Skip to main content

Full text of "The history of Easton, Penn'a from the earliest times to the present, 1739-1885"

See other formats

IVl. u 






3 1833 02223 8346 






viewf:d from I'liiujpSBrRO, n. j. 

W. West, Easton, Pa.1 


Rev. UZAL W. CONDIT, A, M., Ph. I). 

' ■•'x, 7* 





The Earliest Times^The Present, 




Ex-President of the State Board of Education 
OF New Hampshire. 

Tov wotjjaai ^ipXia iroWla ovx toTiv vcpaafioc. 





W H^A^uxjuJ 

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1885, by 

in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



dean of the pardee scientific department 
of lafayette college, — the eminent 
physician and friend of education 
and of sound learning, adorned by 
that higher learning which will 
shine brightly in a higher sphere : 
a lineal descendant of one of the 
prominent actors in the early his- 
tory of easton, especially during 
the stormy scenes of the revolu- 
tion — to this eminent christian 
scholar and patriot this work is 
most respectfully and affection- 
ately dedicated by 

The Author. 


THE topography of Easton being so grand, nature 
having done so much, we believe the time is now 
when this beauty should be in book fonn. Go to 
what point vou may, your eyes behold a beautiful, a dazzling 
picture. There is not a town of its size that can compare 
with it in beauty of situation, and its beauty is known far 
and wide. 

The "Forks of the Delaware" was known a century 
and a half ago, and who among us does not like the sound? 
To illustrate it as it is to-day, and what it was many years 
ago, is the aim of the publisher. For that purpose he has 
had a goodly number of photographic views taken, and 
secured the loan of several rare and valuable paintings. 
One of the best wood engravers in Philadelphia has been 
engaged to do the engraving, and beauty and accuracy will 
appear in each number of the book. 

This is the first attempt at Illustrated Easton. This is 
our initial number, and our second will be no less inter- 
esting than the first ; indeed, as the work ad\-auces it 
increases in interest, and unfolds some of the grandest 
cliaracters in the history of Pennsylvania. 



Authors Preface, 

HE AUTHOR'S object in preparing the following work was to preserve 
a record of the history of onr Borough, and gather together many fafts that 
were rapidly passing into the region of forgetfulness. There are a few old 
people whose lives connedl the present with the past, whose recolle<5tions 
have been of benefit to the author, and as far as pradticable, have been pre- 
served. The author had not the slightest conception of the magnitude of 
the task, nor of the real importance of Easton's early history when he beo-an 
Y to write. Many times surprise has been mingled with pleasure as the scat- 

tered elements of her historic life have been unfolded among the dusty volumes so 
seldom read ; and if the citizens of Easton enjoy the reading as the author has enjoyed the 
writing, he will feel that his work will not have been in vain. 

It may be proper to acknowledge the works which have been consulted in the progress 
of this work ; and it would be ingratitude not to gratefully acknowledge the counsel and 
constant kindness of Elisha Allis, Esq., in the progress of the work: his excellent 
library, without which the work could not have attained to even its present excellence, 
has been at the author's disposal as if it were his own. The Colonial Records and Archives 
of Pennsylvania, Davis' History of Bucks County, and Rupp's History of Northampton 
County, History of the Lehigh Valley, History of the Moravians, Congressional Records 
(a part of which were found in the Astor Library), Anderson's Lives of the Signers of the 
Declaration of Independence, Original Records of the Committee of Safety, various His- 
tories of the United States, Sparks' Life of Washington, old Files of Papers in the Easton 
Library, Files of Easton "Express," "Argus" and "Free Press," Harbaugh's Life of Rev. 
Schlatter, Dr. Egle's History of Pennsylvania and Historical Register of Pennsylvania, 
Life of Major Van Cam pen. Coffin's Men of Lafayette, Owen's Historical Sketches of 
Lafayette, Copp's Prominent Citizens of Easton, and China and the United States. 
These and other works will be referred to. 

The plan of the book is to introduce each subject in the chronological order of its 
occurrence, and follow it to its conclusion, so that each topic will be complete in itself; 
the author hopes in this manner to avoid confusion. 




Introductory Chapter. 


Mount Jefferson — Mount Lafayette — Mount Olympus — Lehigh Hills — Rivers — Combination of Mountains, 
Valleys and Rivers — Where Parsons Meant the Town to be Built — First House in Easton, by Whom Built, 
and Where — Michael Schlatter; Birth Place; Errand to America; Visit to Europe ; Raises Money for 
Churches and Schools in Pennsylvania ; His Presentation of a Bible ; His Death and Burial in Philadelphia. 

|HEN the people of Easton contemplated erecting their first Court Hotise, 
in 1753, a large number of petitioners in other parts of the county sent a 
remonstrance to the Provincial Assembly against building the Court House 
in Easton. One of the reasons assigned for their opposition was that the 
hills were so high and steep as to endanger one's life to approach the vil- 
lage. But the ground of their objection is the source of Easton's topo- 
graphical beauty. No stranger of taste ever visits Easton without being 
channed with the hills and valleys and shining rivers, ever changing in 
grandeur as the observer changes position — like the varying glories of the 
kaleidoscope. The want of system in these mountains greatly adds to their beauty. 
When wandering around the College buildings on Mount Lafayette, the eyes catch the 
distant ranges of mountains, which greet the vision in whatever direction we turn. Yon- 
der, to the west, stretch the Kittatinny or Endless Mountains, just far enough removed 
to be covered with the bewitching haze of Summer, enveloped in the gentle tints of 
ethereal blue in the clear atmosphere of Winter ; while standing in front of the Presi- 
dent's mansion, just below us, where the L,ehigh empties its waters into the Delaware, 
start the lychigh Hills, stretching with a gentle curve toward the west, at whose base the 
river winds its way, and when reflecting the sunlight, or the rays of the full moon, looks 
like a silver ribbon skirting the landscape. And near the same spot starts a range of 
hills on the right bank of the Delaware, at whose base the limpid waters of this historic 
river wend their way to\vard the sea, and both river and hills, gently curving to the 
north, are lost behind other hills on the left bank. 

If we ascend Mount Olympus, the highest point in the Chestnut Range, just north of 
the College campus, we catch a glimpse of the river approaching from the north, running 
through gaps in the mountains, quite as beautiful in their wildness as the far-famed Water 
Gap, thirty miles away. From this Olympian height expands a scene of beauty rarely wit- 
nessed. A few years ago a gentleman passing through Easton had his attention arrested 
by the combination of mountain and river, and remarked: "He was familiar with the 


valley of the Rhine, but he had never witnessed anything more beautiful than this." 
Men will go to Europe, climb the Alps to get a glimpse of scenen.' not more beautiful than 
that which greets the eye of the beholder from the summit of this American Olympus. 

But the mountains encircling the old site of Easton are they against which the remon- 
strants, in 1753, hurled their anathemas. The level surface around the Square was the 
extent to which William Parsons -limited the future town. On the northwest stands 
Mount Jefferson, which received its name from the fa(?l of a great celebration that took 
place upon its summit in 1800, in honor of the election of Thomas Jefferson to the Presi- 
denc)-. An ox was roasted on its top, and the excavation is still visible. On the north 
is Mount Lafayette, so named in honor of the son of France, the friend of Washington 
and America. On the southwest is a height ascended from Fourth street, up Lehigh 
street, by a series of steps, to Fifth street, from which we continue to ascend until we 
reach a position south of the Court House. This is of equal altitude with the other two 
mountains, and has been called ' ' Court House Hill. ' ' 

Before 1739, when David Martin built his ferry house at the foot of Ferry street, the 
whole scene was covered with a growth of bushes. These beautiful rivers rolled along 
with their gurgling music under the forests overhanging their banks. There was little to 
disturb the profound quiet, which reigned supreme, except the sighing of the winds, the 
rustling stonn, the singing of birds, the loud-crashing thunder, or the war dance, or the 
loud war-whoop of the savages. On Mount Lafayette, on the heights where South Easton 
stands, or on the banks of the Lehigh, could be seen the smoke curling through the tree- 
tops from the fires of Indian camps ; or one might have caught a glimpse of a fleet of 
canoes descending the Delaware and Lehigh, filled with the dusky children of the forests. 
This was the garden of the Lenni Lenape, chosen for its beauty, * the convenience of its 
rivers, which afforded easy communication with the interior of the country-, and as they 
came down either river they found a landing-place for their canoes on a long point extend- 
ing far out toward the right bank of the Lehigh. This point has long since been washed 
away, though the name still remains — "The Point." 

Not only was this locality chosen for its beauty and convenience, but for the abund- 
ance of game which roamed through these valleys and along these mountain sides. The 
historian of the Moravians tells us that the Indians would catch two thousand shad in a 
single day at Bethlehem, and at the junction of the rivers theit; efforts would be equally 
successful. This scene in its wildness was the capitol of the noble Delaware Tribe. There 
were no stately Oothic temples, nor lofty Corinthian columns, where these dusky lords of 
the forest would legislate for the nation's welfare ; but there were umbrageous frescoings 
arched on lofty columns, reared by the hands of the Great Spirit, beneath whose shade the 
Indian mother could lull her babe to sleep as she snug the rude war songs of her people, 
while the fierce warrior formed his ])lans of I)attlc' and sjiariiencd his \vea]ions for the deadly 

' Kgle's History of Pennsylvania. 



Mu. SiHi.ATTElt w.u- aiipoinled Clinplain in Ihc- French ami Indian War. Ho 

present at the fall of Lewit^burR. He retained his otflcial position in the Rovnl A 

till the Revolutionary War wae begun. He was then ordeix-d to join bis rej;iuient, 

he disobeyed orders. He was a Switz. To bim liberty was dear. He was iinprisi 

in Philadelphio. His house was 

papers, taken. His|>i<i:i]< inn.. 

it, when Mr. Schlaii. i 

father, and ran to Tin. i 

and just as this Hi-i"i,. " i _ 

paper*. He at once iiitrresti-il hii 

expressly for the History of Easto 

ts, including his 
« us on the point 

of I 

seized the picture of her 
hing House reprinted it, 
found a copy anions ''is 

E ASTON, PENN\-l. 9 

onset. But these scenes have long ago passed away. No matter how kindly the red man 
was treated, nor how well the white man paid him for his land, the moment the white man 
began to buy the soil, the doom of the red man was sealed. We pick up here and there 
an arrow-head, open a mound filled with the bones of their dead, only to remind us that 
the powerful people which once owned these fertile lands, lofty mountains and majestic 
rivers have passed away,,.and the places which knew them know them no more forever. 

These beautiful forests were their temples, reared by hands divine. Under their 
shadows they found a peaceful home, a place for their council-fires, their quiet repose, and 
amusements of savage life. Upon the banks of these beautiful rivers the young learned 
the art of war, the warrior painted for battle, and the aged quietly passed the evening of 
life and peacefully passed to the eternal hunting-grounds of their fathers. These people 
were as happy in these sylvan homes as the denizens of Fifth avenue, and quite as proud. 
Their wants were simple and easily met ; their ambition was limited and easily gratified. 
They were firm friends, but implacable foes ; they rarely forgot a kindness or forgave a 
wrong. This was the place assigned for the City of Easton. On this narrow peninsula, 
hemmed in by these mountains, by the Bushkill, Delaware and Lehigh, is the place which 
William Parsons assigned for the city of the future. 


A NOTICE of the above-named gentleman is introduced thus early in the history 
because of his connection with a benevolent movement in Europe, which greatly aided 
in establishing the first church and school-house in Easton, in 1755, three years after the 
county of Northampton was established and five years after the town was surveyed. 

Rev. Mr. Schlatter was bom in St. Gall, in a lonely valley on the banks of the Stein- 
ach, in Switzerland, July 14, 1716. In his fourteenth year he was confirmed and admitted 
to full communion in the Reformed Church. He was naturally of a roving spirit, which is 
not always a virtue, but came to be the element of his great usefulness in the New World. 
He had relatives in Holland who induced him to spend much time in that country, and 
while there he heard of the destitute condition of the Germans in Pennsylvania. He felt 
somewhat as Paul did, on the banks of the ^gean Sea, after hearing the Macedonian cr>'. 
He longed to visit his brethren in Pennsylvania. He was licensed to preach in Holland, 
and by the Synods of North and South Holland was commissioned to preach the Gospel in 
the land of William Penn. He was sent as an organizer, and received his instructions 
from the Synods of Holland, i. He was to visit the different settlements throughout 
which the Reformed sheep were scattered, to gather and organize them into churches 
where this was not done ; and where this was not properly done to induce them to select 


the proper officers, have them installed, and thus perfect their organizations. 2. To ascer- 
tain the amount that each congregation could give annually for the support of a minister 
sent among them. 3. To visit the ministers already in the field and enlist their sympa- 
thies for the formation of a Synod. 4. He was to pay annual visits to the ministers and 
consistories, and learn the wants of the churches. 

When he arrived in this countr)-, in 1746, he found 30,000 members of the Reformed 
Church scattered in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, IMar>-land and Virginia. In visiting these 
people during the next four years, before returning on his mission to Europe, he tra\elled 
nearly ten thousand miles on horseback, and was at the same time pastor of a church in 
Philadelphia. He was looked upon as one of the most energetic workers in the church in 
the early history- of our countr\-. In thus passing through these scattered congregations, 
he had become well acquainted with the religious and educational wants of his people ; 
and he could see no hope of relief but in a mission to Europe. He had passed through a 
serious trouble in his church by the efforts of a young minister to crowd him out of his 
pulpit. This difficulty had been settled in favor of Mr. Schlatter by a committee of 
Quakers, and his church resolved he should go to Europe and present the claims of the 
needy churches amid the forests of the New World. He wrote a powerful appeal to the 
churches of Holland, which aroused the sympathies of the people, and money was liberally 
given. It was translated into the Gennan and sent into Germany with the same effect. 

On pages 262 and 263 of "Harbaugh's Life of Schlatter, " we learn that this appeal of 
Schlatter was translated into English by Rev. Mr. Thompson, preaching for an English 
congregation in Amsterdam, and a member of that Classis, and was widely circulated in 
England and Scotland, backed by a personal visit and appeal on the part of Mr. Thompson, 
urging its claims upon the benevolent in England. Such was the impression made on the 
British nation that the King, the royal family and the nobles were induced to lead off by 
contributions toward a school fund for the benefit of the Gennans in America. Having 
laid this matter open in England, Mr. Thompson also carried the application for aid into 
Scotland, where himself was known, and represented the case before the General Assembly 
(Presbyterian), then sitting in Edinburgh. The result was the taking up a collection of 
twelve thousand pounds sterling; and Rev. Mr. Muhlenberg tells us that in 1754 the sum 
had reached twenty thousand pounds sterling in Scotland alone. These were quite likely 
the happiest days in Mr. Schlatter's life, when he saw he had been instnnnental in arousing 
the benevolent feelings of the people of Holland, Gennany, Switzerland, England and 
Scotland, and found a steady stream of contributions flowing to America for years after he 
had returned and until the churches were able to stand alone. This was the fund from 
the proceeds of which the log church and school house was in jiart l)uilt in Easton in 
1755, in which a school was maintained — the first free school in Easton. 

Mr. Schlatter names forty-si.\ congregations which he visited before he went to 
l'",uni])c, and among them was that at the " Forks of tlie Delaware" (Page 203, " Life of 


Schlatter,"); and having visited it and ascertained its needs, it is not likely he wonld 
neglect it afterwards. From this we may conclude that help was given at the ' ' Forks, ' ' as 
well as at other points. The records of distribution were imperfectly kept, and not well 
preserved, so that the points receiving aid must to some extent be a matter of conjecture. 

Among the friends of Mr. Schlatter, none seemed to rejoice more heartily, in view of 
his success, than Muhlenberg, who spoke in the highest terms of praise of his energy and 
success. He was seven years older than Schlatter, and had been in America four years 
longer, and knew the destitutions quite as well as Schlatter, and they rejoiced together. 
Each rejoiced in the success of their mutual toil. It is a very difircult matter for us at 
this day to obtain an idea of the exacting labor of this devoted apostle to the Gennans. 
From the northern part of Pennsylvania, through New Jersey, and Maryland, and Vir- 
ginia, this faithful man pursued his toilsome way, through forests without roads, over 
rivers without bridges, carrying his meals in his saddle-bags, sleeping at times in the open 
air, carrying money and books for distribution, preaching, administering the communion, 
baptizing children, confirming adults, organizing churches, installing officers, visiting the 
sick and burying the dead, which will serve to give us something of an idea of his hard 
toil. He came to Pennsylvania in 1746, and his mind was soon turned to the organization 
of a Synod of a Reformed Church. Notice had been given for a meeting of ministers and 
elders at Mr. Schlatter's house, on Chestnut Hill. Thirty-one ministers and elders were 
present, and on the 29th of September, 1747, the first Synod of the Reformed Church was 
formed in the New World. Mr. Schlatter was held in the highest esteem by the people, 
from the Governor down to the humblest toiler building homes for future civilization. As 
soon as Mr. Schlatter returned, schools were established, and opened to all Protestant 
denominations.* The pupils were to be instructed in English, German, writing, book- 
keeping, singing of Psalms, and the "true principles of the holy Protestant religion, in the 
same manner as the fathers were instructed at the schools in those countries from which 
they came. They were to have schools for girls, and lady teachers to teach the use of the 
needle. All were to be taught the catechism of sound doctrine which is approved by their 
own ministers and parents. Catechisms used by Calvanists and Lutherans were to be 
printed in 'English and Dutch' (German) and distributed among the poor, together with 
other good books, at the expense of the society. ' ' Trustees were appointed to watch over 
the schools and report to the principal trustees. The}- were to have quarterly meetings, 
at which Schlatter was to be present. Over the whole system of schools thus established, 
Mr. Schlatter was to have supervision, establishing and visiting the schools. A paper was 
established for the use of the schools, in Philadelphia, published in the German language. 

Here we have a system of free schools in the early colonial history of Pennsylvania, 
with quarterly and annual meetings, sustaining a printing press, established by the energy 
and unselfishness of Rev Mr. Schlatter, over which he was appointed superintendent. It 

* Schlatter's Life, page 272. 


must have been a source of pleasing reflection to the faithful, toiling ser\'ant of God, as 
he passed through the country', visiting the pupils in their log school houses, carefully 
preparing for the battles of life, and realize the part he had been permitted to take in 
the great work. He visited Easton before he went to Europe, as this was one of the 
forty-six congregations mentioned by him in his appeal. He presented a Bible to the 
Refonned Church at the " Forks of the Delaware," translated by Martin Luther, and this 
precious volume is still in the possession of the church, and carefully kept in the safe at 
the store of Mr. Anglemeyer. The following is an inscription, found in the front part of 
the Bible, translated by Dr. Detwiller: "Biblia Sacra, or Holy Bible, was presented by 
Michael Schlatter, V. D. M. , and Inspector of the Liberties at Philadelphia, to the Reformed 
Easton Church and congregation, with the friendly request that the elders and deacons 
shall bear reasonable concern for their followers that this Bible is used for and during pub- 
lic service in the church. Soli : Gloria in Excelsis, Deo." 

The list of churches on page 203 of "Harbaugh's Life of Schlatter," indicates that he 
visited Easton (the "Forks") before he went to Europe, in the early part of 1751 ; and the 
gift of this Bible indicates a visit subsequent to his return. He was doubtless led here by 
his duties as a minister and superintendent of the charity schools. He died in 1790, and 
was buried in Philadelphia, in what is now Franklin Square. In 1837 the city took pos- 
session of the burying ground. Some of the bodies were removed, more remained. Among 
those that remained was Mr. Schlatter's. The surface was some four or five feet lower 
than the surrounding ground. The tombstones were laid flat upon the graves, and the 
low surface was graded to a level. That beautiful square covers thousands of silent sleep- 
ers awaiting the resurrection of the just. Directly east of the sparkling jets, a few feet in 
from the circular gravel-walk, under the green sod, lie the Revs. Steiners, Winkhaus, 
Drs. Weyberg and Hendel, the aged. Directly north of this spot, about midway between 
it and Vine street, lies the Rev. Michael Schlatter, one of the greatest of American mis- 
sionaries ! 


Geological Description of the Locality of Easton— The First House at the Point — Survey of the Town — Penii's 
Letter— Old Names of Streets — Northampton County — Court ; First Session — First Hotel —Vernon — First 
Families — Employments— School Fund— Building a School House — Church — Subscribers. 

|HE location thus chosen upon which to build the Town seems to have 
been a whirlpool caused by the mingling of the waters of the two rivers, 
as, in digging wells, driftwood has been found thirty feet below the surface. 
Rocks weighing tons, of the conglomerate formation, are also found six or 
eight feet below the surface. Of these rocks there is no formation nearer 
than twenty miles above the town, along the Delaware. The same causes that 
produced these changes are still at work along the shores of the river. 
This is a fine region for the geologist to examine. "The underlying rock 
is the limestone (secondar\'), yet within a short distance north of the town 
there is a hill of several miles in length of the primitive formation, while 
on either side of this hill the limestone rock is unmistakably presented. 
Geologists call it a freak of nature, and such an upheaving of primary rock as is here 
to be seen is rarely met with. For the formation of a cabinet of minerals, the vicinity 
of Easton affords one of the best opportunities in the State ; there is to be found the 
yellow serpentine in great profusion ; topaz, berjd, chalcedony, and other precious stones 
have also been found. Many years after the town was settled, in the time of a freshet in 
the Bushkill, a part of its waters united with the Lehigh through a gully passing nearly 
north and south, halfway between the Delaware Bridge and the Court House" (Square).* 
This was called "Molasses Hollow." Upon this piece of land, at the foot of Ferry street, 
the first house in Easton was built by David Martin in 1739. 

When the County of Northampton was established in 1752, there was a population of 
over six thousand inhabitants in the county, and the inhabitants of New Jersey were crowd- 
ing towards the western part of the State, and a means of crossing the Delaware was 
demanded, and a ferry was established at "The Point;" and, for the convenience of this 
ferry, this first house had been built. It was a one-story log house. Travelers were taken 
across either river in row boats, and if the traveler was pursuing his way on horseback, the 
saddle would be placed in the boat and the horse would swim along by the side. This 
house plays a very important part in the history of Easton, and was a source of wealth to 
all who were so fortunate as to be its owner. It was the most valuable property in the 
town. The spot upon which it stood became one of the most prominent in the histon,' of 
the State. This humble structure was to be the scene of diplomatic struggles between the 
representatives of civilized and savage life. It was built eleven years before the town was 
surveyed, and during these early years David Martin was "monarch of all he surveyed." 
The dusky children of the forest would flit past his quiet home, the deer would gambol 
about him, an occasional traveler would cross the river, stop and talk a few moments and 
* Lehigh Valley, page 50-51. 


pass on through the forest. In this lonesome way this first denizen of Easton passed along 
the silent pathway of life, little dreaming of the stirring scenes destined to make his log 
house the centre of such an abiding interest. 

In 1750 Northampton County was a part of Bucks. Thomas Penn, in a letter from 
England, dated September 8, 1751, to Governor Hamilton, says : "Some time since I wrote 
to Dr. Graeme and Mr. Peters to lay out some ground in the forks of the Delaware for a 
town, which I suppose they have done, or begun to do. I desire it may be called Easton, 
from my Lord Pomfret's house ; and whenever there is a new county, that shall be called 
Northampton." Thomas Penn had married a daughter of Lord Pomfret, whose name was 
Julianna Fennor. The names of Pomfret, Fermor, Julianna and Hamilton were the names 
of streets crossing Northampton for an entire century, and these historic names were dis- 
carded, and the numerals, First, Second, Third and Fourth, take their place. It is to be 
regretted that these names, so intimately connected with the early history of Easton, should 
thus have been lost. The survey which Thomas Penn alluded to in his letter from Eng- 
land, was begun in 1750 by Parsons and Scull. Thcrt- is a list of the names of the work- 
men employed by the surveyors in the work 
of clearing the streets, cutting the timber, and 
all the other necessary work to be done. This 
paper, in the handwriting of William Par- 
sons, is in the possession of the Pennsylvania 
Historical Society, dated May 9, 1750 — the 
day on which the survey commenced. Some 
of the hands were employed nine days, and y^\ 
so on to one or two days, and received each ^ 
eighteen pence per day, finding their own 
board. One of these workmen was Melchior 
Hay, the owner of a farm of three hundred 
acres of land, upon which South Easton now 
stands. This was the great-grandfather of our townsman, Mr. Hay, now a merchant near 
the Post-office. During the time occupied by the suniey they made their home at the 
public-house of John Lefebre, about six miles up the Bushkill, or Lehicton, or Tatamy's 
Creek. This house was on the road from Easton to the Wind Gap, near where Messinger's 
stood twenty-five years ago. This was the nearest public-house to Easton, and was situated 
on the Indian path which led from "The Forks" to Tatamy's Gap, in the Blue I\Ioun- 
tains. This path also passed the house of the Indian chief Tatamy, about one mile from 
Lefebre' s. 

Lefebre was one of the French refugees, or Huguenots, whose ancestors arrived with 
the early Dutch emigrants about 1620, in connection with the Depue's. He is said to have 
been a man of intelligence, kept a good house and provided liberally. There was game in 
the forest, and at that time of the year fish in the streams. So we may suppose that the 
surveying party lived well while the town of Easton was being surveyed. The bill was 
not very extravagant — only ;^2, iis., gd., for ten days, and this, we are told, included 
".sling.s." There is no doubt the landlord felt highly honored in entertaining such guests. 
One had been, and tlie otlicr was, Surveyor General of Pennsylvania. T]ic\- liad boon 
accustomed to cil\ life in I'hilacUlpliia. .\11 the politeness of his ract would lie called into 



action, which would tend to make the temporary home pleasant. The survey of the town 
was finished May 19, 1750. 

By virtue of the following Act of Assembly, passed March 11, 1752, the County of 
Northampton was erected: "Whereas, a great number of the inhabitants of the upper 
parts of the County of Bucks, by their petition, have hereby represented to the Governor 
and Assembh- of this Province the great hardships they lie under by being so remote from 
the seat of judicature and the public offices, that the necessar}- means for obtaining justice 
is attended with so much difficulty and expense that many forego their rights rather than 
attempt the recovery of them under such circumstances ; while others, sensible of these 
difficulties, commit great villainies with impunity." 

Influenced by these reasons, the act was passed, and Northampton County was set 
apart. The same act provided that Thomas Craig, Hugh Wilson, John Jones, Thomas 
Armstrong and James Martin, or any three of them, were to purchase land at a convenient 
place on which to build a Court House and prison. At a council held in Philadelphia the 
9th of June, 1752, Thomas Craig, Daniel Broadhead, Timothy Horsefield, Hugh Wilson, 
James Martin, John Vanatta, Aaron Depuy, William Craig and William Parsons, Esquires, 
were appointed Justices of the new County of Northampton. The first session of the 
Court, the above-named Justices presiding, was held June 16, 1752. On this i6th of June 
Lewis Gordon appeared before the Court, and stating that he was admitted an attorney to 
practice law in Philadelphia and Bucks, was, upon his prayer, admitted an attorney to 
practice in the Courts of Northampton.* At this same day's session, William Craig and 
John Anderson applied for a license to keep a hotel, which was granted, and they erected 
their hotel on the south side of the Square, on a piece of land adjoining the jail lot. 
Nathaniel Vernon applied for license at the time, but was refused. He renewed his appli- 
cation in December, and a license was granted to him. He had purchased the ferry of the 
heirs of David Martin, and established his hotel in the log house built at the ferry. The 
next tavern was that of Paul Miller, who came from Philadelphia. In 1754 he employed 
Jasper Scull to build a tavern-house for him at the southwest corner of Fourth and North- 
ampton streets. This became a house somewhat noted from the prominent men who took 
their lodgings there while in Easton. Among those was Governor Denny while attending 
the Indian treaty. 

In a letter, dated December 8, 1752, six months after the first session of the Court, 
William Parsons says that there were then eleven families living in town (probably about 
forty men, women and children); and in the histories of Northampton County and Lehigh 
Valley we have a list of these families and their callings : William Parsons, Clerk of 
Courts, &c. ; Lewis Gordon, lawyer ; Henry Alshouse, carpenter ; Abraham Berlin, smith ; 
Nathaniel Vernon, ferryman ; William Craig and John Anderson, tavern-keepers ; Paul 
Miller, tavern-keeper ; Ernest Becker, baker ; Anthony Esser, butcher ; John Finley, 
mason ; Myer Hart, shop-keeper. 

Abraham Berlin was a blacksmith and prepared the ironwork for the jail. His name 
appears prominently in the business transactions of the town, and was an active member 
of the Committee of Safety. 

Ernest Becker was a baker — a new-comer from German}-. He was the maternal 
grandfather of Mr. George Troxell, to whom Mr. Becker told the circumstances of his 

* Rupp's History of Northampton. 


arrival in Easton with his famih- : "\\^hen I came to Easton there were onh- three houses 
built, in none of which was there room to accommodate myself and family ; therefore, 
I was obliged to unload my goods upon the piiblic square, and there, under a tree, strike 
up a tent and encamp until I had erected a small house, which did not require many days. 
The neighbors generously aided me in building my home." The new mansion stood in 
North Hamilton (Fourth) street, several perches from Northampton street. There is little 
doubt but what this first baker of Easton was as happy in this log structure as the present 
inhabitants in the costly homes of Third and Fourth streets. He said: "My intention 
was to follow my business as a baker. I labored under considerable difficulties ; the pro- 
curing flour rendered it necessary for me to go to Bethlehem, where a mill had been erected 
a few vears before, and there being no road to that place yet opened, I took a bag and 
walked there on the Indian path, and returned with as much flour on my back as I could 
conveniently carry. My supply was frequently replenished in this way." If our bakers of 
the present day were compelled to carr\- their flour as far as this sturdy German carried his, 
we should not complain if their loaves were small. 

Mr. Anthony Esser was the first butcher of Easton. He had no wagon at that early 
day, because he could not use one if he had, as there were no roads ; and so, we suppose, 
he delivered his meat to his customers in a basket from house to house. But when the 
crowds attended the Indian treaties, the baker and butcher had a harvest. A large stock 
was prepared, and there were lively times in the little town. In the early days of April, 
1757, William Parsons was preparing to move into his new house on the comer of Fourth 
and Ferr\- streets, as it was then complete. He had some difficulty in getting meat for 
his friends at the moving, when there would be a large party in attendance. He could 
get no mutton, and, what was more, he could get no one to cook it. But the matter was 
finally arranged, and he moved into the new home, and had high hopes of enjoying the 
comforts of life in his new mansion. 

John Finley was the first mason of our city, and laid up the walls of the prison in 
1752. The stone wall enclosing the prison was built at a later day. Meyer Hart was 
the first merchant of Easton. His stock was ver}- small when he began business, as the 
number of his customers was limited. In 1763 his county tax was nineteen shillings, 
being more than was paid by any other man in Easton. At this time he owned three 
houses, several negroes, besides his stock in trade. In 1782 his stock was vahied at $1200. 
What composed his stock is hard to tell ; quite likely dr>- goods and groceries. Meyer 
Hart had a son named Michael, who established himself in a store in town, on the south- 
east corner of the public square. *An anecdote is told about Michael, who had tlie mis- 
fortune of being a stammerer, and had received the name of the "stuttering Jew. " A 
country woman came into his store, and not knowing Michael, innocently inquired if he 
was the "stuttering Jew." Instantly he became very angrA', and it was only because of 
her fleetness on foot that she escaped his wrath, and then only by concealing herself in a 
neighbor's store till the storm was passed and the descendant of Abraham had allowed 
his passion to subside. 

The funds arising from Mr. Schlatter's visit to Europe had begun to arrive in tliis 
country, and the people of Easton desired to enjoy the benefit of the fund thus established 
in aid both of a church and scliool liouse. The Pcnns had determined that Easton should 

-Hist. I,, v., l.aKc64. 


be the county seat. It would thus become a business centre ; it should be a relis^ious 
and educational centre as well. And so, in 1755, the people moved in the matter. They 
needed a school house and church, but as they could not build both, they would build 
one which would answer the purpose of both. A Board of Trustees had been appointed 
in Pennsylvania, of which William Smith, president of the Pennsylvania University, 
was one, and to him the}- would appeal for aid. And after the building was finished, 
Mr. Schlatter, as missionary' of the churches and superintendent of the schools, would 
aid in their support. 

The following article speaks for itself: "We, the subscribers, being truly sensible of 
the great advantages our posterity may reap from the excellent charitable scheme lately 
formed in England for the education of Protestant youth in Pennsylvania, and being 
extremely desirous to encourage and promote the same, as far as in our power lies, have 
engaged and agreed, and do hereby engage and agree to and with William Parsons, James 
Martin, Peter Trexler, Esq. , John Lefebre, Lewis Gordon and Peter Kichline, deputy 


trustees, mentioned and appointed by the trustees general of the said charitable scheme, 
that each of us will pay the sum of money and do and perform the work, labor and 
service in building and erecting a school house, which may occasionally be made use of 
as a church for any protestant minister, to our names hereunto respectively set down 
and affixed. Dated Easton, Pa., the 31st day of July, 1755. 

"William Smith, in behalf of the Proprietor and Trustees, ^30; William Parsons, 
;^5; Lewis Gordon, ;^3; Nicholas Scull, ^3; Nathaniel Vernon, ^^3; Peter Kichline, ^2 ; 
Christian Rinker, ^^i ; Jacob Bachnian, £\ ; Jacob Miner, ^i ; Adam Yohe, _^i ; Lewis 
Knaus, 105; Lewis Klotz, laj; Henry Becker, 7.?; Geo. Michael Shurtz, 155; John 
Levitz, 15.?; Anthony Esser, 15.^'; George Reichart, 15^; John Wagle, ;^i; Geo. Ernest 
Becker, ^^i; John Rinker, loj; N. N., -js; Daniel Gies, 5J; Jeremiah C. Russel, ^i; 
Paul Miller, £1 5^; John Fricker, £\ 6j; Meyer Hart, 20 lbs. nails; Paul Reeser, 1000 
shingles; Jacob Minor, 12 days' work; Stephen Horn, i week's work; Henry Alshouse, 
5 days' work; John Finley, 6 days' work; John Nicholas Reeder, 6 days' work; 
Bartholomew Hoffman, 5 days' mason work; Robert Miller, 4 da}-s' work; John Henr\- 


Bush, 5 days' carpenter work; Jacob Krotz, 5 days' carpenter work; James Fuller, 5 
days' stone digging; John Chapman, 3 days' carting stone; Henr\- Rinker, 30 bushels 
of lime; Henr}^ Bush and John Weidman, 30 wagons stone and digging; Thomas 
Harris, 50 sash lights." 

The value of the subscription in Easton, including money and work, was about $200. 
The house was built of logs, and was finished in 1755. There were three rooms — one 
large and two small. This was three years after the county was established, and five 
years after the town was laid out by William Parsons and Nicholas Scull. There were 
eleven families in 1752, which had increased to forty in 1755, when the jail had been 
completed, and the new church and school house erected. It will thus be seen that the 
educational interests of Easton began with the German population, through the influence 
of Rev. Mr. Schlatter, who had succeeded in influencing the English king and Court in 
the fonnation of a society, whose object was to educate the poor Gennans of Pennsylvania. 
Half of the money contributed to build the school house came from that society. It was 
an important step in the progress of society when this humble building was finished ; it 
marks an era in the progress of the rising town, and was a source of real pride to the 
commiinity, as it met the wants of the public at the time, as well as the more costly 
structures of the present day. 

Robert Traill taught school one year while preparing for admission to the bar, and 
there is no doubt he performed the duties of pedagogue in this first temple of science 
in Easton. Here we have a Scotchman from the Orkneys teaching English to the 
Germans from the Palatinate. But we suppose he did his work well. 


BUILT 1811. 


'■ William Parsons rocked Easton in her cradle, and watched 

over her infant footsteps with paternal solicitude." — Anon. 

William Parsons ; Birth ; Arrival in America ; Married in Philadelphia ; A Shoemaker by Trade ; Surveyor 
General ; Moved to Easton ; Prothonotary ; Recorder ; Justice of the Peace ; Member of the 
Provincial Assembly — Grace Parsons ; Her Mission to Philadelphia — Indian War; Terror and Alarm — 
Parsons Builds His House ; Health Fails ; His Death ; Parsons' Family. 

|II,LIAM PARSONS has been properly called the "God-father of Easton" 
by the historian of Bucks Cotinty. The historian of Northampton County 
calls him the "father of the infant town." By his kindness toward the 
early settlers of Easton, by his earnest toil, self-denying labor, fearlessness 
and manly courage, indomitable perseverance for the people of his care, in 
which he injured his health and shortened his days, he has nobly won the 
distinction thus given him by the pen of the thoughtful historian. The 
first writer above alluded to, after speaking of the character of this re- 
markable man, says, "And he sleeps in a neglected graveyard." One can 
but think of the words on Pompey's tomb, "He, who once deserved a 
temple, can scarce find a tomb." The people of Easton are not ungrateful. 
And, as the city shall grow in wealth and importance, — and, as the noble Institution on 
Mount Lafayette shall become a star of the first magnitude in the educational world, the 
people of Easton will think more tenderly of William Parsons, and build him a monu- 
ment to commemorate his virtues, and inspire their children with the unselfish spirit of 
this remarkable man. 

William Parsons was born in England on the 6th of May, 1701. While a youth, he 
came to America, and settled in Philadelphia. Philadelphia was over forty years old 
when young Parsons took up his residence there and began life with all the ardor inspired 
by the busy scenes and rapid growth of the Cit>- of Brotherly Love. He was married in 
Philadelphia at twenty-one years of age, and worked for many years at his trade, being a 
shoemaker. There are very few employments in which there is so much time, and so 
many opportunities, for meditation and study, as that of a shoemaker. And we can easily 
imagine the care which young Parsons took to employ his spare hours in study. We can 
see his books lying upon his bench, day after day. We see him studying his grammar, 
writing his letters, and thus employing his time in preparing for positions of usefulness 
of which he had not dreamed. His evenings were careftilly spent at home with his family. 
While Mrs. Parsons was busy with her family cares, her husband was busy with his books. 
Having a fondness for mathematics, works on geometry, trigonometry and surveying were 
the books which occupied those leisure hours. While others may have read books for 
pleasure, he was studying for business. He was in a new world. The great State of 


Pennsylvania was to be surveyed. Some one must traverse her vast domain with chain, 
theodolite and compass. And thns he spent his days in earning bread for his family, and 
his hours of bodily rest in preparing for future usefulness. The energies of his intellect 
were too vigorous to be confined in a shoemaker's shop. He was ambitious for a wider 
field of labor. It is not strange if he had some ideas of future fame. In his new home 
there was room for ambitious minds to expand, and grow strong, and reach after, and 
grasp the prizes which were in store for the earnest, industrious, persevering mind. Xo 
doubt the star of hope rose brightly, and shone clearly, before him, while toiling by day 
and studying by night. He seems, practically, to have adopted the motto of an eminent 
man, " Ditm vivimiis vivamiis.^^ How patiently he toiled, how carefully he studied, how 
successfully he mastered the science and art of sur\'eying, appears from his complete 
success in grasping the object of his ambition. Nineteen years after his marriage, being 
forty years of age, and in 1741, he received the appointment of sur\-e}or general of Penn- 
sylvania. He laid aside his apron, bundled up his tools, gave his commission to Mrs. 
Parsons for safe keeping, took his surveyor's chain, theodolite and compass, and plunged 
into the woods, to lay out the boundaries of counties and towns in the grand common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania. He had patiently struggled and nobly won his proud position. 
He felt he had not toiled for naught. Those busy years of toil and study had borne fruit. 
He had risen by his own industry, and had an honest right to be proud. He could look 
back to his home across the sea, he could think of himself as a strange youth in a strange 
land, with little to help him but honest}- of purpose, industrious habits, and indomitable 
perseverance ; and these lifted him up from the shoemaker's bench to the proud position 
of surveyor general of the noble commonwealth, where the spirit of persecution for re- 
ligious opinion has never dared to raise its head — one of the brightest spots on earth. Mr. 
Parsons was uot a man of a strong constitution, and found the position of sur\-eyor very 
laborious, while it was an honorable one, and quite profitable. Yet he held the position 
but seven years, having been compelled to resign the office in 1748, on account of ill- 
health. He then removed to Lancaster, and remained there until the laying out of the 
town of Easton and the erection of the county of Northampton rendered his services in- 
dispensable to the Penns, who induced him to leave Lancaster and take up his residence 
in Easton, for the purpose of filling the offices of Prothonotar>- and Clerk of the Courts of 
Northampton ; and also to adil as the proprietaries' agent in taking care of their property 
interests in the county. How faithfully he perfonned his duties to his employers and to 
the people of the town, will appear as we proceed with his history. In 1752, we find our 
friend Parsons engaged in his new sphere of activity. His anxiety for the welfare of the 
people, in the present and future of the town, is manifest in the following extra<5ls from 
a letter to Richard Peters, Secretary of the Proprietan.- Government : "Upon removing 
my family to this place, my thoughts have been more engaged in considering the circiim- 
stances of this infant town than ever, as well with regard to its neighborhood, as tlie 
probability there is of being furnished with provisions from the inhabitants near about it; 
and if there alread\' is, or probably may in time be, a sufficient number of settlers to carry 
on any trade with the town, for witliout these, it is not likely it would be improved to 
any great height, as well with regard to the town it.self ; that is to .sa>-, its situation as to 
health, trade and pleasantness. Tlie site of the town is pleasant and \er>- agreeable ; the 
banks of all the waters bounding it are l)igh and clear ; and if it was as large again as it 


is — being now about one hundred acres — it might be said to be a very beautiful place for 
a town. It is true that it is surrounded on every side by very high hills, which make it 
appear under some disadvantages at a distance, and might give some occasion for sus- 
picion of its not being very healthy ; but during all the last summer, which was very 
dr}', and the fall, which has been remarkably wet, I don't know that any one has been 
visited with the fever, or any other sickness, notwithstanding most of the people have 
been much exposed to the night air and wet weather, from which I make no difficulty 
to conclude the place is, and will continue, very healthy. And in regard to the trade up 
the river, that would likewise be verj' advantageous to the town, as well as to the country 
in general, even in the single article of lumber, as there is plenty of almost all kinds of 
timber above the mountains, where there are also many good conveniences for ere<?ting 
saw mills, and several are built already, from whence the town might be supplied with 
boards, shingles, etc. The west branch will also be of advantage to the town, as it is 
navigable several miles for small craft, and Tatamy's creek being a good stream of water to 
ere(?t mills upon, will also contribute towards the advancement of the town ; the Jersey 
side being at present more settled near the river, opposite the forks, than the Pensylvania 
side ; and indeed the land is better watered and more convenient for settlement than it is 
on this side, for several miles about Easton. We have been supplied as much, or 
more, from that side as our own. But how Mr. John Cox's project of laying out a town 
upon his land, adjoining Mr. Martin's land, on the side of the river opposite to Easton, 
may affect this town, is hard to say and time only can obviate. To the northward and 
westward of the Dryland are the Moravian settlements, about eleven miles from the 
town. These settlements are not only of no advantage, but rather a disadvantage to the 
town, for, being an entire and separate interest by themselves, corresponding only with 
one another where they can avoid it, except where the advantage is evidently in their 
favor, it can't be expected the town can reap any benefit from them. And this leads me 
to wish for the good of Easton, if the Honorable, the proprietor, should incline to have 
the Dryland' s improved, that it may not be disposed of to the Moravians. Not because 
they are Moravians, but because their interests interfere so much with the interests of the 
town. If the Drylands should be chiefly settled by them, the Master Brethren would 
have the sole direction and disposal of all that should be raised there, which would be 
more discouraging and worse to the town than if the lands were not inhabited at all. 

■ " Upon the whole, the town has been hitherto very well supplied with meat, beef, 
pork, mutton, butter, turnips, etc. But how it will be supplied with hay and pasturage, 
I can't clearly forsee ; I mean, if the town increase, as I am in great hopes it will. 

" If I might presume to speak my opinion, and I know you expedl I should, if I speak 
at all, I could wish that a sufficient quantity of the Drylands might be appropriated for 
out-lots, and that all the rest were to be settled and improved, and that by the Dutch 
people, although they were of the poorer sort of them. I don't mention the Dutch people 
from any peculiar regard I have for them, more than for other people, but because they 
are generally more laborious, and comfonnable to their circumstances, than some others 
amongst us are. I need not say who they are, but it is an old observation, that poor 
gentle folks don't always prove the fittest to begin new places where labor is chiefly 
wanted. There are now eleven families in Easton, who all propose to stay during the 
winter, and when our prison is finished, which there is hopes that it soon will be, as it is 


now about covered in, there is a great probability tliat that number will be increased 
before spring." 

It is ver}- evident, from the above letter, that the Proprietaries well knew their agent 
before they chose him. There seems to be some desire to know just what was intended 
by "poor gentle folks," but the imagination only can aid us. The Proprietaries seem to 
haves hared the uneasy feelings in regard to the growth of Phillipsburg. And Thomas 
Penn wrote to Richard Peters, May 9th, 1752 : "I think we should secure all the land 
one can on the Jersey side of the water." It was, no doubt, a source of annoyance to Mr. 
Parsons that Phillipsburg considerably outnumbered Easton in population. This entire 
letter expresses the deepest interest in the welfare of the town, the wann sympathies of 
this earnest friend of Easton. Mr. Parsons was desirous that the jail should be soon 
finished, not to incarcerate prisoners, but to be a place of refuge in case of invasion 
from the Indians, to whose solid enclosure mothers might flee with their babes and be 
safe, and where the daughters of Easton might be safe from savage violence. No man 
was happier than he when this old castle was finished. The next thing to which Mr. 
Parsons turned his attention was a school house, which should serve the double purpose 
for school and church. This, too, was breathed into life by his earnest soul. Four years 
before, there had been formed in England, and in some parts of Germany, a society whose 
purpose was to educate poor Gennans in America. The king, George II, had subscribed 
largely to this fund. William Parsons applied to William Smith, president of the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, for aid from this society. Mr. Smith subscribed thirty pounds, to 
this Mr. Parsons subscribed five pounds, others added small sums, until the sum of sixty- 
one pounds and one shilling was raised. ' ' Mr. Parsons was strongly opposed to letting the 
people of the town subscribe at all ; for, as he said, they were all Dutch, and so stubborn 
were they, that if pennitted to have any voice in the matter, they would, by their obsti- 
nacy, frustrate the whole enterprise. By this, however, he did not desire to shut out the 
children from the benefits of the school, but preferred they should receive the advantages 
gratuitously, rather than b\- receiving their subscriptions incur the risk of their inter- 
ference in the management." Money having been subscribed, the work was begun and 
finished in 1755. It was a log structure, and stood on the northeast comer of Sitgreaves 
street and Church alley. This was the first school house — the first church building erected 
in Easton. Mr. Parsons felt an honest pride in the completion of the building. Here the 
people could go to church on the vSabbath, and their children to school during the week. 
" Here the slow -going Lutherans and the more fiery Presbyterians" could worship God in 
harmony and peace. All now seemed moving along very successfully. The future 
seemed to brighten. The people were happy with such evidence of prosperity around 
them. But suddenly the report came, like a clap of thunder from a cloudless sky, of the 
murder by the Indians of all the missionaries and inhabitants at Gnaden Hutten (now 
Wei.ssport). All was consternation at Bethlehem and Easton. All feared the destru(5lion 
of the town. All that could, fled for safety down the river. Mr. Parsons wrote to Gov- 
ernor Morris, informing him of the desperate state of affairs at Easton. He had no arms, 
no annnunition, and but few males to defend the town. The letter implored aid in men, 
arms, and all necessaries of But there were no mails to carry the letter, no 
money to pay a special messenger, and no man could be spared. Here Mr. Parsons was 
put to the sorest trial of his life. There was no one wiio could be sjiared but his daughter 



Grace. If her father desired it, she would take the letters to the Governor, a distance of 
sixty-fi\-e miles, a two days' journey, through unbroken forests, guided by Indian trails 
and bridle-paths to Philadelphia. It may not be easy to tell the feelings of the father as 
his )-oung daughter came from the house, somewhat pale from apprehension and excite- 
ment, mounted her favorite steed, and receiving what might be the last kiss from the lips 
of her fond father, started upon her mission. There was, perhaps, some comfort in the 
father's mind that his daughter was leaving the terror of an Indian massacre behind her, 
but he felt she might meet the scalping knife ahead. But the sacrifice was necessary, and 
the brave father, and the braver daughter, bore their mutual share of the dangers of those 
dark days in the history of our now beautiful town. The walls of the jail would defend 
the women and children that remained. While others fled. Parsons stood at his post. 
While his daughter was bravely pursuing her lonely way to Philadelphia, he was anxious 
to defend the inhabitants who were in constant fear of the dreaded foe. Grace Parsons 


started for Philadelphia the latter part of December, 1755. During the entire Winter and 
Spring the people of the town were in a state of anxiety. Parsons had been appointed 
Major of the militia, though he was not called to act. 

On page 58, of the History of Lehigh Valley, we find the following: "William 
Parsons, from the eredlion of the county till his death, December, 1757, held the offices of 
Prothonotary, Clerk of the Courts, Recorder, Clerk of the Commissions, and Justice of the 
Peace. In 1755 he was appointed IVIajor of the Continental troops ; and, in 1754, he 
represented Northampton County in the Provincial Assembly." 

Though the business of the Courts was small, compared with to-day, yet his duties 
must have been burdensome, indeed. In addition to all this, the harassing cares of the 
war added a still heavier burden. How anxiously he watched the progress of the prison 
walls which were to be an asylum from the scalping knife of the treacherous Indian ! Not 


an element of danger seemed to escape his ever-watchfiil eyes, and he was constantly 
fonning plans for the better protection of the people whose care he had voluntarily and 
manfully taken upon his shoulders. 

The following letter* to Secretar\- Peters, Philadelphia, tells its own stor}-. It is 
dated December 6th, 1756: 

' ' In obedience to his Honor' s command, I do hereby humbly certify that I have 
supplied Fort Allen, Fort Norris, Fort Hamilton, and the Fort at Hyndshaws, with powder 
and lead, out of the magazine at Easton, as follows : 

"August 24, Fort at Hyndshaws, 153s lbs. powder, 90 lbs. lead, 25 flints. October 

II, Fort Hamilton, 50 lbs. of powder, 100 lbs. of lead. October 17, Fort Norris, 20 lbs. 

of powder, 23 lbs. of lead. October 21, Fort Allen, 47 lbs. of powder, 103 lbs. of lead, 

and 150 flints. October 26, Fort Norris, 25 lbs. of powder, 11 lbs. of lead. Since which 

a further supply of powder and lead has been sent to Hyndshaws Fort. But as I have not 

the receipt in town, and therefore cannot certifv' the quantity supplied, but believe all 

the forts are pretty well supplied at present. There is now in store at Easton about one 

barrel of powder, and a proportionable quantity of lead. And I am of opinion, that it will 

be necessary to furnish two barrels of powder, and a proportionable quantity of lead, for a 

magazine at Easton during the Winter season. And as I imagine the country" people are 

not all of them sufl!iciently provided with powder and lead, I think it would not be amiss 

to add to the above magazine a quantit}- to be divided among them, in case the enenn- 

should appear again on our frontiers this winter. Flints are also much wanted. 

"I am, sir, vour obedient and humble ser\'ant, 


This bountiful supply of ammunition came in answer to the message carried to Phila- 
delphia by Miss Grace Parsons. The courageous girl succeeded in her mission, and 
brought relief to the terror-stricken town, and the heart of her an.xious father. She had 
braved the danger of a long journey, along which silent pathway the deadly missile might 
have been hurled at her trembling heart by the lurking savage. She knew the danger, 
and dared to meet it. There is not an instance of more daring courage in the histo^^• of 
Easton, yet the duty was perfonned by a young maiden, at the request of her father, and 
by a sense of duty. This oue deed has made her name honorable among the heroic 
characters of the past history of our city. There is no evidence that she returned to 
console her father during his declining days or minister to his wants when dying. The 
mothers of Easton may well feel proud of this noble daughter of those dark days. 

Mr. Parsons had been for some time building a house on the corner of Fourth and 
Ferr}' streets, which, having been finished, he would move into it in the month of April, 
and felt secure within its massive walls. It is still in a good state of preser\-ation, and 
should be preserved as a monument of those dark days. But this good man was drawing 
toward the end of his eventful life. His health was failing, and in the Spring of 1757 he 
went on a journe>- in quest of health. But his work was done. He was a noble, faithful, 
honest, earnest man. He did his work well. He was a true friend of Easton when she 
needed a friend. His health was impaired, and his life .shortened in toiling for her 
welfare. The successful growth of Easton was the object of his prayers, the happiness of 
her people the end for which he toiled. In lliis matter he was unselfish. It was a work 

*Penna. Archivis, Vol. III., i>a«eSi. 



of love and anxious care for a young and growing community, which was always ready to 
listen to his suggestions for the common good. He returned to Easton after a short time; 
his health was failing. He gazed upon these hills, and valleys, and beautiful rivers ; he 
saw the probability of peace with the Indians. He died December 22, 1757, in the fifty- 
seventh year of his age. No people ever lost a better friend than Easton lost when 
William Parsons died. He lies in the grave on Mount Jefferson. In pace quiescat. 


Any new matter concerning this remarkable man is of deep interest to every lover of 
Easton' s history. A letter received from Mr. Ethan A. Weaver, of Philadelphia, October 
25, 1885, contains some new fa6ls which we gladly record; and the same letter has led to 
other investigations which have given us a more intimate knowledge of his family. Mr. Par- 
sons came to this country when quite a youth, for he was married at the age of twenty- 
one. As has already been stated, he worked at his trade in Philadelphia; how long he was 
thus employed it may be difficult to ascertain. He could not have been a man of leisure, 
or he would not have learned a trade, which was without doubt his source of living. His 
knowledge of mathematics was undoubtedly obtained in this countrv', for it was nearly 
twenty years after his marriage before he was commissioned Surveyor-General of Pennsyl- 
vania. In the above-named letter we read: " He was a shoemaker, residing in Philadel- 
phia, where he also passed for a man having a profound knowledge of mathematics." He 
was a member of the Benjamin Franklin _///;//« Club, from which developed the present 
American Philosophical Society. In a letter of Franklin, dated April 5, 1744 [^ facsimile 
copy of which is before me), he writes: "The society, as far as relates to Philadelphia, is 
actually founded, and has had several meetings, to mutual satisfaction;" and among its 
members names Mr. William Parsons as geographer. 

Associated with him in this early membership, besides the great Franklin himself, 
were Mr. John Bartram as botanist, Mr. Thomas Godfre)' as mathematician (Godfrey was 
inventor of the sextant), and others no less distinguished, confirming the belief that Par- 
sons was a man of profound knowledge. The letter of Franklin, to which reference has 
been made, was written three years after Parsons was commissioned Surveyor-General, and 
twenty-two years after his marriage, and all these years he was busy storing up his knowl- 
edge, which was to fit him for companionship with Franklin, Bartram and Godfrey, lead- 
ing minds on the Continent. His kindness of heart, his generous nature, his associa- 
tion with the purest and noblest men of his time, attra<5ling the attention of him who 
played with the lightnings as children play with their toys, may well excite the pride of 
Easton that such an one " rocked her in her cradle and watched over her infant footsteps 
with paternal solicitude." While a very thoughtful historian calls him " The Godfather 
of Easton," and another still calls him "The Father of the Infant Tqwn," we can but 
wonder why the name of such a man is not found upon a public building in Easton ! It 
is to be hoped that some generous and grateful heart will see to it that the name of this 
unselfish friend of Easton will be placed in letters of gold for her children to gaze at. 

From the same letter of Mr. Weaver we are informed that "the family was connected 
with the Moravian Church in Philadelphia and Bethlehem, and that one daughter had 


died while in the Sisters' House. ' ' The next day after he received the letter the author 
went to Bethlehem to consult the records of that church. He was ver}' kindly and 
courteously received by Rev. i\Ir. Levering, pastor of the church. The pastor .showed the 
author every attention, led the way into the room in the church building where the rec- 
ords were kept; he unlocked the massive doors of the safe, and laid the books on the table. 
They were neatly kept in German until 1850, and from that time in English. The 
obituary roll was the first consulted. While looking for the name of a deceased daughter 
we found an account of the death of the mother. The death-roll is very handsomely kept. 
The death of each member of the church is recorded, and a brief obituar\' notice is ap- 
pended. "Mrs. Johanna Christianna (Parsons) was bom in Germany, and came to Phila- 
delphia in her youth. She came in company with her uncle. The date of her arrival in 
Philadelphia is not given, but her marriage to William Parsons is dated 1722. She sur- 
vived her husband sixteen years — died in 1773, aged seventy-four. She lived a quiet and 
retired life, and the last six weeks did not leave her room. She died in the loving arms of 
the Moravian Church and in the full exercise of the Christian faith as developed by that 
remarkable people. The fruits of this marriage were six children, only two of which 
survived her." As no males are ever mentioned, it is proper to conclude only daughters 
were born. We failed to find the name of any daughter who had died. But in consult- 
ing a large catalogue of the names of the young sisters of that church, we found the name 
of Julianna Parsons in the catalogue of 1764. This daughter became the second wife of 
Timothy Horsefield, of Bethlehem. There are still three of these daughters to account for. 
Of all the children of Mr. Parsons, the deepest interest attaches to the name of Grace. 
This is the one who, history asserts, was sent to Philadelphia as an ambassadress to the 
Government, imploring aid to save Easton from destrutlion by the Indians. A vast amount 
of time has been spent to learn something of the subsequent history of this noble daughter 
of Easton. (This sent the author to Bethlehem to consult the records of the IMoravian 
Church.) The histories of Northampton County and Lehigh Valley both assert this inci- 
dent. But on page 737, volume 6th, of the "Colonial Records," we have the despairing 
letter of Mr. Parsons to the Government, depicfting the distress: "Pray help us, for we are 
in great distress. I do not know what we shall do for want of anus. If I can get a wagon 
to bring my daughter to Philadelphia, I will send her off immediately." Failing to find 
a wagon, and darkness increasing, she would naturally be sent on horseback. * And it was 
published many years ago, in a magazine, that Grace was sent in the saddle instead of a 
wagon, and this was related to Elisha Allis, Esq., by an old resident, who read it in the 
magazine. The author has been thus particular in this matter in order that this heroic 
girl may have her memory kept green in the history of our city. The history of two of 
the children is entirely unknown as yet. If other information comes to hand before the 
completion of this volume, it will find a place in notes at the end of the work. 

* A letter on page 761, Vol. VI., Colonial Recorcl.s, confirms this view. He writes : "I make bold to trou- 
ble you once more, and it is not unlikely that it may be the last time." The poor man saw death staring him 
in the face. " I have spent," he continues, "what liUle stock of cash I had in public services, so that I am 
compelled to send this by a ])rivate hand." Tliis letter was sent to Hamilton and l"ranklin. 


First Jail ; Parsons' Anxiety for Its Completion ; Its Cost ; Where It Stood ; Wlien Finished ; How Long It 
Stood — Second Jail; Where Built; Its Cost; When It Was Built; Its Present Condition— Third Jail ; 
Where It Stands; Its Cost; Size; Plan of the Building; How It Is Kept — John Dillman ; His Execution 
— The Suicide of the Italian Condemned to be Executed — Louis Gordon, First Lawyer of Easton ; 
Birthplace ; His Removal to Easton ; When Admitted to the Bar ; Usefulness ; Enters the Revolutionary 
Contest ; Goes Over to the Enemy ; Returns to His Allegiance ; Takes the Test Oath to the Country ; Dies 
1 Patriot. 

|NE of the reasons assigned for the establishment of a new County was, that 
it was so far to the seat of justice in Bucks county, that people would 
rather relinquish their rights than take the trouble to seek redress. And 
rogues took advantage of this and trod law under foot with impunity. The 
new County having been established, the necessity of a Jail was at once 
suggested to the public mind. The new County was set up in 1752, and 
immediately the plan of a Jail was formed, and work begun. Courts could 
be accommodated at hotels or private houses, but desperate criminals could 
not be confined in log cabins or in the parlors of hotels. 

The first Jail was built on the old Jail lot, south of the Square, and on 
the east side of Third street, on the ground now occupied by the store of 
Bixler & Correll, fronting Third street. This was the first building erecfled by the County. 
It was the building concerning which Mr. Parsons took so much interest ; it would not 
only be a place in which to confine criminals, but also a place where mothers and children 
could find shelter in case" of invasion by Indians. Their log cabins could be burned by 
the savages, but massive stone walls would not burn. "The Jail cost $1,066.67 when the 
walls were finished, and the wells dug. The trustees borrowed ^100 from Richard Peters, 
Esq., in 1752, toward the building, which amount they repaid in 1754, with two years' 
interest, ^112." * 

At the close of the Revolutionary war, the unsettled matter of land titles in Wyoming 
came up again for adjudication. This grew into a war. The parties were styled the Penna- 
mites on the one side, and Yankees on the other. In 1784, twenty Yankees were taken 
prisoners and lodged in the old Jail. Peter Ealer kept the Jail. These Connec?ticut boys 
were lively fellows. They had been kept in confinement several months, and were tired 
of their boarding place, and desired a change. They effeAed a change on the 17th of 
September. Mr. Ealer tells his own story thus : "About four o'clock in the afternoon I 
ordered Frederick Barthold up-stairs in the prison, where the prisoners were confined, to 
let out of each room (they were in two rooms) two prisoners, as there were two handcuffed 
together, in order to fetch water as usual. And going up through an iron gate, and after 
the same was shut again, he heard the assistant say, the bread for the prisoners ought to 
be ready to be carried up when the prisoners were to be put back again. As they 
attempted to carry the water and bread through the gate, it was seized by the Wyoming 
*Hist. L. v., page 75. 



prisoners, who were hid close b)- the gate. He endeavored to shut the gate again, but 
was overpowered, kicked and squeezed ver^- badly. The keeper's wife tried to lock the 
front door, but the key was missing." The keeper sounded the alarm, tried to arouse the 
neighbors, but it was too late, the birds had flown. They soon removed the handcuffs 
from each other's hands, and, free as the mountain air, they steered their course to the 
land of steady habits, wiser men than when they came. This was, quite likely, the most 
exciting event in the history of the old Jail, which stood nearly one hundred years. 
There are men now living who tell of the good times they had, in boyhood, of creeping 
into the Jail among the prisoners, through openings which boys knew how to find. They 
were welcome visitors from the outside world. They feared no hann from the inmates. 
But the old Jail of William Parsons must yield to the touch of time. It had played its 
part in the history of Easton. The pillor\- and whipping post had passed away from 








skinmii v,\ sin u \ coniN(H\M 

Third street, and the old prison must follow. The old building inside of whose gloomy 
walls poor Getter had passed many hours of agony, where hope gave no joy to his soul, 
as far as time was concerned — those old walls which had echoed to the pra>ers of the 
penitent, to the groans of the sorrow-stricken soul, to the sigh of despair, when the sun 
of hope had set never to ri,se — those old walls were to pass away. But the principle 
which called them into being still remaining in human nature, another must be built to 
take its place. And so we have the hi.story of 

Thk .second Jail of the county was l)niU on 
in front of which, facing Sitgreaves street, was 
residence. The pri.son contained twenty-three 


1 the (lid jail-lot, east of its j^redecessor; 

a l)rick house for the Slieriff's 

-L'lls, nine liv tweKe feet, and four larijer 


ones, the)- being twelve feet square. The Jail was constructed of the limestone of the 
country. Surrounding it was a wall fifteen feet high. It was built in 1850 and 1851. 
The old walls of the second Jail are still standing, the rusty iron grated window telling the 
passer-by that this was once a prison. This Jail was used twenty years, from 1851 to 1871. 
When it was finished, the prisoners were marched from the first to the second Jail by the 
music of fife and drum. A building has been eredled on the top of the old walls, and is 
used by Mr. John Pollock for a brush manufa(5tory. The space between the walls and 
the Jail building is used as a stable and wagon house. The cells remain to remind us of 
the scenes of carousal of which the Grand Jury so sternly complained, when the prisoners 
were allowed their lager beer, and were permitted to have a good time. Those dark 
recesses look like the catacombs along the banks of the Nile, where the silence of death 
reigns supreme. The property now belongs to Mr. John Knecht, of Shimersville. 


"Soon after the occupation of the new Court House, 1861, the Jail of 1851 was not 
deemed sufficient for the demands of the county. And, no doubt, its distance from the 
new Court House made it inconvenient to transfer prisoners from their cells to the scene 
of trial in Court, and this added to the reasons why a new Jail should be built. It was, 
quite likely, well understood that the Jail would soon follow the Court House ; and ground 
suilficient for the former was secured when the ground for the latter was purchased. 
The land was all purchased from Hon. D. D. Wagoner for one dollar. At the November 
session, in 1866, the Grand Inquest — of which Samuel Garis was foreman — represented to 
the Honorable the Judges of the Court of Quarter Sessions of Northampton county, that 
they found the present Jail unsuitable and in bad condition; that the Sheriff was obliged to 
confine vagrants in the lower part of the Jail, which was a great nuisance ; that they 
recommended the building of a new Jail, to accommodate the wants of the county, and 
to employ the prisoners ; they regretted that the prisoners sentenced by the Court for the 
violation of the Sunday liquor law were only nominally confined ; and that, while 
close confinement could not be expelled on account of narrow limits, they condemned 
the laxity' with which the sentences were executed. At present, they represented, 
with almost full liberty, except openly walking the streets, the fulfilment of their 
sentence as a farce. The triiimphal entry of some of the prisoners on the evening of their 
commitment, with music and banners, after a boisterous parade of our principal streets, 
was an open insult to the Court and community ; and we would ask the animadversions 
of the Court upon this lawless and disgraceful proceeding. We have also noticed the 
aforesaid prisoners being supplied with lager beer, and allowed its free use ; hold nightly 
carousals in the Jail, and thus pradlically rendered their sentence a mere nullity, turning 
their punishment into a triumph, and insulting the law which would infliCl it." 

" The acflion of the Grand Juries and of the Court having clothed the Commissioners, 
Messrs. Charles Kern, Simon Buss and Jesse Ruch, with necessary powers, they proceeded 
to the eredlion of a new prison upon the county's land adjoining the Court House. 
Edward Haviland was employed as architedl. His plans were at once submitted to the 
deputy inspector, and received his signature of approval March 11, 1868. The Commis- 
sioners then contradled with John Biglin, of South Easton, and John Lee, of Easton, as 




the finn of Biglin & Lee, for the construcftion of the prison, the contract price being 
$139,000. The job was a heavy and extensive one, and, although it was pushed by the 
contradlors with reasonable diligence, it was not till 1871 that the Jail was occupied. 
Although the contradl price was as has been stated above, the total cost of the prison has 
not fallen much — if any — short of $200,000. The size of the prison building is 180x60 
feet, and the wall enclosure is 220x150 feet. The Warden's department is 50x85 feet in 
dimension, embracing, on the first floor, parlor, dining-room, kitchen, office, store-rooms 
and wash-rooms."* 

The building is a massive stone struclure, upon an elevated position, and has more 
the appearance of a castle of the middle ages than of a prison. The grounds are ample, 
and neatly kept, set with shade trees, and together with the grounds around the Court 
House, present a very handsome appearance, a rare and beautiful pi<flure. To look at the 
exterior there seems nothing to dread. To those who enter the prison, the interior seems 
quite as neat as the exterior. The cells and prisoners are kept clean and neat. The walls 
are hung with pictures, the beds are as neatly and tastefully arranged as those of ordinary- 
homes. The prisoners are employed in weaving carpets, and the time is passed as 
pleasantly as the most earnest humanitarian could desire. Religious services are quite 
regularly held on Sunday by the ministers and members of our churches. Law seems to 
have laid aside its vengeance, while mercy and benevolence exert their influence to refonn 
*Hist. of Northampton Co., pp. 161-162. 


the inmates while they serve out their sentence, and vindicate the principles of justice. 
If the prisons of past ages had been kept as ours of Easton is, the benevolence of Howard 
would not have been developed, nor his name have shone with such undimmed lustre. 
There has been but one public execution in the Jail since its eredlion — that of John 
Dillman, in April, 1884, for the murder of his wife. He did not support her and she 
went to the Poor House. He desired to get rid of his wife. His plans are deliberately 
formed. He assumed the kindness of former days, and bought a new dress at Bethlehem 
for her. Sought and found her at the Poor House, gave her the dress, and spoke kindly 
to her ; told her he had work at Bethlehem, had furniture at Redington, and wished her 
to go and help him arrange the furniture. Before leaving the Poor House, he was seen 
outside sharpening his pocket knife on the stones and his boots. In the cold winds of 
the closing days of March, at 7 o'clock in the morning, they started upon the journey. 
He seemed in good spirits, treated his wife well ; he covered the feelings of the murderer 
by the smiles of apparent kindness. Turning toward Freemansburg, pretending it was a 
nearer way, and turning into a lonely lane, near a Mr. Rohn's house, he threw her to the 
ground, took a rope, tied her hands, and told her he was going to kill her, took his knife, 
which he had sharpened at the Poor House, cut her throat and ran. The wind-pipe was 
severed. Mrs. Dillman lived nearly three weeks, and before her death testified in 
substance as above. Rev. T. O. Stem, pastor of St. Mark's Reformed Church, was the 
spiritual adviser of Dillman, and did ever)'thing he could to smooth the poor man's 
pathway to the gallows, to death, and to heaven. 

Another was sentenced to be executed during the same year, but he hung himself in 
the prison with carpet yam. He was an Italian who had slain a fellow workman, by 
plunging a hatchet into his temple while his victim was asleep. He was tried, convicted 
and sentenced to be executed. To avert the doom of a public execution, he committed 
suicide. Thousands of miles from the home of his childhood, there were no friends to 
claim his body or mourn his sad fate. Unable to understand the words of kindness 
spoken by those who greeted him through the iron grates, he waited with terror his 
terrible doom. The rope which he had twisted from carpet yam, seems to have broken, 
but had fastened itself so closely around his neck as to have choked him to death. He 
was found lying dead in his cell. 


There is a special interest attached to the name and character of Louis Gordon. He 
was for so long a time a citizen of Easton, so prominent in her history, so sincerely inter- 
ested in her welfare — performing his duties so acceptably in every oflScial position — that 
it would be doing violence to history not to give him his proper place. While we lament 
the weakness which clouded his closing days, he had virtues which shine brighth- in con- 
trast. The bitter experiences which shook his political faith have long since passed away; 
the light of freedom dawned after he died, and while basking in its brilliant rays, and 
enjoying its blessings, charity may well draw a veil over his fault, and speak kindly of his 


faithfulness up to the hour of trial. He was for twenty-six years a friend of Easton, and 
his warm desire for her prosperity never left him. He was the pioneer of the legal profes- 
sion in Northampton county. He was a member of the Bucks county bar when North- 
ampton was established. He was at the time employed in the office of Richard Peters, of 
Philadelphia. Richard Peters was Secretary for the Penns, and Gordon would thus know 
the plans of the Proprietaries in regard to Easton. He learned it was to be the place for 
the county seat. The Courts would meet there, and there would be an opening for a law- 
yer. The first Court convened June i6th, 1752, and Louis Gordon was there, stated that 
he was an attorney of the bar in Bucks county, and prayed to be admitted to the bar of 
Northampton. His prayer was granted, and Louis Gordon became the first lawyer in 
Easton and for the new county. His faith must have helped him in looking into the 
futxire of the town, for the prospecfl was not very cheering. Mr. Parsons tells us there 
were but eleven houses in Easton at that time, and the historian of Bucks county tells us 
they were all one-stor)' log houses. And Mr. Parsons seems to have entertained fears as 
to whether these families would remain longer than Spring. 

Louis Gordon came to this country from Aberdeen, Scotland, and in 1750 was em- 
ployed in the office of Richard Peters, of Philadelphia. How long he was in this coun- 
try before he was employed by Mr. Peters, this historian does not tell us. When he was 
married, or to whom, is not revealed. The son (James) of George Taylor married his 
daughter Elizabeth. Young Taylor was a lawyer, died young, leaving a widow and five 
children. The family moved to South Carolina, where their descendants still reside. 
Louis Gordon spent the remainder of his life in Easton. That he was a public-spirited 
man is evident from the fadl that his name was on the subscription for building a 
school house, in the Summer of 1755, for the village. We find he subscribed £1. Mr. 
Parsons took the lead in this, as in all other matters of public interest, but Mr. Gordon 
gave his influence in favor of every good work suggested by his friend. This was recog- 
nized by the Proprietaries, as well as by the public, for when Mr. Parsons died, Louis Gor- 
don took his place in the affairs of the town as well as in the Courts. He became Pro- 
thonotar)' and Clerk of the Court, and took the business of the Proprietors on his shoul- 
ders. This facft is illustrated in the serious difficulty which occurred after the French 
and Indian war. News came to the Government at Philadelphia that people from Con- 
necflicut were .settling the lands west of the Delaware, and above the Minisinks, without 
authority from the Indians or white people. 

The Indians had become uneasy, and Teedyuscung had uttered a bitter complaint, de- 
manded redress, and, in case of failure, threatened to take up the hatchet. The Govern- 
ment determined to ascertain the truth of the report, and Richard Peters, the Secretary of 
the Proprietary Government, wrote to Louis Gordon about the difficulty, and wished him 
to take two Justices of the Peace and have them go with him to the alleged settlement 
and ascertain the e.xacfl state of affairs. This was in 1760. Immediateh- the Chief Justice 
wrote to Louis Gordon: "You will receive my warrant to arrest and bring before me a 
number of persons who have unlawfully entered upon and taken possession of a large 
tradl of land in your county, near Cushitunk, without any warrant or order from the Pro- 
prietors. I expe(5t, as soon as this gets into your hands, you will engage twenty or twenty- 
five resolute and discreet persons to aid and assist nou, and proceed with all possible secrecy 
and dispatch to the habitation of the offenders, and use \ nur best endeavors to apprehend 

E ASTON, PENN\i. 33 

as many persons mentioned in the warrant as you can find, and bring them to me without 
loss of time, that they may be dealt with as the law diredls." 

Mr. Gordon desired to go in the disguise of farmers in quest of lands, so that the object 
of their coming might be concealed till they had acquired all the information they needed, 
and then letting their true character be known, make their arrests. The plan of Gordon 
was adopted, and he took two Justices, one of whom was Aaron Depue, and also the Sher- 
iff of Northampton, and went to the settlenieut in quest of the intruders. Their report, on 
their return, is found in the "Colonial Records," vol. 8, page 564. 

The people of Connedlicut contended that their charter embraced the lauds upon 
which they had settled. The settlers claimed their rights also, from purchase from the 
Indians and authority from the Colonial Government of Conne6ticut. The intruders had 
built a saw-mill and grist-mill and many cabins, and were coming in the Spring in great 
numbers. It turned out to be a matter which a Sheriff's posse could not settle, but 
required a stronger arm. Parsons died in the midst of the war, and Gordon stepped upon 
the watch-tower in his place. He watches the dangers as they rise, and transmits the 
news to Philadelphia, and aids the people in warding off the blows. Easton found a true 
friend in Louis Gordon, and the Government a faithful servant. He had been a citizen of 
Easton for twenty-six years, and during that time his interest in the welfare of his home 
liad never flagged. But at length a cloud arose, at first no larger than a man's hand, but 
it rapidly grew in size, and as it overshadowed the land, and in the midnight of the Revo- 
lution, he faltered in his patriotic course. This period of Louis Gordon's life has not been 
properly understood. On page 151 of the "History of Northampton County " we find the 
following: "In those dark times there were some instances of defedlion to the patriot cause 
by men from whom better things were expelled. Among the saddest of these was that 
of Louis Gordon. He had entered the struggle, apparently with the most ardent love of 
country, but when the clouds closed thickly over the prospecfts of the patriots in 1777, he 
abandoned their cause and embraced that of the enemy. It was a fall like Lucifer. Steps 
were at once taken for his apprehension, but before the warrant could reach him, God, in 
his infinite pity, had snatched him from his earthly dishonor by a summons to a higher 
tribunal." And in a note he tells us: "He died at Easton, in 1777." This would all be 
very sad, if true, but if the writer had been more careful in his examination of history, he 
would not have left quite so dark a stain upon the life of this pioneer of the legal profes- 
sion in our borough and county. 

When General Washington fled across the Delaware, thousands of patriotic men 
stood shivering on the brink of the precipice from which Louis Gordon was reported to 
have taken his fatal leap. The original records of the Committee of Safety begin Decem- 
ber 2ist, 1774. The committee was elected by qualified voters, and the name of Louis 
Gordon stands first on the list. This committee represented the various townships in the 
county. But to expedite the work, a standing committee was sele6led from the general 
committee, which should meet weekly to perform the business for which they were called 
into being. Louis Gordon was chairman of this standing committee. Scarcely a meeting 
occurs for two )'ears at which Mr. Gordon was not present. Every member of the com- 
mittee looked to him to advise and to lead in the important matters coming before them. 
There are no indications of anything wrong till the 2d of December, 1776, when we find 
the following minute in the proceedings of the standing committee: "It being represented 



to the committee, by Abraham Berlin and Jesse Jones, that Louis Gordon, chairman of 
the committee, said to them he would not give his attendance here any more; therefore 
the committee do appoint Abraham Berlin chainnan in his stead." ]\Ir. Gordon had been 
Treasurer; Robert Trail was appointed to this place. At a meeting of the committee 
Januarv i6th, 1777, "ordered that Louis Gordon, Esq., have notice to attend this commit- 
tee by next Thursday, to answer such matters as shall be objedled against him by this 
committee." On January- 23d, "Mr. Berlin acquainted the committee that he had given 
Mr. Gordon notice to attend this meeting according to the order of last meeting, and he 
received for answer that he would not attend, that the committee might call upon him; 
therefore ordered that notice be sent to Mr. Gordon to attend this committee immediately, 
otherwise send his reason in writing for not attending. Notice having been sent by Mr. 
Shoemaker, he returned for answer that his low and weak condition would not permit 
him to attend." "Therefore, ordered it be postponed to the next meeting." But the 
name of Mr. Gordon does not appear again in the records of the committee. The last 
meeting whose proceedings are recorded, occurs August 14th, 1777. 

We must go to other sources to trace out the further history- of this remarkable man. 
Now, turning to the "Colonial Records," vol. XL page 73, we find the following in the 
proceedings of the Coimcil of Safety in Philadelphia: "Resolved, that the committee of 
Northampton do immediately take the ferr\- at Easton, kept by Louis Gordon, under their 
diredlion, and cause it to be properly attended, and especially that all soldiers and 
expresses in the Continental service be forwarded over said ferry, be solely under the con- 
trol and diredlion of the said committee of Northampton county." This bears date of 
January 2d, 1777. On page 261 of the same volume, under date of August 6th, 1777, we 
find the following: "Ordered that a writ be issued for imprisoning Louis Gordon, Esq., 
late Prothonotary of the County of Northampton, under the late Government." In the 
fifth volume of the "Archives of Pennsylvania," page 489, under date of August 6th, 
1777: "From the Executive Council at Philadelphia to the Sheriff of Northampton county 
— Sir: Before this reaches you, you have doubtless heard that the late Governor, his offi- 
cers, and the officers of the King of Great Britain, have been arrested and are held as pris- 
oners of war on parole. It is but equal that this should extend to all parts of the countn,'. 
Accordingly, we send you a fonn filled up for the late Prothonotar>-, Louis Gordon, Esq. 
This we desire you to get executed and return to us by a safe hand. Your attention to 
this business is requested. Direc^ted to the Sheriff of Northampton county, John Jennings, 
Esq." On page 490, date same as above, same to John Jennings, Esq., to arrest Louis 
Gordon, Esq., and "confine him to his dwelling in Easton (or elsewhere in your county), 
confining himself to the distance of six miles fi-om thence, and not passing over to the 
east side of the Delaware." 

On page 342, sixth vol. "Archives," ]\Ir. Levers writes, ]\Iarch 7th, 177S: "Louis 
Gordon, I am persuaded, is a fixed, detennined enemy of the American States. But, then, 
he is wearing away, lately lost his wife, and peevish at times to childishness. I sincerely 
pity him." On page 436 an officer of the Council writes to Mr. Levers: " I inclose you 
also the parole of Louis Gordon, and desire you to discharge him as directed in the case of 
Mr. Hamilton. Dated April 24th, 1778." On page 534, Mr. Levers writes, date May 
20th, 1778: "Louis Gordon and son are discharged from their parole; the former, a few 
days ago, took llie test oath, according to law." Here we see an old man, out of office 



which he had held for nearly a quarter of a century, out of healtli, just buried his wife, 
entering the dark shadows of the evening of life, the gloomy hours which followed the 
battle of Brooklyn, Washington flying through New Jersey, with a triumphant foe in hot 
pursuit, whose relentless grasp he barely escapes by crossing the Delaware; all these things 
weighed upon his soul, and as the dying man clings tenaciously to the religious teachings 
of his childhood, so Louis Gordon found relief to his troubled soul in reclining beneath 
the folds of that glorious banner which had shielded him in childhood. But the battle of 
Saratoga had eledlrified the souls of the patriots; France had formed an offensive and 
defensive alliance ; Lafayette had arrived, light came struggling through the darkness. 
This feeble old man comes to himself, renews his fealty to his adopted country, takes the 
" test oath " of allegiance to the Government of the struggling republic, and dies a mem- 
ber of the fraternity of freemen. This is simple justice to the memory of Louis Gordon. 
Historia confirmat, et justicia jussit. When, how or where Louis Gordon died, the 
writer and others have failed to ascertain. As far as can be learned, no gravestone marks 
the place of his burial. Alas! what is fame? A little over a hundred years have passed 
since he died, and the hour of his death, not even his grave, can be found. Sic transit 
gloria hominis. "And no man knoweth his grave unto this day." 




When and by Whom Built, and AVliere, and How; The Great Means of Commercial Intercourse Between 
Philadelphia and Upper Waters of the Delaware ; Saved Washington's Army ; Helped Fight the Battles 
of Trenton and Princeton ; Carried Whiskey and Flour to Philadelphia from Minisinks and from Easton — 
'Squire Abie's Boats ; Helped Gather the Boats for Lee's Army ; Supplanted by Steam. 

] HE Durham Boats played so important a part in the earl}^ histor}- of Easton, 
and in the Revohitionary War, that a history of Easton -would be incomplete 
without an accoimt of this craft. In the early histor}- of Northampton county 
there were no roads by which produce could be transported to Philadelphia, 
the head of the market. The heavy forests at the head-waters of the Dela- 
ware and Lehigh shielded the heavy bodies of snow from vernal suns, so 
that, instead of a sudden thaw and a freshet, the snow -wasted away slowly 
and the rivers were supplied with a goodly amount of water late in the sea- 
son, and for nearly all Summer the Delaware was navigable to the lands above 
the Water Gap, and the Lehigh to the Lehigh Gap. The only difficulty was 
to have properly constructed boats, and a large business could be done. The 
Durhams were in the country as early as 1723, and on the 12th of June of 
that year E. N. Durham was one of the viewers of a road from Green Swamp, Bristol 
township, to the Borough of Bristol. Durham Furnace, ten miles below Easton, was 
built about 1727, and needed some means by which the iron could be sent to Philadelphia. 
And, as "necessity is the mother of invention," so we have an account of the birthplace 
of these boats. "On the authority of Abraham Houpt, we learn the first Durham boat 
was built near Durham, on the bank of the Delaware, near the mouth of the cave, by one 
Robert Durham, the manager and engineer of the Furnace, and that the boat was made 
nearly in the shape of an Indian canoe, and the works were po.ssibly named after the 
builder of the boat. This was before 1750. As early as 1758 Durham boats were used to 
transport flour from John Vankampen's mill, at Minisink, to Philadelphia."* 

In conversation with the venerable ]\Iichael Butz, who was quite familiar with them 
in his early manhood, he said they were shaped like an Indian's canoe, and had a wide 
board extending the whole length of the boat on each side, on which men walked in pro- 
pelling the boat up from Philadelphia, using long poles for that purpose. These boats 
would carry 125 or 150 barrels of flour at a load, and float down with the tide, but it was 
hard work in poleing them back against the current. The Kichlines and Wagoners 
built mills on the Bushkill in 1763, 1780 and 1792, and found the Durham boats a ready 
means of transporting their flour to market. In 1783 old 'Squire Abel (Jacob Abel) kept 
a hotel, and was the first in Easton to own Durham boats and take part in the traffic. The 
point of shipment was at the dock just below and above the Delaware bridge. 

Robert Durham had a very small idea of the work he was doing when he built the 
first Durham boat. They became not only the means of commercial intercourse between 

* Hist. Bucks County, pa^e 646. 


Philadelphia and the upper waters of the Delaware, but they saved Washington's army 
and thereby gained freedom for mankind. When Washington had fought the battle of 
Brooklyn, and other disasters soon followed, he saw there was no safety for his disheart- 
ened forces but in a rapid retreat through New Jersey, across the Delaware into Pennsyl- 
vania. Fabius saved his ann}- and his country by retreating, and Washington had read his 
history. It is in misfortunes, when the soul is overwhelmed, when dark clouds settle over 
one's pathway, that real manhood is developed. This was the critical moment of the Revo- 
lution. The English Generals thought the war was over, and Cornwallis was on the point 
of starting for Europe. * 

General Washington began the battle of Brooklyn with an army of twenty thousand; 
when he arrived at Trenton he had about three thousand. They were poorly clad and 
poorly fed. He had sent to Congress an account of his defeat and his intention to retreat 
across the Delaware, and an order to have the boats on the Delaware coUedted on the 
west side, so that he could cross without delay. 

About the same time Washington had sent Colonel Humptou to colledl all the boats 
along the Delaware and other craft. Jacob Abel (old 'Squire Abel) was called upon to help 
colledl the boats to convey the patriots across the river. This we have from Elisha Allis, 

Esq., who received it from a member of the family. These strange vessels, built by the 
hands of Providence, stood ready when Washington came to the Delaware, and the army 
of freedom stepped into them and were soon across the pleasant waters, and they never 
seemed so pleasant as when Washington and his suffering army were safely landed on Sun- 
day morning, December 8tli, on the Pennsylvania shore, and at eleven o'clock the same 
morning saw the British forces marching down on the opposite bank. The hostile armies 
now lay facing each other across the Delaware, and the cause of independence was safe. 
Lee had been ordered to join Washington's army, and General Ewing was ordered to send 
Durham boats to McKonkey's, and General Maxwell was ordered to seize all the boats not 
needed and put them under strong guard, and those he could not guard should be de- 
stroyed. The enemy waited for the river to freeze over and give them a passage across, 
but the river would not freeze. The English at length retired and left a body of troops 
at Trenton. The Legislature of New Jersey had crossed the Delaware with Washington, 
Congress had gone to Baltimore ; all was consternation and alarm. Here is where Wash- 
ington showed the grandeur of his nature. He had retreated through New Jersey with a 
powerful and triumphant army in hot pursuit; but, while others trembled, he was calm, 
unmoved h\ disaster. Whatever griefs he had were kept from the public. Everything 
depended upon him. At what time he first conceived the plan of recrossing the Delaware 
*Jared Sparks, in his "Life of Washington," says: "When the news reached New York, Cornwallis, on the 
point of starting for Europe, was ordered to take command in the Jerse)-s." 


and attacking the Hessians is not known ; it was never divnlged. But the plan ivas 
formed. Two thousand four hundred men were prepared to recross the Delaware. 

Bancroft says Washington wrote the watchword for his anny, which was " VicT;or>- or 
Death," on the 23d of December. He wrote Colonel Reed about the time: "Christmas 
day, at night, one hour before day, is the time fixed upon for our attack on Trenton." 
Six davs before, the first number of Paine's "American Crisis" was read to every regiment 
in the army, which greatly aroused the spirit of the troops. And whoever will read 
this number of the "Crisis" will feel that the watchword, " Vidlory or Death," was in per- 
fe(5l sympathy with the army. This enabled the soldiers to march, leaving their bloody 
tracks upon the ground. The da}- came at last — the Durham boats were waiting, ready 
to take their precious freight across through sleet and ice. Now occurs one of the strange 
incidents of the war. A Tory had found out that an attack was to be made that night on 
Trenton. He wrote a letter and hurried to Trenton, handed it to Colonel Rahl, who put 
the letter in his pocket unopened. This decided his fate, this made vidlor\- easy ; this 
letter, unsealed, was found in his pocket when he lay dead after the battle. He was busy 
preparing for a Christmas party in the evening; he could read the letter in the morning. 
That putting the letter unread in his pocket settled the fate of the British Empire in 
America, enabled Washington to snatch vi<ftory from defeat, and drive awa}- the dark 
clouds which had hung in such deep darkness over the land. It was a dark, stormy night ; 
the river was filled with ice, but those were men of stout hearts and iron nerves. The \-er\- 
storm seemed to come as a friend to remove all apprehension of an attack. After cross- 
ing, the army marched in perfect silence. At early morn the roar of battle was heard ; 
the fight was brief, the vi<?i;or>- complete. More than a thousand prisoners, a thousand 
stand of anus, a number of cannon, were the fruits of the vi(5lor}-. No mighty ship ever 
carried a prouder freight across the sea than these Durham boats that 26th of December, 
1776, carried across the sparkling waters of the friendly river. There was no time to be 
lost. He had caught his game, and he must take it to a place of safety. The forces were 
small engaged in this battle, but it was one of the most important battles in the military- 
history of the world. Many unused to weep shed tears of joy. If Washington can do 
such wonders, he can do anything, thought many people. There were dark days after 
the famous retreat through New Jersey and more famous battle of Trenton, but none so 
dark. The name of Washington was on every lip. The British Generals could not with- 
hold their praise, and Frederick the Great sent him a beautiful sword with this inscription: 
"From the oldest to the youngest General in the world." 

These grand old boats had done a good work, but they had one more errand on hand. 
When the army had become sufiSciently refreshed, these homely vessels were again called 
upon to convey the intrepid commander across the Delaware, and took position at Trenton. 
He soon heard Cornwallis was on his way to meet him. He took position across the 
Assinpink Creek, placed his artillery so as to rake the bridge, and built his camp-fires for 
the night. The arnn- of Cornwallis was in overwhelming numbers, and Washington saw 
the odds were too .seriously against him, and a battle next day would be disastrous ; some 
plan must be adopted to avoid the danger. In the early part of the night the mud was so 
deep that it was thought impossible to draw the artillery and heavy baggage, if he should 
retreat, but toward midnight the wind changed, became cold, the ground froze, and all 
might move easily. Washington knew there were troops which the English had ordered 



to Princeton, ten miles distant. He gave orders to have the camp-fires kept brighth- burn- 
ing, and the guards were to remain at the bridge and fords till near daylight, while the 
army quietly left, and at sunrise was at Princeton. A severe engagement took place ; 
Washington was in the thickest of the fight, encouraging his soldiers. The battle was 
won. About three hundred Britons were made prisoners and one hundred killed. Some 
valuable lives were lost b}- the Americans. After this battle, Washington retired to Mor- 
ristown. Cornwallis looked across the creek early in the morning. He saw the smould- 
ering camp-fires, but not a soldier was to be seen ; but when he heard the roar of battle at 
Princeton, he knew the bird had flown. 

The Durham boats have never had credit for the important part they took in this dark 
hour of the world's progress. But they did their work quite as well as the British fleet at 
Trafalgar or Copenhagen, or that of Perry on Lake Erie. They helped Freedom along in 
the mighty struggle. These boats had their day ; they have passed away. They would 
be no more thought of now than an old-fashioned spinning-wheel, but they were a power 
in their time. When reading this part of our history, we can but think of the beautiful 
lines of Watts : 

"God moves in a mysterious way, 

His wonders to perform ; 
He plants his footsteps on the sea, 

And rides upon the storm. 

"Ye fearful saints, fresh courage take, 

The clouds ye so much dread, 

Are big with mercy, and shall break 

With blessings on your head." 

After the Revolutionary war was closed, the Durham boats became of more impor- 
tance than ever in carrying the products of the farmers of Warren and Sussex counties, 
N. J., and, of what is now Monroe, Pike, Luzerne and Northampton, to Philadelphia. 
And this traffic was carried on by this homely craft for fifty years after the Independence 
of the United was settled by the treaty of Paris. There were two rocks in the Lehigh, 
near Easton, called the forty and sixty barrel rocks. The signification of these names 
was, that when the forty barrel rock was covered by water, a Durham boat would carry 
forty barrels of whiskey to Philadelphia, and so, when the sixty barrel rock was covered 
a boat would carry sixty barrels of whiskey. 

There is an incident in the history of Easton in which these boats played a more acftive 
part. For some time it was understood that La Fayette would visit the land and grave of 
Washington. The long expected visit took place in 1824. This noble friend of our 
country was received in New York in August, and arrangements were soon made by which 
he was to visit the principal cities of the Republic. The enthusiasm knew no bounds. 
The roar of cannon could be heard on all sides welcoming this friend of Washington to 
our land. Easton was alive with patriotic emotion. It was arranged to receive the illus- 
trious visitor in Philadelphia. There was a paper published at that time in Easton by 
George W. Deshler, called the Spirit of Pennsylvania. From the files of this paper we 
learn the part Easton took in doing honor to the noble Frenchman. In the issue of Sep- 
tember 3rd, we have the following general orders: "The Volunteers of the Borough of 
Easton will hold themselves in readiness to march to Philadelphia, in honor of General 



La Fayette, provided with two days provisions — amis and other eqnipments in the best 
possible condition. Knap-sacks are not to be procured, they are abandoned on account of 
expense. A wagon will be furnished to transport the baggage. The companies will be 
formed in the Centre Square, at 7 o'clock in the morning of the da)' they are to march, 
and will form a battalion under the command of the senior oihcer. Dr. John O. Wagener 
is appointed Surgeon to the Battalion, D. D. Wagener, Captain E. U. Guards, William 
L. Sebring, Captain Easton Artillerists, J. Weygandt, Jr., Captain Citizen Volunteers. 
Easton, August 30, 1824." 

The companies paraded on the Square on the nth of September. Such excitement 
had not been witnessed since the fall of Yorktown. Hours moved slowly. Days seemed 
prolonged, a week seemed a month. But the day came at length, the 22d of September. 
Easton volunteers, to the number of two hundred, were under arms at half-past seven, and 
at 8 o'clock were on the march for the "Point" at the foot of Ferry street. Durham boats 
were at the wharf to take their patriotic burden down the sparkling stream; they had taken 
the prisoners and trophies of war from the vi(5lorious field of Trenton, forty-eight years 
before, and now they were to carry the freemen of Easton to honor the battle-scarred friend 
of Washington in the city of "brotherly love." The people of Easton were up "bright 
and early." The whole population was at the "great Square," watching the forming 
lines, and listening to the strains of music as they broke upon the morning air, and echoed 
amid the surrounding hills. Our venerable friend, Michael Butz, was in the company, 
and his young wife was watching the scene with the most earnest feeling. They had been 
married two years. It has been sixty-one years since that bright September morning, and 
both are hale and hearty still. The soldiers marched briskly to the "Point," stepped into 
the boats, the sailors drew in the hawsers, turned their vessels into current, and they went 
on their way down the beautiful river. The guns on Mount JeiTerson bade them God 
speed on their patriotic journey. The shores of New Jersey and Pennsylvania were 
covered by thousands, cheering and waving handkerchiefs, which salutations were returned 
by the hearty shouts of these citizen soldiers on their way to do honor to the great cham- 
pion of human freedom. It was a happy company in those Durham boats, floating along 
amid "the picturesque scenery, the alternate views of beautiful fanns and farm-houses, 
the variegated landscapes, peeping as it were, through immense mountains of solid rock — 
the varied and flucfluating motions of the waters, now gentle, now smoothly flowing, and 
again foaming and billowing in sudden and rapid violence — the beautiful but irregular 
windings of the Delaware — were in themselves, sufiicient recreations for the mind. But 
the sporting jest, the hearty laugh and innocent merriment, and soul-stirring music, all 
helped to make the day the happiest of their lives." 

The companies arrived at Trenton at night, all put up at one hotel. In the morning 
the boats were towed to the landing at Philadelphia by steamers. The journey had been 
safely made, and no commander of the great steamers which contend with the storming 
billows of the Atlantic, ever felt his importance more fully than the captains which 
piloted these river ships through the rocks and eddies of the Delaware from Easton to 
Trenton on this niemorable September day. The author called upon Chief Burgess Law- 
rence Titus, and inquired of him if he was in the expedition to Philadelphia to meet La 
Fayette? "Oh yes, and we had a pleasant time in the Durham boats. But we had to 
walk back from the citv to Easton. We arrived at Doylestown at night, the first day's 


march, and were handsomely entertained free of expense to the company. For the want 
of a better place, I slept in jail." Mr. Butz said, "The large team which carried their 
baggage kept company with them in their tiresome walk to Easton, and they would take 
turns in riding, and in this way their toil was somewhat abated." If there were any classi- 
cal scholars in the company of wear}- toilers, who contrasted the ease with which they 
glided down the bright rolling river, with the tugging, sweating through the dust, a dis- 
tance of sixty-five miles, it is quite likely they many times recalled the lines of Virgil — 
"Facilis descensus Averno est; sed revocare gradum, — hoc opus, hie labor est." But they 
did retrace their steps and arrived safely at Easton at the close of the second day's march. 
They had seen La Fayette, and felt their toil was not for naught. 

These boats began their work on the upper waters of the Delaware. As already 
stated, the first ones were made before 1750. They carried on a large trade with the 
Dutch farmers at the Minisinks, above the Water Gap. We find the following in a work 
entitled "The Life of Major Moses Van Campen" (page 21): "It was the custom of the 
farmers who lived on the Delaware, above the Water Gap, to convey their wheat, which 
they raised in great abundance, down on the river to Philadelphia, to be sold there. For 
this purpose they used large boats, called Durham boats, which would earn- ten or twelve 
tons apiece. Wheat was their staple, and they depended much on getting it safely into 
market." It is supposed the Holland Dutch came into the Minisinks as early as 1635, 
and had fine orchards, large fanns, and large settlements, against which Teedyuscung 
hurled his vengeance in 1755. These hardy and industrious people were ready to seize 
the earliest instrumentality by which their produce could find a market. Long before the 
Revolutionary war, a depot and store-house was established at Easton, from which grain 
could be loaded on the Durham boats for the Philadelphia market. The first one built 
was located on the north side of the Delaware bridge, the foundation of which was close 
to that of the toll-house, and is still standing in a good state of preservation. This was a 
frame building, and was owned by Christian Butz, the father of the venerable Michael 
Butz, still living in Easton. In 1779, the army of General Sullivan passed through Easton 
to Wyoming to fight the Indians; met them, and severely whipped them; the scene of the 
action being on the ground now occupied by the city of Elmira. When the anny 
returned, it staj'ed some time in Easton, and the Durham boat store-house was occupied 
by some of the troops. They were rough, lively fellows. Three of them were hung on 
gallows hill for shooting a landlord at Minisinks because he would not sell them rum 
when they were already drunk. On another occasion, they rode in nudity through the 
street to the rivers for bathing. Below the bridge stands a brick building, which, in a 
past age, serv'ed as a store-house for the Durham craft. The iron shiitters are closed, and 
we can almost imagine the ghosts of the past holding high revel amid its gloomy silence. 
These two spots have been scenes of bustling activity and hard toil. Here, from the early 
history of the town, the Wageners, the Greens, the Abels, the busy, hard-working Ger- 
man farmers, have mingled in these busy scenes, and there is nothing left to remind us of 
these activities, but these silent, deserted walls. We walk on the foundation of the one, 
and gaze at the iron covered windows of the other, and think of the men who built them 
and gained subsistence for themselves and families there, and have passed away; and 
the gathering crowds assembling at the arriving and departing of these vessels arc now 
forgotten. The crowds of peojile, English and German, old and young, young men and 


maids of interest and excitement have gathered at these points and enjoyed the jokes and 
songs of these river-mariners, carefully guiding their heavily laden boats down the rip- 
pling current, while others, tugging with their setting polls, are urging the boats up the 
tide to the Miuisinks, making the air vocal with their songs as they set their polls and 
walk the broad planks on each side of the vessel. These men, sweating, toiling in these 
boats on the Delaware, were happy in their toil, and satisfied with the great improvements 
of the age. The Durham boats were good enough for them. The merchants and farmers 
met the demands of human life then, quite as easily as now. The wives and children 

were just as happy, when the husbands and fathers returned from their trips then, as the>- 
are now, flying toward home at the rate of fifty miles an hour. The mothers and children, 
hastening to the river's side to watch for father's boat returning up the beautiful stream, 
had the same thrills of delight when they saw the well known boat appearing around the 
bend of the river, and received the familiar signal of the man standing on the bow, as is 
now experienced bv those waiting papa's train whirling toward the depot and see him leap 
to the platform. Long since these vessels urged their way up to the Minisinks, the voices 
of the sturdy boatman echoing amid these mountain crags, steam has been applied to the 
purposes of commerce b)- land and sea; the lightning has been put in harness, compelled 
to obey our mandates, and bring the morning news from the capitals of the world to read 


after our evening meal. By telephone we can now talk with a friend, though hundreds of 
miles away, as if he were sitting by our side. We have now coaxed the lightning to light 
our streets and dwellings, and before coal is exhausted will warm our homes amid the 
blasts of winter, and cook our meals by a Dynamo in every home. And yet there was as 
pure, as much happiness, in those olden times as now. Then to those old boats, "Vale, 
vale, dicimus. " " In memoria dulcissima quiescant. " 

Here and there a Durham boat flits along the river, amid the scenes of fonner excite- 
ment and interest, like a ghost silently and sadly wandering among the recollections of 
the past, under the shadowy crags of the classic river, while the hoarse voice of the driver 
urges his mules along the tow-path, or the locomotive thunders along with its mighty 
burden shaking the solid hills in its course. How man.elous the changes of fifty years ! 
' ' Tempus omnia mutat. ' ' 


No thoughtful man can watch the tide of immigration of the varied nationalities of 
Europe into our country, and observe the ease with which they settle down and become 
hannonious parts of our national life, without wondering at the strange power of our 
institutions, by which these people of widely different religious and political prejudices 
are so soon changed into patriotic American citizens, so ready, if necessary, to die for the 
land of their adoption, and the government which they had learned to love before they 
came to our shores. We are reminded of this in reading the early history of Easton. 
Here we have the Scotch, English, Irish, Dutch, French and German meeting in the 
"Forks of the Delaware," forgetting the associations of the old, as they mingle amid the 
busy scenes of the new world. The old race distindlions pass away. The names French, 
German, Scotch, Irish and Dutch are lost in the prouder name American. A new race 
has come into life in this new world, unlike any one which has gone before. And if the 
Danish, Saxon and Norman blood, mingling with the Celtic stock, has produced the 
English people, upon whose dominions the sun never sets, if the mingling of the blood of 
these four generations produce a Wellington, what kind of a nation are we to have in the 
new world, where the blood of the various nationalities of Europe are mingling in the 
hot contest for wealth, happiness and political prefennent ? Our territory is as large as all 
Europe, washed by two great oceans, traversed by lofty mountain ranges, and watered by 
the greatest rivers of the globe, and is to be the theatre for the development of the great 
race of tlie future. The wildest imagination can hardly conceive the glory and grandeur 
of this new race of Americans. Easton was settled by representatives from six nations of 
Europe, but all these distinitlons have long since passed away, and the people of to-day 
are proud to be called Americans. This new race has no titled rulers, no crowns nor 
thrones, and only confer titles upon those whom nature has made worthy to bear them. 


" Lo, the poor Indian ! whose untutored mind 
Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind ; 
Yet simple nature to his hope has given 
Behind the cloud-topp'd hill an humbler heaven ; 
Where slaves once more their native land behold, 
No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for gold. ' ' — Pope. 


jEFORE entering upon the history of the Indian Treaties, it will be necessary 
to notice briefly the nature of the "Walking Purchase" of 1737. It was the 
alleged unfairness of this purchase that called these treaty making powers 
together. My authority for the fadls here brought to view, is the ver>' 
valuable history of Bucks county, and also the Colonial Records and Archives 
of Pennsylvania. "No event in the early history of the country gave so 
much dissatisfadlion to the Indians, or led to as severe criticism of the Penns, 
as the 'walking purchase.' " This famous treaty was based upon a treaty 
said to have been made between the Proprietaries and the Indians in 1686, 
although such treaty has never been found, and many doubt whether any 
such treaty ever existed. But the whites claimed that there was a treaty 
which gave them a right to settle upon the lands in question, the Indians became uneasy, 
and demanded a settlement, by having proper boundaries. To arrange these boundaries, 
a council, or treaty, was called at Durham in 1734, which was continued at Pennsbury in 
May, 1735, and was concluded August 25, 1737, at Philadelphia. At these treaties, the 
limits fixed by the treaty of 1686 were confirmed, and "it was agreed that the boun- 
dary should be determined by walking a day and a half in a northwest dire<ftion from 
a point in the head line of the purchase of 1682." While these negotiations were in 
progress between the Proprietaries and the Indians, the fonner arranged for a preliminary 
walk to be performed by expert walkers, to ascertain how far a "day and a half walk" 
would extend into the country. The author of Bucks County History remarks : " As the 
Penns caused this walk to be made without the knowledge of the Indians, our readers are 
able to judge of the morality of this act." In the work above alluded to, there is an 
admirable map of the walk. Three expert walkers had been obtained, Edward Marshall, 
James Yeates and Solomon Jennings. It was agreed that the Indians should send several 
of their young men to see fair play. Men on horseback were employed to accompany the 
walkers and carry the food for them. The trees had been "blazed" in the preliminary 
walk, so that there need be no time lost in hunting paths. "The place of starting was fixed 
at a large chestnut tree, where the road from Pennsville meets the Durham road, near the 
Wrightstown meeting-house." The day fixed was the 19th of September, when a geo- 
graphical line was to be established, which was destined to make quite as much noise as 
that of Mason aiid Dixon. The appointed day came, the sun was just crossing the 


Equator, and would be up promptl)- at six o'clock. The famous walkers were at their 
post, their hands upon the old chestnut tree. Sheriff Smith was on hand, mounted ready 
for the start. The young Indians and many curious people were watching the scene. All 
were waiting for the first rays of the rising sun to dart their golden beams athwart the 
landscape. The sun rose in splendor, and this strange drama in histon.' had begun. 
" Bets were made on the speed of the walkers." " Yeates led the way with a light step," 
not far behind came Jennings and the two Indian walkers, and last, far behind, came 
Marshall, in a careless manner swinging a hatchet in his hand. He knew that he who 
starts slowest holds out longest, and he was the only one of the three who held out the 
dav and a half Jennings gave out before noon the first day, Yeates fell into a creek at 
the foot of the mountain on the morning of the second day, was blind when taken up and 
died in three days. At twelve o'clock, Mr. Marshall threw himself upon the ground 
exhausted and "grasped a sapling which marked the limit of the walk." The walkers 
crossed the Lehigh at Jones' Island, a mile below Bethlehem, passed the Blue Mountain 
at Smith's gap in Moore township, Northampton county. It had been agreed that a line 
should be drawn to the Delaware. The Indians very naturally claimed that the line should 
reach the river at the nearest point, which would not have been very far from the point 
opposite Belvidere; while the proprietaries claimed the line should be drawn at right angles 
to the line of walk which struck the river near Lackawaxen, far above Port Jervis. A 
glance at the map will show the wide difference between the parties. The Indians were 
dissatisfied; they felt they had been "over-reached" in the treaty of 1737; they felt the 
conditions were "hard." And all of this is acknowledged by the writer who gives us so 
much pleasure to follow. But who made those conditions so hard ? Who performed this 
act of over- reaching ? Who determined to exa(?t the fulfilment of these conditions, and 
over-reaching to the letter? The writer above alluded to generously tries to defend the 
whites, but his pen seeined to move heavily along the "ragged edge" of something more 
unpleasant than "danger." The Indians smothered their wrath till Braddock fell, then the>- 
went on the war path. The smoke of burning buildings at Gnadenhutton, and through 
what is now Monroe county, the shrieks of innocent women and children and smoking 
scalps at the belt of Teedynscung, made the whites willing to hold a parle>- with the red 
man, and hence the treaties at Easton. 


David Martin was thus the first to break in upon the solitudes and begin the work 
which was to make these hills and valleys the scene of so much beauty and comfort. Hut 
if he had been seeking for a home only he would not have built upon a spot so unpromis- 
ing in appearance. He was, however, looking for a place of business. The people were 
unable to build bridges across large streams, and a ferry became a matter of great con\-en- 
ience, as well as a necessity. He had two ferries; one to accommodate those who wished 
to go to and from the Jerseys, and another across the Lehigh for those who wished to go 
toward Dnrliani, Bristol or I'liiladclphia. \'itv few of tlu- ]irescnt generation visit this 
spot, who n'.-ili/t.' tlu' scenes of excitenienl and importance lliat lia\e transiiired at l1iis 



locality. Not a vestage remains to remind us of the dead past. Here have been scenes 
of revelry and mirth, here have been scenes of diplomatic struggles, in which kings and 
potentates have engaged, upon the results of which depended the success of the great war, 
then casting its dark shadows over the land. It is the duty of the historian to reproduce 
these scenes, and record them for the benefit of future generations. "In 1739, David 
Martin obtained a grant and patent for ferrying at the forks of the Delaware, his privileges 
extending about thirteen miles along the New Jersey side of the river, fi^om the upper 
end of Tinicum Island to Marble Mountain, a mile above the mouth of the Lehigh." 
He had the exclusive right to ferry over horses, cows, sheep, and mules, etc., etc. "Con- 
cerning the old Ferry and the route of travel leading to and from it, some light is thrown 
by the account which Mr. John Green (who was ferryman in 1792) gives of his interview 
with an old man who crossed it that year after an absence of half a century. This old 
man told Mr. Green that when he had last crossed the ferry (in 1742 or 1743, in David 
Martin's time) it was in a canoe, and that he swam his horse along side ; that the site of 
Easton at that time was covered with woods and thick underbrush. And from thence to 
Bethlehem, which had just begun to be settled, the only route was over an Indian path." 
From this time the "old ferry house" becomes a point of the deepest interest. Easton 
began her history- with bitter wars following close upon its birth. England had planted 
colonies from Maine to Georgia, along the coast, while the French had planted colonies 
from the mouth of the St. Lawrence, at the great lakes on the Illinois river, and the Mis- 
sissippi to New Orleans. England claimed the continent from ocean to ocean. France 
intended to divide the continent and take the largest share. The war that gave Easton 
so much trouble was this war between England and France for the mastery of the conti- 
nent. The immediate cause which led to the opening strife was an effort to obtain control 
of the valley of the Ohio. An Ohio company had been formed in Virginia, and George II 
had granted them five hundred thousand acres of land located between the Kanawha and 
Monongahela. The French were on the watch and had built forts on the land thus given 
to the Virginians. In 1754, George Washington was ordered by Virginia to take a small 
army and proceed at once and take possession of the territory. "On May 26, he reached 
Great Meadows. Here Washington learned the French were advancing to attack him. 
He prepared for battle, found their hiding place." The French were on the alert, flew to 
arms. "Fire!" was the command of Washington, and "the first volley of a great war went 
whizzing through the air." Braddock's defeat followed in July 9th, 1755. The Indians 
that were hesitating took sides with France, and the bloody struggle was fairly underway. 
"The fall of Braddock was the signal for the Delaware Indians, whose affedlions had been 
alienated from the English ever since they saw them in league with the hated Iroquois 
(six nations) for the iniquitous purpose of dispossessing them of their lands." Allured by 
the representations of French emissaries, in which the prospedl of recovering their national 
independence and the homes of their fathers was flatteringly held out to them, "they 
bitterly denounced the fraud of 1737, perpetrated to confirm a deedless purchase, meaning 
the 'walking purchase.' Wherever the whites dwelt within this territory, they re.solved 
to strike with savage vengeance. And that the blow might be effectually dealt, each 
warrior-chief was charged to scalp, kill and burn within the precindls of his birthright, 
until the English should sue for peace, and promise redress."* The Moravian settlement 
* History of Moravian Church, page 192. 


in the valley of Mahoning, November 24th, was attacked, and the people murdered and 
scalped, as also Gnadenhutten (now Weisport) suffered the same fate. The news of this 
calamitv fell like a thunderbolt on the infant settlement of Easton, and suddenly brought 
the noble heart and tender care of William Parsons into full play. He had hurried the 
completion of the jail that it might ser\'e as a castle into which the mothers might flee 
with their children. From this time till IMr. Parsons' health broke down, he manifested 
all the anxiety that a mother feels for her helpless babes. In this terrible crisis, something 
must be done to arrest the bloody work of the scalping knife and tomahawk. An effort 
was made to induce the Indians to meet at Easton, and treat for peace. But a special 
messenger must be sent to Wyoming and Diahoga. It was a dangerous work; who will 
go? Years before, an Indian mother of the six nations had presented William Penn with 
one of her babes, as a token of her love for the great friend of the red man. History does 
not record an exhibition of stronger love for a dear friend than this mother exhibited for 
her benefadlor. William Penn accepted the gift, carefully watched over his precious 
present. When the great founder of a great state had passed away. Governor Morris took 
the Indian under his care; and in August, 1755, conferred on him the title of Xew Castle, 
and in remembrance of the event addressed him in these words: "In token of our affe(ftion 
for }Our parents, and in expedlation of your being a ver\' useful man in these perilous 
times, I do, in a most solemn manner, adopt you by the name of New Castle, and order 
you hereafter to be called by that name. ' ' * Never was a Gartered Night prouder of his title 
than this dusky child of the forest, and never one wore it with more distingiiished honor. 
The Governor gave his adopted son the message, and New Castle started for Wyoming 
and Diahoga (Tioga), met the savages, and like a skillful embassador, induced the fierce 
Delawares to lay aside the hatchet, come to Easton, and meet their white brethren at the 
Forks, kindle the council fires, and settle their differences in a proper way. This hazard- 
ous mission to Diahoga by New Castle was effecftual in bringing about a conference between 
the Governor and Teedyuscung, at Easton, in July following, and opened negotiations for 
a peace. This treaty met at Mr. Vernon's tavern and fern*- house at the point. New 
Castle not only returned, but brought Teedyuscung, the great war trumpet of the Dela- 
wares, with him. As the last mentioned charadler is to appear ver^• frequently at Easton 
during the treaty gatherings at the fern-, a brief account of him may not be out of place. 
According to his own statement, he was born in New Jersey in 1700, east of Trenton, in 
which neighborhood his ancestors of the Lenape had been seated from time immemorial. 
Old Captain Harris, a noted Delaware, was his father.! Teedyu.scung was a tall, raw- 
boned, imperious man. From his eloquence he was styled the War Trumpet of the 
Delawares. He held entire control over his people; with his .scalping knife in his belt, a 
single war-whoop would call his braves to the field, and start them on the war-path. 
Coming under the influence of the whites, he had acquired decided love of strong drink. 
Major Parsons tells us he would drink three quarts of rum in a day and not be drunk. 
Soon after Bethlehem was settled, he came under the influence of religious impressions, 
and desired to be received into the Christian church. The brethren had not confidence in 
liim, and put him on probation ; at the end of the time he still expressed the same desire, 
and he was accepted, and was baptized by Bishop Cammerhoff, March 12, 1750. The tall 
child of the forest, at fifty >ears of age, robed in snowy whiteness, kneeled and received 

» History of Moravi.'in Cliurch, paRC 2;,;,. t History of Church, jianc 217. 



the sacred rite in the presence of those Godly people. He rose from his knees a member 
of the church, but, like many others, not a Christian. The atmosphere was soon filled 
with the tales of Indian warfare, he snuffed the breeze, he forgot his vows on bended 
knees, went to Bethlehem, and by his eloquence persuaded quite a number to leave their 
friends and prepare for battle. Teedyuscung had seen the French at Niagara, and received 
rich presents in clothing, in which he was soon to appear at the Ferry Tavern in Easton. 
This was the head of one of the parties soon to assemble at Vernon's tavern. At the 
Point all was bustle and hurry and excitement with the hum of preparation. The meet- 
ing of the Council had been arranged for July 24th. A week before the Council, the town 
began to fill up with Indians from the West and North. The citizens became intensely 
alarmed. They tried to keep liquor away from them, for, if they could keep them sober, 
they might be free from danger; if they should get drunk, the worst consequences might 
ensue. The Lieutenant-Governor of Pennsylvania was present, and four commissioners, 
appointed by the Assembly, four members of the Governor's Council, besides a large 
number of distinguished gentlemen from Philadelphia, and Colonel Conrad Weiser, the 
Indian agent, with forty soldiers from Heidelberg, Berks county. They found only twenty- 
four Indians present. The Governor and State oflRcers appeared in great style, guarded by 
soldiers front and rear, and with the music of fife and drum came to the tavern at the 
Point. Never before had the ferry been a scene of such excitement. Vernon, without 
doubt, felt the importance of the moment, for it ivas of vast importance. The question 
of peace was to be the theme of debate, and many hoped it would be settled, that the 
Indians would be at peace, and leave the people to recover from the effedls of the recent 
murders. But the number of Indians was so small, the influence upon the different tribes 
would be limited, were reasons which influenced all parties to postpone the business till 
fall. The time for the second meeting was set for November 8, 1756, at which date the 
treaty powers again met at Vernon's tavern, at the ferry. The Indian attendance was 
large. The proprietaries and Teedyuscung had exerted themselves to bring representatives 
of all tribes concerned. Teedyuscung, king of the Delawares, was attended by sixteen 
of his nation, four Six Nation Indians, two Shawanese, and six Mohicans. Of the 
English, Governor Denny, William Logan and Richard Peters, of his council; Benjamin 
Franklin, Joseph Fox, William Masters and John Hughes, commissioners; Colonel Weiser, 
Major Parsons, Captain Weatherholt, Captain Vanellen and Captain Reynolds, officers of 
the Provincial forces. These were the contradling parties. * The sessions continued nine 
days. The military were well represented. The Governor and Council were escorted to 
and from their lodgings, by the military in such pomp as to inspire the Indians with awe at 
the power with which they were dealing. 

Teedyuscung, whose hands had been stained with the blood of those kind hearted 
Christians who had so recently sung the songs of joy at his baptism, was there puffed up 
with pride as he appeared wearing a fine broad-cloth coat, a present from the French at 
Niagara, and a cocked hat purchased in Philadelphia, trimmed with gold lace; he was 
gazed at by the boys of Easton, and envied by his people. Many people from other coun- 
ties and Philadelphia, and from New Jersey, were there. Hundreds of people stand around 
the old Ferry-house Tavern, waiting the arrival of the Governor. At length the shrill 
sound of the fife and beating of the drum tell the approach of Governor Denny. He is 
* Colonial Records, Volume VII, page 313. 


guarded by soldiers, front, flank and rear, and the British flag waves its red cross over his 
head. The people at the Forks had never witnessed such a display. And never had such 
a throng gathered at the Point. The happiest among the company is Major Parsons. As he 
so proudly keeps step with the music, he feels now that peace will come to his beloved 
town, and partly relieve him of his harrassing care. He had lived for Easton, it will now 
be preserved, and he will not have lived in vain. It was three o'clock in the afternoon 
when the parties were to enter upon the business which was uppermost in ever]*- heart. 
The parties entered the old tavern, took their seats, the soldiers were placed on guard. 
King Teedyuscung opened the proceedings. He "stood up as the champion of his 
people, fearlessly demanding restitution of their lands, or an equivalent for their irrepara- 
ble loss, and in addition the free exercise of the right to select, within the territory- in 
dispute, a permanent home. The chieftain's imposing presence, his earnestness of appeal 
and his impassioned oratory, as he plead the cause of the long injured Lenape, evoked the 
admiration of his enemies themselves. He always spoke in the euphonious Delaware, 
employing this castilian of the new world to utter the simple and expressive figures and 
tropes of his native rhetoric, although he was conversant with the white man's speech."* 
During the nine days of the negotiations, the business had been conducted with the 
utmost courtesy and plainness of speech. No one can read the proceedings of this remark- 
able treaty! without feeling that Teedyuscung gave evidence of superior endowments, 
that compared well with the provincial authorities. He told his grievance plainly, and 
when the Governor desired to know the price he demanded, he would not set a price; inas- 
much as the owners of the land were not present, it must be left to a future meeting. As 
the sessions were drawing to a close, a gloom was cast over the whole scene by an 
announcement of the Governor, that Capt. Newcastle had just died of small-pox. Governor 
Denny and Teedyuscung spoke tenderh- of the heroic characfter of the dead embassador 
who had risked his life in carrying the message that resulted in the treaty of peace. The 
usual good wishes and mutual desire for each other's happiness was the prelude for part- 
ing, and the Point resumed its usual quiet. 

The English were quite willing to pay for the land, but must have another meeting 
the following summer. In 1757, another treaty was held at Easton to detennine the ques- 
tion thus left open. The Council opened July 21, and closed August 7, 1757, making a 
period of eighteen days. The scene, as far as numbers were concerned, was far more 
imposing than the last Council. Of the English, the Governor, William Denny, James 
Hamilton, William Logan, Richard Peters, Lynford Lardner, Benjamin Chew, and John 
Mifflin, the Governor's Council; Isaac Norris, Speaker of the Assembly; Daniel Rober- 
deau, member of the Assembly; William Masters, John Hughes, Joseph Fox, Joseph 
Gallaway, Provincial Commissioners; a number of gentlemen from the city of Philadel- 
phia, and others from the Province; Thomas McKee, interpreter for the crown; Conrad 
Weiser, interpreter for the Province, and John Pumpshire, interpreter for Teedyuscung, 
and Charles Thompson his clerk. There were three hundred Indians present, represent- 
ing ten Indian nations; and later in the sittings of the treaty, Pa.xinosa, king of the 
Shawanese, with sixty followers, came. Is it any wonder that the women of Easton were 
fearful when so large a body of savages was in the town, with rum at their disposal ? 
Teedyuscung made three demands; the first was for a clerk in his own interest. Tliis tlie 
* History of the Moravian Church, page 224. f Colonial Records, VII, page 213. 


Governor very politely refused, but the Indian sent word to Gov. Denny, he might choose 
one of two things, either allow him a clerk, or abide by the result, as he would break up 
the Council and go home. The clerk was granted. Another demand was a place for a 
home for his people in Wyoming. He wished definite boundaries fixed, and have it made 
unlawful for his people to sell it, or white men to buy it. He desired the English to 
build houses for him, send religious teachers, and teachers for the children of his people. 
The third was pay for the Minisink lands. The last question was referred to the King of 
England. The business of the Council was finished. The Delaware king took two belts, 
tied them in a knot together; he took hold of one end, and the Governor the other, thus 
showing the bond of union which would hereafter bind them together. After the Gov- 
ernor, Teedyuscung and Paxinosa had addressed the multitude, a great dinner was 
prepared by Mr. Vernon. More than three hundred sat down to this dinner. What a 
wonderful scene for the little town! The white man at the same table with the Indians, 
who had so recently spread consternation and death, in scalping men, women and children 
in the Minisinks! The soldiers were drawn up in line before the old tavern, and fired 
three rounds — it was a "fire of joy." In the evening bonfires lighted the air, the 
Indians engaged in their wild war dances, making the air ring with the savage war 
whoop. "Take the lock off the rum cask, and let it run," said the Delaware king. 
In the free libations long before the bonfires ceased to burn, overcome by the fiery draught, 
the Indian chiefs forgot the sorrows of the past, the joys of the present, or the anticipa- 
tions of the future. It was a night of revelry and wild excitement. The quiet of morn- 
ing soon returned, the ofi&cials were off for Philadelphia, the Indians started to their 
hunting grounds, and the usual quiet reigned around the tavern, the ferry boats went on 
as usual. The mothers and daughters and boys of Easton talked over the matters in their 
little cabins; all danger was passed, and they could sleep without fear. 

There were questions left to be settled by a future council; the price of the Minisink 
land demanded by Teedyuscung had been referred to the English king. They must meet 
and hear the answer from the king. Teedyuscung had made a very serious complaint 
against New Jersey, saying they had been treated ver\' badly in regard to the lands in the 
northern part of New Jersey, and he wished the Governor of Pennsylvania to intercede 
with the Governor of New Jersey in his behalf, and this was matter for a future treaty. 
He had made a demand for a home in Wyoming, that was also to be answered. And so 
another council must meet to settle these questions and enlarge the number of Indian 
nations in league against the French. The new council met on October 8th, 1758. The 
people had become accustomed to Indian treaties, feared them less and enjoyed them more. 
They began to have an eye to business. The gatherings brought money into town, and 
they began to enjoy them. Vernon was as busy as a bee in preparing for the august 
gathering. The hunters were out after game. Anthony Esser was gathering in his sheep 
and beeves. The good German ladies were cleaning house and arranging their beds for 
Philadelphia visitors. Each was ambitious to entertain the Governor. But as his excel- 
lency put up in Mr. Parsons' house, corner of Ferry and Fourth streets, last year, he would 
very likely go to the same place this year. William Parsons had passed away. October 
8th was near at hand; the Indians began to arrive. Teedyuscung comes, wearing his 
cocked hat and military coat, trimmed with gold lace. He who had seen him once would 
never need to inquire after his name. The day for the meeting brought a large concourse. 


The Governor of Pennsylvania and stafiF were there as before; the Governor of New Jersey 
and his staff were there. The hint that the New Jersey people had wronged the Delawares 
brought Governor Bernard to the front. A number of Magistrates and Freeholders of 
this and the neighboring provinces, and citizens of Philadelphia, were present. There 
were twelve Indian nations represented, about twenty Indian chiefs, and about three 
hundred in number of men, women and children. The conference continued from the 
jth to the 25th of October. The main objecft of the Council was to hold their influence 
over these widely extended nations against the constant efforts of the French emissaries, 
who were ever busy in their efforts to turn the hatchets of the Indians against the Eng- 
lish, and thus aid them in the mighty task they had undertaken. There were other 
nations present at this Council with old grudges to settle up, and thus remove stumbling 
blocks out of the way of peace and friendship. The Governor of New Jersey inquired of 
Teedyuscung the nature of his demand. The northern part of New Jersey contained 
lands which he claimed. A line drawn from the Delaware to the falls of the north branch 
of the Raritan river and thence to Sandy Hook was the southern boundary. Governor 
Bernard offered eight hundred dollars in Spanish coin. Teedyuscung demanded one thou- 
sand; it was granted, and the cause of complaint removed. There was much jealousy 
between the Iroquois and Teedyuscung, which bid fair at one time to be a serious hin- 
drance to peace, but it was all smoothed over. Ever}- day's proceedings showed stronger 
signs that a basis of solid peace and friendship would be reached. The Indians said the 
chain was growing brighter. The Council drew to a close. 

A ver}' costly array of presents was brought from Philadelphia for the Indians. The 
reader may form some idea of the nature of the presents, when he hears that one hujidrcd 
and eighty-sei'en ruffled shirts were presented among the many fine things given to these 
children of the woods. Horses were granted the old chiefs to ride home upon, and wagons 
to carry their presents to their canoes in the Susquehanna (winding river). The end of 
the treaty had come. Thomas King, an Oneida Indian, had said many things for the Six, 
now Eight United Nations. This was the last address. And Thomas King, looking round 
the room, spied Mr. Vernon, and said to him, now that the business is over, you may take 
off the lock from the rum cask and let it run, that our hearts may be made glad. * This 
Council was closed, the members had gone to their homes. Quiet again resumed her sway 
at the Point. Here is a historic spot made beautiful only by the hills which encircle it, and 
the embracing of these rivers as they go murmuring to the sea. But the events that tran- 
spired here constituted an important facSlor in the French and Indian war. This little 
deserted spot was one of the most important battle fields of that war, which decided the pos- 
session of a continent. It was not a battle with deadly weapons, but a battle of diplomacy. 
F'rom the beginning of the war the French made untiring efforts to influence the Indians 
throughout the States of New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, to turn their hatchet against 
the whites. To countera(5l this the Council fires were kindled at Easton, and kept brightly 
burning, till at the last Council there were twelve Indian nations represented, and nearly 
thirty Indian chiefs entered into an alliance, offensive and defensive. The>- engaged to 
attack any advancing foe and help defend their white brethren. This spot is worthy of 
tender remembrance by the people of Easton for the important part it has p]a>ed in this dark 
hour of our colonial history. Quebec fell September 13, 1759, and virtualh- settled the 
* Colonial Reconls, Vol. VIII, page 223. 



conflidt. But the war continued on the ocean mainly till 1763 — September loth — when a 
treaty of peace was signed at Paris. But there could be no settled peace in America while 
those great nations were at war. So another great Council convened at Easton, August 
5th, 1 761, at which seven additional nations of Indians from beyond the lakes, formerly in 
the French interest, but lately entered into alliance with us, were present. There were near 
five hundred Indians at this treaty, and the seven additional nations made nineteen nations, 
that had been formed in treaty combination at the Council fire of Easton. The prisoners 
had not been returned by the Indians. The encroachments of the whites on Indian lands 
gave new causes of complaints which required the constant watch on the part of the govern- 
ment to prevent serious trouble. Teedyuscung was there to look after the answer from the 
King of England, it had come to hand, but was in the hands of General Sir William John.son, 
Indian Agent. These were the principal points discussed at this treaty gathering. There 
were two questions which could not be settled at this treaty, viz: the surrender of the 
prisoners in the hands of the Indians, and the closing up of the business between Teedy- 
uscung and the English king. Another Council therefore convened, at which these mat- 
ters were adjusted. The business was finished; large presents were made to the Indians; 
horses and wagons were procured to carry their presents and their sick to their canoes on 
the Susquehanna; a general hand-shaking; mutual good wishes were imparted, and the 
last Council at the old Ferry tavern closed. The officials returned to Philadelphia, and 
the great throng of these dusky children of the woods started in long procession for their 
distant forest homes. The scenes around the Point assumed their ordinary quiet. 
From the 5th to the 12th of August, 1761, the town was in a ferment of excitement, but 
all apprehensions of danger had passed, and Easton enjoyed the tumult. Some historians 
assert that there was another Council here in 1762, but this is a mistake. The questions 
left unsettled at this Council were finally settled at a Council held at Lancaster, August 
19th, 1762. The prisoners were all delivered up to the entire satisfacftion of the authori- 
ties. Teedyuscung acknowledged he was entirely mistaken in his accusations against the 
proprietors. "He had been wrongly informed by his ancestors." He relinquished all 
right to the lands in the Minisinks. The title had long since passed from them, and the 
documents proved it. The King of England had decided that whenever the Delaware 
king should make above acknowledgments a large present should be made to the Dela- 
wares — a present of four hundred pounds in milled dollars, and an equal value in goods. 
Entire satisfadlion was expressed by all concerned, and the whole matter was settled. 
When King Teedyuscung left the Point in 1761, he left it never to return. At the Coun- 
cil at Lancaster in 1762, he had threatened to poison the representatives of the Six Nations, 
which served further to embitter the feelings existing between them and the Delaware 
king. The government had complied with his request; had built him a number of houses 
in Wyoming valley, near the site of Wilkes-Barre, where he retired. In 1763, while in a 
state of intoxication, his house was set on fire, and the great "war trumpet" of the Dela- 
wares was consumed in the flames. To the thoughtful one standing by and gazing upon 
the crackling flames and falling timbers, strange thoughts would have come. There, in 
that burning building, lies one of the mightiest of the children of nature. There, in 
that heated flame, lies the savage warrior, the shrewd diplomatist, the natural orator, the 
leader of those wild nations. He, whom the Governor of Pennsylvania acknowledged to 
have been the principal agent of bringing about the peace, and arresting the work of 


savage warfare, is being consumed in those flames. He, who had compelled the Governors 
of New Jersey and Pennsylvania and the King of England to obey his mandate, lies in 
this burning mass. The house which the government had kindly built for his home, 
becomes his funeral pile. His people without doubt gathered his bones from the ashes, 
and in silent, savage gloom, gave them decent burial. He suffered the same death that he 
had inflicted upon the mother hugging her tender babe to her breast at Gnadenhutten. He 
often mourned that the joys experienced at his baptism never returned; but, from the 
moment he took up the hatchet against his Moravian friends, at Bethlehem, his religious 
peace left him forever. Teedyuscung on his knees in snow^• whiteness, surrounded by 
his dear Moravian friends, receiving the right of baptism at their hands, is in striking 
contrast with Teedyuscung painted for war, leading his maddened warriors to battle, his 
hands stained with the blood of innocent women and children, whose scalps hang at his 
belt. Influenced by the French, irritated by the walking purchase, won by the offer of a 
crown by his people, he led on his warriors in their bloody pathway, until met by the kind 
persuasions of New Castle, by whose kindly influence the haught}- Delaware king was 
brought a willing captive to the great Council fire at Easton. In these Councils this 
remarkable chief exhibited powers of diplomacy which compared well with those of the 
Governors of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. He defended his rights, and obtained redress 
from Pennsylvania and New Jersey. When the answer came from George II that Teedyus- 
cung was to receive four hundred pounds upon condition that he would acknowledge he 
had accused the officials of the province wrongly, that he had been mistaken, that the 
money would be given as a present, and not as payment for lands unfairly taken from him, 
the great Delaware king showed his weakness, acknowledged he was wrong in all his 
accusations and demands, received the money and retired from active histon,-. But the 
acknowledgment of the Delaware king by no means changes the opinion of mankind in 
regard to the encroachments of the whites. 


' ' Bid raging winds their furj- cease, 
And calm the savage breast to peace." — C. G. .\i.len. 

Before speaking of this Chief it may be well to give a brief account of the Indians 
who dwelt in Pennsylvania. A writer in the Historical Register of Pennsylvania, Vol. 2, 
page 291, begins a ver}* interesting article on the Indians of America. The origin of these 
people is still the enigma of history. After the research of four hundred years, the origin 
of this strange people is enveloped in myster>-. The writer above alluded to adopts the 
opinion that they are descended from the Jews. Count Zinzendorf * takes the same view, 
as also William Penn. The latter two believe them descended from the Lost Ten Tribes, 
while the writer in the Register draws their descent directly from Shem after the Deluge, 
maintaining that the descendants of Shem wandered East over islands and oceans, and 
•History of Moravnan Church, page iS. 



after three thousand eight hundred and forty years, met the Children of Japhet on the 
Atlantic coast. All of the three are confirmed in their belief by similarity in color, ph)-si- 
cal strudlure, manners and customs and traditions. But notwithstanding the darkness 
which has overshadowed the question of the origin of the Indians, the thinking world is 
adopting the view which is expressed by the writer in the Historical Register, viz. : that 
the Indians are the descendants of Shem. That as Japhet traveled West, Shem went 
toward the rising sun. One of America's acutest statesmen adopted the same view in a 
speech in the United States Senate, July 29, 1852.* "Even the discovery of this conti- 
nent and its islands, and the organization of society and government upon them, grand 
and important as these events have been, were but conditional, preliminary, and cancellory 
to the more sublime result now in the adl of consummation. The reunion of the two 
civilizations which, parting on the plains of Asia four thousand years ago, and traveling 
ever afterward in opposite directions around the world, now meet again on the coasts and 
islands of the Pacific ocean. Certainly no mere human event of equal dignity and impor- 
tance has ever occurred upon the earth. It will be followed by the equalization of the 
condition of society and the restoration of the unity of the human family." The general 
principle adopted by Mr. Seward is the constant easterly movement of the Shemitish and 
the westerly movement of the Japhetic tribes, and the meeting on a continent divinely 
prepared for their reception. The writer in the Register only makes the Shemitish tribes 
precursors in the movement. 

The Lenni Lenape is the name of the Indians who inhabited Pennsylvania, New 
Jersey, Delaware and Maryland. This name signifies Original People. They gave this 
as their name to the first imigrants. It is supposed that they at a very early period had 
wandered to this locality from the West. On their way East, at the Mississippi river, 
they came in conta<?t with a tribe apparently descended from the same race, called 
Mengwes. The interests of two tribes being identical, they united, and formed what they 
called a "New Union." In crossing the river they were opposed by another tribe, also of 
the same race, large in size, powerful in strength, and great in numbers. These were 
called the Alligewi. Great war was carried on by these opposing tribes for a considerable 
period. Finally the Alligewi were beaten, and to escape extermination they fled south. 
The conquerors then divided the country east of the Mississippi river, the Mengwes taking 
the country to the north, which adjoins the great lakes, and the Lenni Lenape the country 
to the east, which adjoins the Atlantic ocean. The Lenni Lenape consisted of three 
tribes — the Unamies, or Turtle; the Wunalachtikos, or Turkey, and the Minsi, or Wolf 
By the Europeans these three tribes were called Delawares. The Turtles and Turkeys 
possessed the country along the ocean from the Hudson river on the northeast to the 
Potomac on the southwest, and the Wolfs occupied the country round about the Blue 
Mountains, and all the territorj' lying between the Delaware and Susquehanna rivers. Of 
these Delaware Indians Tatamy was for many years chief He was born in New Jersey, 
near the Delaware river, about fifteen miles below Phillipsburg. In his youth he moved 
to Pennsylvania, and by constant association with the English he had acquired a good 
knowledge of the English language. He thus became very useful to the English gov- 
ernors as an interpreter in the business between the Indians and whites. For this reason 
he had a gift of three hundred acres of land for his services, f His house was near where 
* William H. Seward. Historj- Lehigh \'alley, page 50. 


Stockertown now is, where he lived much as white people live, and carried on fanning. 
He had a white woman for a wife, and had two sons who went to school with the neigh- 
bors' children. By his persuasive powers, and his native eloquence, he controlled the 
warlike spirit of his people. He was ver>' often in Easton, as his home was only a small 
distance away. He was present at the Treaties at Easton as an interpreter for the provin- 
cial authorities. Count Zinzendorf visited him in 1742, at his home; he says Tatamy was a 
man of a mild disposition, who lived much as white people do. There is much interest 
attached to the chara<Sler of Tatamy, inasmuch as he was a convert of the sainted Brainerd, 
who, in 1744, in December, built himself a hut at Sakhauwotung (Lower Mt. Bethel). 
Here, on Sunday, July 21, 1745, he baptized Moses Fonda Tatamy, who had been adling 
interpreter for him since his arrival among the Forks Indians. * He was well known in 
Easton by his frequent visits, and in business transa(ftions. The Delawares had been con- 
quered by the Six Nations, and reduced to the condition of women, that is, to absolute sub- 
mission. At the treaty in Philadelphia, in 1742, Teedyuscung, a rising chief, represented 
the Delawares, and boldly demanded the restitution of his lands wrongfully taken from 
his people by the Indian walk. Canassatego, a chief of the Six Nations, was there also. 
When Teedyuscung had made his demand, the spirited Canassatego rose and said to the 
Delaware chief: "Let this belt serve to chastise you, you ought to be taken by the hair 
of the head and shaken severely till you recover your senses, and become sober. You 
don't know what ground you stand on, nor what you are doing. This land that you claim 
has gone through your guts long ago. We conquered you, we made women of you. You 
know you are women and can no more sell land than women. We charge you to remove 
instantly. We don't give you liberty to think about it, for you are women." This 
insulting speech stung Teedyuscung to the quick, and when he realized that the provin- 
cial authorities were in league with the hated Iriquois, he resolved on vengeance. Brood- 
ing over his wrongs, his soul was set on fire; he spoke with the force and pathos of an 
orator. He rose to the position of chief of his people, and the kind-hearted Tatamy gave 
way to a superior mind. Teedyuscung adled the part of a savage demigogue, but he 
gained his point; he got his revenge. He was made king of the western Delawares in the 
spring of 1756, while his people were desolating the Minisinks (Monroe county) with 
scalping knife, hatchet and torch. The Six Nations acknowledged his independence, and 
sent him to Philadelphia to conducfl their treaty in 1762. From this time forth Tatamy 
adled a subordinate part. He acfted as a messenger for Teedyuscung, and for the governor 
of Pennsylvania. As far as history shows, he never took up the hatchet after his baptism. 
Some writers have made the mistake of saying that Tatamy was shot near Bethlehem. 
But it was a son by the name of William. f He was shot by a boy fifteen years of age. 
The ball passed through both thighs. The poor Indian suffered a mouth, and was attended 
by Dr. Otto. Everytliing was done which kindness could suggest, but he died and was 
buried in Bethlehem; the funeral was attended by about two hundred Indians. There 
was great fear that this murder might disturb the peace that was progressing so fa\orably. 
Teedyuscung called the attention of the governor to the outrage on William Tatamy, and 
demanded that if the Indian died the murderer should die also. The gentle and eloquent 
father .sat in the audience. The governor reminded the Indian king that the > oung man 
was in confinement, and promised if the young Indian died tlie murderer should ])e tried 
* Moravian History, pa^e 27. t Moravian Church, page 334. 


by the laws of our country, which required blood for blood, and the king might send a 
deputy to the trial. And then the governor turned to the affli6led chief and said: "You 
are the father of the young man who has been unfortunately wounded. It gives us great 
concern that anything of this kind should happen. We have employed the most skilful 
doctor that is among us to take care of him, and we pray that the Almighty would bless 
the medicine that is administered for his care. We, by this string of wampum, remove 
the grief from your heart, and desire no uneasiness may remain there."* The afflicted 
chief uttered not one word of complaint, but smothered his grief, and with Christian resig- 
nation passed along in the busy whirl of life. He was present at the treaty in Philadelphia 
in 1760, after which his name disappears from history. Teedyuscung was burnt in his 
own house in Wyoming in 1763. And no one can read this brief account without inquir- 
ing about the present state of these noble Delawares. Where are the brave, warlike Lenni 
Lenape? Driven back toward the setting sun. In 1789, they were placed on a reserva- 
tion in the state of Ohio. But what is a reservation to the Indians when white men want 
a home ? It could not be reserved. The whites came swarming all around them, and 
they must go. In 1818, they were located in Missouri. Their home was precarious, till 
in 1866, they accepted lands in severalty in the Indian Territory. They then gave up 
their tribal relations, and settled down in civilized life. And now, it is said, they are at 
last useful and prosperous citizens of a united people, numbering, it is believed, one thou- 
sand. And there it is to be hoped, after retroceding for a himdred years from stream to 
stream, from mountain to mountain, toward the setting sun, they will be permitted to 
grow, if not a stronger, a more submissive and more honorable people, f And palsied be 
the arm that shall be raised to molest them in the peaceful enjoyment of their homes. 

Note. — On page 74, Vol. IV, Penn'a Archives, we find a letter from Teedyuscung to Sir William Johnson, 
by which we learn that Mr. Johnson had written to Teedyuscung two years before, that the Delaware king had 
answered the letter, which answer had not been received by Mr. Johnson. The Indian king received another 
letter from Mr. Johnson, dated March ig, 1762, which letter was answered by arranging for a meeting at Phila- 
delphia, in May, where all matters would finall}- be adjusted. On page 77 we have the answer of Mr. Johnson, 
saying, "his arrangements were such that he could not be at Philadelphia at that time, but would meet him and 
all concerned at Easton, June 15, 1762." On page 78, a letter from Teedyuscung accepts Easton as the place of 
meeting, and only those concerned in the land would come. The author fails to find any statement of the num- 
ber present, or business done, except on page 85, same vol., we have the frank acknowledgment of Teedyuscung 
that he was entirely mistaken in his accusations against the Proprietaries, and the "charge of forgery was a mis- 
take ;" and he acknowledged the validity of the sale of land to "old William Penn" in 1686. As to the walk, he 
still claimed it was unfairly done, but it was an opinion about which they could differ and be friends. This is 
probably the only time when Sir William Johnson was present at Easton. He brought documents with him 
that satisfied the Delaware king that the purchase of i586 was an honorable and veritable one, for which they 
had been fairlv and honorabh' paid by "old William Penn." The controversy was ended. Two points remained 
to be settled at the great Council in Lancaster in August, 1762, viz., the delivery up of the prisoners to the white 
people, and the presentation of the money from the English king. This acknowledgment on the part of Teedy- 
uscung entirely removes the supposed cause of complaint against the Penns. William Penn had disposed of the 
Province to the Crown in 1712, for ^12,000, and received ^,"1000 on account. He was stricken with paralysis, 
reduced to the simplicity of a child, and died in 1718 — nearly twenty years before the "walk." For twenty -five 
years he had ceased to do business, so that, whatever unfairness may be alleged in the "Indian walk," no wrong 
can be attributed to the Penns. 

* Moravian History, page 338. t Historical Register, page 299. 



Was built ill the year 1776; Indian Treaty convened in 1777. The Hon. George Taylor was appointed 
to preside at this Treaty, and Thomas Paine to act as Secretary. It was used as a Hospital for the 
wounded Soldiers from the battle-fields of Brooklyn and Brandywine. Were visited by Washington 
while quartered here. Re-modeled and enlarged in 1832. Re-modeled in 1886. 

The German Reformed Church. 

Edi(5t of Nantes— Persecution of the Germans in Fatherland — Flight to Pennsylvania— Congregation in 
Easton— Log Church— Building of the Third Street Church — First Repairs— Steeple Built — Last Ch auges — 
Line of Pastors — Memorial Windows ; by Whom Presented. 

N the year 1593, Henry IV, of France, issued the Edidl of Nantes, which 
gave religious liberty to the Protestants. For this he was assassinated 
by Ravillac in 1610. Louis XIV revoked this Edidl and ordered all Protes- 
tants to return to the Catholic Church. The Palatinate, a German province 
that had been torn from Germany by France, contained a large population 
of German Reformed people. They left the country and all they had, 
except their liberty, hymn books, catechisms, and bibles. They came in 
large numbers to Pennsylvania. ' ' In 1609 Penn sent word to James Logan 
the coming of the Palatines (Germans) and charges him to treat them with 
tenderness and care."* This kind reception by the Quakers made Penn- 
sylvania seem a Paradise to the German mind. And thus we find these 
persecuted people coming to Easton in the early days. In giving the history of the 
churches of Easton I shall classify them according to their denominational preferences. 
"Historians tell us that the beginning of the history of all tribes and nations is enshrouded 
in more or less mist and obscurity. Whether this is true as a general fadl, I am not com- 
petent to afifinn, but I can testify after much labor and research, that the beginning of the 
history of this reformed tribe of Israel in Easton is enveloped in mist and obscurity so 
dense that it is utterly impossible to discover it." (Extract from Dr. Beck's sermon, July 
4, 1876.) There will be no effort to make farther search for the beginning, but to record 
what is known, and bring the fadls into a convenient shape for the future generations to 
read at their family homes. The German Reformed people were not able to bring minis- 
ters with them, but did bring their catechisms, hymn books and bibles, and pious school 
teachers. We should expedl that these people would endeavor to make early provision 
for a place of religious worship. And so a movement was made in 1755 to ere<5l a build- 
ing to be used as a school house, and also to be used as a church for any Protestant 
minister. This was successful, and in 1755, a log building was erecfted on the northeast 
comer of, what is now. Church and Sitgreaves streets, and was used for both church and 
school house. This is the first building erecfted in Easton for religious purposes. "And 
there is no doubt in my mind that in this log building erecfted in 1755, our German Re- 
formed forefathers worshipped after the faith and order of the Reformed Church. I have 
not been able to find, in all the records and histories whicTi I have been able to consult, 
that a regular Reformed minister of the gospel was located in Easton before 1760; but I 
think the records and circumstances will warrant us to speak of an organized congrega- 
tion as existing between 1745-50. There is no record anywhere of the place and date of 
the organization of a congregation; but, nevertheless, we have found several records, a 
* Historj' of Bucks County, page 59. 


few well authentic fadls, which point to this period as that during which the heretofore 
scattered members of the German Reformed Church of Easton and vicinity were organized 
into a church." (Dr. Deck.) Rev. Michael Schlatter, sent to this country by the Synods 
of Holland, for the purpose of looking after the religious interests of the Gennan Refonned 
people in Pennsvlvania, in appealing to the Synod for help, he mentions the Forks of 
the Delaware as needing their sympathy. Dr. Beck was of the opinion that he visited 
Easton during the years between 1747-50, and presented the church with a Bible, to which 
Dr. Beck makes a very tender reference in his sermon of July 4, 1876. The first recorded 
baptism took place in 1760, September 28th. The child was a son of Ludwig Knauss and 
Elizabeth, his wife. He received the name of Ludwig. His sponsors were Philip Gress 
and wife. The first regular pastor of this church was Rev. Dr. Casper Deitrich Weyberg, 
who took charge of the congregation in 1763, with the approval of the Synod. The con- 
gregation not having a place of worship, held services in the log church, and in the conntn' 
in barns, or wherever he coiild find shelter for a congregation. The ministn,' of Dr. Wey- 
berg was but of six months duration. A vacancy continued till 1766, when Rev. Frederick 
L. Henop became pastor. The first mention of a consistory is made by this pastor, and 
the names given are Elders Ludwig Knauss and Philip Odenwelder. Deacons, John 
Gettert and Henry Schneider. Rev. Mr. Henop resigned his ofiice in 1769, after a pastor- 
ate of three years and eight months. Rev. Pithon was the next pastor, succeeding Mr. 
Henop in 1769, and was compelled to resign in 1771; and a vacancy continued until 1776. 
It was during this vacancy that the congregation began to take measures for the erecflion 
of a church. There had been a large stone, two-story house, built by the Moravians, on 
what is now South Third street. This had been bought by the St. John's Lutheran 
Church, and used as a parsonage in the upper story and a church in the lower storj-. Both 
of these congregations joined and built the church on North Third street, now known as 
the old German Reformed Church, completed in 1776, and dedicated to the service of the 
Triune God, November 17th, of that year. All other churches feel a deep interest in this 
grand old church, built by such self-denial in those early days. The laud upon which it 
stands was a gift from John and Richard Penn to Peter Snyder, Nicolas Troxell, and 
Nicolas Kern, Trustees for the German Reformed congregation; and Jacob Weygandt, 
William Roup and Conrad Bitteubender, Trustees for the Lutheran congregation. In 1777 
Hons. George Taylor and George Walton, Commissioners, were appointed by Congress, 
to be present and preside at a treaty to be made with the Indians. And they reported to 
Congress, "After shaking hands, drinking nun, while the organ played, we proceeded to 
business." In Vol. XI of Colonial Records, page 98, we find the following: Krso/zrd, 
That Mr. Thomas Paine be appointed secretary to the Commissioners for the Indian Treaty 
to be held at Easton, on Monday next. This vote was passed at a meeting of the Council 
of Safety in Philadelphia, January 21, 1777. It was twenty years since the exciting 
Treaties at the Point. Vernon had gcnie West. Large hotels had been built. The Third 
Street Church had just been built, and was the largest building in Easton. And the sacred 
edifice is opened to receive the Commissioners thus appointed by the government. The 
effort of the former Treaties was to prevent the French obtaining control of the Indians, 
and turning their scalping knives against the English. The effort of the Treaty at the 
German Reformed Church was to detach the Indians from the English government, and 
prevent the officers of the crown turning the hatchets of the Indians against the Colonies. 



That the Treaty was not very successful is evident from the faA that Sullivan's expedition 
would have been sent among the savages the next year, but for the want of time to accom- 
plish the work before winter. And during the Revolution this building was frequently 
used as a hospital, the people willingly lending the sacred edifice for the comfort of 
wounded and dying soldiers. So that these floors have been consecrated with the blood 
of patriots, and these walls have echoed to the wails of dying heroes; and thus this old 
church has adled well her part in obtaining those liberties which we prize so dearly. Long 
may the old building stand as a glorious monument of "the times that tried men's souls." 
After the dedication of the church. Rev. John William Ingold became pastor. In 1786, 
Rev. Dr. Lebrecht Frederick Herman became pastor of this church, with Plainfield, Dry- 
land, and Greenwich. He was esteemed as a man of culture and ability. In 1793, Dr. 
Herman was succeeded by Rev. Dr. Jacob Christian Becker. He was a man of extraor- 
dinary power and eloquence. He remained but one year and a half, and was followed b>- 
Rev. Thomas Nicolas Pomp, the only son of Rev. Nicolas Pomp, who was one of four 
missionaries sent to this countr>' by the Reformed Church of Holland. He took charo-e 
of the church in 1796, and remained acilive pastor for more than fifty years, with entire 
acceptance to the people of his charge. At a congregational meeting held in 1832, Janu- 
ary 2d, Peter Shnyder, Philip Odenwelder, and Daniel Butz, were appointed a committee 
to whom was entrusted the whole matter of reconstru<fting the church. The main walls 
were not disturbed ; an addition was built on the north end of the church, and the steeple 
ere6led, and the building assumed its present appearance. The expense of reconstrucftion 
was about $25,000. The German language was used exclusively by the church till 1831, 
when the church employed an English assistant to Father Pomp, and the English language 
became incorporated in the service in the ministry of Rev. Dr. Bernard C. Wolf Father 
Pomp died April 22, 1852. When he withdrew from the a6live pastorate Rev. Bomberger 
became pastor in the German language, and was followed in 1854 by Rev. Dr. John Beck. 
By the death of the older members of the church, and the prevalence of the English lan- 
guage in the community, the need of the German became less and less, and in the fall of 
187 1 it ceased to be used, and the English has since been the language of the Reformed 
Church on North Third street. Rev. Dr. John Beck remained in charge of the church 
till April 19th, 1877. He had resigned liis charge, but died before the time at which the 
resignation should take place. Dr. Beck was a man of quiet, studious habits. Although 
he held tenaciously to his opinions, he was not of an aggressive charadler, and he is mainly 
remembered for his scholarly sermons, and his pleasant, affable manners. After the death 
of Dr. Beck, Rev. Dr. T. C. Porter of Lafayette College, was chosen to fill the vacant 
pulpit, and was installed on the 29th of August, 1877. After seven years of faithful toil 
and successful work he lays aside the burdens of his office and again gives his entire atten- 
tion to his duties in the college. In the closing sermon of Dr. Porter, he remarked that 
the first sermon he ever preached in the church was nearly twenty-three years ago. At 
the breaking out of the great civil war President Lincoln appointed September 26, 1861, 
a day of fasting and prayer. The Synod of the German Reformed Church was in session 
in this church at the time, and Dr. Porter was invited to preach the sermon, which lie did 
to a crowded house. The topic was the repenting of Nineveh at the preaching of Jonas. 
He came to Easton, as professor in Lafayette College in 1866, and on the invitation of the 
Consistory, preached in the English language every alternate Sunday morning, in the 


ledlure room for a period of three years — 1867-8-9, while Dr. Beck preached in the church 
in the German language. Dr. Porter is a fine scholar, and a faithful preacher. 

Rev. H. M. Kieffer succeeded Dr. Porter as pastor. He had beeu pastor of the Church 
of Ascension, of Norristown, and was called August nth, 1884, by a committee of East 
Pennsylvania Classis, consisting of Rev. Dr. Porter, Rev. T. O. Sterm and Rev. Dr. 
Heisler. The latter preached the installation sermon. He was installed October 30th, 
and preached his introductory sermon the following Sunday morning, November 2d. Text 
Phil. I, ii, "Grace be unto you from God, our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ." 

In the early part of the following year preparations were made for repairing the church 
building, which had stood without material change or improvement since 1832. The 
congregation felt a desire to make extensive repairs, and yet not destroy the ancient and 
venerable appearance of the oldest church in the borough. The people entered heartily 
into the work and appointed a committee to make whatever alterations, improvements 
and repairs they thought necessar}'. In carrying out their instrudlions the Committee 
secured the services of John M. Stewart, an Easton architect, to prepare plans for the re- 
modeling of the building. To this Committee too much credit cannot be given for their 
untiring attention and labors throughout the whole period of the reconstnittion of the 
building. To their wisdom and judgment must be attributed the superior comfort and 
beautiful appearance the church now presents. The archite(?l in making his plans for the 
alterations endeavored to retain the principal features of the old colonial style of archi- 
tedlure displayed in the old building, and conform as nearly as possible to it in all altera- 
tions and additions, and that fadl gives the church a peculiar and distinctive appearance, 
which is at once pleasing and attradlive. An enclosed porch, approached with stone steps 
and tiled floor forms a lobby at the vestibule, which is now made a very commodious and 
imposing one. Two handsome stairways lead to the galleries, and three doors lead from 
the vestibule to the audience room, which has been enlarged by the addition of a pulpit 
recess, which in its decoration forms one of the handsomest features of the church. The 
old pulpit has given place to a beautiful chancel railing, pulpit, desk, altar, baptismal fount 
and candelabrums. The chairs are of cherry, beautiful in design, and richly carved. The 
old pews enclosed with doors give place to well arranged and exceedingly comfortable 
pews of cherr}'. The galleries, which were usually almost inaccessible and useless, have 
been entirely re-arranged so that they are easily reached and more desirable for sittings. 
The old wooden columns supporting the galleries, which obstni(5led the view, have been 
removed and iron pillars, handsomely finished, substituted. The walls and ceilings have 
been frescoed in the most artistic manner ; the upper windows have been filled with stained 
glass, while those in the audience room, nine in number, are memorial windows, contrib- 
uted by the following persons, and are in the following order, beginning on Third street, 
going north : The first by Miss Mary Mixsell and her sister, Mrs. Major Wykoff, in the 
memory of their father and mother, Charles W. and Mar}- K. Mixsell ; the second by 
Mrs. Win. H. Lawall and Miss Lillian Lawall, her daughter, in the memory of William 
H. Lawall ; the third by Mrs. Charles Santee, of Philadelphia, to the memorv- of her 
father and mother, Peter and Elizabeth Shnyder ; the fourth by Mrs. Anna M. Eyennan, 
to the memory of her father and mother, James and Mar)- Black ; the fifth by ]\Irs. Mary 
Saylor, of Germantown, Pa., in the memory of her father, the late Judge George Hess ; 
the sixth and seventh b)- ])rivate persons to the memory of the Rev. Thos. Pomp and the 




Rev. Dr. Bernard Wolff, former pastors of the church ; the eighth by the Sunday Schools 
of the congregation to the memory of the Rev. John Beck, D. D. , also a former pastor of 
the church, and the ninth by Mrs. John Hutchinson, to the memory of her mother, Eliz- 
abeth Nicholas, and her family. All are most beautiful specimens of the decorator's art, 
and add greatly to the appearance of the church. Gas fixtures, upholstering, carpets, etc., 
have been arranged in a superior manner. The whole cost of the improvements was 
nearly $12,000. Prior to the repairs the outer walls were of a pale yellow color. The 
steeple was painted white and had on it the dial of the town clock, which had been remov- 
ed to the German Lutheran Church. The main entrance to the building was by a door on 
Third street, where the vestibule now is. There was also another door on Third street, 
occupying the position of the upper window, next Church street. It was not, stridlly 
speaking, a door, but served the purpose of both door and window. It has been converted 
into a window. The entrance on the east side was the same as it now is. Internally the 
changes are more marked. Passing into the church as it was before the repairs, as one 
enters the vestibule, he found two box stairways leading to the galleries — the ceiling low 
and somewhat cramped in appearance, by the projection of old " bellows gallery," used in 
former times for the organ, but since fallen into disuse except as a lumber room. Where 
the two large arches now are two doors of ordinary size opened into the central part of the 
vestibule. In the audience room there were six rows of pews, instead of four as at present, 
with three aisles separating them — the central aisle being where it now is, and the side 
aisles not being along the walls, but separated from them by a row or tier of short pews. 
The old pews were indeed all short, containing only three, or at most four sittings, and 
being generally considered very uncomfortable. They were low in the back, narrow in the 
seat, very close together, and were furnished with doors. The pulpit was a massive struc- 
ture of mahogany, and there was no recess, chancel, rail or front. The windows were of 
ordinary glass, and furnished with Venetian blinds. The posts under the galleries were 
heavy wooden affairs which somewhat obstructed the view. These fa<fls have thus been 
presented as they may be of interest in the future. New spouting has been put up. It is 
of great interest to observe that the old spouting had done service since 1832, that is for a 
period of fifty-three years, and that Mr. Lewis Heller, when he was a young man made the 
old spouting, and had the singular fortune when he was an old man, to help make the new. * 
The committee having the matter in charge consisted of 

Rev. H. M. KIEFFER, Pastor. 



The work of this Church in Easton has been the building of two churches of the same 
faith and order — the one on the comer of Tenth and Lehigh streets, and the other on 
College Hill. -It was by the labors of Dr. Beck that St. Mark's Church was eredled, he 
having been very adlive in securing the necessary funds. 

*By Rev. H. M. KiefFer. 



This building is 46x72 feet, built of brick, with main audience room, and a base- 
ment for Sunday School and weekly lectures. It was erecfted in the years 1871-72, by the 
Third Street Reformed Church at a cost of $16,000, and conveyed to St. Mark's Refonned 
Congregation in May, 1875, subject to a mortgage of $3500. The congregation was 
organized July 27th, 1872, and incorporated May 6th, 1873, with eleven members. From 
the time of the organization until the calling of a regular pastor — a period of nine months — 
the congregation was served by Rev. Dr. Porter. The first regular pastor. Rev. Geo. H. 
Johnston, formerly of Somerset, Pa., commenced his labors April 11, 1S73, and continued 
until December ist, 1875, a period of two years and eight months. He then resigned to 
take charge of the Green Street Christ Refonned Church, Philadelphia. From this time 
until August 1st, 1876, the congregation was without a pastor. At this time the present pas- 
tor. Rev. T. O. Stem, commenced his labors. His pastorate has now continued nine years, 
and during this time he has received two hundred and fifty-six members, and the number 
on the roll now is three hundred and twenty. The Sabbath-school numbers three hundred 
and fifty. The church is prosperous and harmonious, and the congregation is engaged in 
making arrangements for building a parsonage at a cost of $3000. 

This church was closed for repairs July 13, 1884, the walls handsomely frescoed and 
other necessary changes made. It was re-opened for divine service September 7th, and 
was re-dedicated on the last mentioned date with appropriate services, Rev. Dr. Samuel 
G. Wagner, of Allentown, preaching the sermon. Rev. Dr. Heisler addressed the Sabbath 
School in the afternoon. 


This Church was organized September 9th, 1875. On that day persons belong- 
ing to the Reformed Church met at the house of John Gradwohl, in the Third Ward. 
The meeting was called to order by Rev. John Beck, D. D., and opened with prayer 
by the Rev. George H. Johnston, of St. Mark's Church. Dr. Beck stated the object 
of the meeting, which was to organize a church. This was effe(5led by the ele(5lion of 
the following persons as temporary officers : John Gradwohl, Quintus F. Messinger and 
Richard Hahn, Elders ; and William Adams, Thomas F. Burley and Theodore Schug, 
Deacons. They were immediately ordained and installed. At the same meeting arrange- 
ments were made to ere<?t a chapel on the corner of New and Porter streets. A building 
committee consisting of John Gradwohl, Lorenzo Richlieu and Quintus F. Messinger was 
appointed. A neat, frame building, 30x45 was eredled. The congregation then numbered 
about forty members. The chapel was dedicated to the worship of the Triune God, Feb- 
ruary 27, 1876. On the 20th of March, 1876, Rev. Dr. Heisler received the unanimous 
call to become pastor of the church, and entered upon the pastoral duties June ist, follow- 
ing. The church now (1886) numbers over 100 members, and is free from debt. A Sun- 
day School of about one hundred and thirty pupils is in conne(ftion with the church. 
Much of the financial success of the enterprise is due to the generosity of members of 
the Third Street Refonned Church, and the efforts of Rev. T. C. Porter, D. D., all of 
whom deserve the lasting gratitude of the congregation. 


The First Courts ; Held at Hotels — A&. to Build a Court House — Its Location — Reasons for Seledling Easton 

Style of Architeifture ; When Built; Its Cost; When Torn Down — Description of the Square — The Pillory 
and Whipping Post — Pigs, Sheep and Cows; The Milking of the Cows — The New Court House; Reasons 
for a New One ; When and Where Built ; "The House that Houck Built." 

^IHE ACT by which Northampton County was formed was passed March 
6th, 1752, and received the signature of Governor Hamilton on the nth 
day of the same month. One of the reasons assigned by the petitioners 
for a new county was that the people were so remote from the seat of jtis- 
tice that it was difficult for them to obtain their rights, and rogues took 
advantage in doing mischief with impunity. So the next step was to 
establish courts. The first court was held on the i6th of June, 1752, and 
in the session book we find this record : " At a Court of Record of our 
Lord, the King, held at Easton, for the County of Northampton, the i6th 
day of June, in the twenty-sixth year of our Sovereign Lord, George the 
Second, by the grace of God, King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, 
&c.. Anno Domini 1752, before Thomas Craig, Timothy Horsefield, Hugh Wilson, James 
Martin and William Craig, justices of the Lord, the King, the peace in the said county to 
keep, as also divers trespassers and felons, and other offences in said county committed, to 
hear and determine, assigned. (By commissions dated the 7th of June, instant.)" This 
was the starting point for the courts of our county. The court thus organized was com- 
pelled to hold their sessions in hotels, because they had no court house in which to meet. 
The courts thus assembled at the hotels till 1766. An Act had been passed February 17, 
1763, and may be found in Vol. V, page 247, of the votes of Assembly to build a Court 
House. During these years the question of the location of the temple of justice was a 
matter of serious debate. It was the intention of the Penns to have Easton the Shiretown 
and yet there was a great deal of opposition by those living remote from the proposed lo- 
cation. George Taylor had been appointed one of the trustees to attend to the building of 
the Court House, and had removed to Easton in 1764 to perform those duties. The ques- 
tion of location was now to be settled. A petition, very numerously signed, was presented 
to the Assembly May 15, 1765,* praying that the work might be arrested, the law 
repealed, and the building eredled in a more central position. The petitioners gave the 
reason for their petition that the town of Easton was in the extreme southeast corner of 
the county, and it should be in a more central position ; and, also, that Easton was inac- 
cessible, there being no roads, and being surrounded by high hills, so high that people 
approached it only at the risk of life and limb. The Assembly received the petition, 
considered it respectfully, but the law previously ena<5led was re-affirmed and the building 
was eredled in Easton. From June i6th, 1752, to March 6th, 1766, the courts were held 
in the various hotels. The rents paid were from three to seven pounds, including wood 
and candles. The sessions would not last more than two or three days the first few years, 
*History of Northampton County, page 150. 



but as business increased, four days would be consumed. Great formality was used by 
the justices at these court gatherings. It was the custom to escort them from their homes 
or lodgings with constables in front and rear, while the heads of the justices were graced 
with three-cornered cocked hats. The common people gazed at them with amazement. 
The staves of the constables were beautifully painted, and a bill was paid the United 
Brethren for painting these emblems of official power, the amount being $25. The Court 
House was finished at a cost of $4,589.67, and was built after a model of Carpenter Hall, in 
Philadelphia. It was quite an imposing strudlure for those days, and was a source of 


pride to the borough and county. It was built of limestone, and surmounted by a cupola, 
in which a bell was placed which had been cast at Bethlehem. South of the Court House, 
just in the entrance of Third street, stood the Pillory and Whipping-post, those ancient 
instruments of punishment. This mode of punishment was common in the days and ex- 
perience of the great apo.stle, "five times received I forty stripes, save one," and with 
Silas was he pilloried in Philipi. And here we see in a remote town, in a land of which 
Paul never heard, tlie same humiliating instruments stand by the jail, nearly two 
thou.sand years after those dark days. For twenty-four years this beautiful spot was dis- 
figured by the relic of an ancient civilization, and during those long years many had suf- 
fered the dread inflidlion of the lash. Among who received nineteen stripes, well 


laid on the naked back, was one Mary Nickum, who had stolen linen to the value of 
twenty-six shillings and ten pence, and for this small sum she must have " her naked 
back exposed to the gaping crowd," who hear the strange sound as the lash performs its 
painful task. It would be very painful to see a man receive nineteen stripes well laid on 
his naked back, and the blood following the painful infliction, but it would be much more 
painful to see a woman pass through this ancient and humiliating experience. But as 
this mode of punishment is still in vogue in Delaware, rogues are very glad that the State 
is so small that they can soon pass beyond its borders. A little further south, fronting 
Third Street, stood the jail, where many poor wretches have languished in sorrow in ex- 
piating their crimes against society. Here then we see the machinery of justice, the 
court house, the pillory and whipping-post, and the jail. It may be pardonable to con- 
trast the Court House of those times with that of to-day. When the first Court House 
was finished there were sixty-three houses in Easton, of very humble dimensions. I take 
the following from the History of Lehigh Valley, that the people of to-day may not accuse 
me of exaggeration: "Each of the inhabitants owned at least one cow, while the tavern 
keepers, eight of them, had each two, viz: Jacob Abel, Jacob Hembt, Conrad Ihrie, Widow 
Nungessor, Jacob Opp, John Shock, Theophilus Shannon, Adam Yohe, Jr., and Frederick 
Wagener. There were 104 cows, 25 horses, about 200 sheep, and probably 200 hogs within 
the Borough of Easton in 1783. It was the custom to drive the cows out in the barrens, 
north and west of the town, for pasture. The pigs, in warm weather, were allowed 
to wallow in the pond near the Court House, and the sheep lay generally panting in the 
Covirt House shade, changing their location from west in the morning to east in the after- 
noon. George Troxell informed the writer that the stench was intolerable in the Court 
House from this cause, and added : ' I have often seen nearly two hundred sheep lying 
around the court house.' There was no borough council to interfere with the arrange- 
ments of the citizens, but everyone consulted his own convenience. The pig-pens were 
generally fronting the streets and built of slabs or rails, the small doors of which were 
usually opened every morning, giving them permission to take an airing. The cows came 
home in the afternoon, walking down Ferrj' street in single file, accompanied by the music 
of their numerous bells, the house-wives standing ready with their milk-pails to milk 
them on the street. It used to be a lively time for the lasses to squat down in the street, 
drawing the milk from the cows as they spoke to each other of their household duties, or 
perhaps of their admirers. Many an agreeable hour was spent by the gallants of the town, 
who thus had a favorable opportunity of seeing their sweethearts and having a chat with 
them, and aiding them in keeping off the flies. The bake-ovens and wood piles graced 
the streets for many years." It would be a sight worth a little trouble to witness, 
some of the Easton belles of to-day with milk-pails in hand, meeting the cows returning 
from pasture on Third street, and the kid-gloved gallants, on the bicycles, from College 
Hill, wheeling in graceful curves around these centres of attra(5lion, whispering words of 
the wooing enchanter, or dismounting just a moment to whisk away the flies, which seem 
to make the cows so nervous. How the times have changed in a hundred years. When 
the mind is busy thinking of the picfture thus drawn of the old Court House, with hund- 
reds of living animals basking in the shade, and wallowing in the mud around it, with 
what emotions do we turn our eyes to the Court House of the present, and its surround- 
ings. It would be difficult to find a location more beautified by nature, made much more 


so by art. The front of the height upon which it stands so neatly terraced, kept so clean 
and the grass so closely shorn, covered with a grove of maples — as beautiful as the groves 
of Academus — amid which the temple of justice stands, with its lofty spire and classic 
columns, helps us recall the pi(fture we formed in early life, when reading of the "Acrop- 
olis of Athens." Houck had been censured for building on this hill-top, but the taste of 
the present and future will honor his judgment. Strangers, in summer time, never pass 
this classic spot without stopping to admire the beautiful location, and many facile pens 
have told of the glories of this summit of Court House Hill. After the first Court House 
had stood almost a hundred years, the county became satisfied that the public interests 
demanded a new one. All the bitter feuds of those old times — when from 1752 to 1764, 
the question, "where shall we build the court house?" was discussed in the hotels, in the 
humble dwellings, by the roadside, in the field and store, by men, women and children — 
had passed away. Gordon, Sitgreaves, Jones and Porter had made the walls of the old 
temple ring with their eloquence. Within those old walls the strongest minds in the State 
had struggled for mastery. Murderers had been tried, convidled and led hence to be hung. 
Long-standing difficulties had been settled, and old feuds adjusted. But like all things 
human, the old building must pass away. There now comes a new controversy, quite as 
sharp as the old one, but its area was more circumscribed. Before, the area of dispute 
extended from the Delaware to the Valley of Wyoming, and from Bucks county on the 
south, to the New York line on the north. Now Easton alone was concerned, as the 
question was by common consent limited to Easton, and by them alone settled. "Where 
shall our new temple be erected ?" Shall we build on the old foundation, or shall we 
move farther to the west ? The excitement was intense. The lawyers did not wish the 
Court House to be taken away from the centre of business ; the citizens did not wish the 
Square any longer filled with a public building. And then the room was not sufficient. 
Others thought that the town must grow in the diredlion to the west, and had the idea 
that the Court House west, would in the future, be in the centre of population. The voice 
of the people decided against the public square as being too small, and objectionable in 
other particulars, and so, "Westward the Star of Justice takes its course." There were 
those standing ready to see that the county need incur no expense in the purchase of lands 
on which to ere(5l the public buildings. The Hon. David D. Wagener and James Thomp- 
son offered land as a gift to the county. Through the action of the Court of Quarter Ses- 
sions, and of two successive Grand Juries of Northampton County, the Commissioners 
were invested with legal authority to proceed and purchase land for the erection of build- 
ings for County purposes. A<5ling on this authority, on the 23d of May, i860, they revoked 
all prior resolves touching the matter, and concluded to purchase land offered by Hon. 
David D. Wagener, for the consideration of one dollar, and to build a Court upon 
the same. The Commissioners were Seager, Houck and Hillegass. Hillegass is recorded 
as remaining neutral on the question of location. Houck was looked upon as the influ- 
ential man in determining the question. He evidently had a backbone, and steered liis 
own barge amid the storm. The question was settled. The situation fronts on Walnut 
street, facing the north. The Commissioners deser\'e the thanks of the citizens for 
choosing a site which for beauty cannot be excelled. The architecfl employed was C. 
Graham, Esq., whose plan was submitted to the Connnissioners and by them approved. 
On June the 15th the excavation for the foundation of the building was begun, and in a 



few da^'s the work was placed in the hands of R. H. Horn, as Superintendent. On June 
2ist Mr. Wagener transferred the land to the count)-. The work went on with haste, and 
on February ist, 1861, the Judges and Members of the Bar were invited to inspecft the 
interior of the building, thougli the building was not finished until the following autumn. 
On the 22d of October, S. Trumbore was dire<fted to take out certain gas fixtures and other 
movables from the old Court House, and transfer them to the new. The Court House 
was ready to be occupied in November, and on the i8th of that month the first term of 



Court was held within its walls. Twenty-four years have passed away since the new 
Court House was built, but the feeling has not all died away which was manifested against 
building in the place where it stands, though no one would wish to see it again in the 
public square. The following humorous poem was composed by Alexander E. Brown, 
Esq. It would seem that Mr. Houck was the most blameworthy, and hence this bit of 
wit was hurled at him. 


This is the house that Houck built : 

These are the Clerks who wrote in the house that 

Houck built. 
These are the Lawyers who climbed up the hills 
To visit the Clerks with awful long bills, 
Who wrote in the house that Houck built. 
This is the Crier who, when it was time, 
Warned the Jury by bell to get ready to climb, 
For when Court was called 'twas all the same, 
The old, or the young, the halt or the lame. 
Must mount with the Lawyers, who chimb up the hills 
To visit the Clerks, with their awful long bills, 
Who wrote in the house that Houck built. 

This is the Judge who said he was sick 
For fear he should tell them to biuld it of brick, 
(For build as the\' would the Court must be mute, 
Nor dare for the people one word to dispute, ) 
To hold the Crier, who when it was time 
Warned the Jury, by bell, to get ready to climb. 
For when Court was called it was all the same. 
The old, or the young, the halt or the lame, 
Thev nnist mount with the Lawyers who climb up the 
hills, &c. 

These are the wise men who showed their skill. 
By planting this nuisance on top of the hill. 
Regardless of safety, regardless of time 
Or the necks of people compelled to climb. 
For when Court was called, &c. 

This is the Court who said they would try. 

To dispose of John Brown, ere of age he sho;ild die. 

Before the Jury sitting for life 

To trj- John Brown who whipped his wife. 
Being called by the Crier out of the town, 
To try to get up if they never got down. 
For when Court was called they were forced to climb 
Regardless of comfort, regardless of time, 
In storm or shine, it was all the same, 
The old, or the young, the sick and the lame. 
Must mount with the la\\yers who climbed up the hills, 

These are the people who footed the bill. 

For planting this humbug on top of the hill. 

With steps so steep that he who must climb 

Must take heed of his neck in slippery time. 

When they'd climbed to the Court-room with trembling 

and fear, 
The de\-il a word can any one hear. 
For this great bungle is built on the plan 
To annoy the people as much as it can. 
To do the least good at the greatest expense. 
In defiance of decency, prudence and sense. 
For when Court was called the>- all must climb, 
To the top of the hill, regardless of time. 

They must mount up those steps from out of the town. 

And those may get up who don't tumble down. 

For parties, jurors, witnesses, all 

Must climb up that steep at the Crier's call. 

They must scratch up the steps with grunt and groan, 

And a bitter curse on every stone. 

And mount with the Lawyers who climb up the hills, 

To visit the Clerks with their awful long bills, 

Wlio wrote in the house that Houck built. 

The venerable building at the Square was razed, the material removed, and the ground 
graded. The porch of the old building now graces the house of Mr. Fleming, two miles 
up the Delaware. The hands of improvement built the circular iron fence, set out the 
maples, eredled the fountain in the centre, and made the Circle and Square of Easton a 
ver>' attradlive spot. The imagination must be put upon the strain when trying to realize 
the difference between the appearance of this spot now, and when the old Court House 
stood there in its glory. The land was given by Penu for a Court House, and when the 
building was to be removed, apjjlicatiou was made to the heirs to have the privilege of using 
the land for other purposes, wliich request was granted for a \-aluable consideration. 



'Tis education forms the mind, — 

Just as the twig is bent the tree 's inclined. 

|T IS a matter of surprise to see how many names in our history tell the 
story of Scotch ancestry. Scotland is not near as large as the State of 
Maine, yet it has sent forth a steady stream of emigrants from her 3,500,000 
of people to our country which has done more than any other nationality 
to establish our educational, religious and political institutions. No settle- 
ment was complete without the church and school house. They are lovers 
of education and human freedom. Reared amid their northern hills, they 
are a tough and hardy race, and retain the national peculiarities to a marked 
degree in every clime in which they may make their home. The labors 
necessary to procure a livelihood amid their native hills imparts a vigor of 
body and mind which prepares them to tussle with the obstacles that lie 
in the pathway of life. They are happy in their toil, frugal in their habits, vigorous in 
thought and persistent in a(5tion. The pure Celtic stock occupies the Highlands, and are 
as remarkable for their hospitality as for their love of freedom, education and religion. 
The Scotch Bard has given us his idea of this feature of their characfter in the following 

"When death's dark stream I ferry o'er, 
A time that surely shall come, 
In Heaven itself I'll ask no more, 
Than just a Highland welcome." 

Just north of the Highlands is a cluster of islands called the Orkneys. The parallel 59° 
passes through them. On the eastern coast of America this latitude would be too cold for 
human habitation; but these islands are regaled by the warm breath of the Gulf Stream, so 
modifying the climate as to make it a delightful residence for men. In the long da)-s of 
Summer the sun is above the horizon more than twenty hours, and twilight lasts through 
the night. In Sanda, one of these islands, Robert Traill was born, April 29th, 1744, O. S. 
His father was the Rev. Thomas Traill, and his mother, Sabilla Grant, daughter of 
the Rev. Alexander Grant, of South Ronaldsay. Robert had good advantages in his 
early boyhood; though his father died when he was nine years old, leaving a widow with 
seven children, four daughters and three sons. The eldest daughter and the three sons 
were sent to Kirkwall, the capital of the county of Orkney, to be educated. The society 
of this town is regarded as quite as good as that of the most favored towns of Scotland. 
There was a good grammar school and suitable libraries for the use of the pupils. At 
fourteen years of age, Robert entered the mercantile business with George Pitcarne, of 
Edinburgh. He returned to Kirkwall. But he was not satisfied with the narrow 
boundaries of a small island; when across the Atlantic, a virgin continent offered him a 
home. He desired to go where day and night were more equally divided. He had heard 
of Penn, and the noble commonwealth he had established. He had heard of its pleasant 
climate, its fertile soil, and free institutions; and at the age of nineteen he bade adieu to 


dear old Scotland, farewell to mother, sisters and brothers, whose faces he was never again 
to see, a final farewell to scenes of his childhood, and with the star of hope shining 
brightly before him, he set sail for Philadelphia, October, 1763. He kept a diar>- of his 
voyage which was found among his papers after his death. The vessel in which he sailed 
was commanded by John Thompson, of Londonderry. After a passage of ten weeks, he 
arrived at the City of Brotherly Love. He had a letter from his eldest sister to one Mr. 
Gilbert Barclay, who, in a few weeks, procured a place for him with Myer Hart, a Jewish 
merchant of Easton. He remained with Mr. Hart twenty months, by which experience 
he became well acquainted with business. He taught school a year. (He does not tell 
us where. Was it in the log school house comer of Church and Sitgreaves streets?) This 
seemed then, as now, the stepping stone to the legal profession. He entered the law office 
of Lewis Gordon, prothonotan,-, and was admitted to the bar in Northampton county in 
1777, and became the third lawyer in Easton. He was now thirty-three years of age, and 
had passed through a good experience to aid him in the profession upon which he had 
entered. From the time of his arrival in America, through the years preceding his legal 
preparation, there had been more or less friction between the mother countr}- and the 
colonies, and the mind of Mr. Traill became prepared to enter the contest in heart}- accord 
with the struggling colonies for freedom. In the early days of the Revolutionary- war, a 
committee of safety was formed for the county and Mr. Traill was elected clerk, and 
adled as such for two years. The proceedings were neatly kept and are still in the hands 
of his grandson. Dr. Traill Green, of Easton. He was appointed one of the Justices of 
the Peace, June 3, 1777; and on the nth of March, military- storekeeper at Easton; a 
position which he declined. October 15, 1781, he was eledled Sheriff of the county, 
which position he held to November 5, 1784. The accounts of moneys received and paid 
out while he was sheriff, lie before me, and in reading them over, I find the following bill 
paid, viz.: 7s. and 6d. for shaving IMr. Levers, when a corpse; the fee was paid to John 
Cleman; and also "paid the schoolmaster 7s., 6d. for inviting to the funeral." (This 
Mr. Levers died while he was holding the position of Prothonotar}-. ) Mr. Traill was 
chosen a representative to the General Assembly for the sessions of 1785-6. He rose 
steadily in public esteem, passed through the exciting times of the Revolution; came to 
Pennsylvania when it was a colony dependent on the British Crown, and now represented 
Northampton county in the Legislature of the State. He began his official career 
before he was admitted to the bar, and must have perfonned his work well to have 
received this mark of confidence after ten years of official life. But he was still further 
honored by his adopted State. At the close of his Legislative career, he was eledled a 
member of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, which position he held 
two years. He followed Mr. Levers as Prothonotar\- for the county. Under the Con- 
stitution of 1790, he was commissioned by Governor Mifflin one of the Associate 
Judges of Northampton county, and held the office more than two years. Judge Traill 
died at Easton on the 31st of July, 1816, aged seventy-two years. 

The Spirit of Pctiusylvaitia^ in a notice of his death, said: "He was an honest and 
virtuous citizen, much esteemed by his fellow-citizens, and venerated for his unifonn 
morality and his punctuality in business. He expired as a finn and faithful servant of 
our Redeemer. Judge James M. Porter, in an historical address relating to the county, 
spoke of many of the early inhabitants of the county. In the course of his remarks he 


said: "Lewis Gordon was the first Attorney, then James Biddle, afterward Judge Biddle, 
the father of John Marks Biddle, of Reading, who was the King's Attorney at the organi- 
zation of the county. The next was Robert Traill, of Scotland, who settled here before 
the Revolution, and adlive in favor of the Colonies. His descendants in the female line 
are yet among us, and among the most respecftable part of our citizens. He was a man 
of great probity and industry, of singular professional accuracy, and though he had 
not much of the 'Suaviter in modo, he had a good degree of the fortiter in re in him.' " 
Henry, in History of the Lehigh Valley, says: "Of Mr. Traill it can be said that in every 
respedl he, for many years, was everything to ever>'body. Any inhabitant getting into 
difficulty was told to go to Mr. Traill, he will tell you what to do." If any writings 
were to be drawn corredlly, "go to Mr. Traill." If any secretary or clerk was wanting 
at any public meeting, Mr. Traill was called upon to officiate. The History' of North- 
ampton County thus speaks of him: "He was the third lawyer in Easton in point of 
time, though indeed not second to any in point of legal ability and prominence through 
a career of a quarter of a century. His popularity was great in the county. If two mis- 
guided farmers, taking counsel more of their passions than of their wisdom rushed into 
the labyrinth of the law, it was a question with such, which could soonest reach and retain 
lawyer Traill; and many a well-fed Rosinante was rushed at a dangerous pace down the 
steep hill, or across the Bushkill bridge, in the owner's haste to be first at the office .of the 
favorite lawyer. And whatever might be needed — will, deed, assignment, or any of the 
multiform invocations or evasions of law and justice — none felt themselves secure unless 
the legal shield of Robert Traill covered them. Surrounded by so large a German popu- 
lation, he studied that language, and was so well acquainted with it that he acfled frequently 
as interpreter in the Northampton courts, in which, in his day, there must have been 
many witnesses who could not speak the English language." We learn that on one occa- 
sion Samuel Sitgreaves, an eminent lawyer, at the same bar, expressed a doubt as to the 
correctness of the translation which he made. Mr. Traill put on his hat and left the 
court room. Mr. Sitgreaves made an apology for the interruption he had made in the 
examination of the witness. Mr. Traill's honesty in every position was never doubted, 
and Mr. Sitgreaves felt that he had erred in expressing himself as he did in regard to Mr. 
Traill's knowledge of the German language, and his faithfulness in the translation. His 
family bible was in German; and it is more than probable that his wife was most familiar 
with that language. To show the characteristics of the man, it may be proper to recall the 
following counsel to his children, which was found among his papers after his death: 

"My Dear and Loving Children : 

Before I depart this life, and leave you under the precepts and examples of a wise, 
and Almighty Ruler of the Universe, I am desirous to give you a little advice, for your 
future conduCl in this precarious and uncertain world. You and all of you have, to my 
great satisfaction, heretofore behaved well and affectionately to your mother and me, and 
should your mother survive me, I hope you will continue so to do. She has been an 
industrious, loving, and affeClionate wife and mother. Keep always in memory the 
instruction you have in youth received, and the many mercies and benefits bestowed on 
you by the Lord. Attend divine worship when circumstances and opportunities serve. 
In your leisure hours and walks meditate on the works of God, and repeat some comfort- 




From a Philadelphia Magazine in 1798: "The County House is a building destined for the safe 
keeping of the public records, and in which the ci\'il offices are kept. It is perfeclly fire proof; it 
was built in 1792, is one-storj' high, of an oblong form, with a wide entri,- through the middle, com- 
municating with two spacious rooms on each side — each room being arched over ; the floors are all 
plastered ; the casements of the windows are of stone, and the whole of the doors and shutters are of 
iron. It is situated southeast of the Court House." 

It became useless to the county after the new Court House was built, and was sold by the Commis- 
sioners to Andrew H. Reeder, Esq., March 19, 1S64. Recorded in the Office for Recording of Deeds, 
at Easton, in Deed Book G, \'ol. 10, page 661. Consideration, #5525. The Free Press was published 
here for a short time ; also, old Squire Arndt had his office in it. The Phcenix Hose Company's house 
stood in the rear. Handsome brick dwellings, erecled by Daviil Garis and James Dinkey, now occupy 
the site. 

£ ASTON, PENN'A. 75 

ing hymns or psalms. These were often my company in my solitary walks, and gave me 
relief when in trouble or concern of mind. There are several of the psalms of David 
which I would recommend, and which I got by heart in my younger days when at school, 
particularly the ist, 23d, 67th, looth, 120th, 121st, 123d, 127th, 131st, and 133d. I have 
several good books which I have direc?ted to be divided amongst you, as well as other 
instru6live ones as you may choose among )ourselves. Let, I pray you, no jealousy or 
discord appear between you, and should your mother survive me, at her decease divide 
her clothing and linen as equally as possible between yourselves without any disagree- 
ment whatever. You have been always affedlionate and loving toward me and mother, 
and I hope in God you may continue. As Easton is a place of much discord, ill-will 
toward one another, and very much tattling, I would recommend to you that you may 
hear what you will of your neighbor, give no reply nor interfere in a thing that does not 
concern you. Tattling and back-biting are great evils, and often bring people to trouble. 
Bring up your children in a decent, Christian manner, remembering the Scripture saying, 
'Train up a child in the way he shall go, and when he is old he will not depart from it.' 
Show at all times a good example to your offspring, and you will, with God's help, have 
pleasure in their condu6l. My last wish is, that the Lord the Ruler of the Universe, may 
bless and protecft you and them for Christ's sake, who shed His blood for the remission 
of sin. Your affedlionate father, 

Easton, Sept. ix, 18x5. "ROBERT TRAILL." 

In order to show still more clearly the charadler of this man, the author takes great plea- 
sure in referring his readers to a manuscript Catechism which was placed in his hands by 
one of the descendants. On the outside of the cover, we have the title: "Robert Traill's 
Catechism," and is dated 1752. It was evidently written in a boy's hand, coarse and 
heavy; part of the pages were carefully ruled, and the others not. All show the inex- 
perience of the boy. Those who know the habits of the Scotch people in the education of 
their children, will not be much surprised to learn that Robert's catechism was written 
out when he was eight years old, as he was born in 1744. Without doubt he began to 
learn his catechism with the first exhibition of thoughtfulness. And the influence of 
these principles never left him ; they were the foundation of his religious charadler, they 
set the currents of life in motion, and, through stonn and sunshine, they were the impell- 
ing force of his '^ife, the solace of his soul. The instrudlion thus given was a better 
legacy than any pecuniary bequest. He was thus prepared to battle with the trials 
and problems of life in the new world. These principles shone clearly in his touch- 
ing letter to his children, just as the sun of life was setting. Robert Traill was truly a 
religious man, yet he had a vein of humor in his nature. On one occasion, when travel- 
ing in the country on business, he came to a cross of the roads, and observed a iinger- 
board directing the traveler to a village, and giving the distance. Underneath the 
diredlion, he saw the words: "Those who cannot read inquire at the next house." The 
incident was told with merriment when he returned home. The catechism bears evidence 
of the boy in the language as well as in the handwriting. The first nineteen questions 
are lost, but enough remains to show the faithful training of his father, who was a Presby- 
terian clergyman. The charad;er of this good man shows plainly that a stri6l religious 
education in early childhood is the best gift of a parent. 


The author takes pleasure in quoting a few words from the remarkable catechism, in 
order to show the working of the child's mind, and the careful training he had received. 

22D QuES. — In what condition was our Saviour when his sufferings drew near? 

Ans. — He was filled with such agony and consternation that the sweat ran over his 
body like great drops of blood. 

28TH QuES. — In what manner was our Saviour put to death? 

Ans. — Great nails were driven through his hands and his feet, by which he was fixed 
to the cross, and hung up between two thieves like a common malefadtor. 

Judge Traill was married on the 3d of March, 1774, to Elizabeth Grotz, daughter of 
Jacob and Elizabeth Grotz, who were of German birth. Her family name was Shaffbuch. 
She was born on the 7th day of July, 1751, and died on the 31st of May, 1816, preceding 
her husband's death by two months. She was a woman of intelligence and energ\-, a 
verv helpmate to her Scotch husband. The children were: 

Elizabeth, married Benjamin Green, who were the parents of Dr. Traill Green, the 
eminent physician of Easton; Mars', married Abraham Ealer; Catherine, died unmarried; 
Sarah, married Peter Nungesser; Isabella, married Melchior Horn; Anne, married Jacob 
Kline; Rebecca, died unmarried. 

All the daughters grew up to mature age. There were three sons, Thomas, George 
and Jacob, who died in infancy. 

Note. — It is often a matter of surprise, while tracing out family lineage to see how strangely families 
from remote regions intermingle. On page 14 of a book entitled, "A genealogical account of the Traills of 
Orkney," we find the following: "George Traill married Keith Spence, whose daughter Harriet married the 
Rev. Charles Lowell, father of his Excellency the Honorable James Russel Lowell, .\merican .\mbassador to 
England, who, in addition to being an able diplomatist, has long enjoyed and maintained a high reputation in 
the paths of literature." 


Among the early families in Easton was the one named above. Peter Kichline was 
born in Germany, October 8, 1722, and died November 27, 1789. His name was spelled 
Kechline, Keechline and Kachline in the old records, but for many years has been 
spelled as above. He was for many years one of the most acliive citizens of the state. 
He built the first grist mill in the limits of the town of Easton, on the left bank of the 
Bushkill, back of Mount Jefferson, which property has been owned by Michael Butz many 
years. Like nearly all the German emigrants, he fled from the tyranny of kings in 
Europe, and was ready for the patriotic struggle which was ushered into life by the trying 
scenes of the Revolution. He was among the very first to take adlive measures of resist- 
ence to the encroachments of the British King. At a meeting of the citizens of Easton 
in the Court House, in December, 1774, to elecfl a Committee of Safety for the county, 
he was one of the judges of the eledlion, with George Taylor; was the second man 
eledled of that immortal band of patriots, and was placed on the Standing Committee. 
He entered thus early into the struggle, and continued steadfast unto the end. He became 
colonel of militia, and was frequently in correspondence with the President of the Com- 
monwealth of Pennsylvania. In \'oI. XII, of the Colonial Records, page 312, we find 



he was ordered to call out the militia of the county, and empowered to offer fifteen 
hundred dollars for every Tory or Indian prisoner, and a thousand dollars for every Indian 
scalp. On the next page we find an order for him to march immediately to the townships 
of lyower and Upper Smithfield to repress the incursion of the savages. The militia of 
the county was under the control of Colonel Kichline, and on the same page, as quoted 
above, we learn that those who expended money for the service must report to Colonel 
Kichline, lieutenant of the county. He was as faithful in the Indian war of 1763, as he 
was afterwards in the Revolution. He went as lieutenant with the company from North- 
ampton, to the battle of Brooklyn; was in the thickest of the fight; was taken prisoner, 
but soon returned home and buckled on his annor for further duties in the field. He was 
as busy in civil life as he was in military. He was a hotel keeper, and rented his large 
room in his new house, up one pair of stairs, to the Commissioners for holding courts, 
eledlions, and all other public business. In 1759, he was elecfted one of the Commis- 
sioners; he was ele(5led Sheriff" in 1762; was chosen a member of the Assembly in 1774; 
and appointed a Justice of the Peace. The writer of the History of the L,ehigh Valley 
says : "He was a true patriot, and an honest man. ' ' Another has told us that ' ' an honest 
man is the noblest work of God;" and when this is added to the charac5ler of the man 
who goes fearlessly to the front in heat of battle to defend the liberties of his countr}-, 
who mingles in civil and official life without reproach, we have a charadler worthy of our 
profoundest regard, and one which may be studied with profit. His mill property passed 
into the hands of his son Andrew, and in old age, he lived and died with his son Peter, 
who lived on a farm about two miles above Easton. His son had also a son Peter who 
was the father of Joseph Kichline, now living on South Sixth street, in the quiet retire- 
ment of old age. The writer called frequently upon old Mr. Kichline on Sixth street, 
and enjoyed his allusions to the past in connedrtion with his experience. When quite 
young he was a clerk for one of the large firms in Bushkill Valley. He said the farmers 
would come from above the mountains with their produce, and generally took back a 
barrel of whiskey, and the whiskey was sold for eight or nine dollars a barrel. Those 
attending court as jurors or witnesses from beyond the mountains would come barefooted. 
People would give their children one pair of shoes in a year, and this would be in Autumn. 
When they were worn out they must go barefoot. Shoemakers went from house to house 
to make shoes for the family, and this was called "whipping the cat." Mr. Kichline 
went to school to the old Pedagogue in the German Reformed school house, comer of Sit- 
greaves and Church streets. This was Mr. Hempsing, who was the organist in the old church 
on Third street. Mr. Kichline has four children living: George F. Kichline, Esq., Mrs. 
Mary Smith, Mrs. Susan Kutzler, and Miss Annie. There are six grand children, which 
makes the sixth generation. 


In the tax list of 1763, the name of Michael Lehn appears among the married men 
of the town. He was the father of Andrew Adam Lehn who lived in the southeast corner 
of the Square. There was another son who emigrated to Pittsburg, and Adam made 


several trips, on foot, during his life to visit his brother. Michael, the father, was among 
the early German people who came to this country poor. His son Adam had been pros- 
pered, and owned thirt}' acres of land on College Hill, commencing at the jun6lion of 
Cattell street and the new road, extending toward the Delaware, and as far back as Moser's 
lane. He also owned the property in the southeast corner of Centre Square, now occu- 
pied by the residence of A. S. Deichman, and all the property on Lehn's Court. He also 
owned other property in different parts of the town which was divided, at his death, 
between his children John and Mar>'. 

On the property on College Hill was a fine apple orchard, and he had some trouble 
with the boys, who had the common habits of boys when apples were ripe. A sound 
reprimand accompanied by the ordinary threat had about the same effect as in more 
modern times. Adam Lehn was remarkable for his financial integrity and stridl dealings 
with his fellows. Father Pomp preached his funeral sermon, and made the remark, that 
"if Mr. Lehn owed a man half a cent, he would cut a cent in two but what he would pay 
him his just demand." Adam Lehn married a sister of the late Philip Mixsell, and had 
two children, John and Mary. John married Miss Susan Gangawere, of AUentown, and 
had a family of ten children, three sons and seven daughters, five of whom are still living. 
The daughters Maria and Matilda were twins. Maria, who married the late Henn.' Ben- 
der, was the mother of the wife of Judge Schuyler; and Matilda, who married the late P. 
A. Sage, was the mother of H. A. Sage. Mary, the daughter, married Ralph Tindall, 
and was the mother of nine children, five of whom are living. John married Elizabeth 
Herster; had one child, Mary E., wife of Mark T. Warne. Caroline, the wife of J. W. 
Long; Louisa, the wife of Charles Heller, of Philadelphia; x\bby Ann, and Ellen, the 
widow of Dr. J. W. Geyer, of Frederick, Maryland. Maria, the late wife of Samuel 
Drinkhouse, was the mother of the wife of the Rev. George Diehl, D. D., of Frederick 
City, Maryland; Mrs. Clement Stewart, of South Easton, and Mrs. Harry Raphael. The 
patriotism of the citizens of Easton is shown by the following incident. While spending 
a pleasant evening in the family of Mr. James W. Long, Miss Tindall told the author, 
when she saw a large bonfire that her grandmother remarked, "they may build bonfires, 
but they would never have as large a one as they had when the news of the adoption of 
the Declaration of Independence came to Easton. They brought many cords of wood 
and piled it up where the Police Headquarters now stand, which was then an open space, 
and burned it, and the hills around were lighted by the flames." It recalled, no doubt, 
the signal fires on the mountains of Switzerland when liberty was in danger. 


Empires may fall and kingdoms ris 
Changes take place in starlit skies, 
But these rivers roll on forever. 

ASTON is made beautiful by the mountains which encircle it, where 
"hills peep o'er hills and Alps on Alps arise." But this beauty is greatly 
enhanced by the rivers which meet and mingle their waters as they hasten 
away to the sea. The history of the Delaware is so closely interwoven 
with the early history of the Republic, that it has become a classic stream. 
Its history would make one of the most interesting stories in American 
literature. The Lehigh valley is known far and wide as one of the most 
busy in the cotintry. The canal, railroads, and furnaces smoking from 
Easton to Mauch Chunk, make it a valley for tourists to visit. So over- 
shadowing are these two in history and in wealth, that the historian 
has quite overlooked the valley of the Bushkill, and yet this little, unpre- 
tending stream was the beginning of Easton' s wealth. A glance at the map of North- 
ampton county will reveal to the eye a number of small brooks starting in the Blue Moun- 
tain, bounding Bushkill Township on the north, which flow together in the southern part 
of the township, and form what is called Bushkill creek. This creek, in former years 
was called Tatamy's creek, and Lehicflon creek, but those Indian names were aban- 
doned, and it is now known by the name of the township in which it rises, and through 
which it runs. The distance from Easton to the mountain is about fourteen miles, but 
the main stream is very crooked, which increases its length and power as a mill stream. 
There is a good deal of business done in the valley at this date, but not so large as in 
"ye olden time," when the smoke of the distilleries greeted the vision in all directions, 
and the "sound of the grinding" was not low. Large teams were constantly seen carry- 
ing heavy loads of grain to the mills, and bringing back the flour and whiskey to the 
Durham boats waiting at the river bank. There were ten or twelve cooper-shops, which 
were kept busy manufadluring barrels in which to transport whiskey to Philadelphia. 
Whiskey was plenty then; a bottle was standing in every store, and purchasers were 
free to drink when their bills were settled. The author spent a very pleasant evening with 
one of the prominent citizens of Easton, whose age and experience enabled him to call up 
the history of this busy little valley, and name the several mills along the stream. Sit- 
ting in his pleasant mansion, near Third street, he would naturally begin with that one 
nearest at hand, and so he named the one at the foot of Third street, near the Bushkill 
bridge. But before noticing this mill, we will speak of an island which lies in the Dela- 
ware, near the mouth of this creek. This little barren island was once one of the best 
fishing stations for shad along the river. (It is valuable now only as a deposit of excel- 
lent sand washed down by the current of the river.) It is chiefly memorable from the 
scene of the execution of Getter many years ago, and is called Getter's island. From the 


original deed, now lying before me, it is learned that this island was deeded to "Jacob 
Abel, fem-man, Peter Ealer, Esq., George William Roup, gentleman, Jacob Amdt, Jr., 
Esq., and John Herster, all of the town of Easton," in 1787, by the Honorable John 
Penn, Jr., and John Penn, of Philadelphia, Esqrs. This island should be called Abel's 
island, as the original deed is still in possession of the family. 

The mill property at the bridge, and the first mentioned by my informant, was granted 
to John Brotzman and John Herster, in 1789, by John Penn, the yoimger, and John Penn, 
the elder. The deeds, showing the several transfers of the property, are fine specimens of 
penmanship, and are kept in the safe of the present owners of the mill, who ver>- kindlv 
pennitted the author to examine them. Brotzman and Herster cut the road up the left bank 
of the Bushkill from the Third street bridge. This property was transferred to Jacob 

Mixsell in 1810, and retained by him for 
thirty-two years, and was transferred to 
Enoch Green, in 1842. The next owner 
was I. N. Carpenter, by whom it was sold 
to Mann & Allshouse, in 1868, the present 
owners. The old method of making flour 
is still used, and excellent work is done. 
The capacity of this mill is about fifty bar- 
rels per day. There is nine feet fall of 
water. On the opposite side of the creek 
was fonnerly Lehn's tannery, now owned 
by H. A. Sage, and is used as a funiiture 
iuanufa(5lory. At the foot of Fourth street 
was another tanner}- also, owned by Major 
William Bamet. 

The second mill is Groetzinger's, and 
was built by Peter Ihrie in 1829 or 1830. 
It was first used as a fulling mill, but this 
business being unprofitable it was changed 
to an oil mill, and after a fair trial, the 
trouble of obtaining flax seed was so great, 
it was changed into a grist mill. This pro- 
perty remained in the hands of Peter Ihrie 
till his death; it then passed into the hands of his son Benjamin, who sold it to the 
present owner. The old process of flour-making is continued. It has four run of stone, 
and five feet fall of water. 

Peter Ihrie was the son of Conrad Ihrie, who was born in Germany in 1731. Peter, 
the father of Anthony Ihrie, was born in 1765, and was the father of twelve children, only 
one of whom survives, viz : Anthony, from whom the above infonnation was obtained. 
Anthony has a family of five children, three sons and two daughters; so that the family 
name will remain in Easton. 

The third mill is now owned l)y the \cnerablc Michael Butz, and it was the second 
one built on the stream, having been built in 1762, by Peter Kichline. This mill passed 
to .Andrew, his .son. Cliristian Butz bought the mill of Andrew Kichline, and lived in a 



log house on the opposite side of the creek from the mill. At his death David Butz bought 
it from the estate of his father. In 1810, Christian Butz built the large brick house, 
which is a fine specimen of faithful workmanship, and has stood the test of seventy-six 
years of wear and weather. In 1827, Michael bought the mill of his brother David, 
and still retains it, a period of fifty-nine years. The mill pursues the old method of mak- 
ing flour. There are three run of stone, twelve and a half feet fall of water, and can 
produce fifty barrels of flour per day. There is a large planing mill standing on the same 
property. Michael Butz's grandfather's name was Christian, the same as his father. 
Michael has four children, and six grand children ; and though he has been married nearly 
sixty-four years, he and his wife are rarely absent from church on the Sabbath. When he 
is fresh in the morning his mind is as clear as in former times, and he seems to enjoy life 
as well as those who are many years younger. While talking with him our minds are 
taken back to the log cabin days. 

The fourth mill was owned by Judge Daniel Wagner, now used as a plaster mill ; 
water- fall fifteen feet; turbine wheel is used. The old homestead is still standing close 
by the mill. It was once a fine mansion, but now shows the marks of time's hard 
fingers. The following sketch of the Wagner family was kept by Mrs. Elizabeth B. 
Ricker, and published by request: "Mr. David Wagner was born in Silesia, Gennany, 
May 24, 1736. His mother, then a widow, with a colony from that place, emigrated to 
the United States in the year 1740, on account of religious persecution, and settled in 
Bucks county, in this state, with her two children, David and Christopher, aged respect- 
ively four and eight years. The son David married Miss Susanna Umstead, and raised a 
family of four sons and three daughters. About 100 years ago he purchased a tradl of 
land of 'the Penns, the heirs of William Penn,' situated on both sides of the Bush- 
kill, a short distance above Easton, and moved thereon." The author examined the 
records, and found the purchase took place June 6, 1785. The tradl consisted of sixty- 
five acres, for which he paid 260 ^ 6 s. The deed was recorded May 24, 1786. This fixes 
the date quite clearly when David Wagner began his enterprise. "The Easton Cemetery 
grounds are now a portion of that tra6t of land, where his remains lie in the plot of his 
son David, southwest of the chapel. His death occurred in the sixtieth year of his age. 
His mother and her son, Christopher, remained in Bucks coiinty, near Gennantown. " 
David, the son of David Wagner, of Silesia, was five years old when his father moved to 
Easton to settle on his lands on the Bushkill,' and he lived seventy-nine years on the 
old homestead, when he departed this life; and that beautiful home is still in the 
Wagner family. "David Wagner, of Germany, had thirty-seven grown up grandchildren, 
five of whom are still living: Michael Butz, John Wagner, of Allentown, and his sister, 
Mary Dobins, Jacob B. Wagner, and his sister, Elizabeth B. Ricker, of Easton. The 
three daughters of David Wagner, of Silesia, were married respectively to Adam Deshler, 
Jacob Mixsell, and Christian Butz. The names of the four sons are: John, who married 
a Miss Deshler; Daniel, who married a Miss Opp; David, who married a Miss Bidelman; 
and Adam, who died a single man. The great-grandchildren are too numerous to specify, 
they number over one hundred." Mr. Amos Davis, now over eighty years old, worked 
many years for the Wagners, during the time when Daniel Wagner and his two sons, 
Jacob and David D. Wagner, were in partnership in the milling business. There is no 
doubt but that many a pleasant hour was spent in talking over old times when business 


was not very pressing. This old gentleman has a remarkable memory', and takes great 
pleasure in talking of "ye olden times." Judge Daniel's father had built a small house 
for temporary- residence, and had brought two daughters to keep house for the millwrights 
while they built the mill. During the absence of papa they became very home-sick, and 
they persuaded the workmen to go home; and, early on Saturday morning, they started 
for ' ' home, sweet, sweet home. ' ' One of the sweetest emotions of the soul is the love 
of home. And we cannot wonder that these young girls felt lonesome in the lonely spot. 
To hasten their flight to the dearest spot on earth, they took off" their shoes and stockings 
and went with sturdy earnestness to the scenes of their childhood. They were overtaken 
by a gentleman driving a good team; they accepted an invitation to ride; they knew 
mother would welcome them, and they knew the kindness of their father — the only desire 
was to get home. We know nothing of the reception, but parents can easily imagine 
the hearty laugh which rang through the house when the daughters, tired with the long 
journey, appeared in the family circle. But a short time elapsed before the father and 
girls appeared again on the banks of the Bushkill. The mill was finished, the "dear old 
house" was built, and father and mother came, and with them came all the joys of 
home for the children. For many years this was the centre of business, happiness, and 

About the year 1825, '^^ fourth mill up the stream from the Delaware was owned by Judge 
Daniel Wagner. The fifth was owned by David D. Wagner. The next was an oil mill, 
now in ruins. The next was Judge Wagner's new mill. This is a paint mill, used 
for grinding mineral paint, and owned by Mr. J. Rodenbongh. The author called at the 
mill and heard the busy hum of the machinery, but did not enter the building. Here 
is a water-fall of seven feet. The next is Lehicton mills. These mills were owned by 
Herster and Barnet, and are now owned by Joseph T. Williams. Herster and Bamet had 
a distiller}', and the old building is yet standing on the right bank of the stream. This 
is a beautiful spot, and was one of the busy scenes of the past. The hill was so steep 
approaching the bridge from the south that chains were used to hold the heavy wagons 
from crowding on the horses. 

There is a good deal of business carried on at this point. Mr. Williams has three 
mills, a flour mill and two mills for grinding soapstone. The flouring mill is one of the 
best in the valley. The proprietor has expended about eight thousand dollars in new 
machinery with the latest improvements; and, to those who are fond of machinery-, it 
will pay to visit the mill. The machinery consists of one break machine, ten sets of 
rollers, four run of stone; three are n,sed for feed, one for the reduction of middlings, and 
one for flour packing. Water-fall twenty feet. The capacity of this mill is seventy-five 
barrels in twenty-four hours. The two mineral mills grind seven tons each of soapstone, 
in twenty-four hours, which is, in part, taken from the side of Chestnut Hill, not half a 
mile distant. There are several openings of this mineral in the side of this mountain. 
The Eastou Silk Mill, established about three years ago, is located here, and employs 
about two hundred hands. This business is conducted by R. & H. Simon, the great silk 
manufa(flurers of Paterson, New Jersey, formerly of Germany. The mill is engaged in 
what is called the throwing department, and is connedled with other mills where the 
wca\ing is done. 

The whole region around Leliicl-lon mills ])ids fair to be a beautiful j>art of Eastou. 





Thirteenth street has been graded, and curbing laid to the foot of the Chestnut Hills ; and 
the Commissioners have just determined to build a new bridge across the stream in place of 
the old wooden one. The surface rises gradually from the right bank of the Bushkill up to 
Washington street, and on this beautiful slope a number of handsome and costly villas have 
been built. The grounds have been tastefully arranged, adorned with shrubbery, making 
homes that can hardly be surpassed in beauty. William Laubach, T. L. McKeen, R. and H. 
Simon, Jacob Hay and William Heller have made their homes in this part of the handsome 
little valley. Mr. Joseph T. Williams, who lives here, is a warm friend of William Penn, 
and speaks of making a small park, in the centre of which he will place a statue of the 
kind-hearted Quaker in the attitude of shaking hands with the red man. 

The next mill, which formerly belonged to Joseph Herster, is now one of Williams' 
mineral mills. The next above was Sciple's mill, latterly owned by a Mr. Michael, now 
by Gearhart as a grist mill. The next was James Thompson's mill, now Tilghman Kep- 
ler's flour mill. There was a distillery connedled with it. Herster and Col. Samuel 
Yohe also had distilleries. The next mill was owned by Nathaniel Michler, who also 
had a distillery. The next was owned by Kemmerer. The next was Messinger's clover 
mill, now Messinger's flour mill. The next was Judge Wagner's upper mill, now owned 
by Mrs. Newlin, of Philadelphia, a granddaughter. The next was Woodring's mill at 
Stockertown. The next was Friedensthall's. The next mill was built and owned by 


Jacob Hartzell. This array of mills and distilleries will give the present generation some 
idea of the extent of business that was done in this valley and brought into Easton from 
1820 till canals and railroads came into acflivity. There were six distilleries which used 
one thousand bushels of grain daily, and produced four gallons of whiskey to the bushel. 
This would give four thousand gallons daily, twenty-eight thousand gallons per week, one 
million, four hundred and fifty-six thousand gallons annually. Mr. Davis said that wdiiskey 
sold for twenty-two to forty cents per gallon. He thought thirty cents would be a fair 
average. This would produce an annual income of four hundred and thirty-six thousand 
and eight hundred dollars. The rise and fall in the price of whiskey was caused by the 
difference in the amount of burning fluid used in summer and winter. The whiskey was 
mixed with turpentine, and used for illuminating purposes, until the coal oil wells were 
discovered. The refuse grain was used to feed hogs, and as one bushel would feed five 
hogs, it is an easy matter to estimate the number that might be raised in the valley. 
These busy mills, these smoking distilleries, that great drove of swine, that great com- 
pany of teams and teamsters, the busy Durham boats, the sixteen or eighteen hotels filled 
with farmers from the distant farms, the busy merchants buying up the grain and dealing 
out their goods to the returning fanners, that great procession of teams passing up North- 
ampton street, sixty in a single line * — all these will give us a pi6lure of the business of 
Easton in those days. There are a few old men now walking in the lengthening shadows 
of life's evening, who look back to those, in their minds, halcj'on days of Easton's life, 
with mingled feelings of sadness and pleasure. The same creek rushes along its rocky 
bed with its gurgling music, and anon tumbling over its artificial water-falls, refledling 
the rays of the sun like burnished silver. The same old mills stand in their places, 
changed by the hand of improvement. The same rocky crags are standing on the water's 
banks, like quiet sentinels watching the progress of time, and guarding the interests of 
the lovely vale, so like their former selves that the spirits of the past age would easily 
recognize the scenes of their manly toil. But the Hersters, Mixsells, Ihries, Kichlines, 
Wagners, Arndts, Thompsons, have bowed to the resistless touch of death, and others 
listen to the busy whirl of the machinery and obtain their livelihood from the same roll- 
ing stream that served those who have gone before. 

To one passing up the valley at the present day it is pleasant to observe the life and 
adlivity and the enterprise of those who now manage the business. The author visited a 
few of the mills above Lehidlon. At Gerhart's mill they not only grind grain, but they 
manufadlure the "French burr mill stones." They have four run of stone, and use a 
new bolting chest; the old process of flour-making, and the old fashioned breast wheel is 
used. The roller process is to be introduced this spring. This mill grinds one hundred 
and twenty bushels a day. The next mill visited was Kepler's. The rollers are used, and 
five run of stone. This was formerly James Thompson's mill, to which a distillery 
was attached which used two hundred bushels of grain daily. The capacity of the mill 
is now sixty-five barrels. The next mill visited was that of Jacob Walter. This mill 
has the new process; five run of stone; capacity, one hundred barrels per day, and 
has a water-fall of ten feet. It is the old Arndt mill, which Jacob Arudt purcha.sed 
of Mr. Jones, in 1760, and was the first mill built on the stream. In this spot the old Ger- 
man patriot passed many liaj)]))- days, and ncnv quietly sleeps on the hill, near the church 

l)r, C.ic-cii s:iiil. Id the- uriUv, lu- li.i.l sti-ii sixty Uniiis in oiu- pnici'ssioii jjussiiij,' up N(irlh;iiii])Um stri-ft. 



called by his name. Not having time to call upon all the mills in passing up the stream, the 
author called at the flourishing establishment known as the Empire Agricultural Works at 
Stockertown. This industry was established by S. S. Messinger, in 1857. He began 
the enterprise with small buildings, and an investment of eight hundred dollars, employ- 
ing one moulder and one machinist. In 1861 the buildings were enlarged, increasing 
the facilities for manufacturing; and threshing, mowing and reaping machines had been 
added, and capital increased to about four thousand dollars. In 1873, G. Frank Messinger 
was taken into the firm, which then employed thirty hands, with an investment of over 
forty thousand dollars. In 1883, a machine shop, 48x98, four stories high, and a moulding 
shop or foundry, 40x70 feet were ere<5led. At the present time the firm is engaged in the 
manufadlure of mowers, reapers, twine-binders, horse powers, threshers and cleaners, and 
other fanning implements; employing seventy-five hands, and the capital invested nearly 
one himdred and forty thousand dollars. A flourishing village is springing up around them. 
The name of Messinger has long been known in and around Easton, and is of Switz origin. 
The great grandfather of S. S. Messinger was born in Switzerland in 17 19, and came to 
this country in 1744. The grandfather, Michael Messinger, was born in 1759, in Forks, 
now Palmer township, in the place called Jacob Walter's upper mill. George W. Mes- 
singer, the father of Samuel, was born in 1797, in Palmer township, in a locality 
known by the name of Messinger since 1872. 

The writer has taken a good deal of pains to ascertain, as nearly as pradlicable, the 
difference in altitude between the mill-dams at Stockertown and the Delaware at Easton. 
The water-fall of all the mills visited was carefully noted, and one of the millers, well 
acquainted with the mills above, gave the amount of fall at each mill — the united fall of 
all the dams being 167 feet. Mr. Williams, who accompanied the writer to Stockertown, 
helped to form an idea of the lost power between the several dams and the dead water 
below them, and a conclusion was reached that it amounted in altitude to about fifty 
feet. This may be nearly correal, and added to the fall of the several dams would 
make two himdred and seventeen feet. The average water-fall is thirty-two and a third 
feet to the mile. Count Zinzendorf crossed this stream in 1742, and found the name to be 
Lehicfton. It was also called Tatamy's creek, Lefevre's creek, and more recently Lehicflon, 
and Bushkill, or Bush river, as Kill properly means river. It will thus be seen that the 
names of Lehigh and Lehi6lon have not the slightest relation to each other. It is a matter 
of interest to know the altitude of Easton above tide-water. It is found, by examining the 
survey of the Delaware canal, that the lockage is 162.05 feet, and this fixes the altitude of 
Easton, an average fall of two and seven tenths feet. The History of Luzerne County, page 
169, says, "the Lehigh river rises in Luzerne and Wayne counties; flows one hundred miles 
southwest, and unites with the Delaware at Easton. Its headwaters are one thousand eight 
hundred and eighty-two feet above tide, and has an average fall of seventeen feet to the mile. ' ' 
The History of the Moravian Church, page 23, says: The original name of this river was 
'' Lcchait-weki, abbreviated by the Germans in Lecha, and corrupted by the English into 
Lehigh." A few years ago Professor Coffin made a careful survey to ascertain the height 
of the hills around Easton above tide-water. He found the summit of Mount Olympus, 
the highest point north of the college campus, to be seven hundred and fifty-two feet. 
One hundred and sixty-two feet taken from seven hundred and fifty-two feet, leaves the 
height of Mount Olympus to be five hundred and ninety feet above the surface of the 


Delaware. It seems difficult to close this chapter without referring to the beaiity of the 
scenery of the Bushkill. If ever there was singular truthfulness in the expression, 
"Distance lends enchantment to the scene," we seem to find it so in the scener\- along 
this busy little valley. Those bom and reared amid these wild and fantastic beauties 
pass along the busy whirl of life without stopping to admire these mountain crags and 
rocky battlements reared by the Creator's hands. Here and there one of our citizens will 
pause and admire, as he stands on some eminence, the wild, irregular display of hills and 
valleys and mountains, and give expression to his emotions as his eyes run over the glories 
of the landscape. But the stranger of taste gazes and admires, and never forgets these 
beautiful exhibitions of the wisdom and power of the Divine Architect. It is the theory' 
of geologists, that such gaps as that of the Delaware, and Lehiclon Pass on the Bushkill, 
are the effe6l of river erosions ; and the close obser\'er will have his faith somewhat 
shaken in the theory if he will ramble up our little valley. But, leaving that question 
for geologists to settle, let us take a walk up the valley whose banks have so often been 
trodden by the feet of the old Indian chief who clung so faithfully to the warm-hearted 
Brainerd, and who buried his hatchet and put away his scalping knife when the waters 
of Christian baptism fell upon his dusky brow. If the stranger should attempt to examine 
the scenery along the stream, he would be interested in the appearance of the abrupt sides 
of Mount Lafayette rising nearly two hundred feet, and the gentle slope of the opposite 
bank where the buildings of Easton crowd close to the shore. He would pass but a short 
distance, and find Mount Jefferson, on whose summit buildings have been erected, to be 
of equal altitude, and whose precipitous side, facing the stream on the opposite bank, is 
almost perpendicular. It is rare that such rugged, rocky heights are found on streams so 
small and so near large populations. This wild, rocky eminence is of solid limestone. Fol- 
lowing the stream we turn to the right, at an angle of 90°. The stream, dammed below, 
is as smooth as glass, from whose bank the land surface gradually rises to the beautiful 
City of the Dead, while on the right we again pass under another over-shadowing mountain 
whose sides give evidence of the mighty upheaving forces which have broken these limestone 
ledges into fantastic shapes. Here are Wagner's mills on our left, and the old familv 
mansion, nearly a hundred years old. Joys and sorrows have swept over the family circle 
whose members sleep so quietly near by. And now the music of this beautiful water- 
fall strikes our ears, and it is none the less beautiful because it is artificial. The mountain 
is covered with trees and shrubber}' clothed with the fresh, green tints of spring-time. 
The low rumbling of the mills, the dashing of the falling water, the joyous notes of the 
birds, the sighing of the winds through the forest trees, all help to make this a most 
charming spot for the lover of nature to hold communion with her in her simple and most 
lovely forms. We turn again at an equal angle to the left. Just across the stream is a 
beautiful forest; not a tree should ever be touched by the axe. Easton should see to it 
that it is preser\-ed for a public park. As Easton increases in population, and "lovely 
Lafayette" expands in her future growth, every rod of this valley will become classic 
ground. It will be very difficult to find a more beautiful drive-way than this can be made. 
At this point the Chestnut Hills crowd close to the road-way, sometimes in lofty lime- 
stone ledges, and anon retreating up the beautiful green slopes to the height of five hun- 
dred feet. At Lehidlon pass, the range is abruptly severed, and a large mass of rock has 
been removed to make it more safe for general travel. The children take a good deal of 


interest in visiting this pass. There are two caves here, called big devil's cave and little 
devil's cave; one on each side of the river. And there is an idea among the children that 
the two caves are united by a passage under the stream, but none of them have ever ven- 
tured to explore its dark passage ways. Emerging from the Lehidlon pass on our way up 
the stream, there is much of beauty in the varying landscape. As we approach Mes- 
singer's manufadluring establishment, the abruptness of the hills disappears, and the 
valley spreads out in well cultivated fields, gradually rising on either side of the stream; 
beautiful farms, comfortable dwellings, and happy homes are scattered over the scene. 
Stockertown is near at hand, the old Forks Church not far away, and the burjing ground 
of this church contains the remains of the father of the late eminent Dr. Gross. In this 
part of the valley Dr._.Gross spent the days of his boyhood. He was one of the early 
teachers in Lafayette College. He made the autopsy of the body of Getter's wife, and 
was a witness in the trial of Getter. Dr. Gross was an honor to his profession, a finished 
scholar, a genial gentleman, who had obtained a world-wide reputation long before his 
quite recent death. A railroad is already graded to near Messinger's mills. The interest 
of commerce may demand it, but the lovers of nature would be sorry to see the beautiful 
valley marred by the presence of a railroad. 

Note. — Just as this number was about going to press the author found a copj' of Heckewelder's Indian 
names. In it the names of the Delaware, Lehigh and Bushkill are found. Delaware river — " Lenapewihituk, 
Indian river, and Kithaune, the largest river in that part of the country.'' " Lehikton ; Leheighton ; 
Lehicfton ; Lawithanne — the proper name for the Bush Kill by Easton. The word signifies a stream bettveen 
others.'' "Lehigh ; Lecha; neither of these words was the proper name for this river, which was only known 
to the Indians by the great crossing place on it. The Indians have three general words by which they distin- 
guish that which resembles a fork. They say Lechaiiwe/ri, or Lechainvekink, when they speak of the country 
we call the forks." It looks very much as if Zinzindorf 's derivation of the name Lehigh was the correct one. 
"Eastontown — Lechauwitank, the town within the fortes." 


" Whether the charmer sinner it, or saint it, 
If folly grow romantic, I must paint it." — POPE. 

The following incident, which occurred years ago, will throw a light upon the man- 
ners of olden times in the quiet village of Easton. The story was written many years 
since by Mrs. E. F. Ellet, for Godey's Lady's Book, and later was published in the History 
of the Lehigh Valley. Knowing that it will prove interesting reading, not only from the 
fadl of its being a faithful narrative, but from its having emanated from the pen of so 
distinguished a writer, we insert it here entire. The house in which the vidlim of the 
tale lived, stood where Thomas T. Miller's hardware store now stands, and the pond of 
water centred where Shipman's stables are, so that the sturdy Gennan women did not 
have far to lead the object of their rage. Their sole purpose was to punish, not to mur- 
der, their vi6lim. 

Some eighty years ago, the now flourishing town of Easton, on the Delaware, was but a small settlement 
in one of the remote and comparatively wild portions of Pennsylvania. At the present day, the compaaiy 
built town fills the space between the mountains and the two rivers that here form a junftion, while their banks 
are lined with busy manufaAories and the dwellings of men. The lofty hills that rise abruptly from the plain, 


or overhang the waters, are cultivated in spots; and the patches of woodland here and there seemed spared for 
the purpose of adorning the landscape, and affording secluded walks to the wanderers who love the beauty of 
nature. At the period to which our tale carries us back, the scenen,- of this beautiful region was not less 
enchanting, though far more wild and savage. A dense forest then covered the mountains to their rocky 
summits, and bordered the rivers for many miles; the valley, through which flows a sweet stream to mingle 
with the Delaware, was dark with the shadow of primeval woods, and the waters, untroubled by the different 
manufactories for the uses of which their streams have since been diverted, swept in calm majesty along their 
time-worn channel, scarceU- knowing the difference of seasons. Not far from the Delaware, a double row of 
low-roofed, quaint-looking stone houses formed the most populous part of the settlement. Other dwellings, 
scattered about in different directions, were built in the same style, and e%-idently inhabited by the same sturdy 
and primitive Dutch population. Many of these houses are still standing, and give a character to the appearance 
of the whole place. It has been often remarked how unchangingly, from one generation to another, the habits 
of the Dutch people are preser\-ed by their descendants, gi\4ng a monotony to their life and manners, while 
their more nmtable neighbors are yielding themselves, day by day, to the law of progress. This inveterate 
attachment to the old order of things, and aversion to innovations, peculiar to their nation, kept the ancient 
inhabitants of Easton in the same condition with their forefathers, notwithstanding the improvements introduced 
from European cities into other parts of the colony. Philadelphia, though at that time but a \-illage in com- 
parison to what it is now, was looked npon as a place of luxury and corruption dangerous to the morals of 
youth. Few of the families composing the settlement at Easton had ever been there, or had \4sited any other 
of the provincial cities. They sought no intercourse with the world's great Babel, content with the information 
that reached them regularly once a week with the newspapers brought by the post-boy, which were loaned to 
the neighbors in turn bv the few who received them. Now and then, it is true, when the business of the day 
was over, a number of men might be seen seated in the large sitting-room of the old stone tavern, or on the 
veranda, wearing their low-crowned, broad-brimmed hats, smoking their pipes, and discussing events of which 
the rumor had reached them, when these were more stirring than common. But these discussions were always 
condudted quietly, and without the exhibition of any feeling of partisanship. They were terminated at a very 
early hour, all thought of political matters being usually dismissed with the last puff of their pipes, as the 
worthy mynheers took their way homewards. 

As little did the love of change prevail among the ^aoAfraus of that day. They were of the class described 
by a distinguished chronicler, who "stayed at home, read the Bible, and wore frocks." They wore the same 
antiquated quilted caps atid parti-colored homespun gowns, that were in fashion in the days of the renowned 
Wouter Van Twiller ; their pockets were always filled with work and the implements of industn,-, and their own 
gowns and their husbands' coats were exclusively of domestic manufacture. In cleanliness and thrifty house- 
wifery, they were excelled by none who had gone before, or who came after them. The well-scoured stoops 
and entries, fresh and immaculate every morning, attested the neatness prevailing throughout the dwellings. 
The precise order that reigned within, in the departments of kitchen, parlor, and chamber, could not be dis- 
turbed by any out-of-door commotion. Cleanliness and contentment were the cares of the household. The 
tables were spread with the abundance of the good old time, and not small was the pride of those ministering 
dames in setting forth the viands prepared by their own industrious hands. It must not be supposed that all 
their care and frugality were inconsistent with the dear exercise of hospitality, or other social \-irtues usually 
practised in every female community. If the \-isits paid from house to house were less frequent than in modern 
times, there was the same generous interest in the concerns of others, and the same desire in each to save her 
neighbor trouble by kindly taking the management of affairs upon herself, evinced by so many individuals of 
the present day. In short, the domestic police of Easton, at that remote period, was apparently as remarkable 
for vigilance and severity in hunting out offenders as it has proved to be in times of more modern cix-ilization. 

The arrival of new residents from the city was an event of importance enough in itself to cause no small 
stir in that quiet comnmnity. The rumor that a small house, pi<5luresquely situated at the edge of a wood some 
distance from the village, was being fitted up for the new comers, was soon spread abroad, and gave rise to many 
conje(5lures and surmises. The new furniture that paraded in wagons before the astonished eyes of tlie settlers, 
was different from any that had been seen before ; and, tliough it would have been thought simple enough, or 
even rude, at the present day, exhibited too much of metropolitan taste and luxury to meet their approval. 
Then a gardener was employed several days to set in order the surrounding plot of ground, and set out rose 
bushes, and ornamental plants ; the fence was painted gayly, and the inclosure secured by a neat gate. A few 
days after, a light traveling wagon brought the tenants to the abode prepared for them. Within the memory 
of a generation, liardly any occurrence had taken place which excited so much curiosity. The doors and win- 
dows were crowded with gazers ; and the younger part of the population were hardly restraineil by parental 


authority from rushing after the equipage. The female, who sat with a boy on the back seat, wore a thick veil ; 
but the pleasant face of a middle-aged man, who looked about him, and bowed courteously to the different 
groups, attracted much attention. The man who drove had a jolly English face, betokening a very communi- 
cative disposition ; nor was the promise broken to the hope ; for that very evening the same personage was 
seated among a few grave-looking Dutchmen who lingered at the tavern, dealing out his infonuation liberally 
to such as chose to question him. The new comer, it appeared, was a member of the Colonial Assembly, aud 
had brought his family to rusticate for a season on the banks of the Delaware. This family consisted of his 
English wife, and a son about seven years old. They had been accustomed, he said, to the society of the rich and 
gay, both in Philadelphia and in Europe, having spent some time in Paris before their coming to this country. 

The information given by the loquacious driver, who seemed to think the village not a little honored in so 
distinguished an accession to its inhabitants, produced no favorable impression. The honest mynheers, how- 
ever, were little inclined to be hasty in their judgment. They preferred consulting their wives, who waited with 
no little patience for the Sabbath morning, expedling them to have a full opportunity of criticizing their new 

They were doomed to disappointment ; none of the family was at the place of meeting, although the 
practice of church-going was one so time-honored, that a journey of ten miles on foot to attend religious service 
was thought nothing of, and few, even of the most worldly-minded, ventured on an omission. The non-appear- 
ance of the strangers was a dark omen. The next day, however, the dames of the settlement had an oppor- 
tunity of seeing Mrs. Winton — for so I shall call her, not choosing to give her real name — as she came out to 
purchase a few articles of kitchen furniture. Her style of dress was altogether different from theirs. Instead 
of the hair pomatumed back from the forehead, she wore it in natural ringlets ; instead of the short petticoats 
in vogue among the Dutch dames, a long and flowing skirt set off to advantage a figure of remarkable grace. 
At the first glance, one could not but acknowledge her singular beauty. Her form was faultless in symmetry-, 
and her features exquisitely regular ; the complexion being of a clear brown, set off by luxuriant black hair, 
and a pair of brilliant dark eyes. The expression of these was not devoid of a certain fascination, though it 
had something to excite distrust in the simple-minded fair ones who measured the claims of the stranger to 
admiration. They could not help thinking there was a want of innate modesty in the bold, restless wanderings 
of those eyes, bright as they were, and in the perfetl self-possession the English woman showed in her some- 
what haughty carriage. Her voice, too, though melodious, was not low in its tones, and her laugh was merry, 
and frequently heard. In short, she appeared, to the untutored judgment of the dames of the village, decidedly 
wanting in reser\'e, and the softness natural to youth in woman. While they shook their heads, and were shy 
of conversation with her, it was not a little wonderful to notice the different effecfl produced on their spouses. 
The honest Dutchmen surveyed the handsome stranger with undisguised admiration, evinced at first by a pro- 
longed stare, and on after occasions by such rough courtesy as they found opportunity of showing,. with alacrity 
offering to her any little service that neighbors might render. The women, on the other hand, became more 
and more suspicious of her outlandish gear and her bewitching smiles, lavished with such profusion upon all 
who came near her. Her charms, in their eyes, were so many sins, which they were inclined to see her expiate, 
before they relented so far as to extend toward her the civilities of neighborhood. The more their husbands 
praised her, the more they stood aloof; and, for weeks after the family had become settled, scarcely any com- 
munication of a friendly nature had taken place between her and any of the female population. 

Little, however, did the English woman appear to care for negleA on the part of those she evidently 
thought much inferior to herself She had plenty of company, such as suited her taste, and no lack of agreea- 
ble employment, notwithstanding her persistence in a habit which shocked still more the prejudices of her 
worthy neighbors — of leaving her household labor to a servant. She made acquaintance with all who relished 
her lively conversation, and took much pleasure in exciting, by her eccentric manners, the astonishment of her 
long-queued admirers. She was always affable, and not only invited those she liked to visit her without cere- 
mony, but called upon them for any extra service she required. 

It was on one of the brightest days in October that Mrs. Winton was riding with her son along a path lead- 
ing through the forest up the Delaware. The road wound at the base of a mountain, bordering the river closely, 
and was flanked in some places by precipitous rocks, overgrown with shrubs, and shaded by overhanging trees. 
The wealth of foliage appeared to greater advantage, touched with the rich tints of autumn— 

"With hues more gay 
Than when the flow'rets bloomed, the trees are drest ; 

How gorgeous are their draperies ! green and gold. 
Scarlet and crimson ! like the glittering vest 

Of Israel's priesthood, glorious to behold ! 


See yonder towering hill, -n-ith forests clad. 

How bright its mantle of a thousand dyes ! 
Edged with a silver band, the stream, that glad. 

But silent, winds around its base. ' ' 

It can hardly be known if the romantic beauty of the scene, which presented itself by glimpses through 
the foliage, the bright calm river, the wooded hills and slopes bej-ond, and the \-illage lying in the lap of the 
savage forest, called forth as much admiration from those who gazed, as it has since from spirits attuned to a 
\-i%'id sense of the loveliness of nature. The sudden flight of a bird from the bushes startled the horse, and, 
dashing quickly to one side, he stood on the sheer edge of the precipice overlooking the water. The next 
plunge might have been a fatal one, but that the bridle was instantly seized b}- the strong arm of a man who 
sprang from the concealment of the trees. Checking the frightened animal, he assisted the dame and her son 
to dismount, and then led the horse for them to less dangerous ground. In the friendly conversation that fol- 
lowed, the English woman put forth all her powers of pleasing ; for the man was known already to her for one 
of the most respectable of the settlers, though he had never yet sought her society. His little service was 
rewarded by a cordial in\-itation, which was soon followed by a visit, to her house. 

To make a long story short, not many weeks had passed before this neighbor was an almost daily visitor ; 
and, to the surprise and concern of the whole ^-illage, his example was in time followed by many others of 
those who might have been called the gentn,- of Easton. It became e\-ident that the handsome stranger was a 
coquette of the most unscrupulous sort ; that she was passionately fond of the admiration of the other se.x, and 
was determined to exacl the tribute due her charms, even from the sons of the wilderness. She flirted desper- 
ately with one after another, contrixang to impress each with the idea that he was the happj- individual espe- 
cially favored by her smiles. Her manners and conversation showed less and less regard for the opinion of 
others, or the rules of propriety. The effect of such a course of condudl in a community so simple and old- 
fashioned in their customs, so utterly unused to any such broad defiance of censure, may be more easily ima- 
gined than described. How the men were flattered and intoxicated in their admiration for the beautiful siren, 
and their lessons in an art so new to them as gallantry ; how the women were amazed out of their propriety, can 
be conceived without the aid of philosophy-. 

Things were bad enough as they were ; but when the time came for Mr. Winton to depart and take his 
place in the Assembly, the change was for the worse. His handsome wife was left, with only her son, in Easton 
for the winter. Her behavior was now more scandalous than ever, and soon a total avoidance of her by every 
other female in the place attested their indignation. The coquette evidently held them in great scorn, while 
she continued to receive, in a still more marked and offensive manner, the attentions of the husbands, whom, 
she boasted, she had taught they had hearts under their linsey-woolsey coats. Long walks and rides through 
the woods, attended always by some one who had o-mied the power of her beauty, set public opinion wholly at 
defiance ; and the company at her fireside, evening after evening, was well known to be not such as became a 
wife and mother to receive. 

Should this history of plain, unvarnished fa(5t chance to meet the eye of any fair trifler, who has been 
tempted to invite or welcome such homage, let her pause and remember that the wrath of the injured wives of 
Easton was but such as nature must rouse in the bosom of the virtuous in all ages and countries; and that 
tragedies as deep as that to which it led have grown from the like cause, and may still do so at any period of 

The winter months passed, and spring came to set loose the streams, and fill the woods with tender bloom 
and verdure. But the anger of the justly irritated dames of Easton had gathered strength with time. Scarce 
one among the most conspicuous of the neighborhood but had particular reason to have their common enemy 
for the alienated affections and monopolized time of her husband, so faithful to his duties before this fatal 
enchantment. Complaints were made by one to another, and strange stories told, which, of course, lost noth- 
ing in their circulation from mouth to mouth. What wonder was it that the mysterious influence exercised by 
the strange woman should be attributed to witchcraft? What wonder that she should be judged to hold inter- 
course with evil spirits, and to receive from them the power by which she subdued men to her sway ? 

Late in the afternoon of a beautiful day in tlie early part of June, two or three of the matrons of the \-illage 
stationed themselves near the woods by which stood the house of Mrs. Winton. Not far from this was a small 
pond, where the boys amused themselves in fishing, or bathed during the heats of summer. The spot once 
occupied by this little body of water is now the central portion of the town, and covered with neat buildings of 
brick and stone. 

The vvonicM come forth to watch ; nor was llieir vigilance long unrewardcl. Thev saw Mrs. Winton, 



accompanied by one of her gallants, dressed with a care that showed his anxiety to please, walking slowly along 
the borders of the woods. The sun had set, and the gray shadows of twilight were creeping over the land- 
scape ; yet it was evidently not her intention to return home. As it grew darker, the two entered the woods, 
the female taking the arm of her companion, and presently both disappeared. 

"There he goes !" exclaimed one of the women who watched, with fierce anger in her looks, for it was her 
husband she had seen. "I knew it; I knew he spent every evening with her!" 

"Shall we follow them?" asked the other. 

"No ! no ! let us go home quick !" was the answer. 

Such a scene as the night witnessed was never before enafted in that quiet village. At a late hour there 
was a meeting of many of the matrons in the house of one of their number. The curtains were closely drawn ; 
the light was so dim that the faces of those who whispered together could scarcelyy be discerned. There was 
something fearful in the assemblage, at such an unwonted time, of those orderly housewives, so unaccustomed 
ever to leave their homes after dusk. The circumstance of their meeting alone betokened something uncom- 
mon in agitation. Still more did the silence, hushed and breathless at intervals, the eager, but suppressed 
whispering, the rapid gestures, the general air of determination mingled with caution. It struck midnight ; 
they made signs one to another, and the light was extinguished. 

It was perhaps an hour or more after, when the same band of women left the house, and took their way, in 
profound silence, along the road leading out of the village. By a roundabout course, skirting the small body 
of water above mentioned, they came to the border of the woods. Just then the waning moon rose above the 
forest tops, shedding a faint light over hill and stream. It could then be seen that the females all wore a kind 
of mask of black stuff. Their course was direfted towards the English woman's house, which they approached 
with stealthy and noiseless steps. 

A few moments of silence passed, after they had disappeared, and then a wild shriek was heard, and others 
fainter and fainter, like the voice of one in agony struggling to cry out, and stifled by powerful hands. The 
women rushed from the woods, dragging with them their helpless vi(5lim, whom they had gagged, so that she 
could not even supplicate their mercy. Another cry was presently heard — the wail of a terrified child. The 
little boy, roused from sleep by the screams of his mother, ran towards her captors, and throwing himself on 
his knees, begged for her in piteous accents and with streaming tears. 

"Take him away !" cried .several together; and one of their number, snatching up the child, ran off with 
him at her utmost speed, and did not return. 

The others proceeded quickly to their mission of vengeance. Dragging the helpless dame to the pond, 
they rushed into it, heedless of risk to themselves, till they stood in deep water. Then each, in turn, seizing 
her enemy by the shoulders, plunged her in, head and all, crying as she did so, "This is for my husband!" 
"And this for mine!" "This for mine!" was echoed, with the plunges, in quick succession, till the work of 
retribution was accomplished, and the party hurried to shore. 

Startled by a noise as of some one approaching, the disguised avengers fled, leaving their viftim on the 
bank, and lost no time in hastening homeward. The dawn of day disclosed a dreadful catastrophe : Dame 
Winton was found dead beside the water. There was evidence enough that she had perished, not by accident, 
but violence. Who could have done the deed ? 

The occurrence caused great commotion in Easton, as it was but natural it should ; but it was never dis- 
covered with certainty who were the perpetrators of the murder. Suspicion fell on several ; but they were 
prudent enough to keep silence, and nothing could be proved against them. Perhaps the more prominent 
among the men, who should have taken upon themselves the investigation of the affair, had their own reasons 
for passing it over rather slightly. It was beyond doubt, too, that acflual murder had not been designed by the 
a<?tors in the tragedy ; but simply the punishment assigned to wntchcraft by popular usage. So the matter was 
not long agitated, though it was for many years a subjecfl of conversation among those who had no interest in 
hushing it up ; and the story served as a warning to give point to the lessons of careful mothers. 

It was for a long time believed that the ghost of the unfortunate English woman haunted the spot where 
she had died. Nor did the belief cease to prevail long after the pond was drained, and the woods felled, and 
the space built over. A stable belonging to a gentleman with whom I am acquainted stands near the place. I 
have heard him relate how one of his servants, who had never heard the story had rushed in one night, much 
alarmed, to say that he had seen a female figure, in old-fashioned cap and white gown, standing at the door of 
the stable. Another friend, who resides near, was told by his domestic that a strange woman had stood at the 
back gate, who had suddenly disappeared when asked who she was. Thus there seems ground enough to 
excuse the belief even now prevalent among the common people in Easton, that the spirit still walks at night 
about that porton of the town. 



By the inscription on the tombstone in the grave-yard at the Amdt Church we learn 
that Jacob Arndt was bom in Germany, March 12, 1725. The father of Jacob was Bern- 
hard Arndt. The family moved to Pennsylvania, and settled in Bucks county, when 
Jacob was quite young. The inscription tells us that Jacob Arndt served his God and 
and king faithfully, and in and after the Revolution he served the republic. When he 
was twenty-six years old he commanded a compau}- of volunteers, and marched with King 
Teedyuscung from Bethlehem to Fort Allen (Col. Rec, pages 267 and 723) in 1 756-1 757. 
He rose to the distindlion of Major, and was the commander of the first company of vol- 
unteers raised in Easton, in the Pontiac war, in 1763. In 1760, Jacob Amdt purchased a 
mill property, the first in the valley of the Bushkill, of John Jones. The mill is now 
owned bv Jacob Walter, but is still known by the name of Arndt's mill, near the old church 
which bears his name. The Committee of Safety was eledled by qualified voters, and 
Jacob Arndt's name was third on the list. When the Standing Committee was appointed, 
which was to have the business principally in hand, Jacob Arndt's name was first from 
Forks township. The question was put, "shall we consider all who will not join in asso- 
ciation with us as enemies, and withdraw all business relations with them?" The answer 
was in the affinnative, and unanimous. Mr. Arndt stood firm in the darkest and most 
painful hours of that eventful struggle, which was to procure freedom for a continent. 
Few names shine more brightly in that glorious contest than that of Jacob Arndt. He 
deserves a much prouder monument than the humble one which marks his grave. Mr. 
Arndt, George Taylor, Peter Kichline, John Okely, and Lewis Gordon were ele6led mem- 
bers of the convention to form a constitution for the state in 1774. In 1776 he was a 
member of the E.xecutive Council of the state. He removed to Easton in 1796, from his 
mill. His son John wrote to Dr. Gross concerning the health of his father in 1803, 
saying: "Respedling his health it is tolerable for one of his age, but time has and con- 
tinues to press heavily upon him. His eyesight is almost gone; his feet begin to get 
weak, and cannot, for a long time, bear the weight of his body; but his appetite is good, 
and to live happy and contented depends upon himself" He died in 1805. It is pleasant 
to stand by the grave of such an one; it seems like holy ground. 

His son John sleeps close by his side; a worthy son of a noble sire. He was born, 
June 5, 1748, and was twenty-eight years of age when the Declaration of Independence 
was adopted. He entered into the contest with the same zeal which charadlerized his 
father. When the news came to town that the Declaration of Independence was adopted, 
the little town was soon in great commotion. No one need doubt long on which side the 
sturdy Germans would stand. Captain Abraham Labar, with his company, paraded the 
streets, with drums beating and the shrill notes of the fife ringing among the hills; the new 
flag was thrown to the breeze, and the whole population of the town fell into line. 
"They met in the Court, where the Declaration of Independence was read by 
Robert Levers." The town consisted, at this time, of about seventy houses, mostly of 
one-story log houses. Washington had driven the English Fleet out of Boston harbor, 
and he sup]ioscd New York would next be in danger. .\ company was imTuediately 
fornud in X()nliani])t()n county, nuuil)i.ring (.■iglity-scvcn men, and Jolin Arndt was the 




Captain and Peter Kichline Second Lieutenant. The company waited some days for arms, 
but the Committee of Safety ordered them to march to the army of General Wash- 
ington, with or without arms, and arms were supplied at the front. The company obeyed, 
and was in the thickest of the fight. The company rallied at Elizabethtown next day, 
having only thirty-three men. Captain Arndt was severely wounded, and both he and 
Kichline were taken prisoners. After his release from confinement he returned to 
Easton, in September, 1780, and was appointed a commissary with David Deshler for 
supplying the sick and disabled troops with the necessaries of life — not only to supply 
the sick and wounded soldiers, but widows and orphans of fallen patriots, and this was 
done with an unselfish devotion. After Captain Arndt had returned, a story was started 
by a tory to the effecfl that he hid behind a barn on the battle-field, to shield himself from 
British bullets. The captain brought a complaint before the Committee of Safety. A 
warrant was put into the hands of a constable, with orders to arrest the man who started 
the slander, and bring him before the Committee forthwith. The culprit was soon in their 
dread presence. He was found guilty, and was very quickly disposed of He must make 
an acknowledgment, ask the captain's pardon, promise not to repeat the story, or go to 
jail till further orders. He paid his fine and costs, made due acknowledgment, and went 
home, refle(5ling upon the fa6l that he was in the midst of a Revolution, and had stern 
men to deal with. John Arndt was adlive through the entire course of the war, frequently in 
correspondence with the president of the commonwealth, and handled large sums of money 
for the public. He came to the front in a time which "tried men's souls." Where there 
was danger and toil, John Arndt was found. His life, his fortune and sacred honor were laid 
upon the altar of liberty. He frequently advanced money out of his own pocket to help 
on the cause of freedom. "In 1777, he was appointed Register of Wills, Recorder of 
Deeds, and Clerk of the Orphans' Court," and was an efficient member of the Committee of 
Safety. In 1783, he was ele6led a representative in the Council of the Censors, to propose 
amendments to the Constitution of Pennsylvania. "In 1783, Dickinson College, at Car- 
lisle, was incorporated, of which John Arndt was appointed one of the Trustees. He 
was chosen one of the Eledlors of President and Vice-President of the United States, and 
cheerfully gave his vote for the illustrious Washington; was a candidate for Congress, 
but defeated by a small majority." He died in 1814, without a stain upon his characfler 
as a soldier and citizen. 

It is a great pleasure to the historian to place such names where they can be plainly 
read, and their virtues remembered by the thoughtful student for generations to come. 
These two men were Germans: the first born in Fatherland; and the second, though born 
in America, had his cradle encircled by all the influences of German life. He was lulled 
to sleep by the sweet German lullaby, sung by his German mother. All the stories his 
parents told him were of German life. A protestant German king was on the throne of 
England. The English people had received the fleeing Palatines with open arms and 
generously gave them a home. There seemed many reasons why they should cling to 
the English throne for prote<?tion, and be slow to lay aside their allegiance to a friendly 
German king. But strange as it may seem, the hour when the songs of freedom were 
sung, and the tocsin of war was sounded, they began to use the bullet moulds, put their 
muskets in order, and prepare for battle. They had suffered under the weight of thrones, 
and by the rough hand of religious persecution; and perhaps they thought the time had 



come when they might dispense with those costly implements of human government. 
They may have felt somewhat as the poet did when he penned the following beautiful 

"Land of the West ! beneath the Heaven 
There's not a fairer, lovelier clime ; 
Nor one to which was ever given 
A destiny more high, sublime. 

From Allegheny's base to where 

Our Western Andes prop the sky — 
The home of Freedom's hearts is there, 

And o'er it Freedom's eagles fl}'." 

But whatever was the reason, the German soldiers came nobly to the rescue of human 
freedom. These men ' ' pledged their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor. ' ' Their 
lives and fortunes might perish, but honor and liberty^ never. 

Squire Benjamin Arndt, so well known to many now living, was a son of John Arndt. 
He was under arms in 1812, but not in any battle. He was a man of decided opinions, 
and did not fear to follow them to their legitimate and logical conclusions. This was well 
illustrated while living in Forks township. Joseph Ritter was nominated for govemer of 
Pennsylvania. Arndt was an old line Whig, and the only one in the township; but he 
walked to the polls and cast his solitary vote with as much firmness as if he had been in the 
majority. Those were times when party work was apt to be rewarded. "To the victors 
belong the spoils" was the battle cry for all parties, and Benjamin Anidt stood out in lines 
too clear to be overlooked. He went to Harrisburg and asked for the position of Clerk 
of the Orphans' Court, and his request was readily granted, and the duties were well per- 
fonned. That he was a man of integrity is evident from the fadl that, though he was a 
decided Whig, he was elecfted to office by Democrats. "He was the tenth Postmaster, 
and was appointed by President Taylor, May 9, 1849." He held the office till a change 
in the administration, when President Pierce appointed John J. Herster. Mr. Arndt per- 
formed the duties of Justice of the Peace for many years; his office was on South Third 
street. He exhibited much the same spirit that was so conspicuous in the lives of his 
father, grandfather and great-grandfather. They were all sturdy German people, but 
they were ardent patriots; loyal to liberty; faithful to the republic. They were honorable 
in their dealings with their fellow men. There are five children of Benjamin Arndt's 
living: two sons in Oregon, and two sons and a daughter in Pennsylvania. There are 
nineteen grandchildren. 

Lutheran Churches in Easton. 

The Arrival of Muhlenberg; His Great Work— The Old Church on the Philadelphia Road— The Union of the 
Lutheran and German Reformed Congregations in Building the Church on North Third Street — Building 
of St. John's Church ; Christ Church ; Zion's Evangelical Church ; St. Paul's Church ; Colored Lutheran 
Church ; St. Peter's Evangelical Church. 

[hey clung to the name of *Gennan Reformed and Lutheran without any 
knowledge of the religious principles or duties. And soon the Macedonian 
cry, "Come over and help us," was heard over Europe. Lands were to 
be cleared, cabins to be built, wealth to be created out of the wilderness. 
They felt they were sheep without a shepherd, and their cry was the cry 
of distress. They were in a wilderness, living in log cabins, in the sim- 
plest possible way. Their time was occupied in daily toil. If they had 
books, the young could not read them, and the parents had not time nor 
ability to teach them. They needed preachers who could both teach and 
preach. It was to be a work of self-denial and hard toil, in a wilderness. 
Their cries reached the ears and hearts of Christian Europe. Who will 
go to Pennsylvania? was the inquiry' of Germany and Holland. It required as much self- 
denial as it does now to go to the banks of the Congo or the Ganges. The stream of 
imigration was increasing, and the feeling of distress and religious necessity growing 
wider and deeper, and the cry for help more painful. Who will go to Pennsylvania and 
feed those hungry flocks? But long before the people began to look for messengers to 
go and supply this pressing need, God had been preparing two men of strong nerves, 
and courageous hearts; men willing to forsake the pleasures of European civilization and 
take up their abode in the forests of the new world. 

Henry Melchior Muhlenberg 

was born in the city of Einbeck of Hanover, Sept. 6, 1711. From his seventh to his twelfth 
year he was kept constantly at school, studying the German and Latin languages and 
receiving religious instrucftion, and at twelve years of age he was confirmed and admitted 
to the sacraments. At this time his father died and left so little property that he was 
compelled to leave school and labor to help his mother support the family. Had his 
father left an ample fortune the name of Muhlenberg would not have been heard outside 
of Hanover. This early toil gave him muscular development, and a willingness to toil 
for others when God should call. Until he was twenty-one years of age he was compelled 
to labor more or less to maintain the family. At this age he resumed his studies under 
the care of his pastor. He desired to obtain a university education, but he was poor, and 
the way seemed dark. But the hand of Providence opened the way most unexpedledly: 
a scholarship was given him in the University of Cotingen, which had just been established. 

*The great influx of German population into Pennsylvania has been noticed in a previous number in connexion 
with the history of the German Reformed Church. 


The warm desire of his heart was gratified. Up to this time he knew nothing of experi- 
mental religion. He formed unfavorable associates which retarded his progress; his 
aberration, however, was very brief. He broke loose from the surrounding dangers, and 
soon met with that remarkable change which brought him into wann sympathy with the 
experienced Christian and prepared him for the work which he afterward so successfully 
performed. In his zeal for the Master, he was soon found engaged in teaching the catechism 
to poor, negledled children. For this irregularity he was prosecuted by the government, 
but was sustained in his work. In July, 1731, while on a visit to Halle, Dr. Franke informed 
him that he had just received a request that he would send a missionary to the scattered 
Lutherans in Pennsylvania, and he proposed to Mr. Muhlenberg that he engage in the 
enterprise. He made it a matter of prayerful consideration, and after consultation with 
his most trusted friends, he concluded to accept the appointment. June 13, 1742, he set 
sail for the New World, and the new field of labor. He went by way of Charleston, and 
arrived in Philadelphia in November. Muhlenberg met a strange state of things among 
the Lutheran people. By the dearth of pastors, wolves in sheep's clothing came among the 
flock, proclaimed themselves Lutheran preachers, and ingratiated themselves into the favor 
of a confiding people. Sometimes a single remark will 
give an insight into the working of a man's soul quite 
as clearly as the associations of many days. In one of 
lis reports to Halle, Muhlenberg reports the condition 
A the Lutheran people: "There is such a pitiable con- 
ition and ruin among our poor Lutheran people that 
it cannot be sufficiently wept for with tears of blood. 
Parents have permitted their children to grow up without 
laptism, without instrucftion and knowledge, and go 
into heathenism. So I found it when I arrived in Phila- 
delphia." In regard to Muhlenberg, Dr. Schmucker 
used the following language: "Though more than sixty 
HENRY MEi,cHioK MrHi.K.xm-KG. years have passed since he closed his earthly career, 
his name is still fresh and fragrant in all our churches, and his general charadleristics, 
as well as the results of his labors, are so well known that I shall be in little danger 
of mistaking in respecft to them. Notwithstanding several German as well as Sweedish 
Lutheran ministers had been in this countr\- long before Mr. Muhlenberg arrived here, 
yet so adlive and successful was he in organizing new churches, in building up those pre- 
viously founded, and in promoting spirituality and union among them all, that he is justly 
regarded as the founder of the German Lutheran Church in America, as well as the most 
distinguished of her early divines." According to Dr. Sadtler's semi-centennial sermon, 
Muhlenberg visited the Lutheran Church in this region in 1745, in March, 1747, and 
November 23, 1749. In these visits he instrudled and confirmed quite a number of young 
people; and during the last visit he administered the Lord's supper. "He distindlly says 
there were two small congregations in existence." Easton had not received her name at 
this date, not having been surveyed till 1750. This feeling of a willingness to suflfer 
privation and endure hard toil just for the love he bore to Jesus and dying men has made 
his name a tower of strength in the Lutheran Church. When we call to mind the ability 
and learning of Muhlenberg we can hardly account for his willingness to spend his life in 


the wilds of the new world. He did what very few men of the present day can do. 
During his residence in the city of New York he preached three times a day on the Sab- 
bath, in English, German and Low Dutch. He spoke the English, German, Latin, 
Holland and Sweedish languages. He gave his heart to the cause of the struggling 
colonies, and thus settled the sympathies of the Lutheran Church in America. He suf- 
fered severely in the war of the Revolution. He was, throughout, the earnest friend of his 
adopted country, and there was no sacrifice he was not ready to make, and no peril to 
which he would not cheerfully expose himself for sustaining and carrying forward its 
interest. He was frank, outspoken in his intercourse with men. While the British had 
possession of Philadelphia, Muhlenberg was not safe in the city. His name was held in 
great suspicion by the Hessian and English officers; and they threatened with prison, torture 
and death if they could catch him. There is no doubt in the minds of the thoughtful 
but that the patriotism of the two men, Schlatter and Muhlenberg, saved Pennsylvania 
for the cause of liberty. He died at Trappe, in Montgomery county, October 7, 1787, in 
the seventy-seventh year of his age. Schlatter, feeble with age, then living at Chestnut 
Hill, attended the funeral of his departed friend; and in a few years he followed. In life 
they were united; in death not long divided. 

Muhlenberg had three sons who entered the ministry. The eldest, John Peter Gabriel 
Muhlenberg, seems to have inherited the patriotism of his father. An incident in his life 
is told which illustrates this truth. He was pastor of a large Lutheran Church in Vir- 
ginia; and Washington solicited him to take command of a regiment and he consented. 
He preached his farewell sermon to a large congregation; and during the impassioned 
delivery, he exclaimed in the language of Holy Writ: "There is a time for all things; 
there is a time to preach, and a time to pray, and there is also a time to fight, and that 
time has come." When he had pronounced the Benediction and laid aside his silken robe, 
he stood before his congregation in the full uniform of a colonel ; and marching to the door 
of the church ordered the drum to beat for recruits, and three hundred of his congre- 
gation enrolled for the service. 

Conrad Weiser, having been for many years one of the most prominent men in the early 
Colonial history of Pennsylvania, and having been the father-in-law of Muhlenberg, it 
seems proper to introduce a brief notice of him at this point. He was at Easton in con- 
nedlion with the Indian treaties. He led a company of forty soldiers from Heidelberg to 
Easton to keep the Indians in subjection at one of the largest gatherings of those wild 
nations. In the History of the Moravian Church we have the following account of this 
good man: "Conrad Weiser, for more than twenty years adling Interpreter to the Province 
of Pennsylvania, was born in 1696 in Wurtemberg. In 1710 he accompanied his parents to 
America, with a Colony of Palatines, who imigrated to New York under the auspices of 
Queen Anne, and who were settled in a body on Livingston Manor, in Columbia county. 
In 1713 the Weiser and one hundred and fifty other families removed to Schoharie, in the 
Mohawk country, where young Conrad was schooled in the language which enabled him 
later in life to render invaluable services to the Proprietaries' Governors of Pennsylvania. 
In 1729 he followed his countrymen to Swatara and Tulpehocken, whither numbers of 
them had removed a few years before, and here he began a farm in Heidelberg township, 
Berks county. His fluency in the Mohawk recommended him to the notice of the Proprie- 
taries' Agents; and by the special request of deputies of the Six Nations, met in conference 


with Governor Patrick Gordon, at Philadelphia, in 1732, he was by him appointed Inter- 
preter for that Confederation. From this time his career was identified with the history' 
of the Province in all its relations with the Indians. In 1734 he was appointed a Justice 
of the Peace, and in the old French war was commissioned Colonel of all forces raised 
west of the Susquehanna." He was a warm friend of the Moravians, though he never 
joined that church. He contributed freely to sustain their missions to the Indians, with 
whose children he had spent his youthful days in the valley of the Mohawk. He was a 
warm friend to those dusky children with whom he pla^-ed in bo)'hood, and he was a warm 
friend to them in manhood, when they were among the leading warriors of the continent. 
He was the idol of the red man, and the trusted Interpreter and Diplomatist for the white 
man. He filled a place which few were fitted to fill, and he performed his duties in a way 
which none could excel. He did not like the creed of the Moravians, but admired their 
practices; the creeds of other denominations were more in harmony with his judgment, 
but he disliked their methods. While he was a firm believer in Christianity, he was not 
a particular friend of any denomination. 

In giving the history of this family of churches, I shall refer to a sermon by Rev. Dr. 
Sadtler at the Semi-Centennial Celebration, October 8, 1882; to the History- of Bucks 
County, Northampton County, and Lehigh Valley. In 1752, Northampton was fonned, 
and contained within its borders nearly six thousand inhabitants. Of these about six 
hundred were Scotch-Irish, in Allen and Mount Bethel townships, and three hundred 
were Holland Dutch, in Smithfield; the remainder were Germans. Northampton at this 
time extended from Bucks county on the south to the New York line on the north ; and 
from the Delaware on the east to Wyoming Valley on the west. "These people were of 
the Peasant class of Germans; their capital invested was their strong arms, and disposi- 
tion for patient, rugged toil. They felt their religious destitution and 'sent delegations 
to plead with their brethern in F^atherland to pity their destitution.' It was such an 
appeal that finally brought over the venerated man that has been called the Patriarch of 
the American Lutheran Church, Rev. Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, who landed at Phila- 
delphia, in November, 1742. Whatever may have been done by way of incipient organi- 
zation of congregations in this region before his arrival in America, this event is really 
the earnest beginning of life in the Lutheran Church. Dr. Richards records that already 
in 1740 a congregation existed, and a church had been built, called 'Die Gemeinde am 
Delaware Revier von Lutherisher Religion; or the Lutheran Congregation at the Dela- 
ware River.' This was no doubt the church that had existed on the old Philadelphia 
road about half a mile beyond South Easton, at the interse<5lion of the road leading east- 
ward past Leonard Walter's farm. Its foundations were traceable as late as 1862. 'This 
congregation was served, in connecftiou with the congregations in Saucon and Jordan, 
beyond Allentown, by Rev. John Justus Jacob Birkinstock. In 1745 Muhlenberg visited 
the Lutherans in this region (Halle Reports, page 58) and confirmed several young people, 
after previous instru6lion. This he surely would not have done had there not have been 
a regular pastor.' We find Muhlenberg there again in March, 1747; and gives as a reason 
wh\' he came, because he was urged by friends to come. Ludolph Henry Schrenck per- 
formed the duties of pastor from 1749 to 1753. Muhlenberg installed him as catechist to 



preach under his supervision. He was not ordained till 1752, and the next year he moved 
to the region of Raritan, N. J. In 1754 Rev. John Andreas Frederici settled at Saucon 
and served Easton. He also organized and served many congregations in upper Berks 
and Lehigh. After the close of his ministry, the congregation, on the old Philadelphia 
road, must have fused with the congregation at Easton, for in May 13, 1763, Muhlenberg 
was informed that the Lutherans had purchased a large house which they intended to 
use as a parsonage in the lower story, and a church in the upper story. The building 
cost $1066. This building was afterwards a part of the Washington Hotel on South 
Third street. It was Mr. David Berringer, the first tanner of Easton, who took the news 
to Muhlenberg, and an appeal to the ministerium to send them a faithful minister. In 
response to this appeal. Rev. Bernhard Michael Hausihl was sent to them in December, 
1763. He was the first pastor who actually resided in Easton. About 1770, he became 
pastor of the old Dutch Lutheran Church in New York City. After a vacancy of several 
years, Rev. Christian Streit became pastor, in 1769, and his services continued ten years. 
He commenced proper church records: records of baptisms, communicants and vestry 
meetings, which records were lost. During the pastorate of Rev. Mr. Streit the present 
German Reformed Church was built, as a union church, by the Refonned and Lutheran 
Churches, which building was dedicated in 1776. The first Vestry recorded was in 1770, 
and consisted of Melchior Stecker and Frederick Kuhn as Elders. Michael Lehn, Fred- 
erick Gwinner, Johannes Ries, and Conrad Ihrie, as Deacons. In 1780-82, Rev. Frederick 
Ernst was pastor of the church, in connedlion with a number of churches on both sides 
of the Delaware. From 1782 to 1798, Rev. Solomon Frederici had charge. From 1799 
to 1801, Rev. Augustus Henry Schmidt ministered to the church. In the last mentioned 
year. Rev. Christian Frederick Louis Enders took charge of the congregation and remained 
its pastor till 1815. It is the opinion of Rev. Dr. Sadtler that Rev. Mr. Streit sometimes 
preached in English, 'and a certainty that Rev. Mr. Enders did so regularly.' In 1808 
the stated use of the English was introduced into the church, greatly to the benefit of 
the people, as many had ceased to use the German, and many never did use it. Rev. 
Mr. Enders was a learned man and very energetic, as he served fourteen congregations in 
this county and in New Jersey. He was followed by Rev. John Peter Hecht, whose 
ministry was the longest in the history of the congregation, running through a period of 
thirty years." 


"During Mr. Hecht's ministry, in 1832, the Lutheran congregation sold out its right 
in the Old Church, on North Third street, for the sum of $1600, and eredled the church on 
Ferry street, at a cost of |i8,ooo. The Lutheran Church now stood alone, and was ready 
for work. Rev. Mr. Hecht was no ordinary man, as a brief sketch of his life will show. 
He was born in Bucks county, February 28, 1790, but losing his father in early infancy 
he was taken to Philadelphia. His early education was most injudicious, but it showed 
the precocious talent in the boy. At three years of age he could partly read, and a Bible 
'to be all his own' was offered as a premium if he could read any chapter that could be 


sele(fi;ed at five. He won the prize, and thenceforth his education was carried on under high 
pressure. It embraced Latin, Greek and Hebrew. At sixteen he was called upon to 
preach a trial sermon. He was licensed to preach when he was nineteen, in 1809, and 
put in charge of congregations in and near Pottstown, which was the place of his resi- 
dence. From there he was called to Carlisle, and thence to Easton, in 1815. He was 
for years a man of mark, an orator of high order and impressiveness. Old members told 
Dr. Sadtler, during his pastorate, that strangers visiting the place, were taken by their 
friends to hear Mr. Hecht, as an intelledlual treat. Students sought his instrudlions in 
hopes of catching some of the fire of his genius and oratory. Among them were Revs. 
J. B. and Henry S. Miller, the latter (in 1852) the oldest minister on the rolls of 
the Pennsylvania Synod. Few have been more honored in the pastoral oflice than he. 
Troubles which rose in his church clouded the closing years of his life. The birth of the 
Sunday School dates August 5th of the same year. And during fifty years of histon,- 
this school has had but three Superintendents, Messrs. Henry Bender, Henry Hammann, 
and Owen Hagenbuch. 

" Toward the close of Mr. Hecht's ministry a colony went forth from the St. John's 
and formed Christ Lutheran Church. This church was built in 1843. The motive for 
the new organization was a desire to have the entire use of English. It was connedled 
with the General Synod of the Lutheran Church in the United States, until 1870, when 
it was received into the German Evangelical Lutheran Ministerium of Pennsylvania and 
adjacent States. There was a vacancy of about six months after the retiring of Mr. 
Hecht, when Rev. Dr. J. W. Richards took charge of the congregation, in November, 
1845. Rev. Dr. C. F. Schseffer succeeded Rev. Dr. Richards in 1851, and continued till 
1856, and then accepted a call to a professorship in the Seminar\' at Gettysburg. Rev. 
Dr. Sadtler was the next pastor, elecfted to his position six months before Dr. SchaeflTer 
retired in March, and the former was installed in April, 1856. In i860 an important 
event occurred. The labor in two languages being too oppressive. Rev. Philip Pfatteicher 
was called to take charge of the German. Dr. Sadtler' s ministry closed in the fall of 
1862, in which year Rev. Dr. Schmucker was called to take charge of the English, and 
worked in harmony with Mr. Pfatteicher, carr}'ing forward the work in the two languages. 

"The question of another organization had often been discussed, but they felt that the 
time had not come as yet. In 1867 Dr. Schmucker resigned his charge and moved to 
Reading. He was succeeded by Rev. Edmund Belfour in the early part of the ne.xt year. 
His ministry lasted from 1868 to 1874. During his pastorate the important step was taken 
of selling a part of the old grave yard, adjoining the church on the west, and with the 
proceeds enable the German portion of the congregation to procure a church and organize 
as Zion's Evangelical Lutheran Church. The following resolution appears on the church 
records, February' 3, 1868: 'Resolved, That feeling the urgent necessity of another 
chtirch, we will take steps to sell a portion of the grave yard, and that the proceeds, after 
carefully removing and reinterring the dead thereon, be applied toward the purchase and 
erection of a church for the Gennan portion of the congregation.' The ground in ques- 
tion was sold to the School Board, the proceeds of the sale being $20,408.50, and was paid 
over to Zion's Church. The Reformed Dutch Church, on Fifth street, was purchased and 
extensively repaired and improved for their use. Rev. Philip Pfatteicher continues their 
pastor; the services are conducfled in the German language. Rev. Mr. Belfour of the St. 


John's Church resigned in 1874, and Rev. J. R. Groff commenced his duties as pastor the 
same year. Under his ministry the missionary zeal of the church was fostered, and Sab- 
bath Schools were established in various diredlions. The most important of these was 
St. Luke's Mission in the Seventh ward; at first undertaken in connexion with Christ's 
and Zion's Churches, but now under the entire control of St. John's. A neat chapel has 
been ere6led on the corner of Eleventh and Ferry streets, in the no distant future to 
become a self-sustaining Lutheran Church. Dr. Sadtler thus sums up the work of the 
Lutheran Church in Easton: St. John's may fairly claim the title of mother of churches. 
Whilst her own membership is unabated, there have descended from her as children, 
Christ's Church, with a membership of two hundred and fifty, and a Sunday School of 
three hundred and fifty-eight scholars, officers and teachers. Zion's German Lutheran, 
with four hundred and fifty members, and five hiindred and thirty in the Sunday School. 
St. Paul's, with two hundred and thirty-five members; Sunday School, two hundred and 
seventy. St. Peter's, on College Hill, with one hundred and thirty-five members, and a 
Sunday School of two hundred and twenty. The First Colored Church on Ferry street. 
St. Paul's, in South Easton, with a large membership in both church and Sunday School. 
St. John's (German), in Phillipsburg, with one hundred and fifty members, and one 
hundred and twenty-eight in the Sunday School. Grace Church, Phillipsburg, with one 
hundred and ten members, and a Sunday School of two hundred and forty-seven." 

It now remains to gather up the remaining history of the individual churches that 
have sprung from St. John's. Before doing so it will be proper to refer to the present 
pastorate of the mother church. "Rev. D. H. Geissinger was called from New York 
City to take charge of the flock, and he entered upon his duties on February 3, 1S82. 
After long and patriotic service in the army during our civil war, he determined to devote 
his life to the Christian ministry in the Lutheran church. He studied at the Mercersburg 
College, and at the Allegheny College, Meadville, Pa. With the same steadfastness of 
purpose, diligence and earnest devotion to duty, which had marked his military career, 
he urged himself onward to the end he had in view, and completed his studies in Phila- 
delphia in 1872. He is as faithful in the pulpit as he was patriotic in the field; and is 
doing a good work and doing it well." His church has a membership of six hundred 
and fifty-five. In the Sunday Schools conne6led with his church there are eighty teachers 
and seven hundred pupils. 


[rev. J. M. ANSPACH.] 

The organization of this body was effecfted on Friday evening, June 30, 1843, by the 
eledlion of the following officers: John Lehn, John Heckman and Peter Ihrie, elders; 
Samuel Shouse, Samuel Drinkhouse and Henr>- Bender, deacons; Samuel Yohe, treasurer. 
The name first chosen was simply "The Lutheran Congregation of Easton." A unani- 
mous call to become pastor of this congregation was immediately extended to Rev. George 
Diehl, at a salary of $600, and was promptly accepted. On the ist of September, the same 
year, he began his pastoral labors, and on the 23rd of December was installed. The 


congregation united with the East Pennsylvania Synod. Public worship was conducted 
in the old M. E. church. Adlion to secure incorporation was taken on Januan,- 12, 1844, 
and the name changed from "The Lutheran Congregation" to "The English Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Congregation of Easton;" at the same time report was made of the 
purchase of a lot at Ferr}- and Hamilton streets (as Fourth street was then called), upon 
which to eredl a church edifice. On the 22d day of December following, the church was 
dedicated "to the ever-living God," and was by resolution, called "Christ Church." 
The pastorate of Rev. Diehl continued until July ist, 1851. On the ist of September, 
1851, Charles Adam Smith became pastor, and so remained until July ist, 1854. During 
his pastorate the parsonage was built. Rev. I\Ir. Smith was followed by Rev. Emanuel 
Greenwald, who began his ministr}' October ist, 1854, and closed it April 21st, 1867. 
He was a verj- successful and most dearly beloved pastor. On the ist of August, 1867, 
Rev. William Ruthrauff was settled in the parish, and so continued until April ist, 1870. 
During his time St. Paul's congregation was organized, and Christ's separating from the 
East Pennsylvania Synod, united with "The IMinisterium of Pennsylvania and adjacent 
States." Rev. William Ashmead Schaeffer was chosen as Rev. Ruthrauff 's successor, 
and on September ist, following, began his work in this church. He continued it until 
the summer of '76, when health failing, a vacation was allowed him, and Rev. Theophilus 
Heilig appointed supply. Rev. Schaeffer's health not having become restored within the 
time he expelled, he resigned the charge, April ist, 1877. During his pastorate a pipe 
organ was purchased, a room to accommodate it was built, and the Sunday School provided 
with settees. The music in the church was greatly improved. 

In September of this same year, Rev. J. M. Anspach received a unanimous call to 
the church, and on November ist, the same year, began his labors. He is pastor at 
present. In the early part of his pastorate the church was repainted and refrescoed; new 
fences made; new pavement laid and new heaters provided. Six handsome memorial 
windows, commemorative of events in the life of Christ, have taken the place of as many 
old ones, contributed as follows: i\Ir. Howard Rinek, one; ]\Ir. H. G. Tombler, one; Air. 
E. I. Hunt, one; Sunday School, one; Sunday School Class of ]Mrs. Frank Lehn, one; 
Working-people's Association, one. Last year a most comfortable improvement was 
made to the parsonage. Through the liberality of one man the organ was furnished 
with a water motor. The church, in its history, has given many thousand dollars to the 
work of benevolence. The disposition of the congregation is liberal. As at present 
arranged the pew rents are devoted to the payment of salaries; the collecflions are used to 
defray incidental expenses; a working-people's association provides funds for ordinan,- 
improvements and aids the general treasury' ; a mission circle, comprising 200 members, 
raises sufficient sums to pay synodical apportionment and render aid to other worthy 
proje<fts. The entire membership is upwards of 300. Two hundred and fifty-four 
persons have been received during the present pastorate. An unusually large number of 
deaths, and numerous removals, have kept the membership at small figures, considering 
many accessions. For the first time in its history (June, 1886), the congregation enter- 
tained the Ministerium of Pennsylvania, and did this with a heartiness and pleasure that, 
we venture to say, has seldom, if ever, been exceeded. 



[church records.] 

St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church sprang diredly from Christ's Lutheran. 
The first meeting preliminary to the organization of this church was held April 17, 1868, 
in the Baptist house of worship, on Ferry street. The difficulties attending the settle- 
ment of the synodical relations of Christ's Church had estranged many of its members, 
and the first meeting was called by them merely for consultation; but, when so many 
were found anxious to organize themselves into a congregation, it was resolved at once to 
rent a building and procure preachers until they could determine whether or not to effedl 
a permanent organization. Accordingly all necessary steps were taken at the first meeting, 
and St. Paul's Religious Society was formed. The Baptist congregation kindly consented 
to rent them the use of their church on alternate Sabbaths. The two congregations 
continued to thus occupy the same building until the dedication of their new church. 
The number of members who withdrew from Christ's Church and entered into this 
organization was forty-nine. Shortly after, however, quite a large number was received 
by certificate from the same church. Rev. Dr. Theophilus Stork, of Philadelphia, preached 
the first sermon, May 24, 1868. Rev. Dr. Pohlman, President of the General Synod, 
followed and officiated at the opening of the Sabbath School, May 31, 1868. Supplies 
for the pulpit were thus obtained until August 13th of that year, when, at a congrega- 
tional meeting. Rev. Joseph H. Barclay was unanimously eledled pastor, who entered 
upon his duties, November i, 1868. It was on the same evening after the installation of 
the new pastor that the congregation of St. Paul's unanimously resolved: First, we need 
a church. Second, we will build a church. Third, that a committee be appointed, 
consisting of John Eyerman, Henry Bender, George Sweeney, Adam Yohe and John F. 
Gwinner to purchase a site for the building. The necessary funds were speedily raised. 
The congregation was chartered as St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church of Easton, 
Pa. The building was completed and dedicated in January, 1870. A fine organ was 
presented to the church by the late Edward H. Eyennan. The bell was presented by 
Mrs. Edward H. Eyerman. Under Dr. Barclay's ministration a mission on College Hill 
was established, and is now a self-sustaining congregation, called St. Peter's (Fifth) 
Evangelical Lutheran Church of Easton, Pa. 

In the summer of 1871 Dr. Barclay visited the Holy Land, and on his return he pre- 
sented to the church a beautiful baptismal font, inlaid with woods brought from the Mount 
of Olives. His pastorate extended from December i, 1868, to October i, 1872, when he 
accepted a call from the First Evangelical Lutheran Church of Baltimore, Md. 

Dr. Barclay received his theological training at Gettysburg, being a member of the 
class of 1856. As a preacher he was earnest, eloquent and entertaining. Rarely indeed 
was he guilty of the sin of dullness in the pulpit. Few men have more ready and com- 
plete command of all their faculties than he. Few preachers can prepare a sermon or 
address more rapidly. On one occasion, at least, while pastor of St. Paul's, it was fortunate 
that he possessed this power. For the dedication of the new church the services of Drs. 
McCron and Wedekind had been engaged, but at the appointed time the presence of the 
former was prevented by sickness and Dr. Wedekind missed the train. Dr. Barclay, 



therefore, devoted Saturday night to preparation and on the following day preached the 
dedicatory sermon himself. 

The next pastor of St. Paul's was the Rev. Harvey W. McKnight, called from New- 
ville, Pa., who took charge December i, 1873. The church was not less fortunate in the 
choice of the second pastor than in the choice of the first. Rev. McKnight graduated at 
Pennsylvania College in the class of 1863, and entered the Seminary at Gettysburg the 
following year. His ministry in Easton was a decided success. Though frequently suf- 
fering from delicate health, his preaching was of a superior order and drew large congrega- 
tions to the church. Few men possess more than he the element of personal magnetism. 
He made many friends in all denominations and outside of all denominations. During 
his pastorate of a little more than seven years the additions to the church numbered more 
than three hundred. He found the church at the beginning of his ministry burdened 
with a debt of about $7000. In the year 1874, subscriptions of cash, and notes bearing 
interest of one, two, three and four years, were taken, covering the entire amount. At 
the close of his pastorate this debt had all been paid except about $1700, due to the depre- 
ciation in value of a security held by the church. This amount increased by about $700, 
incurred in repairing the church — $2400 in all was paid during the pastorate of his suc- 
cessor. It was also in the year 1874 that Pastor McKnight was called upon to dismiss 
about thirty members to form St. Peter's (Fifth) Lutheran Church, on College Hill. The 
Sunday School, started during the pastorate of Dr. Barclay, had grown to such dimensions 
that a church seemed to be demanded. 

Upon the resignation of Rev. H. W. McKnight, Rev. Riifus Hufford was called to 
the pastorate of the church. He came from Lancaster to Easton and entered upon his 
work December i, 1880. He was educated at Wittenberg College, Springfield, Ohio, in 
the class of 1873. He studied theology at the same place, graduating in 1873. There 
have been received into the church during the present pastorate one hundred and fifty 
members, and now numbers about two hundred and fifty. The Sabbath School contains 
about two hundred and fifty members, teachers and pupils. The debt of $2400 has been 
paid and the church is entirely free. 


Rev. Philip Pfatteicher was called as assistant pastor of St. John's Church 
during i860. Dr. Sadtler had charge of the English department, and Rev. Mr. Pfatteicher 
took charge of the German. The matter of forming a new congregation, exclusively of 
the German element, had been more or less discussed, and at length took shape by the 
passage of the following resolution by the church, February 3, 1868: '■'Resolved, That, 
feeling the urgent necessity of another church, we will take steps to sell a portion of the 
grave yard, and that the proceeds, after carefully removing and re-interring the dead 
thereon, be applied toward the purchase and the ere<?tion of a church for the German 
portion of the congregation." The a6l of separation was not completed until December 
19, 1871, when two hundred and seventy-eight members were dismissed from St. John's 


Church to fonn the new organization. The grave yard was sold to the School Board for 
$20,408.50, which was paid over to Zion's Church. The next step was to obtain a place 
of worship. The Dutch Reformed Church, of Easton, was organized July 27, 1851, and 
proceeded to purchase land and ere<5t a church on Fifth street. While the church was 
being built Rev. J. H. Mason Knox, now President Knox, of Lafayette College, a grand- 
son of Dr. Mason, was called to the pastorate of the church in 1851. The church was 
completed at a cost of $16,000, a large part of which was obtained by the energy of the 

The difficulty of sustaining the organization was so great that the congregation 
concluded to sell the church, and the newly formed German congregation purchased it for 
|io,ooo and named it Zion's Church. On the 24th of October the following were chosen 
the first officers of Zion's Church: John Reuf, Henr>' L. Mattes, Christian Ippich, Josiah 
A. Siegfried, William Schlechter, Owen Seibert, Ferdinand Hartel, John Gomringer, 
Friederich MuUer, Alfred Muller, Alfred Mebus, Andrew Pickle and William F. 
Schlechter. On the ist of January, 1871, the first services were held in the new church. 
The congregation grew rapidly and in a short time the enlargement of the edifice became 
necessary. At the time this work was being done a cupola was added to the building, a 
new organ was procured and a bell purchased. These improvements having been 
completed, the church was re-dedicated at the Advent festival in 1872. The congregation 
now numbers over four hundred communicant members. The Sabbath School contains 
four hundred and fifty pupils and thirty teachers. The superintendents of the school 
were, successively, John Teichman, John Reuf, William F. Schlechter, Henr}' L. Mattes, 
Josiah A. Siegfried and Henry Snyder, who now fills the position. Mr. Pfatteicher has 
been pastor of the church twenty-six years. He was born in Wassingen, Baden, and 
spent his early youth in Switzerland, where he pursued his studies at a mission institute. 
In 1858, in response to a call from Dr. Schafer, of Philadelphia, for divinity students from 
Germany, he came to the United States. In i860, Mr. Pfatteicher was ordained at St. 
Paul's Church, Philadelphia, immediately after which he came to Easton on an invitation 
from Dr. Sadtler, then pastor of St. John's Lutheran Church, and shortly thereafter 
became assistant pastor of the same, preaching his first sermon in August, i860. 

This is the only church in Easton in which Gennan is exclusively used. Those 
coming from Fatherland find a religious home where they can hear the gospel in their 
native tongue. 


[from rev. dunb.\r's sermon.] 
Thi.s church was originally designated the Sixth Lutheran Church; but it was after- 
wards ascertained that the colored church was designated the F'irst Colored Lutheran 
Church, and the title of the church was changed in its charter to the Fifth Lutheran 
Church. "In looking for the first step which finally led to the organization of St. Peter's 
Fifth Lutheran congregation, we are carried back to the 3'ear 1870. The first prominent 
event which diredtly begins the history of the church was the ere(flion, during the year, 
of St. Paul's Mission Chapel, on Porter street, near High. This was a frame building, 



24x40 feet, with a recess of seven feet in width in front and five feet in rear, and three feet 
six inches deep. The agreement for the work was signed on the one part by C. Edward 
Hecht, David B. Miller, Amandus Schug, and William Sweeny of St. Paul's Church 
and on the other part by Simon Reasner and Charles Stem, the builders. The Chapel 
was finished and dedicated to divine service in the fall of 1870, Rev. F. W. Conrad 
preaching the sermon. Upon the completion of this chapel a Sunday School was at once 
established. Here the work was successfully carried on, encouraged by an occasional 

visit from Rev. Bar- 
clay, then pastor of 
St. Paul's Church. 
Preaching services 
were held as they 
were able to procure 
some one to break 
to them the bread 
of life. During the 
years 1870 to 1873 
the population of 
College Hill in- 
creased with great 
rapidity, and grew 
into a great and well 
regulated commun- 
ity. The idea was 
at once conceived to 
organize a congrega- 
tion on the hill. 
Atlion was at once 
taken by St. Paul's 
Church Council to 
carr}' the proposition 
intoeffedl. In July, 
1874, a meeting of 
the people on the hill 
was called in the 
chapel, at which it 
was decided to or- 
ganize the new congregation. At the same meeting, the following officers were eleded: 
Elders, P. A. Shimer, Ephraim Bowers, Amandus Steinmetz, and James H. Buell; 
Deacons, Edwin Sandt, Isaac Snyder, and Noah Dietrich. These officers were installed 
the latter part of July by Rev. H. W. McKnight, pastor of St. Paul's Church. Amandus 
Steinmetz was made Treasurer, Edward Sandt, Secretary, and J. H. Buell, P. A. Shimer 
and Ephraim Bowers, Trustees. In the month of September the vacancies among the 
Deacons were filled by the election of Van Selan Walter and Samuel Brinker. The 
next important step was the calling of a pastor. After due deliberation Rev. W. H. 



Dunbar was called by the congregation, and on Friday, August 28, he was notified of 
his ele<?lion, which he accepted, and met his people the first time on Sunday, August 30, 
1874. In 1875 it was discovered that the success of the enterprise demanded the eredlion 
of a new church edifice. In view of this, early in the Spring of 1875, at a meeting of the 
Council, it was resolved to build a new church. A building committee was appointed, 
consisting of A. Steinmetz, P. A. Shimer, and Ephraim Bowers, who were given full 
power to raise the money and carry on the work. William Werkheiser was appointed 
building treasurer. The work was at once entered upon with great earnestness and 
energy. The lot upon which the church was built cost $1500, and was a present to 
the congregation from Mr. John Eyennan, of St. Paul's Church. The new church 
was completed by the middle of Januar>', 1876. The large and handsome Bible in the 
pulpit was a gift from Dr. Cattell, and the reading desk from Amaudus Steinmetz. 
The church was dedicated January 16, 1876. The clergy-men present to participate 
in the services were Revs. Dr. Conrad, McKnight, Henn,-, Fleck, Rizer and Deer. 
The sermon was preached by Rev. Dr. Conrad. And now the work of building 
being completed, attention could be turned to spiritual work. But alas! There 
was a debt of $5000 for the building, which was increased to $7000 by obtaining an organ, 
and heaters, and other necessar\' furniture. ' ' The pastorate of Rev. Mr. Dunbar closed in 
May, 1880. In the summer of the same year Rev. H. B. Wile became pastor and under 
his pastorate the church became free from debt. It is a beautiful building, located in a 
delightful place, in a growing community, with bright prospedls of future usefulness. 

There is a fine parsonage, built since Rev. Mr. Dunbar's ministrj-. It is adjoining 
the church and is similar in architedlural style. Rev. J. B. Keller, the present pastor, 
succeeded Rev. Mr. Wile, March 8, 1886. He was educated at Gettysburg, and ordained 
at Easton, in Christ's Church, during the pastorate of Dr. Greenwald. He came to 
Easton from Williams, Maryland, to accept the call to this pastorate. 

This church reports one hundred and fifty members, and a membership in the 
Sabbath School of one hundred and forty. 


[rev. a. W. WALTER.] 
On Odlober 12, 1874, a communication, signed by Rev. William Ashmead Schaeifer 
and two laymen of Christ Lutheran Church, was sent to the Vestry of St. John's Lutheran 
Church in reference to the establishing of a Mission in the western part of the town. A 
similar document was also sent to the Vestry of Zion's Lutheran Church, and subsequently 
a meeting of the joint committee, consisting of the three pastors and two laymen from 
each congregation, was held in Zion's Church. Other meetings were held during the 
winter, committees were appointed, etc. The first public meeting for services was held 
in a building on Twelfth street, near Ferr>', on Sunday afternoon, July 4, 1875. Rev. 
Schaeffer adled as superintendent, and the school was then under the guidance of St. 
John's, Christ and Zion's Lutheran Churches. There were present at the first meeting 
ninety scholars, divided into nine classes of girls and five of boys, with fourteen teacher.s. 


The first officers were: Mr. F. H. Lehr, Superintendent; Rev. William A. Schaeffer, 
Secretary and Treasurer; Miss Ella Gerspach, Organist. The school rapidly increased 
and a larger room was in great demand, when, in 1882, St. John's purchased the lot 
situated at the corner of Eleventh and Ferry streets, and eredled thereupon the present 
beautiful building, 32x54 feet. In May, 1885, Rev. A. W. Walter, having moved to 
Easton, Pa., from Decatur, Illinois, on account of ill health, he was earnestly requested 
to supply this church, which he did, and by the advice and consent of the Vestry of St. 
John's Church, services were held every Sunday evening beginning with July of the same 
year. The demand for more services, and the growth warranting the same, a meeting 
was held at Rev. A. W. Walter's residence January 12, 1886, six persons being present, 
to take in consideration the advisability of an organization as a church, when it was 
resolved that a regular meeting be called at the church, January- 18, 1886, to ascertain the 
condition etc., looking toward such an organization. The proposed meeting was held 
and an organization effe6led to be known as " St. Luke's Evangelical lyUtheran Church, 
Easton, Pa. " A committee was appointed to draft a constitution and present the same at 
the next meeting held January 25th, when persons desiring to identify themselves as 
members of this organization could do so by signing the constitution; the same, 
recommended by the General Council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church for congre- 
gations, was adopted, and its charter members numbered 107. February i, 1886, the first 
officers were eledled, viz.: Messrs. John Berkey, Sr., Benjamin F. Ward, Theodore F. 
Hamman, Edward Walter, Milton D. Ritter, Hiram Edelman, William H. Jones, John J. 
Seip and Frank D. Bishop, who were installed February 5th, by Rev. J. M. Anspach. 

March i8th of the same year. Rev. A. W. Walter was elecfted the first pastor, and on 
the 28th of March was installed. Rev. D. H. Geissinger, of St. John's Church, delivered 
the sennon to an overcrowded house. The congregation refurnished the audience room 
entirely previous to the installation service, and Rev. William Ashmead Schaeffer, of 
Philadelphia, Pa., preached the re-opening services March 28, 1886, at 10.30 A. m. The 
first Communion services were held Easter morning, April 25, 1886. The present officers 
of the school are Rev. A. W. Walter, Superintendent; George I. Nungesser, Assistant 
Superintendent; John J. Seip, Secretary; Theodore F. Hamman, Treasurer; Miss Lizzie 
Walter, Organist. The Sunday School numbers 340 officers, teachers and scholars. 

Rev. A. W. Walter was born in Easton, Pa., June 5, 1859. He received his early 
training in the common schools of the place of his birth, and prepared for college in the 
High School. He pursued his Theological studies in the Lutheran Seminary in Phila- 
delphia, and graduated in the class of 1881, and was ordained at Pottstown, Pa., June 13, 
of the same year. 


A VERY large part of the early German immigrants came to Pennsylvania to enjoy 
religious freedom. But later they came hoping to better their condition and obtain homes 
and comforts which they were led to believe they could easily obtain in Pennsylvania. 
Ship owners and other interested parties largely advertised in glowing terms the advan- 
tages to be obtained by going to the new world. Thousands who were poor, not able to 
pay their passage, agreed to bind themselves to labor for any man to whom they might be 


sold on their arrival in Pennsylvania, for the time agreed upon. Some for two, others for 
three or more years, would be put up at au(?lion and sold to the highest bidder, just as 
slaves were sold. These were called Redemptioners, and were sold for about ten to fifteen 
pounds. Many of them, after serving out their time faithfully, became, by frugality 
and industry, to be among the most influential citizens in the State. The years that 
were peculiarly remarkable for the importation of Palatinate redemptioners were from 
1728 to 1 75 1, yet the practice of selling continued for many years, and was not abolished 
within the eighteenth century. There was a set of men who were called soul-drivers, 
who used to drive redemptioners through the country and dispose of them to the farmers. 
They generally purchased them in lots consisting of fifty or more, of captains of ships to 
whom the redemptioners were indebted for their passage. The trade was ver}- brisk for 
many j'ears, but (as the country increased in population) broke up about 1785, by the 
numbers that ran away from the drivers. A story is told of one of these soul-drivers 
having been tricked by one of his herd. This fellow, by a little management, contrived 
to be the last of the flock that remained unsold, and of course travelled about with his 
master. One night they lodged at a tavern, and in the morning the young fellow rose 
early and sold his master to the landlord, pocketed the money, and marched off. Before 
going, he used the precaution to tell the purchaser that, though tolerably clever in other 
respe(fls, he was rather saucy and a little given to lying. That he had even been 
presumptuous enough at times to endeav-or to pass for master, and that he might possibly 
represent himself as such to him. 

:aston scknkry — a \iic\v ok "hot rocj 


h sunny dales, dearly they bloom; 
Scotia hath heather hills, sweet their perfume; 
Yet through the wilderness cheerful we stray, 
Native land, native land — home far away ! 
Pilgrims and wanderers, hither we come; 
Where the free dare to be — this is our home. — Lunt. 

JHERE is no group of names in modern history which attracfts more special 
interest than the names of those who signed the immortal roll which 
established the nationality of the United States. This simple a&. has 
gained for them their immortality — they were brave men. The Declaration, 
in case of failure, would have been their death warrant. They believed 
in God; they believed in the justice of their cause; they would rather die 
for freedom than live slaves to a foreign power; and so with a bold, 
unflinching courage, they affixed their names to the document sacred to 
liberty. None but an eye of faith could see through the gloom which 
hung over the future, when John Hancock took his pen, wrote his name 
in letters in nearly a half inch space, and looking at them, exclaimed, 
"There, John Bull can read that without his glasses." Charles Carroll, while writing 
his name, being reminded that there were two Charles Carrolls in Maryland, and 
that the wrong one might pay the penalty of treason if they failed in the Revolution, 
added the words "of Carrollton," thus pointing out his home; and these two simple 
words will pass down the ages to the end of time affixed to the name of Charles Carroll. 
There are moments in the lives of men which sometimes fix their charadler for real 
greatness. This moment came in this turning point in human history. 

George Taylor was one of this number of great men. He was born in Ireland, in 
1716. He was the son of a clergyman, who gave him an education which prepared 
him for the useful positions he occupied in after life. It was all his father could give him. 
He had no one to help him in the world, and nothing to depend upon but his industrj- and 
perseverance. His father had thought to have his son study medicine, which profession 
he began. He was quick, adlive and intelligent, but his turn of mind did not fit him for 
the kind of study which success required. He determined to seek his fortune in a very 
different way. His mind was turned to America as his future home. He heard of a 
vessel about to sail for Philadelphia, he deserted his medical studies, and, without a 
sixpence in his pocket, embarked as a redemptioner, for the new world. On his arrival 
in America, he bound himself for a term of years to a Mr. Savage, who paid the expenses 
incurred in crossing the Atlantic. This person had charge of the Durham furnace, on the 
Delaware river, about ten miles below Easton. Taylor came with Mr. Savage to Durham, 
and faithfully served out his time, and hence he was called a redemptioner. He was set 
to work as a coal heaver, that is, to fill the furnace with coal when in blast. He had not 
been accustomed to such rude work, as the blisters on his hands showed. The fa(5l was 
mentioned to Mr. Savage, who took compassion on the lad, ascertained that his education 


fitted him for a more important position, and Mr. Savage asked him if he could not 
handle a pen better than he could a shovel. Taylor was glad of the change, was installed 
as clerk, and soon made himself an important member of the establishment. He retained 
this position several years; when Mr. Savage died, he married his widow, and became 
proprietor of the whole concern. By industry, prudence and economy, he amassed a 
considerable fortune, but for some reason he purchased land on the Lehigh, built a large 
house and made it his residence. Mr. Taylor had not been long an inhabitant of North- 
ampton before he was called into public life. In 1764 he became a member of the 
Provincial Assembly, and was placed on the Committee of Aggrievances, one of the 
important positions in the body. He took an active part in the discussion of the great 
questions which then agitated the province, the alteration of the charter and the refonna- 
tion of the proprietary government, into which many serious abuses had crept. In 1765 
the speaker of the Assembly received a communication 
from the Massachusetts Legislature suggesting the 
meeting of a general Congress at New York in 
Autumn. At the meeting of the Assembly in 
September, the proposition was agreed to without a 
dissenting voice. The Speaker, Mr. Fox, and Messrs. 
Dickinson, Bryan and Morton, were ele<5ted as 
delegates, and a committee was appointed to draw up 
instructions for their government when in session. 
Mr. Taylor was appointed on this committee; the 
instruClions were drawn up, presented to the House 
next day, and approved by the Assembly. In Odlober 
Mr. Taylor was again eledled to represent North- 
ampton County in the Provincial Assembly, and again 
became an active member on several useful commit- 
tees, and a participator in all the leading measures. 
In the month of June following, we find Mr. Taylor 
appointed on a committee to draw up an address of 
thanks to the king for the repeal of the Stamp Adl. Thirty-five years before, Mr. Taylor 
was a poor boy working his way across the Atlantic because he had not a penny with 
which to pay it; now we find him a member of a legislative body by whose appointment 
he is instrudled to confer with one of the mightiest rulers of the globe. Verily, truth is 
sometimes stranger than fiction. The work was done well, and Pennsylvania was still 
loyal to the king. The storm cloud was only gathering, not yet ready to burst. From 
this period till 1770, Mr. Taylor continued to take his seat in the Assembly; and we 
find him on the committee to amend the judiciary establishment; regulate the assessment 
of taxes; to investigate the rights of the House; to raise loans on bills of credit; to prepare a 
system of improvement in the navigation of the great rivers of the province. In the early 
part of 1763, he exerted himself earnestly to bring to justice the murderers of Indians, 
which had come near involving the province in a war with them. He thought the 
Governor had not done his duty, and he was appointed on a committee by the Assembly 
to confer with the Governor, and there was some very jilain talk with his Excellency. 
"Murders have long since been committed," they .saj', "and not a single warrant has 



been issued for the purpose of justice; murders perpetrated at noon-day, in a populous 
borough, before a number of spectators, and yet the names of the criminals are undis- 
covered. There is a manifest failure of justice somewhere. From whence can it arise ? 
Not from the laws — they are adequate to the offence. It must be either from debility or 
inexcusable negledl in the executive part of the government to put their laws in 
execution." This is severe language for one to use who was so poor in his boyhood as to 
a(ft the part of redemptioner to pay his passage across the sea. What a beautiful lesson 
for the aspiring youth of Easton. But Mr. Taylor was only preparing for loftier positions 
in the councils of his country. From this period until 1775 Mr. Taylor's name is not 
found in the journals of the House. During this interval he was busy in his private 
affairs, carrying on a business in conne<ftion with iron manufaflure, but not meeting with 
the success of former times, he returned to Durham, the place of his former prosperity. 
During these few years he a<?ted as judge, and was appointed Colonel of Volunteers, by 
which title he was addressed in after years. In 0(?tober, 1775, he was again ele(?ted a 
delegate to the Provincial Assembly, and took his seat on the fourteenth of that month. 
He was at once appointed on several important committees, such as those on grants to the 
crown; settlement of Connecflicut claims; procuring arms for the public service ; preparing 
a system of military discipline for the province, and above all on the Committee of Safety 
for the province, which was now the revolutionary organ of the government. 

While Mr. Taylor was a member of the Committee of Safety for the Province at 
Philadelphia, he was the busiest of the number. This Committee was the Provincial 
Organ of the Revolution for Pennsylvania. The energetic and daring souls must take 
the places. The following letter tells its own story. (Colonial Records.) 

Shrewsbury, N. J., October 19, 1776. 

"Sir : I can infonn you that two ships of war are now passing our quarters and stand- 
ing along the shore to the southward; we suppose they are bound to the capes. This 
intelligence is by the request of Captain Boid, who has lately been with me on said 
account. You can depend upon every item of intelligence from your very humble and 
obedient servant, GEORGE TAYLOR." 

P. S. — We have a fleet of sixty-four sail now lying at Sandy Hook, inward bound. 
" 71> Thomas Wharton, Esq., President of the Comtnittee of Safety, Philadelphia^ 

So that Taylor was standing on the watch tower of freedom, on the Jersey coast, 
looking after the movements of the English fleet, and transmitting the news to the Com- 
mittee of Safety at Philadelphia. A courier could fly across the State of New Jersey and raise 
the alarm in advance of a moving fleet round Cape May. The committee could prepare 
for the danger. We get something of an insight of the adlivity and painful and ceaseless 
watching and harassing care which weighed upon the souls of those men. The times 
had greatly changed since Mr. Taylor was in the Assembly before. The cloud which was 
then gathering over the devoted colonies had burst in fury on the plains of Concord and 
Lexington, and on Bunker Hill. The blood of patriots was hot. The battle of Bunker 
Hill had taught the British that the colonists were not cowards, and that they were bent 
on war. The die was cast. The war was begun. November 4, 1775, the Legislature 
proceeded to elecft delegates to the succeeding Continental Congress; and shortly after they 
had chosen them, Mr. Taylor was appointed with several other gentlemen to prepare and 


report a draft of instnidlions by which the delegates were to be governed in their delibera- 
tions. It was a delicate duty. The Pennsylvania delegation was not unanimous; but it was 
evident that a crisis was at hand, when the wise might anticipate, and the bold and vigor- 
ous might hope for, a separation from the mother countr}-. jMassachusetts had been 
oppressed, but Pennsylvania had been kindly treated, and there seemed a reluAance to 
break the tie. Her proprietary government had been condudled without oppression, her 
constitution was liberal, Democratic to an extent, not known in other colonies; and her 
population was largely, by habit, little inclined to uncrompromising violence. The rash 
and arbitrary proceedings of the British government were fast wearing away this kindly 
feeling. Under these circumstances Mr. Taylor and other members of the committee 
drew up instrudlions to this effecft: "We therefore, in general, diredl that j'ou, or any four 
of you, meet the delegates of the colonies, and use your endeavors to agree upon and 
recommend such measures as you shall judge to afford the best prospecft of obtaining 
redress of American grievances, and restoring that hannony between Great Britain and 
the colonies, so essential to the welfare and happiness of both countries." They instrudled 
their delegates to utterly rejecft any proje6l which should separate the colonies from Eng- 
land. The ensuing winter and spring of 1776 had brought a rapid and decided change 
in the sentiments of the people. They became more and more convinced of the necessity 
of a separation, and to prepare more and more earnestly for diredl resistance. Four 
months had scarcely elapsed since the report we have just mentioned, so guarded and 
pacific in tone, was presented by one committee, of which Mr. Taylor was a member, 
when another, to which he also belonged, laid before the Assembly a document which 
bears all the marks of a detennined and indignant spirit. They speak of their faithful 
discharge of their duties for the public welfare. They tell of their efforts to prepare the 
province for defense. "Every day brings fresh proofs," they say, "of the v-iolence of 
the British Ministry', and of their fixed purpose to subdue the free spirit of America, that 
has yet given such obstrTi<5lion to all their schemes of tyranny and despotism." The 
committee recommend the raising of troops for the public defense. In June, 1776, the 
same committee recommended the raising of two thou.sand troops, a part of which should 
be regulars, and the remainder riflemen, for the public defense. They thought the 
situation in public affairs so changed that they felt justifiable in removing the restri(5lions 
they had imposed upon their delegates in Congress. News had come across the sea that 
the British government had pronounced resistance in America open rebellion; that treaties 
had been formed with foreign princes for soldiers to subdue the proud spirit of the colonies. 
The day for compromise was passed. The bright days of July were near at hand. The 
most glorious event since the crucifixion would soon gladden the souls of men reaching 
out after freedom. Brave men would stand around the scene of a nation's birth. There 
were a few leading men in Pennsylvania who yet hesitated, doubtful which course to 
pursue; whether to renounce the British government, or the Revolution. And they .say, 
" But, if we must renounce the one or the other, we humbly trust in the mercies of the 
Supreme Governor of the Universe, that we shall not stand condemned before his throne, 
if our choice is determined by that over-ruling law of self-preservation, which His divine 
wisdom has thought fit to implant in the hearts of his creatures."* These views of the 
Assembly were in perfect accordance with the wishes of the people; but, owing to the 
* Sanderson'.s Lives of Signere, paKf ■'i.S- 


reluctance which existed in the minds of many of the members, of thus making a breach 
which could never be repaired, the views were not adopted with the unanimity which 
so great a measure required. Indeed, it had become evident that an essential change 
ought to be made in the nature of the government, and the whole energies of the province 
should be exerted in giving weight to the great objecfl at which Congress was aiming. 
The regular Assembly was, therefore, allowed gradually to cease by the absence of its 
members, and a temporary body, called a conference, consisting of committees chosen by 
each county, met at Philadelphia, and assumed by degrees a large portion of the legislative 
powers. On the twenty-fourth of June they took up the subjecfl which had engaged the 
attention of the Assembly — the dissolution of allegiance to Great Britain — and coinciding 
in the views which we have seen that body adopt, passed a resolution unanimously, as 
the deputies of the people of Pennsylvania, in which they expressed their willingness to 
concur in a vote of Congress, declaring the United Colonies free and independent states, 
and asserted that this measure did not originate in ambition or in an impatience of lawful 
authority, but that they were driven to it in obedience to the first principles of nature, 
by the oppression and cruelties of the king and parliament, as the only measure left to 
preserve and establish their liberties and transmit them inviolate to posterity. Embold- 
ened by this approbation, and that of most of the colonies, Congress proceeded zealously 
towards the great end. But in their body there were yet many who looked with fearful 
anticipation on the consequences. Among these were several of the delegates from 
Pennsylvania, and neither the instructions of the Assembly, nor the resolutions above 
named, had yet changed their sentiments. When we mention among these the name of 
that great and good man, John Dickenson, we give sufficient proof that the cause of these 
sentiments was no unmanly fear. It was a reluctance to jeopardize the future prospects 
of the country, by involving them in a war with a powerful nation; it was, they asserted, 
changing the wholesome system of resistance to arbitrary acts into the pursuits of ends 
which the happiness of the people did not require. It was relinquishing the safe ground 
on which the colonies had planted themselves, and rushing into a war which, in its 
course, must bring with it slaughter and inexpressible distress, and in its end might fix a 
severe despotism on the ruins of liberties that had been rashly hazarded. 

Fortunately, there was energy enough in Congress to resist these plausible, but 
delusive, opinions; and, when the ultimate question was proposed, an approving vote by 
all the colonies gave to the measure of resistance that unanimity which secured its 
eventual success. Of the delegates from Pennsylvania, however, five still retained their 
sentiments in opposition to the majority. The approbation of the State was only obtained 
by the casting vote of Mr. Morton. Under these circumstances a new choice of repre- 
sentatives became necessary, and on the twentieth of July the convention of the State 
proceeded to elect them. Mr. Morton, Dr. Franklin, Mr. Morris and Mr. Wilson were 
re-elected, and in lieu of the other five gentlemen were substituted Mr. Taylor, Mr. Ross, 
Mr. Clymer, Dr. Rush, and Mr. Smith. On the same day Mr. Taylor took his seat in 
Congress. On the second of August, following, Mr. Taylor signed the Declaration of 
Independence. It was not until that time that any delegate actually affixed his signature 
to the instrument; for, although it was passed and proclaimed on the fourth of July 
preceding, the copy engrossed on parchment was not prepared until nearly a month after. 
These circumstances have once or twice given rise to errors, but they have been fully 


explained in a letter from Mr. M'Kean, one of the delegates from Delaware, which is 
inserted in his life. The following is the letter of M'Kean. 

Philadelphia, September 26, 1796. 
"Sir: Your favor of the nineteenth instant, respecftingthe Declaration of Independence, 
should not have remained so long unanswered, if the duties of my office of Chief Justice 
had not engrossed my whole attention while the Court was sitting. For several years 
past I have been taught to think less unfavorably of scepticism than fonnerly. So many 
things have been misrepresented, misstated, and erroneously printed (with seeming 
authenticity) under my own eye, as in my opinion to render those who doubt of everything 
not altogether inexcusable. The publication of the Declaration of Independence on the 
Fourth of July, 1776, as printed in the Journals of Congress (Vol. II, page 241), and also 
in the adls of most public bodies since, so far as respecfls the names of the delegates or 
deputies who made that Declaration, has led to the above refle(flion. By the printed 
publications referred to, it would appear as if the fifty-five gentlemen, whose names are 
there printed, and none other, were on that day personally present in Congress, and 
assenting to the Declaration; whereas the truth is otherwise. The following gentlemen 
were not members of Congress on the fourth of July, 1776, namely: Matthew Thornton, 
Benjamin Rush, George Clymer, James Smith, George Taylor and George The 
five last named were not chosen delegates until the twentieth day of that month; the first 
not until the twelfth day of September following, nor did he take his seat in Congress 
until the fourth of November, which was four months after. The Journals of Congress 
(Vol. II, pages 277 and 442), as well as those of the Assembly of the State of Pennsylvania 
(page 53), and of the General Assembly of New Hampshire, established these fac?ts. 
Although the six gentlemen named had been very adlive in the American cause, and 
some of them to ni)- own knowledge, wannly in favor of independence, previous to the 
day on which it was declared, yet I personally know that none of them were in Congress 
on that day. Modesty should not rob any man of his just honor, when by that honor, his 
modesty cannot be offended. My name is not in the printed journals of Congress, as a 
party to the Declaration of Independence, and this, like an error in the first concodlion, 
has vitiated most of the subsequent publications; and yet the fa6l is, that I was then a 
member of Congress for the State of Delaware, was personally present in Congress, and 
voted in favor of independence on the fourth of July, 1776, and signed the declaration 
after it had been engrossed on parchment, where my name, in my own handwriting, still 
appears. Henry Wisner, of the State of New York, was also in Congress, and voted for 

" I do not know how the misstatement in the printed journal happened. The manu- 
script of the /i«/V/'r journal has no names annexed to the Declaration of Independence, nor 
has the secret journal; but it appears by the latter, that on the nineteenth day of July, 
1776, the Congress directed that it should be engrossed on parchment, and signed by 
every viember^ and that it was so produced on the second of August, and signed. This 
is interlined in the secret journal, in the handwriting of Charles Thompson, Esq., the 
Secretary. The present Secretary of State of the United States and myself have lately 
inspected the journals, and seen this. The journal was first printed by Mr. John Dunlap, 



in 1778, and probably copies, with the names then signed to it, were printed in Angnst, 
1776, and that Mr. Dunlap printed the names from one of //icui. 

" I have now, sir, given you a true, though brief, history of this affair, and, as you are 
engaged in publishing a new edition of the Laws of Pennsylvania, I am obliged to you 
for affording the favorable opportunity of conveying to you this information, authorizing 
you to make any use of it you please. I am, sir, with particular esteem. 
Your most obedient servant, 

'•'■Alexander James Dallas, Esq., Secretary of State for Pemisylvaniay 

We have thus far traced the life of Mr. Taylor, following mainly the work of 
Sanderson, author of the "Lives of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence," 
in nine volumes. In transcribing the legislative career of Mr. Taylor, we have followed 
this author very closely, and, inasmuch as he copied from the records of the Provincial 
Assembly, it must be looked upon as correcfl. Mr. Taylor was elecTled a member of the 
Assembly in 1764, and must have removed from his farm, which was situated in what is 
now Catasauqua, to Easton in the same year in which he became a member of the Assembly, 
for we find him in Easton in 1764. He was appointed in that year one of the trustees to 
have charge of the building of the Court House, and all the moneys expended in the work 
passed through his hands. Thus, wherever he appears in our early history, he steps to 
the front. In his career as legislator, in business for himself, in business for the community 
in which he lived, he .always acquitted himself to his credit. From the humblest 
positions in life, to that of membership in the national legislature, he was never found 
wanting. He could adl as coal-heaver without wounding his pride, or sign the Declaration 
of Independence without exciting his vanity. He was a citizen of Easton, mainly, for 
seventeen years, yet we find but very little material for the pen of the historian during 
that time. Having again leased the Durham Furnace, the scene of his former prosperty, 
he became engaged in casting cannon balls to fire at the enemies of freedom. He must 
have done a large business in casting these balls for the public use, for we find the following in 
the Colonial Records, Vol. V, in Council of Safety, August 17, 1776: "An order was 
drawn on Mr. Nesbit in favor of George Taylor, for .j/^iooo, toward shot cast by him for 
the service of the State to be charged to his account." So it seems he had a running 
account, and the sum here mentioned was one payment. These missiles were cast in 
Durham, and sent down the river in the Durham boats. On January 30, 1777, George 
Taylor and George Walton were appointed by Congress to be present and preside at the 
Indian treaty to be holden at Easton. This great convention met in the Gennan Refonned 
Church on Third street. One of the most serious troubles with which the colonies had 
to contend was the constant effort of the English to stir up the Indians to war on the 
western frontier, while they would attack in the front. It was a .source of constant 
anxiety to keep the savages under control. The treaty to be holden in the German 
Refonned Church was for this purpose. It was, therefore, a very delicate duty imposed 
upon Mr. Taylor to conducft the negotiations with these children of the forest. The 
organ in the gallery pealed forth its merry notes, and as these joyous strains filled the 
temple of God, Taylor and Walton entered, followed by the proud children of nature in 
their wild and savage costume. There is the genial shaking of hands, the passing of the 


social glass; these preliminaries over, the business was begun, and was carried on to a 
successful conclusion. George Taylor was at this time a member of Congress, having 
been ele6led a member of the Provincial Assembly in 1775, and the next year eledled by 
that body, or more properly by the Conference, to Congress in July, and affixed his 

name to the Declaration in August. 
The year upon which Taylor was 
entering was the darkest of the 
Revolution and the darkest hours 
in the life of General Washington. 
Dark clouds came rolling up from 
the fields of Brandywine and Ger- 
mantown, closing in almost with 
the blackness of midnight. In the 
political writings of Thomas Paine, 
when looking at the sore trials 
through which the struggling 
patriots must pass with bleeding 
feet and aching hearts, exclaimed : 
"These are the times that tn.- 
men's souls." Men that could 
face such darkness, and stand to 
their colors, would hardly shudder 
at death. They were men of iron 
uer\-e, who had sworn their country- 
should be free : the pathway was 
\^x\ dark, but there was light 
beyond. Many unkindly con- 
trasted the success of Gates in the 
North with the failure of Wash- 
ington in the South. Lewis Gor- 
don, for twenty-five years a 
favorite son of Northampton, had 
entered with zeal and earnestness 
in the cause of freedom, but in this 
dark hour had turned his back 
upon his suffering countrymen, 
and declared for the crown. Gal- 
loway, of whom Taylor had rented 
the Durham furnace in 1774, who 
had entered the contest with the patriots with a warm heart, in this dark hour went over 
to the king. In this treason of Galloway, Taylor lost the bulk of his property by the 
detention of the works, for the estates of Galloway were confiscated, and when Taylor 
died there was not property to pay liis debts. But amid all these reverses, this favorite 
son of Easton stood finn. He had pledged his " life, his property, his sacred honor" to 
the cause of freedom. There might be reverses in the field, there might be treason among 



his friends, but death to him as a patriot was preferable to life as a traitor. He might 
lose his property, but not his manhood. Others might barter away their honor to save 
their lives; his honor should never be tarnished. He had associated himself with 
Jefferson, Franklin, Hancock and Adams, and he stood firm and unmoved amid the dark 
shadows which hung in deep gloom over the land. He hoped a brighter day would come. 
His faith could see rifts in the clouds, and through them the glories of the future may 
have dawned upon his soul. Many years afterward, when a stranger inquired of one of 
Mr. Taylor's neighbors what kind of a man he was, he answered: " He was a fine man 
and a furious Whig." The disasters at Brandywine and Germantown had sent about 
two thousand sick and wounded soldiers into Northampton County. They were divided 
between Bethlehem, Allentown and Easton. Those that were sent to Easton were 
quartered in the Court House and the old German Reformed Church, that old temple of 
liberty. Here the kind and brave women of Easton cared for them and kindly ministered 
to the wants of these suffering heroes. Among those at Bethlehem was the gallant son 
of France; and during the next year Washington went to cheer his dearest friend, 
Lafayette, at Bethlehem, and passed through Easton on this journey. At this time 
George Taylor was living in the old stone mansion built by William Parsons on the 
corner of Fourth and Ferry streets. Taylor and Washington were warm friends, and no 
doubt Washington sought out the home of his friend and had a pleasant chat on matters 
mutually dear to both. Could Washington pass so near the Court House and church 
filled with suffering soldiers, and not call to see and cheer them in their sorrows? 
Impossible. No doubt this great man entered the old church and cheered the soldiers, 
who could have borne their pains more easily if these wounds had been scars of vi(5lory. 
They were enduring a double agony, a sense of defeat as well as laceration of limbs. It 
would have been a source of pleasure to know that Taylor lived to hear the news of the 
surrender of Cornwallis. But he died February 25th, and the surrender occurred on the 
19th of 0(5tober, 1781. He had rejoiced to hear of Franklin's success at the court of St. 
Cloud, to know that Bonny France had linked her destinies with his country. No doubt 
the star of hope in ultimate success rose clearly over his dying bed in the old Parsons' 
mansion. Mr. Taylor had two children, a son and daughter. The son, James, married 
a daughter of Lewis Gordon, was a lawyer, and died at twenty-nine, leaving a widow and 
five children. The daughter did not marry. Some of his descendants live in South 

In 1855, thirty-one years ago, the people of Easton gave expression to their gratitude, 
honored themselves in rendering honor to departed worth, and to keep in memory the 
virtues of George Taylor, by erecting a beautiful and costly monument to his memory in 
their beautiful cemetery. No one can pass this monument without thinking of the 
youthful Redemptioner working out his time to pay the expense of his passage across 
the sea. The passer-by will think of the successful proprietor of the Durham furnace; 
the faithful member of the Provincial Assembly; the member of the National Congress; 
the man who boldly signed the immortal document when others hesitated. They will 
think of the man who was appointed to reprove the Governor of Pennsylvania, and extend 
the thanks of the province to the King of England. They will pause to pass a reflection 
on the glory of our institutions under whose benign influence the poorest may rise to 
wealth, the humblest to the most exalted positions, the weakest to positions of power not 


inferior to that wielded by the Csesars. Alexander E. Brown, Esq., delivered an excellent 
oration at the dedication of the monument, in which we find the following beautiful 

"No night-shade spreads its death-like pall ! 
No gloomy cypress waves its head, 
But let the glorious sunbeams fall 
Where rest Columbia's honored dead. 

Columbia's eagle \'igils keep ! 

Columbia's banner o'er him wave! 
Naught to disturb his peaceful sleep, 

For freemen guard his hallowed grave." 


The following genealogical table is the result of the careful and patient research of 
Mr. Ethan A. Weaver, of Philadelphia. He is a graduate of Lafayette College, a wann 
friend of Easton, and deeply interested in her history. It has been a matter of long corre- 
spondence, but his success has amply repaid his toil, and he receives our most hearty thanks. 

"It is a strange fa6l that no biography of George Taylor heretofore published has 
contained anything concerning the descendants of this distinguished patriot. Sanderson, 
the earliest biographer of the signers, says "he has no legitimate living descendants," and 
M. S. Henry, author of the History of the Lehigh Valley, passingly alludes to descendants 
living in South Carolina and a natural daughter living in Easton. As long ago as 1853, 
when Matthew Henry was colle<5ling material for his work, he was in correspondence with 
a great grandson of Colonel Taylor, James Lewis Gordon Taylor, then living in Virginia, 
(and who had visited Easton) but nothing further than what is above alluded is published 
in Henry's book. The writer's antiquarian spirit led him some years ago to making 
diligent researches for Taylor's descendants with the success herein shown. 

"George Taylor <"' by his marriage had one son, James Taylor, <=•' who was bred to the 
bar, to which he was admitted in 1765; he died very young (1772), but left five children 
by his marriage with Elizabeth Gordon, daughter of Lewis Gordon, Esq., the first 
attorney in Northampton County. The names of those children were George, (^' Ann,*-*' 
(always called "Nancy" in the family), Mary, '5' Thomas ^''' and James. <'' James Taylor*'' 
dying before his father, George Taylor,'"' the latter took his children and tenderly cared 
for them. (See George Taylor's will — will book 1, p. 275.) All the children remained 
with their grandfather until his death, save Ann,*''' who married Colonel Samuel Swann, 
of Powhatan, Virginia. At the death of Colonel George Taylor,*"' his grandsons, George '3) 
and James, '7' went to Virginia to live with their sister Ann'"' (Mrs. Swann). Thomas <*' 
was drowned in the Lehigh river; Mary*^' died young; George*'' never married. Ann*"' 
(Nancy) Swann left several sons ; their descendants will be noticed hereafter, and James*'' 
married his first cousin, Anna Maria Miranda, daughter of Alexander Gordon, who was 
the son of Lewis Gordon, Esq., of Easton, and brother of Elizabeth Gordon, who married 
James Taylor, *'' son of George Taylor. <"' The mother of Anna Maria Miranda Gordon 
was Mary Morris, of Philadelphia, niece of the famous Robert Morris. 




iled fifty years ago 

mS. MCCARTNEY IN 1835.] 


"By this marriage of James Taylor <'> there were four children. George Alexander'^' 
(died in infancy), Mary's' (who died young), Sophia Gordon, <'°' and James Lewis Gordon.'"' 
James Taylor*'' (grandson of George Taylor), was for many years a man of wealth, but 
late in life he had reverses which he bore with noble serenity. He lived in Richmond, 
Va., and was universally honored. He and his wife are buried in the cemetery of St. 
John's Church, Richmond. James Lewis Gordon Taylor'"' married (1856) Hannah, daugh- 
ter of Colonel Wilson Jones of Hampton, Va. , but left no issue. Sophia Gordon <'°> married 
first, John Rutledge Smith, of South Carolina (grandson of Edward Rutledge, signer of the 
Declaration of Independence), and has issue. Jane Ladson Alston Pinckney Smith, '■=> 
now Mrs. Gill Armistead Carey of Alabama, who had two daughters :'"' Isabella Gordon <'3> 
married Gordon Macdonald (issue Belle Gordon Macdonald,''^)) and ''' Mattie Lee'"-'' (unmar- 
ried). Sophia Gordon'""' married jcrw/rt' Rev. John Collins McCabe, D. D. of the Episcopal 
Church, and left issue, viz : Isabella Gordon,'"^' who died unmarried in 1857 ; and William 
Gordon,''3> who in 1867 married Jane Pleasants Harrison Osborne (daughter of Edward 
Harrison Osborne, whose maternal grandfather was a brother of Benjamin Harrison, signer 
of the Declaration of Independence), and has issue, Edmund Osborne,''^' William Gordon, ''5> 
Edward Rainsford Warner.'"*' 

"Concerning the descendants of "Nancy" Taylor (Ann Swann), the writer has been 
unable to procure a complete genealogy. She left several sons ; one of these, Thomas 
Thompson Swann, was born January 12, 1785, while his mother was visiting her grand- 
father's (Colonel George Taylor's '"') home, at Easton. Two other sons are reported, Samuel 
G. and George, the latter dying without issue. Thomas Thompson Swann married Miss 
Sallie Woodson Macon, on July 24, 1806, and died in Cumberland county, Va., April 27, 
1845. His oldest child, George Taylor Swann, was born in Powhatan county, Va., July 
5, 1808 ; graduated at Hampden Sidney College in 1826. He married Miss Mary Lee 
Patton, daughter of James D. Patton, M. D., of Danville, Va. He was a lawyer by pro- 
fession, and went to Mississippi in 1836. In 1844 he was elefted to the legislature as a 
member of the Senate, over which body he was chosen to preside. He was twice ele<fted 
to the office of Auditor of Public Accounts ( 1847-1849). In the spring of 1854 he became, 
by choice of the Judges, Clerk of the High Court of Errors and Appeals. In the summer 
of 1865 he was appointed Judge of the Special Equity Court by Judge Sharkey, Parishional 
Governor of Mississippi. In 1867 he was made Clerk of the United States Circuit and 
Distri6l Courts for the Southern District of Mississippi. In October, 1877, he died, leav- 
ing seven children. Another son, Thomas Thompson Swann, Jr., was also Auditor of 
Mississippi, and still another, William Macon Swann, was Lieutenant in the United States 
Navy, lost on "United States Steamer Grampus" at sea, about March 20, 1843. 

"The eldest child of George Taylor Swann is Mrs. Archie McGehee, of Jackson, Miss., 
to whom the writer is indebted for information concerning this extension of the family, 
whose son Dr. Daniel Macon McGehee, graduate of the Jefferson Medical College, Phila- 
delphia, the writer of these genalogical records knew as a room-mate and companion in 
his early residence in the Citj' of Brotherly Love. It was through him that I first and 
accidently learned of the descendants of this distinguised Eastonian ; and my best wishes 
for my cherished friend are that he will prove a worthy scion of a noble ancestor. ' ' 

Easton During The Revolution. 

The nation bleeds wher'er her steps she turns ; 

The groan still deepens, and the combat burns. — Iliad. 


V. COME now to that part of Easton' s History which relates to the 
jiatriotic struggles of our ancestors in throwing off the yoke of British 
oppression and establishing principles of political freedom based upon the 
broad foundation of equal rights and self-government. The French and 
Indian war had closed and left a heavy debt upon the British Kingdom, 
and Parliament was determined the colonies should help pay it. The 
Stamp A61 was passed ; no legal paper could be used except such as 
was stamped in England and sold in America. The people would not 
consent to be taxed when they were not represented in Parliament. 
Franklin wrote, saying "the sun of liberty had set." The people of 
America looked upon liberty as dead, and the bells of the cities were 
tolled. The excitement grew to fever heat. The Boston massacre, the hanging of patriots 
in the Carolinas, the arrival of a large army and fleet on the coast, all indicated a deter- 
mination to enforce the despotic power of the English throne. The people saw there was 
no alternative but abje<5l submission or acftive and vigorous resistance. The thirteen 
colonies were preparing for war with the most powerful monarchy in the world. They 
were determined to throw off the cumbrous weight which threatened to crush them. 
The words of Patrick Henr>-, "Give me liberty, or give me death," became the rallying 
cry of the patriots. All the emblems of royal authority were to be utterly destroyed and 
entirely new institutions created in their place. And while this Revolution was in pro- 
gress, there was a necessity for a strong and vigorous organization which could a(5l promptly, 
see dangers in the distance, meet them courageously, and battle with them manfully. This 
organization was found in the Committee of Safety. These committees were also called 
Committees of Correspondence, of Observation, and of \'igilance. "At a consultation of 
the Virginia House of Assembly, in March, 1773, held in the old Raleigh taveni, at Williams- 
burg, at which Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson and Richard Henry Lee were present, it 
was agreed to submit a resolution in the House the following day, appointing a Committee 
of Vigilance and Correspondence, and recommending the same to other colonies. The 
measure was carried, and these committees formed one of the most powerful aids to 
carrving on the work of the Revolution. Similar committees had been already formed in 
several towns in Massachusetts." These organizations spread rapidly and were found 
"in ever\- colony in 1773." (Lossing, page 171.) These committees fonned a perfeCl 
net-work throughout the colonies. British annies, fleets, and the Tories were watched 


with careful zeal by these faithful men. The Safety Committee for Newark, N. J., 
was formed May 4, 1775, by a meeting of the inhabitants on that day. As the utterances 
of this committee speak the feelings of all, it may be well to quote a few words to show 
the spirit which animated these bodies of men wherever formed: "We, the freeholders 
and inhabitants of the Township of Newark, having deliberately considered the openly 
declared design of the Ministry of Great Britain to raise a revenue in America ; being 
affected with horror at the bloody scenes now acfting in the Massachusetts bay, for carrying 
that arbitrary design into execution ; firmly convinced that the very existence of the rights 
and liberties of America can, under God, subsist on no other basis than the animated and 
perfecft union of its inhabitants ; and being sensible of the necessity in the present emer- 
gency of preserving good order and due regulations in all public measures, with hearts 
perfe<5lly abhorrent of slaver>', do solemnly, under all the sacred ties of religion, honor 
and love to our country, associate and resolve that we will personally, and as far as our 
influence can extend, endeavor to support and carry into execution whatever measures 
may be recommended by the Continental Congress, and fixing our Constitution on a per- 
manent basis, and opposing the execution of the despotic and oppressive adls of British 
Parliament, until the wished-for reconciliation between Great Britain and America on a 
constitutional basis can be obtained." These words speak the feelings of all those men 
thus banded together battling for freedom. Communication was carried on by special 
messenger, as the mails were slow, and could not always be trusted. They a(fted in the 
light of present exigencies without consulting any higher earthly power. They exercised 
judicial, legislative and executive power. They received their power from the people, 
the highest and most sacred source whence it could come. Sustained by their fellow 
men, and their confidence in the justice of their cause, and trusting in God, they went 
fearless to their work. They were like an invading army burning their bridges behind 
them. They had determined these hills and valleys should be free. This will appear 
from examining the records of the Committee of Safety in Easton. 

The people were divided into two parties, "Whigs and Tories," or " Associators and 
Non-Associators. " The Whigs, or Associators, were fighting for freedom ; the Tories, or 
Non- Associators, were in sympathy with the Crown. The Whigs were very largely in the 
majority, but the Tories were so large a fra<5lion that they were capable of doing much 
harm, and must be closely watched and severely dealt with. These committees were 
secret organizations, intended to watch the Tories, punish them for their misdemeanors, 
and take adtive measures in support of the common cause. The committee had the power 
to arrest, imprison, and put them under heavy bonds to keep the peace. They had 
the power to compel them to apologize to persons against whom they had uttered 
slanders ; to sign papers of recantation, and to ask pardon before the committee of 
those against whom they said things injurious to the cause. Summonses were issued, 
prisoners were brought by police force, examined and punished immediately. But, why 
should such powers be exercised by a committee, when there were courts of law? The 
courts of the King were suspended, the power of the English King was passing away. 
The friends of liberty miist move quickly, powerfully, and administer punishment imme- 
diately. Society was changing, institutions were changing, political science was changing ; 
it was a time of Revolution, the results of which were to undermine the thrones of the 
world ; it was a turning point in history. The patriots had pledged their property, their 

124 T^i'^ HISTORY OF 

lives, their sacred honor to liberty. Failure was slaver}-, success was freedom. These 
Committees of Safety were to check opposition in its bud, repress insurrection while 
struggling into life ; they were war measures, institutions that would be criminal in 
times of peace and would not be tolerated for a moment. The Safety Committee was the 
offspring of the political storm that was to give freedom to a continent, and ultimately to 
the world. When the sun crosses the "line," the trade winds change, violent storms 
sweep over the earth, carr\'ing death and destrudlion in their pathway. But from these 
violent atmospheric changes emerge the flowers of spring, the fruits of summer and 
autumn. So when those storms of suffering, sorrow and blood-shed had passed away, the 
sun of freedom would shine brightly, and his benignant rays would be enjoyed by all 
lands. These "Committees of Safety" were made legal by legislative enactment subse- 
quent to their fonnation. In the proceedings of the Assembly at Philadelphia, June 30, 
1775, we find this resolution : "That this House approves the Association entered into by 
the good people of this colony, for the defense of their lives, liberties, and property." 
This is the foundation of the legal existence of the Committees of Safety. The organi- 
zation of the Northampton County Committee of Safety was formed December 21, 1774. 
It was called the "Committee of Observation and Inspe(ftion. " At a public eledlion in 
Easton, the following persons were eledled members of the committee, viz. : Lewis Gordon, 
Peter Kachlein, Jacob Arndt, Michael ^lessinger, Melchoir Hay, George Taylor, John 
Okely, Anthony Lerch, Jacob Morry, John Wetzel, Andrew Engelman, John Greesemer, 
Henry Kooken, David Deshler, Casper Doll, Joseph Gaston, Yost Dreisbach, Daniel 
Knows, Thomas Everet, Michael Ohl, John Hartman, Nicholas Kern, George Gilbert, 
Abraham Smith, Abraham Miller, Nicholas Depui, Manuel Gonsales, and Abraham West- 
brook, being nearly one for each township. The committee then chose the following 
gentlemen as a Standing Committee of Correspondence for the county, viz : George Taylor, 
Lewis Gordon, Peter Kachlein, Jacob Arndt, John Okely, and Henry Kooken, Esqrs. 
Lewis Gordon was chosen Treasurer, and Robert Traill was chosen Clerk. The General 
Committee met January 9, 1775, and elected the following persons to represent them in the 
Provincial Convention to be held at Philadelphia, January- 23, 1775, viz : George Taylor, 
Lewis Gordon, Peter Kachlein, Jacob Arndt, and John Okely, Esqrs. The committee 
met May 6, 1775, at Easton, and considered a letter received from the committee of Phila- 
delphia, which made a deep impression on the members present. It is easy to surmise 
the tenor of the letter when we read the atlion of the meeting. A resolution was unani- 
mously adopted to form companies in every township in the county ; every man should 
supply himself with a good firelock, a pound of powder, four pounds of lead, a quantity 
of flints, and they were to choose their officers. A general meeting of the committee of the 
whole county was to be held on the 22d of the month, and the Clerk was ordered to send 
letters notifying the representatives of the various townships of the meeting. The Port Rill 
of Boston had been passed in the British Parliament, forbidding the landing of 
at the wharves of that city. Paul Revere had performed his famous midnight ride, the 
battle of Concord and Lexington had been fought, and that of Bunker Hill was approaching. 
The bells of Boston had tolled for the death of freedom, and old Northampton was arming 
for the fight. The excitement was at fever heat. 

At the meeting of the 22d, it was unauimoush- \oted to abide by the action of Con- 
gress ; to associate together for mutual ])rotection ; that no powder be expended, except 



when absolutely necessary, and upon urgent occasions; to encourage military drill in 
the manual of arms ; those who refused to associate for the common cause should be 
considered enemies, and business with them suspended. At the same meeting we 
have a list of those who subscribed to the general association in numbers, and their officers 
chosen, viz : 

Easton — Captain, Peter Kachlein ; Lieutenant, Abram Labar ; Ensign, Matthias Miller — 87 men. 

Forks — Captain, Jacob Amdt ; Lieutenant, George Stocker — 126 men. 

Williams — Captain, Melchoir Hay ; Lieutenant, Philip Mixsell — 104 men. 

Bethlehem — Captain, Christian Newman ; Lieutenant, Ulrich Sleppy — 130 men. 

Allen — Captain, Neigal Gray; Lieutenant, John Lickpot — 120 men. 

Upper Saucon — Captain, Henry AUise ; Lieutenant, George Kern — 105 men. 

Lower Saucon — Captain Huebner ; Lieutenant, Jesse Jones — 142 men. 

Macungie — Captain, Peter Traxler ; Lieutenant, Henry Felker — 120 men. 

Upper Milford — Captain, Christian Fisher ; Lieutenant, Philip Walter — 64 men. 

White Hall — Captain, Peter Burkhalter; Lieutenant, Philip Knappenberger — 100 men. 

Salisbury — Captain, Nicholas Fox ; Lieutenant, H. Hagenbuch — 100 men. 

Plainfield— Captain, Casper Doll ; Lieutenant, H. Engel— 88 men. 

Mount Bethel — Captain, John Nielson ; Lieutenant, S. Rea — 224 men. 

Moore — Captain, Adam Bruckhauser; Lieutenant, Timothy Reed — 106 men. 

Lehigh — Captain, Yost Dreisbach ; Lieutenant, Enoch Beer — 70 men. 

Weisenburg — Captain, Michael Probst; Lieutenant, P. BenninghofF^32 men. 

Lynn — Captain, Matthias Propst ; Lieutenant, John vStane — 70 men. 

Heidelberg — Captain Michael Ohl ; Lieutenant, Jacob Zeiger — 100 men. 

Lowhill — Captain Michael ; Lieutenant, Jacob Horner — 35 men. 

Towamensing — Captain, Nicholas Kern ; Lieutenant, Jacob Wagner — 50 men. 

Penn — Captain, Richard Dodson ; Lieutenant, John Siegley — 25 men. 

Chestnut Hill — Captain, Abraham Smith ; Lieutenant, Dewalt Kuntz — 82 men. 

Hamilton — Captain, Abraham Miller ; Lieutenant, Michael Raup — 50 men. 

Lower Smithfield — Captain, Jacob Stroud ; Lieutenant, Samuel Drake — 127 men. 

Delaware — Captain, John Van Etten ; Lieutenant, David Van Aken — 47 men. 

Upper Smithfield — Captain, John Van Sickel ; Lieutenant, Nathaniel Washburne — 53 men. 

The author has made this record to show the relative strength of the townships ; the 
nature of the work which the Committee of Safety had to perform, and the patriotic 
leaders in those dark days. Here is a volunteer force of two thousand men preparing 
for duty at the front when called for under the dire6lion of this committee. They 
had the authority of raising, equipping, and sending soldiers to the front. In July, 
1775, the projedl of equipping a company of riflemen having been adopted, Craig, their 
captain, was authorized to purchase rifles, and present the bill to the treasurer of the 
committee. At the October meeting the military forces of the county were divided into 
four battalions, each to be commanded by a colonel ; the Easton battalion to be com- 
manded by Colonel Peter Kachlein. At a meeting of the committee, July 9, 1776, 
five days after the Declaration of Independence, it was resolved to form a Flying Camp, 
and to give a bounty of three pounds to all able-bodied men who would join it. 

The following officers were recommended for the Flying Camp now to be raised. 
This camp was to be divided into four battalions. The officers of the first battalion were. 
Captain, John Arndt ; First L,ieutenant, Joseph Martin ; Second Lieutenant, Peter Kach- 
lein, Jr. ; Ensign, Isaac Shimer. The second battalion were officered as follows : Captain, 
Henry Hagenbuch ; First Lieutenant, John Moritz ; Second Lieutenant, Godfrey Myer ; 
Ensign, Jacob Mummy. The officers of the third battalion were : Captain, Nicholas Horn ; 


First Lieutenant, Enoch Beer ; Second Lieutenant, Peter Buche ; Ensign, William Daniel. 
The officers of the fourth battalion were : Captain, Timothy Payne ; First Lieutenant, 
Peter Middaugh ; Second Lieutenant, Benjamin Ennis ; Ensign, Abner Everet. Lieutenant- 
Colonel, Peter Kachlein ; Major, Michael Probst ; Sergeant Major, John Spangenburg. 
Each battalion was to consist of the following numbers: First, 92; second, 120; third, 
57 ; fourth, 49. The four battalions combined would number three hundred and eighteen 
men ; a small compacft force, that could move in mass or in separate battalions at a moment's 
notice, as on the wings of the wind. The bounty paid to those joining the Flying Camp 
was to be met by a tax on the county of nine pence per pound, and single men to pay six 
shillings. Captain John Arndt's Company of the Flying Camp was to be the rifle com- 
pany. Gunsmiths and locksmiths were not allowed to enlist, as they were needed at 

General Washington was appointed Commander-in-chief of the American anny, June 
15, 1775, and thus the man who had saved the wreck of Braddock's army was called to 
lead, preserve and foimd a nation. He took command of the anny under a wide spreading 
elm at Cambridge, Massachusetts. The British held the city of Boston, and during the 
winter of 1776, Washington pressed the siege. In the following spring he felt strong enough 
to commence operations. It was resolved to seize Dorchester Heights and drive General 
Howe out of Boston. For two days the attention of the British was drawn by a fire from the 
American batteries. On the night of the 4th of IMarch the Heights were seized, and 
breast-works erected. In the morning Howe saw he must stonn the works or leave the 
city and harbor. He immediately ordered twenty-four hundred men to proceed and storm 
the position before night. But a storm arose, and the wind blew so severely that the 
vessels could not cross the bay. And during the day and night the works were so 
strengthened as to bid defiance to the British army, and Howe gave up the Capitol of 
New England. Washington supposed New York would be the next point of attack, and 
so hurried away from Boston to defend it. He had entered the city of Boston in 
triumph. The countr\- was wild with delight, and Congress voted a gold medal to be 
struck in honor of this great victory over the enemy. But the bright sun of freedom was 
soon to be covered with dense clouds and a darkness, like that of Egypt, which could 
be felt. Howe soon landed on Long Island with a powerful army of veterans led by the 
best generals of Europe. Washington ordered his army to Brooklyn, and at once prepared 
for battle. L^ntried soldiers, fresh from their farms and workshops, led by officers not 
educated to arms, were to go into this fierce contest to fight for freedom. What these 
fearless men lacked in experience was supplemented by that omnipotent emotion, love of 
one's country' and home. The Americans were beaten and forced to retreat, which they 
did in a masterly manner on the 29th of August. The American in killed was 
upwards of one thousand men. This battle took place on the 27th of August, at what is now 
Greenwood Cemetery. Into this fierce contest John Arndt led his brave men. Only thirty- 
three of his company rallied the next day at Elizabeth. The first battalion had been 
increased in number to eighty-seven, was sent to the front by this committee, and was in 
the thickest of the fight. It was one of the fiercest battles of the war. Captain Arndt 
lost many of his men ; was severely wounded ; and Colonel Peter Kachlein was, with 
Captain Arndt, taken prisoner. We copy the following muster roll of the comjiany from 
the History of the Lehigh Valley : 




Captain— John Amdt.t 
1ST Lieut.— Joseph Martin. 

Robert Scott, t 
Andrew Herster,( 
Philip Anidt.t 
Andrew Keifer.ji 

1 Daniel Lewis, t 

2 Benjamin Depue.t 

3 Thomas Sybert, 

4 John Wolf,t 

5 Christian Roth,} 

6 James Hindshaw,} 

7 John Middagh.t 

8 Alex. Sylliman,t 

9 Jacob Difford,^ 

10 Jacob McFarran,t 

11 Robert Lyle,t 

12 John Ross,} 

13 Richard Overfield,? 

14 Jacob Miller,! 

15 Martin Derr,(! 

16 Henry Siegel, 

17 Christian Stout,} 

18 Jacob Andrew, 

19 Joseph Stout,? 

20 Jacob Weidknecht,? 

21 Henry Onangst,} 

22 George Fry,? 

23 John Smith, 

24 Jost Domblaser, 

25 John Bush,} 

26 Macheas Steininger,? 

27 Jacob Wagner,} 

28 Con'd Bittenbender,} 

29 Henry Bush, Sr.,? 


Jacob Kichline,} 
George Edelman, 
Peter Richter,} 
Elijah Crawford.} 


30 Paul Reaser,} 

31 John Shurtz,} 

32 Lawrence Erb,? 

33 Isaac Berlin,} 

34 Adam Yohe,} 

35 Frederick Rieger,} 

36 J. McCracken,} 

37 James Farrel,} 

38 Jacob Engler,} 

39 Geo. Ryman, 

40 Conrad Smith,} 
4! Geo. Essigh,f 

42 Val'n Yent,} 

43 Philip Reeser, 

44 Lewis Collins,} 

45 Joseph Keller,} 

46 Peter Byer,? 

47 Conrad Metz, 

48 Peter Kern,? 

49 Henry Fatzinger,} 

50 John Kessler,} 

51 Geo. Shibly, 

52 M. Kress,} 

53 M. Kailor.f 

54 \Vm. Warrand,} 

55 F. Wilhelm,} 

56 A. Frutchy,? 

57 Henry Wolf, Jr.,} 

58 A. Everts, 

2D Lieut.— Peter Kachlein.} 
3D Lieut.— Isaac Shimer.} 

John Amdt.} 

Henry Allshouse.} 

59 Peter Lehr,? 

60 M. Deal,} 

61 Philip Bosh, I 

62 Peter Frees,? 

63 Henry Wolf, Sr.,} 

64 Isaac Shoemaker.t 

65 Dan'l Sailor,} 

66 Fred'k Wagner,} 

67 Sam'l Curry,} 

68 Henry Fretz,} 

69 Henry Bosh, Jr.,} 

70 Henry Strauss,} 

71 Isaac Koon,} 

72 Chr. Harpel,} 

73 Joseph Miner,} 

74 Bernh'd Miller,!* 

75 John Falstich, 

76 Henry Weidknecht,} 

77 Ad. Weidknecht,} 

78 J. Fraunfelter,} 

79 John Yent,} 

80 Geo. Eddinger,} 

81 Ab. Peter, J 

82 Adam Bortz,} 

83 Jacob Kreider,} 

84 Christ'n Harpel,} 2d. 

85 Jos'h Chass,} 

86 John Harpel, J 

87 James Symonton,} 

t Rallied next day at Elizabethtown. (33 men. ) 
} Killed or taken prisoner at Fort Washington. 
? Killed or taken prisoner at Long Island. 

At a meeting July 17, 1776, Peter Kachlein was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel. At 
the same meeting an order was granted to Captain Hubner for two casks of gun powder 
for the use of troops passing through this county. The meeting of the committee July 
26, 1776, gives a proper idea of the working of the organization. A father and two sons, 
some distance from Easton, were charged with being Tories ; and they were to be 
deprived of their fire arms to prevent their doing harm to the patriot cause. An officer 
was sent to get these arms of the family, but they refused to deliver them, and threat- 
ened to fire on any man who should dare to take them. An armed force went to their house, 


the whole three were brought to Eastoii and lodged in gaol, and kept there till they 
submitted and paid costs. At the meeting on the 29th of the same month another was 
imprisoned for speaking disrespe<5lfully of the committee, and kept there till he could take 
better care of his tongue. At the meeting of August 2, 1776, we find the following: 

"Upon the complaint of Lewis Gordon that Mr. had uttered opprobrious words 

against him and the cause, Resolved, that, upon due consideration, Mr. ask pardon 

of this committee in general, and of Lewis Gordon in particular, and pay his gaol fees ; 
otherwise to be remanded to gaol till next meeting." He made the apology, paid the costs, 
promised better things, and went home a wiser man. These minutes of the committee 
are kept in an elegant hand-writing, rarely a mistake in grammar or spelling ; showing 
that the school teacher was at home in the Orkney Islands. The royal courts were sus- 
pended ; the laws of King George were inoperative ; the Committee of Safety encircled 
the people with their strong arms ; their eyes, like those of Argus, looked in every 
diredlion for the first appearance of danger, and crushed the rising storm in the first 
rustling of the wind. Many a stubborn Tor\' slept in the old gaol at Easton until he would 
apologize, promise good behavior, give bonds of ^100 to ^400, sign his parole, and go 
quietly home. The committee had eyes and ears in every township in the county. 
Colonel Kachlein (Kichlein) and Captain Omdt (Arndt) were prepared to lead the 
Flying Camp where dangers were to be found. Hardly any feature of Easton' s history 
should be a matter of greater pride than the record of this remarkable body of men. The 
fearful responsibilities voluntarily assumed, and so manfully, honorably and successfully 
discharged, have made their names immortal. Lewis Gordon, Robert Traill, Peter Kach- 
lein, Jacob Arndt, John Okely, Henry Kooken, Robert Levers, Jesse Jones, Jonas Hartzel, 
Abram Berlin, Cornelius Weygant, Robert Matthias, Anthony Lattimore, Peter Beisel, 
Peter Kohler, Timothy Reed, Anthony Moore, Jacob Shoemaker, Jeremiah Traxler, and 
Nathaniel Britain, are names which frequently appear in the proceedings of this zealous 
and patriotic body of men. They conducted the affairs of Old Northampton through 
the storm of the Revolution, and when their services were no longer needed they gladly 
laid their despotic powers at the feet of the people with liberty secure. The sun of liberty 
shone out brightly in the heavens ; the power of the crown had passed away, and the 
people were free. And those men might sing with a full heart — 

" Laus Deo." 

No person had been wrongly injured, no man's property wrongly taken ; the women 
and children found prote6lion under the broad shield of these noble men, the home 
was sacred, liberty was the boon for which they toiled and prayed ; while the temple of 
law and justice was closed, that of Janus stood wide open. England had never dealt 
very tenderly with rebels, and those men who formed this remarkable committee knew 
the power with which they were contending. No doubt there was a feeling of relief 
when they were permitted to lay aside their work. They have all passed away, but their 
names are gratefully remembered, and will ever be held in high esteem by all true 
patriots. The descendants of these men of the Revolution will read over their names 
with filial pride. 

When the Revolutionary struggle began the Colonial Assembly was the legislative 
authority for the colony. It was not desirable to destrov this bodv bv violence, and so it 



was concluded to let it die by its members absenting themselves from the regular meet- 
ings. There were members who sympathized with the Revolution to accomplish this 
purpose, and so the Royal Legislative Assembly was allowed to die a quiet death. And 
yet there was an eifort made to preserve its life, and this will explain the proceedings of 
the Committee of Safety, July 9, 1776. Upon the complaint of Peter Kachlein, Ivieu- 
tenant Colonel of the first battalion of Associators in this county, representing that a 

certain John M , of the township of Easton, had falsely and maliciously calumniated 

and slandered him by circulating a report that he, the said Peter Kachlein, was proffered 

view of northampton street, looking toward the old court house, in 1845. 
[from a photo(;raph taken by r. knecht.] 

the quantity of two thousand acres of land as a bribe or reward to use his best influence 
and interest to keep up and support the Assembly of this Province ; and the said Peter 
Kachlein further represented that the courts of law being now shut up, he could find no 
redress or remedy from thence ; he therefore prayed the committee to take the same into 
consideration. Whereupon it was resolved that the parties and their evidence be heard 
iimnediately. And the said parties appearing in committee, the said Peter Kachlein pro- 
duced Cornelius Weygandt (one of the members of this committee), who solemnly declared 

that the said John M told him that the said Peter was to have two thousand acres 

of land as a bribe or reward for his supporting and upholding the Assembly of Pennsyl- 



vania, or words to that effett. The committee then adjourned for further consideration 
for the space of three hours, and being met again resumed the consideration of the afore- 
said complaint, and upon mature deliberation are of the opinion that the said John 

M shall sign a writing acknowledging his fault for circulating so injurious a report 

which had greatly hurt the characfler of the said Peter Kachlein through the whole county, 
but more especially as an associator and officer whereby the public service is likely to 
sustain some loss ; which paper being drawn up the said John refused to sign, and being 
repeatedly afterwards summoned to appear before the committee he constantly refused to 
pay any obedience thereto. Whereupon resolved, that this committee do hold up the said 

John M to this county, as a designing, dangerous, and refractor}' person ; and the 

public are desired to beware of him accordingly. It was ordered that the above transacflion 
be published in the English and German newspapers. 

x\t a meeting of the Standing Committee, December 19, 1776, Abraham Berlin, 
Anthony Lattimore, Jeremiah Trexler, Anthony Moore, Timothy Read, Jacob Shoemaker, 
and Robert Traill were present. Jacob Shoemaker delivered a letter from the Council 
of Safety of Philadelphia, with six hundred dollars to be paid toward supporting 
the sick and disabled soldiers in this town, to be paid into the hands of Abraham 

Berlin for that purpose. Mr. and Mr. appeared before the committee, and 

upon due examination, it appears that they are guilty of using language laid to their 
charge. Therefore ordered, that they be sent to the gaol of this county there to continue 
until they shall be discharged by this committee. At the same meeting of the committee, 
Captain John Arndt appeared and made complaint against three prominent men for slan- 
derous stories told about his condu<fl at the battle of Brooklyn. It was ordered that 
summonses be issued and that said parties be delivered here with evidence by the 24th 
instant. They were tried and sent to the gaol. At a meeting, December 27, 1776, the 
three men expressed their sorrow for the wrong they had done Captain Arndt, and prayed 
to be set at liberty. Their prayer was granted. They were each put under bonds of 
from twenty to forty pounds as security for their good behavior, and liberated. At a 
subsequent meeting of the Standing Committee it was resolved that a magazine of powder, 
lead and arms be immediately collected and prepared in the town of Easton, under the 
care of Abraham Berlin, for the defense of the county against the incursions and depreda- 
tions of the Indian enemy ; and that the Standing Committee write to the Council of 
Safety of Philadelphia for such ammunition and anus. 

The Journal of the Committee gives little of the History- of Easton, except as con- 
nected therewith. It was then a village of perhaps eighty houses, mostly log buildings. 
There were no bridges over the Delaware and Lehigh rivers ; the roads were few and poor. 
The streets of the town were not graded or paved. Its population did not exceed five 
hundred. The larger buildings were the German Reformed Church, the Court, 
and the Moravian House on South Third street, just below Ferry. 

The use of the Church and Court House for the sick and wounded soldiers of the 
American army has already been referred to. Many had been wounded in the battles of 
Long Island and of Brandy wine, and afterwards brought to Easton to be cared for. Captain 
John Arndt, who had been wounded and taken prisoner on Long Island, returned home ; 
and after his recovery, he was appointed to provide for them. Money was sent from Phila- 


delphia, and the town people provided from their own stores, food and clothing-, in a 
liberal measure. 

Northampton county then extended from Bucks to the New York line, to Berks and 
Northumberland on the west. Easton was the most important town in Pennsylvania, so 
near New York and Philadelphia as to be convenient of access, and yet safe from attack 
by British or Indian forces. The Journal of the Committee, and references in the Colonial 
Records and Pennsylvania Archives, show that it was the centre of revolutionary affairs 
for all of northeastern Pennsylvania. 

The Journal of the Easton Committee of Safety commences thus: "Agreeable to 
notice for that purpose given, the Freeholders and Freemen of the County of North- 
ampton, qualified to vote for Representatives in the Legislature, a very respe6lable number 
of them, met at the Court House, in Easton, in the said county, on the 21st day of Decem- 
ber, A. D. 1774; when George Taylor, Peter Kachlein, and Henry Kooken, Esqrs., were 
nominated Judges of the Election for a Committee of Obserx-ation and Inspeiftion, confor- 
mable to the Eleventh Article of the Association of the Continental Congress, and recom- 
mended by the General Assembly of this Province. The late County Committee appearing 
and resigning their authority, received the public thanks of the county for their faithful 
services." The election of a new General Committee was then held. See ante, page 124. 

It thus appears that in Northampton county there had been a committee appointed 
previous to December, 1774. The fa6l is very significant of the patriotism of the people 
of this county. They led in the van. The Newark, N. J., Committee was formed nearly 
four months after. May 4, 1775; and that of Philadelphia, July 3, 1775. Of the latter 
Committee, Benjamin Franklin was the first President. Associated with him were Robert 
Morris, John Dickenson, Daniel Roberdeau, and others, who afterwards became prominent 
in the state and nation. This was the Central Committee, and the controlling power of 
the state for nearly two years. 

The formation of the Committee at Easton preceded the battles of Concord and 
Lexington by four, and that of Bunker Hill by six, months. After these battles, and 
when it became evident that the result must be victory and freedom, or defeat and slavery, 
these committees multiplied through all of the Colonies. Communications were kept up 
by special messengers, and thus these organizations were enabled to adl with great effedl. 

Between the Philadelphia and Easton Committees, there was frequent correspondence. 
Large sums of money were sent to Jacob and John Arndt, Peter Kachlein, and Robert 
Traill. Easton was then the frontier town on the Delaware river, the centre of a large 
population, for that day, and the rallying place for the patriots of all of northeastern 
Pennsylvania. After the defeat of the American forces at the battle of Brandywine, 
September 11, 1777, Philadelphia was abandoned by them, and Easton was chosen as the 
place for depositing the public records and papers, and for coUetliling military stores. On 
September 14, 1777, it was resolved by the Supreme Executive Council (Col. Rec. 11, p. 
864), "That Mr. Sowden and Mr. Hoge be appointed to have the money and the papers 
belonging to the Public Loan Office removed to Easton, in Northampton county ; and 
John Snyder and Henry Bartholomew were employed with a wagon to convey it to said 
place." "Ordered, That Colonel Nichola furnish a guard of two men to go with the 
said wagoners. These papers, etc., are contained in a case, a barrel, and an iron chest." 

The contents were noted, and it was resolved, "That the said chest, with its contents. 



be immediately sent to Eastoii, and committed to the care of Robert Levers, Esq. , of said 
place." On the 17th of September, it was fnrther, "Ordered, That the books in the 
Library belonging to the State, be sent immediately to Easton, in Northampton county, 
and committed to the care of Robert Levers, Esq., of said county, to whose care, a case 
and a barrel containing the books and papers of the Council of Safety, and the Board 
of War, have already been sent, with the loan office money and papers." On April 23, 
1778, it was, "Ordered, That the ammunition and valuable stores be removed from Pitts- 
town, (N. J.,) to Easton, in the County of Northampton; that the wagon master of the 
County of Northampton furnish wagons to the State Navy Board for the removal of the 
stores from Pittstown, New Jersey, to Easton, in this State." In Irving' s "Life of Wash- 
ington," Vol. Ill, p. 306, a reference is made to "the public stores at Easton, Bethlehem, 
and AUentown." 

At a meeting of the Committee at Easton, June 22, 1776, Captain George Huebner 
con tracked "to deliver to them 140 lbs. good gun powder for even,- cwt. of salt petre they 
shall deliver to him, gross weight, he to be allowed at the rate of £t, per cwt. for making 
and for the casks ; he, the said Huebner, delivering the powder at Easton and fetching 
the salt petre, gratis." On the same day, "Jacob Opp, Commissioner, is appointed to 
receive all the salt petre made in the county, who shall pay for the same at the rate of 
^25 per cwt., or 5 shillings per pound." 

At a meeting, August 5, 1776, the Township Committees were directed to buy all the 
blankets from the stores and shops in their respedlive townships, and to ask ' ' the good 
people of their townships to spare from each family as many as they possibly can, for the 
u,se of the jVIilitia and Flying Camp of this county now preparing to march to New 
Bninswick, for the defence of American liberty." On August 8, 1776, at the next meeting, 
Jesse Jones reported that he had brought up from Philadelphia ^1300, "for advance money 
for our Militia." At several meetings in the fall and winter of 1776-7, reference is made 
to "the sick soldiers, now quartered in this town," and the expenses of their support. 

At a meeting, January 9, 1777, it was, "Resolved, That the following persons of the 
Easton Compan}' of Militia be detained from marching with the said company to the camp, 
viz : Robert Traill, Clerk and Treasurer to this Committee ; Henry Shouse, joiner, 
employed in making coffins for such of the soldiers as shall die in Easton ; Henr%' 
Shnyder and Nicholas Troxell, shoemakers; Abraham Berlin, Jr., gunsmith; Jacob 
Berlin, blacksmith ; and Peter Ealer, keeper of the gaol of this county." It thus appears, 
that the entire able-bodied male citizens of the town were in arms and ready to march in 
the service of their country ; as also, that a resolution of the Committee was required, to 
designate those who must remain at home. 

Notwithstanding the confli(5t of arms, the people desired that social order should be 
preserved. At a meeting, August 2, 1776, it was, "Resolved, That this Committee will 
take upon them to keep the peace and call offenders to justice, in the name of the State 
of Pennsylvania, until it shall be otherwise ordered by the convention, or any other 
superior authority of this state, for the preservation of men's lives, liberties, and reputa- 
tions," etc. On the same day, it was, "Resolved, That this Committee will take into 
consideration the complaint of Myer Hart against Barnet Levi." The Journal contains 
many complaints for injuries, usually redressed by the civil courts ; but the Committee 
did not a.ssume jurisdi6lion over capital offences, such as were punishable witli deatli. 



While "the Courts were shut up" in 1776 and 1777, there could be no convidlions for 
crimes ; and there could be no better example of the capacity of the people for self-o-ov- 
ernment than that presented by the citizens of Northampton county in those years. 

The proceedings of the Committee were always orderly. A complaint was made, 
summons issued, and a hearing had at an appointed time, when the accused person was 
confronted with the witnesses against him. He was heard in his defence with his 
witnesses ; then, after a short deliberation, the judgment was pronounced and at once 
executed. Disobedience to the summons, or refusal to comply with the sentence, was 
punished by imprisonment in the ' ' gaol. ' ' But the powers of this Committee soon ceased. 
They were no longer needed. The adl of the 6th of April, 1776, was the last adl of the 
session of the General Assembly, which commenced September 30, 1775, and ended the 
6th of April, 1776. It was the last exercise of Legislative authority under the Proprietary 
Governments, to which succeeded the Legislative authority established by the Consti- 
tution of Pennsylvania, of the 28th of September, 1776. Dallas Laws, Vol. I, p. 720. 

The last Court of Quarter Sessions for this county, under British authority, was held 
at Easton, on June 18, 1776, "in the sixteenth year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord, 
George the Third, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King, 
Defender of the Faith," etc. But little was done at this term ; no Courts were held for 
one year. The next Court was held June 17, 1777, "for the County of Northampton, in 
the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania," before John Arndt, Thomas Sillyman, Thomas 
Hartman, Benjamin Depui, Samuel Rea, William McNair, Lewis Steckel, Frederick 
Leinback, Peter Moyer, Matthias Probst, and Jacob Horner, Justices of the Peace. The 
entire proceedings of the session are contained on one page of the Court Record, upon 
which is this entr>' : "The Court being opened, the Sheriff, John Jennings, Esq., reported 
that no precepts or any other process had been delivered to him." The next Court of 
Quarter Sessions was held September 16, 1777, before Justices of the Peace as above 
named. Little was done except to appoint constables and to recommend to the President 
and the Executive Council, persons to keep public houses of entertainment; "Provided, 
they all had, or should take the test" oath. At December sessions, 1777, one indi(5lment 
was found and the trial postponed to the next term, which was held March 17, 1778, 
before Justices as before stated. Courts were held in June, September, and December of 
this year, and regularly thereafter. 

In the Court of Common Pleas, the last term under English rule, was June, 1776. 
The next term was held under the Commonwealth, September 16, 1777. There had been 
some adlions and judgments entered in the meantime, which were confirmed by the 
Court. It was at this term, that on motion of Robert Levers, and upon the recommen- 
dation of Daniel Clymer, Esq., Robert Traill, Esq., was admitted as an Attorney of 
this Court. There were many suits brought to December Term, 1777, and thereafter 
Courts were regularly held. There were no Courts from June Term, 1776, to September 
Term, 1777. The attorneys whose names appear most frequently thereafter were Traill, 
Read, Currie, Clymer, Biddle and Robison. Though the county was then geographically 
large, yet there was little done in the Courts. One small docket of 361 pages contains 
all the anions from December, 1765, to December, 1781, a period of sixteen years. At a 
Court held at Easton May 16, 1779, William McCoy, Daniel Monaghan, and Patrick 
Drogan, were tried and convidled of murder. They were sentenced to be hung, and that 



sentence being approved, the Supreme Executive Council fixed Saturday, June 12th, 
following, for its execution. Col. Rec, Vol. XII, p. 5. In the same Vol., p. 535, we find 
that in October, 1780, Ralph Morden was convi<5led of high treason and sentenced to be 
hung. This sentence was ordered by the Council to be executed on Saturday, the 25th 
day of November, following. 

Easton has frequent mention in the Colonial Records and Pennsylvania Archives. 
Enough has been given to show, in some measure, her importance in those days. We 
come now to what was probably the most exciting military incident of Easton's early 
history — Sullivan's Expedition against the Indians. 

Note. — The patriots of Northampton, whose names appear upon the records of the Committee of Safety, 
were of different nationalities. Taylor, Gray, the Craigs, Horners, Browns, Kennedys, Hays, Wilsons, Millers, 
and many others, were from the north of Ireland. Jesse Jones was of Welch descent. Traill, Gordon, Nielson, 
McFall,- Gaston, and Hay, were of Scotch ancestry. The Amdt, Kachlein, Hess, Shnyder, Odenwelder, 
Mixsell, Horn, Ludwig, Lerch, Wagener, Schnable, Kreider, and other families, were of German origin. The 
De Pui, La Bar, La Wall, and De Long families, were of French-Huguenot descent. The Van Campens, Van 
Ettens, Van Aukens, and Van Sickles, were from Holland. The Everett, Barton, Read, Bush, Jayne, Mead, 
Washburn, and Walls families, were from England. Manuel Gonsales was of Spanish origin. 

So, there are nine names, representing the same number of nationalities, prominent in the early history of 
New York. Schuyler, was of Holland ; Herkimer, of German ; John Jay, of French ; Li\'ingston, of Scotch ; 
Clinton, of Irish ; Morris, of Welsh ; Hoffman, of Swedish ; and Steuben, of Prussian, descent. Alexander 
Hamilton was born in the Island of Nevis, one of the English West India Islands. His father was a Scotch- 
man, and his mother, a French-Huguenot lady. The early settlement of New York, under Dutch auspices, 
affords an example of religious toleration, very remarkable for that era. Around New Amsterdam were many 
nationalities, of diverse creeds, who lived in peace. There were Hollanders, Swedes, Waldenses, French 
Huguenots, Scotch, English, Irish, and Germans. Later a colony of Germans from the Palatinate settled on 
the Mohawk, many of whom afterwards came to Berks county, Pennsylvania. Conrad Weiser, the celebrated 
Indian Interpreter, was of this stock. 

Thus was there a blending here of the best blood of the world, and the result was independence of thought 
and adtion, self-reliance, and at last, freedom throughout the land — the land of soul-liberty — our countn,-. 

" It is the land that freemen till, 
That sober-suited Freedom chose ; 
The land where, girt with friends or foes, 
A man may .speak the thing he will." 


Organized at Easton — Arrival of Artillery and Soldiers from the National Army — Advance of Pioneer Corps — 
Sullivan's Road — March to Wyoming— Union of Forces with General Clinton — The Battle — Devastation 
of the Indian Country — Return to Easton — Depreciation of the Currency. 

^|[g|ANY years had passed since the last of the Indian treaties had been held 
at the "Forks of the Delaware." Parsons, Gordon, and others, who had 
so well cared for the interests of the town had finished their earthly labors 
and were at rest. But their mantles had fallen on others who had bravely 
taken up their work, and to whom was given the great privilege of wit- 
nessing its triumphant success. Great Britain was in 1775, beyond ques- 
tion, the ruling power of Europe. France had been beaten in the seven 
years war, which closed in 1763, and had lost the greater part of her 
colonial possessions. In the interval of peace England had become rich 
and powerful. Her ships were on every sea, and the nations of the civi- 
lized world were but her tributaries. The united American colonies, 
without money, or public property, or a treasury, or national credit, had entered into war 
with this nation, and had met with varying success. Angered by the desperate courage 
and continued resistance of the colonists, the British sovereign resolved to call to his aid 
his Indian allies, the most faithful and powerful of whom were the Iroquois, or Six 
Nations, whose headquarters were south of Lake Ontario, in what is now New York State. 
It was their influence which brought against the colonies the combined Indian forces from 
the Mohawk to the great lakes of the northwest. Then was heard the fierce yell of the 
savage along the frontier settlements ; then the torch and the tomahawk performed their 
deadly work ; then were outrage and murder rife ; then was the irruption of Indians, led 
by Englishmen and Tories, into the valley of the Susquehanna, and the slaughter of 

The defeat and surrender of Burgo)-ne at Saratoga, in October, 1777, had left the 
British without forces for a regular campaign in the year 1778, and it was determined to 
employ the Indians and Tories in carrying on a war of desolation on the frontier. The 
invasion of Wyoming was resolved upon, because her sons had early declared against 
British usurpations, and had freely volunteered in the revolutionary anny. It was made; 
the fair valley was devastated, the houses burned, the crops destroyed, and her brave men 
slaughtered. A thrill of horror passed through the country at this outrage. General 
Washington took prompt a(?lion, and on Ocftober 26th, following, addressed a communi- 
cation to Congress in reference to an " Expedition against Chemung, ' ' enclosing reports 
of Governor Clinton, and Generals Schuyler and Hand; on which it was, "Resolved, 
That Congress approve the reasons for not undertaking, for the present, an expedition 
against that place." Journals of Congress, Vol. Ill, p. 108. But the purpose was not 
abandoned. On February 25, 1779, Congress "Resolved, That the representation of the 
circumstances of the western frontiers, communicated by a committee of the General 



Assembly of Pennsylvania, and copies of the memorials and letters from the governors of 
Connedlicut and New York, respedling the depredations on the said frontiers, be trans- 
mitted to the commander-in-chief, who is direcfled to take effedlual measures for the pro- 
tedlion of the inhabitants and chastisement of the savages." lb. lb., p. 212. 

Washington acted promptly. He was a grand judge of men, and he ordered General 
John Sullivan to carry the war into the country of the Six Nations, "to cut off their set- 
tlements, destroy their crops, and infli(5l upon them every other mischief, which time and 
circumstances would permit." The plan of the campaign was that one division should 
ascend the valley of the North Branch of the Susquehanna to its interseclion with Tioga 
river, under General Sullivan ; and the other, from the north, under General Clinton, to 
descend the Susquehanna, from its source; and after forming ajuncftion, to march along 
the Chemung river into the Indian country. General Sullivan made Easton his head- 
quarters in preparing for his campaign, doubtless after con- 
sultation with General Washington, who was so sensible of 
its great importance, and so extremely anxious for its success, 
that he wrote, on July 5, 1779, the following letter (Penn. 
Archives, Vol. VII, p. 535), urging the Executive Council to 
give all the aid in their power: "I must entreat, in the most 
pressing tenns, that the Council will be pleased, without delay, 
to take effedlual measures to have the number of men origi- 
nally requested sent forward. The Council are fully sensible 
of the importance of success in the present e:<f)edition, and 
of the fatal mischief which would attend a defeat. We should 
perhaps lose an army, and our frontiers would be desolated and 
deluged in blood. A large reinforcement has been sent from 
Canada to join the savages. They are collecfling their forces 
for a vigorous opposition, and if they are successful, their de- 
vastations will exceed anything that we have yet experienced. 
Their means will be increased, and their cruelty will be em- 
boldened by success and sharpened by revenge. It was not 
in my power to send a greater Continental force. I have stretched this string as hard as 
it will possibly bear, and relied on the further aid of the States more immediately con- 
cerned. I hope I shall not be eventually disappointed. I flatter myself, that the Council 
will think my anxiety on this occasion natural, and will excuse my importunity." 

As we have seen, Congress had authorized this expedition, February 25, 1779. This 
letter is dated July 5, 1779. The summer was passing away, and the forces promised from 
Pennsylvania have not yet appeared. General Sullivan had written the Council upon 
this matter. In his letter dated, "Headquarters, Easton, May 31, 1779," he says: "I 
am informed by Mr. Blaine," the Commissary, "that the stores on the Susquehanna have 
no guards to secure them. I always supposed that the ranging companies from your State 
would pass by that route and guard the stores to Wyoming. I must entreat of your 
Excellency to send them on to Easton, if they are ready ; if the whole are not prepared 
to march, I wish such as possibly can be spared, may be sent on. Should the whole fail 
to reach me in time, I must request the favor of your Council to call out a number of >our 
militia from the neighborhood of Sunbury for the purpose. I have just returned from the 



great Swamps; I find the road in such forwardness, that I shall march the army for 
Wyoming, this week." Pennsylvania Archives, Vol. VII, p. 450. But the men were 
not furnished. General Sullivan then wrote to Congress, lb. lb., p. 568, as follows: 
"Headquarters, Wyoming, July 21, 1779. General Washington, in consequence of my 
letters, wrote the Executive Council of Pennsylvania, for the rangers and riflemen, and 
the President frequently wrote me that they would be ready in season. Not a man of 
them has joined us, nor are any about to do it. The reason assigned by them is, that the 
quartermaster gave such extravagant prices to boatmen, that they all enlisted in the boat 
service. But this must be a mistake, for we have not a hundred boatmen enlisted for the 
army, and but forty-two pack horsemen, so that I must draft for boatmen and pack horse- 
men." Wagons, teams, and drivers were needed to transport the baggage. On p. 388 
of same volume of Archives, we find the following letter : 

"Headquarters, Easton, May 11, 1779. 
To President Reed : 

I find that a law of your State will much impede the intended Expedition, unless 
your Excellency will procure an order from the Executive Council, impowering the 
Quartermaster to impress in this county such wagons, horses, etc. , as may be found neces- 
sary for forwarding the stores, etc., over to the Susquehanna. You will easily discover 
the necessity of this measure, and I doubt not, of your readiness to comply with this 
request. ' ' 

President Reed, in his reply, intimated that the word "impress" was too harsh for 
use in Pennsylvania. General Sullivan courteously acknowledged that he had used the 
wrong term, and attributed it to his ignorance of Pennsylvania law. This letter bears 
date, Easton, May 26, 1779. Penna. Archives, Vol. VII, p. 439. In it he thanks the 
Council for sending "three blank warrants for teams, wagons, etc.," to fill out at his 
pleasure, and thus obtain the means of transportation. The warrants were for North- 
ampton, Bucks and Berks counties, though used only in the first two. Of one hundred 
wagons needed, he procured sixty from Northampton and forty from Bucks. Thus were 
his means of transportation provided. And now the town is roused from its quiet. All 
eyes were turned to the Jersey shore. The First New Jersey Regiment approaches through 
the village of Phillipsburg, and martial music echoes from the surrounding hills, while 
the troops were transported over the Delaware in boats. Colonel Pro<5lor's Artillery thun- 
dered forth a welcome. On May 26th, the Third New Jersey Regiment crossed the river. 
A German Battalion, and Major Powell's command, had come in April. In May appeared 
a regiment from York County, Pennsylvania. Then came a regiment from New Hamp- 
shire, the neighbors of the heroes of Concord, Lexington and Bunker Hill. There was 
also a regiment commanded by Captain John Paul Schotts, a German ofl!icer, who served 
in the army of Frederick the Great. 

Thus was Easton filled with soldiers. Their tents were pitched along the Delaware 
and Lehigh rivers, and up the Bushkill creek. The officers occupied the hotels. The 
Court House in the Square was filled ; so was the old Durham boat store house of Chris- 
tian Butz. The heavy wagons of the farmers of Northampton and Bucks came slowly in. 
Never before had so large a number of troops congregated here. There was an army of 
twenty-five hundred men, with teamsters for the transport wagons and drivers for the pack 



on the 2oth at Choiider' 

horses. The hour for the inarch was at hand. The advance corps of pioneers had opened 
a road, and all was in commotion incident to the great campaign, the results of which 
were to influence for good or ill the destiny of our countr}% and to draw the attention of 
the civilized world. There was then no road up the Bushkill creek beyond the mill, near 
the present county bridge, next the planing mill ; and Sullivan street, more generally 
known as "Lover's Lane," was then made by the pioneer corps of General Sullivan's army. 
It ran by the reservoir of the Easton Water Company, and thence westwardly direclly 
over Chestnut Hill. 

On the morning of June i8, 1779, the troops were early in motion, and as they 
marched to the martial music of fife and drum, the soldiers were shouting the refrain — 

" Don't you hear your General say, 
Strike your tents and march away." 

The line of march extended more than two miles. The army encamped the first 
night at Wind Gap, near Heller's ; on June 19th at Larner's, on the Pocono Mountain ; 
Camp : 21st at Fatigue Camp ; 2 2d at Sullivan's Camp, at Great 
Meadows, seven miles from the Wyoming \'alley, 
where it arrived on the 23d of June. The soldiers 
had now reached the beautiful vale which had so re- 
cently been the scene of rapine, outrage and murder ; 
of most savage cruelties inflicfted by the Indians under 
the lead of Tories and British officers. But the day 
of vengeance was at hand. If aught had been needed 
to nerve the heart and strengthen the arm of ever>' 
soldier in the ranks, the recital of the wrongs suffered 
by the inhabitants, the charred timbers of the houses 
burned, and the destrudlion wrought everywhere, 
would have sufficed. The brief accounts of the march 
handed down to us show that there was no flinching 
thereafter from the fight. Each man was filled with 
the desire of avenging the vidlims of that cruel onslaught. Such an army was invincible 
in such a cause. At last had deliverance come to the people of fair Wyoming ; and we can 
well believe that the brave men and noble women of the valley welcomed the anny with 
joy and exultation. The river was lined with the boats sent for the transportation of pro- 
visions, artillery, and the munitions of war. Before the march began, a soldier who had 
been tried and condemned at Easton, was executed. Twenty of a German regiment 
were condemned to death for desertion ; but intercession was made for them, a pardon 
granted, and they were restored to the ranks. 

Upon the evening of the 28th of July, Colonel Reed arrived with ninety wagons 
loaded with provisions ; and on July 31st, the whole army was on the march. Meanwhile 
had every movement been watched by the enemy, who resorted to ever\- device to delay 
and harass the advancing ann>-. Brant, the celebrated Iroquois Chief, attacked its right 
flank. McDonald, with a combined force of British troops and Indians, led by Hiokoto, a 
veteran Seneca warrior, came down on his left. Messages came from right and left, 
beseeching aid ; but General Sullivan was not to be turned from the grand purpose of his 




campaign, and steadily pressed forward to Tioga Point, near the present site of Elmira, 
New York, where he arrived on August 11, 1779. 

As already stated. General James Clinton, of New York, had been ordered to co-ope- 
rate with General Sullivan in his expedition against the Iroquois. Crossing the Mohawk 
river he came to Lake Otsego, one of the sources of the river Susquehanna, down which 
he was to join Sullivan. Upon his arrival at the lake, he had built two hundred batteaux, 
for the transportation of his army. And here an unforeseen difficulty presented itself. 
The water in the outlet was too low to admit the passage of his boats. He immediately 
damned the lake, created an artificial flood, and then suddenly breaking the centre of his 
dam, produced such a current as sufficed to carry his boats rapidly to the place of jundlion 
at Tioga Point, where he arrived on August 2 2d, midst the cheers of the army under 
Sullivan, and the roar of his artillery. The following account of the battle is taken from 
Miner's History : 

"On the north side of the Tioga river, where there was a bend fonning almost a right 
angle, on a steep gravelly bank, the enemy had thrown up a breast work, nearly half a 
mile in length ; this was to be the scene of the final battle. Their works were masked by 
shrubs stuck in the ground as if still growing. The divisions of the army soon took 
position, and all was ready for the attack. General Sullivan promptly gave orders to Poor 
to scale the hills on the right, rouse the Indians from their lurking places at the point of 
the bayonet ; press on with spirit ; give them no time to shelter themselves behind the 
trees, and then to wheel, fall on their left flank and rear. Pro(flor took good position and 
played vigorously with his artillery'. Parr with his whole rifle corps was adlively engaged. 
Spalding and Franklin, with the Wyoming troops, were in the thickest of the fight. 
General Hand led his infantry gallantly into the storm of battle. Generals Clinton and 
Maxwell, with their forces, were held in reserve, impatient at their restraint. Tlie enemy 
contested the ground with determined resolution until Poor had cleared the hills of the 
sharp shooters of the enemy, and was coming down like an avalanche on their left flank 
and rear, when their whole force broke and fled with precipitate haste. 

"The enemy did not attempt to rally, nor was further resistance offered to the advance 
of the combined armies. About thirty were killed in the battle, and a number wounded. 
But there was not a moment's delay. The dead were buried ; the wounded cared for ; and 
then the destrudlion of the enemy's country was commenced. It was the last of August. 
Corn and beans were ripening in the fields ; these and all other vegetables were destroyed. 
An orchard of fifteen hundred peach trees, bending with ripening fruit, near an Indian 
town, between the Seneca and Cayuga lakes, was destroyed and the trees cut down. The 
combined armies, nearly four thousand strong, marched through, laying waste the whole 
country. Forty Indian towns were laid in ashes, the largest containing one hundred and 
twenty houses. Every field of growing corn was destroyed and every cabin burned. 
The quantity of corn destroyed was estimated at 160,000 bushels." 

The work of devastation occupied the amiy for one month. The orders of General 
Washington, already referred to, had been obeyed to the very letter ; and the combined 
armies returned from the field of vi6lory. The army of General Sullivan came down the 
north branch of the Susquehanna to Wilkes-Barre ; and from thence marched to Easton 
over the road made but a few months before. On their arrival the soldiers were ' ' billeted ' ' 
upon the town. An officer passed through the streets and marked upon each house the 



Yet their stav was brief, and in a few davs Easton 

number the family must entertain, 
resumed its peaceful habit. 

The expedition thus brought to a successful close was one of the most remarkable in 
the war of the Revolution. No better evidence of its importance can be given than the 
adlion taken by Congress in relation thereto, on Thursday, Oclober 14, 1779. "A letter 
of the 9th from General Washington was read, enclosing a letter of the 28th of September 
from Major General Sullivan, at Chemung, giving an account of his successful expedition 
against the hostile Indians. Whereupon, on motion of Mr. Gerry, it was, Resolved, 

[l-"R(lM A 


That the thanks of Congress be given to his Excellency, General Washington, for diretling, 
and to Major General Sullivan and the brave officers and soldiers under his command for 
effecflually executing an important expedition against such of the Indian nations as, 
encouraged by the Councils and condudled by the officers of his Britannic Majesty, had 
perfidiously waged an unpro\oked and cruel war against these United States, laid waste 
many of their defenceless towns, and with savage barbarity slaughtered tlie inhabitants 
thereof. Resolved, That it will be proper to set apart the second Thursday in December, 
next, as a day of general thanksgiving in these United States, and that a committee of 
four be appointed to prepare a recommendation to the said States for this purpose. The 


members chosen : Mr. Root, Mr. Hoi ton, Mr. Muhlenberg, and Mr. Morris." Journals of 
Congress, Vol. Ill, pp. 2;]-], 378. Against such contemporaneous testimony, the carping and 
disingenuous comments of Bancroft, in his History of the United States, Vol. X, pp. 
230, 231, 232, can have little weight. 

There is but little known of the history of Easton in the concluding years of the 
war. Business was prostrate, and the closest economy required. A further disheartening 
complication arose from the depreciation of the public money. The expenses of the war 
had been heavy, and the calls upon the people for clothing, food, and military stores, very 
many. Bills of credit to a very large amount had been authorized by Congress in the 
year 1779, in addition to previous issues. On February 3, 1779, an issue was resolved of 
$5,000,160; on February 19, following, a further issue of $5,000,16; on April i, fol- 
lowing, another issue of 15,000,160; on July 17, following, further issues of $15,000,280. 
See Vol. HI, Annals of Congress, pp. 195, 207, 242, 324. Thus more than $30,000,000 
were authorized within five months. There could be but one result ; specie disappeared 
from circulation. The entire paper currency issued amounted to $200,000,000. Confi- 
dence was lost. Taxation could not be resorted to, for the country was poor, without 
trade, agriculture, or commerce abroad. Hence great exertions were made to give value 
to the currency. Meetings were held throughout the State for this purpose. Among 
them was one held at Allen township, in this county, at the house of John Siegfried, at 
which Colonel Henry Geiger presided, and Robert Traill was secretary. Addresses were 
made and resolutions passed, expressing a belief that this currency would be redeemed. 
But these exertions were fruitless; the bills sank steadily in value, until in 1781, they 
became nearly worthless, as is shown by the following receipt of an Easton inn keeper for 
entertaining an agent of the State : 

"Easton, March 17, 1781. 

To nip of toddy 10 dollars. 

" cash 8 " 

" cash 12 

" I bowl of punch 30 

" I bowl of punch 30 " 

" I grog 8 " 

" washing 49 

" I bowl of punch 30 " 

" I grog 8 " 

" I bowl of punch. 30 " 

" 21 quarts of oats 62 " 

" hay 90 " 

" 12 meals vi(ftuals 260 

" lodging 40 

Total 667 

Received the contents of the above. 

JACOB OPP, Inn Keeper." 

See History of the Lehigh Valley, p. 109. The liquor bill was $146. This was 
probably then the leading hotel ; for the first pavement of which we now have any account 
was laid from the Public Square to "Opp's Tavern," at the corner of Northampton and 
Hamilton .streets, now the Central Hotel. 


The depreciation of the currency became of such grave public concern that it was 
regulated by legislation. In Dallas' Laws, Vol. I, p. 882, it was enadled, "That the fol- 
lowing scale of depreciation shall be the rule to determine the value of the several debts, 
contracfts, and demands, in this a(5l mentioned compared with silver and gold:" 

One thousand seven hundred and seventy -seven. 

January, one and a half. July, three. 

February, one and a half. August, three. 

March, two. September, three. 

April, two and a half. Oftober, three. 

May, two and a half. November, three. 

June, two and a half. December, four. 
One thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight. 

January, four. July. ^o\i\. 

February, five. August, five. 

March, five. September, five. 

April, six. OAober, five. 

May, five. November, six. 

June, four. December, six. 
One thousand seven hundred and seventy-nine. 

January, eight. July, nineteen. 

February, ten. August, twenty. 

March, ten and a half. September, twenty-four. 

April, seventeen. OAober, thirty. 

May, twenty-four. November, thirty-eight and one-half. 

June, twenty. December, forty-one and one-half 
One thousand seven hundred and eighty. 

January, forty and a half. Jul.v. sixty-four and a half. 

February, forty-seven and a half. August, seventy. 

March, sixty-one and a half. September, seventy-two. 

April, sixty-one and a half. OAober, seventy-three. 

May, fifty-nine. November, seventy-four. 

June, sixty-one and a half. December, seventy-five. 
One thousand seven hundred and eighty-one. 

January, seventy-five. February, seventy-five. 

This a(5l was passed April 3, 1781. We have given this table that our readers may 
realize, in some measure, the condition of affairs, when the war of the Revolution was, 
praiflically, ended by the surrender of Comwallis, at Yorktown, 0<5lober 19, 1781. 

The following list of the taxable inhabitants, with the valuation of their property, in 
1780, will show who then resided here : 

Henry Alshouse, Sr., joiner .^435 

Henry Alshouse, Jr., joiner 49 

Philip Achenbach, laborer 120 

Jacob Able, inn keeper 260 

keeper of the ferry 680 

Henry Barnet, tanner 970 

Abraham Berlin, Esq 325 

.Abraham Berlin, Jr., blacksmith 130 

Jacob Berlin, blacksmith 260 

Widow of Henry Bush, inn keeper 406 

Widow of George Bush, inn keeper 69 

F.rnst Becker, baker 143 


John Batt, skindresser ^224 

Chris. Bittenbender, skindresser 161 

George " nailer igj 

Henry Brown, tailor 126 

Nathaniel " " 280 

John Brotzman, " ny 

John Bishop, " 48 

Peter Batchman, joiner ,2 

Henry Bush, carpenter 25 

George Balmer, surveyor 05 

John Coleman, barber ^8 

John Deebler, miller 48 

Peter Eahler, gaoler 107 

Andrew Epkelmyer, laborer ' 65 

Arnold Eberhard, weaver 1S3 

George Ernfreed, blacksmith 260 

Henry Fullert ^go 


Nicholas Funston, farmer 


James " " 48 

Lewis Gordon, (Est.) 243 

Jacob Grotz, Sr., farmer 143 

" Jr., carpenter 146 

Abel Gibbons, skindresser 48 

and the house he lives in 48 

Myer Harts, storekeeper 2095 



and the house he lives in 464 

Adam Haj', weaver 97 

Christian Holland, nailor 


Abraham Horn, joiner 48 

and the house he lives in 48 

Jacob Hernt, innkeeper ■ 82 

and the house he lives in 250 

Conrad Houseman, butcher 48 

and the house he lives in 48 

Christopher Hartzell, joiner 151 

R. L. Hooper, Jr., D. Q. M. G'l 1760 

John Hatfield, cooper 30 

Henry Hain, carpenter 25 

Conrad Ihrie, Sr., innkeeper 351 

" " Jr., treasurer 114 

John Kary, carpenter 25 

Peter Kachline, Sr., miller .... 2095 

Andrew " 195 

Lewis Knouse, saddler 291 

Abraham Labar, tailor 545 

Michael Lehn, laborer 48 

Widow Lyons, shopkeeper 78 

Andrew Ledlie, physician 468 

Burnard Levi, storekeeper 260 

John Mush, shoemaker 245 

John Myer, farmer 148 

John Murphy, watchmaker 161 

Widow Nungesser, innkeeper 620 

and the estate 1312 

John Nicholas, butcher 346 


Jacob Nunnemacher, cooper ;f i86 

Joseph Nathan, shopkeeper 291 

Jacob Opp, innkeeper 829 

Michael Opp, weaver 273 

Christian Pfeiffer, shopkeeper 297 

John Reese, tailor 245 

Jacob " " 20 

John Randal, shoemaker 20 

Widow Reeger, " 82 

Lew-is " mason no 

Adam Reeser, laborer 84 

Conrad Rohn, " 114 

Peter Reghter, cooper 48 

Herman Snyder, " 349 

Peter " tanner 760 

John Simon, hatter 232 

Cath. Spering, " 69 

Lewis Shaub, joiner 69 

Frederick Shouse, mason 326 

Henry " joiner no 

John Spangenberg, shopkeeper 298 

John Shock, innkeeper 585 

Theophilus Shannon, innkeeper 801 

George Taylor, esquere 82 

and the house he lives in 285 

Nicholas Traill, shoemaker 161 

Robert " " 378 

Adam Yohe, Sr., " 3S0 

" Jr., •• 25 

Henry Young, locksmith 97 

John " armorer 232 

Michael Yohe, shoemaker 232 

David Wagoner, miller 1151 

Frederick " innkeeper . . 255 

Robert Levers, prothonotary ... 82 


Thomas Anderson, commissions 200 

John Herster, laborer 160 

Adam Crafft, tailor 170 

Christian Shouse, joiner 170 

John Funston, laborer 170 

Isaac Berlin, armorer 170 

Robert Hannon, tailor 150 

Merits Bishop, watchmaker 160 




The family of Hon. Samuel Sitgreaves was of English origin, and settled at Lan- 
cashire, England, as early as 1626. In September, 1729, a descendant came to Philadelphia, 
where William Sitgreaves, the father of the subject of this sketch, was born, December 
14th, in the same year. He married Miss Snsanna Deshon, at Boston, Mass., in the year 
1756. Their children were ten in number, four daughters and six sons. Of these, four — 
three sons and one daughter— died in infancy. Another son died at Germantown, near 
Philadelphia, and was buried there. Of the remaining sons, Samuel was bom in Phila- 
delphia, March 16, 1764. 

Mr. William Sitgreaves was a merchant of wealth and position in his day ; and gave 
to his son Samuel every advantage in acquiring an education. Philadelphia, even at that 
early day, was well supplied with schools, taught by graduates of the best of the English 
Universities. After completing his course of studies, Samuel entered his father's counting 
room, where he acquired a thorough mercantile education and a systematic method of 
conducfling business, which was observed throughout his eventful life. 

Philadelphia was at that time a centre of social and intelledlual culture. From 
Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas, and the West Indies, came the children of planters 
and merchants, to her schools and her University. After 1765, the Medical Department 
of the University, established in that year, with four professorships, became the centre of 
medical teaching on this continent. 

Though too young for military service, yet it cannot be doubted that he eagerly 
watched the progress of events throughout the war; and when in 1781, from the tower of 
the old State House, came the cry: "Twelve o'clock and Cornwallis is taken;" which 
first, when doubtiugly repeated, quickly ran through the whole city, we can well believe 
he was one of that joyous throng of shouting freemen who assembled round that historic 
building. There can also be no question that he was a most careful observer of both state 
and national affairs, between the close of the Revolution and the adoption of the Federal 
Constitution, September 17, 1787. He had personal knowledge of the defedls of the 
Articles of Federation, and he was therefore peculiarly prepared to comprehend the nature 
and advantages of the new national government. His eager mind caught the underlying 
principles of free government, ' ' of the people, by the people, for the people ;' ' and he 
thus became, at a later day, when a member of Congress, a powerful aid to Washington 
and the elder Adams. 

After the completion of a thorough academical and mercantile education, Mr. Sitgreaves 
became a student at law with Hon. James Wilson, one of the most able men of his day, a 
Signer of the Declaration, a member of the Provincial Convention of Pennsylvania in 
1774, of the Continental Congress, and one of the first Judges of the Supreme Court of 
the United States, appointed by President Washington. James A. Bayard, of Delaware, 
afterwards Congressman and Senator from that State, and one of the Commissioners for 
negotiating peace with Great Britain, after the war of 1812, was a fellow student. 

Young Sitgreaves was admitted to the bar, at Philadelphia, September 3, 1783, being 
then in the twentieth year of his age, with a reputation for talent, learning and ability, 
al.eady well established. Soon after, on November 27, 1783, he married Miss Francenia 



Allibone, of that city. Three children were born of this marriage, the first two in Phila- 
delphia, and one in Easton, September 9, 1786. The name of Samuel Sitgreaves appears 
on the records of the courts of this county as early as 1779. 

In 1786 he removed to Easton, where he became very prominent, both as an advocate 
and statesman. In 1790 he was elected a member of the Convention to form a Consti- 
tution for the State of Pennsylvania. In that body he took a most prominent part, advo- 
cating with great ability the most liberal features of that instrument, which is an 
embodiment of the fundamental principles of a free government. Among his colleagues 

in this Convention were Albert Gallatin, member of the fourth, fifth and sixth Congresses, 
and Secretary of the Treasury from 1802 to 1814 ; United States Senator in 1793-4; 
Thomas McKean, a Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and Governor of the State from 
1799 to 1808; Simon Snyder, afterwards Governor from 1808 to 181 7; William Findlay, 
Governor from 1S17 to 1820; Joseph Hiester, Crovernor from 1820 to 1823; James Wilson, 
of whom mention has been made, and others, then the ablest men of the State. Of such 
men was Samuel Sitgreaves the peer in every regard. 

His reputation so rapidly extended that he was elected a member of the fourth and 
fifth Congresses, 1795-6-7-8. Though lie was but thirt\- \-ears of age, he became, at once. 



among the foremost in debate ; and earl}- distinguished himself in the defence of President 
Washington, who had refused to send the documents relating to Jay's Treaty to the 
House of Representatives. A careful examination of the Congressional Reports shows 
that few members were heard more frequently in debate during his four years of Congres- 
sional life ; and as was to be expedled, every effort bore the impress of a vigorous and 
cultivated intelle(5l, fully fitted for the work of preparing and laying deeply the founda- 
tions of the temple of liberty, regulated b>- law. Meanwhile, he had lost the wife of his 
youth. He was married a second time, at Philadelphia, June 6, 1776, to Miss Maria 
Angelina Kemper, a daughter of Mr. Daniel Kemper, of New York City, at the house of 
Dr. Jackson, an uncle of the bride. Mr. Sitgreaves was then a member of Congress from 
this State. 

Probably the most brilliant periods in the life of this distinguished man were his 
advocacy of Jay's Treaty, in 1794, and his mission to England, in 1800. It was his 
fortune to have served in the last Congress of Washington's administration, and the first 
of President John Adams. Very serious difficulties had arisen between Great Britain and 
the United States, growing from unsettled boundaries, and the attacks of the former 
power upon our commerce ; war seemed inevitable. To avoid this calamity. President 
Washington resolved to send a special messenger to London to effe6l an amicable arrange- 
ment of the points in dispute, and nominated John Jay, then Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, who resigned in order to accept the appointment of special 
minister. He was successful in his mission, and a treaty was agreed upon, November 19, 
1794, which arrived in this countrv' in March, 1795, just after the adjournment of Con- 
gress. At a Special Session of the Senate, called in June, the treaty was ratified. It 
needed only the signature of Washington. Meanwhile the treaty was surreptitiously 
procured and published, without the accompanying documents and correspondence. It 
was criticised, disse(?ted, and condemned, with much passionate declamation. Its merits 
were concealed, and its objectionable features censured and exaggerated. Public meetings 
were held, and resolutions passed, condemning the treaty and intended to intimidate the 
Executive. The first resolutions came from Boston, and were forwarded by an express, 
which overtook Washington at Baltimore, on his way to Mount Vernon. The time had 
now come for action. The popular affedlion for France and hatred of England had so 
disturbed the public mind, that an unbiassed judgment was impossible. Washington, in 
the quiet shades of Mount Vernon, calmly considered the treaty and the resolutions and 
addresses sent to him. He determined to approve the treaty, returned to the capitol, 
summoned his cabinet and submitted the question of signing the document immediately. 
The cabinet approved, with the exception of the Secretar)' of State, Edmund Randolph ; 
and the treaty was signed, August 18, 1795. Its enemies, confounded by this decisive 
action, determined to obstruct its operation, by refusing the funds required. It was in the 
midst of these bitter strifes, at the incoming Congress, that Samuel Sitgreaves took his 
seat, as the member from this Congressional Distridl. Petitions against the treaty came 
in abundance. At this jundlure, and for the purpose of a renewed opposition, a resolution 
was passed in the Hoiise of Representatives, calling upon the President for the instru(?tions 
given to Mr. Jay, and all of the correspondence and documents relating to the negotiation 
of the treaty. The crisis was momentous. After calm and mature deliberation, the 
President sent a message to the House, refusing the request, and in candid and respectful 


tenns showing that the Constitution had placed the power of making treaties in the 
Executive, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The friends of the reso- 
lution were not prepared for this refusal ; and a heated debate followed, lasting many days, 
and very remarkable for "passion, party zeal, eloquence, and argument." In this debate 
Mr. Sitgreaves took a most acftive and a leading part. His speech was pronounced by 
cotemporaries to have been one of the most powerful of all those made in defence of 
Washington's course. The House yielded, possibly as much from expediency as from 
convidlion ; gave the necessarv' appropriations, and the treaty passed from the reach of 
Congressional a6lion. 

But the ability, learning, and zeal of Mr. Sitgreaves had attra(5led the attention both 
of Washington and Adams. By Art. VI of Jay's Treaty, provision was made for the adjust- 
ment of debts claimed by English subjects from citizens of the United States to the 
amount of $25,000,000. This was to be settled by a mixed Commission of five members — 
two from England, two from the United States ; they to choose a fifth Commissioner. 
The Commission was to meet in Philadelphia. 

The American Commissioners were Thomas Fitzsimmons and Samuel Sitgreaves ; 
the English, Thomas MacDonald and Henr}' Pye Rich. The fifth Commissioner was 
John Guillemard. The first meeting of this Commission was held in J\Iay, 1797. Pro- 
ceedings were suspended, July 19, 1799, and never resumed. The reason is explained in 
the following letter from Mr. Pickering, Secretar}' of State, to Rufus King, Minister at 
the Court of St. James, September 4, 1799: "A letter received from Mr. Fitzsimmons 
informs me that Mr. MacDonald and Mr. Pye Rich, English Commissioners, were going 
to embark for England in the Packet to sail from New York this week. I do not know 
that this step, if it could be prevented, should be objedled to, because I see no probability 
that the business of the Board can be executed by the present members. There appears 
an incompatibility of temper, if I am rightly informed ; it would be difficult for any set 
of American Commissioners to a<?t harmoniously with Mr. MacDonald, unless they pos- 
sessed such weak and yielding dispositions, as to submit implicitly to his dogmas." 

The Commission began its session in May, 1797, just at the outset of President John 
Adams' administration ; and suspended, July 19, 1799, a period of more than two years, 
during which time little progress had been made. Further negotiations were transferred 
from Philadelphia to London. Art. VII of the Treaty related to claims of American 
merchants for vessels captured and property destroyed in the war then waged between 
France and England ; and were to be settled by a mixed Commission in London, similar 
to that which met at Philadelphia. Neither Commission had finished its labors, when 
that at Philadelphia dissolved. President Adams had anticipated the transfer, and had 
resolved upon a Special Commission to Great Britain. The interests of the United States 
had been advocated with as much firmness and zeal by Mr. Sitgreaves as those of 
England by Mr. MacDonald. Certainly his condudl met the wann approval of the Gov- 
ernment and the people; for his commission bore date, August 11, 1798, and he was 
confirmed by the Senate, December 20, 1798, 'soon after the meeting of Congress. 

As the English members of the Commission did not leave this countn,- till September, 
1799, Mr. Sitgreaves did not arrive in London until 1800, because the required preparation 
for his mission could not be made until the deliberations of the Board were suspended. 
Application was made b\- the autlior of this history to the Department of State at Wash- 


ington for the instrudlions given to Mr. Sitgreaves on the eve of his departure ; but none 
were found, and it is believed that they were either verbal, or contained among his papers, 
when they were afterwards destroyed by a fire which happened at his home in Easton. 
But from the letters written by him to his family we learn that his mission related princi- 
pally to financial matters contained in Articles VI and VII of the Treaty. It is certain 
that the interests of the United States had been belittled and disregarded, as also that the 
smiles and blandishments of British diplomats had hitherto prevented that full acknowl- 
edgment and recognition of our rights, which was so essential to a speedy settlement upon 
a basis, mutually honorable and satisfactory to both nations. It was at this juncture that 
the new Commissioner arrived at his post. He was then in the prime of manhood, of fine 
presence, and fully prepared, both by mental accomplishments and education, aided by 
more than two years of careful examination of the matters in dispute, for the settlement 
of the points at issue. The appointment had been peculiarly judicious, and it is not sur- 
prising that an adjustment was speedily attained, which gave satisfadlion to all concerned. 
All financial differences were finally adjusted in convention, January 8, 1802. 

Meanwhile Thomas Jefferson had been eledled President. Mr. Sitgreaves, upon his 
return to his native land, abandoned the realm of politics forever, and entered with zeal 
upon the duties of his profession, at Easton, to which he gave the remainder of his life. 

A most important event in the public life of Mr. Sitgreaves was the impeachment 
of William Blount, one of the Senators from the State of Tennessee. In 1797, Mr. Blount 
was impeached by the House of Representatives for having intrigued, when Governor of 
the Territory, to transfer New Orleans and the neighboring districts to Great Britain, by 
means of a joint expedition of English and Indians. He was expelled from the Senate, 
and the process was therefore, after a protracted discussion, dropped in the house. 

This impeachment took place in the spring and summer of 1797, at the beginning of 
President John Adams' administration. The United States were at peace with the world, 
but England and Spain were at war. The latter claimed dominion over the Floridas, and 
Louisiana, and the former coveted that possession. Suddenly, as by a fire in the night, 
the administration was startled by the fear of war with the Indians and with Europe. 
Senator Blount had written to a Mr. Carey, a Government Agent, among the Indians of 
the South. His letter disclosed the fa6l that he had already agents in Florida and Louis- 
iana, striving to detach the tribes there located from their allegiance to Spain, and to incite 
them to war against her colonies. Another agent had already been sent to Europe to 
further the project. By other letters it was disclosed that an English fleet would be sent 
in due time upon the coast to render the aid needed. It was also disclosed that Mr. Blount 
expedled a large reward for his services. President Adams had early information of the 
plot, and at once sent a message, with the papers, to the Senate and House. Mr. Sitgreaves 
had just been re-ele6led to the latter body, and at once took a leading part in advocating 
an impeachment of that Senator. He fully realized its importance as a precedent ; and 
at once moved that the Senator be impeached by the House of Representatives and the 
American people for high crimes and misdemeanors. Upon the adoption of this reso- 
lution, Mr. Sitgreaves then moved that a messenger be appointed to appear at the bar of 
the Senate and inform that body of the action of the House. Objection was made to the 
announcement of the aCtion of the House until the articles of impeachment could be 
drawn, so that both might be presented at the same time. Mr. Sitgreaves then showed 


that he was following striclly the precedent established in the impeachment of Warren 
Hastings ; and that immediately after the passage of the vote for impeachment, j\Ir. 
Burke was appointed the messenger to convey the resolution of the Commons to the House 
of Lords. The House was convinced, and Mr. Sitgreaves was appointed as messenger to 
convey its atlion to the Senate. He then, with the dignity and solemnity befitting the 
occasion, approached the bar of the Senate, and announced that "William Blount, Esq., 
a member of that body from Tennessee, had been impeached by the House of Represen- 
tatives and the whole American people, for high crimes and misdemeanors ; and that articles 
of impeachment would be presented and the same made good. ' ' 

He then returned to his seat in the House, and at once moved that a committee be 
appointed to prepare articles of impeachment, with power to sit during the recess and to 
send for persons and papers. The resolution was adopted and he was appointed chainnan 
of the committee. This was at the close of a special session of Congress. During the 
recess following, articles of impeachment were prepared, and presented when the next 
Congress assembled. Mr. Dallas, in behalf of the defence, then answered that as the 
accused was not an officer of the government, nor a member of the Senate, the Court had 
no jurisdiclion. Senator Bayard replied for the prosecution, and I\Ir. Dallas was again 
heard in defence. The prosecution was finally dismissed for want of jurisdicilion ; and the 
point settled, that a Senator of the United States, who has been e.xpelled from his seat, is 
not, after such expulsion, subjedl to impeachment. See Wharton's State Trials, 264, 290, 
317 ; note. 

It was also the privilege of Mr. Sitgreaves to clearly establish the law relating to 
treason against the United States, in the trials of John Fries, in the years 1799 and 1800. 
The country was yet new, and the people were not well instrutled in their duties to the 
government of their own making. Hence came "Shay's Rebellion" in Massachusetts; 
and later the "Whiskey Insurre6lion " in Western Pennsylvania, which became so formida- 
ble that President Washington sent an army of fifteen thousand men to subdue it. The 
leaders were tried and convicfled, but afterwards pardoned. 

Yet there was still an idea that odious taxes should be resisted by force of anus. 
There was comparatively a small national revenue from taxes on importations. The 
needs of the government for its necessary expenses and for interest upon the public debt 
were great and pressing. Therefore a direcft tax had been laid on land and houses, which 
was in part regulated by the number of windows in each house. It was the duty of the 
assessors to measure both houses and windows in order to estimate the tax. Serious resis- 
tance was made by the inhabitants of Northampton, Bucks, and Montgomery counties. 
Assessors were driven off and intimidated, until at length an open resistance was made. 
The insurgents appeared, armed with swords, rifles, and pistols. John Fries, who lived 
in Lower Milford township, now in Lehigh county, was the leader of the malcontents. 
He was bold and fearless in his opposition to the tax, and yet unwilling first to cause the 
shedding of blood. 

The insurredlion culminated at Bethlehem, in this county, where the officers of the 
government held some prisoners who had been arrested, preparatory to taking them to 
Philadelphia for trial. Fries appeared with his adherents, and forcibly rescued them from 
the officers of the law. The government prompth- quelled the uprising and arrested the 
leaders. P'ries was indicled by the Grand Jury, in the Distrid Court of the United States, 


April II, 1799. The leading Counsel were Mr. Sitgreaves for the government, and Mr. 
Dallas for the prisoner. The trial was ably conduced. Though Fries had pracftically 
confessed his guilt and signed his confession, Mr. Sitgreaves declined to take advantage 
of it, but rested his case upon the evidence produced. The Adl of Congress of 1790 had 
provided "that if any person or persons owing allegiance to the United States of America 
shall levy war against them, or shall adhere to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort 
within the United States or elsewhere, and shall be thereof convidled in open Court or on 
the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt a6l of the treason whereof he or they 
shall stand indi<5led, such person or persons shall stand adjudged guilty of treason against 
the United States and shall suffer death." This clause in the Constitution was substan- 
tially the same as a provision in the Statute of Edward III, upon which the best legal 
ability of England had been engaged. For a judicial exposition of that clause and that 
statute, the reader is referred to 4 Cranch, U. S. S. C. Rep., pp. 75 to 137. Trials of 
Burr, Bollman and Swartwout. But the pivotal question, what is a levying of war 
against the United States within the meaning of that statute, was first and finally settled 
by the argument of Mr. Sitgreaves in Fries' case. He contended that there must be an 
adlual levying of war, carried into some pracftical operation and effedl, and throughout the 
prosecution, held the testimony to this, as the real issue. Mr. Dallas appealed to the 
sympathies of the jury and plead his client's penitence for his a<?ts ; but the reply of Mr. 
Sitgreaves was that this showed only that the prisoner was sensible of the wrong he 
had done. 

It is very plain from the proceedings of the trial which have been handed down to us 
that Mr. Sitgreaves deeply realized the gravity of the case. It was already the second 
insurredlion in the one State of Pennsylvania alone. The general government had been 
but lately inaugurated ; and by slow and painful steps was it rising to a place among the 
family of nations. But the power of self-protec?i;ion, of subduing insurrection at home, 
was of the very first importance, and the argument of Mr. Sitgreaves shows how thoroughly 
he comprehended the tremendous responsibilities then cast upon him, and how well his 
duties were performed. 

Fries was found guilty, and sentenced to death by Judge Chase, who had presided at 
the trial ; but through the clemency of the National Executive he was finally pardoned. 
The labors of Mr. Sitgreaves may be better understood, when we add that at the time of 
this trial he held his appointment as a member of the commission, under Jay's Treaty, 
as before referred to. 

He returned to Easton in 1802, and thereafter was its most prominent citizen, first 
in every good work. In the Act of September 23, 1789, incorporating the Borough of 
Easton, he was named as " Town Clerk;" and it was drawn by him. He was also one of 
the orignal members of the Delaware Bridge Company, wrote the act of incorporation, 
and, for many years, was secretary and treasurer. Most of the stock certificates, the 
originals of which, with the transfers of the intermediate holders, are yet in existence, in 
the hands of the present owners, were signed by him. He was also one of the founders 
of the Easton Library, and of the Easton Bible Society. 

After his return to Easton, he gave his attention mainly to the practice of the law. 
He became a leader at the bar throughout Eastern Pennsylvania. He was then in the 
prime of his mental and physical powers, of splendid personal presence, of most dignified 


yet courteous manners. He made the most exaft preparation for the trial of the cases in 
which he was concerned, and most careful briefs, not only of the law, but of the facts. 
His manner before the coiirt and jury was respedlful, grave and impressive. His pradlice 
became very large, and so continued to the end of his life. 

In his dav, Easton was the business centre of a ven,' large extent of country, reaching 
to the New York line on the north and the Susquehanna on the west. Turnpikes were 
the sole means of communication and transportation. Mr. Sitgreaves took great interest 
in their support and management, especially in "The Easton and Wilkes-Barre Turn- 
pike." From the year 1816 to 1827, ^^ ^'^'^ the president of the Easton bank ; and by 
his financial skill and watchful care did much to establish its reputation and to give to 
it that large share of public confidence which it has for so many years enjoyed. 

His was an acftive, busy life ; yet withal, was his home the centre of a most generous 
hospitality. His garden was an attracftion to all who visited the town. It extended from 
Spring Garden to Bushkill, and from North Third to North Second street. It was filled 
with flowering trees and shrubs, and its borders contained most of the rare roses and 
flowers to be found in England and this country. He was the soul of honor, possessed of 
the strictest integrity, and his word was ever as his bond. In his professional capacity he 
was as remarkable as a sound and safe counselor, as he was fertile of expedient, adroit in 
management, profound in law learning, and eloquent in advocacy. Beyond question, was 
he in the front rank of the advocates of his time. His study of the great orators of 
antiquity, with whose writings he was familiar, his acquaintance with the best writers of 
modern times and his practical opportimities of hearing the most cultivated statesmen 
both of Great Britain and the United States, uniting with his own native genius, invested 
him with a superior and powerful eloquence, rarely exceeded, in this country. 

"He was a scholar, and a ripe ami good one, 
Exceeding wise, fair spoken and persuading ; 
Lofty and stem to them that loved him not. 
But to the men that sought him, sweet as summer." 

He was the founder of the Protestant Episcopal church of Easton. The regular 
services were first held at his own house at the comer of North Third and Spring Garden 
streets, and were condudled by himself and Mr. John Dolby, for more than one year, 
when Rev. John Rodney, deacon, was sent here by the Society for the Advancement of 
Christianity in Pennsylvania. Mr. Sitgreaves gave the church site. When in England, 
he drew the model of a rural parish church and brought it with him on his return. The 
first church was built after this plan, and was often called the "White Church," as its 
walls were of snowy whiteness, which in summer time, were beautifully contrasted with 
the foliage of the surrounding trees. It was the child of his aflfedlion, the objedl of his 
care and his prayers. He was most faithful to his church, throughout his eventful life. 
He was never "ashamed of the gospel of Christ," for he held it to be "the power of God 
unto salvation unto every one that believeth." 

He was acftive in his professional pursuits until the year 1826, when his health began 
visibly to decline. He died April 4, 1827, aged but sixty-four years, and was buried in 
the church-yard, near the church he loved so well, which has been, for so many years, liis 
memorial and his monument. 

E AS TON, PENN'A. 153 

If, after contemplating the splendid parts of his public and professional charader, we 
shall inquire for the milder virtues of humanity, we shall find the beneficent and social 
qualities of private life, through all its forms and combinations, so happily blended with 
stridl integrity and sincere piety, that, in the fullest measure, he may be said to have 
been great and good ; with all 

"The elements 
So mixed in him, that nature might stand up, 
And say to all the world, this was a man." 

Note.— Rev. John Rodney died at Germantown, Pa., September 28, 1886. He was a member of the family 
of Hon. Caesar Rodney, of Delaware, who was one of the leaders in the Council of Safety and Committee of 
Inspedlion, of that State, before and during the Revolution ; a signer of the Declaration of Independence ; 
member of the Continental Congress from September 15, 1774, and a Brigadier General in the Revolutionary 

Rev. John Rodney was born August 26, 1796, and was graduated at the college of New Jersey, Princeton, 
in 1816, being at the time of his death the oldest graduate of that institution and the oldest clergyman in 
order of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States. Soon after his ordination by Bishop White, he 
became the first rector of the church at Easton, where he remained till the year 1S25, when he was called to 
the rectorship of St. Luke's, at Germantown, which he held more than three-score years. 

He has left a most exceptional record in his long, successful and continued ser\'ice in one community, 
ministering to three successive generations with great acceptance, winning, and retaining to the last, the love, 
respedl and confidence of all who knew him. 


Malcolm Hay, the father of Melchoir Hay, was born in Scotland. Political reverses 
led him to Germany, where, after serving with honor in the military duties in his adopted 
country, he married a German woman, and settled at Zwei-Breucken, Bavaria. The name 
Melchoir coupled with the name Hay indicated the mingling of the blood of the Scotch 
and German nationalities. Melchoir Hay came to America with his two brothers in 1738, 
one year before David Martin built his Ferry House at the "Point." He settled on the 
land where South Easton is built. He assisted Messrs. Parsons and Scull in surveying 
and laying out the town of Easton in 1750, and thus early took an interest in the begin- 
ning of Easton life. In 1771, he purchased a tra<ft of land, consisting of twenty-six acres, 
of Israel Morris, of Philadelphia. The same year he bought from Peter Rush and wife 
another tra<ft of three hundred and seventy-five acres ; and we learn from the county records 
that there were six acres allowed for roads. This tra<?t was a part of ten thou.sand acres 
bought of William Penn. The deed to Melchoir Hay is dated August 9, 1771 ; the land 
embraced in the deeds being bounded on the north by the Lehigh river. Many who 
bought land of the Proprietaries in those days bought subject to "quit rents;" but in the 
column opposite the assessment of Mr. Hay's property are the words "no quit," showing 
that he bought the property in fee simple. This land was sold by Mr. Hay in 1796, to 
Jacob Eyerley, of Nazareth, who, in 1798, sold it to Henry Snyder, of Easton, for $2133.33. 
The land was used for farming purposes until the completion of the Lehigh Canal, and 


the upper portion is still used for that purpose. Mr. Hay donated a large lot and burying 
ground to the church, which still bear the names "Hay's Chapel" and "Hay's Burying 
Ground." Melchoir Hay took an adlive part in the tr>'ing struggle of the Revolution, 
and was elecfted among the first a member of the Committee of Safety, and was one of its 
efficient members. He was captain of the company raised in Williams township. This 
company consisted of one hundred and four men. Many of his descendants served with 
distindlion in the war of 1812, the Mexican war, and the late civil war. The patriotic 
spirit of 1776 still lives in the hearts of his children. After the close of the Revolution, 
Melchoir Hay, having sold his South Easton property, bought a large fann about three 
miles west of Easton, in the locality called the "Drylands," where he and his descendants 
have tilled the soil for generations. A great deal of this property is still held by his grand 
and great-grand sons. Melchoir Hay had a son named after himself. This second Melchoir 
was the father of Abraham Horn Hay, Peter Hay, George Hay, Melchoir Hay, Charles 
Hay, and John Hay. Abraham Horn Hay was the father of Jacob Hay, the late Andrew 
J. Hay, Thomas J. Hay, and Peter Hay, all of Easton. 

Jacob Hay is one of Easton's most successful merchants ; is at the head of the large 
wholesale dry goods house of Hay & Sons, situated in Hay's Place, and Hapgood, Hay & Co. ' s 
wholesale boot and shoe house, 339 Northampton street. In 1854 he married a daughter 
of the late Alexander Wilson, Sr., who was a fitting representative of that sturdy race of 
Scotch-Irishmen who have indelibly put their impress upon the affairs of our Common- 
wealth. Jacob Hay has four children : Thomas A. H. Hay, who married Helen, elder 
daughter of Brig. General Thomas H. Ruger, U. S. A., and who has three children, 
Helen, Anna, and Ruger Wilson Hay ; Annie W. Hay, who is married to Hon. Asa W. 
Dickinson, Collector of the Port of Jersey City, N. J. ; Ida Wilson Hay, and William O. 
Hay. The laudable desire to be land owners is just as adlive in the hearts of the Hays of 
the present day as in the heart of the founder of the family one hundred years ago. Jacob, 
the great-grand son of the first Melchoir Hay, is a large owner of real estate in Easton, 
and has great faith in the future expansion of our town. He has done more than any one 
man to beautify and improve the north western section, and enhance its value b)' exten- 
sive purchases of land, laying out and grading streets, and preparing a large tra(5l for 
building purposes. He began in 1871, just one hundred years after his great-grand- 
father purchased the large tradi in what is now South Easton, to buy lands west of 
Twelfth street and north of Northampton street. He purchased twelve trails, comprising 
one hundred acres — a part within and a part outside of the town limits. His objetl; in buy- 
ing this land was to beautify and adorn it, and set it apart as a place for suburban residences 
of a high order, for himself and family and friends. In the locality of Easton, teeming 
with beautiful sites, this seems the only place set apart and dedicated to this purpose on 
so large a scale. The tradl extends from Twelfth to Seventeenth streets, and from North- 
ampton to Wood streets. On this land Mr. Hay has spent annually large sums in 
grading and embellishing. Fourteenth street, near the centre of his land, is a veritable 
park, adorned with elegant villas, lined with beautiful shade trees and shrubbery, and 
accessible by handsome drives. In 1871 he erecfted the first house on this property 
at a cost of $25,000, on the block bounded by Thirteenth and Fourteenth streets. Bush- 
kill and Wood. In 1881 this house was consumed by fire, the family narrowly escap- 
ing death. We append an excellent picture of the house thus burned. A few years later 



Messrs. William Laubach and Floyd S. Bixler, built handsome residences on Fourteenth 
street. Captain Hay has always evinced a spirit of enterprise and liberality in our town 
affairs, which might well be emulated by others. He gave the entire ground covered by 
Fourteenth street, from Northampton to Wood streets, to the public, although it cost him 
two thousand dollars. He then curbed and paved it in a most substantial manner, at 
an expense of many thousand dollars, and planted trees, making it the handsomest residence 
avenue in Easton. He has since laid out and macadamized private drives and walks 
at a great outlay of money, in which the public share the benefit and pleasure without 


cost. Mr. Hay has expended in the Seventh Ward about $100,000 in lands and improve- 
ments. A little fa<?t, unknown to most of our people, will more fully illustrate the magni- 
tude of his improvements, and others whom his enterprise has attra(5led to this locality. 
In 1871 the total taxes of that particular portion of the town were fourteen dollars ; now 
they are over sixteen hundred dollars per annum. This quite clearly shows the benefits 
do not all accrue to himself, but the public shares in the profit arising from the invest- 
ment. After the destrudlion of his handsome house in 1881 he purchased the house of 
Mr. Floyd S. Bixler, which he enlarged and improved. Major Thomas L. McKeen has 
since built an elegant home on the site of Mr. Hay's original house. Mr. Herman 
Simon, our enterprising and successful silk manufacturer, has since built a beautiful home 


adjoining Major McKeen's, which is also a handsome home. Another fine dwelling 
has been erecfted by Mr. William Gould Heller immediately opposite. Mr. C. ]M. Hapgood 
is now engaged in building the largest and most costly residence in the neighborhood, at 
the corner of Northampton and Fourteenth streets. 

When Captain Hay began his enterprise it seemed far out of town. People had been 
accustomed to look upon Easton as mainly centering at the Circle, and were not prepared 
to witness the rapid growth of that portion of the town in the last few years. The suspen- 
sion bridge has brought South Easton and West Easton into close relation, which will also 
aid its growth. The new railroad to come down the Bushkill will also add impetus to the 
growth of this part of the town. This beautiful locality, of which Captain Hay has been the 
pioneer, will soon be occupied by a busy population. Easton seems to have started upon a 
new period of her growth, and at the only point where growth is possible. Business 
cannot always be confined in its present boundaries, but will follow the population 


William Green <'\ ancestor of the families of that name in this region, dissatisfied 
with some new relation in his father's family, left his native land, England, at the early 
age of twenty, and landed at the port of Philadelphia. Soon after, desirous of returning, 
and finding no vessel about to sail from that port, he went to New York, but not meeting 
with an opportunity immediately, visited Long Island. He there became acquainted with 
the family of John Reeder, recently arrived from England, whose sister, or daughter, 
Joanna, in process of time, he married, and removed to Ewing township, about 1700. 
He purchased three hundred and forty-five acres of Colonel Daniel Coxe, the deed bearing 
date 1712, and on it eredled the first brick house in the township, which is still standing, 
having on the west end the date 171 7, and is owned and occupied by his descendant of 
the fifth generation, Henry Green. His qualities were such as to give him distinction, 
for he was appointed one of the first judges of Hunterdon county, and from the frequent 
mention of his name in public affairs and important business transactions, he was evidently 
a prominent and useful citizen. His children were: Richard'^'; Joseph (^i; William *^'; 
Benjamin's); John; Jeremiah, who removed to North Carolina; Isaac, married, and 
removed to Sussex county, N. J., where his descendants are to be found ; Joanna, Sarah, 
Esther, and Mary. Of the daughters, there is no record. He died, as is indicated by 
his antique tombstone in the Ewing church-yard, in 1722. 

Richard'"', son of William'"', who died 1741, married Mary, daughter of George Ely, 
of Trenton, and had children: Richard'*'; George''"'; Rebecca, wife of Samuel IMoore ; 
Christiana, wife of Joseph Moore ; and William, who died 1754, probably unmarried, or 
without children, as he leaves his property to his brother Richard, ;,^30o to his eldest 
sister's three sons, Richard, William, and Elijah Moore; a legacy to his youngest sister's 
three sons, Ely, Moses, and Ephraim Moore ; also to his mother, Mar\- ; and his plantation 
to his brother George, when 19. 

Richard''', son of Richard'-', who died 1797, married Phebe, daughter of Nathaniel 
Moore, whose children were: William R., Nathaniel, Richard, Enoch, John, Samuel, not 


married, Benjamin, Joseph, George, Rebecca, wife of William B. Green, Sarah, wife of 
Samuel Moore, and Mary, married Daniel Stillwell, and went to Ohio. 

Richard <'°>, son of Richard'^', married, first, Martha, daughter of Christopher Howell, 
by whom he had a daughter, Martha, wife of Charles Reeder. By his second wife he had : 
Ely, Mary, Elizabeth, and perhaps others. He lived in Pennsylvania. 

John<"\ son of Richard <«', one of the first settlers of Easton, Pa., died March 9, 1854, 
aged 88, having married Rhoda, daughter of Daniel Howell, who died September 19, 
1859, aged 73. Their children are : Enoch ; Charles, married first, Elizabeth Maxwell ; 
second, Mrs. Latimer ; Richard, married Sarah, daughter of Samuel Sherrod, of Wash- 
ington, N. J. ; William, Elizabeth, wife of David Deshler, and Lydia. 

Enoch <^''\ son of John*'"', married, first, Mary, daughter of George Beidelnian, and 
had children : Ellen, wife of Whitfield S. Johnson, a lawyer of Sussex, and for several 
years Secretary of the State of New Jersey, whose children are : William M. , a lawyer of 
Hackensack, Mary M., Emily E., Laura C, Elizabeth B., Margaret G., and Ellen Green ; 
George B. , married Ann Disbrow, resides in Jersey City ; Mary, wife of George Woodruff, 
merchant of New York ; John, Joseph ; Henr>', a graduate of Lafayette College, a lawyer 
of Easton and judge of the Supreme Court, married Ann Hulsizer, of Easton, has chil- 
dren : Caroline, wife of Hiram Howland, of Indianapolis, Frances, wife of Henry E. 
Potter, of Orange, N. J., Frederic, and Ada; and Margaret, married Henry Johnson, a 
lawyer of Muncy, Pa. Married, second, Catharine Teneyck, of Princeton. 

William *"5)^ son of John''"*, married, first, Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Beidelman ; 
and, second, Jane Sherrard, and had children : Sarah, wife of Rev. John Kugler, of War- 
ren, N. J. ; Theodore, married Miss Kinsey ; Frank, John, Louisa ; Mary married Rev. 
William Thompson, of Stewartsville, N. J. ; Howard, Miriam, and Emily. 

Benjamin <'3)^ son of Richard**', removed to Easton, Pa.; died 1852, aged 82, having 
married there, Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Traill, a lawyer, and by her had children : 
John, Traill ; Robert Traill, married Catharine Van Camp ; Elizabeth, wife of John Stewart, 
of Greenwich, N. J. ; and Maria, wife of Enoch Clark, of Monroe county, Pa. 

Dr. Traill *"7', son of Benjamin f'^', a physician, honored with the degree of LL. D., 
professor of chemistry in Lafayette College, and the liberal donor of funds to that college 
to establish an observatory. He married Harriet, daughter of Loammi Moore, of Morris- 
town, and has children : Ella, Frances, and Edgar Moore. Edgar Moore Green recently 
graduated at the University of Pennsylvania with the highest honors of his class, and is 
now pradlicing medicine with his father in Easton, Pa. His daughter Ella is married 
to Dr. Charles Mclntire, of Easton. 

Prof William Henr)'*3''', son of George S. <3°), was born in Groveville, N. J., January 
27, 1825; graduated at Lafayette College, Pa., 1840; studied theology in the Princeton 
Seminary ; was for three years assistant teacher of Hebrew there ; was pastor of the Cen- 
tral Church, Philadelphia ; thence he was called, in 1851, to be a professor in the Princeton 
Theological Seminary, where he now is. Among his publications are, a Hebrew Gram- 
mar and Chrestomathy, a Commentary on Job, a Vindication of the Pentateuch, from 
Colenso's Aspersions. He married, first, Mary Elizabeth, daughter of Stephen Colwell, 
of Philadelphia, who died March 29, 1854, aged 26; second, Elizabeth Hayes. Their 
children are : Mary Elizabeth, wife of William Libbey ; and Helen Hayes. 


Important Factors to Business— The Remark of Thomas McElrath— The Hotel at the Point— The Old Mora- 
\-ian Building— Bull's Head, its History— White Horse Hotel— Black Horse Hotel— White's Hotel : Chippy 
\\Tiite — Holiday Life at the Hotels ; Best Man ; How Settled— Old Hotel Buildings that Remain. 

E TAKE the following from a journal of Frederick Push, a botanist, who 
traveled through the countn.- in the interest of science : "May 27, 1807 — at 
four o'clock this morning, we left Philadelphia, the stage being remarkably 
full of passengers and goods, which made it very disagreeable traveling ; the 
road about twenty-five miles from the city got very bad and hilly ; w^e broke 
down the stage twice, but luckily without any injur)' to us ; arrived at 10 
o'clock at Easton ; took up lodging at Abraham Horn's, sign of the Golden 
Swan." This was seventy-nine years ago, and the Swan Hotel remains, 
though the golden sign has disappeared. This will give us some idea of 
traveling in those days. The hotels of Easton have always been an impor- 
tant fa<5lor in the business of the town. The Durham boats early became 
a means of transportation for all kinds of farm produ(?ts, and attra6ted farmers from a large 
region to Easton as the best market they could find. While riding quite recently on the 
Central road of New Jersey the author met with Mr. Thomas ^IcElrath, one of the 
original founders of the New York Tribune, who said: "When I was a boy I lived in 
Williamsport, and the farmers of that region brought their grain to Easton and sent it to 
Philadelphia in the Durham boats." This is a distance of a hundred and fifty miles and 
shows how difficult it was in those days to obtain money. Many an old farmer could say 
with the Apostle Peter, ^^ Argcutuui cf aiiriim uon est miki,'^ and they were willing to drag 
their produces through snow drifts in mid-winter and spend half of the value of their load 
to convert the remainder into money. The farmers came from far up the North and 
West Branches of the Susquehanna, making an area of nearly half the State, having 
Easton for a market. This necessitated good hotels to accommodate the sturdy farmers 
from far and near. 

The first hotel established was that of Craig S: Anderson, next to the jail lot, fronting 
the Square, which obtained a license at the first session of the court in 1752. This house a 
few years after came into the possession of Christian Rinker, who for main- \ears was the 
landlord. Of its histor)- these fafts only remain. 

The second hotel was at the Point. The landlord was Nathaniel Vernon. David 
Martin had passed away. During his occupancy of the log ferr^' house it was used for 
no other purpose, and only became an inn after the establishment of the county and laying 
out of Easton. The license was first refused and afterwards granted. There is not a 
hotel in the State which has so strange a history as the first log house of Easton. The 
travel to and from New Jersey for a large region passed over this fern-. It was sufficiently 
large as a ferry house, but when it rose to the dignity of a hotel it must be enlarged, and 
this was accomplished by the adding of sheds to the .sides, thus making it great 


enough to contain the gatherings when the Indian treaties were made here. The ferry 
was used for sixty-six years, until the bridge at the foot of Northampton street was com- 
pleted in 1805. All the treaties spoken of in the early part of this work were concluded 
at this historic spot, and centered in and around this simple log stru6lure. The influence 
of these great treaty gatherings annoyed the French and gave great aid to the Eng- 
lish while these nations were waging a fierce and bloody war for the mastery of a conti- 
nent. Had the nineteen Indian tribes which these treaties combined and turned against 
the French been marshalled against the English, the result might have been a French 
instead of an English victory. A deep interest was felt and a keen watch was kept in 
Paris and London while these fierce nations were gathering at the Point. Had a building 
like the United States Hotel, on Third street, occupied the position, it would have been 
more in keeping with the august gatherings, led on by the Governors of Pennsylvania 
and New Jersey, and Kings Teedyuscung, Beaver, and Paximora, skilled in savage war- 
fare. There is no other building in the past history of Easton around which cluster so 
many associations. How long it lasted, or when it disappeared, history does not inform 
us. But as the business increased the venerable old building, whose walls had echoed 
to the eloquence of Teedyuscung and the chiefs of the Six Nations, became affedled with age 
and gave place to another, still standing at the Point. The building is owned by Mr. William 
H. Hazzard, and is the second building from the corner. It is built of massive logs and 
seems strong enough to have withstood the battering rams of Alexander's army. The great 
logs have been smoothed off and washboards nailed upon them. One log is still seen pro- 
truding above the plastering. The old building is so strongly built that nothing but fire 
can destroy it. Its old chimney might have answered well for a tower of an ancient city. 
Its walls, doors and windows remind one of ante-revolutionary days. It has been said 
by some that Washington was in Easton but once ; but I have it from a member of the 
Abel family that Squire Jacob Abel ferried General Washington across the Delaware at the 
Point, and that he lodged in the upper room of this second hotel building. One of the 
grand children told the author that the General was watched by tories and spies, and 
hence he tried to escape observation. When the great bridge over the Delaware was com- 
pleted the ferry ceased to be used, but the Durham boats maintained a large commerce on 
the river, and their place of shipment was on the bank, from the Point to Christian Butz's 
storehouse, above the bridge. The boatmen made the hotel their temporary residence, 
and the imagination need not be greatly strained to get a glimpse of many a boisterous 
and jolly time. The boats would be fastened along the banks of the Delaware and in the 
mouth of the Lehigh, while these "river marines" were making merry at the inns of 
Jacob Abel and John Nicholas. The house occupied by Mr. Hazzard was built subse- 
quently to the house adjoining and became a much more pretentious hotel. In those days 
there was no partition dividing the hall from the front room. The front door opened into 
the large room and large folding doors separated this room from the bar-room. In the 
northeast corner of this room, enclosed by a circular front, stood the bar. The floor was 
always ready for the "tripping of the light fantastic toe." Two or three times a week 
the merrs' dancers would come and remain till the rising of the morning star told them it 
was time to go home. An old lady now ninety years of age remarked to the author : 
"This was the place for frolics." The young farmers would come with their sweet-hearts 
and engage in "running the ring and tracing the mazy round." An old citizen describing 


to the author these "old times," sadly remarked: "Yes, those were pleasant days. 
There was not so much distindlion in society then as now. Working girls and daughters 
of wealthy parents would dance side by side. There were no big-bugs or little-bugs, but 
all stood nearly on a common level. ' ' These old houses have marvelous stories told of their 
past history. ' ' A young girl was stolen from the room where Washington slept in the old 
house ; has never been heard from since, and the old house has always been haunted. If 
some young people will look up the old stairway into the dark attic the}' would not ven- 
ture into the darkness for fear of seeing more ghosts than one." "O, Mrs. Hazzard," said a 
old lady, "if you knew the deeds that have been done in this place you would not live 
here." The times have changed. The recolledlions of the past can be preserved only 
by the historian. The Point was the scene of activity and life until the construdlion of 
canals and railroads. The boats have been cut into fire wood, the hotels turned into 
dwellings. It will be difficult to find a more beautiful spot than the veranda of this now 
neat and comfortable house. Names intimately connedled with the history of these 
famous hotels are David Martin, Nathaniel Vernon, Daniel Brodhead, Lewis Gordon, 
John Green, and Jacob Abel. 

There was formerly an old hotel standing on the west side of South Third street, on 
the corner of an alley below Ferrj'. This was called the Washington Hotel, and it has 
an interesting history. The author has not been able to find any account of it in any 
works he has consulted. There is an allusion to the building while in process of eredlion, 
in the history of the "Crown Inn" of Bethlehem, but it is very brief. Mr. Ethan A. 
Weaver kindly consulted Mr. Jordan of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, in regard 
to the matter, and he very generously examined old papers sent from Bethlehem, with the 
result indicated in this narrative. When the old building was torn down in April, 1873, 
the pastor of the Moravian Church came to Easton to examine the comer stone in hope of 
finding some account of its eredlion, but nothing new was discovered. The following 
letter from Mr. John W. Jordan gives the information which has been sought. The letter 
is addressed to Mr. E. A. Weaver, and is as follows: "My dear sir. I took advantage of 
yesterday, there being not many visitors here, to examine the contents of several boxes 
packed away since 1879, and was fortunate enough to find numerous drafts of lands 
belonging to, or adjacent to, those of the Moravians in Northampton county. Among the 
number — a draft of Easton — the county town of Northampton, in Pennsylvania, and of 
the out-lots proposed to be laid out for accommodating the inhabitants thereof, with the 
ferry land, and other lands opposite to the same town, surveyed by William Parsons. 
This draft also contains plan and description of the house and lots owned by the Mora- 
vians in Easton. I copy the following from the Bethlehem diaries and account books : 
'1752, June 27, Brother Horsefield, who had been commissioned a Justice of the Peace for 
the new county of Northampton, went to Easton to the first session of the court and took 
up two lots for us, situate on Ferry street; 1760, 0(5lober 7, the house and lot in Easton 
staked off; preparations began to build on the land, and that a well forty feet deep had 
been dug; 1761, May 2, timber floated from Bethlehem to Easton to build the house.' 

"From the Cougrcgation Ledger: '1760, November 29, first iteni in the account: 
Frederick Schaus did the mason work ; Jacob Bosch did the carpenter work ; Henry Als- 
house the roofing with shingles; Abraham Berlin did the blacksmith work; 1761, May, 
expenses at laying the corner stone, 8s., 4d. Jost Vollert was the agent of the Moravians. 


From November 29, 1760, to June, 1762, there was spent on the building /341, i6s. and 
I id. This messuage, together with the two contiguous lots on which the building stood, 
numbers 121 and 122, situate on Ferry and Pomfret streets, bought of the proprietors in 
1757, at four shillings apiece ; and one whole lot on the same street, sold to the Easton 
Lutheran Church Wardens, Adam Yohe, Conrad Steuber, Abraham Berlin, and Valentine 
Opp ; April 18, 1763, by Bishop Nathaniel Seidel for four hundred pounds. March 16, 
1765, the church wardens paid in full." 

Accompanying this letter is a sketch of the building, as well as a description. It was 
forty feet front, twenty feet deep, and two-and-a-half stories high. On the lower floor 
were four rooms, and the second story was one entire hall. There were six dormer win- 
dows — five windows in front of the upper story and four in the lower story, with a large 
double door in the centre. This hotel was kept for a time by a Mr. Bachman, and hence 
it was sometimes called Bachman's Hotel, though its proper name was the Washington 
Hotel. The building was never occupied by the Moravians. The corner stone was not 
laid till 06lober 8th, 1761, and sold to the Lutherans of Easton, April i8th, 1763. The 
Lutheran Church occupied it until 1776, a period of thirteen years, when they removed 
to the German Reformed Church, Third street, which building was ere6led by the two 
congregations jointly. The room in the upper story was used as a drill room during the 
Revolutionary war. The building was also used for a time as a poor house, where the 
poor of the town and probably of the surrounding towns in the county were cared for. 

There is a fine brick block now standing in the place of the old strucfture, owned by 
Louis Roesch, Philip F. Stier and C. Kilian's estate. The property was purchased from Mr. 
Henry G. Tombler, who bought it of Mr. Frederick Lerch ; this gentleman bought it of 
Sheriff Bachman, who purchased it of Jacob Abel, who it is supposed bought it from the 
Lutherans. What strange vicissitudes this once prominent building has passed through ! 
Built by, and sancftified by the prayers of the noble Moravians of Bethlehem, and after- 
wards dedicated to the worship of God by the Lutheran Church of Easton. In the first 
story of this old house the first pastor of Easton resided and preached in the large hall in 
the second floor. This pastor was Rev. Bernhard Michael Hansihl. Dr. Richards is of 
the opinion that his pastorate lasted until 1769. He was succeeded by Rev. Christian 
Streit. The first Vestr}-, while the Lutheran Church worshiped in this old Moravian 
Temple, were Melchoir Stecker and Frederick Kuhn, Elders ; Michael Lehn, Frederick 
Gwinner, Johannes Ries, and Conrad Ihrie, Deacons. When the Union Church was 
finished on Third street, this was sold, changed to a hotel and continued as such until 1873, 
when it was taken down in the presence of the pastor of the Moravian Church of Bethle- 
hem, who was searching for historic papers supposed to lie concealed in the corner stone. 
Thus has this historic strudlure passed away like the generations who built it and wor- 
shiped in it, who have joined 

"The innumerable caravan which moves 
To that mysterious realm, where each shall take 
His chamber in the silent halls of death." 

And no doubt manv have 

' By an unfalteriuff trust approached their grave 
Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch 
About him, and lies down to pleasant dreams." 



The author found an old tax list of 1817 in the hands of ]\Ir. B. M. Youells, from 
which he gained much knowledge of the hotels and landlords of that time. 

At the foot of South Third street, near the Lehigh, was a hotel kept by John Sletor 
and aftervvards by his sons, Thomas and John ; the latter kept it until after the Rebellion. 
It was at one time the Ferry Hotel. 

On the southwest corner of Lehigh and South Third streets was a hotel kept by Wil- 
liam Diehl and John Brotznian. William obtained the license. This William was the son 

view of the union house, south third street, 
[formerly the bull's head.] 

of Jacob Diehl, the old court crier. He afterward kept the Bull's Head, and later a hotel 
on Front street. His occupation was a boatman on the canal, and on the Delaware with 
Durham boats. 

The Bull's Head Hotel (now I'uion House) is still standing on South Tliird street, and 
is at present occupied b\- Francis Ward. It is built of stone, having the same surface appear- 


ance as the old jail. It was formerly called the Nungesser Hotel, from the name of the 
landlord. There is no date when it was built, but we have learned from prominent citi- 
zens that it was about or near the time when the first jail was erected. Frederick Nungesser 
was the great-grandfather of the late Governor Reeder. Hon. Howard J. Reeder, of Easton, 
has now in his possession the innkeepers' license granted to his great-great-grandfather by 
Governor Denny in 1759. It is justly prized as a relic. The author has now lying before 
him a similar license granted Mr. Nungesser by Governor Hamilton in 1760. The name 
is spelled Nuncaster. The document is signed in a large and beautiful hand by Governor 
Hamilton. There is no doubt that the same workmen built the Bull's Head who built 
the first jail and the old Moravian House. The old Parsons building, on the corner of 
South Fourth and Ferry streets, has the same surface appearance ; it was finished in 1757. 
The Bull's Head is undoubtedly one of the oldest houses in Easton, built near the time 
of the Parsons mansion. The license thus signed by Governor Hamilton is in possession 
of George I. Nungesser, a great-great-great-grandson of Frederick. The Bull's Head was a 
noted place in old times for dancing parties, especially during the holidays. It was also 
the locality for political meetings ; the first Jackson club was formed in it. There may be 
some yet living who remember when the old Jackson pole was cut down that stood in front 
of the hotel. At a meeting of the club a resolution was passed "to take the tree down 
and make it into canes for each member of the club." The tree was cut down, then the 
club assembled in front, and by the use of hand spikes it was carried by the members to 
Fifth street, through Northampton street, to a place near where the IvUtheran Church now 
stands, where Francis Jackson's cabinet warehouse was situated. Major Straub and Samuel 
Horn, with fife and drum, led the procession. Here the tree was worked into canes which 
were taken to the club room. The club met and each member was presented with one. 
After the presentation speech a line was formed, and with a band of music at the head the 
members marched through town, and closed with a grand banquet at Nubby Shule's hotel 
at the Point. 

South of the Bull's Head, on the same side of the street, just below, was a hotel kept by 
Jimmie Hays of "Bully Whack" memory. There are many who will remember him by 
that name. This was a place of resort for old citizens to drink cider and talk over the 
events of the day. The visitors were fond of sitting and hearing Jimmie tell Irish stories 
and see him "Bully Whack" the rebellious customers out of the house. His "Bully 
Whack" was a large club, like an Irishman's shillalah. This house is now occupied as a 
stove store by Mr. A. F. Heller. 

On South Sitgreaves street, in the rear of Mr. James Young's coal yard, stands an old 
building which, doubtless, has an interesting history, though little can be learned concern- 
ing it. It is constructed of logs and plastered with mud ; and were it not weather-boarded 
it would appear the old log Ferry Tavern intacft. For many years it has served as a 
stable, and is still used as such by Mr. Young. It will repay the reader to take a stroll in 
that neighborhood and peep under the weather-boards of this building. 

Opposite the Bull's Head, on Third street, was a hotel kept by Peter Ihrie, the father 
of Anthony Ihrie. This was called the Golden Lamb. Peter kept this hotel thirty years. 
It was afterwards kept by James Hackett, the father of William Hackett, President of the 
Easton National Bank. James Hackett moved to and kept the Black Horse Hotel. 

The Black Horse Hotel (see page 146) was a stone struc^ture and stood where the 

1 64 




present United States Hotel stands. It was a famous resort for raftmen returning home. 
Mr. Hackett was a good hotelkeeper — very popular, — and his house was often crowded. 
He was blind when he kept the hotel, and this made him a favorite with the raftmen. 
Mr. Theophilus Hackett was his clerk, and had charge of the business. 

On the north of, and close to the present Police Headquarters, facing on the Square, 
stood a hotel kept by a Mr. Erb, and its sheds and other outbuildings extended from the 
corner of Northampton street up to near Bank street. Of its real history, however, but 
little could be learned. Later a hotel stood where the Easton National Bank now stands. 

While Mr. Gulick was its landlord, British prisoners were quartered in it for a few 

days. Mr. William White also kept this hotel, and maintained it as such until about the 
year 1814, when the building having been disposed of for the use of a banking house, 
Mr. White moved into the dwelling on the north side of the Square, now in the occu- 
pancy of the family of the late Matthew Hale Jones, Esq. 

The accommodations furnished by this building proving inadequate to the demands 
of an increasing business, Mr. White erecfted the house in which Dr. .\mos vSeip now 



resides as an annex to his hotel. The lot on which the latter bnilding stands was origin- 
ally owned by Arnold Everhart, father-in-law of William White. By referring to the cut 
of this part of the Square, it will be observed that the property on the corner, now in the 
possession of the Jones family, was occupied by Mr. White as the hotel proper. The 
adjoining small frame house was used as a barber shop by Mr. Samuel Finley ; in this 
building B. M. Youells subsequently acquired his skill in the tonsorial art. The double 
two-story house in the centre was used for offices, the first story being occupied as attor- 
neys' offices by Richard Broadhead and Washington McCartney, Esqrs. , and Jacob Wey- 
gandt, Esq., J. P.; and the second story by Dr. F. L. Crane, dentist, and Samuel Moon, 
artist. In this building Charles Getter was arraigned on the charge of betraying Margaret 
Lawall, and here he was married by the Squire. In a few weeks afterwards he was again 
arraigned, but under the more serious charge of the murder of her whom he had so 
recently married. Mr. Theophilus Hackett told the author that he was in Squire Wey- 


gandt's office when Getter was brought in a prisoner. The one-story frame on the east of 
the stone building was an exadl counterpart of that one referred to as the barber shop. 
This building was used as an office by Dr. Miller, who exercised his medical skill, but 
made no charges. If his patients saw fit to pay him anything, they did, and that was 
right. He must have lived on faith, which might have been done in those days, but the 
experiment would be somewhat hazardous now. The three-story brick building on the 
northeast corner of the Square was the one built and used by Mr. White as already indi- 
cated. The east front room of this house, now occupied as a dental office by Dr. H. F. 
Seip, was the place of meeting of those who assembled and organized Dafayette College. 

John Nicholas, in 1799, bought of Henry Spering, Esq., the lot of ground on the 
northeast corner of Ferry and Second streets, and in 1806, ere6ted the stone building now 
standing thereon for a hotel, and kept it as such until 1832, when he sold it to Dr. Stewart 
Kennedy. For more than a quarter of a centur\' it was the resort of the young people of 


that day, when gay festivities and the merry dance was the rule. It is now the residence 
of George W. Stout, Esq. 

In 1817 Christian Hartzel kept a hotel on Front street, called the "Delaware House." 
This was a prominent resort for Durham boatmen and raftsmen. It was afterward kept 
by David Stem. There was an old hotel kept b}- Mr. Moore on the south side of North- 
ampton, a few doors from Front street. This was called the " Ferr\' Hotel." j\Ir. Moore 
kept the ferry and hotel at the same time. This house is now owned by Mr. Bornman. 
A few doors above this, on the corner of Green and Northampton, was a hotel in 1817, 
kept by Daniel Swander, and it too, was a resort for boatmen and raftsmen. There is 
still a hotel at this place kept by Mr. Robert Gerver, and named The Gerver House. 

Christopher Engle kept a hotel on North Fourth street, at the sign of the White 
Horse. This was the headquarters for lumbermen from over the mountains and for 
farmers bringing their produce to market. At the same time it was a great place for 
dancing and frolics and fighting. This was especially true during the holidays, to see who 
was the best man. It was a common occurrence at the hotels, except White's. At the 
latter hotel, gentlemen from the cities, traveling on business or for pleasure, found repose. 

The "Green Tree" Hotel, now the Franklin, was kept in 181 7 by Adam Heckman. 
When he died in 1818 it passed into the hands of William Shouse. In 181 7 the Swan Hotel 
was kept by Thomas Sebring. At the same time a Mr. John Yohe kept the Central Hotel. 
After this Christian Butz took it down and rebuilt it. It was formerly two stories high 
and built of stone. The sign of this old hotel was an Indian Chief in full Indian costume, 
which was removed when the house was taken down and the new one built. The Central 
Hotel stand is one of the oldest in the borough. In the early days of hotel life, Adam 
Yohe kept a hotel on the southwest corner of Fourth and Northampton streets. 

"Daddy" Hempt kept a hotel in an old log house, situated on Sitgreaves street, near 
the corner of Northampton, used at one time by John Dawes as a chair fadlory, where he 
carried on the business on the corner fronting Northampton street. There are many 
people living who remember this old log house. 

We have thus given a sketch of the hotels of former da\'s in Easton. In a historic 
point of view, the old log house at the Point will ever stand most prominent. Its history 
will be read with deep interest. In a social point, White's hotel will be recognized as 
standing first. This was a home for those who sought a temporary retreat where they 
might enjoy rest and a generous fare. The landlord was known, far and near, as a 
most genial, skilled and companionable host. He was a man of very keen wit and ready 
repartee. He could tell a humorous story and crack a joke in such a way as to give life 
to the company without giving offense. For this peculiar power he was called "Chippy 
White." Few names were better known or more pleasantly remembered than his. His 
house was the home for gentlemen from the cities and all parts of the countr}-, traveling 
for pleasure or on business. Those going to the Water Gap or Schooley's Mountain would 
always arrange to stop at White's Hotel. His business increased, and needing more room, 
he moved Dr. Miller's office, cut the stone building in the centre, tore down the eastern 
half, and built the house now occupied by Mr. James W. Long. The ample parlor of this 
house was the dining room of the hotel. Mr. White was very kind to the poor. He had 
tenants who were needy, and many times could not pay their rents, but the)- were not dis- 
tressed, the debt was not collected. He was sheriff" of Northampton county from 1814 to 


181 7. In proof of his proverbial generous nature it is said, that, while in the discharge of 
his duties as sheriff, an execution was placed in his hands, amounting to one hundred 
dollars, against a widow with a family of children. He entered the woman's house, made 
known his errand, and the mother and children were in tears. To sell the property was to 
turn the family out of doors. The debt was paid by the sheriff and the widow remained 
with the children. 

The other hotels were, most of them, centres of frolic and fun. Dancing was a great 
source of amusement. There would be frequent scenes of fighting, not from malice always, 
but from a desire to see who was the "best man." The word "best" had reference, not 
to morals, but to muscular force. The man who could whip any other in the town was the 
best man. But manners and customs have greatly changed in the lapse of time. Easton 
then had, as it now has, as good hotels as could be found in the State. 

An incident, charadleristic of the times, is narrated in John Hill Martin's "Historical 
Sketch of Bethlehem, p. 37, of Just Johnson, landlord of the "Sun" Inn, over one hun- 
dred years since : ' 'Johnson was a man of powerful frame, a host within himself. Christian 
Grubb, an iron master of Lancaster county, having heard of Johnson, and being himself 
notorious for his great strength, and also a celebrated boxer, visited the "Sun," on pur- 
pose to get up a fight with the giant Moravian Brother ; but it was not until he had been 
grossly insulted that Just lost his temper ; then suddenly seizing Grubb by his breeches 
and his coat collar, he threw him over the iron railing of the tavern porch to the pavement 
below, saying, "God bless meiner soul, I drows you over de banisters." Grubb was quite 
a heavy man, and being very good natured in the main, was satisfied with Johnson's dis- 
play of strength ; he told him who he was, and why he had visited Bethlehem, and so 
together they made merry over the occurrence." 


'Squire Jacob Abel came to this country from Germany, in the early days of Easton, 
and was for many years one of its most prominent citizens. He was born in 1744, and 
was thirty-two years old when the Declaration of Independence was adopted. It had 
been twenty-six years since the Durham boats began the navigation of the Delaware, 
and he had been engaged in the business of boating a part of that time. Being familiar 
with the handling of that craft, a patriot, and in the vigor of manhood, he helped colledl 
the boats for the passage of General Washington's army over the Delaware in his retreat 
through New Jersey, after the battle of Brooklyn. The author learned from Mr. John 
Abel that his grandfather carried the mail to Philadelphia for a time on horse-back. The 
most direct route from the Eastern States and from places on the upper Hudson to Phila- 
delphia was over the old mine road from Esopus to Van Campen's mills, above the Water 
Gap. While Adams was President, he came from Boston by this route, descending the 
Delaware in Durham boats. The news of the sui-render of Burgoyne came over the same 
road, and Jacob Abel carried this news to Philadelphia, and heard the shouts of the 
patriots as they rang through the streets. He owned the Ferry in 1787, and was one of 
five who purchased Getter's Island during the same year, of the Penns. He became 


Justice of the Peace, and held the office inan\- years. He kept hotel at the "Point" at the 
same time. His name appears on the tax list of 1788 as one of the large property holders 
of the town. His office was in the stone house that stood where Magee's fruit store now 
stands. In this house he died in 1822, aged seventy-eight. 

His children were Jacob*-'; John*^'. Jacob followed the business of transportation, as 
his father had done before him ; first with Durham boats on the Delaware river, and after- 
wards on the Pennsylvania and New Jersey Canals. In the later years of his life he was 
largely engaged in the transportation of coal and merchandise, both on his own account 
and as a partner in the firms of Drake, Wilson & Co., Abel, Berthoud & Co., and the 
Lehigh Transportation Company. He also, for a number of years, kept a hotel at the 
"Point," which was for a long period the centre of a large trade, both before and after 
the building of the canals. He was a very active and energetic business man, and was 
known to all who traversed either river or canals, in New York, New Jersey, and Penn- 
sylvania. His children were William W; Jacob'^); George'^); John S.<''; SamueP*'; Ann'9>, 
wife of George W. Housel ; Elizabeth <'°>, wife of Rev. J. W. Wood, D. D. ; and Maria'"', 
wife of Joseph Stabp. 

William'-'' is a resident of Easton, and has no children ; George'*' is also a resident 
and has nine children. Samuel *'' is dead. His widow, Mrs. Valeria Abel, and two chil- 
dren. Dr. Samuel V. Abel, and Nettie, wife of George W. Geiser, Esq., sur\-ive him. 

John Abel '3', the brother of Jacob '^', had a large family, of whom but one survives — 
John ''"', who is a confedlioner at No. 237 Northampton street, Easton. He has a large 
family: Louisa, wife of W. W. Cottingham, Esq., Superintendent of Schools; Charles J., 
confe(5lioner, of Phillipsburg, N. J. ; Elizabeth, wife of W. E. Hammann, druggist, of 
Easton; Josephine, wife of Mr. G. T. Hammann, of Bethlehem; Emma M., John H., 
Isabella, Edward, and Mary. John was also engaged in boating with Durham boats until 
the opening of the canals, when he carried on boating between Easton and Philadelphia. 
He also, for some years, was engaged in the grocerN- business in Easton. 

On July 7, 1825, hs ^^^ appointed by Governor Shulze a Commissioner for improving 
the navigation of the river Delaware, under the A<fl of March 26, 1821. The first Com- 
missioners were Lewis S. Coryell and John Kirkbride, of Bucks coimty, and Jacob Shouse, 
of the County of Northampton ; but Mr. Shouse resigned and Mr. Abel was appointed in 
his place. He was engaged for more than three years in this important work. It was 
with him a labor of love, for he knew every rift and fall in it. The transportation of logs, 
lumber, grain, etc., down the Delaware from New York State, and the upper counties of 
New Jersey and Pennsylvania, was then an important business. In fatt, the public roads 
were so few and so poor that they were not used unless such use was unavoidable. In 
this day and generation, it is hard to imagine the importance of the river communication 
of that day, before the construction of canals ; and it is no small proof of the ability and 
efficiency of John Abel that he was chosen, with such men as Lewis S. Coryell and John 
Kirkbride, for this public service by Governor Andrew Shulze. 


had become 

Truth is sometimes stranger than fiction. 

ROM the New American Cyclopaedia we learn that Timothy Pickering was 
born in Salem, Massachusetts, July 17, 1745. He graduated at Harvard 
when he was eighteen years of age, and at once became a clerk in the office 
of John Higgins, Register of Deeds for the County of Essex. Living so 
near Boston, he early became identified with the patriotic movements which 
immediately preceded the Revolutionary war. He was elected a member 
of the Committee of Safety, and was arrested at the instance of Governor 
Gage for calling a town meeting on public grievances, but was soon set at 
liberty. He wrote ' ' an essay on the Plan of Discipline for a Militia, ' ' which 
was ordered by the Legislature of Massachusetts to be used by the militia 
of the colony. In the autumn of 1776 the army of General Washington 
inch reduced, and large reinforcements were called for. Pickering took 
command of a regiment raised in Essex and went to the front. In 1777 he was appointed 
adjutant general by General Washington, and was present at the battles of Brandywine 
and Germantown. He was in adlive service during the siege of Yorktown, and at the 
surrender of Lord Cornwallis. The Revolutionary war having closed, the controversy 
in Wyoming was renewed between the New England settlers and the Proprietary Gov- 
ernment. Connecticut claimed that her charter included a large tradl of land in the 
Wyoming Valley which had been settled by people from that State. Pennsylvania claimed 
the same territory as included in the purchase of William Penn, and secured by the 
charter from the English King. A long and bitter contest enstied. Each party felt 
their claim was valid, and were equally determined to maintain their title to one of the 
most beautiful valleys in America. The leader of the Conne6licut people was John 
Franklin, who was fearless, bold and daring ; and the idol of those whom he led. John 
Franklin had been arrested on a charge of high treason. The writ was issued by Chief 
Justice McKean. To arrest him was looked upon as a perilous undertaking. Timothy 
Pickering had been sent to Wyoming to assist in the formation of a new county (Luzerne) 
and tise his endeavors to calm the troubled waters, and settle all difficulties. It was at his 
instance that the writ was issued and the arrest made. John Franklin was a man of 
powerful muscles, and he knew how to use them. There was not a man in the valley 
who could take him a prisoner ; and so it must be done by stratagem. At the close of 
September, after a political tour, he had returned to Wilkes-Barre, and was standing near 
the ferry, when a person whom he knew approached and said, "a friend at the red house 
wished to see him." Unconscious of danger he walked down, when suddenly he was 
seized behind and an attempt made to pinion his arms. By powerful efforts he shook 
himself loose ; was again seized, but by the most powerful exertions he kept his opponents 

Note. — As Mr. Pickering was for some time a resident of Easton, the author has felt it at once a duty and 
privilege to give a sketch of the life of this most remarkable man. He has consulted Bancroft's United States, 
The New American Encyclopedia, Miner's Historj- of Wyoming", and the biography of Timothy Pickering, sent 
by Mr. E. A. Weaver, of the Engineering Department Pennsylvania Railroad, at Philadelphia. 


from their purpose, till a noose was thrown over his head and his amis confined ; the 
power of four men being requisite to bind him. To get him on horse-back was the next 
obje<fl. Colonel Franklin now cried out, "help! help! William Slocum ! Where is 
William Slocum?" and drawing his pistol, for he went armed, discharged one of them 
without effecft, when a heavy blow struck him for a moment almost senseless, and covered 
his face with blood. The hour had been judiciously seledled, in the midst of seeding 
time. William Slocum, with nearly the entire male population, was in the distant fields 
sowing grain. But the spirit of the good Quaker mother was aroused. Her Yankee 
blood was up. A lovely and amiable woman she was, but for the moment she thought of 
nothing but the release of Franklin. Mrs. Slocum seized the gun, and running to the 
door, "W^illiam," she cried. "Who will call William?" "Is there no luan here?" 
"Will nobody rescue him?" From the river bank Captain Erbe had taken his prisoner 
into the main street, near Colonel Pickerings ; but with tremendous power, in despite of 
his four captors, Franklin threw himself from his horse as often as placed on him, when 
Colonel Pickering was obliged to come from behind the curtain and decisively interpose. 
Accompanied by his servant, William A. George, he ran to the door armed with a loaded 
pistol, which he held to Franklin's breast, while George tied his legs under the horse, and 
bound him to one of his captors. Colonel Pickering tells the story of binding the prisoner: 
"The four gentlemen seized him, two of the horses were in my stable which were sent to 
them ; but soon my servant returned on one of them with a message from the gentlemen 
that the people were assembling in numbers, and requested me to come with what men 
were near me to prevent a rescue. I took loaded pistols in my hands and went with 
another servant to their aid. Just as I met them Franklin threw himself from his horse 
and renewed the struggle with them. His hair was disheveled and his face was bloody 
with the preceding efforts. I told the gentlemen they could never carry him off unless 
they tied his feet under his horse's belly. I sent for a cord. The gentlemen remounted 
him and my servant tied his feet. Then one taking his bridle, another following behind, 
and others riding, one on each side, they whipped up his horse, and were soon beyond the 
reach of friends." Thus subdued by six, he was hurried with painful speed to the jail of 

Colonel Pickering had tried all the arts of the diplomatist, all the kindness of the 
Christian gentleman, and all the shrewdness of the politician to bring about a reconcilia- 
tion between opposing fa<5tions. And when all had failed he called upon the strong ann 
of the State and hastened a crisis. But his turn came next. All Wyoming was in com- 
motion from Nescopeck to the State line on hearing of the violent abduclion of Franklin, 
and the part Pickering had taken therein. A violent civil war seemed at hand. General 
Wayne appeared in the valley. Oliver Wolcott, of Connecfticut, had drawn up a consti- 
tution for a new State. Pickering apprehending violence had fled to Philadelphia, hoping 
the storm of wrath would pass away. The winds of passion seemed to have subsided, and 
Pickering returned to his home in the valley. Yankee vengeance only waited opportunity, 
and that soon came. On the 26th of June, 17S8, while he was asleep, at eleven o'clock 
at night, the door of his house was violently opened, and he was ordered to get up, dress, 
and follow them. "Get a warm coat, you will need it," said his captors. In a few 
minutes they left the and took their march into the darkness. There were fifteen 
men who liad him in charge, who, forming a hollow square, placed their prisoner in the 

E AS TON, PENN'A. 171 

centre. "Now," said one of his captors, "write two or three lines to the Executive 
Council that they may release Franklin and we will release you." Instantly Pickering 
answered: "The Executive Council know their duty better than to release a traitor to 
procure the release of an innocent man." "Damn him," exclaimed a voice, "Why don't 
you tomahawk him?" The only design seemed to be to force Pickering to intercede for 
the release of Franklin. In crossing the river, when the water was too shallow for the 
canoe to reach the bank, one of the company carried the prisoner to the shore on his back 
rather than allow him to wet his feet. At another time a fawn had been shot and a choice 
piece was cut and roasted for him. So that there was much of kindness mingled with 
severity. After being some days in the woods, a chain was brought by one of the 
party ; it was about six feet long, and attached to one end was a band like a horse fetter. 
They said : "Colonel Franklin had been put in irons in the jail in Philadelphia and you 
must by put in irons also." They placed the fetter around one of his ankles, locked it 
and bent the key, so that it could not be used without an instrument to straighten it. The 
other end of the chain was fastened by a staple in a tree, and thus one of America's great 
statesmen was chained in the woods like a beast. At other times when halting for the 
night the chain would be wound around the leg of one of his captors so that he could not 
escape in the night without awaking his keeper. He was kept thus for nineteen days in 
the woods, sleeping at night in the open air or in deserted cabins. Rumors came that 
State troops were in pursuit of the captured statesman, and swearing vengeance on his 
captors. They had been heard by Pickering early in the morning while his keepers were 
sleeping. At length Gideon Dudley approached him and said: "Do you wish to be set 
at liberty" "Of course I do," was his answer. "Will you intercede for Franklin's 
pardon?" "No, I will not." "Will you intercede for our pardon?" Knowing them 
personally, and that they were acting under orders from others, he promised his influence, 
and he was finally set at liberty. The last day of his confinement his chain, which he had 
worn for nine days, was taken off; he slept with his guard that night free from the chain 
which had annoyed him so long. He was first awake in the morning, stirred up some 
coarse meal, kindled a fire, placed his cakes on hemlock bark and cooked them for his 
morning meal. As soon as it was light enough to see, he gathered their "green tea," 
which was winter-green and made a cup of tea, his guard awaking in time to enjoy the meal 
which their prisoner had so kindly prepared. No doubt this last breakfast in the woods 
was among the most enjoyable of his life. How quickly and strangely this scene is 
changed ! He went from his chains in the woods of Wyoming to the Cabinet of Washing- 
ton. In August, 1791, he was appointed Postmaster-General. On January 2, 1795, he was 
transferred to the office of Secretary of War, and on December 12, to that of Secretary of 
State. He held this position during the remainder of Washington's administration, and 
for more than three years under President Adams, who removed him from office May 12, 
1800. He never inquired into and never knew the reason of his removal. He was Sec- 
retary of State during the exciting times occasioned by the arrival of Genet as Minister 
from France, and the negotiations of Jay's Treaty with England. He safely guided the 
country through this most trying period in the history of the Republic. He had spent his 
salary as fast as he had received it, and was left without an income when suddenly dismissed 
by President Adams. During his services in Wyoming, he had acquired possession of ten 
thousand acres of wild land near the Great Bend of the Susquehanna, and fourteen 


thousand in the western part of the State. He regretted ver}- much that he had not gone 
into tlig woods instead of going into the Cabinet, and during the eight years spent in 
office cleared up a farm and comfortable home for himself and family. He looked upon 
this eight years as a financial mistake, and determined to rectify it a-t once. Though fifty- 
five years of age, he would plunge into the wilds of Pennsylvania and hew out a home for 
his family where he could enjoy happiness in his declining years. There was nothing like 
it in our history. He could proudly refer to Cincinnatus, but his farm was cleared ; he 
might quote the lines : 

" Cincinnatus at his plough, 

With more true glorj' shone, 
Than Caesar, with his laureled brow, 

His palace and his throne. ' ' 

Yet his friends laughed at his projecl, ridiculed it, and plead with him to relinquish it. 
But to no purpose. He resolved to place his famih' in Easton where there were good schools, 
and take one of his sons and go to the forest. He lost no time in carrying his plans into 
execution. His friends offered him money sufficient for comfort, but "he would not take 
a gift while he could dig." He was offered a seat on the bench of the Supreme Court of 
IMassachusetts, "but that would only help to starve him politely," and he refused it. All 
things having been made ready. Col. Pickering, at the end of June, 1800, started, in high 
spirits, on his bold and resolute enterprise. He and his son Henr}- were at Easton, July 
ist. The month of July was spent in providing for the comfort and support of his family 
here until his return in the winter. He collected whatever was necessary for his use in 
the woods, and on the nth of August started with his son on his journey, a distance of a 
hundred miles, taking laborers acquainted with the business of making a clearing in the 
forest, a span of horses, a yoke of oxen, chains, axes, and other required articles. In 1794, 
the Academy and the stone school house, corner of Church and Sitgreaves streets, were 
built. Here were the opportunities which Mr. Pickering sought for his children. He 
felt it might be some time before he would be ready to take his family to his new home, 
and here in Easton were good advantages and a good home. He went at work in the woods 
with the utmost energy. His hands were blistered, his limbs were made lame and tired. 
But his strength was invigorated. His free and independent life and the forest air were a 
constant delight. Its mystic silence inspired his fancy and elevated his soul. His 
biographer thinks this the happiest period of his life. The work of the season having been 
accomplished, he returned to E)aston, December 10, 1800. He spent a couple of weeks 
with his family and then set out on a brief visit to his relatives and friends in the place 
of his birth. He was warmly welcomed by his friends in Salem, who determined to induce 
him to give up what they considered a wild projecfl. They had tried ridicule and argu- 
ment without effecft. The\- now changed their tatlics. They spoke in high terms of his 
lands and of his tremendous energy in his efforts to make for himself a home. But he had 
incidentally said that if he could sell enough to realize a sufficient sum to buy a farm near 
his childhood home he would dispose of his Pennsylvania lands. His friends saw their 
opportunity. They ascertained his price, formed a compan>-, and paid him $25,000, and 
Timothy Pickering's toil came to an end. How much the memories of childhood had to 
do in changing his course he has never told us. But it is quite likely that the sweet 
recollec^Tiions of the home of his youth lielped to wean his affecifions from the "mystic 



silence of the forest which had so inspired his soul." The purchase of the land was a 
business transa<5lion, though his friends never received a dollar for the land they bought. 
Alexander Hamilton has just fallen in a duel with Aaron Burr ; his family was left poor, 
and the land bought of Pickering was freely given the widow and her children. Picker- 
ing came back to Easton, and spent a short time here. His friends bought a farm for him 
near Salem, Massachusetts, and the family left Easton in 1801. After the commencement 
of hostilities against Great Britain in 18 12, he was a member of the State Board of War ; 
from 1813 to 1817 he was a member of the House of Representatives of the United States. 

He was one of the ablest men of his time and possessed the entire confidence of Pres- 
idents Washington and the elder Adams, as well as that of the people of his native State, 
and must ever be remembered as one of the most remarkable heroes in the history of the 

That he had a taste for humor is evident from the following incident. He wrote to 
his son from Washington in 1805, saying : "Hand the enclosed slip to your mother when 
opportunity offers. We have a Scotch clergyman here who is one of the Chaplains to 
Congress. He furnished one of my fellow lodgers with two verses written by Robert 
Burns, on hearing a report of the death of Thomas Paine, which are not published in 
Burns' works. I enclose them." The following was the enclosure : 

" All pale and ghastly Tommy Paine 

Last night goed down to hell ; 

The de\nl shook him by the hand, 

Says Tom, I hope your well." 

" He led him to a furnace hot 
And on him shut the door ; 
Oh, how the devils leap and laugh, 
To hear the rascal roar." 

Mr. Pickering died at Salem, January 29, 1829. His son John became an eminent 
scholar, philologist and Jurist. He was the author of a Greek and English lexicon, which 
he commenced in 1814, before any similar work had been undertaken, and, with the assist- 
ance of Dr. Daniel Oliver, finished and published in 1826. 





|N the twelve years of peace, which succeeded the cessation of the Indian 
troubles in 1764, the county and its inhabitants made good progress in ma- 
terial prosperity, and in such public improvements as naturally follow new 
settlements in the wilderness. At the time of the planting of the first set- 
tlements, the only road reaching to them was the "King's Road"— as it was 
called — reaching from Philadelphia to the Lehigh, at Jones' Island, about 
a mile below Bethlehem. This was really nothing more than an Indian 
trail — the "Minisink Path" — over which the il/?«j?' warriors had, from 
time immemorial, passed to and fro, between the Blue Mountains and tide 
water. This was improved from time to time, until at last it became a good 
and solid road. Next was laid out, a public road from Goshenhoppen, in 
Montgomery county, to Jeremiah Trexler's tavern, which stood in what is now Upper 
Macungie township, Lehigh county; then the territory of Bucks county, and embraced in 
Northampton, at the time of its eredlion. This laying out was made in 1732. Five years 
later — 1737 — a road was opened from Nazareth to the Depui settlement at the Minisink, 
and, in 1744, inhabitants petitioned that this road might be continued to the mouth of the 
Saucon, by the way of Bethlehem. They stated that they "labored under great incon- 
venience for want of a road to mill and to market (the latter being at Bethlehem, and the 
former at Saucon Creek); the paths being yearly altered, so that they could not travel with- 
out endangering their lives, and going far out of their way" and they asked "that they 
may have a road fit for wagons to pass from Saucon Mill to Bethlehem, and thence to Naz- 
areth, on account of a corn-mill that is at Bethlehem, without which road the people of 
Nazareth, and others, the inhabitants of the county, will be put to great inconvenience, 
and the same mill to them be rendered useless." Upon this petition the road was laid out 
as follows: "Beginning at Irish's stone-quarry, at a white oak, thence northwest forty 
degrees, north thirty-five perches" and so continuing through the various courses and 
distances "quite to Nazareth, twenty-eight hundred and forty perches." 

Also in 1744, there was laid out, a road from Walpack Ferry, on the Delaware, to 
Isaac Ysselstein's place on the Lehigh. This road was twenty-seven miles, and one hun- 
dred and eighteen rods in length. A road was asked for in the year 1745, to run from 
Bethlehem to the ferry at the "Point" where the Lehigh enters the Delaware, that is, to 
conneft with the ferry to New Jersey. The petition was granted, but years passed before 
the road was built. 

The next year a road was opened from the German settlements in Macungie, north- 
easterly, to the Lehigh, opposite Bethlehem, and again, in 1747, a highway was petitioned 
for, to run from the Saucon, by way of Bethlehem, to Mahoning Creek, beyond the moun- 
tains, which in due time was granted and laid out. 

Thus it will be seen, that in the proje(5ling, and laying out of roads, the town of 
Bethlehem was made an objedlive point; all the routes of travel radiating from thence as a 
common centre; Bethlehem being, at that time, more considerable in size than any other 
town in the countv. 


It must be borne in mind, however, that in those days, in Northampton county, the 
granting of a road was an entirely distinct affair from the building thereof, and in almost 
every case, years elapsed between these two operations, as, for instance, the road from the 
Macungie German settlements, to the Lehigh, at Bethlehem, which was laid out in 1745, 
was no more than a bridal-path, for at least fifteen years, and it was considerably after 
1760 before it became, in any sense, a wagon road. 

And again, in the case of the road which had been laid out from Martin's Ferr}', at 
the mouth of the Lehigh, in 1745. John Chapman and John Watson, surveyors, had been 
directed to lay out "a commodious road from the mouth of the West Branch of the Dela- 
ware — the landing place of a well-accustomed fern.- over the Delaware River — over the 
aforementioned West Branch, into the great road leading from Saucon to the city of Phila- 
delphia," and yet, when Governor Hamilton, on the thirteenth of July, 1752, had occasion 
to pass over this road on his way to Easton, it was discovered that not only had it not 
been built, but that ]\Iessrs. Chapman and Watson, had not even so much as laid it out, 
as they had been directed to do seven years before. And it was not until years later than 
this, even, that it was completed for the passage of vehicles. 

So that, in the year 1763, there was not a really good road in the bounds of the county; 
but the best there was, was the "King's Road" from Philadelphia to Bethlehem — striking 
the Lehigh at Ysselstein's Island, and it was over this road that the travel between the 
Capital and all parts of Northampton county passed ; the Durham road, which struck the 
Lehigh at Easton, being, to all intents and purposes, impassable. 

It was over this road, too, that George Klein, of Bethlehem, made the first trip with his 
" stage- wagon, " in September, 1763. After that, he ran regularly between that town and 
Philadelphia, making the round trip weekly — that is, he started on Monday mornings, 
from the Sun Tavern, in Bethlehem, and on his return, he set out from the inn, called the 
"King of Prussia," on Thursday morning of each week. This inn stood on Race street. 
It is not known whether or not this "stagewagon" line proved profitable to the proprietor, 
but certain it is that it continued its trips, through fair weather and foul, and was the 
pioneer of all the stage-lines which succeeded it in the county. 

The first regular stage route to Easton was established by Frederick Nicholas, in the 
year 1796. One trip a week was made, leaving Easton on Monday mornings. It was not 
until 1815 that trips were made daily. Packages of money and small parcels were carried 
by the drivers. We cannot better illustrate the mode of travel in those days than by tran- 
scribing from Martin's "Historical Sketch of Bethlehem" the following advertisement 
which appeared in the Philadelphia Advertiser of April 5, 1798 : 

"Philadelphia, Allentown, Bethlehem and Wind Gap Stages. 

"The subscribers respectfully inform the public that they will start a line of stages, to 
set out at the Wind Gap at Mr. Jacob Hellers, on Saturday the i8th of April, 1798, at one 
o'clock in the afternoon, and arrive at Bethlehem same evening. Another stage will start 
from Bethlehem at five o'clock next morning, at which time an extra stage will start from 
Allentown from the of Jacob Hagenbuch, and fall in with the line at Mr. Cooper's 
(Coopersburg) ; then proceeding to Mr. vSamuel Sellers' (Sellersville), where another stage 
will set out immediately and arri\e at Mr. Eh' Chandlers' PVanklin Head, Philadelphia, 



same evening. Set out from E. Chandler's Franklin Head, Philadelphia, on Wednesday 
morning at five o'clock, and proceed the same route back, and arrive at Allentown and 
Bethlehem same evening. Another stage will leave J. Heller's at one o'clock said day, 
and likewise arrive at Bethlehem same evening ; set out from Bethlehem Thursday morn- 
ing, at five o'clock, and both stages take their respective routes, and arrive at Philadelphia 
the same evening, and at Mr. Heller's, at nine o'clock the same morning; set out from Mr. 
Chandler's (Philadelphia) on Saturday morning at five o'clock and arrive at Allentown and 
Bethlehem the same evening ; and so twice a week from the Wind Gap to Philadelphia. 

"The fare for passengers from Mr. Heller's (Wind Gap) to Bethlehem, for each 
passenger, seventy cents ; from Bethlehem or Allentown to Philadelphia, three dollars ; 
way passenger, six cents a mile ; 14 pounds of baggage allowed each passenger ; 150 wt., 
same as a passenger, and the same for returning. 

"Parcels taken in at the stage office at Mr. Chandler's, Philadelphia; at M. Severing' s, 
Bethlehem, and at Mr. Heller's, Wind Gap. The smallest parcels twelve cents; two cents. 


per pound that exceed fourteen pounds, for which the subscribers will vouch for their de- 
livery at their respedlive places. 

"The subscribers from the liberal encouragement received from the public last season, 
and now by providing several sets of the best horses, and commodious stages, sober and 
careful drivers, they flatter themselves that the public will continue to give them the pre- 
ference, as the line will run through from Bethlehem to Philadelphia, in one day. — George 
Weaver, Samuel Sellers, Philip Sellers, Enoch Roberts, Jacob Hellers." 

At that period there was more travel from Bethlehem to Philadelphia than from 
Easton ; the "stage wagon" of George Klein was the pioneer of stages in this secftion. 
At a later day, the lines from Philadelphia to Easton and Wilkes- Barre, became the main 
route of travel for all Northeastern Pennsylvania. The line from Bethlehem to Philadel- 
phia continued in use, until the completion of the North Pennsylvania Railroad, in 
January, 1857. Easton became the centre of operations for many lines of stages. Some 
of our older readers will live again the life of by-gone days as they read these lines. The 
close contadl into which the stage coach brings its passengers, the genial and hearty 
manners, the ready wit and unstudied humor of the travellers, made companions out of 


strangers before many miles had been traversed, and before the journey had ended, friend- 
ships, which ended only with life. 

About the years 1825 to 1830, there were, in all, ten stage routes leaving Easton in 
various dire<ftions. The Philadelphia route, fifty-six miles in length ; the Newark route, 
sixty-two miles in length ; the New Brunswick route, forty-five miles in length ; the 
Wilkes-Barre route, sixty-five miles in length ; the Mount Pleasant route, eighty-one 
miles in length ; the route to Berwick, sixty-five miles in length ; the Lancaster route, 
one hundred and six miles in length ; the route to Milford, sixty-six miles in length. 
The line to Newton was forty miles in length, and was the only one not using Troy 
coaches and four horses. The river route to Philadelphia was not a profitable one. 

The stage lines changed hands a number of times, and we give the names of some owners : 
Frederick Nicholas, John Adam Copp, James Ely, Robert Levers, Richard Stout, Josiah 
Horton, William and Samuel Shouse, William White, Hugh Major, Andrew Whitesell, Col. 
Reeside, Jacob Peters, David Connor and Reuben Gross. Between William Shouse and 
William White there existed great competition, and by way of illustration we copy the 
following from the "History of Northampton County:" "William White, one of the 
owners of the line, was proprietor of the Easton Hotel, or as it was better known "White's 
Hotel," located at the corner of North Third street and Centre Square * * * At the 
same time William Shouse * * * -^as the proprietor of the "Green Tree," now the 
Franklin House * * * Mr. White, secure in owning the line of travel, refused in any 
way to accommodate a guest of the ' ' Green Tree. ' ' If any one wished to stop there, they 
must get there with their baggage the best way they could ; and if any one stopping there 
wished to go to Philadelphia, they must go with their baggage to White's Hotel to take 
passage, for the stage would not call for them, at least not at the regular prices. This 
discrimination against his hotel was very annoying to Mr. Shouse, and being unable by 
persuasion or remonstrance to change the matter, and being of an energetic and deter- 
mined nature, he decided to make an attempt to meet the enemy on his own ground and 
fight him along the entire line." He at once carried out his project by allying himself 
with Col. Reeside, then one of the heaviest mail contractors in the countr,', who furnished 
the lower end of the routes, while Mr. Shouse took charge of the upper end. New 
coaches, new and fine horses were at once put on the road, and the fight commenced. 
The opposing parties were well matched, both being determined, persevering and excited. 
Such races as they had ! Such time as they made ! LTp hill and down they went at break- 
neck speed, each driver doing his best to reach Easton first. I venture to say that our 
good old town had no such daily excitement before or since. This continued for some 
time, when Col. Reeside bought the stock of the old line and ended the conflict. 

Some of the stage drivers were : John Pittenger, Jacob Pittenger, Mahlon \'annor- 
man, Mahlon West and Frank Carney. Mr. Vannorman and Mr. Carney are still living ; 
the former ser\'ed at the business twenty-four years, and is now hale and heaj-ty at the 
good old age of 87. Mahlon West latterly was buying-agent for Jacob Peters, that is, 
particularly in horse flesh. The open lot on Lehigh Hill, just above the Lehigh Valley 
Freight Depot, was the pasture for Mr. Peters' horses, and for years from twent>- to thirty 
head of horses were kept there. 


HE Post Office was established at Easton, Northampton County, Pa., March 
20th, 1793. Prior to that date, it is probable that the residents conduced 
their very limited correspondence by sending their letters to Philadelphia 
or New York by the not very frequent travelers to those cities. On Feb- 
ruary 20th, 1792, the Congress of the United States passed an "Act to 
establish the post office and post roads within the United States," which, 
receiving the approving signature of George Washington, President of the 
United States, became a law. It established a post route from Wicasset, 
Maine, to Savannah, Georgia, passing through Portland, (Me.) Portsmouth, 
(N. H.) Boston, (Mass.) Hartford, (Conn.) New York, (N. Y.) Newark, 
Elizabetlitown and Trenton, (N. J.) Philadelphia and Chester, (Pa.), and so 
on to Savannah, (Ga.). This was the post route of the United States, and from this were 
a few cross routes, among them one from "Philadelphia to Bethlehem," "Bethlehem to 
Easton and Sussex Court House," and one from "Sussex Court House to Elizabethtown," 
intersedling there the "post road." This was the first act passed, under the Constitution 
of the United States, establishing a postal system in this country. It went into effeft, in 
accordance with its provisions, on June ist, 1792. 

In 1792, there was established a line of stages between Bethlehem and Philadelphia, 
and in 1796 between Easton and Philadelphia, or perhaps it were more proper to call it a 
stage line, as probably but one stage was required, a round trip being made only twice a 
week in summer, and once a week in winter. It may not be amiss to here note the rates 
of postage first established in the United States ; the weight seems to have been allowed 
as one quarter of an ounce avoirdupois to each letter ; the rates of postage varied with the 
distance, viz., under thirty miles, six cents; from thirty to sixty miles, eight cents; sixty 
to one hundred miles, ten cents ; one hundred to one hundred and fifty miles, twelve and 
one-half cents ; one hundred and fifty to two hundred and fifty miles, seventeen cents; two 
hundred and fifty to three hundred and fifty miles, twenty cents; three hundred and fifty to 
four hundred and fifty miles, twenty-two cents; over four hundred and fifty miles, twenty-five 
cents. Newspapers were carried at the rate of one cent for a distance not exceeding one 
hundred miles, and one and one-half cents if over one hundred miles. Each publisher of a 
newspaper could send every other publisher one copy of his paper free of postage. 

The passage of the Post Route Bill and the establishment of the line of stages seems 
to have had an influence on the residents of Easton, for in the following spring, to wit : 
"March 20th, 1793," we find from the records of the Post Office Department, that the 
Post Office at Easton was established. Since the establishment of the Easton Post Office, 
the Borough has had sixteen Postmasters, as follows, to wit : 

The first Postmaster was Henry Spering. He was a scrivener, and one of the most 
prominent citizens of the county at the close of the last century; he filled all of the county 
offices — Prothonotary, Recorder, Register, and Clerk of the Sessions — and was general 
official of the town. It is most probable, though not absolutely certain, that during his 


term the Post office was located in the southwestern portion of the Public Square, in a 
frame building on the lot where the First National Bank is now erected. He was 
appointed during the term of President Washington, March 20th, 1793, and held the office 
a little over four years. 

The second Postmaster was Hon. John Ross, who was appointed during the term of 
President John Adams, Oct. ist, 1797. He was one of the leading lawyers of that day, 
and afterwards became a member of Congress, a Judge of the District Court, and also of 
the Supreme Court of this State. He only held the office about nine months, and during 
his term the office was located in the northeastern corner of the Public Square in the same 
rooms now occupied by the Post Office. 

The third Postmaster was Thomas B. Dick, who was appointed July ist, 1798, during 
the term of President John Adams, and held the office nearly four years. He was a lawyer of 
prominence and an inveterate practical joker, the legends of the bar yet telling of some of 
his pleasantries at the expense of his fellow practitioners. During his term the office was 
located, most probably, in the stone building at the southwest corner of Northampton and 
Fifth streets, recently torn down, to make way for the brick building of Mr. H. J. Boyer. 

The fourth Postmaster was Hon. George Wolf, who was appointed April ist, 1802, 
during the term of President Jefferson; he retained the office, however, only one year. He 
was a lawyer of great prominence, was clerk of the Orphans' Court, a member of the 
Legislature, a member of Congress for three terms, and Governor of the State twice, 
Comptroller of the Treasury under President Van Buren, and Collector of the Port of 
Philadelphia. During his term the post-office was probably located at the northwest cor- 
ner of the Public Square and Pomfret (N. Third) street, in the building now the office and 
residence of Drs. Henry and John J. Detweiller. 

The fifth Postmaster was John Knauss, who was appointed April ist, 1803, during 
the term of President Jefferson, and held the office a little over ten years, during the 
remainder of Jefferson's term and part of Madison's. He was by business a harness maker 
and saddler, and kept the Post Office in an old stone building on the North side of North- 
ampton street, between Fourth and Fifth streets, on the lot immediately west of the 
Northampton County National Bank. 

The sixth Postmaster was Philip H. Mattes, who was appointed May 8th, 1813, during 
the term of President Madison, and held the office fifteen years, during the tenns of Pres- 
idents Madison, Monroe and John Quincy Adams. He was a prominent citizen, a 
scrivener of note, and for many years Cashier of the Branch Bank of the State of Pennsyl- 
vania, and afterwards made Register of the County, and for many years Actuary of the 
Dime Savings Bank. During his term the Post Office was located in the building at the 
southeast corner of Centre Square and Northampton street, in the room now occupied by 
Samuel Drinkhouse's hat store, the rooms then being divided into two, the Post Office 
being the eastern one thereof, fronting on Northampton street. 

The seventh Postmaster was Abraham Horn, who was appointed March 9th, 1829, 
during the term of President Jackson, and continued in office for ten years, during the 
Presidency of Andrew Jack.son and Martin Van Buren. until his death. He was by 
business a carpenter and builder. In the war of 1812, he was captain of a company raised 
in this county, in which compau)-, b)- the way, Capt. Horn had six brothers and a brother- 
in-law ; he was also a member of the Legislature ; he first had the office on the south side of 



Northampton street above Fourth, a few doors below the Franklin House, then the "Green 
Tree Hotel," in the room occupied by E. B. Mack as a stove store ; about four years after 
he removed the office to the north side of the same street, almost directly opposite the 
former location, to the room now occupied by Daniel L. Kutz as a saddlery findings store; 
and afterwards to the frame building on the same side of the street, a few doors above Bank 
street, where now is the dry goods house of Rader & Bro. ; where it was located at the 
time of his decease. 

The eighth Postmaster was Abraham Coryell, son-in-law of Capt. Horn, the late 
Postmaster, who was appointed May 21st, 1839, during the term of President Van Buren, 
and who held the office a little over nine vears. Mr. Corvell was b^' business a marble 

















^ ^ 





worker. During his term the office rose to the dignity of a Presidential office, i. e., an 
office where the Postmaster is appointed not by the Postmaster General, but by the Presi- 
dent, and confirmed by the Senate. This change occurred February loth, 1840, and Mr. 
Coryell being then the incumbent, was recommissioned by President Van Buren, February 
loth, 1840, served during the balance of his term, during the term of President Harrison, 
and in part of President Tyler's, who reappointed him June 12th, 1844, and he continued 
to hold the office during the balance of President Tyler's term, and the greater part of 
President Polk's. During his term as Postmaster the office was located in a frame build- 
ing in the southeast part of Centre Square, on the lot where the First National Bank now 

The ninth Postmaster was John J. Herster, who was appointed by President Polk, 


June i2th, 1848, and eleven months. During his term the office was located 
in the old stone building of Mrs. Peter Pomp, on the south side of Northampton street, 
below Fourth, on the lot where Abie's Opera House now stands, and about where P. A. 
Shimer's clothing store is situated. 

The tenth Postmaster was Benjamin F. Amdt, who was appointed by President 
Taylor, May 9th, 1849, ^"^^ held the office during Taylor's and Filmore's administrations, 
until April, 1853. He was a soldier of the war of 1812, and afterwards Clerk of the 
Orphans' Court of this county, and for many years a Justice of the Peace. During his 
term the office was located on the west side of South Third street, between Ferrj- and 
Pine, where now is Garren & Son's restaurant. 

The eleventh Postmaster was John J. Herster, who had been in office previously to 
Esq. Arndt, for a period of eleven months. He was appointed April 4th, 1853, by Presi- 
dent Pierce, and held the office until April 20th, 1857. He kept the office on the south 
side of Northampton street, between Sitgreaves street and Centre Square, in the room now 
occupied by W. H. Hazzard, as a paper hangings store. 

The twelfth Postmaster was Col. William H. Hutter, who was appointed April 20th, 
1857, by President Buchanan, and held the office until March, 1861. He was for a long 
series of years proprietor and editor of the Easton Argus, and afterwards Cashier of the 
Northampton County National Bank, and President of the Board of Prison Inspectors. 
During his term the office was located in the stone building on the north side of North- 
ampton street between Fourth and Fifth streets, opposite the Franklin House, in the room 
now occupied by Hamilton & Co., as a shoe store. 

The thirteenth Postmaster was Dr. Charles C. Jennings, who was appointed by Presi- 
dent Lincoln, jVIarch 27, 1861, and held the office until March 20th, 1865. He was a 
prominent physician of large practice. During his term the office was located in the brick 
building at the northeast corner of South Third and Pine streets, in the room now occupied 
by Solon Phillippe as a sportsman's emporium. 

The fourteenth Postmaster was Capt. John J. Horn, a school teacher and land sur\-eyor, 
who was a gallant soldier during the Rebellion, serving as Captain of Company E, 41st 
Regiment (Twelfth Pennsylvania Reser\-es). He was appointed by President Lincoln, 
March 20th, 1865, and held the office until his death, in the spring of 1869. He re- 
tained the office at the same place in which it was located during Dr. Jenning's incum- 
bency. Capt. Horn died while in office, and he and his uncle, Abraham Horn, are the only 
Postmasters who have died while occupying the office. During the term of Capt. Horn, the 
Money Order Business was extended to Easton. 

The fifteenth Postmaster was James L. INIingle, a Telegrapher and Superintendent of 
Telepraph Construtlion, who was appointed by President Grant, April 20th, 1869, and 
held the office until November 187 1. He kept the office at the same place as under the 
two preceding Postmasters. 

The sixteenth Postmaster, and present incumbent, is James K. Dawes, a lawyer, and 
for a number of years publisher of the Free Press, who was appointed by President Grant, 
November i6th, 1871, and reappointed by the .same President, December 15, 1875; again 
reappointed by President Hayes, January 8th, 1880; and again by President Arthur, Jan- 
uary 16, 1884, being the only Postmaster of the Borough who has ever .served under fi\-e 
different Presidents — his service being under Presidents Grant, Hayes, Garfield, .\rthur 


and Cleveland. Shortly after his appointment he removed the office to the Northeast cor- 
ner of Centre Square, at the corner of Hay's Place, to the room now occupied by it, and 
the identical room occupied by the post-office in 1797, ninety years ago. During Mr. 
Dawes' term it was made a General International Money Order office, empowered to issue 
Money Orders on all the leading Foreign Countries, and also, October i, 1885, a Special 
Messenger or Immediate Delivery office. It was also during his term, December i, 1873 
— thirteen years since — Easton was designated as a Free Delivery or lyCtter Carrier office, 
the Post Office at South Easton being discontinued, and the limits of the "Easton" office 
extended so as to include Easton, South Easton and Glendon. 

The extension of the Free Delivery System to Easton has, undoubtedly, been one of 
the most important events in the history of our Borough, and has proved an almost indis- 
pensable convenience to the citizens, and they have so generally availed themselves of its 
use as to win for Easton, the reputation, in the Post Office department, of "being" the 
"Boss Letter Carrier Office in the United States," out of the very large population of the 
three towns in its limits, there being only six parties — and not one of them in business — 
who use boxes in the Post Office, all the rest having their mail matter delivered by the 
carriers. The service is performed by seven carriers, who make thirty-six deliveries and 
forty-five collections of letters daily, the first at five o'clock in the morning and the last at 
half-past six in the evening. At convenient locations throughout the town, one hundred 
and three letter-boxes have been placed for the reception of mail matter ; among these 
boxes are four very ornamental ones, on iron posts, located in Centre Square, from which 
colle6lions are made every hour, that fact being announced by gilt inscriptions on the box 
in seven different languages, viz: English, French, Spanish, Italian, German, Russian and 
Chinese. These boxes were eredled as a Memorial of "The Centennial," having been used 
during the Great Exhibition in the Main Building, and being sent to Easton at the close 
of the Centennial, as a memorial thereof, through the kindness of Hon. George W. Fair- 
man, then Postmaster of Philadelphia. Of these boxes Easton is justly very proud, no 
other city save Philadelphia, being the fortunate possessor of like reminders of the Cen- 
tennial Anniversary of the Nation. 

As in perusing the present history of this county it has been found of interest to note 
the size and commercial standing of Easton at different periods of its early history, it is 
deemed proper to give here such notes as will show to those who may read this history 
fifty or a hundred years hence, what the amount of Postal business done at Easton, at 
present is, and who the residents are, connedled therewith. During the Postal year ending 
November 30, 1886, there were delivered by the carriers, 879,136 letters, 191,251 Postal 
cards, 145,105 local letters and postal cards, and 567,150 newspapers, a total delivery of 
1,769,641 pieces; and there were colleciled during the same time, 584,518 letters, 191,405 
postal cards, and 36,249 newspapers, a total colledlion of 812,172 pieces; or a total of 
pieces delivered and colletled, of 2,581,813. There were issued 3204 Domestic Money 
Orders, amounting to $39,310.09; 214 Foreign Money Orders amounting to $2,371.50, and 
1998 Postal Notes amounting to $3558.12; and there were paid 3127 Domestic Money 
Orders amounting to $36,041.78; 82 Foreign Money Orders amounting to $1364.23, and 
2591 Postal Notes amounting to $5,599.65, or a total of 11,216, amounting to $88,245.35. 
The International, or Foreign, Money Orders were distributed as follows, viz: British, 
105 ; German, 105; Canadian, 64; Swiss, 9; Italian 4; South Wales, 3; New Zealand, 2; 


French, i; Hawaiian Islands, i; Victoria, i; Tasmania, i. This, in connecftion with the 
fact that fifteen Railway Post offices have Easton as a terminal or diredl supply office, 
will be, to future readers of this histor}-, one of the very best proofs of the business 
relations and commercial importance of Easton. 

The officials conneded with the Post Office at the date of writing, Dec. lo, 1886, are 
as follows, the date of commencement of service being given after the name in each case, 
viz : 

Postmaster, James K. Dawes (Nov. 16, 1871). 

Assistant Postmaster and Registry Clerk, Frederick S. Stem, (July 8, 1878); Mailing 
Clerk, James Ballantyne, (July i, 1876); Distributing Clerk, Walter S. Kitchen, (Sept. i, 
1882); Money Order Clerk, M. Ella Sheridan, (Oct. 23, 1883); Stamp and Deliver)- Clerk, 
Sallie A. Peters, (July 7, 1886); Assistant Distributing Clerk, Harry W. Drake, (Nov. 17, 
1886); Assistant Stamp and Delivery Clerk, Anna M. Johnson, (Nov. 12, 1886); Night 
Clerk and Watchman, Daniel L. Nicholas, (OAober i, 1883); Clerk at Chain Dam Sta- 
tion, Charles W. Laudenberg, (July i, 1885); Local R. P. O. Transfer Clerk, Charles 
Freeman, (June — , 18 — ); Local Mail Messenger, Henr>- Shipman, (July i, 1884); Letter 
Carriers, John C. Dittler, (Dec. i, 1873); Jeremiah Helick, (Dec. i, 1873); Jolm J- Gang- 
were, (Dec. 3, 1873); William P. Horn, (Dec. 8, 1873); Samuel Arnold, (Jan. 15, 1878); 
John H. Horning, (Jan. i, 1881); Isaac E. Smith, (Nov. 21, 1883); Substitute Letter Car- 
riers, J. Henry Waltman, (Dec. 23, 1884); Henr>' E. Ealer, (June 4, 1886); Harry O. 
Weaver, (June 15, 1886). 

Of the si.xteen Postmasters who have filled the office since its establishment, only three 
are now living, viz : Col. William H. Hutter, James L. Mingle and James K. Dawes. 

[For assistance extended the writer of this article, and for \-aluable information fur- 
nished, the Editor is indebted to the late Hon. A. D. Hazen, Third Assistant Postmaster 
General, Washington, D. C, himself a native of this County — Lower Mt. Bethel Town- 
ship — and to Wilking B. Cooley, Esq., a native of Easton, formerly Money Order Clerk 
in the Easton Post Office (1876-1878) and now Chief Clerk of the Money Order System 
of the United States, Washington, D. C. ] 



Nicholas Pomp, a native of Germany, father of the Rev. Thomas Pomp, of Easton, 
and a very prominent man among the German Reformed ministers who labored in this 
country during the latter part of the last century, was born January 20th, in the year of 
our Lord 1734. He passed through a regular course of scientific and theological training 
for the sacred office, at the University of Halle; after which he was sent to this country, 
under the auspices of the Fathers in Holland, A. D. 1760. 

Mr. Pomp's first charge was Faulkner Swamp, and affiliated congregations. In the 
first statistical table extant, in which his name appears (1770), he is put down as conne6led 
with Faulkner Swamp ; and he confirmed in that year, in his charge, fifty-one persons. 
Judging from the progress exhibited in the statistical, so far as extant, his ministry must 
have been successful. In 1777, we find he confirmed seventy-nine. 

In 1783, Mr. Pomp accepted a call to the congregation in Baltimore, and preached his 
introductory sermon on the first Sabbath in September of that year. He entered upon 
his duties in the new field, under disadvantages, arising from the state of the congregation 
at the time. The difficulty alluded to was a serious division in the congregation existing 
when he took charge of it and which lasted many years after he left. During his pastorate 
at Baltimore the people built a new church, but the difficulty was not healed, and he 
closed his pastorate November 15, 1789; and after a few more years of toil, by reason of 
infirmities, he came to Easton to spend the evening of his life with his son Thomas. 

Though he was without a regular charge, yet such was his fondness for preaching 
that he continued to preach whenever an opportunity was afforded him. For a while he 
supplied several congregations in the neighborhood of Easton. In visiting these on one 
occasion he fell from his horse, by which accident he received an injury which rendered it 
impossible for him afterwards to ride, either on horse or in a carriage. The people to 
whom he preached, however, were so anxious to hear him, that they made arrangements 
to have him carried by four men, on a litter, a distance of from twelve to fifteen miles. 
This was done several times. 

Though feeble in body, Mr. Pomp still lived a number of years later than this. He 
died in Easton, Sept. i, 1819. He was buried by the side of his wife in the German 
Reformed cemetery in Easton, where a stone with the following memorial marks his 
grave : 



Who was Born 

Jan. 20th, A. D. 1734, 

And Departed this Life 

Sept I, A. D. 1819. 

Aged 85 Years, 7 Months 

and 27 Days. 

During a large part of Father Pomp's ministr>', he preached at Plainfield as one of 
the Stations. One beautiful Sabbath morning, as he was riding quietly on his way, he 
saw two young men of his congregation with their guns hunting pigeons. The young 


men saw their pastor coining, and at once laid their guns down behind a log by the way- 
side, and were walking very innocently as their pastor rode along. At that moment a large 
flock of pigeons alighted in the top of a tree close at hand. Father Pomp obser\'ed their 
guns so quietly laid behind the log, and exclaimed: Boys, hand me one of those guns; 
the blushing lads went for their guns, and Father Pomp went for the pigeons, fired and brought 
down a goodly number. And with a pleasant smile, Mr. Pomp said, boys, you must 
kill pigeons when they are here, you cannot kill them when they are not here. Take 
them right home to your mother and tell her to cook them for my dinner. 


Seldom, indeed, and only at long and uncertain intervals, does the history' of the church 
furnish us with a man whose private and public life presents so beautiful and faultless a 
picture as that of the venerable Thomas Pomp. His kind and amiable disposition, sim- 
plicity and gentleness of spirit, and his many other excellent social and domestic quali- 
ties, place him among the most eminent of the honored class of men whose lives are 
distinguished for their evenness of tenor, quietness and peaceful relations with all man- 
kind. Few men, if any, surpassed him in these respects. All the accounts we have heard 
or seen of him uniformly bear testimony to his superior excellence and transceudant 

Thomas Pomp was the only son of the Rev. Nicholas Pomp. He was bom on the 
4th dav of February, 1773, in Skippack Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 
where his father was then living, being in charge of several German Reformed congrega- 
tions in that secflion. 

The early childhood of Mr. Pomp was passed amid the quiet scenes and innocent 
sports of country life. When about ten years of age his father received a call from the 
German Reformed Church in the City of Baltimore, and removed with his little family to 
that place in 1783. With this change in his outward circumstances and relations, the life 
and habits of little Thomas must have changed very considerably. His later childhood 
and youth, at a period when the deepest and most lasting impressions are made, were thus 
spent amidst the busy and ever-shifting scenes of city life. His facilities for acquiring an 
English education were correspondingly greater here than in his country home; and this, 
added to the general advantage of city life, had doubtless much to do with the formation 
of his Christian character and the cultivation of his mind. Intelledlually, as well as 
morally, he stood and grew up in the midst of the most favorable surroundings. His 
higher literars- and theological studies he pursued principalh-, if not wholly, under the 
immediate care and supervision of his devoted and accomplished father, who was now, 
since 1790, pastor of some congregations near the place of his earliest ministerial labors 
in Eastern Pennsylvania. 

In the year 1793, when only twenty years of age, he entered the holy ministry, to the 
great joy and satisfaction of his pious parents, who, it seems, had steadily and with deep 
concern looked forward to this event. In the same year he became pastor of several Ger- 


man Reformed congregations in Montgomery county, Penna. He remained in this first 
field only about three years, when he resigned the charge and accepted a call to Easton, 
Penna., entering upon his duties in the month of July, 1796. The charge consisted 
originally of four congregations — namely, Easton, Plainfield, Dryland, Upper Mt. Bethel. 
In this extensive charge he continued to labor faithfully and with universal acceptance to 
the close of his long life— a period of fifty-six years. Several changes, however, were 
made in his field toward the close of his ministry. In the year 1833, after ministering to 
this people for a quarter of a century, he gave up the congregation in Lower Saucon, 
which up to this time had formed a part of his charge. This gave him some relief, and 
lessened to some extent the excessive labors of his calling. Father Pomp had already 
been in the ministry' over forty years, and began seriously to feel the effecfls of excessive 
labor and the pressure of advancing years. He greatly needed rest, and eminently deserved 
to be relieved of some part of the burden which rested so heavily upon him. The people 
whom he had so long and so faithfully served were not insensible to his merits, and felt 
disposed to do what was right in the case. Steps were accordingly taken to procure him 
some assistance. The Rev. Bernard C. Wolff, who was then just entering upon his min- 
isterial course, became associate pastor with him in his Easton congregation. This 
arrangement was rendered necessary by the gradual introducftion and general prevalence 
of the English language among the citizens of the place, as well as the increasing infirmi- 
ties, advanced age and excessive labors of Father Pomp. 

Owing to the same general causes — his age and infirmities — he was induced in the 
year 1848 or 1849 to resjgn the Plainfield congregation, the most distant point in his exten- 
sive charge. A few years later, in 1850 or 1851, and for like reasons, an assistant was 
appointed to the Dryland, or Hecktown congregation ; and about the same time, or proba- 
bly a little earlier, he was also kindly relieved from the adlive duties of the ministry in 
the church at Easton, while, however, he still continued to retain his former pastoral rela- 
tion with some provision for his support, if we mistake not, up the time of his death. It 
was with extreme relu6lance, as we have been often told, that the aged patriarch con- 
sented to give up preaching "the Gospel of the grace of God" to the dear people whom 
he had so long and faithfully, and also with such universal acceptance, served ; and to 
whom, accordingly, he was bound by the strongest and tenderest ties of Christain love 
and affedlion. In fa6l, all of the members of his charge, with but few exceptions, had 
been baptized, instruAed and confirmed by him, and many of them also married during 
his a6live ministry of more than half a century among them. 

Few men have ever labored so long among a people with such unabated attachment 
and acceptance. Every person within the bounds of his extensive charge, even now that 
he is dead and gone, speaks still of the aged and venerable pastor, whose image still lin- 
gers, like a vision of beauty, in the memory of his grateful parishioners. Amidst the 
incessant changes and confusion which so frequently obtained sway in congregations and 
pastoral changes now-a-days, it is pleasant and truly refreshing to meet with an instance 
of such warm and lasting attachment and rare fidelity to an aged and worn-out pastor. 
It shows what a stronghold the faithful and loving shepherd had upon their hearts and 
afie<aions in the earlier and more a<flive period of his ministerial life and labors in 
their midst. 

During his public ministry, extending over fifty-nine years or upwards. Father Pomp 


baptized 7,870 persons; confirmed 3,616 ; married 2,059 couple ; and buried 1,670. These 
figures, taken in connedlion with what has been already said of the exposure and the 
many thousands of miles of travel, through heat and cold, over hill and dale, will enable 
us to form some idea of the nature and extent of his official labor. 

As regards the general chara<fter, private and public, of Father Pomp, we deem it 
unnecessary to add much to what has been already said. His numerous friends through- 
out the extensive region of countrs- over which his ministerial aftivity extended are the 
best evidence of the high esteem in which he was held by the people of his own charge, 
as well as by others who enjoyed the pleasure of his acquaintance. Wherever you go 
among the people of his field of labor, the name of Father Pomp, as he was familiarly 
called, is mentioned with reverence and affe<5lion. Many of the more aged of the 'Dry- 
land and Plainfield congregations, even to this day, love to relate the little incidents which 
occurred in their former acquaintance and intercourse with their beloved pastor ; and 
these pleasant incidents are almost universally illustrative of his good nature, innocence 
and genial spirit, and of the esteem and friendship which these excellent qualities inspired. 
Never during all our extensive intercourse with those simple hearted people, while preach- 
ing among them the gospel of Christ, did we hear a single unkind word spoken or a dis- 
paraging remark made in reference to their aged pastor and friend. 

Such a chara(5ler, sustained and kept pure and unsullied during a period of more than 
half a century of private and public intercourse with the people of his charge, constitutes 
the best and noblest monument that any man living or dying could desire. 

Father Pomp, so far as we could learn, was not a man of brilliant parts, extraordi- 
nary talents, or extensive acquirements. Both his natural endowments, as well as his 
literary and theological attainments, were of an ordinary charadler. His preaching was 
of a plain and pracftical kind, distinguished for its kindly and genial spirit rather than 
for its depth or power. His labors, however, both in and out of the pulpit, were always 
acceptable to the people of his charge ; and his long continued and unabated popularity 
shows conclusively that he was not wholly destitute of those higher intellecflual qualities 
which secure and maintain a controlling influence over the minds and hearts of men. 

The great extent of his charge, and the distance of his country congregations from 
his place of residence, not onl)- proved burdensome to him, but also interfered very mater- 
ially with his usefulness. It is hard indeed to understand how those venerable men, the 
early fathers of the church, could at all get round amongst the people, and accomplish 
anything of account in the way of diredl pastoral labor. Every four weeks only, as a 
general rule, could they visit the members of their county churches, and then frequently 
only on Sunday, when the whole of their time and strength was required to fill the regular 
preaching appointments. Perhaps a few hours, at most, could be spent in visiting the 
people committed to their spiritual care and supervision during such a trip. Even then 
they left their homes on Saturday and did not return again until Monday; only a small and 
insignificant portion of their members could be reached and benefited by direcft personal 
intercourse with them. Considering also the large number of funerals which would natur- 
ally occur in so large a distridl and require the pastor's attention, we cannot wonder that 
in this way of strictly pastoral visitation and influence so much had to be either wholly 
negledled or but imperfedlly performed. These things are mentioned in this connection 
for the purpose of accounting for the comparatively backward state of our churches gener- 


ally in Eastern Pennsylvania, and among the rest, those which were formerly served by 
Father Pomp. 

The good men who labored and toiled in those extensive fields and under such 
immense disadvantage had of necessity to leave much good unaccomplished. For what 
under the circumstances adlually was done they merit the lasting gratitude of those among 
whom they lived and labored. Their extensive labors and herculean efforts deserve to be 
kept in everlasting remembrance. 

Father Pomp, after "having served his generation," and accomplished the work 
entrusted to him, was "gathered to his people" in a good old age, full of years and weary 
of life, like a shock of corn fully ripe for the harvest. He died at his residence in Eastou, 
Pennsylvania, on the 22d day of April, 1852, aged 79 years, 2 months and 18 days. 

On the succeeding Sunday his remains, followed by an immense concourse of sorrow- 
ing friends, were reverently carried out and deposited in their quiet resting place in the 
Easton Cemetery. On this solemn and interesting occasion a suitable discourse was 
delivered by the late Rev. Dr. Hoffeditz in German, and another one in English by the 
Rev. Dr. Gray. On the next Lord's day an appropriate funeral sermon, with special 
reference to the life and labors of the deceased, was preached in the German Reformed 
Church by the Rev. J. H. A. Bomberger. Thus were the solemnities of this sad occasion 
brought to a close. Long will the day of his burial and the impressive services therewith 
connedled be remembered by the people of Easton, and especially by the members of the 
German Reformed Church. 

" Thus star by star declines, 
'Till all are passed away, 
As morning high and higher shines 
To pure and perfecft day ; 
Nor sink those stars in empty night. 
But hide themselves in heaven's own light." 

On the spot where his remains were originally deposited the members of his charge 
have eredled a beautiful marble monument, as an evidence of their affecflionate regard for 
him, who, while living, broke unto them the "bread of life," the pledge of a blissful 
immortality and "reunion in heaven." 

Through the kindness of Mr. Abraham Kind, of Easton, Pennsylvania, we have been 
furnished the following description of it : 

The monument stands near the centre of the cemetery, in and close to the angle 
formed by the east and south walks, and about fifty yards from the gate leading into the 
cemetery from Fifth street. It is in the form of a pyramid, divided into two parts. The 
frustum has four faces, on three of which are found the inscriptions which I inclose. The 
top or upper half of the frustum rests on an ornamental base ; in all it is about ten feet 
high, simple in its structure and beautifully characteristic of the man in whose honor it 
has been eredled. On the several faces of the frustum are the following inscriptions : 

West Side.— In memory of the Rev. Thomas Pomp, son of the Rev. Nicholas Pomp. 
He was born in Montgomery county, Pennsylvania, February 4, 1773, and died April 22, 
1852, in the 80th year of his age, and the 59th year of his ministry. 

North Side.— The only son of one of the founders of the German Reformed Church 


in America. He early consecrated himself to the services of the church of his father. 
He was ordained to the ministry of the Gospel in 1793. In July, 1796, he became pastor 
of the German Reformed Church of Easton, Pennsylvania, in which capacity he served 
that congregation until enfeebled by age and called to an eternal reward. His long and 
arduous ministerial labors and personal worth will ever be held in effectionate remem- 
brance by a grateful people. 

South Side. — Erecfled by the congregation. 


[Easton Argus, March, 1869.] 

A VERY constant and certainly one of the most welcome visitors to my sandlum for 
the last quarter of a century has been our venerable fellow citizen Philip Mixsell, Sr. 
Mr. Mixsell is now the oldest living resident of Easton. He was bom on the loth of 
March, 1777, and was consequently 92 years of age on the loth of the present month. 
Although confined to his house the greater part of the winter now passing away, from a 
slight accident which injured his back, and a severe cold, he is still a hearty man. His 
head is covered with a thick crop of white hair, his eye-sight is good, and he can walk as 
rapidly as a man of forty. He is in many respedls a remarkable man. He writes a beau- 
tiful hand, and even now wields as steady a pen as a man of twenty-one. He is living a 
link, as it were, binding the past to the present generation. His well preser\-ed body 
and good health so unusual in one of his advanced years are due to his uniform good 
habits, his abstemious mode of living and his contented mind. He belongs to a race of 
men who inhabited this country when there was less extravagance and less pretension, and 
more solid sense and plain living in every American community. He has repeatedly told 
me that during his long life he has never been intoxicated and never tasted tobacco. He 
was systematic on this subjedl of temperance, but used good liquor when he thought it 
was good for him to do so, either in sickness or when traveling. But he never abused it 
and never seriously felt its influence. In a recent inter\'iew of an hour's duration with 
the old gentleman I took down the following notes, thinking they would be interesting 
to the readers of the Argus. I give substantially his own language : 

"I was born in a small log house in Williams township, some three or four hundred 
yards below Richards' tavern, on the Delaware river. My fathers name was Philip Mix- 
.sell. He was born in Conestoga township, Lancaster county. He built the house in 
which I was born, about the year 1736. I had five sisters and four brothers, all of whom 
are dead. My youngest sister died at seventy, my yoimgest brother at seventy-two. My 
father died at eighty-five, and one of my brothers at ninety-two. I was never sick ninety 
days in my life, and when I think that my old limbs have carried me through the world 
for nearly one hundred years I wonder that they have not given out long ago. I was 
married in the month of April, 1804. I never had but nine month's schooling ; went to 
school to old Mr. Abrm. Bachmah, who was the first teacher in Easton, and who taught 
school in an old stone house on the lot now occupied by Joseph Sigman's residence on 



Fourth street. I came to Easton when I was thirteen years of age and engaged to attend 
store for my brother. After remaining with him four years I went into the late Judge 
Wagoner's store. At that time mercantile pursuits were conducfled on a different principle. 
There was more hard work attending it, and men in business did not become rich as 
rapidly as they do now. Judge Wagoner, with whom I afterwards became a partner, dealt 
largely in grain. He built the old mill on the Bushkill, known as the Wagoner mill, and 
lived a number of years in a stone house up the Bushkill, which he also ere<5led in the 
year 1792. He manufadlured flour and transported it to Philadelphia on Durham boats. 

A usual load for one boat was about 500 bushels of grain and 150 barrels of flour. 
On more than one occasion he sold his produce and walked back from the city. There 
was a coach running at that time from Easton to Philadelphia, but it made only one trip 
a week and a business man did not feel like waiting. The fare was $4. The Durham 
boatmen were a jolly set of men and greatly enjoved the life they led. 


When I came to Easton the richest man in Easton was old Peter Schnyder, the father 
of the late Peter Schnyder. He owned a large lot, on which the tannery stood — now 
Lehn's — a number of out-lots, and about 150 acres of farm land. Mr. Wagoner afterward 
became wealthier than Schnyder. At that time among the prominent families living 
here was John Arndt's family, William Craig, who was then Prothonotary and Clerk, and 
Dr. Ledley, living in Peter Ihrie's present residence, which was considered the best house 
in Easton. 

Easton at that time contained about 1500 inhabitants, but few good dwelling houses. 
The present Third street was made up of poor buildings. Peter Schnyder' s residence, on 
the corner of Bushkill and Third streets, was considered a model house. 


There was of course much less extravagance than we see about us now. When I was 
married to my late wife she was the owner of but one silk, and that was the only silk 
dress she owned for fifteen years. Calico was worn for everj'-day wear, and gingham for 
extra occasions. Servant girls were then paid seventy-five cents a week. 

The leading lawyers of this county at that day were Samuel Sitgreaves and John 
Rose. The Penn family were a prominent family. Jonas Hartzell was the Sheriflf of the 
county. There was of course no water works. The wells about town furnished good 
water. The old well at Rev. Thomas Pomp's corner was considered the best well in 
Easton. The lot on which the former residence of the late Rev. Mr. Pomp stood, taking 
in an entire block of ground, was at one time purchased by my brother for $83, and after- 
ward sold to the German Reformed congregation for $100. The 'dry lands' were at 
that time considered a monstrous poor seClion of our county. Land in that quarter was 
looked upon as scarcely worth buying and hardly rich enough to support a flock of crows. 
Lots in 'dry land' then sold at from $15 to $18 per acre. Mush and milk and good 
potatoes was the fashionable diet of the day. Old Mr. Hass was then one of our County 
Commissioners. He lived within two miles of the Berks county line, in what is now 
Lehigh county, and had twenty-eight miles to come to the Court House in Easton. The 
late Judge Wagoner was also one of the County Commissioners. I remember that his pay 
one year amounted to just $28. They received $1.50 per day. All the people of the 
Mount Bethels, Moore, Nazareth, Bethlehem, Saucon, and of course Forks and Plainfield, 
at that time came to Easton to vote. 

Eledlion day was then considerable of a frolic day. There were fiddlers and dancing 
in every tavern in Easton. The girls came to town with their fathers and brothers and 
enjoyed themselves at the dances until they were ready to go home. About 1500 votes 
were then cast in the whole county. Old John Schug kept the present 'Franklin House' 
at that time. 

Christian J. Hutter's house was then the last house on the top of the hill. A man 
named Otto, who had a wooden leg, hauled a great deal of water from the river for the 
people to wash with. Neither myself nor any one of my brothers ever had a lawsuit. 
The amusements of the day were balls, and in the fall of the year, apple butter frolics. 
The general price for a ball ticket was $2.00. Dancing commenced at about eight o'clock 
in the evening, and about one o'clock the boys and girls were expedrled to be at home. 

Places of business were usually opened at daylight. At sleighing parties the ladies 
were treated to weak sangaree. There were no bridges — the streams were crossed on the 
ice. My father was a stone mason by trade. He did the stone work on the German 
Reformed Church in Easton. Was to have $800 for the job. He was paid in Continental 
money, which soon after began to depreciate. My father held on to it thinking it would 
again improve, but it gradually grew more and more worthless until finally he parted with 
it for $83, and that was all he received for his work. As a matter of course this loss 
proved a severe shock to the old gentlema:i's finances, and it was some years before he 
recovered from it. Whilst working on the church his children brought up the dinner for 
him.self and hands from his house on the Delaware. He also built the Dryland Church 
at Hecktown. It has been said that 'cards were invented to amuse a fool' (Charles IX of 
France) but here they were used to build a bridge across the beautiful sparkling Delaware. 



The want of a bridge over the Delaware at Easton was so seriously felt that the people 
determined to make a strenuous effort to have one eretled. The enterprise lagged for 
many years, capitalists having but little confidence in the stock proving a paying invest- 
ment. Finally it was built about the year 1806 at a cost of about $43,000, but it had no 
roof and no more money could be raised. In this dilemma the directors determined to 
apply to the Legislature for relief. Samuel Sitgreaves, John Herster and Daniel Wagener 
were appointed a committee to petition the Legislature for a loan of $5,000. The Senate 
agreed to the bill but a careful count of noses in the Lower House showed that there was 
a majority of two against it. It is related that William Barnet, who was then in the Leg- 
islature from this county, invited two members who were opposed to the bill to spend an 
evening at his room. There a game of euchre was proposed and Barnet dared his two 
guests to play a game for their votes for or against his bridge bill. They agreed, and 
having previously imbibed a good share of hot toddy, they displayed but little skill in 
handling the cards and lost. In this way the passage of the bill was secured. Then 
another obstacle interposed. Simon Snyder, who was Governor of Pennsylvania, threat- 
ened to veto the bill unless the committee aforesaid pledged their individual guarantee that 
the $5000 should be repaid in five years. He had no notion that the State Treasury 
should lose this money. They agreed to this and the money was refunded in three years. 
Mr. Mixsell has a wonderful memory. Often as he sat in my ofiice, reading the papers 
of the day, as has been his daily custom for years (when the weather permitted), he would 
relate incidents of his travel that occured as far back as 1798, and he would repeat the 
details of a journey made fifty, sixty and seventy years ago as truthfully as if it had occured 
but yesterday. In this respect he reminded me of the late Thomas H. Benton, whom he 
also greatly resembles in personal appearance. That the sterling old patriarch may con- 
tinue to live many years — long enough, at least to see his ardent and patriotic wish real- 
ized — enjoying in the meantime good health, the affections of his kindred and the esteem 
of his fellow citizens, is the sincere prayer of his friend." 


Mr. David Wagener was born in Silesia, Germany, May 24th, 1736. His mother, 
then a widow, emigrated to this country in the year 1740 on account of religious persecu- 
tion and settled in Bucks county, in this State, with her two sons, David and Christopher, 
aged respectfully eight and four years. David married Miss Susanna Umstead and raised 
a family of four sons and three daughters. In 1 786 he bought a tra(5t of land of the Penns, 
situated on both sides of the Bushkill Creek, a short distance above Easton, and moved 
there. The Easton Cemetery grounds are now a portion of that tradl, and his remains 
lie in his son David's plot, southwest of the chapel. He died in his sixtieth year. 

Daniel Wagener was a son of David Wagener of Germany, and a prominent citizen of 
Easton for many years. He was born in Bucks county, moved to Easton when young, 
and early became engaged in the milling business on the Bushkill. He was Associate 
Judge of Northampton county for thirty-nine years, and was a man of ability and integ- 


rity in his dealings with his fellow men. To have retained the position which he honored 
for so many years shows more plainly than words the confidence reposed in him by the 

Hon. David D. Wagener was bom in Easton, the eleventh day of October, 1792. He 
built a mill on the Bushkill when quite a young man, near the one built by his father. 
He was engaged in the milling and mercantile business for many years. He died in 1869, 
at the age of seventy-seven years, leaving three sons and two daughters, to whom he 
bequeathed a handsome estate, and an unsullied name. The early years of David D. 
Wagener' s life were spent in obtaining a substantial education, and assisting his father in 
his business. It was then he laid the foundation of that consistent christian and public- 
spirited character, to which he was in so great a degree indebted for his remarkably suc- 
cessful career. In 1816 he was elected captain of the "Easton Union Guards," then 
newly organized, and continued in command until the company's dissolution, in 1829. 
In this capacity he visited Philadelphia in 1824, and together with his company (135 men) 
assisted in the ceremonies of the reception of La Fayette. He took great interest in poli- 
tical life and became an adlive and prominent member of the Democratic party, with 
which he held the closest relations until his death. In 1828 he was elecled to the Assem- 
bly and performed the duties of his position so fully to the satisfaction of his fellow-citi- 
zens that he was twice re-elected, serving the terms of 1829, 1830 and 183 1, and only 
leaving the Assembly for the higher honors of the National Congress, to which he was 
elected in 1832, after a close and exciting contest ; his opponent being no other than his 
fellow-townsman, the gifted and popular Peter Ihrie. The course of David D. Wagener 
in Congress was the same plain and straight-forward pursuit of his duty as a public-spirited 
and high-minded citizen, and met with the same approval bestowed upon his public record 
in the Assembly ; receiving the highest possible testimonial by being re-elected from 
term to term, until 1839, when he retired from more adlive public life, desiring rest and 
time to devote to his own private affairs. He was a member of Congress during one of 
the most exciting periods of our national history, a greater part of General Jackson's, and 
the early part of Martin Van Buren's administration. General Jackson was a military 
hero — a man of great talent and inflexible honesty. His integrity was unassailable ; his 
will, like iron. He was one for whom no toil was too arduous, and to whom fear was 
unknown. He seemed to be at home in the storm of battle, either in militar)- or political 
commotion. There were two great questions during his administration which produced 
most intense excitement throughout the countr}-. In 1831 and 1832 additional duties 
were levied upon goods imported from abroad. The manufacturing districts were favored 
more than the agricultural. South Carolina took umbrage at the enactments of Congress 
and prepared for open resistance to the general government. General Jackson acted 
promptly and sent General Scott with a body of troops to Charleston. John C. Calhoun 
was Vice President, but resigned to accept a seat in the Senate of the United States 
where he might sustain the doctrine of nullification. He had prepared a speech defend- 
ing the right to resist the laws of Congress. A friend of the President called upon him 
one day and saw an order lying upon his table for the arrest of Calhoun if he should 
attempt to deliver the speech. The Senator heard of the order, and knowing the man 
with whom he had to deal, laid it in his desk. The presence of troops in Charleston 
quieted the storm till 1S61. When (icneral Jackson issued his proclamation and sent 



Scott to that city with United States soldiers, his name was upon every lip and his praises 
were sting by friend and foe. The other question was the re-charter of the United States 
bank. This became quite as exciting as the tariff. In the Senate at the time were Henry 
Clay, Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun and Thomas H. Benton. These were the giants 
of those days, and when they were in the Senate the debates attracted the attention of 
the civilized world. During these exciting times, when the nation seemed on the brink 
of revolution, Mr. Wagner was in Congress and conducted himself so as to receive the appro- 
bation of his constituents, and the warm and intimate friendship of General Jackson. 
During his whole public life he was the reliable and faithful representative of his distridl, 
honored and beloved by the people he had so ably and faithfully served. 

On the fourth of May, 1852, he was unanimously eledled President of the Easton 
Bank, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Colonel Thomas McKeen, and con- 
tinued in this office to the full satisfacftion of the board and the great advantage of the 
bank until his death. It is but proper here to mention that the Court House stands upon 
ground largely donated by him. David D. Wagener was married on the twentieth of Sep- 
tember, 182 1, to Mary Knauss, a woman of great personal beauty and piety, who died 
February 13, 1833. The issue of this marriage was two sons and three daughters, of 
whom all are still living. He never married again, and died Odlober i, i860, in the 
sixty-ninth year of his age. He was a gentleman esteemed by all who knew him ; he 
enjoyed the friendship of many of the leading men of his time. James Buchanan and 
General Jackson were his intimate friends, and their relations were most cordial and con- 
fidential. An obituary, published in the Easton Argus, of October 4, i860, truly says : 
"He was not only a good man but a useful man. He was a kind and faithful friend, a 
safe counselor, an indulgent and affedlionate father, and an upright man in all relations of 
life. To the poor he was kind and liberal, and many a penniless beginner as he started 
on his voyage to fight the battle of life has been cheered on by the kind assistance and 
good counsel of David D. Wagener. The possessor of an ample fortune, he was ever plain 
and simple in his habits, familiar and sociable in his intercourse with his fellow men, yet 
dignified in his bearing. He was a stri6lly upright man and scorned to do a dishonorable 
adl in public or private life. He was constitutionally an honest man, and his word was 
ever as his bond. Few men have left behind them a better record or example than the 
Hon. David D. Wagener." 


HILE the historian would not claim that Easton was patriotic above many 
other communities in the State, yet her patriotism has been of so marked a 
chara<5ter as to deserve proper recognition. From her earliest annals, in 
hours of danger the people flew to arms with alacrity. Easton was sur- 
veyed in 1750, and the first war came in her infancy. In 1755 the Indian 
war began by the murder of the Moravians at what is now Weissport. 
All feared the destruction of Easton. The efforts of William Parsons 
were to put the town in a state of defence. The arms for the use of 
soldiers consisted of four muskets, and only three of these were fit to use. 
The people had no war material, no powder, lead nor flints. The soldiers 
in those days used flints instead of percussion caps, and made their own 
bullets from lead supplied by the government. A messenger must be sent to Philadelphia, 
but no man could be spared, and so Mr. Parsons sent his daughter to obtain the means of 
defence. His army was not so large as that of Miles Standish, which consisted of six 
soldiers besides the general. Mr. Parsons could only arm three men in case of invasion. 
This was Easton' s first army and first effort in war. During the long winter of 1755 and 
1756, there were constant alarms and reasons for most serious apprehensions of danger. A 
little powder could be found in the powderhorns of the citizens, and a little lead among 
the few families, and the three muskets would be used if need should demand it. The 
people would have done their duty quite as well then as in later years. There can be no 
doubt about Mr. Parsons being at the post of duty and danger. But the winter passed 
without the presence of the dreaded foe. At the treaty gatherings there was more or less 
military display. This was done to inspire the Indians with a dread of the power with 
which they were dealing. Conrad Weiser would bring a military force from Heidelburg 
to add dignity to the Proprietary government. At one time he brought a company of forty 
soldiers, and these would form a hollow square, in the centre of which the Governor would 
be escorted from his lodgings to Vernon's tavern at the Point. The fife and drum led 
the way with inspiring music, and all the boys in town would stare at the display and run 
after the soldiers as in modern times. At another time when danger threatened the place, 
the entire male population was put under arms, and formed a company of twenty-three, 
with Lewis Gordon for their captain. It is interesting to people of Easton in these days 
to look back to those early times and witness the inhabitants girding for battle ; and 
though their means were small, their hearts were large, and their devotion unquestioned. 
And however small the force, it served the purpose, for the Indian never approached 
Easton with hostile intent. It is the desire of the author thus to briefly review the military 
history of those early times, and note the contrast between the present and the past. 

After the war of 1756 was ended, the Indian war, called the Pontiac war, began. The 
dreaded foe might appear any hour and burn the town. The times needed a company of 
men ready to move at a moment's notice. But to the workingmen there were few moments 
of leisure, they must drill after the day's toil was done and be ready to lay down their tools 



at the call of their officers. In 1763 such a company was formed and chose Jacob Amdt 
for their captain. They bound themselves together for the purpose of protecting them- 
selves against the savages, under the following agreement : 

"Wee, the undernamed subscribers, doo hereby joyntly and severally agree that Jacob 
Arndt Esqire shall be our Captain for three months from the date of these presence, and 
Be allwise Ready to obeay him when he sees ocation to call us together in persueing the 
Indians, or helping any of us that shall happen to be in distress by the Indians. Each 
person to find arms and powder and lead at our own cost and have noe pay. Each person 
to find himself in all necessarys ; to which articl, covenant and agreement, Wee Bind our- 
selves in the penal sum of Five pounds Lawful monies of Pensilvania, to be Laid out for 
arms and amunition for the use of the Company, unless the person soe Neglecting to obeay, 
shall Show a lawfull Reason. 

"Given under our hands this 13th day of October 1763." 

Signed by Jacob Arndt, Peter Seip, Michael Lawall, Adam Hay, Paul J. Ebbel, 
and thirty others. The following is the muster roll of the company, the oldest company 
in our history, whose names have come down to us. The list was obtained of Mr. B. M. 
Youells : 

Jacob Amdt, Elias Bender, 

John Sandy, Richard Richards, 

Philip Odenwelder, Garrett Moore, 

John Jaeger, Henry Raddler, 

Jacob Reichardt, Philip Mann, 

Jerry Leidy, James Bunston, 

Michael Butz, Christian Gress, 

Christian Smith, Jacob Hartzell, 

Paul J. Ebbel, M. Lawall, 

Adam Hay, Matthias Pfiefer, 

John Miller, M. Owen Amdt, 

P. J. Mann, Matthew Rownig, 

Elias Shook, Peter Seip, 

Michael Sheund, Christopher Hahn, 

Melchoir Young, Christopher Sienteog, 

Jacob Grouse, John Painter, 

Valentine Sandy, Robert Townsend. 
William Bonstein, 

This is the first company formed in Easton, being nearly two months older than 
Lewis Gordon's. But the latter company was formed for adlive service in the field. This 
company was formed December 8, 1763, and was to range between Easton and the Blue 
Mountains. The company of Jacob Arndt' s was a company of minute men for the defence 
of the town, and to assemble at the call of the captain at mid-day or night. 

There is no evidence that the company was ever called into acftive service, but their 
patriotism was very plainly seen by the firm agreement made to go when and where their 
patriotic captain should lead the way. In the Revolutionary war we see the same readi- 
ness to Z.&. in the defence of liberty. They were prompt in a6lion, knowing that the 
opening of hostilities was only a matter of time. The people of Easton began to organize 
for the struggle six months before the roar of battle on the plains of Concord and Lex- 
ington, and on Bunker Hill. The Committee of Safety was organized in 1774, in Decem- 
ber. The whole county was thoroughly organized ; companies, called flying camps, were 


formed to move with celerity wherever wanted. A company was hurried to the front and 
engaged in the battle of Brooklyn. The muster roll of this company is published in 
conne6lion with the history of the Revolution. 

The following is taken from the Guardian, a monthly magazine, edited by Rev. H. 
M. Kieffer, A. M., of Easton : 

" As one follows the old Sullivan road from Easton through the Wind Gap, he comes 
upon a beautiful sheet of water called, in earlier times, 'Lake Poconoming,' and now 
known as 'Saylor's Lake.' The lake is but a few miles beyond the Gap, and of late years 
has become quite a favorite resort with the people of this vicinity, even as far away as 
Stroudsburg, many Sunday Schools finding there a delightful spot for picnics. Imme- 
diately east of the lake, a certain foreign-born German, by the name of Nicholas Young, 
settled in the year 1754, having purchased a farm of some three hundred acres. His wife 
was a Quakeress, whose name was Rachel Bond, whom he had brought with him over 
the mountain all the way from Bucks County. At that time the Indians were in that vicinity 
and sometimes became very troublesome. As they passed through the country- from Phil- 
adelphia under the influence of liquor they did much harm and many deeds of violence, 
compelling the people to flee for prote(5lion to a fort by the name of ' Buzzard,' which they 
erected for such emergencies. Often they hid themselves for days and nights in the 
swamps until the savages had passed beyond the mountains. To go with her betrothed 
at such a time and to such a country, argued no little devotion and courage on the part of 
the young Quakeress from Bucks County. To this couple were born two sons and five or 
six daughters, the name of one of the daughters being Rachel. Let us mark her well for 
she is the one only of the family with whom we are at present concerned. The father 
spoke German, the mother spoke English, and nothing else, the daughters following her 
example. The route of the Sullivan expedition lay directly along this homestead of 
Nicholas Young, and as there was a delightful spring of clear, cold water on the farm, and 
as water is a great necessity for an army marching in warm weather, the soldiers very 
naturally chose this farm for a camp, halting there for dinner, it may be, or possibly 
camping there for the night. It is probable also from what I can learn from the records, 
that that part of the vanguard that preceded the main column by some six weeks, and went 
up that way from Easton to join the other troops that came down from New York and 
united with them at Larners' tavern, may have spent a little time at this point. Among 
the soldiers who went with their canteens for water to the good spring on Nicholas Young's 
fann was a young Irishman by the name of Thomas Gilmore, who had come from Belfast 
not long before, having runaway from home and come to this country on a vessel of which 
his uncle was captain. Young Gilmore had enlisted in the Continental Army early in 
the spring of 1776 as a member of the First New Hampshire Regiment, saw ser^'ice at 
Three Rivers and was present at the capture of the Hessians at Trenton. His term of 
service having expired he re-enlisted in the summer of 1777 in the same regiment for three 
years or during the war; Col. Joseph Cilley commanding the regiment, was at Burgoyne's 
capture and at the battle of Monmouth, and took part also in the Sullivan expedition. A 
very good and creditable military record indeed, with the larger part of which, however, 
we can have no present concern, our interest in his military history being entirely confined 
to the part he took (or rather to the part he did not take) in the expedition under consid- 
eration. Now I cannot be absolutely certain whether young Gilmore was with the main 



column, or was with the guard detailed for the care of the depot of supplies named above, 
or whether he was with the vanguard. It is quite probable that young Gilmore may have 
spent many days at Young's homestead while the troops were engaged in mending the 
road in that neighborhood. At all events, so it was that here he had an experience which 
very much interfered with his going any farther than Lake Poconoming on this expedition 
against the Western Indians, — at least for a while. For here, very probably while at the 
spring filling his canteen, he met Rachel Young, and entertained from that moment onward 
a very decided aversion to marching any further up the Pocono Mountains in search of 
Indians. He would rather stay where he was and make love to Rachel. He detested 
Indian warfare anyway. He had no objection to fighting the British on the open field in 
a decent way, but this being shot at from behind bushes and trees and rocks by enemies 
one could not even see, had certainly no charms for him. The image of Rachel's face, 
which he, like Jacob of old, had first seen at the well of water, began to haunt him as he 
worked with his fellow soldiers at mending the road in the day time, or as he lay in his 
tent at night watching the dancing light of his camp-fire and building air-castles as young 
lovers will. He began to wish himself free from the ugly service before him, and would 
have been happy to have hired himself, as did Jacob of old, to the father of Rachel, that 
he might stay and woo and win her for his wife. Strange things happen in war and in 
love. Young Gilmore, it seems, found some difficulty in keeping away from the Young 
farm. From the spring he shortly found his way to the house. It was only a short dis- 
tance, and there was a foot-path between the two, so that one could hardly miss the way 
in the dark. He began to do some little work about the house, perhaps in part to pay for 
a warm meal, so enjoyable to a hungry soldier, helping old Mr. Young with his farm- 
work when he himself was not on duty, carrying water from the spring for Rachel, cutting 
wood for the kitchen stove, and making himself generally useful about the premises, with 
an eye ever and anon wide open when Rachel appeared on the scene. As I said, strange 
things happen in war and in love ; and a strange thing happened to this young Gilmore 
about the time his regiment received orders to march. While chopping wood on the wood- 
pile in front of the house, he cut his foot with the ax, the very morning too, before marching 
orders came. Accidentally, did you say ? Ah ! good reader, I cannot tell. How should I 
know? 'Deponent sayeth not.' It might have been accidentally, and then again it might 
not have been accidentally. In war, accidents do happen accidentally, but in love — how 
should I know how they happen ? When a soldier is in love, desperately in love, with a 
farmer's daughter, and can't for the life of him keep her face from smiling at him through 
the dancing flames of his camp-fire, and in spite of his shut eyes at night sees her looking 
in through the flaps of his tent as he lies there trying to sleep and to forget all about it, — 
and then of a sudden gets marching orders — there is no telling what a man will do under such 
circumstances. At all events, Thomas Gilmore could not march. The regimental surgeon 
came over to the farm-house to look at the foot. There was no need of his binding up the 
wound, for it was already neatly bound up, and by a gentler hand than his. The surgeon 
reported him on the sick-list, and left him at the Young farm-house till he got well, — a 
consummation most devoutly wished for by his patient,— I make no doubt ! For now young 
Gilmore had nothing in the world to do but to make love to Rachel, and get well— as 
slowly as he possibly could. I cannot tell how long it would take to heal such a wound 
as he enjoyed ; but I imagine it would be a considerable time before it would be so thor- 


oughlv well that the patient might travel over the rough roads with safety. From the fact 
that the army was up in the neighborhood of Tioga when he rejoined his regiment, I 
am of opinion that he spent not less than six weeks at the Young homestead. To him, 
being a ruddy-faced Irishman, we may with propriety apply the language of 'Paddy's 
Excelsior'' : 

" A bright, buxom young girl, such as likes to be kissed, 
Axed him wouldn't he stop, and how could he resist? 
So, schnapping his finger and winking his eye, 
While schmiling upon her, he made this reply — 
' Faith, I meant to keep on till I got to the top. 
But, as yer schwate self has asked me, I may as well stop.' " 

"He stopped all night and he stopped all day. 
An' ye musn't be axin' when he did get away ; 
For wouldn't he be a bastely gossoon 
To be lea\-in' his darlint in the schwate honey moon? 
When the ould man had pertaties enough and to spare — 
Sure, he might as well shtay, if he's comfortable there." 

"But at last he had to go. His foot got well in spite of all he and Rachel could do. 
And so, some fair morning he said good-bye to the kind-hearted young family, who nursed 
him in his sickness, and joined some company of convalescents, or fell in with a body of 
troops guarding some provision train on its way to the front, finding the army, as I have 
said, away up in the Susquehanna region. We need not follow his militar}- history 
further. Suffice it to say that he ser\'ed to the end of the war, being present at the sur- 
render of Cornwallis at Yorktown. When the army was disbanded he wended his way 
back to his old camping ground, near Lake Poconoming, married Rachel Young, bought 
a fann on the Susquehanna, and wrote to his parents in Belfast informing them he intended 
to stay in America. He raised a family of children, who have many descendants, includ- 
ing Gilmores, Eckarts, and a great many Appels. After his family had grown up and 
Rachel had died he removed to Easton and lived many years at the Bushkill comer. He 
entertained many people with stories of the Revolution of an afternoon or evening, and 
died in the year 1823. He lies buried in the Reformed graveyard, on Mount Jefferson, 
in Easton. 

"This Thomas Gilmore was the grandfather of the Appel family, so well known, and 
so highly esteemed in the Reformed Church. The Rev. Thomas Gilmore Appel, D. D., 
President of Franklin and Marshal College, and professor in Theological Seminary at 
Lancaster, Pa., bears the name of his grandfather, of whose military and matrimonial 
experiences I have just been speaking. To him and to his brother, the Rev. Theodore 
Appel, D. D., for many years an esteemed professor in Franklin and Marshal College, as 
well as to others of their family in the holy ministry, the Reformed Church owes a 
lasting debt of gratitude for a lifetime of faithful and self-sacrificing service of love to the 

When the Revolutionar>- war clo.sed and the Constitution was adopted, the govern- 
ment started on its sacred mission. Washington, who had saved the countn,', was chosen 
to govern it. The people had not learned the nature of a free government. Many under- 
stood freedom to mean a license to obey or resist the laws, according as fancied interest or 


passion might di6late. And the terrible excesses of the French Revolution had given 
strength to this misapprehension of the nature of freedom. This state of things gave 
Washington the most serious trouble during his administration. The revenues of the 
country from imports were insufficient for the expenses of the government and a dire6l 
tax became necessary. A tax was laid upon whiskey, a large amount of which was dis- 
tilled in the western part of Pennsylvania. The men engaged in this business determined 
to resist the payment of the hated tax and organized to make the resistance formidable. 
It was not safe for the collecftors to go among the people, their lives were in danger, and 
their duties could not be discharged. Genet, the French Minister, had taken advantage 
of this insurrectionary spirit and openly encouraged the people in distilling districfts to 
resist the government. Encouraged by the Frenchman, the disaffe6led rose in arms. 
Washington saw the time for a<5lion had come. General Lee, with a strong detachment 
of troops, was sent to the scene of disturbance and dispersed the rioters. In Easton, two 
companies volunteered to aid the government. These companies were commanded by 
Captain John Arndt and Captain John Barnet. They were absent some months from 
home. They went no farther than Carlisle, and were ordered to return. Though they 
were never called into a6lion, they showed their patriotism in readily volunteering to 
defend their government in an hour of danger. The author has not been able to find the 
muster rolls of these companies. But one name so far has been found, that of Jacob 
Diehl, the court crier, whose descendants are still among us, as he was the grandfather of 
Mr. B. M. Youells. The Whiskey Rebellion, and its complete suppression by the gov- 
ernment, had a good influence upon the people. They learned the wholesome lesson that 
while the people of the Republic eledled their own rulers, and thus indire6lly made their 
own laws, they must obey these as well as if they lived under laws made by kings. 

The next period of the military history is the war of 1812. The war of the Revolu- 
tion virtually closed with the surrender of Cornwallis, in 1781. But its results left a bit- 
terness in the minds of the English people, and a feeling of hostility among the 
Americans towards the English. In the progress of the French Revolution, the people of 
the United States sympathized with France and became more unfriendly to England. The 
English harassed our commerce and failed to fulfill the stipulations of the Treaty of 1783. 
These feelings were deepened by the arrogance of England in enforcing restriClions upon 
the commerce of the Republic. All thinking men saw that war would be the result of the 
increasing animosities. June 19, 1812, war was declared against England, and Congress pre- 
pared for battle. No part of Pennsylvania was invaded, and there was little that Easton 
could do in the contest. And not till 1814, was there anything to call it into action. 
The English army had entered the Chesapeake, and it was supposed that Philadelphia 
was their objeClive point. President Madison called out the militia to the number of 
ninety-three thousand five hundred. The English army did not come to Philadelphia, 
but went to Washington and burned the public buildings. The people of Easton were 
watching the movements of the enemy and were expecfting news of a serious kind. Large 
numbers had assembled at Nicholas' Hotel to hear from the seat of war. An express mes- 
senger had been sent to meet the stage, get the papers, and hurry back in advance. He 
soon returned and brought the astounding news that the Capitol was burned. The English 
army had taken Washington City, the President had fled, the public buildings were 
destroyed. The excitement was intense. The bell of the Court House was rung, martial 


music paraded the streets, and the people could hardly have been more excited if the enemy 
had been expe6led in Easton. A company was formed that numbered over sixty. Abra- 
ham Horn was eledled captain. The Lehigh Valley History- tells us there were seven 
brothers in this company by the name of Horn, but the writer finds only four in the 
printed list in the History of Northampton County. The ladies were as patriotic as their 
brothers. As soon as they had ascertained that the company had been raised, they fonned 
themselves into sewing societies, and within three days had provided the company with 
uniforms, clothing, blankets, knapsacks, and all that was needed for comfort. On the 
morning they left for the front, they paraded through the principal streets of the town, and 
many people from the country came to see them off. During their march through the 
town, a beautiful flag was presented to the company by Miss RosannaBeidleman, which had 
been made by the ladies as a parting tribute. The company marched to Camp Dupont 
but was never called into action. The war was ended at New Orleans, and the Easton 
soldiers returned without firing a shot. 

The following is the muster roll (History of Northampton County, p. 82) of the First 
Company, First Rifle Regiment, at Camp Dupont, Nov. 13, 1814 : 


Ca/'/az>2— Abraham He 

^ni, Jr 



;— S. Moore, 

First Lieutenant^]. Horn. 

E. Fortner, 

Second Lie Ktc, 




J. Shipe, 

Etisign—]. Biglow. 

J. Dill. 

Sergeants— U. 




. Thompson, 








J. Luckenbach, 

G. Shewell, 

A. Grub, 

C. Bowers, 

J. Bossier, 

J. Falkner, 

W. Mixsell, 

D. Roth, 

H. Piue, 

W. Evans, 

J. Seiple, 

W. Shick, 

G. Lottig, 

W. Berlin, 

E. Metier, 

J. Bossier, 

W. Wilhelm, 

J. Barnes, 

P. Miller, 

J. Smith. 

J. L. Jackson, 

N. Dealy, 

A. Keyselback, 

J. Kilpatrick, 

H. Miller, 

C. Carey, 

A. Flag, 

J. Doan, 

J. P. Breinenbach, 

C. Genther, 

T. Shank, 

P. Storks, 

A. Ward, 

F. Warmkessel, 

J. Grub, 

G. Dingier, 

F. Jackson, 

A. H. Barthokl, 

J. Shipe. 

J. Hartly, 

I. Keider, 

J. Kelso. 

J. Mesene, 

It is interesting to look over these old muster rolls and mark the names of families whose 
ancestors so readily took up arms in defence of home and our country's honor. When 
Miss Rosanna Beidleman presented the flag to the company it was received by the ensign, 
who was "a thorough Dutchman." The fair donor, as she handed the flag, remarked, 
"Under this flag march on to glory and vi6lory." The sturdy German replied "I is de 
man." This speech, as it was called, was the source of a good deal of amu.sement to the 
company in their weary march. While the company was tramping through heat and 
dust, some deep voice would break the silence by crying out "I is de man," followed h\ 



the hearty laugh of the soldiers. But the flag was always in place, and no doubt the brave 
German would have given it up only with his life. The thought of the burning of the 
public buildings in Washington City made them feel like having revenge. But after 
wearily waiting at Camp Dupont, they returned to Easton and waited for General Jackson 
to strike the vengeful blow at New Orleans. If the Atlantic cable had been in use at that 
time, the battle of New Orleans would not have taken place, as the treaty of peace was 
signed in Ghent, December 24, 1814, and this memorable battle was fought January 8, 
1815, fifteen days after the treaty of peace was signed. And what is remarkable about this 
treaty is that not one word is mentioned about the causes which led to this expensive and 
destrudlive war. 

One of the noted military companies of Easton was formed in 18 16, and named the 
"Easton Union Guards." Hon. David D. Wagener was eledled captain and remained in 



Michael Butz. 

Lawrence Titus. 

command of the company till its dissolution in 1829. This company was for many years 
the pride of Easton, and had among its members the best citizens of the town. Mr. Michael 
Butz and Mr. Lawrence Titus are still living, and were members of this company. 
(Michael Butz, grandfather of the present Michael Butz, was a member of the military 
company of 1763.) The visit of Lafayette to this country in 1824 was one of the most 
interesting events in the history of the Republic. It called into life once more the memo- 
ries of the Revolutionary struggles in which Washington and Lafayette fought side by 
side. It awoke all the enthusiasm which swept over the nation when Cornwallis fell and 
liberty was secure. The joy of the people knew no bounds. Cannon echoed from hill-top 
and valley all over the land. The music of national airs swelled on every breeze. The 
stars and stripes, which the noble Frenchman had helped to make a national banner, met 
the eye at every turn. Cities vied with each other in showing honors to this friend of 
Washington ; the flags of the United States and France hung festooned all over the land. 


The passage of Lafayette through the country was a triumphal march, in which he received 
a continued ovation. The gray-haired patriots who had fought by his side, came to meet 
him, and wept like children as they gazed upon his person. A day was soon set for his 
reception in Philadelphia, when the city of brotherly love would extend the hand of fra- 
ternal kindness, and show the appreciation of patriotic hearts. Easton was wild with 
delight, and the old field-piece on Mount Jefferson spoke their joy, and the flags were waving 
at every available point. The Easton Union Guards were well disciplined and anxious to 
march to honor him whom they loved so well. Captain David D. Wagener issued a call 
for the Guards to assemble on the Square with two days' provisions and go down the river 
to Philadelphia. It was a beautiful morning, and one of the most exciting days in the 
history of Easton. The company was promptly in line, stepped into the Durham boats 
and sped on their way. A more lively and jovial company never floated down this historic 
stream than on that memorable day. Thousands on the shores watched the progress of the 
fleet and rent the air with their shouts, and ladies waved their handkerchiefs in token of 
delight. There were people from Easton who watched the company as they landed and 
began their march with such military precision and grace as to excite their pride, and the 
admiration of all who beheld them. It was easy for the company to float down the river 
as they made the air vocal with their mirthful songs ; but a much more unpleasant task to 
spend two days in marching home through dust and heat. The following is the muster 
roll of the company taken from a manuscript copy : 

David D. Wagener, Captain, Thomas Arnold, Third ScrgaDtt, 

Peter S. Michler, First Lieutenant, Charles J. Ihrie, Fourth Sergeant, 

Samuel Snyder, Second Lieutenant, John Oliver, First Corporal, 

Robert Wallace, Ensign, Lewis Reichard, Second Corporal, 

John Cooper, Jr., Orderly Sergeant, George Shick, Third Corporal, 

John Lowry, Second Sergeant, Michael Butz, Fourth Corporal. 


Charles Lombard, Ca/i!az«, Joseph Morgan, Second Lieutenant, 

Peter Ihrie, Jr., First Lieutenant, Francis Jackson, Sergeant, 

George C. Hutter, Second Leiutcnanl, James A. Patterson, Corporal. 

John Stewart, Corporal. 


George Straub, Fife Major, John Finley, Drummer, 

Charles Horn, Drum Major, Jacob Batt, Drummer. 

John Reichard, Base Drum. 


John Straiib, Anthony B. Johnson, John Schultz, John Coates, Jacob Till. 


Hiram Yard, Clarionet, Peter Tilton, Bassoon, 

William Wertman, Clarionet, William Hemsing, Serpent, 

George Cole, Clarionet, Phillip Reichard, Horn, 

Samuel Troxell, Clarionet, Phillip H. Mattes, Horn, 

S. Gross, Clarionet, John Kessler, Cymbals, 

Timothy Vandike, Clarionet, John Mixsell, Triangle, 

Henry Hutter, Clarionet, Thomas Heckman, Flute, 

William Hutter, Clarionet, Charles Menner, Flute, 

John Stewart, Clarionet, William White, Flute. 


Robert Arnold, 
Jacob Abel, Jr., 
John Await, 
George Arnold, 
Benjamin F. 
Peter Bishop, 
James Black, 
Thomas S Bell, 
Jos. Bigelow, Sergt. 
John Bell, Sergt. 
Sam'l Bachmau, Sergt. 
Henry Barnes, Sergt. 
John Bachman, 
Jacob Bornman, 
Nicholas Best, 
Jacob Best, 
William Berlin, 
Isaac Carey, 
Charles Carey, 
William Carey, 
William Clouse, 
Jacob Coryell, 


Ira Cook, 
Charle Crowell, 
Joseph Dietrich, 
Sidney Down, 
Valentine Deily, 
George W. Deshler, 
Henry Drinkhouse. 
Abraham Dehart, 
John Dehart, 
George Dingier, 
Samuel Dingier, 
William Doran, 
A. Driesbach, 
William Eichman, 
Jacob Everhart, 
William Everhart, 
Simon Frantz, 
David Focht, 
Jacob Focht, 
William Garis, 
Charles Genther, 
William Gwinner, 
William Gardner, 
William Garron, 
Thomas Grotz, 
Jacob Hartman, 
Josiah P Hetrich, 
Joseph Horn, 
Conrad Heckman, 
Charles Heckman, 



Abraham Heckman, 
Peter Hawk, 
George R. Howell, 
George A. Hice, 
Hiram Heckman, 
Ezekiel Howell, 
George Hare, 
Charles Hay, 
John Ha}', 
Melchoir Hay, 
John Haggerty, 
George Heigel, 
John Herster, 
William Ihrie, 
Francis Jackson, Sergt. 
Phineas Kinsey, 
George Kessler, 
John Kutz, 
George Kutz, 
Abraham Keiter, 
Henry Kessler, 
Jacob Kisselbach, 
Thomas Kreider, 
George S. Kerhart, 
William Kern, 
Samuel Kutz, 
William H. Keiper, 
Jonathan A Kinsey, 
Jacob Killpatrick, 
John Leidy, 
Frank Leidy, 
Henry Leidy, 
Jacob Lattig, 
George Lattig, 
Jacob Ludwig, 
William Lynch, 
Jacob Lesher, 
Jacob Mettler, 
Eli Mettler, 
David Mettler, 
Isaac Meyers, 
Samuel Mellick, 
David Mixsell, 
Philip Mixsell, 
William Mixsell, 
Powell Moser, 
Andrew McClay, 
F. \V. Mueller, 
Samuel Moore, 
John Moore, 
Peter Moore, 
Charles Messiuger, 
Jacob Noll, 


John Nowck, 
William Nagel, 
Charles Nicholas, 
Peter Odenwelder, 
Michael Otto, 
Jas. A. Patterson, Cor' I. 
John Pruch, 
George Pruch, 
Nathaniel Price, 
James Pritchard, 
John Price, 
Daniel Phillipe, 
Solomon A. Rogers, 
George Ross, 
Frederick Rouse, 
Abraham Rohn, 
Charles Rohn, 
Jacob Shuck, 
Charles Snyder, 
George Shewell, 
Jacob Shipe, 

• Skillman, 

Samuel Shick, 
Alexander Schick, 
Jacob Shick, 
David Stem, 
Daniel Snyder, 
David Snyder, 
David Stidinger, 
Thomas Shank, 
Charles Snyder, 
William Shick, 
John Snyder, 
Jolm Simon, 
William P. Spering, 
William Snyder, 
Andrew Shewell, 


George Taylor, 
John Troxsell, 
William Troxsell, 
Joseph Troxsell, 
Michael Trittenbach, 
John Titus, 
Lawrence Titus, 
William Ward, 
Charles Ward, 
Jacob Weaver, 
George Weaver, 
William Woodring, 
Joseph Wycoff, 
William Yates, 
Robert G. Youells. 

The above is I believe, a full and correifl list of the whole of the 

members of the Easton Union Guards. 
JOHN COOPER, Jr., Orderly. 



At this time Easton could boast of several volunteer companies. The military spirit 
ran high, and many of the most prominent citizens were in the ranks. We give the mus- 
ter roll of the Easton Artillerists as it stood June 30th, 1821, and regret that we have been 
unable to secure those of other companies. 

Gz/i/azV/— William K. Sitgreaves. 
First Lieutenant —W\\\\a.m L. Sebring. 
Second Lieutenant — Isaac C WyckofF. 

Orderly Sergeants — William Bamet, Jr , Abraham Osterstock, Alexander Eagles and George Lerch. 
Corporals— 'ia.coh Sbipe, John Bamet, Jr., Jacob Brotzman and Joseph Dill. 

Artificers— ]o\i.n Burt, Jacob Gangwehr, John Brotzman, Christian Honiish, Alexander Berthold, John 
Shipe, Enoch Clark and Henry Wilhelm. 
Drum Major — Samuel Horn. 

Fife Major— Vet&r Hay. 

John Able, 
Samuel Batt, 
John Brauham, 
William Bixler, 
Joseph Buck, 
John Braeder, 
Wm. Bittenbender, 
John Buzzard, 
John Batt, 
David Bamet, 
John Bunstein, 
Josiah Da\-is, 
Robert Depue, 
James Doran, 
John Erb, 
John Everett, 
Lawrence Easterwood, 
Samuel Engle, 
Christian Flemming, 
Michael Fraley, 
Frederick Fraley, 
Elias Geiger, 
John Horn, 
Samuel Heintzelman, 
Joseph Hom, 
Melchior Horn, 
Joseph Herster, 
Joseph Howell, 
Jacob Hartzell, 
Jacob Hackman, 
Moses Heiss, 

John M. Hocker, 
George Hineline, 
Henry G. Kortz, 
Jacob Kilpatrick, 
Chas. Kisselbach, Jr. 
David Kichline, 
John Kriedler, 
Michael Lawall, 
Lloyd Lee, 
Clark Lowry, 
William Levers, 
Jonathan Lick, 
Henry Leidich, 
Isaac Levan, 
Isaac Maize, 
William Miller, 
Abraham Miller, 
Hiram Miller, 
Chas. McGregor, 
Peter Osterstock, 
Peter Pomp, 
David Price, 
Augustus Patier, 
George Reichard, 
Thomas Roberts, 
John Roberts, 
Daniel Raub, 
Isaac Saylor, 
Samuel Sweitzer, 
Jacob Smith, 

Samuel Shouse, 
Jacob Shick, 
George Sigman, 
Edward Shank, 
F. Spangenberg, 
William Shouse, 
Joseph Sn^-der. 
Charles Snyder, 
John Smith, 
William Stevenson, 
Jacob Sigman, 
George Smith, 
Daniel Schwender, 
Charles Schenck, 
George Trittenbach, 
John Tilton, 
Amos Titus, 
Jacob Troxell, 
Henry Wagener, 
Jacob Wilhelm, 
Jacob Wallace, 
George West, 
Thomas Weygandt, 
Samuel Wilhelm, 
William Wilking, 
Barnet Walter, 
John D. Weiss, 
Charles E. Wolf, 
Henry Wolraught, 
Samuel Yohe 

Three commissioned officers, eight non-commissioned officers, eight artificers, two 
privates. Total, one hundred and twelve. 

In the interval between 1824 and 1842, the year of the Delaware Encampment, the 
military organizations of Easton were highly proficient in drill, ably officered, and well 
sustained b)- the people. The memories of the older citizens are full of reuiini.scence.s — 
of parades, excursions, balls and banquets, and did space admit much could be added as 

E AS TON, PENN'A. 207 

to the doings in that period of the ' ' bold soldier boys. ' ' By the references in the papers of 
the time, as far as they can be gathered from incomplete files, it will be seen that no 
public festivities were complete without the presence of the military, and that they were 
as efficient in preserving good order as they were in adding to the pleasures of holiday 


On the i8th of June, 1842, a large meeting of citizens assembled at the house of Mr. 
John Bachman, to take into consideration the obje6l of having a Military Encampment at 
Easton. Richard Brodhead was appointed president, and H. D. Maxwell, Samuel Sher- 
rerd, John A. Innes and Col. D. W. Butz were appointed vice presidents. Dr. C. C. 
Field and John J. Herster were appointed secretaries. 

On motion of Capt. Andrew H. Reeder, it was unanimously — 

Resolved, That we hold a Military Encampment in the vicinity of Easton, in the 
month of September next. 

Resolved, That a committee of ten persons be appointed to procure a proper location, 
and make all necessary arrangements for the encampment. 

Capt. Abm. Mixsell, Col. D. W. Butz, Abraham Miller, Capt. S. Yohe, Capt. A. H. 
Reeder, Capt. L. Titus, Lieut. John J. Herster, Lieut. H. Winter, Lieut. Geo. W. Barnet 
and Lieut. D. W. Davis were appointed. 

The location chosen by the committee was on the south side of the Lehigh, on the 
hill overlooking the Borough of Easton. 

The following, concerning the encampment, is taken from the "Easton Argus," 
September 8, 1842 : 

"The encampment, of which we gave a hasty notice last week, was really a grand 
affair and seems to have given satisfa6lion to all concerned in it. Judging from the num- 
ber of spectators, and the length of time they remained to witness the evolutions of the 
military, our good citizens enjoyed a treat such as has rarely fallen to their lot. The 
committee of arrangements had everything in due preparation for the reception of their 
military guests. The ground for the camp was well chosen. The south side of the 
Lehigh, on a hill overlooking the Borough of Easton, was the spot chosen for the point 
of attraftion. On Monday evening the Doylestown Grays arrived, and were received 
with due ceremony by our military companies. On Tuesday morning the Philadelphia 
companies arrived, and with them General Cadwallader, to whom the command of the 
camp was given. Tuesday and Wednesday were spent in company and regimental drills, 
and on Wednesday the Governor and his staff arrived to witness the grand review. The 
whole exhibition, when fully formed, consisted of the following officers and companies : 
Governor Porter, Commander-in-Chief. 
Governor's Staff. 
New Jersey— Maj. Gen. Plane, Brig. Gen. A. C. Davis, Judge Adv. James N. Reading, 

Col. Joseph Reading, Col. A. V. Bonnel. 

Pennsylvania— Maj. Gen. Conrad Shimer, Maj. Wilson, Maj. Robert Brown, Brig. Gen. 

Peter Ihrie, Adj. Gen. Adam Dilles, Lieut. Col. William H. Hutter, 

Col. S. Humes Porter. 

Cavalry— Bucks County Troop, Capt. Archambault ; Forks Tsp. Troop, Capt. Whitesell. 


l].t.(«|.,).)).«}),jj.i-)}l|"j,>rt„i)(„)j.!*)*- |||MtHlt»tHt*(H«)mi!i'flHiHl""»flH't'>*'l'f"*"*"'"'*"""'"" 



vi?;\v (IF c xMr iii:i nwakic, [from dkawing by mrs. m'cartney, 1842.] 

The First Regiment was commanded by Colonel James Page, of Philadelphia, and 
was composed of the following companies : 

Philadelphia Grays — Lientenant Hastings, Commander. 
State Fencibles — Lieutenant Goldey, Commander. 
Washington Blues — Captain Patterson. 
National Guards — Captain Tustin. 
Holmesburg Marion Grays — Captain Dougherty. 
The Second Regiment was commanded by Colonel Smith, of Philadelphia, and con- 
sisted of the following companies : 

Democratic Artillerists — Captain Reeder (Easton). 

National Guards — Captain Yohe (Easton). 

Lambertsville Cadet.s — Captain Cole. 

Doylestown Grays — Captain Pugh. 

Eehigh Artillerists — Captain Morehead. 

Washington Grays (Quakertown) — Captain vSickel. 

Belvidere Infantry — Captain Searles. 

Washington Rangers — Captain Saylor. 



"Such was the material of which the encampment was formed. The ofBcers were in- 
defatigable in their exertions to form their regiments and train them to the drill. The 
evening parade was an imposing part of the ceremonies, and the soldiers entered with 
spirit into the matter. To General Cadwallader too much praise cannot be given. He 
was at every point — at regiment drill, at company drill, at morning parade, at evening 
parade, directing at all points, and proving himself a most efficient officer. Easton will 
long remember the officer who commanded at Camp Delaware, and General Cadwallader 
carries with him to his home the warmest good wishes of our citizens for his prosperity 
and happiness. 

' ' Governor Porter and his staff were received with the customary salutes. His Excel- 
lency seemed in very good health, and remained on the field from eleven to two o'clock 
at the grand review. The ladies of the borough furnished a goodly quantity of cake and 
such 'fixens,' and contributed to the comfort of the 'stern ' times. 

"The band of music from Philadelphia, brought hither under the auspices of General 
Cadwallader, must not be forgotten. They are an honor to the city. Besides their en- 
livening the 'battle field' with their 'sonorous metal blowing martial sounds,' they 
gave several serenades through the borough, and acquitted themselves more than well. 

"The firing and charge of the cavalry on review day had an imposing effedl, and 
seemed to give a more corredl idea of a bona-fide battle than any other manoeuvre per- 
formed. The best part of the battle was, that no one was killed, wounded or missing. 
Would that battles were as well fought and as harmless. 

"But the military, though numbering from 700 to 800, did not make up the whole at- 
tra6lion. The fireworks exhibited in the camp, and in the borough, drew much attention. 
Mr. Jackson, the pyrotechnist, put forth his skill, and the ' red, white and blue ' 
illumined the darkness, and gave a treat that the citizens of the borough have seldom 

"Besides this a concourse of people, estimated from 15,000 to 20,000 in number, gave 
attendance from day to day. The sun shone brightly, or just enough obscured to prevent 
the heat from becoming oppressive. No rain fell during the week. 

"The tents were pitched in an orchard, with the open parade ground immediately ad- 
joining. The soldiers could repose under the protection of their tents, or of the trees, as 
they most desired, and the numerous spectators enjoyed the cool shade while witnessing 
the military display. 

"Not an intemperate man was to be seen. This is, however, fully accounted for by 
the fadl that the encampment was on the same site, the identical spot where the Martha 
Washington Society celebrated the last Fourth of July. 

"The fa6t is worth noticing, that, notwithstanding the immense concourse of vehicles 
and individuals on foot and horse-back, not the slightest accident occurred during the 
encampment. This speaks volumes for the temperance and good order that prevailed, 
and which elicited the praise and commendation of all present. Would that all such 
assemblages were conduced with equal harmony, peace, order, and military spirit. 

"To the numerous volunteers who favored us with their presence, and who are now 
safely arrived at their homes, we wish happiness and long life, freedom from real battles, 
and a frequent recurrence of the pleasant times they enjoyed during their encampment at 
Camp Delaware." 



No better instance of the effe<5liveness of the presence of a body of well-disciplined 
citizen-soldiery, in suppressing riotous outbreaks, can be furnished than the strike of the 
Canal Boatmen in 1843 for an advance of wages. Their a(5lion obstructed navigation, 
and the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company suffered great loss by its inability to 
deliver coal in accordance with its contradls. All efforts at compromise were unavail- 
ing. The boatmen would not yield. One by one they tied up between Chain Dam and 
Freemansburg, until several hundred boats had been colle<fted. 

As there were ordinarily three men to a boat, able-bodied, determined fellows, they 
had a force of some hundreds, ready for desperate work, if need be. The wives and 
families of the captains were, in many cases, with them, and added not a little to the 
clamor, and to the courage of the men, in insisting upon what they alleged to be their 


rights. Their cause was aided too, indiredlly, by the sympathy of the outside public, 
and by the customary prejudice against large corporations. 

The letter of a correspondent from Easton to the "Newark Advertiser," copied in 
the "Democratic Union" of Harrisburg, of date 20th of July, 1843, recites the fadl of 
the stoppage of navigation, and its ruinous consequences to the company, and the una- 
vailing efforts to come to any agreement with the leaders of the striking boatmen, and 
then speaks thus of the condition of the strikers : 

"They made a parade at Easton a few days ago, and presented a forlorn spectacle. 
Ragged, bare-footed, half-dressed men, to the number of two hundred and fifty, mounted 
on half-starved mules and horses, without saddles and using ropes for bridles, were fol- 
lowed bv a more destitute-looking set on foot, mosth- without shoes. They excited a 


great deal of attention on their way through the streets of the town, and on all sides 
were expressions of sympathy and regret. It was a sorrowful spedlacle. Many of them 
felt that they were wronged, that the company could pay more; but on behalf of the 
latter such was said not to be the fa6l. ' ' 

An extracfl from " The North American " in issue of the same paper, of August 6th, 
1843, says : 

"The strike which took place among the boatmen on the Lehigh Canal in June last, 
continues, and business has been entirely suspended on the whole line for five weeks. 
We are indebted to some of our Easton friends for the following particulars : There is a 
continuous line of boats laden with coal extending from the basin at Easton more than 
two miles up the canal. The empty boats are drawn up across the canal near the outlet 
lock at the lower part of the basin. No boats are permitted to pass up or down the 

" On Monday forenoon last some of the contradlors with several citizens from Mauch 
Chunk and other places, came to Easton for the purpose of enabling a number of well- 
disposed boatmen to proceed with their boats. The sheriff of Northampton County and 
several magistrates and constables were also with them. Asa Packer, of Mauch Chunk, 
a member of the Legislature, and several other persons proceeded on board one of the 
boats, and the former commenced untying the rope which attached her to the other boats. 
His objecft was no sooner discovered by one of the guards left on duty by the malcontents, 
than he blew a horn, when a large number of the disaffected boatmen rushed from all 
quarters to the spot, attacked Mr. Packer, and knocked him into the river. They then 
let fly a volley of stones and other missiles at his companions, who being greatly outnum- 
bered, promptly retreated. Mr. Packer during the melee swam ashore, and succeeded in 
making his escape ; the disaffecfted boatmen remaining undisputed masters of the fleet. 

" The military in the vicinity have been called out, but the officers (we think very 
properly) objedled to a<5ling the part of policemen, and therefore declined ordering out 
their companies. 

"One day last week two captains attempted to get their boats under way, when they 
were promptly seized and thrown into the river, and their boats forcibly detained." 

The writer was mistaken as to the position of the military. They sympathized with 
the sufferings of the boatmen, but yielded obedience to law, and when called upon 
promptly responded. They were not called upon until the strike had continued some 
time longer, and a boatman who favored a compromise had been murdered. 

From William H. Thompson, Esq., one of our best known citizens, who served as a 
substitute with the military upon that occasion, we learn that Mr. Packer was rescued by 
Joseph Savitz ; and that upon the call of the sheriff, the two military companies of the 
borough assembled quietly in the yard of the Franklin House, formed ranks, and under 
command of their respedlive captains, Yohe and Horn, marched under the archway of 
the house (since closed) into Northampton street and thence to the scene of the riot. 

Their pieces loaded, each with a ball and three buckshot, added firmness to the 
regular tread of their ranks, and gave a serious cast to the countenances of the crowds 
upon the sidewalks. The strikers grew suddenly serious, too, at their presence, and 
quietly bowed to the law represented by the citizen soldiery, and again, save for the 
tooting of the boatman's horn, 'all was quiet along the Lehigh.' 



The military spirit of Easton always gave prominence to her volunteer companies. 
They were noted for the superior men of their ranks, and their high grades in drills and 
discipline. For years Judge Samuel Yohe and Andrew H. Reeder, Esq., commanded 
rival companies, and officers and men of each vied in soldierly competition. 

At a later day under other commanders this honorable rivalry continued. It insured 
spirited observance of the national holidays. Such days would open with cannon firing 
on Mount Jefferson — the beautiful and bold bluff in the centre of the borough, whose 
summit Bryant, in his Letters of a Traveller in 1824, said would be crowned with a 
castle, if in Europe — and owed much of their life to the artistic melody of Pomp's Cornet 
Band, and the vigorous martial music of the various drum corps, notably Major Mixsell's. 

A prominent newspaper, "The Home Journal and Citizen Soldier," in May, 1845, thus 
speaks of two of the Easton companies and the captains mentioned above : 

"There is no finer body of men in the State than those composing the two companies 
at Easton — the Artillery commanded by Captain Reeder and the National Guards by Captain 
Yohe. Both companies are in a highly prosperous condition, with the addition of new 
members continually, and as for discipline, soldierly bearing and gallant conduct, they 
can't be beat — not easy. Captain Yohe, when in uniform, is a perfecft beau-ideal of an 
officer, one that Napoleon, or Frederick the Great, at first sight would have stamped as 
such — and better than all he is as good as he looks. Captain Reeder is also a fine officer 
and has a splendid company. His company formerly wore a gray dress, but they have 
lately adopted the regular blue uniform. Success and prosperity to our friends at Easton." 


In Easton newspapers of the same month, appear notices of parade of the Easton 
Fencibles, by its Orderly Sergeant, Melchior H. Horn, and of the National Guards by its 
Orderly Sergeant, Adam Yohe. 

News of outrages upon American citizens in Mexico appeared side by side with these 
military items. Week by week the slower mails of that day brought news from which 
resulted the Mexican war. 

The death of Andrew Jackson on the 8th of June, 1845, was the occasion of a great 
military and civic procession in Easton on Saturday, the 28th of June. The Easton Fen- 
cibles and National Guards headed, with full ranks and craped arms, the long funeral 
cortege, composed of all the societies of the borough, the faculty and students of Lafay- 
ette College, soldiers of the late war, clergy and citizens generalh'. They marched in 
columns of six abreast, under marshalship of General Peter Ihrie, and to time of most 
touching and tender music, to St. John's Church, where the exercises opened by the 
singing of a beautiful dirge written by Mrs. John L. Gray, and Washington McCartney 
delivered an oration, original in its treatment of life incidents, and masterly in its anal- 
ysis of the charadler of the Old Hero. 

Friday, the Fourth day of July, following, witnessed a lively and general celebration, 
in which the local companies and a visiting military company from Mauch Chunk were 
prominent participants. Parades were frequent during these years, far too many for 
notice, and tlie great interest taken in military matters was characteristic of tlie promi- 


nent business men engaged who gave to them the close attention by which their personal 
business was made successful. Besides the names gi\'en, those of John Eyerman, John 
Maxwell, W. H. Thompson, and many others frequently appear. 

In an editorial of the "Easton Daily Express," in the sixthnumber of its issue, published 
then in the morning, of Saturday, November 10, 1855, appears a complaint of the decay 
of martial spirit in Easton, notwithstanding the growth of the place, and a desire to see 
the good old times return, when national holidays were lively "with booming of cannon 
and ringing of bells, large company musters and crowds of country lasses and their beaus; 
when our borough could boast of a Charley Hinkle and his nimble-footed, eagle-eyed 
riflemen, Weygandt and his bold volunteers, Porter and his dashing cavaliers, Sitgreaves 
and Sebring with their grim-visaged artillerymen, Wagner with his noble Guards, Shu- 
man and his prim-tidy Cadets, Ihrie and Yohe with their gallant Greys, Butz with his 
splendid Blues, or in later days the fine companies commanded by those gallant spirits. 
Captains Yohe and Reeder." 

This beautiful monument, a description of which has already appeared in these 
pages, eredled in the Easton Cemetery to the memory of George Taylor, one of the 
signers of the Declaration of Independence, was dedicated with imposing ceremonies, in 
which military companies took a prominent part, on Tuesday afternoon, November 20, 
1855. The full statement in the " Daily Express" extra of that date gives a long list of 
visiting military companies, but mentions none from Easton but the National Guards, 
Captain John Stonebach. This company, with the committee of arrangements, headed 
by Pomp's Cornet Band, escorted the military visitors up Third street, down Northamp- 
ton street and around the Public Square to their quarters. A salute, during the march, 
was fired from Gallows Hill. In the afternoon the procession formed on East Northamp- 
ton street in the following order : 

Major General Laury and Staff". 

Major Burnham, Major Stuart. 

Washington Cavalry — Captain Wenner. 

Pomp's Cornet Band. 

Bethlehem Artillery — Captain Wilson. 

Northampton Artillery — Captain Lynn. 

Mauch Chunk Band. 

Cleaver Artillerists — Captain Wolfe. 

Martial Music. 

National Guards — Captain Stonebach. 

Bethlehem Brass Band. 

Allen Rifles— Captain Good. 

Soldiers of the War of 1812. 

Committee of Arrangements. 

Philadelphia Committee. 

Orator and Reader of Declaration. 

Builder of Monument. 


Judges and Members of the Bar. 

Diredlors of Cemetery. 

Town Council. 




At a stand erected at the base of the eastern slope of the cemeten- grounds the pro- 
cession was halted, and after prayer by Rev. Dr. Schaeffer, the Declaration was read by 
General Peter Ihrie, and an oration delivered by Alexander E. Brown, Esq. A large 
crowd of persons had followed the procession, and the immense audience listened eagerly 
to the words of the eloquent orator. 


The Easton National Guards were organized September 12, 1848, and continued to be 
the sole military company for some time. The following were the officers in 1856 : 

Captain — John Stonebach. 
First Lieutenant — C. H. Lanning. Fourth Sergeant — Ferd. W. Bell. 

Second Lieutenant — George L. Fried. First Corporal — Wm. Slaven. 

Orderly Sergeant^ohn E. Titus. Second Corporal — M. K. Raub. 

Second Sergeant— W. H. Mack. Third Corporal— N. Peterson. 

Third Sergeant — ^John H. Genther. Fourth Corporal — A. Rothrock. 

The following complete roll of the officers and members of the Guards in 1858 is 
taken from their constitution and by-laws, printed in that year : 

Captain— ]o\i.^ E. Titus. 
First Lieutenant — George L- Fried. 
Second Lieutenant— V. W. Bell. 
First Serg:eant— Charles H. Yard. 
Second Serjeant— John H. Genther. 
Third Sergeant — Jacob G. Bamet. 

Fourth Sergeant — Benjamin Smith. 
Quartermaster— John Randolph. 
First Corporal — William Slaven. 
Second Corporat^ames McGloin. 
Third Corporal — William Gaston. 
Fourth Corporal — ^John H. Reichard. 

John E. Titus, 
George L. Fried, 
Charles H. Yard, 
F. W. Bell, 
John H. Genther, 
Jacob G. Bamet, 
Benjamin Smith, 
William Slaven, 
James McGloin, 
William Gaston, 
John H. Reichard, 
Charles Able, 
Samuel Trumbore, 
Joseph Hendrickson, 
Samuel Transue, 
Thomas Bishop, 
Aaron Thatcher, 
James Biglow, 
William J. Minick, 
Madison K. Raub, 
Conielius Derr, 


Edward Kelley, 
William L. Davis, 
John A. Frey, 
John H. Flemming, 
George W. Wilhelm, 
William H. Weaver, 
B. F. Amdt, Jr., 
William G. Osterstock, 
Valentine Stocker, 
Augustus F. Heller, 
Daniel W. Snyder. 
William H. Diehl, 
Silas C. Rodgers, 
George School ey, 
Charles B. Zulich, 
John Purdy, 
James O. Neal, 
John L. Clifton, 
John T. Dingier, 
Joseph Oliver, 

Edward Heckman, 
George Wycar, 
Robert Peacock, 
William M. Mutchler, 
Robert Burrell, 
James Hackett, 
Augustus G. Templin, 
Charles Knapp, 
Jacob Freyberger, 
Charles Sprow, 
Richard Wolfring, 
George Smitli, 
Amos M. Hones, 
John Yohe, 
Charles Osterstock, 
John Buck, 
Samuel Fraunfelder, 
Daniel Nicholas, 
John Randolph, 
Edward Housel. 

The company took part, 06lober 21st, 1856, in the funeral ceremonies of Captain 
Peter Nunge.sser, who commanded a company on duty at IMarcus Hook, in the war of 



1812. His company was among the first to offer its services when volunteers were called 
for in that war. 

On December 27th, 1856, the National Guards visited Trenton, accompanied by 
Pomp's Cornet Band, and took part in a sham battle, in celebration of the real one fought 
there in Revolutionary days. Their condudl was highly praised by the thousands of 

A new military company, the Citizens' Artillery, was organized in May, 1857, at 
Hawaii's Hotel, and, as far as can be ascertained, was composed of the following officers 
and members : 

Captain—\, Dachrodt. Second Lieutenant— iohn Stotzer. 

First Lieutenant— John P. Ricker. Orderly Sergeant— ]ohn F. Bachman. 

John Hensler, 

George Hensler, 

Jacob Hensler, 

William Dachrodt, 

Charles Dachrodt, 

John Dachrodt, Jr., 

Jacob Bonstein, 

Lawrence P\ Bonstein, 

William Derr, 

John Smith, 

Christian Take, 

Xavier Veile, 

Andrew J. Hay, 

Jackson Hay, 

Jacob Folkenson, 

Thomas Radenbacli, 

Frank Shelling, 

Jacob Keiper, 

David Barnet, 

Joseph Ochenfus, 

John Bruch, 

William Mutchler and Robert P. 

Richard Fraunfelter, 
Max. Wik, 
Edward Troxell, 
David Troxell, 
Jacob F. Rafferty, 
John Rafferty, 
John Frey, 
Josiah Cole, 
John O. Wagener, 
Wesley Drew, 
Aaron Frey, 
Andrew Adams, 
Christian Bach, 
William Otto, 
William Drake, 
David Frankenfield, 
Godfrey Mutchler, 
George Arm, 
Wm. Conahay, 
John Bittenbender, 
William Eichman, 
Black were ele<3;ed Lieutenants to fill 

Daniel Trittenbach, 
Theodore Trittenbach, 
John Rinek, 
James Meyers, 
Jonathan Xander, 
Benjamin Smith, 
William Spangenberg, 
Edward Cook, 
William Sigman, 
William Ricker, 
Jacob Burt, 
William Ginnard, 
Joseph Warner, 
Henry A. Rothrock, 
Levi Fraunfelter, 
Frank Danner, 
Edward Hill, 
E. O. Smith, 
Andrew Burt, 
J. L. Singer, 
John Q. Hay. 
vacancies at different times. 

The company made a fine appearance on July 4th, 1857, when it a6led as an escort 
to the Washington Grays, of Philadelphia. It was its first parade, and its drill, discipline, 
and beautiftil uniforms won applause from the soldiery visitors and the large crowds 
upon the streets. 


The funeral obsequies, on Sunday, May 2, 1858, of John F. Bachman, who served 
throughout the Mexican War, had called together the largest number of people ever seen 
in our borough at a like ceremony. Long before the hour appointed for the procession 
to move, the streets in the vicinity of his late residence, on Walnut street, were lined 
upon both sides with throngs of persons of all ages, sexes and conditions. It moved in 
the following order : 

Pomp's Cornet Band. 

National Guards — Captain John E. Titus. 
Citizens' Artillery — Captain Jacob Dachrodt. 


Scott Legion of Philadelphia — Captain Gray. 

Delegation of Citizens of Mauch Chunk. 


Flanked with Guard of Honor, composed of Soldiers of the Mexican 

War — Comrades of the Deceased. 

Soldiers of 1812. 
Judges and Members of the Bar. 
Printers of Easton, Mauch Chunk and Allentown. 
Humane Fire Company. 
Citizens Generally. 
A halt was made at St. John's Lutheran Church, where the coffin, draped in the old 
flag of the Stockton Artillerists, was taken into the church and placed in front of the 
pulpit. After prayer by Rev. B. Sadtler, Rev. John Beck delivered an impressive dis- 
course. Through streets lined with people the cortege then moved to the cemetery, 
where the Scott Legion fired over their comrade's grave. The large attendance was a just 
tribute to the worth of the man. The well known lines were never more aptly applied : 

"None knew him but to love him, 
None named him but to praise." 

Note. — John F. Bachman, printer ; bom in the township of Lower Saucon, Northampton county, January- 25, 
1831 ; educated in the common schools of the township and of Easton ; was a student of Lafayette College for 
one year ; served through the whole of the war with Mexico, and was one of the successful storming party at 
the fortress of Chepultepec, one of the most brilliant feats of the war ; went to California in February, 1849, and 
remained there till August, 185 1, when he went to Panama and there issued the Panama Star, the first newspa- 
per published in that city ; was ele(5ted Clerk of the Court of Quarter Sessions of Northampton County in 
0<5tober, 1854, and served till his death at Easton, April 29, 1858. 

John C. Drinkhouse, another Mexican War Volunteer, was buried at Easton with 
military honors March i, 1859. He had also been with General Walker in his Nicarau- 
guan expedition. 


Through protra(5led efforts of prominent citizens, the Nation's Holiday, occurring on 
Monday, July 5th, 1858, had an extraordinary celebration in Easton. The day opened 
by the usual salutes from Mount Jefferson and the ringing of the church bells. During 
the whole of the forenoon the streets were kept in a continual uproar by the arrivals of 
the many visiting military companies and their marching to martial music inider escort 
of the home troops. 

At one o'clock in the afternoon, the procession was formed on Third street, the right 
resting on Centre Square, under command of Captain John Stonebach, as Chief Marshal, 
and Charles Seitz and Lieutenant Bleecher as assistants, and moved as follows : 

Major General Laury and Staff", Brigadier General R. S. Brown and Staff", 

and Visiting Officers. 

Jackson Cavalry — Captain Charles Whitesell. 

Jackson Grays — Captain Laubach. 

Washington Artillery— Captain J. P. R. Heller. 



Citizens' Artillery— Captain J. Dachrodt. 
Pennsylvania Guards — Captain E. R. Siegfried. 

Color Guard of the American Flag. 

Guard of the Cap of Liberty, Soldiers of 1812. 

Pomp's Cornet Band. 

National Guards — Captain J. E. Titus. 

Washington Continentals — Captain Halsey. 

Carpenter's Cornet Band. 

Lambertville Fencibles — Captain S. Lilly. 

Allen Infantry — Captain Hart. 

Milford Cornet Band. 

Union Cadets — Captain Bertolette. 

Allen Rifles— Captain Good. 

Black Plumed Riflemen — Captain Calvin. 

Rittersville Rifles— Captain Ritter. 

Monroe Guards — Captain Keller. 

After marching through the principal streets, a halt was made at 4 p. m., in Centre 

Square, and after national airs by Pomp's Cornet Band, prayer was oSered by Rev. E. 

Greenwald, the Declaration of Independence was read by E. J. Fox, Esq., and an oration 

of great originality of thought delivered in a captivating way by W. H. Fry, of New 

York, the musical critic and operatic author. A fine display of fireworks in the evening, 

and numerous banquets to visitors, closed a day often referred to for the magnitude and 

completeness of its arrangements. 

In the spirited celebration of the 8th of January, 1859, a new company, the Easton 
Jaegers, Captain Charles Glanz, composed mostly of Germans, attracted much attention 
by their novel uniform and soldierly appearance. ' The following is the roll of oflScers and 
members as near as could be obtained : 

Ca/i'azw— Charles Glanz. 
First Lieutenant — Peter Kuebler. 
Second Lieutenant— VreA. Cokomille 
Third Lieutenant — Robert Grcefe. 
Quartermaster— '^\\X\h&\ii Kuebler. 
Orderly— Vra.m. Mildeiiberger. 

Joseph Long, 
John Maurer, 
Jacob Schwartz, 
William Dennig, 
George Haefler, 
Franz Reis, 
Joseph Reis, 
Anton Gehr, 
Joseph Oegsler, 
Jacob Beck, 
John Stattler, 


First Sergeant — Michael Teichman. 
Second Sergeant — Martin Goth. 
First Corporal— ]oh-a Cony. 
Second Corporal— Vraxiz Pfeffer. 
Third Corporal — Fabian Schuh. 
Fourth Corporal — William Siebert. 

John Kern, 


Basilius Flack, 
Charles Franklin, 
Christopher Kemmerer, 
John Picht, 
William Schultz, 
Theodore Roth, 
George Waller, 
Fred. Schwartz, 
Christian Strele, 

Joseph Flad, 

John Gisler, 

Leopold Bej'er, 

Wm. Hildebrandt, 

J. Bynder, 

A. Hersch, 

O. Glanz, 

A. Lieberman, 

Rudolph Rapp, 

Louis Rapp, 

J. Wettlaufer. 


Earlv in 1859 efforts were made to organize a Cavalry Compan)-. After several 
meetings and a canvass of citizens had resulted in little encouragement, an Infantry' 
Company was substituted, and the new organization was known as "The National Grays," 
and commanded by the following officers : 

Captain — J. P. Chambers. 

First Lieutenant — John Smylie, Jr. 

Second Lieutenant — Clarence H. Michler. 

Third Lieutenant — Theophilus F. Rodenbough. 

Ensign — John Stonebach. 

In its brief existence it attained prominence for efficiency of drill and discipline and 
the neatness of its uniforms. From its ranks came men whose names appear with high 
honor in the great war history of the nation. This was true in a remarkable degree of all 
the military companies of the borough. Old citizens remember with pride the appearance 
in the ranks in our street parades of many whose courage and soldierly skill gave them 
high position in the stern struggle of later j-ears. 

The eighth day of January, i860, fell upon Sunday, but the ninth had hardly dawned, 
before Napoleon, familiarly known as "Poly" Patier, on Mount Jefferson, with the roar 
of cannon, reminded the citizens of what was due to the memory' of General Jackson. The 
military companies, led by the time-honored band, paraded through the streets, and the 
day was given generally by the people to patriotic memories. 

Details from the four volunteer companies of the borough on the 14th of April, 
i860, attended the funeral of George Reichardt, an old soldier of the War of 18 12. 
During the war he belonged to Captain Nungesser's company, 2nd Regiment, P. V., 
which left Easton in September, 1814, and proceeded to Marcus Hook. The old soldier 
was in his eighty-fourth year, and was buried with military honors. A number of his 
comrades of 1812, and many other citizens were in the procession. John Ludwig, a 
member of the same company was buried a few weeks later with like honors. 

What was intended to be a grand military parade on Thursday, May 24, i860, had, 
from the reports of the newspapers of the day, many of the features of the old militia 
trainings. All of the companies of the county took part, including the following from 
Easton : 

Citizens Artillery — Captain Jacob Dachrodt. 

National Guards — Lieutenant Ferd. W. Bell, Commanding. 

National Grays — Captain Charles A. Heckman. 

Easton Jaegers — Captain Charles Glanz. 

The streets were filled early in the day with people from the country, and the county 

companies paraded at random to the continuous rattle of the drums. 

About one o'clock all the companies fell in line and marched to a field in the rear of 
the F'air Grounds, where it was intended to have a thorough drill. This was only par- 
tially successful. The field suffered, as have manv more serious fields, from an excess of 


commanders. Three hours were consumed in wheeling, marching and in evolutions hope- 
lessly involved but for the management of some of the company commanders. This 
was the last general turnout in the borough of cavalry and infantry companies of the 
county, and the closest approach for years to the old-fashioned militia field-days. 


January 8, 1861, was the occasion of a great display of patriotism in Easton. The 
National Guards, Citizens Artillery and Easton Jaegers paraded with full ranks during 
the afternoon, while at intervals "Poly" Patier, with his six-pounder on Mount Jefferson, 
reminded the citizens who thronged the streets, how British ranks fell before the Ken- 
tucky rifles at New Orleans, and how the hero of that day, had in 1832, pledged his oath 
to hang the man who would attempt to dissolve the Union as high as Haman. 

Washington's Birthday anniversary, the 22d of February, 1861, was more widely 
celebrated than it had been for years. The clouds of disunion, gathering for some time, had 
become ominously black in the southern sky and gave every evidence of being about to 
burst in armed treason. This gave great significance to the celebrations in honor of the 
Father of his Country, and of that stern old patriot who had sworn by the Eternal that 
the Union must be preserved. 


Day by day this feeling grew among Eastonians. Every treasonable threat was duly 
canvassed, and increased the determination to uphold the republic at every hazard. The 
mechanics and workingmen, the bone and sinew of every community, discussed the 
threatening news early and late, at their homes, in their shops and at the meetings of 
their societies. On Monday evening, February 18, 1861, they crowded the old Court 
House in the Square in pursuance of a call for a meeting to give expression to Union 
sentiment. John J. Otto presided, with vice presidents : Lehigh Ward, Max Gress, 
William Keller ; Bushkill Ward, Charles H. Yard, Henry J. Young ; West Ward, Thos. 
Daily, Aaron Frey ; South Easton, H. Wilhelm, D. Sandt ; Phillipsbitrg, J. S. Bach, 
James Price ; and secretaries, H. S. Wagner, G. W. Reichard, T. T. Hamman, A. Seip. 

After some spirited remarks by the President and Charles E. Buck, Esq., Isaac 
Pixley, an old Mexican War veteran, was called upon and amid rapturous applause 
appealed to the laboring men to stand by the stars and stripes. Mr. Horn followed, de- 
nouncing concessions to traitors. 

A long series of resolutions, intensely loyal in tone, were reported by a committee 
appointed for the purpose and adopted by an overwhelming majority. We reproduce 
three of them : 

Resolved, That we, the mechanics and workingmen of Easton and vicinity, without 
distindlion of party, in mass meeting assembled, do hold that the ele(5lion of Abraham 
Lincoln or any other man, to the office of President in a legal and constitutional manner, 
is not a fit or just cause for the dismemberment of this great and mighty republic. 

Resolved, That we believe that the rights of our Southern brethren are to be main- 
tained in the Union, and that we are willing to make any concessions to secure to them 
their constitutional rights in the Union, and we pledge to them our hearty co-operation 
in maintaining them, let them be assailed from whatever source they may. 


Resolved^ That we cannot consent to a dissolution of the States upon any terms or 
any manner whatever. That we cannot recognize secession as anything but revolution 
and treason — a means employed by traitors to destroy the inestimable blessings of liberty, 
which were bought by the blood of our forefathers and which are as dear to us as our own 
lives. That we are opposed to making any concessions to those who are laboring to sever 
the bonds of our Union, by a6ls of secession, that would array brother against brother in 
hostile combat, that would trample in the dust the stars and stripes, the only true emblem 
of our national liberty and greatness, the pride of every true American, which has floated 
so long over our beloved country, and which has been acknowledged and honored by 
every nation and in every commercial port throughout the civilized world. 

Addresses followed by John N. Durling, Wilson H. Hildebrandt, Henry S. Seip, 
William N. Drake, Peter Walter and George Finley, pointed and patriotic, and pledging 
the laboring men to the maintenance of the Union and the enforcement of the laws, after 
which the meeting adjourned with nine rousing cheers for " The Union." 

Many of these workingmen carried their patriotic zeal into the military parade of 
four days later, the anniversary of Washington's Birthday, of which the celebration was 
more general in Easton than it had been for many years. ' Poly ' Patier, with his cannon 
on Mount Jefferson, ushered in a day whose sun was clear as that of Austerlitz, and to 
many as prophetic. During the forenoon a company of men and boys in fantastic dress 
attracted great attention on all the principal streets, by their suggestive costumes. Almost 
all the leading chara(?ters of the day were personified. The drummer bore a label on 
which was written, " Fort Sumter cannot be taken." In the ranks a person with a rope 
about his neck, represented Governor Pickens, of South Carolina. Other prominent 
persons and incidents were humorously portrayed. The company was followed by large 
crowds who jeered and cheered them as their varying fancies prompted. 


The great attraction of the day, however, was a sham battle between the volunteer 
companies, which commenced on Northampton street and closed upon Mount Jefferson. 
It was participated in by the Saucon company of Northampton Artillerists, Captain Thos. 
W. Lynn, the Easton Jaegers, Captain Charles Glanz, the National Guard, Captain Fer- 
dinand W. Bell, and the Citizen's Artillerists, Captain Jacob Dachrodt. Their move- 
ments, as reported in the borough papers, are in strange contrast with the serious work of 
war begun scarcely two months later. 

After a skirmish on Northampton street, about four o'clock in the afternoon, all the 
companies moved toward Mount Jefferson, through large crowds of people gathered to 
witness the scene. The Northampton Artillerists and the Jaegers were stationed on the 
hill, protedling a mound crowned with the American flag. The attack was made by the 
National Guards ascending the hill on the east and the Citizens' Artillerists from the 
west. The movements were made with skill and rapidity amid continuous firing. Some 
of the combatants became so excited that quite a number of flesh wounds were given, 
but none of a serious nature. The summit was finally taken and the flag carried off in 
triumph. It was a day of rare sport to the lookers-on, and of good practice for the \ol- 


unteers, in the real warfare in which many of them were so soon to engage. A union 
meeting was held in the evening, after a banquet at Hulsizer's hotel, near the Delaware 
bridge. Earnest speeches were made, and with cheers for the Union, was closed one of 
the most spirited celebrations of the day ever had in Easton. 

The fires of patriotism were fiercely fanned throughout the loyal North during the 
month of March. Rumors from day to day that Fort Sumter, closely invested by earth 
works of the Secessionists, and short of provisions, would be evacuated, aroused strong 
indignation among the citizens of Easton, who felt that the military spirit had been fos- 
tered to little purpose if the property of the nation could be thus tamely surrendered. 
Those days of suspense to the nation and the citizens, when war was looked squarely in 
the face and its cost of national and personal sacrifice counted, brought increased deter- 
mination on the part of those who were to become our citizen-soldiery, and were ended 
on that ill-omened Friday, the twelfth day of April, 1861, when the telegraph announced 
that the venerable Edmund Rufiin, of Virginia, had inaugurated the great rebellion by 
firing the first gun upon Fort Sumter. 


[from a photograph by ROCKFELLOW.] 


HE loudest call to arms the nation had yet heard, followed the cannonade 
upon Fort Sumter.' As in the wars of the Revolution, 1812, and with 
Mexico, the citizens of Easton were foremost in patriotic response. 

At the first news of the firing upon the stars and stripes, in the early 
morning of the twelfth day of April, 1861, a call was circulated for a pub- 
lic meeting on the evening of the next day, Saturday, April 13, 1861, to 
raise men and money for the defense of the Republic. 

Notwithstanding the short notice and the falling of heavy rain at the 
time named for the meeting, the old Court House in the Square was filled 
to its utmost capacity, and anxious crowds swarmed like bees at its doors 
and windows. Again, as in Colonial and Revolutionary days, it resounded 
with patriotic appeals to arms. Lists were opened, money subscribed, and volunteers 
raised ready for the march, before the call of the President, issued on the following Mon- 
day, was published. 

That packed audience, of but one purpose, was the first of the many immense war 
meetings held in Easton during the Rebellion. At it and the adjourned Monday night 
meeting, were enrolled a large portion of the first regiment of volunteers sent by Pennsylva- 
nia in response to the Presidential call for three months men. From the borough news- 
papers of the day we make the following extracl:s : 

The meeting was called to order by Hon. H. D. Maxwell, who moved the seletlion 
of Hon. Samuel Yohe as Chairman. 

The latter gentleman, in his usual earnest manner, took the chair, assisted by James 
McKeen and Captain John Stonebach as Vice Presidents and Thomas T. Miller and W. 
H. Thompson, as Secretaries. 

The following resolutions were moved in a patriotic and stirring speech by Judge 
Maxwell, and adopted by acclamation. 

Whereas, Men, certainl}- misguided, if not wicked, have inaugurated ci\nl war, and are openly in arms 
against the institutions, the integrity, and the existence of the Republic of these United States ; the Govern- 
ment which has ever been our pride and boast, and under whose fostering and proteifling influences we have 
enjoyed greater privileges, greater comforts and greater blessings than have ever been permitted to any people 
or any nation before ; and — 

Whereas, We, with united hearts and united purposes, while deploring the adls of rebellious men, are re- 
solved to maintain, sustain, proteA and preserve the excellent Government secured for us by the toil, sufifering 
and blood of our patriot fathers ; and created by the wisdom aud intelligence of the venerable statesmen, who 
planned and formed our matchless Constitution. 

Resolved, That as our first atl we implore Him, who rules the universe and governs men, to aid and sustain 

us in this, the time of our national calamity, asking Him that He will, in His mercy, avert the continuance of 

the hostilities which have been commenced, and will protect and preser\'e this Republic, whose existence He has 

so remarkaVjIy favored and prospered, and upon whose people He has showered so many benefits and blessings. 

A'eso/c'ed, That we denounce the rebellion which has led to these attacks upon the forces of the Republic, 



the property of the Republic and the flag of the Republic of these United States, as wicked and traitorous, and 
call upon its citizens to rally in mass to uphold and sustain our Government in opposing and quelling it. 

Resolved, That we, a portion of the people of Pennsylvania, here pledge ourselves to stand by the consti- 
tution and the Government of these United States, and resist to the very last every attack made upon them ; 
and now proffer our aid in every way in which we can be of benefit to the service, to preserve this Republic in 
its existence and integrity, against any and every force that may be arrayed against it. 

Resolved, That lists be now opened for volunteers, who will march whenever and wherever called upon by 
the proper authorities of the State or Nation, to defend the institutions we cherish, the Republic we love, and 
thereby protect the homes we revere. 

Resolved. That a subscription be now opened for the purpose of raising and securing the necessary means 
and funds to defray the expenses of equipping and maintaining the volunteer force so proffered. 

Resolved, That the funds so raised be paid to a Treasurer, to be now appointed by this meeting, as shall 
be ordered by a committee of seven, to be also now selected, which committee is further authorized to take all 
proper measures to carry out the views and obje<5ts of this meeting. 

Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be reported by telegraph to the President of the United 
States, and to the Governor of this Commonwealth. 

Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be published in all the newspapers of the borough. 

Committees to receive the names of volunteers were appointed as follows : 

Bushkill Ward^^'\\X\2iVa. H. Armstrong, Peter Baldy. 

Lehigh Ward — John Stonebach, George W. Reichard. 

West Ward — John J. Horn, Charles P. Emmons. 

South Eastoji — Emanuel R. Shelling, Thomas McKeen, Jr. 

Daniel Whitesell was named to receive names of volunteers from the country outside 
of the borough. 

The meeting was loud in applause of earnest speeches made by Judge Maxwell, Sam- 
uel L. Cooley, Peter Baldy, Silas C. Cook, Charles Goepp and William H. Armstrong, 

Lists were opened for volunteers and the names of over one hundred persons obtained. 
Subscriptions of several thousand dollars were received towards a fund for payment of 
their equipment and other expenses by the following finance committee appointed by the 
chair : Alexander Wilson, McEvers Forman, Thomas T. Miller, Daniel H. Shnyder, Henry 
S. Seip, Derrick Hulick and William H. Thompson. 

Telegrams received previous to the meeting, of the brave stand of General Anderson 
at Fort Sumter, and his forced surrender, intensified the excitement. Never had the old 
Court House, in the more than a century of its existence, seen such a crowded and earnest 
assemblage of citizens. The cannonading at Sumter found prompt echoes, in shouts of 
determination to uphold the Union at all hazards. Grave men who took part in the 
business of the meeting within its bar, and excited men and boys who crowded its doors 
and windows, and filled all approaches to the building, vied with each other in earnest 
effort, and proved their devotion by later duty in the field. 

Those war meetings were a fitting finale to the proud record of that neat old cruciform 
stru(5ture. It had, in its early history, witnessed gatherings of the old Continentals to 
march to a war which resulted in emancipation from British tyranny. The close of that 
history was to see worthy sons of those worthy sires march to a war, which, waged to pre- 
serve our integrity as a nation, left us free in fact as in name. 

At a late hour that Saturday night the crowds dispersed from the meeting to gather 
in groups on the street corners during the Sunday and Monday following, for discussion 


of the speediest means the nation could take to resent the outrage and reclaim her fort, 
and punish its assailants. At their homes, and in the churches, the condition of the coun- 
try was canvassed and prayed for. The fires of patriotism, here as elsewhere, were fed 
from home altars. The ladies of Easton were also prompt in patriotic duty. The large 
attendance at the adjourned meeting on Monday night was due in no small measure to 
their home appeals. 


In spite of inclement weather the old Court House was crowded at the adjourned 
meeting, and again its windows, doors and sidewalks were thronged with earnest citizens. 
The expelled proclamation of President Lincoln had been issued that day. Its mild but 
determined appeals did not fall unheeded. They were eloquently dwelt upon by Rev. 
James Y. Mitchell, of Phillipsburg, and Hon. H. D. Maxwell and others. Reports of com- 
mittees announcing that two hundred volunteers were ready, in addition to the three 
military companies of the borough — then filling up their ranks — and that large subscrip- 
tions had been received, and that the same had been duly reported to the President, were 
heard with cheers that made the old Court House resound with their echoes. 

The following resolution was unanimously adopted : 

Resolved^ That Henry D. Maxwell be a committee to proceed forthwith to Harris- 
burg and present to his Excellency, the Governor of Pennsylvania, the proceedings of the 
meeting held here on Saturday evening last, with the further acftion of and reports made 
to this meeting to-night, and ascertain what further will be required, and also procure all 
necessary information as to what will be desired from us here. 

Amid repeated cheering the meeting then adjourned to meet on the following Wed- 
nesday evening when a report from the messenger sent to the Governor could be expected. 


Many evidences of the increasing patriotism were now apparent. Flags appeared on 
the buildings and in the windows of business stands of the more enthusiastic citizens. In 
neat designs, too, the stars and stripes were worn upon the persons of many, notably the 
ladies, ever ready to foster the sentiment of any good and patriotic work. Sumter had 
hardly fallen before the Franklin Literary Association, a local club, placed a flag on Rader's 
building at the north-west corner of the public square, amid plaudits of hundreds of men, 
women and children hastily assembled. The appearance of a procession on South Third 
street with martial music and bearing aloft three large national flags, added to the num- 
bers and excitement upon the streets. As they neared the Square it was found to be 
largely composed of young ladies from the cotton mill of South Easton, who had prepared 
the flags for the companies going to the front. They were greeted with rounds of cheers 
from the thronged sidewalks and the masses in the Square. Many a young man at sight of 
the banners so proudly borne by the ladies, resolved to bear arms in their defense. 

Meanwhile the lists in the hands of the committees had been rapidly filling witli names 
of volunteers. One hundred and eighty men formed in ranks in the north-west corner of 
the Public Square on Thursday morning, April i8, in two companies, to take train for 
Harrisburg. The Square and its approaclics were crowded with people of all classes — 



old and young, male and female. Fathers, mothers, sisters and brothers assembled to bid 
farewell. Thousands of eyes glistened in patriotic pride as the ranks of able bodied and 
valorous men, under the lead of Judge Samuel Yohe, 
soon to be their Colonel, and of William H. Arm- 
strong and Charles A. Heckman, to be Captains of the 
respedlive companies, to the music of Pomp's Cornet 
Baud, marched to the Lehigh Valley Railroad depot. 
On their way they halted at the residence of Hon. 
Andrew H. Reeder, on South Third street, near the 
Square, where they received two elegant silk flags, 
the gift of the ladies of Easton. After a fervent prayer 
by Rev. Job Halsey, Governor Reeder on behalf of the 
ladies, who thronged the windows and the steps of 
his residence from which he spoke, presented the flags 
in neat and appropriate words, to which Captains Arm- 
strong and Heckman gave brief and patriotic respon- 
ses. Thousands lined the streets on their further 
march to the depot and witnessed their departure on 
the train for Harrisburg where they were to be armed 
and equipped. These companies were known subse- 
quently as companies C and D of the First Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers. On the Saturday following, April 
20, the firing of a 
cannon on Mount Jefferson, told, as by arrangement, 
of another assemblage of volunteers. Again the Square 
was crowded, and amid like scenes and ceremonies 
and presentations of flags, after prayer by Rev. Dr. 
John Gray and speeches by Silas C. Cook and Charles 
Wykoff", Esqs., to martial music from Pomp's well- 
known band, and down the same street, thronged with 
multitudes of applauding citizens, marched one hun- 
dred and seventy sturdy men in two companies — the 
Easton National Guards, commanded by Captain 
Ferdinand W. Bell, and known later as Company H, 
and the Citizens Artillery, Captain Jacob Dachrodt, 
known later as Company B, both of the First Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers — to the same depot to take train 
to Harrisburg for arms and equipment. 

At this time another company, the Easton 
Jaegers, Captain Charles Glanz, was rapidly filling its 
ranks. They left upon the Monday morning follow- 1 

ing, April 22, bearing a flag also presented by the Capt.Co. h.fii 
ladies, and escorted by Pomp's Band and a multitude 
of citizens. They entered the Ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers under command of Captain 
Richard A. Graeffe, as Company G, of which regiment their late captain, Cliarles Glauz, 

William H. Ariv 
Captain Co. C, ist P. V. Lt. Col. 129th : 
(From Brady's War Photographs.) 

"'"' ^:^^^. 

'.v. Capt.Co. 

■ Photograph ) 


,51st P. V. 



became Major. The read)- and full response of volunteers from Easton gave them position 
among the first troops formed into regimental organization. The first four companies 
were mustered into ser\'ice April 20, 1861, eight days after fire was opened upon Fort Sum- 
ter. The Jaegers were mustered of date April 24, 186 1. 


The chairman of the famous Saturday night meeting, Judge Samuel Yohe, was made 
Colonel of the First Pennsylvania Regiment. Jacob R. Ludlow and William H. H. Mich- 
ler, physicians of Easton, became respectively its Surgeon and Assistant Surgeon. 

We regret that we have not the names of all who volunteered. Their numbers were 
largely in of the allowance of the mustering orders. Some, too, were excluded by 
age and physical disability. All were alike patriotic and should appear upon our printed 
lists. The best we can do is to give their names as they are found upon the muster-roll. 

Equally worthy of record are the names of the patriotic citizens who accompanied the 
volunteers to Harrisburg and provided their meals. The chairman of the financial com- 
mittee, Alexander Wilson, Esq., was adlive in discharge of duty and fully alive to the 
interests of the men. 

The regiment left Harrisburg on the night of its muster and proceeded to Cockeys- 
ville, via the Northern Central railway, where it was held under orders from W^ashington. 
Its regimental history will be again referred to. 

The names of the Easton Volunteers are taken from the muster-rolls as given in Bates' 
History of Pennsylvania Volunteers. 

(Recruited at Easton. Mustered in April 20, 1861.) 

Fourth Sergeant — Samuel H. Barnes. 
First Corporal — Edward Cook. 
Second Corporal — Max Wik. 
Third Corporal — G. William Barron. 
Fourth Corporal — John H. Bruch. 

Captain — Jacob Dachrodt. 
First Lieutenant— GoAirey Mutchler. 
Second Lieutenant — Charles Eichman. 
First Sergeant^ames F. Meyers. 
Second Sergeant — ^Jacob F. Rafferty. 
Third Sergeant— Andrew Burt. 

John A. Bixler, 
Solomon Bigley, 
John Banner, 
John W. Bittenbender, 
Jacob Bassett, 
Gideon A. Barnes, 
Edwin D. Bleckley, 
Lawrence Bitzer, 
P. M. Church, 
John A. Dachrodt, 
Paul Darmer, 
Jacob N. Dittler, 
William D Davi.s, 
John Everetts, 
William Eichman, 
Richard Frounfelter, 
Leonard Frankenfield, 
Levi Frounfelter, 
James G. Fargo, 
Joseph A. Ginnerd, 
Abraham Gardner, 

Andrew I. Ha}-, 
John Q. Hay, 
Daniel E. Hineline, 
Herman Hill, 
John Hetzell, 
Frederick W. Huble, 
George H. Hahn, 
William Hartzell, 
Charles Imick, 
W. H. Kromer, 
Lewis F. Kromer, 
Edgar Kemmerer, 
John S. Lerch, 
Joseph Levers, 
F. Lynn. 
James P. Moser, 
William H. Moritz, 
Peter S. Michler, 
Joseph S- Myers, 
John Purser, 
.'\ndrew Rodgers, 

■Samuel Bruch, William H. Ginnerd. 

Franklin Rinker, 
Jacob Rinek, 
John W. Ricker, 
Charles P. Shelter, 
Maximilian Smith, 
Charles Schortz, 
Frederick Schweb, 
Samuel Schaffer, 
.\maiides Scljook, 
Jos. W. Sa\-itz, 
J. Lewis Singer, 
Wm. Smith, 
Wm. Schmitzer, 
Edward O. Smith, 
Reuben Schlabach, 
Valentine Smith, 
Wm. F. Snyder, 
William Steer, 
William A. Templin, 
William T. Troxell, 
Wm. I. Ziegeiifuss, 




(Recruited ; 
Captain — William H. Armstrong. 
First Lieutenant — Robert Ramsden. 
Second Lieutenant — Charles H. Yard. 
First Sergeant — Lawrence Bonstein. 
Second Sergeant— ^m. H. Weaver. 
Third Sergeant— ?>a.\ii\xe\ Stewart. 

George W. Arndt, 
Charles Arnold, 
Charles Barnet, 
John Broadback, 
Richard N. Bitters, 
Jonathan Bull, 
John P. Billings, 
Geo. Colbath, 
Daniel J. Carey, 
John Callahan, 
William Colbath, 
George E. Cyphers, 
John Cook, 
George A. Diehl, 
Samuel W. Drew, 
George H. Freyhart, 
Stephen Gross, 
John S. Green, 
Owen Garis, 
Edwin Gephart, 
David Heath, 
Alvin Huffbrd, 


Easton. Mustered in April 20, i86i.) 

Fourth Sergeant— Vr\>!mvii, Weirbach. 
First Cor/oraif— William B. Mettler. 
Second Corporal — Emanuel R. Shelling. 
Third Co/'/om/— Edward Wortley. 
Fourth Corporal — Daniel Laubach. 
Musicians — Wm A. Heckman, Joseph Young 

Henry Huber, 
James Ihrie, 
Martin Kichlin 
Martin V. B. 
Thomas Kilkerry, 
William H. Kline, 
Charles H. Leshoer, 
John Lynd, 
Lawrence Moser, 
Isaac M. Myers, 
Henry Mover, 
Benjamin F. Moyer, 
Philip L. Moser, 
Francis Mowry, 
John Murray, 
Bernard Merwarth, 
Henry Miller, 
Samuel Paxson, 
William Pharo, 
Jacob Rustay, 
Joseph Rougay, 


George W. Sigman, 
John G. Snyder, 
Wm. H. Stultz, 
Peter Smith, 
Perry Simons, 
Chas. Schlegel, 
Richard Shelling, 
Augustus Shelling, 
Isaac Stiles, 
Daniel Troxell, 
James P. Tilton, 
James Van Campen, 
Joseph Vogel, 
Owen J. Weida, 
John D. Weller, 
Augustus Weiss, 
Wm. Wyker, 
Josiah Weber, 
George W. Wagener, 
William Wolfram, 
John Wolfram. 

(Recruited at Easton. Mustered in April 20, 186 
Ca/>/a/«— Charles A. Heckman. 
First Lieutenant— ]ames F. Thompson. 
Second Lieutenant— WMiam H. Able. 
First Sergeant — Joseph Oliver. 
Second Sergeant — Henry Arndt. 
Third Sergeant — William A. Bachman. 

Samuel Adams, 
Amandus Attel, 
Jabez Alsover, 
John Andrews, 
John W. Bowman, 
William Blane, 
Joseph Bowers, 
Thomas Boyd, 
James \. Brodie, 
Jeremiah Cooper, 
Isaac C. Clymer, 
George E. Diehl, 
Matthew Delaney, 
Samuel I. Emmons, 
Edward Finster, 
Alfred Finster, 
James Ferguson, 
James G. Gallaghan, 
Edward B. Gallaghan, 
John J. Gangwer, 
Samuel I. Heintzelman, 

Frank A. Hubbell, 
David W. Huber, 
Alexander W. Hoyt, 
Jacob A. Hawk, 
James E. Hulsizer, 
Christian Hammer, 
Silas Hulsizer, 
Wilson I. Hagerman, 
William C. Hixson, 
Luther Horn, 
Henry Innes, 
Joseph Ihrie, 
David E. Kichline, 
Adam H. Lane, 
John I. Levers, 
Chas. P. Levers, 
James B. Meldrum, 
Frederick C. Mattes, 
Charles Meyer, 
Patrick M'Donald, 
Lewis Morrell, 

Fourtli Sergeant— C3.\v\n Pardee. 
First Corporal — Edward S. Carroll. 
Second Corporal — Flavins G. Arrowsmith. 
Third Corporal — Augustus Stewart. 
Fourtli Cor/ora/— Benjamin J. Hillman. 
Musician— "ErWrn Hartzell. 

George M. Oberly, 
William H. Pace, 
Robert R. Phillips, 
Abraham A. Raub, 
Robert Reese, 
Philip Richard, 
Thomas P. Ricketts, 
George Reese, 
William A. Smith, 
John P. B. Sloan, 
William H. Seip, 
Edward A. Shouse, 
George H. Shaffer, 
Albert N. Seip, 
Albert Steele, 
Thomas Snyder, 
James Simons, 
Theodore Troxell, 
David E. Troxell, 
Thomas Wagner, 
Abraham K. Young. 



(Recruited at Easton. Mustered in April 21 

ra/:>/a!K— Ferdinand W. Bell. 
First Lieutenant — Jacob G. Barnet. 
Second Lieutenant — George L. Fried. 
First Sergeant— ]o\\n V. Fried. 
Second Sergeant — James McGloin. 
Third Sergeant— Kohen Burrell. 

Charles Arnold, 
John H. Buck, 
Samuel Buckley, 
Benjamin Beatty, 
Silas Beers, 
James Barnet, 
John S. Barnet, 
James P. Buck, 
George Buller, 
Edward Bender, 
James Bryson, 
George Burrell, 
John Bryson, 
John Bittner, 
Edward Bullman, 
James Ballantine, 
John L. Clifton, 
Henry A. Daley, 
Benjamin Dew, 
John Dingier, 
Charles Elliott, 
Samuel Fraunfelder, 

Jacob Freyberger, 
George Frey, 
Frank Ginkinger, 
Charles A. Gosner. 
John B. Haines, 
George Hutman, 
David Hutman, 
Joseph Harmony, 
James M. Hoyt, 
Charles W. Kinsey, 
Peter King, 
Charles A. Levan, 
Samuel Moore, 
John Moore, 
John VV. Meeker, 
Alexander Mbser, 
William S. Mellick, 
Joseph M'Laughlin, 
John S. Miller, 
Ervin Miller, 
Samuel Neigh, 

Fourth Sergeant — Augustus Heller. 
First Corfiorat— Robert Ballantine. 
Second Corpora/— William Osterstock. 
Third Corporat— Dame] Phillippe. 
Fourth ror/>ora/— William Diehl. 

George Nicholas, 
Daniel Nicholas, 
Henry Pittenger, 
Solon Phillippe, 
John Randolph, 
William L. Snyder, 
Richard Seip, 
Frank Snyder, 
Samuel Sandt, 
George Sunderland, 
Edw. Seals, 
Samuel Transue, 
William H. Unangst, 
Richard Williams, 
William Wilking, 
John C. West, 
Adam Ward, 
Thomas Weaver, 
Reuben Weiss, 
John B. Wilson, 
Charles Wykoff. 


Ca/>/a!«— Richard A. Graeffe. 
First Lieutenant — Charles Goepp. 
Second Lieutenant — Frank A, Hetrich. 
First Sergeant — Francis Mildenberger. 
Second Sergeant— ]ohn Cooneyer. 
Third Sergeant — Martin Goth. 

John Adler 
Jacob Beck 
George Bie 
Adolphus Dennig, 
Jacob Ecker, 
George Elhard, 
Frederick Epple, 
Martin Epple, 
Charles Franklin, 
Daniel Friedewald, 
Bernhard Frothier, 
Henry E. Froelich, 
Anthony Gehr, 
Henry fienther. 
Otto Glanz, 
John Haemmerlein, 
Christian G. Hermann, 
Joseph Hetzler, 
Charles Huber, 
John Hunter, 
John Hutmacher, 
Charles Kaiser, 

in April 24, 1861.) 
Fourth Sergeant — Joseph Hoefler. 
First Corpora/— Francis Pfeffer. 
Second Corpora/ — Francis Ries. 
T/iird Corpora/— George Wahler. 
Fourth Corpora/— Olio Hersh. 
Musiciatts — Joseph Flad, William Weber. 


Godfrey Kaiser, 
William Kaltenbach, 
Gustavus Kemmerer, 
Ignace Kiefer, 
Henry Klette, 
John Kern, 
Andrew Klump, 
Maurice Laetius, 
Joseph Long, 
Anthony Lieberman, 
Henry Lingeman, 
Augustus Loeflfelmann, 
David Loeffler, 
Godfrey Lutz, 
Frederick Meyer, 
John Meyer, 
Peter Messinger, 
Charles Miller, 
Dr. George Miller, 
Anthony Mock, 
Pius Moll, 
George Palmer, 

Hermann Pfisterer, 
John Pfleger, 
Augustus Ries, 
Conrad Ries, 
Joseph Ries, 
Frederick Roesler, 
Aaron Rogers, 
Rudolph Rapp, 
Frederick Roth, 
Julius Schaler, 
George Schrog, 
Jacob Schwartz, 
John H. Stein, 
David F. Strauss, 
Henry Sturm, 
Andrew Snomann, 
George Swaddell, 
Clement Weber, 
Charles Weidknecht, 
Lewis Wendenburg, 
Jacob Wettlaeufer, 
John White. 




The war fever in Easton was not a little increased by the arrival of a company of the 
Rhode Island Marine Artillery on Saturday, April 20, i'86i. They were quartered in the 
Fair Grounds by permission of its diredlors, and the one hundred and twenty-five men and 
ninety-seven horses, with six brass rifled twelve-pound cannon, all under command of 
Colonel Tomkins, as they marched up Northampton street, gave the already excited citi- 
zens new ideas of "the pomp and circumstance of glorious war." They had left in such 
haste that their blankets had not been duly made. This was done by the ladies of Easton 
during their brief stay, and a blanket made for each man from the material furnished by 
the company. 

This artillery company opened the interesting exercises of the Tuesday following, 
(April 23) on the part of the children of the Public Schools of Easton, by a salute from 
their field pieces on College Hill. All the schools, the board of directors, the clergy of 
the borough, were assembled on the green before the High School building, while the 
street in its front was crowded with citizens. At the artillery salute four bright flags of 

stars and stripes were run up to the music of the 
"StarSpangled Banner" played by Pomp'sCornet 
Band. An appropriate prayer by Rev. Cornelius 
H. Edgar followed, and then the "Star Spangled 
Banner" was sung by the children. After a brief 
address by B. F. Stem, Esq., one of the teachers 
^^i(u~'^i^^SBS^^^^^^^"' of the High School, " America" was sung by the 

children. The children, directors, clergy and 
citizens then proceeded to the West Ward school building where like ceremonies were 
observed and two flags raised. Prayer was offered by Rev. Mr. Eckert and Rev. John Beck 
made appropriate remarks. Dr. Traill Green, President of the Board of Direcflors, and 
Edward F. Stewart, Esq., one of its members, also made pertinent speeches. The cere- 
monies were of the most orderly character, and long will the day be remembered by the 
school children for its lessons of loyalty to the stars and stripes. 

The incidents of that memorable April in Easton cannot, we regret, be fully given. 
In the twenty-five years since numbered, many matters well worthy of note have passed 
from recollecftion. At times business was almost suspended. Individual volunteering 
continued at a rapid rate and many of our best volunteers gave credit to organizations not 
local. The following minutes from the borough press will show that the war feeling was 
strongly on the increase in the early part of the May following. 

On Saturday, May 4, 1861, the Commissioners of the County of Northampton hon- 
ored the old Court House, in which so many patriotic meetings had been held, by placing 
above it the national flag. Captain Peter Baldy's company of volunteers sang patriotic 
songs as it unfolded to the breeze, and Matthew Hale Jones and Edward J. Fox, Esquires, 
made appropriate speeches to the large audience gathered in the Square. By the same 
authority a flag was placed upon the new Court House in the western part of the borough. 


On the same day. May 4, Captain Peter Baldy marched his company, the sixth com- 





pany of volunteers raised in Easton, in response to a call of Major Charles Sitgreaves, 
Mayor of Phillipsburg. The Mayor stated that there were six persons in Feit's woods, 
near Phillipsburg, dressed like regulars of the United States Army, armed with guns, 
and supposed to be deserters. Captain Baldy with his command met the supposed desert- 
ers on the Delaware bridge, and escorted them to the armory of the National Guards. 
Brief inquiry soon revealed the fact, that so far from being deserters, they were Germans 
of two weeks' residence in the country, one of them an old soldier in Italy's war for lib- 
erty, and all trying to find their way to Washington to fight for the Union. I\Ir. Solomon 
Troutman, with others of our citizens, entertained them until ^londay when they left for 
Harrisburg with Captain Bald\-. 

The departure of the sixth company of Easton volunteers, on IMonday, May 6, 1861, 
was made, although the weather was very unpleasant, in the presence of a large number 
of persons. It was the first company under the later call for three years men. It received 
a beautiful flag as a present from the citizens, while its captain, Peter Baldy, Esq., a for- 
mer Distridl Attorney of the county, was presented with a sword, pistol and purse by mem- 
bers of the bar and others of the citizens. John J. Horn, one of its lieutenants, teaciier of 
the (Trammar School of West Ward, was ])reseiitcd with a beautiful re\-olver and an ele- 



gantly bound copy of the Bible, by the teachers of the Public Schools. Hon. Peter F. 
Eilenberger, a man open-handed and open-hearted in deeds of kindness to volunteers, pro- 
vided for them a fine dinner upon their arrival at Harrisburg. 

This company was mustered into service May 30, 1861, in the Twelfth Pennsylvania 
Reserves, (Forty-first of the line) as Company E ; its captain, Peter Baldy, becoming 
Major of the regiment, and by promotion August 30, 1862, Lieutenant Colonel. Its mili- 
tary history will be again referred to. * 


Captain— ]o\m. ] . Horn. 

" Francis Schelling. 

First Lieutenant — Edward Kelley. 

J. C. Fackenthall. 
Second Lieutenant — William Lind. 
First Sergeant — James Johnston. 
" " Henry Hess. 

William Ruch. 
Reuben L. Miller. 
William F. Keller. 
Theodore F. Hance. 
William R. Kidd. 
" " John Herp. 

Aaron E. Beisel, 
Max Bertrand, 
John H. Boran, 
Daniel Brounell, 
Robert G. Barnes, 
Leopold Beck, 
William H. Bodley, 
Joseph Barros, 
Jacob M. Buchter, 
John Barry, 
Joseph Bird, 
James Cummiskey, 
Ramsey Case, 
Charles Custard, 
Hoffman Connor, 
James Devine, 
William Dice, 
Daniel Eli, 
Josiah Ettleman, 
Landers Everett, 
Casper Echelstien, 
William Frederick, 
Adam Fisher, 
Paul H. Fischel, 
Jervis Gould, 
David H. Graham, 
William F. Handwork, 
John Haggerty, 
John H. Hummell, 
Matthew Haase, 
William Handwork, 
William Hardin, 

William Ivey, 
Warren H. Joline, 
Sydney Kuehner, 
Josiah Kirkendall, 
Jeremiah Klein, 
Edward Kimble, 
John W. Leffel, 
Jacob Leidv, 
Edward Leidy, 
Jacob Moyer, 
Barney Maloy, 
Jacob Muffley, 
John May, 

Thomas McCormick, 
Amandus Miller, 
George A. Miller, 
John Nunnemacher, 
Robert Nolf, 
Fort W. Nicholas, 
Savilian Otto, 
Michael O'Brien, 
Isaac Peifer, 
James Pilkenton, 
Jesse Roseberry, 
George Retzler, 
Lewis Roth, 
William Raub, 
Calvin Reed, 
Paul Roth, 
Thomas Ruth, 
Charles F. Rothweiler, 
William H . Santee, 

t"br/!>o/-a/— David Campbell. 
" Samuel Tolan. 

" James H. Coffin. 

" Daniel H. Lanbach. 

C. F. Oestricker. 
" Aaron Bosler. 

" George Derhammer. 

" William J. Kuehner. 

'" George Ketchledge. 

" J. H. Missinger. 

Musician — John H. Wolf. 

Thomas Duffin. 

Lewis Stein, 
Stephen Sholes, 
Patrick Shine, 
Robert W. Surrill, 
Lewis H. Sassaman, 
Lewis Schenk, 
Philip Seagler, 
Joseph Snyder, 
Peter S. Snvder, 
Christian F. Smith, 
Urias Stahr, 
William Schooley, 
John P. Tro-xell, 
Benjamin Tallman, 
Benjamin Troxell, 
George Troxell, 
William Traugh, 
Samuel Traugh, 
Charles R. Teelin, 
James Taylor, 
Joseph Trexler, 
John Williams, 
Robert White, 
John Worman, 
John B, Wilson, 
William H. Weaver, 
Robert Warner, 
John Wought, 
George Walls, 
Albert Wise, 
John Younkins. 

*NoTE. — These troops were called " Reser\-es" because they were recruited by Governor Curtin with wise 
forethought for a day of need, inevitable in his mind, aud held in reserve, when there was no Federal call for 
men froin the State. The Bull Run disaster showed his wisdom, and the nation applauded his act when those 
well-drilled troops marched to the defense of Washington immediately upon that defeat. No finer body of men, 
no troops that saw harder service, were in the great army of the Republic. 




Flag raisings during May were frequent. Among the more prominent we note from 
the newspapers one at the United States Hotel, kept by Joseph Schortz, on North Third 
street, on Friday, May 17, 1861, at which speeches were made by B. F. Fackenthal, Esq., 
and Rev. Dr. D. V. McLean, and prayer offered by Rev. C. H. Edgar. Excellent music 
was furnished by the Jaeger Band and the Noll family. This flag was forty-two feet in 
leno-th by twenty-eight feet in breadth, and it was taken as a good omen that it waved its 
ample folds southward amid the cheers of a large concourse of citizens. 

On the morning of the day following, the Hebrews of Eastou, after a speech by Rev. C. 
H. Edgar, in which he drew historic parallels, and claimed that Jehovah had not then de- 
serted his chosen people and would not now desert his chosen nation, raised a beautiful 
flag on their Synagogue on South Sixth street. This was the first house of worship in 
Easton crowned with the stars and stripes. 

On the same day, with whizzing of rockets and roar of cannon, a large and beautiful 
flag was run to the top of a pole one hundred feet high at Reich's grocery store on the 
summit of the hill at Sixth and Northampton streets. Appropriate addresses were made 
to a large and attentive audience by O. H. Meyers, Esq., and others. Patriotic songs 
were sung by a band of young girls, and Pomp's Cornet Band played national airs. Inci- 
dents like these were now of almost daily occurrence and told the earnest and growing de- 
termination to suppress the rebellion. 

The prompt and full response of volunteers from Easton had attra6led attention from 
all quarters of the State. This interest was increased by the visit on Tuesday afternoon. 
May 21, 1861, of Governor Andrew G. Curtin, the first-named of the famous War Gover- 
nors, and Major General George A. McCall, to the Fair Grounds on the west of the 
borough, with the view of selecSling it, if suitable, as a site for one of the State camps. Its 
many advantages secured its selection, and before another week it was occupied by volun- 
teers. The Second regiment, Colonel Wm. B. Mann, Third, Colonel Horatio G. Sickels, 
and Fourth, Colonel R. S. March, of the Reserves, were here organized. Their daily drills 
drew large crowds of visitors, and many a man of the hard-fought Pennsylvania Resen.-es in 
after service remembered the pleasures of this peaceful camp. By the sixth day of June, 
i86i, over twenty-five companies, about two thousand men, were in the camp, now known 
as Camp Washington, under the command of Col. William B. Mann of Philadelphia, 
This number was largely added to at a later date. 


Meanwhile the committee appointed at the great Court House meeting to look after 
the comfort of the volunteers had been unremitting in attention. Reports reached them 
from time to time of lack of suitable clothing and of much suffering in consequence by the 
men now in service. The men of the First Pennsylvania, in the exigency of the service, 
had been forwarded ununiformed, many of their officers without swords, the buck and ball 
cartridges for their smooth-bore muskets rattling in the trouser pockets of the men, and 
their cotton haversacks filled with bacon and hard tack. Their clothing soon gave out in 
their rough campaigning without tents. New uniforms were received at their camp near 


Funkstown, Maryland. It was determined forthwith to relieve the need out of the funds 
already raised. On Monday, June 10, 1861, W. H. Thompson, Esq., purchased at Allen- 
town two hundred pairs of shoes, which were immediately forwarded to the camp, and on 
the same day Captain John E>erman purchased at Philadelphia six hundred yards of sati- 
net which was made into pantaloons. These supplies, with one hundred dollars in money, 
were promptly sent and proved of great benefit. 

A flag raising at Lafayette College on the evening of Friday, June 14, 1861, had pecu- 
liar interest from the fa(?t of the presence of Rev. Dr. George Junkin, its first president, 
and lately the president of Washington College, Virginia. As the doctor pulled the hal- 
yard and the flag fluttered to the top of its one hundred feet pole and unfolded in all the 
beauty of the stars and stripes, he told how the students of Washington College had per- 
sisted in raising the rag of secession and how he had taken it down and burned it, and 
then when he found that the students were sustained b}- the rest of the Faculty, he had 
resigned the presidency and left Virginia. The students, with Pomp's Band, had escorted 
him from the town to the hill and were loud in their applause of his remarks and of those 
of their spokesmen, Mr. Davis and of Dr. Traill Green. The pole stood in front of the 
College building at the head of the steps, and its twenty by thirty feet flag was in full view 
of the town and a proud mark of an institution noted for its heavy contribution of volun- 
teers from its campus to the battlefield. 

Beside the different regiments now being organized and drilled at Camp Washington, 
Eastonians had their faith in the final suppression of the Rebellion confirmed by the thou- 
sands of well-equipped volunteers whirled by on the railroad trains on their way to the 
seat of war. On the 20th of June, Governor Sprague's noted regiment of over one thousand 
strong, with its full battery of eight-pounders, ambulances, baggage and powder wagons, 
on a train of eighty cars drawn by three locomotives, passed up the valley. They were 
followed on the succeeding Saturday by a New Hampshire regiment, twelve hundred 
strong, and a full regiment of Chasseurs from New York. 


On the evening of June 20, Thomas Coates, the diredlor of Pomp's Cornet Band, 
whose widely known music had furnished inspiration to many a meeting in Easton, was 
honored by a flag-raising in front of his residence on South Fourth street. The band 
played its choicest music and the glee club sang its happiest songs, and excellent speeches 
assured the large crowd of citizens of the safety of the Union. 

Three regiments on the following Monday, June 24, were drawn up in front of the 
Institute building on the Fair Ground, and presented through Hon. H. D. Maxwell with 
an elegant flag. Col. W. B. Mann responded, and soldiers and citizens were enthusiastic 
in applause. A week later the Southwark Hose Company, one of the sturdiest of the old 
band of fire companies, for which Easton had long been famous, flung a large flag from the 
top of a pole considerably over one hundred feet high in front of its house on South Third 
street. Rev. John Grant, in happy humor, patriotism and eloquence, held the close at- 
tention of the large and enthusiastic crowd. 


EASTON'S fourth of JULY, 1861. 
War's dread realities appear to have suppressed its mock counterfeits with which the 
Fourth of July had often been celebrated. It was a quiet, thoughtful Fourth, that of July, 
1S61. Its celebration bv the borough antiquarian, Benjamin ]\I. Youells, was, as became 
the man, original, and, as became the day, suggestive. In the wiudowof his barber shop, 
widely known also as a curiosity shop, appeared, what claimed to be, a secession flag, on 

which was pinned the following note : 

" Camp Yoke, June 27, 1861. 
"B. M. Youells, Esq. Dear Sir : I hereby present you with this emblem of treason, captured in Fred- 
erick City, Md., June 26, 1 861, by Sergeant Joseph Oliver, of Company D, First Regiment Pennsylvania Vol- 
unteers. ,.(- ^ Heckman, Captain Co. D, First Reg't." 

A relic doubtless of rebel occupation of the city, in the fairgrounds of which the Eas- 
ton Volunteers were quartered on that first Fourth of July of the Rebellion. 

Still, the day was ushered in in accordance with the time-honored direction of John 
Adams, — the firing of cannon — by Napoleon Patier from Mt. Jefferson, the ringing of bells 
by patriotic church sextons, and later by flag raisings over several private residences, 
those of Herbert Thomas, Esq., Mrs. Seiple and others, and at 6 o'clock over the Third 
Street Reformed Church, at which, in presence of a large audience, prayer was oflfered by 
its pastor. Rev. John Beck, and an earnest, telling speech by Rev. Dr. D. V. McLean 
was followed by choice airs from Pomp's Cornet Band. 


When Col. March's regiment left Camp Washington on Tuesday, July 16, 1861, for 
Harrisburg, fully armed and equipped, their solid platoons reaching from curb to curb on 
Northampton street, firm tread and glistening bayonets, made the sight from the Square 
one of the most imposing of military specflacles. These men had grown to be soldiers in 
our midst, and densely crowded sidewalks attested the deep interest of our citizens. Eas- 
ton, apart from her own large representation in the famous Reserves, with pride watched 
their progress from field to field of well-fought fights, imtil it ended in final viiftory. 

Col. Sickle's regiment left on Monday, July 22, 1861, and Col. Mann's, the last regi- 
ment in the camp, on the Wednesday morning following. Like parades were had, and 
they left for adlive service through thronged sidewalks and cheered by thousands. The 
first great fight of Bull Run on Sunday, July 21, 1861, reported first as a vi<5tory and then 
as a defeat, had wrought the public feeling to the highest pitch of excitement. The now 
daily trains, freighted with troops and hurried with all the power of steam over our rail- 
roads, were greeted as they passed by from the full hearts of people who felt that the Re- 
bellion must be suppressed at any cost. When the full ranks of the last Reserve regiment 
left their camp and moved down Northampton street, a living stream of earnest men clad 
in their country's blue, our people massed on pavement and Square, drowned the music 
of the regimental bands in cheers for the cause and its heroes, all the more heartfelt and 
hearty on account of the reverses at Manassas. 


Easton was now awaiting anxiously the return of her first volunteers whose term of 
service had been prolonged by their volunteering to serve be>ond the three months' time 



for which they had been called and mustered. Although in Patterson's campaign, blood- 
less through no fault of theirs, they had seen much exposure, hard service and heavy 
marching, since their arrival at Cockeysville on the night of their muster. They had 
been hurried into service without proper arms, uniforms or camp equipage. But with 
their old smooth-bores loaded with buck and ball, and haversacks filled with bacon and 
hard-tack, they were ready and anxious to march through Baltimore, had not undue defer- 
ence to the authorities of that city on the part of the powers at Washington ordered other- 
wise. "March through Baltimore !" said one of a committee of citizens of that city on 

his return from Cockeysville, 
"their old Colonel looks as if 
he would march through h — , 
if so ordered." 

The fortunes of the Sixth 
Massachusetts, a few days pre- 
\ious, were not to be theirs, 
and under orders from Gen. 
Wmfield S. Scott, the retro- 
grade movement on the Mon- 
da\ following, was made to 
Camp Scott, near the town of 
York. Here their equipment 
was completed, and here they 
remained, in constant drill for 
held service until May 14, 
when they were detailed to 
guard the Northern Central 
railroad from the Pennsylva- 
nia line to Druid Park, near 
Baltimore. Details were made 
from time to time while at 
that point for the arrest of pro- 
minent persons charged with 
aiding the rebellion and for 
seizure of arms secreted for 
its use. Camp equipage was 
supplied May 25th, when the regiment marched through Baltimore and occupied an unfin- 
ished asylum near Catonsville. The tents were at hand, when ordered thence to Franklin- 
town, on May 29th. It did picket duty on the roads leading West from Baltimore and 
intercepted many recruits for the Rebel army at Harper's Ferry. On June 3d it joined the 
troops gathering at Chambersburg and was assigned to the Second Brigade, Second Divi- 
sion, of the army of General Robert Patterson, whose Adjutant General was Fitz John 
Porter. Company and field drill occupied its time closely here, in which the companies 
and regiment were making rapid strides toward proficiency, and a few days later it left 
for camp near Funkstown, where, through a false alarm, it had the surprise of a hurried 
midnight march to Williamsport on the Potomac. It returned to Funkstown on the fol- 



lowing day, and then for the first time was properly uniformed. Before this the men had 
suffered for the want of adequate clothing, although its need had been greatly relieved by 
the partial supply sent by kind friends at Easton. 

The regiment was ordered on June 21 to Frederick, and arrived there the day follow- 
ing and reported to Governor Hicks. A pleasant stay of about two weeks was made in the 
fair ground here, improved by daily drills, varied by a joyous Fourth of July, and made 
memorable by the kind attention of citizens — particularly the Rev. Dr. George Diehl and 
family, former residents of Easton. 

On July 8, 1861, after a return march through Boonsboro, and a night encampment 
on Kennedv's farm, and after fording the Potomac at Williamsport, it advanced to Falling 
Waters and joined the balance of the division of General Patterson at Martinsburg, where 
the following order was received : 

"Headquarters, Department of Penxsvlvaxia. 
"To Col. Samuel Yohc, Comvianding First Peniia. J'oluntecrs. 

"Dear Sir : I am iustrucfled by the Commanding General to say that your regiment 
has been selected to garrison this important post, on account of the confidence reposed in 
the administrative qualities of the Commander and the heretofore good condu(5l of the reg- 
iment, which gives assurance of the safety of the depot, and that the inhabitants will be 
protected, and many now opposed to us made friends of, while the lukewann will be 
strengthened in their feelings. 

" I am sir, very respectfully, 

"Your obedient servant, 

"F. J. Porter, A. A. G." 

Martinsburg was now a base of supplies and an important station. On July 14, Gen- 
eral Patterson moved his division towards Bunker Hill, and two days later the First Penn- 
sylvania rejoined it at Charlestown, w^hither it had convo}ed a heavy ammunition train. It 
w-as here supplied with ten days' cooked rations on Jul}- 17, and put in light marching 
order, ready for a forward movement, which unfortunately was not ordered. During the 
days following, until July 21, when Bull Run was fought, already beyond the time for 
muster out, the volunteers were under arms, anxious for the advance which was to pre- 
vent the rebel General Johnston from reinforcing Beauregard at Manassas. But while Pat- 
terson was halting Johnston was marching, and on July 21, when the latter had joined the 
main rebel army and had turned defeat into victor)-, our volunteers, to their surprise, were 
ordered to move to Harper's Ferry. The regiment marched on the 23d to Sandy Hook, 
and on the same evening took train for Harrisburg, where the men were honorably dis- 
charged and mustered out of service. 

Bates' History of the Pennsylvania \'olunteers, from which we have freely drawn, 
closes the account of the regiment, as follows : 

"During the time that the regiment was in service it did not participate in any bat- 
tles ; but its timely arrival in the field accomplished much good by checking any rash 
movement on the part of rebels in arms along our borders. The duties it was called upon 
to perform were faithfully done, and its good conducfl, under all circumstances, was ap- 
preciated and acknowledged bv its superior officers." 



Committees had been appointed to arrange for the reception of the volunteers upon 

their return, and the arrival of the train conveying them from Harrisburg was announced 

b}' signal guns fired upon Mount Jefierson on Tuesday, July 30, 1861. At one o'clock the 

citizens began to pour into the streets, and South Third street soon became a dense mass 

of human beings. Near two o'clock the procession headed by a large number of citizens, 

and Pomp's Cornet Band, came across the Lehigh Bridge and marched through some of 

the principal streets, amid the ringing of the bells of the churches, the Court House, and 

acclamations of the people. Colonel Yohe, Lieut. Colonel Good, Paymaster Thomas* and 

Major Glanz, mounted, preceded the companies, which marched in the following order : 

Co. B, First Penna. Vol., Capt. Jacob Dachrodt. 

Co. C, First Penna. Vol., Capt. William H. Armstrong. 

Co. D, First Penna. Vol., Capt. Chas. A. Heckman. 

Co. H, First Penna. Vol., Capt. Ferd. W. Bell. 
Co. F, Ninth Penna. Vol., Capt. Richard A. GraeflFe. 

The newspapers of the day report that the men looked sunburnt, dusty and fatigued 
to such a degree that many could hardly be recognized. They were halted in the Square 
and welcomed home in a neat and appropriate speech by E. J. Fox, Esq., to which Col. 
Yohe replied in a few brief sentences, in which he said that Rebels could be conquered 
only by treating them as all other enemies are treated in war. He concluded by thanking 
the soldiers for their good condudl. Bountiful collations were spread at the Masonic Hall 
and the armories. 

The reception was not unmixed with sadness, for disease — more dreaded by soldiers 
than the dangers of the battle-field — had detained some. One young man,. William Wil- 
king, had died at Harrisburg while the regiment was preparing to return. Almost the 
whole of this command saw more adlive service in later organizations. 

Within a few weeks the fatal fevers of the camp had taken away Benjamin F. Moyer, 
John Lerch, Henry W. Wilking, George W. Sigman, John W. Bowman, Alexander W. 
Hoyt, Edmund Shouse, Edwin Housel and Lieutenant James F. Thompson. None had 
arrived at middle age, most were barely in their majority, and one, Lieutenant Thompson, 
some months short of his, a son of W. H. Thompson, Esq., was of exceptional promise, and 
in his brief service, led all to predicfT; for his ability and soldierly qualities a brilliant career. 


The war feeling had now become intense. The disastrous defeat at Bull Run height- 
ened, rather than depressed the patriotism of the volunteers, and the}- were restive under 
the covert rejoicing and ill-timed remarks of alleged sympathizers with secession. 

On Monday night, August 19, 1861, this excitement resulted in a riotous outbreak. 
A speech, received as partisan and inflammatory, and denunciatory of the war, delivered 
in the afternoon, was the immediate cause. The mob, in the form of a large procession, 
moved up South Third street about half-past nine o'clock, led by old soldiers, some of 
them intoxicated, and called upon prominent citizens in different parts of the town, whose 

*NoTE.— This officer had been chosen as Regimental Paymaster, but the office being abolished, he remained 
with the command, without pay, and rendered efficient service throughout the campaign. 


loyalty they suspetted, to make patriotic speeches and exhibit the stars and stripes. The 
speeches were made and the flags produced, when the latter could be had, for most part 
in good humor. No violence was done save at a printing office on South Third street, 
which was torn out and its type and printing material thrown into the street, and at a later 
hour burned. An attack was made upon another printing office on Northampton street, 
but further damage, here and at private residences, was prevented by the interference of prom- 
inent patriotic citizens who lost no time in their effi)rts to control the mob. 

A large crowd moving to martial music was halted at the Square on the following 
evening by citizens who called upon Governor A. H. Reeder to speak to it. In a well- 
timed and well-received speech he exhorted all to return to their homes and commit no 
violence. With cheers for the Union the crowd slowly dispersed. 

This was the first and most violent outbreak in Easton during the war. It was depre- 
cated by all good citizens of all parties, who believed that the cause of liberty for which 
they were battling could not be furthered by lawless license, and that of all tyrannies that 
of the mob is the worst. At the same time all impartial persons, looking back upon the 
taunts flung at men making ever\- sacrifice to maintain the integrity of the Republic, must 
now admit, that there was quite as much cause for this outbreak, as for those against the 
toriesof the Revolution, which have been staple texts for Fourth of July speeches. 


But duty called volunteers to the field and recruiting for various commands was car- 
ried on briskly during the summer and fall of 1861. Captain Ferdinand W. Bell, long 
prominent in military circles in the borough, and a most accomplished officer, and Lieut. 
Charles H. Yard, both members of the First Penna. Vols., opened recruiting lists for three 
years or during the war, in the month of August. During the month of September arri- 
vals are reported of soldiers at Camp Washington to join a regiment of which Col. James 
Miller was to take command. Capt. Richard A. Graeffe, who had seen some years' service 
in the United States Regular Army prior to his three months' campaign, was also engaged 
in recruiting a company. 

Capt. F. W. Bell on Saturday, September 14, 1861, left for Harrisburg with forty vol- 
unteers. Twenty others had gone on the preceding Tuesday. This departure was made the 
more memorable by the music of a band recruited by the diredlor of Pomp's Comet Band 
and well-known composer, Thomas Coates, Esq., for the Forty-seventh Penna. \'olun- 
teers. It numbered twenty-one men — all but two or three of the favorite Pomp's Band — 
and as it led the column to the music of "Dixie," hundreds of our citizens kept step to 
the air, regretting the loss of the famous baud to the borough, but cheering its patriotic 


A battery of distinguished fame during the war was about this time recruited in Eas- 
ton by Capt. Truman Seymour, on Tuesday, Sept. 24, 1861. Many of these recruits had 
seen ser\'ice in the three months' campaign, and the contrast, at this time, between the 
complete appointments of the regulars and the uncertain equipment of the volunteers may 
have helped enlistments. At all events Easton gave that worthy commander a worthy 
body of men. More than forty men left Easton under Captain Seymour's command. 
Their names were as follows : 


(Men recruited at Easton.) 
First Sergeants — ^James Simons, Frank Ginginger. 
Second Sergeants— K. N. R. Ohl, William Lyons. 
Sergeant — Edward Cook. 

James I. Brodie. Bugler— \. R. Muller. 


John Green. 
Daniel Whitesell. 

John Andrew, 
William Howard, 
Arthur Grimes, 
Dennis Mcllheny, 
James G. Fargo, 
Martin Johnson, 
David Tro.xell, 
Herman Snyder, 
James Duffy, 
Milton Charles, 
Samuel Emmons, 

J. Mornssey, 
J. F. Burghner, 
C. H. Muller, 
H. Hirth, 
J. J. Carey, 
F. Freyberger, 

Edward Burke, 
John H. Bixler, 
Jacob Freyberger, 
Samuel Vogel, 
Andrew Muckley, 
William Brader, 
J.J. Gangwere, 
John Serfass, 
William Balliet, 
John Fortner, 
John Steiner, 

W. Warner, 
Ed. Lines, 
S. Snyder, 
G. E. DiehL 
E. Galligan, 
Ed. Balliet, 

Sergeant — George B. Green. 

" William Lynes. 

tor/>ora/— Francis Mowery. 

" William Naylor. 

William Houck. 

" John Schoen. 

Peter Stone, 
Charles Green, 
George Sigenthall, 
John Dachrodt, 
Samuel S. Lesher, 
David Ensley, 
Thomas K. Lesher, 
Simon Reed, 
William Davenport, 
Charles Kriche, 
Edward Luker. 

Captain Truman Seymour was a graduate of West Point, had served with honorable 
mention throughout the Mexican War, and was one of the heroic band with General An- 
derson at the bombardment of Fort Sumter. While in service in Mexico he had formed 
the acquaintance of Mr. E. N. R. Ohl, of Easton, through whom he learned, in 1861, that 
Easton would be a good recruiting station for a battery, which he had authority to raise, 
to serve in the war of the Rebellion, He opened a recruiting office in the south-east cor- 
ner of Centre Square and engaged E. N. R. Ohl as an assistant. The men were sworn 
into service by Samuel Moore, Esq., J. P., and upon arrival at Harrisburg, received their 
equipment. The battery numbered 138 men, and the armament consisted of six twelve- 
pound brass Napoleon guns. The winter of 1861 was spent in Harrisburg in constant 
drill, and it joined the Army of the Potomac in the latter part of March, 1862, one of the 
most efficient batteries in the service, as will be seen when we refer hereafter to its long 
roll of hard-fought battles. 

Every few days, say the borough papers of the time, officers were taking from ten to 
twenty men to Harrisburg. Capt. David Schortz and Lieutenant Albert N. ,Seip were 
busily engaged in recruiting a cavalry company during this month of September. On Mon- 
day, Oct. 14, they left with forty men for Camp Curtin and added to their number largely a 
few days later. Col. Miller's regiment, eight hundred strong, had left Camp Washington 
the week before. This regiment contained many three months men. It was known as the 
Eighty-first Penna. Vols., and took part in many hard-fought engagements, as will appear 
in our further reference to its long and honorable record. 

During the winter of 1861-2, while recruiting continued a6live in our borough, the 
ladies of Easton were busy in preparing many articles for the comfort of the sick and 
wounded soldiers. Clothing of all kinds was made up and sent to Washington for distribu- 
tion among the different hospitals. 


An unusually earnest celebration of Washington's birthday was had Feb. 22, 1862. 
At the Third Street Reformed Church in the forenoon there was a general meeting of the 
clergy and citizens. Prayers were offered by Revs. John Gray and B. Sadtler, and the im- 



mortal Farewell Address was read by Hon. A. H. Reeder. Cannon firing from Mt. Jeffer- 
son continued throughout the day. In the evening many buildings, including the College, 
were brilliantly illuminated, and rockets whizzed and bonfires blazed in the streets which 
were filled with people. It attested the earnestness of the masses for the maintenance of 
the Union. The events of the war had now in some measure lost their novelty, but the 
spirit of this celebration, the active recruiting, the many organizations for the comfort of 
our volunteers, all proved the ready determination of our people for its serious work. 


A large number of citizens on March 31, 1862, through their spokesman, E. J. Fox, 
Esq., extended a hearty welcome to Col. Charles A. Heckman, late Captain of the First 
Penna. Vols., and then of the Ninth N. J. Vols., at the American Hotel, and in the even- 
ing tendered him a banquet at the National Hotel. The Colonel's promotion was well 
earned, and his regiment performed gallant service. 

We note with pleasure the further promotion of this gallant ofiBcer (although since his volunteering with 
the three months men he has been a resident of New Jersey) to Brigadier General and Major General by brevet, 
the just reward of distinguished 
military services, dating from 
the Mexican War, and closing 
with the well-fought battles of 
the Army of the Potomac. The 
annexed extracft is from the First 
Reunion pamphlet of the Ninth 
New Jersey Volunteers : " Chas. 
A. Heckman was born at Eas- 
ton, Pennsylvania, December 3, 
1822, and commenced his bril- 
liant military career during the 
war with Mexico, in which as 
First Sergeant of Company H, 
First United States Voltiguers, 
he took part in most of the bat- 
tles. Returning to his home at 
Phillipsburg, this state, his pres- 
ent place of residence, he accept- 
ed a conductorship on the Cen- 
tral Railroad, which position he 
filled with great acceptability to 
the company until the rebellion 
broke out, when he raised a com- 
pany, which was assigned to the 
First Pennsylvania Regiment. 
At the end of the campaign, his 
1864, General Heckman relieved Gen. Getty 

command was mustered out, 
when, at the urgent solicitation 
of Governor Olden, he accepted 
the majority of the New Jersey 
Ninth. Foster, in his 'New Jer- 
sey- and the Rebellion,' says: 
' Heckman at once became con- 
spicuous as a soldier of the high- 
est accomplishments. Perhaps, 
no general ever behaved with 
greater gallantry in acT;ion than 
he. He was, as truly as any man 
that ever lived, insensible to fear. 
During the whole period of his 
service, he was never once found 
in any other position than at the 
head of his columns.' Often 
was his apparel perforated bj' 
bullets. He escaped death so 
frequently that his men believed 
he bore a charmed life, and fol- 
lowed him more cheerfully to 
the ven,- jaws of death. The 
men of the Ninth won for him 
a star in their six days' terrible 
fighting on the Goldsboro' ex- 
pedition, in December, 1862. In 
the command of 20,000 troops defending the approaches to Norfolk. 
The general was captured at the desperate battle of Drury's Bluff, May 16, 1864, and confined in various prison- 
pens until late in the summer, when he was exchanged. He was heartily welcomed by General Butler, who 
gave him command of the second divnsion of the Eighteenth army corps, with which he captured Fort Harri- 
son (two thousand Confederates and four pieces of artiller}- being the fruits of his brilliant victory) for which he 
was complimented by General Grant. In the spring of 1865 he became commander of the Twenty-fifth corps, 
which he moulded into an efifecftive command. In May, 1S65, General Heckman resigned, having previously 
been commissioned a major-general by brevet. He possessed a magnificent voice, whose clarion-like notes were 
often heard above the roar of battle. Despite his apparent love of war, he had a passion for music, his flute 
being scarcelv less dear to him than his sword.'' 

ist P V Br M.1 
»m War Photograph.) 

Gen Vol 



In April, 1862, Lieut. Howard J. Reeder, son of Hon. A. H. Reeder, and Lieut. Wal- 
ter Wyckoff, son of Dr. Isaac C. WyckofT, both of the U. S. Army, returned home upon 
furloughs, both being disabled by wounds, — the former at New Madrid and the latter at 
Pittsburg Landing. The elder brother of Lieut. Reeder, George M. Reeder, had joined 
the First Kansas Volunteers as private and was promoted to a captaincy. Their names, 
with that of a younger brother, Frank Reeder, also in service, will again appear in con- 
ne<5lion with their respe(5live commands. 


The body of Col. James Miller, who fell while gallantly leading his regiment, the 
Eighty-first Penna. Vols., at the battle of Fair Oaks, May 31, 1862, was received in New 
York by a committee of Eastonians appointed for that purpose.* Easton lamented him 
dead as she had cheered him when in strong life he left her camp for the battlefield with 
his brave command. The military procession at his funeral, June 11, 1862, consisted of 
one cavalry and three infantry companies. It was much increased by the Odd Fellows, 
Order of United American Mechanics, students of Lafayette College, many citizens on foot, 
and a large number of carriages filled with relatives and friends. After marching through 
several streets a halt was made at the Brainerd Church, where, after a sermon by Rev. W. 
C. Cattell, the remains were escorted to the cemetery for interment. 

During service with this regiment, H. Boyd McKeen, promoted from Major to Colonel, 
was wounded at Malvern Hill, at Fredericksburg, and at Chancellorsville, and was killed 
at Cold Harbor while heading the brigade in a desperate charge. He was a son of Henry 
McKeen, Esq., and well known in Easton. Another son, long a resident of South Easton, 
William M. McKeen, First Lieutenant, Co. K, One Hundred and Eighteenth Penna. Vols. , 
was severely wounded at Shepherdstown, Va., Sept. 20, 1864. 

* This regiment, as has been stated, was recruited at Camp Washington, and many men from the borough of 
South Easton, with some few from Easton were in its ranks, but not in a separate company organization. Its 
Colonel was born in Antrim, Ireland, in April 1 823, and emigrated to America in 1 834, settling in what is now Carbon 
County, but then part of Northampton. At the outbreak of the Mexican War he was a jeweler in Mauch Chunk, 
and was made Captain of a company of volunteers raised in that place, and with it was mustered into the United 
States service as part of the Second Regiment Penna. Volunteers. He took distinguished part in the most 
prominent battles of that war, and while storming the heights of Chapultepec was severely wounded in the arm, 
notwithstanding which, with his arm in a sling, he marched at the head of his company in the triumphal entry 
of the army into the City of Mexico. 

He was in business in New York City when called to the command of the Eighty-first Penna. Volunteers, 
upon the recommendation of prominent citizens, of whom Edward J. Fox, Esq., was most adlive. It was a 
worthy appointment and the regiment was ably commanded and faithfully led until his death, which took place 
at the battle of Fair Oaks through his mistaking a rebel regiment in his front for Union troops. Clad in stolen 
blue, they had emerged by the flank from a wood in his front, and upon his hail "What regiment is that?" 
they faced to the front, and at short range, delivered a volley, by which he fell, shot through the heart, and 
many of his command were killed and wounded. In the years of hard service following, until the surrender at 
Appomatox, Col. Miller's name was a rallying cry in many a well-fought fight. 

In a public address Maj. Gen. O. O. Howard, while referring to the Pennsylvania Volunteers under his 
command, paid a warm and deserved tribute to his service and gallantry. An obituary in a leading NewY'ork 
paper said "He was not only a true soldier and faithful officer, ever seeking the good of his men, physically 
and morally striving to make them a regiment to be trusted in the day of battle, but he was a faithful Christian, 
a true soldier of Jesus Christ, as energetic a hero under the banner of the Cross as he was under the banner of 
his country." 

After funeral obsequies in New York, in which the body lay in state in City Hall, and was escorted by the 
Twelfth Regiment National Guards, N. Y., to the ferry, it was delivered to the Easton committee. 



Besides the substantial comfort provided for the volunteers by the Ladies' Aid Society 
from time to time, almost all of the public schools of the borough at the close of their 
term in June 1862, made up boxes filled with articles suitable for sick and wounded sol- 
diers. The children were, from the outbreak of the war, schooled in practical lessons of 


An hiteresting War Letter. 
The following note from Edward J. Fox, Esq., was published in the "Daily Express" 
of July 15, 1862. It accompanied the letter of Lieutenant Scott, which we also give : 

Editor Express : I received on Friday a letter from General Truman Seymour, who is, since the capture 
of General McCall, commanding the di\-ision of Pennsylvania Reserv'es, and who was in all the recent battles 
near Richmond, but escaped unharmed, as his many friends here will rejoice to leani. He sends me a letter 
from Lieut. Scott, who, since the wounding of Capt. Dehart, is in command of Battery C, Fifth Artillen.-, the 
Batterj- raised by General (then Captain) Seymour. Speaking of the men in the Battery from Easton and 
vicinitv, General Sevmoursa3S : "That they could do well we all knew ; that none would have behaved more 
gallanth', may well now be asserted." He gives me permission to make Lieut. Scott's letter public, saying that 
it will gratif}- many of the Easton people to be assured that their friends bore a prominent and honorable part in 
these terrible encounters. E. J. F. 

Camp near James River, June 7, 1862. 

General : An answer to your inquiry respecting the Easton men of our battery during the recent engage- 
ment would be easy, were it not that to make a distinction in the case of any would be invidious if not unjust, 
where all did so well. To answer then for all — they did nobly, and I wish it was in my power to express in 
words the coolness and intrepidity they showed in deeds. Of course during tlie excitement of an action 
my eye could not have been upon all. I can therefore speak onh' of those under my immediate command, ad- 
ding such items concerning others as I have since obtained from my brother officers. 

Searfoss was the first victim chosen from among us. He was acting as No. 6 to my right piece, and was in 
the act of cutting the fuse of a shell when struck by a round shot below the left knee. We were under a ven.- 
heavy fire from three batteries at the time, and it was some time before he could be carried from the field. He 
expired in a few hours after being taken to the hospital, and in him the battery lost a good soldier and a good 
man. This occurred during the first engagement, June 26, and was the sole casualty of that action. In the 
action of Gaine s Mill on the following day the batter}- suffered severely. Sergeant Brodie, the chief of my left 
piece, paid the penalty of his almost rash bravery, by receiving a wound in his knee. He was struck almost as 
soon as we had come into battery and before the firing commenced. He reached Savage's Station, where he 
was no doubt taken prisoner a few days afterward. The courage he displayed deserves especial mention, as did 
also that of Sergeant Ginginger, who was shot through tlie body in the same action. On the retreat he came 
along side of me, and noticing that he swayed unsteadily in his saddle, I called to him, asking if he was hit and 
telling him to keep by my side. He made no reply, but urged on his horse and was soon lost in the crowd. He 
died, I think, on Sunday, at Savage's Station. I made an effort to see him but failed. He was remarkable for 
the energT,- and thoroughness with which he accomplished whatever he put his hand to, and in his death the 
battery met with a great loss. 

Corporal Hauck was chief of caisson, and when struck was attending to his duties in serving out ammuni- 
tion. He was shot in the breast and in the thigh and fell immediately. An effort was made to get him off the 
field, but it was unsuccessful. Sergeant Cook attempted to get him on his horse, but at that moment the horse 
was shot and the Corporal had to be abandoned. The horse carried the Sergeant off the field and they fell, 
pierced in six places The Sergeant himself escaped after doing his duty nobly to the last minute, unhurt, but 
carrying off a memorial hole through his blouse. Corporal Hauck was a man of quiet, modest demeanor, who 
gave great promise as a soldier. 

Naylor was acting as No. i to Sergeant Cook's piece, and was killed at his post while fighting bravely. 
You will recollect him the more particularly from the service he rendered you when the battery was under your 
command. The manner of his death verified your high estimate of his charaiter. 

Corporal Carey, gunner to Sergeant Cook's ])iece was struck in the shoulder while unfixing the prolonge 


by a buck-shot. I am happy to say he is still with us, that his wound is doing well, and that he will soon re- 
turn to service. 

Of those immediately under my command I cannot speak too well. The two Balliets, Corporal Brader 
Simons, Gangwere, Galligan, Shane, Mowry, Grimes — in faifl all stood up to their work more than like men 
Simons and Gangwere you will recolle<ft as the lead drivers of my pieces. Though in a most exposed situation 
and with no atlive dut^- to draw their attention from the scene around them, like men thoroughly in earnest 
they found for themselves something to do in reporting the effeft of the different shots, not discernible by us 
and when the smoke became so packed in front of the guns as to cut off the view entirely, these men stood up 
in their stirrups aud cheered on the cannoniers till the last shot was fired. Corporal Brader acted as chief of 
piece after Sergeant Brodie was shot, and filled his place well. He was well sustained by Galligan, the No. i of 
the piece. Corporals Lines, Muller, Green, Reed, and privates Whitesell, the brothers Green and Andrews, have 
won from their commander the highest praises, and others of whom I have heard, but the multiplicity of whose 
names prevents any mention of them, have carried their share of the encomiums which public opinion seems to 
have given the battery. In faifl, sir, I find it impossible to mention one without doing injustice by my silence 
to another. All did well — not one flinched or wavered, or made the first motion towards retreating till they 
were ordered to do so, and then they stuck by their pieces. That I have not mentioned other names is no rea- 
son that they are not deserving of mention. On the contrary there is not one of whom his State and town can- 
not be proud. I cannot close without mentioning the refreshing coolness of Bugler Reeder Muller on that warm 
day. The youngest member of the battery, he was not surpassed in courage by the eldest, and followed the 
Captain hither and thither with the same nonchalance with which he had often followed you on the drill 

In conclusion, let me congratulate you sir, upon the good effecftsofthe discipline you enforced when in 
command of this batterj-. With education a good beginning makes a good ending. These men received their 
first start in their military life from you, and to vou is due in a great measure the satisfaftory results. 

In the hope, sir, that our deeds have been as satisfaAory to you as your commendation has been pleasing to 
us, I remam. Your obedient servant, E- G. ScoTT, 

Lieut. Commanding Battery C, Fifth Artillery, U. S. A. 

For convenience of reference we continue here briefly our account of the full and faith- 
ful services of this body of Eastonians. 

After the fearful fighting on the Peninsula, the battery went with the Army of the 
Potomac on its northward march in pursuit of Lee, and took part in Second Bull Run, 
South Mountain and Antietam, which latter fight it opened by a cannonade upon the rebel 
Washington Artillery on the night of September 16. In the defeats of Fredericksburg 
and Chancellorsville it did its duty, and in the victory of Gettysburg, which gave the nation 
so glorious a Fourth of July for 1863, it rendered prominent service, and was highly com- 
plimented in general orders.* During the draft riots of 1863, in the City of New York, 
the battery was ordered there and stationed in City Hall Park, and remained on duty until 
quiet was restored. It was in the terrible battles of the Wilderness, and closed its fighting 
at Appomatox. It was subsequently ordered to Fortress Monroe, and performed guard 
duty over the prison in which Jefferson Davis was confined. At the expiration of its term 
of enlistment the men returned to Easton and received the congratulations of the citizens 
for patriotic duty faithfully performed. 

*NoTE.— Sergeant James Simons, in a report of the position of the place of death of the rebel General Ar- 
mistead upon the field of Gettysburg, in the Daily Free Press of April 22, 1SS7, states : "The fight went on, and 
a few minutes after when the wind shifted the smoke, I saw General Armistead lying right out from my gun and 
from Cushing's guns. I sent Samuel S. Lesher and John J. Gangwere, of Easton, and a man named Thomas 
Brannon from New York State, to bring the General in. * * * Onr battery was located next to Cushing's 
battery, right behind the stone wall. * * * When they carried General Armistead in the lines he thanked 
them, and said ' I did not expe(5l to receive such kind treatment from your hands.' Those are believed to be 
his last words. He was placed on a stretcher, carried down the hill back of our guns, and there died. Our com- 
mander. Captain Weir, gave me the order to send out men to bring in the General." 

244 ^^^ HISTORY OF 


Sergeant Frank Ginginger, Sergeant Edward Brader, Corporal William Naylor, Cor- 
poral Francis Mowery, Corporal William Houck, John Andrews, John Serfass, William 
Howard, Thomas Morrisey. Besides the killed there were about twenty-five wounded. 

"we are coming, father ABRAHAM, THREE HUNDRED THOUSAND MORE." 
In July, 1862, five different recruiting offices were opened in Easton. The heavy de- 
pletion of Union ranks consequent upon the severe fighting of the Peninsular campaign, 
demanded prompt supplies of men. The local prints were full of reports of Eastonians 
killed and wounded in service, but the call of the President for three hundred thousand 
nine months' men met with ready response. On Monday evening, July 11, 1862, the 
date of the Governor's proclamation. Masonic Hall (the old Court House had by this time 
been torn down) was crowded to its utmost capacity. Col. Samuel Yohe presided, assisted 
by the following Vice Presidents : Samuel Moore, James McKeen, James Dinkey, Derrick 
Hulick, John Abel, Jr., Thomas T. Miller, Frederick Seitz, John Eyerman, Major Charles 
Glanz, Max Gress, Thomas Bishop, Thomas J. Hay, Major Thos. W. Lynn, Owen Reich, 
William Firmstone, James Kidd, Edward Ouinn, George G. Zane, James Young. 

Secretaries — C. Edward Hecht, Wilson Hildebraud, Jacob Dachrodt, J. I. Kinsey, 
E. Rockwell. 

Hon. H. D. Maxwell offered the following resolutions, which were seconded by ]\I. 
Hale Jones, Esq., and unanimously adopted. 

The preamble sets forth the nature of the Rebellion, which, after fifteen months of 
desperate struggle was then calling into service the entire male population of the Confed- 
erate States, between the ages of eighteen and sixty years, capable of bearing arms, and that 
the President of the United States, ever mindful of the best interests of the Republic, had 
called for three hundred thousand more men for the field to reinforce the armies of the 
Repiiblic ; that the existence of the great Republic, the prosperity and happiness of its 
people, the preservation of the precious free institutions handed down to us by Revolu- 
tionary sires, and the continuance of the best Government the world has ever seen, with 
all its rich benefits and blessings for us and our posterit}', depended iipon our success in 
this great contest. 

Resolved, That we, the citizens of Easton, South Easton and -s-icinity, again assembled to consult as to our 
duty to the Government and Nation in this matter, do hereby solemnly reaffirm the resolutions passed in mass 
meeting in this borough on April 13, 1861, the day the news reached us of the attack upon Fort Sumter. 

Resolved, further. That we again, now, here tender to the Government our hearty earnest self-sacrificing 
co-operation and support, and renewedly pledge ourselves, collectively and indi\-idually, to do all in our power 
to aid the Government in the overthrow of this wicked Rebellion. 

Resolved, That we feel and appreciate the magnitude of the undertaking and the greatness of the work now 
devolved upon the loyal people of these United States. We know that we are engaged in a fearful war with an 
almost savage enemy ; that blinded, infuriated and desperate, through the machinations of desperate dema- 
gogues, our foes will not succumb, will not cease their hostility or abandon their revolt, until conquered, over- 
thrown and subdued ; that they have gathered themselves up with relentless venom and bitter hate, and are de- 
termined to withhold no means, stop at no measures and hesitate at no adt, heathenish, barbarous or devilish, to 
attain their end. 

Resolved, That in full view and conscious of the great work before us, we accept the issue. We feel that 
we are fighting for good government, law, order, progress, truth, civilization, humanity and religion ; for all 
that is dear and cherished by civilized men ; while our foes are struggling for power, rule, darkness and 

" I 


oppression. We feel that the manhood of twenty-two millions of free people will never permit the glorious tem- 
ple of their liberties to be overthrown and cast down by a quarter of their number of rebel traitors, in arms to 
destroy it. 

Judge Maxwell accompanied the resolutions with a patriotic address, in which he 
invoked all to use every means God had given them to assist in putting down the rebel- 
lion. He said that those who were unable to go to the war themselves could give it their 
moral and financial help ; every one male and female could do something. 

Earnest and effective speeches were also made by Edgar F. Randolph, Esq., O. H. 
Meyers, Esq., Capt. Wm. H. Armstrong, and Hon. Philip Johnson, and the following 
committees appointed to devise means for raising volunteers : 

Bnshkill Ward—Yi. D. Maxwell, Peter F. Eilenberger, Edward J. Fox, Edgar F. 
Randolph, McEvers Forman. 

Lehigh Ward — Charles Seitz, Daniel Black, David Garis, Henry S. Troxell, William 
H. Lawall. 

West Ward — Thomas Deshler, William Haniman, Jacob Rinek, Christian Take, 
Thomas Bishop. 

Sotith Eastoii — Emanuel R. Shilling, Egbert Rockwell, Thomas L. McKeen, George 
G. Zane, James Young. 

Patriotic excitement ran high. Recruiting lists, opened at the law office of W. H. 
Armstrong, Esq., on North Third street, were speedily filled with names of over four 
hundred men. These men, for the larger part, entered the 129th Regiment Penns>lva- 
nia Volunteers, of which Jacob G. Frick, late Lieutenant Colonel 96th Penna. \'ols., of 
Schuylkill county, became Colonel, and William H. Armstrong, Esq., of the Xorthamp- 
ton county bar, late Captain Company C, ist Penna. Vols., Lieutenant Colonel. 


Under the schedule of apportionment appended to the proclamation of the Governor 
three companies were expected from the county of Northampton. To fill up this quota 
a county meeting was called to be held at Nazareth on Saturday, July 26, 1862. It was 
largely attended, and a prominent part in its proceedings was taken by citizens of Easton. 
The handbill announcing the meeting stated that the boroughs and towns of the county 
had thus far contributed most of the men and means, and that additional bounty and 
inducements were imperatively needed to procure these volunteers and thus obviate a 

In pursuance of action then had, a meeting was held at the Court House in Easton on 
the Monday following (July 28), at which committees were appointed to induce citizens 
to take the bonds, aggregating thirty thousand dollars, of fifty dollars each, to be issued 
by the County Commissioners. The committeemen from Easton were : 

Btishkill //'r?;v/— Samuel Boileau, C. E. Hecht. 

West Ward—]o\\\\ Stotzer, Robert C. P>le. 

Lehigh Ward—V>a\\^ Garis, Henry S. Troxell. 

This was the origin of the 153d Regiment Penna. Volunteers, of which Cliarles 
Glanz became Colonel and Jacob Dachrodt, Lieutenant Colonel, John F. Frueauff, Major, 
and Howard J. Reeder, Adjutant. All of these officers were from Easton, as were also 
many of the company officers and privates. 



Two companies of the volunteers raised at the office of Captain Wm. H. Armstrong 
left for Camp Curtin on the morning of Friday, August 8, 1862, under command respec- 
tively of Captain John Stonebach and Captain Herbert Thomas, and were followed upon 
the next day by the company of Captain David Eckar. The 129th Regiment P. V., of 
which they formed part, was organized and mustered into service August 15, 1862. 



Captains — Herbert Thomas. 
" George L. Fried. 

Lieutenants — William H. Weaver, 
Joseph Oliver, 
Charles P. Arnold. 
Sergeants — Hiram Hanlcey, 
" Henry Huber, 

" Henry Gangwere, 

" Jeremiah Bachman, 

Solon C. Phillippe. 

Reuben Albert, 
Edward Alsfelt, 
Charles Barnet, 
Charles Broad, 
Richard Brinker, 
Burton Burrell, 
Joel Bauer, 
John H. Buckley, 
George Bidwell, 
Charles F. Chidsey, 
Uriah Clayton, 
Charles Correll, 
Samuel D. Crawford, 
William H. Cornell, 
Arthur Davis, 
C. Dittler, 
John Dittler, 
Paul Danner, 
Albert Drinkhouse, 
Lewis H. Eckert, 
John Eveland, 
Theodore Eveland, 
James Fraunfelter, 
Jacob Haup, 
Wm. H. Hagenbuch, 
James W. Heller, 
Henrv Herger, 


Amos Hinkle, 
Luther Horn, 
Martin L. Horn, 
Aaron D. Hope, Jr., 
Michael Herger, 
Erwin Hartzell, 
Robert Jamison, 
Frank Keller, 
Peter J. Keime, 
William H. Kinnev, 
Henry Kline, 
William H. Kline, 
Richard Knauss, 
Aaron F. Knauss, 
John Levan, 
George Lewis, 
Benjamin A. Loder, 
George H. Ludwig, 
Thomas Malcolm, 
William Miller, 
Joseph H. Moyer, 
John Murray, 
Mathew McAlee, 
George Oberly, 
J. F. Osterstock, 
Mahlon Raub, 
Francis B. Ruth, 


Captain — David Eckar. 

First Lieutenant— PhWip Reese. 

Second Lieutenant — Josephus Lynn. 

Jnrst Sergeant — David Bless. 

Sergeants — William Hartzell, 
Peter M. Miller, 
" Lewis Keis, 

" Elisha Dunbar, 

" O. H. Armstrong. 

Corporals — Peter S. Stem, 

<ror/>ora/i— Charles Able, 
" Reuben Lerch, 

" Charles M. Ludwig, 

William N. Scott, 
" Adam A. Lehn, 

Frederick C. Mattes, 
" Isaac Fine, Jr., 

Howard R. Hetrich. 
Musicians— YAi^ix Campbell, 

John P. Speer. 

John C. Richards, 
Joseph P. Rudy, 
John Schwab, 
John Shaffer, 
Jacob Shewell, 
Ernest Shnyder, 
John Shawda, 
Edwin Shnyder, 
James S. Sigman, 
Samuel Stern, Jr., 
Edwin Swift, 
George N. Spear, 
B. R. Swift, 
George W. Thatcher, 
Albert T. Tilton, 
William Tomer, 
Frank Tomer, 
Amos C. Uhler, 
William H.Unangst, 
Samuel Weaver, 
James Weaver, 
Peter S. Williams, 
Samuel S. Williams, 
George Wolf, 
Anthony Wagner, 
Edward Wilson. 

ror/>o>-a/i— William Atten, 

Otto Wohlgemuth, 
" Francis Wipler, 

Jacob H. Kline, 
" John Greenaugh, 

" Lorenzo Reimal, 

" Stephen Brotzman, 

" Josiah Transue. 

Musician — Alpheus Frey. 



Peter Aten, 
Samuel Adams, 
John J. Allen, 
Derick Aten, 
Jeremiah Albert, 
David H. Bruce, 
Har. Bartholomew, 
Samuel Bidleman, 
James Bowman, 
John H. Butts, 
Jacob Bidleman. 
John Bangor, 
John Banhart, 
Enos Dunbar. 
William Eckar. 
Robert Ellet, 
William H. Fuhr, 
William Frick. 
Charles Fo.x. 
William Frey, 
David Frankenfield, 
Edw. Fraunfelder. 
Joseph Geisinger, 
William Gosner, 
Andrew Hoffman, 

Captain — John Stonebach. 

Lieutenants — Augustus F. Heller, 
Henry Mellick. 

Sergeants — Alvin M. Meeker, 
" George E. Hutman, 

" Horace W. Snyder, 

" Tilghman Brong. 

" Herman Alsover, 

" Henry L. Arndt. 

Corporals — George Schooley, 
" George W. Wagner, 

Robert B. Hill, 
Edmund Hibler, 
Henry Hunsberger, 
Jeremiah Hellick, 
Richard Hahn, 
Simon Knoble, 
John Kresler, 
Joseph Kocher. 
Thomas Kelly, 
Jacob E. Long, 
Theodore Labar, 
Aaron J. Lambert, 
William Lay, 
Aaron Miller, 
John Mover, 
Levi H. Mann, 
Alfred Myers, 
John M'Ginis, 
John W. M'Cracken, 
John Xolf, 
Peter Ott, 
Thomas Powe, 
Thomas Rewurk, 
Hiram Robert, 


James P. Buck, 
J. J. S. Bonstein. 
A. Buckman, 
James R. Bryson, 
James Bowman, 
Henry E. Burcaw, 
D. A. Beidleman, 
John Blass, 
Samuel D. Cortright, 
John DeHart, 
John Durand, 
James Derr. 
Elias Fritchman, 
George Fenicle, 
Charles Godlev. 
John J. Horn. 
Wm. H. Harrison, 
Wm. H. Hartzell. 
William P. Horn, 
John P. Hay, 
Lewis Hartzell, 
George W. Heckman, 
William P. Innes, 
Joseph Kichline, 
Martin Kichline, 
David Kutz, 
Wm. H. Kutz, 

Andrew J. Knauss, 
Jacob Keinast, 
August Keiter, 
J. W. H. Knerr, 
Edward Y. Kitchen, 
Amandus Lerch, 
Charles Lanning, 
Owen J. Lerch, 
Samuel Moyer, 
Philip M. Metier, 
James Mapp, 
Justice McCarty, 
William H. Omrod, 
Napoleon Patier, 
Jacob Paulus, 
Martin Pohl, 
John K. Quigley, 
Robert Rolling, 
J. W. Rodenbough, 
William Roseberrv, 
P. W. F. Randolph, 
Charles H. Rhoads, 
George W. Rice, 
R. J. Ramsden, 
Michael Rafferty, 
J. G. Reichard, 
Jacob Raub, 

Christian Rice, 
Christian H. Rice, 
Edwin H. Rice, 
James H. Stocker, 
John Seip, 
Thomas Sherer, 
William Snyder, 
Harrison Sciple, 
Enos Shoch, 
George Stocker, 
Joseph W. Savitz, 
William G. Sullivan, 
Jacob A. Stocker, 
Edward H. Transue, 
William Trumbaur, 
John J. Troch, 
Josiah L'nangst, 
Joseph Wheeler, 
William Williams, 
Robert Wagner. 
William Wideman, 
John Woodback, 
John M. Wallace. 
Samuel Watson. 

Cor/iora/j— Herman H. Pohl. 

James P. Tilton, 

F. E. F.Randolph. 

" Thomas Wagner, 

" August Heiney, 

" William Minnich, 

Charles Diehl, 
" George A. Simons, 

Musicians— ]o\\n J. Bell, 

Edward Roseberrv. 

J. F. Reichard, 
William Reichard, 
William F. Roseberry, 
Edward Ricker, 
Henry Steinmetz, 
George P. Steinmetz, 
George E. Sciple, 
William H. Smith, 
J. Stocker, 
Ed. Smith, 
Benjamin Smith, 
John P. B. Sloan, 
Samuel Stoneback, 
George \. Stern, 
William Sletor, 
Val. \'annorman, 
W. H. Vannorman, 
Joseph Woodring, 
M. L. Werkheiser, 
Thomas Weaver, 
John D. Willauer, 
Lewis Wilhelm. 
Charles Wolf, 
F. Willauer, 
John A. Young, 
Martin Young. 

E AS TON, PENN'A. 249 


Detachments of recruits were now so frequently forwarded that their departure 
created but little excitement. The streets resounded with martial music, and volunteer- 
ing was continued by Captains John J. Horn, John E. Titus, John P. Ricker, and others. 
It had not, however, been sufficiently brisk in the county to avoid the draft, and Peter F. 
Eilenberger, Esq., was appointed Deputy Marshal for the county to make preparations 
for drafting. In his list of deputies appear the following names for the wards of Easton : 

Biishkill Ward — William Ricker, Isaac S. Eilenberger. 

Lehigh Ward—SSI. N. Drake. 

]l'cst Ward— John Bitters, Thomas W. Lynn. 

It was estimated that Easton had at that time furnished about seven hundred men, 
and would be exempted from a draft. W. H. Thompson, Esq., was appointed by the 
Governor as Commissioner, to conduct the draft in the county, and on Monday, Septem- 
ber 8, 1862, entered upon his duty of determining claims for exemption. With proper 
credits for volunteers the county was deficient eleven hundred, somewhat more than a full 


Rebel invasion caused Governor Curtin to call for fifty thousand volunteers for the 
defense of the State. On Thursday evening, September 11, 1862, a telegram was received 
from the Governor requiring the volunteers as early as possible. At nine o'clock Judge 
Maxwell read the order to a large gathering of citizens in the Square, and on Saturday 
morning, September 13, two hundred and fifty able-bodied men left the borough for Har- 
risburg, under command of Captains Brackinridge Clemens, Thomas W. Lynn and George 
Finley. Enough men to fill the three companies to one hundred men each, followed on 
the succeeding Monday morning. Augustus Patier, a patriotic Frenchman, and an 
old resident of the borough, who had served under the first Napoleon, with his tri-colored 
flag aloft, escorted the volunteers to the railroad depot. Upon their flanks hung mothers, 
wives, and children, with large crowds of citizens generally, all the more apprehensive, 
now that the foe was at their door ; and to meet him there were in the ranks many of the 
older business men and heads of families. These men formed part of the Fifth Regiment 
of what were called Militia or Emergency Men of 1862. Captain J. Brackinridge Clem- 
ens was made Lieutenant Colonel, Melchior H. Horn, Major, and Edward D. Lawall, 
Adjutant. The Fifth Regiment of Militia was organized September 11-13, 1862, and dis- 
charged September 24-27, 1862. The muster roll of the Easton companies, as they 
appear in Bates' History, P. V. , are as follows : 


Captain— WiWiam B. Semple. Corfiora/s~Edvia.rd H. Heckman, 

Mrsi Lieutenant — George H. Bender. " Rush H. Bixler. 

Second Lieutenant — ^John O. Wagener. " Lewis C. Drake, 

First Sergeant — Theodore Oliver. " Howard Burke, 

Sergeants — William Eichman, " Thomas Rinek, 

Johu S. Barnet, " James M. Rothrock, 

Henry B. Semple, " Charles J. Rader. 

" Jeremiah Murphy. Musician — Philip Bruch. 
Corporals — Valentine Weaver, 


Thomas Allen, 
Allen Albright, 
Thomas M. Andrews, 
William Ackerman, 
James Barnet, 
Daniel Brown, 
William Brinker, 
Samuel Butz, 
William Butz, 
David Butz, 
George Barron, 
Jacob Burt, 
Thomas Bowers, 
John D. Bowers, 
Henry W. Barnet, 
William Brong, 
Floyd S. Bixler, 
Henry Brodt, 
Daniel Conklin, 
Henry M. Clay, 
Robert Coons, 
William Davis, 
George A. Drinkhouse, 
James Donovan, 
Edwin Ealer, 
Daniel Frankenfield, 

Henry S. Frey, 
Edward H. Green, 
Isaac Goldsmith, 
Theophilus P. Gould, 
Frank Green, 
Samuel Garis, 
George Hess, 
James Hoffman, 
Reuben Hellick, 
Calvin Horn, 
Edward Harmony, 
William Hutchison, 
Charles L. Hemingway, 
Samuel Howell, 
Reuben Hines, 
Stephen Mines, 
William H. Jones, 
Amos Kunsman, 
Edward Keller, 
Daniel L. Kutz, 
Francis King, 
Reuben Kolb, 
Owen Laubach, 
David Lerch, 
George D. Lehn, 
Alexander Moore, 

Captain— George Finley. 
First Lieutenant— ]ohn J. Otto. 
Second Lieutenant— Dan\e\ W. Snyde 
First Sergeant— Joseph P. Cotton. 
Sergeants— liame\ Phillippe, 
John M. Seals, 
" Richard N. Bitters, 

Nelson P. Cornell. 



Cyrus B. A 
Edward Ar 
Samuel C. Brown, 
George Bachman, 
Jacob Bryson, 
George Benson, 
George Barron, 
Fred. Bornman, 
Joshua Bercaw, 
William Buck, 
Edward D. Bleckley, 
George J. Copp, 
Reuben W. Clewell, 
J. S. Conklin, 
Howard H. Douglass, 
Charles W. Dickson, 
Valentine Diley, 
Al)raham Fowler, 

Bartlett C. Frost, 
William Fulmer, 
Max Gress, 
Lewis Gordon, 
Benjamin F. Hower, 
Lewis M. Hamman, 
Theodore F. Hamma 
William E. Hamman 
Alfred Hart, 
Charles A. Hilburn, 
Alvey Harris, 
David Kutzler. 
Peter Kelchner, 
Jesse Lewis, 
Frank Ludwig, 
Charles W. Meeker, 
John Moser, 
J. Traill Nungesser, 

John Mock, 
Joseph Moser, 
Barnet Mansfield. 
John C. Mock, 
William Moon, 
Thomas McNess, 
John R. Nolf, 
Oscar Nightingale, 
James Pittenger, 
John W. Pullman, 
Robert Peacock, 
Samuel Rader, 
Henry A. Rothrock, 
Martin J. Riegel, 
Isaac S. Sharp, 
Joseph G. Semple, 
William A. Seitz, 
Augustus Stewart, 
William H. Thomas, 
James B. Wilson, 
Henry W. Wilking, 
John Weiland, 
Theodore Woodring, 
James E. Young, 
William Young, 
Richard Young. 

-William Slavin, 
John H. Heckman, 
Alexander Reichard, 
Wilson H. Hildebrandt, 
John H. Yohe, 
John Datesman, 
James Ballentine, 
George W. Reichard. 

E. F. Probst, 
Thomas F. Shipe, 
Jacob Sandt, 
Roseberry Seip, 
Charles Sigman, 
Andrew Smith, 
Frank Sigman, 
Robert Stabp, 
Frank Tellier, 
Jacob Vannorman, 
Wm. H. Werkheiser, 
Jacob W. Weaver, 
Henry S. Wagoner, 
James Ward, 
Henry Weidknecht, 
Nicodemus Wilson, 
Albert Youndt, 
Charles B. Zulick. 


Ca/>/a;n— Thomas W. Lynn, 
First Lieutenant — William A. Conahay. 
Second Lieutenant— yN\\\\Am L. Davis. 
First Sergeant — Reuben Schlabach. 
Sergeants-Wm^im H. Ginnard, 
John W. Ricker, 

" Joseph A. Ginnard, 

" Joseph H. Clark. 

Corporals— Thomas J. Taylor. 

Corporals — George Davenport, 
" Isaac S. Eilenbergcr, 

" Jacob Kiefer, Jr., 

" Jonathan L. Fackenthall, 

" George P. Wagner, 

William C. Harrison, 
" Howard Bowers, 

Musician— C\\aT\es D. Horn. 

Thomas Aikens, 
R. H. Abernethy, 
Samuel Abernethy, 
V. H. Durkhouse, 
Henry Beavers, 
Thomas Davis, 
Madison Eilenberger, 
Erastus Eilenberger, 
Alfred Godshalk, 
Charles Hyde, 
William H. Hartzell, 


Samuel Innes, 
W. S. Johnston, 
Peter Klas, 
John Knauss, 
Frank Leidy, 
James W. Lynn, 
H. M. Mutchler, 
William Moore, 
James A. McGowan, 
Theodore McCloes, 
William S. McLean. 


Joseph McCabe, 
Frank Reeder, 
Howard J. Reeder, 
Wilson Skinner, 
John Simons, 
Jacob Troxell, 
T. M. Todd, 
George Willauer, 
Daniel Weinland, 
Jeremiah Yeisley. 

COMPANY B. (South Easton.) 

Ca/i/ai«-William Kellogg. 
First Lieutenant — Thomas L. M'Keen. 
Second Lieutenant —George E. Cyphers. 
First Sergeant — George Hubbard. 
Sergeants — Emanuel Kline, 

William Wolfram, 
" John Wolfram, 

Henry C. Ashmore. 

Samuel Allen, 
William C. Aten, 
Labourn W. Aldridge, 
Hiram Buss, 
James Briedy, 
Lewis Blose, 
Jacob Brinig, 
Francis Barr, 
Henry Brawley, 
Martin Brotzman, 
James Burns, 
George Brooks, 
Robert Boyd, 
William Cameron, 
Thomas Coyle, 
Samuel Chamberlain, 
John Carlin, 
John Chiston, 
Aaron B. Charleen, 
Samuel Davis, 
Samuel Dull, 
Peter Donnelly, 
Peter J. Dougherty, 
Andrew Elliott, 
John Frey, 
Luke Fox, 

Henry Fryberger, 
James Fagan, 
Joseph Fisher, 
Henry Frompter, 
Peter Garris, 
Richard Griffiths, 
David Gullion, 
William Galloway, 
John Guiley, 
August Goelitz, 
George Horning, 
John Hahn, 
Philip Hyle, 
William Heath, 
Thomas D. Hanlon. 
Gottlieb Heitzelman, 
Philip Hildebrand, 
Josiah Kohl, 
William Kolb, 
John F. Kline, 
John Miller, 
Patrick Mundy, 
John Marsteller, 
Joseph Marsteller, 
Stephen Mover, 
Sylvester Merwarth, 

Corporals— ]o\m H. Wilhelm, 
" Charles Huber, 

" John Billings, 

Peter Wilhelm, 
William H. Wilhe 
Joseph Vogle. 
Musician — Emanuel Wilhelm. 

John Maddox, 
Thomas M'Laughlin, ist, 
Thomas M'Laughlin, 2d, 
Richard M'Gee, 
John M'Makin, 
Robert M' Donald, 
Owen B. Roberts, 
John Rice, 
John C. Sheppard, 
John Stoker, 
William Shilling, 
Oscar L. Singer, 
Joseph Stiles, 
Aaron Transue, 
John Vogel, 
Peter Waltman, 
Franklin Waltman, 
Samuel Waltman, 
John Wilhelm, 
George Walter, 
John Weiss, 
Richard Wolfram, 
Josiah Weber, 
George P. Wright, 
William L. Zane. 

The emergency for which these men were called soon passed, but they were entitled 
to great credit for the promptness with which they volunteered, and their presence in 
large numbers on the southern border of the State, without doubt, as General McClellan 
in his letter to Governor Curtin, stated, exercised a great influence upon the enemy. 


In the 174th Regiment, nine months service, drafted militia from Pennsylvania, organ- 
ized in West Philadelphia during the latter part of October and early in November, 1862, 
a number of Eastonians served. Prominent among them were Frank Reeder, Adjutant of 
the regiment throughout its term of service, son of Hon. A. H. Reeder, and J. L. Pack- 



enthall, Captain of Company A. We regret that we cannot obtain names of others scat- 
tered tlirough the company lists. This regiment saw much active service; proceeding 
after its organization from Washington to Suffolk, Va., and thence on Januarys 6, 1863, to 
Newberne, N. C. It formed part of the force under General Foster to reinforce the army 
in front of Charleston, and reached Hilton Head, February 5, 1863. At Helena Island it 
remained in camp until February 27, when it proceeded to Beaufort and was engaged in 
the routine of camp and garrison duty until its transfer in June to Hilton Head. It was 
ordered north in July, its term of service being about to expire, and on August 7th was 
mustered out at Philadelphia. 

Charles Glanz, 

Captain Co. G, 9th P. V. Colonel 153d P. V. 

(From War Photograph) 

B 1st P V. Lieut. Col. 153d P. V. 
(From Recent Photograph.) 

The draft ordered by Governor Curtin had been postponed to the fifteenth day of 
September, and again to the twenty-seventh. Meanwhile, Commissioner W. H. Tliompson 
announced that he would proceed to fill the draft on Monday, wSeptember 22, 1862, unless 
by that date .satisfied that each township had furnished its full quota. E.\tra bounties 
offered by the townships had aided greatly, and some of the volunteer.s, by October, 
returned from service in defense of the State, again enrolled themselves, and the 153d 
Regiment, recruited wholly in the county, and the first regiment rai.sed in the State in 
lieu of draft, was mustered into service at Harrisburg, October 11, 1862. For some days 
previous to their departure the men gathered from the county were quartered at the 
hotels of the borough, under direction of Commissioner Thonipson. They assembled at 
their respective quarters, and under command of Colonel Charles Glanz formed in regi- 
mental column and marched to the Pliillipsburg depot of the Lehigh Valley Railroad (the 
Soutli Third street bridge across the Lehigh river having been swept away by a late 



freshet) and there took the train for Harrisburg. Commissioner Thompson accompanied 
them, and delivered to the State one of the strongest and most efficient regiments in the 
service. Their departure occasioned great excitement. The streets were thronged with 
their country friends, and inhabitants of the borough. Immediate active service was 
expedled and farewell greetings were frequent and hearty. Company E of this regiment, 
whose roster is given below, was composed almost wholly of Eastonians ; many others 
from the borough were mustered into the other companies. 

Captain— }o\\n P. Ricker. 
First Lieutenant— Christian H. Rehfuss. 
Second Lieutenants— Jeremiah Dietrich, 
" " Paul Bachschmid. 

First Serjeants — Theodore R. Combs, 

Andrew Burt, 
Adam Reisinger. 
-William F. Snyder, 

Andrew J. Hay, 

John Bittner, 

Amandus D. Snvder. 

Corporals — ^Jacob Christian, 
" Lewis Fraunfelder, 

Vanselan Walter, 
Nathaniel Michler, 
" Ab'm G. Snyder, 

" George W. Barnet, 

" Noah Dietrich, 

" Edwin Brinker. 

-Samuel E. Lerch, 
Darius Thomas. 


Joseph Andrew, 
David Abel, 
Reuben Abel, 
Levi S. Brady, 
Edward Boadwee, 
Samuel Ball, 
Edward Bonden, 
Thos. T. C. Brady, 
Tobias Bauer, 
Adam Bonden, 
Sidney R. Bridinger, 
Joseph Cole, 
Charles H. Derr, 
Christian Dick, 
William Dachrodt, 
William Diehl, 
George Ellhardt, 
William Entlich, 
Simon Engel, 
Edwin Ealer, 
Pearson Flight, 
Reuben Faucht, 
Peter Glass, 
William Geiger, 
Peter Hart, 
Joseph Hetzler, 

John Q. Hay, 
George Heffling, 
Edward Hayden, 
Charles Immich, 
Jacob Jacoby, 
John Johnson, 
Thomas Kichline, 
Mover Kohn, 
John Kisselbach, 
William Koch, 
Edward Lear, 
Peter Lear, 
Francis Leidy, 
Valentine Messinger, 
Aaron Messinger, 
John Mertz, 
William Martin, 
John H. Moser, 
Henry Mutchler, 
William Miller, 
William Moyer, 
John S. Neubrandt, 
Joseph Norton, 
Edward Osterstock, 
John J. Pa.xson, 
Emil Robst, 

Jacob Rasener, 
John A. Schug, 
John Stecher, 
Alexander Schug, 
August Stumpel, 
Samuel B. Smith, 
Frank Smith, 
John Saylor, 
William T. Sandt, 
Theodore Snyder, 
Theodore Schug, 
Messiah Transue, 
George W. Vanosten, 
Richard J. Walter, 
Charles C. Warner, 
Ab'm K. Woodring, 
Levi F. Walter, 
James E. Wilson, 
Augustus Wagner, 
Eph'm Werkheiser, 
Isaac Writtenberg, 
Peter Yeager, Jr., 
Charles A. Vouch, 
John Young, 
John Zeller. 

To fill up the quota for the county, two hundred and thirty-si.x drafted men left Eas- 
ton for Philadelphia, on Wednesday morning, October 29, 1862, and were there mustered 
into service. Their march down Third street, in charge of the Draft Commissioner, is 
noted by the papers, as peculiarly solemn. Many had left household and business, poorly 
able to afford their absence, and great sympathy was felt by the attendant crowds who 
watched their march and ferriage across the Lehigh river. 



At a meeting held at the National Hotel on Saturday evening, jNIarch 24, 1863, which 
from its numbers and enthusiasm, was reported as an unmistakable exhibition of the loyalt\- 
of our people to the government, and their determination to crush the rebellion, the 
Easton Loyal Union League was organized. Its alleged aim was to support the Union 
and the Constitution and to uphold the government in the prosecution of the war. The 
following named persons were chosen unanimously as permanent officers : 

President — Hon. Henry D. Maxwell. 

lice Presidents — Lehigh Ward: Russell S. Chidsey, Frederick Seitz, Sr. Bushkill 
Ward: John Pollock, Peter F. Eilenberger. West Ward: Jacob Rinek, Andrew J. Hay. 

.S"£r;r^7;7«— Lehigh Ward: Wilson H. Hildebrand. Bushkill Ward: J. F. Thompson. 
West Ward: W. C. Detweiler. 

Executive Committee — Lehigh Ward: Daniel Black, Henry A. Sage, William X. 
Drake. Bushkill Ward: Derrick Hulick, John Able, Jr., James L. Mingle. West Ward: 
Charles Goepp, John Bitters, Samuel Oliver. 

Corresponding Secretary — Benjamin F. Stem. 

Treasurer — William H. Thompson. 

A constitution and by-laws, reported by Benjamin F. Stem, Esq., chairman of com- 
mittee for that purpose, was adopted and speeches were made by Judge Maxwell on taking 
the chair, and by Charles Goepp, Esq. 


The following is abridged from the lengthv report of the Daily Express of April 
8, 1863 : 

"The presentation of a horse and equipments to Lieutenant Colonel William H. 
Armstrong, 129th Penna. Vols., to replace one killed under him at the battle of Freder- 
icksburg, took place at Whitesell's Hotel, on Tuesday afternoon, April 7, 1863, in presence 
of a large concourse of citizens. The Colonel was escorted to the hotel by a committee 
headed by Coates' Cornet Band where the presentation speech was made by Hon. H. D. 
Maxwell. It complimented the Colonel upon fidelity to his men, and the interests of the 
service, at the expense of heavy personal sacrifice, and for gallantry upon the field, and 
assured him of the respecfl and support of the citizens who gave this fine horse and equip- 
ments as a slight testimonial of their esteem. A feeling, impromptu response was made 
by the Colonel, and received with cheers for himself, his regiment, and other commands 
to whom he had referred in the following extra(5l from his speech : 

" The vigorous prosecution of the war alone will suppress the rebellion. It is a day 
of sacrifices, and our community, to its praise, has not been lacking in patriotic devotion. 
A stranger seeing the busy valley of the Lehigh, or the lively streets of our beautiful 
borough, would scarcely realize that the nation was engaged in a contest of so great mag- 
nitude. Here and there, desolate hearts and hearth-stones reveal it. The ranks of our 
representatives in the field are thinned through casualties incident to war, but hundreds 
yet in civil life stand ready to fill the gaps. Our large representation, already in service, 
has done us no discredit. The 51st Penna. Vols., vi(5torious upon many fields, has a repu- 
tation for efficiency and heroism throughout the army. The caps found nearest that 
deadly wall at Fredericksburg bore the figures 129. In other organizations are we repre- 


sen ted with equal credit. The brave and accomplished Captain, Ferdinand W. Bell, of 
the 51st, who fell at Fredericksburg, will long be remembered for his soldierly attain- 
ments and superior ability as a commander." 

' ' In the evening a complimentary serenade was tendered to the Colonel at his resi- 
dence on North Third street," continues the Express, "to which he briefly responded, 
and with nine hearty cheers for the army of the Union the vast crowd proceeded to the 
residence of Lewis A. Buckley, Esq., and serenaded Captain Herbert Thomas of the 
129th Penna. Vols. Thus ended this glorious and well merited ovation to Lieutenant 
Colonel Armstrong, and through him to our gallant boys in the field." 


"This regiment" — to quote mainly from its regimental history, prepared for the 
Reunion of August 14, 1884, by Charles F. Chidsey, Esq., of Co. D, and from Bates' His- 
tory of the Pennsylvania Volunteers — "was organized at Camp Curtin on August 15, 1862. 
Its Colonel, Jacob G. Frick, of Pottsville, had served as a Lieutenant in the Mexican War 
and as Lieutenant Colonel of the 96th P. V. Captain William H. Armstrong, of Easton, 
late Captain of the ist P. V., a member of the Northampton County Bar, became its 
Lieutenant Colonel." The rosters of the companies from Easton have already been given. 
Volunteers from the same place also appear upon some of the rolls of the other companies. 

"The day following its organization, August 16, after having been armed and equipped 
in great haste, it was hurried to the front and merged into the Fifth Army Corps of the 
Army of the Potomac, commanded by General Fitz John Porter. Here, by constant com- 
pany and regimental drill, in camp near Alexandria, Va., under the a6live and intelligent 
guidance of Colonel Frick, the regiment rapidly attained a marked degree of efficiency. 
Two companies, while here, rebuilt the Bull Run bridge, and for a while were stationed 
there as a guard. August 30th the 129th was for the first time under fire. It was at the 
second Bull Run fight as they were preparing a camp, after having safely delivered an am- 
munition train at Centreville. The shelling was so severe that on a double quick the 
camping ground was abandoned for one more secure from intrusion of rebel artillery prac- 
tice. September 3d, near Fairfax Seminary, the regiment was brigaded with the 91st, 
134th and 126th Penna. Regiments, commanded by General E. B. Tyler. Its next camp 
was near Fort Richardson, where brigade and battalion drill was studiously pra6liced. On 
the morning of September 15th the brigade started on its march toward the memorable field 
ofAntietam. By an exhausting march, which sorely tried the men, the 129th pushed 
forward for two days, crossing the Monocacy, and to the sound of heavy cannonading 
arrived early in the morning of the i8th on the battlefield. With thousands of others in 
line of battle the men awaited renewal of the fight. But during the night the enemy had 
retired, and the command went into camp, where for six weeks the regiment remained 
engaged in drill and picket dut^. During this time, in an expedition up the Shenandoah 
Valley, the 129th had a lively skirmish with the enemy near Kearneysville, Va. 

"On Ocftober 30th the movement towards Fredericksburg began, and the regiment, now 
in the First Brigade of General A. A. Humphreys' Third Division of General Butterfield's 
Fifth Corps, marched upon that bloody, but fruitless campaign. On December 13, just 
before twilight, the gallant 129th entered the fight under a ceaseless fire of musketry and 


artillery. Over the prostrate bodies of thousands of Union dead they pressed forward as 
a forlorn hope to capture the heights of Fredericksburg. In the gathering darkness they 
fought, as only true soldiers could, and made a charge which became famous in the many 
heroic endeavors of that dreadful day." The charge of Humphreys' Division is a feature 
of the battle mentioned in many histories of the war. It is graphically shown in a large 
double page picflure in Harper's Weekly of January 10, 1863. The New York ]\'orld 
correspondent of the time wrote: "The column moved gallantly forward, reached the 
line of battle, passed fifty yards beyond, when a deadly fire from behind the stone wall 
caused it to recoil, and the Second Brigade (Allabach's) fell back to reform. In fifteen 
minutes the brigade had lost five hundred men. There was but one more chance. Tyler's 
Brigade had come up, and, notwithstanding the turmoil. General Humphreys had suc- 
ceeded in forming it in gallant style. The only hope now was with the bayonet. The 
men were ordered not to fire — to rely upon their trusty steel. General Humphreys took 
the command. General Hooker exhorted the men not to quail ; not to look back ; to dis- 
regard the men prostrate on the ground before them, to march over them. The oflicers 
were ordered to the front ; then the brigade, led in person by Tyler and Humphreys moved 
forward with a glorious cheer. They came within eighty yards of the fatal wall, crossing 
line upon line of men lying flat upon the ground ; they moved over the living mass amid 
shouts from the prostrate men, ' Don't go there, its certain death ;' and rising they began 
to impede the progress of the column. Then the crisis came ; older troops than they had 
quailed before the murderous volleys now making great gaps through their ranks ; the 
head of the column was enveloped in a sheet of living flame ; the hideous shells were 
bursting all around and in their midst. The men began to load and fire ; the momentum 
of the charge was gone and they were forced to fall back. Humphreys had two horses shot 
under him and was terribly chagrined at his repulse, and this was the forlorn hope of the 
day. It demonstrated the impregnability of the enemy's position — demonstrated that the 
bravest troops in the zvorld could not stem the torrent of fire which poured and plunged 
and converged into that fatal space." It is said in "Bates' History" that the caps found 
nearest the rebel wall at the slaughter of Fredericksburg were marked "129th P. \'." 
Company D lost Lieutenant Joseph Oliver and seven privates as prisoners taken at the 
wall. The regiment lost in killed and wounded 142 men. Lieutenant Colonel Armstrong 
had his horse shot under him. Captains Lawrence and Taylor were mortally wounded, 
and Captains Wren, Thomas, Rehrer and Leib, and Lieutenants Luckenbach and Oliver 
received severe wounds. The General commanding in his report of the battle spoke in 
glowing terms of the 129th. 

The casualities at Fredericksburg among the Easton companies were : 
Company D — Captain Herbert Thomas wounded ; Second Lieutenant Joseph Oliver 
wounded and captured ; Sergeant Jeremiah Bachmau wounded ; Sergeant Solon C. Phil- 
lippe wounded ; Corporals Reuben Lerch, Frederick C. Mattes, Isaac C. Fine, wounded ; 
Privates George Bidwell, Erwin Hartzell, Edward Wilson, killed ; Privates Reuben Albert, 
Edward Alsfelt, Burton Burrell, Paul Danner, George Oberly, Frank Tomer, wounded, 
and Charles Barnet, Matthew McAlee, John Shaffer, Amos C. l^hler, James Weaver, 
Samuel S. Williams, captured. 

Company /•'—Sergeant O. H. .Vrmstrong killed ; Sergeant William .\ten wounded ; 


Corporal Josiah Transue killed ; Corporal Otto Wohlgemuth wounded ; Privates Jeremiah 
Albert, John H. Butts, William Frey, Thomas Kelly, Edward Frounfelder killed, and 
Enos Dunbar, Robert Ellet, David Frankenfield, Joseph Geissinger, Andrew Hoffman, 
Henry Hunsberger, John Kresler, John McGinnis, Christian H. Rice, Edward H. Tran- 
sue, Joseph Wheeler, John M. Wallace, wounded. 

Company K — Corporal George A. Simons wounded ; Privates William Sletor and 
Franklin Willauer, killed. 


Towards the middle of January, 1863, an order was issued, through division head- 
quarters, requiring the men to draw dress coats. As they had just been provided with 
two blouses per man the dress coat did not seem to be needed. It would only be an incum- 
brance and a needless expense, and moreover their term of service would shortly expire. 
The officers sought to have their regiment relieved from the operations of the order ; but 
in this they were unsuccessful, and upon their refusal to obey the order the Colonel and 
Lieutenant Colonel were summarily tried and dismissed from the service. They were, 
however, soon after reinstated and restored to their commands, the general officer who 
had preferred charges against them testifying to their fidelity and gallantry. 

Upon their return to the regiment a grand ovation was given to them by the officers 
and men of their command, in which many from other camps participated. It was all the 
more marked for being spontaneous, and strongly showed the gratitude of the volunteers 
for the stand taken by the officers in their behalf. 


On the retreat from Fredericksburg the knapsacks and baggage of the regiment fell 
into the hands of the enemy through failure of the Division General to permit the men to 
take them from the building in which he had ordered them stored previous to the fight, 
so that until December 23d the men were exposed to the cold rainy days of winter with- 
out shelter of any kind, not even having overcoats or blankets. Their sufferings in con- 
sequence, were intense. One man died from exposure and many were thrown into hos- 
pitals. From January 20th to 24th the regiment was on the famous Burnside's mud 
march, and on picket and scouting duty until Hooker's campaign opened against Chan- 
cellorsville, in the rear of Fredericksburg. Space forbids a detailed account of the glorious 
part taken in this memorable affair by the 129th. It engaged the enemy in a hot contest on 
Sunday morning. May 3d, 1863, in the wood in front of the Union batteries. For two 
hours they fought, till, with ammunition exhausted and their right flank turned by an 
overwhelming force of the enemy, they were ordered to face by the rear rank and retire 
behind the batteries. 

The 129th had not left the wood before the rebels were upon them, and some spirited 
hand-to-hand encounters occurred. The colors were twice seized, but defended with great 
gallantry and borne safely off. Lieutenant Colonel Armstrong fell into the enemy's hands, 
but escaped in the confusion in the rebel ranks caused by the fire of our artillery. Major 
Anthony was shot through the lungs, but survived for many years, what was then thought 
to be a mortal wound. Captain Stonebach of Company K, was seized twice as a prisoner, 
but, using his fists, he. knocked down his would-be captors and escaped. The loss was 


five killed, thirty-two wounded, and five missing. " The 129th," says General Tyler in 
his official report, "was on our left, and no man ever saw cooler work on field drill than 
was done by this regiment. Their firing was grand, by rank, by company and b)- wing, 
and in perfedl order. 

Casualties at Chancellorsville among the Easton companies : 

Company D — Privates Arthur Davis, William Tomer, wounded. 

Company F— Private Theodore Labar, wounded. 


The regiment's return to camp at Falmouth, Va., on May 6th, was followed on the 
1 2th by the order to report at Harrisburg, where, after a joyous homeward journey, the 
regiment was mustered out of the United States service on the i8th of May, 1863. Its 
term of service was for nine months, and the time had fully expired ; in fadl the time of 
some of the volunteers had expired before the battle of Chancellorsville. 

The citizens of Easton, who had, among other organizations for relief of the soldiers, 
maintained what was called the " 129th Regiment Express Association," for the purpose 
of giving the regiment information from home and such assistance as was possible, had 
arranged for a general and flattering welcome upon their return. 

The following account of their reception is abridged somewhat from the report of the 
Easton Daily Express of Thursday evening. May 21, 1863 : 

"The 20th day of May, 1863, will ever be a day memorable in the annals of the 
History- of Easton. It was signalized by the arrival of three companies of the 129th 
Regiment, P. V., commanded respe6lively by Captain George L. Fried, Captain John 
Stonebach, and Captain David Eckar, all under command of Lieutenant Colonel William 
H. Armstrong. 

"The citizens of Easton opened their arms and their hearts to welcome home that 
gallant band of patriots, who left home and kindred nine mouths since, with high hopes 
and enthusiastic aspirations, and amid the horrors of war have ever upheld the honor of 
the cause in which they were engaged, as well as the nation for which they were fighting. 
Since that time the men of the 129th have written for themselves and for their country a 
glorious page in the history of a patriotic and brave people, struggling to maintain their 
national unity. Nine months have elapsed since those gallant companies marched down 
Third street, fully three hundred strong, eager to take part in the battles of their country, 
and many a brave hero who then formed part of the noble band, now sleeps on the shores 
of the Rappahannock. 

" How sad, and at the same time chivalrous a tale is told by this reception. How 
many a thrill of joy it brings to the hearts of some, while pangs of anguish wring those 
of others. To those who have lost friends and relatives in the 129th in the chances of 
war, the cheers of welcome, yesterday, bursting from hundreds of voices were a striking 
and melancholy reminder of lost ones, upon whom they should never look as of \ore. 
Those who recognized their brothers, sous, fathers, husbands and friends, thanked Heaven 
that they had been spared to them. 

"Those who knew the charadler of the citizens, who formed the soldiers of the regi- 
ment, expedled much from them, and were not disappointed. All through their campaign 
we had good reports of their soldierly condufl, of tlieir endurance of the toilsome march. 

E ASTON, PENN\4. 259 

of their patience in the tedium of camp, of their faithfulness on the outposts, of their 
excellent discipline on all occasions, of their coolness for hours under terrific showers of 
shell and shot at the first battle of Fredericksburg, and finally of the heroic manner in 
which they won imperishable laurels at Chancellorsville under their gallant and beloved 
commander. General Joe Hooker. It was fitting that the welcome should be so imposing, 
and so cordial a demonstration. The programme adopted by the committees was carried 
out to the letter, and the demonstration was a perfedl success, creditable to those whom it 
was intended to honor. 

" The firing of five guns from Mount Jefferson on the previous evening, announced, 
according to arrangement, that the volunteers would leave Harrisburg for Easton on the 
next morning, and during the night and early forenoon, the entire town, from one end to 
the other, was decorated with flags, evergreens, etc. The morning opened beautifully, 
and a finer day could not have been seledled. At the salute of three guns fired in the 
morning, many of the friends of the volunteers from the country came to join in the wel- 
come. At one o'clock in the afternoon another gun was fired to announce that the line of 
procession should be formed in the Square, and immediately thousands of persons began 
to wend their way toward the bridge and the Lehigh Valley Railroad depot, and South 
Third street soon presented a solid mass of men, women and children. The procession 
soon made its appearance at the bridge, and crossed over to the depot and awaited the 
appearance of the train. Soon the special train hove in sight, and then a deafening shout 
arose, added to by the simultaneous whistling of at least half a dozen locomotives which 
were standing on the track in the vicinity of the depot, that took down anything in the 
way of a salute we had ever heard. As the train stopped a general rush was made for the 
cars, and such a shaking of hands, kissing and embracing, as took place by the friends of 
the volunteers, some laughing, and others crying, our pen is inadequate to describe. 

"The line was immediately formed, and, headed by Coates' Cornet Band and Chief 
Marshal Colonel Samuel Yohe, proceeded across the crowded bridge, and entered Third 
street in the following order : 

Committee of Arrangements. 

Soldiers of 181 2. 

Carriages containing wounded and sick soldiers. 

Orator of the day and invited guests. 

Guard of Honor commanded by Lieutenant Joseph Oliver. 

Lieutenant Colonel William H. Armstrong. 

Company D, commanded by Captain George L. Fried. 

Company F, commanded by Captain David Eckar. 

Company K, commanded by Captain John Stonebach. 

Citizens of Easton and South Easton. 

Three wagons neatly decorated with wreaths of spruce, and the horses handsomely 

caparisoned, containing the baggage of Companies D, K and F, brought up the rear of 

the procession. The teams belonged to Seitz & Brother, who had done much in getting 

up the demonstration. 

' ' The scene, upon the arrival of the volunteers at Third street, could better be imagined 
than described. The streets were a perfe6l jam, so much so, that it was with diflJiculty 


that the procession could pass through. The cannon again belched forth, and the bells of 
the town added to the enthusiasm. The scene along the whole of Third street to the 
Square was most imposing. The waving of handkerchiefs from the crowds on the streets, 
and by the ladies from the windows of the houses along the route, and the loud huzzas of 
manv hundred voices, were well calculated to cheer the hearts of the brave soldiers. The 
throng increased as the procession made its way along the designated route, which occu- 
pied one hour. Nearly every house, by flag, banner or evergreen, made a display. A 
notice of all the decorations would be impossible. A beautiful arch of evergreen was 
erecfted on Second street, in front of the Public School buildings by the teachers of Bush- 
kill ward. It was of double formation, extending across the street, and between the two 
bows was the motto in large letters, 'Welcome Home, Br.we 129TH.' Each letter was 
about a foot in height and surrounded by a wreath of evergreen. Other mottos adorned 
other parts of the arch, and the whole presented a most beautiful sight. The companies 
of the 129th halted at the arch, and before passing under gave three hearty cheers. Manx- 
private residences, stores and public buildings were handsomely decorated, and patriotic 
mottos abounded on all sides. The national flag was hung across the streets in great pro- 
fusion and floated above the hotels. 

" The procession passed through the principal streets and halted in the Square, in the 
northeast corner of which a stage had been erecfted. The volunteers were drawn up in 
solid column before it, and the orator of the day, Edgar F. Randolph, was introduced by 
Hon. A. H. Reeder. In the course of his eloquent address are the following remarks : 

" 'For these virtues and services, heroes of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, and 
other familiar fields, let me again greet you with a hearty welcome. The pen of the his- 
torian will indeed portray in living colors your deeds of daring and high emprise, but in 
this venerable borough you will find your most faithful chroniclers ; for ever}' citizen will 
have your names graven as with a diamond on the tablet of his heart. Anxiously have 
we watched your career since you left your homes. From press, and letter, and telegram, 
we have learned the story of your military life. We have read your record upon the 
field, and proud am I to declare that you have fully justified our highest estimate of your 
honor and courage. If you have not always won success, you have invariably deserved 
it. And while I desire not to be invidious where all have so nobly acquitted themselves 
as to elicit encomiums from highh- intelligent witnesses of the field, I trust I will be per- 
mitted to remark, that the troops whose annals are illustrated by the leadership of a Frick 
and an Armstrong, and whose colors are defended by a Bower and a Miller, are to be 
envied in their good fortune. Invidious did I say. No, I will not so wound you. These 
men are dear to you — their fame is your fame, their honor your honor. 

" ' But in the jo>- of receiving the living, let us not forget the lamented dead. There 
are before me representatives, not only of the 129th regiment, but gallant representatives 
of other regiments of the Keystone, State, familiar to you all. And there is aboi-c me, in 
that spirit land, whence no soldier will ever return to earth, and where no bugle call will 
ever reach his ear, many a noble soul who laid himself a sacrifice upon the altar of his 
country that she might live. 

" 'These streets now thronged with a concourse of joyful people, have witnessed far 
different scenes during the progress of this horrid rebellion. * * * See the gloomy 
catafalque, deeply shrouded, while through its dim portals may be discerned our sacred 



flag, embracing within its glorious folds the earthly remains of a Bell, a Miller, or a 
Buckley, or of some other noble spirit who has fought his last fight. Slowly and sadly 
we followhim to the cemetery. Our work is done. God bless our heroes. * * * Again, 
soldiers of the nation, we offer you a hearty welcome.' 

"To this address an able reply was made by Lieutenant Colonel Armstrong of the 
129th. It was brief, but impressive, and the loud cheers that followed it indicated the 
great esteem which the people have for this patriotic man. 

" Here the line was re-formed and marched to Masonic Hall, where a grand collation 
had been prepared by the citizens under the superintendence of the committee, and the 
ladies of the Union Aid Society. On reaching the hall the committee opened ranks, and 
led by the marshal, the brave boys entered the hall, which was beautifully decorated for 

the occasion. 

"Tables that reached the entire length of 
the hall were loaded with every luxury, and 
conveniences were afforded for the entire con- 
course. Ladies were in attendance, especially 
those of the Union Aid Society. Governor Reeder 
presided. When the companies had surrounded 
the tables, and had uncovered, he arose and in elo- 
quent and touching remarks, on behalf of the 
committee of ladies, bid the soldiers welcome. 
His speech was full of patriotic feeling, and was 
listened to with deep interest. Governor Reeder 
then introduced S. L. Cooley, Esq., who read a 
beautiful and touching poem written for the occa- 
sion. It was received with applause, but in the 
eyes of some we saw starting tears for the mem- 
ory of those who had fallen. 

"The dinner was a splendid one, and was 
enjoyed to the utmost, and the ladies of the asso- 
ciation, and of the borough generally, deserve 
great credit for the manner in which the hall was 
decorated and the tables spread. The south end 
of the hall was decorated with the cards contain- 
ing the names of 'Frick,' 'Armstrong,' 'Anthony,' 
and 'Green,' of the field officers and adjutant, 
respe6lively of the regiment. On the east side 
of the hall were the following inscriptions set in 
tasteful decorations : 

' Nothing could have been more glorious than 
the charge of Humphreys' Division. — General 
Hooker. ' 

'So long as God gives me strength, a cartridge, or a fixed bayonet, I'll do my duty. — 
Private of the i2gth.^ 


Dec. 13th, 1862. 


D Pa. F 


May 3d, 1863. 



very proud of them.' 

' Easton has cause to be very proud of her soldiers, and she 
' We all stand by the army.' 

"Officers and men were greatly pleased with the reception. All our citizens took 
part in it, and the greetings from all, irrespedtive of party, showed that every citizen wel- 
comed them home. It was a general celebration. The festivities of the day closed by a 
display of fireworks and firing of rockets. Thus ended the 'Welcome Home' of the gal- 
lant 129th. Long may they live to enjoy the fruits of their well-earned honor, and re- 
count to their descendants the part they took in the great battles for the Union." 

We print an engraving of the badge designed by the committee for this reception, and 
worn generally on the occasion. Other appropriate badges were also worn. In the hearti- 
ness of the welcome, and completeness 
of the arrangements, and general char- 
acter of the reception, the day was a 
memorable one in the annals of Easton. 
ladies' aid societies. 
While the men of Easton were vol- 
unteering for the field the various 
Ladies' Aid Societies met regularly 
every week to prepare and forward such 
articles as were needed for the sick and 
the wounded. Some of these societies 
were organized in the different church 
congregations of the borough early in 
1861, and rendered most efficient service. 
The contributions of one that was con- 
nedled with one of the least of the 
churches, the Reformed Dutch, amounted 
at date of November, 1862, to upwards 
of fifteen hundred dollars in money and 
articles. The others were equally lib- 
eral, and the hardships of adlive cam- 
paigning were thus materially light- 

It is to be regretted that the names 
of the ladies who provided this comfort 
for soldiers in the field, and picked 
lint for those who were wounded, while they exchanged notes of victories won or perils 
dreaded, in their pleasant social circles, cannot be fully obtained. Our older citi- 
zens readily recall Mrs. Andrew H. Reeder, President of the Easton Sanitary Aid Society, 
Mrs. Josiah P. Hetrich, President of the Easton Ladies' Aid Society, Mrs. James Thomp- 
son, Mrs. Isaac C. WykofT, Mrs. Traill Green, Mrs. John T. Knight, Mrs. Frederick W. 
Noble, Mrs. John Eyerman, Mrs. M. Hale Jones, Mrs. Henry Green, Mrs. Washington 
McCartney and many others. Where all were so worthy, to name any may seem invid- 
ious. Their good work relieved many a weary march and lonely picket hour, and has left a 
jileasant memory with the soldiers and a sacred example to the daughters of tlie republic. 

Mrs. Am>k 
President of E.i; 





THE citizens' aid SOCIETIES. 

These organizations, dating from the first great war meeting, continued their work of 
relief to the volunteers, with untiring zeal. Notably was this the case after the great 
battle of Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862. The roar of the cannon had hardly died away 
before the committee of citizens sent from Easton to the Army of the Rappahannock, was 
there with boxes of eatables and bundles of clothing, aggregating in weight about two 
tons. These supplies were of great solace to the wounded and fever-stricken of the hos- 
pitals, and their bearers were amply repaid for the luxuries added to army rations, by 
sight of the perfe6l look of content with which the bronzed men enjoyed the whiff of their 
"sublime tobacco, glorious in a pipe," an army pipe at that, never dreaming of 
tip," or "naked beauty" of a cigar. 

These "ministering angels" in the 
spirit of true charity, were more zealous 
in rendering aid than in preserving rec- 
ords of their kindness. Beyond frequent 
notices of the departure of some one for 
the front, who would take with him 
packages for the soldiers, we find no 
reference to their work. Old soldiers, 
however, will remember their visits, 
usually after some great army move- 
ment, and their Santa Clans appear- 
ance, laden with bundles of clothing 
and boxes of eatables, as they entered 
camp, and their protuberant pockets, as 
they left, stuffed with the army mail. 
Wm. Thatcher, R. C. Pyle, R. S. Bell, 
B. F. Riegel, C. Ed. Hecht, H. Ham- 
mann, S. Stonebach and Wm. H. Bix- 
ler were frequent visitors. 

REBEL invasion OF 1863. 
Again Pennsylvania was threat- 
ened, and again the citizens of Easton 
with like ready response to the procla- 
mation of the Governor, issued on 
Monday, June 15th, 1883, for fifty 
thousand men, met in general mass meeting in front of the county house, in the southeast 
corner of Centre Square, on the evening of that day. Hon. A. H. Reeder spoke and Judge 
Maxwell read the proclamations of the President and Governor, and several telegrams, and, 
as at previous meetings, committees were appointed to obtain men for the six months' 
term of service, and thereby procure proportionate credit upon the impending draft. Vol- 
unteering was spontaneous, and the company lists given below, show how fully all classes 
were represented. The volunteers were ready to leave in a few hours, and the greater 
portion became part of what was known as the Iron Regiment, 38th Penna. Militia. In 

Mrs. Josiah P. Hetrich, 
President of Ladies' Aid Society. 



its ranks were manv who had seen service in other organizations and many prominent 
business men. They performed duty for which it would have been necessary to draw upon 
troops in the front but for their prompt enrolment. Its staff and company rolls, so far as 
they relate to Easton volunteers, are copied from Bates' Histor}- P. V. 

Colonel — ]\Ielchoir H. Horn. 

Lieutenant GVo;/£-/— William H. Thompson. 

Major — Thomas L. McKeen. 

Adjutant — William Mutchler. 

COMP.-\XY c. 

Ca/>/a/«— Joseph P. Cotton. 
First Lifii/eitait/^Charles F. Chidsey. 
Second Lieutenant — Thomas M. Andrews. 
First Sergeant — Joshua R. Bercaw. 
Sergeants — William T. Rundio, 

" John H. Heckman, 

" George G. Rambo, 

•• . Jacob C. Mixsell, 

Silas Hulshizer, pr. to Sgt. Maj., July 3, '63. 


■aA— John .\. lunes, 
John H. Yohe, 
James W. Wood, 
William J. Biery, 
Xicodemus Wilson, 
Jacob Sandt, 
James A. Petrie, 
Benjamin A. Loder. 
ian — Joseph B. Campbell. 

Jacob August, 
Henr\- Bercaw, 
William Biery, 
James B. Bruner, 
George Bachman, 
Henry L. Bunstein, 
Franklin Bower, 
Tilghman Brish, 
Alfred B. Black, 
John W. Campbell, 
Erwin Eckert, 
James J. Edmonds, 
Jonathan Fly, 
Jacob Gary, 
John B. Grier, 
Charles D. Horn, 
Andrew Hoffman, 
William Hoffman, 
Charles Hyde, 


John W. Horn, 
William Houser, 
William Hopkins, 
William H. Horn, 
Da^-id Kelso, 
John Kiffle, 
Jacob Kramer, 
Charles C. Keller, 
John W. Keeler, 
Simon H. Kester, 
Alfred Lynn, 
David K. Messinger, 
James E. Middaugh, 
Isaac S. Moser, 
George H. Miunick, 
John Morghen, 
Isaac Pixley, 
Jacob Person, 
Da\'id M. Plumlev, 

Charles R. Phillips, 
Isaac Riley, 
John Riley, 
William H. Stultz, 
James H. Stites, 
Thomas J. Shields, 
William F. Small, 
Thomas F. Shipe, 
Frank Schlabach, 
William H. Sigman, 
Francis Sigman, 
Samuel C. Seiple, 
Jacob S. Wilson, 
William Walton, 
Jacob Welser, 
Erwin C. Wickhoff, 
Jacob W. Weaver, 
Thomas Yelverton. 


Gz//«/«i— Wm. H. Thompson, pr, toLt. Col., July 3, '63, 

" Jacob Hay. 

First Lieutenant — Isaac Fine, Jr. 
Second Lieutenant— YloviarA R. Hetrich. 
First Sergeant— ' H. Weaver. 
Sergeants — Samuel D. Crawford, 

" Adam A. Lehn, 

" James S. Sigman, 

William H. Unangst. 
Corporats — Charles M. Ludwig. 

Corporals— ^ras\. W. Snyder, 
William Miller, 
" Lafayette Sox, 

" Daniel Conklin, 

" Augustus S. Templin, 

" Jacob Burt, 

Theodosius S. M'Leod. 
Musicians— hhtahHiXa Fowler, 
" James Mc'Gowan. 



James F. R. Appleby, 

Jeremiah Anglenieyer, 

George H. Bender, 

John D. Bowers, 

William Q. Brotzman, 

William D. Brown, 

Rush H. Bixler, 

William H. Butz, 

Edward D. Bleckley, 

William Brinker, 

Edward Butz, 

John Bush, 

Robert Cottingham, Jr., 

Charles T. Cole, 

Charles Deshler, 

James Deshler, 

Lewis C. Drake, 

George Drinkhouse, 

James Donnelly, 

Valentine Diley, 

James Frounfelder, 

Ta/i/fljn— Edward Kelly. 
First Lieutenant — George G. Hutman. 
Second IJeutenanl—] ames Tarrent, (Discharged.) 

Charles B. Zulick. 
First Sergeant— }ohn Wilson. 
Sergeants — Patrick Shine. 
" Ephraim Steiner. 

" Robert Arnold. 

Owen Garis, 
John A. Gerhart, 
Stephen Hines, 
Alvin Harris, 
Andrew J. Hay, 
James Hacket, 
Isaac P. Hand, 
Charles Hemmingway, 
William Houck, 
Joseph L. Hance, 
C. Edward Ihling, 
Evan Knecht, 
Edward Keller, 
Thomas J. Kolb, 
Amos Kunsman, 
Francis King, 
Stephen Laubach, 
Charles W. Meeker, 
John Z. Moyer, 
Reuben Moyer, 

John Bittenbender, 
Anthony Brauer, 
Patrick Boyle, 
William H.Cornell, 
John Cummiskey, 
Alexander Colbathe, 
Edward Demsey, 
Timothy Dawes, 
Jacob Dean, 
John Donnovan, 
Frederick Fry, 
Allen Ginginger, 
Stephen Gross, 
Jacob Hartzell, 

Captains — Thomas L. McKeen, (pr. tc 

Henry Huber. 
First Lieutenant — William H. Kline. 
Second Lieutenant— WMiam N. Scott. 
First Sergeant — Samuel Laird. 
Sergeants — John Murray. 

" Daniel Laubach. 

" Samuel Cortright. 

" Alexander E. Robinson. 

Corporals — William H. Ormrod. 

Hiram Hackman, 
Luther Horn, 
George W. Horn, 
John Herman, 
George Johnson, 
John King, 
Jacob Knobloch, 
Peter Kelchner, 
Franklin Ludwig, 
Edward Lewis, 
John May, 
Hugh E. Major, 
Daniel Medler, 


Maj.,July3, '63.) 

John Menaul, 
Charles B. Notson, 
John F, Opdycke, 
Alfred P. Reid, 
Samuel Rader, 
Edward Snyder, 
Clement Stewart, 
Henry B. Semple, 
John M. Seales, 
Samuel Sigman, 
Henry N. Schultz, 
Emelius S. C. Schmidt, 
John Shaffer, 
Augustus L. Steuben, 
Joseph Vanorman, 
Henry W. Wilking, 
Thomas J. Weaver, 
Theodore F. Woodring, 
Henry C. Wagner, 
George Wolf. 

Sergeants— Joseph Snyder. 

Corporals — Joseph Savitz. 

" Jacob Arnold. 

William Shick. 

" William Osmun. 

" Daniel Black. 

Musicians— WtU'iam Major. 

" John Schooley. 

John Noe, 
John Pittenger, 
Richard Person, 
William Randolph, 
George Smith, 
Charles Smith, 
George Sweeney, 
Josiah Woolbach, 
William Wright, 
George Walsh, 
James Whitesell, 
William Wheeler, 
Charles H. Woerhrle 

Corporals— AUin J. Hufford. 
John Wolfram. 
" Herman A. Pohl. 

Henry W. Wilhelm. 
Samuel Arndt. 
William Elliott. 
Franklin L. Terry. 
Musicians — Emanuel Wilhelm. 
Thomas A. Martin. 


William C. Aten, 
Labourn Aldridge, 
John Billings, 
Lewis Bloss, 
Reuben Briesh, 
Thomas Boyce, 
Hiram Buss, 
Thomas Buss, 
Henry Bachman. 
Henry Basset. 
Israel Briggs, 
Samuel Cosner, 
William Cheston, 
John Clark. 
John Cheston, 
Samuel Chamberlain, 
Andrew Dietz, 
James Duncan, 
Joseph Dodd, 
James Dereemer. 
Samuel Dull, 
Andrew Elliott, 
Henry Freyberger, 
Henry Foster, 
Augustus Goelity, 

Ca/i/ain— William Otto. 

First Lieutenants — William Mutchler (pr 

William F. Schatz. 
Second Lieutenant — William H. Ginnard. 
First Sergeajit — Charles Eichman. 
Sergeants — Levine F. Leibfried. 
" Reuben Schlabach. 

Obadiah Huebner. 
" Joseph A, Ginnard. 

Joseph Goodear, 
Ale.xander Gillian, 
William Galloway, 
George Hubbard, 
Thomas Hanlln, 
William Hampton, 
Job Henry, 
William Hyle, 
George Hartzell. 
Nicholas Hartcorn, 
Augustus G. Ibach, 
John Koch, 
Peter Kleckner, 
John Kemery, 
Josiah Kohl, 
George F. Kimball. 
Wilson Lesher, 
John Miller, 
Charles Menninger, 
Frederick Mayer, 
John M'Kelvey, 
Amos M'Niel, 
Thomas M'Laughlin, 
Andrew M'Laughlin, 
John Price, 



Stewart Altamus, 
George Brinker, 
Jacob Bower, 
George H. Beam, 
Howard Bowers, 
John Berkey, 
Daniel Butler, 
Joseph Brinker, 
Richard Beitel, 
Leonard Breidinger, 
William A. Conahay, 
Richard Clewell, 
George Davenport, 
Charles W. Dickson, 
William Denning, 
Charles Dittler, 
John Dewalt, 
Christian Dittler, 
Joseph Flad, 
Tilghman Fehr, 
William H. Fehr. 
Alfred Frey. 

Franklin T. Grube, 
Albert H. Good, 
Jeremiah Hellick. 
Jacob Hensler, 
Christian Hartman, 
Reuben Hines, 
Lewis H. Hamman, 
Jacob Keiper, Jr,, 
John L. Keiper, 
Henry Keiper, 
William F. Keller, 
Jonas F. Kindt, 
Jacob Kratzer, 
Henry Leidy, 
John Leidich, 
Elias B. Lynn, 
James Mutchler, 
Charles Medler, 
Traill T. Nungesser, 
George B. Nace, 
Jo.seph J. Ochs, 
Ednunid A. Oerter, 

Josiah Poe, 
Martin Pohl, 
William Pendegrast, 
John B. Roberts, 
Joseph Rupell, 
Charles V. B. Rinker 
John Rice, 
Charles Saylor, 
Joseph Siles, 
Adam Styers, 
Emanuel R Shilling, 
Oscar A. Singer, 
Harman F. Shuler, 
Thomas Shannon, 
Andrew Tsnir, 
Stephen Taggart, 
George Vanscoter, 
John Vogle, 
John Wilhelm, 
William Wolfram, 
David Weber, 
William Waltman, 
John Weiss, 
John R. Young, 
John Young. 

Corporals — John Hensler. 
George Arm. 
" Rudolph Babp. 

" Jeremiah Dietrich. 

" George Hensler. 

William Steckle. 
" George W. Wagoner 

William L. Ricker. 
Musician — William Barnes. 

John Percival. 
Jacob Plattenberger, 
John Rupp, 
Jonas Reeser. 
Robert Rollan, 
Samuel Reese, 
William Snyder, 
Edward Smith, 
Neander D. Siegfried, 
John H. Santee, 
Edwin Siegfrid, 
William H. Thomas, 
John Wolle, 
Clemens Weisenbach. 
Reuben Willour, 
Edwin Werner, 
William H. Werner, 
Joseph Weiner. 
Jonathan Xander, 
John P. Young, 
Theophilus J. Zorn. 




Ca/i/ajn— Christian Kroehl. 
Firsl Lieutenant — David Bless. 
Second Lieutenant— James M'Gloin. 
J^irst Sergeant— ]o\\n P. Hay. 
Sergeants— SamueX Bruch. 

" Edward Troxell. 

" Levinus Transue. 

" Jonathan J. Carey. 

Corporal — Lewis Eckert. 

Thomas Bauer, 
Charles A. Barron, 
Adam Bacher, 
Andrew J. Bonstein, 
Felix Bachman, 
Daniel S. Crawford, 
Samuel Dutt, 
Benjamin Delp, 
Cyrus Flory, 
Martin Faulstich, 
Jacob Goether, 
Sith Crawford, 
John Garis, 
Daniel Hertzog, 
William Helwick, 
John Hensler, 
George H. Hare, 

Captain — Augustus F. Heller. 
First Lieutenant — Daniel Phillippe. 
Second Lieutenant— Ti\ghman Brong. 
First Sergeant — Henry L. Arndt. 
Sergeants — Adam H. Lane. 

" Samuel Stem. 

" Burton Burrell. 

" Solon Phillippe. 

Corporals— John H. Richards. 

David W. Huber, 
Michael Herther, 
Jacob L. Hay, 
Meising Kutzler, 
Joseph Kobb, 
Edward B. Leibensperger, 
William Leibensperger, 
Charles Miller, 
George Miller, 
John Miller. 
John Moutz, 
Adam Ruff, 
Thomas Rothrock, 
Joseph Reese, 
John Straub, 
Edwin Sandt, 

2ls — Charles Knapp. 

Daniel Hunt. 

George W. Barron. 

Frederick Tacke. 

Patrick Kaegan. 

Henry Froelich. 

Nicholas Lingeman. 
ms — Franklin Leidy. 

Jacob Bitzer. 

Adam Schickley, 
Jacob Shickley, 
Frederick Steckley, 
Edward Smith, 
Charles Stump, 
Patrick Swany, 
Frederick Troxell, 
Richard Templin, 
Jesse Walter, 
Joseph Walter, 
Levi Wagner, 
John Woolbach, 
William E. Well, 
Solomon Walter, 
Charles Yonson, 
William Yutz. 


Corporals — Valentine Vannornian. 
George E. Sciple. 
" Andrew J. Knauss. 

William Richard. 

" Martin Kichline. 

Peter Campbell. 

Jacob Bryson. 

Musicians— PhWip Bruch. 

" Edward Barnet. 


William Brady, Robert E. Godshalk, Leander Roberts, 

John I. Bell, William P. Gould, Edward Roseberry, 

Peter H. Barnes, Peter Gorman, Edward Ricker, 

Thomas Bishop, John Grotz, James Raub, 

Nelson Bishop, Henry Heller, William Raub, 

George H. Barron, Edward Heckman, Robert Roling, 

John H. Bruch, William Heckman, John H. Schwab, 

Henry C. Barnet, Alfred Hart, Roseberry Seip, 

George H. Barnet, Charles A. Hilburn, John H. Seiple. 

Francis Buck, Wesley Howell, John Sloan, 

Charles Barnet, William H. Hartzell, William B. Titus, 

William Bercaw, Edward Jones, William Trin, 

John Barnet, William Kressler, Samuel Unangst, 

William H. Drake, Peter Mulhatan, George Worman, 

Alpheus Frey, Alexander Reichard, Charles W. Weber, 

Edward Frey, Oscar Rohn, Robert Youells, 

Joseph Green, Thomas J. Roberts, Joseph Young. 

The regiment was mustered into service July 3, 1863, and discharged August 7, 1863. 




Easton was also represented in the Twenty-seventh Regiment Penna. Emergency 
Troops, mustered into service June 19, 1863, and discharged July 30 and August i, 1863. 
Major, George L. Fried. 

Captain — Joseph Oliver. 
First Lieutenant —k\\\n Meeker. 
First Sergeant — Joseph S. Osterstock. 
Sergeants — Adam Ward. 

William Ginkinger. 
Edward Alsfelt. 


Joseph B. W. Adams, 
William Andrews, 
James O. Barnet, 
Thomas Bullman, 
Samuel V. Bonstein, 
Benjamin Bruuner, 
John F. Buttner, 
William H. Correll, 
Henry Coburn, 
Charles W. Cole, 
John J. Decker, 
Matthew Donahue, 
Joseph Heudricson, 
Bathauser Hefter, 

Sergeants — Thomas Malcolm. 
Cor/>ora/.y— Sidney L. Uhler. 
" Frederick Bomman. 

William H. Wolverton. 
Simon H. Frock. 
Musician — George F. Willauer. 

Edward Harrison, 
Calvin Horn, 
Oliver Hogarth, 
Warren H. Joline, 
William Lehn, 
John M. Lewis, 
George Lox, 
Charles Lewis, 
John Miller, 
William Moore, 
William M'Fadden, 
William L. Nicholas, 
Port Nicholas, 

Henry C. Newman, 
William Otto, 
Robert Patterson, 
William Roseberry, 
Charles Sigman, 
Peter S Snyder, 
Samuel H. Slifer, 
Valentine Smith, 
James Todd, 
Arthur Troxsell, 
Jacob N. Thatcher, 
George Wolf, 
Walter L. Wycoff. 

These troops performed valuable service in strengthening the borders of the State, 
and assuring confidence not only to the armies in the immediate front of the enemy, but 
to all loyal citizens throughout the country-. 

The Twenty-seventh Emergency, commanded by Col. Jacob G. Frick, late of the 
One Hundred and Twenty-ninth Penna. Vols., guarded the line of the Susquehanna 
against the rebel advance. On June 28, at Wrightsville, he was attacked in force by the 
rebel General Early. His skirmishers were driven in and the rebel artillery posted in 
commanding positions, opened fire. Without artillery, he was at the mercy of the foe 
bent upon the capture of the Columbia bridge. Still he stubbornly held his ground, until 
outnumbered, outflanked and likely to be captured he ordered his small force, the Twenty- 
seventh Penna. Vols., to retire across the bridge. When its possession by the rebels became 
inevitable, the bridge, in accordance with previous instructions, was fired. In the skir- 
mish before the withdrawal of the regiment nine men were wounded. 

The Thirty-eighth Militia after service in the neighborhood of Greencastle, near the 
Maryland line, was ordered to Pottsville and other points in the anthracite coal fields of 
Pennsylvania, where they were employed in enforcing authority. 

Many of these men had been in service before. Their presence gave great moral sup- 
port to the Union army, and it has been well said, that had that army been defeated at 
Gettysburg, they would have taken the places of the fallen, and would have fought with 
a valor and desperation worthy of veterans. 



Northampton Welcomes Her Brave Sons. 

The committee, of which Hon. Philip Johnson was chairman, consisting of two or 
more from each borough and township, appointed at a county meeting called in June, 1863, 

met at Easton on the third day of July, and made 
preliminary arrangements, and adopted a pro- 
gramme of reception. As the regiment repre- 
sented all parts of the county the interest was 
proportionate, and old Northampton was thor- 
oughly aroused by the welcome to be given to the 
command so peculiarly her own. Its service had 
been watched by the people of the county with 
intense interest. The individual fortunes of its 
members had been closely followed in town and 
country, at firesides nestled in the spurs of South 
Mountain or at the base of the Blue Ridge, and 
in the fertile valleys between. As will be seen 
by the resume of its history, gathered mainly from 
Bates' History ofthePenna. Volunteers, its friends 
during its career had no lack of varied and exci- 
ting news. 

After muster-in the regiment under command 
of the regimental officers already named, proceeded 
to Washington on October 12, where, after a so- 
journ of a few days at the Capital, it was ordered 
to join the Eleventh Corps, then in the neigh- 
borhood of Gainesville, and was assigned to the 
First Brigade, First Division. On Sunday, No- 
vember 9, the brigade was ordered to Aldie, and 
remained there confronting the enemy until No- 
vember 18, when it moved to Chantilly. On De- 
cember 9th it was hurried forward by a most ex- 
hausting march to Stafford Court House, where 
it arrived December 16, the great Fredericksburg 
disaster of December 13 having meanwhile oc- 
curred. Here in picket and guard duty time 
passed until January 20, 1863, when it took part in 
the Mud March, and then settled into winter quar- 
ters near Potomac Creek bridge. Considerable 
sickness prevailed during the winter and some 
died, and others were permanently disabled. 

We hail the heroes' safe return 
To home and friends again, 
And mourn with tears of sympathy 
The gallant patriots slain. 


The regiment was early astir on April 27, and on April 30 at 4 p. m. arrived on the 
Chancellorsville battleground, and after a quiet night's rest, and some movement during 


May I to threatened points, it was stationed on the extreme right of the line of the army 
more as a close skirmish line than as a regular line of battle. While in this position, its 
men standing at ease, it was the first regiment to receive what proved to be the last mas- 
terly flank attack of Stonewall Jackson in massed columns. This was its first experience 
in battle, but it delivered a deadly volley, and then overpowered in front and upon both 
flanks, broke to the rear, and with the fragments of the brigade retired rapidly until it 
could reform on open ground to the west of Chancellorsville. Before the swooping charge 
of Jackson's heavy columns, formed as they were, they could not but be scattered as straws 
before a whirlwind. The regimental loss was heavy. Colonel Glanz was taken prisoner, 
and Lieutenant Colonel Dachrodt* wounded. IMajor Frueauff, relieved at his request from 
staff duty, assumed command. In skirmish line the regiment was thrown out to meet the 
advancing enemy the next morning. Musketry and artillery firing continued throughout 
the day, but the brigade held its position until the night of May 5, when it withdrew with 
the army and returned to its camp at Potomac creek bridge. The regiment lost in the 
entire battle nineteen men killed, three officers and fifty-three men wounded, and thirty- 
three prisoners. Of these Col. Glanz, captured, Lieut. Col. Dachrodt, wounded, Major 
Frueauff, wounded ; Privates David Abel, Joseph Hetzler and Messiah Transue wounded ; 
Charles C. Warner, captured. All of Co. E were from Easton. 


The march toward Pennsylvania commenced June 12, 1863, and on June 16, amid 
the great rejoicing of the men. Colonel Glanz rejoined the regiment, but was too much 
enfeebled by the hardships of his imprisonment to resume command. On June 30 the corps 
had arrived at Emmittsburg, and on the following morning moved towards Gettysburg to 
the sound of the enemy's guns. The brigade passed through the town, at 1.30 p. M. 

NoTE.^Extract from a letter of Colonel Charles Glanz, headed Annapolis, May 27, 1863, and published in 
the Easton Free Press of June 4, 1863 '■ * * "At our retreat through the woods, which were covered 
with killed and wounded and swarming with the rebels advancing, I was surrounded, nearly at the edge of the 
woods, and near the new road which had been cut in the forenoon in case of retreat, and taken to a little farm- 
house in front of us and placed between the two chimneys under guard. * * I sat down worried and 
tired and thinking about my unpleasant position. The artillery was firing steadil}' and all at once the one 
chimney came crashing down and the heavy stones falling right and left and injuring my right ear and bruising 
my head. * * Shortly after I was taken with about fift}' other captives eight miles to the rear. It was 
here I saw Gottlieb Heintzelman of South Easton, wounded by a shot through his breast. * * The 

rebel ladies, of whom there were six or seven at the house, addressed us prisoners in bitter terms, hoping this 
would be a good lesson for us, and that we would do better in the future and not come to Virginia again. The 
next morning we (now about three thousand) were marched at a quickstep about fifteen miles and then to Guin- 
ney's Station, and then taken to Richmond, at Libby Prison, on Maj- 7, after receiving the most insulting lan- 
guage from women and boys and rowdy gents. At Ashland they had posted about one hundred negro children 
to insult us, and the so-called ladies of this little aristocratic town were using the most abusive language toward 
us. We all considered it beneath our dignity to notice such treatment." 

Colonel Charles Glanz was born at Walkenried, in the Dukedom of Brunswick, Germany, in 1823. He emi- 
grated to America in 1845 and after some stay in Philadelphia and Pottsville, settled at Ea,ston. In July, 1857, 
he was appointed Consul at Stettin, on the Baltic, but compelled by business growing at home resigned the posi- 
tion in 1S59. Ilis military record has been noted. He died in Easton July 25, iSSo, and his remains were escorted 
to the cemetery by his old companions in arms, and his many personal friends who ever remember him as a 
genial whole-souled man. 

*Portraits of Col. Glanz and I^ieut. Col. Dachrodt will be found on page 252 of this History. 


halted at the Poor House to deposit knapsacks, and was then ordered to advance at double 
quick and dislodge the enemy from a piece of woods to the right. The advance was made 
in gallant style, but the enemy in heavy force was advancing on all sides, and as it was 
losing fearfully, with no hope of advantage, the brigade was ordered back, and with the 
corps, soon afterward retreated through the town to take a position on Cemetery Hill. 
During the second day of July the artillery fire was very severe, and toward evening the 
enemy in a heavy column charged upon the position held by the brigade. In spite of the 
artillery fire and showers of bullets from well-poised muskets, on they came, crossing the 
low stone wall and rushing among the guns. It was now a hand-to-hand conflict. Clubs 
and stones were freely used when muskets were not available. A foremost rebel threw 
himself over the muzzle of a cannon, calling out " I take command of this gtin." " Dit 
soHst sie haben^'' was the curt reply of the sturdy German gunner, as he fired the piece, 
and blew him to atoms. Later it aided in the capture of two hundred and ninety prisoners 
and nearly three hundred stand of arms. The loss in the entire battle was one officer, Lieut. 
W. H. Beaver, and ten men killed, eight officers and one hundred and eight men wounded, 
and one hundred and eighty-eight men missing ; an aggregate of three hundred and eight. 
The casualties among the members of Company E were Captain John P. Ricker, wovmded. 
Sergeant William F. Snyder, captured. Corporals Jacob Christian and Lewis Fraunfelder, 
wounded. Van Selan Walter and Noah Dietrich, captured, and Privates Sidney B. Brei- 
dinger, William Miller, killed, Joseph Andrew, Levi S. Brady, Tobias Bauer, Jacob Jacoby, 
Joseph Norton, John Stecker, Samuel B. Smith, Levi F. Walter and Peter Yeager, 
Jr., wounded, Christian Dick, William Deahl, George Heffling, Edward Hayden, Valen- 
tine Messinger, John S. Newbrandt, Frank Smith and Richard J. Walter, captured. 

The regiment marched by Emmittsburg to Funkstown in pursuit of the flying rebels. 
On July 14 orders were received for its discharge and it moved by Frederick City and Bal- 
timore to Harrisburg, where, on July 24, it was mustered out of service. Its brigade 
commander, Colonel Von Gilsa said, when taking leave of it : " I am an old soldier, but 
never did I know soldiers, who with greater alacrity and more good will endeavored to 
fulfil their duties. In the battle of Chancellorsville you, like veterans, stood your ground 
against fearful odds, and although surrounded on three sides, you did not retreat until by 
me commanded to do so. In the three days' battle of Gettysburg your behavior put many 
an old soldier to the blush, and you are justly entitled to a great share of the glory which 
my brigade has won for it&elf, by repulsing the two dreaded Tiger Brigades of Jackson. 
In the name of your comrades of the First Brigade and myself, I now bid you farewell." 

(From Bates' History, P. V.) 

Captain — John P. Ricker. Corporals — ^Jacob Christian, 

First Lieutenant — Christian H. Rehfuss. " Lewis Fraunfelder, 

Second Lieutenant— ]er^vQ\ih.V)\e\.'nch. " Van Selan Walter, 

" Paul Bachschmid. " Nathaniel Michler, 

First Sergeants — Theodore R. Combs, " Abraham G. Snyder, 

Andrew Burt, " George W. Snyder, 

Adam Reisinger. " Noah Dietrich, 

Sergeants— '^WXxaxa. F. Snyder, " Edwin Brinker. 

Andrew J. Hay, Musicians — Samuel E. Lerch, 

" John Bittner, " Darius Thomas. 
" Amadeus D. Snyder. 


Joseph Andrew, 
David Abel, 
Reuben Abel, 
Levi S. Brady, 
Edward Boadwee, 
Samuel Ball. 
Edward Bonden, 
Thomas T. C. Brady, 
Tobias Bauer, 
Adam Bonden, 
Sidney R. Bridinger, 
Joseph Cole, 
Charles H. Derr, 
Christian Dick, 
William Dachrodt, 
William Dreahl, 
George Ellhart, 
William Entlich, 
Simon Engel, 
Edwin Ealer, 
Pearson Flight, 
Reuben Faucht, 
Peter Glass, 
William Geiger, 
Peter Hart, 



John Q. Hay, 
George Heffling, 
Edward Haj'den, 
Charles Immich, 
Jacob Jacoby, 
John Johnson, 
Thomas Kichline, 
Moyer Kohn, 
John Kisselbach, 
William Koch, 
Edward Lear, 
Peter Lear, 
Francis Leidy, 
Valentine Messinger, 
Aaron Messinger, 
John Mertz, 
William Martin, 
John H. Moser, 
Henry Mutchler, 
William Miller, 
William Moyer, 
John S. Newbrandt, 
Joseph Norton, 
Edward Osterstock, 
John J. Paxon, 
Emil Robst, 

Jacob Rasener, 
John A. Schug, 
John Stecher, 
Alexander Schug, 
August Stumpel, 
Samuel B. Smith, 
Frank Smith, 
John Saylor, 
William T. Sandt, 
Theodore Snj-der, 
Theodore Schug, 
Messiah Transue, 
Geo. W. Vanosten, 
Richard J. Walter, 
Charles C. Warner, 
Abraham K. Woodring, 
Levi F. Walter, 
James E. Wilson, 
Augustus Wagner, 
Ephraim Werkheiser, 
Isaac Writtenberg, 
Peter Yeager, Jr. 
Charles A. Vouch, 
John Voung, 
John Zeller. 


Saturday, July 25, 1862, was a day long to be remembered by the citizens of North- 
ampton County. On that day the friends of the 153d Regiment bade them " Welcome 
Home !" and gave them a reception worthy of their gallant deeds. We gather mainly 
from the History of Northampton County the following report of the reception : 

"On that day the people gathered together from their workshops, their stores and their 
farms to receive a gallant band of patriots, who, nine months before entered the service of 
their country to aid in crushing out the rebellion, and well did they act their part and 
nobly did they do their duty. Many a gallant member of that band who then left their 
homes, their firesides and their friends, with high hopes and expetlations and looked for- 
ward to a safe return to that home and fireside 'now sleep that sleep that knows no 
waking' on the field of Chancellorsville, in Virginia, and on the bloody field of Gettys- 
burg, in his own native State, Pennsylvania. The thrill of joy the arrival of the regiment 
brought to some has been counter-balanced by the pangs of anguish it has brought to 
others, who have lost their friends and relatives — and they are many. At an early hour 
in the morning after it had been announced, on the previous evening, that the regiment 
would arrive in Easton and handbills had been sent throughout the county, the citizens of 
Easton began their preparations for making a grand display, and flags, banners, and ever- 
greens, were brought into requisition to add to the reception. At eight o'clock the town 
was decorated with flags from one end to the other, from the housetops and across the 
streets. The citizens began to fill the streets, and every avenue leading to Easton was 



thronged with carriages, teams, omnibuses, etc., loaded with people from the country, 
The hotels were filled, and the conveyances blocked up the streets so much that pas- 
sage was next to an impossibility. The residences and stores along Northampton street 
were beautifully decorated with festoons of evergreens and mottoes of ' Welcome Home, 
Heroes of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg,' 'Gallant 153d,' 'Welcome Home,' &c. 
On the top of the hill, on Northampton street, large flags and banners entwined with 
evergreens, stretched from the opposite housetops to the large pole, made an imposing dis- 
play, as also at the stores of Mr. William H. Kunsman and others. As the time of the 
arrival of the train approached, everybody made for South Third street, and by the time 
the cars came in sight the street was a struggling mass of humanity. The Provost Guard 
and the soldiers under command of Captain Titus, endeavored to keep the streets clear, 
but it was an impossibility. 

" Many of the country people, in their anxiety to see their friends, also crowded across 
the bridge, and from the depot to the square at least five thousand persons had assembled. 
At 10 o'clock the cannon on Mt. Jefferson announced their arrival, and then the scene 
became indescribable. Such a rush and such a scramble for the depot we never beheld. 

' ' After the regiment had left the cars they marched to the South Easton road and formed 
into line, and headed by Colonel Glanz and several of the staff officers, they marched across 
the bridge, where they were received by the procession announced in the programme, and 
under the direction of the Chief Marshal, Thomas W. Lynn, and his assistant marshals, 
marched to the Square, around the Circle, and up Northampton street to the Fair building. 

" All along the route the streets, housetops, and windows were filled with people, and 
amid the waving of handkerchiefs and the loud huzzas their march was a perfe(fl triumph, 
and calculated to cheer the hearts of the brave soldiers. Friends and relatives crowded 
in upon them, and to attempt to describe the affecflionate scenes along the route would be 
futile. The soldiers looked begrimed with war, fatigued and sunburnt, and presented a 
far different appearance to what they did when they left home. 


" The procession entered and halted, the right extending toward the east gable of the 
building until the regiment and train of wounded passed in review and drew up in front 
of the speaker's stand, around which the vast crowd gathered. 

"From this stand Hon. Philip Johnson delivered an address of welcome, from which 
we make the following extracts : 

"Officers and Men of the 153d Regiment : On behalf of your citizens of Northampton 
county I bid you a hearty welcome home. 

"Thrice welcome noble remnant of a brave and gallant band. 

" ' We hail the heroes' safe return, 
To home and friends again, 
And mourn with tears of sympathy, 
The gallant patriots slain.' 

" Little less than a year ago it was announced by the President of the United States 
that in order to fill up the ranks of the army it would be necessary for a draft to be made 
of a certain number of the able-bodied citizens of the several States. 



" Pennsylvania was assigned her quota, and so of the several counties. Northampton 
had already given many of. her brave sons to the war, and it was evident that the enforce- 
ment of a draft, at that season of the year, for the quota required, would be attended with 
a good deal of distress and very general inconvenience to our people. 

" At this crisis you came forward and magnanimously volunteered your services at 
once to relieve your fellow citizens of the draft and take their places in the army to fight 
their battles, endure whatever such service might impose, and above all to contribute 
your services and sufferings, your health, and, if need be, your lives to the support of the 
Constitution, the Government, and the Flag of your Country. 

" How you have discharged these duties, your decimated ranks, your tattered and 
torn banners, and your long train of scarred and wounded companions, and the bloody 
fields of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg too well disclose. 

"How your services are appreciated by your friends at home, this immense throng, 
summoned by a few hours notice of your arrival, at this busy season of the year, bears 
ample testimony. 

"Officers and men, one and all, once more I bid you a hearty welcome home. 

"At the conclusion of his speech he was heartly cheered. 

"Colonel Glanz, in reply, stated that the officers and men of the regiment were very 
grateful for the honor their fellow citizens had done for them, and he was very sorry that 
his health was so poor, and he was so much exhausted that he could not respond at length. 

" Edward J. Fo.x, Esq., Chairman of the Committee on Collation, then addressed the 
regiment, briefly alluding to the gallant manner in which they had volunteered to extend 
their term of service until the last rebel invader should be expelled from the State, and 
announced that their fellow citizens had prepared a collation for them which he invited 
them to partake of. 

" Under the diredlion of Major Thomas W. Lynn, Chief Marshal, the regiment then 
marched into the fair building and were seated ; the wounded unable to walk were carried 
in and cared for. 

"The collation, which was got up by the citizens, assisted by some of their country 
friends, and arranged by a committee of ladies, was a splendid affair, and consisted of 
poultry and various meats, bread, butter, cheese, etc., with warm coffee, ice water, and 
lager beer. 

"The building is one hundred and si.xty feet long, and there were four tables set, 
e.Ktending the whole length of the building, with seats upon each side of the tables. As 
soon as they were seated, Henry Green, Esq., who had been appointed to preside at the 
latter, proceeded to address them, but after a few minutes he remarked that he knew the\- 
had had nothing to eat since the evening previous, and inasmuch as he could not be at all 
satisfactorily heard because of the immense crowd of people that were gathered around 
them and into the second story building, he must not trespass upon them. A beautiful 
poem was written for the occasion by S. L. Cooley, Esq. We regret that its length will 
not permit its publication here. 

" It was with great difficulty that the crowd could be kept out of the building so as to 
enable the ladies and gentlemen who waited upon the men to attend to their duties. A 
guard had to be stationed at the doors, and, although some of the country friends com- 
plained a little, it was a military ni'cessitv they had to submit to. 


" After the regiment had finished their dinner, the returned volunteers, under Captain 
Titus, and Provost Guard, Captain Maguire, and citizens generally, finished the feast. 


"The music of Coates' Cornet Band, upon the speaker's stand, then announced that 
something else was to be done, and soon the soldiers and citizens gathered around. 

"Here the splendid new sword, purchased by the regiment for Colonel Glanz, was 
formally presented to him, in behalf of the officers and men of the regiment, in a very 
neat and appropriate speech by Captain Howard J. Reeder, as follows : 

"Colonel : After sharing the perils and hardships of a soldiers' life for ten months 
we meet here this day for the purpose of saying farewell. We meet here as a regiment 
for the last time ; but, before we part, we desire to give this sword to our brave and noble 
commander, as a slight testimony of the high esteem and regard in which we hold him. 
The One Hundred and Fifty-third is now a thing that was. Its organization exists no 
longer ; but never will one member of that regiment forget its noble and gallant leader. 
Never! I say, until the life-blood ceases to ebb and flow through the channels of his 
earthly frame. 

"Colonel — take this sword ; it comes from the living and the dead. In it, not only 
do the living speak their gratitude, but those who lie beneath the soil of Chancellorsville 
and Gettysburg, raise their voices from the hollow of their tomb, and ask not to be for- 
gotten. Nobly have you done your duty ; faithfully have you obeyed your country's call, 
and well do we know when we give this sword that it will never be sheathed in a just, 
and never unsheathed in an unjust cause. 

" On receiving the sword, Colonel Glanz responded in a feeling manner, assuring his 
command of his high regard for them, his appreciation of their handsome present, and 
the memories that he would carry through life of their glorious service, and happy days 
of comradeship. That he felt it to be a high honor, that although foreign born, he had 
been seledled to command them, and regarded that moment as the proudest of his life. 

The large crowds of people gathered at so short notice and at such a busy season, 
proved in what estimate this regiment was held by the people of this county." 

The exigencies of the military service requiring more men, a draft for the distridl was 
held at Easton, on Monday, September 28, 1863. The envelopes were drawn from the 
wheel by Mr. Charles Bixler, a blind man, in the presence of a committee, composed of 
members of both political parties, and the names were announced by the Provost Marshal, 
Samuel Yohe, to the crowd assembled, who took the matter very good naturedly. The local 
papers of the day published long columns of the names of the drafted men, and of those 
who were exempt by disability and other causes. The nation was in the third year of 
the war. Its novelty had passed away, and proclamations for volunteers and calls for 
drafts in the fall and winter of 1863 were expedled as certainly as the needs of the service 
would demand them ; and in Easton, as in most other parts of the North, were looked upon 
as so much business of the nation, to be transatled in an orderly and impartial manner. 
The Provost Marshal, Samuel Yohe, Connnissioner of Board, Henry C. Wolfe, and other 
officers, were accorded great credit for firmness and impartiality. Great good humor, we 



are told, prevailed at the drawing, and whenever the name of a prominent individual was 
announced, it was greeted with cheers and laughter. It was condn(5led on an elevated 
platform in front of the office of the Provost Marshal at the southeast corner of Fifth and 
Northampton streets, so that all who chose could witness it and see that it was fairly done. 


On this day business of all kinds was suspended and appropriate religious services 
held in all the churches. News of a great victory over the rebel General Bragg, and the 
capture of many prisoners and arms, had been received early in the day, and with the 
Gettysburg triumph fresh in memory, all felt thankful that the crisis of the war was over, 
and that the rebellion thenceforth would be stridtly defensive, and must dwindle to certain 
defeat. The many families, with representatives in the ranks, and the patriotic allusions 
of the ministers, rendered the services peculiarly impressive. Heavy contributions were 
taken for the benefit of the Union prisoners at Richmond. 

A sumptuous dinner was given by the Ladies' Aid Society of the Methodist Church, 
assisted by ladies of other churches, to the invalid soldiers composing the Provost Guard 
stationed in Easton. It drew forth a hearty letter of thanks from the officers in com- 
mand, who stated that the Thanksgiving banquet at their barracks reminded them of 
their homes, and was an assurance that they were in the midst of friends. The kindly 
services of these ladies to the invalid soldiers were not limited to Thanksgiving day. 
They had been constant in their care of the sick and wounded of these soldiers of the 
Union, gathered from all commands, and unfit for aftive field service. The street parades 
of these veterans were a marked feature of the time, and a constant reminder of the great 
army in the front, from which from time to time, they had been detached by reason of 
wounds and other disabilities. 


In February, 1864, this regiment was ordered to Harrisburg to fill its ranks, depleted 
in the numerous engagements and severe campaigning of its long and honorable service. 
Companies B and K, with part of Company H, recruited in Easton, on their return on 
Tuesday evening, February 9, 1864, received a most flattering welcome. The Easton 
men in Company H had been recruited by Captain George Finley, who, when the regi- 
ment was being organized had endeavored to raise a third company from the borough. 
Upon failure to secure the requisite number of men they were consolidated with others 
from Union county, into Company H, under command of Captain J. Merrill Einn, of 

They were met at the depot by a large body of citizens, headed by Coates' Cornet 
Band, and escorted to Centre Square amid firing of cannon and ringing of church bells. 
Flags waved from the houses, and an immense throng crowded the streets to greet the 
returning heroes. After an appropriate welcome by Colonel W. E. Doster, a collation 
was given to them at the Phoenix Hall, whither they were conducfted and where they were 
again welcomed by Samuel L. Cooley, Esq. The substantial were heartily discussed by 
the soldierly looking men, and they separated highly pleased with their reception. 

Again they were handsomely entertained at a banquet at Masonic Hall, on Friday, 
February 12, presided over by. Hon. H. D. Maxwell. The Judge was heartily cheered 



during his speech on taking the chair, and the numerous toasts to the valor of the men 
were eloquently responded to by Hon. A. H. Reeder and others. The large attendance 
of citizens was loud in applause of the many incidents of their varied service since the 
departure of the volunteers, with the lamented Captain Ferdinand W. Bell, September 14, 
1 86 1. The muster rolls given are taken from Captain Parker's History of the regiment. 


ra/>/aiK— Ferdinand \V. Bell. 
Daniel L. Nicholas. 
First Lieutenant — John H. Genther. 

" " Valentine Stocker. 

Second Lieutenant— KoherX. M. Burrell. 

" " John \V. Meeker. 

First Sergeant — Samuel A. Apple. 
Sergeants — John W. Beam. 
" Alson Stocker. 

*' Conrad Swazer. 

Charles S. Knauss. 
William J. Osterstock. 
George W. Arndt. 
Corporals^]ohn M. Wein. 

Josiah Ackerman, 
Edward Apple, 
Joseph Arnold, 
William Albert, 
John F. Ackerman, 
Harrison Ackerman, 
William Andrews, 
Adam Buzzard, 
John W. Brunner, 
Abraham Babp, 
William H. Bachman, 
William L. Bowman, 
John Burns, 
George Boswell, 
Sebastian Bring, 
James Bisbing, 
William H. Brittain, 
John H. Buck, 
John Bowes, 
William H. Butz, 
Jackson Bullman, 
Philip Bond, 
Jonathan Brook. 
Charles Brown, 
James Bridges, 
William Colbath, 
Jeremiah Cheney, 
John L. Clifton, 
Philip Curtz, 
Israel Crocket, 
Allen J. Clifton, 
John Coff, 
George Crawford, 
Charles H.Chambers, 
Reuben Ilutter. 

Charles N. Gosner. 
John B. Godley, 
Lewis Group, 
Jacob Haas, 
William Haas, 
Edward Hill, 
Benjamin Hively, 
Edward Hardy, 
William Hufsmith, 
Theodore F. Hi.xon 
Michael Henning, 
Charles Hiney, 
Jeremiah Haines, 
John A. Halsted, 
William Henning, 
John \. Innes, 
John Judge, 
Charles W. Kinsey, 
Reuben Kresge, 
John Kustetor, 
Chris. Knauss, 
Emanuel Kresge, 
Lewis Kross, 
John A. Lee, 
John Lee, 
Thomas Leary, 
Aaron Lottig, 
Samuel Mershon, 
Thomas Marsteller, 
Thomas P. Miller. 
Chris. B. Myers, 
Peter Myers, 
Philip M. Mettler, 
Henry Mixell, 
William Moore. 

ror/>ora/i— Philip A. Barnet. 


Milton Ackerman. 
" Enos Schock. 

" Samuel F. Knapp. 

" Henry Schooley. 

" Benjamin F. -Ackerman. 

Matthew Delaney. 
" Thompson .Ackerman. 

" Samuel Moore. 

Edward Bullman. 
" George W. Moser. 

Musicians — ^John D. Knauss. 

Aimer Neigh. 

Adam Rufl", 
Charles Reed, 
John Seibert, 
Charles Sharp, 
Peter Scott, 
Henry Scott, 
Henry Samuels. 
James Shull, 
-■Andrew Snyder, 
Edwin P. Snyder. 
William Stocker, 
Stephen Smith, 
Abraham Shook, 
John S. Samsell, 
Simon Searfoss. 
William Searfoss, 
Henry Steintioff, 
John H. Schooley, 
James Snedeker, 
Jacob H. Sweeney. 
Charles Sheets. 
Thomas Sletor, 
William A. Smith, 
William Shick, 
John H. Seiple, 
Rudolph Steiner, 
William F. Strattford, 
John Stone, 
William Stewart, 
William L. Snyder, 
Joseph Titus, 
William Tomer, 
Henry Thompson, 
.\aron Thatcher, 

William H. Diehl, 
John H. Diehl, 
George Dulot, 
Courtland Dutt, 
Uriah Dole, 
George Dean, 
William Draher, 
Lawrence H. Delly, 
John Eichlin, 
William D. Everett, 
Joel L. Everett, 
Reading Fluck, 
Henry Furich, 
Peter Frautz, 
Gabriel Fay, 
Henry Gregory, 
Jacob W. Gosner, 
Daniel H. Gerhart, 
Jacob Gamber, 


PRIVATES— Continued. 
Thomas Moser, 
Thomas Miller, 
John Miller, 
Patrick McDonald, 
Titus McFall, 
Wilson McKeighan, 
T. J. Nicholas, 
Charles Newsbaum, 
John Nugent, 
John Obenholzer, 
James Pettit, 
George Paul, 
Henry Poff, 
William O. Rauch, 
John B. Reigle, 
Thomas P. Rickets, 
Charles Ricker, 
Benjamin J. Reily, 
Joshua Raub, 


Daniel W. Vannatta, 
Nicholas Woodring, 
Thomas Williamson, 
Gabriel Z. Wacht, 
Calvin L. Weaver, 
John Weidknecht, 
S. C. Weidknecht, 
Edward Weiss, 
Hiram Woodring, 
Henry Warner, 
George Walters, 
Samuel Warner, 
Cyrus Werkheiser, 
John Wilson, 
Isaac Wilson, 
Francis Young. 
Lewis H. Young, 
Stelio Zamaria. 


ra/>/o2n— John E. Titus. 

William S.Mellick. 
First Lieutenant — Jacob Fryburger. 

" " Jacob Hawk. 

First Sergeant— '\ W. Eichman 
Sergeants— ]ohrv C. Dittler. 
" Theo. Moser. 

Uriah F. Dean. 
Franklin S. Moyer. 

Amandus Atlee, 
George Buss, 
Henry A. Daily, 
Jacob Fortner, 
Henry Gangwere, 
Frank T. Grube, 
Daniel Herzog, 

George V. Holden, 
Edward H. Patterson, 
John Ritter, 
Philip Richards, 
Erwin Richards, 
Francis Reedy, 
Samuel G. Stidinger, 

Corporals— Thfto. Odenwelder. 
" Francis Ludwig. 

*' Francis Tro.vell. 

Jacob F. Cole. 

John P. Huber. 
" John Sutton. 

Jacob Tru.xell. 

Daniel Troxell. 

Philip Richards. 

Frederick Schwep, 
Daniel Scheeks, 
Christian Scheeks, 
Lewis Singer, 
William H. Vogel, 
William Yates. 

As the names of the original members of the above companies disappeared from the 
rolls in the casualties of their long and severe campaigning their places were filled with 
new men, many of whom had been drafted. This will account for the long roll of Com- 
pany B. Scattered through the other company rolls of the regiment the names of Easton 
volunteers appear. Company E, Dietrich Beckman and others not designated. 


The 51st P. V. was organized at Harrisburg, late in September, 1861, under the 
supervision of Colonel John F. Hartranft, an officer who rose through his fine soldierly 
qualities and distinguished record to be a Major General of volunteers, and in civil life, 
subsequently, was twice eledled Governor of the Commonwealth. 

The regiment left Camp Curtin, November 18, 1861, and until its embarkation with 
the Burnside Expedition on January 6, 1862, was quartered near Annapolis and en- 
gaged in constant drill under the eye of its active and skilful commander. In the 


engagement on Roanoke Island, the Newbern Expedition, and the movement near Eliza"- 
beth City, Companies B and K were acftive and with the regiment took part in the second 
Bnll Run battles, and on September 3, marched through Washington for the Antietam 
campaign. Its part in the South Mountain fight and the great battle of Antietam, on 
September 17, and its famous storming of the Bridge, are bright pages in the history of 
the war. The gallant charge at Fredericksburg, in which Captain Ferdinand W. Bell 
fell at the head of his command, was its last fight with the Army of the Potomac, before 
its departure for Kentucky, on March 25, 1863. 

Captain Parker in his interesting history of the 51st P. V. says of this Fredericksburg 
battle, " The position assigned the regiment was diredlly in face of more than a mile of 
earthworks, behind which lay thousands of rebels, who kept up incessant volleys of mus- 
ketry, and their batteries, volleys of grape and canister, to say nothing of the rifle shells 
that passed through the ranks, and went screeching and whizzing through the air. It 
was here that Captain Ferdinand W. Bell, of Company B, was killed, whose loss was most 
seriously felt by all in the regiment, and particularly in his company. He was an ac- 
complished and unassuming gentleman, a good disciplinarian, a true patriot, and as 
fearless as he was gentle." 

The same book, in referring to the skirmish drill and bayonet e.xercise by regiment and 
company, praises Company B, and its Captain, as follows: "There did not e.xist a com- 
pany in the whole expedition (Roanoke) that could vie with Captain Bell's Company B, 
in the bayonet exercise. Every lunge, parry and carte, were performed with so much 
promptness and precision, that it looked more like automatic machine work than that of 
men moving by will. Other companies also did well, especially Company D, but none 
had the training that Company B had, nor did another drill-master exist in the regiment, 
as was Ferdinand W. Bell ; very explicit in his instru(ftions, firm in his commands, cor- 
real in his orders and movements, and who could not be persuaded to believe a soldier had 
a right to make a mistake, and so heartily did his ' boys ' concur in his opinions that they 
made no mistakes.'' 

On December 14, 1862, the day after the death of Captain Bell, his place was filled 
by the promotion of Lieutenant Daniel L. Nicholas,* who had served in the First U. S. 
Dragoons in the Mexican War, and who was an earnest and heroic soldier. Under his 
command the company did its full share in the great battles which won for the regiment 
the sobriquet of " The Fighting Fifty-first." 

Lieutenant John H. Genther was transferred to the Quartermaster's Department, with 
the rank of Captain. 

In the historic siege of Vicksburg, and campaigning about Kno.xville, time passed 
until January 5, 1864, when it re-enlisted and returned home on a veteran furlough. Its 
subsequent career, as a Veteran regiment, was no less distinguished. Returning with 
recruited ranks, on May 5, 1864, it crossed the Rapidan to enter upon the stubborn and 
successful fighting under Grant, in the great movement by the left flank to Cold Harbor. 
On June 17, it was in front of Petersburg, and at once was engaged at close quarters, at 
one time for seventeen successive days and nights, in an unceasing fire of musketry, one- 
third of the men being constantly employed. It was part of the storming column at the 

* Captain Nicholas died November 3, 1887, and was buried on the Sunday following with the honors of war 
by his ronirades of the Grand Army of the Republic. 


Crater, inarched to the relief of tlie ill-fated Warren iu August, was in the final attack of 
April 2, 1865, which resulted in the fall of Richmond, and closed the most brilliant of 
regimental careers, on July 27, when after four years of arduous duty, extending over 
the whole line from the Atlantic to the Mississippi, it was mustered out of service at 
Alexandria, Virginia. 


CoiHpaiiv B. — Killed, Captain Ferdinand W. Bell; Corporal Edward Bullmau. Privates, killed, John F. 
Ackerman, Harrison Ackerman, Philip Bond, William Dreher, Wm. F. Stratford, Cyrus Werkheiser. Wounded, 
Corporal Charles W. Kinsey. Privates, wounded, Henry Furich, Gabriel Fay, Edward Hardy, George Paul. 
Captured, Corporal, Matthew Delany ; privates, William Albert, Jonathan Brook, George Crawford, Courtlandt 
Dutt, Lewis Group, Henry Meixsell. 

Company E. — Wounded, Sergeant George Diehl. 

Company H. — Wounded, Corporal H. J. Lingerman, Wounded, Private Anthony Weisinbach. 

Company K. — Wounded, First Lieutenant, Jacob Fryberger. Killed, Sergeant Franklin S. Moyer ; Cor- 
poral, Jacob Troxell. Wounded, Corporal, Theodore Odenwelder, John P. Huber. Privates, killed, Frederick 
Schwep, Daniel Scheeks. Privates, wounded, Jacob Fortner, William T. Rundis, Alfred Schilling, John Wine- 
garden, William Yates. 


The survivors of this gallant band were accorded a most hearty and enthusiastic 
reception by the citizens of Easton, on Tuesday evening, June 14, 1864. Coates' Cornet 
Band headed the procession from the depot, and the veterans, many of whom were suf- 
fering from wounds, were seated in carriages kindly furnished by the Seitz Brothers. 
After marching through the principal streets, a halt was made in front of White's Hotel 
in the northeast corner of the Square, where they were welcomed in a very neat and 
appropriate speech by Colonel Baldy. After cheers for the veterans, the Governor, and 
the President, there was a general handshaking between the soldiers and the citizens. 

Reference has already been made in these pages to the origin and record of the 
Reserves. Under the recruiting of Captain John J. Horn, and Ivieutenant afterwards by 
promotion. Captain Francis Schelling, who had seen service in the nth U. S. Infantry 
in the Mexican War, and Lieutenant Edward Kelly, volunteers were raised in Easton, 
who, on the organization of the regiment, 41st P. V., called 12th Pennsylvania Reserves, 
July 25, 1861, formed Company E, whose muster roll we have already given with the 
notice of their departure for Camp Curtin. After some days guard duty about the public 
buildings in Harrisburg the regiment was ordered to join the Third Brigade of the 
Reserves at Tenallytown, near Washington. This it did on August 20, 1861, and was 
engaged in camp drills until October 10, when it marched into Virginia, and on December 
20 joined in the advance on Drainesville, where it was engaged with slight loss. On 
March 10, with the army, it moved towards Manassas, and on the retreat of the rebels, 
bivouacked, without shelter, and exposed to intense cold and rain and snow storms. 
After doing some detached guard service the regiment, on May 6, joined its division at 
Falmouth. The Peninsular campaign had now opened, and the Reserves were conveyed 
by transports to the White, on June 14, and after picket duty and marching, on the morn- 
ing of the 26th assisted in driving the rebels back by their steady fire at Ellerson's Mill, 
near Cold Harbor. Colonel Taggart of the 12th held his position until near daylight and 
then withdrew under orders. Two days later, the men from constant alarms, having had 


little sleep or refreshment, the regiment moved to Gaine's Mills, and under a heavy fire 
for three hours defended the guns and drove the rebels back. Next morning it moved, 
guarding long lines of the Reserve artiller>-, and at night was on picket duty near the 
James river. Next day saw it near Malvern Hill where it arrived at daybreak, after a 
hand to hand conflic?t with the rebels, who poured upon its flanks in immense force. 
Here in reserve they saw the heavy shells thrown far inland from the gun boats, the suc- 
cessive rebel charges, and the deadly fire from the Reserve batteries. On the repulse of 
the rebels, the Reserves again on transports, joined the army of General Pope, and took 
part with great credit in the second Bull Run battle, and on September 17, under General 
McClellan on the field of Antietam. The Reserves were selected to lead in the advance 
upon the rebel lines and were engaged in heavy skirmishing on the Bowling Green road. 
The loss to the regiment here was heav>-. In February, 1863, the regiment, now much 
reduced, occupied the defences of Washington, and for six weeks performed provost duty 
in that city. It joined the main army moving on Gettysburg at Frederick, and reached 
that field at 10 h. M. on July 2, and was hurriedly moved to the vicinity of Little Round 
Top. After frequent change of position during the afternoon in support of troops it com- 
menced and completed during the night a stone wall connecting the sunmiit of Round 
Top with that of Little Round Top. The enemy could be distinctly heard at the same 
time building a parallel wall near the foot of the hill. This was held during the next 
day, in full view of the charge of cavalry under General Kilpatrick on the left, and the 
rebel General Pickett's grand charge upon the left centre. On the morning of the 4th 
rebel bayonets gleamed above the stone wall, but the rebels themselves had departed, and 
the ruse was soon detecfted and the muskets brought in. Pursuit commenced upon the 
5th, and in the campaign following, the 12th was engaged at Bristow Station on October 
14, Rappahannock Station on November 19, and Mine Run on November 26. 

The winter passed in duty on the line of the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, in 
close picket duty and with frequent skirmishes. In May, 1864, with recruited ranks it 
entered upon the Wilderness campaign, and was closely engaged in its heavy fights until 
May 30, 1864, when its time expired, and it was ordered to Harrisburg, where, on June 
II, 1864, it was mustered out after three years of faithful service. 

Lieutenant Colonel Peter Baldy, promoted from Major, August i, 1862, was dis- 
charged, by reason of absence through sickness, February 15, 1863. 

Captain John J. Horn, in delicate health at his entry into service, was disabled to 
such a degree by its hardships as to be compelled to resign, February 17, 1S62. 


Company E. — Wounded, Captain Francis Schelling, Lieutenant Edward Kelly ; Sergeants, William Ruch, 
James Johnston, William F. Keller, William R. Kidd. Corporals, killed, George Darhammer, George Ketch- 
ledge, J. H. Messinger, William J. Kuchner ; wounded, Daniel H. Laubach. Privates, killed, Robert G. 
Barnes, Thomas Duffin, Charles Custard, William Dice, Josiah Edelman, Landers Everett, David H. Graham, 
Matthew Haas, William Handwork, Edward Leidy, George .A. Miller, Paul Roth, Thomas Ruth, George Walls ; 
wounded, James Devine, John May, Aaron E- Beisel, Leopold Beck 


In an engagement at Franklin, Tenn., in December, 1864, Captain Frank Reeder of 
this regiment was wounded. He was on January 26, 1865, promoted to Lieutenant 



Colonel, and later by order of the War Department to Brevet Brigadier General. Its 
Major, Norman M. Finlay, discharged Jnly 23, 1864, and First Lieutenant, Jonathan L. 
Fackenthall, who died at Memphis, on December 5, 1864, of disease contracted in service, 
were also from Easton, as were others whose names are scattered through the muster rolls 
of the different companies. The regiment was recruited in the summer and fall of 1863, 
at Camp Stanton, in Philadelphia, and upon its organization in November was ordered to 
Washington, and was shortly after forwarded to the army in the west. 

It was engaged in adlive campaigning while operating on the flank of General Sher- 
man's army in the movement against Vicksburg, and rendered efficient service in the des- 
truction of supplies intended for the 
rebel army. In April, 1864, by a suc- 
cession of rapid attacks, it delayed the 
rebel General Forrest in his march in 
force to Fort Pillow, but could not, by 
reason of its small number, prevent that 
shameless massacre. On July 4, it 
moved to Vicksburg, and thence to 
Little Rock, against the rebel General 
Sterling Price, and participated in en- 
gagements at Marion, Greensboro, Pilot 
Knob, Osage, and the Big Blue River. 
A sabre charge of the 19th had much 
to do with the latter viClory. After 
lively campaigning on the flank of the 
rebel General Hood it made a number 
of noted charges. One was memorable 
for the enthusiasm infused among the 
brave sabreurs by the music of " Rally 
Round the Flag, Boys" played by all 
the bands of the division, as it started 
in its successful onslaught upon the 
enemy. At Franklin, the driven enemy 
again made a determined stand behind 
a stone wall, but were flanked and 
again forced to retreat. In this fight 
three stands of colors and three hun- 
dred and fifty prisoners were captured, 
and among the wounded was Captain Frank Reeder. The rebel pursuit continued until 
they were finally defeated at Sugar Creek, in which fight the 19th dismounted, co-opera- 
ted with other forces. 

While in camp at Gravelly Springs, Alabama, a battalion of six companies was formed 
of the regiment decimated by heavy losses in battle and through disease, and on February 
8, 1865, under command of Lieutenant Colonel Frank Reeder, it embarked at Eastport 
for New Orleans, and arrived there on March 9, and moved to Baton Rouge where it was 

Frank Reeder, 
Col. igtli Pa. Cavalry. Br. Brig. Gene 



engaged in scouting and picket duty. Here on June 13 it was consolidated into four 
companies, and on July 25 defeated a detachment of the rebel Wirt Adams' command at 
Clinton. Until March it was employed in service against guerillas at different points, 
defeating them with heavy loss in January, 1866, and after performance of provost duty 
in New Orleans was on May 14, 1866, mustered out of service. Its loss in killed and 
wounded and disabled men in its varied campaigning was heavy. 


In the midst of a snow storm on December 20, 1864, this regiment, in whose ranks 
were two Companies, A and E, of Easton volunteers, marched through Winchester, Va., 
and went into winter quarters at Camp Fairview, near Charlestown. It had taken part 
in the grand movement of "Cavalry Sheridan," which turned defeat into vicftory and 
sent the rebel General Early "whirling up the valley" in Ocftober, 1864, and was compli- 
mented on the field by General Thomas for its gallant stand at Cedar Creek. Besides the 
volunteers recruited in Easton by Captains Richard A. Grseffe and Charles H. Yard, it 
had taken with it into service on its muster rolls in September, 1861, all of the members 
of Pomp's Cornet Band, an organization that had been from 1850 the life of the street 
parades of the borough, and was widely known for its high grade of music and artistic 
execution. Its director, Thomas Coates, to whom this reputation was due, besides being 
a performer of skill was a composer of celebrity, and many airs listened to in great cities 
by applauding crowds, were heard for the first time, and with favor, upon the streets of 
Easton. We give the rolls of the band and of the two Easton companies, as they appear 
in Bates' History P. V. 


Principal Musicians. — Wm. A. Heckman, Daniel D. Dachrodt. 

Leader of Band. — Thomas Coates. 

Musicians.— ]o'ini\ Alele, Gilbert M. Bissell, VVm. Q. Brotzman, Charles Eichman, Peter Garrecht, Henry Heusner, 
Frederick L.Jacobs, Henry H, M'Neal, William H. Nagle, Wm. H. Pomp, Sr., Wm. H. Pomp, Jr., Aaron Peterson, 
John Rupp, Mitch. J. Solomons, Peter Schwentzer, Edward F. Seigfried, James Tarrant, J. Eugene Walter. 



Captains — Richard A. Graeffe, 

" Adolphus Dennig. 

First Lieutenant — James F. Myers, 

" " John H. Stein. 

Second Lieutenant — William W. Belles, 
First Sergeant — Nicholas Reiser. 
Sergeants— ¥Ta.n. Mittenberger, 
Peter Batt, 
" Amos Jumper, 

William Hall, 
Frederick Hubel, 
" Bernard Brahler, 

William Ferer, 
Corporals — Charles Glasser, 
" Ma.x Slimmer, 

Corporals — Samuel Yonkins, 
" Levi Fraunfelder, 

" Reuben Raider, 

" Jacob Kohler, 

" James Haney, 

" Frederick Kagely, 

" Amandus Sandt, 

" George Rice, 

" William Sweitzer, 

John Savitz, 
" Jacob Beck, 

" Adam Lawrence, 

Musicians— ]Acoh Daub, 

" Wm. Williamson. 




Robert Adams, 
John Alder, 
Michael Andrews, 
Jacob M. Bower, 
James Barnett, 
Samuel Bauman, 
Joseph B. Bower, 
Anthony B. Bush, 
Daniel Battaghlia, 
William Borman, 
David R. Bills, 
Martin Baker, 
Andrew Bellis, 
George Bohn, 
Thomas J. Bower, 
Samuel E. Bridinger, 
George Bolian, 
Jeremiah Billheimer, 
Tobias Bower, 
Amandus Bellis, 
Lewis Bower, 
John Brensinger, 
John Bush, 
Elias Berlin, 
John Cohler, 
Jacob Gassier, 
Charles Coleman, 
Daniel S. Crawford, 
William Daub, 
Thomas Duffert, 
Michael Delaney, 
Samuel Danner, 
Charles Detweiler, 
John Deverin, 
Emanuel Eichman, 
John H. Everett, 
Henry Engle. 
Martin Eppler, 
Jacob Eckert, 
John Eppler, 
William Pagan, 
R. Fraunfelder, 
John W. Furman, 
Peter Fahey, 
Isaac Fleishhower, 
Abraham Fleisher, 
Adolphus Finster, 
Allen Faber, 
Daniel Friedewald, 
Clements Goodyear, 
Christian Gresser, 
Edwin T. Greening, 
Lewis Gebhart, 
Solomon Guildner, 
Hugo Goltz, 
Lawrence Gatence, 
Joseph Goodyear, 
George Hare, 

Lewis Hohn, 
George W. Hall, 
Jacob Herbert, 
Reuben Hartzell, 
George Hyde, 
Joseph Harle. 
Christian Haldeman, 
John Hawk, 
Willoughby Haflfner, 
Reinhold Hohn, 
Sidney Hahn, 
Nicholas Hoffman, 
Henry Hartman, 
John Q. Hay, 
Peter A. Henkle, 
John J. Jones, 
Richard Koenig, 
Stephen Knecht, 
Matthias Krotz, 
Missouri Kretzler, 
Peter Kern, 
John Krouenbetter, 
Myer Kohn, 
Henry Kline, 
Joseph Kline, 
Tilghman Keim, 
Frederick Keiser, 
James M. Keifer, 
Ambrose Koch, 
William S. Keen, 
Edwin Kidd, 
Owen C. Laub, 
Wm. Laughran, 
Peter Lewis, 
Moritz Lazius, 
Mahlon Raub, 
Henry Lingaman, 
Charles Lear, 
Augustus Loeffelman, 
Albert Like, 
Joseph Miller, 
John Muhl, 
Samuel Meyers, 
Daniel Moyer, 
George Muller, 
Joseph W. Myers, 
Joseph E. Messinger, 
Frederick E. Meyer, 
Stephen Moyer, 
Edward M'Glynn, 
Daniel M'Calla, 
Anton Muck, 
James R. Meldrum, 
Charles Miller, 
Francis Marsh, 
Christian Newhaus, 
Abraham Osterstock, 
Thos.H. O'Donald, 

John J. Paxson, 
Thos. C. Patterson, 
William Pucker, 
John Price, 
Jacob Paulus, 
John Paulus, 
John Phleger, 
Frederick Roesler, 
John Rupp, 
Thomas Rewark, 
Samuel Remaley, 
Powel Rarick, 
Charles Rufe, 
John Ross, 
Ferdinand Reel, 
W. H. Richardson, 
David Strauss, 
Peter C. Sleath, 
Edwin Schweitzer, 
Edwin C. Sandt, 
John Stem, 
Jefferson Stem, 
John Schlamb. 
Sidney Sandt, 
Llewellyn Sandt, 
Ira Schofield, 
Fred Sheniger, 
Nathan Seigfried, 
Stephen Schmidt, 
Peter Sandt, 
Wm. Schlechter, 
Charles Schnable, 
Matthias Stortz, 
John Schweitzer, 
Charles Stump, 
Lewis Schmohl, 
Lewis Sponheimer, 
Josiah Stocker, 
Josiah Sleeper, 
Theodore Sigman, 
Benneville Seibert 
John Sailor, 
John Tagg, 
Andrew Thoman, 
Jacob Trabold, 
Charles Unangst, 
John Unangst, 
Enos Unangst, 
John White, 
David Warrick, 

E. Werkheiser, 

F. Williamson, 
J. J. Werkheiser, 
Charles Weidknecht, 
Stephen Walter, 
Lewis Werkheiser, 
J. Williamson, 
Henry E. Wagner. 



Ca/>/ain— Charles H. Yard. 

William A. Bachman. 
First Lieutenant — Lawrence Bonstein. 

" George A. Diehl. 

Second Lieutenant — William H. Wyker 

Edw. W. Menner. 
First Sergeant — George R. Nicholas. 
" " George Hahn. 

Adam Ward. 
William Rockafellow. 
" " Benjamin Derr. 

First Sergeant— Owen J. Weida. 

William R. Cahill. 

" " Jacob F. Bonstein. 

" Samuel H. Barnes. 

Francis A. Parks. 

Corporal — George Steinmetz. 

" Thomas Callahan. 

John F. Walton. 
" Owen Moser. 

" Mosesjacoby. 

Henry Hallman. 

William Adams, 

Peter F. Allen, 

Henry L. Arnold, 

Charles Arnold, 

Henry Bassett, 

H. Bartholomew, 

David Broat, 

Isaac Burk, 

John D. Black, 

Joseph Brown, 

John Bruch, 

Andrew Bucher, 

Henry L. Beavers, 

Henry A. Bachman, 

M. Berksheimer, 

George W. Brooks, 

Andrew Burk, 

Thomas BuUman, 

George Benedict, 

Samuel Batt, 

Henry S. Coburn, 

Edward Clark, 

John Callahan, 

John Cnmmiskey, 

Jeremiah Cooper, 

George Coult, 

John Conigan, 

James Creig, 

John Cramer, 

Jacob Dean, 

William Deterline, 

Nathan Derr, 

Charles Dewey, 

John Dingier, 

Henry Duffin, 

Franklin Edinger, 

Joseph Engle, 

Edward A. Frey, 

George Fritz, 

Gideon Fritz, 

Peter Flynn, 

Charles H. Frey, 

George M. Falger, 

William H. Fowler, 

William A. Force, 

L. Frankenfield, 

Benjamin Fitzcharles, 

George Frederick, 

Reuben Golio, 

Oliver Graver, 

John Goodman, 

William Helwick, 
The length of the above company rolls 
the case of the Easton companies of the 5I! 
the omission of any worthy volunteers. 

Luther Horn, 
Daniel W. Hull, 
James Hughes, 
George Hahn, 
Jeremiah Haney, 
Daniel Houser, 
Henry H. Horn, 
Adam P. Heckman, 
Samuel T. Hudson, 
David W. Huber, 
Jacob Haggertv, 
Charles H. Hubbard, 
Richard Hahn, 
William Haggerman, 
Daniel F. Harkins, 
Jacob Hartzell, 
William Ivey, 
James Ihrie, 
Benjamin F. Jones, 
William M. James, 
Abraham Jacobus, 
W. Scott Johnson, 
Peter Kerkendall, 
John Kunker, 
J. iM. Kerkendall, 
Henry Kern, 
Matthias Kirkuff, 
Philip Keaf, 
John F. Krader, 
Henry A. Labar, 
Andrew J. Lynn, 
George Long, 
Samuel L. Lantz, 
George W. Lantz, 
George W. Levers, 
John Lind, 
Luther Labar, 
Daniel Lamb, 
John Monday, 
Eli Moser, 
Henry Moyer, 
A. M'Laughlin, 
Henry Miller, 
Patrick Monday, 
Grenville Moore, 
Lawrence Moser, 
Philip L. Moser, 
John B. Mickley, 
Samuel Minnich, 
John M'Laughlin, 
Franklin Moser, 

Corpora/— John Woolbach. 

Isaac Smith. 

George Twaddle. 
" Reuben Weiss. 

" Thomas Lowery. 

" William H. Eichman. 

" James Huff. 

Peter Lyner. 

Frederick J. Scott. 
Musician-WWMam Wilhelm. 
" James Quinn. 

Alvin M. Meeker, 
Jacob Ocho, 
John Peterson, 
William Peterson, 
William Pa.\son, 
Calvin Reed, 
J. Rockafellow, 
G. Rockafellow, 
Joseph A. Rogers, 
Jacob Rinek, 
Henry Rinek, 
J. J. Richards, 
George B. Rose, 
Frank Simons, 
John Shoeman, 
Joseph Slayer, 
Martin S. Schoch, 
Edward Smith, 
Valentine Smith, 
John Smith, 
Samuel Stem, 
Edward E. Snyder, 
Andrew Spangler, 
Charles Steinmetz, 
Fred. Seabold, 
Richard Shelling, 
George Snyder, 
George Smith, 
Edward L. Snyder, 
Thomas Snyder, 
Charles Shaffer, 
Aug. Templin, 
John Tidabach, 
James Todd, 
John Taylor, 
Joseph A. Tice, 
Alfred J. Tidabach, 
Theodore Tro.xell, 
Samuel Transue, 
George L. Tilton, 
George Vogel, 
Albert Wagner. 
Joseph E. Walters, 
John Wilhelm, 
Charles Wolf, 
William H. Wright, 
William Ward, 
Josiah Weaver, 
Henry Worman, 
George Young, 
Bernard Zearfoss. 

s due to the addition of new names during their term of service. .As in 
t P. V. it has been thought better to publish the rolls in full than to risk 


Their first service was in the vicinity of Washington, but upon the request of General 
Brannan in January, 1862, the regiment was ordered to accompany him to Key West, 
Florida. Here it was busied in heavy artillery drill and lost many of its men through 
the fevers of that section. In October, 1862, while on an expedition against the rebel 
General Finnegan, Companies E and K under command of Captain Yard, after a sharp 
skirmish, took possession of Jacksonville, Florida, and thence proceeded by steamer two 
hundred miles up the river, and captured the rebel steamer Governor Milton. In the 
same month the regiment took part in the vicftory at Pocotaligo, and was then ordered to 
Key West where it remained until February 25, 1864, when it joined the Red River 
Expedition under General Banks, and had a prominent place in the engagement of Sabine 
Cross Roads, on the 7th of April, 1864, and later made a successful charge at Pleasant 
Hill. On the failure of the movement it was ordered to Washington, and in July was 
assigned to duty under General Hunter in the Army of the Shenandoah, and at Opequan 
on September 19th the grand charge of General Crook's forces and Averill's cavalry was 
made through the line held by the Forty-seventh. 

The enemy was driven from Fisher's Hill on the 21st and the pursuit continued 
during the entire night until it reached Port Republic. Some further duty in the valley 
was performed after the service under Sheridan already mentioned, until Lee's surrender, 
when the regiment moved to Washington, and participated in the grand review. After 
duty in Charleston it was mustered out on the 9th of January, 1866. In its long term of 
service it had marched over 1200 miles and made twelve voyages by sea. 


Company A. — Killed, Thomas J. Bower, Samuel E. Bridinger, Charles Detwiller, Lawrence Catena, Ambrose 
Koch, Daniel McCaller, Lewis Werkheiser. Wounded, Samuel Remaly. Captured, Lewis Bower, Joseph 

Company E. — Wounded, Lieutenant Edward W. Menner. Killed, Sergeant Francis A. Parks. Wounded, 
Corporal Reuben Weiss, Wm H. Eichman. Captured, Frederick J. Scott. Privates, killed, Henry A. Bach- 
man, M Berkshimer, Richard Hahu, John Lind, Samuel Minnich, George B. Rose. Wounded, William Adams, 
Andrew Burk, George Coult, Nathan Derr, John Dingier, William A. Force, Reuben Golis, George Hahn, John 
Kunker, J M. Kirkendall, Franklin Moser, Jacob Ochs, John Peterson, Edward Smith. Captured, Henry L. 
Beavers, Jacob Haggerty. 


In one of the regiments organized on March 2, 1865, by the Union League Associa- 
tion of Philadelphia for one year's service, was a company composed mainly of men 
recruited in Easton. Soon after its organization it was ordered to duty in the Shenandoah 
Valley, and subsequently to garrison duty in the City of Washington. Many of its officers 
and men had seen a6live field service in the early years of the war. 


Captain— KAviaxd. Kelly. Corporal— km&n&as Kester. 
First Lieutenant — Henry L. Arndt. " Thomas Roth. 

Second Lieutenant — Joseph S. Osterstock. " John L. Broom. 

First Sergeant— KAo\-p\\ Buckheister. " Stephen Lynn. 

Sfr^e'an/— Charles Christian. " Charles Walter. 

" Frederick Nauman. " August Baltz. 

William Wise. " Henry Leh. 

" Frederick Voigt. " Peter Kratzer. 

John H. Bruch. " Charles D, Long. 

" Edwin A. Levering. Musician— S'^Ae.vM^.m E. Stocker. 


Henry Arndt, 
Leonard Andre. 
Abraham Arndt, 
Jacob Buskirk, 
Samuel S. Brewer, 
Edwin Biissard, 
William H. Brink, 
Stephen Brotzman, 
Solomon Brvfogel, 
Jerome Brewer, 
John Conarty, 
Thomas Connor, 
Nicholas Depuy, 
William H. Doney, 
Amandes Deibert, 
Charles David, 
Moses Darby, 
Benjamin Dorfer, 
George Ensley, 
Charles Frederick, 
Samuel Frederick, 
Elias Fourl, 
Alfred C. Fry, 
Daniel Fogerty, 
Christopher Grimes, 
John Gaflfy, 
Reuben Getz, 
Samuel A. Gross, 
Matthew Gouldin, 
Henry Herger, 

Henry Hagenbuch, 
Stephen D. Hurst. 
Charles Hull, 
Isaac Hohenshield, 
John C. Houck, 
James Hennesse, 
John Haldeman, 
Cornelius S. Hartzell, 
Polhemus Hoaglen. 
Lewis Hanky, 
Henry Imbt, 
Martin Joice, 
John Judge, 
Levi H. Kelchner, 
Freeman Kresge, 
John Klotz, 
William Lynn, 
Ransom Lavar, 
Michael Landers, 
Alfred Metzgar, 
William Mooney, 
Peter Mulhatton, 
Jesse R. Mills, 
Joseph Mackes, 
Nicholas Mann, 
Reuben Naunian, 
Daniel Nicholas, 
Jacob W. Otinger, 
Peter R. Peifer, 

Elias Ruch, 
William H. Rice, 
William G. Roberts, 
Reuben Roth, 
Quintus E. Snyder, 
George Snyder, 
Isaiah Snyder, 
Moses Swink, 
Edwin Seip, 
William H. Strohle, 
Daniel Serfass, 
Henry F. Slutter, 
Abraham H. Seem, 
George Shissler, 
Jacob Serfass, 
James Sterner, 
Henry S. Seifert, 
Ferdinand B. Teel, 
George W. Unangst, 
Isaac V'ochts, 
George Vogel, 
James Warner, 
Peter E. Williams, 
Freeman Werkheiser. 
Elias Werkheiser, 
Josiah Werkheiser, 
William H. Young, 
John W. Yinger, 
Solomon Yergty. 

In this regiment, which saw much aiflive campaigning in the Shenandoah Valley, in 
its long term of service between November 1861 and July 1865, were volunteers recruited 
in Easton by Captain David Schortz, an earnest and enthusiastic soldier, whose name we 
have already mentioned. They entered his command as Co. D, and their names as far as 
they can be gathered from Bates' History P. V. , are given below : 


ra/>/a»n— David Schortz. 
First Lieutenant — Samuel Stewart. 
" " Jacob A. Stewart. 

" " Erastus W. Kellogg. 

" " Augustus Weiss. 

First Sergeant — Samuel Pa.xson. 
Q. M. ^i'rftfan/— Frederick Gashlaur. 
Com. Sergeant — Joseph Rouge. 
Sergeants — William Ehler. 
John H. Keiper. 
" John Daub. 

Marcus Schoales. 
" Benjamin Walter. 

5e'rg-i?an/i— James P. Michler. 
" Andrew C. Heckn 

/j— Edward F. King. 
George Bowes. 
Lewis Witters. 
Jacob Lerch. 
John Wolfram. 
George Hubbard. 
Henry Ehler. 
-Jacob Bauch. 
Blacksmith— 'Sdicoh Hummel. 
Farrier— \\\\\\ H. Walter. 



John P. Billings, 
Lewis Blose, 
Jacob M. Bauer, 

Jeremiah Kutzler, 
Charles Kohler, 
Peter Lerch. 

Edward Stoddel, 
Samuel Shafer, 
Charles Smith, 

!i-:rt X. si;ii', 

•.V H, ,S9TH PA. VOI.l 
ni War Phougraph.) 

Tilghman Clymer, 
George R. Clough, 
Henry Duffin, 
Samuel Dutt, 
James Donnelly, 
Joseph Ehrie, 
John Full, 
John Fetter, 
Nathan Ginginger, 
J. C. Greinezweigh, 
Andrew Gashlaur, 
William Gallway, 
Howe Gosner, 
Amos Gosner, 
Jeremiah Hope, 


John Lerch, 
Martin Meyer, 
Augustus Moser, 
John Miller, 
Bernard Mermarth, 
Charles Miller, 
Jacob Meyer, 
■Samuel Mabus, 
John Meyer, 
Charles Miller, 
John P. Miller, 
Christian Ohler, 
Thomas S. Paxson, 
Ignatius Richmond, 
Jacob Raisner, 


Charles Saylor, 
Christian Somerlot, 
John Stiles, 
John P. Straub, 
Lewis Smith, 
Matthias Snyder, 
Henry F. Smith, 
Henry Steel, 
Adam Walter, 
Herman Wolfram, 
William Wolfram, 
Thomas Wagner, 
Jeremiah Woodring, 
Isaac Younken, 
Charles Young. 

Captain William H. Seip, promoted to Major, and afterwards to Colonel of the First 
Regiment U. S. Colored Cavalry, January 18, 1864, took with him as the result of his re- 
cruiting in Easton, a number of volunteers whose names appear upon the roll of Company 
H, Eleventh Penna. Cavalry. The regiment was raised in September, 1861, and mustered 
out July 17, 1865, and during that period was acflively employed in North Carolina and 
Virginia, in the severe field work of the Army of the Potomac, and was one of the regi- 
ments privileged to close its a(ftive service at Lee's surrender at Appomattox. 

In Company H of this regiment were some volunteers from Easton who had been re- 
cruited by its captain, Albert N. Seip. It was mustered in the fall of 1861, and after a brief 
stay in Washington, to which place it was ordered in April, 1862, on June 27 it crossed Eong 
Bridge and did picket and scouting service until August 5, in Virginia, and later made an 
important reconnaissance near Aldie. " Here," says Captain Seip, in his diary referred to 
in Bates' History P. V., " five rebels were captured by a stuttering bugler, who proposed 
to surrender himself, but took such a long time to stammer out the word 'surrender' that 
the rebels mistook his meaning and surrendered themselves instead. The bugler called 
loudly for help, and gained great credit for the achievement." Its time passed in like 
duty in Virginia until the Gettysburg campaign, during which it rendered material ser- 
vice in gathering up stragglers and guarding prisoners. In the fall and winter of 1863 it 
was again on picket duty, and in the spring of 1864, with ranks recruited took part in the 
Sheridan raid. Its subsequent career was closely identified with the history of the cavalry 
of the Army of the Potomac. It was present at the surrender at Appomattox, and was 
mustered out of service on July 13, 1865, at Cloud's Mills, Va. 



864 ; resigned, Odtober 4, 

Captain — Albert N. Seip, promoted from First Lieutenant, September 12 
1864, to take the position of Second Lieutenant, Signal Corps, U. S. A. 

Captain — Aaron K. Seip, promoted to Second Lieutenant, June 17, 1S64; to First Lieutenant, Odtober 5 
1864; to Captain, March 15, 1865. 

Sergea>its — Roseberry Seip, Franklin Rinker, Sylvester Mohn, Joseph F. Kram, Benj. F. Beitel. 


Corporals — Jacob Rinker, Henry 
Buglers — Francis Baumeister, Thom 
B/acismi//i— Parmer Santee. 
Sadd/ers— John Kessler, Joseph Keir 

David S. Afflerbach, 
Peter Bender, 
William Beer, 
Jacob Bauer, 
George Boas, 
George Dennels, 
John Daub, 
William Ehler, 
Lewis H. Fehr, 
Owen Fehr, 
Tilghman F. Fehr, 
Henry Fehr, 
John Fetter, 
Charles Garis, 
Frederick Gastlauer, 
Amos Gosner, 
Hall Gosner, 
J.C. Greinzweig, 
Isaac Houser, 
Henry W. Haas, 
Andrew Heckinan, 
Jeremiah Hope, 


Yahraus, George W. Heines, John J. 

as Mover. 


Charles Hayts, 
Henry Johnson, 
Charles Koehler, 
Erastus Kellogg, 
William Klingaman, 
Alpha Keiper, 
William Lehr, 
Peter Lerch, 
Jacob Lerch, 
Joseph Mauffley, 
John Montz, 
Charles Mohn, 
Philip Mover, 
Simon Mabus, 
James P. Michler, 
Owen Messinger, 
C. A. Newman, 
Samuel Pa.xson, 
Reuben Rinkr, 
John Richter, 
Joseph Rodenbach, 
Ignatius Ricmond, 

Mohn, Abandon S. Mover. 

Francis A. Romig, 
Joseph Rounge, 
Daniel Reese, 
E. F. Steinraetz, 
Richard Searles, 
Peter Seigel, 
Augustus Seidel, 
Daniel F. Steiner, 
Samuel SchaefFer, 
Matthias Schnyder, 
Christian Somerlot, 
Henry Steele, 
John J. Smith, 
George Schafer, 
George H. Weiss, 
Thomas Wagner, 
Wm. H. Walter, 
Adam Walter, 
Augustus Weis, 
Isaac Younkin, 
Aug. Zimmerman. 


Among the incidents of niilitar}- service noted in the Easton newspapers is the enlist- 
ment of colored volunteers. 

George Hoff, 25th U. S. Colored Volunteers. 
Gibson Hoff, 8th 
Charles Prime, Sth " 

Daniel Prime, Frank Dunkens, Thomas Dunkens, Charles Moss. Benjamin Good, drafted, was killed at 
the battle of Olustee. 

Other names appear upon the muster rolls of the United States colored troops. We 
regret that we have not access to these names and those of the organizations to which they 
belonged. Some, we are informed, were among the troops whose clean columns and sol- 
dierly tread won the admiration of the army in their march into the crater before Peters- 
burg. In strange contrast to this reference to a few among the many thousands in service 
toward the close of the war is the following circular order issued to the troops under 
General Patterson's command. 

"Headquarters Dep't of Penna., Martinsburg, July ii, 1861. 
Circular. — Members of the army have permitted negroes to be dressed in the uni- 
form of the army. This is prohibited, and any officer is called upon to put an end to 
such degradation ; and guards are dire6ted to take from negroes uniforms of the army. 
By order of 

M.\jOR General Patterson. 
F. J. Porter, A. A. General." 



Prominent and honored among the Surgeons of the Army for distinguished service in 
field and hospital duty was Jacob R. Ludlow, M. D. His services, as we have seen, com- 
menced as surgeon with the First Pennsylvania Volunteers in April, 1861. Upon appoint- 
ment as Assistant Surgeon U. S. A., July 14, 1862, he was assigned to duty successively 
at Harrison's Landing, Hampton, U. S. General Hospital, near Fort Monroe, Frederick 
City after the battle of Antietam, Campbell General Hospital, Washington, D. C, and at 
Portsmouth Grove Hospital, Rhode Island. 

After a competitive examination at Washington he received a commission as Bri- 
gade Surgeon from President Lincoln and served as Chief of Corps, Hospital, and Medical 
Inspector in therearofVickslnirgdnring the siege. About Aug. i, 1863, he reported for duty 

with the staff of the Thirteenth Army 
Corps, General Banks, Department of 
the Gulf During this service General 
U. S. Grant was under his professional 
care for treatment of a contusion of the 
hip caused by a fall from his horse. 
Subsequently he served at Bayou Teche 
and in Texas until January i, 1864, 
when he was furloughed through sick- 
ness until he took the post of Surgeon- 
in-Chief of Second Division, Fourth 
Army Corps, Army of the Cumberland. 
The charge of U. S. General Hospital 
No. 3, Nashville, Tennessee, as Chief 
Surgeon, detained him until that hos- 
pital was closed after the surrender of 
Lee, and he was placed in charge of the 
V. S. General Hospital for eruptive 
fe\ers, in the same city. 

His term of service overran four 
\ears, the first three of which were 
])assed in active and often hazardous 
field and hospital duty, and the last in 
supervisory charge of large General 
Hospitals of the United States Army. 
In the leading positions assigned him 
he has left full records of patriotic ser- 
vice and professional skill and fidelity. After muster-out, November 10, 1865, in compli- 
ment to his long and faithful services as Surgeon, he was commissioned by the President 
as Lieutenant Colonel by brevet. 

Among the wounded in Sheridan's rapid and victorious ride up the Shenandoah 
Valley in September, 1864, celebrated alike on canvas, and in story and song, was 




Theophilus F. Rodenbough, of the Second Regiment U. S. Cavaln-, son of Charles Ro- 
denbough, Esq., of Easton. As Lieutenant of the Easton Grays his name has appeared 
before in these pages. March 27, 1861, he was commissioned a Lieutenant in the Reg- 
ular Army, promoted to Captain, and by successive steps to Colonel and Brevet Brigadier 
General, U. S. Volunteers, March 13, 1865. He was appointed Colonel of the 163d Penn- 
sylvania Volunteers of the line, and 18th Pennsylvania Cavaln.-, April 29, 1865, and upon 
its consolidation with the 22d Pennsylvania Cavalry, June 24, 1865, became Colonel of the 
3d Provisional Cavalry, the consolidated command, which after duty in West Virginia was 
on Odlober 31, 1865, mustered out of service. He was captured at the battle of Manassas, 
Va., in August 1862, exchanged a week later, and while in command of his regiment, 
wounded at Trevillian Station, in June 1864, and again in September 1864, at Opequan, 
losing his right arm while leading a cavalry charge. His promotions were bestowed in 
the field, for gallant and meritorious services under the 
eyes of superior officers, by whom they were recom- 
mended, and were merited by hazardous raiding ser- 
vice and notable courage in a long list of battles. The 
prominent positions assigned him upon military boards 
and courts attest the high estimation of his ability held 
by the authorities at Washington. 

General Rodenbough is now upon the retired list 
of the army, with full rank of Colonel of Cavalry, on 
account of wounds received in the line of duty, and is 
widely known as author of the "History of the Second 
Dragoons, U. S. A.," one of the best of regimental 
records, and of " Uncle Sam's Medal of Honor," the 
story of a prize too little known before the publication 
of his work, and " Afghanistan, or the Anglo-Russian 

Since the war as Assistant Inspedlor General of the 
N. Y. State National Guard, originator and secretary 
of the Military Service Institution of the United States, 
editor of the Army and Navy Journal^ and of the Public Service Revie'a\ he has won high 
honors, and justified the warm praise awarded him in the field by Generals Grant, Sheridan, 
Meade, and others of his superior ofl[icers. 



Lieutenant Second Cavalrv, U. S. A. 
el of Cavalry, Retired List, U. S. A. 
t Brigadier General U. S. Vols. 
Brigadier General U. S. \. 

To the list of Eastou's representatives among the honored dead on the field of Gettys- 
burg must be added the name of Lieutenant William H. Wyckoff, who fell while fighting 
with the First Minnesota Volunteers. He was a son of Dr. Isaac C. Wyckoff. His brother 
Major Charles A. Wyckoff, of the Regular Army, already mentioned, .served with distinction 
throughout the war. 


enlisted at sixteen, in the Second New York Cavalry. His four years of service saw 
livch- scouting and fighting in the famous Dahlgren raid and in over sixty engagements 



under dashing leaders of dragoons, chief among whom was General Kilpatrick. As head- 
quarter's bugler he so won upon the daring dragoon that his regard for the boy bugler 
ceased only with his death, and led his family to give him honorable place at his funeral. 

Another boy bugler of Easton, enlisted at fifteen, 
while Sergeant E. N. R. Ohl was assisting in recruit- 
ing for Battery C, Fifth U. S. Artillery, was A. Reeder 
Muller, who rose by merit to the complimentary rank 
of Sergeant. 


In the Regular Army of the United States, besides 
the names mentioned, Easton was represented b}- Gen- 
eral Lorenzo Sitgreaves, General Nathaniel H. Michler, 
both distinguished officers of engineers, of long and 
honorable service, and now both dead. Captain A. 
Parker Porter died during the Rebellion of disease 
contradled in the service. As chief of the Commissary 
Department of the Army of the Potomac he rendered 

kindly and efficient service to Easton volunteers in the ^ ^^ „ „ 

•' Ephraim N. R. Ohl. 

Fredericksburg campaign. Sergeant Battery C, Fifth U. S. Artillery. 


Not to the land service alone were Easton volunteers credited during the Rebellion. 
Many, upon the expiration of their terms of service in infantry and cavalry regiments, 
enlisted in the navy. Unfortunately their names are scattered throughout the lists of the 
many vessels then in service of the navy of the United States and are not to be had. We 
know that they were upon blockade duty, forced the passage of the Mississippi with Far- 
ragut, ran the Vicksburg bomb-proof with Porter, and went down with the Cumberland. 
At camp-fires the yarns of these jolly tars are heard in turn with the " chin music" of 
the veteran volunteers. 

In the navy Easton is well represented. Rear Admiral David B. Harmony, now 
A(5ling Secretary of the Navy, his brother Joseph Harmony (who died during the war), 
both of long, and varied and distinguished records, and sons of Major W. J. Harmony, 
whose title dates back to an early period in the martial history of the borough ; Surgeon 
Michael C. Drennan, honored by years of skillful and faithful service, and others who 
might be named did space permit. 

Besides the organizations we have referred to, Easton was largely represented by vol- 
unteers who had enlisted singly in other regiments of this and other states. It is to be 
regretted that full lists of these names, equally worthy with those given, cannot be had, 
and that the records of our own State are so incomplete that many names are omitted, and 
many casualties not noted. So far as possible we have endeavored to supply these omis- 
sions in the records of our own volunteers, but not with complete success. Here and 
there in individual memory is treasured sacredly some name upon the unknown roll, as 



the nation in the soldiers' cemeteries rears mounds and marks tablets to the unknown 

In the history of the organizations our pages allow of the merest summary. The 
utmost we can give is but an index to the full historical records of the country. No 
important battle field can be named in which Easton has not been represented ; no promi- 
nent general under whom some of her volunteers have not fought. We have seen them 
in the first of the regiments mustered in, and in the last of the regiments mustered out, 
quelling draft riots in New York, campaigning in the fever-stricken swamps of Louisiana 
and Florida, and fighting over every inch of ground on the great battle fields of Pennsyl- 
vania, Maryland and Virginia. 

The prompt patriotism of her people in furnishing soldiers and in supplying their 
wants must live as proof of their love of liberty and law, and determination to uphold both at 
every hazard, and as an example to those who may come after them, that in like peril, 
which God avert, they may so adl that this sacrifice may not have been made in vain. 
Great armies have always been sources of great danger. It was noted as a marvel that 
the iron-clad soldiers of Cromwell, their warfare over, fell quietly into their old places 
among the people. How much more room for wonder that our millions of citizen sol- 
diery, their mission done, showed by their quiet disbandment and return to civil pursuits 
that in learning the duty of the soldier they had not unlearned that of the citizen. 


The war of the Rebellion, in which Easton did its full duty, was so severe in its actual 
service that it gave but little encouragement for the home play of the soldier. As, how- 
ever, the best way to avert war is to be ready for it, a National Guard has been organized 
in Pennsylvania, and through thorough drill and strict discipline under ofl^cers schooled in 
the field, is now the best of the State Guards. 

Among these troops, and noted for the high character and soldierly qualities of its 
members, was Company F, of the Fourth Regiment. It took its name from a company 
already referred to in these pages, and was reorganized in July, 1873, under command of 
Captain Frank Reeder, who subsequently became General of a Brigade of the National 

Its soldierly appearance attracted great attention in many prominent parades, — nota- 
bly those upon the Centennial Grounds in 1876, where its correct alignment, the precision 
of its marching step, and clean columns clad in cadet-grey, were warmly complimented by 
the thousands of speculators, many of whom were themselves soldiers of distinguished 

At home, crowds watched with delight for the glistening barrels of their Springfield 
breech-loading rifles as their ranks descended from their armory in the second story of 
Abie's Opera House, for street parades, and for years they were the pride of the borough. 

In June, 1877, they were suddenly ordered from pleasant camp-life, near the Delaware 
Water Gap, to active .service in guard duty at Mauch Chunk during the execution of the 
murderers known as " Molly Maguires." They were prompt to obey, but the law had its 
penalty without mob interference. 

In July of the .same year they .saw more attive work at Reading in preserving order 


during the great railroad strike. The order for this dangerous and in some measure disa- 
greeable duty found them again in camp-life near Stroudsbnrg. They left without delay 
to join their regiment, stopping en route at their armory to procure ammunition. 

From an article in the Daily Free Press of Easton, of July 24, 1877, headed " The 
Strikers' War," we extract the following: 

" The Fourth Regiment, N. G., Colonel T. H. Good in command, consisting of seven 
companies, one of which, Co. F, was the Easton Grays, arrived at Reading from Allentown 
about 7 p. M. , yesterday. After conference with the railroad authorities, it marched down the 
railroad, and upon getting into the cut between Walnut and Penn streets, was assailed 
with cobble-stones and brick-bats thrown by persons standing upon the banks on either 
side. The commanding officer. General Frank Reeder, cautioned his men not to fire, but 
to march steadily forward. A number of the soldiers were struck with stones, and with- 
out orders, fired indiscriminately down Seventh street, and up and down Penn street, 
driving the crowd before them finally, after firing two volleys. The loss of life would 
have been fearful but for the high aim. As it was seven of the assailants were known to 
have been killed and twenty-six wounded. Others slightly wounded escaped through the 

" Twenty soldiers of the Easton Grays were wounded more or less severely. Among 
them were Private O. C. Bunting, slight wound in right shoulder ; Private John Vail, 
severe wound in scalp ; Musician Frederick Snyder, slight wound in right side ; Musician 
Charles Leidy, severe wound in scalp." 

General Reeder in his official report states : " When the command emerged from the 
cut, we were confronted by a very large and excited mob who assailed us with stones and 
pistol shots. They were dispersed by two volleys from Co. F, and a sharp skirmish fire 
from the other leading companies. During the passage of the cut occurred all the adlual 
fighting of our campaign. The loss infli(fted upon the rioters was comparatively severe, 
viz : Eleven killed anri fifty-four wounded, although it was generally believed that other 
heavy losses were concealed through fear of punishment at the hands of the civil authori- 
ties. Of my command, very few, probably not more than fifty out of an aggregate strength 
of two hundred and fifty-three, commissioned ofl5cers and enlisted men, escaped wholly 
unhurt. I was personally struck three times, and my sword struck from its scabbard by 
the falling stones ; and every member of my staff received bruises of a more or less serious 
character. The proportion of those seriously injured was extremely small, there being but 
three commissioned officers and twenty-eight enlisted men unfit for duty the following 
day, and of this number only two enlisted men failed to report for duty before the cam- 
paign was concluded." 

His report adds that the troops " behaved with the cool steadiness and courage of vet- 
erans," and closes with praise and thanks for courage and fidelity to the members of his 
staff, of whom from Easton were Major W. S. Hulick, A. A. G. Major C. M. Anstett, 
Inspector, and Walter S. WyckofF, Volunteer Aid. 

Corporal R. E. James of the Grays was detailed to accompany the wounded to their 

The Grays with their regiment passed the night under arms, and after marching to 
various threatened points on the following day, returned home in the early morning of 



July 25, 1877. Their cotiducl in this trying service was favorably contrasted with that 
of most of the other commands, whose sympathy with the strikers led them to forget their 
duty as soldiers. The disbandment of this company has, for the first time in its history 
since Lewis Gordon rallied his Rifles to its defense against the Indians, left Easton with- 
out a military organization ; and the annals of its soldiery close with — 


Captain— V. A 

. Stitzer. 

First Corporal— Vi 

•. S. Hulick. 

First Lieutenant- 


P. Cornell. 

Second ' ' 

— R 

E James. 




H. Brensinger. 

Third " 


H. Hammann. 

. First Sergeant- 

—William H. King. 

Fourth " 


C. Perdoe. 

Second " 

— H 

. C, 

, Lawall. 



Whit Wood. 





Sixth " 

— 0. 

C. Bunting. 

Fourth " 


L Brodie. 


C. M. Anstett, 

C. F. Chidsey, 

John Hughes, 

J. M. Reese, 

Ed. Alsfelt, 

A. D. Chidsey, 

E. E. Hutchinson, 

E. R. Reich, 

Clarence Andrews 

Wm. Campbell, 

Lewis Heller, 

Jacob Ricker, 

Chas.J. Able, 

J.J. Cope, 

H. P. Hess, 

Edward Rinker, 

George Able, 

John C. Cavode, 

John F. Hess, 

J. W. Roberts, 

Frank Ashton, 

Geo. Davenport, 

Chas. B. Hetrich, 

M. W. Rohn, 

George Alpaugh, 

J. W. Dean, 

Wm. St. George Kent 

Olin Rohn, 

Harry W. Barron, 

John Drake, 

James P. Kinsey, 

J. S. Rodenbough, 

Hugh Beers, 

A. Elliott, Jr., 

Stephen L. Keim, 

Frank Reeder, 

Ferd. W. Bell, 

Jas. A. Edelman, 

Frank Kneedler, 

Lewis J. Rader, 

Clarence Bellis, 

Q. F. Ehler, 

Wm. Kolb, 

C. E. Schleicher, 

J. Howard Bellis, 

Wm. Fackenthall, 

Wm. Kuebler, 

Harry Seitz, 

Joseph H. Bellis, 

Uriah T. Fackenthall, 

Chas. Loudenberger, 

Jacob Skinner, 

John M. Braund, 

Chas. Fell, 

Chas. B. Low, 

Jas. E. Smith, 

Harry D. Butler, 

J. W. Flad, 

Owen Laubach. 

John J. Smith, 

David H. Butz, 

Luther M. Fine, 

S. S. Lesher, 

Winfield Snvder, 

Frank VV. Burke, 

A. T. Groman, 

John Mack, 

C. J. Speakman, 

Wm. M. Burke, 

Ed. S. Glanz, 

H.J. Messinger, 

J. K. Stauff-er, 

Wm. Beidelman, 

Harry Haines, 

C.J. Mei.xell, 

Fred. Seitz, Jr., 

C. W. Bixler, 

Walter Hammann, 

Howard Mutchler, 

Jos. E. Starck, 

Ed. L. Bi.xler, 

J. Smith Hart, 

Robt. F. McDonald, 

Edmund Teel, 

Lewis Bixler, 

Geo. W. Hayden, 

Chas. A. Morrison, 

John Vail, 

Thos. Ballentyne, 

W. P. S. Henry, 

C. T. Nightingale, 

Henry Voight, 

Robt. M. Burrell, 

Wm. H. Harrison, 

N. D. Parks, 

Chas. Walters, 

W. H. Carhart, 

Al. Hulsizer, 

James A. Pauli, 

Edward Warne, 

Charles Crozet, 

H. B. Howland, 

S. B. Patterson, 

W. H. Woodring, 

H. S. Cavanaugh, 

Wm. J. Hackett, 

James Parker, 

Jas. W. Wilson, 

John Connelly, 

W. H. Hulick, 

Wm. R. Parks, 

U. J. Wenner, 

Ed. Carter, 

E. H. Hulick, 

Paul Rader, 

S. S. Yohe, 

John C. Codding. 

S. S. Hartranfl, 

T. J. Rader, 

Samuel Young, 

Wm. Cawley, 

Robt. T. Horn, 

Howard Reed, 

W. W. Young. 



Truuibore, Gilbert Fulmer, Fred 

Snyder, John Collins, 


es Leidy, Charles Lamb, 

Joseph Snyder. 

(The above roll is 

furnished from memory bv a member of the company — the officers as 

they stood in 1S77, and the 

privates as enrolled from time 

to time during its term of serv 



These Posts have been among the largest and most influential in Pennsylvania. 

Bell Post, named in honor of Captain Ferdinand W. Bell, who was killed at the bat- 
tle of Fredericksburg, was established June 9, 1868, and numbered 129 on the G. A. R. 
roll, Department of Pennsylvania. 

Its first Conunander was Hon. Howard J. Reeder, now one of the Judges of our 
County Court, and until its dissolution, January 30, 1S77, the subsequent Commanders 





were H. G. H. Tarr, General Frank Reeder, George W. Thatcher, Major A. B. Howell, 
Sanmel S. Lesher, Joseph H. Brensinger and William M. Shultz. 

Its roll numbered 571 members, and its society room, situated in the iron-front build- 
ing eredled by Drake & Hulick on South Third street, was completely and elegantly fur- 
nished. Many prominent military men attended its camp-fires, and its liberal charities 
and entertaining festivals made its dissolution a matter of general regret. 

In the interval, until its successor, Lafayette Post, No. 217, was organized, August 
12, 1871, the ties of old comradeship were not forgotten, but the lack of united and syste- 
matic effort was strongly felt. 

The first Commander of the new Post was the last Commander of Post Bell, William 
M. Shultz. Following him were Frank Stitzer, William N. Scott, Jacob Gangwere, R. 
F. McDonald, Martin L. Horn, and the present Commander, J. W. H. Knerr. 

Its large and well-appointed rtiom is in the old Masonic Hall building on South Third 
street, the Faueuil Hall of Easton in its record of the public work of the borough in aid of the 
Republic. The membership is strong and growing and its camp-fires and celebrations are 
noted throughout the country. One of these, on the anniversary of the battle of Antietam, 
September 17, 1886, will long be referred to, for its thousands in attendance, great num- 
ber and splendid equipment of Posts and other societies in its marching columns, and dis- 
tinguished men at its camp-fire. 

In quiet open-handed charity however, is its best work, as many a comrade with no 
possession but a record of patriotism, can testify. In this it is greatly aided by an Auxil- 
iary Corps, composed of the wives, daughters and lady friends of comrades of the Post. 
These number several hundred and have a large and neatly-furnished room in the same 
building, and have done much good work through contributions, entertainments and per- 
sonal service, for comrades and their families in need of relief 

The Post does not close its labors for the volunteers with the funeral rites at the 
grave. In conjunction with citizens an organization has been effedled to erecfb a monument 
to the memory of the soldiers and sailors of Easton and vicinity who fell in the war of the 
Rebellion. From the encouragement given a monument will without doubt be eredled 
worthy of the place and of the persons whose services it will commemorate. 

One of the youngest comrades of the Post in service was George W. Hayden, whose 
picture, engraved from a photograph taken at Brook's Station, Virginia, in March, 1863, 
appears upon the opposite page. At the age of thirteen years he enlisted as a musician 
in Company B, 153d Penna. Vols., and throughout its term of service was distinguished 
for prompt and soldierly discharge of duty. 

The companies of the 153d Penna. Vols, had reported in Easton at the time of volun- 
teering with but one drummer apiece. The additional one for each company was furnished 
from Easton boys who volunteered. Another of these — now the Rev. Curtis V. Strickland 
of the Christian Church — carries a bullet in his hip received during the charge of Stone- 
wall Jackson at Chancellorsville, and was for a while in Libby Prison. 


1|HE Common Schools of Easton were first established in 1755. Rev. Henry 
Melchoir Muhlenberg, a Lutheran minister, came to this country in 1742 ; 
Rev. Michael Schlatter, a German Reformed minister, in 1746. These 
gentlemen, the fathers of the German Churches in Peuns\lvania, were 
greatly impressed by the want of educational privileges, and made adlive 
and unceasing efforts to establish schools among the Germans of the 

About the year 1750, Rev. Mr. Schlatter went to Holland, and so pre- 
sented to the churches the destitute condition of the people here that a 
plan was formed for their instruAion. In 1751 the States of Holland and 
West Friesland granted the sum of 2000 guilders per annum, for the term 
of five years, to be applied to the instrucftion of Germans and their children. Additional 
funds were raised in Amsterdam ; and the Rev. Mr. Thompson was commissioned by the 
Synod of Holland, and the Classis of Amsterdam to solicit aid from the churches of Eng- 
land and Scotland. When he arrived in Great Britain he received the warm encourage- 
ment of persons of the highest rank in church and state. He then went to Scotland and 
represented his cause to the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, then in ses- 
sion at Edinburg, so successfully that a colledlion of j£i200 sterling was made. Upon his 
return to London from Scotland Mr. Thompson was called back by his pastoral duties to 
Holland. He therefore urged the formation of a society to continue the work. Among 
the members were the Right Hon. Earl of Shaftesbury, Earl of Morton, Earl of Finlater, 
and Lord Willoughby of Warham ; Sir Luke Schaub, Sir Joshua Van Neck, Baronets ; 
Commissioner Vernon and others ; Aldermen of London ; together with a number of 
ministers of different churches. After making a liberal subscription among themselves 
they presented their cause before the King, George HI., who granted the sum of _;^iooo. 
The Princess Dowager, of Wales, gave ;^ioo. Rev. Mr. Schlatter was appointed as a 
visitor and supervisor, a general plan of operations formed and "Trustees General" 

The first school in Easton was established under this scheme in 1755. The school- 
house was a large, one-story, log building with a cellar under it, containing one large 
room used as a church and school-room, and two smaller rooms. Its site was east of the 
present Reformed Church, at or near the corner of Church and Sitgreaves streets. Mr. 
William Parsons, to whom reference has been frequently made in this history, was very 
a6live in this movement. 

This school house has already been referred to on pages 17 and 18 of this history. 
For many years it answered all requirements, for the population of the town was small. 
Of the teachers the name of Robert Traill alone is now known. He came to this country 
in 1763, taught in this school house, studied law, and was admitted to practice in 1777. 



There was pressing need of a better school. After 3'ears of deliberation the Union 
Academy on Academy Hill, within the present school grounds on Second street, was built 
in the year 1794, mainly through the instrumentality of the English inhabitants. The 
building was used for religious services in the English language. On July 21, 1798, per- 
mission was given by the trustees " to the present English teacher in the academy to hold 
meetings for worship in said house, at any time which shall not interfere with the schools." 
The " Easton Religious Society" was formed August 12, 1798, and a constitution framed 
which is still to be found in the archives of the First Presbyterian Church of Easton. 

Mr. Andrew Mein was the " English teacher in the Academy," and from this society 
then organized, resulted some twelve years later the First Presbyterian Church of Easton. 

The application of the inhabitants to 
the Presbytery of New Brunswick, in 
April, 1811, was made for a "teacher 
for their children and a preacher of the 
Word of God, in the English language." 
This school must have been so well 
conducted that it acquired a reputation 
abroad, for as we have already narrated 
in the sketch of the life of Timothy 
Pickering, he moved his family to Eas- 
ton in the year 1800, that his children 
might attend the school. Of these chil- 
dren, one son, John Pickering, became 
the author of a Greek and English Lex- 
icon, which was, for many years, in 
general use in the United States. 

During the year 181 1, Mr. Stephen 
Boyer was chosen as a preacher of the 
Gospel, in the English language, and 
was ordained. He taught a sele<5t class 
during the week in a room in the upper 
story of the Academy building. By his 
resignation and removal in 1814, this 
school was broken up. It was again 
opened in 1816 as a classical school by 
Rev. David Bishop, who had been called 
to succeed Mr. Boyer. Mr. Bishop 
preached at Easton, Mount Bethel and 
Durham, in addition to teaching during the week. These labors were too great for long 
continuance. Aid was sought and found in the person of the late Rev. John Vanderveer, 
D. D., who became one of the greatest teachers of his generation. 

Dr. Vanderveer was born in Hunterdon Count}', New Jersey in the year 1800. He pursued his preparatory 
studies at Amwell Academy, N. J., entered Princeton College and graduated at the age of seventeen. After 
studying theology in the Seminary at New Brunswick, he came to Easton to assist Mr. Bishop in the 
Academy, of which he was the principal. He remained with Mr. Bishop about two years, and then, eight years 

Rev. John V.^ndei 


thereafter, organized a private school in the house now occupied as a parsonage by the American Reformed 
Church, on the northeast corner of Fourth and Spring Garden streets. The school was small at first, not con- 
sisting of more than a dozen pupils. There was an opening for a good school, and Mr. Vanderveer soon in- 
spired confidence in his ability and adaptation to his chosen profession ; the number rapidly increased until 
more than a hundred names were enrolled. His rooms were filled, and needing larger accommodations, he 
built the large house on the northeast corner of Second and Bushkill streets, which served as a family residence 
and for school purposes. Here he continued his work as a teacher until he retired from aclive life. Mr. Van- 
derveer was a good teacher. In conversation with his pupils, many of whom live in Easton, we learned some 
of his peculiarities, and concerning his memory they speak with profound respect. He had a thorough 
knowledge of every science which he undertook to teach, and aimed to impress its principles upon the minds 
of his pupils. Work could not be done in a superficial waj-. If a new pupil came into his school, who told of 
the number of times he had been through the arithmetic, he would soon feel somewhat humiliated by being 
compelled to go back to original principles, and plod through addition again. It was not so much the amount 
of work accomplished, as it was the manner in which it was done. The power of close application, rigid inves- 
tigation, and clear apprehension were points which Dr. Vanderveer aimed to impress on the minds of his pupils. 
And the success which attended his efforts made his school the most remarkable centre of educational influence 
in Northeastern Pennsylvania. He was always master of the situation. He was quite severe with the birch ; 
and, an old pupil remarks, " he could do this well." As years advanced, he modified his principle of discipline, 
and acknowledged at last he had made a mistake in his severity. He had the habit of making brief addresses 
to his school, which are still remembered by his pupils. He was acquainted with Plato's method of teaching, 
and introduced daily lectures, which were remarkable for clearness of thought, and for philosophical, religious 
and praftical instruAion. He would take a proverb, or an incident in the school-room, and impress some 
wholesome lesson on the minds of his pupils. While the school was busy, a loud rap upon the desk would be 
heard, followed by the order "Face to the North," and instantly books were laid aside, and all wheeled into 
position to listen to words quite as wise as those of the old Grecian teacher. One of his old pupils remarks, 
" That another cause of his success was his absolute independence. He could say to his pupils, ' If you don't 
like the arrangements here, there is the door ; you are under no obligations to attend this school. I care not to 
whom related, or b^- whom begot, if you don't want to learn, and if jou are unwilling to obe\- m\' directions, 
leave at once.' There was no trimming in that school to tickle the vanity of any patron ; no mincing of words 
to curry favor with any directors. The line of duty was to him an open highway, and those who chose to ac- 
company him felt that they were in royal company ; laggards soon fell to the rear and were lost to sight. 
Another peculiarity of Dr. Vanderveer was his kindness to those pupils who were ambitious to learn. When he 
found a boy who was in earnest to learn, he gave him loose reins. He seemed to take delight in seeing his boys 
strive to do more and better work every succeeding day. Dr. Vanderveer was himself the 'soul of honor,' and 
he endeavored to impress the principles of honor on the minds of his pupils. Whether at play in the streets, or 
at work in the school-room, another watchword would ring in the ears of his boys — ' Honor bright.' He was 
thus always watchful and careful to enforce the principles of honorable conduct in the daily intercourse of his 
pupils. He was conscious of the fact that he was engaged in the sublime work of properly developing man- 
hood, and preparing the young men under his care to battle with the great problems of life. His school was very 
noisy, but it was the noise of study ; there was no time for idleness nor play — the hours of study were hours of 
hard work." Edward F. Stewart, President of the First National Bank, was the first pupil registered. While 
others were visited with the " rod " well laid on, this first pupil was fortunate enough to escape unharmed. 

Dr. Vanderveer retired from teaching in 1S57. He was several years in the Board of Control, and thus 
aided Ijy his experience the cause to which he had devoted his life. He lived twenty -one years in his retire- 
ment, and died April 28, 1S78. His long experience in teaching, and his inculcation of the sublime prin- 
ciples of virtuous manhood, were in striking harmony with his own life, which seemed based upon the old Latin 
proverb : "Justitia fiat, mat coelum." And this feature of his character led one of his old pupils, at the lime of 
his death, to say of him : 

" Noblest Roman of them all — 
When shall we look upon his Hke again." 

The funeral services were condu<5ted by Dr. Edgar, at the residence of the family. Sixty-eight of his former 
pupils attended the services in a body, and followed the remains of their former teacher to their resting place in 
the cemetery. 

^ppro^eK fo hAhi^^fe, G^oll^^^— 1^^7. 


The author would acknowledge in this general way the very frequent use of Professor Owen's "Historical 
Sketches of Lafayette," Coffin's "Men of Lafayette," Mitchell's historical and descriptive article in Scribner's 
Magazine, for December, 1876. Other helps will be noticed in the progress of the work. 

The following is a copy of the original petition presented to the Legislature of Penn- 
sylvania for the charter of a College in Easton. 

"To the Honorable the Senate and House of Representatives of the Commonwealth 
of Pennsylvania in General Assembly met. The petition of the subscribers, inhabi- 
tants of the said Commonwealth, respecflfully represents. 

"That a memorial has been presented to your honorable bodies on behalf of the 
Trustees of ' Lafayette College,' located in Easton, praying for an aS. of incorporation. 
Your petitioners, believing that the plan of education proposed to be adopted in that insti- 
tution, in which military science and tactics will be combined with the usual course of 
academical studies, and a due attention paid to the modern languages, especially the Ger- 
man, will be productive of much good to the students and the public in general ; and that 
such an institution is much needed in this section of the State, pray your honorable bodies 
that a charter of incorporation may be granted to the said Trustees, and such Legislative 
aid be extended to the funds of the institution as you in your wisdom may deem proper." 

The above petition had its origin at a meeting of the citizens of Easton at White's 
Hotel, in the northeast corner of the Public Square, December 27, 1824. There was a 
feeling in the minds of thinking men that Easton was to occupy a commanding position 
in this part of the State ; hence we find that such men as Sitgreaves, Porter, Wolf, and 
Joel Jones, leaders of public opinion — eminent at the bar, and successful in moulding 
public taste — earnest friends of education — were ready to do all in their power to aid in 
promoting the cause which had taken a strong hold in the public mind. At the meeting 
at White's Hotel, Colonel Thomas McKeen was appointed President, and after the matter 
had been thoroughly discussed, it was resolved, " That it is expedient to establish at this 
place an institution of learning in which the languages, and the various branches of edu- 
cation and science usually taught in colleges, together with the French and German lan- 
guages, civil and military engineering and military tadlics shall be taught." It was not 
ten years since the battle of New Orleans had thrilled the hearts of the American people 
and closed the war of 1812. And the military feeling was such that the men of Easton 
felt an institution of learning must have military science prominent among the studies 
pursued in order to meet the demands of a young man's education. The president of the 
meeting, without doubt, inspired the citizens with his own patriotic emotions. Born of 
Scotch blood, in the Emerald Isle, he inherited that ardent love of education and freedom 
which is so evident wherever this remarkable people make their home. And at this dis- 
tance in time, we can imagine him urging the military feature of the college charter by 
exclaiming "a freeman's arm can best defend a freeman's home," and that "a well 
instructed citizen .should not only know his rights, but should also know how to defend 
them." Joel Jones was the secretary of this meeting. 

Thomas McKeen was born June 27, 1763, and came to this country in his twentieth year. When he pre- 
sided at the meeting at White's Hotel, he was sixty-one years of age. It is evident he was working for the 



future. No doubt his mind dwelt upon the scenes of the future when the fruit should ripen, the germs of which 
plans he was then planting. When he came to America he settled in the vicinity of Easton and engaged in teach- 
ing, and afterwards in mercantile pursuits. In 1815 he accepted the position of Cashier of the Easton Bank, and at 
the death of Samuel Sitgreaves, in 1S26, he became its President, and retained the position till 1S51, a period of 
twenty-five years. Mr. McKeen was eminent in busiuess circles and prominent in many enterprises that give 
evidence of a generous heart, and a liberal-minded citizen. He was an adlive member of the Presbyterian 
Church, for many years Treasurer of Lafayette College, and one of the most generous of its early friends. He 
died in 185S, in the ninety-si.Kth year of life. 

Having resolved to found a College, the ne.vt question that came before the people 
was the name by which the institution should be known. General Lafayette had landed 
in New York the previous summer, August i6 ; his name was on the lips of every child 
who could speak, as on those of the old man trembling on the verge of the grave ; it was 
told by maid and matron in every home in the land, by the farmer at the plough and the 
mechanic at his toil. A continued ovation marked his progress from city to city in the 
republic for which he had fought and whose soil had been stained with his blood. No 
event had occurred since the surrender at Yorktown that had so stirred the patriotic emo- 
tions as the arrival of this intimate companion in arms of Washington. He had been 
wounded at Brandywine, nursed in Bethlehem ; he should be honored at Easton ; and so 
it was unanimously resolved to name the institution, Lafayette. These men were in ear- 
nest, which is evident from the last resolution which was passed by the meeting. " That 
James M. Porter, Joel Jones, and Jacob Wagener, be a committee to draft a memorial to 
the Legislature for a charter of incorporation, and for legislative aid." The Legislature 
granted the charter, March 9, 1826. This charter vested thirty-five persons therein 
named with the usual powers of a College, and to fill vacancies in their board by elecftion. 
The names of the Trustees are as follows : General Robert Patterson, John Hare Powel, 
Peter A. Browne, General Andrew M. Prevost, Benjamin Tilghman, Silas E. Wier, John 
M. Scott, Samuel Sitgreaves, Thomas McKeen, Peter Miller, Philip Mixsell, Jacob Wey- 
gandt, Jr., John Bowes, James M. Porter, Christian J. Hutter, Jacob Wagener, George M. 
Barnet, John Carey, William Shouse, Peter Ihrie, Jr., J. Worman, Joel Jones, J. R. Latti- 
more, Thomas L Rogers, Joseph K. Swift, M. D., George G. Howell, Peter S. Michler, 
Jesse M. Howell, Philip H. Mattes, George Hess, Jr., Jacob Kern, George Weber, Anthony 
McCoy, Walter C. Livingston, and William Long. The board met for organization. May 
15, 1826. Hon. James M. Porter was elefted President, which position he held for twenty- 
five years ; Hon. Joel Jones, Secretary, and Col. Thomas McKeen, Treasurer. Tiie organi- 
zation was now complete, but the Legislature had not made an appropriation. The pros- 
pedl was dark, but those noble men went forward not daunted by difficulties. They must 
selecfl a president who could aid them in infusing life into the new organization. In 
February, 1828, Professor List was eledled, but he could not serve. Dr. Jaeger was then 
offered the position, but with the same result. In January, 1832, Dr. John Gray named 
to the committee Rev. George Junkin, A. M., as a gentleman eminently qualified to take 
charge of the institution. Mr. Junkin at that time had charge of the "Manual Labor 
Academy of Pennsylvania," situated at Germantown. The trustees invited him to come 
to Easton and examine the charter and location and prospe(?ts. He came, had an inter- 
view with the committee, and on the 6th of February, 1832, the board appointed Mr. 
Junkin President of the College, which position he agreed to accept if the military feature 
of the charter could be dispensed with. This was done by a supplement passed by the 


Legislature, April 7, 1832. Another important step had been taken. It had been nearly 
six years since the organization of the Board of Trustees. During these long years these 
patient, persevering men, were looking for a man to take the helm and guide the vessel 
through the storms which might rise before them. 

"Of my family I know but little," said Dr. Junkin. "Heraldry has not blazoned its name. Edmon'sbook 
contains it not." But if not written in earthh- books of heraldry-, the names of many of his ancestors are re- 
corded in a more ancient and enduring volume — the Lamb's Book of Life. His liueage was of that stalwart, 
godly, and heroic race, the Puritans of Scotland — the men and women who braved persecution for Christ's 
crown and covenant ; and, despite the curses of the Charles' and the claymores of Claverhouse, witnessed so 
long and so steadfastly for God and His truth. When George the Second was on the British throne ; when 
Pennsylvania was a proNdnce only fifty-six years old ; when the Susquehanna flowed through an almost unbro- 
ken wilderness, there crossed that river, at Harris' Ferry, now Harrisburg, two youthful Scotch-Irish immigrants 
— Joseph Junkin and Elizabeth, his wife. A previous immigration of Junkins had halted and acquired lauds 
upon a part of which the town of Oxford now stands. This Joseph Junkin came from Antrim county, Ireland. 
His father and mother had immigrated to that country from Scotland during the persecution under the Stu- 
arts. They were Covenanters of the straightest type, and left their countrj- for their conscience sake. This im- 
migration occurred some time before the revolution of 1688. The Junkin family had resided near Inverness, but 
the name is probabl}- of Danish origin ; they were, most likely, of the number of those adventurers from Den- 
mark which, at an early period, took possession of parts of the coast of North Britain. The paternal grand- 
mother of Dr. Junkin was Elizabeth Wallace, also of Scotch parentage, her mother having come from Scotland 
previous to the siege of Londonderry ; for she was in that city, and, with her family, endured the horrors of 
that siege, successful resistance to which gave William of Orange that vantage which established him upon the 
British throne,— the champion of the Protestant religion and the liberties of the world. She heard the booming 
of many a cannon of the allies of the Stuarts ; and she saw from the walls of glorious old Derry the smoke of 
the most important guu ever fired, — the lee gun of the Mountjoy, whose rebound righted the ship, broke the 
boom, relieved the starv-ing city and garrison, forced the allies to raise the siege and fall back upon the Boyne 
where the arms of William and liberty triumphed, and couipleted the glorious revolution of 1688. From such 
an ancestry George Junkin was descended, which may serve to explain the source of his unflinching courage, 
untiring zeal, and his aggressive force, which carried him through the exciting scenes of his life, and impressed 
his name upon an institution which will stand as his monument, more enduring than one of brass or marble. 
George Junkin was born in a stone building near Kingston, in Cumberland county, Pennsylvania, November i, 
1790. The force of charafter inherited from his ancestors was developed under the influence of parents whose 
religious charadler was as remarkable as their patriotism. His parents were governed by the principle announced 
by Solomon : " Bring up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old, he will not depart from it." Their 
religious emotions were awakened into life amid the throes of revolution, and intensified by bitter persecution. 
In no class of men in the history of the modern church did the flame of pure religion bum more brightly than 
in the lives of those men who fought for religious freedom at Londonderry, and on the banks of the Boyne. In 
the midst of such influences, in the seclusion of primeval forests, George Junkin spent the days of his early life. 
Reared amid such surroundings, hard toil and self-denial became a pleasure in the service of the Master. Ad- 
herence to duty was the pole star of his life, and he followed its light with the spirit of a martyr. In May, 1S09, 
he entered the grammar school of Jefi"erson College. Ross' Latin Grammar was put into his hands and no other 
duty assigned him. He was required to commit certain parts to memory and recite by rote. His teacher never 
took a book into his hands, having the whole committed to memory. No explanations were made until the 
grammar had been twice recited through. The third time the examples under syntax rules were parsed and 
most of the notes committed. And Dr. Junkin remarks : " After all my experience I think it best to study lan- 
guage first and afterwards the philosophy of language." In College he soon developed a taste and talent for 
writing and discussion, which made him somewhat distinguished among his fellows. He was noticed in col- 
lege as a grave and rather reserved youth, intent upon study, and full and accurate iu his recitation. His 
powers of generalization and analysis and his logical acumen were early developed which made him of mark as a 
rea.soner ; and he was conceded to be the best debater in college. In September, 1S13, he passed his final ex- 
aminations, and was admitted to the first degree in the arts. He shortly afterwards went to New York to study 
theology with the great Dr. Mason. It is suggestive of the great change in tlie mode of travel to read the ex- 
perience of young Junkin in traveling from Philadelphia to New York. "We left Philadelphia at daylight, 
crossed the Delaware at New Hope and lodged the first night at Somerville ; the next day's journey brought us 



to Paulus Hook, on the shores of the Hudson, opposite New York City." Early in June, 1816, he received in- 
formation that Dr. Mason was about to make a voyage to Europe. He did not wish to spend his time at the 
Seminary in the absence of his favorite teacher, and so he concluded to be licensed and go to work and finish 
his studies after Dr. Mason's return. On September i6th he was licensed to preach by the Presbvterv of Mo- 
nongahela. He spent his first Sabbath at Butler, Pa., where he preached twice in the court-house; the next 
Sabbath was spent at White Oak Spring, six miles from Butler. Here a rostrum was erefted in the wild woods 
but a flourishing congregation was established on the spot afterwards. In the same autumn he was at Carlisle 
and preached for Rev. Mr. DufSeld. While sitting in the study of Mr. Duffield he was informed of the fall of 

the Rev. Mr. , a most brilliant and talented minister, from the effeifls of alcohol. The sad event made 

a deep impression on the mind of Mr. Junkin, and before he rose from his seat he settled the question, that by 
the help of God, he would never drink intoxicating drinks except under the most urgent medical advice. It 
was a universal habit to give liquor to visitors as a token of hospitality, but it may safely be believed that Mr. 
Junkin kept his word. On Oiflober 17, 1819, Mr. Junkin was installed pastor of the church at Milton, Pa., but 
before his formal installation, he had entered upon the duties of his pastorate with a zeal and energy which was 
never relaxed until the hand of death was laid upon him nearly half a century afterwards. At the time of his 
entrance upon his duties there was no house of worship belonging to his people. He preached in a schoolhouse 
in the winter season, and in the summer in a log house. Whisky drinking was almost universal. At funerals 
the whiskey bottle and tumbler were passed as a matter of course, and many a time men might be seen goino- 
from the house of death, sadly under the influence of liquor. It soon became evident that there must be a 
change, either in the people or the pastor. It needed a moral earthquake to make his people see the state of 
things in a proper light. The earthquake was near at hand. He was called upon to attend a funeral service 
where the whiskey bottle and tumblers made their appearance. While gazing upon the incongruity of the 
scene, and looking upon the alcohol standing so near the cold remains of the dead, deeming it an insult to God 
and a curse to man, he refused to engage in the services and left the house. There was another clergyman 
present who could condu(ft the service, but Mr. Junkin had gained his point. The people were startled, and 
awoke as from a dream. Intense excitement was caused by the bold, determined action of the pastor of the 
Presbyterian Church. People began to inquire into the reason which aiftuated the pastor. The Northumber- 
land Presbytery, after a stormy debate, passed resolutions of temperance reform. This is thought by some to 
be the first temperance movement by ecclesiastical a(5lion in the country. But the Quakers, disgusted at the 
sight of drunkenness at funerals, had taken adlion in a milder form many years before in Eastern Pennsylvania. 
Mr. Junkin had to endure the pelting of a serious storm of persecution, but he bore it with meekness and chris- 
tian patience. He was a born leader, who was safe to follow, though he sometimes led through stormy and un- 
trodden paths. He was conscientiously and intensely religious. He carefully studied the path of duty and 
walked in it with an unfaltering step. His salary was inadequate for his support ; he bought a farm, and while 
building a barn was taken sick with a serious attack of bilious fever. He had employed a Mr, William Thomas, 
a pious Baptist, who attended his church, to build his barn. Mr. Junkin requested that Mr. Thomas should lead 
the family devotion in the apartment at the foot of the stairs so that he might hear and enjoy the service. One 
morning Mr. Thomas asked his apprentice, Matthew Laird, to condudl the service. Mr. Junkin remarked to 
his wife — "That young man's prayer went to my heart, it was fervent and tender, and if God spares my life, 
that j'oung man shall enter the ministry." The vow was fulfilled. That prayer of Matthew Laird's was, in a 
certain sense, the starting point of Lafayette College, as it was the first link in the chain of Divine Providence 
that led him into the department of education. He took Matthew Laird and Daniel Gaston under his care to 
study for the ministry. He prepared an apartment in his new barn which might serve as a carpenter shop, 
where the young men could work, and by exercise keep up the tone of their system by healthy labor, and 
pay the expenses of their course. In following up this idea, his mind was attraded to the Manual Labor Acad- 
emy of Pennsylvania, located at Germantown. The idea of combining with study the health-preserving labor 
of the hands, and so contribute to the expenses of education, got possession of his mind, and residted in the 
founding of Lafayette College. 

The trtistees then leased, for two years, the farm on the south bank of the Lehigh, 
owned by Christopher Medler, and placed it at the disposal of Mr. Jnnkin, that he might 
conducfl the operations of the College upon the principle of manual labor. In March 
President Junkin came to Easton, brought a number of young men from Germantown 
with him and went to work in earnest on the college premises ; so successful were 
they in their work that the regular exercises of the College began May 9, 1832. The 


session opened with forty-three students, most of whom came from Germantown with 
him. The number soon increased to fift^'-six, and there were also during the year eleven 
day scholars, so that Lafayette had an attendance of sixty-seven pupils in the first year 
of her history. 

We learn from the first annual report and accompanying catalogue that "on Monday, 
0<5lober 8, 1832, the examination of the students took place at the College, commencing 
at 9 o'clock A. M., and continuing to a late hour in the afternoon." In the evening the 
first annual exhibition took place in the Presbyterian Church in Easton. And it is a 
matter of interest that the first oration delivered in the history of the College was "On 
the Qualifications of a Christian Missionary," by Charles F. Worrell, of New Jersey. 

The following was the order of exercises : An oration by Andrew Barr, of Pennsyl- 
vania, " Benefits of the American Tariff System." An oration by Oliver W. Stevens, of 
Georgia, "In Opposition to the Tariff, and Advantages of Tree Trade." An oration by 
William D. Howard, of Philadelphia, " Evils of the Civil War in the United States." A 
strange arrangement of topics in the light of the then near future. An oration by John 
J. Carrell, of Bucks county, Penna., "Importance of the Missionary Enterprise." This 
shows the beating of the nation's pulse fifty-si.x years ago. 

From this first annual report we have an account of the work done in the labor depart- 
ment. An inventory of the principal material wrought up by the students within the 
year, namely : 117,639 feet of lumber cost$i545.43; 640 trunk locks, handles, etc., $240.00; 
145 pounds of nails, $87.00; Petna and Madrass goat skins, $587.00; two hundred and 
twenty-five morocco skins, $191.00; manufactured articles (dry goods boxes) 610; book 
bo.xes, 151; quill boxes (cotton fadlory) 80; hat boxes, 132; trunk boxes, 970; candle 
boxes, 84. Total, 2027. There were 640 trunks finished, 740 lights of sash, 10 
cultivators, 2 wheelbarrows, i cutting box, i horse rake, 10 bedsteads, 5 long dining 
tables, 25 study and kitchen tables, 2 wash stands, i kneading trough, i large writ- 
ing table, 15 benches. Then follows a report of farm and garden work : 100 loads of 
manure spread, 2400 bushels of lime spread, 25 tons of hay cut, 320 bushels of potatoes 
raised, 8 acres of corn cut, 6 acres of oats, 25 acres of wheat and rye. This shows an ear- 
nest effort on the part of the president to solve the problem of a manual labor college. 

It will be interesting to the students of to-day to examine the studies of those early 
days and compare them with the present. The curriculum is as follows : 

Freslimcn. First Term: hSiim — Odes of Horace. Greek — Minora. Neilson's Exer- 
cises, Roman Antiquities, Mythology, Ancient Geography. IMathematics — Euclid, First 

Second Term: Latin — Satires and Epistles of Horace, Cicero's Orations, Roman 
Antiquities. Greek — Majora, viz : Xeuophou, Herodotus, Thucydides. Neilson's Exer- 
cises — Antiquities. Mathematics — Euclid Second and Third Books, .\lgebra to Simple 

Sophomore Class. First Term: Latin — Horace's Art of Poetry, Tacitus' History. 
Greek — Majora, viz : First Volume completed, Greek Antiquities. Mathematics — Euclid, 
Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Books. 

Second Term: Latin — Tacitus' History. Greek — Majora, Second \'olume. Plane 
Trigonometry, Algebra througli p;quatious. Evidences of Ciiristianity. 


Junior Class. First Term: Latin — Cicero de Officiis. Greek — Majora, Second 
Volume. Surveying, Mensuration, Conic Se6lions, Mental Philosophy, Logic, Evidences 
of Christianity. 

Second Term: Greek — Longinus deSublimitate. Spherical Trigonometry, Analytic 
Geometry, Differential and Integral Calculus, Moral Philosophy, Rhetoric, Natural The- 

Senior Class. First Term: Latin — Cicero de Oratore. Greek — Majora, Medea. 
Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, Mental Philosophy, Rhetoric. 

Second Term: Natural Philosophy, Mineralogy, Botany, Political Economy, History 
Reviewed, Mental and Moral Philosophy, Evidences of Christianity. 

A preparatory course and a teachers' course were also arranged and the teachers were 
to receive a normal training for their work. It was impossible to fill the position of pro- 
fessor in German literature the first and second year, and hence it is not mentioned in the 

The Faculty of the College consisted of Rev. George Junkin, D. D., President, and 
Professor of Mental and Moral Philosophy, Logic, Rhetoric, and Evidences 'of Chris- 

Mr. Charles F. M'Cay, A. B., Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy. 

Mr. James Coon, (later Kuhn,) A. B., Professor of the Latin and Greek languages. 

Samuel D. Gross, M. D.* Professor of Chemistry, Mineralogy and Botany. 

Mr. Daniel Gaston, Business Agent, f 

The third semi-annual examination occurred on October, 7, 1833, in the College 
building, south of the Lehigh. In the evening of the same day there was a public exhi- 
bition in the Presbyterian Church of Easton, which was the second annual commencement 
of the young College. 

This exhibition closed the third term of the college in its temporary quarters, on 
the south side of the Lehigh. In looking for a permanent place whereon to erecft 
the College buildings. Mount Lafayette was wisely chosen, and nine acres of land 
were purchased for $1400, and the work of building soon began. People may look in 
vain for a place more beautiful by nature than this lovely spot. Literally encircled by 
mountains, beautiful in their wild irregularity, and charming variety, ever changing in 
their outline, as the observer changes position. Mount Lafayette presents attra6lions unsur- 
passed in the wealth of her natural scenery. And then, winding on either side are the 
sparkling waters of the Delaware, Lehigh and Bushkill, overshadowed by lofty mountain 
crags, or adorned by villages, farm houses and furnaces, along their banks, the lofty col- 
umns of steam from the passing engines, moving like the cloudy pillar in the wilderness, 
and the columns of dark smoke rising from busy furnaces on the Lehigh, present scenes 
at which the eyes may daily gaze, but never weary while they look. Those men knew 
how this locality might be made yet more attractive by art. Their imagination could 
easily pidlure these beautiful maple groves, blooming shrubbery, winding foot-paths and 
carriage ways, green lawns, and stately buildings ; and if Dr. Junkin allowed his imagi- 

* Dr. Gross became an eminent physician and surgeon in Jefferson Medical College, in Philadelphia. He 
died recently, having ordered his body to be cremated, which was done in the crematory of Washington, Pa. 

t Mr. Gaston died in 1865, in Philadelphia, having been remarkably successful as pastor of the Presbyterian 
Church, in Cohocksink. 


ready for occupancy in May, 1834. 

nation to dwell upon the additional beauties which art might bring, there is no wonder 
that he should so frequently speak of "lovely Lafayette." 

Preparations were soon made to ereft suitable buildings on this advantageous spot. 
In June, 1833, Dr. Junkin broke ground for the new building. It was nearly nine years 
since the first meeting at White's Hotel. The progress seemed slow, but every step 
was wisely taken, and that which had been gained had been tenaciously held. On 
the morning of June 27, Judge Porter laid the first stone. On July 4, the corner stone 
was laid with appropriate ceremonies. A procession was formed, made up of the College 
authorities, students, citizens, civil and military organizations of the vicinity. The pro- 
cession was formed at the court house, then standing in Centre Square. The procession 
moved at half-past nine a. m. to the College grounds, the corner stone was laid, addresses 
were delivered by Dr. Junkin and Rev. B. C. Wolf. The procession then returned to the 
German Reformed Church, and at half-past eleven o'clock Hon. Joseph R. Ingersoll, of 
Philadelphia, delivered an oration. The building was urged on with such zeal as to be 
Professor Owen, in his Historical Sketches of Lafay- 
ette College, expresses the opinion that without the 
aid of Judge Porter the college could not have been 
built. "The structure (now the central part of South 
College) was 112 by 44 feet, with a recess of 17 by 
49 feet. The basement, first and second stories, of 
limestone, rough laid, Und the third and fourth sto- 
ries of brick, the whole rough cast. There were si.\ 
recitation rooms, a chapel, refectory hall, stewards' 
rooms, apartments for the president and other offi- 
cers of the college, and about fifty rooms for students. 
This building was the pride of the town. At its 
completion it was brilliantly illuminated by the 
students, who made the day one of great festivity and rejoicing."* After the build- 
ing was completed, the inauguration of the faculty took place, the membership being 
the same as already mentioned. The manual labor system was continued. Dr. Junkin 
was a warm advocate of this system, and was determined to give the problem a satis- 
factory solution. It had met with a partial failure at Germantown, but that was 
attributed to disadvantages of location, and not to any defect in the system ; he was 
determined to try it under more favorable surroundings. The trustees were in full 
sympathy with the president. They spoke in the warmest terms of the good results on 
the health and economy of the students, in promoting mental and bodily activit)', and 
"developing a manly independence of character." The arguments by which the system 
was sustained, could not be successfully assailed, nothing but the severe school of experi- 
ment could satisfactorily test its weak points ; where logic failed, experience succeeded in 
discovering the fallacy ; and after a trial of five more years on Mount Lafayette, the pres- 
ident was obliged to admit its failure as a part of college life. The system of manual 
labor led him to Easton, and Providence seems to have used it as mathematicians do the 
the symbol of the unknown quantity in algebraic manipulations, till the equation is 
.solved, and it was then dismissed. In 1839, on his recommendation the system was 

* Owen's Sketches. 

Lafayette College— 1850. 


abandoned by the trustees. But the college had been established, and though minor 
measures might change, its vitality could not be injured. There were many dark days 
for it to pass through, but the trustees were determined to succeed. Dr. Junkin resio-ned 
in 1841 to accept the presidency of the Miami University, Ohio. He was recalled in 
1844, and remained at the head of the college till 1848, when he again resigned, and 
accepted the position of president of Washington College, Virginia. But wherever he 
was his heart turned toward Easton, as he often wrote of "lovely Lafayette." His con- 
nexion with the college had been one constant scene of anxiety, there had been serious 
obstrudlions, severe discouragements, but this noble man toiled on, praying daily for suc- 
cess. He spent $10,000 of his private funds, and continued until prudence bade him 
stop. In a Baccalaureate sermon, he compares the progress of the college to a " traveller 
who spends his long and toilsome day in passing from mountain crag to mountain crag, 
without appearing to have gained in elevation or distance;" and he adds in a tone of 
sadness, "shelving crag and rolling rock, and mountain torrent, and chilling iceberg, and 
deep, dark ravine we have encountered." 

In 1837 the prospedls were so dark that he offered in a meeting of his friends in 
Philadelphia, to relinquish the enterprise, if they thought best, but they urged him to 
continue, and not to sacrifice what had been done to accomplish an objecfl of such 
immense importance. Among those who thus advised were Rev. Drs. Archibald Alex- 
ander and John Breckinridge. Both very strongly opposed the idea of abandoning the 

Dr. John W. Yeomans succeeded Dr. Junkin, and was inaugurated August 18, 1841. 
He resigned in 1844, and Dr. Junkin was unanimously re-elected president. Rev. Charles 
W. Nassau, D. D. , vice president of the faculty, was elected president on March 13, 1849, 
but was not inaugurated, and resigned in September, 1850. ' The patronage of the collecre 
was now quite small. In 1848, the four classes numbered 82 ; in 1850, the number had fallen 
to 24. At this rate the end seemed inevitable. At this time the subject of Parochial 
Schools, Presbyterial Academies and Synodical Colleges, was very earnestly advocated by 
many leading minds in the Presbyterian Church. The presidents of the college had been 
Presbyterians, the professors and patrons were numerously of this denomination, and there 
seemed nothing to hinder making Lafayette a Presbyterian institution, and placing it under 
the care of the Synod of Philadelphia. The legislature made the desired change in the 
charter, and in 1850, Lafayette was received under the care and patronage of this ecclesias- 
tical body. This must be looked upon as one of the most important steps in the history of 
the institution, one that was full of hope. Under the new order of things. Rev. D. V. Mc- 
Lean, D. D., was ele<5led president, and inaugurated in 1851. He at once undertook to 
raise $100,000 as a permanent endowment fund by the sale of scholarships. The payment 
of $100 entitled the holder to the privilege of educating his own sons, or the sons of any 
person to whom he might transfer the certificate without further tuition fees. This matter 
was urged with such zeal that the whole sum was pledged by January i, 1854, and Monday, 
January 2, was a day of rejoicing. In the evening the buildings were illuminated, and the 
faculty and students assembled in Brainerd Hall, where they were addressed by Mr. Edsall 
Ferrier, a member of the Senior class, and in response, by the president. In the evening 
there was a torchlight procession. This movement brought the college conspicuously before 
the public again, and in 1856 the number of students reached 106, the highest number 



yet attained. But the pecuniary advantage was only temporan'. It was borrowing money 
to be paid by the tuition fees of pupils for many years to come ; so that, while the students 
increased in number, expenses also increased, the income from tuition was almost entirely 
cut off. When Dr. McLean resigned in 1857, the college was without funds. Students 
came with scholarships, the income from which had been applied to the payment of debts, 
leaving but a small productive fund ; the plan had been of questionable advantage, and the 
darkness returned. 

In 1857 the duties of the presidency were assigned to the Rev. George Wilson 


James H. Coffin, LL. D. 
Professor 1S46-1873. 

McPhail, D. D., LL. D., who three years earlier had become first pastor of the Brainerd 
Church. He was formally inaugurated in 1858, and discharged the duties of his office 
until the summer of 1863. 

It was during his presidenc\- that the civil war broke out. The echo of Confederate 
guns in Charleston Harbor had roused the North and West. In every town and city 
could be heard the drum beat calling men to arms. The farmer literally left the plow in 
the furrow, the mechanic laid down his tools, clerks closed their ledgers, bade adieu to 



dear ones at home, and Imrried to the front to endure the toils of the camp and tlie liazard 
of battle. Academies and colleges gave np their students, the best blood of the nation 
to rescue the Republic from the grasp of treason and save it in the hour of peril. No 
college in the land, in proportion, sent so many of her sons to the field as did Lafayette ; 
and the stately monument in front of South College tells the story of their devotion. In 
1863, there was no commencement, the boys were at the front. This absence of students 
was not from the want of interest in Lafayette, but from a greater interest in the salvation 

of the Republic. Lafayette 
might have had no mis- 
sion, if the government 
were lost. They would 
first save the Republic, 
then come back and save 
Lafayette ; and so the stu- 
dents who should have 
graduated in '63, returned 
and took their degrees the 
following year. But other 
circumstances combined 
with the war to make this 
the darkest period of the 
history of Lafayette. She 
had stood at the portals be- 
fore, she now seemed to 
have entered the dark val- 
ley. The condition of the 
college was so alarming, 
friends so disheartened, 
that the question of clos- 
ing the doors was freely 
discussed. For this pur- 
pose a meeting of the trus- 
tees was called in Phila- 
delphia, at which a com- 
mittee was appointed to 
confer with Dodlors Coffin, 
March and Coleman, with 
reference to keeping the 
college in operation an- 
other year. The question 
to settle was, can we pay their salaries? The life of " Lovely Lafayette " was placed in 
the hands of this trio of noblemen, who resolved to proceed regardless of the amount they 
might receive, and keep the college doors open at all hazards. Lafayette "still lives." 
These three names are familiar in both hemispheres— Coleman, Coffin, March. Two of 
them have gone to their final reward, the third, the leading Anglo-Saxon scholar of the 

^is K. March, LL. D., L. H, 
iiparative Philology and Engli 


world, still stands at his post. Tempted by offers of higher positions, and b\- others again, 
of larger salary, he remains in the position he has honored so long, and which has done so 
much to give Lafayette her eminent and foremost position in the Philological world. 

In looking for a president a kind Providence fixed the attention of the trustees upon 
Rev. William C. Cattell, pastor of Pine Street Presbyterian Church in Harrisburg. The 
trustees had gone through dense darkness many times ; their faith had been so tested 
as to remind them of the Hebrew Patriarch, but light was beginning to beam on the near 
future. Dr. Cattell was inaugurated August 26, 1864. He knew the needs, the sore 
trials through which the college had gone for he had previously been a member of her 
faculty for five years ; he knew and loved the noble men who had sacrificed so much. 
He knew the trials before him. He brought with him a warm heart, a strong faith, a 
determined zeal, the sympathy of a large circle of friends, and a willingness to toil hard 
for success. The star of hope seemed to have arisen. Gov. Pollock, president of the 
board of trustees, was the prophet of the occasion, and did much to lift the veil which 
covered the future, when he said : "The hour of darkness and gloom has passed; and 
to-day, within her walls all is harmony and peace ; and at this hour, and in analogy with 
nature now robed in sunshine and smiling after the storm, the light of a genial sun now 
pouring down upon us through the riven and scattered clouds, Lafayette College stands 
revealed in the light of returning prosperity, and all without betokens favor, success and 
triumph !" 

The new era seemed to have received the seal of Divine approbation in a most gra- 
cious revival, which "was perhaps the most remarkable of the revivals that have charac- 
terized the recent history of the college." This warm religious life has been a source of 
joy to many a household, when the news came of the conversion of their sons ; and many 
Christian mothers have uttered earnest prayers for the prosperity of the college. With 
this religious prosperity came temporal advancement. The number of students in 1863 
was 39, in 1875 it was 318. The prosperity of Lafayette was seen quite as clearly in the 
increase of her buildings, as in the growing numbers of her students. An incident should 
be here mentioned, as it was the beginning of a movement which has dotted the hill with 
beautiful and costly buildings. Let President Cattell tell his own story. At a banquet 
given to him in Philadelphia, in 1869, on the eve of his departure for an extended tour 
in Europe, President Cattell said: "In the Fall of 1864, I became acquainted with Mr. 
Ario Pardee. It was at a period when the clouds of our civil war hung low and dark in 
the horizon, shrouding the whole country in gloom. It was a dark period for Lafayette 
College, too. I had labored for nearly a year with all the energy God had given me; and 
so insignificant were the results that it seemed scarcely possible the college could exist 
much longer. You can therefore judge of my personal, as well as my official gratitude, 
to Mr. Pardee when I tell you that at this first interview, this noble man placed in my 
hands his obligation for $20,000. I read the paper over and over, and the more I read it 
the less I could comprehend the situation. I was, sir, as one that dreamed. And, indeed, 
how I got home that day I can scarcely remember. I do remember, however, that when 
I reached home and showed the letter to the one whose gentle sympathies had cheered 
me in so many hours of discouragement, and was the first to know and share my new joy — 
I well remember that we two knelt down together, and from my full heart there went up 
the prayer that God would reward and bless the generous donor, and that prayer I have 



not ceased since that time to offer daily." This was merely the beginning of that re- 
markable generosity which has made the name of Ario Pardee so dear to the friends of 
this college. 

James H. Coffin, LL. D., was born September 6, 1806, at Williamsburg, Mass. He was the son of Matthew Coffin 
and Betsey Allen. He attended common schools in his childhood when his health would permit, for he was a feeble 
boy. When he was nine years old he manifested the religious turn of mind for which he was so remarkable in mature 
life. At this early age he began to read the Bible systematically, and read it through six or seven times. To those 
who remember his earnest religious life, it will be no surprise to read of his constant habit of prayer in solitude in his 
boyhood. During his fourteenth year he was engaged in working on the farm, when his father died. His mechanical 
tastes inclined him to learn a trade, but this was relinquished, and he went to live with his uncle. Rev. Moses Hal- 
lock of Plainfield, Mass. Here he began the life of a student. He entered Amherst College in 1823, and graduated 
August 27, 1828. He was then twenty-two years of age. He had little or no means of his own when he entered col- 
lege. Friends promised to aid him, but the promises were not all fulfilled, and he supplied the deficiency by teaching. 
He taught the academy at Ogdensburg, New York, and here began those meteorological investigations which he pur- 
sued the remainder of his life. Wliile at Ogdensburg he showed his mechanical skill by inventing and erecting a self- 
registering vane, which showed the number of hours and minutes that the wind blew from each of the thirty-two points 
of the compass during the twenty-four hours of each day. This enabled him to investigate the connection between the 
direction of the wind and other phenomena of the region. The observations on the evaporation at this place furnished 
the data on which the committee of the New York Senate relied in preparing their report on the water supply for the 
Genesee Valley canal in the winter session of 1839-40. From 1839 to 1843 he was connected with Williams College, 
and it is surprising to observe the amount of work accomplished in that brief period. The articles he there published 
are as follows : An article on the winds of the State of New York, which was published in the Regents Reports for 1840 ; 
a series of articles published in the Piltsfield Sun, entitled " Meteorological Observations and Researches in Williams 
College ; an elaborate article on the " Climate of the State of New York" ; a map showing the central tracks of the 
solar eclipses over the United States during the present century ; " Astronomical Tables," 1842 ; an unpublished trea- 
tise, entitled "The Moon" ; an abridgement of the above, entitled " Solar and Lunar Eclipses" ; a treatise on "Conic 
Sections." Greylock Peak, of Saddleback mountain, which rises not far from the college, is about thirty-three hun- 
dred feet high, and to ascertain the course and velocity and humidity of the winds during the winter on this summit, 
he had erefted a lofty observatory, and on its top fixed numerous self-registering instruments, mainly of his own devi- 
sing. These wer