5, 1864), Bugler John F. Meinker, Wm. R. Morris, Henry Niemoheler, 
Benj. F. Norman (died at Baton Rouge, La., April 25, 1865), John S. 

Capt. Morman Fisher. 



Xorris, John T. Oxley, Sam'l Parsons, Thos. J. Parsons, John Pitman, 
Thos. W. Rees, Geo. W. Roberts, Jacob M. Riley, Geo. W. Sanders, 
Jonathan Stalcup, Samuel H. Stewart, Corporal James M. Simpson, Philip 
Simmons, Richard Simmons, Harvey Vanderver, Henry Vinneman, Wm. 
A. Wade (died at Andersonville prison, March 6, 1865), Sampson Walker, 
Nelson Wilson, and Elijah Whitten. Company "M" lost sixteen men. 

Capt. Morman Fisher was born in Dubois county, December 25, 1833. 
His father, Wm. Fisher, was a soldier in the Indian Wars. Capt. Fisher 
organized Company "M" and served with it until the close of the war. 
After the war he filled various public positions in Dubois county, including 
two terms as state representative. 


This regiment was known as the Thirteenth Cavalry, and was the last 
cavalry organization raised in the state. It was mustered into service 
April 29, 1864, under Col. G. M. L. Johnson. It defended Huntsville, 
Alabama. Some of the companies were not mounted, and as infantry par- 
ticipated in the battle of Nashville. It took part against Mobile. It also 
took part in a raid of eight hundred miles through Alabama, Georgia, and 
Mississippi. It was mustered out at Vicksburg, November 18, 1865. Col. 
Johnson became a brevet brigadier general. 

In Company " B" was Anthony W. Coffman, formerly of Boone township. 

In Company "D" was Philip T. Gresham, a corporal. 

In Company "F" were Jeremiah W. 
Jacobs and Jesse N. Baggerly. 

In Company "M" was Winfield S. 
Hunter, of Jasper. 


This regiment served from February 
2 1, 1865, until October 17, 1865, under 
Col. John F. Grill, of Evansville. Its 
services were rendered principally in 

Company "E" was practically a 
Dubois county compan5\ Its officers 
were Captain Philip P. Guckes, first 
lieutenants Leander Jerger and Adolph 
Harter, second lieutenants Adolph 
Harter and George Friedman, all of 

Adam Weber, of Indianapolis, John 
Beckman, of Greensburg, Martin Feil, 

Capt. P. P. Guckes. 



of Evansville, and Peter Ullmer, of Mariah Hill, were the only members 
of this company that were not from Dubois county . Here is the company ' s 
muster roll: 

First Sergeant— Chas. Birkemeier. 

Sergeants— George Friedman, Geo. J. Jutt, Adam Weber and John 


Corporals — Ferdinand Schuhmacher, John Beckman, Henry J. Kunkler, 
Jordan Sermersheim, Philip Haberle (died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., April 
i8, 1S65), Nicholas H. Mehringer, Louis Christman, and August Eckstein. 
Privates — Nicholas Altmeyer, John Berger, John Betz (promoted cor- 
poral), John B. Brinkman, Frank Biggeleben (promoted corporal), John 

Brang, Joseph Blume, John Blume, Pan- 
taleon Berger, Henry Berger, John 
Baudendistel (died at Tullahoma, Tenn. , 
June 29, 1865), Wm. Cato, David B. 
Denton, JohnF. Erny, Anthony Englert, 
John Fisher, Martin Feil, Philip P. 
Guckes (promoted captain), George 
Knoebel, John Gebhardt, Henry V. 
Gravell, Valentine Gutgsell (promoted 
corporal), Leopold Gutzweiler, Jos. 
Gramelspacher, Henry Grass, Adolph 
Harter (promoted 2d lieutenant), Lorenz 
Hemmerlein, Michael Hohl, Henry 
Hege (died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., 
March 15, 1865), Adam Huff, Edward 
Hartlauf, Geo. Henderson, Leander 
Jerger (promoted ist lieutenant), Isaac 
Johnson (died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., 
April I, 1865), Frank A. Jahn, Philip 
Kunkel, Anton Klein, Wm. Krodel, 
Polycarp Kaegin, Jacob Kohler (pro- 
moted corporal), Henry Kraft, Andrew Klingel, Clark Lynch, Louis Lady, 
Pillow Merchant, Aaron F. Miller, Geo. Miller (died at Louisville, March 
14, 1865), Andrew Merkle, Jacob Mercker, Joseph Mundy, A. J. Mc- 
Nerney, Fred. Oel, Jos. Oestreich, John Renner, Cornelius Rees, Geo. 
Sendelwick (died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., May 30, 1865), Joseph Sturm, 
Jacob Schmidt, Geo. Schmidt, Wm. Seller, Gerhardt Schroeder, Philip 
Staringer, Wm. F. Shoulders, C. C. Schreeder, John Troxler, John Tret- 
ter, Peter Ullmer, Wm. Wilson, Frank Weikel, and Valentine Yochim. 
Company "E" lost six soldiers by disease. 

In Company "K" were Larkin S. Allen, Nathaniel Bailey, Reuben 
Brown, John Bauer, Byron Garland (died at Murfreesboro, March 19, 
J865), Thompson Garland, John M. Gowens (died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., 

Recorder George J. Jutt. 



Surveyor Henry Berger. 

March 23, 1865), David Graham (died 
at Murfreesboro, May 17, 1865), Lero}- 
T, Harbison, Isaac Harmon, Wilson 
Hobbs, Jackson Hall, John S. Jacobs, 
Chas. W. Jacobs, Isaac Leonard, John 
Rudolph (died at Murfreesboro, May 29, 
1865), Robert McMahel, Morgan 
Rodgers (died at Murfreesboro, March 
26, 1865), John Rodgers, John Shoe- 
maker, Harve}^ Smith, and Corporal 
Jefferson Williams. 

Col. C C. Schreeder, a member of 
Company "E," 143d, originally enlisted 
at the age of sixteen, in Company "D," 
2d Ohio Infantry, and served as a ser- 
geant, until discharged on account of 
physical disabilities. In January, 1865, 
he enlisted in Company "E" going out 
from Huntingburg. He was a member 
of General Dudlej^'s body-guard in the 
capacity of orderly. He was wounded on August 17, 1865. Col. Schree- 
der has served six terms in the Indiana legislature and served on the staff 
of several governors of Indiana. He has occupied various other positions 
of honor, confidence, and respect. 

Col. C. C. Schreeder, in his six terms as a member of the Indiana legis- 
lature, was successful in getting a 
number of monuments erected upon 
battlefields of the Civil War. In 
1909, he was instrumental in getting 
a $15,000 appropriation for the monu- 
ment at Antietam. 


This regiment saw service in the 
Shenandoah Valley, West Virginia, 
Maryland, and Delaware, between 
March 3, 1865, and August 31, 1S65. 

In Company "B" were James R. 
Spencer and Ferdinand Wagoner. 

In Company "C" were vSergeant 
Thomas Pinnick, Sergeant Miles B. 
Davis, Sergeant Robert M. Beaty, Coi. c. c. Schreeder. 


David W. Beaty, Wm. A. Davison, Philip C. Emmons, Wm. C. Hawk, 
Geo. W. Harmon, Thos. J. Parsons, John B. Potts, James Weaver, and 
James K. Wineinger. 

In Company " K " was Sergeant John S. Barnett. 

The American soldiers are the tallest of all civilized countries. The 
tallest American soldiers came from Indiana, and the tallest Indiana sol- 
diers in the Civil War came from the Southern Indiana counties. The 
average height of white men is five feet eight inches, and at that height 
Indiana sent 19^140 men into the Civil War. However, it sent more men 
above that height than below it. There were 742 Indiana soldiers, six feet 
three inches, or more, in height in the Civil War. Some of them came 
from Dubois county. 

The list of engagements in which this county had soldiers, shows a mil- 
itary record of which the county may well feel proud. It certainly shows 
that the county did its duty during the Civil War. 

The Civil War bore heavily upon Dubois county, and in a few cases 
drafting was necessary. 

The draft assignments of October 6, 1862, in Dubois county, were six 
from Patoka township and sixty-four from Ferdinand township. The 
other four townships in Dubois county had supplied their quota of soldiers. 

When President Lincoln issued his call for 300,000 men, on October 17, 
1863, the number allotted to Dubois county was one hundred twenty. 
This was filled readily. In the call of February i, 1864, the quota was 
two hundred fourteen; under the call of March 14, 1864, the quota was 
eighty-five; under the call of July 18, 1864, the quota was two hundred 
fifteen. These three calls were supplied by three hundred fifty-two 
recruits, sixty-eight veterans and ninety-two by draft. Bainbridge town- 
ship was the only township that entirely escaped the draft. On the final 
call of December 19, 1864, for 300,000 men, the records show Dubois county 
had an enrollment of 1056 soldiers. Its quota under the last call was one 
hundred forty-four. Of this number one hundred thirty-two volunteered 
and six were drafted. A credit of six was given on account of a previous 
surplus. It is but proper to say of those men who were drafted from 
Dubois county that not one of them deserted from the draft. 

It is but history to record that during the Civil War the South had many 
sympathizers in Indiana, as is evidenced by the newspapers of that period. 
It is to be mentioned in sorrow that occasionally a sympathizer was found 
in Dubois county, but no violence against the soldiers and the flag was 
ever attempted. When one reads that in Morgan, Jay, Johnson, Putnam, 
Boone, Sullivan, Fayette, Rush, Monroe, and Daviess counties, armed 
resistance was shown to Union men it brings to mind the awfulness of civil 

On October 3, 1864, Captain Eli McCarty was murdered in Daviess 



county, while serving notices on drafted men. His body was dragged to 
the banks of White river, near High Rock, in Daviess county, and thrown 
into the river. High Rock is about two miles west of Portersville. 

Dubois county soldiers were widely scattered through the different 
corps d'artnce, perhaps as much so as any other troops from the North. 
It is safe to say that Dubois county had military representation in practi- 
cally all the principal battles of the Civil War. Whenever they were 
engaged in battle they were eager to advance, steady in the fight, and 


y.'.'k ■■■-'■■ 


High Rock, in Daviess County, West of Portersville. 

utterly averse to retreating. Before the war these men were engaged in 
the peaceful pursuit of trade and agriculture, but they possessed that lofty 
courage and dignified chivalry that belong only to the intelligent patriots, 
who understand well the sacred cause in which they draw their swords. 
The blood of young men from Dubois county fell upon the sod of every 
southern state. Their bones mingle with the soil from Virginia and Missoiiri 
to Louisiana. Officers and men, all distinguished for valor, yielded up 
their lives upon the southern field. Their unlettered graves mark many 
battlefields, and this county can never discharge to their memories and 
their names the debt of gratitude it owes. Those who died in camp, prison, 
or hospital should never be forgotten. They were denied the soldier's 
privilege of dying in battle, but their sacrifice was none the less. To die 
on the field of battle, amid the clash of contending armies and the roar of 
battle is considered glorious. To die in the loneliness and desolation of 
an army hospital is terrible. Let honors be even. 

In this connection it must be remembered that there weresufferings, pains, 
and privations at home. There were heroes upon the field, and heroines at 



home. The restlessness, suspense, suffering, want, and weary hours of 
families at home, must not be forgotten. To help relieve this suffering 
Dubois county spent $5,948.78 for aid to the families of soldiers in the field. 
Dubois county's war expenditures were as follows: 

For bounties $73. 380. 00 

For relief 5.948-78 

For miscellaneous causes 923-15 

Total $80,251.93 

There were but six townships in Dubois county at that time, and their 
local expenditures were as follows: 

Bounty. Relief. 

Columbia $1 ,690.00 $500 

Harbison 1,617.00 300 

Bainbridge 5.799-50 1,070 

Hall 2,505.00 604 

Patoka 6,014.50 1,070 

Ferdinand ... 3,154.00 426 

It remains to be said that many of the men who had volunteered were 
poor, and compelled to support their families by ordinary daily labor. 
There was fear lest want would come to the families before the government 
could pay the soldiers. To render aid to those who deserved it, or needed 
it, the board of commissioners of Dubois county appointed a committee of 
six men, in September, 1861, to investigate and relieve the actual want of 
the families of volunteers, to the extent of eight dollars per month for 
each family. This action was commendable. The committee consisted 
of these citizens: James Houston, of Columbia township; Jacob Lemmon, 
Sr., of Harbison township; Martin Friedman, of Bainbridge township, 
Allen T. Fleming, of Hall township; Ernst G. Blemker, of Patoka town- 
ship; John G. Hoffman, of Ferdinand township. 

The foregoing practically closes the Civil War record, so far as Federal 
forces from Dubois county were concerned. There were state organiza- 
tions, however, that deserve mention. 

During the Civil War about fifty thousand men known as " The Indi- 
ana Legion" were armed, and from time to time were on active duty, 
under orders of the governor, in repelling Confederate raids and guarding 
the southern border of the state, along the Ohio river, against Confederate 
invasion. Upon the surrender of Lee's army, the "Legion" was dis- 
banded. It had been organized under the militia laws of Indiana. The 
entire "Legion" was considered as a single army corps, composed of divi- 
sions, brigades, regiments, battalions, and companies, and the necessary 
general officers and field and staff officers. A company organization con- 
sisted of a captain, a first lieutenant, a second lieutenant, an orderly ser- 


geant, four sergeants, four corporals, and a company clerk. These men 
were elected by the company which consisted of from thirty-two to one 
hundred men. Occasionally there was a lance sergeant and a lance cor- 
poral. Four companies constituted a battalion, three battalions a regiment, 
three regiments a brigade, three brigades a division. The members bought 
their own uniforms, but were furnished arms and equipments. 
Dubois county was represented in the "Legion." 

The repeated raids made by the Confederates into the southern coun- 
ties of Indiana caused much alarm in Dubois county. The people deemed 
it wise to organize home companies, which became part of the Indiana 
Legion. In August, 1863, the "McClellan Guards" were organized at 
Huntingburg. Leonard Bretz was captain, A. H. Miller was first lieuten- 
ant, and John R. Williams was second lieutenant. Their commissions bear 
date of August 27, 1863. The "Huntingburg Cavalry" was organ- 
ized in September 1863. Morman Fisher was captain; Herman Rothert, 
first lieutenant, and Solomon Stillwell, second lieutenant. Their commis- 
sions are dated September 10, 1863. Captain Fisher entered the United 
States service as captain of company "M," loth Cavalry. 

The "Ireland Guards" were soon organized with Daniel J. Banta, cap- 
tain; George R. Mosbey, first lieutenant, and Samuel Dillon, Jr., second 
lieutenant. Lieut. Mosbey entered the United States service, and Samuel 
Dillon, Jr., became first lieutenant, and Lafayette Brittain, second lieuten- 
ant. The date of organization was October 3, 1863. 

The "Anderson Rangers" were commissioned October 28, 1863. John 
Howard was captain; Jefferson Huff, first lieutenant, and Shelby Pruitt, 
second lieutenant. All these companies were part of the Fourth Regiment, 
First Brigade, Second Division, of the Indiana Legion. At Jasper, a com- 
pany of about sixty members was organized. Dr. R. M. Welman was cap- 
tain and Mathias Schmidt and Conrad Eckert were lieutenants; all had seen 
active service. 

Michael Wilson, of Jasper, who had twice volunteered for services with 
the Union forces, but failed to pass successfully the physical examinations, 
became orderly sergeant of Captain Henry N. Whales' Company "A," 5th 
Regiment, Indiana Legion, under Col. Chas. Fournier and served during 
the war. Company "A" was also known as the "Newcomb Guards." 
In the Legion were many men who could not enter the main army, 
through physical causes, and many soldiers, who had been honorabl}^ dis- 
charged for disabilities from the Union army. 

The "Indiana Legion" served its purpose and on March 6, 1S65, the 
general assembly of the state of Indiana resolved "That the thanks of the 
people of this state are hereby tendered to the officers and men of the Indi- 
ana Legion for the gallant and efficient manner in which they have dis- 
charged the important duties entrusted to them." 



To the "Indiana IvCgion" the state chiefly owes the immunity it 
enjoyed from invasion, plunder, and murder by the guerrillas and maraud- 
ing bands which infested many of the adjoining counties of Kentucky. 

Thomas B. Wilson. 

In the Spanish-American War no emergency existed that called for any 
special effort for enlistment. Thomas B. Wilson, of Company "A," 159th 
Indiana, was the first citizen of Dubois county to answer McKinley's call. 
He is credited to Knox county. He with two others constituted a com- 
mittee to organize a company of cadets from Vincennes University. The 
company was organized and accepted. He was followed by George P. 

Corn, Chas. Weger, and Benj. Niehaus. Nie- 
haus was a member of the 159th regiment. 
These were probably the only men from Dubois 
county in an Indiana regiment. George Schul- 
theis and Theodore Schultheis joined the Louis- 
ville Legion, and followed Gen. Miles in his 
march and conquest of Porto Rico. Wm. 
Brown, of Ireland, was a member of the United 
States Light Artillery that fired the first and 
last shot at the blockhouse on the hill at El 

At Jasper, April 7, 1898, a company of one 
hundred one men was organized as a com- 
pany of military reserves ready for the President's call in case of need. 
Lieut. W. W. Kendall was elected captain. 

Private Jesse K. Stork, Troop "A," ist U. S. Cavalry, of Holland, was 
the first man to fall in the battle of La Ouasimas, June 28, 1898. Of all the 
men lost on Cuban soil, but one or two 
American soldiers died before this hon- 
ored son of Dubois county. This is 
shown by the war records. Other Dubois 
county men were in this fight as 
members of the regular army. Jesse K. 
Stork was a member of the regular army, 
but went into the fight with Roosevelt's 
Rough Riders. 

In the Spanish-American War, so far 
as now known, Dubois county lost but 
one man. That was Trooper Jesse K. 
Stork. Trooper Edward W. Raines, of 
Illinois, a fellow soldier, in speaking of 
Trooper Stork's death, says: 

We left Tampa Bay, Florida, June S, 1S98, 
and sailed until 7:30 A. m., June 23, when the 

Geo. P. Corn. 



gun-boats bombarded, and landed the 5th army corps. We pitched our tents 
and Jesse K. Stork and I went to a stream and had a fine bath. We had no more than 
returned, when we received orders to break camp and move toward Santiago. We 
marched all day and until 8:15 at night, when we went into camp. Jesse and I " rolled 
up together " and tried to sleep a little, but the rain prevented us. There was nothing 
we could do but walk around and take the rain as it came. We did not complain. We 
consoled ourselves with the thought of what a grand experience it would be for us, if 
we lived through the hardship, and the battle then before us. We had learned to look 
upon the bright side of everything. One morning we rolled our packs, shouldered 
our rifles, and marched away toward Santiago until 7:45 a. m., when all at once we 
were notified by a Cuban officer that the Spanish outposts were only a few hundred 
yards ahead of us. We were ordered to creep up a little stream as silently as possible 
and fill our canteens, so as to be in readiness in case of an attack. The next thing 
we were deployed and marched about fifty or a hundred yards, when the Spanish 
pickets fired a volley into "A" Troop. At that instant we were ordered forward, and 
on moving forward at a dead run, Jesse and I ran into some of " K " Troop and were 
thrown to the ground; just then the Spanish fired the 
second volley into us, and Jesse K. Stork was killed. 
The ball entered his stomach and came out through the 
spinal column. 

When he was shot I volunteered to remain with him 
a short time, and was permitted to do so by Maj. Bell, 
who was also shot a very few minutes afterwards, and 
only a few feet away from where Mr. Stork was lying. 
He was the only officer near us when the first volley was 
fired at us by the Spanish out-posts. Jesse K. Stork 
had passed away before Maj. Bell was shot. Had we 
not been knocked down by a retreating squad of ^'K" 
Troop, Comrade Stork's wound might not have been 
fatal. He died with a pleasant smile on his face and 
did not speak to any one except to say "Oh! Lord, I am 
shot." His face gave evidence of a happy departure 
from this life. It almost broke my heart to see him 
sink away in death, but he did not struggle at all noticeable. I could not even real- 
ize that he was dying. It seemed that when he made an effort to speak to me, he 
smiled, and that smile never left his face. Maj. Gen. Wheeler came along and opened 
Jesse's belt. There was only a tiny hole and a red spot where the bullet entered 
the body. 

About this time the hospital corps came rushing up and took charge of the body, so 
there was nothing more for me to do than catch up with my troop As soon as the 
battle was over and we had possession of the hill I reported the facts to my troop com" 
mander. The hospital corps kept the body until the next day. I did not get to go 
back to see the body, for we were preparing to move on Santiago. Jesse K. Stork was 
the first and only one in "A" Troop killed, June 28th. His remains were buried with 
seven others of the ist Cavalry in a grave dug to receive eight bodies, so the map of 
the situation shows. 

Jesse K. Stork was born January 6, 1875, and was a graduate of the 
Holland public schools in 1891. In the transportation of the remains of 
soldiers from Cuba the identification of his body was lost and no remains 
were ever returned to his native town. However, a handsome monument 
has been erected to his memory in a cemetery at Holland. The monument 
bears this inscription: 

Jesse K. Stork. 



''Jesse K. Stork, The Jirst Americaii soldier killed in battle in the Spanish. 
American War. Enlisted in Troop "A" ist U. S. Cavalry, May 4, 1896. 
Died June 28, 1S98. A Spanish Mauser bullet pierced his breast, in battle 



Soldiers' Monument, at Jasper. 

La Quasimas, Cuba. His regiment was attached to Roosevelt's Rough 
Riders. His body rests in the National Cemetery, Arlington Heights, 

In the public square at Jasper stands the Dubois County Soldiers' and 
Sailors' Monument. This monument is valued at five thousand dollars. 


It is thirty-two feet high, and is built of granite, marble and bronze. It 
is known as of "cottage style," and is surmounted by a bronze figure of a 
soldier at parade rest. It contains a room for war relics, and in this, stands 
first in Indiana, so far as county monuments are concerned. 

The idea of erecting this monument was conceived upon the battlefield 
of Gettysburg, where a party of Jasper people were visiting in September, 
1892. They had driven up to the monument marking the "High Water 
Mark of the Rebellion." The lessons taught by the thousands of monu- 
ments upon the field of Gettysburg caused them to agree to endeavor to 
secure the erection of one at home. It was done. 

There are three bronze tablets, a bronze door and a crowning figure of 
bronze. The east, or front tablet represents a soldier who has been 
wounded in a charge. His muscles seem to be relaxing and the expression 
of death" is on his face, yet in his dying moment, he braces himself by 
his right foot and his left knee, while his arm rests appealingly on that of 
his son's left shoulder. The son's left arm has been disabled and is carried 
in a sling, while his right arm is about his father's neck. In this position 
the father is talking to his son for the last time. It commemorates an inci- 
dent in the battle of Champion Hill, in which Nicholas Kremer and his son 
John Kremer were fatally wounded, and the wounded son tried to encour- 
age his father to the last, though both died, May 16, 1863, the day of the 
battle. The Kremers were members of company "I," 49th Indiana, under 
command of Capt. John J. Alles, of Celestine. 

At the time of enlistment the father was forty-five years old, five feet 
six inches tall, had light hair, blue eyes and was fair complexioned. The 
.son enrolled December 5, 1862, and met the regiment at Memphis, Tennes- 
see. He was nineteen, five feet, five inches tall, with black hair and black 
eyes, and marked light complexioned on the muster roll. 

These two soldiers lived on the hill about half a mile west of Celestine, 
before the Civil War, and deserve this extended mention. 

At the right hand upper corner is the following stanza: 

Yield not to grief the tribute of a tear, 
But 'neath the fore-front of a spacious sky, 
Smile all exultant, as they smiled at fear. 
Who dared to do where doing meant to die; 
So best may comrades prove remembrance dear, 
So best be hallowed earth where soldiers lie. 

At the left hand upper corner of the same tablet is a stack of arms, 
bayonets, drum, canteen, knapsack, bugle, etc. 

The bronze door is on the west of the monument, facing the court 
house. A figure of a soldier on " picket duty" adorns the door. On the 
lower part of the door are these words: 

For country and flag ^ our army and navy 


The bronze tablet on the south side of the monument represents a sol- 
dier as a sharp-shooter, a tribute to Capt. Bantams Company, "E" (58th 
Ind. ) that went out from Ireland. This is pronounced, one of the best 
pieces on the monument. Far above, on one of the stones is the word 
Antietam, in honor of the Dubois county men who fell upon that memor- 
able field while fighting one of the bloodiest pitched battles of the Civil 
War, September 17, 1862. In the stone below the tablet appears this stanza 
from Will Carleton: 

Cover the thousands who sleep far away — 
Sleep where their friends cannot find them to-day. 
They who in mountain, and hillside, and dell, 
Rest where they wearied, and lie where they fell. 

The bronze tablet on the north side represents a widow looking over a 
battlefield a few months after the close of the war. She has just found 
evidences of a fearful clash — a broken wheel and an unfired cannon, part 
of a saber, drum thumbs, rusting bayonets, battered bugle, etc. ' 'Peace" 
is brought to mind by the bird's nest in the cannon and the unmolested 
appearance of the bird as it sits upon the wheel of the cannon. Above is 
the word Gettysburg. In the stone below the tablet are these words 
from Scott's "Lady of the I^ake:" 

Soldier, Rest! Thy warfare o'er. 
Sleep the sleep, that knows no breaking, 
Dream of battle fields no more. 
Days of danger, nights of waking. 

Above the east tablet is the word Chickamauga, and above the door is 
ViCKSBURG. These words are full of meaning to the student of history. 

The crowning figure is that of a private soldier at parade rest. The 
figure is six feet in height. Above the battle-stone four cannon of black 
granite show their open mouths. The monument stands on a plot of 
ground donated by the town of Jasper. The ground is enclosed by a stone 
coping and an iron fence. The construction of the monument was paid for 
by private donations. It will stand for ages, to teach the rising genera- 
tions the love of country, liberty, and union. 

The Articles of Association of the Dubois County Soldiers' a7td Sailors' 
Momimental Association bear date of February 17, 1893. The monu- 
ment was dedicated October 17, 1894. Addresses were delivered by Hon. 
Claude Matthews, governor of Indiana, Col. I. N. Walker, commander-in- 
chief of the Grand Army of the Republic, Hon. A. M. Sweeney, clerk of 
the supreme court of Indiana, Brig. Gen. Mehringer, and others. 

These long lists of names may not have been interesting reading to 
many, but when one realizes that the surrender at Yorktown at the close 
■of the American Revolution, did not make America a free country, but that 
it took the flower of the land in the greatest of modern wars — the Great 


Civil War — to accomplish that, he sees with pride and satisfaction, reads 
with pleasure, and remembers with honor, the names hereinbefore men- 
tioned. The Great Civil War was but the closing climax of a long line of 
thought, reason, spirit, and sentiment, long dormant, but never dead, since 
the days of 1776. 

Let it be said with honor and glory that in the Civil War Dubois count}' 
acted well her part. No words from this pen can ever do justice to the 
brave men who answered lyincoln's call to the colors and who constituted 
her contribution to our countrj^'s cause. The contagion of example was 
great, and when the first men answered from the "Buffalo Trace" those 
south of the old "military road" soon caught the spirit and followed the 
flag. In a short time the rattle of musketry, the roar of cannon, the burst- 
ing of shell, and the tumult of the charge were but a part of daily occur- 
rences, that eventually united the states, it is to be hoped, forever. 





Detailed Town and Township History of Dubois County. Columbia township — Hill- 
ham — Crystal — Cuzco. Harbison township — Thales — Kellerville — Haysville — Du- 
bois. Boone township — Portersville. Madison township — Millersport — Ireland- 
Bainbridge township — Jasper — Maltersville. Marion township. Hall township — 
Celestine — Ellsworth. Jefferson township — Birdseye — Schnellville — Mentor. Jack- 
son township — St. Anthony — Bretzville — Kyana — St. Marks. Patoka township — 
Huntingburg — Duff. Cass township — ^ Zoar — Johnsburg — St. Henry — Holland. 
Ferdinand township — Town of Ferdinand. 


This township was one of the original townships of the county, when 
the entire county was embraced in five townships. It originall}' covered 

almost the entire northeast quarter of 
the count}'. Through it passed the 
"Buffalo Trace," which placed it on 
the line of travel and in view of all 
early travelers going along the trace 
from lyouisville to Vincennes. Squads 
of soldiers, settlers, statesmen, emi- 
grants, and travelers of all descrip- 
tions early passed through the town- 
-.hip. The Southern railroad strikes 
the old "Buffalo Trace" at Cuzco, and 
])ractically follows it to the east line of 
the county, showing that lines of travel 
are frequently topographical considera- 

The first land in Columbia township 
to be purchased by a white man was the 
south half of the northeast quarter of 
section thirty-four, township one, north, 
range three west, containing eighty 
acres. Thomas Pinchens bought it in 
1816, This land is at Cuzco, in Union valley about the "Milburn Spring," 
and near it General Harrison's men camped when on their way to Vincen- 
nes. The "Buffalo Trace" crossed it. 

In Columbia township is "Vowell Cave," so far as known, God's great- 
est subterranean wonder in the county. It also contains Wild Cat Cave, 
Arch Rock, Straight Rock, Blue Bird Rock, Hanging Rock, part of Raven 
Rock, and many other romantic points of interest. 

Trustee D. G. Morgan (1910, 


Practical!}- the entire township is drained toward the southwest through 
Patoka river and its tributaries. 

The construction of the Southern railroad through the township in 
1907, added materially to its development. Rock road construction was 
also begun in 1907. This township has its own road material. 

There are three centers of population in Columbia township — Hillham, 
Crystal, and Cuzco. 

Columbia township is dry by petition. 

Hillham. On November 18, 1S36, George Wineinger purchased of the 
United States, one hundred twenty acres, where Hillham now stands. 
John A. Wineinger began a store there in 1850. A postoffice was estab- 
lished in i860. The town is situated in the northeast corner of Dubois 
county, being but one-half mile from Martin county, and the same dis- 
tance from Orange county. Hillham has not been established as a town; 
no surve}' and plat have been made. It has a church and several stores 
and mills. 

The early merchants at Hillham were Solomon Williams, Walker and 
Walker, Freeman and McCarrell, John Price, and Dr. Wm. A. Line. 
Among the early physicians were Drs. Line, Walker, Courtney, Blackman, 
and Newland. A Masonic lodge was organized at Hillham in 1875, by 
James B. Freeman, Wm. M. Hoggart, John W. Simmons, James R. Wine- 
inger, and W. A. Charnes. It has disbanded. Among the early postmasters 
of Hillham were S. W. Williams, W. A. Line, J. B. Freeman, J. N. Howe, 
Jas. Braden, J. S. Blackman, and C. W. Newland. 

Crystal. This is a hamlet situated on the line of sections twenty-one 
and twentj'-eight. It has a graded school, churches, and postofl&ce. The 
office was established October 9, 1889. R. P. Smith was for many years 
its principal merchant. There is no town plat of Crystal. 

Cuzco. This is the youngest town in Columbia tow^nship. It is situ- 
ated in what is known as Union Valley. Wm. H. Nicholson was the 
founder. Its plat bears date of September 27, 1905. The deeds have a 
proviso prohibiting the sale of intoxicating liquors until January- i, 1915. 
The town has a graded school, postoffice, and the usual quota of general 
stores. Cuzco has a promising future. 

West of Cuzco is a peculiar formation in the earth's surface known as 
"Buffalo Wallow." About one-half mile south of Cuzco stands "Simmon's 
Chapel," wherein the Methodists of the valley worship. Not far from 
Cuzco lie the remains of Ensign Philip Conrad, a ranger and scout. 

Union Valley, now called Cuzco, derived its name from the fact that 
previous to i860. Christians of various denominations gathered under the 
forest trees, in the valley, and held divine services. 

Originally, Columbia township w^as settled by Americans, and practic- 
ally owned by them. Since 1890, German-Americans are buying farms 
south of Patoka river, and making permanent homesteads of them. 



Among the citizens of Columbia township are to be found members of 
Christian, Methodist, Baptist, Regular Baptist, and Catholic churches. In 
politics, the township is about evenly divided between democrats and 

In iSso, the population of what was then Columbia township was 600. 
In 1890, the population of the present township was 1386. In 1907, there 
were 173 men between the ages of twenty-one and fifty in the township. 

Columbia township is six miles square, and is estimated to be worth 
$300,000. The principal occupation is farming. There is some mining, 
but the coal lies in pockets; the limestone formation along the east edge of 
the township practically bars any likelihood of large coal deposits. Orig- 
inally, the township was covered with excellent hardwood forests, but 
these have practically disappeared. Most excellent sandstone for building 
purposes is plentiful. This should invite capital. 


This township honors the name of a pioneer family of Dubois county. 
The first land entered in the township was the southwest quarter of sec- 
tion thirty-six, township one, north, 
range five west, under date of May 29, 
1807. It is on the "Buffalo Trace," 
and the entry was made by Samuel 

Among the early settlers of Harbi- 
son township may be mentioned James 
Hope, who was born in Kentucky. 
November 9, 1789, and who served as 
a justice, in Harbison township, for 
twenty years. He entered land on the 
"Buffalo Trace," in the above named 
section thirty-six. 

Smith Brittain was also one of the 
pioneers. He came from North Caro- 
lina, where he was born, August i, 
1806. He died November 10, 18S0. 

In Harbison township lived Gen- 
eral John Abel, a surveyor, assessor, 
and a member of the thirty-seventh 
session of the Indiana legislature. 
It is said Andrew F. Kelso, who came to Dubois county, in 1817, erected 
one of the first grist mills in the county. His mill was at Dubois. Later in 
life he had a mill at Ireland. Andrew F. Kelso was born in 1807, and is 
the father of Lemuel L. Kelso, formerly of Boone township. 

"Buck Shoals," on White river, above Haysville, was a mining camp 
about 1886, and small traces of silver ore have been found, but no ore was 
found in sufficient quantity to justify extensive operations. 

Trustee Martin Thimling (1910 


Among the citizens of Habison township are found members of these 
churches: Cumberland Presbryterian, United Brethren, Christian, Method- 
ist Episcopal, and several divisions of the lyUtheran faith. Parochial 
schools are supported by the last named denominations, and the larger 
portion of the citizens of the township are members of the Lutheran faith. 

Politically, the township is classed as democratic. 

Thalcs is a post office in the northeast corner of Harbison township. 
It was called "Hickory Grove," up to January 19, 1895. 

Kellerville'xs situated on what was once the farm of Col. B. B. Edmons- 
ton. These hamlets have no town plats. 

Haysville is the oldest town in the township. On April 30, and on 
October i, 1816, and again on November 28, 1S17, Joseph Kelso entered 
land upon which Haysville is situated. The original plat of Haysville is 
lost. It is said to have been laid out in 1835, as a town, by Judge Moses 

Judge Willis Hays donated part of the land upon which Haysville is 
located. He built the first Methodist church at Haysville and was its 
minister. His remains lie buried at Sherritt's. He was the father of 
Mrs. Allen McDonald. 

Joseph Kelso is said to have been the first settler at Hay.sville. Judge 
Moses Kelso was a leading citizen of this village, and he was for a while 
a judge of the court. In 1840, there was a wool carding machine at Hays- 
ville. The early merchants include the names of Johnson and Mahan, 
Gibson Brown, Elias and Bruner, and James S. Brace. 

The original founders of the town of Haysville, with their descendants, 
and with their church, political, school, and social ideas have passed away. 
The present town contains no trace of its original founders, except that 
shown by nearby cemeteries and the official title deeds. In 1850, the pop- 
ulation of Haysville was 188; in 1909, good authority places it at 300. 

Dubois is a town on the boundary of Marion and Harbison townships, 
and about equally divided by the township line. It is frequently called 
Knoxville. Dubois is one of the ^^oungest and most prosperous towns in 
the county. In 1907, the Southern railroad was constructed nearthe town, 
and it added much to its prosperity. Dubois, as a town, was surveyed 
and platted November 5 and 6, 1885. It is an educational and church cen- 
ter for the surrounding territory. 

Andrew F. Kelso entered eighty acres in section twelve, at Dubois, on 
March 3, 1829. This was the first land entered at Dubois. He may have 
built a mill there before he bought the land. Other land, at Dubois, was 
entered as follows: Thomas W. Poison, in 1838 and 1839; Shiloh Poison, 
1836; Wm. Hardin, 1856, and Samuel R. Williams, 1857. The above are in 
Harbison township. At Dubois, in Marion township, Shiloh Poison 
entered land in 1836; Robert S. Poison, 1839; Wm. Hardin and Robert S. 
Poison, 1852; Thomas Poison and Robert S. Poison, 1856; and John C. 
Albert, in 1857. 


Col. B. B. Edmouston is authority for the statement that years ago a 
town was laid out at Dubois, and that the place was named Knoxville. 
To this day, the name is unofficially applied, but no old plat exists. 

Rev. Charles W. Ellis, a native of Dubois county, born March 17, 1845, 
and for many years a leading citizen of the town of Dubois, has this to 

"It was in 1855 or 1856, that I became acquainted at Knoxville. Then 
as a mill-boy, I was sent wath grinding, on horse back, from my father's 
farm, seven miles away. In 1866, I chose Dubois for my home, with mill- 
ing as my occupation. I continued to reside thereuntil 1891. The first 
mill built at Knoxville, was made of logs, by Andrew F. Kelso, about 
1830. It stood on the left hand bank of Patoka river, and at the end of a 
dam built across the river, for power. A mill dam has been kept there 
ever since. This Kelso mill was a corn-cracker, almost exclusively, thoiigh 
there was a small amount of wheat ground, just as it came from earthen 
tramping floors, where it had been tramped out by horses, and was conse- 
quently mixed with much dirt. As there was no machinery to separate 
it, all was ground together, then bolted on a rude hand machine. Each 
customer had to bolt his own 'turn.' 

"The next mill was a frame one, built on the opposite side of the river, 
about 1842. Its owner and builder was Shiloh Poison. It was extensive 
for the time. Besides a corn-cracker, it had French burrs, on which to 
grind wheat. There was machinery to screen the wheat, and bolt the 
flour. There was also a carding machine for carding wool. It was exten- 
sively patronized. 

"Dr. Thomas Poison practiced medicine at Dubois about forty years. 
He died in 1886, and lies buried in the little cemetery that overlooks 
Patoka river. At the time of his death, he had lived at Dubois longer 
than any one else. Robert Poison was a flat-boat man. He died during 
the Civil War and his remains are in the Sunny South. 

"In 1871, the last flat-boat went out of the "port of Knoxville." 
It was loaded with hoop-poles, and owned by John Buchart. In 1876, I 
engaged in the general merchandise at Dubois." 

In 1850. the population of what was then Harbison township, was 750; 
in 1900 it was 121 1. In 1907, there were 212 men in the township between 
the ages of twenty-one and fifty. The township is estimated at $750,000. 

' Rock road improvements began to be agitated in 1908-9. 

Originally, Harbison township was settled along the "Buffalo Trace," 
by Americans from the South; but farmers of German parentage have 
purchased practically all the farms of the township, and thus made farm- 
ing the principal occupation of the township. The citizens of Harbison 
township, are conservative and prosperous. 




Into this region, about 1801, came the McDonald family of Scotland, 
who settled on a tract of land about two miles south of what is now Port- 
ersville. It may seem strange to-day, but the truth remains, Dubois 
county was first settled by a hardy Scotchman. At that time, the Indians 
were still troublesome, and the pioneers carried their lives in their hands, 
being in constant danger from predatory bands. The McDonald family 
determined to remain, however, and near their lonely cabin they erected a 
fort, to which they could go at the first intimation of danger. For many 
years this fort was a place of safety not only for the settlers in the vicinity, 
but for travelers between Vincennes and the settlements at the Falls of the 
Ohio. In local history, this fort is 
known as Ft. McDonald. Near it 
lies the Sherritt graveyard. This 
graveyard is on the only tract of land 
in Dubois county ever owned by Cap- 
tain Dubois, after whom the county 
was named. 

In Fort McDonald, the first schools 
in the county were held, and from it 
the history and progress of the count}- 
properly date. The McDonalds had 
not been long in their cabin home 
before other settlers began to make 
their appearance. Then nothing was 
known to the ordinar}' settler of the 
prairies to the north and west, and no 
one thought of seeking a home, or 
rather of making one, without the 
hard and tedious labor of clearing the 
land of the gigantic forest trees. 

Nearly all the early settlers of 
Boone township were from Virginia, Kentucky, or the Carolinas. Most 
of them were very poor, and were seeking homes where the^^ might better 
their conditions. 

Many of the early settlers, especially those from the Carolinas, brought 
cotton seed with them, and raised cotton. A cotton gin was in operation 
for some time at Portersville. Cotton did not prove productive, and its 
cultivation was soon abandoned. 

There were three of the McDonalds, and one of them would walk 
around the land with his long rifle, while the other two cleared the land 
of timber and burned the logs. It was no uncommon thing to see a man 
plowing his field, while a son or daughter walked by his side carrying a 
rifle to be used if occasion required. William McDonald was a ranger 
and hunter, and was schooled in all the craft and cunning of the red man. 

Trustee Thomas H. Inman (1910). 



There were few main roads in those days except the one known vari- 
ously as "Mud Hole Trace," "Harrison's Trace," and "Governor's Trace." 
It was bad everywhere, especially during the rainy seasons or earlj- in the 
spring, but one place in Dubois county was so exceptionably bad that it was 
known far and wide as the "Mud Holes." When the legislature passed the 
act to create the county, no better place for the meeting of the commis- 
sioners appointed to put the machinery in motion, could be found than the 
"Mud Holes," so they were directed to meet at the house of William Mc- 
Donald, nearby. 

The first land purchased by a white man in Dubois county, w^as the 
north half of section three, township one south, range five west, in Boone 
township. Captain Toussaint Dubois entered it May 7, 1807. The "Buf- 
falo Trace" crosses this section. 

James Farris was one of the first settlers. He was born in 1 771, in 
South Carolina, and his wife, Elizabeth, was born in 1779, in the same 
state. They came to Dubois count}^ and entered land in 18 10. He died 
May 8, 1853, but the widow lived until August, 1870. 

One of the early born natives of Dubois county was Elijah Lemmon, 
who was born near Portersville in 1815, and became an early flat-boat pilot 
on White river. He died July 15, 1876. Judge Niblack, of the supreme 
court of Indiana, was also born at Portersville. [Page no.] 

John Eemmon was one of the early settlers in Boone township. He 
was born in 1802, in Kentucky, and came to Dubois county in his youth. 
Only a few families were here before the Eemmon family came. He died 
in 1872. 

Boone township being the site of the first settlements in Dubois county, 
about our only Indian life history comes from there. 

After the Indians had left Dubois county as a tribe, a few returned on 
hunting trips. Of these few, one was killed near the Sherritt graveyard 
where they had built a wigwam of the bark of a poplar tree. He was 
killed by a white man, and is said to have been the last one killed in this 
county. The killing took place on the land that Captain Toussaint Dubois 
bought from the United States in 1807. 

This land is well watered. Mill creek and Mud Hole creek flow through 
it, and on the north side about fifty feet south of the base line, and about 
the same distance from Mill creek, is Toussaint Dubois spring. This 
spring is one of the very best in the entire county. It flows a strong 
stream and its waters are excellent. Analysis of its waters shows its 
ingredients to be as follows: Thirty-two grains of chalk, and the slightest 
trace of iron in one gallon. It is said there is no purer water in the state 
of Indiana. 

The Indians that lingered in the county during its early settlement 
were fond of milk, and would frequently carry a ham of a deer or a bear to 
the cabin of a white man and deliver it to the pale face. Then by grunts 
and signs they would indicate that they wanted milk in return. They 


drank all thej- could, then filled their Indian jugs, or pouches made of coon 
skins, to take with them. They never left any milk. Often they would 
giv^e many times its worth in wild meat. 

In 1840, the way of traveling in Boone township was on horse-back. 
Everybody rode well. Ladies were excellent riders and seemed at home 
on the horse. Races were frequent along the level roads of Boone town- 
ship. Old people tell us that frequently at a marriage there was a custom 
of "riding for the bottle." The wedding party would start at the groom's 
home, while the bottle was left at some place near the bride's home, 
well known to all the party. The race was a helter-skelter ride the 
country for the bottle. The lady who won, was entitled to select her part- 
ners for the dances at the wedding. There were also many other plans of 
testing the speed of the horse and the skill of the rider. 

Portersville. On September 19, 1814, Jacob lycmmon paid for the land on 
which Portersville now stands, and he received from the government a 
large parchment bearing the name of James Madison, President of the 
United States. It called for four hundred forty-five acres. A part of this 
land was selected for the first county seat of Dubois county (1818). 

In its early days Portersville was a prosperous little village; court was 
held there, and soldiers were frequently mustered there. From the foot of 
one of its streets, barges, flat-boats, and small steamboats carried away the 
products of the surrounding farms. Portersville is the only town in Boone 
township and it is the oldest in the county. Arthur Harbison is said to 
have named the town in honor of some favorite relative. It is said Thomas 
Brooks was one of its first merchants. About 1826, Jacob Bixler was a 
merchant at Portersville. Other merchants were Harris, Patton, Dr. Por- 
ter, Brown, and Hollowell; all pioneers. Dr. Hugh S. Wilson was one of 
the pioneer physicians of Dubois county. He located at Portersville. 

The "Buffalo Trace" and the base line pass through Boone township. 
Ebenezer Buckingham surveyed the base line in October, 1804. He called 
the Buffalo Trace the Louisville road, and the Kentucky road. He called 
Mill creek, Sar^e7ifs creek, and refers to Boone township land 2iS gladly land, 
meaning th^r^hy fertile land. 

David Sanford, another government surveyor, refers to the Buffalo Trace 
as the Louisville trace. It is also called the Road to Vince7i7ies in the old 
surveys. This surveyor measured the meanderings of White river on the 
ice, January 24, 1805. On November 7, 1804, he and his men camped for 
the night where the Portersville cemetery lies. On Tuesday, November 13, 
1804, he located coal "under a ledge of rocks that face the river" in section 
twenty-six, near Haysville. Like Joshua, the surveyor general of Holy 
Writ, Sandford subdivided the gladly land of Boone township, and fully 
recorded his work. 

In 1907, Boone township was estimated to be worth $800,000. The 
polls of the township reach one hundred eighty-four, (1907.) This town- 



ship was once a part of Harbison township. In 1900, its population was 
I 186. The gladly land of Boone township includes some of the best farms 
in the county. Farming is the chief occupation in Boone township. 

In Boone township lived William B. Sherritt, son of Capt. John Sher- 

ritt. He was born on the Sherritt 
farm, the original settlement farm of 
the county, January 20, 1822. William 
B. Sherritt attended Prof. Thompson's 
school when a boy. He spent his life 
on the farm once owned by Captain 
Dubois, and by hard work and good 
management amassed a fortune. He 
was thoroughly honest and of a cheer- 
ful disposition. He talked but little 
except to his most intimate friends. 
As a violinist he is said to have had no 
equal in the county. He loved music. 
It was his charm for discouragement 
and ill luck. Wm. B. Sherritt had no 
enemies. He had a kind word for the 
oppressed, and a helping hand for the 
needy. He was loved by all and generally 
called "Uncle Billy" by his neighbors. 
He died April 7, 1897, and lies buried in 
the Sherritt graveyard near which he spent his life of more than seventy- 
five years. He is a most excellent example of the first native generation of 
citizens of Boone township. [Page 39.] 

Wm. B. Sherritt. 


This township contains thirty-five square miles, and all that part of it 
north of Patoka river was once a part of Bainbridge township. 

John Walker made the first land purchase in Madison township, June 
15, 1814. It was the southwest quarter of section twenty-five, township 
one south, range six west. The early settlement in this township was 
known as the " Irish Settlement," and is nearly as old as the first settle- 
ment in Boone township. William Anderson, who came about 1816, was 
one of the pioneers. He died June 16, 1843. James Stewart was one of 
the early settlers. He was a Virginian, born in 1807, and died November 
12, 1883. 

In 1907, Madison township was estimated to be worth $750,000. The 
population, in 1900, was 1,289, about equally divided politically. Origi- 
nally, this township was a Presbyterian center ; Methodists soon followed. 
Now the Catholic church is gaining great headway. 

Millersport. This point is the northwest quarter of the southwest 
quarter, section fourteen, township two south, range six west, in Madison 
township. It was surveyed on February 3, 4, and 5, 1859, by Benj. R. 



Kemp, count}' survej'or. Forty acres were divided into one hundred lots 
and suitable streets, including a p2iblic square of one acre in the center. 
There is no post office and really no town. The place is used for a farm. 
Circumstances combined to prevent it becoming a town. Stephen McDon- 
ald Miller was the founder. Millersport is the lost town of the county. 

Ireland. This town is situated four miles northwest of Jasper. It was 
once intended to be called American City, and its settlers were proud of 
its proposed name. The name 
"American City" was not approved 
by the post office department, so the 
name Ireland was retained in honor 
of the nativit}' of John Stewart, who 
bought the land of the United States, 
on December 23, 1S16, a short time 
after Indiana became a state. John 
Stewart died in the autumn of 1842. 
His son, James G. and four others laid 
out the town. The map bears date of 
May 20, 1S65, but the place was a 
small village many 3'ears before that. 
Ireland has parochial, common, and 
high schools, three churches, and 
many lodges. The Masons and the 
Odd Fellows own more improved real 
estate at Ireland than at any other 
point in Dubois county. James G. 
Stewart, one of the founders of Ire- 
land, was born October 4, 1814, and 

died November 12, 1S74. [Page 129.] The first house erected in Ireland 
was built by Henry Green. It stood on the line between sections nineteen 
and twenty, on the Jasper and Petersburg road. It was built about 1842, 
and is yet in use. The second house was erected in 1852 by Dr. E. A. Glezen. 
A steam flour mill was erected in 1855 by John Cooper. This had much 
to do toward the future progress of Ireland. The mill was lost by fire in 
September, 1882. A new one was erected. Ephraini Woods is reported as 
first merchant at Ireland. Alsephus McGinnis and Harvey Green were 
also merchants in the early history of this place. Others were Taylor, Dil- 
lon, Fleming, Armstrong, and Hardin. Later, Stewart, Thomas, Hobbs, 
Wilson, Dillon, Fowler, Kahn, and Calvin were merchants. The doctors 
or druggists were Kean, Kelso, Blackburn, Strain, Parr, Glezen, Harri- 
son, Freeland, and McCown. 

Samuel Postlethwait secured the establishment of the first post office in 
Madison township on February 12, 1851. It was called "Alder Creek Post- 
office," and was located about one mile west of Ireland. It was discontin- 
ued October 27. 1852. On July 26, 1853, the office went to Ireland and 
Ephraim Woods became postmaster. 

Trustee James H. Atkinson (1910.) 



The higli school at Ireland is under the supervision of Miss Helen Rose. 
It is the only high school in Madison township. 

Farming is the chief occupation of the citizens of Madison township. 
Its shipping points are DufF and Jasper. 

Madison, Bainbridge, and Jefferson townships have the same area. 
There are no saloons in the township ; its citizens have alwaj's opposed 
them. Ireland is 476 feet above the level of the sea. 


Bainbridge township is one of the original five townships of Dubois 
county. In 1850, its population was given at 1,700, with 340 voters. The 
township was much larger in 1850, than at present. I^ainbridge township 
contains thirty-five square miles, and, including the town of Jasper is esti- 
mated to be worth $1,750,000. 

There are a few members of the Lutheran, Methodist, and Presbyterian 
churches in Bainbridge township. It is practically a Catholic township. 

Politically, the township has always 
been democratic. The citizens of 
Bainbridge township, with a few 
exceptions, are of German descent. 
The pioneer Germans came, almost 
as a colony, about 1840, by way of 
New York and New Orleans. 

Rock road improvements began in 
1904, and many miles have been con- 
structed. The Southern railroad com- 
pleted its extension to French Lick, 
and put passenger trains on Decem- 
ber I, 1907. 

Nelson Harris made the first pur- 
chase of land in Bainbridge township, 
March 4, 1816. It was the southwest 
quarter of section twenty-eight, town- 
ship one south, range five west, 
immediately east of Shiloh. 

Jasper was located for the express 

purpose of a county seat. Enlows 

donated a part of the ground in the very year they entered it. In t8i8, a 

grist mill is said to have been built, on the bank of Patoka river, above 

the ford, and southwest of the steel bridge. 

Jasper was incorporated as a town, in March, 1866, with a population of 
507. The death rate at Jasper is exceedingly low, though Patoka river, at 
Jasper, is only 450 feet above the sea. It is 123 feet below Lake Erie. The 
town has many manufacturing establishments, two banks, many fine resi- 
dences, three churches, water works, electric lights, a college, an academy, 

Trustee Wm. Erny (1910.) 



commissioned high schools, improved streets, and two good weekly papers. 
In 187 1. 1891, and 1908 the present high school building was erected. 

The Indiana Gazetteer of 1850, in speaking of Jasper, says: "It was first 
settled in 1830, by Dr. McCrillus, Col. Morgan, B. B. EdmOnston. Z. Dillon, 
and J. McDonald. It has five stores, three groceries, two ware-houses, one 
brewery, one distiller}^ and a population of 532. Jasper is situated on the 
Patoka river one hundred twenty miles southwest of Indianapolis, fifty 
northeast of Evansville. and forty-four southeast of Vincennes." 

To the above names should be added Major T. Powers, and Henr}-, 
Jacob, and Benjamin Enlow. 

Mrs. William Hays (also mentioned on page 161), now seventy-eight 
3'ears of age, and a resident of the town of Dubois, is a niece of the 

Southern Depot at Jasper, 1910. 

Enlows, the founders of Jasper. She relates that her aunt named the town 
Jasper, and selected the word from the Bible. Some authorities S2.y jasper 
is a brilliant stone, perhaps our modern diamond. In ancient times it was 
the twelfth stone in the breast-plates of the high-priests. 

'X:\iQ. jasper spoken of by modern mineralogists is an opaque quartz, 
close-grained, and variously tinted, but generally red or brown. Fre- 
quently the color is not uniform. A hxo'^w jasper occurring in nodules is 
frequently called Egyptian jasper. From the descriptions given by classical 
writers, y«5'/>i?r was a stone of considerable translucency. The originaly'^^- 
/)f;" seems to have been green, for it is often compared with the emerald and 
other green objects. Probably iho: jasper of the ancients was what we now 
call an agate or a jade. Jasper is known to have been held in the highest 
esteem in the earliest times. Modern mineralogists do not consider jasper 



as a translucent stone, j^et in Revelation reference is made io Jasper "clear 
as cr3'stal." It was often set in gold mounting, and is mentioned with pre- 
cious stones more generally known. It is mentioned in the 20th verse of 
the 28th chapter of Exodus, and in Ezekial 28:13. In Revelation Jasper is 
mentioned in chapter 4, verse 3; chapter 21, verses 11, 18 and 19. The 
first fomidation of the New Jerusalem was oi Jasper. For further particulars 
the reader is referred to next to the last chapter of the Bible. 

A man by the name of Miller is said to have been the first merchant at 
Jasper. Col. Morgan bought his store, which was situated at the south- 
east corner of the public square. Samuel Reed, Joseph A. McMahan, John 
Hurst and Perry Hammond were early merchants of Jasper. A little later 
came John A. Graham, W. C. Graham, William R. Hill, Joseph Case, 
Charles Parker, George Parker, John Mann, Decker and Kramer, William 

Calumet Lake, Jasper. 

Malin, Isaac Newton, Hunter Alexander, Finley Alexander, George Lem- 
mon, Joseph Sermersheim, and Nicholas Boring. In the fifties. Boring 
conducted the Washington Hotel, at the northeast corner of Sixth and Jack- 
son streets. 

On October 2, 1889, some enterprising citizens of Jasper formed a gas 
company and drilled a hole on lot 38, in McCrillus' addition. The drill 
was sent down one thousand nine feet at a cost of $2,500. At 713 feet a 
medicated water was found and for nearly twenty years it flowed from the 
tubing at the top of the well. At 730 feet, water very offensive to taste 
and smell was found and for that reason all below 713 feet was shut off. 
At 100 feet, eighteen inches of coal were found. At 432 feet lime stone was 
found; at 482 feet gray sand stone with a strong flow of salt water and some 
gas; at 582 feet, gray lime stone and gas; at 663 feet, white lime stone. 
Here the drill was lost, and work was for a time delayed. No gas of suffi- 
cient quantity was discovered. 


A pleasant place for amusement in Dubois county is Calumet lake at 
Jasper. The lake covers eighteen acres and is supplied with fish. The 
lake is fed by natural springs and the drainage of thirteen hundred acres. 
The lake and grounds are owned by a private corporation and are valued at 
$5,000. The corporation was chartered May 8, 1S99. The lake is situated 
at the corner of sections 23, 24, 25, and 26, a mile north of Jasper. 

The water system and the lighting system of Jasper are owned by the 
town. The water supply is pumped from Patoka river to reservoirs, one 
hundred fifty-five feet above the river. The reservoirs are on a hill north 
of the town. They are 605 feet above the level of the sea and thirty- 
two feet above the waters of Lake Erie. The water is soft, and about 
five miles of distributing mains of iron are in use to convey it to the con- 

In 1909 the town of Jasper re-built one of its reservoirs at a cost of 
$9,035. It is 17 feet deep, 96}^ wide, and 123)^ long. It is constructed 
of re enforced concrete, and has a utilized capacity of 1,250,000 gallons. 
It is 144 feet above the older part of the town proper and has a pressure of 
58 pounds to the square inch. 

Maltersville. This is a little place laid out by Mrs. Anna Barbara Mal- 
ter, December 17, 1867. It has no postoffice, and is little more than the 
crossing of two public highways. 


Marion township is the smallest 
township in Dubois county, containing 
but thirty-two and one-fourth square 
miles. However, in 1907 it was esti- 
mated to be worth $400,000. Origi- 
nally, it was part of Bainbridge, Hall, 
Columbia, Harbison, and Patoka town- 
ships — in fact, it was created from parts 
of the five original townships. 

John Hall bought the first land in 
Marion township, December 2, 1818. 
It was the southeast quarter of section 
eleven, township two south, range four 

One of the early German settlers in 
Marion township was Andrew Sprauer, 
who was born in Baden, Germany, Octo- 
ber I, 1810. He settled in Marion town- 
ship about 1840, and being a brick 
maker by trade, erected the first brick Trustee John b. Buchiein (i9io.) 

residence in Marion township. The Southern railroad was constructed 
through the northwestern part of Marion township in 1906 and 1907. In 



190S-9 rock road improvements were considered in the town of Dubois. 
Part of the town of Dubois is located in Marion township. It is fully 
noticed under Harbison township. 

The citizens of Marion township, almost as a unit, are Catholic in reli- 
gion, democratic in politics, and of German descent. They are good, 
law-abiding citizens. 

There are two voting precincts in Marion township. In 1900, the pop- 
ulation was 888. 


Hall township contains thirty-six square miles. It was one of the 
original townships of the county. On August i, 1817, Edward Hall 
entered the west half of the northwest quarter of section nine, township 
two south, range three west. It is about one mile north of Schnellville. 
Hall's creek and Hall township perpetuate his name. The original Hall 
township, in 1850, had a population of 530. The present Hall township, in 
1900, had a population of 1,287, ^^^cl an estimated value of $300,000. 

One of the finest springs in Dubois county may be found upon the farm 
of Thos. J. Nolan, near Ellsworth. It bursts from the outcrop of Kaskas- 

kia limestone and goes tumbling and 
gushing down its rocky road until it 
reaches the ground, then divides and 
forms two full grown streams that 
empty into Lick Fork, which eventu- 
ally reaches Patoka river. The spring 
discharges 60,000 gallons or nearlj^ 
2,000 barrels of good, pure water 
dail3^ Measurements have shown 
these figures to represent its actual 
capacity. The temperature of the 
water is fifty-two degrees, Fahr. 

There are several interesting rocks 
in Hall township, such as the Totem 
rock, Indian Kitchen rock, and others, 
described elsewhere. 

Celestine. The town of Celestine 
is in the southeast quarter of section 
thirty-one, township one south, range 
three west, and it is the principal point 
in Hall township. Part of the land was 
bought of the United States, October 4, 1843, by Rev. Joseph Kundeck, 
its founder. He was also its only pastor from 1844 until 1853. The town 
was .surveyed and platted by Benjamin R. Kemp, county surveyor. The 
plat was acknowledged by Rev. Joseph Kundeck on the i6th day of Novem- 
ber, 1843. The town is named in honor of Rt. Rev. Celestine Rene Law- 
rence De La Hailandiere, second bishop of the Vincennes diocese. 

Trustee Jacob Kempf (1910.) 



Ellsworth. The little town of Ellsworth bears date of June i, 1885. on 
which da}- it was surveyed and platted, at the request of James M. Ellis, 
who held title to the land. A postoffice had previously been established, 
and Mr. Ellis was the postmaster and principal merchant. It is in part of 
the west half of the southwest quarter of section fourteen, township one 
south, range three west. The land was entered by Zachariah Nicholson 
on May 4, 1837, and October 12, 1848. 


Jefferson township was originally a part of Hall township. It contains 
thirty-five square miles, and in 1907, was estimated to be worth $400,000. 
Birdseye, its principal town, is esti- 
mated at $125,000, making the total 
$525,000. In 1900, the population was 
1,477; Birdseye, 476. 

The first purchase of land made in 
Jefferson township bears date of August 
5, 1834, when James Newton bought 
the southeast quarter of the northwest 
quarter of section one, township three 
south, range three west. This land is 
on Anderson creek, and nearly two 
miles south of Birdseye. Jefferson 
township is dry by petition. 

Birdseye. There was a crossroads 
trading point here many years prior to 
1846, when it was decided to make it a 
post-office. Rev. Benjamin T. Good- 
man was the postmaster at Worth post- 
office near Schnellville, and Thomas 
A. King, who was later Birdseye's first 
postmaster, went to see "Bird" — as 
Goodman was known by all his friends — about naming the post office. 
They selected many names, but on referring to the Postal Directory, 
found all of them had been pre-empted. At last, in despair, they decided 
to name the town after "Bird" Goodman. They annexed the "eye" to 
make it complete. This is the story that is given by Mrs. Inman, who 
was then Mrs. King, and who was the first postmistress of the town. 

It is also said that the King family, then living at Birdseye, wanted a 
post office, and the nearest postmaster had to be consulted. It was the 
Rev. B. T. (Bird) Goodman, the Christian minister at Worth P. O. The 
good minister examined the location, considered the situation, and finally 
said: "// suits Bird's eye to a Ty-tee.'' In return for the minister's assist- 
ance the new postoffice was called Birdseye. [See Page 214.] 

Trustee John Block (1910.) 




The map of Birdseye bears date of January 24, 1880. Its growth was- 
due to the construction of the Southern railroad. It is in the timber belt 
of Dubois county, and is a good shipping point for cross-ties, hoop-poles,, 
staves, and lumber. The town was incorporated on December 3, 1883. 
Its corporate limits cover four hundred acres. About 9 o'clock on Sunday 
night, August 20, 1893, the town was almost totally destroyed by fire. 
Previous to the fire the town saw much fighting and litigation. It now 
has some of the best equipped store-rooms and offices, and some of the 
finest residences in the county. The town has churches and three graded 
schools. Topographically, the town stands the highest in the county. 

The original proprietors of the town 
of Birdseye were Martha J. Inman, E. 
E. Inman, Mary M. Baxter, E. H. Bax- 
ter, John G. Pollard. Sarah J. Pollard,, 
and Scott Austin. Since then the town 
has been enlarged by several additions. 
In 1872, when the Southern railroad 
was under construction, Peter Newton 
and George Alvey were merchants at 
Birdseye. Following them came these 
merchants and business men : E. H.. 
Baxter, John T. Bundy, Geo. F. Atkins, 
A. J. and C. J. Hubbard, Herman, 
August, and Wm. N. Koerner, Frank. 
Zimmer, J. M. Sanders, W. H. Farver, C. 
J. Mayfield, J. I. King, Jacob Schwartz,. 
John Hubbs, and E. T. Lovelette. 

Thomas A. King, the first postmaster 
of Birdseye. served from 1846 to 1873,. 
when he died. 

Commissioner Henry Schnell. 

Born in Germany, October 22. 1821. 
Served in Company I. 49th Indiana Volun- 
teers, for four years. Took part in the siege 
of Vicksburg, and the battle of Port Gibson, 
Champion Hill and others. Laid out the 
town of Schnellville in 1.S65. and served 
thirteen years as county commissioner and 

In 1902, much prospecting for oil 
and gas was done at Birdseye. Both 
were found, but not developed. [Page 59.], 
Birdseye has become known far and 
wide by reason of its shipments of "Birds- 
eye Sorghum." The shipments occa- 
sionally amount to twenty cars, valued 
at $25,000. This sorghum is the product of cane grown in the valleys- 
along the east line of Dubois county, and through the peculiar soil upon 
which the cane grows the finished product has a taste that wnns for it a 
wide market. 

Schnellville. This town is situated on land sold for school purposes by 
the state on March 11, 1846. In 1864, Henry Schnell began a store there,, 
and on November 27, 1865, he laid out and platted the town of Schnell- 



Henry Schnell was a count}^ commissioner for thirteen years. He was 
born in Germany, October 2, 1821, and died at Schnellville. He served in 
Company "I" 49th Indiana during the Civil War. 

Schnellville is a prosperous German town, situated in the northwest 
corner of Jefferson township. For many years Joseph Buchart was its 
chief merchant. 

David Wirsing and Joseph C. Striegel were early smiths at Schnellville. 
The early physicians were Railing, Grey, Faulkner, Younger, Denbo, Salb, 
Simmons, and Parsons. 

The first postoffice at Schnellville was called "W^orth." In 1900, the 
population was 200. 

Mentor. Francis M. Sanders is the founder of this town. He was a 
great admirer of President Garfield, and named the town in his honor. 
Henry Berger was the surveyor. The postoffice for this place was Altoga. 
It was discontinued July 15, 1908. 

The original plat of the town is dated September 29, 1881. In 1900, 
Altoga postoffice is recorded as having a population of 250. 


In this township the first entry was made by Philip Kimmel. On 
November 27, 1819, he entered the west half of the quarter of 
section twenty-six, township two south, 
range four west. This land lies 
between St. Anthonj^ and the Southern 

Jackson township's wealth is esti- 
mated at $525,000. In 1900, its popu- 
lation was 1,144. The Southern rail- 
road passes through this township from 
east to west. 

Near St. Anthony are abandoned red 
stone quarries. A layer of this stone 
begins near the Tretter school house 
in Ferdinand township and extends 
north to near Dubois. 

The population of Jackson town- 
ship, in the main, is of German descent, 
Catholic in religious thought, and 
democratic in political affiliations. 

St. Anthony. This town was first 

called St. Joseph, but its name was Trustee Ben Fisher (1910.) 

changed in order to secure a postoffice. Its plat bears date of April 10, 
i860, and calls the town St. Joseph. The original town covers the east 
half of the southwest quarter of the northwest quarter of section twenty- 
six, township two south, range four west. Joseph Reuber entered the 


land July 20. 1839. It was government land. On April 4 and 5. i860, 
Benj. R. Kemp .surve3'ed the town. The land was donated by John Reuber, 
and deeded to the trustees of the Catholic church. 

St. Anthony is the leading town in Jackson township. Its population 
in 1900 was 150. 

Bretzvillc. The map of this town bears date February 8, 1866, but it 
was settled about 1850, by William Bretz, father of the man who laid out 
the town. The map shows its original name to have been "Town of New 
Town," but its similarity to Newton caused the government to request a 
new name when a postofflce was wanted, hence it now bears the name of 
its founder. In June, 1873, the change in name was made a matter ot 
record. The early merchants of the town were John M. Deinderfer, 
Martin Friedman, Philip Frick, Sr., and Geo. F. Schurz. 

In 1866, when the postoffice was established, Mathias Schmidt was 
appointed first postmaster. James Murray was the first to conduct a school 
at Bretzville. 

Kyana. This town was founded by the Louisville Mining and Manu- 
facturing Compan3% and bears the abbreviation of its home state, and the 
termination of the name of the state in which it is located. The plat 
bears date of August 11, 1882. Its deeds contain a clause to prevent the 
sale of intoxicants. The town is situated on the Southern railroad and is 
a good shipping point. For 3^ears Capt. H. L. Wheat, who died in 1909, 
was its leading citizen. 

St. Marks. M. B. Cox, trustee, is the founder of St. Marks. It is 
located on the Southern railroad near St. Anthony, and great things were 
expected of this town when its first lots were sold. St. Anthony is the 
postoffice and railroad station, though the station is located at St. Marks 
The town was laid out in 1872. 


This is the largest township in Dubois county, but originally was much 
larger, containing nearly one-third of the county. 

On June 2, 1818, Eli Thomas entered the first land in the township. 
It lies immediately south of Fairmount cemetery, and is the northeast 
quarter of section nine, township three south, range five west. 

Patoka township is estimated to be worth ^950,000, and the city of 
Huntingburg $925,000. In 1900, the township's population was placed at 
1,165, and the city at 2,527. In 1850, Patoka township had a population of 

The two divisions of the Southern railroad, which adds materially to 
its wealth, cross this township. In 1903, the first rock roads were con- 
structed in Patoka township, radiating out of the city of Huntingburg. 

The population of Patoka township is largely of German parentage. 
In religious and political matters the township is very much divided. 

In 1908-9, a railroad was constructed to Ferdinand. 



In Patoka township is the (Hl^son scctio)i, technically known as section 
twenty-one. It was acquired by William Gibson, November 17, 1818. 
Old pioneers say he received the land for services rendered in the survey- 
ing corps, doing government work. Up to 1900, it was the finest stretch 
of primeval forest in the county. On this land is the Bricrjie/d bridge 
across Patoka, on the road leading from Jasper to Huntingburg. Where 
the bridge now stands was an old Indian ford, and upon the high land south- 
west of the bridge the Indians had a small field in which they made rude 
attempts to raise corn. They frequently camped there, and many Indian 
relics have been found there. Turtles and other Indian totems were cut 
upon some of the forest trees. Though 
they were as silent as the foot of time, 
they conveyed a message. After the 
Indians went away, their truck patch 
became covered with wild briers, hence 
the name bricrficld. Topographically 
considered, it is just the kind of a 
place the Piankishaw Indians selected 
throughout Dubois county for village 
sites. Patoka river. Duck pond, and a 
high point of land would certainly 
prove attractive to the local Indians. 
It is quite likely that an Indian bury- 
ing ground is somewhere near, and 
that some day an archaeologist ma}' 
make the discovery. It is known that 
Dr. Isaac Beeler, a successful pioneer 
physician of Huntingburg, gathered 
many of his roots and herbs near this 
Indian camping ground. It is a tradi- 
tion that roots and herbs were plentiful 
there because the Indians always made it a point to protect the roots and 
herbs they did not immediately need. Thus the plants had a chance to 
multiply freely b}' the time Dr. Beeler needed them. Practically all pio- 
neers had read their Psalms and knew that herbs grew for the services of 
man. (Ps. 104:14.) 

Huntingburg. Huntingburg is the onl}' city in the county. The land 
upon which it is situated was entered by Col. Jacob Geiger, on Saturday, 
November ir, 1837. Previousl3^ he had entered the remaining part of 
section thirt5'-four, township two south, range five west. He then lived in 
Ivouisville. He came to Dubois county about 1836. He gave lots for 
schools, churches, and for the cemetery at the southeast corner of the cit}'. 
He also had five free wells dug for public use. Huntingburg, like all other 
towns or cities, has a large number of additions. As a town it was incor- 
porated in March, 1866. It has several elegant churches, and a full quota 

Trustee Ed. C. Johnson (1910.) 



of fine residences. It also has water-works, improved streets, electric 
lights, etc. The Dubois count}- fair grounds lie southeast of the city. 
This fair was established in 1887. 

Huntingburg was laid out and platted in 1837. It is said to be so 
named because Col. Geiger was fond of hunting there. A re-survey of the 
town was made November 26, 1854, by Jacob Marendt, county surveyor; 
in August, 1866, by Surveyor Sandusky Williams ; and in 1874, by August 

Pfafilin, a civil engineer. 

Col. Jacob Geiger, the founder, was 
born, August 14, 1779, in Washigton 
county, Maryland. He died January 2, 
1857, and his remains are at rest in Fair- 
mount cemetery, southwest of Hunting- 
burg. He came to the site of Hunting- 
burg about 1836. He was a son of Capt. 
Fred. Geiger, a hero of Tippecanoe. 

Capt. John I,. Donne is said to have 
been the first merchant at Huntingburg. 
Col. Jacob Geiger and Col. Helfrich 
erected the first steam grist mill in Dubois 
county, in 1841, and materially, it 
In 1850, the population of Hunt- 

Col. Jacob Geiger. 

assisted in the growth of Huntingburg. 
ingburg was 214. 

Among the early merchants who succeeded Capt. Donne may be men- 
tion Herman Behrens, Leonard Bretz, Hayden, Pickhardt, Rothert, and 

The early postmasters were William G. Helfrich, Wm. Bretz, Sr., E. 
Pickhardt, Herman Rothert, Henry Dufendach, and John Brandenstein. 
Following Mr. Brandenstein, came Col. C. C. Schreeder, Capt. Morman 
Fisher, Frank Behrens, J. W. Lewis, and Frank Dufendach {1909.) J. C. 
Bayles was also an early citizen. 

Peter Behrens is said to have been the first shoemaker; Mrs. Blemker, 
the first landlady; Wm. Wesseler and H. Behrens, the first tailors, and E. 
J. Blemker, the first tanner. 

In 1866, Huntingburg contained 370 inhabitants, and it was incorpor- 
ated. Its first officers were as follows: Treasurer, E. Pickhardt; Clerk, E. 
R. Brundick; Trustees, Capt. Morman Fisher, Herman Rothert, and E. J. 

For many years Huntingburg was an important tobacco market, and 
many men were employed in handling that product. 

On April 2, 1889, Huntingburg was incorporated as a city. 

At Huntingburg are manufactured a quality of building and fire bricks 
not surpassed, if equalled, in any other part of southern Indiana. It is the 
principal enterprise in the city utilizing natural resources. 

About 1893, Huntingburg established a public water supply. The water 
is obtained from an artificial lake covering about forty-five acres. The stand 



pipe has a capacity of 125,000 gallons. About 166,664 gallons of water are 
used daily. The water is soft, and gathers from a watershed covering 
about five hundred acres. 

Huntingburg's greatest and most disastrous fire took place May 17, 
18S9. Seventeen buildings around 4th and Geiger streets were totally 
•destroyed, among them the large four story tobacco barn of Herman Roth- 
€rt. This started a movement for water works. 

The electric light plant was built in 1900 and the current was turned 
on August 15, 1900. 

Col. Jacob Geiger's Residence, 1852. 

The Fisher House, on Geiger street, near Sixth street, is one of Huntingburg's most historic and best pre- 
served landmarks. It was built in 1S62 by Col. Jacob Geiger, fifteen years after he founded the 
town. It is now occupied by his grand-daughter, Mrs. Fisher, and her son, Leo H. 
Fisher. It is known as "The Indiana Mansion." 

The following men have served as mayors of Huntingburg: E. R. 
Brundick, from May, 1889, to May, 1891 : Capt. Morman Fisher, from May, 
1S91, to September, 1894; E. R. Brundick, from September, 1894, to Sep- 
tember, 1898; Joseph W. Schwartz, from September, 1898, to September, 
1902; Dr. Chas. W. Schwartz, from September, 1902, to September, 1904; 
Philip Bamberger, from September, 1904, to January, 1910; Daniel W. 
Wiggs, from January 3, 1910. 

The early history of Huntingburg is fully recorded on pages 135-143. 

Dujf. Robert Small is the founder of DufF, and the town plat bears 
date of April 9, 1883, though a postofl&ce had long been established before 
1883. It is said to have been named in honor of Col. B. B. Edmonston, 
who when a boy was called "Col. Duff," by his companions. 

The town is situated on the Southern railroad and is established as a 
trading point for the surrounding territory. Duff is 467 feet above the sea. 
J. F. Lichlyter is postmaster. 




Cass township was originally a part of Patoka township. The first 
man to buy land in Cass township was James Gentry. On April i6, 1818, 
he entered the southwest quarter of section fifteen, township three south, 
range five west. It is in the eastern part of the township. 

In 1900, the population of Cass township was 1,509. In 1907, the 
township was estimated to be worth $825,000. 

Politically the township is about evenly divided between the democrats 
and the republicans. Farming is the chief occupation. Its farmers are 
students, and very enterprising and productive. 

In 1907-8, rock roads were built in part of Cass township. Part of the 
material was secured on the farm of August Wibbeler, about two miles 

east of Holland. The government fur- 
nished the following report on this rock, 
February 15, 1907: Specific, gravity, 
2.75; weight per cubic foot, 172 pounds; 
per cent of wear, 3.9; French co-efficient 
of wear, 10.4; hardness, 15; toughness, 
10; water absorbed per cubic foot, .85 
pounds; and of excellent cementing 
value. A layer of fine potter's clay, 
four feet in depth, lies just above the 

There is an old Indian boundary line 
in Cass township. It is 51.18 chains 
south of the northwest corner of sec- 
tion thirty-four, near Johnsburg, and 
also passes a little run 264 feet west of 
the corner of sections 29, 30, 31 and 32. 
Government Surveyor David Sanford 
notes having found it on Friday, Feb- 

Trustee John J. Gehlhausen (1910.) o - T^ur^ i;^ „ „ u 

ruary 22, 1805. This line was an old 
treaty line, and is quite historical. Mention is made of it on page 89. 
The treaty line was surveyed by Thomas Freeman, July 21, 1802, before 
the rectangular surveys were made. 

Zoar. This place is partly in Pike county. The church building and 
school house are in Dubois county. The postoffice and cemetery are in 
Pike county. It is on the Huntingburg and Stendal road in Cass and 
Lockhart townships. Its church was erected 1871, and its school house 
in 1897. Mrs. Tellejohn was first postmistress. Zoar is 563 feet above 
the sea. 

Jo/msburg. This place is also known as Ferdinand station. It is the 
oldest railroad station in Dubois county, and is a shipping point for Hoi- 



Henry Kunz. 

land, and St. Henry. Johnsburg is the 
name of the postoffice. The hamlet con- 
tains several ware- houses, a general 
store, mills, etc. Topographically it is 
486 feet above the sea. 

Sf. Henry. The plat of this town 
reads, "The town of St. Henry or Henry- 
ville." The postoffice is St. Henry. 
Mr. Fisher is its founder, though the 
main business part of the town is not on 
the plat of the town, which is dated 
September 22, 1874. Ferdinand station 
is the shipping point for St. Henry. 
The population is about one hundred. 

Holland. Henry Kunz was the 
founder of Holland. The plat bears 
date of May 20, 1859, and is signed 
"Henry Kunz, Proprietor." Mr. Kunz 
was the leading merchant of the town he 
established for thirty years. He settled 
at this place when it was a primeval forest, and was for years its foremost 
citizen. He was born in Germany, October 12, 1824. and died at Holland, 
January 22, 1S85. 

Holland is one of the most enterprising towns in the count3^ Churches 
and schools re- 
cei\'e close 
attention, and 
all that makes 
for good citizen- 
ship is cultiva- 
ted. Many of 
the pioneer set- 
tlers of Cass 
township refer- 
red to Holland 
Henry Kunz 
built the first 
house in the 
town. Among 
the other early 
merchants may 
be mentioned 
William Heit- 

Holland High School. 



man, Mrs. W. Keller, Frederick Wibbeler, H. J. Meyer, Caldmeyer & Co., 
and Smith and Todrank. Ernest Keller was the first wagon maker at 

In 1900, the population was 300. 

Holland has one of the best high schools in Dubois county. It is under 
the supervision of Prof. H. W. A. Hemmer, a native of Cass township. 


This township was the first township created after the original five had 
been organized. It is situated in the southeastern part of Dubois county 

and its highways lead to the town of 
Ferdinand, its center of church, school, 
and commercial life. 

Abner Hobbs, on August 5, 1834, 
entered the north half of the southeast 
quarter of section twenty-two, township 
three south, range four west. This is 
the first land entry in Ferdinand town- 

The township of Ferdinand is esti- 
mated to be worth $400,000, and the 
town of Ferdinand $300,000. In 1900, 
the population of the township was 
1,752; the town itself, 627. 

This township is owned by citizens 
of German descent, and the German 
language is constantly spoken. Ferdi- 
nand township is the strongest demo- 
cratic township in Indiana, according to 
its population. Practically all its citi- 
zens are members of the Catholic church, and worship at Ferdinand. 

The township and town had their origin in the establishing of a Catholic 
church, and the town is essentially a church town. The founding of the 
town is an epoch in the life of the Rev. Joseph Kundeck, and the chapter 
on his life may well be read in this connection. [Page 200.] 
There were 450 citizens in Ferdinand township in 1850. 
In the years 1908-9, a railroad was constructed from Huntingburg to 
Ferdinand. TraflSc was opened on the road in February, 1909. The first 
passenger train between Ferdinand and Huntingburg was run at noon^ 
Sunday, February 21, 1909. 

Trustee Henry Dall (1910.) 



This IS one of the substantial towns of the county. Its buildings are 
of a high grade, and its citizens are prosperous and contented. It is the 
best tobacco market in the county. Its tobacco market dates from 1850. 

Ferdinand was established January 8, 1840, as a resting place for man 
and beast in traveling from Troy to Jasper. In those days Troy was the 
shipping point for Dubois county. 

In 1868, paint was manufactured at Ferdinand from material found near 
the town. ' It was an excellent mineral paint, and its manufacture may 
some day be resumed. The paints and polishing powder of Ferdinand 
township have the highest endorsements of those who have used them, riv- 
aling, and often surpassing, any others of this or foreign countries. 

The town has the largest foundry in the county, an excellent flouring 
mill, electric lights, and many other substantial and permanent improve- 
ments. Its schools, convent, and church are noticed in other chapters. 

The original sale of the lots in the town of Ferdinand was made in the 

city of Louisville. 

Among the early merchants of Ferdinand may be mentioned Joseph 
Schneider John Beckmann & Sons, Joseph Meyer, William Poschen, A. T. 
Sondermann, Jacob Linegang, William Wagner, Philip Wagner, Joseph 
Rickelmann, Joseph Mehling, and John B. Gohmann. Michael Spayd is 
said to have been the first miller to locate at Ferdinand. 

About 1845, a postoffice was established at Ferdinand. Among the 
early postmasters were John G. Stein, William Kuper, John B. Gohmann, 
Mrs. John B. Gohmann, John Herman Beckmann, and A. J. Fisher. 

John Herman Beckmann is the principal tobacco buyer, and his pur- 
chases often reach one million pounds annually. 

The town of Ferdinand was incorporated in 1905, and its first officials 
were as follows: Treasurer, John Hoffman; Clerk, Bernard Grewe; Town 
•Trustees, Leonard Mueller, John Russ, and Matthias dinger, Jr. 



Its growth into civil and political sub-divisions — Public buildings, past and present — 
Public and quasi-public institutions or associations— County Fair — County Med- 
ical Society — Mortuary Statistics — List of physicians — Farmers' Institute — Teach- 
ers' Institute — List of postmasters — Newspapers, past and present — Courier — Sig- 
nal — Argus — Independent — Herald— Neivs — Banks, State and National — Secret, 
Benevolent, Fraternal, and Social Orders— G. A. R.— W. R. C — O. E. S.—F. O. E. 
K. of P — I. O. R. M.— A. S. E.— F. and A. M.— I. O. O. F.— Rebekahs— C. K. of 
A. — Y. M. I. — R. and A. M — Transportation — Resources — Occupation — Character- 


Four County Maps, Showing Growth of Township Organizations. 1841-1846. 



A map of Dubois county, as first organized, is shown on page 158. 
Its subsequent divisions into townships are given herewith. The growth 
of .the civil divisions of Dubois county is an interesting study. The first 
record found of the civil divisions is that of June, 1S41. It is shown in 
the upper left hand map. Notice the five original townships — Columbia, 
Harbison, Bainbridge, Hall and Patoka. The size of Patoka township is 
noticeable. Ferdinand township came in with December, 1844. Bain- 
bridge took part from Patoka in 1S45, and again in 1S48. Thus they 
remained until the present townships were organized. The map in the 
lower right hand corner is also shown on page 297. 

The maps given above, if carefully studied will show the growth of 
Dubois county from 184 1 until its divisions into the twelve townships — at 
present its minor political subdivisions. 

The First Court Hoicse in Dubois county, at Portersville, 1818, is shown 
in the left of the picture. The first county clerk's office is shown on the 
right. The jail stood north of the court 
house. It was torn down many years 
ago. At the time the first court 
house was built, giant trees stood guard 
as silent sentinels in the surrounding 
forest, and on the banks of White river. 
Parties having suits in court would camp 
tinder these monarchs of the forest 
until their suits were disposed of. The 
court house was two stories high; so 
was the jail. The jail has long since 
disappeared. It stood north and some- 
what between the old court house and the clerk's office, which stood east 
■of the court house, and was a one story log structure. The upper story of 
the jail was used as a debtor's prison, for it was occupied under the old 
constitution of Indiana, which permitted imprisonment for debt. (Prior 
to 1853.) The lower story was more secure and used for the incarceration 
•of criminals. 


The first and second court houses at Jasper are shown on pages 159 and 
201. In 1909, the county council met and appropriated $75,000 for the 
construction of a new court house at Jasper. The members of this council 
were George P. Wagner, Joseph Friedman, Sr., Philip Schwank, Frank 
Zimmer, John Herman Beckman, Wm. Harbi.son, and Wm. Heitman. All 
voted for the appropriation except Messrs. Harbison and Heitman. 

Milburn, Heister & Company, of Washington, D. C, were employed 
as architects, and on September 6, 1909, the contract for the construction 
of the new court house was awarded to Wm. F. Stillwell, of Lafayette, 
Indiana, for $56,200. Contracts for additions and alterations were made 
in 1910. 

Old Court House at Portersville, 1818. 



The county commissioners during the construction of this building: 
were Henry Wehr, John Luebbers and Fred. Alles. Mr. Alles was opposed' 
to the construction of a new court house. Michael A. Sweeney, county 
auditor, was an earnest supporter of the movement for a new building. 

On September 30, 1909, while tearing down the old court house, erected 
in 1S45, "The Edgar Traylor Construction Company," contractors for the 
concrete work, uncovered the corner-stone. Many old citizens had gath- 
ered about to view its contents, but the receptacle was empty. If anything 
had been placed therein it had been removed before the brick walls were 
built. The stone had been in place sixty-four years. 

New Court House at Jasper, 1910. (Under Construction, 1909-1910.) 

August W. Hochgesang laid the first brick in the new court house, 
November 22, 1909. Andrew M. Hochgesang was superintendent during 
the construction. 

The new court house is 114 feet north and south and 65 feet, 8 inches, 
east and west. The top of the flag staff is 100 feet above the surface. The 
building is erected with a view of being fire proof. It is constructed of 
steel, concrete, brick, stone, marble, and granite. During the construction 
of this court house, court was held in the second story of Nicholas Mel- 
chior's store, on the public square.' The various county officers, except the 
clerk, were quartered at the jail and sheriff's residence. It is probable 
that the new court house is worth $100,000. 




When the county seat came to Jasper various prisons were built about 
the public square, and in the court house yard. In 1849, a brick jail was 
erected on the north- 
west corner of the court 
yard. In 1S75, it was 
removed. It had long 
served as an annex to the 
county auditor's office. 
At present the county jail 
and sheriff's residence 
is located two blocks 
north of the court house. 
The original brick build- 
ing was erected in 1869. 
The stone addition, now 
the prison proper, was 

^ . f ^ ' Jail at Jasper, 1910. 

erected in 1893. It is 

considered a modern and model jail. It was designed and erected under 

John Gramelspacher's administration as county auditor. 


A poor farm was purchased in 1861. It was near the geographical 
center of the county. An asylum was erected on the farm, but it was 
destroyed by fire on a Sunday afternoon in the autumn of 1881. 

The present asylum is situated on a splendid farm one-and-one-half 
miles south of Ireland, in Madison township. The building in the extreme 
measures ninety feet by one hundred twenty-nine. The structure is of 
brick, which were made upon the farm. The roof is of slate. The rooms- 
are all in hardwood finish. The building itself is trimmed with Bedford 
stone, and to the traveler upon the road a half mile away, it presents a 
pleasing, comfortable, and respectable picture, with a grove of original 
growth in the background. 

The building is two stories high, with a large and commodious basement. 
The rooms of the superintendent are in the front center wing of the asylum ; 
the women's department is in the north wing, the men's in the south. The 
cooking department is in the west wing. The structure faces the east. 
Each sex has its own accommodations, stair-ways, and other necessary 

The building is heated by steam. The ceiling throughout the building 
is of steel, thus reducing the probabilites of a disastrous fire to a minimum. 
The water for the entire building is pumped by means of a gasoline engine 
into a tank, which is placed in the garret. A spring is one hundred fifty 


feet north of the building. It is one of the finest in the entire county, and 
certainly in the western part. A stream of water that requires an eight 
inch pipe to carry it away flows constantly from the spring. 

The building was erected in 189S, at a cost of $14,000. Hochgesang, 
Schmidt & Schuble were the contractors. The plan was drawn by M. 

County Poor Asylum, near Ireland. 

F. Durlauf. The building has been extensively copied by other counties 
in Indiana. During the construction of the building, A. H. Koerner was 
county auditor, Joseph Fritz, Joseph Schroeder, and Conrad Jackie were 
the county commissioners. 

This building is a credit to the county, and to August H. Koerner' s 


The County Fair grounds are located one-half mile southeast of the 
city of Huntingburg, and cover about forty acres. It has a good half 
mile race track, a large park of original forest trees, a good supply of 
water, and spacious buildings. The fair was organized in 1887. 

The first Dubois county fair was held at Jasper, from October 15 to 
19. 1872. This fair was organized in 1871. The entries numbered 286, 
of which only five were made in cattle. The premiums awarded amounted 
to $700. The fair receipts were $1,402.35, and the expenses $1,000. This 
fair finally failed, and the grounds are now used for farming purposes. 


In 1907, the Dubois County Medical Society consisted of the following 
officers, censors, and members: 

President, E. G. Lukemeyer; Vice-President, L. B. Johnson; Secre- 
tary-Treasurer, C. R. Ramsbrok; Delegate, J. P. Salb. The censors were 
C. W. Schwartz, H. W. Stork, and A. G. Wollenmann. The members 
were A. G. Wollenmann, E. G. Eukemeyer, L. C. Lukemeyer, J. P. Salb, 



C. R. Ramsbrok, L. B. Johnson, Victor Knapp, U. G. Kelso, C. \V. 
Schwartz, E. E. Schriefer, H. W. Stork, John Casper, E. A. Stinm, and 
E. F. Steinkamp. 

The annual death rate in Indiana, per one thousand inhabitants, is 
13.5; in Dubois county it is 12. In 1906, two hundred forty-six persons 
died in Dubois county. Of this number, fifty-two were over sixty-five 
years of age. Thirty died of pulmonary consumption, twenty-two of 
pneumonia, fourteen of cancer, and fourteen met violent deaths. The 
remainder died of various other causes. In 1908, the average age at 
death in Indiana was 41. iS. In Dubois county it was 37.16 years. Dur- 
ing 1906, there were four hundred fourteen children born in Dubois 
county. There were one hundred forty-two marriages. 

Subjoined is a list of the physicians 
in Dubois county in 1908: B. B. Bran- 
nock, O. A. Bigham, John Casper, Peter 
L. Coble, Thomas Courtney, E. E. Eif- 
ert, E. E. Gengelbach, A. F. Gugsell, 
Jos. F. Gobbel, Porter Hopkins, L. 
B. Johnson, Luke Kuebler, S. W. 
Kellams, U. G. Kelso, Edward Kempf, 

D. \V. Kiraes, Mctor Knapp, \Vm. A. 
Line, E. G. Lukemeyer, L. C. Luke- 
meyer, M. M. Parsons, C. R. Rams- 
brok, Michael Robinson, F. C. Rust, 
W. F. Rust, John P. Salb, Augustus 
Salb, Leo Salb, E. E. Schriefer, C. W. 
Schwartz, James M. Scott, James H. 
Smith, J. J. Solomon, Henry W. Stork, 

E. A. Sturm, Omer Stewart, Benj. F. 
Whitinghill, A. G. Wollenmann, and 
A. M. Zaring. 

For the year 1908-9, the officers of the Dubois Count}^ Medical Asso- 
ciation were as follows: President, Dr. C. W. Schwartz; Vice-President, 
Dr. U. S.; Secretary and Treasurer, Dr. A. F. Gugsell. 

In 1909, Dr. J. P. Salb opened a sanitarium on East Sixth street, in 
Jasper, the first in the count}'. During the same year he was elected pres- 
ident of the surgeons of the Southern railway. Dr. Salb's ability as a 
surgeon is recognized by all, and has added new credits to the profession 
in Dubois county. 

Dubois county has had some most excellent physicians and surgeons. 

Dr. William Reid McMahan was born September 8, 1843; died October 
23, 1903. He served in the Civil War as lieutenant in Co. E, 58th Indiana. 
Dr. McMahan was graduated from Rush Medical College, Chicago, March, 
186S. He located in Huntingburg. As a man he was loyal, true, social, 


Dr. VVm. R. McMahan. 


and honest. He made and kept many friends and was worshipped by his 
family. In his professional work he was more than successful. He filled 
the professorship of surgical pathology in the Evansville Medical School 
during its existence He served with distinction as surgeon in chief of the 
h E. & St. L. railway and later as division surgeon of the southwestern 
division of the Southern. 

He was a man faithful in his work, devoted to his patients; keen and 
skilled in his diagnosis; always ready and alert for any new idea for 
advancement in medicine or surgery. He was conservative in his judg- 
ment, yet forceful and daring in execution. In abdominal surgery he was 
one of the pioneers in southern Indiana, being credited with having per- 
formed the second successful cholecystenterostomy in Indiana. Socially 
he was interested in all things pertaining to good civic conditions. Dr. 
McMahan was a Mason, a member of the G. A. R. and Loyal Eegion. 

farmers' institute. 

The first session of the Dubois County Farmers' Institute was held at 
Jasper, in 1890. Nenian Haskins was its first president, and Sebastian 
Anderson was the first secretary. Hon. W. W. Stevens and Mrs. Stevens, 
of Salem, were the first instructors employed from outside of the count)'. 
Annual sessions are held and much good is being accomplished. 

The following men have been officers of the institute for the years 

Presidents. Secretaries. 

Nenian Haskins 1890 Sebastian Anderson 

Nenian Haskins 1891 Sebastian Anderson 

Milton D. Lemond 1 892 D. B. Koons. 

Dr. F. M. Payne 1893 D. B. Anderson. 

Dr. F. M. Payne 1894 D. B. Anderson. 

Samuel H. Stewart 1895 D. B. Anderson. 

Samuel H. Stewart 1896 D. B. Anderson. 

D. M. Ivichlyter 1897 Isaac Curry. 

D. M. Lichlyter 1898 Isaac Curry. 

Jacob Gercken 1899 John Katterhenry. 

Jacob Gercken 1900 John Katterhenry. 

Eli B. Hemmer 1901 W. C. Reutepohler. 

Eli B. Hemmer 1902 W. C. Reutepohler. 

Eli B. Hemmer 1903 Cullen Bretz. 

William C. Bretz 1904 H. B. Tormohlen. 

D. M. Lichlyter 1905 Ferd. Demuth. 

D. M. Eichlyter 1906 Ferd. Demuth. 

Edward W. Struckman 1907 Matt. Olinger, Jr. 

Eli B. Hemmer 1908 Albert Wessel. 

Eli B. Hemmer 1909 Albert Wessel. 


At Huntingburg, on December i and 2, 1909, the following officials 
were elected for 1910: 

President Eli B. Hemmer. 

Vice President Ferd. Demuth. 

Secretary Albert Wessel, 

Treasurer John Reutepohler. 

teachers' institute. 

Teachers' meetings and institutes were held in Dubois county before 
1865, but with that year the Dubois County Teachers' Institute became a 
fixed factor in the educational affairs of the county. The first county 
institute was held in 1865 as a legally authorized institution, but no official 
records were kept of the institutes until 1883. In that year the enrollment 
was 114. In 1908, when the forty-fourth annual session was held, the 
enrollment was 143. 


Subjoined is a list of the postoffices in Dubois county and the post- 
masters in 1908. Huntingburg, Frank H. Dufendach; Jasper, W. S. Hun- 
ter; Ferdinand, Dr. A. G. Wollenmann; Holland, Killian A. Hufnagel; 
Birdseye, E. A. Grant; Haysville, Henry Ruehrschneck; Ireland, Wm. B. 
Morgan; Dubois, Ben. E. Schroering; Crystal, A. W. Cave; Thales, Felix 
Waldrip; Portersville, Mary A. Giesler; Kellerville, Andrew J. Krodel; 
Norton, Jeff. Bledsoe; Celestine, Eena Striegel; Kyana, Robert Raney; 
Bretzville, Andrew Wagner; St. Henry, John Fisher; St. Anthony, Kate 
Lorey; Johnsburg, Henry Hoffman; Cuzco, Asberry Crowder; Hillham, 
Grant Morgan; Duff, Frank Kellams; Schnellville, George Schaaf; Ells- 
worth, Florian Nolan. 


The "art preservative of all arts" is represented by the Huiititigburg 
Sigfial, one of the leading German weeklies in southern Indiana, the Hunt- 
ginhtrg Argus, the Huntingburg hidependerit, the Ferdinand Netvs, the 
Jasper Herald, and the Jasper Courier. 

The first newspaper published in Dubois county appeared about 1846. 
Its office was in the court house. It was known as the Americaii Eagle, 
and advocated the principles of the democratic party. About 1848, it was 
moved to Paoli, in Orange county. [Page 114.] 

Other papers have appeared from time to time. Among them the Hunt- 
ingburg Times, the Jasper Times, the Huntingburg News, The Holland Bell, 
and the Birdseye Nezvs. For various reasons they suspended publication . 




This is the oldest newspaper in Dubois count3\ It was established in 
1858 by John Mehringer, then auditor of Dubois county, Rudolphus Smith, 
a lawyer, and Clement Doane, under the firm name of Mehringer, Doane & 
Smith. Messrs. Mehringer and Smith had very little time to devote to a 
newspaper, and most of the work devolved on the other partner, who was 
the practical printer of the enterprise. The first number was issued March 
19, 185S, and the office was located in a room in the second story of what was 
then known as the "Baccarach building." It stood where the Dubois 

County State Bank building is now located, and 
the lower story was used at that time by Gross- 
vater Hurst as a saloon. It was burned 3'ears ago, 
but not till after the Courier had moved from it. 
At the close of the first volume, C. Doane 
bought Mr. Smith's share in the office, and it 
was continued by Mehringer & Doane. On 
November i, 1859, C. Doane bought Mr. Mehr- 
inger' s share, and published the Coiirier up to 
his death, July 7, 1904, when his son, Ben Ed. 
succeeded him, and has published it ever since. 
For over fifty years, through sunshine and 
shade, the elder Doane and his son have stood at the helm and guided the 
destinies of the Courier, and worked and fought for what they deemed was 
best for the county of Dubois and its good citizens. The present manage- 
ment believes in doing right; telling the truth; being reliable, and print- 
ing all the news. 

The Courier is democratic in politics. 

Editor Clement Doane. 


The Signal was established in 1867 with E. Reininghaus as editor, and 
the Signal Company as owners. It is printed in the German language and 
it is one of the largest and most influential German weeklies published in 
southern Indiana. Its present owner and editor is the Hon. E. W. Pick- 
hardt, who has practically spent a life time at the work. The Signal 
office is one of the best equipped offices to be found in the smaller cities 
of the state. Politically the Signal is democratic. 

The first number of the 6'^^7^a/ appeared May 11, 1867. In 1877, Ernst 
Pickhardt, father of the present owner, assumed editorial and business 
control of the paper, which he held until his death in April, 1888. For the 
year following it was conducted by his widow, and then purchased by "E. 
Pickhardt's Sons' Printing Company." In 1891, the present editor and 
proprietor secured control. 



The Argus was established at Ireland in Januar}^ 1880. The plant 
was owned by a stock company of leading republicans of the county and 
Samuel T. Palmer was its first editor and manager. The publication at 
Ireland was continued something over a year and then removed to Hunt- 
iiigburg, where the first number of The Huntinghirg Argus appeared June 
30, 1 88 1, Thomas Dillon having in the meantime become associated with 
Mr. Palmer in the capacity of business manager. August 1 1 of the same 
5'ear, Robert Schley, a relative of Admiral Schley, became the editor and 
publisher and continued with the paper for nearly four years He was 
succeeded by Col. C. C. Shreeder, July 23, 1885, who continued the business 
until March 16, 1894, and was succeeded by D. F. Wickersham, of Fair- 
field, Illinois. June 21, 1895, J. W. Lewis came here from Newburg, Indi- 
ana, and purchased the plant, and conducted the paper successfully until 
December 19, 1903, when he sold to Louis H. Katter, the present proprie- 
tor. Under the management of Mr. Katter, the business has been largely 
increased. Practically a new plant has been purchased and installed in a 
building erected by him. 

In all its career, it can be truthfully said that The Argus has been 
cleanly and well edited and enjoys a general reputation for truthfulness 
and reliabilty. 

The Htintinghurg Argus is the only republican paper in Dubois county, 
a fact that makes it prominent, and gives it the undivided support of its 
party in a way to secure for it a prosperous present, and a favorable future. 
Louis H. Katter, the editor, assisted by the scholarly pen of N. S. Selby, 
has brought the paper into many new homes in the county. 


The Huntingburg Independent was founded August 8, 1885, by C. W. 
Dufendach, the present publisher. 

The paper was first edited by Robert H. Schley, a relative of Admiral 
Winfield Scott Schle}^ who was in command of the United States Flying 
Squadron that destroyed the Spanish fleet at Santiago, July 3, 1898. 

In the fall of 1889, Mr. Schley's health began to fail, and he was 
assisted in editing the paper by Kd. H. Dufendach, who had learned the 
printer's trade under Mr. Schley. 

In January, 1890, the latter's health became so impaired that he resigned 
as editor of the Independent and removed to Evansville, where he died a 
few years later. 

Ed. H. Dufendach was then placed in charge of the editorial and busi- 
ness apartments of the Independent, and has been at the helm ever since. On 
assuming editorial charge of the paper, he was one of the youngest editors 


of the state. Through his efforts, The Independent has grown to be one of 
the leading country papers in southern Indiana, having a circulation of 
twenty-one hundred copies each week. 

The Independent, up to sometime in 1887, was published as a "patent" 
sheet, but since that time it is all home print. 

In 1903, The Independe7if s incre2ise in business made it necessary that 
larger quarters be secured, and its present home was elected — a brick build- 
ing, built especially for the business, twenty-five by ninety feet, right in 
the heart of the city. The ofl&ce is splendidly equipped for doing printing 
of all kinds. 


The Jasper Herald wdiS established at Jasper, in 1895, by W. C. Binck- 
ley. It made its first appearance, August 2, 1895, and its growth in size, 
material, and popularity has been continuous and uninterrupted. 

All its subscribers pay in advance. The Herald enjoys the confidence 
and support of the business men of town and county. This, in a measure, 
was brought about by its refusal to publish any article to which the writer 
would not attach his name. The Herald is democratic in politics, fearless 
in its editorials, and a paper any member of a family may read. It is care- 
fully edited and printed by a well equipped press, the equipment of the 
Herald office being one of the best known to country papers. Its success 
has been far beyond the expectation of its friends. 

On Friday, July 24, 1908, the Herald started in on its fourteenth volume. 

On September 24, 1909, Louis Zoercher became the editor and proprietor. 


This is the youngest paper to enter the field of journalism in Dubois 
county. Henry Haake is editor, and he issued the first number May 25, 
1906. The paper is a six column quarto, and is devoted to the welfare of 
Ferdinand and Ferdinand township. 


The banking business of Dubois county had its origin in the Dubois 
County Bank, which opened for business January 24, 1883. Its successor 
The Dubois County State Bank, was duly organized August i, 1885, as a 
bank of discount and deposit, with a capital stock of $25,000.00. Its 
charter bears date of August 10, 1885, as bank No. 26. The directors for 
the first year were Elijah S. Hobbs, Frank Joseph, Joseph Friedman, Sr., 
August Sondermann, and Dr. Toliver Wertz. Dr. T. Wertz was elected 
president, and James Barton, cashier. The stockholders of this bank on 
the 4th Monday of July, 1886, duly elected the following named parties 
as directors for the second year, viz: August Sondermann, Elijah S. 


Hobbs, Clay Ivemmon, Frank Joseph, and Joseph Friedman, Sr., and these 
directors on the ist day of August, 1886, elected the following officers: 
August Sondermann, president, and Frank Joseph, cashier. There was no 
change in the board of directors from July, 1S86, until July, 1889, when 
the following directors were elected: August Sondermann, Joseph Fried- 
man, Sr., Frank Joseph, Elijah S. Hobbs, and William A. Traylor. The 
board of directors continued the same until the re-organization hereinafter 
named. August Sondermann continued as president of the bank until his 
health failed him, when on the 2d day of January, 1905, the directors duly 
elected John A. Sermersheim as president. The charter of the bank 
expired on the 31st day of July, 1905, when the stockholders re-organized 
for the second period of twenty years, and adopted the same name, Dubois 
Coicnty State Bank, to commence business on the ist day of August, 1905. 

The stockholders by a unanimous vote on the 21st day of October, 1905, 
increased the capital stock of the bank to $37,500.00. The officers of the 
bank at the present time are John A. Sermersheim, president; Albert 
Sondermann, vice-president; and William A. Traylor, cashier. Frank 
Joseph was this cashier of said bank continuously from the 7th day of 
September, 1886, to the 3d day of February, 1908, when he resigned on 
account of the condition of his health. He has been a member of the board 
of directors since the first organization. Wm. A. Traylor, the present 
cashier of the bank, has been a member of the board of directors since his 
election in 1888. The capital stock is $37,500.00; surplus fund, $30,000.00; 
undivided profits, $3,344.00; total resources, $436,396.47. [1908.] 

The bank has always done a safe and conservative business. 


The Hujitingbiirg Bank was organized as a private bank a short time 
after the Dubois County Bank was established at Jasper, being therefore the 
second bank to be organized in the county. It began business on May i, 
1883, with a capital stock of $12,000.00. It was chartered May 5, 1884, as 
bank No. 22. The original shareholders were: Herman Rothert, Dr. W. 
R. McMahan, Katterhenry Bros., Henry Landgrebe, Jonas Kilian, Jacob 
Rauscher, Daniel Reutepohler, Herman Patberg, Joseph Heitz, F. W. 
Kreke, William H. Bretz, and Milton D. Lemond. The first ofiicers 
were Herman Rothert, president; Daniel Reutepohler, cashier, and F. W. 
Katterhenry, Jonas Kilian, and Dr. W. R. McMahan, directors. 

The following year the capital stock was increased to $25,000 and the 
bank was incorporated under the state banking laws of Indiana, being 
state bank No. 22. The name and officers of the organization remained 
the same. On May i, 1891, Herman Rothert resigned as president, but 
remained on the board of directors until the time of his death, February 
25, 1904. Dr. McMahan succeeded him as president and held that ofiice 
until the time of his death, October 23, 1903, when the present incumbent, 


lyOiiis Katterhenry, became president of the bank. Daniel Reutepohler was 
cashier until July 30, 1S91, when he was succeeded by Hugo C. Rothert, 
who is still serving the bank in that capacity. The present directors of 
the bank and the years in which they began to serve as such are: Henry 
Landgrebe, 1893; Louis Katterhenry, 1894; William Heitman, 1896; 
Hugo C. Rothert, 1903; Adam Stratman, 1904. 

The constitution of Indiana limits the corporate existence of state 
banks to twenty years. In 1904, this term limit having been reached, the 
bank applied for and received a new charter under the same corporate 
name, but with its capital stock increased from $25,000 to $30,030. The 
capital stock was again increased May i, 1907, from $30,000 to $50,000, 
and a number of new stockholders admitted, the total number now being 
forty-six. During all this time the bank has been paying dividends to its 
shareholders, besides accumulating a surplus fund, which now amounts to 
$25,000. With the exception of some losses sustained in 1891, which were 
promptly covered by the shareholders, the bank has enjoyed continued 
prosperity. During the panics which it has passed through, the custo- 
mers always received currency or gold when demanded. The policy of 
carrying a large reserve has enabled the bank to furnish its patrons 
with money at all times, provided only that good security was given. 

The location of the bank has always been in the western part of town. 
For many years it was in the St. George Hotel building. In 1897, when 
the Moenkhaus livery stable burned and the hotel building was badly dam- 
aged, the bank was compelled to move into Kornrumpf's jewelry store for 
a few weeks. During the summer of the same year the bank built its own 
house at the northeast corner of Fourth and Geiger streets at a cost of 
$5,000, which it has occupied ever since. 

The following figures showing the deposits of the bank are indicative 
of the commercial growth of the community: In 1888, five years after the 
bank was established, the average deposits were $43,000; in 1893, they 
were $81,000; in 1898, $102,000; 1903, $189,000; while in 1908, they 
were $320,000. 

The Farmers' and Merchants' Bank of Jasper was organized and 
began business in August, 1895, with a capital stock of $25,000. It now 
has a surplus of $14,000, and from its earnings has built a modern bank 
building at a cost of $15,000. It is protected by ample vaults and bur- 
glar proof safes and maintains safety deposit boxes for its customers. It 
has a deposit business of $350,000. It is justly regarded as one of the 
substantial business enterprises of southern Indiana. Its officers and direc- 
tors in 1908 were John I,. Bretz, president; Dr. John P. Salb, vice-presi- 
dent; J. F. Friedman, secretary; Jacob Burger, Jr., cashier; Michael Agnes, 
director; Gustav Gramelspacher, assistant cashier. All these, except 
Agnes, have been with the bank since its organization and have during all 
ihat time held the positions they now hold. 

This bank was chartered June 18, 1895, as bank No. 105. 



The Ferdinand National Bank, at Ferdinand, was organized in 1906, 
■with Mathias Olinger, Sr., president; J. H. Beckmann, vice-president; and 
F. H. Richelmann, cashier. The capital is $25,000. 


This bank was organized in 1907, with Frank Zimmer, president, 
James E. Glenn, vice-president, and Gus Sharp, cashier. The capital stock 
is $25,000. P. J. Hollowell, J. E. Glenn, and W. E. Wells are directors. 


This bank was organized October 23, 1907, with a paid-up capital of 
$25,000. The following officers and directors were elected: Chas. Moenk- 
haus, president; E. W. Blemker, vice-president; \V. E. Gasaw^ay, cashier; 
F. H. Dufendach, and C. W. Schwartz. Louis J. Poetker is assistant 
■cashier. The real estate of this bank is valued at $12,600. All the stock- 
holders are experienced business men or farmers. 


The Holland National Bank was chartered April 15, 1908. It is 
strictly a home institution owned and managed by local men. Among its 
principal stockholders are the following: President, J. H. Miller; vice- 
president, A. H. Mauntel; cashier, J. Frank Overbeck. Directors: Fred 
Warnhoff, Wm. F. M. Meyer, Ben Meyer, J. H. Miller, A. H. Mauntel, 
George Rice, George Overbeck, John Wiesehan, Wm. Blesch, John Lange, 
and Joel Bailey. Mr. Meyer became assistant cashier in 1910. 

farmers' state BANK AT DUBOIS. 

This bank was organized July 31, 1909, with a capital stock of $25,000. 
Its first officials were J. B. Schroering, president; Frank J. Seng, vice- 
president; and James O. Sanders, cashier. The first directors were J. B, 
Schroering, Frank J. Seng, James O. Sanders, Michael Agnes, Henry 
Hentrup, Adam Harker, and C. C. Baggerly. Its building and fixtures 
are valued at $4,500. 

The bank opened for business January 3, 19 10. The bank building 
was erected in 1909. It was the first brick building erected at Dubois. 


Secret, benevolent, or fraternal orders are not numerous in Dubois 
county and their membership is small. Among the leading and prominent 
orders of the county may be mentioned the following: 


This post was chartered June 2, 1882, at Huntingburg. Its charter 
members were Col. C. C. Schreeder, commander; Capt. Morman Fisher, 


S. V. C; J. H. Beckmann, J. V. C; James Murry, Q. M.;Dr. Wm. R. McMa- 
han, surgeon; Thomas R. Greene, chaplain; Frank Kinchel, O. D. ; and 
James Collins, O. G. Members: C. M. Hears, W. W. Shoulders, Alex. 
Barrowman, G. W. Bockting, J. H. Lemmon, Dr. G. P. Williams, Marion 
Martin, John F. Meinker, Capt. John G. Leniing, Daniel Milton, Capt. 
H. L. Wheat, Capt. R. M. Welman, Frank Senninger, J. R. M. Lemmon, 
H. Dieckmann, Lieut. Wm. F. Kemp, H. Weissman, W. B. Pirtle, and 
G. Koch, Jr. 

The post is named in honor of Capt. Lewis Biram Shively, of Hunting- 
burg, and has been prosperous. In 190S, J. N. Morris was commander, 
and Thos. H. Parks, adjutant. 


This post was organized at Portersville in September, 1S82, and dis- 
banded April 5, 1905. Its charter members were John Bauer, Ben. F. 
Burris, Philip Baecher, Edward P. Charns, William M. DeMotte, Silas H. 
Funk, Michael Harker, John Harris, William Krodel, L. L. Kelso, S. C. 
Lemmon, W. S. Lemmon, W. W. Lemmon, Isaac N. Ledgerwood, Wil- 
liam Patric, Andrew Patric, Alex. H. Rayhill, John Rudolph, Christian 
Senning, and William Woods. 

E. R. HAWN POST NO. 266, G. A. R. 

This post, located at Birdseye, was chartered December 28, 1883. It 
was re-organized February 9, 1901. The following were charter members: 
Eleven R. Huff, commander; S. M. Nash, S. V. C; E. H. Baxter, J. V. 
C; Joseph F. Faulkner, Thompson Garland, Daniel H. Burt, Abraham B. 
Tower, John W. Mason, E. E. Inman, Robert McMahel, and Fred Miller. 
In 190S, John Koch was commander of E. R. Hawn Post No. 266. 

R. M. WELMAN POST NO. 288, G. A. R. 

This post was organized at Ireland, April 19, 1884. It disbanded, and 
then re-organized March 21, 1891, and disbanded again December 31, 1900. 

The charter members were John P. Norman, John M. Lemmon, Albert 
H. Stewart, Daniel J. Banta, John A. Green, Burr Mosby, Jonathan Hop- 
kins, Thomas H. Green, Thomas J. M. Rose, Thomas C. Johnson, and 
Marion L. Brittain. 


This post was chartered at Jasper, April 23, 1886. Its charter members 
were W. S. Hunter, Louis Lady, Charles Seller, George J. Jutt, Jr., Joseph 
Roelle, Leopold Gutzweiler, Andrew J. McNerny, G. W. Riley, Jesse 
Evans, Jacob Kohler, George Segers, Joseph Mathias, Brittain Leming, 
John S. Barnett, Conrad Eckert, F. X. Sermersheim, Pillow Merchant, 
Joseph Heatty, John Troxler, Philip Kunkel, Sr., Henry Kraft, Rupert 
Naegele, and David K. Laughlin. In 1908, Conrad Eckert was commander. 



This post was organized December 4, 1SS6, at Schnellville. It dis- 
banded June 30, 1903. The charter members were Robert J. King, Wil- 
liam Zehr, John Henze, Francis Mathais, L. M. Grant, Thomas Jeffers, 
Casper Blume, John J. Alles, Theo. H. Jackson, Andrew Striegel, Henr^- 
Schnell, and Reuben F. Bates. 


This post was organized at Ellsworth, September 17, 18S7, and dis- 
banded December 31, 1903. Its charter members were Benj. Owen, James 
M. Ellis, William T. Harbison, James Kellams, Levi K. Ellis, Thomas J. 
Nolan, Thomas J. Parsons, Levi Bridgewater, Ouinton Abell, and Matthew 

SHIVELY W. R. C. NO. I03. 

The Shively Woman's Relief Corps No. 103, Department of Indiana, 
was organized May 7, 1890, at Huntingburg. There is but one order of 
this kind in Dubois county. The charter members were Louise C. 
Schreeder, Alice G. Williams, Catherine Montgomery, Hattie S. Glezen, 
Lizzie McMahan, Susan Lemond, Emma Schreeder, Caroline Mandel, 
Mar}' Bird, Melona Glezen, Willa Fisher, Louisa Fisher, Isabella Tieman, 
Charlotte Brademeyer and Anna Koch. 

In 1908, Mrs. J. D. Armstrong was president and Mrs. Ed. Lukemeyer, 


The Fraternal Order of Eagles in Dubois county is represented by an 
aeria at Huntingburg, chartered September 18, 1906, with the following 
charter members: 

August Arnesman, Hil Arnesman, Guy Beard, Lawrence W. Biggs, 
Max. Bollin, Fred D. Brown, Milt. Behrens, H. E. Brunsman, Joe Blume, 
Martin Carral, J. V. Crawford, John S. Frick, John Greener, George 
Greener, C. J. Harper, H. W. Hilsmeier, Adam Heidrich, John Hansel- 
man, Oscar Johnston, Tom King, A. W. Lauderback, Warren Lewis, O. 
C. Moffit, William Melton, Arthur Miller, B. A. Mosby, I. R. Murphy, E. 
S. Parks, J. L. Powell, D. S. Poorman, Jacob Prior, Harry Robinson, Paul 
Rohletter, Dr. C. R. Ramsbrok, Anthony M. Renner, F. D. Strausberg, 
Geo. Seubold, B'rank Siebe, L. G. Seaton, Frank Schaffer, John Steinman, 
Wesley Sanford, William Soenker, F. W. Siefert, Wesley Schwambach, 
Adam Schlesinger, Ben. Sondermau, Anthony B. Wendhold, William 
Weaver, Edward Wendhold. 


This lodge was chartered June 7, 18S7, and in 1908 there were one- 
hundred six members. The charter members were W. D. Hamilton, 


Harry Delaney, E. R. Frost, W. O. Franklin, W. S. Martin, L. B. South- 
ard, E. W. Grice, H. A. Hainning, Charles Peek, Edward Miller, W. R. 
Damon, G. W. Tressler, Joseph S. Buckley, C. H. Billingsley, C. E. 
•Chambers, and R. C. Rush. 


This lodge was organized May 16, 1894, ^^^ chartered June 6, 1894. 

The charter members were Ed. F. Morris, Eli M, Critchfield, A, P. 
Roberson, Geo. R. Hazlewood, W. M. Sappenfield, A. J. Hubbard, H. T. 
Koerner, Frank Zimmer, Wm. Sallee, Wni. N. Koerner, J. T. Jackson, 
M. E. Borden, C. J. Hubbard, J. L. Thornberry, Samuel Cummings, Wm. 
J. King, Sylvester Witsman, Geo. W. Byers, Wm. H. Bonner, John J. 
King, D. L. Sallee, and W. P. Hollowell. In 1908, the membership was 


This tribe was chartered June 16, 1892, and had one hundred five 
members in 1908. Its charter members were: Jas. C. Parrish, Bazil 
Williams, Thomas Riley, W. E. Willis, E. G. Geiger, N. V. Cox, H. H. 
Xostetter, Edmund Pickhardt, Wm. Rowe, W. R. Damron, F. D. Garey, 
F. M. Reck, E. Q. Miller, Isaac Eads, Wm. Guess, Levi Guess, Chas. 
Dawson, T. J. Murphy, R. R. McCloud, E. B. Southard. 


This tribe was organized at Ireland, and for several years was one of 
vthe leading orders in Dubois county, possessing real and personal pro- 
perty. Its membership gradually grew less, and its influence is gone. 


The society was incorporated under the state laws of Indiana, Decem- 
ber 24, 1902, Upon learning of the society, several persons in the county 
became interested in its objects and purposes. Local unions were organ- 
ized by school districts, and the school houses were used for meeting 
-places. Cass township has six local unions; Patoka, three; Bainbridge, 
two; Madison, two; and Ferdinand, Jackson, and Jefferson townships, each 
one. There are about two hundred members in Dubois county, A county 
union was organized in 1906. Charter No. 132 was granted this union 
January 9, 1907. The following officers were charter members: President, 
Henry Hockmeister, Duff; vice-president, Isaac Curry, Duff; secretary, 
C. W. Land, Holland; treasurer, and Jacob L. Bretz, Bretzville. 

IRELAND LODGE NO. 388, F. & A. M. 

This lodge was chartered at Ireland, May 25, 1869, with Oliver F. Hobbs, 
W. M.; Raughley Horton, S. W.; and L. R. Taylor, J. W. These were 
also charter members: Wm. Monroe, B. Anderson, A. N. Thomas, Leroy 
;Robinson, and J. E. Brittain. 


In 1870, the lodge built its own hall at a cost of $i,Soo. The lodge has 
always been conservative and prosperous. There are forty members. 
These men have been worshipful masters: O. F. Hobbs, E. A. Glezen, 
\V. H. H. Green, A. J. Vest, Z. C. Kelso, R. M. Milburn, S. A. Glezen, 
J. L. Norman, R. M. Gray, O. C. Brittain, and Aris Stewart. 

DUBOIS LODGE F. & A. M., NO. 520. 

This lodge was organized at Huntingburg, May 23, 1876. Its records 
were destroyed by fire July 7, 1884. For a time the lodge was at Jasper, 
but on March 22, 1888, it was moved back to Huntingburg and has 
remained there ever since. In 1908 there were fifty members. 

BETHLEHEM LODGE NO. 574, F. c\: A. M. 

This Masonic lodge at Birdseye was chartered May 22, 1888. Among 
its members are to be found the leading and most highly respected citizens 
of Jefferson township. [Page 212.] 


This chapter was chartered April 28, 1892, but its organization was 
effected January 18, 1S92. There were fift3^-four members in 190S, and 
the total enrollment since its organization has reached one hundred thir- 
teen. The states of Missouri, Illinois, Kentucky, Texas, Kansas, and 
Indiana are the homes of some who entered the order at Huntingburg. 
The following were charter members: G. W. Briffert, Mrs. X. A. Briffert, 
Mrs. Willa Fisher, Mrs. Antonia Koerner, S. D. Pierce, Mrs. M. L. Pierce, 
Wm. Rowe, Mrs. Mary E. Rowe, James Seredge, Mrs. Sarah Seredge, 
Mrs. M. E. Strong, S. C. Miller, Mrs. Hala N. Miller, Mrs. Elizabeth 
McMahan, J. G. Kerr, Mrs. Ann Kerr, and Mrs. Alice Williams. 


The I. O. O. F. lodge at Ireland was organized May 15, 1875, by Byron 
Brenton, of Pike county. Its first officers were J. H. Armstrong, N. G. ; 
B. F. Lansford, V. G. ; James Corn, recording secretary; Aaron C. Fergu- 
son, permanent secretary, and Nenian Haskins, treasurer. Other charter 
members were Charles Horton, R. A. Armstrong, Elijah Stewart, Samuel 
H. Stewart, and Thomas Anderson. This lodge has been properous and 
owns its own building. The charter bears date of November 18, 1876. 

The lodge formerly had many members at Otwell, but when an Odd 
Fellows' lodge was instituted there, they transferred their membership to 
their home town, materially reducing the membership of Shiloh lodge, 
whose membership at present is forty-six. Of that number twenty are past 

The lodge had one of the neatest and coziest lodge rooms in southern 
Indiana, papered throughout with enblematic paper, and carpeted with 


emblematic carpet. The house was destoyed by fire in 1908. The lodge 
is out of debt and has resources amounting to more than $3,000. 

Andrew M. Anderson, of this lodge, is the present district deputy grand 
master of Dubois county, and the Hon. Horace M. Kean is the grand 
master of the grand lodge of Indiana. [1909.] 


This lodge was chartered October 2, 1883, with the following members: 
Wm. Chamberlain, N. G. ; Joseph Brown, V. G. ; J. W. Jacobs, secretary; 
and Antou Pecon, treasurer. Members: Geo. W. Sigler, E. H. Baxter, 
and C. M. Parks. 

DUBOIS LODGE NO. 635, I. O. O. F. 

This lodge is situated at Huntingburg and its charter bears date of July 
13, 1887. In 1908, there were fifty-four members. 

Its charter members were Wm. H. Young, W. D. Hamilton, Francis 
Wreck, E. H. Baxter, Daniel Koons, H. A. Hainning, and B. W. Smith. 

NORTON LODGE I. O. O. F. , NO. S58. 

This lodge was organized at Norton, in Columbia township. May 16, 
1908, with Allen Mills as N. G.; John Harrison, V. G,; R. C. Harmon, 
secretary, and C. C. Baggerly, treasurer. The charter members were John 
M. Ziegler, John Harrison, Allen Mills, R. C. Harmon, Harvey Cox, Edgar 
Hanger, Amos Bledsoe, Wiley Weaver, Milton Drake, Christ. Drake, Jona- 
than Drake, Wm. L. Drake. C. C Baggerly, William Wright, Otto Con- 
rad, William Freeman, and Vester Parsons. 

I. O. O. F. AT DUFF, 

A lodge of Odd Fellows w^as organized at Dufi", October 2, 1909, with 
twenty-three members. The first ofiicers were N. G.— J. F. Lichlyter; 
V. G. — R. W. Baldwin; treasurer — Fred Koons; financial secretary — 
Henry Atkinson; recording secretary — O. Songer. 


Colfax Rebekah Lodge No. 337, of Ireland, was instituted February 14, 
1890, by a degree staff from Cannelton, but its charter was not issued until 
November 20, of the same year. The charter members were Dr. G. L. 
Parr, Elijah Stewart, Isaac E. Hardin, Benjamin F. Lansford, Parks Camp- 
bell, Perry Greene, and George Washington Haskins. The present mem- 
bership is about thirty-five. 


In 1908, there were eighty-one members of this lodge. The charter 
bears date of November 20, 1890, and its charter members were F. M. Reck, 
Sarah Reck, Benj. W. Smith, W. D. Hamilton, Jessie Hamilton, J. S. 
Huser, Wm. Guess, J. H. Schrewsbury, Mrs. M. A. Schrewsbury, L. P. 
Guess, A. G. McGasson, Daniel Koons, Frank Perry, and Marion Eemonds. 



This banch was chartered March 10, 1880 and in 1908, there were sev- 
enty-six members. The charter members w^ere Joseph Friedman, Sr., 
Felix Lampert, Charles Soliga, Conrad Eckert, Wendolin May, Jacob 
Eckert, Mathias Klingel, Daniel F. J. Miller, Andrew Eckert, and John 


Ferdinand Branch No. 58S, C. K. of A. was chartered September 19, 
1889 with Henry G. Hoppenjans, John H. Thieman, Henry Gokel, John 
Willmes, Joseph Havlick, Joseph Uebelhoer, Herman Noldau, Bernard 
Auffart, Franz Joseph Stelltenpohl, and Ferdinand Woerter as charter 
members. Of this number only Henry Gokel was a member in 1908, at 
which time there were thirty-six other members. This branch has no 
ladies' auxiliary. Its meetings are held on the second Monday of each 
month, and in 1908 its officers were as follows: Frank dinger, president; 
Richard Eiberg, vice-president; Leonard Muller, recording secretary; John 
Hassfurther, financial secretary; Peter Muller, treasurer; John Lindauer, 
sentinel; Gustav Woerter, sergeant-at-arms; and Peter Gerber and August 
Barth, trustees. 


At Ferdinand is St Eberhard's Aid Society. It was organized May i, 
1S97, ^"d its object is to aid mutually its members in case of sickness or 
accident. There are two hundred members. Its organizers were Ferdi- 
nand Woerter, Richard Eiberg, Frank N. dinger, Paul Klueh, and Andrew 


This branch was chartered June 15, 18S8, and had twenty members in 
1908. The charter members were Adam Stratman, Frank Dittmer, Joseph 
Miller, Jr., John E. Wood, M. H. Kumer, Joseph Steinhart, Hubert Lin- 
•denschmidt, Daniel Heitz, Jacob Bruner, and Michael Heitger. 


There were sixteen members of this order in 190S. The charter mem- 
bers were Frank Dittmer, Wm. Mundy, Fred Brendle, John Niehaus, 
Henry Henning, Joseph Brendle, Frank Rice, John First, Frank Schlegle, 
E. Dittmer, Jacob Brendle, Andrew Wetcher, John Brendle, Joseph Ren- 
ner, Henry Wretcher, Frank Eott, Jos. Yeager, Jos. Strohmeyer, Henry 
Stahl, Leonard Miller, Leonard Mundy, Anthony Renner, Frank Streicher, 
Leo Miller, Henry Fritch, W. L. Miller, Jos. Dittmer, Leonard Buer, 
Adam Sprauer, Geo. Meyer, Edw. Mundy, Martin Loci, Jos. Blessinger, 
Minrad Rinderer, Felix Sermersheim, August Fichter, Geo. Greener, Geo. 
Dittmer, A. Stratman, and John Renner. 



This lodge was organized at Huntingburg, October 20, 1898. Ten^ 
years later there were forty-six members. 

The charter members were S. C. Miller, Dr. G. P. Williams, F. B. 
Copp, W. G. Downs, \V. A. Wilson, E. H. Mann, Uriah W. Marting, 
Robert Greenlaw, and J. T. Kane. 

A masonic lodge was organized at Hillham in 1875, but its charter was- 
surrendered in 1S82. Among its charter members were James B. Free- 
man, Wm. M. Hoggart, John W. Simmons, James R. Wineinger, and Wil- 
lis A. Charnes. 

Among lodges of other orders in Dubois county that have passed out 
of existence may be mentioned the following: A. O. U. W. lodges at Jas- 
per, Ireland, Schnellville, Portersville, Huntingburg, Haysville, Dubois, 
and other points; K. of P. lodges at Jasper and other points; S. O. V. 
camps at Jasper, Ellsworth, Portersville, and other points. Jerger Camp' 
No 100, S. O. v., was located at Jasper. 


The Twentieth Century Club was organized at Jasper in 1902. Its pur- 
pose is to cultivate a more intimate acquaintance with literature and the- 
fine arts. It is a ladies' club and the membership is limited to twenty. 
The members of this club in 1909 were as follows: Mrs. John E. Bretz, 
Miss Margaret Castrup, Mrs. Sarah A. Cooper, Mrs. A. C. Doane, Miss- 
Emma Joseph, Miss Barbara Eifert, Mrs. J. A. Forrest, Mrs. Gustav A. 
Gramelspacher, Mrs. George Haberly, Miss Anna E. Hunter, Mrs. Felix: 
Schneider, Mrs. Joseph Sturm, Mrs. E. A. Sturm, Mrs. W. A Traylor, 
Miss Flora Traylor, Miss Olive Traylor, Mrs. Geo. R. Wilson, Mrs. Wm. 
A. Wilson, Miss Maggie A. Wilson, Miss Anna Wuchner, and Miss Dora 

Fraternal life insurance is at present represented in Dubois county,, 
mainly by the Modern Woodmen of America. They have camps at Hunt- 
ingburg, Jasper, Ireland, Duff, Dubois, Haysville, Crystal, and Holland. 
The Tribe of Ben-Hur and the W. O. W, are also represented in Dubois 
county, chiefly at Huntingburg, which is the principal order locality in 
the county. 

Mutual fire insurance companies, local in operation, are found in the 
farming districts of the county. 


The pioneer German settlers brought their love for music and many of 
their musical instruments with them. Musical organizations were formed 
early at Jasper, Huntingburg, and Ferdinand. 


The first orchestra in Dubois county was organized by the Jerger and 
Eckert families in 1845. The first military band was organized by Prof. 
Decker in 1858. He was succeeded by Prof. Merfert, who died in 1861. 
Mathias Schmidt, of Co. K, 27th Indiana, was his successor until 1870. 
About that time Prof. Charles Soliga organized a brass band, and its suc- 
cessor was the famous Jasper Star Band, organized in 1876. All of these 
organizations were at Jasper. The Star Band was organized by Prof. M. 
F. Durlauf and John P. Egg, with Henry Berger, as leader. Subsequent 
leaders were Tobias Zoeller, Leo J. Meyer, and M. F. Durlauf. 

The following musicians have been members of the Star Band: John 
P- Egg, Joseph Gerber, William Flick, Joseph F. Friedman, Benhard 
Krodel, Joseph I. Schumacher, John M. Schmidt, John Jerger, George 
W. Brosemer, Joseph Jochem, Martin J. Friedman, Charles Renner, Henry 
Berger, Tobias Zoeller, Leo. J. Meyer, Edward Egg, M. J. Durlauf, Jr., 
Leo F. Durlauf, Joseph Gutzweiler, George Roelle, Louis Sturm, John 
Rottet, Robert Rottet, Albert Rottet, William Haller, Charles Soliga, Fred 
Cron, Alexander Durlauf, Mathias Judy, Joseph Gehl, William Jochim, 
Martin Rees, and William Miller. 

In its early days its favorite selections were "Shall We Gather at the 
River?" "Adelia," "Mocking Bird," "Gathering Shells at the Sea-shore," 
"Come Where My Love Lies Dreaming," "Aufnach Africa," "Wien 
Blielet Wien," and the national airs. 

The Star Band when best known was organized as follows: Prof. M. F. 
Durlauf, leader; Fred Cron, E/^ clarinet; John Rottet, B6 clarinet; Robert 
Rottet, ^b cornet; M. J. Durlauf, Jr., solo cornet; Mathias Judy, solo alto; 
Edward Egg, ist alto; William Miller, 2d alto; Leo. F. Durlauf, baritone 
and solo trombone; John P. Egg, bass; George Roelle, bass drum; Alex- 
ander Durlauf, snare drum. This was from 1898 to 1902. 

On August 4, 1884, Prof. M. F. Durlauf won first prize, a gold and 
silver B/^ cornet, valued at $125, in a contest at Evansville. The grand 
band consisted of two hundred and fifty pieces. Prof. Durlauf won his 
contest with a ^b cornet solo. 

Among the early German pioneers whose musical abilities are still 
recalled may be mentioned the following: Prof. Decker, cornet and violin; 
Prof. Merfert, cornet and violin; Mathias Schmidt, cornet and horn; John 
Roelle, drum and bells; Geo. J. Jutt, basso, piano, and organ; Joseph 
Jerger, violin and E(^ basso; F. X. Eckert, clarinet and cello; Alois Eckert, 
clarinet and horn; Adolph Harter, flute and trombone; Andreas Eckert, 
clarinet; Anton Eckert, trombone; Henry A. Holthaus, alto; Gen. John 
Mehringer, cornet; Sebastian Kuebler, alto; Joseph Rottet, alto; Lieut. 
Stephen Jerger, drum; 'Dominick Eckert, cornet; Paul Egg, drum; Joseph 
Friedman, Sr., baritone; Isidor Schumacher, cornet; Ferdinand Schu- 
macher, basso; and Michael J. Durlauf, Sr., snare drum. Some of these 
served as musicians in regimental bands during part of the Civil War. 




The musical tendencies of the Germans of Huntingburg are shown in 
the organization in 1859 of the Helfrich Band. It was organized by Wm. 
G. Helfrich, a German, and graduate of West Point, and Francis Delphus, 
a French color bearer who lost his life in the Civil War. 

The members were Ernst Pickhardt, John F. Meinker, Henry Berger, 
Conrad Ewing, Conrad Hoevener, Charles Mahler, Louis Krebs, Jacob 
Fromm, Henry Mauntel, Joseph Miller, Fred Moenkhaus, Charles Indi- 
rieden, and Moses Baurmeister. 


The Southern railroad, which crosses Dubois county in two directions, 
is the principal means of transportation. The main east and west line 
was built through the county about 1882. A railroad was built from 
Rockport to Jasper, and the first train came to the county seat on Feb- 
ruary 14, 1879. Toward the construction of this road the citizens of the 
county gave many thousands. 

In 1907, the extension from Jasper to French Eick was completed and 
on December i, 1907, the first scheduled train passed over the road. 

Communication may be had with every neighborhood in the county. 
The Dubois County Telephone Company, a local institution, and the Cum- 
berland Telephone Company, serve the people. The local company began 
in 1896; the Cumberland had entered the field previously. 

That part of Dubois county lying west of a straight line drawn from 
Haysville on White river, and passing the Ackerman, Hopkins, and Alex- 
ander school-houses down to Patoka river, is the garden spot of the county. 
Here lie its valuable farm lands. The middle portion of the county con- 
tains its factories, and the eastern part its timber interests. 

On the north, White river passes along the county over a meridional 
distance of about twelve miles. Patoka river flows through the county 
from east to west. It is a verj^ sluggish stream, and when its banks are 
half full its fall is less than one foot in a mile. It flows for nearly one hun- 
dred miles through Dubois county. 

The county has many coal beds. All that are worked are operated by 
slopes. Some of the coal is excellent. 

In the various factories of the county are manufactured organs, sucker- 
rods, handsome colored pressed brick, shingles, veneer, secretaries or 
desks, engines, boilers, bicycles, spokes, headings, staves, hoops, furniture, 
and many other things that are shipped to various parts of the world. 

Creameries, flour mills, and canneries are in operation in many 
towns in the county, and are prosperous. 

The face of Dubois county is rolling and in some parts broken and 


hilly; the county, nevertheless, contains some extensive tracts of level 
land. The soil is generally a rich loam and along the water courses some- 
what sandy. 

The timber is of all varieties found in the state; the kinds most prevail- 
ing are poplar, walnut, cherry, ash, hickory, sugar, gum, buckeye, beech, 
maple, and the different varieties of oak, with an undergrowth of dog- 
wood, hawthorne, pawpaw, and spice. The forests are rapidly disappearing. 

Sand rock and limestone are found in some parts of the county. 

Beef, corn, flour, wheat, pork, poultry, eggs, butter, and canned goods 
are the principal articles of produce for exportation. Lumber, cross 
ties, and articles manufactured of wood, are exported in great quantities. 

Rural free delivery of mail serves the farmers of various parts of the 
county, but not as extensively as it should. The first rural route out of 
Jasper was opened April i, 1902, with Henry S. Mehringer, carrier. There 
are three routes out of Jasper, two out of Huntingburg, one out of Holland, 
and one out of Dubois. 

The question of improved roads began to receive considerable attention 
in 1903, when rock road construction began in Patoka township, the farm- 
ers having been fully aroused to the necessity of improvement in this direc- 
tion. Agitation on the subject has been kept alive, and the advance toward 
a better condition of country roads has been rapid since 1903. Consider- 
able extensions are made from year to year. Columbia, Bainbridge, 
Patoka, and Cass townships have begun improved roads. Bonds are 
issued to pay for the construction. 

Farming is the principal occupation of the citizens of the county. 
There are no exceedingly large farms, but many productive and well man- 
aged ones. 

Conservatism in monej' affairs, veracity in statements, honesty of pur- 
pose, the love of home, respect for law and order, abhorrence of a debt, sin- 
cerity in religious matters, outspoken in political affiliations, respect for a 
promise once made, and industry, in particular, are the general character- 
istics of the citizens of Dubois county. 




Toussaint Dubois, a native of France, disinherited by father, went to Lower Canada; 
came to Indiana territory; became an expert at fur trading — Gen. Wm. Henry Har- 
rison gave Dubois the rank of captain in the Tippecanoe campaign — Tecumseh 
and his brother. The Prophet — The Prophet's Town — Indians commit depredations 
— Extract from Dillon's History of Indiana; extract from Beard's Battle of Tip- 
pecanoe — Annuity salt — Dubois and the Prophet — Mr. Barron and the Prophet — 
Gen. Harrison's army at Vincennes — Roll of Capt. Dubois' Company of Spies and 
Guides — The march, the camp, the desire of Gen. Harrison to prevent hostilities, 
the battle— Absence of Tecumseh— Burial of dead — Result of battle — Tippecanoe 
battlefield — Dubois county named in honor of Capt. Toussaint Dubois — Counties- 
named in honor of faithful soldiers of Tippecanoe campaign — Indian names. 

In this sketch we have no desire to make a hero of our subject, but 
simply to present some history of local interest not generally known. That 
full justice may be done, this sketch goes somewhat into detail, for the sub- 
ject deserves it, and the younger citizens of Dubois county should know it. 


If Dubois county were in New England, a monument would have been 
erected long ago in the county's public square, proclaiming the services of 
Captain Dubois; and, perhaps, an oil painting of our subject would hang 
in the county court room to introduce the features of Captain Dubois to 
the citizens of the county bearing his name. 

The lives of our pioneers were marked with so many striking character- 
istics of heroic daring, of sacrifice, and of danger in the wilderness, as to 
afford a theme of manifold importance. "Peace has its victories no less 
renowned than war." 

Dubois county was named in honor of Captain Toussaint Dubois, a 
Frenchman, of Vincennes, Ind. It is said his father was a French noble- 
man and that Captain Dubois was disinherited by his father for leaving 
France and coming to America with General Lafayette. At any rate, at 
one time, there was a legal notice in a French newspaper, copied in the New 
York papers, calling for the Dubois heirs, of which Toussaint was one. It 
seems that the property had been willed from him for ninety-nine years, but 
it was to be given to his heirs after a certain length of time. Nothing 
ever became of the case so far as now known. Captain Dubois found his 
way to lyOwer Canada at an early age. From Lower Canada he came to 
the territory of Indiana and soon became one of its prominent pioneers; a 
man of much influence both among the citizens of Vincennes and the red 
men of the surrounding forests. He was a gentleman of means, having 
both money and landed interests. At the same time, he gave considerable 
attention to trading with the Indians, an employment by which he acquired 
a powerful influence over them. 

In 1800, when the territorial government of Indiana was organized, 
although many parts of the state had been settled for more than fifty years 
by whites, the territory was but a wilderness. Its scattered settlements 
were filled with scenes and incidents of border life, many of which were 
full of romantic situations. A considerable traffic was carried on v\ith the 
Indians by fur traders at Vincennes and other places. 

"The furs and peltries which were obtained from the Indians," says 
Dillon, "were generally transported to Detroit. The skins were dried, 
compressed and secured in packs, of about one hundred pounds in weight. 
A boat was made large enough to carry about forty packs, and it required 
four men to manage it. Such boats were propelled fifteen or twenty miles 
a day, against the current. After ascending the river Wabash, and the 
Little river, to the portage near Fort Wayne, the traders carried their 
packs over the portage to the head of the river Maumee, where they were 
again placed in boats to be transported to Detroit. At this place the furs 
and skins were exchanged for blankets, guns, knives, powder, bullets, 
liquors, etc., with which the traders returned to their several posts." 
Captain Dubois became an expert at this kind of work, and thereby 
acquired an important influence in adjusting difficulties with the Indians; 
for, he bought their furs and knew their habits, likes, and dislikes. 


When General William Henry Harrison decided to move against the 
Indians on the upper Wabash, in iSii, Toussaint Dubois offered his 
services. He was given the rank of captain, and had charge of the 
.scouts and spies in the Tippecanoe campaign. He was sent ahead of the 
troops to confer with the Indians. He took part in the battle of Tippe- 
canoe, November 7, 181 1. This battle and our subject are so closely 
related that a short account of the actions of the Indians previous to, 
during, and after the battle, seems necessary. 

The administration of General Harrison, as governor of Indiana terri- 
tory, was distinguished by the great number of treaties which he had made 
with the Indians, and the large tracts of land that he had secured from 
them. These, however, were not obtained without trouble. 

Tecumseh and his brother, "The Prophet," were the two main causes 
of trouble with the Indians. Tecum.seh was an Ohio Indian, born in 1768. 
His father and mother, as well as himself, were above the ordinary level 
of the Indian. He excelled all his fellows in the use of the bow and arrow, 
and in many other ways exerted a great influence over the young men of 
his tribe. He was an orator, and his strong argument was that "no one 
tribe could sell land, because the land belonged to all tribes in common, 
even though a certain section of the country was inhabited by one particu- 
lar tribe." He aimed at consolidation. His brother, "the Prophet," did 
not have the mental acumen of Tecumseh, but claimed supernatural power, 
and led his followers to believe it. In the religion taught by ' 'the Prophet" 
were found many virtues, gained, for the most part, from contact with the 
white travelers, and adulterated with Indian superstition. He preached 
total abstinence. He taught Teverence for old age, and sympathy for the 
infirm. He claimed his will to be supreme, and whoever controverted it 
endangered himself. The superstitious character of "the Prophet's" asso- 
ciates made him a dangerous man to the white men in the wilderness. He 
soon had great influence over the Indians for evil. "The Prophet" and 
Tecumseh settled on Tippecanoe creek, near the present city of Lafayette, 
Indiana, and they claimed that they were directed to do so by the "Great 
Spirit." Their village was called "The Prophet's Town." These two 
Indians were the leaders against whom the early settlers of Indiana terri- 
tory had to contend. Tribes previously friendly to the settlers were won 
away by these Indians. The Indians began to steal horses, and to murder 
the settlers. These depredations multiplied rapidly, and they kept crowd- 
ing their depredations closer and closer to Vincennes. In Dillon's "His- 
tory of Indiana" we read: 

"Throughout the course of the year 1810 various rumors of the growing 
power and hostile intentions of the "Shawnee Prophet" produced a state 
of some alarm among the people, and retarded the progress of settlements 
and improvments in the several counties of the Indiana territory. In the 
summer of this year a small party of Indians stole four horses from one 


neighborhood in the northern part of Knox county, and committed some 
depredations on the property of a few pioneers who had made a settlement 
on the east fork of White river." 

The fact is mentioned by several historians, and it is interesting to us 
because it is said the horses referred to belonged to the McDonalds, and the 
settlement mentioned was the one now known as the "Sherritt Farm and 
Graveyard" in Dubois county. We can find no record of any other settle- 
ment at that early date that answers this description. The McDonalds 
in this county had their horses stolen by the Indians in that year. 
Horses in those days were valuable, both to the Indians and settlers. The 
Indians were taking all the horses they could obtain for their own use in 
the conflict then contemplated. The British in Lower Canada were 
encouraging the Indians. 

Dillon, in his History of Indiana, says: "In order to defeat the hostile 
designs of the Prophet, to counteract the influence of British traders and to 
maintain the pacific relations between the United States and the Indian 
tribes of the west. Governor Harrison frequently sent confidential messen- 
gers to the Prophet's Town, and to the principal villages of the Miamis, 
Delawares, and Pottawattamies. Francis Vigo, Toussaint Dubois, Joseph 
Barron, Pierre Laplante, John Conner, M. Brouillette, and William Prince, 
were the most influential persons among those who were, at different times, 
sent with messages from the governor to the Miamis and Delawares; and 
they were authorized and instructed to assure those tribes of the protection 
and friendship of the government of the United States, and to warn them 
of the danger of encouraging the claims and pretentions of the Shawnee 

In Beard's "Battle of Tippecanoe," the same information is given in 
slightly different words. One of the considerations, in the sale of the 
Indian lands, was that the government should furnish the Indians with a 
certain amount of salt, called "annuity salt." 

We again read from Dillon, the father of Indiana history: "In the 
spring of the year 1810, the Indians who resided at the 'Prophet's Town' 
refused to receive their proportion of 'annuity salt' and the boatmen 
who offered to deliver the proper quantity of salt at that place, were called 
'American dogs,' and treated with great rudeness. About this time Gov- 
ernor Harrison sent successively, several messengers to the 'Prophet's 
Town' in order to obtain exact information of the feelings and designs of 
the Prophet and to warn him, especially, of the danger of maintaining an 
attitude of hostility toward the government of the United States. In an 
interview with one of these messengers, who visited the 'Prophet's Town' 
in the month of June, 1810, the Prophet declared that it was not his intention 
to make war on the white people; and he said that some of the Delawares 
and some other Indians, 'had been bribed with whiskey, to make the false 
charges against him.' When pressed by the messenger, Mr. Dubois, to 


state the grounds of his complaints against the United States, the Prophet 
said that the 'Indians had been cheated out of their lands; that no sale 
was good unless made by all the tribes; that he had settled near the mouth 
of the Tippecanoe, by order of the 'Great Spirit;' and that he was like- 
wise ordered to assemble as many Indians as he could collect at that place." 

In the month of July, 1810, Governor Harrison sent to "The Prophet" 
a letter that was intended to convince him of the folly of his hostility to 
the government of the United States, and to give him assurance of the 
disposition of the national government to promote the welfare of the Indian 
tribes. When Mr. Barron, who was the bearer of this letter, arrived at 
the "Prophet's Town," his reception was somewhat remarkable. He was 
conducted, in a ceremonious manner, to the place where the Prophet, sur- 
rounded by a number of Indians of different tribes, was sitting. Here 
the attendants of Mr. Barron left him standing before "The Prophet," at 
the distance of ten or twelve feet from him. "He looked at me," said Mr. 
Barron, "for several minutes, without speaking or making any sign of 
recognition, although he knew me well. At last he spoke, apparently in 
anger: 'For what purpose do you come here?' said he. 'Brouillette was 
here; he was a spy. Dubois was here; he was a spy. Now you have 
come. You, too, are a spy. There is your grave — look on it.' ''The 
Prophet' then pointed to the ground, near the spot where I stood." 
Tecumseh, at this moment, came out from one of the Indian lodges. He 
spoke to Mr. Barron in a cold, formal manner; told him that his life was 
in no danger, and requested him to state the object of his visit to the 
"Prophet's Town." The contents of the letter of Governor Harrison 
were then communicated to the "Prophet." Mr. Barron received no defi- 
nite answer to this letter, but he was told that Tecumesh would, in a few 
days, visit Vincennes, for the purpose of holding an interview with the 

The visit was made, but no agreement could be reached. All attempts 
to find a friendly solution of the trouble were at an end, and General Har- 
rison began to organize his army at Vincennes, for the purpose of driving 
the Indians from "The Prophet's Town " His army consisted of about 
nine hundred ten men. About the same number of Indians were at Tip- 

Since Captain Dubois had often gone through the country from Vin- 
cennes, along the Wabash river, to Detroit, he was made captain of the 
spies and guides. The army left Vincennes, September 26, 181 1. 

The following list of names is taken from the rolls now on file in the 
city of Washington of the various companies under command of General 
Harrison in this campaign. After the roll of the general staff of the 
army, follows that of Captain Dubois, namely: 

Roll of Captain Dubois' Company of Spies and Guides, of the Indiana 
Militia, from September 18, to November 12, 181 1: 


Toussaifif Dubois, captain: privates: Silas McCulloch, G. R. C. Sulli- 
van, William Bruce, William Polk, Pierre Andre, Ephraim Jourdan, Wil- 
liam Shaw, Wm. Hogue (discharged October 4), David Wilkins, John 
PloUingsworth, Thomas Learens, Joseph Arpin, Abraham Decker, Samuel 
James, David Mills, Stewart Cunningham, Bocker Childers, Thomas Jordan. 

Captain Dubois guided the army safely to within sight of "The Proph- 
et's Town." Beard, in his History of the Battle of Tippecanoe, says: 
"The march to Tippecanoe was conducted with great caution. There were 
two routes leading to 'The Prophet's Town' in general use by the Indians; 
one on each side of the Wabash River. The one on the left or southeast 
side was the shorter, but lay in a wooded country where the armj' would 
be exposed to ambuscade. The route on the right, or northwest side of 
the Wabash, presented less opportunity for such attacks, and was there- 
fore preferred by General Harrison over which to conduct his army. On 
the night of the 5th of November, the army encamped near the present 
village of Montmorenci, in the western part of Tippecanoe county, about 
ten miles from the 'Prophet's Town.' On the following day the march 
was resumed. Indians were seen lurking about, and the interpreters in 
front of the army were instructed to interview them. The Indians refused 
to talk, and replied only with defiant gestures. At 2 o'clock in the after- 
noon of the 6th of November, the army arrived within about a mile and a 
half of the 'Prophet's Town.' General Harrison was urged to make an 
immediate attack. But his instructions were to avoid hostilities, if possi- 
ple, and he still hoped for the arrival in his army of a deputation of 
friendly Indians, which he had sent while yet at Fort Harrison, concerning 
whom nothing had been heard or seen. General Harrison sent Captain 
Dubois, accompanied by an interpreter, forward with a flag of truce. The 
Indians refused to converse with them, and endeavored to cut them off 
from the army on their return. Harrison determined to encamp for the 
night, and started in search of suitable ground. When he had almost 
reached the town, 'The Prophet' sent forward a deputation of three 
Indians, including his chief counsellor. With much pretended innocence 
they inquired why the American army had approached so near their 
town. They disclaimed all hostile intentions, and told Harrison that 
'The Prophet' had sent a pacific message to him by the friendly Indians, 
who had returned to Fort Harrison by the road on the southeast side of 
the Wabash, and had by that cause failed to meet him. It was arranged 
that General Harrison should meet 'The Prophet' on the following day 
and conclude a treatj^ of peace. He inquired of the Indians for a suitable 
camping ground, where the army could have plenty of fuel and water. 
They referred him to a site on a creek near the town. Harrison dis- 
patched two of his officers, Major Marston G. Clark and Major Waller 
Taylor, to inspect this ground. After an examination, thej^ reported 
everything satisfactorJ^ and the army went into camp for the night." 


In speaking of the army the day before the battle of Tippecanoe, Dillon, 
in his History of Indiana, says: 

"The army came in view of of the 'Prophet's Town,' on the afternoon 
of the 6th of November. During the march of this day, small parties of 
Indians were constantly seen hovering about the army; and General Harri- 
son's interpreters made several unsuccessful attempts to open a conference 
with them. On reaching a point about a mile and a half from the "Pro- 
phet's Town" the army was ordered to halt, and General Harrison directed 
Toussaint Dubois (who was captain of the spies and guides), to go for- 
ward with an interpreter and request a conference with the Prophet. As 
Captain Dubois proceeded on his way to execute this order, several Indians, 
to whom he spoke in a friendly manner, refused to speak to him; but, by 
motions, urged him to go forward, and seemed to be endeavoring to cut him 
off from the main army. On being informed of these apparently hostile 
manifestations on the part of the Indians, Governor Harrison dispatched a 
messenger to recall Captain Dubois; and soon after the return of that offi- 
cer, the whole army, in order of battle, began to move toward the town, 
the interpreters having been placed in front with orders to invite a confer- 
ence with the Indians." 

What would have been the result if "The Prophet" had never told 
Captain Dubois, in June, of his intention to assemble all Indians possible, 
at Tippecanoe? What would have been the effect if "The Prophet" had 
received Captain Dubois? Would peace have been declared? Would the 
battle of Tippecanoe have been fought ? Would the British have continued 
their acts of exciting the Indians against the Americans? Would General 
Harrison have gained such renown as a warrior ? Who would have had 
the good will of the Indians in the "War of 1812?" We leave you to 
draw your own conclusions. 

On the morning of November 7th, 181 1, just as General Harrison was 
about to order the morning call, the army was attacked by the Indians, 
and, by reason of the carelessness of one of the sentries, the result came 
very nearly being disastrous to the American arms. The battle has 
caused many heated political discussions. In the end, however, the 
Indians were defeated. The American loss was thirly-seven killed and 
one hundred fifty-one wounded, of which twenty-five were mortally 
wounded. The loss to the Indians was about the same as that of the 
Americans, there being thirty-eight bodies found on the field after the 
battle. This fact, when considered with the Indian custom of carrying 
off the dead, indicates a heavy loss. 

The defeat of the Indians in this battle caused them to lose faith in 
"The Prophet," and the great majority of them returned to their tribes. 
The battle of Tippecanoe was fought contrary to the orders of Tecumseh, 
who, when he returned from the South with his confederacy completed, 
found that all had been ruined by the folly of his brother. In this fight 


the Indians chewed the bullets they used, that wounds created might be 
more lacerating. This partially accounts for the great mortality among 
the wounded. 

General Harrison buried his dead and burned logs over their graves to 
conceal the spots for interment. The Indians, however, found the places 
and disinterred the dead soldiers. General Hopkins, who visited the bat- 
tle-field the following year, gathered the scattered remains and replaced 
them in graves. Beard, the historian, in commenting on this battle, says: 

"The battle of Tippecanoe was the precursor of the War of 1812. It 
was a great struggle, in which civilization triumphed over barbarism. It 
was by far the greatest military engagement ever fought on Indiana soil. 
It effectually checked the Indian depredations in the northwest, and had it 
not been for the War of 18 12, this check would have been a permanent 
cessation of hostilities. It broke Tecumseh's confederation into frag- 
ments. The calm that followed, however, was deceptive, preceding, as it 
did, the storm that broke forth on the northwestern frontier during the 
war which shortly followed, Tecumseh revisited the tribes and assisted in 
forming an alliance with the British and Indians against the United States. 
But the defeat of his brother at Tippecanoe forever put at rest his dreams 
of a vast Indian empire. This battle, though national in its results, has 
been more particularly appreciated by the people of Indiana. No fewer 
than fifteen counties of the state have been named in honor of heroes who 
participated in this conflict." 

The constitution of Indiana provides for the permanent enclosure and 
preservation of the battlefield of Tippecanoe. In 1872, an iron fence was 
placed around the field at a cost of $18,000. Avery creditable Soldiers' 
Monument, on the battle ground, near L<afayette, Indiana, commemorates 
the only notable battle fought on Indiana soil, by General Harrison. 

Capt. Dubois was the last white man to visit the head-strong Prophet 
before the tocsin of war sounded the alarm. One cannot help but think 
that the days of the Indian of the northwest territory had been numbered. 
The Indian had been weighed in the balances and found wanting. Indi- 
ana's magnificent capitol was to take the place of his "long house," com- 
fortable country homes were to succeed his wigwam, and bounteous fields 
of corn and wheat were to follow the destruction of his happy hunting 

In 1814, appeared a notice in the Western Szin, published at Vincennes, 
in which Captain Dubois informed his men who served under him in the 
Tippecanoe campaign, that he had received the money to pay them for 
their services and that they could receive it by calling on him. 

As previously stated, Dubois county was named in honor of our subject. 
This was in keeping with the unwritten law in the early days of Indiana, 
of naming newly created counties in honor of some faithful soldier of the 
Tippecanoe campaign. 


About one-sixth of all the counties in the state of Indiana thus honor 
heroes of Tippecanoe. Bartholomew county was named in honor of Lieu- 
ienant-Colonel Joseph Bartholomew, who commanded a detachment of Indi- 
ana infantry in this battle, where he was severely wounded. Daviess 
county bears the name of Major Joseph Hamilton Daviess, a distinguished 
orator of Kentucky, who was killed in the battle while commanding his 
dragoons. Harrison county was named in honor of General Harrison. 
Owen county honors Colonel Abraham Owen, aid-de-camp to General 
Harrison. He was the only member of the general staff killed in the battle. 
Spencer county, and also the city of Spencer, in Owen county, perpetuate 
the name of Captain Spier Spencer who was killed at the head of his com- 
pany, known as the "Yellow Jackets," because of the color of the uniforms. 
Warrick county honors Captain Jacob Warrick, also killed in the battle. 
Wells county is named in honor of Major Samuel Wells, of Kentucky, who 
• distinguished himself in the battle. White county carries the name of Col. 
Isaac White, who fell by the side of Colonel Daviess. 

Add to this list those names which we may have overlooked, including 
the counties bearing Indian names, such as Delaware, Miami and Tippe- 
canoe, and it will be observed that participants in this battle, on both sides, 
have been remembered with honor in Indiana. When we look at things in 
this light, our county has been properly named Dubois. Toussaint Dubois, 
Jr., and Henry Dubois, the two older sons of Captain Dubois, were privates 
in Captain Benjamin Parke's Troops of Light Dragoons, in the battle of 
Tippecanoe. This is shown, at Washington, in General Harrison's report 
of the battle. 

On September 26, 18 12, Capt. Dubois was commissioned major com- 
mandant of all the spies in Indiana. 

With this we close the military life of Captain Dubois and take up his 
civil life. 



Religion, occupation, and property of Capt. Dubois — Citizen of Vincennes — Member of 
board of trustees of Vincennes Universitj- — Use of lottery — Copy of patent issued 
to Toussaint Dubois,