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Full text of "History of Eau Claire county, Wisconsin, past and present; including an account of the cities, towns and villages of the county"

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977.501 M*l-,. 






3 1833 01052 8054 



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Including an account of the Cities, Towns and 
Villages of the County 









After more thau half a century of growth since its organiza- 
tion as a county, it seemed fitting that an historical account of 
its settlement, development, its people and institutions, should be 
made at this time and preserved; its primary importance is the 
placing in book form and for all time the earlier historical inci- 
dents surrounding the settlements of the various towns, cities and 
villages, and that the time was almost too late, and the work too 
long neglected, became very apparent to the editors when the 
search for material began, for with the passing of the early set- 
tlers, comparatively few of them still live in different parts of 
the county, have gone forever the opportunity to get early facts 
in some instances. 

To properly and adequately write the history of Eau Claire 
county has been a task encompassed with tremendous difficulties ; 
it has been accomplished after laborious research, and the co-op- 
eration of many of its oldest citizens, whose aid the editors ac- 
knowledge most gratefully, for, without it, some parts of this 
work Avould have been impossible. 

Eau Claire county, from its humble beginning, having been, 
through the untiring energy and perseverance of its pioneers, 
brought to be one of the finest counties in the state of Wisconsin, 
holds indeed a wonderful .story of progress. Its cities built to 
stay, whose schools, churches and institutions are equal to any 
in the state, whose people are progressive and possess a fine sense 
of civic pride, are alone worthy of the efforts of the historian: 
in addition to that, its beautiful little villages, its rich agricultural 
resources and dairying interests, place it in the front rank in 
many respects. 

It has been the intention of the publishers from the start to 
publish a complete and comprehensive history of the county. They 
have endeavored to cover every representative subject and relate 
the stoi-y of all the various interests impartially, as was within 
the power of the editors to obtain. That there are some omissions 
on some subjects there can be no doubt, but the instances of this 
are almost wholly brought about by parties called upon and in 
whose possession facts alone Avere. have caused such omissions. 


The publishers of the history desire to acknowledge the cor- 
dial and valuable assistance which has been accorded them in its 
compilation by many citizens of Eau Claire county. It has been 
a help deeply appreciated and deserves due recognition. Among 
those to whom special thanks are due is Hon. "William P. Bailey, 
James H. Waggoner, Percy C. Atkinson, ]\Iarshall Cousins, Walde- 
mar Ager, Reinhold Liebau, Miss A. E. Kidder. W. H. Schulz, 
W. W. Bartlett, L. A. Brace, J. P. Welsh. Frank L. Clark, C. W. 
Lockwood, G. F. Caldwell, W. A. Clark. 


All the biographical sketches published in this history were 
submitted to their respective subjects, or to the subscribers from 
whom the facts were primarilj' obtained, for their approval or 
correction before going to press, and a reasonable time was al- 
lowed in each case for the return of the typewritten copy. Most 
of them were returned to us within the time allotted, or before the 
work was printed, after being corrected or revised, and these, 
therefore, may be regarded as reasonably accurate. 

A few, however, were not returned to us, and as we have no 
means of knowing whether they contain errors or not, we cannot 
vouch for their accuracy. In justice to our readers, and to ren- 
der this work valuable for reference purposes, we have indicated 
these uncorrected sketches by a small asterisk (*) placed imme- 
diately after the name of the subject. 





1. Islaud of AViseoiisin 9 

II. Coming of the Whites 11 

III. Carver 's Cave Found 18 

IV. Indian Treaties 20 

V. The Red Men 23 

VI. IIow Eau Claire County Was Made 29 

VII. Townships 33 

VIII. Fruits and Berries 43 

IX. Agriculture and Dairying 49 

X. Eau Claire Count}' Training School 54 

XI. Eau Claire County in the Civil War 56 

XII. Grand Army of the Republic 193 

XIII. Organized Militia 199 

XIV. Griffin Rifles 206 

XV. Spanish-American War 218 

XVI. Courts and Legal Profession 262 

XVII. Medical Fraternity 304 

XVIII. Old Settlers' Association 345 

XIX. Asylum and Home for the Poor 347 

XX. Eau Claire Prior to Its Incorporation as a City. . 349 

XXI. Lumber Interests 373 

XXII. Reign of Terror in Eau Claire 379 

XXIII. The City of Eau Claire 381 

XXIV. Eau Claire Fire Department 387 

XXV. Public Schools of Eau Claire 407 

XXVI. Floods 436 

XXVII. City Parks 438 

XXVTII. The Children's Home 441 

XXIX. Eau Claire Public Library 443 

XXX. Post Office 445 

XXXT. Societies and Clubs 448 

XXXII. Young Men's Christian Association 456 

XXXIIL Eau Claire Business Houses 461 

XXXIV. Eau Claire Industries 474 

XXXV. The Railroads 489 

XXXVI. Eau Claire Street Railway and Interurban Lines 497 



XXXVII. Newspapers of the County 499 

XXXVIII. Eau Claire Churches 511 

XXXIX. Banks of Eau Claire County 536 

XL. Hotels 540 

XLI. Germanism 553 

XLII. Norwegians 574 

XLIII. City of Augusta 582 

XLIV. Augusta Churches 598 

XLV. Village of Fairehild 615 

XLVI. Pall Creek 619 

XL VII. Biography . . . 623 




'■Geologists assert with positiveness that ages ago the area 
tliat is now the north central portion of Wisconsin and the upper 
peninsula of Michigan was an island of great altitude. They 
trace the physical history of Wisconsin back even to a state of 
complete submergence beneath the waters of the ancient ocean." 
"Let an extensive but shallow sea covering tlie whole of the 
present territory of the state be pictured to the mind," suggests 
the eminent geologist, T. C Chamberlin, "and let it be imagined 
to be depositing mud and sand as at the present day. The thick- 
ness of the sediment was immense, being measured by thousands 
of feet. In the progress of time, an enormous pressure attended 
by heat was brought to bear upon them laterally or edgewise 
by which thej' were folded and crumpled, and forced out of the 
water, giving rise to an island, the nucleus of Wisconsin. The 
force producing this upheaval is believed to have arisen from 
the cooling and contraction of the globe. The foldings may be 
imaged as the wrinkles of a shrinking earth." The climate 
was tropical, incessant showers crumbled the soil on top and the 
ocean waves crumbled the sides. This erosion through unnum- 
bered ages began to level the mountainous island till the sediment 
washed down on all sides, cut down the height and added to the 
area. Thus as the altitude was cut down, the area expanded. 
Soon little outlying islands or reefs were formed that in time 
became attached to the parent isle. Ages passed, the crust of the 
earth yielding to the tremendous pressure beneath, opened into 
fissures which were pierced by masses of molten rock holding 
the elements which later chemical processes have converted into 
rich mineral ledges. Thus by continued upheavals and erosions, 
the surface and the length and breadth of this ancient island of 
Wisconsin was subjected to constant change. After the upheav- 
als that resulted in deposits of iron and copper, and accumula- 
tions of sandstone miles in thickness, came a great period of ero- 


sion. To the disintegrations thus washed into the water were 
added immense accumulations of the remains of marine life. The 
casts of numerous trilobites found in Wisconsin are relics of this 
age. Immense beds of sandstone with layers of limestone and 
shale were formed. The waters acting on the copper and iron 
of the Lake Supei'ior region gave the sandstone deposit there its 
tint of red. On the southern end of the island, the sandstones 
lack this element and they are to this day light colored. 

Next came the great ice age. One monster stream of ice 
plowed along the eastern edge and hollowed the bed of Lake 
Michigan ; another scooped out Lake Superior and penetrated 
into Minnesota, Avhile between these prodigious prongs of ice 
one of lesser size bored its way along Green Bay and do-mi the 
valley of the Fox. When warmer days came, the glaciers melted 
and the water filled numerous depressions scooped out in the 
early irresistible progress of the vast masses. Thus were foi'med 
the 2,000 or more lakes that make of Wisconsin a summer para- 
dise. The warmth that melted the ice to water also brought forth 
the vegetation to cover the nakedness of the land, the forests 
grew, and "man came upon the scene." 



In 1(518, Jean Nieolet, son of a Pari.sian mail carrier, came 
from Cherbourg, Normandy, to Place Royale, now Montreal, 
Canada. He possessed sterling character, abounding energy and 
great religious enthusiasm. Champlain, the restless navigator, 
had passed fifteen strenuous years in exploring the St. Lawrence 
and Ottawa rivers. Lake Huron and Hudson Bay. He now sent 
th(! newcomer to stay among the Algonquins of Isle des Allu- 
metles on the Ottawa river to learn their language and customs 
and share their hardships, aud then to dwell with the Nipissings 
until 1633. Then Champlain, governor of Canada, recalled him 
and made him commissary and Indian interpreter to the one hun- 
dred associates, with Quebec as his residence. He had now served 
his apprenticeship and later was selected by Champlain to make 
a journey to the Winnebagoes and to solve the problem of a near 
I'oute to China. The tapper Mississippi had not been discovered, 
nothing was known of a vast land toward the west, and it was 
believed that a few days' journey would reach China. This was 
in July, 1634. Seven Hurons accompanied him, and in a birch- 
bark canoe they passed along the northern shore of Lake Huron 
and at Sault St! Marie set foot on land which is now part of 
Michigan, and discovered the lake of that name. Steering his 
canoe along the northern shore of Green Bay, he thought he had 
reached China. This was about fourteen years later than the 
landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth Rock. Nieolet had met sev- 
eral Indian tribes, and now the Menomonies at the mouth of the 
Menomonie river. He was now on Wisconsin soil, its discoverer, 
and the first white man there. One of his Hurons had been sent 
forward to announce his coming as a mission of peace to the sup- 
posed celestials. Arrayed in their gorgeous mandarin robe, he 
advanced to meet the crowd with a pistol in each hand which he 
fired into the air one after the other. The chiefs called him 
"Thunder Beaver." Four thousand chiefs of different tribes 


iu council, each chief giving a feast at which Nicolet 
explained the benefits to be gained by their trading with the 
French colony at Quebec. After a rest, he journeyed through 
regions of wild rice marshes until he reached the Mascoutins. 
Had he but known it, a journey of three days would have taken 
him to the Wisconsin river and theuce he could have drifted 
down to the "Great Water." But he proceeded southward to- 
wards the Illinois country and thus missed discovering the upper 
Mississippi, which Joliet found thirty-nine years later. After 
a visit among the Illinois and kindred tribes, Nicolet returned 
to the Green Bay country, and when spring made canoeing pos- 
sible, to Montreal. Six months later the great Champlain "Father 
of New France" died. Troubles among the Indians in Canada 
kept his successors from following up these researches in the 
West, but the gallant Nicolet had "blazed the path" which Kadis- 
son was to follow in twenty-five years. 

The death of Nicolet is a pathetic story. After his return to 
Canada, he spent much of his time in ministering to the sick and 
in official duties at Three Rivers and Quebec, where he served as 
commissary and interpreter, being greatly beloved by Frenchmen 
and Indians. One evening word was brought that Algonquins 
were torturing an Indian prisoner. To prevent this, he entered a 
launch to go to the place with several companions. A tempest 
upset the frail boat, the men clung to it till one by one they were 
torn from it by the waves. As Nicolet was about to be swept 
away, he called to his companion, "I'm going to God. I com- 
mend to you my wife and daughter." In 1660 two explorers, 
Radisson and Grosseilliers, returned to Montreal with the tale of 
their journey to the Lake Superior region. They had also visited 
the head waters of the Black river in Wisconsin, and the Huron 
village on the head waters of what apparently was the Chippewa 
river. In their second voyage on the shore of Chequamegon Bay, 
they constructed the first habitation ever built by white men in 
Wisconsin. A little fort of stakes surrounded by a cord on which 
were "tyed small bells (wch weare senteryes)." It is believed 
that the two Frenchmen wintered in the neighborhood of Mil- 
waukee and possibly Chicago in 1658 and '59. After many 
adventures among the Sioux and at Hudson's bay, they returnea 
to Montreal. Wavering in allegiance between the French and 
English as best suited their interests, they finally made England 
their home and died in that country. The account of the perilous 
journeys of these adventurous men has been gathered from a 
manuscript written by Radisson when he was iu England. This 


Una n curious liistoiy. It was not written for publication, hut 
to interest King Charles in the schemes of these renegade Frencli- 
men to help tlie English wrest the Hudson Bay country from 
French control. They did interest Clint Rupert, and the found- 
ing of the Hudson Bay Company was the result. 

This journal of Radissou's came into the possession of Samuel 
Pepys, author of the well known "Pepys Diary," who was sec- 
retary of the admiralty. After his death in 1703, many of his 
valuable collections were sadly neglected. Some went into waste 
paper baskets, some into London shops, and in one of these in 
1750 this .journal was picked up by a man who recognized its 
value and placed it in a British libraiy. There it slumbered until 
1885 when the Prince Society of Boston published it in a limited 
edition. Only two copies are owned in Wisconsin. 

Next came the reign of the forest ranger, the "Coureur de 
bois." New Prance held a host of soldiers of fortune, younger 
sons of the nobility and disbanded soldiers, who, with no ties 
to bind them to domestic hearthstones, turned the prows of their 
birchbark canoes westward, and with utter disregard of hazards 
that threatened and hardships that must be endured, penetrated 
to the most remote regions of the lake country. For a century 
and a half the forest ranger and the fur trader were the most 
potent factors in the discoveries that preceded settlement. Unlike 
the sturd}^ Saxon, whose meeting witli the aborigines meant the 
survival of the fittest, the easy-going Frenchman did not seek to 
crowd the Indian from his place. Instead, he adapted himself 
with the customs and habits of the red man, and became half 
Indian liimself, danced with the braves, smoked the calumet at 
the councils of the tribe, or wooed and won the dusky maidens 
of the woods. 

After a time, the French authorities tried to suppress these 
lawless rangers of the woods, deeming their barter for furs an 
infringement on the rights of the government. Severe repressive 
measures did not deter the unlicensed traffic, and then the author- 
ities tried to regulate it by stipulating how many canoes would 
be permitted to engage in it. There were three men to each 
canoe. Despite their disregard of law, the rangers proved of 
great service to the government, for wherever they went, they 
made friends of the Indian. This friendship for the French 
remained steadfast in the case of every Algonquin tribe but one — 
the Pox Indians of "Wisconsin. The lawless coureur de bois thus 
became the advance guard who spread for Prance the great 
arteries of trade in the western country. Of this company of 


eoureiu-s de bois whose favorite abiding place was Wisconsin, 
none became as famous as Nicholas Perrot. The oldest memorial 
in Wisconsin today of the white man's occupation here is a 
soleil wrought in silver and presented by Perrot to the Jesuit 
mission at Green Bay in 1686. This ancient relic was unearthed 
by workmen ninety-five years ago while digging a foundation, 
and is now in the possession of the Wisconsin Historical Society 
at Madison. Long before the thought of giving to the mission on 
the Fox this Catholic emblem, Perrot had become familiar with 
the region aroimd Green Bay. In his earlier years, he attached 
himself to the wandering missionaries as a hunter to provide 
for their wants while they were threading the woods in search of 
converts. He was twenty-four years old when in 1665 he made 
the acquaintance of the Wisconsin Indians and obtained an ex- 
traordinary influence over them. It was of the greatest impor- 
tance to French interests that the western Indians should remain 
at peace Avith each other, and the authorities at Montreal in- 
trusted to Perrot the delicate role of peacemaker. He found in 
what is now northwestern Wisconsin "a race unsteady as aspens, 
and fierce as wild-cats; full of mutual jealousies, without rulers 
and without laws." Perrot succeeded well in pacifying the 
unruly nomads of forest and prairie. He built a number of rude 
stockades or forts in Wisconsin. One was Fort St. Antoine on 
the Wisconsin shore of Lake Pepin, traces of which fort werb 
visible four decades ago; another was near the present site of 
Trempeleau where but a few years since was discovered the 
hearth and fireplace that he had built two hundred years before. 
He also built a fort near the lead mines which he discovered 
while traveling among the tribes to prevent an alliance with the 
Iroquois who were friendly to the English. When in 1671 the 
French commander St. Lusson formally took possession of the 
entire Avestern country in the name of "Louis XIV," the mag- 
nificent, fourteen tribes were represented, gathered hither bj^ 
Perrot at Sault Ste Marie. The ceremony was elaborate ; a huge 
wooden cross was surrounded by the splendidly dressed officers 
and their soldiers, and led by the black-gowned Jesuit priests 
of the company, the uncovered Frenchmen chanted the Seventh 
Century hymn, beginning thus: "Vexilla Regis Proderunt Fulget 
criicis mystei'ium," etc. As the sound of their hoarse voices 
died away, St. Lusson advanced to a post erected near the cross 
and as the royal arms of France engraved on a tablet of lead 
were nailed thereon, he lifted a sod, bared his SAVord and dramati- 
cally took possession of the soil in the name of the Grand Mon- 


arque, Louis XIV, styled "The Magnificent." St. Lusson, in 
taking possession, claimed for the king of France "Lakes Huron 
and Superior, the Island of Manitoulin and all countries, rivers, 
lakes and streams contiguous and ad.jacent thereto; both those 
which have been discovered aud those which may be discovered 
hereafter in all their length and breadth, bounded on the one side 
by the seas of the North and of the "West, and on the other by the 
South sea." "Long live the king," came from the brazen throats 
of the soldiers as the ceremony Avas concluded, and the primitive 
savages howled in sympathy. Hardly had St. Lusson 's gorgeous 
pageant come to a conclusion, when the Indians celebrated on 
their own aecouut by stealing the royal arms. When Rene Men- 
ard, a Jesuit missionary, came to the wilds of Wisconsin in 1660, 
he was already an old man, and his life was soou sacrificed with 
hardships and the brutalities of the Indians. A band of Indians 
moi-e compassionate than those among whom he had first jour- 
neyed took him to their wintering station at Keweenaw bay on 
the south shore, where he started a mission. Later he heard of 
distant pagan tribes to be brought to Christianity, and under- 
took the journey to find them in July, 1661, with a French com- 
panion and a party of Indians. Before long, the latter brutall.y 
abandoned the two Frenchmen. Father Menard became lost Avhile 
following his companions, and the cause of his death remains a 
mystery, though his cassock and kettle were found later in an In- 
dian lodge. In 1665, Piere Claude Allouez was appointed to the 
Ottawa mission in Menard's place. He went to the village of the 
Chippewas at Chequamigon, selected a site and built a wigwam of 
bark. This was the first mission established in Wisconsin and 
was also a trading post. Here Allouez remained four years. In 
1670, having been joined by two other priests, they visited Green 
Bay and established the mission of St. Xavier. Father IMarcpiette 
who succeeded Allouez at Chequamigon, also found it a hard 
field. The Indians were a hostile tribe; battles were frequent, 
and when defeated tribes sought refuge on the Island of Michili- 
mackinac, Marcpiette accompanied them and founded the mission 
of St. Ignace on the opposite main land. Two years later he 
went with Joliet on his expedition to the Mississippi. 

Louis Hennepin and his companions appear to have been the 
first white men to traverse the Chippewa river from its mouth 
northward. This was in 1680. In 1767, Jonathan Carver fol- 
lowed him. Jonathan Carver was a Connecticut soldier, energetic 
and enterprising, who purposed to journey from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific, making a correct map and tell the truth about the 


great interior country. He -was well fitted for his task by early 
training along the Indian frontier of New England. Fitting him- 
self out as a trader, he reached Green Bay in September, 1766. 
A few days later, ascending the Fox river, he reached the great 
town of the Winnebagoes. An Indian queen named "Glory of 
the Jlorniug" ruled the village, and Captain Carver enjoyed 
her hospitality for several days. "She was an ancient woman, 
small in stature and not much distinguished by her dress from 
the woman who attended her," says Captain Carver. In depart- 
ing from her village, he made the queen suitable presents and 
received her blessing in return. He then proceeded along the 
Pox to the portage, and thence down the "Ouisconsin, " as he 
spelled it. The great fields of wild rice that almost choked the 
former stream, and the myriads of wild fowl that fed on the suc- 
culent grain, attracted his notice. "This river is the greatest 
resort of wild fowl of every kind that I ever saw in the whole 
course of my travels," he wrote. "Frequently the sun would be 
obscured by them for some minutes together. Deer and bear are 
very numerous." Prom the time he left Green Bay until his 
canoe was beached at Prairie du Chien, Captain Carver had seen 
no trace of white men. Well-built Indian towns greeted his view 
as he floated down the Wisconsin, but at Prairie du Chien he 
found the most notable town. "It is a large town and contains 
about 300 families," he wrote. "The houses are well built after 
the Indian manner and situated on a rich soil from which they 
raise every necessary of life in abundance. This town is a great 
mart M'here all the adjacent tribes, and even those from the most 
remote branches of the Mississippi, annually assemble about the 
latter end of May, bringing furs to dispose of to the traders, but 
it is not always that thej' conclude the sale here ; this is deter- 
mined by a council of the chiefs who consult whether it would 
be more conducive to their interests to sell their goods at this 
place or carry them on to Louisiana, or Michilimackinac." It 
has been claimed for Carver that he was the first traveler who 
made known to the people of Europe the existence of the ancient 
mounds found in the Mississippi valley, and long believed to have 
been the work of an extinct people. Carver spent the winter 
among the Sioux and explored Minnesota to a considerable ex- 
tent. They told him much about the country to the west, of the 
great river that emptied into the Pacific, of the "Shining Moun- 
tain" within whose bowels could be found precious metals, and 
much else that was new and wonderful. In their great council 
cave, they gave to him and to his descendants forever a great 


tract of land about fourteen thousand squai'e miles in area, em- 
bracing the whole of the northwestern part of Wisconsin and 
part of Minnesota. At least this gift was afterward made the 
basis for the famous Carver claim. The United States Congress 
after long investigation and consideration rejected the claim. 
Despite this action, many persons were duped into purchasing 
land on the strength of Carver's Indian deeds. After spending 
some time in the Lake Superior region, Carver returned to Mich- 
ilimaekinac. In his little birchbark canoe he had made a journey 
of nearly twelve hundred miles. He returned to Boston in 1768 
and thence to England. Ill luck pursued him there, his coloniz- 
ing schemes collapsed, and in the great city of London this noted 
traveler died of starvation. 



Old settlers will recall the facsimile of the oM deeds given by 
Indian chiefs to the early white men which spoke of a great piece 
of land running from St. Anthony Falls and mapped out so 
that it Avould take in all this part of the country. The copy was 
framed by W. K. Coffin for the Local Historical Society. In this 
connection the following from St. Paul may be of interest: 

"David C. Shepard, Sr., of 324 Dayton avenue, St. Paul, has 
discovered that he is the possessor of a deed which conveys to 
his father and the latter 's heirs and assigns a tract of land includ- 
ing all of the cities of Eau Claire, Chippewa Falls and Altoona, 
to say nothing of all of the city of St. Paul, a portion of Minne- 
apolis, the villages of Hudson, Durand and many other Wisconsin 
hamlets. Mr. Shepard will not try to take possession of the 
property called for by this interesting document, but if. the 
deed was worth anything he might become one of the greatest 
land-owners in the world. The only use that will be made of 
the deed is to exhibit it among the documents of the Minnesota 
Historical Society, to which organization Mr. Shepard has pre- 
sented the old conveyance. The deed is signed by Martin King, 
the great grandson of Jonathan Carver, the early explorer to 
whom the chiefs of the Naudoessies Indian tribes conveyed a tract 
of land east of the Mississippi river, extending along the river 
from St. Anthony Falls, in Minneapolis, south to the junction of 
the Mississippi and Chippewa rivers, thence east one hundred 
miles, thence north one hundred and twenty miles, thence west 
in a straight line to St. Anthony Falls. These boundaries include 
Eau Claire, Chippewa Falls, Altoona and other cities and villages 
named. Martin King, as heir to Jonathan Carver, came into pos- 
session of the property named, theoretically at least, and he 
deeded it to Mr. Shepard 's father and others. The latter deeds 
were executed at Lima, Livingston county, New York, April 20, 
1838, and were recorded by Calvin H. Bryan, commissioner of 
the Supreme court of New York. Under the terms of the deed, 
Mr. Shepard 's father paid only five hundred dollars for the land 
that is now worth millions. 



"The original deed, the terms of which are repeated in the 
deed held by Mr. Shepard, was executed in Carver's cave, St. 
Paul (which has recently been re-located by the officials of St. 
Paul). On May 1, 1767, Carver, in his Avriting, said this cave was 
often used for councils among the Indian tribes. The chiefs who 
signed this original deed conveying this vast tract of land to Carver 
were Haw-no-paw-gat-an and Otah-ton-goom-lish-eaw. In deed- 
ing the land to Carver, they reserved the right to fish and hunt 
on land not planted or improved. The original deed was recorded 
in the plantation office, White Hall, London. 

"Mr. Shepard says he believes the deed is worthless, save as 
a liistorical document, but it sheds additional light on the famous 
original deed which some historians have intimated never ex- 
isted. It is of special interest at this time since etforts are being 
made to raise funds to preserve Carver's cave as one of the his- 
torical spots of the Northwest. For many years the entrance to 
this cave had been lost, but within the past few months the county 
surveyor of Ramsey county, Minnesota, and the Dayton Bluff 
Commercial Club, a St. Paul organization, have located the cav- 
ern's entrance. A big lake has been discovered in the cave, and 
all attempts which have been made to drain the cavern have 
met with little success. 



The pine lands of the Chippewa were known to exist 150 
years ago, but it was not until 1822 that the first sawmill was 
constructed to convert the timber into lumber, and to float it 
down the Mississippi to the markets on its banks. The fame of 
the resources of the valley in this respect spread far and wide, 
even to New England, and slowly the tide of emigration_setjEU 
Thus this noW' famous lumber region T5ecame peopled with the 
general exodus from the eastern states whi,-3h began in 1835 and 
continued for many years. These were the sturdy pioneers who 
have made the valley what it is today. The men and women who 
endured hardships and privations in order to make the after 
years of their lives worth living, and to pave the way for others 
who would carry on the enterprise. The emigrants from Europe, 
especially from Sweden, came later until the population became 
a mixture of Americans, English, Scotch, Scandinavians, Ger- 
mans, etc. The delta of the Chippewa and the territory lying 
between the Mississippi and the Menomonie (Red Cedar) rivers 
were claimed by Wabashaw's band of Sioux Indians, though it 
was in truth the neutral ground between the Sioux and the Chip- 
pewas, among whom a deadly feud existed. The whole of what 
is now Wisconsin was up to 1825 held by various tribes of In- 
dians, in some instances by force of arms. Their respective rights 
in the land became so complicated and were the cause of such 
frequent bloodshed among them that the government determined 
to change this condition of things if possible. Under its direc- 
tion and authority, a treaty was entered into at Prairie du Chien 
in 1825 by all the Indian tribes within a distance of 500 miles 
each way, and approved by General William Clark and Lewis 
Cass on behalf of the government, whereby the boundaries of 
the respective territories of the Indian nations represented were 
definitely fixed. The negotiation was continued at Fond du Lac 
in 1826 because not all the Chippewa bands had been represented 
at Prairie du Chien, notwithstanding thirty-six chiefs and heads- 
men had signed. At this time everyone was satisfied, and not 
onlv were the articles of Prairie du Chien confirmed, but a clause 


was put in the treaty giving the United States the right to take 
any metals or minerals from the country. By the treaty of 1837, 
all the lands of the Sioux nation east of the Mississippi, and all 
the islands belonging to them in that river, were, for the consid- 
erations therein mentioned, ceded to the United States; also the 
lands claimed by the Chippewas back from Lake Superior in 

In October, 1812, To-go-ne-ge-shik with eighty-five chiefs and 
braves of the Chippewas executed a treaty at La Pointe on Lake 
Superior whereby all the Chippewa lauds in Wisconsin became 
listed in the United States. For this kingdom the United States 
paid the Chippewas about one million dollars. The treaty granted 
in general terms eighty acres to each head of a family or single 
person over twenty-one of Chippewa or mixed blood, provided 
for allotment in severalty by the President as fast as the occu- 
pants became capable of transacting their own affairs, gave the 
President authority to assign tracts in exchange for mineral 
lands, and allowed right of way, upon compensation, to all neces- 
sary roads, highways and railroads. The Indians were to receive 
$5,000 a year for twenty years in money, $8,000 in goods, house- 
hold furniture and cooking utensils, $3,000 a year in agricultural 
implements, cattle, carpenter and other tools and building mate- 
rial, and $3,000 a year for moral and c(lu<-ati(ui;il ]>urposes, of. 
which the Grand Portage baud, having;- a special tliiisi lor learn- 
ing, was to receive $3,000. To paj^ all ddits $!)(>, (10(1 was jilaced at 
the disposal of the chiefs. Here the Indians fared better than 
in earlier treaties. At Traverse de Sioux the fur traders were 
present with their old accounts equipped to absorb nearly every- 
thing paid the Indians. In one treaty their bills were rendered 
for $250,000, in another for $156,000, and about all the Indians 
got was the pleasure of seeing the money counted past them. It 
was also provided that the annuities thereafter should not be 
subject to the debts of individual Indians, but that satisfaction 
should be made for depredations committed by them. Next came 
a clause which probably did more to get the treaties signed than 
the three thousand dollars a year for educational and moral pur- 
poses. Also, said the treaty, two hundred guns, one hundred 
rifles, five hundred beaver traps, three hundred dollars in ammu- 
nition, one thousand dollars in ready-made clothing for the young 
men of the nation. That clause was reserved by the commission- 
ers till they were ready to nail down the contracts, and it was 
effective. It was provided that missionaries and others residing 
in tile tei'ritory should be allowed to enter at the minimum price 


the land they already occupied wherever survey was made. Also 
that a blacksmith and assistant should be maintained at each 
reservation for twenty years and as much longer as the President 
should approve. 

Last of all came a clause that illustrates happily the Indian 
sense of justice, for old teachers say there was such a thing. The 
Bois Forte Indians, off the main trail, and a withered sort of 
tribe, were especially remembered. "Because of their poverty 
and past neglect," as the treaty ran, they were to have $10,000 
additional to pay their debts, which suggests a friend at court^ 
and also $10,000 for blankets, clothes, guns, nets, etc., a suitable 
reservation to be selected afterward. The Indians made a better 
bargain than the Algonquins made when they sold Manhattan 
island for twenty-four dollars in trinkets. To be sure, the iron in 
this Chippewa country was Avortli above half a billion dollars, 
and the forest as much more, but they were not worth that to 
the Indians who sold only their hunting and fishing usufruct to 
which they had not exclusive nor undisputed right, and which in 
measure they still kept, since one of the after-thoughts of the 
treaty reserved to them the right to hunt and fish in the ceded 



Etlmologists are slowly agreeing that the North American 
Iridiaa existed on this continent before 1000 A. D., that he is of 
Asiatic origin and that all the families found here are inter-related 
and originally came from one source. Historical evidences are 
multiplying as to the truth of these assertions. In 1615, Cham- 
plain, visiting the Huron tribe of the St. Lawrence valley, drew 
a map of the country which they said lay to the west of their 
land. They told him of a lake called Kitchi Gummi, which he 
named Grand Lac. This lake was visited by Allouez in 1666 
and called Lake Tracy. Hennepin saw it in 1680 and called it 
Lake Conde. Schoolcraft was upon its waters in 1819 and left 
it with the title Lake Algona. It is now known as Lake Superior; 
and Champlain's rough map is one of the first evidences given 
to white men, not only of its existence, but of the great stretch 
of land south and west of its shores, known now as the Dakotas, 
Minnesota and Wisconsin. 

The French explorers touched the northern belt of what is 
now called the Northwest many decades before others of their 
kind penetrated the land since divided into Illinois, Iowa and 
Nebraska. Marquette and Joliet did not ascend the Mississippi 
to the mouth of the Illinois until 1673. It was 1679 before Port 
Crevecoeur Avas built on the Illinois river. The ancient white 
villages of Kaskaskia, Cahoki and Prairie du Rocher were not 
set on the banks of the Mississippi until after 1683. But it is 
due to the honor of France that during the years of the seven- 
teenth century, when England was content to upbuild her colonies 
on the Atlantic coast, when Spain, by moral law, was being elimi- 
nated from the northern haLC of the western continent, the fleur 
de lis should be implanted in what is now the center of western 
thought, western activity and agricultural development of the 
United States of America. Two separate movements of Gallic 
explorers — one along the shore lines of Lake Superior and west- 


ward to the Mississippi; the other via Lake Michigan to what has 
since become the Pox, Rock and Wisconsin rivers — confronted at 
the outset a remarkable group of Indian families. The dominion 
of these families extended from the Platte and Missouri rivers on 
the west to Lake Superior and Lake Michigan on the east; from 
the confluence of the Missouri and Mississippi, on the south, to 
the Lake of the Woods and what is now the Canadian border, on 
the north. Within this area, which amounted to nearly 480,000 
square miles, or one-ninth of the total area of the United States, 
to the time of the late Spanish-American War, were living about 
500,000 red men. The census taker was unknown and the figures 
can only be estimated from ancient memoranda and the tradi- 
tions of the Indians themselves. But today, so swift are the 
mutations of Time, in this same area there are living, sinew of a 
great commonwealth, 12,000,000 white men and women and their 
children, while of the Indians, lords of the land 250 years ago, 
but 48,800 are now to be found there. Three great Indian fami- 
lies occupied this Northwestern prairie and timber land when 
the French first came. The most important of these, so far as 
history is concerned, was the Siouan, or Sioux, composed of 
twelve tribes. Second in importance M'as the family of the Al- 
gonquins, composed of eleven tribes. The third, and the one to 
be first extinguished in the wars waged between the trio, was 
the Iroquois, who occupied the Great Lakes. All history, as to 
the relation between the white men and the Northwestern Indians 
during the seventeenth century, bears evidence that they acted 
with much fairness toward each other. It was not until after 
the advent of the English, who disputed the right to the territory 
with the French, and then the incoming of the Americans, who 
drove out French, English and Indians, that the record of savage 
warfare begins — stained with powder and blood from the knife of 
massacre. It is useless to say which was wrong. Since the for- 
mation of the United States Government, the American people 
have paid to the Indians an average of $1,000,000 per year for 
the land taken. The Indian, in his turn, when treated with the 
same honesty, the same decency, that characterizes the ordinary 
relations of two white citizens, responded with a loyalty equal to 
that of his white brother. Each race, as temptation came, was 
treacherous, bloodthirsty, cruel. Each paid the penalty for its 
wrongdoing. But that the earliest settlers recognized the Indian 
as an equal is evidenced by the first treaty ever made with a tribe 
(the Delawares) in which they were conceded to be citizens en- 
titled to representation in Congress. Unfortunately, this good 


intent never passed in etl'ect beyond the writing in the treaty. 
The land was fair to look upon when Joliet, Marquette and Hen- 
nepin came with the sign of the cross to make converts of the 
aboriginals. But the narratives of the explorers into the North- 
west between 1600 and 1700 contained no reference to the mar- 
velous bread-giving capacity of the land they found, no hint that 
a granary of the world had been found — only descriptions of 
half-explored waterways, plentiful game, unfound gold and silver 
and diamond mines. They were eager to take possession for the 
honor of France and for the financial gain that might come to 
them. Little did they know of greater blessing in the earth than 
that found in silver and gold, of the rich quality of soil which 
would produce luxuriant vegetation, of the water power and the 
pine forests that would draw hither the might and the money of 
the east for its development. 


When Jean Nicolet was sent by Champlain, governor of New 
France, to find the long-sought western route to China, he found 
on the shores of Green Bay the Menomonies, at the head of the 
bay the Winnebagoes, going on to the Fox river he met the Mas- 
coutens, the warlike Sacs and Foxes, and still further west were 
the Kickapoos. Along the shores of Lake Superior he found the 
Chippewas, and to the southwest of these, on the St. Croix, were 
the Sioux. Powell said of this tribe, "By reason of their superior 
numbers the Sioux have always assumed, if not exercised, the 
lordship over all the neighboring tribes with the exception of 
the OjibAva (Chippewa), who, having acquired fii-earms before 
the Sioux, were enabled to drive the latter from the headwaters 
of the Mississippi, and were steadily pressing them westward 
when stopped by the intervention of the United States Govern- 
ment. In warlike character the Sioux are second only to the 
Cheyenne and have an air of proud superiority rather unusual 
with Indians. The Chippewas were called by the French mis- 
sionaries the bravest, most warlike, and at the same time the 
noblest and most manly of all the tribes. They were derived 
from the Algonquin race and the Jesuits spoke of the Chippewa 
language as the most refined and complete of any Indian tongue. 
In 1642 the Sioux possessed all the territory south of Lake Su- 
perior and west of Lakes Huron and Michigan, south as far as 
Milwaukee and west even beyond the Missouri river. About 1670 
the Chippewas began their inroads upon the lands of the Sioux 


on the north and east, fighting their way south and west. The 
Sioux struggled to retain their hunting grounds, but were finally 
crowded back to the St. Croix. From that time there was unre- 
mitting war between the two great nations for a century or more, 
and their traditions tell of many bloody battles fought beneath 
the somber pines of the north. In the Chippewa tongue, Sioux 
means "the enemy." Meantime the Winnebagoes, a migratory 
tribe from Mexico to escape the Spaniards, came among the Sioux, 
who gave them lands and refuge. But Sacs and Foxes came 
from the south, took possession of the ground and were in turn 
crowded out by the Menomonies. In consequence of these preda- 
tory wars, the claims of the several nations to their respective 
territories became very complicated and caused incessant strife. 
To prevent this as much as possible the United States Government, 
in 1825, authorized a general treaty to be held at Prairie du 
Chien between all tribes within a district of 500 miles each way. 
This was signed on the part of the government by Generals 
William Clark and Lewis Cass, on the part of the Sioux by 
Wabashaw, Red Wing, Little Crow and twenty-three other chiefs 
and braves, and for the Chippewas by Hole-in-the-Day and forty 
chiefs. By this treaty the eastern boundary of the Sioux began 
opposite the mouth of the Iowa river on the Mississippi, runs 
back two or three miles to the bluffs, following the bluffs to 
Bad-Axe, and crossing to Black river, from which point the 
line described is the boundary between the Sioux and the Win- 
nebagoes and extends nearly north to a point on the Chippewa 
river, half a day's march from Chippewa Falls. From this point 
on the Chippewa river, which was fixed on the mouth of Mud 
creek (near Rumsey's Landing), the line becomes the boundary 
between the Sioux and Chippewas and runs to the Red Cedar 
just below the Falls, thence to the St. Croix river at the Stand- 
ing Cedar, about a day's paddle in a canoe above the lake on 
that river ; thence passing between two lakes called by the Chip- 
pewas "Green Lake" and by the Sioux "the lake they bury 
the eagles in," thence to the "Standing Cedar" that the Sioux 
split, thence to the mouth of Rum river on the Mississippi. The 
boundary line between the Chippewas and Winnebagoes was 
also defined as beginning at the same point (half a day's march 
below the Falls), thence to the source of the Eau Claire, thence 
south to Black river, thence to a place where the woods project 
into the meadows, and thence to the Plover Portage of the Wis- 
consin. Thus we see that the boundaries of the Sioux, Chip- 
pewas and Winnebagoes were brought to a point at the famous 


"half a day's march below the Falls," and very near the city 
of Eau Claire — in fact, at the bluff just above "little Niagara." 

On July 29, 1837, a treaty was signed at Fort Snelling be- 
tween Governor Dodge on the part of the government and the 
Chippewa chiefs, ceding a portion of these lands to the United 
States. On September 29 of the same year, at "Washington, D. C, 
a treaty was signed by Joel R. Poinsett on the part of the 
United States and Big Thunder and twenty other chiefs of the 
Sioux, at which the latter ceded to the United States their lands 
east of the Mississippi and all their islands in said river. 

On October 4, 1842, at La Poiute, Robert Stewart on the 
part of the United States and Po-go-ne-ge-shik, with forty other 
Chippewa chiefs, held a treaty at which all the Chippewa lands 
in Wisconsin were ceded to the United States. But after the 
cession of the last named lands several bands of Chippewas 
became dissatisfied with the treaty and with the reservation set 
apart for them above Sand Lake, in Minnesota, and begged so 
earnestly to come back to Wisconsin that the government, in 
1854, gave them several townships and half townships of the 
land on Court Oreilles and some other branches of the Chip- 
pewa, and established an agency there for the distribution of 
part of the annuities promised them. Guerrilla fighting had 
been the common mode of settling any difference of opinion 
among the tribes hitherto, but governmental interference had 
accomplished much and soothing measures Avere now in vogue. 
In 1841, as related by the historian Randall, "a large party of 
Sioux came up by invitation of the Chippewas to Eau Claire^ 
where they held a friendly meeting and smoked the pipe of 
peace. This was repeated in October, 1846, when 150 braves, all 
mounted on ponies, came up to the Falls, thence to Chippewa 
City, and held a treaty of peace with their hereditary foes. 
Among them were Wabashaw, Red Bird and Big Thunder. The 
writer was present, heard part of the reception address, and 
afterward learned from Ambrose — one of the interpreters — the 
substance of what was said on both sides. The Sioux remained 
mounted on their ponies during the entire interview. The Chip- 
pewa chiefs and braves were painted after the mode indicating 
peace and the head chief advanced with a large red pipe, made 
of stone from Pipe-stone mountain, in one hand, and in the 
other a hatchet, which was thrown with such force as to partly 
bury it in the earth ; then taking a whiff or two from the pipe 
he turned the stem toward the Sioux chief, presenting it for his 
acceptance. All this was done in silence; the Sioux chief re- 


ceived the emblem of peace, also in silence, smoked a few whiffs, 
bowed respectfully as he handed the pipe, reined his pony one 
step to the right, and waited the next salutation, the substance 
of which was, "Friends, we are glad you have come, we are 
anxious to make peace with the Sioux nation. As you have seen 
us throw down and bury the hatchet, so we hope you are inclined 
to make peace." The Sioux chiefs then threw down whatever 
arms they held and declared their purpose to maintain perma- 
nent peace. They said their great father, the President, with 
whom they had never been at war, had requested them to con- 
clude a lasting peace with the Chippewa nation, and although 
they had sold their lands on the east side of the Mississippi they 
still wanted to hunt tliere, and were glad that in the future 
they could do so without fear. This was all done through inter- 
preters, several of whom were present on each side, and closed 
every sentence they repeated with the expression, 'That's Avhat 
we say.' This meeting was at the Falls and the delegation met 
a still larger number of Chippewa chiefs and braves the next 
day at Chippewa City, where the ceremonies were still more 
imposing, and a dinner Avas served of which both parties par- 

After this interesting pageant of truce, a stead.y peace was 
well maintained between the nations, rarely disturbed by any- 
thing more than trifling quarrels soon settled by arbitration. 


The territory of Wisconsin was organized in the year 1836, 
and comprised the present states of Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota 
and parts of North Dakota, South Dakota and Michigan. This 
entire area included only six full counties and parts of others, 
what is now Eau Claire county forming a part of Crawford 

In 1845 Chippewa county was set off from Crawford county, 
although the county government was not wholly perfected until 
1854. In the meantime, in 1848, the territory of Wisconsin M-as 
admitted as a state, its area having been reduced from time to 
time until it reached its present limits. 

Chippewa county as originally formed was of vast area, the 
counties of Eau Claire, Buffalo, Pepin, Clark, Dunn, Barron, Bur- 
nett, Washburn, Sawyer, Gates, Rusk and parts of Taylor and 

On July 27, 1855, the county board of supex-visors of Chippewa 
county divided the county into three towns, the southernmost 
of these, which was identical in area with the present Eau Claire 
county, was set off as the town of Clearwater, the first town 
meeting to be held at the boarding-house of Gage & Reed. The 
next town north was set off as the town of Chippewa Falls, and 
the northernmost town as the town of Eagle Point. Up to this 
time the name Eau Claire had not appeared in the official records 
of Chippewa county, of which what is now Eau Claire county 
formed a part. In this same year R. F. Wilson and W. H. Glea- 
son came to Clearwater settlement, at the junction of the Chip- 
pewa and Clearwater rivers. They recognized its possibilities 
and soon made a deal with Gage & Reed whereby a considerable 
part of what is now the east side was platted as the village of 
Eau Claire. Of course the platting of this village under the name 
Eau Claire could have no legal effect on the name of the town, 
but it seems to have confused the town officials, as the records 
show both the names Clearwater and Eau Claire for a short 
period, after which, without any recorded official action, the 
name Clearwater was dropped and the name Eau Claire only 


was used. The town remained under town government only one 
year, when by act of legislature approved October 6, 1856, it 
Avas set off as Eau Claire county. 

The town of Eau Claire was the only organized town govern- 
ment in the new county, and the legislative act forming the 
county stipulated that the town board of Eau Claire should can- 
vass the returns of the first election of county officers and per- 
form the functions of the county board until the county organi- 
zation should be completed. There were but two election pre- 
cincts in the entire town and county, the polling places of one 
being in what is noAv the east side of the city of Eau Claire, and 
the other usually at the farmhouse of Robert Scott in what is 
known as Scott's Valley, in the town of Otter Creek. 

The first election of county officers for the new county took 
place December 30, 1856. "At an election held at Eau Claire 
in the county of Eau Claire, Wisconsin, held at the house of P. N. 
Drake in said village, December .30, 1856, C. M. Seley, chairman 
of the board of supervisors, was present. In the absence of E. "W. 
Robbins and M. A. Page, supervisors, Taylor Stevens and S. N. 
"Wilcox were elected to serve as inspectors of election, and were 
sworn as follows: 

Opening paragraph election returns from first precinct. "At 
an election held at the house of Robert Scott in the township 25, 
range 7, on Tuesday, the 30th day of December, A. D. 1856, the 
following inspectors were chosen viva-voce by the electors: Lor- 
enzo Bennett, Robert Scott, Charles H. Hale, and were sworn 
as follows: 

Opening paragraph election returns from second precinct. On 
the first day of January, 1857, the town board of Eau Claire, as 
authorized by legislative act, met and canvassed tlie returns of 
the first county election. "At a meeting of the board of super- 
visors, January 1, 1857, C. M. Seley, chairman; E. W. Robbins 
and Moses A. Page present, ordered that the votes of the election 
of county officers be canvassed according to the act of legislature 
approved October 6, 1856, who were chosen December 30, 1856. 
"We, the supervisors of the town of Eau Claire, having met at the 
office of Gleason & Seley, in the village of Eau Claire, on the first 
day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand and eight 
hundred and fifty-seven, pursuant to the act for organizing the 
county of Eau Claire approved October sixth, one thousand eight 
hundred and fifty-six, to estimate and determine the number of 
votes given for the several officers provided for by the said act 
at the official election held on the last Tuesday of December, one 


thousand eight liundred and fifty-six, as provided by said act 
do determine and declare as follows: 

"That the whole number of votes cast for the office of clerk of 
court was one hundred ninety-one, of which George Olin re- 
ceived one hundred eighteen and J. H. Duncan received seventy- 
three. Sheriff, Moses A. Page 188, M. M. Reed 54. Register of 
deeds, Charles H. Howard 114, R. F. Wilson 76. District attor- 
ney, B. U. Strong 189. Clerk of board of supervisors, Charles T. 
Babcock 120, George Olin 68, scattering 2. County treasurer, 
Adin Randall 130, T. B. Medlar 58. Coroner, George Sprague 191. 
County surveyor, J. B. Randall 135, Benjamin Hadley 56. County 
judge, Ira Mead 129, J. S. Cook 59, scattering 2. 

"Report of canvassing board first election county officers." 

As there was still but one town in the new county, the town 
board continued to perform the functions of a county board until 
a sufficient number of towns should be formed to allow the super- 
visors of such towns to comprise a county board in the usual man- 
ner. Action to this end was taken M'ithout delay. On the second 
day of January, 1857, the day following the canvass of votes for 
county officers, the town board of Eau Claire, acting in its capac- 
ity as county board, set off the town of Half Moon Lake. This 
comprised all territory in the county west and north of the Chip- 
pewa river, or the present west side of the city of Eau Claire 
and the town of Union. On February 24, the towns of Bi-idge 
Creek and Brunswick Avere formed and the three new towns held 
their first election in April of that year. On November 16, the 
chairman of the town boards of Eau Claire, Half Moon Lake, 
Bridge Creek and Brunswick organized as a county board of 
supervisors, after which the town board of Eau Claire ceased to 
perform the functions of county board. 

In March, 18a8, the county board changed the name of the 
town of Half Moon Lake to Half Moon. On the fourth of Decem- 
ber of that year a resolution was passed setting off' a town to be 
called Machas, but later in the same day the name was changed 
to Pleasant Valley. The town North Eau Claire was formed 
in March, 1857. 

In November, 1860, all that part of the town of Half Moon 
lying north of an east and west quarter section line running a 
few rods south of the present county courthouse and directly 
through the site of the present high school building was set off 
imder the name of Oak Grove. The part south of this line be- 
came the town of West Eau Claire. Later in the same month 
the town of Fall Creek was formed. After a few years the town 


name was changed to Lincoln, the village only retaining the name 
of Fall Creek. The town of Otter Creek was set off in April, 
1867, the town of Washington in January, 1868, and the town 
of Seymour in March, 1872. 

The state legislature having in March, 1872, granted a charter 
forming the city of Eau Claire, with its present boundaries, the 
parts of the towns of West Eau Claire and Oak Grove lying be- 
tween the new city of Eau Claire and the Dunn county line were 
by act of the board of supervisors in March, 1872, voted to be 
formed into a new town to be called the town of Randall. On 
the twentieth of the same mouth, two petitions from residents 
of this proposed new town were received by the county board. 
A petition from that part formerly in Oak Grove asked that the 
action of the board uniting these two parts of towns be rescinded, 
and a petition from the part formerly in West Eau Claire in 
opposition to same. The board refused to rescind its former 
action uniting these two parts of towns, but did pass a resolu- 
tion changing the name from the town of Randall to the town 
of Union. 

In November, 1873, the southern part of the town of Briuis- 
wick was set off under the name Lant. This name was later 
changed to Dramraen. In March, 1874, the town of Fairchild 
was formed; in April, 1876, the town of Ludington, and in 1882, 
the town of Clear Creek. 

Augusta was incorporated as a village in 1864 and received 
a city charter in 1885. Altoona, which was formerly a part of 
the town of Wasliington, was platted as a village in 1881, Avith 
the name East Eau Claire. This was later changed to Altoona, 
and in 1887 it was granted a city charter, having the distinction 
of being one of the smallest, if not the smallest, city in the United 
States. The village of Fairchild was incorporated May 6, 1880. 

Although of considerable size. Fall Creek remained under the 
government of the town of Lincoln until 1907, when it was incor- 
porated as a separate village. 





In the early days ere history was written, the water of 
Bridge creek babbled on to the sea. It is not even written how 
long it had babbled when men and women came to make the 
country through which it flowed fit for their habitation. Geolo- 
gists have told us that it marks the southern extremity of the 
vast area of that first formation that arose out of the chaos of 
the waters that covered the earth ere the sun or the moon obeyed 
the creative behest: "Let there be light." But whatever the 
geologists may tell us, or whatever the philosophers may reveal 
unto us is not of particular interest to us just now, and was 
of much less interest to those sturdy i:)ioneers who came to 
establish a civilization and realize the fruition of a bountiful 

When Eau Claire county was organized by an act of the legis- 
lature in 1856, there were but few settlers in the eastern part 
thereof. Probably the first settler was Andrew Thompson, who 
came, it is said, iu 1854, and settled and built a house on what was 
later Henry Brown's pasture in Otter creek. The valley was 
named Thompson valley. If he came in 1854, he was here at least 
a year, perhaps more, before the coming of others. In 1856 when 
the county was organized, Charles Hale, L. D. McCauley and J. A. 
Bride had settled in what has since been known as Scott's val- 
ley; Lorenzo and William Bennett and Charles and Scribner 
Chadbourne had located in Thompson valley ; George Diamond had 
settled on the Diamond farm in Diamond valley, and a little 
bunch of pioneers, James Woodbury, E. L. Hull, William Young 
and perhaps a few more, had settled near where the village of 
Augusta was soon to be. These, together with the first settlers 
in Augusta, Charles Buckman, S. E. Bills, John P. Stone and 
a few more, constituted at that time the population of the town 
of Bridge Creek. 



When Eau Claire county was organized there was quitt' a 
settlement at Eau Claire, and the act of the legislature wliiuh 
created the county provided that the government of the county 
should be vested in the town board until the next annual town 
meeting. The county was divided into the towns of Half Moon, 
Brunswick and Bridge Creek. The town of Bridge Creek com- 
prised nearly all the east half of the county, or, to be more par- 
ticular, what is now the towns of Fairchild, Bridge Creek, Lud- 
ington, Otter Creek and Clear Creek. 

The first town meeting was held at the house of William 
Young, just east of the schoolhouse on Main street, Augusta. The 
date of the town meeting was April 7, 1857. The officers elected 
were as follows: 

Supervisors, William Young, chairman ; L. Bennett and Joseph 
Sargent, sideboard. Clerk, J. C. Ilackett. Treasurer, James Mc- 
Cauley. Assessor, Charles Buckman. Justices, L. M. Underwood, 
J. F. Stone, S. E. Bills and R. E. Scott. Constables, William 
Buck, Anas Brown and W. A. Bennett. Sealer of weights and 
measures, John A. Bride. 

The voters adopted a resolution to appropriate the sum of 
$150.00 for roads and bridges, and $150.00 for schools. A resolu- 
tion was also adopted providing that "hogs shall not be allowed 
to run at large, or that hogs shall not be considered free com- 
moners." It was ordered that notices of the adoption of this 
resolution be "duly posted according to law." The four justices 
of the peace elected "drew lots" for the one-year and two-year 
terms, and Messrs. Stone and Underwood got the long term and 
Messrs. Scott and Bills had to take the short term. And so the 
town of Bridge Creek was organized and officered. It was a big 
town and but sparsely settled. What is now the town of Luding- 
ton was an unsettled wilderness ; the three eastern townships 
were little better. The southeast portion of the town was a roll- 
ing country of a rich sandy loam soil and covered with a low 
growth of oak. It was well watered and has since developed into 
the finest farm country in the Northwest. The heavy pine that 
covered the timbered portion of the town, and much of the hard- 
. wood, has since been cut off and many good lands have been 
opened. There is still much good land, however, that has not 
been broken and there is yet room for many more good farms. 

The second annual town meeting was held April 6, 1858. 
J. E. Perkins was elected chairman of the town board, and Jose- 
phus Livermore and James Sargent, supervisors. J. C. Hackett 
was elected clerk, L. Bennett, treasurer, and Charles Buckman, 


assessor. The sum of !i>400 was voted for incidental expenses; 
$100 for roads and bridges, and $200 for sehools. A resolution 
was adopted to prevent the running at large of calves under one 
year old, and also geese ; the former under a penalty of 50 cents 
for the first otfense and $1.00 for every subsequent offense. Tlie 
penalty for geese was 25 cents for the first oft'ense, and 50 cents 
for all subsequent offenses. It was also discovered that the reso- 
lution of 1857 relating to hogs was without a penalty clause, and 
the matter was remedied by making the penalty $5.00 for the 
first offense and $10.00 for offenses thereafter. These resolutions 
were "posted according to law." jL19S6I2^ 

July 4, 1857, the first fourth of .luly celebration in the town 
was held at the farm of Simon Kaudall. He had bought the 
William Young place and the people gathered there and had a 
regular old-fashioned good time. In the evening they had a 
dance and Alfred Bolton played the fiddle. Allen Randall was a 
little fellow at that time, five years old, and he had a regular 
Buster Brown of a time. That celebration and that dance were 
the first events in the social life of Augusta and Bridge Creek, 
and for years thereafter the spirit of fellowship and good will 
grew and the social life was of that wliolesome kind, unmarred 
by class distinctions that prevails when tlie people live near to 
Nature's heart. There Avas no fol-de-rol, no nonsensical tommy- 
rot, nor any of that superior culture that marks the upper 
stratum of the modern social life. The people were hearty in 
those days, good-souled, and between the hours of toil had sense 
enough to have a good time. 

At the town meeting in the spring of 1859 the old officers 
were all re-elected, and the town records do not disclose that 
anything of special interest was done. 

The town meeting in 1860 resulted in the election of Harris 
Searl as chairman and Josephus Livermore and Charles Hale as 
supervisors; C. W. Warren was elected clerk, J. C. Smith, treas- 
urer, and Charles Bvickman, assessor. Mr. Smith refused to 
qualify as treasurer and the board appointed Charles Buckman 
in his place and then appointed J. C. Hackett as assessor, the 
office to which Mr. Buckman had been elected. The bond of Mr. 
Buckman as treasurer was $3,200. The first bills audited by the 
town board that are of record were those of J. C. Hackett for 
clerk, salary $32.33, and H. C. Putnam for surveying, $3.50. These 
claims were audited and paid in June, 1860. At the town meet- 
ing that year R. E. Scott made a motion that a committee be 
appointed to investigate the doings of the town officers since its 


organization. There is no record that the committee ever made 
a report. The total amount of claims paid and town orders 
issued was $672.60. The accounts were audited and the orders 
cancelled by the board of audit March 26, 1861. The record also 
discloses the fact that William Young was elected superintend- 
ent of schools at the town meeting in 1860. Just what his duties 
were the writes does not understand, but they were probably 
similar to those of the county superintendent of schools at the 
present time. 

In 1861 the old board Avas re-elected with William Maas as 
clerk, Charles Buckmau, treasurer, and J. C. Smith and S. W. 
Crockett as assessors. The town was too big for one assessor, 
and so they elected two. Both of the assessors refused to qualify, 
however, and C. W. Chadbourne and J. M. Woodbury were ap- 
pointed in their stead. The total amount of orders drawn for 
incidental expenses that year was $481.94. 

. The result of the election in 1862 was the choice of Josephus 
Liverraore as chairman, C. H. Hale and Orriu C. Hall, super- 
visors; Harris Searl, clerk; Charles Buckman, treasurer, and R. 
E. Scott, assessor. A committee consisting of Messrs. F. Dighton, 
Peter Lundeville and William Young was appointed by the voters 
at the town meeting to look into certain doings of the town board. 
The committee made the investigation during the day, and before 
the meeting adjourned brought in two reports. The majority 
report was by Messrs. Dighton and Lundeville in effect that the 
board had an undoubted right to purchase a map. Mr. Young 
made the minority report which declared that $25.00 for a map 
is unnecessary in these times of high taxes. The majority report 
Avas adopted by the electors. The total vote volled at the election 
was 75. A tax of five mills was levied for highAvay purposes. 

The war Avas on and the country Avas calling for brave men to 
come to the front and offer their lives upon the altar of their 
country. The call Avas not unheeded, even among the little band 
of pioneers of Bridge Creek. On September 5 Supervisor Hale 
and Treasurer Buckman resigned their offices to take up arms in 
defence of liberty, and Messrs. James Sargent and li. Blair Avere 
appointed to the respective positions. On September 19 Orrin 
C. Hall resigned as supervisor and Daniel Russell was appointed 
in his stead. He went to the war and never returned. J. L. Ball 
also resigned as justice of the peace, and M. B. Riekard Avas 
chosen at a special election to take his place. Thus the toAvn 
of Bridge Creek Avas organized, and had already assumed au 
importance as an economic, political factor in the history of 


northern Wisconsin. In fact, when Governor Barstow, in 1856, 
wanted a few hundred votes to re-elect him, they were forthcom- 
ing from Bridge Creek, even though there were not twenty-five 
people in the town. The game worked for a short time, but the 
courts took the matter in hand and Barstow gave up the execu- 
tive office in compliance with the judicial determination. 

These were strenuous years in Bridge Creek. The flower of 
the young manhood went to the war; the country was new and 
taxes were high. On March 3, 1864, a special town meeting was 
called to vote upon a proposition to raise $5,000 to pay bounties 
to the volunteers and men drafted to fill the quota called for by 
President Lincoln. There were 50 votes cast on the proposition, 
all in the affirmative. A resolution was passed directing the 
clerk to draw orders on the fund as the claims were allowed. 
Anotlier special town meeting was held and $4,000 was appropri- 
ated for the same purpose. There were 48 votes cast, of which 
47 were for the appropriation and 1 against. February 25, 1865, 
another special meeting voted $1,000, and March 25 $2,000 more 
was voted. These various funds were largely made up by per- 
sonal subscriptions, thus avoiding the necessity of a tax levy. 
To raise so large a sum of money, $12,000, among a people where 
50 votes was the entire voting population, was a task of no mean 
proportions, but it was done and out of the effort the people came 
forth unscorched by the fires of distress and ready to bear still 
greater burdens. 

In 1867 the town of Otter Creek was organized and set off 
from Bridge Creek. It comprised what is now the towns of 
Otter Creek and Clear Creek. In the division of the town funds 
after all debts had been paid Otter Creek had $232.94, and 
Bridge Creek had $412.18. 

Meanwhile the village of Augusta had grown, and there were 
those who had an idea that there should be provided places 
where booze might be purchased. In conformity with this idea 
G. J. Hardy made application to the town board. The application 
was favorably acted upon and the license to sell spirituous and 
malt liquors was granted. The license fee M-as fixed at $75.00. 
Soon thereafter Ren Halstead and H. S. Baldwin were granted 
a license for the same purpose at the same time. Later it was 
discovered that the license fee as fixed by the town board was 
excessive, and it was reduced to $20. In 1870 the fee was again 
raised to $75.00. In 1873, June 24, a special town meeting was 
called to vote $2,500 to build a bridge across the Eau Claire river 
where the main river bridge now is. The proposition was de- 


feated by a vote of 66 to 16. This was about the voting strength 
of the town at that time. In 1877 the towns of Ludington and 
Fairchild were organized and set off from Bridge Creek. The 
village of Augusta was organized and set off in 1883. This left 
Bridge Creek with less than three townships. 

In the eai'ly days nearly all of the northern and eastern por- 
tions of the town were covered by forests and these were watered 
by numerous small streams, tributaries to the Eau Claire river. 
Game and fish abounded and the territory was the paradise of 
the hunter and the fisherman. The southern and western portions 
of the town as it originally was and as it is now presents a pros- 
pect that to the agriculturist is a dream of pure delight. 

The original population was mostly of Yankee descent, but 
since the war the Germans have come, and with their industry 
and persistence have practically possessed the land. Dairying 
and diversified farming is the principal occupation of the people, 
who are earnest, honest and industrious, and nowhere in the 
world can be found a more patriotic people. 

Brunswick Township, which contains about thirty-six square 
miles, was formed in 1857, and is bounded irregularly on the 
north by the Chippewa river, which divides it from the town of 
Union; on the south by the town of Drammen, on the east by the 
towns of Washington and Pleasant Valley, and on the west b.y 
Dunn county. Besides being abundantly watered by the Chip- 
pewa river at its northern extremity, the town is intercepted by 
Taylor's, West and Coon creeks. It had a population according 
to the census returns of 1910 of 706. Porter's Mills were the only 
manufacturing industries of this township. This was formerly 
called Porterville and was surveyed and platted with that name 
in the fall of 1883. It had a station on the Chippewa Valley 
division of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railway, described 
as "Porter's Mills." Among the early settlers in close proximity 
to it were Nelson Cooley, in 1855, and Washington Churchill, in 
1856. This location was selected as the site for a sawmill in 
1863 by Charles Warner, who began the erection of a structure 
of this description. It was completed in the following year by 
Messrs. Porter, Brown and Meredith. The capacity of the mill 
was then 20,000 feet a day of twelve hours. It was burned down 
in October, 1866, and rebuilt by Gilbert E. Porter and D.. R. 
Moon during the following winter, and its capacity increased to 
40,000 feet. The business was carried on under the firm name of 
Porter & Moon, and in 1869 the capacity of the mill was again 
increased with an output of 60,000 feet per day. When the first 


mill was started in 1865 there was only one house at this place. 
It was occupied by the few men then required to run the busi- 
ness. According to the census returns for 1890 the population 
of the village was 1,194. There was no industry here other than 
those controlled by this company. A Scandinavian Lutheran 
frame church was erected and dedicated in 1889, and a tine school 
house was built. 

Fairchild Township was formed in 1874, and is identical in 
size and sliape with one of government survey. It is bovinded 
on the north by the town of Bridge Creek, on the south by 
Jackson county, on the east by Clark county, and on the west 
by the town of Bridge Creek. It is watered by Coon and Bridge 
creeks and their tributaries. Its business center is the village 
of the same name, which is located in the extreme southeast 
corner of the county and the township, and was settled in 1868, 
about the time when the then West Wisconsin railway was con- 
structing its roadbed. The land at this time was covered with 
a low growth of bushes, but is now made into fine farms and 
country homes. One of the first settlers there was Mr. Yan- 
Auken, who built the first steam sawmill and sold it to another 
earl.y settler, G. S. Graves, in 1870. It was twice burned down, 
the second time in 1874, and was not rebuilt. 

Lincoln Township is irregular in line on the north. Its great- 
est length from north to south is nine miles, while the distance 
from east to west is eight miles. It contains a fraction over 
sixty square miles and is settled chiefly by an agricultural com- 
munity. It is bounded on the north by the towns of Seymour 
and Ludington, on the south by the towns of Clear Creek and 
Otter Creek, on the east by Ludington and Bridge Creek, and 
on the west by the town of Washington. The Eau Claire river 
runs through the towns from northeast to northwest, and it is 
also watered by the tributaries, Fall and Bear's Grass creeks. 
According to the census of 1910 it had a population of 1,189. 

Otter Creek Township, which contains sixty-six square miles, 
with a population, according to the census of 1910, of 703, Avas 
set off in April, 1867. It is bounded on the north by the town 
of Lincoln, on the south by Trempealeau county, on the east by 
the town of Bridge Creek and on the west by the town of Clear 
Creek. The upper portion of the town is watered by Otter, 
Bear's Grass and Thompson's creeks. The nearest shipping point 
is Augusta, which is eleven miles distant. This town is essen- 
tially agricultural and lias splendid farms owned by a thrifty 


Pleasant Valley Township was set off in 1858 and first given 
the name of Machas, which was afterwai'ds changed by the county 
board to its present name. It is principally a farming country 
with good land and prosperous people. It contains fifty-four 
square miles, and is oblong in shape, being six miles wide from 
east to west, and nine miles long from north to south. The water 
supply is ample, Low's creek, Pine and Clear creeks intersecting 
the country in almost every direction. Fine homes and farms 
are to be found here and happiness and prosperity abound. 

Washington Township is rectangular in shape, but irregular 
in outline and contains sixty-six square miles. It was set off 
in January, 1866, and is bounded on the north by the city of 
Eau Claire and the town of Seymour, on the south by the towns 
of Clear Creek and Otter Creek, on the east by the town of 
Lincoln and on the west by the city of Eau Claire and the town 
of Brunswick. Otter creek runs through the town from the 
extreme southeast to the extreme northwest, and Low's creek 
waters the western portion of it. It has a population, according to 
the census returns of 1910, of 1,489, exclusive of the city of 
Altoona, which has 824. This place was originally East Eau 
Claire, and was surveyed and platted as a village with that name, 
in September, 1881. It was afterwards changed to Altoona, and 
incorporated as a city in 1887. It is located on the Eau Claire 
river and Otter creek and is distant four miles east from the 
city of Eau Claire. There were only two houses here in 1882 
when the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha railway 
selected it as the site for machine shops and the roundhouse. 
As these buildings were constructed the population rapidly 
increased, and in the Pall of that year at least a dozen habitations 
had been erected. In the following year hotels, stores and resi- 
dences went up in all directions. A postoffice was established, a 
union frame church was erected in 1884 and the graded school 
house with three departments. 

Since 1884 Altoona has experienced a steady and prosperous 
growth ; new people have come in, churches of all denominations 
have been established; improved schools have been erected, and 
while it may be stjded one of the smallest cities in the United 
States, it is nevertheless a hustling business place which prom- 
ises to improve with rapidity with the addition of its transporta- 
tion facilities of the interurban railway line from Eau Claire, 
which has recently been completed. Originally what is now the 
Omaha Railway Company, in 1880 deemed it essential to locate 
a division point at some place nearly equidistant between Saint 


Paul and Elroy. They were urged to make that point Eau Claire. 
This they claimed they could not do, as it would make the eastern 
division much longer than the western. They had purchased 
the land necessary at Fall Creek and had commenced operations. 
The citizens of Eau Claire realized that this was detrimental to 
its prosperity. W. F. Bailey took the matter up with Mr. Porter, 
president of the road, the latter agreeing if a suitable place hav- 
ing a half mile of level track was nearer Eau Claire, and other 
conditions suitable, he would consider a proposition to locate 
the division there. Mr. Johnson, the company's engineer, and 
Mr. Bailey went over the line and place where Altoona is located 
and found suitable. If an abundance of a suitable water could 
be found and the city of Eau Claire would grade the yards Mr. 
Porter agreed to locate there. Water was found, the city pay- 
ing the expense. Subsequently it was agreed that the company 
would grade the j-ard, the city paying in lieu of grading $2,000. 

Clear Creek Township was organized in 1882, and is strictly 
agricultural. It contains thirty-six square miles and is bounded 
on the north by the towns of Washington and Lincoln, on the 
south by Trempealeu county, on the east by the town of Otter 
Creek and on the west by Pleasant Valley. The northern half 
is watered by Clear, Bear's and Otter creeks; its popidation, 
according to the census returns of 1910, are 728. 

Drammen Township is identical in size and shape with a 
township of government survey. It is bounded on the north by 
the town of Brunswick, on the south by Buffalo county, on the 
east by the town of Pleasant Valley, and on the Avest by Pepin 
county. In 1873 this town was set off from Brunswick imder 
the name of Lant, which was afterwards changed to its present 
name of Drammen. The water supply is furnished by Rock and 
Hoyt's creeks and their tributaries. Its population for 1910 
was 869. 

Ludington Township is sixteen miles in length from east to 
west, six miles in Avidth and contains 96 square miles, with a 
population for 1910 of 989. It is bounded on the north by Chip- 
pewa county, on the south by the towns of Lincoln and Bridge 
Creek, on the east by Clark county and on the west by Seymour 
and Lincoln. It is well watered by the north fork of the Eau 
Claire river aud Twelve Mile Pine, Sand, Hay and Muskrat 
creeks. ' It is stocked with an abundance of hard wood, and in 
its west center is located the great maple sugar district. 

Seymour Township is about twelve miles long and three wide, 
containing thirty-six square miles. It is bounded on the north 


by Chippewa county, on the south by the towns of Washington 
and Lincoln, on the east by the town of Ludington and on the 
west by the city of Eau Claire. The Eau Claire river runs nearly 
the whole length of the farther extremity of the town, and other 
portions of it are intersected by the river's tributaries. Its popu- 
lation in 1910 was 588. 

Union Township was first laid out as the town of Randall, 
but afterward changed to Union. It has thirty-four square miles, 
a little less than a regular township, with a population in 1910 
of 1,090. It is bounded on the north by Chippewa county, on 
the south by the town of Brunswick (the Chippewa river dividing 
the two towns), on the east by the city of Eau Claire and on the 
west by Dunn county. Truax is a station on the Chicago, St. Paul, 
Minneapolis & Omaha railway four and one-half miles north- 
west of Eau Claire. The Eau Claire county poor farm and 
asylum is located in this town, which contains many fine farms 
and farm buildings. 


Prof. Fi-t'deric Craiiefield. secretary of the Wisconsin State 
Iloi-ticultiual Society at Madison said in an interview regarding 
the jiossibilities of Wisconsin as a fruit raising state: "What 
about Wisconsin? Wisconsin is a good fruit state; quite as good 
as anj- other state and far better than many. Give the right 
kind of a man the right kind of land — we have millions of acres 
of it in Wisconsin — the right kinds of fruits and as much money 
may be made in fruit raising in Wisconsin as in any other place 
in the United States. Don't go M-est, young man! Stay at home 
and grow up with the country. Even if you have only a little 
money, good horse sense, plenty of ambition, a stout heart, hard- 
ened muscles and a clever wife stay in Wisconsin — we need you. 

"With a capital of $5,000 a splendid fruit farm may be devel- 
oped in Wisconsin that will yield in ten years an annual income 
equal to the original investment. If this sum is not available 
$2,000 will answer, and if that is too much $1,000 and fair credit 
will place a beginning on a safe business foundation. A young 
man full of energy without a dollar can make a start by working 
for others and learning the industry, and before middle age own 
a business that will yield him a competent income for the rest of 
his days. We have men in Wisconsin who have done it. 

"After making a tliorough research and scientific study of 
the soil and climate of Wisconsin we are sure of our facts when 
we make the statement that these conditions are as favorable 
for the raising of small fruits, apples and cherries on a commer- 
cial or market basis as in Michigan, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, or 
any other central or western state. 

"In many respects, as markets, high color of fruit and free- 
dom from frost, the conditions are more favorable than in any of 
the states named. Taking into consideration the amount of cap- 
ital required, the raising of apples or cherries in Wisconsin is 
as profitable as in any other state east or west. To illustrate 
this statement I will call attention to one upper Wisconsin county 
in particular. After ten years of careful observation I am well 
satisfied that Door county offers exceptional opportunities for 


fruit growing, particularly for the raising of sour cherries and 
apples. After a careful investigation of the returns from fruit 
growing in different parts of the United States I am well con- 
vinced that the net profits earned by several of the cherry 
orchards in the vicinity of Sturgeon Bay during the past ten 
years are greater than can be shown by any other areas of similar 
extent devoted to fruits of any kind anywhere in the United 

"Land can be bought in Wisconsin, an orchard planted and 
brought to profitable bearing age for one-fourth to one-half the 
price asked for western irrigated orchard tracts. The cost of 
transportation from Oregon to New York on a carload of apples 
is about the same as ten acres of good fruit land in Wisconsin. 

"Another thing, the Wisconsin fruit grower is within easy 
reach of one-third of the entire population of the United States. 
Only a few hundred carloads of strawberries of 300 bushels each 
are shipped out of Wisconsin each year, just about enough to 
make one good shortcake for Chicago. Strawberries bear one 
year after planting and yield 4,000 to 6,000 quarts per acre. No 
state in the Union can produce better strawberries than Wis- 
consin or furnish cheaper land adapted to their growth. 

"Raspberries, blackberries, currants and gooseberries all 
thrive in every part of the state and are money makers. Two 
to four hundred dollars an acre may be made from berries. 
Grapes are raised in the southern counties and always bring a 
good price on local markets. A good crop of Concord or Moore's 
Early will bring $250 an acre. Wisconsin is pre-eminently an 
apple state. In size, color, qualitj^ and productiveness Wisconsin, 
Duchess, Wealthy and McMahan cannot be equaled. Early 
apples always find a ready market at good prices, and the money 
is in the grower's pocket long before the winter apples of other 
states are harvested, and with no storage charges to pay. 

"A ten-year apple orchard, if properly handled, will yield 
an annual average income of $250 to $300 per acre. We have 
records of $1,400 per acre for a single crop. Where? Almost 
anywhere in the state. There are but few sections in Wisconsin 
wholly unsuited to fruit raising, in fact, berries and all small 
fruits may be grown successfully in any county in the state. 
Concerning apples and cherries, certain sections are much better 
than others. This is true of other crops and of fruits in every 
other state. Fruit raising anywhere is not unlike any other busi- 
ness enterprise. Capital, common sense, energy, determination 
and close application to details are all quite as essential in fruit 


raising as in any other commercial enterpi'ise. It is the "man 
behind the tree that counts." 


A great many years ago attempts were made iu some portions 
of the county to raise apples with some measure of success, but 
the farmers of that period did not have the advantage which 
those of this day have iu the benefit of scientific learning and 
instruction from the agricultural college in connection with the 
university, which has investigated all sorts of subjects Avhich 
are related to agriculture in any way, and a great deal of atten- 
tion has been paid to the subject of apple raising, and as to 
whether or not the soil and climate conditions iu this part of the 
state will permit of apples being raised on a large scale. In the 
earlier days alluded to, occasionally was found a small orchard 
which was planted by some farmer and just allowed to grow 
witliout any particular attention, except that in some instances 
the science of grafting was gone into when, perhaps, some man 
who had been familiar with the growing of apples in some eastern 
state knew the method of grafting apple trees; but in no 
locality iu the county was a determined effort made to raise 
apples as a commercial proposition, although many varieties 
were in fact raised of good quality and flavor, but with the lack 
of attention these little orchards gradually went into decay and 
the trees died off, more for the want of proper care and attention 
than on account of any conditions in the soil or climate. 

"With the awakening all along the line in agricultural sub- 
jects has come a movement in this county in the last few years 
to experiment with the growing of apple orchards, and with the 
great assistance which has been rendered by the agricultural 
department of the university, and also the officials of the State 
Horticultural Society, we are able in this chapter to record the 
result of experiments which prove beyond any question that 
within the limits of Eau Claire county there is just as good 
fruit lands as can be found anywhere in the United States for 
the raising of certain varieties of apples. For the year 1912 
there were two hundred and twenty acres of orchard iu the 
county, containing 12,043 growing apple trees, which produced 
10,300 bushels of apples. 

To illustrate what may be accomplished in the raising of fruit 
in Wisconsin we quote from statistics which show what one man 
did iu one of the nearby counties, that of Monroe : 


"If anything else was needed to establish beyond any qiiestion 
that apple growing in this part of Wisconsin can be successfully 
accomplished, and not only apples, but grapes, plums and cher- 
ries, it has been most conclusively furnished in the results accom- 
plished by J. W. Leverich at his fruit farm in the town of Angelo, 
Monroe county. Mr. Leverich, who now is acknowledged one of 
the authorities on small fruits, started in 1904 an experimental 
orchard of five acres, which he planted in May of that year. In 
order to demonstrate to his own satisfaction whether these fruits, 
apples, grapes and cherries could be successfully raised if handled 
scientifically, his trees were selected with the greatest care and 
planted upon a piece of land which was carefully selected for the 
purpose, and his long experience in small fruit raising gave him 
the knowledge necessary to select the particular land which he 
did for this orchard. The tract is protected on the north and 
west by growing timber from the winds; to the south and east 
are hills which protect the trees from wind blowing from that 
direction. There are sixteen rows of fruit trees and two rows 
of grapes. The trees are set twenty-two in a row. and the two 
rows of grapes about four hundred feet in lengtli each, in which 
there are seven distinct varieties. 

"At the time of setting this five-acre tract into an orchard in 
the spring of 1904, Mr. Leverich placed between the rows of trees 
either raspberries, red raspberries or blackberry brush. These 
berry brush have been thoroughly cultivated and cared for, as 
the trees and vines of the orchard were, and as a consequence 
there has been a crop of berries each year commencing with 1905. 
In 1906 the first returns from the orchard proper were secured, 
being ten baskets of grapes. The plum trees commenced bearing 
in 1907, and the apples in 1908, while the first cherries were 
secured in 1911. and it is the opinion of Mr. Leverich that this 
locality in the town of Angelo is not adapted to the culture of 
cherries. But his experiment has demonstrated beyond a doubt 
that the valley soil of Monroe county, as well as the ridges, is 
suitable and just as well adapted naturally for the culture of 
fruits as the ridge lands. It only needs the intelligence, industry 
and perseverance, which are, of course, all necessary in an indus- 
try of this character to put into a paying proposition an orchard 
bearing apples, plums and grapes. During the fall season of 
1911 Mr. Leverich exhibited in one or two store windows in the 
city of Sparta baskets containing the varieties of fruit and grapes 
raised in this orchard, and they made a tempting picture indeed. 
We have here the record which was kept by him from tlie time 


beginning with the planting of tlie oreliard up until the market 
of 1911, showing in detail the number of baskets, cases or bushels, 
as the case may be, of fruit which was raised upon this five-acre 
tract of land from May, 1904, up to and including the crop of 
1911, giving the total amount realized upon the entire tract: 


"1905, 24 cases, $1.19 per case, $28.56; 1906, 152 cases, $1.47 
per case, $223.44; 1907, 207 eases, $1.67 per case, $405.69; 1908, 
288 cases, $1.59 per ease, $557.92 ; 1909, 239 cases, $1.54 per case, 
$368.06; 1910, 124 cases, $1.93 per ease, $239.32; 1911, 155 cases, 
$1.64 per case, $254.20. Total, 1,190 cases; total, $2,231.86. 


"1905, 54 eases, $1.21 per ease, $65.34; 1906, 421 eases, $1.46 
per case, $614.66 ; 1907, 305 cases, $1.60 per case. $488 ; 1908, 235 
cases, $1.89 per case, $445.25 ; 1909, 145 cases, $2.05 per case, 
$297.25; 1910, 76 cases, $1.95 per case, $148.20; 1911, 111 cases, 
$1.56 per case, $173.16. Total, 1,342 cases; total, $2,231.86. 


"1905, 10 cases, $1.21 per case, $12.10; 1906, 154 cases, $1.47 
per ease, $226.38; 1907, 125 cases, $1.68 per ease, $200; 1908, 215 
cases, $1.75 per case, $376.25 ; 1909, 54 cases, $1.85 per case, 
.$99.90; 1910, 10 cases, $1.98 per case, $19.80. Total, 568 cases; 
total, $934.43. 


"1906, 10 baskets; 1907, 110 baskets; 1908, 200 baskets; 1909, 
20 baskets; 1910, 10 baskets; 1911, 175 baskets. Total, 505 bas- 
kets, at 25 cents per basket, $126.25. 

"Cherries — 20 cases, $1..50 per case, $30. 

"Apples— 1908, 5 bushels; 1909, 10 bushels; 1911, 75 bushels. 
Total, 90 bushels, at 75 cents per bushel, $67.50. 

"Plums— 1907, 5 cases; 1908, 30 eases; 1909, 50 cases; 1911, 
130 cases. Total, 215 cases, $1.25 per case, $268.75. Plants sold, 
$500. Grand total, $6,235.98." 

These figures are for cases of twenty-four pints each of black- 
berries and blaek and red raspberries, and sixteen quarts of plums 
and cherries. 


The conditions of Monroe county are not much different from 
those of Eau Claire, the soil with few exceptions is much the 
same, except that in places, if anything, Monroe county has more 
sand. The farm from which the above figures were obtained is 
located in a valley where the soil is largely composed of sand. 
In Eau Claire county for many years has been raised small fruit, 
especially berries, but it is not until recently that apples have been 
raised in any quantities. In 1912 there were eighty-three acres 
given to the strawberry plant, from which 3,626 bushels of berries 
were gathered, and the same year 1,222 bushels of raspberries 
were produced from forty-seven acres and 1,030 bushels of black- 
berries were gathered from twenty-eight acres. Sis acres set to 
currant bushes yielded one hundred and thirty bushels, and the 
grapes produced amounted to eleven bushels, and from three 
acres one hundred bushels of cranberries were marketed. 


Since the organization of Eau Claire county, in 1856, when 
the country was densely covered with a heavy growth of timber, 
rapid strides have been made in agricultural pursuits. "Where 
once stood the great forests of pine and hard timber, long since 
brought in contact with the woodman's axe, fine farms and ele- 
gant homes now abound. When the first settlers reached Eau 
Claire county and observed the immensity of the forest some of 
them little thought that only a few short years would elapse be- 
fore the county would become one of the leading counties rich in 
agriculture. Others of the pioneers who came to make a home 
for themselves and families set to work cleai-ing the land, erect- 
ing buildings, and otherwise improving the land, so that now, 
where the wild beasts once roamed at their leisure the soil is 
made to blossom like the rose. 

The soil for the most part is a rich clay and sandy loam, with 
here and there in some parts of the county a little sand, which 
in later years has been made to produce abundant crops. The 
county is especially favored with a bountiful water supply nearly 
everywhere, for in most every direction there are creeks and 
small sti-eams. 

It is the writer's firm belief that there is no territory in the 
country of equal size that has produced more net profit per acre 
than has the soil of Eau Claire county for the length of time 
that it has been under cultivation. The products of this county 
and their aggregate value are increasing with each succeeding 
decade, as will be shown by the comparative tables which are 
here submitted. At the time of the first settlers in Eau Claire 
who engaged in farming wheat was the principal or staple crop 
grown, the soil being new and containing all of the elements 
necessary to produce large yields, but as the years went on and 
the continued cropping of the ground exhausted the greater part 
of the phosphates, and the nitrogenous compounds that are so 
abundantly essential to the production of grain. The result was 
diminished yields. This, combined with low prices, which ruled 
for a number of years, and the competition of the great wheat 


belt of the west and northwest, compelled the farmers to adopt 
different methods of farming. This course they pursued, so that 
at this time, while there is quite an acreage of wheat sown yearly, 
the yield is diminishing. Corn, oats, rye and barley yield large 
crops, while the sugar beet in some localities is raised success- 
fully. Where stock raising, dairying and clover predominates 
the fertility of the land is sustained and is yearly growing better 
under the skillful management of the Eau Claire county farmer. 

The cultivation of the sugar beet and the manufacture of 
sugar is receiving considerable attention and is not an experi- 
ment, for it was proven as early as 1867 at Fond du Lac and at 
Black Hawk, Sauk county, in 1870, that the soil and climate of 
Wisconsin were si;ited to tlie successful growth of the sugar beet. 
The failure of these enterprises was due, however, to lost interest 
in this particular product by the farmers. 

In writing of the dairying interests, and keeping in mind 
the fact that the state of Wisconsin stands in the front rank in 
the production of butter and cheese, it must also be kept in mind 
that Eau Claire county is on the star list in these commodities; 
with the nearness to market, the right kind of soil, the best grass 
and the purest water, they can and do produce butter and cheese 
that cannot be surpassed by even the most favored localities of 
Europe. The growth of this branch of agriculture has been 
rapid, but has never yet exceeded the demand, which is con- 
stantly increasing. And not only has this indvistry been a source 
of immense revenue, it has completely revolutionized the methods 
of farming that were in vise twenty-five or thirty years ago, when 
nearly all the land was plowed up in the fall or spring and 
planted to wheat and other grains. Then in addition to the wash- 
ing away of the loose soil by the spring rains come years of 
short crops, low prices and innumerable trials and troubles that 
arise from depending wholly upon the success of one growth of 
a certain crop. 

The following comjiarison Avill be of interest and show the 
increase or decrease in the yield of the various commodities. The 
agricultural products for the county in 1890 were as follows: 
Wheat, 72,150 bushels; corn, 150,000 bushels; oats, 395,538 
bushels; rye, 28,194 bushels; potatoes, 86,563 bushels; flax, 13,040 
pounds ; tobacco, 354 pounds ; cultivated grasses, 10,966 tons. 
The acreage seeded to grain in 1890 was as follows: Wheat, 
7,467 ; corn, 9,042 ; oats, 18,850 ; barley, 1,157 ; rye, 2,952 ; that of 
potatoes was 1,044; cultivated grasses, 15,408. 

In 1912 the agricultural products of the county were : Wheat, 


52,458 bushels; corn, 441,647 bushels, shelled; oats, 1,129,807 
bushels; barley, 196,759 bushels; rye, 141,414 bushels; flax, 690 
bushels; potatoes, 287,065 bushels; beans, 1,675 bushels; timothy 
seed, 2,065 bushels; eloverseed, 2,593 bushels; sugar beets, 1,023 
tons; tobacco, 12,800 pounds; cabbage, 3,397 tons; hay, 26,170 
tons. The acreage seeded to grain in 1912 was as follows : Wheat, 
2,841 ; corn, 16,784 ; oats, 40,982 ; barley, 8,210 ; rye, 11,078 ; flax, 
495; potatoes, 2,270; beans, 195; sugar beets, 57; cabbage, 189; 
tobacco, 8; cultivated grasses, 33,635. 


It took a good many years of experience and the efforts of 
some farmers more progressive than others of the general run 
to bring to the fore, as a commercial proposition, the dairying 
industry. Cattle, almost from the earliest settlement down to 
within the last fifteen years, were raised for beef, with occasion- 
ally a "cheese factory" which would spring up and flourish for 
a time and then quit business, for the Avell developed farming of 
the east could more than successfully compete with the middle 
west in "cream cheese." Every farmer who kept cows made 
more or less dairy butter, usually a department presided over 
by the good wife, who presided at the churn and had her regular 
days for turning out butter for the market, but with the develop- 
ment of this section and the steady increase of population of 
villages came the demand "more butter," and with this demand 
from the markets developed the raising of better cattle, the 
establishment of creameries and the application of scientific 
modern methods to the making and marketing of butter. 

Eau Claire county farmers have kept pace with other sections 
of the state, and this very profitable industry has been pretty 
well developed in almost all parts of the county ; farmers are and 
have been studying the breeds of dairy cattle; they send their 
sons to the university, some taking the short course and some 
the long course in agriculture, and come out fitted to manage 
stock farms successfullj^ There are one or two associations of 
men who breed a certain kind of dairy cattle, and stock farms 
with modern sanitary barns and apparatus for handling milk 
and cream are found in nearly every township, and not only 
that, but there are numerous creameries, which are generally 
operated on the co-operative plan by the farmers in its com- 
munity, where butter fat is turned into cash with scientific regu- 
larity, and from this one industry alone has come a great increase 


in laud values all over the county. As late as 1890 there were 
but 4,10i milch cows in the county. In 1912 this number had 
been increased to 10,248, valued at $202,312. In this same year 
there was 6,609 head of other cattle, valued at $67,697. Horses 
there were 7,723 head, valued at $568,668. Sheep and lambs, 5,116 
head, valued at $13,127. This same year there were 5,515 head of 
swine four months old or over, valued at $30,917. For the year 
1912 there were 1,295 silos in the county. 

Previous to 1880 there was very little dairying done in Eau 
Claire county. Farming was practically all wheat, barley and 
oats, the cattle of the county pasturing in the brush or on the 
roadside in the summer, and living on the straw stacks in the 
winter. What little butter was made was made in the summer 
and all handled by the women folks and put down in the cellar 
for the winter. The surplus was traded out to the grocery store 
or kept in the cellar until the fall and then sold for what it would 
bring, which was not much. 

The first creamery in the county was started along early in 
the eighties, shortly after the first institute was held in Augusta. 
At that time Ex-Governor "W. H. Hoard, Hiram Smith and Dean 
Henry of the university were out preaching the gospel of the 
dairy cow as the only salvation of the northern Wisconsin farmer. 
The creamery ran all summer and then failed. The next year it 
went into the hands of the Victory Drug Co., of Augusta, who 
made a success of it. Shortly after this a creamery was started 
at Fall Creek. This creamery adopted the plan of gathering hand 
skimmed cream from the farmers, and followed that plan for a 
year or two, until the advent of the cream sepai-ator. They then 
established a skimming station as did the Augusta creamery. 
This improved the quality of the butter and brought more money 
to the farmers, making it possible for them to make money out 
of dairying. Soon after this a cheese factory was started at 
Russell's Corner, near Augusta, which was later turned into a 
creamery, and has been very successful. 

About 1885 the Augusta Creamery established a skimming 
station in the town of Ludington. This branch later grew and 
developed into a creamery. It was sold out to Ludtke Bros., of 
Ludington, who operated it until about three years ago, when it 
burned down. The farmers then organized a co-operative cream- 
ery, which is now in active operation. In about the year 1886 
there was a company organized in the city of Eau Claire to biiild 
and operate a creamery. This was built on Water street, but 
proved a failure, there not being enough cows within easy hauling 


distance of the creamery to furnish cream for the plant. The 
next creamery to be organized in the county was at Cleghorn. 
This was along about 1893 or 1894 and is still in operation and 
doing well. Along about 1894 there was a creamery started in 
the town of Drammen. This never was a success, was closed down 
about two years ago and sold at auction about one year ago. Has 
now been turned into a cheese factory. 

Shortly after this Messrs. Hanke and Emmerson built a cream- 
ery at Brackett in the town of Washington. This creamery was 
very successful for a Avhile, but gradually lost patronage and was 
sold out several times and finally organized into a co-operative 
plant and failed, closing down about two years ago. There was 
also a creamery organized in the town of Union about four miles 
from Eau Claire. This creamery never did very much and finally 
closed down. 

In 1901 the farmers of the town of "Washington organized a 
co-operative creamery and built it ' about five miles from Eau 
Claire. This creamery has been successful from the start and is 
now doing a good business. In 1901 they discontinued making 
cheese at Russel's Corner and built a new creamery, and about 
the same time the farmers of the town of Bridge Creek in what is 
known as Diamond Valley organized a co-operative creamery 
there and are still in successful operation. In 1906 the Eau Claire 
Creamery Company was organized and started business in May 
of that year. This company has steadily grown until it ranks as 
one of the largest concerns of this kind in the state. Since 1880 
the county has gradually di-ifted away from grain raising to 
dairying and stock raising. They have a Guernsey Breeders' 
Association, also a Holstein Breeders' Association, and they work- 
ing in harmony with Prof. Ingles, the State Agricultural Instruc- 
tor, have done a vast amount of good in the last two years. And 
the day is not far distant when Eau Claire coimty will rank as 
one of the best dairy and stock counties of the state. 




The Eau Claire County Training School for Teachers was 
established by act of the county board November IS, 1904, and 
opened in the city of Eau Claire August 28, 1905, and was the 
eighth school of this kind in the state. At the present time, 
less than nine years later, there are twenty-eight. 

This school at first occupied rooms in the high school building 
and employed two teachers, namely, W. A. Clark, principal, and 
Miss Franc Wilkins, assistant. The school opened with an 
attendance of forty-eight and increased so rapidly that another 
teacher Avas secured for the second year. Miss Clara McNown 
was engaged in this capacity, and remained with the school two 
years. On Miss McNown 's resignation, Miss Lydia Wheelock 
was engaged as second assistant, and remained in this position 
for four years. She was followed by Miss Maud Guest, who is 
still one of the faculty. Miss Wilkins and Mr. Clark have been 
with the school from the beginning to the present time (1914). 

During the summer of 1907 the beautiful and commodious 
building now occupied by the school was erected by the county 
on grounds adjoining the courthouse. In the spring of 1912 
the usefulness of the school in promoting agricultural education 
was greatly increased by the coming of G. K. Ingalls as county 
agriculturist, who was given an office in the building, made it 
his headquarters and became teacher of agriculture in the train- 
ing school. The following winter a short course in agriculture 
was given in which seventeen young men were enrolled. The 
present time finds the school taxed to its utmost capacity, Avith 
sixty-four students in the teachers' training courses and twenty- 
two in the short course in agriculture. That the reputation of 
the school has reached beyond the boundaries of the county is 
shown by the fact that there are in attendance this year (1914) 
more than thirty non-resident students coming from Chippewa, 
Rush, Clark, Burnette, Jackson, Trempealeau, Buffalo and Pepin 

The school has one hundred and eighty-seven graduates up to 
date, of whom one hundred and twenty are actively engaged in 
teaching, which testifies to the efficiency of the school in incul- 


eating professional spirit and love for the work. These gradu- 
ates have been uniformly successful and the demand for the 
product of the school is steadily increasing. No little credit for 
the success of the school is due the high eliaracter and ability 
of the men and women who have, during the past eight years, 
served the school on the training school board. The first training 
school board was composed of Hon. Emmet Horan, of Eau Claire, 
president; Mr. Gus Dittmer, of Augusta, treasurer, and County 
Superintendent of Schools Laura Burce, secretary. On Mr. 
Koran's appointment as a member of the board of regents of 
normal schools he resigned from the training school board, April 
22, 1908, and Mr. Richard II. Loether, of Eau Claire, was made 
his successor. On the retirement of Miss Burce from the county 
superintendency in July, 1909, her successor. Miss Theresa A. 
Leinenkugel, became secretary of the board. In November, 1913, 
Mr. E. G. Herrel, of Augusta, was given a place on the board. 
Ml-. Dittmer retiring, and at the same time Mr. J. H. Waggoner 
succeeded Mr. Loether as president of the board. The board 
as now constituted consists of J. H. Waggoner, president; E. G. 
Herrel, treasurer, and j\Iiss Theresa Leinenkugel, secretary. 


Eau Claire county has not fallen behind others of the state 
in regard to the educational welfare of its population. There are 
88 rural schools under the supervision of the county superintend- 
ent. Miss Theresa A. Leinenkugel, who has filled the office for 
six years — her predecessor, Miss Burce, having held it for the 
same length of time. Under them the schools have shown a con- 
stant advance in methods and efficiency. It is to be hoped that 
the system of consolidation which has proved so successful in 
Illinois and Indiana will be tried more faithfully in this state 
and county. Each district should see its three or four small 
schools united in one, which could thereby secure better teachers 
and more fitting equipment. The state legislature grants $50 
yearly on certain conditions to each school which has a specified 
number of enregistered pupils, this sum to be expended in suit- 
able blackboards, maps, a globe, systematic ventilation, properly 
screened outbuildings, etc. This appropriation is granted for 
three consecutive years, is highly appreciated and has shown good 
results in the interest and zeal inspired by pleasing and sanitary 
surroundhigs and adequate working tools. 




Editor's Note. To Mr. William W. Bartlett, of Eaii Claire, 
is due the credit for this interesting and valuable chapter, and a 
work of explanation is here appropriate regarding the form in 
which the matter is presented. 

Mr. Bartlett has long taken great interest in gathering remi- 
niscences of the Civil War, and especially of those from Eau Claire 
county who participated in it. In fact he is recognized as Eau 
Claire's authority of Civil War history. In 1911 the fiftieth 
anniversary of the outbreak of the war, the Eau Claire Telegram 
started a Civil War column and asked for reminiscences from the 
veterans. Knowing of Mr. Bartlett 's researches along this line 
he was also asked to contribute, and responded with an article 
made up of verbatim extracts from the Civil War time files of 
local newspapers, narrating events in Eau Claire just preceding 
and immediately after the firing upon of Fort Sumter. Pertain- 
ing as it did to individuals known to many of the Telegram 
readers it awakened much interest and more was called for. The 
result was a series of articles extending over several months. 
Supplementing the extracts from local newspaper files, of official 
records and many hitherto unpublished private Civil War letters, 
Mr. Bartlett prevailed upon a number of surviving officers and 
members of companies recruited in Eau Claire county to furnish 
reminiscences of their companies. These contributions constitute 
an almost complete account of Eau Claire's contingent in the war 
and were highly appreciated by the public. 

The foi'm in which the record appeared in the Telegram has 
been preserved in this chapter, not only because the series 
attracted great attention, but also because letters from men who 
participated in the great conflict convey a more intimate knowl- 
edge and more vivid impression than anj' other form of record 
could possibly give. They also add an intensity of interest to the 

The publication of the letters makes this chapter somewhat 
lengthy, but a valuable chapter has been the sole aim of the pub- 


lishers. For that reason Mr. Bartlett was persuaded to edit, 
rearrange and make a connected story of the series. 

"We are also indebted to Mr. Bartlett for the fine collection 
of war pictures which illustrate this chapter. They are the result 
of years of patient search and gathering. 

Eau Claire, Wisconsin, March 4, 1911. 

Editor Daily Telegram : I have your request for some 
material for your proposed series of Civil War articles, 
and shall be pleased to furnish something along that line. 
Doubtless it is your purpose to publish reminiscences of 
any sort which may pertain to the Civil War, but what- 
ever I may furnish will be of a strictly local nature. As 
you know, I am not a veteran, neither did I reside here 
during the Civil War. My parents came here from Maine 
in the spring of 1867, when I was but six years of age, but 
other relatives had preceded us, and I had cousins in a 
good proportion of the companies recruited in this county, 
and also in some of the companies from other counties in 
this part of the state. 

It would seem to me that no sketch of Civil War times 
in Eau Claire county would be complete without mention 
of Gilbert E. Porter, editor of the Eau Claire Free Press 
from December, 1858, until the fall of 1864, and who later 
became so prominent in the lumbering industry of the 
Chippewa Valley. I am furnishing you today a picture of 
Mr. Porter, taken in middle life, and shows him as most 
of us younger men recall him. Mr. Porter was a true 
patriot, and every editorial which appeared in his paper 
was a credit both to the man and to Eau Claire. 

The following editorial, which appeared in the Free 
Press of December 24, I860, presents the first rumbling of 
the approaching conflict: 

Free Press, December 24, 1860. 

"We give today pretty full accounts of the secession move- 
ment. It will be seen that South Carolina has passed an ordi- 
nance of secession unanimously, and the others of the cotton 
states are likely to follow suit. How the matter will terminate 
is beyond the reach of mortal ken. If we had a Jackson at the 
helm of the ship of state we should not be kept long in suspense, 
but as long as the president's chair is occupied by the present 
corrupt old traitor we know not what a day will bring forth. 


Dispatches from the South justify us in the belief that Buchanan 
has betrayed his solemn trust by ordering the surrender of the 
forts and the government's arms at Charleston upon the demand 
of the southern traitors. If that be so we shall not be surprised 
if an attempt is made to impeach the Old Public Functionary for 
high crimes and misdemeanors." 

Although realizing to some extent the feeling in the South, 
it seemed to Editor Porter hardly possible that it Avould go to 
the extent of beginning actual hostilities against the government. 
The unexpected happened. On April 12, 1861, Fort Sumter was 
fired on. The Free Press came out with an extra announcing the 
fact. Probably no copy of this extra is in existence, but the next 
regular issue, April 19, the announcement was reprinted. Fol- 
lowing the display head are given the dispatches, with particulars 
of the bombardment and evacuation of the fort. On the same 
page Mr. Porter expresses his feelings in an editorial as repro- 
duced below : 


"The terrible fact of a civil war now stares us full in the face, 
and lovers of the Union must meet the sudden tho.ugh not unex- 
pected responsibilities which devolve upon them. Every Union 
loving heart will swell with emotion as it contemplates the unal- 
terable baseness and dishonor of those who have inaugurated 
civil war ; and we greatly mistake the temper of all good citizens, 
South as well as North, if they do not firmly resolve to aid when 
duty calls, in executing a terrible retribution upon the rebels. 
Let the watchword be, "The government, it must and shall be 
preserved ' ; and if perchance there is a wretch in our midst whose 
sympathies are not with the government, let the execrations of 
all good citizens be upon him; let the finger of scorn follow him 
till sham_e burns his cheeks to a cinder." 

In the press of the following week, April 26, appears the call 
for the first war meeting, reproduced below: 


"There will be a meeting of the patriotic citizens of Eau 
Claire and vicinity in Reed's Hall on Monday the 29th for the 
purpose of devising means to get up a company to go and fight 
the battles of our country. Speaking and singing may be 

In the Free Press of May 3, 1861, appears the report of that 
gathering, as follows : 


Free Press, May 3, 1861. 

"On Monday evenmg- the citizens of this place, irrespective 
of party, met at ReecVs Hall for the purpose of attesting their 
attachment to the good old Stars and Stripes of the Union. It 
was in every respect by far the largest and most enthusiastic 
meeting ever held in this place. A common cause brought them 
together and a common sentiment animated every heart. At an 
early hour the hall was densely packed with people, including 
fifteen or twenty ladies, Avho came early enough to obtain admit- 
ance. A great many were unable to get in the hall. N. B. Boyden, 
Esq., was called to chair and J. G. Callahan was elected secre- 
tary. Mr. Boyden briefly and appropriately addressed the meet- 
ing and his remarks were well received. Messrs. Barnes, Meg- 
gett, Davis, Bartlett, Barrett, Woodworth, Taylor, Porter, Whip- 
ple, Wilson, Stillman and McNair were respectively called to the 
stand, all of whom made speeches abounding in patriotism and 
expressing warm attachment to the government and union. Men 
and means promptly tendered — the former to fight for the coun- 
try, the latter to equip the soldiers and provide for their families. 
The Eau Claire Brass Band and Sprague's Military Band added 
much to the interest of the occasion. 

"After the meeting the following names were enrolled to form 
the company : John Taylor, G. W. Marcum, A. S. Bostwick, John 
Woodworth, A. C. Ellis, Thomas B. Coon, Charles Sargent, G. E. 
Bonell, D. R. King, Henry Schaffer, John Dennis, F. R. Buck, 
J. D. McCauley, Machler Strifi', Robert Lackey, W. J. Cosporus, 
G. W. Wilson, Melvin M. Adams, G. M. Brewer, L. Cornwell, 
Jesse Adams, Myron Shaw, Theodore DeDesert, G. A. Brown, 
H. McDougal, John E. Stillman, A. Watson, H. II. Parker, W. P. 
Bartlett, J. Wells, J. Sloat, C. S. McLeod, Augustus Block, James 
Jones, George Eckart, J. Swan, Philip Hammer, Chriss Scholkopf, 
John Sloverman, B. F. Cowen, Jacob Siegil, John Harrson, C. W. 
Burbauk, Osten Rutland, Henry J. Linhergue, William E. Kil- 
gore, B. F. Buck, Oscar Sargent, William Monteith, M. V. Smith, 
J. C. Davis, J. S. Goodrich, Couradon Wyman, J. P. Hale, D. H. 
Hollister, Otis F. Warren, D. P. Gordon, A. Parker, J. A. Bar- 
berish, G. II. Hamilton, Henry Hunter, John Legore, J. S. 

"Prom present indications we have no doubt that two com- 
panies might be raised in this place and Chippewa Falls. Of 
course the country about will be well represented. Quite a dele- 
gation from Bridge Creek came down to enlist, and yesterday a 


wagonload drawn by four gray horses, decked with small Union 
flags, and a beautiful large one streaming from a staff supported 
in the wagon, came into town from Mondovi. They were vocifer- 
ously cheered by our citizens. They are a determined and 
patriotic set of men and would fight like tigers when duty calls 
them to the battlefield." 

Other names were added later and in the Free Press of May 
10 we find the following: 


"This company is about full and is aching for active service. 
It is composed of active, intelligent men, who have good health, 
strong muscular development and determined wills. "We wish 
to correct the absurd rumor which is now going the rounds of 
the papers that a company has been formed here, all of whose 
members stand over six feet high. The Eau Claire boys in time 
of peace are probably not larger than the average run of men, 
but if they come to a hard fight we have no doubt the rebels will 
think that each man weighs at least a ton. On Saturday last the 
Badgers met at Reed's Hall and elected officers. They are as 
follows: Captain, John Taylor; first lieutenant, A. S. Bostwick ; 
second lieutenant, Henry Hunter; third lieutenant, Oscar Sar- 
gent • orderly sergeant, A. C. Ellis. Captain Taylor left for 
Madison on Monday last for the purpose of tendering the services 
of the company to the governor. He Avill probably return home 
as soon as Sunday." 

(For some reason there was considerable delay in closing \\p 
the final arrangements for the mustering in of this company, and 
many of the recruits became restless.) 

Free Press, May 31, 1861. 

"The Eau Claire Badgers have forwarded their application to 
the adjutant-general for their acceptance into service. A reply 
will probably be had in a few days. The boys are ready and 
willing to go to war, but if there is no show of being accepted 
they will probably disband. 

"Mr. Victor Wolf, who has had several years' experience in 
the militarj^ service of the United States, has been drilling them 
for some time past, and it is said they have made commendable 
progress in the arts of war." 

(Unwilling to wait longer for an opportunity to see active 
service the compan.y began to droj) out. Just at this opportune 


time a recruitiug officer from another count}' appeared on the 
scene, as told in the Free Press as follows) : 

"The captain of the 'Prescott Guards,' of Prescott, came up 
to the Chippewa Valley yesterday for the purpose of filling up 
his company to the required number, it having been assigned to 
a place in the Sixth Regiment, and notified to be in readiness for 
mustering by the lOtli inst. Some twenty of the boys of the Eau 
Claire Badgers enlisted under him last night and left this morning 
for Prescott, well pleased with the prospects of getting into active 
service. Our boys, we doubt not, will 'make their mark' when 
the lighting comes." 

(If these boys were looking for a cliance to fight they certainly 
made no mistake in the choice of their company, for it will be 
remembered the Sixth Regiment with the Second and. Seventh 
became a part of the famous Iron Brigade and saw some of the 
heaviest service of the' war. Among those who left the Eau Claire 
Badgers to join the Prescott company was A. C. EHis, who 
attained the rank of first lieutenant, returned to Eau Claire and 
lived here for a number of years after the war. 

Another Eau Claire man who enlisted in the Sixth Regiment, 
although not in the same company with Ellis and his associates, 
was Franz Siebenthall. He was in Company D, was wounded at 
South Mountain, and on the 1st of July, 1863, was killed on the 
field of Gettysburg. Mr. Siebenthall in the summer of 1855 
bought from the United States government about seventy-five 
acres of land on the west side, for which he paid $1.25 per acre, 
or $94.50 for the tract. The following spring he sold the land 
to Ira Mead for $756, a very fair profit, but this amount would 
hardly purchase the land today, as it lay just south of Grand 
avenue and extended from about Fifth avenue east to the Chip- 
pewa river, comprising the ~ principal part of what is now the 
Fifth ward. In addition to those who joined the Sixth Regiment 
were a number of- the Badger company who, a few days before, 
had taken blankets and other equipment belonging to the com- 
pany, helped themselves to some boats and went down the river, 
where they joined an artillery company then being formed at 
LaCrosse. These individuals may have been able to justify their 
conduct to themselves, but Editor Porter expressed very strongly 
his disapproval of same.) 

Free Press, June 7, 1861. 

"After the company Avhich had been formed here had con- 
cluded that they could not get into service, something like a half 


dozen committed a most dishonorable trick by running off in the 
night with all the available property, such as blankets, etc., they 
could lay their hands upon. In view of such a transaction we are 
glad the company was not accepted, as we want no men to go to 
the wars from Eaii Claire who are not gentlemen. Of course 
those who remain would not countenance such petty theft, and 
who are exempt from the above reflection. A good soldier must 
be a man of honor." 

Under date of June 21, 1861, the Free Press announced that 
Captain Taylor had received notice from Governor Randall that 
the company would be accepted, and in the same issue there also 
appeared the following: 


"I have just received an order from the governor to fill up 
a company to be mustered into service. I therefore request all 
of the old members of the Eau Claire Badgers and as many more 
as wish to join them to report to me as soon as possible that I 
may have my company ready as soon as July 4. A meeting will 
be held on that day to complete the roll, on the grounds where the 
celebration is to take place — West side. Persons Avishiug to join 
should apply immediately, as I wish to notify Governor Randall 
of a full company at the earliest possible moment. 

"The old members will be entitled to one month's pay; and 
all who have families will be entitled to $5 per mouth extra com- 
pensation during their service. 

"Patriots arouse! Our country calls for our services. Let us 
answer with our muskets. Let the Chippewa Valley be repre- 
sented in the ranks of our country's defenders. 

"June 21, 1861. JOHN TAYLOR, Captain." 

For some reason the attempt to fill up the ranks of the old 
company was a failure, but almost immediately steps were taken 
to recruit a new one. In the Free Press of July 19 we find this 
announcement : 


' ' We learn that an effort is being made by Judge Pex'kins and 
Victor Wolf, Esq., to raise a company of volunteers for the war, 
independent of anything that has heretofore been done. Rolls 
for that purpose have already been sent to the different towns. 
When the company is made up the volunteers are to meet and 
choose their officers. 


^: \^ ^ 



^S --- 






Captor of Old Abe 


"We hope and trust that a company may be raised, as Eau 
Claire might and ought 1o be represented in the Grand Army 
of the Union. If the matter is conducted -\vith discretion it seems 
to us tliat tliere ought to be no difficulty in obtaining a full com- 
plement of men in a very little time." This prediction came true, 
and the "new company," Avhieh retained the name "Eau Claire 
Badgers," became Company C, Eighth Wisconsin, the Eagle Com- 
pany of the Eagle Regiment. 

In the Free Press of September 12, 1861, appeared a list of the 
officers and privates of tlie new eompany as given below : 


"The following are the names of the officers and privates of 
tliis noble company: Captain, John E. Perkins; iirst lieutenant, 
Victor Wolf ; second lieutenant, Frank McGuire ; orderly sergeant, 
Seth Pierce; second orderly sergeant, Myron Briggs; third 
orderly sergeant, F. Schmidtmyer, fourth orderly sergeant, Robert 
Anderson; fifth orderly sergeant, Thomas G. Butler; first cor- 
poral. Christian Scholkopf; second corporal, B. F. Cowen; third 
corporal, J. B. Button; fourth corporal, William G. Kirk; fifth 
corporal, M. N. Goddard; sixth corporal, Charles J. Phillips; 
seventh corporal, David Noble; eighth corporal, Walter Quick; 
William Buckley, Charles Segar, Nathaniel Brown, Silas M. Tal- 
meter, Thomas West, Wilber F. McCord, Alphonzo Beeman, S. T. 
Wiggaut, Nathaniel Canfield, Elijah Prine, Max. Worth, Hugh 
Macaulay, Thomas J. Hill, C. F. Shipman, John Hamilton, William 
Avery, James Atwater, Andrew B. Tyrel, George Bonell, Riley 
Hedge, Charles W. Robison, Edward Hummiston, George W. 
Riley, Adolph Stallman, William IMonteith, Albert Tuttle, John F. 
Hill, B. F. Haynes, John Woodworth, Phillip Emery, Burnett 
Demarest, Gabriel Gebhard, John Hawkins, Adolph Pitch, N. D. 
Randall, Frederick More, F. R. Buck, Paul Selb, Milton Whitney, 
Hovel Swenson, Jacob Hath, Daniel A. Wyman, David McClain, 
J. W. Phillips, Edwin Roberts, John Kimbell, Julius A. Hill, E. C. 
Wilkins, Charles Russell, A. Stukbury, Harry D. White, George 
Murphy, Charles Parker, John Buckart, James McGinnis, Charles 
Sargent, David Farley, Isaac Devoe, George Brown, Robert 
Dodge, Edward R. Curtis, George W. Palmer, Alfred Thurston, 
Newell Hanscome, William H. Guppee, Peter Ole Ollen, Ephraim 
Wilcox, Phillip Burk, Hanson Dickey, George Barber, J. W. 
Hooper, C. B. Robinson, Frank Barrett, James D. McCauley, A. R. 
Barnes, Thomas B. Coon. 

Of the above the following do not appear to have been mus- 


tered into service, as their names are not found in the official 
roster of the company : James Atwater, George Bonell, John 
Hawkins, Silas M. Talmeter, E. C. Wilkins, George Murphy and 
C. B. Robinson. On the other hand, the roster contains the names 
of the following who evidently joined the company later : .Jacob 
Aaron, Henry Becker, Andrew Brown, Stephen Canfield, William 
Connell, William Chatwood, William Delap, Martin Dickerschied, 
Solomon Fuller, Dana S. Fuller, Ferdinand Grasser, Shipman W. 
Griffith, Henry Grinnell, George Hutchings, George Leng, George 
A. Loomis, Harrison B. Loomis, Charles McFait, Collin S. McLeod, 
Christian Miller, William F. Page, Silas M. Palmeter, Frank N. 
Parker, Nathaniel P. Poppel, David K. Reynolds, Andrew Ritger, 
Mark Sibbalds. Dighton Smith, John Soal, Charles Strasburg, 
August Thiel. 

Editor Daily Telegram : Just fifty years ago this com- 
ing summer Mr. A. R. Barnes, a former printer in the old 
Free Press office, resigned his position to enlist in the first 
company of volunteers from this village. Editor Porter 
gave him the following complimentary and humorous 
send-off : 

"Mr. A. R. Barnes, foreman of this office, informed us 
yesterday that he was off for the war, and in less than an 
hour he recorded his name and was sworn into service. 
Mr. Barnes is an energetic, industrious young man, small in 
stature but large in heart, and if he uses his musket in 
battle as he uses his 'shootingstick' in the printing office 
he will not only make his mark but hit it, too. May all of 
his leaded matter be found in the front column of the 
secession forces and may his shadow never grow less. 

Mr. Barnes survived the war, went back to his trade of 
printer, not here but in his former home in Iowa, and is 
still living there, a hale and heai'ty veteran. Knowing that 
a recital of his recollection of Eau Claire prior to and at 
the outbreak of the war would be of interest to your read- 
ers I dropped a line to hira a few days ago, and in response 
received the very interesting and breezy letter which fol- 

Albia, Iowa, Feb. 23, 1911. 

Mr. William W. Bartlett, Eau Claire, Wisconsin. 

Dear Sir: In compliance with your request I give you some 

of my recollections of scenes and events in Eau Claire that came 

under my observation some fifty years ago. 


In the spring of 1860 I went to Eau Claire, going on boat on 
Mississippi river from Burlington to the confluence of the Chip- 
pewa river, and thence by boat to Eau Claire. My purpose was 
to study law with an uncle, H. W. Barnes, who had located in 
Eau Claire biit a short time before, and who had hung out his 
shingle as an attorney. My duties were to sweep out the office, 
emptj^ the cuspidor, submit to some grilling every day as to com- 
mon law points and answer all questions as to the "Judge" when 
he was away from the office. I did not take to the work very 
enthusiastically, but my uncle was very kind to me. One day 
while I was in the rear room reading Blackstone I heard a gen- 
tleman enter the front room and ask, "Say, Judge, haven't you 
a nephew here who is a printer? My printers went to Chippewa 
Falls last night to attend a dance, and I suppose they are drunk, 
and I don't know when they will come back, and today is 
publication day, and I don't believe there is another printer in 
the Chippewa Valley." It was Gilbert_ E. Porter. 

My uncle called me and I was introduced to Mr. Porter. I 
told him I would help him out. I went with him to the office — 
upstairs in a long frame building near the big bluff — and found 
that the printers had set the advertisements and the locals and 
made up the forms, leaving space on the local and editorial pages 
for a few more locals or advertisements and editorials. He wrote 
an apology for late appearance of the paper and lack of local 
and editorial matter, and I put the same in type and locked up 
the forms and put them on the press — a Washington hand press 
as I remember — and along in the afternoon we started to "run 
off the paper." The devil in the office was named Woods, and 
he had not been long enough in the business to know how to run 
the rollers over the type forms and was really to light for the 
work. Mr. Porter saw the situation and said he could roll if I 
could run the press. We tackled the work and kept at it till past 
midnight, taking only time to eat a bite of supper, and we 
wrapped the papers for out-of-town mail, and about two o'clock 
in the morning I went to my uncle's home and went to bed. I 
think Mr. Porter slept in the office on a board. 

I slept late and did not get up to the office until nine or ten 
o'clock. Mr. Porter had gone to breakfast and preceded me only 
a few minutes. The printers got back from Chippewa Falls, and 
when they came to the office were surprised to find that the 
edition was printed and wrapped and addressed for the mails. 
They took the forms from the press, washed them and put them 
on the imposing stones and were distributing the type in the cases. 


"When Mr. Porter and I arrived we went into the sanctum, apart 
from the composing and press room. He pulled a chair over next 
to him and asked me to sit down. I did so and he said : "I want 
you to take charge of the mechanical part of this paper, and I 
will pay you $20 a week, and will get you all the help you need. ' ' 
It was goodbye to Blackstone and the lawyer's career right then 
and there. Twenty dollars a week was a big sum way back in 
those days, and I stayed with the job until Company C was 
organized and went to war. 

Mr. Porter owed me more than $600 when the company was 
ready to start, and he asked me if I wanted the money. I told 
him, "No, just give me a note, and if I never come back pay to 
my uncle and ask him to send it to my parents in Albia, Iowa." 
My uncle took care of the note and gave it back to me when I 
returned from the war. Mr. Porter paid off the note, principal 
and interest, and he did more, he took me from Eau Claire to 
Sparta in a buggy, went with me to Chicago, paid my railway 
fare and hotel bills while in the city, and bade me goodbye at the 
depot as I started for the home of my parents in this place. It 
was very fortunate for me that I had saved the $600 and interest, 
as I suffered a full year with my chronic trouble, and every cent 
was used in paying doctor's and other bills before I was able 
to go to work. 


I recall many incidents in my experience in Eau Claii-e. Mr. 
Porter was a typical gentleman and a splendid business man, but 
he was not a free and easy writer, and the bent of his mind ran 
in business channels. He had no knowledge of the printing busi- 


One day I carried some proofs into the sanctum for Mr. Porter 
to read, and a gentleman was present, and I thought him the 
homeliest man I had ever seen. It was John E. Perkins, wlio later 
became the first captain of Company C, and a braver or better 
man I never knew. In the first most important battle the regi- 
ment was engaged in at Farraington, Mississippi, on May 8, 1862, 
he was mortally wounded, and he died two days later. He gave 
his life for the perpetuity of the Union, and no greater sacrifice 
was made in a Wisconsin regiment. 

Thomas B. Coon, who came from Kelbourn City to work with 
me in the office, and who became a member of Company C, join- 


ing the company two weeks after I was mustered in, was a genial 
fellow and a comi^etent workman. 

Coon and I slept in the office and took our meals at the Sling- 
luff House, and we got our first view of the sacrifices that were 
required in saving the Union. We had eaten our dinner and came 
out onto the platform in front of the house, when a team of horses 
attached to a farm wagon and loaded with men drove up. They 
were from ChijDpewa Falls and were the first soldiei-s to enlist 
from that i^lace. The men were taken to the dining room for 
dinner, and the horses were sent to the barn to be fed. The men 
had not more than been seated when a carriage drove up that 
contained the man who had recruited the squad, his girl and his 
brother and sister. They went to their dinner. When all had had 
dinner the teams drove up. The driver of the farm wagon got 
his load on board and was ready to start down the river, but 
was halted while the captain bade his sweetheart, brother and 
sister good-bye. He was to go with the crowd, and his brother, 
sister and sweetheart were to return home. Say, but that parting 
was awful, but the soldier was brave and never shed a tear. He 
won an eagle on his shoulder, but if history is straight he fell in 
love with another girl and married her. 


The memory of the march from the Slingluff House through 
the main streets and down to the river, where we boarded the 
little boat, "Stella Whipple," and the memory of the kind Eau 
Claire ladies Avho gave us their blessing and little red testaments 
with the motto pasted on the fly leaf, "The better the man, the 
better the soldier — George Washington," will never be forgotten, 
nor will the boys who endured the forty-six days' march around 
Vicksburg, and sixteen days with only a cracker a day, forget the 
hardships of the trip. It is si^rprising that one is left to tell the 
story. Tlie two events were impressed upon my mind never to 
be erased. 

Note. — The Slinglufl' House, above referred to, was the Eau 
Claire House, of which Mr. Slinglutt', a pioneer, was then pro- 


Some remarks in regard to the eagle taken out by the 
Perkin's company may not be out of place at this time. By 
far the best historv of this bird ever written is that of Rev. 


J. 0. Barrett, a Universalist clergyman of Eau Claire. The 
first edition of his book appeared in 1865, and a number of 
other editions since. As evidence of the painstaking care 
exercised by Rev. Barrett in the preparation of his narra- 
tive I give below several extracts from his book: 

Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin, February 13, 1865. 
J. O. Barrett, Esq. 

Dear Sir : Having been engaged for a short time in the 
collection of information relative to the capture and early 
ownership of the eagle of the Eighth Wisconsin Regiment, 
whose history you intend to publish, I talie pleasure in 
submitting a few facts in regard to the progress made. 
Ascertaining, first, that the eagle had been sold to Mr. 
Daniel McCann, of the town of Eagle Point, in this county, 
by some Indians, you wished me to discover, if possible, 
who those Indians were, and to secure their presence at 
Eau Claire at an early day. I learned from Mr. McCann 
that the Indians who had brought the eagle to him in the 
summer of 1861 were of the Lake Flambeau tribe, and 
that the owner was a son of Ali-monse, chief of that tribe, 
or band, of Chippewa Indians. I proceeded to obtain cor- 
roborative evidence of this account, and found, through the 
evidence of Mr. John Brunet, Mr. James Ermatinger, Mr. 
Charles Corbine and others — all old residents of the upper 
Chippewa and Flambeau rivers — besides the testimony of 
dift'erent Indians who were acquainted with the facts of 
the capture of the eagle, that it was correct. All accounts 
agree that the name of the captor of the bird is A-ge-mah- 
we-ge-zhig, or Chief Sky, one of the five sons of the said 
Ah-monse. Having satisfied myself by such evidence, and 
by other inquiries made in every direction, that there could 
be no mistake in the identity of the captor of the eagle, I 
have made arrangements, according to your directions, to 
bring the said A-ge-mah-we-ge-zhig to Eau Claire as soon 
as possible. He is now with his band, hunting between the 
head waters of the Yellow and Flambeau rivers, and is 
shortly expected at Brunet 's Falls, on the Chippewa. 

Wishing you full success in the publication of your 
work, I remain, with much respect, Yours truly, 

Theodore Coleman. 

Ascertaining that A-ge-mah-we-ge-zhig, with other 
hunters, would soon arrive at Brunet 's Falls on their way 


up the river, Mr. Coleman engaged Mr. Brunet to detain 
him there until a concerted, movement. At length they 
came, the Indian with them, to whom was communicated 
the wishes of the "white man at Eau Claire," who desired 
to talk with him "about the eagle he caught a few years 
ago." He hesitated, apprehensive of a trick, for all white 
men had not been true to their red brethren. Finally he 
appealed to his father. It was a grave question indeed; 
they were all afraid of being arrested for captm-ing an 
eagle ! After a long counsel together the old chief resolved 
to go to Chippewa Falls without further waiting, requiring 
his boys to follow the next day, and appear in proper cos- 
tume, should he find it safe. Arriving there he had an 
interview with H. S. Allen, Esq., a pioneer resident, who, 
being a friend of the Indians, persuaded him to venture. 
Meeting his boys, as before arranged, he selected two of 
them, A-ge-mah-we-ge-zhig and A-zha-wasli-co-ge-zhig, and 
with Messrs. Coleman and Barrett and Elijah Ermatinger 
for interpreter, rode to Eaii Claire, the 19th of February, 
1865, welcomed with a cordiality that at once inspired 
mutual confidence. The native nobility of these sous of the 
northern forests created quite a sensation. A-ge-mah-we- 
ge-zhig related his eagle adventures in a very intelligent 
manner, so simple and candid as to assure every one present 
of their truthfulness. His father, who is much beloved as 
chief of the tribe, was particularly loquacious and is prop- 
erly named Ah-monse, the "Thunder of Bees." He had 
much to say about his "Great Father Lincoln," whom he 
has visited several times at "Washington in the interest of his 
tribe, averring that Mr. Lincoln gave him plenty of money, 
and to his children much land, and let him see a battle- 
field." Photographs of these "red brothers" were taken 
by A. J. Devor, of Eau Claire, and never did mortal appear 
more proud than the eagle captor when attiring himself 
in regal costume for his carte de visite. A full-blooded 
Indian of consequence — then about twenty-five years old — 
belonging to the royal family of the Flambeaux, it is glory 
enough for him to be known among his fellows as the 
captor of the American eagle of the Eighth Wisconsin 
regiment of volunteers. 

The following letter, with a map, gives an accurate 
description of the infant home of the Eagle: 


Chippewa Falls, "Wisconsin. 
February 25, 1865. 

My Dear Brother: — According to your request, I will 
give you what information I have obtained of the Chip- 
pewa country, and especially of the home of your Pet 
Eagle. Inclosed I send you a map of this country, being 
a perfect copy from J. I. Lloyd's New Map of the United 
States, with a slight change in the location of the Flambeau 
Lakes and tributaries, which are copied from a drawing 
made for me by Ah-monse and the Eagle Indian. I can 
find no maps representing the United States' surveys of 
these lakes. Today I saw Israel Gould, the Indian Inter- 
preter, who rendered you so valuable assistance last sum- 
mer on your Indian expedition. At my request he drew a 
map of the Flambeau and its lakes, and it agreed precisely 
with the drawing made by Ah-monse and his son. Mr. 
Gould is an intelligent Scotchman, and has lived with the 
Chippewa Indians for fifteen years. He has a good knowl- 
edge of Indian character and probably is one of the best 
of Indian interpreters. At one time he lived one year at 
Flambeau Lake, or Ah-monse 's Lake, as it is most gen- 
erally called, trading with Ah-monse and his tribe, and, 
consequently, he is well acquainted with their country. 
I have much confidence in his account of the location of 
these lakes ; and as all the other Indian traders and trap- 
pers, and Ah-monse, and the Eagle Indian do agree with 
him, I believe you can rely upon my map as being correct. 
I will give his description of this country : 

The whole Chippewa country is well watered with 
innumerable streams, swamps, lakes and rivers; its surface 
varies in hills and blufl's, prairies, oak openings and mead- 
ows, and is covered, for the most part, with every variety 
of hardwood, Norway and white pine. 

The soil in many places is good, while many of the hills 
and bluflfs are rocky, and in its northern portions are to 
be found iron, copper and other minerals. It is inhabited 
by the various tribes of the Chippewa Indians, and abounds 
in wild beasts, fish and birds. The Flambeau is a wide, 
crooked stream, the longest tributary of the Chippewa, and 
its general course is southwest. Upon its north fork are 
the "rapids," at which place the Eagle Indian said he 
caught the eagl,e. It is about 125 miles from Eau Claire, 
70 miles from the mouth of the Flambeau River, and 80 


or 90 miles from Lake Superior. It is three miles from here 
to Little Flambeau, or Asken Lake, which is three miles 
long; six miles further north is Flambeau, or Ah-monse's 
Lake — a stream uniting the two. This is the largest of 
the Flambeau lakes, being three miles wide and six long. 
It is a beautiful stream of clear, pure water, where are 
found fish of many varieties. The meaning of its Indian 
name is "Fire-Hunting Lake." Near its northern shore 
is a fine island, Avhere Ah-monse frequently lives. On its 
eastern shore is a pretty sloping hill, nearly forty feet 
high, covered with maples. Here, overlooking the lake, the 
Indians, a few years ago, had their villages, which are now 
located on the north and northwest shores, where they had 
cleared their land, leaving now and then a shade tree, 
giving the country a beautiful appearance. The soil is 
good, and here they raise their corn and potatoes. Farther 
to the north is Rice Lake, the Chain of Lakes, the Big 
Portage, and the Montreal River. A few years ago this 
was the route of the Indian tradei's, going from Lake 
Superior to Eau Claire. The country near the lakes, for 
two miles east and west of the river, and about four miles 
in all directions from the lakes, is low prairie land, cov- 
ered with hardwoods, with here and there a lonesome 
pine ; while beyond, in all directions, the country is uneven 
and hilly, and wooded with the dark pine. In this seques- 
tered country, Ah-monse and his tribe have lived for many 
years, subsisting upon their corn and potatoes, rice and 
sugar, fish and game. The Flambeau tribe is the most 
enterprising and intelligent of the Chippewas. Their war- 
riors number from 140 to 150 men, and they kill more 
game than any other tribe. Here are found the deer and 
elk, the mink and marten, the bear and otter, and also 
the fish hawk, the owl, the eagle and other birds. 

Mr. Gould says the region of the Flambeau Lakes is 
an eagle country, he having seen more there than in any 
other, and has there found many eagles' nests, containing 
from two to four young birds. Having seen the War 
Eagle at different times, he is satisfied it is a bald eagle, 
and this is the opinion of A-ge-mah-we-ge-zhig. Mr. Gould 
also says Asken Lake is situated about five miles east of 
the fourth principal meridian, which line is well defined 
upon the river bank ; and, if he is correct, and I rely upon 
his statement, then the Eagle must have been caught in 


Chippewa county, in or near township forty, north of range 
one, east of the fourth principal meridian, nearly four miles 
from its eastern boundary. 

Trusting my map and letter may aid you in obtaining 
a better idea of the home of the Eagle, 

I remain, your brother for Freedom and Union, 

"W. "W. Barrett. 

By examining the map, the reader will notice the loca- 
tion of the birthplace of the eagle that is now so famous in 
the world. His captor said the nest was found on a pine 
tree, about three miles from the mouth of the Flambeau, 
near some rapids in a curve of the river ; that, at the proper 
time, just after sugar-making, at the Bend, he and another 
Indian cut the tree down, and, amid the menaces of the 
parent birds, caught two young eaglets, of a grayish-brown 
color, about the size of prairie hens, one of which died of 
the effects of an injury; that he preserved the old nest — 
"big as a wash tub — made of sticks, turf and weeds" — 
and nursed his Me-kee-zeen-ce (little eagle) in it, as a 
plaything for the papooses at the Indian village; that, a 
few weeks after, while en route for Chippewa Falls and 
Eau Claire with their furs, moccasins and baskets, he sold 
his eagle to Daniel McCann for a bushel of corn. 

This statement of "Chief Sky" — quite a significant 
name — agrees with that of Mr. McCann, who subsequently 
tried to sell the bird to a company then just forming at 
the Falls for the First Wisconsin battery, but, failing, 
carried it to Eau Claire, some time in August, 1861, and 
offered it to a company organizing for the Eighth Wis- 
consin infantry. It was then about two months old. 

McCann carried the eagle to Chippewa Falls and 
attempted to sell him to a company just recruiting there 
for the First Wisconsin battery. Failing in this, he pro- 
ceeded a little later to Eau Claire and offered the bird, 
now nearly full-grown and handsome, but spiteful as a 
scorpion, to the Eau Claire "Badgers," that subsequently 
became Company C, of the Eighth or Eagle regiment. 

Captain John E. Perkins hesitated at first about accept- 
ing such a strange volunteer, but finally agreed to take 
him to the front. 

It was mainly through the sagacity and foresight of 
R. F. Wilson, an influential resident, who argued "nothing 


could be better chosen, not even the flag itself, to ensure 
fame and success," they looked upon it in a favorable light, 
and after a siu-geonlike examination of the eyes, claws, 
beak, wings and plumage, concluded by a jocose vote to 
accept "the new recruit from Chippewa." A little flurry 
ensued about contributions, when S. M. Jeffers, a civilian, 
purchased the bird for two dollars and a half, and pre- 
sented it to the company. 

In due time the eagle was sworn into the United States 
service by putting around his neck red, white and blue 
ribbons, and on his breast a rosette of the same colors. 

James McGiunis craved the privilege of superintending 
the eagle, to which all tacitly assented. 

In a few days he produced quite a respectable perch 
and two patriotic ladies made some little flags to be carried 
on each side of him, when on the march ; and gay and 
imposing indeed did he appear as he rode in imperial state 
beneath those miniature "'stars and stripes" through the 
principal streets of Eau Claire, inspired by martial music 
and cheered by the enthusiastic people. 


Fredericktown, Mo October 21 


New Madrid and Island "10" March and April 

Point Pleasant, Mo March 20 

Farmington, Miss May 9 

Corinth, Miss May 28 

luka, Miss September 12 

Burnsville, Miss September 13 

luka. Miss September 16-18 

Corinth, Miss October 3-4 

Tallehatchie, Miss December 2 


Mississippi Springs, Miss May 13 

Jackson, Miss May 14 

Assault on Vicksburg, Miss May 22 

Mechanicsburg, Miss June 4 


Richmond, La June 15 

Vieksburg, Miss June 24 

Surrender of Vieksburg July 4 

Brownsville, Miss October 14 


Fort Scurry, La March 13 

Port De Russey, La March 15 

Henderson's Hill, La March 21 

Grand Ecore, La April 2 

Pleasant Hill, La April 8-9 

Natchitoches, La April 20 

Kane River, La April 22 

Clouterville and Crane Hill, La April 23 

Bayou Rapids, La May 2 

Bayou La Monre, La May 3 

Bayou Roberts, La May 4-6 

Moore 's Plantation, La May 8-12 

Mansura, La May 16 

Maysville, La May 17 

Calhoun's Plantation, La May 18 

Bayou De Glaise, La May 18 

Lake Chicot, Ark June 6 

Hurricane Creek, Miss August 13 

Two battles were fought by the regiment while the 
eagle and veterans were home on furlough — Carmargo 
Crossroads, Miss., July 13, and Tupelo, Miss., July 14 
and 15. 


1. James McGinnis, of Eau Claire, from Sept. 1, 1861, 
to May 30, 1862. 

2. Thomas J. Plill, Eau Claire, from May 30, 1862, to 
Aug. 18, 1862. 

3. David McLain, of Menomonie, from August, 1862, to 
October, 1862. 

4. Edward Hummaston, of Eau Claire, from October, 

1862, to September, 1863. 

5. Johu Buckhardt, of Eau Claire, from September, 

1863, to September, 1864. 

6. John T. Hill, of Ashland, during the journey home, 
from Memphis to Madison, in September, 1864. 



1. John McFarland, state armorer. 

2. Angus R. McDonald, Eleventh Wisconsin int'antr\-. 

3. John G. Stock, Fourth Wisconsin cavalry. 

4. E. G. Linderman, Fifth Wisconsin volunteer infantry. 

5. William J. Jones, Sixteenth Wisconsin volunteer 

G. George W. Baker, Nineteenth Wisconsin volunteer 

7. L E. Troan, civilian. 

8. John F. Hill, Eighth Wisconsin volunteer infantry. 

9. Peter B. Field, civilian. 

10. Mark Smith, Seventh Wisconsin volunteer infantry. 

11. George Gillies, Second Wisconsin volunteer infantry. 

At the close of his war career ' ' Old Abe " ' was presented 
by the company to the state and a place was provided 
for him at the state capitol at Madison, Avhere he was 
viewed by thotisands. He was also taken to various parts 
of the United States, being in great demand all over. He 
attended national conventions, was taken to the great cen- 
tennial at Philadelphia and other noted gatherings, where 
he was the center of attraction. Space forbids a more 
detailed history of incidents and anecdotes concerning this 
famous war bird. 

He was adored by the members of tlie Eagle company 
and the Eagle regiment and on the field of battle he Avas 
always able to locate his regiment and company. The war 
anecdotes alone in which this bird figured would fill a 
book. He also attended the regimental reunions. 

Toward evening of a cold day in the winter of 1881 a 
fire started mysteriously in a quantity of paints and oils 
stored in the basement of the capitol, near Old Abe's large 
cage. The blaze created an enormous volume of black and 
offensive smoke, which at once filled the cage to suffocation. 

Abe, understanding full well the nature of what was 
going on around him, sent forth such a scream as had 
never before been heard in that building. Attendants and 
watchmen rushed below to learn the cause of the startling 
outcry, and before attacking the flames, opened the door 
of the perch-room. The eagle, with another piercing 
screech, swept swiftly out and away from the smudge. 


He seemed to be either frightened or injured by the 
smoke, for his breast heaved, his heart labored heavily and 
his plumage was disheveled. Nor was he ever well there- 
after. He ate sparingly or not at all; his eyes lost their 
wonderful luster; he sat around in a half-comatose condi- 
tion for a few days, and on March 26, 1881, with a slight 
tremor and a few feeble flaps of his wings, expired in the 
arms of his stout keeper, George Gillies. 

George said that Abe seemed to know he was about to 
die, for when he asked solicitously, "Must we lose you, 
Abe?" the old bird raised up his head and looked wistfully 
into the keeper's face and then sunk back into his arms 
and passed away. Around him were numbers of one-legged 
and one-armed veterans whose sad faces showed that they 
had lost a beloved comrade. 

At first the general desire among the soldiers was to 
have Abe buried in the beautiful Forest Hill cemetery, 
where rest two hundred Union and one hiuidred and fifty 
Confederate dead, with appropriate military ceremonies 
and under a handsome monument. 

The suggestion that the taxidermist's art would pre- 
serve him to the sight for an indefinite period dispelled 
those notions, and he was turned over to Major C. G. 
Mayers, who, after preserving and stuffing the warrior- 
bird, fixed him firmly to a neat perch as he stood for years 
in the war museum of the capital. 

His mounted body was destroyed in the second capital 
fire some years later. 

Thomas Randall, in his "History of the Chippewa 
Valley," credits the pioneer lumberman, Stephen S. 
McCann, as being the man who purchased the eagle from 
its Indian captor, and this error has been quite generally 
copied. From extracts given from Rev. Barrett's book it 
will be seen that it is Daniel McCann to whom this honor 
belongs. A cousin of mine who visited the Daniel McCann 
farm in Chippewa county shortly before the eagle was 
brought to Eau Claire saw it tied to a barrel in the door- 
yard. Little did he realize how great the fame of this 
bird was to become. I am furnishing you a picture of 
Old Abe, the war eagle, also a picture of its Indian captor, 
also an extract from the old Free Press confirming the 
circumstances connected with the taking of the young 
chief's picture. 



(Eau Claire Free Press, Feb. 23, 1865.) 

Last Suuda}' about uooi:, three Indians of the Flambeau tribe 
came into town, taking up their temporary abode at the residence 
of Rev. J. 0. Barrett. Through the courtesy of Theodore Cole- 
man, editor of the Chippewa Falls Union, Mr. Barrett got track 
of these dusky fellows far up in tlie "big woods," and on the 
day they touched the nearest point on the Chippewa river, he 
had th( 111 fiit;ai;fil to visit him at the earliest possible date for 
the purpdsc oi' -ctting information relative to the eagle of the 
Eighth Wiscdiisiii, M'hich was captured by one of them in the 
spring of 1861. 

These visitors were none other than part of the royal family. 
Ah-mouse (The Bee), chief of the tribe, and two of his sons, 
Ogenia-wee-gee-zhick (Chief of the Sky) and Shaw-wau-ko-gee- 
zhick (Blue Sky). Ah-monse, the oldest chief of the Chippewa 
tribe, is a deliberate old man, prudent in his plans and courteous 
in bearing. The same may be said of the others. He has three 
other sons, Wau-saa-naa-go-nee-bee (Light), Pee-zhee-kanze and 
E-squaa-bit (Outside of the Others). Ah-monse stated that many 
years ago, before Avhite man settled here, he was in a battle with 
the Sioux, on the west side, near the village of West Eau Claire, 
and that he there killed "one Indian." Of this he spoke with 
animated pride. Ogema-wee-gee-zhick is the Indian who captured 
the eagle, and from him Mr. Barrett obtained all the information 
he desired, which is peculiarly interesting. In due time it will 
appear in his history of the celebrated bird. He seems to be 
conscious of his importance, and no doubt will be recognized as 
such by his tribe, as well as by the pale faces who have an 
affection for the American eagle. Arrangements could not be 
consistently made with these Indians to remain until Monday, so 
their likenesses were taken on the Sabbath, that of the Eagle 
Indian intended for a steel engraving for the history. They can 
be seen at the Devoe's photograph rooms and are very finely 

(Free Press, Sept. 19, 1861.) 

The Eau Claire Badgers took their departure from this place 
for Madison, preparatory to a campaign in "Secessia," last Friday 
morning on board the steamboat Stella Whipple. Nearly every 


community in this county and Chippewa has its representative — 
a volunteer offering in the cause of patriotism — in the ranks of 
the company, and this, with the fact that the company is to go 
off into active service almost immediately, combined to make the 
occasion one of more than ordinary interest to people of the 
upper Chippewa valley. The company formed in front of the 
Eau Claire House about 10 o'clock, and after a little preliminary 
marching, proceeded to tlie boat, greeted on the way by cheers 
and good-byes innumerable. At the boat a large concourse was 
gathered, and the next half-hour was spent in leave-taking. The 
scene was truly an effective one. Everybody was busy with the 
"parting offices" to relatives or friends. 

"Shout, sob and greeting, 

Love's deep devotion constantly meeting," 

marked the passing moments. Hands were shaken time and 
again, "good-byes" repeated over and over, words of blessing, 
encouragement, cheer and advice passed reciprocally many times. 
At last, after repeated impatient importunities from the whistle 
of the boat, and call after call from the officers, the company 
was all gotten aboard and the boat slowly left the shore, amid 
multiplied cheers and parting calls and adjurations, succeeded by 
waving of hats and handkerchiefs, till the boat rounded the bend 
and was out of view. 

The company, we understand, reached Prairie du Chien on 
Sunday and probably reached Madison the next day. The passage 
to Prairie du Chien was attended by many demonstrations and 
enthusiasm along the river. 

Before the completed Badger company had left the village, 
in the Eau Claire Free Press of September 5, mc find the fol- 
lowing : 


"We hear it rumored that another company will be gotten up 
here forthwith. The noble response from every direction to fill 
the Badger ranks demonstrated that another company could be 
immediately raised. The present company numbers about 100 
men, and within six weeks that number can be doubled with the 
right kind of timely effort. We have fine military ability left 
yet, and we hope it will come voluntarily into service. Who will 
come forward and take the initiative?" 

In the Free Press of October 10 we find a notice of a war 
meeting to organize this second company, and in the following 


issue a statement that the meeting had been held and a good 
start made. John R. Wheeler, John Kelly, M. E. O'Connell and 
Malcolmn Reed are named as prime movers in the project. 

(Free Press, Oct. 31, 1861.) 

What an eulogium upon the patriotism of the valley is the 
fact that such numbers have gone to the wars; and yet the 
number is rapidly increasing. The Chippewa Valley Guards are 
daily adding to their numbers, and at the present rate their 
ranks will soon be complete. The work of recruiting goes on 
nobly. M. E. O'Connell is drilling the company and is making 
good headway. 

(Free Press, Dec. 5, 1861.) 

The members of the Cliippewa Valley Guards met on Monday 
evening and elected, without a dissenting vote, John R. Wheeler 
as their captain. This is a high and well deserved compliment. 
Mr. Wheeler has won the confidence of all the members of his 
company, and by his energy in getting it up, the admiration of 
our citizens. 

(Free Press, Dec. 19, 1861.) 

On Monday evening a grand ball was given at Reed's hall 
to the Chippewa Valley Guards, at which time a beautiful flag, 
a gift from the patriotic ladies of Eau Claire, was presented to 
the company. The hall was crowded to its utmost capacity. At 
about half past nine o'clock the members of the guards were 
foi-med in line by M. E. O'Connell, and after a short exhibition 
showing what proficiency they had obtained in di-illing, were 
addressed by H. W. Barnes, Esq., in a neat and appropriate 
presentation speech. 

Mr. Porter was called upon to respond for the guards. 

The company here gave three rousing cheers for the ladies 
of Eau Claire. The next morning an immense throng of people 
gathered to witness the departure of the guards. They marched 
up to the front of the public building to the tune of "The Girl 
I Left Behind Me," where blankets were furnished and vehicles 
were provided for their conveyance to Sparta. 

A noticeable feature in the procession was a live eagle. This 
is the second bird of this kind that has gone to the war from 
Eau Claire; and his imperial highness seemed to enjoy it hugely. 


Note. — I find no further mention of this eagle, and do not 
know his fate. He certainly never attained the fame of Old Abe 
of the Eighth Wisconsin. W. W. B. 

Below we give the names of the men who answered the roll 
call and took their departure : John R. Wheeler, M. E. 'Coiniell, 
Robert Corbett, W. A. Wilcox, 0. H. Browning, Edwin Daily, 
S. W. Jennings, Daniel E. Stevens, Martin IMiley, Joseph Monteith, 
Noah Barnum, Russell Westeott, Patrick Redmond, William H. 
Mower, R. B. Wall, H. M. Culbertson, Owen McGinnety, Phillip 
Perry, Jaelcson P. Long, John McKernon, James Corwin, William 
Lake, H. L. Ames, James B. Drew, John Taylor, John M. Jones, 
Charles C. Fordice, David B. MeCourtie, William Marks, Sanders 
Cochran, Thomas Megillen, James Smith, James V. Walker, Will- 
iam Biss, John A. Hicks, James Crawford, John Corbett, Har- 
rison Beebe, John Kelley, Louis R. Belknap, Andrew Chambers, 
Lucius P. Robinson, W. W. Bartlett, W. W. Allen, Michael 
Meegan, J. D. McViear, Abijah B. Moon, J. W. Clemens, Horace 
W. Smith, William Sawley, Thomas W. McCauley, P. S. Drew, 
James Hines, J. B. Vanvieck, Jacob S. Mower, Horace A. Pinch, 
T. S. Kilgore, Thomas Denny, Charles Stewart, William Archer, 
William H. Pond, John Rounds, James 0. Hatch, Charles Rich- 
ardson, Michael Megillen, Alex McCloud, John C. Beers, Zachariah 
C. Riley, Isab Jones. 

As was always the case in the recruiting of companies, 
there are some names to be found on this original list which 
do not appear in the official roster of the company, showing 
that these persons were not mustered into service in the 
company, although some or all of them may have gone out 
in other companies later on. 

Of those enumerated above the following are not found 
in the ofBcial roster of the company: Owen McGinnis, 
Phillip Perry, James Corwin, James B. Drew, John Taylor, 
William Marks, W. W. Allen, Abijah Moon, J. W. Clemens, 
T. W. McCauley, T. S. Kilgore, Isab Jones. 

On the other hand, the names given constitute but a 
small part of those who were in this company during its 
service, as the state roster contains no less than 267 names 
of members of Company G, Sixteenth Wisconsin Volunteers. 

The offices of first and second lieutenant were not filled until 
the company reached Madison, where, on the 4th of January, 
1862, William H. Pond, of Eau Claire, was chosen first lieutenant 

CAl'T. .\. r. (iRFKK 



and Cyrus A. Allen, of North Pepin, second lieutenant. M. E. 
O'Connell, who went out as first sergeant, became second lieu- 
tenant in September, 1862. The Chippewa Valley Guards became 
Company G of the Sixteenth Wisconsin, and before the close of 
the war Captain Wheeler was promoted to the rank of major. 


Scarcely was the recruiting of the company known as the 
Chippewa Valley Guards well begun before a move was made to 
organize still a third company. Mr. Porter did not consider 
this a wise move and his feelings are expressed in an editorial 
under date of Nov. 14, 1861. It may be explained here that the 
third company was being recruited by A. M. Sherman, and as 
infantry. It was not until some weeks later that the decision 
was made to change it to a cavalry company. Although at this 
time Mr. Porter did not think it possible to recruit two com- 
panies, and favored the Wheeler company only, still, later when 
it was demonstrated that both companies could be made up, Mr. 
Porter heartily complimented Sherman on his energy, persever- 
ance and success. 

(Free Press, Nov. 28, 1861.) 

The Eau Claire Rangers, Captain A. M. Sherman, have 
enlisted forty men at Patch Grove, near Prairie du Chien, and 
are now accepted in Colonel Washburn's regiment of cavalry, 
and will proceed at once to Avinter quarters at Milwaukee, 
where they are to be furnished with horses, uniforms and equip- 
ment. Their quarters are said to be comfortable, and attached 
to them are parade grounds for cavalry drill and a hall for 
fencing and gymnastic exercises. If the men who have enlisted 
here come promptly to the scratch the company will leave this 
place the first week in December. A few more are needed, and 
as this is the only chance to join cavalry in the northwest, the 
ranks will undoubtedly be filled at once. We can certainly com- 
mend the energy of Captain Sherman in succeeding with the 
company, and the fact is a high and well deserved compliment. 

(Free Press, Dec. 1, 1861.) 

Captain Sherman's company of cavalry, the Eau Claire 
Rangers, left this place for Milwaukee Tuesday and Wednesday 
of last week. Including those that went yesterday it numbered 
seventy men, and without disparagement to any other we may 


safely say that in point of size and muscular development they 
were the finest body of men that will probably leave this state. 

The following is a list of officers and enlisted men of the 
rangers : Captain, A. M. Sherman ; first lieutenant, Israel H. Bur- 
banks; second lieutenant, Thomas J. Nary; orderly sergeant, E. J. 
Meyers; camp quartermaster sergeant, Byron Wells; sergeants, 
James LeRoy, Pierre Hartman, Benjamin T. Buck, Alex McNaugh- 
ton ; corporals, Phillip Haug, Malcomb Reed, L. L. Lancaster, 
B. F. Lockwood, A. H. Ilolstead, George W. S. Hyde, Milo B. 
Wyman, George Murphy; privates, Hiram Larrabee, J. L. Daven- 
port, Phil. Hutchins, "William Chatwood, Daniel D. Ellis, Joseph 
Z. Black, Milton Toffelmire, Josh T. Thompson, Truman Edwards, 
Henry Armstrong, George Swan, John Lang, August J. Fox, 
Otis N. Cole, Claus Torgenson, Hiram Chamberlin, J. S. Hastings, 
Pliny D. Rumrill, John J. Whi^glfi, Charles Baird, Andrew Poller, 
Christ McDonald, Edwin L. Andrews, Michael Johannis, Hugh 
Fitzpatrick, William H. Stowe, HaiTison Beeman, John 0. Gates, 
Joy H. Chase, Albert Dunbar, Charles Swan, M. F. Stevens, Danii'l 
Gillinore, Daniel Robbins, Isaac 0. Stephens, Jerome B. Evans, 
James T. Livermore, J. B. Bateman, George P. Moses, Romeo 
Bostwick, Levi F. Decker, George Robinson, Davis Houck, W. F. 
Hall, Michael Egan. W. E. Knight, George E. Bonell, M. M. 
Persons, Elbridge C. Pride, G. F. Bannister, William H. Vasey, 
G. A. Fiddler, Chapin Cutting, John Vaugh, Isaac K. Knight, 
Asigal Wyman, George Manchester, Henry Hartman, George Bur- 
pee, Marquis L. Coon, Oscar A. Dunbar, Abijah Moon, Martin 
Sebald, Thomas Powell, George W. Holstead, Alphonso Hulbert, 
Jacob Richtman, Darius Craig, John Reddle, Joseph W. Root, 
Charles Loomis, George W. Groom, H. W. Cartwright, John 
Seaver, Orin 0. Olur, John Bloom, Ransom Wilkes, William 
Chatwood. The Eau Claire Rangers subsequently became Com- 
pany L of the Second Wisconsin cavalry. 

Editor Telegram: — After much effort I have finally prevailed 
upon Captain A. M. Sherman to tell the story of his company, 
Company L of the Second Wisconsin cavalry, the only cavalry 
company recruited in this section. 


I reached Eau Claire in 18-57, and besides being engaged in 
the sawmill and lumber business, was for a time engineer on 
some of the Chippewa river steamboats. I was running the Stella 
Whipple when it took Company C, Captain Perkins' company, 



to LaCrosse, and well remember the ovation given to the company 
on its arrival there. About this time a letter was received from 
my father asking if any of his sons had buckled on their armor 
in defense of their country. If not he would have to set an 
example for us. I was anxious to take a hand in the struggle, 
and different ones had suggested that I raise a company. Among 
those making this suggestion was John Kelly, later Captain 
Kelly, who had charge of a crew of rivermen for Chapman & 
Thorp. I started to Madison to make arrangements for raising 
the company, but on my return found Kelly had been persuaded 
to join forces with John Wheeler, who was then raising a com- 
pany, and whose project had the support of the leading news- 
paper of the place, while my own efforts in that direction were 
criticised and discouraged. My company was, as Wheeler's, to 
be an infantry company. 

I soon got about forty men on my list. Then for a time 
recruiting was nearly at a standstill in both t-ompanies. At this 
point a suggestion came to me, which, although it did not fully 
solve the problem, went far toward doing so. This was to change 
from an infantry to a cavalry company. I had found quite a 
number who stood ready to enlist in cavah-y, but who would not 
enlist in an infantry company. The change was brought about 
as follows: Having decided that it would be advisable to change 
to a cavalry company, I immediately wrote a letter to Cakmel 
Washburn, who, I heard, had just been commissioned to raise a 
second cavalry regiment. Just as I was about to put the letter 
in the mail I met a Lieutenant Luxton, who had come to the 
village to pick up recruits and I confided my whole plan to him. 
He said I had struck the right person; that it would not be 
necessary to send the letter to Washburn, as Washburn had 
authorized him to get recruits. Also said I could go on and make 
up my company and I could go out as captain of same. I then 
told Luxton that I thought he ought to withdraw from the ter- 
ritory and leave it to me. He consented; said he would go up 
to Chippewa Falls and pick up a few men who had already 
promised to go, and then would leave. I started down to Durand 
and around in' that vicinity, was gone some days, and on my 
return was surprised to find Luxton still there picking up recruits. 
I asked him what he meant by this, but he assured me that it 
would be all right; that he thought that he could get some of 
these men better than myself, but that the recruits would be 
divided and I would get my men just the same. I soon realized 
that this man Luxton was a very unreliable man to do business 


with, so I interviewed Colonel Washburn personally and made a 
trip to Milwaukee for that purpose. Colonel Washburn was 
pleased and said the matter could be arranged. He explained liis 
plan and gave me a letter to a Mr. Wood, of Patch Grove, near 
Milwaukee, which read about as follows: 

"Dear Sir: — This will introduce to you Mr. A. M. Sherman, 
of Eau Claire, who is raising a company of cavalry Avith the 
intention of not being brigaded with another company. Yourself 
and Captain Dale, of Racine, have received commissions from 
me to raise two companies to be brigaded, he to take the senior 
captaincy and you the junior captaincy. I find that Captain Dale 
is guilty of double dealing in having accepted this commission 
from me and being now engaged in recruiting for the Barstow 
regiment. I therefore now throw Captain Dale over entirely and 
would ask you to turn your recruits in with A. M. Sherman, 
and when the company is made up he will be the captain of the 
same and yourself first lieutenant. The balance of the officers 
will be elected alternately from .your own and Captain Sherman 's 

I went to Patch Grove, found Wood sick in bed, considerably 
discouraged and well pleased to fall in with the new plan. Up 
to this time I had been working at a great disadvantage in 
getting recruits, for those who were backing the Wheeler company 
asserted that there was no show for me making up the requisite 
number for the company, and even if I made it up there was 
no assurance that a cavalry company could be gotten into service. 
Now the acquisition of the recruits from Patch Grove nearly 
made up the required number, and I had Colonel Washburn's 
word that the company would be accepted. I came back to the 
village, announced the success of my mission, and started in 
enthusiastically to recruit the number more needed to make up a 
full company. But recruits came slowly both for myself and 
Wheeler. When matters were at nearly a standstill Lieutenant 
Luxton again appeared on the scene. Meeting me, he said: 
"Hello Sherman, how are j'ou making 't?'' "Pretty ?low,'' T 
said. "A few more recruits are needed yet and they are hard to 
find." "Why don't you go over to Black River Falls? A com- 
pany has gone to pieces there and I could have gotten twenty 
men there yesterday if I had wanted them. ' ' Forgetting my pre- 
vious experience with Luxton, I quickly engaged a livery team 
and drove to Black River Falls; found there Avas not a word of 
truth in Luxton 's statement, and no men to be had. One of 
the first persons I met there was Captain Wheeler, who had come 


on tlie same fool's errand as myself. We went back together, 
better friends than ever, and found that during our absence 
Luxton had been trying his best to get Wheeler's and my men 
to leave and go with him. Notwithstanding the discouragement 
and Luxton 's treachery, I persevered, and finally got the requisite 
number of recruits enrolled. Just then I received perhaps the 
most bitter disappointment of my life. A letter was received 
from Washburn stating that the recruits a-t Patch Grove had held 
a meeting and decided that they would not consolidate Avith mine, 
but would go ahead and fill up their own ranks, and Wood had 
sent word to Washburn that they would soon appear in camp 
with a fuU company. This left me without the requisite number 
of men, and no assurance of acceptance if the company was filled. 
I did not dare tell the boys of the condition of affairs. Here 
were some sixty odd of the best men of the Chippewa valley or of 
the country, who were fully expecting to be sworn into service 
without delay, and I alone knew that there were no grounds for 
that belief. It was a forlorn hope, but I went on with my prepa- 
rations to start for camp near Jlilwaukee, trusting that in some 
way, I knew not how, a solution of the difficulty would be found. 
Having no governmental authority, there was no financial backing 
for the venture, except myself. The boys did not know it, but I 
personally paid the entire expenses of the company to Sparta and 
at that place. At Sparta we took the train for .Mihvaulvi-e. The 
boys were going to war, so they thought, and wci'c running over 
■with animal spirit. At one or two of the stations a supply of a 
different kind of spirits was taken on board, and this added to 
their hilarity. The conductor came around and asked for cer- 
tificates of transportation. I told him I had none. He was sur- 
prised and said that I must pay their fare or they would be put 
off the train. I told him I could not pay their fare if I would, 
and as for putting them off the train, I suggested that it might 
not be a very safe thing to try with tliose lumberjacks ; and the 
sounds which came from the other car added emphasis to my 
words. Then he said that at the next junction he would have 
to uncouple the car and leave it on the switch. I replied that 
this would not work either, for we had started for Milwaukee 
and were going there, and on the least show of uncoupling the 
car we would take possession of the train. I was a railroad man 
myself and could run the engine, and I knew I could make up 
the balance of a train crew from my company. That put an 
end to objections on his part, and we continued on our journey, 
finallv reaching Milwaukee. But what was I to do now that I 


was there? I had a magiiifieeiit body of men much above the 
average height and firmly built. I had taken pains to niimber 
and rank them in order of height, and this added much to their 
military appearance. Getting them in line after leaving the cars, 
they made a showing to be proud of. Just then a man in the 
undress uniform of an oificer of the regular army drove vip and 
stopped to look at them. .He then inquired of a bystander where 
they were from. "From Eau Claire," was the answer. "Who 
is their captain?" I was pointed out. "Well," said he, "I 
have seen every regiment of the regular army and every regiment 
that has gone out from this state, but this is the finest looking 
body of men that I ever saw in line."' Getting into his carriage 
beside him, I quietly asked him to drive a little distance away, 
and then 1 told him the awful fix I was in. "Don't worry," 
said he. "I can assure j'ou that Washburn will be very glad 
to get those men. March them around to headquarters." With 
a lighter heart than I had carried for weeks, I marched the 
boys around and stood them in line on the walk across the 
street from Washburn's headquarters. I was then led into the 
hotel, where I met Colonel Washburn. He came out and looked 
at the boys across the street. There was no further question in 
regard to their acceptance. He wanted those boys — and more 
like them if they could be obtained. 

Washburn's first suggestion was that my company be con- 
solidated with another company, with a division of officers. I 
told him that my boys had been promised that they should elect 
their own officers, and this was acceded to. We found Captain 
Wood there. Instead of a full company as promised, he had 
not much more than half the required number. We were given 
quarters and at last were actually sM-orn into the service of 
the government. 

I got my men into quarters, drew rations, blankets and fuel 
and then took the train back to Eau Claire to get a few more 
recruits who were not ready to go when the company left. 
Returning to Milwaukee a few days later I found the strife 
between Washburn and ex-Governor Barstow redhot. The occa- 
sion for this rivalry was that an order had been received from 
the war department stating that but one cavalry regiment would 
be received, and this would be the first one ready to take the 
field. There were at this time three cavalry regiments in process 
of formation : That of Prof. Edward Daniels, of Ripon, with ren- 
dezvous on the lake shore above Milwaukee; C. C. Washburn's 
regiment, with rendezvous at Milwaukee, and ex-Governor Bar- 


stow's regiment, with rendezvous at Janesville. I found that 
during my absence at Eau Claire I had lost four of my men, 
who had been induced to go into the Barstow regiment, among 
them being my Rank 1 man, who stood six feet four. It appears 
that an agent of Barstow had been treating the boys pretty 
liberally to liquor, and when in a somewhat mellow condition had 
spirited them off to Janesville. I immediatelj' took the train and 
went after those boys. Arriving at Janesville, I hunted up Bar- 
stow and told him my errand. The ex-governor was very cordial. 
Said he liked my style. . Pointing to a half-barrel of whisky and 
a glass on top of same, he said: "Help yourself. Let's take 
a drink," which we did. Then, coming back to my request for 
the return of my men, he said that was out of the question, 
and emphasized it with some strong profanity, in which the 
ex-governor was an expert. Said that those men should never 
go back, as anything he got from Colonel Washburn he intended 
to keep. After a few minutes spent in conversation at the ofSce, 
Barstow ordered a horse for himself and another one for me 
and said, "Let's go down to the barracks and see the troops. 
I want to show you my regiment." After another drink we 
started. As we rode along I again insisted on the return of 
those men ; told him I could not muster in without them. Barstow 
continued firm, declaring those men could not go, but that he 
would "loan" me as many more to assist me in mustering. As 
may be inferred, this "loaning" of recruits was not a strictly 
regular procedure, but was sometimes resorted to by those who 
lacked a few of the required number of recruits, and was winked 
at by those higher in authority. 

We rode out to the barracks. I found the regiment enclosed 
in a stockade built of sixteen-foot planks set vertically. After 
we had been there a short time Barstow became engaged in 
conversation with some of his regimental officers and I remarked 
that I would look around for a while, to which the ex-governor 
replied, "All right, captain; go ahead." I soon ran onto my 
boys. They were glad to see me and anxious to get back. One 
of the boys was on patrol. I planned with him that he should 
pry one plank loose at the bottom, and then, as opportunity 
offered, the boys were to slip through and take the railroad 
track for Milwaukee, my rank man having both feet badly frozen, 
as he had on only a pair of tight boots. Nothing of unusual 
interest occui-red during our stay in Milwaukee, only regimental 
and sword drill, etc. It may be proper to state here that 
eventually all three of the cavalry companies were accepted. 


We left Milwaukee in early spring and went to Benton Bar- 
racks, St. Louis, where we drew our horses. I assisted in the pur- 
chase of 10,000 horses. Trainloads were brought from all direc- 
tions. The test was to race each horse straightaway forty rods 
and back. The rider would then dismount, a man would grab 
the horse by the bridle with whip in hand and circle the horse 
at full speed in as short turns as possible. This to test the wind. 
If the wind was found all right the horses were further examined 
for other defects. If accepted the buyer announced "Inside" 
and if not accepted "outside." That ended the matter. It 
was useless for the seller to say a word. Twelve regiments were 
mounted, eleven in solid colors, mostly bays. Two battalions 
of the second Wisconsin were mounted and the balance on mixed 
colors. I conceived the idea that each company should have a 
distinct color. There were enough of each to mount a company 
of blacks, grays, red roans and "clay banks," These last were 
a breed imported from Europe and raised mostly in Missouri. 
They had black manes, tails and legs and a black stripe down 
the spine. The body color was about that of yellow clay, from 
which they took their name. 

About this time the rebel General Stuart's Black Horse Cavalry 
had been making some of its dashing raids and blacks were much 
in favor and considered the ideal cavalry horse. All the com- 
panies wanted the blacks so the choice of colors was settled by 
ballet. Captain Richmond got the blacks, Capt. Von Heyde the 
red roans, Capt. Whytoek the grays and I got the claybanks. 
I was so disappointed that I offered Captain Richmond all the 
money I had if he Avould exchange, but he laughed at me. I 
considered the claybanks the poorest of all, and tried to trade 
for the grays or red roans, but with no better success. The red 
roans Avere a pony built horse with round quarters, strong loins 
and sloping shoulders, and as many of my men were the heaviest 
in the regiment I thought the roans would be more suitable, but 
I had to content myself with the claybanks. It was now early 
summer. My brother Stanton visited me on a furlough, he be- 
longing to the First Iowa Cavalry, a regiment where each man 
furnished his own horse. I was glad to see him for he had 
already had some experience in the cavalry. I was relating to 
him my disappointment in the matter of horses when he replied, 
"you have the best cavalry horse in the world." "How so?" 
said I. He replied "The claybank is the most tractable, docile 
and yet fearless, and will learn the bugle call before his rider 
does. We have some of them in our regiment and they excel all 


others. You let me take j'Oiir company into the amphitheater for 
a few days and I will drill them for you, and then I'll show 
you," which he did more or less for two weeks. 

At the first call for regimental drill for the sword, mounted, 
there was a great surprise in store for the regiment. We were 
formed in line, swords with metal scabbard and steel chains 
hanging at the left side, bridle rein in the left hand, right arm 
hanging down by the right side. Now, we were all lined up, as 
perfect as we can get our horses, waiting for the first command, 
which is "Draw-sabers." At the command "Draw" each man 
throws his right arm across his body, grasps his sword, and draws 
it up six inches in the scabbard, and as he gets the word "saber" 
it leaps from the scabbard, passes the body to the right with its 
point skyward, straight with the arms aud at an angle of about 
thirty degrees. Now notice what happens. A thousand arms 
swinging together on to the hilts of a thousand sabers and rais- 
ing them six inches in their metal scabbards with a rattling of 
steel chains and then the flash of a thousand blades in the sun- 
light, and where are you at? Every company stampeded except 
the claybauks. The scene was picturesque, and somewhat tragic, 
for a few riders were thrown from their mounts. Horses Avere 
rearing and plunging in great confusion. This ended the drill 
for that day, aud claybauks stock was at a premium. A feeling 
of envy was shown by some of the officers of the other companies, 
and on the part of company L there was a greater pride in their 
horses and from that time on they received the best of care. My 
brother Stanton was induced by Col. Washburn and myself to 
act as scout for our regiment, being attached to my company, 
he having been promised a transfer from the Iowa cavalry to 
which he belonged. 

After the expiration of a few weeks spent at Benton Barracks 
we received marching orders for Springfield, Mo. Nothing of 
special interest occurred on the way, except that I might relate 
a little incident which occurred at the small village of RoUa. 
There was a company of "Home Guards" in charge of this place. 
Now from my own experience and observation I have no very 
high opinion of these Home Guards. Doubtless some of them were 
entirely true and loyal but on the other hand many of them 
seemed to have joined these organizations to prevent themselves 
from being drawn into field service, on either side, and their 
attitude was that of Good Lord or Good Devil to which ever of 
the two opposing forces might seem to be in the ascendancy at 
anv particular time. Several of my boys in taking in the town 


had conimitted some minor offense and had been lodged by these 
Home Guards in a guard house or calaboose. Word was brought 
to me of this by some of the other boys. That day I was mounted 
on a horse which was the private property of one of my company, 
Philip Hanck. Old residents will remember the man well. He 
and another man kept a hotel on the corner opposite the Galloway 
House. The liorse was a "leopard" stallion, or part Arabian 
blood, a splendid animal, perfectly fearless and would carry its 
rider anywhere. I went to the commander of the Guards, told 
him my company was to leave in the early morning, that I would 
see to the conduct of my men, and asked their release. The man 
was very pompous and insolent and no satisfaction could be ob- 
tained from him. Different action on my part was necessary. 
Turning to the boys who had accompanied me I ordered them to 
break open the guard house. This was done in short order and my 
boys released. The Home Guard commander stood there fuming 
and vowing vengence and after one particular offensive remark 
addressed to me I wheeled my horse and made straight at him. 
He started on. the run and soon being hard pressed run up the 
steps of the leading hotel and disappeared through the large 
entrance, but my horse could climb steps as well as he and I fol- 
lowed. By ducking my head I was able to ride through the 
entrance and right into the hotel lobby. As may be imagined 
it caused some excitement and there was screaming from the lady 
guests, but ray man got away from me, slipping out the back 
door where I could not follow. I then turned my horse, reached 
down and picked up a rocking chair and with that in my hand 
rode out of the entrance and down the steps. The guard officers 
gave me no further trouble and with my full compliment of men 
the next morning we started on. We reached Springfield where 
a regimental conference was held between our officers and the 
command there, which resulted in our regiment being sent south 
to the town of Ozark, under command of Major Sterling. The 
balance of the regimental officers remained in Springfield. A 
large train of wagons was supplied and we were to gather corn 
and grind it in a gristmill at Ozark, also procure forage for 
the horses. These supplies were to be sent to the relief of Gen- 
eral Curtis, who was hemmed in and surrounded by the enemy 
down on White River, near Batesville. There had been a previ- 
ous effort made to relieve this general, but it proved disastrous, 
the train being captured and the supplies burned. 

Early the first morning after reaching Ozark some boys of 
Co. L went down the Forsythe road, foraging for chickens, when 


they discovered some rebel cavalry coming up the road. Con- 
cealing themselves in the brush they counted the cavalrymen as 
they rode i)ast. There were 225. The report was brought to me 
and I immediately carried it to Ma.jor Sterling in command and 
asked the privilege of going after them with Co. L. The major 
did not approve this on the ground of the absence of all the other 
regimental officers at Springfield and our expedition to Ozai'k 
being for the securing of supplies and not for the purpose of 
entering into any engagement with the enemy. I urged my re- 
quest strongly and finally was told I could follow them up for 
a short distance, "But don't be gone over an hour." Learning 
of the permission given by Ma.jor Sterling, Captain De Forrest 
requested me to let him make up half of the pursuing force with 
men from his company, to which I assented. Ozark was gar- 
risoned by about forty infantry. I secured one of these as guide 
on account of his knowledge of the country, mounted him and 
then we started down the road toward Forsythe in pursuit of the 
enemy. It proved that the rebel cavalry had ridden up to the 
brow of the liill overlooking Ozark, expecting to capture the 
place, but discovering our regiment encamped there had quietlj'' 
countermarched back toward their encampment at Cowskin Prai- 
rie, on the south side of White River. Had we not arrived at 
Ozark the day before it would have been an easy matter for them 
to capture the garrison, and so sure were they of doing this that 
they had brought along a six mule team to take back their ex- 
pected plunder. We had gone only a mile or so when we ap- 
proached a cloud of dust which filled the roadway neai'ly to the 
tops of the trees. I immediately ordered my men to a gallop 
expecting to soon overtake the rebels. After riding perhaps for 
three quarters of a mile further we came to a fork in the road 
and the dust was down both roads. I called a halt and con- 
ferred with my guide. The right hand road was the direct route 
to Pea Ridge and the left hand road to Forsythe, but on account 
of the dust in both roads we could not tell which way they had 
gone. The guide was of the opinion that the rebel cavalry were 
from Cowskin Prairie and would probably take the left hand 
road. I cautiously advanced expecting every minute to run into 
the rear guard, but we traveled on and on, but always dust in 
the road ahead of us, until we had passed the summit of the 
Ozark mountains and were on the southern descent, to White 
River. My brother Stant was all the time alone in advance. We 
had gone probably twenty miles when he returned with a pi-isoner 
mounted on a mule with a young negro wench behind him, Stant 


said, ' ' Put this man in the ranks. " " Why no, he is not a soldier, ' ' 
I replied. "He is a spy sent back in this guise to find out if 
they are being followed;" and he wheeled his horse and galloped 
ahead out of sight. I interrogated the man, but he assured me 
that he was a preacher going to preach a funeral sermon, so I 
let him go and started the command ahead, but had gone only 
a short distance when I heard rapid firing ahead. 

Stant had I'un into the rear guard and opened fire on them. 
I immediately ordered a charge which the boys made with a will. 
Within a mile we ran into dozens of the rebels, most of whom 
threw up their hands and cried "donf shoot, I surrender," 
many dismounting, holding up their bridle rein and throwing 
down their arms. We passed all such leaving it to Captain De- 
Forrest's men, who were behind us, to take care of those who had 
surrendered, while we kept on after those who would not halt 
or surrender. While riding along at a furious pace Len Lancas- 
ter's horse slipped on a ledge of slate that extended across the 
road when horse and rider fell to the ground, Lancaster being 
caught under the horse and severely injured. I detailed two 
men to take him to the rear, and on we started again. Presently 
we ran across their six-mule team and wagon, but on we went, 
the fastest horses in front. Every man taking the initiative, some 
following far into the woods those of the rebels who left the road. 

I had seen nothing of Stant yet, and feared he was killed. 
After running past perhaps a hundred men who had thrown down 
their weapons and offered to surrender we emerged out of the 
timber on the level bottom of White River. Here there was no 
dust to speak of, and there were several farm houses in sight. I 
will take time here to describe our own shooting irons, which 
were somewhat out of the usual order. Each man was furnished 
with a Savage revolver, having a nine inch barrel, a heavy 
weapon, provided with a lever which dropped down in front of 
the ti'igger, with a loop in the lower end for the middle finger. 
When this lever was pulled back it would cock the revolver and 
turn the cylinder, but if not let go forward again pulling the 
trigger would not discharge the weapon. Lieut. Tom Nary was 
riding by ray side. He was a splendid specimen of physical man- 
hood and with no lack of courage. As we were dashing along we 
overtook a rebel officer. I was on one side and Nary on the other. 
Nary was on the left, pointing his revolver at the officer, com- 
manding him to halt or he would shoot, but the officer kept right 
on. Probably through failure to release the lever before men- 
tioned Nary's revolver would not go off. In the meantime I had 


dropped back to keep out of the range. Finally there was a 
sharp report and the rebel officer fell dead, shot through the heart. 
Just at the elose of our what was our surprise to run across 
a young woman in riding habit standing beside the road patting 
her pony on the neck, the pony gushing blood from its nostrils 
with every breath. We stopped and looked in amazement. Just 
then the pony reeled over and fell dead. I rode up to her with 
the question "what have we here?" There was a look of scorn 
and no reply. "Where is your gallant?" I added. She turned 
and looked southwest across the field and pointed out a lone horse- 
man half a mile away, evidently mounted on a thoroughbred, for 
his tail was straight out and liis gatherings rapid. "There he 
goes," said she, "and you can't catch him." "Well," said I, 
"I think I will have to take you prisoner." "I reckon you 
won't." As she said this she went into her pocket and brought 
out a document. It proved to be a permit for her to go in and 
out of the lines at pleasure, and signed by Colonel Boyd, who 
M'as a federal officer living in Missouri, and this was his daughter, 
who had been down to Cowskin Prairie and married a rebel 
officer, the one in command of the expedition against Ozark. Her 
husband was one of the very few in the rebel command who had 
not laid down arms, surrendered or been killed. This expedi- 
tion was their wedding tour, and the comtemplated capture of 
the garrison and supplies at Ozark was expected to add spice to 
the trip. 

Our horses by this time were tired and their riders were dust 
covered, hot and thirsty. As the boys began to gather in from 
the woods and elsewhere we stopped at a farm bouse where there 
was a well with an old-fashioned sweep. The thirst of men and 
horses was quenched, the horses being allowed to take only a 
few swallows at a time until cooled off. The boys continued to 
come in, brother Stant the last to show up. He had been led a 
long chase deep in the woods. A count was taken and every man 
found safe and Avhole. We then started back to Ozai'k. The 
six-mule team belonging to the rebels was made use of in hauling 
the guns and equipment of all descriptions which they had sur- 
rendered or dropped in their flight. There were 110 pieces, all 
told, including a considerable number of carbines, with bayonets 
which slid down into a casement, and had been furnished by the 
government for the protection of camel trains which carried mail 
across the plains. There were also squirrel rifles, shot guns, der- 
ringers and dueling pistols, also some bowie knives. 

The body of the rebel officer mentioned was put into the wagon 


with the equipment and after dark left at a farm house where 
we had noticed a number of women while on the chase. The full 
benefit of our raid was not realized on account of the failure 
of the squad from the other compay who were in the rear of Co. 
L, to take charge of those who had thrown down their arms and 
offered to surrender. Further jealousy in the regiment was 
caused by this encounter, and later I learned there was even 
talk of a court-martial for me for having been gone more than 
the hour allotted to me by my superior officer. Had the chase 
not been so successful and without loss to my company there is no 
telling what might have liappened. 


It was impossible to know the full extent of casualty to the 
enemy. The dust was so thick it was hard to distinguish between 
the grey and the blue. Sixteen prisoners and three killed were 
all we were sure of. In a few days our train of supplies and forage 
was ready and our command with the forty infantrymen of Ozark 
as riding wagon guards, we started traveling the same road we 
had chased the enemy over for the first twenty-five miles. It was 
an undisturbed march thus far but ever after that we were fol- 
lowed by McBride and Coleman for 100 miles with their bush- 
whacking guerilla system of firing upon us from dense cover and 
instantly fleeing ; picking up any stragglers momentarily absent 
from the ranks. Their system was to fire into the advance and 
rear ranks and then skidoo. Washburn was anxious to learn 
the strength of the encampment at Cowskin Prairie so brother 
Stant was rigged out in butternut garb and furnished with leave 
of absence purporting to belong to a rebel of Price's command, 
mounted on an old picked up horse, to spy out the rebel force at 
Cowskin Prairie on the south side of White River, while we 
marched down on the north side. He left us one morning before 
we broke camp. We marched that day with but little annoyance 
and all the next day without any and we began to think the 
enemy were massing somewhere in our front for the final coup 
and our fate might be the same as the one captured before, in 
their attempt to reach General Curtis. After our camp for the 
night was settled, Washburn sent for me to come to- his quarters, 
he was very anxious to hear from his scout and spy sent to Cow- 
skin and I thought he must be killed for he had told me he would 
never surrender. Just at the time I was telling this to Wash- 
burn, there was a loud vocal discord ringing in our ears and I 


started for Company L quarters. When I got tliere I saw Stant 
and two confederates surrounded by Co. L and Stant was going 
through the garments of his two prisoners, ripping open coat 
collars, vest linings, pants bottoms, boot tops, as tliey disrobed 
one garment after another, and he was so stoically silent and 
indiii'erent to tell us — not even answering or recognizing my 
greeting, or the many questions of the boys. So I stood there in 
mute silence, confiicting emotions struggling for the mastery, and 
I really had some misgivings of the 19 year old boy's sanity. 
After he had finished searching his prisoners he asked the lieu- 
tenant to care for these men, "I reckon they are hungry." 

We then went to Washburn and Stant reported that the rebel 
camp was intact, and thought they had no designs to engage us. 
The night before he had played cards with some of the boys in 
the rebel camp until 2 o'clock in the morning, then went and laid 
down by his horse for a feigned sleep. But instead of sleeping he 
planned to exchange his poor horse for a better one that was 
picketed near his and leave camp before daylight, which he suc- 
cessfully did without discovery, traveling northeast. Crossing 
White River he espied the heads of tAvo horsemen at the crest 
of a sharp hill. They were coming toward him. He immediately 
spurred into the bush at the roadside and dismounting, hitched 
his horse and crawled back to the roadside, where, with revolver 
in hand, he awaited their coming. They were walking leisurely 
and talking, and when they were nearly opposite him, he leaped 
into the road, and covering them with his revolver, commanded 
them to "ground arms." They instantly obeyed, and then he 
gave the order, "about wheel," which they also obeyed. He 
then picked up their arms, adjusted them to himself, stepped for 
his horse, mounted, and marching the two in front of him nearly 
all day, overtook us after we had bivouacked for the night. I felt 
so proud of hira, that if I had had the power to give my place of 
Captain of Co. L I should have done so. 

The prisoners were a private and lieutenant, belonging to the 
same regiment, and were returning from the private's Avedding, 
where the lieutenant acted as best man. They became the charge 
of Co. L through to Helena, and when they were shipped north 
with a boatload of prisoners, this lieutenant went to Washburn 
and begged the privilege of presenting his fine horse to his young 
captor. When Washburn told him the horse belonged to the 
United States, and it could not be done, I led him away and his 
eyes filled with tears. He told me he had brothers he did not 
revere as he did this young captor. He said further that tlie cool. 


self-assured tone and action of Stant, convinced him that there 
was a company of ambushed guns behind him. A few days later 
an incident occurred which I will now relate. 

Having lost a valuable trooper, wounded and taken prisoner 
by what I considered a silly requirement, I was not in humor to 
receive complacently what followed the next day. We went into 
camp, roll call revealed the absence of Milton Tollfelmire of 
Menomonie, a Swede, and absolutely fearless. I learned from his 
comrades he had dropped out of the ranks, our company being 
in the rear, and had foraged a bundle of oats for his horse from a 
sliock by the road side and was there feeding his horse a short 
way back and out of sight. The circumstances were reported to 
Washburn by his orderly, and I was sent for and reprimanded by 
the colonel and told to dismount that man and that he should walk 
the next day and keep up with the command. I transmitted the 
order to ToUef elmire, and in the afternoon we had to cross a stream 
belly deep to our horses and ToUefelmire sat down on its bank 
and refused to wade the stream and said to his comrades he woTild 
die fighting the enemy before he would wade the stream. The 
circumstance Avas reported to me and I was as indignant over the 
sillyness of the order as ToUefelmire could be. I rode hastily to 
the front, related the facts to Washburn with some heat, giving 
my view of the fallacy of marching 300 miles with a relief train 
through the enemy's country followed by Guerillas ambiishing us 
every day and living off the country and me with sword sheathed 
and carrying the olive branch in our right hand and perhaps our 
train of supplies as well ; and an order against foraging (to the 
enemy). He said in reply, "Mount him and bring him over." 
When over I told him to take his place in the ranks. He did and 
rode the balance of the day. After going into camp I was told 
by the Colonel's orderly to report to headquarters. Washburn 
said to me, "Didn't I order you to dismount your man for the 
day?" I replied, "You certainly did." The only instance during 
my army experience where red tape and a strict compliance with 
the letter of the order brought justice and relief to an exhausted 
soldier. "I obeyed your order, he was dismounted and walked 
until he came to the river where he sat down and refused to come 
over. I reported the circumstance to you and you ordered him 
mounted and brought over." "And how come it that he has been 
riding this afternoon?" "Because you failed to order him dis- 
mounted again." 

In a day or two I was ordered to take the advance witli Co. t, 
and to advance several miles ahead of the train to scoiit the cross 


roads. We came to a small clearing, log house and an old couple. 
I was inteiTogating the old man whether he had seen any of the 
enemy that morning. He had not. I inquired how far to the next 
town, giving the name. He repeated it several times and replied: 
"I reckon he must have moved away 'fore I came." I had called 
in my flankers as I approached this clearing and we started ahead, 
intending to throw out the flankers as soon as we got through 
the clearing. As we got near the timber a half dozen shots came 
from the timber, one striking Lieutenant Ring of Co. I who was 
by ray side, in the left elbow and the bushwhackers fled, one horse 
wounded. Nothing of special interest occurred during the re- 
mainder of our march. The enemy continued their bushwhack- 
ing tactics but we arrived safely at our destination at Batesville. 
Of course we were graciously received by General Curtis and his 
troops who were much in need of the supplies we had brought. 
A day or two later we continued our march to Helena, Ark., which 
was our objective point. At Bayou Cache the enemy disputed 
our passage. The advance that day was led by the 11th Wiscon- 
sin Infantry. The Second Cavalry asked permission to assist the 
11th and the request was granted. We were somewhat in the rear 
half of the column, and were marching over a corduroy road 
through a cypress swamp with the road in front of us densely 
packed with the infantry, artillery, wagon trains, etc., of our 
force. These were at a halt and as usual in such eases had spread 
out so that to pass through them was a difficult matter. Some 
of us attempted to get past by leaving the corduroy road and 
taking our chances in the mud and mire of the swamp. I killed 
my horse in the attempt, but we finally got to the front only to 
find that after a sharp engagement the 11th Infantry had driven 
the enemy before them, in such haste that they had not been able 
to destroy the bridge as intended. 

We arrived at Helena at last, every man of the 2ud Cavalry 
in the saddle, in perfect condition, well hardened by the trip. We 
went into camp a short distance outside the city in a shady grove 
with a clear stream of water flowing through it. We thought we 
had an ideal camp. For the first four weeks we did very little 
scouting or other active service. A laughable incident occurred 
one day at drill. Colonel Stevens, of our regiment, was an Eng- 
lishman with the proverbial English habit of handling his h's. 
He had been a member of the Queen's Guard, was sis feet tall, 
weighing two hundred forty pounds, a good sword man, and could 
fence with either hand. We were at regimental drill when the 
Colonel noted that Companies E and I were only fragments of 


companies, the details for pickets that day having been drawn 
from these companies. The Colonel conceived the idea of con- 
solidating the two companies for the drill so gave the following 
order. It may be remarked that he had a peculiar way of ending 
his orders with a rising inflection to his voice, which peculiarity 
was well known to the troops. Turning to Lieutant-Colonel East- 
man he said: "Colonel H-Eastman, you will h-observe for the 
h-operations of the day that Companies h-E and h-L will h-operate 
together. Co. h-L may go to h-E or Co. h-E may go to h-L. 

During the remainder of the campaign our company was 
known in the regiment as "Company Hell." The regiment had 
not remained long in Helena before the health of the troops began 
to fail and in a few weeks scarcely a man was able to appear at 
drill. I was quartered at the house of a widow in the town and 
remarked to her about the sickness of our men. Said she: "You 
will all be dead if you stay in that camp long. We would not 
think of drinking that water as it seeps through from a cypress 
swamp." I reported her statement to our Colonel and the result 
was that the camp was moved to higher ground in a slashing made 
by the Confederates for the purpose of allowing better use of their 
artillery. Our water was brought from the Mississippi. Whether 
or not the woman's explanation of the poisonous nature of the 
water was correct, true it was that the health of the boys began 
immediately to improve and soon all were again fit for duty. 

An expedition ordered to Clarendon was hailed with delight 
by Co. L. A pioneer corps was sent some days in advance to 
bridge a bayou. The command (cavalry) followed. We met the 
corps returning to Helena reporting there was not material enough 
available to bridge it. The command went on to the bayou for 
dinner, where we could find water for our horses. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Eastman dined with me and while at dinner we were dis- 
cussing the disappointment of the expedition's failure. Espe- 
cially the lumberjacks of Co. Hell were cursing mad, declaring 
they could swim it. I had been looking at a long row of slave 
quarters of flattened logs, about one foot in diameter. The cabins 
were in size about 14 by 18 and all alike, located upon an eleva- 
tion of 15 or 20 feet above and parallel to the water and but a 
rod or so away. I told the colonel that was the best material in 
the world and plenty of it to bridge this stream and Co. Hell 
could do it in four hours, pointing to the row of cabins and the 
frame of an q}d grist mill, dismantled of its covering and ma- 
chinery, lie immediately left me and went to the commanding 
officer and reported that there was a man in his regiment who 


says that this stream can be bridged in four hours. "Is he an 
engineer?" inquired the officer. "No." "Bring him up here, I have 
a curiosity to see the man who can bridge this stream after the 
pioneer failure." I went with the colonel and briefly explained 
the process of using the negro cabins by alternately using a 
long and then a short log side by side and about eight logs wide 
as a section and then intersecting section 2 with logs all the 
same length and so on for the entire length of the boom, except 
the last section, which should alternate lengths, with binder poles 
across the section joints and band splits and lock downs of wild 
grape vine, of Avhich there were miles in length along the banks, 
and water beech for poles. Tlie commander said he would spend 
the afternoon here and witness my creation and give me all the 
men I wanted. Inside of fifteen minutes twenty horsemen were 
seeking every auger, big and little, and every hatchet and ax with- 
in a radius of three miles and a continuous stream of timber was 
dashing down the banks bordering the stream. In ten minutes 
more there were a dozen augers being turned with all the energy 
the borers possessed and relays standing ready to grab those 
handles as soon as there were the least signs of lagging. Now, 
there were plenty of axes, hatchets and augers and the material 
consisting of holes, poles, bands, pins and grapevines was simply 
marvelous under the direction of members of Co. L as bosses. 

At the end of four hours tlie 400 feet of eight timbers wide of 
boom with her down stream end fastened to the shore with a 
heavj^ grapevine and one fifty feet long plugged fast to the upper 
end to serve as cable to fasten to the opposite shore, she lay 
serene and self-assured at attention, awaiting orders. After a 
hasty inspection by Sergeant Lancaster, in the absence of pins in 
the lock-down holes, the order was given to shove her out and she 
was gracefully swung by the current to the opposite shore and 
cabled fast with the grapevine about 12 degrees diagonal from 
a right angle with the shore. And Co. Hell had the honor of first 
tramping slave quarters under their horses' feet. The command 
passed over dry shod and the lumber-jacks wore a smile all 
through a pelting snow iintil Ave reached Clarendon late at night. 
The little town was dark and silent, having been vacated several 
days before our arrival. This converted the smile of Co. L boys 
into a grim-visaged scowl, accentuated by some strong words by 
way of emphasis. I quartered my men in a billard room with a 
large old fashioned fireplace wide enough to reo^ve the legs of 
the tables as back logs and foresticks, and so we spent the night, 
speculating as to what would be the orders and move tomorrow. 


On account of sickness in Captain Sherman's family 
his Civil War narrative closed very abruptly, with his 
company of the 2nd Cavalry located at Helena, Ark. This 
was in the fall of 1862. The 2nd Cavalry formed a part of 
a large force under 'command of General Hurlbut which 
went out from Helena to destroy the line of communications 
in the rear of General Pemberton who had marched out of 
Vicksburg with a part of his army. During the Hurlbut 
expedition Captain Sherman was detailed at the head of 
two companies of cavalry to destroy railroad bridges and 
tracks which was successfully accomplished. After return- 
ing to Helena and remaining there a short time the troops 
moved to Memphis, where on request of the citizens the 2nd 
cavalry was assigned to garrison the city. Feeling assured 
that they would remain for a considerable time in Memphis 
Captain Sherman, after consulting with some of his superior 
officers, sent to New York state for the young lady who 
had promised to be his wife. Accompanied by her father 
she came to Memphis, the wedding taking place in the home 
of a southerner, whose family insisted on taking charge of 
all the arrangements, which were on an elaborate scale, 
with the army officers present in full uniform. 

Scarcely had the wedding taken place before an order 
was received from tlie war department that the 2nd Cavalry 
should proceed to Vicksburg to take part in the operations 
against that place. 

For a considerable time a feud had existed between 
Colonel Stephens of the 2nd Cavalry and Lieutenant-Col- 
onel Eastman. This had culminated in a personal en- 
counter. Captain Sherman was one of the ofScers who had 
separated the combatants, and having taken sides with the 
Lieutenant-Colonel, he was not in the good graces of Col- 
onel Stephens. Wishing, if possible, that his bride should 
accompany him to Vicksburg, Captain Sherman put in a 
petition to his superior officers to tliat effect. The Major 
and Lieutenant-Colonel gave their approval but when pre- 
sented to Colonel Stephens that officer promptly handed it 
back with his disapproval attached to same. Feeling that 
under the circumstances his request was a reasonable one 
Captain Sherman decided to take the matter up to General 
Hurlbut. When the General saw the Colonel's disapproval 
he was very angry at Captain Sherman for presenting the 
petition to him, but when the matter was fully explained 



M la. 1 () C H\I r 


he wrote "approved" across the face of the petition, and 
signed his name. Armed with this precious document Cap- 
tain Sherman made arrangements on the steamboat for his 
bride, and on the day set for departure rode up the gang 
plank onto the boat with her by his side. Colonel Stephens, 
wholly in ignorance of the action of General Hurlbut saw 
them come on the boat and angrily approached Captain 
Sherman, and said that his bride Avould be put off at the 
next wood lauding. The captain quietly took the petition 
from his pocket and held it up so that the Colonel could see 
General Hurlbut 's signature. The table had been turned. 

After the fall of Vicksburg the 2nd Cavalry was sta- 
tioned at Red Bone Church, 16 miles east of Vicksburg for 
nearly a year. 

In the fall of '64 Captain Sherman resigned his commis- 
sion and was succeeded as captain by First Lieut. Jas. L. 
Leroy, who had enlisted in the company from Chippewa 
Falls. Captain Leroy continued at the head of the company 
until it was mustered out of service in the fall of 1865. 

Among the names of the privates who went out in Co. L 
of the 2nd Cavalry will be found that of Leonard L. Lan- 
caster, and Captain Sherman frequently mentions him in his 

This man Lancaster was an experienced woods and river 
man and fearless to a degree. His soldierly qualities 
brought him well merited promotion, and by the spring of 
1865 he had attained the rank of 2nd Lieutenant. It was in 
the summer of 1865 that Lieutenant Lancaster had one of 
the most thrilling experiences that fell to the lot of any 
soldier during the civil war. A friend of the Lancaster 
family has published the story in pamphlet form, of which 
only a brief outline can here be given. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Dale was at this time at the head of 
the regiment, and by all accounts was wholly unfit for the 
position he held. While stationed at Alexandria, La., in 
July 1865 conditions under Dale had became so intolerable 
that some six or seven hundred privates and some fifteen 
commissioned ofScers signed a petition asking Dale to 

It became necessary for some one to present the petition 
and Lancaster volunteered for the task. It is hardly neces- 
sary to state that from a military point of view the signing 
and presenting of such a petition was a serious offense. 


Lancaster was arrested and put in jail for violating the 
articles of war. The other officers were deprived of their 
insignia of rank, all hut four of whom made retraction and 
were restored to rank. One of these was tried and acquitted 
and the others never came to trial. It was upon Lancaster 
alone that the punishment fell. Refusing to retract he was 
court-martialed and sentenced to be shot, and his death 
warrant signed by General Custer. He was confined in a 
dungeon for some days and while there was offered an op- 
portunity to escape but the offer was declined. On the 
evening of the 26th of July he was taken out with another 
man, a deserter, bound and seated on their coffins, to be 
shot. Just as the word "fire" was to be pronounced a 
reprieve was received, releasing him from the death sen- 
tence, but with a dishonorable discharge and sentenced to a 
military prison in the Dry Tortugas for a term of three 
years. Friends interceded for Lancaster and in February, 
1866, he was released and after much hardship reached his 
home at Eau Claire. Through the infiuence of Congressman 
Michael Griffin and others an honorable discharge was se- 
cured, and now after fifty years have elapsed since Lieu- 
tenant Lancaster's terrible experience he is still with us al- 
though in feeble health. That he may be spared many 
years to come is the earnest desire of his old comrades and 


"We have traced the formation and breaking up of the first, or 
Taylor Company, also the recruiting and departure of the Perkins 
Company, the Wheeler Company and Captain Sherman's Cavalry 
Company. Recruiting was kept up continually, both to fill up 
the thinning ranks of the companies that had gone out from Eau 
Claire, also for outside companies, whose recruiting officers found 
the Chippewa Valley a fruitful field for their labors. Before the 
war was over several more full companies were sent out from 
Eau Claire, but before considering these we will follow those 
already sent to the front, some of which were quickly in the 
thick of the fight. 

As stated in the Sherman article, this cavalry company went 
into camp at Milwaukee. The infantry companies of Perkins and 
"Wheeler went to Madison where they were quartered at Camp 
Randall. It is unfortunate, but never the less true, that the "Wis- 
consin Historical Society itself has satisfactory histories of only 


a small proportion of the regiments which went out from this 
state. The eighth Wisconsin or Eagle Regiment is much more 
fortunate than the average of Wisconsin regiments in the matter 
of the preservation of its civil war history. Several books, of 
varying degrees of value covering all or part of its regimental 
history, have been published. In addition to these, which we will 
consider later, the company from Eau Claire had its own corre- 
spondent for a considerable time and we have his letters. In the 
A. R. Barnes' article he mentions a fellow printer, by the name 
of T. B. Coon, who also enlisted in the first company. Editor 
Porter chronicles his departure in the following manner. 

"Free Press, September 19, 1861. Thos B. Coon, who has been 
connected with the mechanical department of this paper for 
nearly a year, left the place on Thursday last, to .join the 'Eau 
Claire Eagles' at Madison. Mr. Coon is a yoimg man of unqual- 
ified merit in every respect, sober, industrious and intelligent; 
these are the qualifications that have Avon him troops of friends 
in this place, whose best wishes go with him. He is a keen ob- 
server of men and things and a writer of no mean ability. The 
readers of the Free Press will be glad to know that his pen will 
be employed in giving them one letter per week from the 'Eighth 
Wisconsin' during his stay in the army. His intelligence and 
candor as an observer and writer will add an interesting feature 
to the paper." 

As promised by Mr. Porter to his readers this T. B. Coon sent 
weekly letters from camp which were printed in the Free Press, 
over the signature "Quad," and from which extracts will be 
given later. P^'rom the beginning of the war until near its close, 
Captain Green, of Co. F of the 8th regiment, wrote some very 
interesting letters to his wife, describing passing events very 
fully, which were later published in book form, some extracts of 
which we take pleasure in quoting here. When we remember 
that the Eagle regiment almost without exception, during the 
entire war acted as a unit and that its total fighting strength Avas 
seldom over five or six hundred men, we can see that Captain 
Green's description of the services of Co. F would apply almost 
equally as well to our own Eau Claire company. 

T. B. Coon's first letter to the Free Press read as follows: 
"Camp Randall, September 22, 1861. We have been considerably 
disappointed in not being assigned to the company at the right 
of the regiment. Being the heaviest company on the ground and 
taking the position for a week and a half after our arrival, we 
supposed we were to have it ' for good, ' but the person in author- 


ity decided otherwise and oiir place in the regiment is the second 
from the right. Signed 'Quad.' " 

His next letter says: "Camp Randall, September 20. I was 
led into quite a serious error in my last in giving the position 
of our company in the regiment. Instead of being the second 
from the right, we are the center or Color company, of the regi- 
ment, a distinction which almost compensates us for the loss of 
the regimental right. Signed 'Quad.' " 

Captain Green arrived at Camp Randall a few days before the 
Perkins Company arrived from Eau Claire. Prom the first he 
was a great admirer of "Old Abe," the war eagle, and frequently 
mentions him in letters to his wife. In view of the later fame 
of this eagle, some of Captain Green's comments, made at the 
time, seem almost prophetic. Prom one of his first letters after 
reaching Camp Randall, we quote the following: 


"Camp Randall, September 10, 1861. We have a new recruit 
— a live eagle. Co. C, Captain Perkins brought him from Eau 
Claire, where they bought him of some Chippewa Indians. He 
is a fine specimen of our National bird, and the boys have named 
him 'Old Abe.' A perch is made with a shield and the bundle 
of darts underneath, and a perch on top on which 'Old Abe' is 
carried on a pole by a member of Co. C, next to the colors. If 
he stands it to go through the war, he will be a noted bird." 

Another letter from Captain Green, dated "Camp Randall, 
September 30, 1861. We have just heard good news. Our regi- 
ment is ordered to Missouri. We will start in a few days. Great- 
est joy prevails in camp. The Governor goes with us to Chicago. 
He says the Eighth is the finest regiment he ever saw. I never 
could understand before this how a soldier became so attached, 
but now, even for the short time I have been here, I would not 
be willing to go into another regiment. We have a fine, gentle, 
manly set of officers, both regimental and company." 

Captain Green writes from St. Louis. "Benton's Barracks, 
near St. Louis, October 14, 1861. We left Madison on the morn- 
ing of the 12th. What a time we had getting on board the cars. 
Everybody's friends were on hand to see us off, and there were 
last embraces, kisses, tears and partings sad enough to witness. 
Gaily beat the drum as our columns marched to the depot. 
Handkerchiefs fluttered and voices broken with emotion, tear- 
fully said 'Good-bye' to hundreds of our boys as the train moved 


off. It was a time to try to peer into the future — to try to see 
what it had in store for us. How long would it be before we 
would return 1 Will we come back with our ranks as full as they 
are now, or will there be some missing at final roll call? But 
I confess I had too many other things to think of to indulge in 
such thought. The way it looks now the fighting will be over 
before we get to the front. We had a nice run to Chicago, and a 
fine lunch spread by the good people of that city. Changed cars 
for St. Louis, where we arrived this morning. 

"I must tell you of an exploit of Old Abe, our eagle. After 
we had disembarked and when the regiment was forming in line 
ready to march to Benton's Barracks, out in the suburbs of the 
cit}', the eagle somehow got loose from his perch, and literally 
soared aloft. We marched on up to the city, giving up Old Abe 
as lost ; but every square or so as we progressed, we noticed him 
flying over the housetops, and keeping his course along with ours. 
Sometimes he would take a wide circuit, and for the time dis- 
appear, but sooner or later he would return and hover over us, 
and when we reached the Barracks, the flew down to the ground 
and took his place in the center of the regiment in Co. C, by the 
colors. We gave him three hearty cheers, and he raised himself 
on his perch and flapped his wings. We all think Old Abe will 
make a good soldier." 

Captain Green described the Eagle regiment's first appearance 
on the battlefield. "Predericktown, Mo., October 22, 1861. We 
have had our first fight. You will have heard before this reaches 
you of the battle of Frederiektown yesterday. The rebels were 
cleaned out.' AVe were in Benton's Barracks only one day when 
we had orders to move out to the Iron Mountain Railroad where 
Jeff Thompson had been destroying bridges. We marched to the 
depot and were put on board cattle cars. You ought to have 
heard the boys swear at the accommodations — as if 'Uncle Sam' 
ought to furnish parlor cars. Well, we went to Pilot Knob, and 
in the afternoon started on the mareli for Frederiektown. Our 
force consisted of two Illinois regiments, one Missouri and the 
8th Wisconsin, and several companies of cavalry. Jeff Thompson 
was reported intrenched at Frederiektown with a force anywhere 
from three thousand to eight thousand. We marched all night. 
The roads were hilly and rocky, but smooth. The full moon made 
it light and the frosty air was as good as a tonic. Our knapsacks 
and overcoats in addition to forty rounds of ammunition, muskets 
and accoutrements and two days' rations in haversacks was no 


light load to carry, and when we reached here at nine o'clock 
yesterday, we were pretty nearly used up. The citizens said that 
Jeff Thompson had left the day before, going to Arkansas. So 
we stacked arms in the middle of the street and broke ranks to 
get dinner and rest. About two o'clock firing was heard in the 
outskirts of town, and the drums beat to 'fall in.' We fell into 
rank and marched double quick toward the firing. Our cavalry 
were out scouting and came upon the enemy's whole force posted 
in the corn field just out of town. The enemy opened fire on 
them and killed three and wounded a good many. Two Illinois 
regiments just coming from Cape Girardeau to form a junction 
with us arrived at the grounds at this moment and opened fire 
on the rebs with cannon and musketry, and had just charged them 
as the head of our regiment reached the line of battle. An aide 
galloped up to our colonel and ordered the 8th Wisconsin to hold 
itself in reserve at the courthouse. Some of the boys had already 
fired without orders, and were all excited and anxious to go into 
the fight. But we had to countermarch. The colonel's voice was 
husky with anger as he gave the order. So we stood in line of 
battle in the rear while the fighting was going on in front, almost 
in plain sight. The wounded were carried to the hospital through 
our lines. Some forty or fifty were brought in, of both sides. I 
cannot describe the feeling that comes over one when he sees the 
bleeding men carried from the battlefield on stretchers. It is 
a peculiar sensation. The musicians are expected to perform their 
duties, but we noticed several soldiers who had left the ranks to 
assist the wounded to the rear. The enemy broke and ran when 
they were charged, but made another stand, from which they were 
soon driven. They ran through a meadow, up a hill and broke 
for the woods, leaving three cannons, several horses and any 
number of old shotguns, muskets and squirrel rifles. At dark our 
troops camped all 'round town. I went over the battlefield early 
this morning ; the dead rebels were laying thick in places. They 
were small, skinny men, looking half starved, of all ages, dressed 
in the butternut colored clothes worn by the natives. The wounded 
had been take care of by our surgeons. Our forces here are under 
the command of Colonel Carlin of the regular army, those from 
Cape Girardeau under Colonel Plumber of an Illinois reginient, 
while the expedition which has proven so successful was planned 
by a brigadier general, U. S. Grant, Avho has charge of this de- 
partment with his headquarters at Cape Girardeau." 

T. B. Coon also described the engagement at Fredericktowu. 


Although seen from a somewhat diiJerent viewpoint, it does not 
differ materially from the account given by Captain Green. 

We have followed the Perkin's Company of the 8th or Eagle 
regiment from Camp Randall to their first appearance on the bat- 
tlefield at P^redericktown. We will now follow the fortunes of the 
Wheeler Company of the 16th regiment. Winter had set in be- 
fore the Wheeler Company reached Camp Randall. Tlie 16th 
regiment did not remain long at Madison but were rushed South 
in early Spring and within a few weeks as raw troops they took 
a prominent part in the great battle of Pittsburg Landing. 

The battle of Pittsburgh Landing or Shiloh, was fought on 
the 6th, 7th and 8th of April, 1862. The first name is taken from 
a landing on the Tennessee river near which the battle took 
place, and the name "Shiloh" from a log meeting house some 
two or three miles from the landing, and which formed the key 
of the position of the Union army. General Grant in an article 
on this battle says: "Shiloh was the severest battle fought in 
the west during the war, and but few in the east equaled it for 
hard, determined fighting. I saw an open field in our possession on 
the second day over which the confederates iiiade repeated charges 
the day before, so covered with dead that it would have been 
possible to walk across the clearing in any direction, stepping on 
dead bodies, without a foot touching the ground." He also says: 
"The confederate assaults were made with such disregard to 
human life that our line of tents soon fell in their hands. The 
national troops were compelled several times to take positions in 
the rear, nearer to Pittsburg Landing. In one of these backward 
moves, on the 6th, the division commanded by General Prentiss 
did not fall back with the others. This left his flank exposed and 
enabled the enemy to capture him with about 2,200 of his officers 
and men." Space will not allow any general review of this great 
battle. But I feel fortunate in being able to present an account 
of it, as given at the time by a member of Captain Wheeler's 
Company antl tlir Kith ifi;iment. 

Pittsburg Laiidiug, April 16, 1862. Editor Free Press. I wish 
you to find room in the Free Press for a few lines from the 
"Chippewa Valley Guards" and the gallant sixteenth regiment 
of Wisconsin Volunteers. We arrived at Pittsburg Landing 
March 20, 1862, encamped on the river until the 23rd, when orders 
came to strike tents and move forward, which we did, and en- 
camped on a beautiful slope about two miles from the river, south- 
west. On the 1st of April we received orders to strike tents and 


move forward on the frontier in General Prentiss' division — 
Colonel Peabody's Brigade. Saturday afternoon we were re- 
viewed by General Prentiss and staff and he told the boys they 
composed as good a regiment of men as he ever saw. The general 
looked pleased, and his compliments filled the minds of the boys 
with such heroism as none but heroes can feel. But all this time 
we little thought that across this small field, in the thicket, stood 
the renowned Beauregard, Hardee and Bragg, watching our move- 
ments and looking up all the weak points in our line but never- 
theless such was the case. Sunday morning our pickets encoun- 
tered the enemy about one mile from our camp. The alarm was 
given — the long roll sounded and our boys fell into line in double 
quick. General Prentiss rode along our lines telling us to use all 
speed for God's sake, for the enemy were advancing in force. 
Accordingly we hastened forth to the sons of chivalry. We 
-crossed the field before mentioned, entered the woods for a few 
rods, and there beheld the foe advancing in columns, eight deep, 
and lines extending five miles; and behind this column came the 
second, third and fourth columns in battle array and behind this 
mass of human beings, came ten thousand more detailed to gather 
up the wounded and as fast as a man fell, to seize his gun and rush 
forward to battle. Our brigade struck bold and defiant as if 
inviting the enemy to come on. On they came, with overwhelm- 
ing forces, determined to drive all before them and when within 
forty rods of our lines the 16th opened fire, which swept them 
down in great numbers. The second fire from the 16th killed their 
chief, S. A. Johnson, who rode a beautiful white charger in front 
of his men, accompanying them to what he supposed — victory. 
"We were not within supporting distance of any other regiment, 
but appeared to be fighting the whole southern army on our own 
account. When our colonel perceived that they were flanking 
us right and left, then came the order to fall back and take a 
new position. This was the time we suffered our first loss, Wil- 
liam Archer, James Walker, John Francisco and Louis R. Belknap 
fell dead, pierced by rebel bullets; it was there M. E. O'Connell, 
James (Crawford, and John Jones fell badly wounded. In our 
retreat we brought off our woimded and drew up in line of battle 
in front of our tent. On they came, and in crossing the field be- 
fore mentioned, we poured volley after volley into their midst 
that slaughtered them terribly. It was here that Oliver H. Brown- 
ing and John Hanegan fell dead. At the same time, our Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel was badly wounded, shot through the thigh, and 
was carried off the field. Andrew Chambers and Thomas Gilfin 


were wounded here — shot through the legs; also Jason P. Long, 
who was shot through the knee. Poor fellow, I fear he will lose 
his leg. We then had orders to fall back again through our camp. 
On this third retreat it began to resemble an Indian fight. It was 
every man for himself — behind trees and logs — contesting the 
ground inch by inch against twenty times their numbers. Our 
regiment fought on the retrograde movement about one mile when 
we made another stand, which told fearfully on the enemies side 
with no loss to ourselves. When our colonel, who stood firm as 
a rock of adamant saw we were likely to be flanked, and in fact, 
we were in the enemy's cross fire — gave the orders to face back 
again. About this time there came reinforcements who had not 
yet been engaged — Avho took the enemy in hand and gave us a 
chance to fall back and rest for a time. In a short time we 
rallied again and went 'into the fight, refreshed by the short 
respite we had had. It was on this fourth and last stand that 
the battle raged the fiercest. All along our lines for two hours 
we were held in reserve engaged only a part of the time. This was 
a trying time, the bullets flying thick as hail — bombs bursting in 
all directions — grape and canister in profusion. Here we lost some 
of our best officers. Colonel Allen was shot through the arm and 
was obliged to leave the field. The command then fell on Major 
Thomas Reynolds — who, by-the-way, is as brave a man as ever 
drew a sword — who was ordered to fall back to the river bank to 
recruit, to give a chance to Buell's men who had began to arrive. 
Our line had been gradually driven toward the river up to the 
time of Buell's reinforcement, and would have been whipped 
and taken prisoners, had it not been for Buell. He was the 
Blucher of the day that saved us from defeat. 

We encamped on the river bank for the night, supperless, in 
a drenching rain, without tents or blankets. Monday morning, 
after a hasty meal on hard bread, we took up our march for the 
enemy again. We felt disposed to settle a final account with 
them for driving us from our tents with nothing but what was 
on our backs. We tramped all day through the woods, held as 
reserve, first in one place and then in another, in sight of the 
battle, but could not get a chance to "go in." Buell was deter- 
mined to do all, or as much of the fighting as possible with his 
own troops and only called on General Grant when much needed. 
About 3 o'clock the rebels began to fall back before the mudsills 
of the North and at 4 o 'clock were at full retreat towards Corinth. 
Then presented itself to view a most sublime sight that ever fell 
to the lot of man to see, it was about 8,000 of our cavalry that 


filed up through a large field and charged across into the woods 
upon the retreating foe. The shout that went up from our Union 
throats — say 50,000 of them — it must have been harsh music to 
the traitors' ears. We then were ordered back to the river to 
lay on our arms for the night, which we did in the midst of a 
drenching rain. Tuesday morning the fight being over and all 
quiet except an irregular fire from Buell's artillery, which sent 
Uuion compliments in the shape of twenty-four pound shot and 
shell toward Corinth, which our ungallant friends did not conde- 
scend to reply to. At 10 o'clock a. m. we received orders to march 
out and encamp on our old grounds. Then came the most trying 
part of the whole drama. The dead lay scattered around us — 
the groans of the wounded that had lain on the field through a 
most terrible rain, with no companions but the slain to cheer 
them through the lonely hours. We arrived on our old grounds 
at 10 o'clock p. m. and immediately commenced to work with 
mercy, removing our Avounded, many of whom had lain in the 
woods unable to arise or assist themselves in the least from Sun- 
day morning until Tuesday noon without food or water. In some 
cases the rebels had brought our wounded into our tents, which 
they had left standing, and treated them as well as they could 
under the circumstances. The Alabama troops were especially 
very kind to our wounded. Beauregard honored some of the 
wounded of Company G with his presence and wished them in 
hell before they came to Tennessee. We have gathered the dead 
and buried them as well as circumstances will permit, friend and 
foe alike. We are now comfortably settled again and are receiv- 
ing calls from friends and acquaintances. Governor Harvey was 
here yesterday and made a short and appropriate speech. He 
complimented the Sixteenth on the part they took in the att'air. 
He told us the proudest feeling he ever had was when he was in 
Savannah. He there found some of the wounded of the Sixteenth, 
conversed with them and found every man full of patriotism and 
ready for the fight as soon as they are able to take the field. He 
saj'S Wisconsin shall hear when he returns how her sons fought 
the proud foe and was instrumental in winning the most impor- 
tant victory of the whole campaign. I suppose it would be proper 
for me to mention a few of the brave heroes of the Chippewa 
Valley guards. We will head the list with Captain Wheeler, who 
was as cool as a cucumber and fought like a tiger. "Old Pap" 
was a host in himself; he took deliberate aim every time and 
when he pulled down went a secesh. Brave Kelly kept the Stars 
and Stripes floating in the thickest of tlie fight. Willard Bartlett, 


M. MeGillin and scores of others were as cool and determined as 
men could be, and seemed to fight as if they rather liked the busi- 
ness. Our captain was slightly wounded and fell on his knees, 
but regained his feet and went at it stronger than ever. Now I 
have to relate what is worst of all : That is the accursed rebels 
stole the flag that was presented by the fair ladies of Eau Claire 
to our company. We may be favored with a chance to retake it 
before many days, or at least have a try for it. General Halleck 
has command in person. There will be no more surprise parties 
with us. We hear Governor Harvey wants the Sixteenth to go 
back to Madison and guard prisoners on account of the loss of 
officers and men, and the good reputation the regiment bore when 
in Camp Randall. It would suit the feeling of the regiment bet- 
ter to go forward to the little town called Corinth and see what 
they keep to sell. The casualties of our regiment will sum up 
three hundred or more. Beauregard in a speech to his men before 
the attack told them he would water his horse in the Tennessee 
river that night or he would M-ater him in hell, so the prisoners 
say that were captured. 

We left Captain Perkins" company of the Eighth Wisconsin 
or Eagle regiment just after their first appearance on the battle- 
field at Frederiektown, October 21, 1861. They were kept in that 
vicinity for several months guarding railroads and bridges and 
kindred duties. Late in the fall Captain Green writes to his wife 
as follows: "November 22, 1861. As an offset to the discour- 
aging news from the army of the Potomac comes news of the 
decisive victory gained by General Grant at Belmont on the 7th. 
It gives courage to every soldier in the west ; it shows that the 
western army is commanded bj' generals who are not afraid to 
fight. We are enthusiastic over the man Grant, and are glad we 
are in his district, for now Ave believe we shall have something 
to do." 

In the Free Press of January 23 we find Correspondent Coon 
writing as follows : 

Camp Curtis, Sulphur Springs, Mo., January 10, 1862. Dear 
Free Press: Company C is once more back in its old quarters 
here after two weeks' absence down the railroad doing duty, 
guarding bridges and learning the mysteries of the art of cam- 
paigning with comfort in the middle of a Dixie winter. The camp 
is full of rumor tonight of an immediate movement from here, but 
how soon it will take place, or whether it will be to Cairo, or to 
take part in the tilt against Columbus, or to Rolla to have a chase 
after the pugnacious Price, or still further west to accompany 


Jim Lane in his swoop upon the rebels of Arkansas and Texas are 
matters that time alone will tell. Yours, * ' Quad. ' ' 

P. S. — January 12, the destination of the regiment is now fixed 
as Cairo, and we shall start tomorrow or next day. Everytliiug 
is now all preparation for departure. 

Early in 1862 Captain Green came in i^ersonal eontaet witli 
General Grant for the first time and reported to him. Because 
Grant did not show quite as much interest in the minor matters 
which Captain Green presented, as he thought proper for a time, 
there was a feeling of disappointment on the captain's part, but 
this soon passed ofl:', and we soon find Captain Green enthusiastic 
over General Grant. 

Cairo, January 26, 1862. — General Grant has been in command 
here up to this time, but now he is gone, or about starting, with 
a corps up the Cumberland river. I reported to him as officer of 
the day. He did not impress me favorably; he apparently had 
no interest in giving me orders, and seemed to care very little 
about what was going on at the post, but referred me to a staff 
officer in the next room. I felt disappointed in him, for we had 
all formed a good opinion of him for his part in the battle of 
Predericktown, and for his victory at Belmont. Certain it is that 
he is the only general thus far who has shown that he knows how 
to handle men and is not afraid to fight. 

Cairo, January 26, 1862.— Gen. W. T. Sherman was on the 
same boat. They say he is crazy and there is much about him to 
confirm that opiaiou. He is never still a moment. Talks rapidly, 
asks a dozen questions without waiting for an answer to any one. 
Walks back and forth on the boat, his sword dangling on the 
floor and his eyes scanning every object down stream. He has 
bright, piercing eyes that seem to look right through you. I was 
on deck watching him and looking around generally when he 
stopped in one of bis Avalks and began firing questions at me 
about as follows: "What command do you belong to?" "Who 
is yoixr colonel?" "How long have you been in the service?" 
"What fights have you been in?" "Do you know what to do in 
case this boat is attacked?" and several more questions without a 
pause. I kept track of them and replied: "Eighth Wisconsin." 
"Nearly six months." "Fredericktown. " "Colonel Murphy." 
"We would shoot back." He smiled very pleasantly and walked 
away. Another letter from Captain Green, dated New Madrid, 
Mo., April 10. — Island No. 10 was captured on the 8th. We were 
immediately ordered to this place. In a few hours we boarded 


transports and landed on the Tennessee side to cut off the retreat 
of tlie Island No. 10 forces, which we did, and took 3,000 prisoners 
without firing a shot. Yesterday we returned here with the 
prisoners. April 11. — Orders to cook four days' rations and 
start for Memphis. We have been brigaded. We are in the First 
brigade. Fifth division. General Pope's army. The brigade con- 
sists of the Eighth Wisconsin, Fifth Minnesota, Eleventh Missouri, 
Forty-seventh Illinois and Spoor's Second Iowa Battery, Colonel 
Plummer commanding. On board United States transport "Moses 
McClellan,"' flotilla of fifty boats, down the Mississippi, April 14. 
We are steaming down the Mississippi at the rate of twelve miles 
per hour. While I write we are far below Point Pleasant (the 
scene of rifle-pit experience), with Arkansas on one side and Ten- 
nessee on the other. Our flotilla numbers fifty steamboats, all 
loaded with troops, cannon, horses and stores. The gun and mor- 
tar boats are ahead of us. I suppose our destination is Memphis. 
The fleet is a grand sight, worth living an age to see. The river 
is a mile and a half wide, is full of boats as far up and down as 
we can see. 

April 17. — Yesterday we received northern papers with an 
account of the battle of Shiloh. Important orders of some kind 
have come, judging from the movements of our fleet. Our boat 
is steaming down stream while others are going up stream. I 
suppose we are measuring red tape. It would not be strange 
if we were ordered up river. 

April 19. — Verily the ways of the "milingtary" are past find- 
ing out. We are going up stream this morning. I never looked 
at a more magnificent sight then presented itself last night just 
before we rounded to and stopped. We were going round a bend 
in the river when one by one headlights of steamers became visible 
below us, increasing in number and rapidity as we cleared the 
point, until it seemed as if bj' magic a thousand red and white 
lights and a thousand bright furnace fires glittered and blazed 
on the water, making the darkness around us blacker than ever. 
All at once, as if to complete the scene, the bands and drum corps 
of the whole fleet struck up tattoo, filling the air with a perfect 
medley of music. Gradually the notes of the bugle could be dis- 
tinguished, then of other iustrumeuts and soon the medley of an 
entire band would come over the water. Our men, noisy and 
rough as they are, ciuieted down, scarcely whispering, subdued 
and fairly entranced by the beautiful sight and the music from 
the darkness, for the boats themselves were invisible. The lights 
looked as if suspended on nothing in the air, but the spell was 


soon broken, for the fleet rounded to the shore and tied up for 
the night. The loud call of human voices, especially of steam- 
boat captains and mates, has a coarseness that dispels fancy and 
makes reality as real and rough as it is. 

New Madrid, Mo., April 19. — Just as I commence to Avrite our 
boat is putting out into the stream, bound up river. The orders 
now are, as popularly understood on board, though not definitely 
known, that we are to go up the Tennessee river to reinforce 
Grant's army. I hope it may be true. The reason of the failure 
of this down-river expedition is on account of the high water. 
The river is higher than it has been since 1844. Land forces can- 
not operate with any effect below. They say another battle is 
imminent at Corinth and that we shall be there. 

Pittsburg Landing, Tenn., April 22. — Here we are at last on 
the battlefleld of the great struggle of the 7th. There are one 
hundred and twenty thousand troops here. Our camps are in a 
string six or seven miles up the Tennessee river. Governor Har- 
vey was starting home with a cannon which the Fourteenth Wis- 
consin regiment captured from a New Orleans battery at Shiloh 
when he fell overboard and was drowned. I never felt so bad in 
my life over any news as I did at this. Governor Harvey was one 
of nature's noblemen. His death was as much a sacrifice on the 
altar of his country as if he had fallen on the field of battle. 


May 10. — I am alive and Avell. I went through the battle of 
Farmington without being seriously hurt, but to an account of it : 
On the morning of the 8th, General Pope's corps marched out of 
camp and towards Corinth and formed in line of battle on the 
hills near Farmington, driving the enemy's pickets in and making 
a successful reconnoisance to within three miles of Corinth. At 
8 o'clock in the evening our troops were ordered back to camp. 
Company A, Captain Redfield, and several other companies 
from the brigade were left at Farmington on picket. Our 
brigade was ordered to take up position about a mile in the rear 
of the pickets, to sleep on our arms. We laid down in the open 
air with one blanket each and slept soundly until daylight. At 
6 o'clock in the morning — yesterday — we heard firing on the 
picket line, which was kept up steadily for two hours, when our 
pickets were driven in. A rebel battery in front and to the right 
of us began throwing shells. We were on the side of a hill out of 
sight. Their shells fell short of us. We knew we would soon be 
engaged for we saw the enemy advancing. They came forward 





2_ -^4 ^ Ovi tV| 



in line of battle, their flags flying over them and their bayonets 
glittering in the sunshine. Hiscox's (Wisconsin) battery was 
right in front of ns and doing good execution, but the advance 
line of the enemy was now so near and their musket balls began 
to rain on the battery so fast that it rapidly limbered up and 
went to the rear. Seeing this the rebels gave one of their 
unearthly yells and started on the double quick. My heart was 
in my throat. Why don't we get orders? Where are field 
officers" "P^ire! Fire!" I gave orders to my men, and simul- 
taneously General Loomis, riding, said at the top of his voice: 
"Now, Eighth boys, go in." With a grand hurrah our regiment 
advanced and poured a deadly volley, and another and another, 
in at the rebels, now within a hundred yards of us, which checked 
them. In a moment more they turned and fled. We started after 
them, firing as we ran. Just then a squad of our cavalry came up 
from the rear and charged ahead, passing around our right. They 
rode into a clump of timber and immediately were repulsed and 
sent back in all directions. The enemy's battery opened on us 
hotter than ever, and half a dozen regiments poured out of the 
timber on all sides of us, raking us with a cross fire. We retreated 
in good order to our first position, and there made a stand and 
delivered several volleys, but only for a few minutes, the order 
coming to fall back to the woods directly behind us. We fell 
back, keeping our line straight, loading and stopping to fire every 
few steps. By the time we reached the woods a rebel force had 
got on our right flank and poured the shot into us hot and heavy, 
which considerably hastened our retreat. During this time the 
Forty-seventh Illinois passed us in disorder to the rear, and the 
Twenty-seventh and Fifty-flrst Illinois, which had been sent as 
reinforcements, after making a charge similar to ours on the left 
and being repulsed, broke ranks and fled, apparently every man 
for himself. We were thus left the last regiment on the field and 
brought up the retreat in something like good order. This was 
due alone to the company ofiieers and men. The lieutenant- 
colonel in command had been disabled early in the action and the 
major was well on his way to camp. The company officers and 
men behaved with great coolness and bravery. There was natu- 
rally more or less confusion, owing to the lack of orders from the 
fields officers, but this never grew into anything like a panic. We 
carried ofi: the dead and also some wounded of other regiments. 
The enemy did not follow us into the woods, but shelled the woods 
fearfully. The bursting of the shells over our head and the 
crackling of the tree branches made a terrible noise. It was with 


an inexpressible feeling of relief tliat we finally struck the road 
leading to canap. There we found the whole corps in line of 
battle, Avith the officers chafing because they were not permitted 
to march out. But it was against Halleck's orders. He had for- 
bidden the corps commanders to bring on a general engagement. 
But for this I verily believe that if Pope 's corps had been brought 
out today we could have whipped the rebels and taken Corinth. 
Our regiment had ten killed and forty wounded. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Robbins had his horse shot and was disabled. Your old 
friend, Captain Perkins, of Company C, was mortally wounded 
and has just died, since I commenced writing this letter ; Lieu- 
tenant Beamish, of Captain Britton's Company G, was killed. A 
rebel soldier gave himself up; he says he was in the Louisiana 
Zouave regiment that started to capture Hiscox's battery when 
the Eighth "Wisconsin repulsed them; that seventeen of his regi- 
ment fell dead at our first fire, seven killed in the color company. 
He saw our eagle and says the rebels did not know "what in 
thunder it meant." The eagle deserves special praise. He stood 
up on his perch, with his wings extended and flopping violently 
during the whole time. The noise excited him, and if he could 
have screamed I have no doubt we would have wakened the 
echoes. His bearer was wounded : so was the color bearer. 


Free Press, May 22, 1862. — We are called upon to announce 
the death of Capt. John Perkins, of the Eau Claire Eagles, Eighth 
"Wisconsin regiment. The sad news reached this place on Tuesday 
by a private letter to Mrs. H. P. Graham by her brother, Benjamin 
P. Cowen, who was a member of Captain Perkiu"s company. lie 
died on the 11th, some fifteen miles from Pittsburg Landing, from 
the effects of a wound received in a fight on the 8th. His wound 
was in the hip, and we believe was caused by the explosion of a 
shell during a brisk engagement in which our forces under Gen- 
eral Pope were repulsed by greatly superior numbers. Captain 
Perkins had been sick for a long time and confined to hospital 
quarters at Cairo, and immediately after joining his company the 
Eighth regiment formed a part of General Plummer's brigade 
in Pope's division, which constituted the left wing of the grand 
army under General Halleck. If we mistake not, the fight was 
the first time the Eau Claire Eagles had been brought under fire 
since they left this place in September last. 

Captain Perkins Avas born in St. Lawrence county. New York, 
and was about forty-five years of age. He remained in his native 


county, filling various position of public trust, until about six 
years ago, when he came west and settled in Bridge Creek, in this 
county. Here he lived a prominent and honored citizen of his 
town and county, until two years ago, \vhen he was appointed 
receiver of the United States land office, and he became a resident 
of this village. Last spring he was elected county judge,, but 
resigned, raised a company of volunteers, enlisted and was elected 
captain by a handsome vote. This company has given the Eighth 
regiment a national reputation. The noble eagle that accom- 
panied the Eau Claire boys to the field of glory and whose perch 
is tlie staff that hears the Stars and Stripes has given the Eighth 
the name of the "Eagle Regiment" all over the country. 

Captain Perkins was succeeded by First Lieutenant Victor 
Wolf, who had helped to recruit and drill the company. His 
practical military experience, both in Germany and in this coun- 
try, had made him a valuable officer in the company and well fitted 
him to assume command. lie continued as captain of Company C 
until June, 1865, when he was succeeded by Lieut. Thomas 6. 
Butler, who continued at the head of the company until it was 
mustered out in September. 

In the spring of 1862 the following news item appeared in the 
Free Press: 

Eau Claire Jackson Guards, Free Press March 27, 1862. — Capt. 
Thomas Carmiehael and Lieut. J. F. McGrath have been engaged 
in getting up a company of volunteers for the Nineteenth (or 
Irish) regiment, and have now some forty names on the rolls. 
They have worked so modestly and efficiently, too, that this com- 
pany is over half full, and but little has been said about it. We 
are assured that there is a prospect of filling it immediately, and 
Lieutenant McGrath has gone to Madison to make arrangements 
for the company. The men thus far are a hale and hearty set 
of fellows, wlio will never turn their backs to the foes of their 
country. We wish the company success. 

Free Press April 3, 1862. — Captain Carmichael's company 
paraded the streets today under charge of James Robinson, ot 
North Eau Claire, who has been for some time instructing it in 
company drill. They are making fine progress under Mr. Robin- 
son's instructions. The company is succeeding finely and is 
bound to fill its ranks. 

Free Press April 10, 1862. — Lieutenant McGrath returned 
from Madison on Tuesday noon. He arranged to have the mem- 
bers of Carmichael's company enter Captain Beebe's Tenth Artil- 
lery company, now in St. Louis, and they are to start for Mil- 


waukee or St. Louis this week. This will be good news to the 
boys, who have been chafing for active service for some time. 

The first item in the Free Press states that some forty names 
had already been secured. All of these did not join the Tenth 
Battery, as the state roster of Wisconsin troops lists only eighteen 
who gave Eau Claire county as their place of residence, and three 
from Menomonie as their home. Among those from Eau Claire is 
the name of Thomas Carmichael, whose name appears in the Free 
Press article. He Avent out as a private in this artillery company, 
but was later promoted to the rank of first lieutenant and was 
assigned to Company H of the Twenty-seventh Wisconsin Infan- 
try. I give below the names of those in the Tenth Battery who 
gave Eau Claire county or Menomonie as their residence. Those 
from Eau Claire are: John Craig, Charles Bohn, Thomas Car- 
michael, James Cronin, William Cronin, Burton Gray, John Gray, 
William H. Lemon, William F. Manning, Florence McCarty, Chris- 
topher Mormon, Daniel Murphy, Hiram Prescott, Levi Prescott. 
Horace Prescott, John Stanley, William Wherman, Thomas Yar- 
gan. Those from Menomonie : Frank Plean, Joseph Uuselt, 
Adam Wanzell. 

You will note among the above the name of Florence 
McCarty. He lost his right arm at Red Oak Station, Georgia. 
He made his home in Eau Claire after the war, and very appro- 
priately was chosen to fire the old brass cannon at Fourth of July 
celebrations here for many years. 

The war meetings held at the commencement of the war were 
mostly for the purpose of getting recruits and were mostly local 
in the village. On August 7, 1862, a call was made for a county 
meeting for the purpose of raising funds to help the families of 
the soldiers who had enlisted or would later enlist. In the Free 
Press of August 14, 1862, we find the folloM'iug: "On Tuesday 
afternoon one of the largest and most enthusiastic meetings ever 
held in this county took place in the grove on the west side. Not- 
withstanding our farmers were in the midst of the harvest, that 
class of our citizens turned out nobly, and although only four 
days' notice had been given for the meeting, all parts of the 
county were fully represented. Mr. N. B. Boyden was chosen 
chairman, and set the ball in motion by a good speech. Rev. 
Bradley Phillips, of Chippewa Falls, and Mr. A. Meggett, of this 
place, then addressed the meeting at lengtli. Their speeches were 
able, eloquent, eminently patriotic and full of force. Many short 
talks were made during the afternoon by various gentlemen 
present, but the most encouraging and patriotic feature of the 


occasion was the liberal manner in which subscriptions were 
raised. Money was offered without stint or reserve. Everyone 
seemed desirous to contribute, and ahnost every one did con- 
tribute. A large fund was made up by voluntary subscriptions, 
which is to be appropriated as follows: Every volunteer is to 
receive a cash bonus of $10 on enrolling his name, the balance to 
be disbursed to the family of each volunteer at the rate of $5 
per month ; and in case of wants and necessities of any family to 
require more a central committee will attend to them, and decide 
upon tlie additional amounts to meet the necessities of each par- 
ticular case." 


From Eau Claire Free Press, August 28, 1862. — "The Eau 
Claire Ladies' Soldiers' Aid Society has been organized for the 
purpose of supplying, as far as possible, the wants of our sick and 
wounded soldiers. The articles most needed in the way of cloth- 
ing are slippers, shirts, drawers, dressing gowns, woolen socks, 
towels, handkerchiefs, etc. In the way of eatables and delicacies 
the following articles are always useful: Dried fruits, fresh 
fruits, canned tomatoes, tomato catsup, canned fresh meat, beef 
tea in cakes, jellies, pickles, Indian meal, spices, especially cap- 
sicum, essence of ginger, onions, fresh butter (in small stone jars), 
etc. A liberal supply of these articles will save the lives of thou- 
sands of our brave soldiers. If we are to have an army of a 
million men we must make provision for at least one hundred and 
sixteen thousand sick. Shall we not do what we can in the 
benevolent and patriotic work of taking care of these sick and 
wounded ? Do they not deserve this at our hands ? Let each 
town and community organize at once a 'Ladies' Soldiers' Aid 
Society' auxiliary to the county society, and as fast as articles 
are made or gathered together send them to the officers of the 
county society at Eau Claire, who will attend to their being 
packed and forwarded. We expect next week to send some boxes 
to the Eighth Wisconsin Regiment, and probably to the Sixteenth 
by Sergeant Schmidtmeyer. All articles intended for these boxes 
must be in before Saturday next. — Mrs. Charles Whipple, presi- 
dent ; Mrs. n. P. Graham, treasurer ; Miss Augusta Kidder, secre- 

Probably no company that went out from Eau Claire during 
the Civil War was recruited more quietly or quickly than the 
"Eau Claire Stars," which later became Company I of the Thir- 
tieth Wisconsin Infantry. Three full companies had already left 



the village aud recruiting officers were constantly busy picking 
up recruits to fill up the ranks of earlier companies, making the 
task of making up a new company a more than usually difficult 
matter. The history of the "Eau Claire Stars" Avas different 
from that of the other companies from Eau Claire. Instead of 
being sent south to fight the Confederates they were sent up into 
the Dakotas to hold the Indians in check, who were threatening 
trouble. In the Free Press of August 28, 1862, was the following : 
"The new company is nearly full and it will be one of the best 
that ever went from this county. It contains men of muscle, will, 
talent and military experience. A few more men will be accepted 
if application is made immediately. Fill up the ranks." The Free 
Press of September 11, 1862, stated: "The election of officers in 
the new company, 'The Eau Claire Stars,' took place on Monday 
afternoon and resulted in the choice of N. B. Greer for captain, 
Charles Buckman for first lieutenant and J. H. Hutson second 
lieutenant. The two former were with General Scott all through r\L^ 
Mexico and are admirably calculated to command the esteem and 
confidence of the noble fellows of the company. The following 
are the names of the volunteers : Peter Anderson, August Back, 
Edward P. Buck, Norman L. Buck, William Bell, J. M. Bernis, wyr^ 
John A. Bride, Philo Baldwin, Charles Buckman, John L. Ball, (j 
Peter Berry, Ira G. Bills, Edwin Brown, Charles J. Branch, 
Ephraim Crockett, Sanders Cochran, Charles Coats, Almeron F. 
Ellis, Oilman Goodman, Charles Goodwin, Ira F. Goodwin, N. B. 
Greer, Michael Garland, J. S. Huston, Israel Ilerrill, John Hona- 
del, Charles Hale, Ephraim Herrick, William Hanley, Henry W. 
Howard, George E. Jones, Aaron C. Hall, John Jones, James S. 
Jones, C. C. Knox, Thomas M. Kennedy, Michael Lawler, S. B. 
Luther, Erastus P. Livermore, Thomas N. McCauley, John W. 
Merrill, Richard Masters, W. F. Page, Philip Perry, Andrew M. 
Patrick, Isaac Palmer, Samuel Pitchard, Samuel Paul, George D. 
Olin, Ernest Roach, Lester Reynolds, William Ralph, Carl 
Roehrig, L. Howland, II. W. Roberts, William H. Rolf, R. L. 
Sumner, Thomas N. Sargent, Fred Sargent, Henry Spaulding, 
George Sibit, Stephen Skinner, Adrian Smith, Robert Winegar, 
Alexander Watson, Michael Weircle, John Yost."' 

On the 22nd of September the ladies of the village 
presented a flag to this company at a meeting held in Reed's 
Hall. Each member of the company was given a copy of 
the New Testament. The flag presentation address was 
given by Miss Anna Wells, and was as follows : 


"Soldiers of the Eau Claire Stars: 

"The ladies of Eau Claire present you this emblem of 
liberty, wrought by their own hands, as an evidence of the 
faith they cherish in your patriotism, your courage and 
your fidelity to your country, and of their confidence that 
when called upon to uphold and defend it upon the field 
of battle you will do it with a valor and heroism that will 
overwhelm with destruction and defeat any domestic or 
foreign foe who shall seek to trample it in the dust or over- 
throw the government of which it is the fit and historic 
insignia. Accept it, not as a trivial and meaningless com- 
pliment, but as a sacred gift, to be upheld and defended 
as you would j'our lives and your honor. Let it be the 
cynosure in the hottest moment of conflict and in the dark- 
est hour of peril. Never let it fall before the foe. Should 
the fortunes of war require it let its graceful folds envelop 
the patriotic dead, and when the clouds of dissension shall 
have passed away we cherish the hope that you may be 
spared to bring it back in triumph, without one stripe 
erased or a star obscured. We bid you farewell and God- 

The "Eau Claire Stars," sixty-three strong, with fifty-eight 
of tlie Chippewa Falls company left here October 11, 1862, on 
board the steamer Chippewa Falls, and reached Reed's Landing 
in time for supper. Here they boarded the steamer Key City 
and reached Prairie du Chien Monday morning. After reaching 
Madison, the company not being full, about the first of December 
Captain Greer came back to Eau Claire from Camp Randall to 
pick up some twenty more recruits. Although the Whipple com- 
pany was being recruited at that time Captain Greer had no 
difficulty in getting the desired number and early in December 
took them back with him to Madison. The following are the 
names of the recruits Avho went to Madison with Captain Greer 
to join the "Eau Claire Stars": Alexander Andrews, Orin S. 
Blin, Alexander Boyer, David A. Boynton, Charles E. Brown, 
John W. Close, Frank Griffin, Clark B. Hadley, Horace S. Hadley, 
Henry F. Hadley. Elpha J. Horton, Friend H. Hull, Charles John- 
son, John S. Rodd, Richard A. Reynolds, William L. Taylor, John 
A. Taylor, Andrew G. Thorp, George P. Vaux, Henry J. Way, 
William Merrick. The trip as far as Sparta was made by team. 
Among the recruits taken to Madison at this time we find that of 
C. E. Brown, who served as a private in the Greer company, and 


I have prevailed upon Jiim to relate his recollections of the "Eau 
Claire Stars" in the Indian country. 

Mr. Brown's Story. "I was twenty-three years of age at the 
time the Greer company was recruited. Had always been accus- 
tomed to lumbering operations and for several years had worked 
in the logging camps on the drives of the Chippewa Valley. I 
had planned to go into the woods again that winter, and well 
remember how strongly my old employer opposed my enlistment. 
At that time the felling of trees was done with an axe, and as 
head axeman it was my job to chop down the pine trees in such 
a way as to break them up the least, and also to be convenient 
for .skidding. Early in December we left Eau Claire for Camp 
Randall, at Madisou. The weather was extremely cold, that being 
the coldest winter ever known in the Chippewa Valley. We 
remained at Camp Randall until the spring of 1864, then left for 
St. Louis. While there it was decided that, our company should 
be sent up the Missouri river to Fort Union, in the extreme north- 
eastern part of North Dakota. As soon as the water was high 
enough in the spring we started. There were two steamboats, 
our own, the Fort Union, and the Fort Benton, bound for the fort 
of that name still farther up the Missouri. There were about 100 
soldiers on each, besides perhaps as many more other passengers, 
also supplies, etc. 

"We were nearly six weeks on the trip. One week of this time 
was spent at Kansas City, building a flat boat or barge, as the 
steamboat was found to be overloaded. It was at this place 
that I had my first buffalo hunt. Two of us got permission to 
go out. The country was a succession of ridges and ravines, mak- 
ing it difficult for us to keep within sight of each other, and we 
soon separated. I had not hunted long before I saw three buffalo 
bulls some distance away, and making right toward me. They 
were so much bigger, and more savage looking than anything 
I had expected that I was thoroughly scared and started for the 
boat, and not content with the speed I was making I hurriedly 
pulled off' my heavy boots and ran in my stocking feet, regardless 
of the prickly pears which covered the ground. When I got to 
the boat and ventured to look around 1 saw the buffaloes leisurely 
going off in an opposite direction. My buffalo hunt made sport 
for the boys. 

"As we went farther up the river buffalo became more plenti- 
ful. At one place a herd of perhaps five hundred stopped our 
steamboat for several hours. They filled the stream in front of 
the boat, and also got under the paddle wheels. The boys shot at 


thein from the steamer decks. They killed some. Occasionally 
they M'ould hit a big bull, who would start for the bank, and then, 
shaking his long mane, would charge back at the boat, but, of 
course, we were beyond their reach. At one point in the river 
the boat passed under some high overhanging cliffs. We were 
told that here the Indians were likely to heave rocks down on 
the boats. To guard against this we disembarked below the cliffs 
and marched to the summit. We found no Indians, but the 
ground was piled with the bones and skulls ol' those who had been 
killed there. It was an old Indian battle ground. 

"Fort Union was situated on a high open ridge near the river. 
About a half mile up the river the ground was lower, and covered 
with small timber, cottonwoods, etc. A similar piece of timber, 
only larger and heavier, lay about a mile down the river, and 
there was also timber on the opposite bank. Close to the river 
the brush was so dense and thick one could see but a few feet 
ahead of him. Tliere were a number of Indian tribes near us, but 
only the Sioux M'ere troublesome. The Crows were especially 
friendly. Their camp was about sixty miles north, but some of 
them stayed around the fort or pitched their wigwams inside of 
the stockade. Some of our company were granted the privilege 
of visiting the Crows at their camp, spending several days with 
them, and we were treated with all the liospitality their means 
Avould allow. We also hunted buffalo wi1h tlicm. but none of us 
were experts, and our awkwardness in atteiiiptiiig to chase buf- 
falo on their pones gave the Indians a great deal of amusement. 
The orders were that the men should only leave the fort to go any 
consideral)lc distauci' except in companies of ten or more. As 
weeks Mould pass without any signs of hostile Indians the men 
would becoiiic HKuc careless and would often go hunting singly. 
One day I took a light gun and went across the river in a skiff 
to hunt rabbits. I left the skiff and returning to it only a few 
minutes later found the tracks of a big grizzly bear by the skiff 
made in my absence. I lost no time in getting out of that vicinity. 

"In our company were several of the boys who were just ach- 
ing to run across a grizzly, and often told how they would fix him 
if opportunity offered. At last they got their chance. Under 
charge of First Sergeant Orrin S. Hall six of them went some dis- 
tance from the fort for several days of elk hunting. One day 
they had shot two elk, had strung one up and, it being late, had 
left the other on the ground. In the morning they went to look 
for the one left on the ground but it had disappeared, and the 
tracks of a big grizzly showed what had become of it. Hall was 


a brave and fearless man, and I will have more to say of him later. 
With him in the lead the boys cautiously followed the grizzly's 
trail, and before long came upon him standing over the dead elk. 
Hall told the boys that the only show was to kill the grizzly at 
the first fire, otherwise some of the company would very likely 
be killed by the grizzly. Telling the boys to take careful aim and 
to fire when he counted three, the boys raised their guns, but their 
hands shook so that Hall told them to put down their guns. After 
a few moments he told them to try again, but their hands shook 
worse than ever. Seeing it would be foolhardy to allow them to 
shoot under the circumstances a retreat was ordered, and tlie 
grizzly was left in undisturbed possession of the field. 

"Wolves were plentiful around the fort. We had in our com- 
pany a man by the name of Blin, who made quite a business dur- 
ing the winter of poisoning the wolves, with the intention of 
skinning them later and selling the pelts. An old buifalo would 
be shot and while still warm poison would be put into it, which 
would spread throughout the carcass. The wolf pelts would bring 
only a dollar, and it was worth more than that to skin them. P>y 
spring there were a hundred carcasses piled up outside the fort, 
but Blin put otf the skinning job so long that warm weather 
struck him, the carcasses began to smell to high heaven and th.^ 
poor fellow had to tote them all to the river and throw them in. 

"On New Year's day, 1865, we had a grand ball. Each of the 
boys had invited a squaw for a partner weeks in advance, and tlie 
way those squaws bought gay ribbons and finery for the occasion 
was a sight to see. We chipped in and paid our cook an extra ^2;") 
for preparing the spread, while we furnished the provisions. In 
the absence of large game we had a hundred rabbits for meat. 
Only the squaws came to the ball. Many of them were of mixed 
French and Indian blood and knew something of dancing, and 
the others were not slow to learn. It was a sight to note tlieir 
appetites and amusing to see them tucking away in their clothing 
the cake they were unable to eat. 

"The Sioux Indians oceasionallj' came to tlie fort ready to 
waylay an individual or small company they might find. One day 
I Avas hunting rabbits in the thick brush across the river when 
I heard the crackling of brush not far back of me, then on one 
side and then on the other. I gave the call to which our boys and 
the Crows always responded, but received no reply. I realized 
that the sounds were made by Sioux Indians, so I made a break 
for the river bank, but the Indians did not show themselves this 
time. On another occasion I was about a mile below our fort near 


an old deserted log fort in a clearing. Three Sioux on horseback 
started for me, but I ran and got behind the logs of the old fort. 
They circled around me a number of times and tried to induce me 
to come out into the open, but I could not see it in that light. 
Finally they rode away and after waiting for a considerable time 
I made for the fort. On another occasion the Indians made a 
raid and captured every horse belonging to our company. The 
soldiers and friendly Crows started in pursuit. There was con- 
siderable confusion and delay in getting started ; then it was some- 
times hard to tell Sioux from Crow Indians. We usually distin- 
guished them by their horses. I was about to shoot at what I 
felt sure was a Sioux, when Captain Greer stopped me telling 
me that was a Crow. A little later this same Indian, who proved 
to be a Sioux, made for us. I fired, but had forgotten to remove 
the wooden plug or "Tompkins" which we kept in our guns to 
prevent rusting. The Indian kept right on, but was killed a few 
moments after by one of the Crows, and two pieces of ray Wooden 
plug were found imbedded in bis chest. The Crow scalped his 
victim, and the squaws, not content with this, later cut off the 
hands and feet of the corpse and otherwise mutilated it. 

"The only loss of life to the company by the Indians occurred 
in April, 1865. Grizzly signs had been seen in a piece of timber 
less than a mile from the fort where some of the boys had been 
detailed to cut firewood. Early in the morning Sergeant Orrin S. 
Ilall, George Vaux and Erastus Livermore went out to see if they 
could get a shot at the grizzly. Soon Livermore came running 
back to the fort, stating that Hall and Vaux had both been killed 
by the Indians. Livermore had a hole shot through his coat, but 
was uninjured. He had seen the other two fall, but had managed 
to escape. The carti-idge had stuck in his gun, and being unable 
to shoot he had .jumped over the river bank and made his way 
back to the fort. We hurriedly made for the timber. It was scarcely 
light. We found Vaux badly wounded but alive. He had crawled 
into a thicket and later had crawled back to the trail so we would 
find him. A little further along we found poor Hall, dead, pierced 
with fourteen arrows and scalped. One Indian lay dead on the 
field and we could see where a wounded Indian had been taken 
away by friends. Vaux said that Ilall died like the brave man 
he was, continuing to shoot until he fell. The dead Indian was 
scalped and the scalp was brought back to Eau Claire by Alex. 
Watson, well known to old residents. Vaux recovered and 
returned to this county. We were at Fort Union just about one 
year. In the spring of 1865 we returned to Louisville, Ky. At 


that place I was taken sick and was sent home. That was in 
August. The company returned to St. Louis and from there went 
to Washington, taking part in the grand review, after which both 
of them returned to this section of the country." 

Editor Daily Telegram: Several weeks ago an account 
was given of the battle of Parmington, with the death of 
Captain Perkins, of the Eagle company, and the promotion 
of Lieutenant Wolf to the head of the company. That was 
in May, 1862. 

Today we have a letter from Captain Green, of the 
Eagle regiment, describing the siege and later battle of 
Corinth : 

"Bivouac, South of Corinth, Miss., June 4, 1862. — The thing 
'which was to have arroven have arrived.' Corinth is ours! Of 
course you have heard through the newspapers all about the 
evacuation, the fight with the rear guards, the destruction of 
property, etc. I only know that the enemy skedaddled; that a 
part of our army is in Corinth and that General Pope's corps has 
marched through and is now bivouacking three or four miles 
south of Corinth. It is said that 4,000 prisoners were taken, but 
I have not seen them. But now I will proceed to give you an 
account of our movements from the 27th of May to the present 
time ; first remarking that our regiment was in the front line 
and met the last charge of the enemy, repulsed them and drove 
the into their intrenchments. Our loss was small, only two killed 
and four wounded in Company I. On the 27th of May our regi- 
ment went on grand guard. Well, as I was saying, we had our 
sentinels posted by 9 o'clock of the 27th. The rebel guard was 
not over 500 yards in our front and the sentinels could see each 
other and even hold conversation ; but they did not talk much ; 
it is a serious breach of military discipline, and a violation of 
the rules of war. About 9 o'clock in the morning we expected to 
be relieved, not knowing that all the forces had left camp and 
were marching to the front. We soon found out, however, that 
we were to be relieved from picket duty only to go into more 
serious business, for in an hour or so a line of skirmishers came 
out in advance of our forces, passed beyond our guard lines and 
attacked the rebel pickets. They drove the rebel pickets in, after 
some sharp firing, and followed them closely. Our guards were 
called off post, canteens filled with fresh water, and then we 
started in search of our brigade. Found it about a mile to the 
right, and in advance of all the other forces, drawn up in line of 


battle in a little ravine running through an old cornfield with 
rising ground in front, from the top of which the land sloped 
down gradually four hundred yards to a creek, across which on 
another knoll was a rebel fort, one of the strongest of all the 
Corinth works, mounting twelve guns and defended by one or 
more brigades of infantry. The creek ran parallel with our 
line of battle and extended three hundred yards to our right, 
when it turned and ran at a right angle with our lines, heavily 
timbered on the opposite side. We had no sooner taken our posi- 
tion on the right of our brigade than the rebel battery commenced 
throwing shells at us. We got out of the ravine as quickly as we 
could and laid down on the side of the hill in front, which afforded 
protection against cannon shot and shell. The deep worn corn 
furrows comfortably hid a fellow. Our own batteries opened on 
the rebels immediately, firing over our heads as well as from our 
right and left ; a deafening, terrific cannonading was kept up for 
half an hour. It seemed as if hell had broke loose. All at once 
there was a cessation of the cannonading from the rebel battery 
and we began to cheer, supposing their guns had been dismounted. 
But the rising shout was soon drowned in the quick sharp reports 
of musketry on our left, which increased in a few moments to vol- 
leys. Up it came from left to right ; up to our feet we sprang and 
forward to the top of the hill. The left companies of our regiment 
were already engaged, and as soon as we reached the brow of the 
hill we saw the rebel infantry rushing toward us. Bang, bang, 
whiz, zip, zip, sang the rifle balls. The butternuts stood to give 
about three volleys, their colonel on a splendid looking white 
horse galloping between the two lines shouting, 'Forward my 
brave men! The battery is ours!' The horse an instant after 
rushed riderless through our ranks bleeding from one shoulder. 
Dust and smoke until you couldn't tell a man from a stump ten 
yards off. Forward we rushed, firing and shouting, officers giv- 
ing orders to the tops of their voices, when a voice was heard 
crying: 'Look out to the right, men! Look out to the right!' 
And three men on horseback emerged into view from that direc- 
tion, one of whom, a magnificent looking old soldier, we recog- 
nized as 'Old Rosy,' General Rosencrans, and at the same instant 
almost the rebels came out of the woods to our right and showered 
us with musket balls, but overshooting. With a yell. Company A 
and my company wheeled 'round to the right and dashed after 
them to the edge of the timber, but the rebels, not more than one 
or two companies, who had been deployed there as skirmishers, 
skedaddled fast, although we wounded eight or ten of them and 


captured their knapsacks, blankets and haversacks filled with five 
days' rations which they had laid in a pile before advancing. 
The fight lasted only twenty minutes. Thirty rebels were dead 
on the field in front of our regiment and a good many were picked 
up wounded. A few were taken prisoners. We lost only two 
killed and four wounded. The rebel charge was gallantly exe- 
cuted — they got so close to one of our batteries that the artillery- 
men shot some of them with revolvers. That night we threw up 
intrenchments and stayed there until the night of the twenty- 
ninth. The rebels left on that day. 

"Bivouac, near Boonville, Miss., June 6, 1862. — We are 30 
miles south of Corinth, chasing the rebels. Beauregard's evacua- 
tion of Corinth was not altogether successful. The road for 20 
or 30 miles south of Corinth was strewn with discarded equipage, 
whole camps, tents, commissary and quartermaster's stores, sick 
and wounded soldiers, wagons, mules, etc., left or abandoned in 
the greatest haste, showing that we pressed hard after them. 
We found plenty of graves, in one of which was buried a 12-pound 
howitzer. It had a headboard marked 'W. C.,' with date, etc. 
They had not time to round up the grave before our advance 
came in sight. 

"October 3. — We have completed the circle and now hail 
again from Corinth. We are in camp about five miles west of 
town. I am in a private house under the surgeon's care. The 
enemy, Price and Van Dorn's army, is all around us everywhere, 
but no one seems to know just where. 

"Camp near Ripley, October 8. — I began this letter at 
Corinth, October 3, and had only gotten it fairly commenced 
when the surgeon came into my room greatly excited, saying the 
rebels were coming. There were but a few soldiers in town. 
Our brigade was marching from a point five or six miles southwest 
toward Corinth as rapidly as possible. About noon the report of 
cannon was heard in the near distance and our troops began 
pouring into town from different directions and forming into line 
of battle. I waited from 11 o'clock in the forenoon until the 
middle of the afternoon before our regiment put in its appear- 
ance. I tell j'ou it was a period of awful suspense, and I never 
was so glad in my life as I was to see the old Eagle regiment 
coming up the road. They had been on the run for several hours 
and were in a state of exhaustion. I joined my company and we 
went into the fight. We doubled-quicked through a field and ran 
directly into the enemy in the woods, who poured a deadly fire 
into our ranks while we were marching and before we could form 


CAPT. W. P. GRAVES j ' '] 



UT. 51. i;. wyjiAN 



in line of battle. The fight was hot for ten minutes or more, but 
the enemy were too strong for us. They had ten times our num- 
ber. They made a charge, yelling like so many screech owls or 
devils. We stood our ground and fired volley after volley into 
them, but it seemed to make no impression on them whatever. 
Tliey came right on like a great wave, overwhelming everything 
in its progress. Catching sight of our eagle those in front of our 
regiment gave forth an unearthly yell and started to capture it. 
Old Abe, up to that time had behaved himself with great gal- 
lantry, but at this moment a bullet slightly wounded him under 
one wing and he hopped off his perch to the ground and ducked 
his head between his carrier's legs. All attempts to make him 
stay on his perch were useless. He was thoroughly demoralized, 
and the same feeling extended itself to the line and they broke 
and ran before the rebel charge, the carrier of the eagle picking 
him up and carrying him under his arm as fast as he could run. 
It was a new experience for us, for heretofore we had always 
been the victors. The regiment and brigade dissolved so quickly 
that it was impossible to see what had become of them. I found 
myself with Captain Wolf, of Company C, and the colors, with 
perhaps a dozen men. The color bearer was shot and the next 
man who picked them up was wounded. We brought them off the 
field with the enemy at our heels. We got back to Battery 
Robinette, which opened on the rebels and checked their advance 
and waited the next move. It was now dusk and the fight for 
that day was over. We laid on our arms all night, and as soon 
as morning broke the cannonading opened and Avas kept up with 
fearful energy. After this our advance skirmishers were driven 
in and we formed our lines and waited. We did not have long 
to wait. The rebel line of battle emerged from the woods and 
came forward to Battery Robinette through the abbatis formed 
by falling trees, with the greatest heroism and daring. All the 
guns of the fort and the musketry of our line of battle opened 
on them, but on they came, closing up their ranks-on, on, running, 
climbing, shooting, shouting and yelling — their leader, Colonel 
Rogers, mounted on a white horse, riding in advance waving his 
sword and looking as grand and noble as Mars himself. Oh, it was 
a terrible charge. Right up to the parapet of the battery they 
swarmed, their gallant leader and his horse being shot as he 
leaped the ditch. They swarmed over the parapet. Our line of 
battle gave way before them and fell back, perhaps, fifty yards, 
when General Rosecrans, bareheaded, waving his hat and sword, 
rushed along in front of the line and the men soon went forward 


and drove the rebels back. Some of the rebels actually got into 
the battery and were killed or captured by the gunners. Many 
surrendered rather than run the risk of being killed on the re- 
treat. The ground in front was covered with their dead and 
wounded. Over 3,000 rebels were killed and wounded. Our loss 
was not so large, but was heavy enough. Our regiment had ninety 
men killed and wounded. The records of the world may be 
searched in vain, I verily believe, to find a more desperate, bloody 
and gallant charge than that made by the rebels. They had every- 
thing at stake. Everything depended on their winning the battle 
and they fought hard for it, but in vain. The two armies were 
about equal in numbers, but we had the heaviest artillery. As 
soon as the charge was over Ave waited for them to try it again. 
But they did not charge again. Again and again they formed 
their lines and advanced to the edge of the woods, but their men 
would go no further. Officers swore and- appealed to them to go 
in just once more, but they had had enough." 

It was in the fall of 1862, soon after the battle of Corinth, 
that Coloney Murphy, of the Eighth Wisconsin, allowed the 
enemy to destroy an immense store of supplies at Holly Springs, 
which event had an important bearing on the Vicksburg campaign, 
making, as it did, impossible the carrying out of one of the earlier 
plans for the reduction of "Vicksburg. 

The late Col. W. F. Vilas, in his history of the Vicksburg cam- 
paign, makes the following reference to this affair: "And to cap 
all, the surprise by Van Dorn of Holly Springs, the intermediate 
base where Grant had gathered a million dollars' worth of sup- 
plies, which the enemy destroyed, determined his (Grant's) with- 
drawal from this attempt. It is humiliating to add that the cow- 
ardice of a Wisconsin officer. Colonel Murphy, of the Eighth In- 
fantry, the Eagle regiment, who basely yielded the post at Holly 
Springs, which he could easily have defended, furnished tlie sole 
reason for tliat disaster; because, but for his action, liis men woiild 
have protected the place. It is not a consolation that he \Aas 
promptly cashiered. ' ' 

In May, 1863, we find Grant's army before Vicksburg, and 
Captain Green, writing to his wife as follows: "Camp near Vicks- 
burg, May 26, 1863. — On returning to camp (eve of the twenty- 
first) we had an order that the army was to charge the enemy's 
works at ten o'clock next day all along the line. In the morning 
the army was in line of battle, waiting the order to go in. It 
was about noon, however, when the bugles sounded and the Union 
Army, with Hags waving over them, charged the rebel works. 


Our brigade was held in reserve. We stood in line of battle and 
saw the front go in. They melted away before the withering 
fire from the entrenchments and soon disappeared from view. 
Presently, when the smoke lifted, we saw them in ravines and in 
the ditch right under the rebel guns, with their Hags planted on 
the outer slope of their works. About two o'clock in the after- 
noon General Grant and Adjutant-General Rawlins met Generals 
Sherman, Tuttle and Mower, where we were standing under arms. 
Grant had on a slouch hat, a torn blouse and an ej'e glass slung 
over his shoulder. They had a conference at the head of our 
regiment, and several of us officers went up to where they were 
talking and heard what they said. General Grant said he had a 
dispatch from McClernand, on the extreme right of him, down 
by the Mississippi river, on the lower side of Vicksburg, stating 
that his troops had carried the enemy's works and were now in 
them, and if another charge was made on another part of the 
line to prevent the enemy sending re-enforcements to repel him 
he could go into the city. I heard General Grant say that he 
did not think it was true, but it might be so, and in order that the 
enterprise might not fail for lack of support, he would order that 
another charge be made immediately; and turning to General 
Sherman, he said: 'Send in your reserves.' General Sherman 
turned to General Tuttle, our division coiiniiander, and ordered 
him to send in a brigade. General 'riitlli' sjiid in turn to General 
Mower, wlio commanded our brigade, '(icuci-al. charge the works 
with your brigade at once.' General Mower was a brave man, 
there was no discount on that — he meant to obey the order, but 
could not help saying, 'General, it will be the death of every man 
in the brigade to go in there now,' and without waiting to hear 
what reply was made he sent his aide to the colonels command- 
ing the regiments of the brigade with orders to follow the ad- 
vance, marching by right flank for about one hundred yards, 
where the groiuid would not permit a forward movement in line 
of battle, and when they got out of this to form in line of battle 
and charge on the double quick. The Eleventh Missouri was in 
the lead, the Fifth Minnesota came next, the Eighth Wisconsin 
was next and the Forty-seventh Illinois in the rear. 

"The orders were given. We moved down the road diagonally 
to the front, mareliing four abreast until we struck a sunken road, 
three or four feet deeper than the surrounding ground. This 
sunken road was perhaps two hundred yards long, then it tui-ned 
to the right. We were marching four abreast through this road 
until it turned, then we were to form in line of battle and march 


forward. Just as we struck the road we came out in full view 
of the enemy, who were standing by their guns. Our appearance 
was the signal for them to open fire on us with all their guns 
and a stream of fire shot out from the rebel works not over a 
thousand yards away. It was perfectly awful. The two regiments 
ahead of us had disappeared and the sunken road was full of dead 
and wounded. Just as we reached it, Lieutenant Chapman, as 
brave a young fellow as every was in the army, and a genial com- 
panion was shot, a canister shot hitting him in the breast and 
going through him. He fell against me, his blood spurting out in 
streams. I laid him down as gently as I could. His eyes looked 
into mine, but he was dead, killed instantly. We actually stepped 
on the dead and wounded in the sunken road, so thickly were they 
lying. Men were falling all aroinid us. The bullets whizzed in 
our ears like a s\varm of bees and the shells exploded among us 
incessantly. We reached the turn in the road and left it, the com- 
panies making a half wheel to get into line of battle, then charged 
forward on the double quick, without much regard to alignment. 
The ground was open and level, here and there a tree or a stump 
or a bunch of cane behind which a squad of men were crouching. 
The works were only a few lumdred yards ahead, but it seemed 
a mile. We ran on through an iron hail before which our men 
fell like leaves, killed and wounded. Our flag went down — then 
reappeared — the air thick with the dust and the noise of the 
enemy's shots pei'fectly deafening. It seemed as if we would 
never get there, but at last we reached the ditch at the foot of 
the entrenchments, jumped and drew a long breath of relief. 
Our color-bearer was boosted up and planted his flag in the ground 
half way up. 

"Well, it was just as General Grant anticipated, our charge 
was a useless waste of life ; McClernand did not get into the city ; 
indeed, he had never been inside of the works. We lay in the 
ditch until after dark. During the time we were lying there the 
rebels would put their muskets over the parapets and shoot down 
at us. If one of them showed his head above the works our boys 
were watching and it was a dangerous operation. Several of our 
boys were wounded in the ditch. After dark an armistice was 
proclaimed to carry off our dead and wounded and our brigade, 
indeed all the troops, marched back to camp. The regiment had 
thirty killed and seventy-five or eighty wounded. The next morn- 
ing an order was issued that the works were too strong to be 
carried by assault, that we must get them by regular approaches, 
consequently we are now digging our way up : exactly the same 


experience that the allies had before Savastopol. I think a fort- 
night will end the siege. There are supposed to he twenty-five 
or thirty thousand men in Vicksburg, we have not over twenty- 
five thousand, if that many. 

"This campaign will be forever memorable in history and 
stamps General Grant as the greatest military genius of the age. 
He whipped Johnson's thirty thousand men and drove him so far 
away he can do no more miseliief, then turned round and penned 
Pemberton's men up iu Vicksburg, and all with a smaller army 
than either Johnson's or Pemberton's. His headquarters are only 
a short distance to our right and rear. We see him every day, 
common as a private soldier, but he always seems to be thinking. 
Grant, Sherman, Logan and McPherson are great soldiers. If the 
array of the Potomac had such generals, Richmond would soon be 
ours." During the progress of the Vicksburg siege the Eighth 
Wisconsin was moved about considerably. Had a sharp skirmish 
at Mechanicsville, also near Richmond. 

"Camp on Black river, 12 miles east of Vicksburg. — I wish we 
had as great a general as Lee to command our eastern army. 
Vicksburg, Julj^ 4, 1863, 2 o'clock p. m. — I am writing this on a 
yellow piece of paper in the cupola of the Vicksburg court house, 
and I send it to you with a bunch of splinters from one of the 
pillars of the steeple, where a shell had gone through it. The 
whole cupola is riddled with our shells. The long siege is at last 

"July 4. — Later in the day. The scenes we Avitnessed on com- 
ing into the city beggar description. I cannot write them to you. 
The Confederate troops were in the last stage of starvation. They 
had been living on mule meat for some days. I saw some of it 
and it was enough to turn one's stomach. The rebels were glad 
to see us, too. The hills are honey-combed with caves in which 
they have lived. As we walk along the street we can see women 
running toward each other, crying for joj', and throwing their 
arms, around each other's necks and weeping and kissing.'" 

Through the kindness of Mrs. Charles CofiSn we furnish the 
following description of Vicksburg, as written by Captain Culbert-' '-'<'- 
son, of the Sixteenth Wisconsin: "If there were about ninety 
hills like Barren Bluff sitting near together with dugways through -| kA-.~^ "i 
the liills, trenches, rifle pits, forts and redoubts on every command- t/L<»->X^ 
ing point. If there was such a place, it would be as near like Vicks- 
burg as anything I can think of at present, but still it would 
want one thing to complete the scene, which these hills would 
want to be covered with buildings and the buildings riddled with 


shells. But for all this, there are some very fine streets in the 
place, also some fine buildings, but finest of all are the shade 
trees, which are on every street, almost hiding the houses. If I 
had seen this place before the boats run the blockade I should have 
said that Grant was crazy to attempt anything of the kind, but 
the old fellow has a long head and works to win. Let General 
Grant have his army in here and I would defy the world to take 
this place in seven years. ' ' 

"Vicksburg, Miss., August 19, 1863. — Dear Mother, Sister and 
Brother: The steamer City of Madison was blown up today while 
lying at the levee loading ammunition to take below. There was a 
detail of about three hundred men, white and black, loading her, 
and it was all done by the carelessness of one negro. As they Avere 
loading percussion shells the negro threw one of the boxes filled 
with these shells into the hold, discharging the whole lot, and as the 
boat had several tons on, the bursting of one shell set the whole 
cargo ofl'. The boat was blown so that you could hardly tell 
that it had ever been a boat. As near as can be ascertained now 
there were nearly 156 lives lost. The steamer Walch, that lay 
along side of her, was nearly as bad, but I believe there was no 
loss of life on the Walch. The loss of life and property was awful. 
There was not a whole pane of glass left in a building within 80 
rods, so great was the concussion. Men were blown across the 
river and fragments of the wreck could be seen all througli the 

"Your son and brother, H. M. Culbertson.'" 

It will be remembered that the Sixteenth regiment, to which 
Captain Wheeler's company belonged, was badly cut up at the 
battle of Pittsburg Landing or Shiloh. Later engagements, sick- 
ness and death further reduced its ranks, and it was found neces- 
sary to reorganize the regiment. This was done by consolidating 
the ten old companies into five and adding "new companies B, 
D, F, H and K. " John Kelly, who went out as a private in Cap- 
tain Wheeler's Company G, was made captain of "new company 
B," a well earned promotion. I find no other Eau Claire man in 
this company, it being recruited from the eastern part of the 
state. One of the "new companies," Company H, was recruited 

Free Press, December 3, 1863. On Monday last 67 men for a 
new company in the Sixteenth left for LaCrosse in charge of D. C. 
Whipple and John T. Tinker. This company has been recruited 
in less time than it required to raise any previous one. Messrs. 


Tinker, Whipple and M. A. Shaw have labored zealously to raise 
this company, and their efforts have been erovi^ned with the most 
ample success. No officers of this company were elected until 
after their arrival at LaCrosse. No list of the privates in this 
company was printed at the time, but from the official roster the 
list below is furnished. Capt., Darwin C. Whipple ; First Lieut., 
John T. Tinker ; Second Lieut., Milton Grover, Red Cedar ; Second 
Lieut., Edward W. Allen, Eau Claire. Privates : John C. Bailey, 
Burzelia Bailey, Walter D. Bailey, John C. Barland, William H. H. 
Beebe, Harvey N. Benjamin, Edward J. Bonnell, John W. Brown, 
Wesley C. Butterfield, James G. Cleghorn, Peter Cromwell, Sam- 
uel C. Dean, Peter Deery, Isiah Drew, William H. Fox, John W. 
Gilbert, Freeman Grover, Jefferson Heath, John W. Heasley, 
Henry Ilendrickson, Benjamin P. Ilowland, Hiram Hill, Lyman 
M. Hotehiss, Azro B. Hoyt, Arch K. Humphrey, Samuel Iverson, 
John Johnson, Daniel E. Johnson, Dwight A. King, Myron N. 
Lawton, Henry Longdo, George IMcElrath, Even J. Morgan, Ener 
Nelson, Patrick Nooney, David A. Robertson, Joel Ross, John Ross, 
Harvey N. Saunders, Myron A. Shaw, Canute Thompson, Cary P. 
Wood, Henry Wyborney. 

The history of Company H, which christened itself the "Wil- 
liams Guards " in honor of H. Clay Williams, was published in 
Tom Randall's history of the Chippewa Valley, as told by Lieut. j,v'-vvivvi.^ c^|^ 
E. W. Allen, and is herewith reprinted : -^ jL "^ n-^ 

"From the cold snows of the North to the balmy skies and * 

peach blossoms of Vicksburg was a pleasant change. After doing 
picket duty at Black River bridge for a month we were ordered 
back to Vicksburg, from thence north on transports up the river, 
passing Port Pillow a few hours after the massacre by Forrest. 
Company H and two other companies were landed at Columbus to 
assist the colored troops in defending the fort against an attack 
momentarily expected from that chivalrous general, which, how- 
ever, he failed to make. After two weeks of hard duty we joined 
the command at Cairo, then preparing to join Sherman's army 
in Northern George. From Cairo to Clifton, Tennessee, on trans- 
ports, and thence by forced marches three hundred miles across 
that state, Alabama and Georgia, taking position on the left of 
the grand army, before Kenesaw Mountain, June 10, 1864. We 
suffered terribly during this march and many gave out by the 
way, among whom were Lieutenants Grover and Tinker, who went 
to the hospital. 

"From this time to the tenth of September, three months, we 
were constantly under arms, marching, skirmishing and fighting. 


our first exploits being in the battles about Kenesaw, where we 
lost several men; then hotly pursuing the rebels night and day, 
until they took refuge in their trenches before Atlanta. We lay 
on our arras on the night of July 20, the enemy strongly fortified 
in front, and just at break of day we were ordered to charge. 
Grave doubts and fears were expressed, as there were so many 
new recruits in the regiment, whether it would not be better to 
put an old and tried regiment in our place, but after a short con- 
sultation it was decided to keep us where we were, for if the 
charge was made, the older soldiers Avho Avere supporting them 
would have no confidence in them, and they would lose all con- 
fidence in themselves. The result showed the wisdom of the con- 
clusion. It was a trying moment when Colonel Fairchild shouted 
the order, 'Fix bayonets, forward.' Out of the timber, down a 
ravine, up and across a field, over their works, driving out Har- 
dee's veterans and taking some prisoners, was but the work of a 
moment. Lieutenant Colonel Reynolds, coming up quickly, said 
to the new men, 'You are all veterans now, boys.' 

"The general commanding the brigade sent word to General 
Blair, saying, 'The "Wisconsin boys did nobly,' but it was praise 
dearly earned. Colonel Fairchild, Lieutenant Colonel Reynolds, 
Capt. John Wheeler, and many other officers were wounded, but 
fortunately none killed. Company H lost two killed and seven 
wounded. Captain Whipple particularly distinguished himself in 
this action, and a somewhat laughable incident occurred during 
the charge. So great was the excitement but little attention was 
paid to his efl:orts to keep the men in line with the colors, but 
finally becoming terribly in earnest and shouting above the roar 
and din of battle, he sang out, 'If you don't know what line on 
the colors means, keep your eyes on that flag. ' We held the works 
all day under fire, and strengthened them at night ; but about noon 
the next day the enemy burst on our left, and was crushing that 
part of our army like an egg shell, coming boldly on until they 
reached the works held by the Twelfth and Sixteenth Wisconsin, 
who repulsed them in six successive terrible charges, first in front, 
then in rear, and changing sides of their works as many times. 
Captain Whipple showed himself the same hero here as the day 
before, but the strain was too much ; constant fatigue and anxiety 
and the suffering from his wound sent him to the ambulance. 
Orderly Sergeant Allen took command of the company, there be- 
ing no commissioned officer with the company. Being ordered to 
another part of the field, by a forced march, Captain Whipple 
again joined us and assisted in repi;lsing several charges, but was 


soon obliged to go to field hospital, and E. W. Allen, just com- 
missioned, took command. 

"The final battles of Jonesborongh and Lovejoy's Station 
closed the campaign, and with light hearts we spread our tents 
in Atlanta, September 10, 1864. Our company was reduced from 
ninety to twenty muskets, so severe had been the work. Here 
we received a quantity of good things, pickles, berries, condensed 
milk, etc., from kind friends in Eau Claire, for which, if ever 
men felt grateful, we did. But we did not rest long. Hood had 
gone north and was eating our crackers, so we were after him 
again, and for five days and nights we chased him over moun- 
tains, rivers and valleys, and then were ordered back to Atlanta 
again, whei'e, for the first time in eight months, we received our 
pay, and voted for president, thirty-four for Lincoln and two 
for McClellan. That was the kind of men that composed Com- 
pany H. On November 14 we started with Sherman on his grand 
march to the sea, and a month of constant marching brought us 
to the gates of Savannah, where, after a short resistance, we 
marched, flags flying, into the city. Starting again, we took 
Poeotaligo, out on the Charleston railroad, which fell in conse- 
quence, and next our company was at the burning of Columbia, 
then Cheraw, Fayetteville, Bentonville and Goldsborough were 
taken, and after a few daj^s' rest, waiting for our absent men to 
come up, a forced march brought us to Raleigh. 

"When Captain Whipple, who had been sent home sick, re- 
joined us, how glad we were to see him. Here the war virtually 
closed. The fighting was over, but we were a long way from home, 
but marching was easy now, for every day brought us nearer to 
our loved ones there. On to Petersburg, Richmond and Wash- 
ington, where on the twenty-third of May, we took part in the 
grandest pageant ever seen in America, the grand review; Mrs. 
Sherman throwing bouquets at our tattered and worn colors. We 
were soon transferred to Louisville, Ky., where, on the fourth day 
of July, 1865, General Sherman took a final farewell of us, and 
a few days after we were mustered out, sent to Madison, received 
our final pay and discharged on August 21, 1865, and with light 
hearts started for home, never more, it is hoped, to be called 
to take up arms for our beloved country against internal foes." 

On the roster of Captain Whipple's company will be found the 
name of John C. Barland, who furnished to the Telegram the fol- 
lowing reminiscences of that company. 

J. C. Barland, on request of the editor of the Telegram, fur- 
nished an article on the late war, says, "to give a comrade's recol- 


lection of the old Sixteenth Wisconsin volunteers should have some 
response. The pressure of circumstances makes it difficult for 
me to do so just now. Still I would fain offer something, for 
when is not a tribute due to those gallant men? Through the 
dimming mists of fifty years again they come before my vision. 

■'I see them muster in a gleaming row, 

"With ever youthful brows that nobler show, 

We find in our dull road their shining track, 
In every nobler mood, 

We feel the orient of their spirits glow. 
Part of our life's unalterable good — 

Of all our saintlier aspiration." 

Company G, the first to go, enrolled some of the choicest spirits 
that Eau Claire could give. I cannot stop to enumerate. Of one 
I will speak. John Kelly ; rough, yes rough, but a diamond in 
the rough. Years later, when asked, "Do you receive a pension?" 
his answer : "John, why should I receive a pension ? I was a bet- 
ter man physically, morally and mentally when I came out than 
when I went in." This was true. He was a growing man to 
the last day of his life, and no finer thing can be said of any man. 

In the fall of '63, while Vicksburg and Gettysburg still echoed 
in our ears. Company H enlisted and later joined the Sixteenth 
at Vicksburg. Of that company, Eau Claire may be proud. There 
were Whipple and Tinker and Allen, so finely identified with the 
early history of Eau Claire, all worthy of mention if these limits 
permitted. Only a few remain — Merton of Bloomer, a good sol- 
dier, and most worthy man, and Cleghorn of Eau Claire, splendid 
soldier, good citizen, who gave of his best to his country and the 
little valley that bears his name. 

From the miasmas and sickness of the Mississippi valley the 
early spring of '64 found us at Huntsville, Alabama, after a series 
of arduous marches to join Sherman for the capture of Atlanta. 
It was a grewsome sight, that Sunday afternoon, when we arrived 
at Huntsville after a long forced march. The beautiful stream 
that bubbles up from a great spring in the heart of Huntsville 
was lined with our boys, their shirts in their hands picking off 
the greybacks, and washing in the stream. From Huntsville 
throiigh an enemy's country, 400 miles of forced marching and 
fighting to our goal, Atlanta. On the long march, unable to obtain 
supplies, many a soldier had to go barefoot. Such was the 
writer's fate, who was known as the barefoot corporal. It was 
near the base Kenesaw that we joined Sherman. It was here 


1hat Company II received its baptism of fire. For hours we had 
marched to the deepening sound of artillery. At first only a throb 
on the air, and then, nearer and clearer and still clearer. A 
strange silence stole over the men, and Captain Whipple, march- 
ing at our side said: "Well boys, that is what we have been 
marching so long for to find at last," And next the order to file 
right into line, and now the bullets are whistling in our ears and 
the shells from Kenesaw are bursting in our midst. 

The great struggle for Atlanta was on. It lasted through all 
those long, hot summer mouths. These limits will only permit of 
a glimpse. There was a constant roar of battle, day and night, 
upon some part of our line, swelling now into the assault upon 
Kenesaw, where we were repulsed, now upon Lost Mountain, or 
South Mountain, which stood like sentinels between us and At- 
lanta, or again at Peachtree Creek, on the twenty-second of July, 
when Hood flung himself upon us in the madness of desperation. 
It was here that the Sixteenth Wisconsin, of all its memorable 
conflicts, distinguished itself the most. Hood's veterans had 
fiercely attacked our left wing in hope of turning it, and largely 
it was the determination of the Sixteenth Wisconsin which pre- 
vented this. If Hood could have turned our flauk at that time 
he Avould have won a vast prize, for there, on our left flank, were 
massed the wagon trains of our army. It was the fortune of 
the writer at that time to be detailed to guard the wagon train. 
Five hundred six-mule wagons were massed not three miles from 
Decatur. Hood, for the moment, had turned our flank and was 
sweeping down upon our train. The wagon fled in a furious panic 
to form behind the center. The train guards were deployed in a 
thin skirmish line to hold Hood in check. It was here the Six- 
teenth, with others, saved the day, and Hood was turned back. 
It was this incident that enabled the writer to speak intelligently 
of that field. As we passed down the lines to rejoin our train, 
behind the center, we passed the Sixteenth where they lay in the 
midst of the carnage that had been wrought. There were the 
dead rebels as thick as leaves, right up to the very foot of the 
Sixteenth's lines. As we passed down the lines there were Icmg 
rows of our own dead and wounded, and further on, younij: .Mc- 
Pherson, the brave commander of our own army of the Tennessee, 
lay still in death. 

It was only a few days later that, assaying to go to the regi- 
ment which lay beyond a little wood and down an open slope, that 
I ran across Willard Bartlett, a member of Company G. He was 
cooking at a fire. I knew him to be a good soldier, and I said to 


him, "How is this, "Willard?" "Well," he said, "I have only 
three days more to get my discharge and I prevailed on the offi- 
cers to let me cook, so I might have a chance to get through." 
The writer passed on through the wood to the open slope. Though 
I knew that the regiment lay not forty rods away, not a sign 
of them was visible. No enemy was in sight. The stillness of death 
hung over the little valley. As I emerged from the woods the 
sharpshooters in the trees beyond got a line upon me. The bul- 
lets flew thick and fast. You may be sure I walked pretty fast. 
Though I did not like to have the Sixteenth see me run, when I 
got within ten rods of the ditch I heard Ed Allen's voice calling: 
"Run, John, why don't you run?" Iran. "Why," said Ed, who 
was down in the ditch almost out of sight, "it's not safe to show 
your head. The rebs are only ten rods away in another ditch." 
I stayed curled up in the bottom of the narrow ditch till it was 
dark and then I returned to my train, but I stopped on my way to 
see Willard Bartlett. They told me he had been shot soon after 
I had left him; slain doubtless by one of the bullets aimed at 
myself. I give this incident that yovi may .iust get a glimpse of 
this terrible conflict." 

Note: The Willard W. Bartlett referred to was a brother of 
Hon. William P. Bartlett of this city. 

Editor Daily Telegram. — We take up today the story of an- 
other company from Eau Claire county. The town of Pleasant 
Valley seems to deserve a considerable share of credit for this 
company, which later became Company K of the Thirty-sixth 
Wisconsin infantry. I furnish you a picture of Capt. Warren 
Graves, who died near Petersburg, Va. 

The first reference in the press to this new company for the 
Thirty-sixth regiment is tlie following: 

(Free Press, March 3, 1864.) 
The work of recruiting goes on in a satisfactory manner, and 
at the present rate men are coming forward it is confidently ex- 
pected the towns of Lincoln, Bridge Creek and Brunswick will 
yet raise their quota prior to the draft. Eau Claire county has 
made a record which shines too brightly to be dimmed by failure 
to respond to the demands of the hour, and some of her sons have 
helped to make the grand old state of which we are proud to be 
the children, a synonym for all that is manly, courageous and 
brave. Since Friday last about one hundred and twenty men have 
enlisted to fill various quotas for this and adjoining counties, and 
the new company now being raised for the Thirty-sixth Regiment. 


The town and county have already furnished a large amount to 
avoid conscription and are ready to make further advances in the 
same direction, if the men will come forward. The enthusiasm 
is at fever heat in this county, and the boys are determined to 
close up this rebellion before another summer. 

Before the end of the mouth the ranks were filled and the com- 
pany left for the front. 

A week later further mention is made as follows: 

(Free Press, March 24, 1864.) 

One week ago last Monday, amid general enthusiastic rejoicing 
and well wishes from those they left behind, the volunteers of the 
new company for the Twenty-sixth Regiment, numbering one hun- 
dred and twenty men, left this place for Jladison, where they are 
to be mustered into service. As we glanced at the many familiar 
friends leaving to share the uncertainties of war, one could not 
help noticing the large number of "Old Pioneers"' in the ranks 
on whose countenance age had already deeply stamped its never 
failing mark. They have proven their deep patriotism by enlist- 
ing side by side Avith younger companions, to assist in quelling 
this unholy rebellion, which speedily must have a termination. In 
the ranks were to be seen men whose "silvery locks" told that 
mau.\- siiiniiicrs had passed over them, beside the beardless youth 
will ISC :! II lent desire to serve his country knows no bounds ; all leav- 
ing Avith many blessings and fervent wishes for their safe journey 
through scenes which they may be called to pass, and for their 
speedy return home when duties are discharged. Although re- 
cruiting for the company onh' commenced four weeks ago, it 
raised its maximum number in much less time ; and in general ap- 
pearance will compare with any other company raised in this sec- 
tion. A number of the volunteers are residents of Chippewa and 
Buffalo counties, all stout, well built, rugged looking fellows, as 
if inured to the privations, hardships and exposures of outdoor 
life. The company is yet unorganized, having expressed a wish to 
leave the selection of officers until they reach the place of destina- 
tion, where they will be assigned to the Thirty-sixth Regiment. 

The announcement of the election of captain and first lieu- 
tenant is given two weeks later. 

(Free Press, April 7, 1864.) 
We understand that the new company recently raised here for 
the Twenty-sixth Regiment has selected W. Graves for captain and 
E. A. Galloway for first lieutenant. Both of these men are quali- 


fied to discharge the perplexing duties of their offices in a credit- 
able manner. Charles H. Witherow, late of the Twenty-fifth Regi- 
ment, took six or eight new recruits with him last M'eek to 

I have found no satisfactory account of the service of the 
Graves company. Thomas Randall, in his history of the Chippewa 
Valley devotes a small amount of space to it, but his statements 
are not altogether accurate. The following is taken from his 
book : ' ' Company K, Thirty-sixth Regiment, was recruited under 
the call of the President for five hundred thousand men, in Feb- 
ruary and March, 1864, through the efforts of Capt. Warren 
Graves and Lieut. E. A. Galloway and Joseph R. Ellis, all of 
Pleasant Valley, in this county, and nearly all the men were 
from the country towns in Eau Claire, Chippewa and Dunn coun- 
ties. It was a brave and hardy company of men, but the regiment 
was the most unfortunate of any that left this state, and of the 
eighty-eight men in Captain Graves' company, only one returned 
unscathed. W. W. Crandall, of LaFayette, Chippewa coimty, was 
neither sick, wounded nor taken prisoner while every other man in 
the company was either killed, woimded, taken prisoner or sent to 
hospital. Captain Graves was wounded, sent to hospital and died. 
Lieutenant Galloway was killed while leading an assault on the 
enemy's works. Many were taken prisoners in the deep railroad 
cut south of Petersburg, and suffered horrors a thousand times 
worse than death in rebel prisons, and many painful circumstances 
grew out of the long suspense and almost hopeless uncertainty as 
to their fate." 

The number in the company was considerably larger than 
stated by Mr. Randall. The Free Press states that 120 joined, 
but some of these must have failed to muster in. The official roll 
shows 102 names. Captain Graves did not die of wounds and was 
not wounded, but died from heat and overexertion during an en- 
gagement. There is no such name as W. W. Crandall given on 
the official muster roll. There was a David Crandall, from Red 
Cedar, but this Crandall was wounded at Cold Harbor. Although 
this company unquestionably was fearfully decimated by death, 
wounds and prisoners taken, yet it is too strong a statement to 
say that only one returned unscathed. Of course, there is no 
means of telling how many liave temporarily been sick and in hos- 
pitals, but I find over 20 names of those who were mustered out 
at the time of the general mustering out of the company on the 
twelfth of July, 1865, and a considerable number more who were 
mustered out a few weeks earlier. 


I give below the names of all in this company who enlisted 
from Eau Claire, Chippewa and Dunn counties. As stated in the 
Free Press, quite a number in this company were from Buffalo 
county. I also give a summary made up from the official roster 
showing the fate of members of the company. 


Capt. Warren Graves. 

Capt. Joseph R. Ellis. 

First Lieut. Elias A. Galloway. 

First Lieut. Henry D. Sehaefer. 


J^es F. Allen, Nathaniel II. Benner, ilatthew Bittler, Mor- 
timer R. Brown, Richard Burpee, Henry W. Butler, Marion J. 
Cable, George W. Campbell, Ransler Cogswell, John Cunningham, 
Seymour Donaldson, Wilbur I. Ellis, Elias L. Fidler, John Hill, 
Walter L. Hobbs, William Hutchinson. George Kocher, John Mc- 
Laughlin, Edward J. Nolan, Patrick O'Donohue. Martin Oppelt, 
Lars Pederson, Edward Reed, Even Thorsen, Running Tollefsen, 
Melvin Winslow. 


Albert B. Adams, Nelson C. Bates, Demas Besette, Nathaniel 
G. Calkins, Frederick S. Capron, Joseph D. Cooper, Charles Corbin, 
Ambrose Corbin, Anthony P. R. Dahl, Charles Ermatiuger, Alex- 
ander Gokee, Stephen S. McCann, Arthur J. McCann, Jordan J. 
McCann, Columbus Miller, Lewis Pratt, John S. Rains, Adolph 
Rodemacher, Albert H. Shipman, Perry Sowles, Peter Stnmm, 
John Thomas, George P. Warren. 


William Butterfield, Bernt Chi'istophersoii, William W. Chapel, 
Jordan Coleman, David Crandall, Orson T. Crosby, Almon A. 
Curtis, David C. Fayerweather, Johnson Graham, Marshall M. 
Granger, Lars Johnson, John Johnson, Oliver Johnson, John T. 
Laforge, Martin Larson, Phillip Lee, Michael W. Shafer, Ileni'y 
Sippel, Nathan Skeel, Engebret Sorenson, Harold T. E. Tillerson, 
Henry Wright. 

Killed in action, 5; died from wounds, 10; died from disease, 
7 ; taken prisoners, 23. 


In addition to the above a large number were wounded and 
some of them discharged on account of wounds. 

Of the 23 taken prisoners, no less than 9 died in prison. 


Among the members of this company and who was also taken 
prisoner, was James P. Allen, a brother of C. L. Allen, of this city, 
and now a resident of Plorida. At my request C. L. Allen wrote 
to liis brother in Plorida asking him if he would write something 
concerning his experience. I am allowed to quote his reply, which 
was as follows : 

•'De Land, Plorida, July 13, 1911. — In regard to writing an 
article for publication of my war experiences. Now my actual 
war experience, outside of my prison experience, was very limited 
and covered a period of about thirty days, while in that time 
there was war enough to satisfy the most valorous spirits, for the 
length of time at least, it was too short a time on which to build 
a readable story unless supplemented by the imagination, and you 
know I am short on that quality. 

"And when it comes to my prison experience, that is anotlier 
matter entirely. It is a subject I don't like to think about, 
much less talk about and have been for forty-six years trying to 
forget all my prison life and its attendant horrors, and now to 
deliberately sit down and write about those terrible days, weeks 
and months (I was in the different so-called prisons ten and a 
half months) is more than I care to do, even if I thought I could 
write an interesting letter, which I can't. I am very much inter- 
ested in the old war time letters being printed, with Ed's and 
Uncle Bill'sT^nd others. " .'j > " •"- 

S. S. McCann. — Among tlie names of those from Chippewa 
county we find the name of tliat old pioneer Stephen S. McCann. 
It was he who with Jeremiah Thomas began the first lumbering 
operations in Eau Claire, in the middle forties. At the time of 
his enlistment he must have been quite an old man, 

A son of Captain Graves, Wilbur Graves, is living in tliis city 
and is head engineer at the paper mill. The widow of Captain 
Graves, now Mrs. Cleasby, is also now in the city. In response 
to a request I have received from the family the following brief 
account of Captain Graves. It was also from them that I obtained 
the excellent picture of the captain, which I am furnishing you 
todav with the other material. 


Capt. Warren Graves, Company "K," Thirty-sixth Wisconsin 
Volunteers, recruited his own company; was commissioned in 
March, 1864; mustered into the service by Lieut. J. H. Purcell. 

Spent two weeks in Madison, Wisconsin, drilling liis company. 
From Madisou, Captain Graves was ordered to Washington and 
on arriving there was ordered to join his regiment in Virginia, 
which at that time was the active seat of war. 

Here Captain Graves and his men took part in tlie "Battle of 
the Wilderness," in which the Union loss was very severe. From 
May 5 to June 15, 1864, Captain Graves took part in one battle 
after another in rapid succession. 

It was during this time that in a letter to his wife Captain 
Graves spoke in reference to this sis weeks' steady work against 
the rebels. The following is the substance of the letter : 

He said he had been engaged with the enemy all night and had 
just come into camp for breakfast and sleep when he and his 
men were called out for dutj' again. These six weeks of con- 
tinuous duty weakened him physically and during the months of 
July and migust made many long marches. On the fourteenth 
day of August Captain Graves went into battle after having 
made a long and severe march. During the heat of the battle 
Captain Graves suffered a sun-stroke and was taken off the field. 
(During this battle the greater share of his company were taken 
prisoners.) Captain Graves was removed to a hospital at Peters- 
burg and there passed away the twenty-ninth of August, 1864. 

September 1, 1914. 
Since the series of Civil War articles was published in 
the Telegram in 1911, I have been fortunate enough to find 
a survivor of Captain Graves' Company K, of the Thirty- 
sixth Wisconsin, and have obtained from him his story of 
the company and regiment. Corporal Henry W. Butler is 
still living, in the town of Washington, a hale and hearty 
veteran. Although lacking but a few weeks of being eighty- 
eight years of age, he appears much younger, and it is a 
common occurrence for him to walk the four miles from 
his farm home to the city, and if necessary, walk home 


I came to Eau Claire in the fall of 1855. My former 
home was in Hartford, Dodge county, but wishing to make 
a change I, with several others, started out to seek a new 


location. "We first went into Iowa, and when at a point 
on the river near Dubuque we met the veteran lumberman, 
William Carson, then in business at Eau Galle. Mr. Carson 
was on a trip purchasing horses and oxen for the pineries. 
Learning that we were planning to come up this way he 
said: "Boys, if you will help me take care of this stock 
on the way up to Eau Galle, I will stand your expenses, 
also keep you over Sunday at Eau Galle, and furnish you 
provisions for your trip from there to Eau Claire." We 
accepted the offer. The trip from Eau Galle to Eau Claire 
was made on foot. Read and Gage's small saw mill and 
boarding house were the only buildings on the east side. 
There was a stage line from Madison to St. Paul running 
through the place, and there was a barn on the west bank. 
There was no bridge or ferry, but the stage drivers would 
put their horses in this barn, then load the stage or wagons 
on a raft and pole across the river. Arriving at the bank 
about dark we hallooed across to Jim Read, who came over 
with a raft and took us to the east side. 

The land down on the bottoms near what was later Por- 
ter's mills, was open to homestead entry and we made a 
trip down there. Shortly before there had been a flood, and 
saw logs and drift wood were scattered all over the bottoms 
or found hanging up in trees. We wanted none of that. 
At Jim Read's place I met a man who said he had a farm 
for sale, four miles out, two hundred and twenty-five 
acres, twenty acres broke, with a log house and log barn — 
price seven hundred dollars. I went out to see it and 
bought the place, which has since been my home. 

Chippewa Falls was then the county seat, and it was to 
that place that I went to have the papers made out. 

I was married and had two children, my wife and chil- 
being still in Dodge county. Returning there I remained 
until March, when, with a yoke of oxen and sleighs, with 
a prairie schooner top and a stove, we made the trip to Eau 
Claire, and it was not such a very long trip either, con- 
sidering the mode of travel. My oxen were young and 
active, and we made the distance, about 175 miles, in seven 
days, keeping along with horse teams that were making 
the same trip. 

The Barland, Cook, Wyman and Robbins families were 
the only farmers in this vicinity. Sparta was our nearest 
trading point, and it required from five to six days to take 


out grain there and bring back a load of supplies. The land 
was new, and produced heavy crops of wheat and other 
grains, and prices were high. We got $2.00 for wheat, 
$1.75 for oats and $1.00 for potatoes. Our nearest grist 
mill was Duncan's, on Duncan creek, at Chippewa Falls. I 
helped to haul in the mill stones for the Peter Daniel's 
grist mill, which was later built on Lows creek, a few miles 
below my place, and about a mile above the present Com- 
ing's or "Silver Springs" farm. 

Game was plentiful, and although not a hunter, I would 
occasionally shoot a deer. They had a runway to the creek 
near my place. Bear and wolves were also plentiful, the 
wolves especially doing considerable damage to stock. 
Lows creek was a good trout stream in those days. 

In the spring of 1864 a company was recruited for the 
Civil War, the recruits coming largely from the farmers 
ia our neighborhood, and in Pleasant Valley. I enlisted 
with the others. Our captain was Warren Graves, a 
Methodist minister, who had lived in Pleasant Valley and 
had been preaching at different points in that vicinity. He 
was an excellent man, kind and considerate to the members 
of his company, and generally highly esteemed. 

We left Eau Claire about the fifteenth of March for 
Camp Randall, and left there on the tenth of May for Wash- 
ington. We remained in Washington only one night, and 
on the fourteenth took boat for Belle Plains Landing. After 
a half day on the boat and a day's march, we arrived at 
Fredericksburg. Just before our arrival a New York regi- 
ment had been sent out against some Confederate bush- 
wackers who had made a raid and captured several carloads 
of ham and hardtack. Being met with a brisk fire from the 
enemy, the New Yorker's came running back, claiming that 
the enemy were in greatly superior force. We were just 
cooking our supper coffee when the order came to fall 
in, and turn back the demoralized New Yorkers, also to at- 
tack the enemy. We were entirely successful in both, also 
recaptured the provisions. The battle of the Wilderness 
was practically over. From Fredericksburg we marched 
to Spottsylvania Court House, arriving there on the sev- 
enteenth, where on the day following we were held in re- 
serve, and did not get into action in that battle. 

It was on the nineteenth, at Spottsylvania Court House, 
that our Thirty-sixth Regiment was made a part of the 


First Brigade, Second Division, Second Corps of the Army 
of the Potomac. In regimental histories that liave been 
piiblished, the battle of Spottsylvania Court House is given 
as the first engagement in which our regiment Avas present, 
but this is a mistake, as we had already talcen part in the 
affair at Fredericksburg, as noted above. 

On the twentieth our entire Second Corps under Geneial 
Hancock, marched toward the North Anna. On our way we 
came to a Confederate fortification. Hastily throwing up 
some breastworks for ourselves, we lay on our arms until 
two o'clock in the morning, when the order was given to 
charge the enemy's works. Rushing over their breastworks, 
we found the enemy had already departed, leaving only a 
few pickets to give the appearance of occupation. 

The battle of North Anna began on the twenty-third. 
On the twenty-sixth Company H and Company K were or- 
dered to charge a line of rebel works, which we took. Our 
loss was two men killed, twelve Avouuded and one taken 
prisoner. Both the men killed Avere from Company H. The 
pioneer lumberman, Stephen S. McCann, Avas a member of 
our company, and was Avounded in this engagement. 

From North Anna Ave marched to Cold Harbor, arriving 
there on the morning of the second of June, and on the 
folloAviug morning the brigade charged the enemy's works. 
Although starting out in the rear of the brigade, by a shift- 
ing about of the troops Avhen near the rebel intrenchments, 
our Thirty-sixth Regiment Avas in the lead. Just at this time 
Colonel McKean, brigade commander, Avas killed, and 
Colonel Haskell, of our regiment, took command. Our lines 
were swept by a fierce fire from the enemy, and just as 
Colonel Haskell had given an order for the men to lie down, 
a bullet struck him in the head and he Avas instantly killed. 
His death Avas deeply felt in our regiment and in the bri- 
gade. Although only a young man, he Avas a thorough sol- 
dier and a first class officer. While in the act of putting a 
cartridge into my musket I Avas shot in the hand, shattering 
the bone. Although left Avith a permanently crippled hand, 
I was much more fortunate than my comrade, Biesecker, 
who stood just back of me, as the same bullet that crippled 
my hand struck him in the hip, Avounding him so severely 
that he died a feAV Aveeks later. Our loss Avas heavy, much 
more so than that of the enemy. We remained in the vi- 
cinity of Cold Harbor until the tAvelfth, Avhen Ave advanced 


toward Petersburg. The day after we left Cold Harbor 
some half dozen of our company were left behind and while 
hurrying along to overtake the company were captured 
by a band of rebel guerillas. One of those taken prisoner 
was James F. Allen, of Eau Claire, or Fred Allen, as he was 
called by his friends. He was a son of James Allen, who 
for many years had charge of the rafting of lumber for 
Ingram & Kennedy, and their successor, the Empire Lumber 

Although my crippled hand made it impossible for me to 
serve in the ranks, I did not wish to be separated from my 
company, so asked and obtained permission to do duty at 
regimental headquarters. This I continued to do until mus- 
tered out at the close of the war. 

We reached the vicinity of Petersburg on the fifteenth of 
June and the day following occupied the first line of the 
enemy's works. On the seventeenth our regiment was held 
in reserve. On the eighteenth we charged and drove the 
enemy from their second and heavier works, following them 
through dense Avoods to an open field on the opposite side 
of which were their main defenses. It was while charging *~^\ /^c{^ 
through these woods that Lieutenant Galloway, of our com- 
pany, was killed. He enlisted from Chippewa Falls, and 
was a thoroughly good and efficient officer. In the after- 
noon our regiment charged across the open ground and our 
Colonel Savage, who had succeeded Colonel Haskell, was 
mortally wounded as he was climbing over the enemy's 
breastworks. In this charge our regiment lost nearly one- 
third of its numbers in killed and wounded. As it seemed 
certain death to either advance or withdraw, the survivors 
of our regiment lay down on the ground and by scooping 
holes in the soft ground got what protection they could 
iintil darkness allowed them to leave the field. In the 
skirmishing around Petersburg our entire first brigade on 
the twenty-second was flanked by the enemy and nearly 
one-half of its members captured. Througli the skill of our 
officers the Thirty-sixth Regiment changed front and es- 
caped capture, but lost several killed and wounded. 

Our troops were then moved back some distance, where 
we went into camp and remained several weeks. 

The colonel of a Pennsylvania regiment from the min- 
ing district had proposed an underground mine under the 
enemy's works to blow up their fortifications and aid in 


the capture of Petersburg. General Graut had sanctioned 
the plan and by the latter part of July everything was in 
readiness for the explosion. In order to divert the enemy, 
Grant marched a part of the troops, including our regiment, 
to another plane and made a demonstration, then quietly 
brought us around in front of the fortifications to witness 
the setting off of the mine. This took place on the thirtieth 
of July. It was an awful sight, even to us who had seen 
considerable of the horrors of war. I did not want to 
look. Mangled bodies of men, flying timbers and earth rose 
into the air as from a volcano. You know the result. It 
was a failure. On account of delay in getting troops 
across the pit, or crater, the enemy had time to rallj'. 
Many of our own troops met their death in trying to cross, 
and Petersburg was not taken. 

The Weldon railroad, running south from Petersburg, 
was of extreme importance to the enemy, and Grant was 
determined on its capture. One force, including oiir regi- 
ment, were sent north of the James river to threaten Rich- 
mond, while another was sent south of Petersburg to cap- 
ture the railroad already mentioned. "We met the enemy 
on the fourteenth and had a severe engagement, our regi- 
ment loss being three officers and twenty-eight men killed 
and wountled. Grant's plan Avas a success and the railroad 
was captured, but the enemy continued to make desperate 
attempts to recapture it. For several weeks there was al- 
most continuous fighting along the railroad south of Peters- 
burg. Reams Station was on this road only a few miles 
from Petersburg. On the twenty-fifth the enemy attacked 
the Union troops at that place. The Thirty-sixth was sta- 
tioned in a deep railroad cut. Although not successful in 
recapturing the road, at one time they drove back the 
Union lines and hemmed in our Thirty-sixth Regiment, 
whose position allowed them little chance to escape. A few 
did cut their way through, but a large part of the regiment 
were either killed, wounded or taken prisoners. Captain 
Graves, of our company, was overcome by heat and exer- 
tion and died in the hospital a few days later. He was suc- 
ceeded as captain by First Lieut. Joseph R. Ellis, also from 
Pleasant Valley. My old neighbor, Patrick 'Donahue, of 
Pleasant Valley, who enlisted the same day as myself, was 
one of the number captured. He survived his imprison- 
ment, and was mustered out with our company, but his 


health was shattered, and he died a few years later. Some 
of his descendants are still living in this vicinity, but they 
have dropped the "0" from their names, which is now 

General Gibbon was not satisfied with the part taken 
by the Thirty-sixth Regiment at Reams Station, and with- 
out stopping to examine into the matter, issued an order 
depriving the regiment of carrying the national colors. A 
thorough investigation was later made, with the result that 
General Gibbon was ordered to personally present to the 
regiment a new set of colors. This was done about the first 
of November. 

On the twenty-fourth of October our brigade marched 
to the left, and on the twenty-seventh reached the enemy 's 
fortifications at Hatcher's Run. Company A of our regi- 
ment advanced and captured the rebel picket. This was 
followed by a general engagement in which the enemy 
forced their way through the Union lines, cutting off com- 
munication between the two parts. Captain Fisk, in com- 
mand of our regiment, saw the danger, faced the regiment 
to the rear and ordered a bayonet charge. "We doubled up 
the line of the enemy and put them to rout, capturing a 
large number of prisoners. General Eagan wrote a letter 
to the Governor praising the work done by the regiment 
under Captain Fisk, and stated that we had captured more 
prisoners than we had men on the field. Our regimental 
loss was some fifteen wounded and missing. After this en- 
gagement we returned to our former location, where we 
remained until mid-winter. Early in February we had an- 
other engagement at Hatcher's Run, then went into win- 
ter quarters and remained there until the last of March. 
We then moved against the enemy's works, capturing one 
line after another, including prisoners and guns, and early 
in April learned that Lee's army was in full retreat. One 
entire second corps followed, crossing the Appomattox on 
the seventh and on the ninth were present at Lee's sur- 
render near Appomattox Court House. 

We saw no active service after this, but what did re- 
main of our regiment went to Washington and took part 
in the grand review, then returned to Madison and our 

In the fall of 1864 still another company was added to 
the credit of Eau Claire county. The leading educational 


institution in the early history of the village of Eau Claire 
was the old "Wesleyan Seminary, which stood where the 
high schood building now stands. Principal Shadrach A. 
Hall went out as captain of this new company. Like the 
"Whipple company, this one was also made up to take the 
place of another company in a reorganized regiment. 

I have asked J. F. Ellis, who helped Captain Hall to re- 
cruit this company and who served as a private in same, 
to tell vour readers its story. 

J. F. ELLIS' STORY. ^ P»v-^^' 

Eau Claire, Wis., August 14, 1911.— W. W. Bartlett : As I prom- 
ised, I give you the following history of Company K, Fifth Wis- 
consin Infantry, which was mostly made up here. My diarj', 
which I kept, was burned in the great Water street fire years ago, 
so my accoimt is largely a matter of memory, which accounts for 
a general lack of dates. There were three Companies K in the 
Fifth Wisconsin: First Company K, Evans, captain, from Meno- 
monie ; Second Company K, Mott, captain, also from Monomonie, 
and Third Company K, Hall, captain, designated from Eau Claire. 
The last one is tlie company that I write about. 

The recruiting of this company was for another regiment which 
was filled up and left for the front before we reached Madison, 
and so belonged to no certain regiment when we reached there. 
Company K, as made up here, was recruited by Captain Hall and 
myself in 1864. I turned my papers over to him in order that he 
might get a captain's commission and I went into the ranks, where 
I remained until mustered out. After reaching Camp Randall 
we consolidated with a squad from near Oshkosh. Those com- 
posing the Eau Claire squad are the following : S. A. Hall, cap- 
tain. Privates — Andrew Anderson, Peter Anderson, David Bab- 
cock, Charles W. Bailey, John S. Barger, Lyman Beemau, Samuel 
W. Bennett, Erastus S. Bills, Charles E. Burpee, Heinrich Christ- 
man, John Crapser, James W. Crouch, Hiram S. Curtis, Joseph E. 
Davenport, Elias Davis, Francis W. Dighton, Philander S. Drew, J. 
F. Ellis, Roderick Elwell, Charles 0. Foote, James Gilbert, Nelson 
Gillet, Patsex,^A^Haekett, Russell Ilaekett, Benjamin G. Hall, 
Dwight L. HazenTJohnOTHoisington, Demetrius P. Howell, Alfred 
Ingalls, Robert Jones, Miles Lansdell, Joseph Listy, James B. 
Louther, Joseph B. Reynolds, Nicholas Roach, Isaac A. Shane, 
Peter Shores, George F. Silvernail, Adrian J. Smith, Uriah M. 


-^ ^ 


V4 V ^fvyt--^' ^lUli^^^^ 

1 w \i.r 1 \ I 

-Q^Mw«<^ ''i*^^ 


Stone, Marshall Swain, Nahum S. Taylor, Meroni Ware, Samuel 
Welch, George W. Wells, Henry B. Westcott, James R. Whitney, 
Joseph W. Wiggins, Corydon Wyman, James Young. 

Colonel La Grange, of the First Wisconsin Cavalry, was at 
Madison when we reached there and offered Captain Hall and 
myself each a first lieutenancy if we would join his regiment 
with our recruits, but we finally decided to join the Fifth In- 
fantry and consolidated with a squad from Oshkosh in order to 
make a full company. By this plan Company K was organized 
and Hall was commissioned captain and commanded the com- 
pany throughout its service, excepting when absent by sickness. 
Our recruits were mostly from Eau Claire, Dunn and Chippewa 
counties. We came together on the West Side and had a recep- 
tion in the old Seminary Hall, where the high school building 
now stands. The ladies got up a banquet for us at which there 
Avere speeches and music, mostly war songs, and a flag presenta- 
tion. The flag was made by the ladies and was presented by one 
of the most beautiful, bright and popular young ladies of the 
town, Miss Izzie Farwell, daughter of L. W. Farwell, a west side 
merchant. I was delegated to receive the flag, which I carried 
until we reached Madison, when we shipped it back to Eau Claire. 

The next day, or soon thereafter, we all gathered on the East 
Side Hill (University Square), where lumber Avagons waited for 
us with boards across the boxes for seats in most cases, and where 
friends, sweethearts and wives gathered to bid us bood-bye. We 
traveled in those rigs to Sparta, where we took railway passage 
for Madison. We had our OAvn improvised band. I. H. Shane, 
with his fife, and a couple of drummers. Every stop we made was 
enlivened, if there was anybody to look on, by getting in line 
with the flag floating and the band playing martial airs. Mr. 
Shane was very good with the fife and served for a while in the 
regimental band, bi;t did not like the service and came back to 
the company and was with it until mustered out of the service. 
Shane was one of the best soldiers in the service, tall, muscular, 
but not fat, active, kindly, faithful and strictly honest. On ac- 
count of his height he was ahvays near the right of the line and 
so at the front. His feet were large and strong, a quality that 
helps in a long or forced march. At one time, when drawing 
clothing, he had to have a pair of shoes. There wasn't a pair in 
the whole supply that came to that post for the army large enough 
for him. He marched and did every duty called for, barefoot, 
good naturedly and just as faithfully as any man in the army. 
Years afterward, while in the employ of the Daniel Shaw Lumber 


Company as teamster, hauling supplies to the woods, he was killed 
in being accidentally thrown from a load. 

The company reached Madison and went into quarters at Camp 
Randall the latter part of August or early in September, 1864, 
and was there some time. Camp life in Camp Randall was very 
demoralizing, much more so than in the field. Although guards 
were stationed at all times at the entrance, yet everybody was 
allowed to enter and also go out, except those dressed in uni- 
forms of the common soldier. Some of those wearing officers' 
uniforms were among the most drunken and worst gamblers there. 
As soon as our company was organized we began company drill, 
spending from one to four hours daily. After drawing our uni- 
forms and guns and accoutrements we then drilled dressed in 

The Fifth Wisconsin Infantry, all told, in officers and men, 
from its first organization until it was mustered out, numbered 
over 3,000 men. When we joined it, it was reorganized, the old 
numbers were consolidated into Companies A, B and C, and we 
went out as one of the seven new companies, carried a new flag 
and a new state banner. The colonel of the regiment was with 
us. The balance of the regiment was then in the Shenandoah 
Valley. The seven new companies left Madison by rail to Chi- 
cago, thence to Pittsburgh, to Baltimore and on to Washington, 
all the way by rail. We were in barracks at Washington some 
time, and one Sunday morning about twenty-five of our company 
formed and under the leadership of one of our number, marched 
up to the White House and saw President Lincoln. Shortly 
after this visit to the President the regiment was sent across the 
long bridge into Alexandria, Va., in barracks next the railroad 
station and held ready for any emergency call, all dressed and 
arms at hand. 

One afternoon late Company K and two other companies of 
the Fifth were ordered to draw five days' rations and report at 
the railroad station in five minutes. We rolled up our blan- 
kets, buckeled on our belts, slung on our knapsacks, canteens 
and took our guns and haversacks in hand and lined up before 
the commissary sergeant, took each his rations of hard tack, pork, 
coffee, sugar and doubled-quicked for the station. An engine 
Avith steam up coupled to a train of box cars was there. We 
climbed in in a hurry and away we went. We were run out to a 
siding on the old Bull Run battle-ground, fifteen miles in fifteen 
minutes. When we stopped at the siding army wagons hauled 
by mules and driven by niggers were coming toward the station 


on the dead run, drivers yelling and lashing their teams with all 
their might. Some of the darky drivers were so scared that they 
had turned pale. ' We tumbled out of the cars before they had 
fairly stopped and formed in line between the siding and timber, 
about 80 rods away, where the teams had been gathering wood 
for the use of the government at Washington. Mosby and his 
men were raiding the teams. Two horsemen rode out of the 
woods and looked us over and rode back out of sight. We dug 
trenches and were in line of battle for several days, and did 
some scouting, but there was nothing doing. Returned to 


The seven new companies of the regiment were sent from 
Washington via Harper's Ferry to Winchester, where we joined 
the balance of the regiment and went into camp on the battle- 
field. It was a desolate sight. Every living thing was destroyed. 
Not even a weed could be seen. The ground was gouged and 
pounded. A fitting place for new recruits to camp. Shallow 
trenches had been dug, the dead laid in and covered with earth 
rounded up a little. Here and there a shallow place had been 
scooped out and a body twisted and stiffened in its contortions, 
so that it could not be laid in the trenches with its fellows, was 
placed in the shallow grave and covered. Rains had come and 
washed off some of the covering and here an arm and there a 
foot was pointing mutely toward the heavens. The stench was 
sickening. One of our boys saw a shoe almost new lying on the 
field. It looked to him to be about his fit. He thought he had 
made a good find. He rushed to it and picked it up. He found 
that it had a human foot in it, which had began to decay. 
There was no other place for our camp and there we camped for 
a few days. We formed in groups of fours, buttoned our pieces 
of tents together, making our tent large enough for four men 
to sleep in and huddle under during a storm and a shelter for 
our extra clothing and provisions. Each group of four owned 
a coffee pot and spider and usually cooked its coffee in common, 
while each man cooked his own meat. We had fresh beef and 
salt pork regularly and our rations were abundant and gen- 
erally good. From Winchester we moved up the valley to Red 
Cedar Creek, where we became a part of the army under Sheri- 
dan, near the battle-ground where the battle of Cedar Creek was 
fought. Plere we became a part of the Sixth Corps of the Army 
of the Potomac, Wright commanding, and remained in that corps 


until the close of the war. The Fifth "Wisconsin was not in that 
battle, although it had been a member of the Sixth Corps from 
the time of its organization. While at Cedar Creek I became 
indisposed and was sent to the field hospital, which was located 
in a beautiful place in large tents. My care was very good there, 
and I was soon able to walk. The presidential election was com- 
ing on and I happened to be the only one in the company who 
had any experience in conducting an election, so tlie captain 
wanted me to come back to the company and take charge. The 
surgeon-in-chief advised against it, but did not forbid it. I took 
my belongings and went back to the company the day before the 
election and sat at the polls in the open air at the head of the 
company camp and polled votes all day. That night when I 
turned in, after making up the returns, I was about played out 

The morning after election, before I had a chance to return 
to the hospital, the army was ordered to fall back, the hospital 
well in front. I was hardly able to march without any load, so 
with my gun, accoutrements and outfit, I struggled. The army 
made out a half day's march and it was night when I got in. I 
got some help in carrying my load by a wagon carrying supplies. 
The army, as the retreat began, was so severely harrassed by 
guerillas and rebel cavalry that it went into camp here and 
sent out strong picket lines. We stayed here luitil after Thanks- 
giving Day. The day and night before Thanksgiving snow began 
to fall and on that day the ground was covered and the weather 
Avas severe. The people in New England had sent down a sliij)- 
load of turkeys, geese, ducks and chickens for a Tranksgiving 
dinner for the Army of the Potomac. A lot of "fixings" that go 
with them was sent too. The part that came to the army in the 
valley reached it the night before. The advantage of holding 
commissions was well shown in the distribution. Every group 
of four enlisted men got one chicken. Every officer a pair of 
chickens, a turkey or a goose or duck and fixings. 

Sharp and deadly work was being done on the picket line. 
Strong picket posts behind rail and timber barricades composed 
of the best shots were shooting every enemy in range and many 
of them in turn were hit and brought in. Although I was not 
detailed on picket duty, I went out to see them work. Our camp 
was in the timber. There was no cooking or serving meals by 
companies or in groups. Each enlisted man usually received five 
days' rations, consisting of hardtack, a piece of side salt pork, 
coffee, C sugar, salt and pepper. Also generally fresh beef. The 


cattle were driven with the army and when in camp enough were 
slaughtered for one to two days' rations and distributed. We 
were transferred by rail back to Washington to our old quar- 
ters in the shadow of the capitol, and soon marched across the 
long bridge again to Alexandria, thence by transport down the 
Chesapeake Bay and up the James river to City Point. At this 
place, which was then General Grant's headquarters, a train of 
flat cars was ready for us, on which we took passage for the left. 
This road was known as "Grant's Railroad," and extended from 
City Point, behind the lines as far to the left as the army reached, 
and was used to transport supplies and men back and forth. 
The road Avas level and graded but little. At places where the 
hostile lines were close to each other, a high bank was raised 
along the track on the side towards the enemy for protection. 
As we were whisked past these places the engineer pulled the 
lever wide open and we went by at a clip that made it very difficult 
for us to retain our footing. Each car was loaded to its capacity 
with standing men, holding on to each other. The noise of the 
rushing train provoked a storm of shot and shell, but all passed 
over us or fell behind us. The sharp rattle of musketry and the 
heavy roar and smoke and flash of artillery all along our right 
as we speeded along the track showed that the fighting was on all 
the time. We landed at General Meade's headquarters, some dis- 
tance to the left of Petersburg, and moved out to the breastworks 
occupied by the Fifth, or Warren's Corps, and relieved it. Our 
pickets were detailed and sent out to the front, relieving their 
pickets and Warren's Corps fell back to the rear of Meade's head- 
quarters and became a part of the reserve. The Second Corps, 
that we relieved, had built their winter quarters, which we 

When we relieved the Fifth Corps in the long line investing 
Petersburg, the Union forces were opposed by the line of the 
enemy extending as far to the left as ours reached. Each line 
was protected by breastworks in which at every commanding or 
high point a fort stood, mounting from one to more pieces of 
artillery, and the field in front of the breastworks were gen- 
erally cleared of timber. The breastworks were protected by 
abattis, rows of tree tops stripped of bark and sharpened tops 
lying with butts set in ground, tops pointing out. The ditches 
in front of the works were deep and at this time of year, early 
winter, were mostly filled with yellow, muddy water. The picket 
posts were rail barricades, the more exposed with earth thrown 
up against them in front. They were about sixteen feet front 


with a wing at each end and from twenty-five to one hundred 
yards apart; each post manned with from five to twenty men. 
The picket lines were fighting all the time when we relieved War- 
ren's Corps. Every man exposed on either side was shot at by 
some one or several men on the other side. Casualties were 
numerous. When we went in there we followed the old custom 
of the Sixth Corps not to try to kill an opponent unless necessary 
for the protection of our own lives. We had no personal feeling 
to gratify bj' wantonly killing. So after repeatedly firing at our 
picket posts, at a cap poked up in sight on a ramrod, a blouse 
with a hat above poked into view and getting nothing but chaffing 
in return, shooting at each other mostly ceased. Instead some- 
thing like this took place: "Hello, Yank." "Hello, Johnnie." 
"Got any cofl'ee to spare, Yank?" "Got any tobac, Johnnie?" 
"Leave me some coffee at the foot of that tree and I'll leave 
some tobac." And so the trading habit was put in force. The 
men from each going to the stump or tree sometimes got together 
and talked over their lots. Soon deserters began to come, some- 
times one and later in squads. After a while they came so thick 
that the enemy attacked us several times, drove in our picket 
line, and drove us back to the breastworks, where the alarm of 
the attack had called up the entire army with reserves. We had 
several of these attacks during the winter, but none of them 
proved to be very serious. They were made to induce us to shoot 
deserters who made a run for our lines. They resulted in our 
capture of some of the attacking men, and as we could not shoot 
the one or half dozen men running to our lines, the desertions 
became more numerous. The practice of shooting at every one in 
sight by the troops, both to our left and right, continued as before 
we relieved Warren's men. The desertions to our corps were 
greater than those to the entire balance of the line. Desertion 
by them was a serious matter. Trusted men Avere stationed all 
along their line, good shots, with instruction to shoot every man 
leaving their line coming toward ours without a flag of truce and 
escort. Many tried it and were shot dead and the report of the 
effort and death circulated among the men of the rebel army. 

During the winter an eseciation for desertion in front of the 
enemy while in battle took place in front of our regiment, out- 
side the breastworks. Two men had been condemned to be shot. 
Their graves were dug in the field in our front. The men were 
brought through the lines in ambulance open wagon, sitting on their 
coffins; each man's legs were tied together at the ankles and knees 
and hands tied together behind their back. Each man's coffin was 


placed aei-oss his grave and he was seated on the foot. His eyes 
were bandaged; ten men of the provost guard, with loaded mus- 
kets, faced the condemned men. The officer in charge took his 
station by one of the men and instructed tlie guard that when 
the word fire was given, they must fire at the man aimed at, aiming 
at his breast. He gave the command: "Guard ready, aim, one, 
two, three, fire." Before he gave the command "fire," he jerked 
the man next to him oil" the box and the shots were at the other 
fellow. He fell backward oft' his coffin with his bound legs still on 
the coffin, lying on his back, face to the sky, dead, his breast 
stove in. This was the only execution by court martial in the 
Sixth Cori3s while I was a member of it. Major General Humph- 
rey, who executed so many men in the Nineteenth Corps, was re- 
puted to be" a brave commander, very rigid and austere. I had 
a personal taste of his austerity and promptly put his bravery 
to test, and it was wanting. I was stationed with a squad of men 
at the picket post on our extreme left. The next one to the left 
was the Nineteenth Corps post on the extreme right. In the 
picket posts along our front we had not been required to turn out 
the guard, form in line and present arms to the general officer 
of the day of the army, though the rules of war required it, and 
it was all a soldier's liberty was worth not to do it. 

This major general commanding the Nineteenth Corps Avas 
general officer of the day when I was in charge of this post, and 
really before I was aware of it (the timber here was rather thick) 
he rode up at a sharp gallop from my left, just in the rear of my 
post with the big red sash across his breast and over his right 
shoulder and a long retinue of aids and orderlies following him, 
indicating his rank for the day. My post was not in sight of the 
post either to the right or left, nor of any of the posts of the 
enemy. Rebel pickets were shooting our way often. This com- 
manding officer halted and called to the one in charge of the post. 
I stepped out. He told me in no uncertain language in a loud 
voice, showing auger, what was coming to me for not showing 
due respect for the general officer of the day by not tui-ning out 
my guard. I went up close to him and told him that in his big 
red sash and bright equipment he was a good mark for a rebel 
sharpshooter over in front and that I did not turn out the guard 
as it Avould direct attention to him and he might get hurt. Just 
then a Johnnie's gun went off and the bullet struck the tree top 
overhead. He went to the rear like a rocket, leaving his retinue 
far behind, not even stopping to thank me for being so con- 
siderate of his safety. Several times during the winter the regi- 


meut was ordered to break camp. "We fell in, usually in the 
evening, marched down to the left a few miles, around and back 
again, or marched to the right towards Petersburg, and after a 
march of an hour or two, came back to our old camping ground 
and again pitched our tents in the same places we occupied before. 
The colonel told me that the army was full of spies and these 
moves were to mislead the enemy. The point we occupied in the 
line, with the line genei'ally to the left of Petersburg, had been 
advanced and we were over a mile in front of its former location. 
A fort, Davidson, just back of Meade's headquarters and ad- 
joining Warren's headquarters, occupied a commanding position 
and was cared for. A guard and a lieutenant from our regiment, 
part of Company K and others, were detailed for this job and 
stayed there until about the latter part of ]\Iarch. While we were 
doing guard duty at this fort the battle of Hatcher's Run was 
fought, Avay down on the left. Company K and the regiment took 
part, but only as reserves to the Fifth Corps. Company K lost one 
man, who dropped dead from heart failure. Warren's entire 
corps passed close by the fort in moving down to the left. We 
could plainly hear the guns. General Warren Avas there relieved of 
his command by Sheridan, who came back to his quarters looking a 
broken man. I was out in front of his quarters when he returned 
without his aids and orderlies, with only one orderly. He gave 
me the first tidings of the battle. From the accounts the boys 
gave me later, it appeared that Company K and the regiment were 
under a heavy artillery fire, but the shell and shot, though fall- 
ing all about, did not hurt Company K. Shortly after the return 
of the regiment from Hatcher's Run, the guard in Fort Davidson 
was relieved and we went back to the old camp and took part in 
drills, maneuvers and dress parades, battallion, regimental, brig- 
ade and division. All winter, ever since we went into the 
trenches, the battle had been carried on between the picket lines, 
and the lines where they were too close together to put out 
pickets. The roar of musketry and artillery day and night was 
heard nearly all along the lines. The troops engaged on both 
sides were always alert to take advantage of any carelessness or 
weakness shown on either side. Assaults on the Sixth Corps were 
more frequent than elsewhere, because our troops were not keep- 
ing up a constant fusillade. These assaults were by a relatively 
small force, usually less than five hundred men. Tliey came with 
a rush and noise that would call out the whole corps. After the 
shock and shake-up they would retreat with as great a rush as 
thev came. The casualties were verv small, two or three wounded 


and once or twice a man killed. They never got off so cheap. 
Several of these assaults were made upon the line in our front. 
In one of them we captured a lieutenant and a bunch of enlisted 
men. The lieutenant was very despondent at being taken alive. 
I think he Avas slightly wounded, and tliat he would rather have 
been killed. 


On the night of April 1, 1865, after dark an army silently 
marched in and occupied our breastworks and we were ordered to 
strike tents and prepare to march. The orders were given in a 
whisper or very low. We were told to put our cups in our haver- 
sacks, move our bayonet scabbards around toward the back, so 
that no metal parts would strike and rattle, to keep perfectly 
still, no talking nor noise in marching. After forming in line we 
moved out a little way toward the left and rear. Our guns were 
loaded and bayonets fixed. We each had sixty rounds of am- 
munition. We moved a little way in one direction and halted; 
then moved again and halted. The night set in misty and so 
dark that we could not see except by the uncertain light of 
campfires and that made by burning fuses from shells passing 
overhead from both sides. Just before ten o 'clock at night of the 
first, I noticed by the fitful glare of the light made by the burning 
fuses of the shells, that we were close to the dark walls of a 
silent fort. This was Fort Fisher. We passed through a narrow 
opening to the left of the fort and against its wall, in the breast- 
works, just wide enough for one man, and out to the picket lines. 
Moving as still as we possibly could, yet a body of seven or eight 
hundred men make some noise in walking, though we moved slow 
and picked each step as carefully as we could in the dark and 
rain. The mist of the evening had developed into a light, driz- 
zling Virginia rain, which kept falling nearly all night long. The 
rebel picket line was alert and at every unusual sound fired to- 
ward us and cursed and swore and abused the Yanks. We at once 
laid down and kept perfectly still. We saw the vicious fiashes 
of their guns, heard the bullets cut the air about us, the thud when 
they hit, and all but two or three of the officers hugged the 
ground. Sharp picket firing had been going on this place for days 
and the breastworks on both sides had been held by a strong 
force. The two armies were strongly entrenched all along the 
lines for miles, but our men, while it was expected they would 
attack at some point, were trying to keep the point of attack 
secret. So every noise on our side was magnified by the enemy 


into an assault, so when we made any noise their whole force 
manned their works and began firing at us savagely as long as 
there was any possibility in their minds of there being any force 
there other than the picket line. They had the range and if we 
were standing their fire would have got a good many of us, and 
as it was we lost a number of men during the fusillade. We lay 
flat on the ground in the darkness and the rain from about ten 
o'clock for an hour and a half. The firing upon us gradually 
ceased. Those hit made no outcry. No other noise than the thud 
of the bullets when they struck the victims. Two soldiers with 
a stretcher would noiselessly lay the man shot upon it and carry 
him away. All those hit, whether killed or wounded, were re- 
moved at once. 

A mistake had been made when we moved out through the 
breastworks. We passed our left in front and when we faced the 
enemy the rear of the regiment was in front, so about midnight 
a whispered order was passed along the line, we got up and fell 
in, formed in rank, and changed front or countermarched. Al- 
though we were as still as we could be, yet the little noise we 
made roused the Johnnies again and they again began to shoot us. 
As soon as we were right in front we laid down again. In lying 
down we broke ranks and this time I laid down just in front of 
Lieutenant Squires of Company G, from Black River Falls. The 
rebels shot more accurately this time and we lost more men. I felt 
the air cut by a bullet which passed over me and struck the lieu- 
tenant; a flesh wound in the lower part of his body. He yelled, 
jumped up and ran the whole length of the regiment and fell 
and they put him on a stretcher and carried him to the rear. 
The noise of tlie lieutenant aroused the whole rebel line opposite 
and gave them our location. They fired on us a continuous rat- 
tling volley of musketry and yelled and yelled. The anguishing 
screams of the wounded lieutenant made them cheer, laugh, damn 
us and fire at us with all their might. They hit a number of our 
meu, but the otliers did not cry out. We hugged the ground closer 
than before if possible. The surface sloped slightly downward 
toward the enemy and we moved ahead a little to be on a lower 
level and laid perfectly still while the bullets pounded the earth 
and cut the air about us. About two o'clock the firing upon us 
gradually slackened and finally ceased altogether. About 2:30 
a. m., of April 2, we carefully and silently got to our feet and 
stood ready, each man a little way from his fellow waiting. The 
rain had almost ceased to fall. We were waiting for the order 
or signal to charge. Our feeling was intense. Nothing could be 


spcu in front. We knew nothing of the obstacles in our way. We 
knew that when the big gun in Fort Fisher behind us spoke that 
we must charge the unseen enemy and kill or subdue them or die 
in the effort. 

Just before three o'clock the Johnnies had quieted down and 
ceased yelling and shooting at us. At three o'clock in the morn- 
ing of April 2, the big gun in Fort Fisher was fired. We went in 
on the jump. Every man yelling, many shooting, all running, 
carrying our guns any way, every man paying no attention to 
what was being said or done by the rest ; all charging upon the 
black darkness ahead. We cleared the space from where we 
waited, some hundred yards to the rebel breastworks, tore open- 
ings through the abattis and were upon their breastworks as 
quick as we could run there, but not quick enough to avoid a 
shot from every rebel who could get his gun and get to the works. 
A number of our men were killed and wounded, about fifty alto- 
gether. We surprised the enemy. After they shot the lieutenant 
and his j-elling with pain caused the commotion at near midnight, 
we kept so still that they thought they had shot one of our pickets 
and so they had all turned in excepting the guard when we made 
the rush. Most of those we got when we went over the works 
were dressed only in their shirts and drawers. When I went over 
the works, a Johnnie laid in his shirt and drawers only. He had 
dropped on his knees and fallen over on his back, his head turned 
to one side, a good looking, strong, well built man, arms thrown 
out, his gun on his right arm, a bloody, ragged hole in his shirt 
just over the heart, dead. He was the first dead man I saw that 
day. A smouldering camp fire close by may have made the sight 
more impressive and the reason why I remember it so well, for I 
saw a great many men killed before the day was done, but none 
other made such a distinct impression upon me. The point where 
our regiment struck and captured the enemy's line of works was 
much lower than on both the right and left, the bottom of a small 
valley. The land was clear for eighty rods or more from their 
works to the timber in the rear. In our line of works both to the 
right and left, at the top of this valley and about eighty rods 
apart, were two forts. The bottom of the valley where we went 
in happened to be the point of least resistance. We made so 
much noise and our line was extended so long and we went with 
such a rush that though the line swung around and struck theirs 
end on, yet they must have thought the entire army was upon 
them. After the short resistance we drove them into the timber 
and our regiment was right after them. My strength gave out 


and after we got inside their lines and most of the boys pursued 
the retreating Johnnies, I, with a few others, staid there at the 
works. Fires flared up all along the lines and the rain ceased 
about us. Most of the light, however, was from the flash of mus- 
ketry and artillery. Then it appeared that lines were waiting 
ready, back at our picket lines, the outcome of our assault, and 
when our regiment went in and drove the rebels at this point 
then there was no occasion for concealment and fires burned 
everywhere and especially to our right and left. Other members 
of the regiment who did not chase tlie enemy gathered about me ; 
some of Company K. They came over the breastworks and our 
force rapidly increased. There was no commissioned officer with 
us at first. 

The flames shooting from the muskets and the two cannon 
in the fort to our right, and the screams of those shot, the angry 
yells of the attacking force and those defending, made the battle 
there fierce and hand to hand. Our forces in front of the fort 
were wavering; when I called to our men to attack the fort on 
the flank and in the rear. "We sent a man over to those in front 
and we attacked with a rush and yells, shooting as we charged. 
Just before we reached the fort, the Johnnies ran and the force 
in front went in the fort with a rush. Just then the attack on 
the fort across the valley to the left, about eighty rods, began to 
develop. The Johnnies were working their one gun to the limit. 
The flash of musketry showed that there was a large force ot 
infantry in there and that they were all fighting with frenzy. 
Because of the dai'kness, I could not see the line of men attacking 
the fort, but the flashes of their gims showed it to be a large body 
and that it was attacking and was within gunshot of the fort. 
I pointed out to those with me the fight going on at the fort across 
the valley and told them that we must go across the valley and 
help. We rushed down the slope, more men joining us on the 
way, among whom was a captain of one of the companies of our 
regiments, with his naked sword in his hand, wild and excited, not 
knowing what to do. I told him to put up his sword; that he 
could not do anything with that ; to pick up a gun and some car- 
tridges and come along, we were going to attack that fort up there 
on the left. The ground was strewn with guns and cartridge 
boxes, and he at once armed himself and came along. The wall 
of the fort on the flank where we attacked was ten to twelve feet 
high from the bottom of the ditch to the top, the side steep and 
sloping. I told the men that we would run up the wall with our 
loaded giuis ready, point the muzzle down inside held at arm's 


length above om- heads and fire and run down in the ditch, load 
and run vip and fire again as fast as possible. We attacked in 
this Avay and looked sharp for any of them who would dare to 
show himself. We made noise enough for a thousand men. By 
the erys of pain from inside the fort, I knew that an occasional 
shot of ours was hitting. The army attacking iti front was push- 
ing its force close to the foi-t, when cry for quarter came from 
the fort to us. I told them to tlirow down their arms, put up 
their hands and come over and surrender. They ceased firing; 
part of them ran away and some of them came out and sur- 
rendered to us. 

We were in possession of over a mile of the enemy's works, 
including two forts and three pieces of artillery and a squad of 
prisoners in immediate charge of the men that were with me. 
The battle had begun to rage off to our left a half mile away in 
which large bodies of men were fighting. It was an attack on the 
rebel line. The Fifth Wisconsin had not yet returned from the 
timber into wiiich it chased the enemy. I wanted to hold our 
prisoners until the regiment returned. Some of the men with me 
wanted to shoot them. The prisoners were seared. I would not 
stand for shooting them or tying them, but tried to get a guard 
of volunteers to take them to the rear and deliver them to the 
provost guards. No one would volunteer, so I decided to take 
them to the rear myself. 

On the afternoon of April 2, 1865, after the enemy had been 
driven out of their works to the left, and forced back toward 
Petersburg, and after numerous battles Avere fought, in none of 
which we were called upon to take part, a rebel battery in a 
grove on a high place inside the enemy's lines was shelling the 
Union forces. Its fire was disastrous. The gunners were very 
active and their fire accurate. The Fifth Wisconsin was ordered 
to charge that battery and drive them out or capture them. From 
where we were to reach the battery we had to move across an 
open field of rolling or undulating surface. The regiment moved 
out in columns of fours. My feet had become so lame that I could 
not keep up. The regiment followed depression for protection. 
Its course was zigzag, ahvays going nearer to the battery. I told 
the colonel that my feet were so lame that I could not keep up 
and so I would go straight toward the battery, which I did. As 
soon as the battery saw that the regiment was bearing down upon 
it, it directed its fire against the regiment. I went across higher 
ground and nearer the battery than the regiment and clearly saw 
them both. The first shell they fired went over the regiment, 


struck the ground beyond and exploded. They depressed the 
gun, and the second shell struck the ground near me, bounded 
above the regiment also, went in the ground beyond and ex- 
ploded. Both shells tore great holes in the earth. The third 
shot got the range of the regiment and struck a man in the 
shoulder and ranged through the file of four men, literally tearing 
them to pieces. The regiment charged the battery at double 
quick and it limbered up and went off at a gallop toward Peters- 
burg to another high point and opened on us again just as we 
reached the ground where they were. A few shells exploded 
over us, but we were not touched. About four o'clock the army 
was formed in line of battle at right angles to the rebel works 
and as soon as formed, the left extending for half a mile inside 
those works and the right far beyond them, towards the Union 
works, the Fifth Wisconsin near the left, a general advance to- 
wards Petersburg was begun. I took my place in the ranks, 
though I was suffering excruciating pain in my feet. We moved 
slowly forward until about six o'clock, when we halted for the 
night, the whole line resting with arms at hand or lying on their 
arms all night. 

Guards were detailed for camp and picket duty and the men 
of the regiment laid down utterly exhausted and slept with guns 
loaded and ready by their sides. I could not sleep, so I volun- 
teered as guard and was placed in charge of both camp and picket. 
Towards night the commander of our brigade was detailed to 
serve as a member of a court martial and our colonel being the 
next in rank took command of the brigade. At six o'clock that 
night he was detailed as general officer of the day for the army 
and reported at headquarters, where plans for the night were com- 
pleted and he was charged to execute them. By virtue of his 
position as general ofScer of the day, he was, while holding that 
position, in command of the army. He rode along the entire line, 
followed by a long retinue of aides and orderlies, giving instruc- 
tions to the several commanders, and back to headquarters. The 
camp guards were posted, the pickets were also posted and each 
picket post sent out a vidette. While I was trying to rest and 
after dark (no lights were permitted along the line) the colonel 
came down from headquarters on foot wearing the big red sash 
over his right shoulder, across his breast and ends crossing on 
his left side, the insignia of his rank as general officer of the day. 
He asked me who was in charge of the camp. I told him I was. 
He said that he was completely exhausted and could not keep 
up any longer; that although it was contrary to the rules for him 


to sleep while on duty, he could not keep awake any longer. 
I told him to get a blanket and wrap up so that his sash could not 
be seen and cover his head and I Avould call him if there was occa- 
sion for it ; that I could not sleep and would watch for him. He 
outlined his duties to me, gave me his password for the night, 
pulled off his boots and put them under his head, rolled up in 
his blanket and covered up so completely that he could not be 
distinguished from any one else lying there. I jammed the 
bayonet of my gun down in the ground at his head with the butt 
of the gun straight up in the air as a guide and he went to sleep 
and I became the substitute general officer of the day for the 
Army of the Potomac, a position which a man in the ranks never 
held before or since. As soon as everything Avas quiet, I went 
down to a little stream which ran across our line and pulled off 
my shoes and stockings and sat on the bank with my feet in the 
creek for nearly two hours. This gave me great relief. I did this 
two or three times that night and my feet were much better. 

Near midnight a noise as of moving bodies could be heard 
away out beyond the picket line. I went out to see about it, out 
to the picket posts, out beyond to the videttes and from post to 
post. When away out at the front I could hear noises like men 
tramping, wheels like those of wagons and artillery moving. I 
carefully noted the direction it was taking. I noticed that the 
noise was gradually increasing in volume, not from the cause of 
the noise coming nearer, but rather from those making the noise 
increasing in number. I went back to the regiment, woke up the 
general with some difficulty and told him that the rebels were 
evacuating Petersburg; that they were running away. He lis- 
tened a minute and said, "Let them go," and drew his blanket 
about him and went to sleep again. So Lee and his army got 

The evacuation of Petersburg by Lee and his army, the Army 
of Virginia, was begun at midnight on the second day of April. 
He retreated up the Appomattox river. We learned soon after- 
wards that Richmond was also evacuated and the whole rebel 
government in full retreat. From the beginning of hostilities 
the effort of the Army of the Potomac had been to captixre Kich- 
mond and drive the rebel government out. Every battle in the 
East fought by it had that purpose for its ultimate object. The 
army under McClellan got almost there. Then Burnside got as 
far as Fredericksburg. Then Hooker was stopped and forced 
back at Chancellorsville. Then Grant was stopped at the Wilder- 
ness. "Baldy" Smith and Butler were turned back at Peters- 


burg and on the James river. In none of the many bloody bat- 
tles theretofore fought, had the way been clear to Richmond, 
although many of them were among the most bloody in history. 
Bull Run, Antietara, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, 
the battles in the Wilderness, all failed to bring about the fall of 
Richmond. They were each and all more bloody than the second 
battle of Petersburg, but by none of them was the enemy forced 
into a hasty retreat and the victorious army able to make a 
prompt and vigorous pursuit. In no other battle in Virginia had 
the defeat of the enemy been so crushing or disastrous to it that 
it could not control its plan of retreat and take the necessary 
steps to recover from or repair the disaster. While the enemy 
became less and less powerful at each successive battle, whether 
won or lost by it, yet if any one battle was the decisive battle of 
the war, that battle was the second battle of Petersburg, for it 
produced results that no other battle accomplished, the fall of 

Early in the morning of April 3, the army started in pursuit 
of Lee. The Fifth Wisconsin, having been in front or first regi- 
ment to move the day before in the attack on Petersburg, was the 
last to move today. Rations were issued to us, including about 
a gill of whiskey to each man. I held my tin cup Avith the rest 
for my share and all the boys knew I did not drink, some thought 
that I would divide it up among them and so I got rather a larger 
ration. My cup was nearly full, but instead of passing it around, 
I turned it down my heels in each shoe and thereby incurred the 
bitter condemnation of some of the members of the company, who 
had a great liking for it. I think this was the only ration of 
whiskey issued to us while we were in the service. It was well 
toward noon when we began the march, in the rear. About the 
middle of the afternoon we halted at a small creek to fill our 
canteens and rest. While we were scattered along the creek rest- 
ing and lying stretched out on the ground along side the road we 
were traveling, Generals Grant and Meade suddenly rode out of 
the brush along the road back of us and halted at the creek close 
by me in the road for a few minutes and talked with our colonel. 
Grant looked happy. The colonel congratulated him for the great 
victory won yesterday. The general replied, waving his hand 
along the regiment : "To you and those men belongs the credit." 

In the morning of April 5 we were ordered to report to Sheri- 
dan at the front at once and half rations were issued to us, that 
is, half the usual amount for five days, and about eight o'clock 
we were on our way. We stopped to rest five minutes every hour, 


half an hour at noon, halt' an hour at midnight, half an hour at 
six o'clock in the morning of the sixth of April, half an hour at 
noon of that day, and about four o'clock in the afternoon we were 
at the front. Company K was on the extreme right of the regi- 
ment and I Avas on the extreme right of the company and the 
regiment' was on the extreme right of the line. Many of the men 
had fallen out. They could not stand the forced march. The 
whole number in Company K then in line was twenty-six men 
and it mustered more men than any other of the companies in the 
line of the regiment. Some of the companies had no more than 
half our number in line. 

Sheridan, with his cavalry, had brought General Ewell's coi-ps 
too, and it had been handling him pretty rough, and he asked 
General Grant to send him the Sixth Corps in a hurry. He was 
being whipped. It was the Sixth Corps that whipped the Johnnies 
at Cedar Creek, in the Shenandoah Valley. It M-as the Sixth 
Corps that Sheridan called for repeatedly to aid him in his fights 
down on the left of Petersburg, but Grant would not let him have 
it then. It was the Sixth Corps that assaulted this same Ewell's 
corps at Mary's Heights at Fredericksbiirg, and the Fifth Wis- 
consin led in that memorable assault and captured the heights 
and drove this same army that we now faced. From the time 
Sheridan with his troops, marched around the right of Lee's army 
and joined Grant's, or the Ai-my of the Potomac, on the extreme 
left, he kept calling for the Sixth Corps. He called for it before 
the battle of Duuwiddie Court House, fought March 31, was 
offered the Fifth, Warren's, but refused it. He again called for 
the Sixth Corps before the aiTairs at Five Forks and Bradley 
Run. He told Grant that he could break in the enemy's right if 
he had the Sixth Corps. General Grant told him that the Sixth 
Corps could not be taken from its position in the line, and of- 
fered him the Second. Sheridan's campaign with liis cavalry and 
the Sixth Corps in the Shenandoah Valley had been very success- 
ful, so when his cavalry was put back near Sailor's creek, he had 
again asked for the Sixth Corps, and by Grant's direction, it was 
sent him. In the note Grant wrote to Sheridan, he said, "The 
Sixth Corps will go in with a vim any place you may dictate." 
So Sheridan sent word to Wright, commanding the corps, to 
hurry, and he says that "The gallant corps came up as fast as legs 
could carry them." Wheaton's men (the Fifth Wisconsin was 
one of Wheaton's regiments) came up all hot and out of breath 
and promptly formed for the attack, and while the whole line 
promptly attacked the enemy and fought the battle of Sailor's 


Creek, which Sheridan called one of the severest conflicts of the 
war. He said that it has never been accorded the prominence it is 
entitled to, because it was overshadowed by the stirring events 
of the surrender of Lee three days later. It resulted in the cap- 
ture of six generals and from nine to ten thousand prisoners. 

To our left, rapidly forming into line, was the first division 
of the Sixth Corps. Before us was the valley of Sailor's Creek; 
the creek was at the bottom of the valley, about 80 rods from us; 
we were formed on the edge of the hill, which dropped down to 
a freshly plowed field, which extended to the creek. On the other 
side of the creek, the land was more broken and rough with 
scattering timber to a Virginia rail fence, about 40 rods from the 
creek in the edge of the timber. Behind the rail fence, with guns 
pointing our way, was Ewell's coi"ps, extending in a long line, 
both to right and left out of sight. It was 4 o'clock in the after- 
noon when Company K took its place on the right of the line, the 
oificers all being present. Captain Hall, Lieutenant Colonel Bull, 
who commanded the regiment, were in a group at my right ; Gen- 
eral Wheaton, our division commander, was in the group at my 
right, discussing the plan of battle. General Wheaton stated that 
the plan was, as soon as a line of battle was finally formed and 
the men had got their breaths, to advance the whole line and at- 
tack the enemy where it lay. After General "Wheaton outlined 
his plan of attack, our colonel urged him to send in tlie Fifth 
Wisconsin against that line of rebels alone. Wheaton refused, 
then with tears running down his face, the colonel urged the 
officers to let us go ; he said we could whip them alone. The 
colonel was so earnest and begged so hard, that General Wheaton 
finally, with reluctance, consented, saying to one of his aides that 
they would send troops in to support them. We were required to 
charge a line of neai'ly 20,000 desperate men, armed to kill, across 
on open plain with no kind of a shelter and no protection. We 
loaded our guns and fixed bayonets and all the commissioned 
officers and surgeons took their regular places in a charge in the 
rear and we moved forward in double line. We were ordered to 
cross the creek, deploy in a single line, each man about two feet 
from his fellow, and to lie down until the order was given to 
charge and then to jump to our feet and rush the enemy's line 
with all our might. The band played and filled the valley with its 
music ; there was no levity among us. We marched with our gun.'- 
on our shoulders toward the creek and the enemy beyond, down 
across the plowed field until we were near the creek, when a few 
of the enemy began to slioot at us and wounded two or three men. 


The line wavered and became crooked and some of the men lagged. 
Lieutenant Colonel Bull, in command, halted the regiment, came 
forward to the head of the line where I stood and right dressed 
the line. As the men formed in line again in the face of a fusil- 
lade from the enemy, and a great cheer from the Union line, we 
again moved forward and plunged into the yellow, rapidly flowing 
water of Sailor's creek, which was about hip deep and a rod wide, 
and hurried across. Volleys from the whole rebel line were fired 
into us while we were in the creek. It got several men. "We 
dropped down and hugged the earth as close as we could while 
they fired into us and kept up all the time the terrible "rebel 
yell." We laid just long enough to get our breath when Colonel 
Bull passed the word along the line that when the order was 
giveu to charge, not to try to keep in line, but every man rush to 
the top of his speed and fight for his life and yell. At the com- 
mand, we jumped up and rushed for the enemy, yelling and firing, 
every man frenziedly fighting for his life. We ran against a ter- 
rific storm of bullets, men dropping as they ran. Those of us not 
hit rushed on over the crest of the slope and down at the rebels. 
There could be but one of two results from our charge ; we must 
drive them or they must destroy us. As we charged down that 
slope at them, mad and firing and yelling, the whole rebel line in 
our front and near flanks gave way and started to retreat ; they 
got but a rod or two from the barricade when some of them, their 
officers and men, yelled at each other: "What are you scared at, 
there is only a few of them," and they jumped back to the fence 
and began again to shoot at us more desperately than ever. In 
our charge. Company K had swerved ofi* to the right ; the general 
movement of the regiment was in that direction; the exposure 
was not quite so bad, but absolutely deadly everywhere, and just 
at this time I found myself among the men of Company B. Every 
man about me was down and I got down. Up to this time I had 
not fired a shot. I tried to shoot, snapped my guu several times, 
but it hung fire. There were none left for the Johnnies to shoot 
at, for most of those down were shot down, and those of us lying 
down for safety, took care to keep very still. The ground all 
around me was littered with guns, and as I could not fire my own 
gun, I dropped it and selected a good looking one from those on 
the ground, and loaded it. Firing upon us by the enemy slack- 
ened. The Second Rhode Island were sent in by General Wheaton 
on the double ciuick to our relief, and that diverted attention 
from us. A group of Johnny officers were talking ofl: to the left 
behind their line, and I tried my new found gun on them. I aimed 


at a man in the group and fired ; there was a scream of pain, con- 
soling words by others in the group not to mind, the shot was 
not serious. A yell from the line, an angry order from an officer, 

"Shoot the d n Yankee ," and a fire in my direction, 

it seemed to me, of a hundred guns. I have never been able to 
understand why I was not hit by that fire. I felt the bullets cut 
the air about me ; I got back a piece behind a tree, for I realized 
the danger I was in. In looking about me, I saw Captain Hall, 
the only officer there on the field. Our colonel came up, his feel- 
ings all cut up over the drubbing we got and crying like a child. 
The entire regiment with their colors was captured by the John- 
nies and recaptured later by the Thirty-seventh Massachusetts. 
Over 80 per cent of the rank and file of the Fifth "Wisconsin that 
moved down across the plowed field and attacked the enemy were 
killed or wounded. The charge from the creek until we were — 
done up — lasted about five minutes. Nineteen of the twenty-six in 
line in Company K were hit, and it suffered less than any other 
company in the regiment. Every man in Company B, among whom 
I found myself, was shot. I alone escaped. Our colors were saved, 
but every man in the color guard was hit. The artillery had shelled 
the enemy when they repulsed us and captured the Second Rhode 
Island and then the whole line charged the Johnnies and drove 
them. Stragglers from the regiment kept coming in after the 
battle. Some of us remained and gathered up our dead and buried 
them and helped pick up the wounded. The company moved off 
witli the balance of the regiment after the retreating enemy and 
I stayed working with those left behind until after midnight, when 
we laid down and slept till morning. This battle was not ended 
and the enemy in full retreat until night set in. Sheridan, in 
reference to the defense put up by the enemy to our attack, says 
that they fought like tigers. The result of the battle of Sailor's 
Creek was the capture of Rebel Generals Ewell, Kershaw, Barton, 
Corse, Dubose and Curtis Lee, and about 9,000 to 10,000 prisoners. 
Another result quite as important was cutting off Lee's retreat 
south to join Johnston, and driving his army across the Appomat- 
tox river toward Appomattox Court House. 

The Sixth Corps had proved to the enemy by the bloody bat- 
tle of Sailor's Creek that it was able and in position to prevent 
the rebel army from retreating south without exhausting its entire 
strength to defeat us. The victory and the capture of most of 
Ewell 's corps by us had released the cavalry from its embar- 
rassed position, and Sheridan again at once placed it across the 
enemy's line of retreat. The cavalry moved out in the right 


after the battle was over and part of the Sixth Corps was sent 
out also to support it. This force was fairly across the enemy's 
line of retreat and it had either to turn north, cross the Appomat- 
tox river and get that stream between its army and us or fight 
another pitched battle at once. Fighting was on all the time, day 
and night, but the opposing forces were moving on both sides, the 
enemy in retreat and our troops pursuing. The sound of the 
rattling fire of musketry kept up during the night after the bat- 
tle and kept moving away toward the west. The Fifth Wisconsin 
moved out in the rear of the Sixth Corps very early in the morn- 
ing. Stragglers, members of the regiment, both officers and men, 
who were unable to keep pace with its two days' and nights' con- 
tinuous forced march to take part in the battle, kept coming up 
until, when the pursuit of the enemy began after the battle was 
over, most of them Avere with the regiment. In helping to bury 
the dead and care for the wounded I became separated from the 
company and was not with it when it marched with the regiment, 
and about a dozen of us started out to join the army next morn- 
ing, without rations. The sound of musketry had turned from 
west to north and was moving in a northerly direction, miles 
away from us. We started toward the sound of firing, across the 
country the shortest way, not following the line of march of the 
army, keeping together as pi'otection against guerillas and bush- 
Avhackers and looking for something to eat. We sighted a man- 
sion surrounded by great fields and negro quarters and other 
buildings. We cautiously reeounoitered and found that the place 
was not guarded. We went there and asked for enough food to 
last us until we overtook the ai'my, which we offered to pay for. 
They told us there was not a mouthful of food on the place. The 
proprietor, an old man, with his wife, a daughter and a young 
woman and two or three younger children, were sitting together 
on the porch and lying on the floor of the porch in their midst 
was a young man, the son, bleeding from several wounds he re- 
ceived the night or day before, suffering. His father and mother 
shoAved the anguish they felt and the children sat quietly, tears 
running down their faces. They expected if they did not pro- 
vide us with food that we would burn their buildings. We put 
out pickets to guard against surprise and began a search. In a 
store-room filled, as they said, with empty barrels, we found a 
barrel of flour at the bottom of the pile. One man found a pail 
of lard in the basement. Two or three chased down a few chickens 
that had been overlooked by former raiders and we had the old 
negro mammy cook some frying flapjacks and chicken. Ai'til- 


lery and musketry sound off to the northwest was very heavy. 
We each took a portion of flour and piece of friend chicken and 
moved fast toward the sound of the guns and overtook the regi- 
ment at Farmville, on the Appomattox. 

Tlie Johnnies had crossed the river at Farmville and fired the 
bridge and made a stand there, but our men had charged and 
drove them out aiid put out the fii-e. The Fifth Wisconsin took 
no part in that skirmish. Up to the beginning of the war, Farm- 
ville was said to be the largest primary tobacco market in the 
world. There were huge warehouses there filled with all kinds 
of manufactured tobacco when the troops hit the town. The 
troops halted there for a while and when we struck the town, 
just after our regiment had come up, the streets were literally 
carpeted with pig tails, twist, plug and other styles of tobacco. 
The lovers of the weed were in the seventh heaven. Davis, of 
Company K, emptied all his clothes from his knapsack and filled 
every inch of it with tobacco, making a load that staggered him, 
but he was one of the happiest men in the army for a while. 
Some of the buildings were set on fire and destroyed. The con- 
tinued pounding by the cavalry of the outskirts of Lee's army 
Avas crowding it en masse, and we were put in motion again. By 
rapid marches were pushed across his front, or on the south side, 
of his troops, in line of battle on April 9, 1865, in the edge of 
timber with a wide open field between us and his army. We 
stacked arms and with broken ranks were right by our guns, ready 
in an instant for any movement of the enemy, which we knew 
was just beyond the timber across the field in front. We all 
realized that the critical time was at hand ; that the only chance 
for the enemy to escape was to break our line ; that his escape 
meant aid for Johnston and the defeat of Sherman. Cheers came 
ringing down the line and with them word that Lee had surren- 
dered. This report was premature, but for the time it set the array 
wild. The report was soon contradicted, but later in the day 
another report came that he had surrendered, and this proved to 
be true. 

After the surrender of General Lee we marched back to Burks- 
ville Junction and went into camp, from whence we expected to 
be transferred to Washington to take part in the grand review, 
plans for which were begun. We had hardly gone into camp 
when the report came that President Lincoln, his cabinet and 
General Grant had been assassinated. The report had a peculiar 
effect on the troops. The Sixth Corps continued under the sepa- 
rate comm.and of General Sheridan from the time it was sent to 


him by Grant to help him out of the hole that Ewell had him in 
at Sailor's Creek, and he was now doing his best to be allowed 
to go to Washington so that he could ride at the head of his 
army in tlie grand review, but General Grant ordered otherwise. 
The terms that Johnston had gotten from Sherman for the sur- 
render of his army was not satisfactory, and Sheridan, with the 
Sixth Corps and his cavalry, was ordered south. The march to 
Danville was a forced march, the only incident of special note 
on the march were the extraordinary beauty of Southern Virginia, 
across which we passed. We had scarcely reached Danville when 
Johnston surrendered on the same terms given Lee, and the effect 
of our march was completed. After Johnston's surrender, the 
Fifth Wisconsin did guard duty on the Southern railroad, guard- 
ing Confederate government property, which was being gathered 
up and shipped, generally to Washington. After the property had 
been shipped we were marched to Washington by the way of 
Richmond and Fredericksburg. We marched to Arlington Heights 
and camped there. We were impatient to be mustered out and 
go home, but we had to remain there until the accounts of the 
officers and men with the government were squared. Finally an 
officer came over from Washington and condemned our tents, 
guns and accoutrements. After remaining in camp at Arlington 
for some time, we were finally ordered home. 


The last company that went out from Eau Claire county 
for the Civil War was recruited in February, 1865, with 
Hobart M. Stocking as captain and Mark Sherman as first 
lieutenant, and was mustered into service as Company G, 
of the Forty-eighth Wisconsin Infantry. I give below the 
names of those in this company who enlisted from Eau 
Claire county or vicinity. I also furnish you a letter re- 
ceived several years ago from Captain Stocking, in response 
to a request from me that he tell the story of his company. 
It is a very interesting and valuable addition to the Civil 
War history of Eau Claire county. Although Captain 
Stocking was unable to furnish a war-time picture of him- 
self, I was fortunate enough to find a small picture of him 
in uniform, which I am furnishing you with this article. 

Following are the names of those in the company who 
enlisted from Eau Claire county or vicinity. 

Captain Hobart M. Stocking. First Lieutenant H. Sherman. 



Hans Amimdson, Warwick Ayres, Francis C. Baggs, 
Lewis Bartz, August Bartz, Joseph Beau, George Betz, 
Ford Britton, August Brummund, Henry S. BuUis, Charles 
J. Bussey, John G. Claire, Horace F. Clark, William Clark, 
Henry E. Cole, Howard W. Craft, Stewart A. Davis, Joseph 
Denny, John Denny, Sylvannixs Edson, Samuel Ellison, 
John G. Emerson, Nathaniel Flagg, Jr., Orange S. Frizzell, 
Roland Fuller, Benjamin F. Haines, William J. Hall, Samuel 
J. Hamilton, Phillip Hammer, Amasa Hathaway, Thomas C. 
Higgins, Alonzo E. Ilolden, Horace Hotchkiss, Actor Hun- 
ter, August B. Kaatz, Thomas F. Kenyon, Levi S. Ketchum, 
Squire B. Kidder, Andrew Kopp, George Kopple, Peter 
Launderville, Erick Leidiger, Sylvester M. Macomber, Fred- 
erick Martin, La F'ayette Mattison, George W. Mattox, 
Nicholas Mergeuer, Julius Moldenhause, Curtis Z. Nicholas, 
Ever Oleson, Manum C. Olin, Asabel-Putney, Royal Russell, 
Elias Salverson, James 0. Sanborn, Christian Sehwankce, 
John M. Shong, James Sloat, Horace H. Smith, James J. 
Simth, Marshus L. Snow, Joseph Spelile, Louis Spehle, 
Hortentio E. Stone, Sylvester P. Swan, Henry Tallmudge, 
John Teske, Charles Thayer, Charles F. Warren, Samuel 
Wilke, John Wilkinson, Freeman Williams, Henry L. Will- 
iams, Frederick Wittee, Obadiah Works, George B. Wright. 

Although this company went out near the close of the 
war, they suffered severe hardships and in common with the 
recruits who Avent earlier, they made good and M'ere a 
credit to the county. 

In the preface to his letter, Captain Stocking states that 
he was unable to find a picture of himself in uniform, but 
an Eau Claire friend of the captain has unearthed a small 
picture and I am sending it to you, also a picture of Lieu- 
tenant Mark Sherman. I am sorry that I have mislaid the 
later picture of Captain Stocking, which is mentioned in 
his letter. 


St. Paul, Minn., August .5. 1907. 
Mr. W. W. Bartlett, Eau Claire, Wis. 

Dear Sir: I neglected answering yours of the seventh ult., 
thinking I might be able to find some record which would refresh 
my memory and enable me to answer your inquiry in detail, but 


I have looked from "cellar to garret" and not a vestige of record 
can I find, nor can I find a photograph in uniform, so I send you 
today, under separate cover, a photograph taken a few months 
ago. Portj^-one years is a long time to remember, especially when 
one has been busy with other pursuits and interests, but I shall do 
the best I can. 

The regiment to which I belonged did not put down the Re- 
bellion nor force the surrender of Lee and Johnston. We were 
late in the field and had barely left the state when Lee sur- 
rendered. I presume he got news of our muster and was afraid 
we might be marching his way. It was my privilege to command 
Company G, Forty-eighth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, which 
I recruited at Eau Claire. We were mustered in early in the year 
of 1865, either in February or March. The company was the 
heaviest in weight of any which ever left the state ; rank and file, 
the average weight was 153 pounds. This included my drummer 
boy, who weighed 90 pounds, and myself, who weighed 93 pounds. 
This distinction caused us extra labor during our first march 
through Missouri in April, where we literally carried the wagon 
train across the western part of the state. My company being 
the largest and coming from the pineries, the colonel got the im- 
pression that we could endure, and whenever the wagon-train got 
stuck, which was often, he would ask me if I could take it out, 
and I think it is no exaggeration to say that I wheeled my com- 
pany out of line each day a half dozen times or more and literally 
carried the heavy wagons and contents to good footing. There 
was never a swollen stream to ford, and they were many, for it 
was a wet spring, that Company G did not take the advance and 
"set the example." The colonel would say, "Captain, if yovi can 
take your men across there, half the regiment will follow the 
example ; the water is deep and so cold that I dislike to order 
men to ford, but as your men are from the pinery and can stand 
hardship, if you will just take the lead you will oblige, etc." 
We always took the lead. So much for the reputation of being 
big and strong. In this case it was a handicap. 

I think I was one of the youngest, if not the youngest, officer 
who ever left the state. I was mustered as captain two months 
before I was eighteen years of age. I forced my age a year in 
order to muster. The regiment was organized in Milwaukee at 
Camp Washburn, and early in March we were sent to Benton 
Barracks, Mo., to drill. We only remained there one week and 
were then ordered west to garrison posts along the Missouri and 
Kansas border, where the bushwhackers were still troublesome. 


Our march through Missouri was uneventful, save for the mud 
and water and the trifling annoyances of bushwhackers, who 
were hovering about our flanks day and night. Being infantry, 
we could hardly go after the mounted bushwhackers, and they 
were very bold at times, burning houses and pillaging and mur- 
dering frequently within sight of the command. Before we could 
reach the spot to oft'er assistance they were mounted and off. 

Our first stop was at Paola, Kan., where Companies G and F 
were detached. Our stay was limited, however, as the night of 
the second day after being detached I received orders to proceed 
to Mound City, thirty-five miles south, with all possible dispatch 
and take command of the post there. We made this march in 
thirteen hours. At one point, "Big Sugar Bottoms," for seven con- 
tinuous miles the water was from waist to shoulder deep. It was 
a hard march and when I got there and reported to General Blunt 
by wire, I received in reply a complimentary dispatch, in which 
the general expressed surprise at the fact of our reaching our 
destination so soon, saying he expected it would take two days. 
I was young and inexperienced and supposed the order which 
read "all possible dispatch" meant all it said, and I fulfilled the 
order to the letter. We marched the distance in thirteen hours. 
I don't believe we could have cut off two minutes from the time, 
as it was heavy footing, and while in many places the water was 
too deep to wade with ease, it was hardly deep enough to swim 
with knapsack weighing from sixty to eighty pounds on one's 
back. We were ordered to Mound City to relieve a company of 
Kansas Jayhawkers, as the reckless Fifteen Kansas was called. 
Captain Swain, a former captain of this company, who had a 
few weeks before been sentenced by court martial to a term in 
military prison at Jeffersonville, Mo., had made his escape and 
was in hiding. A troop of regular army cavalry was scouring the 
country trying to find him. The captain in command of this troop 
suspected he was in hiding in the vicinity of Mound City and that 
this company was shielding him, hence we were ordered there to 
relieve the command. 

I arrived at Mound City and went at once to headquarters and 
found there in command a much bewhiskered officer, faultlessly 
attired in regulation viniform, who received me with much for- 
mality and addressed me as "orderly." On reading the order he 
did not seem well pleased, and asked, "Where is this Captain 
Stocking?" I replied, "Here." With surprise and a slight sneer 
he looked me over and said, "You Captain Stocking?" I replied 


in the affirmative and forgave him the sneer, as I certainly was 
a rough looking kid, a beardless boy in fatigue uniform, without 
a strap or bar to indicate my rank, and my clothes literally bespat- 
tered with Missouri clay. One could hardly blame the man for 
not wishing to turn over the command to such a youthful-looking 
tramp. On recovering from his surprise he asked, "When do you 
wish to take command?" I replied, "Immediately." He said, 
"Surely not tonight." I said, "You have read my orders, which 
say 'immediately.' You can consider yourself relieved now." 
He did not take this kindly. I had a man shot on picket duty 
that night, and when we were rolled out at midnight the situa- 
tion had me guessing for a time. The night was dark as a pocket, 
with a strong wind and heavy rain, and the location entirely new, 
as I was too tired to reconnoiter much before retiring that even- 
ing. I really was at a loss to know whether it was an attack from 
Taylor's band of bushwhackers, which were operating in that 
vicinity, or a shot from some straggling horse thief who was 
trying to open the corral where the post was located. I had the 
satisfaction of ordering a detachment of twenty-five men from 
the Jayhawkers to roll out and scout in the dark and rain until 
daylight. I also reinforced the picket with mounted men fron^ 
tliat command, which took the last man from their quarters and 
there was some swearing done on their part. After the fullest 
investigation I came to the conclusion that my man was shot 
by one of these self-same Jayhawkers in a spirit of revenge or an 
effort to stampede the "Doughboys." A stampede did not occur 
and I never was able to fasten the crime on them. The one satis- 
faction I had was in keeping their company out all night in the 
storm. They were a lawless bunch, and if I could ever have 
fastened this attempted murder on them they would have cer- 
tainly received a sample of discipline of which they were in sore 
need, and with which they were not entirely acquainted. 

We garrisoned this post about four months. Our duty here 
was light and rather uninteresting. Bushwhacker scares among 
the natives were frequent, as they were very nervous, having been 
frequently raided. We gave them the fullest protection, however, 
and in return we were treated better by the citizens than we 
would have probably been treated in our own state. 

In August, General Taylor, seeing the "jig was up," and that 
they could not divide the spoils with the troops then garrisoning 
the border, capitulated to our colonel, who was in command at 
Fort Scott, twenty-two miles distant. He surrendered a band of 


153 mounted guerrilas, who were taken to prison at Fort Leaven- 
worth. This wound up the guerrilla warfare, and there was no 
further need of our services there. 

We were ordered to Lawrence, Kan., to rendezvous as a regi- 
ment. We expected to be mustered out, but instead were sent 
west to relieve the Eighth United States "Galvanized" Rebels, 
who were garrisoning posts on the western frontier. This service 
was scattered from Forst Ellsworth on the east to Fort Union 
on the southwest. Fort Ellsworth was on the Smoky Hill Fork, 
and Fort Union was at a point about 100 miles southwest of 
Pike's Peak. 

Companies E and G were stationed at Fort Zarah. Our colonel 
with four companies was at Fort Larned, twenty-four miles west. 
The remaining four companies in command of Major Butt were, 
I think, stationed at Fort Union. A little excitement was threat- 
ened shortly after Captain Hutchinson of Company E took com- 
mand at Fort Zarah. The troops, who were rebels taken from 
Rock Island and other prisoners, officered by Union officers, and 
placed in the Indian service on the frontier, were really as bitter 
rebels as ever. We had 800 of them assembled at Fort Zarah 
awaiting marching orders to Fort Leavenworth, where they 
expected to be discharged. The order was slow in coming and 
the command miitinied and refused to do duty. Captain Hutchin- 
son ordered that the arms be taken from the men and they con- 
fined to quarters on prisoners' rations. The men refused to give 
up their arms. The situation was threatening and it required 
courage to meet it, as they were 800 to our 135 ; they occupied 
quarters and we occupied tents, but Captain Hiitchinson had the 
nerve requisite, and he made good, quelled the mutiny and the 
troops did duty until their orders came. Our service at Fort 
Zarah was strenuous if not exciting. It consisted of the ordinary 
garrison duty and escort duty, which in some eases was very dis- 
tasteful. Colonel Dent was at the Big Bend of the Arkansas a 
few miles south, with a supply camp, issuing annuities to the 
Indians. Bodies of chiefs and head men of the tribes would come 
to the fort, and the commander would give them a liberal body- 
guard in command of a trusty officer to protect them from the 
desire of revenge on the part of the soldiers, on their way to 
receive the presents of the government at the hands of Colonel 
Dent. The situation was further aggravated by the knowledge 
that a half-breed son of this same Colonel Dent was in command 
of a body of Sioux warriors, murdering and pillaging on the 
Platte route, only thirty-five miles north. Stage coaches were 


held up, passengers murdered, the stock stolen and coaches burned 
by this blood-thirsty band. Woe be to the straggling soldier who 
fell into their hands. Some of the most fiendish tortures imagin- 
able were meted out to these self-same soldiers. We were lucky 
in escaping them, but they got some of the Seventeenth Illinois 
Cavalry and tortured them to death, sometimes in sight of Fort 
Fletcher, where a detachment of this regiment was stationed. 

Being mounted, the tendency of the men was to straggle and 
hunt buffalo. I had a party of twenty men, who had been kept 
liusy getting wood for winter for several weeks, and who were 
enjoying the hunt which had been promised them, when we came 
nearly running into the jaws of this blood-thirsty band. Some 
hunters discovered our camp fire and warned us of the close 
proximity of the ludians, and we stood not on the order of going, 
but "got" for the fort as soou as we could get our stock, which 
had stampeded, and run to the fort that evening. It seems an 
interposition of Providence that saved us, for that very day the 
men had been hunting in parties of ten within a few miles of Fort 
Fletcher, and that same day the Indians captured two stage 
coaches, shot the passengers one by one as they were trying to 
escape, burning the coaches and running off with the stock. They 
caught two soldiers of the Seventeenth Illinois Cavalry within 
sight of the fort and tortured them to death in a manner too 
revolting to put on paper. Little wonder the soldiers were ready 
to retaliate on sight and that it was necessary to strongly guard 
the parties who came for annuities. The father issuing annuities 
and the son murdering and torturing in the same vicinity was an 
aggravating situation. 

Kit Carson, the famous scout and delightful man, later went 
into camp five miles north of us on the Walnut. As guests he had 
for a time the secretary of the legation of Belgium and the 
assistant secretary of the legation of Prussia, whom we often 
entertained at mess. Both were trying to enjoy tlie hunting of 
buffaloes, but they had some sad experiences, the Belgian shoot- 
ing his horse through the neck by accident and getting a bruising 
fall when the horse went dowu. They soon got tired of the sport 
and returned to civilization at the first opportunity. We enjoyed 
their visits very much, and when they left us they gave each 
officer an urgent invitation to call on them should we ever visit 
their country. It was my privilege to command an escort for Kit 
Carson on his final and successful effort to complete a treaty with 
the five war tribes, which was accomplished after days of, to me, 
aggravating parleying at a point called Plum Buttes. Each day's 


council would be broken up by the defiant chief of the Arapahoes, 
who had a white woman prisoner for his squaw and he refused to 
give her up, which was one of the conditions of completing the 
treaty. About 4 p. m. each day he would mount his horse and 
ride off, and all the chiefs would follow him, breaking up the 
council. The soldiers were very impatient, and the last day I 
suggested to Carson that we murder the whole baud. He replied, 
"No, no, for God's sake put that out of your head. They will 
come to time in the end," and they did. Of this patient, per- 
sistent, quiet man I can only say he was one of the most delight- 
ful companions and straightforward, determined men I ever met. 
He believed in the Indians, or pretended to, and they swore by 
him. He deserved their confidence. This treaty was signed and 
peace reigned for a time. How long I do not remember, but for 
the few days we remained on the frontier it was safe to travel 
without fear of losing one's scalp. 

Early in December we were relieved by regular troops and 
started on our homeward march. Here let me say, that I believe 
that for exposure and fatigue, no troops ever made such a march 
in America. The night before we left Fort Zarah a foot of snow 
fell. Our first two days' march was uneventful, the weather, 
although cold, was not severe. The morning of the third day a 
blizzard struck us, which continued almost uninterruptedly for 
four days. The first day the mules would not face it and we had 
to go in camp at the end of a five-mile march. Having only drawn 
enough rations to make the march, which, if my memory serves 
me right, was twenty-four days, we could not tarry or we would 
be out of supplies in that vast wilderness of snow and upon a 
bleak plain. The second day we started with a shovel corps of 
fiftj' men, who were relieved by a fresh detail of men each hour, 
and we literally shoveled our roads for eighty miles. The wagon- 
master would take his riding mule by the tail and start him out 
to find the trail. When he floiindered the men would shovel him 
out, and they were shoveling him out most of the time. The snow 
was from three to thirty feet deep. Every ravine or depression 
in the plains was filled. Some of these ravines were twenty to 
thirty feet and often of greater depth. At night we would cut 
out a hole in the snow for our tents and pitch them. Companies 
E and G had only dog tents, properly called shelter tents, and 
these would often be covered up in the morning if the wind v/as 
high, making it snug and comfortable during the night, but "Oh, 
what a difference in the morning," when the cook's detail would 
roll out and make a fire of wet elm, over which the cook would 


brew hot coffee. The men would take a cup of coffee in one hand 
and hardtack in the other and make a large ring about the fire 
and take a dog trot and keep it up until coffee and hardtack were 
consumed, then off for the day's tramp. Only one day did we 
lose the trail entirely. That night we camped about three miles 
south of a rocky prominence on a high sugar-loaf hill, which, if 
I remember right, was called Chimney Rock. When I went to the 
wagon train to get a shovel to sliovel the snow away so I could 
pitch my tent I met the wagonmaster and said to him: "I 
thought we passed north of that rock when we marched out." He 
replied: "You did, the road is at the north, but I tell you, cap- 
tain, no landmark ever looked so good to me as that very rock 
when I sighted it this p. m. I was lost all day." I replied that I 
did not know it. lie said, "Of course you didn't know it. It was 
all I could do to fight the panic within me. Should I have let the 
situation be known there woidd have been 500 men in the 
damndest panic you ever heard of, and hell would have been pop- 
ping. I am just truly thankful to be here tonight." 

Strange as it appears to me up to this day we lost no man on 
this march. Our drum-major, a man well along in years, and 
John Wilkinson, a very large man, standing 6 feet 3 inches high 
and weighing 325 pounds, both gave out, and we put them in the 
wagon and covered them with blankets and left them at Fort 
Riley when we reached that point. I supposed that both lost their 
feet, but I met Wilkinson in West Superior twenty years later 
with both feet attached. He said the drum-major lost his feet, 
but he saved his, although they were not so good as he would wish. 
Our colonel froze his face so badly that both eyes were tempor- 
arily blind and we left him at Junction City, the border town. 

He arrived in time to join the regiment before we left Fort 
Leavenworth and came back home with us. He was a young, 
sturdy man, who was duck-legged and could not wade through 
the snow, so he stuck to the saddle, and this came near costing 
him his life. It is said that a man can stand more than a mule. 
This march proved this assertion to be true. When we left Fort 
Zarah we had thirty-six six-mule teams, as fine animals as I ever 
saw and in prime condition. When we reached Fort Leavenworth 
all but four teams were condemned as no longer fit for service 
and sold under the hammer at auction. The only thing that saved 
our command was the fact that we had so much transportation. 
This wagon train was returning empty from a trip to the West 
and was assigned to our men. We had been on the plains for 
months and nearly every man had one or more buffalo skins and 


wolf pelts, and here were transportation facilities enough so he 
could bring them home, as %vell as all his clothing and heavy 
blankets. Under ordinary conditions a man would not have been 
allowed transportation for half the luggage each soldier had, and 
these same skins saved the lives of the men. Halters and ropes 
were stretched along the Avagons attached to the box, top bows, 
or any place where a hitch could be secured. A guard was sta- 
tioned at each wagon to keep men from riding, as they would 
have frozen to death if they had ridden, but the halters and rope 
made a hold for the men and they could catch on and drag them- 
selves through the snow, which was from knee to crotch deep, 
thus making the march and keeping warm at the same time, other- 
wise not half the command would have survived the first eighty 
miles of blizzard and deep snow. 

When we arrived at Fort Leavenworth after twenty-four days.' 
march we were a little battered, but still in the ring. We were 
mustered out as soon as we could get our muster-out rolls made 
and turned over our camp and garrison equippings. We were dis- 
charged at Madison, where we received a grand reception on our 
arrival on the ninth day of January, 1866, if my memory serves 
me right. 

We did not put down the rebellion. We were never in a 
pitched battle. If we had been I would tell you of it, even if we 
ran, for " 'tis better to have fought and ran, than never to have 
fought at all." Lee may have surrendered sooner having known 
that the doughty Forty-eighth Wisconsin was under arms. I am 
not informed as to that. We did not smell much powder, except 
as we shot down the unsuspecting buffalo and wolves, but we had 
a lot of hard marching and we were "Johnny on the spot" when 
orders came for any kind of service. Of course there is no doubt 
but that General Taylor hustled to make the best terms he could 
when the Forty-eighth Wisconsin relieved the Kansas Jayhawkers. 
This may seem a joke, but there is room for truth. The Jay- 
hawkers Avere sometimes accused of whacking up with Taylor 
and his men in the divvy of stolen hoi'ses and other plunder. The 
Forty-eighth was there to protect lives and property, and I have 
never heard them accused of appropriating either people's stock 
or conniving at the acts of the guerrillas, or sharing the spoils 
with them. So General Taylor may have thought his occupation 
gone once we entered his domains. 

As soon as the Indians found that this ' ' unwhipped ' ' regiment 
was assigned to gari-ison duty on the frontier there was "noth- 
ing to it. ' ' The five war tribes simply capitulated as soon as they 


could be induced to give up their white women prisoners and he 
sure they would be well fed and cared for during that cold winter. 
Colonel Dent was liberal with the annuities. Both of these con- 
ditions may have had something to do with it, but I think that 
the fact that "that "Wisconsin regiment" was out there praying 
for a chance to shoot something put the final touch to the con- 
ditions and induced them to lay down their arms and take no 
chances until the grass was high enough for feed, and the roving 
deer and antelope returned to their usual haunts. 

What I have given you is history as I recall it, but not much 
of it is war history, and I doubt if any of it will be of service 
to you. To be honest, the nearest we ever came to a fight was to 
bury the dead at the Battle of Mine Creek. Our service with 
bushwhackers and Indians was inglorious and unsatisfactory. 
We, however, endured hardships and experienced enough fatigue 
to make us rejoice at the opportunity of returning to — if not more 
peaceful haunts — at least more congenial. 

Respectfully yours, 


EXPERIENCE OF JAMES F. ALLEN. Cc-../5>..^--^'i-^ (Ifu^^ 

Narrative of the Prison Experience of James Fred Allen, G^>^j 

of Eau Claire, Wis., Private in Company K. 16th Regiment 
of Wisconsin Volunteers, Who Enlisted When Only Seven- 
teen Years Old and Whose War Experience Was Prac- 
tically All in Rebel Prisons. 

After the battle of Cold Harbor, June :J, 18(i4, we remained in- 
active until the 12th. That night after we had turaed in, we 
received orders to pack up, fall in and move out quietly and with 
as little noise as possible. We of the rank and file didn't under- 
stand the meaning of this, to us, unnecessary caution, but learned 
later that Wade Hampton's Legion (cavalry) was suspected of 
being in our vicinity and would hang on our flanks ready to at- 
tack any of our troops they felt able to get away with, hence the 
caution which some of us later found to our sorrow was well 
timed. We moved out, as I remember, about 9 P. M. and after 
marching about two hours, the night being very dark, we were 
overtaken by a courier with the information that we, with a 
portion of the command had somewhere after starting taken the 
wrong road in the dark and must about face and get back in 
quick time, but with the main command now far in the front. 
We made a supreme effort to catch the command, but .just before 


reaching it we got whispered orders to stop for a breathing spell 
and a few minutes rest. This was our undoing, for in a moment 
we were stretched along the side of the road in the woods out 
of the mud and were sound asleep, as indeed, many had been 
for some time while marching in the ranks, and when a little later 
the order to fall in again was passed, still in whispers, some of us 
for obvious reasons, failed to respond, and it being still very dark 
were not missed by oiir comrades or by the orderly whose busi- 
ness it was to get us into line, until too late. It was broad day 
light when we awoke, and when we realized the situation our 
feelings can better be imagined than described. 

But we pulled ourselves together and made another effort to 
catch the command ; this however, soon proved futile for we 
hadn't gone a mile when we were halted by a command to sur- 
render by a squad of cavalry who stepped into the road ahead 
of us, and as they outnumbered us we at once saw the point of 
their argument and like good soldiers, obeyed orders, but before 
they could get to and disarm us we had the satisfaction of spoil- 
ing the efficiency as Avell as the beauty of our new Springfield 
rifles by bringing their stocks suddenly in contact with near-by 
trees. This precaution in the interest of our cause, was however, 
strongly resented by our captors and had it not been for some 
of the older and cooler heads among them it would certainly have 
gone hard with us, for at that period of the war the most impor- 
tant capture a reb could make next to a live Yankee, was a new 
Spi-ingfield musket. 

"We were, as near as I can remember, about seven miles from 
Richmond to which city we started as soon as they stripped us of 
everything of value to them and arriving there were immediately 
put in Libby prison on the third floor, a hungry and tired lot 
of boys. "We remained here about two weeks, being treated fairly 
well and little dreaming of the horrors in store for us when the 
gates of Andersonville closed behind us later. 

About the first of July we were loaded in cattle ears recently 
used for transportation of cattle, and after a trip of four days' 
jolting and bumping over the worst roads imaginable, and filled 
with hardships and suft'ering, Ave reached Andersonville Prison, 
that horrible hell-hole of the Confederacy in the interior of 
Georgia, where in a stockade of thirty acres were confined as 
many as 33,000 Union prisoners at one time, packed in so closely 
that the space equally divided would allow only four square feet 
to a man. Here during the last year of the war were confined 
about 50,000 of whom over 13,000 died from starvation, exposure, 
J^A^A ^ yw^Avv \/^^^. (aJ-Uva. !L,,^^Jj^- <P^^^ 


scurvy and loathsome diseases. No pen can tell what we suffered 
in the months we were held there till the close of the war. 

Around the inside of the stockade, twenty feet from its base, 
ran the dead line and should a person step over the line acci- 
dentally or purposely he was shot by the sentinels on the stock- 
ade. Many driven half insane by the horrors of their daily exist- 
ence deliberately walked to death by crossing this dead line. 

A swamp was the center of the prison and through it flowed 
a small creek, which furnished all the water that was to be had 
for the daily use of the prisoners and in addition it was the sewer 
for thousands of men crowded together, who had to drink of its 
pestilential waters. 

Most of us were without shelter from the winter storms or 
summer heat and the rags which we wore did not cover our 
nakedness. We yearned for the refuse food in the swill pails of 
our northern homes. 

No attempt was made by Wirz, the inhuman rebel monster in 
charge of the prison, to lighten our sufferings and make us com- 
fortable, but his every eft'ort was to prolong and intensify our 
sufferings. Refuse bacon unfit for any human being, and un- 
bolted eornmeal was our diet. It could not and was not meant to 
support life. Men were dying like flies each day, feet and ankles 
rotting off, limbs swollen to thrice their normal size. Unable to 
protect themselves, their food was stolen from them by their 
crazed comrades in their desperate fight for life. Although green 
corn and vegetables could easily have been furuislied them, they 
were withheld so that scurvy could do its work. 

No clothing was given to us to wear or soap for washing, nor 
medical assistance in sickness. Chills and fever were rife and 
diarrhoea ever prevalent, while the stench was unspeakable and 
always with us. 

In October, just before Sherman started on his march to the 
sea, and doubtless in anticipation of his attempt to liberate us, 
we were hurriedly put in cattle cars and run to Savannah, Ga., 
and put into a temporary stockade, pending the completion of 
the stockade at Millen, Ga., and after a short stay in Savannah 
were taken to the new one at Millen. This was a vast improve- 
ment over Andersonville in many ways, not the least of which 
was our escape from the monster Wirz, which, however, was only 
temporary, for those of us who survived until fall were destined 
to have more experience with that fiend in human shape. Our 
stay in Millen prison was about two months, and in November, 
on the day of the general elections in the north, and at the insti- 


gation of the rebel authorities themselves, we held a mock elec- 
tion, the result of which was very disappointing to the rebels as 
we elected Lincoln over McClellan two to one, which showed 
them„ plainly the war would be prosecuted to the end without 
compromise and that the loyal people of the country were in the 
majority. Some time in the first part of December M'hen Sherman 
was nearing Millen, we were again loaded on box cars and sent 
back to Savannah and from there without changing cars on to 
Blackshear, a station on the coast railroad near Thomasville. We 
were placed in the woods with a heavy guard around us and kept 
here a few days and then on to Thomasville, Ga., where we stayed 
two weeks when, Sherman liaving gone to Savannah, we started 
on a four days' march across the country to Albany, Ga., sixty 
miles, taking the cars again at this point and on Christmas Day 
1864, were back in Andersonville again. At this time our num- 
bers had been greatly reduced by death, exchange, and transfer 
to other prisons, so we did not number more than three or four 
hundred. We suffered greatly from, the cold and many died from 
cold and exposure who otherwise might have pulled through. But 
all things have an end and so were our days in this hell on earth. 
And when on the 28th of April, 1865, we were ordered to the depot 
to take cars for our line's at Jacksonville, Fla., our joy knew no 
bounds. It came so sudden and was such a shock, that to say, 
some of us acted like lunatics in our great joy over the prospects 
of deliverance, would be putting it very mildly. But we got off 
finally and after a ride of two or three days in our old friends — 
the cattle cars, without much to vary the monotony we reached 
Baldwin, Fla., twenty miles from Jacksonville ; the track being 
torn up between two places, we were escorted for a short distance 
by a rebel guard and then withoiit further ceremony were turned 
loose and it was then every man for himself and a great strife to 
be the first to reach God's country, our friends, and the Stars and 
Stripes, which I had not seen for about eleven months. 

We stayed in Jacksonville long enough to gain sti-ength to 
stand the trip north, which was about two weeks, for we were 
taken in hand at once by the doctors, who put us on a strict diet 
to keep us from killing ourselves by overeating. First of all we 
were led to the St. John's river, and after casting our rags in a 
common pile and being furnished with soap and towels, were 
ordered into the water for a general cleaning after which each 
was given a new uniform, a welcome exchange for the rags we 
had been wearing so long, and which we proudly donned. 

We boarded a river steamer about the first of May for Fernan- 






dina, where we transferred to an ocean transport for parole camp 
at Annapolis, Md. I will not attempt to describe our passage 
north, further than to say that of the six hundred on board 
probably seventy-five per cent were very seasick, which in many 
cases lasted during the trip, and Avhen it is considered that we 
were all confined below decks, it will not require a very vivid 
imagination to realize the condition we were in when reaching 
our destination, and that our joy on reaching port was only second 
to that when being released from rebeldom. 

We stayed a few days in Annapolis, received our commuta- 
tion of ration money, which in my case amounted to $72.00 at 
twenty-five cents per day, and were forwarded to the distribution 
camp for western men at St. Louis and a few days later we Wis- 
consin men were sent to Madison and home. 

Edward Nolan and John Cunningham from my company were 
captured at the same time. Of the others taken at the same time 
from the regiment were two from Company I, Bogley and Par- 
sons. They both died in Audersonville. I found Parsons dead 
at my side one morning. 

I did not attempt to escape by tunnelling under the stockade, 
as many did, for none of the three locations I had was near 
enough the dead line to warrant it. Many got out, but few suc- 
ceeded in getting away and when caught were subjected to hor- 
rible and inhuman torture by buck and gagging, being strung 
up by their thumbs and starving. I did escape for a time how- 
ever, with two others, when lying in the woods at Albany, Ga., 
waiting for a train to take us back to Audersonville. Although 
a line of guards was around us we succeeded in eluding them one 
dark night and slipped through. We made a clean getaway 
for the time being, but when it became light enough to see we 
found we had traveled in a circle and were back to the point of 
starting. We started again and reached the home of a planter. 
We were nearly famished and decided to attempt to get food 
from the planter's negro slaves, who as a rule were friendly to 
the Yankees and would do all they could to help escaping prison- 
ers. We cautiously approached the cabin furthest from the plan- 
tation house, but unfortunately someone saw us and reported to 
the planter who, with revolvers in his belt and a pack of vicious 
dogs at his heels, came down to interview us. Under ordinary 
cireiimstances we would have thrown up our hands and given up 
in despair after taking in the situation, but we had been up 
against similar situations many times and were by this time sea- 
soned veterans and decided to make the best of it, and to this 


end our spokesman, a comrade by the name of McKinley from a 
Pennsylvania regiment who was one of us, in a few well chosen 
words (he was good at that) told him that we were escaped 
prisoners, were nearly famished and that we had come out for 
something to eat. Mr. Mercer, for that was his name, looked us 
over and, probably under the influence of Mack's eloquence 
changed his aggressive look, dropped his hand from his revolver 
and in a friendly voice told us to come up to his house. Arriving 
there he ordered his cook to get us something to eat, others to 
make a big fire in the yard and still others to bring out chairs 
for us to sit on, and then he himself brought a large black bottle 
with glasses, and, being his guests and knowing the custom of 
the country and the sensitiveness of the people in such matters, 
we laid aside for the moment any conscientious scruples we might 
have had and helped ourselves. This put is in fine condition to 
do justice to the breakfast which soon followed, and which we 
ate still in the yard. To say that we enjoyed it but feebly ex- 
presses the intense satisfaction of being filled up again after our 
long fast on half rations. After finishing breakfast Mr. Mercer 
again sent his servants for meal, sweet potatoes, etc., for us to 
take with us. Then he made us a little speech in which he said 
he was not a soldier, being exempt on account of having a certain 
number of slaves, but it was his duty to take us back to camp ; 
that lie deplored the war and wushed it was over; that he sym- 
pathized with us in our troubles and hoped we would finally reach 
home safely, etc., and now if we were ready he would take us to 
the provost marshal in Albany, which he did, and that night we 
Avere placed in the guard house and next morning turned in with 
the rest of the prisoners. This happened many years ago, but it 
seems but yesterday, so vividly was it impressed on my mind. 
It was the only bright spot in my prison experience and I shall 
never forget it. 

I have always thought Mr. Mercer was a union man at heart 
and whether or not, he certainly was a man in the truest sense 
and stands out in violent contrast to all others with whom we 
came in contact while in the confederacy. I heard of him after 
we moved to Florida through a widow who came here from 
Albany. She always spoke very highly of him and that he was 
one of the solid men of that section. 

On our way home from Andersonville the Government gave 
us stationery for writing home and instructed us to write on the 
envelope "Paroled Prisoner's Letter." This would allow the let- 
ter to go through the mails without postage being paid in ad- 


vance, but it would be collected at its destination. "When my 
letter written from St. Louis reached home the postmaster J. W. 
Farwell, called Myron Briggs' attejition to it and said that it must 
be from me. Mr. Briggs promptly paid the postage and took the 
letter to mother. 

Previous to this an exchanged prisoner had reported that he 
knew me in Andersonville, had divided his last morsel with me 
and saw me die. A funeral sermon was preached in Eau Claire 
by reason of that report to which all gave credence. 

I reached home a few days after the Free Press announced 
(May 25, 1865) that I was still alive. 


The Free Press of June 30, 1864, records the return of 
Compauj' C, Capt. Victor "Wolf, and the survivors of the 
Eagle company. There were but fifty-six left, and of this 
number thirty re-enlisted for the remainder of the war. 

Nearly every issue records the death of one or more sol- 
diers who went out from this county. 

In the summer of 1864 an attempt was made to recruit 
Chippewa Indians for service in the war, but the plan 
proved a failure. 

In the Free Press of September 8, 1864, is found a very 
complimentary mention of Lieut.-Col. Charles "Whipple. 
This Charles "Whipple was a brother of Capt. D. C. "Whipple 
and was an early Chippewa river steamboat man. He 
received a commission as lieutenant-colonel and served for 
a time in the navy, later being transferred to the Nine- 
teenth "Wisconsin Infantry. 

In the Free Press of September 22, 1864, is recorded the 
return of Capt. (later Major) John R. "Wheeler, of the 
Sixteenth Wisconsin, severely wounded in both legs. 

In the Free Press of November 10, 1864, complimentary 
mention is made of Capt. A. M. Sherman, of the Second 
Cavalry, who had just resigned his commission and 
returned to Eau Claire. 

In the Free Press of February 16 is recorded the promo- 
tion of Capt. John R. Wheeler of the Sixteenth Wisconsin 
to major of the regiment, and a very complimentary men- 
tion of the man. 

The Free Press of March 9, 1865, records the departure 



of Lieut, (later Captain) H. M. Stocking with his company 
for Milwaukee to join the Forty-eighth Wisconsin Infantry. 
The Free Press of April 20, 1865, appears with heavy 
black lines, and the announcement of the assassination of 
President Lincoln. 


In the preparation of this Civil War chapter my only 
aim has been to give a true and unbiased presentation of 
the part taken by Eau Claire county in the Civil War. The 
extracts from Civil War letters, newspapers and records 
have been given as found, and these records and the pic- 
tures furnished will be allowed to speak for themselves. It 
is for the reader to judge whether or not our county meas- 
ured up to its full duty during those trying years from- 
sixty-one to sixty-five. 





The Grand Army of the Republic was organized at Decatur, 
Illinois, April 6, 1866, by Dr. B. F. Stephenson, of Springfield, 
Illinois, who had served as surgeon of the Fourteenth Illinois 
Infantry. At the close of the war he resumed his practice in 
Springfield, where, in February, 1866, he first suggested the 
organization of the G. A. R., and made a draft of a ritual. 
Through his efforts, assisted by comrades, the first post, known 
as No. 1, was organized at Decatur, Illinois, April 6, 1866, Dr. 
Stephenson being in general charge of the organization of posts 
in other states. On October 31, 1866, he issued a call for a 
national convention of the G. A. R., which was held in Indian- 
apolis, November 20, 1866. Gen. John M. Palmer, the first depart- 
ment commander, presided. 

An appropriate monument has been erected iu the city of 
Washington, District of Columbia, in honor of and love for the 
comrade who so faithfully labored for the success of the G. A. R. 
and through the efforts of the comrades of the G. A. R. Dr. Steph- 
enson will long be remembered, not only by members of the 
organization, but by an appreciative people who may chance 
to see it. 

On December 31, 1913, the members of the G. A. R. numbered 
180,203, of which Wisconsin furnished 5,703. The losses by death 
for the year 11,338, of which Eagle Post lost eight. The whole 
number of posts in the states and territories, 5,663. 

Eagle Post, No. 52, Department of Wisconsin, G. A. R. 
Eagle Post takes its name from "Old Abe," the war 
eagle, which was carried through the war by Company C of the 
Eighth Wisconsin Infantry, Victor Wolf, captain, after the death 
of Capt. J. E. Perkins, its first commander. Eagle Post was organ- 
ized on the eighth day of November, A. D. 1882, with thirteen 
charter members. E. jM. Bartlett, who served as lieutenant 
colonel of the Thirteenth Wisconsin, was elected its first eom- 


mander, with Bentley S. Phillips its first adjutant. Since organi- 
zation there has been added to the post by muster and transfer 
427 members. Lost by death, transfer and other causes, 337, still 
leaving a membership of 104. 

Eagle Post has always held a position in the front rank of 
the state department, has had the honor of giving two depart- 
ment commanders, Michael GrifSn and Charles H. Henry, two 
adjutant generals in the persons of George A. Barry and R. B. 
Rathbun, and senior and junior vice commander in the person 
of L. A. Brace. Eagle Post has been highly favored and owes 
much to the Women's Relief Corps, No. 20, for its successful 
growth and present prosperous condition, which is evidenced by 
the regular attendance of so many comrades, several of whom are 
past the eightieth milestone. 

The following named comrades served as commanders for the 
years indicated in the roster: 

1882-1883, E. M. Bartlett ; 1884, M. Griffin ; 1885, L. A. Brace ; 
1886, M. Griffin; 1887, B. J. Farr; 1888, L. P. Hotehkiss; 1889, 
George A. Bari-y; 1890, R. H. Chute; 1891, M. Griffin; 1892, 
George M. Withers; 1893, A. W. Hunger; 1894, William Palmer; 
1895, W. H. Nichols; 1896, S. G. Church; 1897, E. M. Bartlett; 
1898, J. F. McGrath; 1899, Henry Spauldiug; 1900, C. N. Bost- 
wick; 1901, Austin Chrisler; 1902, C. H. Buffington; 1903, C. H. 
Henry; 1904, E. W. Allen; 1906, Jerre Murphy; 1906, J. M. 
Jewett ; 1907, A.' J. Cheesbro ; 1908, J. M. Botsf ord ; 1909, L. A. 
Brace; 1910, J^^Eljis; 1911, R. B. Rathbun; 1912, E. G. Jordon. 

The following members were enrolled for the year 1912, with 
their company and regiment : William Allen, Company A, Seven- 
teenth Wisconsin Infantry; Benjamin W. Brown, Company H, 
Twenty-ninth Wisconsin Infantry; G. L. Beardsley, Company F, 
Thirtieth Wisconsin Infantry; John C. Barland, Company H, 
Sixteenth Wisconsin Infantry; George W. Britton, Company G, 
Seventh Wisconsin Infantry; Robert K. Boyd, Company H, 
Eleventh Minnesota Infantry ; L. A. Brace, Company K, Twenty- 
eighth New York Infantry ; W. II. Biesecker, Company A, Twen- 
tieth Wisconsin Infantry ; J. M. Botsford, Company E, Thirteenth 
Wisconsin Infantry ; Charles E. Bruce, Company A, Fourteenth 
Maine Infantry ; G. N. Bostwick, Company H, Sixtieth New York 
Infantry; Thomas 0. Bowman, Company E, Eighteenth Illinois 
Infantry; R. N. Brewer, Company B, One Hundred and Forty- 
seventh Illinois Infantry ; George Bagley, Company B, Sixteenth 
Maine Infantry; Willis Britton, Company I, Fiftieth Wisconsin 
Infantry; Frederick Batzold, Company G, Twenty-seventh Wis- 

EAGLE POST, G. A. R. 195 

eonsin Infantry ; Henry "W. Butler, Company K, Thirty-sixth "Wis- 
consin Infantry ; C. H. Buffington, Company — , One Hundred and 
Forty-seventh Illinois Infantry ; William F. Bailey, Company K, 
Ninety-fifth New York Infantry; Charles E. Brown, Company I, 
Thirtieth Wisconsin Infantrj^; George F. Banister, Company L, 
Second Wisconsin Cavalry; George W. Churchill, Company A, 
Ninety-second Illinois Infantry; Jerome A. Cheesbro, Company 
I, One Hundred and Thirty-sixth New York Infantry; John 
Craig, Tenth Wisconsin Light Artillery ; Euos S. Culver, Jr., Com- 
pany G, Thirty-fifth Pennsylvania Infantry; R. H. Chute, Com- 
pany F, Fifty-ninth Massachusetts Infantry; Benjamin N. Castle, 
Company G, First Wisconsin Cavalry; J. G. Cleghorn, Company 
H, Sixteenth Wisconsin Infantry; L. P. Crandall, Company — , 
First New York Dragons; Austin Crisler, Company G, Forty- 
second Wisconsin Infantry ; J. F. Cranston, Twelfth Illinois Infan- 
try ; John Cranie, Company K, Thirtieth Wisconsin Infantry ; J. B. 
Demarest, Company C, Eiglith Wisconsin Infantry ; A. N. Dickey, 
Company K, Third Iowa, and Company B, Forty-fourth Wiscon- 
sin Infantry; J. F. Ellis, Company K, Fifth Wisconsin Infantry; 
Edwin J. FariV~Thirtieth Wisconsin Infantry; David H. Fort, 
Company G, Fifth' New York Artillery ; Frank Ferris, Company 
I, Thirty-seventh Wisconsin Infantry; Ira Flagler, Company G, 
Fortieth Wisconsin Infantry ; J. H. Goodwin, Company K, Second 
Iowa Cavalry ; A. S. Garnet, Company D, Eighty-fifth New York 
Infantry; John S. Green, Company E, Ninety-third New York 
Infantry; Peter Gebhard, Company L, Fourth Wisconsin Cav- 
alry: James D. Grant, Company D. Sixth New York Heavy 
Artillery; Thomas J. Hill, Company C, Eighth Wisconsin Infan- 
try; Charles H. Henry, Company K, Twenty-fifth Wisconsin 
Infantry ; Dwight L. Hazen, Company K, Fifth Wisconsin Infan- 
try ; Patrick A. Hackett, Company K, Fifth Wisconsin Infantry ; 
William Hall, Company C, Twentieth Indiana Infantry; Peter 
Haas. Company A, Third Wisconsin Infantry; Edward H. Ilussey, 
Company D, Second Ohio Infantry; Edward H. Hussey, Com- 
pany C, One Hundred and Eighth Ohio Infantry; A. C. Hath- 
away, Company F, Thirtieth Wisconsin Infantry; James II. Hazen, 
Company G, Sixteenth Wisconsin Infantry; George F. Hallas, 
Company B. Forty-seventh Wisconsin Infantry; Melvin Hubbell, 
Company H, Seventh Iowa Cavalry; G. K. Ives, Company H, 
Ninth Maine Infantry ; Lafayette Johnson, Company A, Twenty- 
first Pennsylvania Cavalry; Lafayette Johnson, Company G, 
Forty-sixth Pennsylvania Infantry; J. M. Jewett, Twelfth Wis- 
consin Battery ; E. G. Jordan, Company B, First Maine Heavy 


Artillery; E. G. Jordan, seaman gunboat "Pontiac"; John A. 
Jones, Company I, Thirtieth Wisconsin Infantry; John A. Jones, 
Company C, Eighth Wisconsin Infantry; Lorenzo Johnson, Com- 
pany F, Thirty-first United States C. T. ; L. L. Lancaster, Com- 
pany L, Second Wisconsin Cavalry; George Linton, Company D, 
Fifteenth New York Cavalry; Henry Laycock, Company C, 
Eighth Illinois Cavalry; William Lord, Company I, Sixth Maine 
Infantry; L. W. Little, Company E, Fourth Iowa Cavalry; John 
Lorenz, Company B, Twenty-ninth Indiana Infantry ; A. W. Mun- 
ger, Company B, One Himdred and Eighty-fourth Pennsylvania 
Infantry; Jerre Murphy, Company B, Sixth Wisconsin Infantry; 
Henry Mitchell, Company B, First Iowa Cavalry; Abram Man- 
chester, Company K, Ninth Maine Cavalry; John Mahoney, Com- 
pany E, Forty-seventh Wisconsin Cavalry; James H. Niblett, 
Company A, Twelfth Michigan Infantry; Charles E. Newman, 
Eighth Wisconsin Battery; Mannum Olin, Company G, Forty- 
eighth, Wisconsin Infantry; Martin Page, Company A, Thirty- 
seventh Wisconsin Infantry ; Thomas Powell, Company L, Second 
Wisconsin Cavalry; John Pepper, Company I, One Hundred and 
Thirty-fifth Illinois Infantry; Martin Pickett, Company II, 
Eleventh United States Infantry ; James Pope, Company F, Forty- 
eighth Wisconsin Infantry; E. A. Prink, Company E, First Wis- 
consin Cavalry; James M. Pixley, Second Vermont Battery; 
Edward P. Palmer, Company H, Two Hundred and Sixth Penn- 
sylvania Infantry; Jerry Plemon, Company B, First Wisconsin 
Cavalry; Joseph Quinlan, Company I, One Hundred and Thirty- 
second Pennsylvania Infantry; John C. Rorig, Company K, Sixth 
United States Infantry; Ranous, John G., Company G, Sixteenth 
Wisconsin Infantry; R. B. Rathbun, Company I, Fortieth New 
York Infantry; Theo. H. Rockwood, Company I, Fourth Wis- 
consin Cavalry ; Sidney A. Russell, Company H, Fiftieth Wiscon- 
sin Infantry; George H. Swartz, Company G, One Hundred and 
Fourth Pennsylvania Infantry; W. E. Stevens, Company K, 
Twelfth Michigan Infantry; A. M. Sherman, Company L, Second 
Wisconsin Cavalrj'; Charles A. Seaman, Company G, One Hun- 
dred and Thirty-seventh New York Infantry; Julius Semich, 
Company A, Twenty-sixth Wisconsin Infantry ; II. M. Stocking, 
Company G, Forty-eighth Wisconsin Infantry; Joseph Schimean, 
Company I, Fifth Wisconsin Infantry ; Z. B. Stilwell, Company I, 
Forty-second Wisconsin Infantry; AVilliam Small, Company K, 
Twenty-fourth Wisconsin Infantry; Herbert Skeels, Company G, 
Thirteenth New York Infantry; Martin L. Smith, Company B, 
Third Minnesota Infantry; Charles Steinfort, Compay G, Thirty- 

EAGLE POST, G. A. R. 197 

eighth Wisconsin Infantry ; H. J. Steady, Company K, First Wis- 
consin Infantry ; H. J. Steady, Company B, Thirty-fifth Wisconsin 
Infantry; Thomas C. Sullivan, Company H, Sixth New Hamp- 
shire Infantry ; Charles Strasburg, Company C, Eighth Wisconsin 
Infantry; Henry P. Tanner, Company A, Sixtieth New York 
Infantry ; George Turner, Company A, Fourth Wisconsin Cavalry ; 
Joseph Vermilyea, Company H, Twenty-seventh Wisconsin Infan- 
try; Charles Vermilyea, Company II, Twenty-seventh Wisconsin 
Infantry; Charles Veitsch, Company A, Fifty-first Wisconsin 
Infantry; W. F. Vinton, Company G, One Hundred and Fifty- 
fourth New York Infantry ; George M. Withers, Company D, One 
Hundred and Fourth Ohio Infantry ; R. H. Wyman, Company G, 
One Hundred and Second New York Infantry; J. H. Waggoner, 
Company E, Second Wisconsin Cavalry; S. U. Washburn, Com- 
pany H, One Hundred and Fourth Ohio Infantry ; A. H. Wilson, 
Company F, First Pennsylvania Cavah'y; Wales II. Willard, 
Company B, Sixty-eighth New York N. G. ; Ephram Wilcox, Com- 
pany C, Eighth Wisconsin Infantry; Samuel Williamson, seaman 
United States steamship "Wabash"; G. H. Wooley, Company D, 
Ninth New York Cavalry. 

John E. Perkins Post, No. 98, was organized in Augusta on 
August 3, 1883, ill what Avas called Beebe's Hall. Two years 
later the hall was burned, including books of record and entire 
working paraphernalia. It was not long, however, before that 
indomitable pluck so characteristic of our Wisconsin boys was 
again brought into action, and things began to come our way, 
and, Phoenix like, out of the old came the new, being now located 
in William's Hall, where we remained until forced to vacate on 
account of remodeling and enlarging of the building. It was 
some time before we were again located in our present cjuarters 
in Teare's Hall, where we continued along the same old line of 
teaching patriotism and love for "Old Glory," as well as seeking 
out and caring for and administering to our needy eo-ijartners of 
the great conflict of long ago. 

Our post at this date (1914) has only twenty members in 
good standing, some of which are getting old and feeble and soon 
will have finished here and pass on to fairer climes to join the 
great majority. We continue to pay our annual tribute to the 
dead by strewing flowers over the graves of the Blue and the 
Grey. Why not? One country and one flag is our slogan. 

The time and place of meeting is Teare's Hall every second 
and fourth Friday evenings. The following are the commanders 
of John E. Perkins Post since its inception to the present time: 


Capt. R. D. Campbell, C. W. Culbertson, C. A. Kirkham, F. N. 
Thomas, H. H. Kyle, W. H. H. Coolidge, G. F. Caldwell. We have 
a large and flourishing Women's Relief Corps, alert and watchful 
contributors to the old boys' best interests. "God bless the 
Women's Relief Corps of the old Badger state." 

G. F. Caldwell, Senior Vice Commander. 



In the days previous to the War of the Rebellion no military 
organizations are known to have existed in this part of Wisconsin. 
The militia was organized on paper, however, into eleven divisions 
of two brigades each with two regiments to each brigade. The 
organization was complete throughout the entire state in that all 
officers from Colonel to Major were commissioned and assigned. 
It is hard to understand in this day why such an organization 
should have been planned as the population of the state was far 
from sufficient to fill the ranks to the maximum. 

Eau Claire County, together with Pierce, Dunn and Pepin 
counties Avas in the territory assigned to the Second Brigade, 
Eleventh Division, Wisconsin Militia, and William P. Bartlett, 
still living, was commissioned a Major in the 43rd regiment. He 
has been a resident of Eau Claire for nearly sixty years. 

This organization fell to pieces when troops were actually 
needed in 1861. 

Under another chapter the military history of Eau Claire 
County in the War of the Rebellion is taken up. This paper re- 
lates only to militia or National Guard organizations. 

From the files of old newspapers it appears an armed and 
uniformed military organization known as the "Sharpshooters" 
was organized in April 1875. Prom the Free Press the following 
items have been taken: 

Free Press, April 26, 1875. 

The Sharpshooters, a new organization deriving their being 
from the Norden Society, w^ent through the first drill above Uni- 
versity Square yesterday afternoon. 

Only about fifteen had received their arms and the rest were 
not present, though quite a large crowd of spectators were. They 
made a handsome appearance marching and will no doubt make 
a fine volunteer company. They were armed with military rifles. 
G. L. Johnson acted as drill master. 



Free Press, June 6, 187J 

Sharpshooters mentioned as in parade. 
Marshall of the day. 

Captain Sherman, 

Free Press, December 23, 1876. 

Colonel Kelley, of the Governor's staff, received an order a 
short time since to inspect the company of State Militia in this 
city, also the Clark County Zouaves. 

The company at this place was inspected on Tuesday. Forty- 
six men appeared with accoutrements. 

In the absence of a Muster Roll of the "Sharpshooters" the 
Avriter has been unable to locate any one who could give further 
information concerning this organization. 

February 11, 1878, the City Guards were organized and it is 
understood several members of the Sharpshooters, which company 
had disbanded, joined the new organization. The following is a 
muster roll of the City Guards : 


Dorwin C. Whipple, Captain. B. Frank Teal, 5th Sgt. 

Michael E. 'Connell, 1st Lt. 
Edward "W. Allen, 2nd Lt. 
Robert K. Boyd, 1st Sgt. 
John S. Owen, 2nd Sgt. 
George W. Churchill, 3rd Sgt. 
E. S. Radcliffe, 4th Sgt. 

Chas. Jefferson, Corporal. 
Geo. W. Smith, Corporal. 
J. M. Smith, Corporal. 
J. C. Bartlett, Corporal. 
"W. S. Winters, Corporal. 
George Burt, Corporal. 
J. E. McGrath, Corporal. 


^^harles L. AllenT] 
Sever E. Brimi, 
D. C. Baker, 
S. A. Cuddy, 

A. B. Converse, 
J. C. Churchill, 

B. J. Demorest, 
W. W. Downs, 
Chas. H. Dunn, 
Godfrey Dawe, 

Hugh Fitzpatriek, 
E. B. Bartlett, 
M. W. Burns, 
J. H. Brooks, 
B. S. Phillips, 
Chas. H. Graham, 
Wm. H. Huyssen, 
D. J. Harrington, 
John L. Joyce, 
John E. Joyce, 


Thos. E. Kemp, M. C. Whipple, 

Edward Kemp. Charles H. Daub, 

Lloyd Morrison, Chris. Hogan, 

Wm. C. Merrill, William Bonell, 

S. R. Mann, J. H. Thomas, 

N. A. Norluig, Thomas L. Gadsby, 

E. B. Putnam, A. Garden, 

C. W. Rickard, A. Furgerson, 

C. A. Stouch, Zach Severtson, 

Chauncey Smith, Geo. W. Pond, 

Wm. W. Searles, Frank R. Sebeuthall, 

Frank Hunter, S. W. Hutchinson, 

R. B. Wall, Emanuel B. Flescher. 
William Wall, 

The arms and accoutrements were furnished by the State to 
the Company but they had to furnish their own uniforms. Shortly 
after organization a committee consisting of E. W. Allen, B. J. 
Demorest and Geo. W. Churchill was appointed on ways and 
means. They arranged for a play to be put on under the aus- 
pices of the Company. The title of the piece was the "Color 
Guard'' and March 19, 20, 21 and 22, 1878, it drew fine houses 
at the Music Hall. Among many others whose names appear on 
the program as taking parts we find those of C. W. Loekwood, 
Wesley Butterfield, Frank R. Sebeuthall, Judge M. D. Bartlett 
and Miss Russie Tinker. 

The City Guard at one period during their activity went into 
camp on the Fair Grounds. 

In 1880 the City Guard appear to have disbanded, for in the 
"Eau Claire Leader" of April 10, 1880, we find the following 
item : 

"Eau Claire Light Guards will meet Monday night at the 
Armory at seven o'clock, to perfect the enlistment under the new 
law, and receive recruits to increase the numerical strength of 
the Company. By N. B. Rundle, Capt." 

Military matters seemed to have lain dormant for many 
months but again on September 20, 1881, the "Leader" says: 

"The Militia last night met only to disperse. The Chairman of 
the Committee on uniforms, Captain Wolf, has placed in the 
hands of Mr. Rust the subscription list, which will be referred to 
the principal business men of the city at his convenience." 

Owing to the loss of the records the story of the struggle to 
re-organize and perfect the company cannot be told. Efforts 


however, were finally successful and the company was mustered 
into the State Service as C Company. 

C COMPANY, 1885. 

C Company was mustered-iu June 29, 1885, by Captain John 
W. Curran, A. D. C, by order of Governor Jerry Rusk. Fifty- 
nine names were on the roll. The company took the place in the 
Third Regiment made vacant by the mustering-out of the La 
Crosse Light Guard. The officers were : 

Victor Wolf, Captain, 

Louis Babb, First Lieutenant, 

Louis Schmidt, Second Lieutenant. 

C Company attended the regimental encampments at Chip- 
pewa Palls, September 7 to September 12, 1885, and at Wausau, 
June 14 to June 19, 1886. 

On account of internal dissensions the company was mustered 
out of the state service June 10, 1887. 

Captain Wolf had tendered his resignation some days before. 
At an assembly of the company June 10, resolutions of respect 
and regard for the sturdy old soldier were adopted. Captain 
Wolf had served as captain of C Company, Eighth Wisconsin 
Volunteer Infantry, in the Civil War, with great credit. 

Captain Wolf was born December 24, 1824, in Obendorf, Ger- 
many, and came to America at age of twenty-two years. He came 
of soldier family and almost at once enlisted in New York for 
service in the war with Mexico. Much to his disappointment his 
company was sent to Governor's Island for garrison duty, instead 
of into Mexico. In 1850, meeting Lieutenant Buckner, who later 
became a well known general, he asked him to intercede for him, 
and was sent to Florida as second in command, with a company 
of one hundred men, for service in the Seminole War. With H 
Company, of Fourth Artillery, he fought in the swamps and at 
Key West. Was discharged in 1856 after nine years and ten 
months' service. Settled in Eau Claire in 1858. In August 1861, 
was commissioned First Lieutenant of C Company, Eighth Wis- 
consin Volunteer Infantry, and became Captain May 11, 1862, on 
the death of Captain Perkins, killed in action. This was the 
company that carried Old Abe throughout the war. He died at 
the age of eighty-five years, January 21, 1910, and was given a 
military funeral. 

The company kept up its organization and remained an inde- 
pendent company until again mustered into the Guard as L Com- 
pany. May 18. 1889. It was through the efforts of General Grif- 


fin, Senator William A. Rust and Captain Ilobart M. Stocking, 
assemblyman, the company was again admitted to the state serv- 
ice. General Griffin was the mustering officer, and he. Senator 
Rust and Captain Stocking all made addresses following the 

The officers at this time were: John Beisang, Captain; Chris- 
topher Schlosser, First Lieutenant; Otto H. Kitzman, Second 

During the two years the company was out of the state serv- 
ice it built an armory costing $12,000.00. This building was lo- 
cated on Railroad street, between North Barstow and Dewey 
streets. It was burned December 31, 1890. Another armory was 
at once built on the west side of North Barstow street, between 
the C. M. & St. P. tracks and Eau Claire river. The building was 
72 feet front by 186 feet deep, three stories in front part, with 
drill floor 70 by 120 feet, and cost .$25,000.00. This armory was 
burned February 15, 1902. 

Captain Beisang resigned and was succeeded as captain by 
Christopher Schlosser December 20, 1893 ; Otto H. Kitzman being 
promoted to first lieutenant and Peter Schlosser to second lieu- 
tenant on same date. L Company was again mustered-out of 
service June 30, 1896. 

The company reorganized with the election of Otto H. Kitz- 
man as captain, C. L. Brown as first lieutenant and George L. 
Prehn as second lieutenant. Lieutenant Brown served but a 
short time when removal from city caused him to resign. Lieu- 
tenant Prehn was promoted to first lieutenant and Karl A. Frank- 
lin was commissioned second lieutenant. In a few months Lieu- 
tenant Prehn resigned on account of leaving the city and was suc- 
ceeded by Lieutenant Franklin and August Wuerch was com- 
missioned second lieutenant. 

Following the muster of the First, Second, Third and Fourth 
Regiments into the volunteer service, the state began the organ- 
ization of other regiments of the National Guard, to be prepared 
for another call by the Washington Government, and Captain 
Kitzman 's company was assigned to the Fifth Infantry, as B 
Company. It was mustered July 25, 1898, by Captain George 
Graham, of Tomah. 

The service of the Fifth Infantry was not required by Presi- 
dent McKinley, and the regiment was mustered-out in 1899, on 
the re-entry into the Guard of the First, Second and Third Regi- 
ments, Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry. On the failure of E Cora- 
]iany of the Third Infantry to reorganize, B Company was trans- 


ferred to the Third as E Company, on the recommendation of 
Captain J. M. Ballard. 

Lieutenant Wuereh resigned in January, 1899, on removal 
from the city, and was succeeded by Wm. J. Kessler on May 16, 
1899. The officers at the time of the transfer to the Third Infantry 
were as follows : 

Captain 0. H. Kitzman, First Lieutenant Carl A". Franklin, 
Second Lieutenant Wm. J. Kessler. 

On January 16, 1902, Earle S. Pearsall was commissioned as 
captain. This was his entry into the Wisconsin National Guard. 
He had served with the First Nebraska Volunteer Infantry in the 
Philippines, and had beeu a resident of Eau Claire for about two 
years at the time he was commissioned. He is still in command 
of the company. Other changes in the commissioned staff are 
noted in a list further on in this article. 

Captain Pearsall had been in command less than one month 
when the armory burned, February 15, 1902. He secured quarters 
for the company in what was known as "Putnam Hall," where 
they made their home for several years. They are now occupy- 
ing a small hall on the second floor of a building on River street. 
The quarters are entirely unsuited for military purposes. 

Few matters of particular interest have occurred in the history 
of the company since 1899, other than the loss of the armory. 
The company has attended the annual encampments. It was with 
the regiment at the manuever camp at Fort Benjamin Harrison, 
September 21 to 30, 1898. 

September 14, 15 and 16, 1911, the company participated in a 
special military camp on the State Fair Grounds, Milwaukee. 
This was by invitation of the State Fair Association. 

A call for service was made in the fall of 1911. On Sunday, 
October 8, late in the afternoon, Captain Cousins received a tele- 
phone message from Major Williams, at Camp Douglas, advising 
the governor had ordered Company D, of Mauston, Captain 
Witherby, and Company E, Eau Claire, Captain Pearsall, to Black 
River Falls, Jackson county. That city had suffered great losses 
by flood a few days before and the troops were required for the 
preservation of order and protection of property. At 10:15 P. M. 
Captain Cousins wired Madison as follows: 

Adjutant General, Madison, Wis. 

E Company, three officers and forty-nine men, left for Black 
River Falls at ten tonight. Will send other men tomorrow morn- 
ing. Cousins, Adjutant. 


Major Williams had been ordered from Camp Douglas to 
Black River Falls and was in charge of the troops and relief 
work. For some days the companies were on duty and rendered 
valuable assistance. 

The officers and men of the company nave made repeated 
efforts to secure a suitable home and it is hoped that in time an 
armory will be erected. At the present E Company is the poorest 
provided of an.v company in the regiment for quarters. 




Otto H. Kitzman July 25, 1<S98 

Earle S. Pearsall Jan. 16, 1902 

1st Lieutenants. 

Karl A. Franklin July 25, 1898 

Thomas W. Gruber May 5, 1902 

Charles W. Dinger Feb. 28, 1909 

Karl C. Kraemer June 13, 1909 

Richard F. Sortomme July 5, 1914 

2nd Lieutenants. 

Wm. J. Kessler May 16, 1899 

Edward D. McMillan July 14, 1902 

Chas. W. Dinger Nov. 29, 1904 

Karl C. Kraemer Feb. 28, 1909 

Harry 0. Hanson June 13, 1909 

Richard F. Sortomme July 11, 1912 

Carl H. Johnson July 5, 1914 


Ill the Summer of 1887 a number of the younger men of the 
City of Eau Claire assembled to discuss the formation of a mili- 
tary company. A preliminary meeting was held early in July, 
and on the evening of July 13, 1887, a second meeting to effect 
a temporary organization was held in Smith's Hall, corner of 
South Barstow street and Gray street. Harry B. McMaster was 
elected chairman and Thomas B. Culver performed the duties of 
secretary. A large number were in attendance and the meeting 
was an enthusiastic one. Committees were appointed to perfect 
the organization. Interested gentlemen who had been investi- 
gating the financing of the company made a favorable report. 
Measures were taken to secure the Roller Skating Rink at the 
corner of Second avenue and Ann street, on the west side for use 
as an armory. 

July 27, 1887, another meeting was held of which Harry B. 
McMaster was chairman and A. J. Sheridan acting secretary. A 
civil organization was formed with the election of Joseph M. Bal- 
lard as president. Homer D. Cooley as vice-president and William 
P. Chrissinger as secretary and Thomas B. Culver as treasurer. 
These gentlemen with H. B. McMaster, George B. Mason and 
Moses W. Burns composed the board of directors. 

The committee on armory made a report that the old skating 
rink, corner Ann street and Second avenue, could be secured for 
a rental of fifty dollars per year and that the premises could be 
bought outright for three hundred dollars. 

In honor of a prominent citizen, the name "Griffin Rifles" 
was adopted by a unanimous vote, by acclamation. 

The meeting then proceeded to the election of a Captain and 
on an informal ballot Harry B. McMaster received forty-two 
votes and Walter J. Fitch four. The election of Captain McMas- 
ter was made unanimous. A ballot for First Lieutenant was 
taken and Walter J. Fitch received twenty-four votes, John P. 
Sheridan nineteen and scattering four. Mr. Fitch declined the 
election on the ground that he had in contemplation a business 
arrangement which would cause his removal from the city. An- 
other ballot was then taken and John P. Sheridan received forty 


votes, John Fred Farr four, George B. Mason two, and J. M. 
Ballard one. The election of Lieutenant Sheridan was made 
unanimous. An informal ballot for Second Lieutenant was then 
taken, resulting in John Fred Farr receiving twenty-seven votes, 
George B. Mason nine, J. M. Ballard three, and scattering seven. 
Lieutenant Farr was thereupon unanimously elected. 

The meeting then appointed a committee on by-laws and 
articles of association consisting of Messrs. Fitch, McMaster and 
Cooley and arranged for the appointment of a committee to solicit 
honorary memberships. 

In August the old rink became the armory of the new com- 
pany and frequent meetings and drills were held to perfect the 
organization. The citizens responded liberall}^ in taking out hon- 
orary memberships. The Griffin Rifles Armory Association was 
organized to take over the building and remodel it. This associa- 
tion was a stock company and the citizens freely subscribed for 
stock. October 11 to October 15 the company gave a fair at the 
old Music Hall, then standing at the corner of South Barstow 
and Kelsey streets, now the site of the Kahn-Truax building. A 
report of the treasurer following the fair gave the net receipts 
as $943.97. The ladies rendered great assistance to the members 
of the company in making the fair a success. The money thus 
obtained was used in the purchase of uniforms. Events of this 
fair being of great interest were the cane contest and the hat 
contest. The cane was won by John S. Owen, who received 950 
votes. George B. Shaw was close competitor and Frank McDon- 
ough came in third. John Ure won the silk hat with Ralph E. 
Rust and Frank Moon second and third contestants. 

October 19 First Lieutenant John P. Sheridan tendered his 
resignation, owing to removal from the city, and First Sergeant 
Joseph M. Ballard was unanimously elected to the position. 

On October 26 Captain McMaster announced the Adjutant 
General had advised arras would soon be shipped to the company. 
The drilling in the foot movements was already under way. At 
this same meeting a committee was appointed to consider plans 
for the remodeling of the building and to provide for heating. In 
December the company got down to hard drill. Sc[uad drills were 
held from 8 :30 to 9 :30 and then company drills for one hour. 

At the annual meeting December 6 A. J. Sheridan was chosen 
recording secretary of the Civil Association, C. H. Greene financial 
secretary and Thomas B. Culver treasurer. The by-laws had been 
amended to provide for the captain of the company being presi- 
dent of the Civil Association. 


On November 22 the rifles, the old Springfield, were received 
from the State and the company, which had heretofore been 
drilling in foot movements, took up the manual of arms. The 
uniforms did not come until December 15. These were purchased 
by the company and each man received a pair of blue trousers, 
a dark blue blouse and a dress coat. These coats were highly 
decorated with facings and brass buttons, and fitted very tight. 

The armory had been put in condition for drills and all 
through the winter the company worked hard. In spite of great 
stoves at either end kept at a red heat the men suffered from 
the cold while drilling and many rifles fell to the floor from the 
benumbed fingei-s of recruits. Captain McMaster was rapidly 
molding the company into shape. In the selection of his non- 
commissioned officers he used great care. Joseph M. Ballard when 
the company first organized in the summer was First Sergeant 
and on his election to First Lieutenant was succeeded by William 
P. Chrissinger. Charles H. Green early in the history of the 
company was made Quartermaster Sergeant. 

During the winter of 1887-88 the Germania Guard, of Wausau, 
was mustered out of the State service and the Griffin Rifles, to- 
gether with two other independent companies, made application 
for the vacancy. Adjutant General Chandler P. Chapman 
ordered the three applicants to prepare for a competitive drill, 
and in this contest the Rifles were the victors. 

March 29 was the date set for the inspection. The other two 
competitors for the place had already been inspected. The 
armory was filled with friends of the company to witness this 
critical event in the career of the Rifles. General Chapman de- 
parted for Madison on completion of the inspection and that the 
company made a satisfactory and successful showing is evidenced 
by a telegram received on March 30 from General Chapman con- 
veying the information that Governor Rusk had directed the 
vacancy in the Third Infantry be filled by the mustering in of the 
Eau Claire Company. On April 6 notice was given muster would 
take place on April 20. 


On the evening of April 20, 1888, the company assembled at 
Smith's Hall, owing to the armory being again under repairs, 
and with due ceremony were mustered into the State service by 
that grand old soldier. General Chapman. The muster roll of 
April 20 was as follows : 


Captain Harry B. McMaster. 
First Lieutenant Joseph M. Ballard. 
Second Lieutenant J. Fred Farr. 
First Sergeant William P. Chrissinger. 
Quartermaster Sergeant Charles H. Green. 
Sergeant T. Frank Thomas. 
rSergeant J. Eugene Horan. 
Sergeant Edward G. Kehr. 
Sergeant Edward B. Kendall. 
Corporal Allen J. VanValkenburg. 
Corporal Homer D. Cooley. 
Corporal Andrew T. Simms. 
Corporal Dan MeGillis. 
Musicians Percy Cochrane, Will C. Off. 

Privates Fred H. Allen, Percy C. Atkinson, Frank H. Bartlett, 
Sumner P. Bartlett, C. M. Boardman, William Bonell, Jr., John 
M. Bostwick, Frank S. Bouchord, M. W. Burns, William L. Butler, 
Carlos L. Carle, George A. Carlson, Will J. Carpenter, George B. 
Chapman, Jr., James M. Charles, James I. Chrissinger, Walter J. 
Conway, Marshall Cousins, Sam F. Crabbe, Charles A. Fleming, 
Edward E. Fleming, Louis Fredricks, Arthur M. Fort, Henry A. 
Glenn, Charles H. Graham, M. C. Griffin, Walter H. Hainer, Will 
P. Hart, Clare S. Howland, C. Burt Johnson, John Kemp, Jr., 
Gilbert L. Larson, Hugh «McGough, Arthur A. Meggett, Frank L. 
Morrison, Albert E. Palmer, Robert E. Parkinson, Eugene L. 
PomO^au 0. Ray, U. Grant Richards, Will J. Seney, Ollie R. 
Seevers, Herbert W. Smith, Isaac B. Spencer, Harvey G. Stafford, 
Elmer E. Stanton, John H. Stockbridge, John C. Thompson, Ed. V. 
Wall, George R. Watson. 


The Griffin Rities were now to be known as E Company of 
the Third Infantry. Of this regiment Colonel Martin T. Moore, 
of La Crosse, was in command. In the following summer the 
company went into its first state camp. This was at Menomonie. 
Tlie company was designated by the men of the other companies 
as the "Babies," owing to the fact they had but so recently 
entered the service. They were under constant and critical ob- 
servation by the regimental officers and inspectors and came home 
with an excellent record. 

June 17 to 25, 1889, the Third Infantry encamped at the newly 
established Wisconsin Military Reservation near Camp Douglas. 



The Third was the first regiment to make use of the grounds. 
Previous to this time the regiments had camped at various towns 
in the State. General Chapman and Captain George Graham, 
of Tomah, were the first to consider the grounds near the village 
of Camp Douglas for military purposes and in the summer of 1888 
made an investigation. They found the present reservation as 
well fitted for encampment purposes and maneuvering. No funds 
being available for the purpose, General Chapman at his own risk 
purchased four hundred and forty acres from seven different 
owners. On April 22, 1889, a conference of. officers recommended 
the State purchase of the grounds from General Chapman. 

Nearly all the reservation was covered by second growth tim- 
ber and brush. The first drill of the regiment after reaching 
the reservation and making their camp was fatigue work. All 
hands turned to and proceeded to clear uprooted stumps and 
brush. This was piled in a huge heap near the guard quarters 
and made a magnificent bonfire which burned throughout the 

The annual encampments since 1889 have been at the Wis- 
consin Military Reservation. 

The Griffin Rifles were one of the several companies invited 
to the inauguration ceremonies of Governor William D. Hoard, 
at Madison, January 7, 1889. They left Eau Claire in evening 
of Sunday, January 6, and returned Tuesday morning. 

October 14 to 19, 1889, the company gave a second "Fair 
and Art Loan," which proved to be a great success. A cane 
contest evoking great interest was a feature of this fair. Richard 
T. Farr, a lumberman, was voted the cane. His principal com- 
petitor Avas Horace Rust, another lumberman, and the race be- 
tween these two gentlemen was fierce but good natured. Net 
receipts of this fair were about $800.00. 


Late in the evening of July 19, 1889, a telegram was received 
by Captain McMaster, reading as follows: 

"Madison, Wisconsin. 
July 19, 1889. 
To Captain H. B. McMaster, Eau Claire : 

Muster your company and proceed at once to West Superior 
and report for duty to ]\Iayor of West Superior and Sheriff. 

William D. Hoard, 




A large party was in progress at the residence of Clarence A. 
Chamberlin and several members of the company were there as 
guests, among them the Captain. Those present were immediately 
dispatched as messengers to notify other members of the company. 
An hour after receipt of the telegram fifty men were at the 
armory in uniform, fully equipped and ready to march. The 
limited number of ball cartridges on hand were issued. As the 
sun was rising on the morning of the 20th the company took the 
four o'clock train on the Omaha for West Superior. General 
Griffiu accompanied the troops. 

The riotous demonstration by several hundred strikers 
prompted the West Superior officials to call for troops. A gen- 
eral strike had been inaugurated. The police officers and deputy 
sheriffs were unable to guard property and protect those men 
who desired to work. The extensive coal docks were threatened 
with destruction and work on public improvements had been 
stopped. Mob rule prevailed. 

The company arrived at Superior at 9 :30. Their arrival was 
unexpected by the rioters and produced an excellent effect. The 
company marched through the city to the city hall, where their 
barracks were established. The men had hardly reached the 
city hall when they were ordered out to intercept a body of 
strikers reported to be moving on the water works trenches 
where laborers were working. A press dispatch of that date 
reads as follows : 

■'The strikers were encountered and were much surprised at 
the soldiers' sudden appearance, and many faint-hearted strikers 
began to steal away from the scene. The prompt action of Gov- 
ernor Hoard, and the fine appearance and soldierly conduct of 
the troops are subjects of much favorable comment." 

Sunday was spent in a comparatively quiet manner. On Mon- 
day morning a mob of about two hundred men started out to 
"run the town," while the greater portion of the Rifles, under 
Captain McMaster, were protecting laborers at the coal docks. 
The mob was encountered by Lieutenant Ballard with nineteen 
men and by the firmness of General Griffin, who had hurried to 
the scene, was dispersed under the most critical circumstances. 
A thousand rounds of ammunition hurriedly forwarded were 
received from Madison for the Griffin Rifles, while, late in the 
afternoon. Company L were placed under arms in their armory 
at Eau Claire, in accordance with telegraphic orders, and held in 
; , readiness to start for Superior till 10 o'clock that night, when 
:;r they were dismissed, but notified to promptly respond to a given 


signal. The needed lesson had been taught, however, for the mob 
element realized that the military authorities "meant business." 
and Tuesday was spent by the troops in the comparatively simple 
duty of protecting laborers and standing ready to quell any 
riotous proceedings. Most of "Wednesday passed in much the 
same way. It had become evident that much of the not spn-it 
had been subdued and the troops departed for home on the after- 
noon train of that day. During the whole tour of duty, the 
purpose of sustaining the civil authorities, suppressing disorder 
and preserving the peace was steadily maintained by General 
Griffin, and his judicious management fully accomplislied this 
design without bloodshed, the civil authorities being enabled to 
make arrests, with the troops at hand to support them. 

On their arrival at Eau Claire that night, the Rifles were met 
at the depot and escorted to their armory by their gallant com- 
rades of Captain Beisang's Company L with a band. At the 
armory the members of Company E were welcomed by a large 
number of ladies, who had prepared for the soldier boys an 
elegant repast. The "war" was over; the Rifles had endeavored 
to do their duty as citizen soldiers ; their superiors, including 
General Griffin and the commander-in-chief, were satisfied with 
the conduct of the members of Company E, and the boys were 

Governor Hoard in General Orders No. 13, 1889, made public 
acknowledgment of the excellent service rendered by the com- 
pany. The order reads as follows: 

General Orders, Adjutant General's Office, 

No. 13. Madison, July 27, 1889. 

Late in the evening of the 19th inst. the Governor received 
a message from the Mayor of Superior and the Sheriff of Douglas 
coimty, representing that the civil authorities there were unable 
to maintain the peace and protect the persons and property of 
the citizens and requesting that a company of the National Guard 
might be sent to their assistance. Complying with this request, 
an order was issued to Captain Harry B. McMaster, commanding 
Company E, Third Regiment, Wisconsin National Guard, at Eau 
Claire, to muster his command and proceed by first train to West 
Superior and report to the Mayor. A message was also sent to 
Brigadier General M. Griffin, Quartei-master General, requesting 
him to accompany the troops, not only to provide quarters and 
subsistence, but to act as the personal representative of the 


These messages did not reach theii- destination until after one 
'clock in tlie morning, but when delivered they were acted upon 
with such promptness and celerity that the several members of 
the company were called from sleep at their homes, and it is 
represented forty-nine officers and men reported for duty within 
an hour. Leaving Eau Claire at about 4 o'clock a. m., in five 
hours thereafter the company reached West Superior, 147 miles 
distant, and reported as directed. 

All reports concur in ascribing the avoidance of most serious 
trouble, involving destruction of property if not loss of life, to 
the timely arrival, soldierly bearing and complete discipline of 
tliis detachment of the National Guard of the State, aided as it 
was by the experienced .judgment and wise direction of General 

A most delicate and unwelcome duty was performed with 
eminent credit to all concerned, to the entire satisfaction of the 
Commander-in-Chief, and with great profit to the community 
calling for assistance, and therefore to the State at large. 

Most happily bloodshed was avoided, but the power and the 
dignity of the military arm of the State were manifest, and thus 
aided, the civil authorities were enabled to reinstate order in 
place of chaos, and law in place of mob rule — demonstrating once 
again the wisdom of establishing and maintaining an efficient body 
of well instructed and properly disciplined state troops and once 
again warning all persons that Wisconsin can and will protect 
its citizens in their right to labor as and when and where they 

The Commander-in-Chief takes pleasure in extending to Briga- 
dier General Griffin and to Captain McMaster and the officers and 
men of liis company this public expression of his estimate of the 
value of their services. By Order of the Governor, 

Geo. W. Burchard, 
Adjutant General. 

The second call for active duty for Company E was in the 
summer of 1894. At 12 :20 a. ni., July 9, 1894, Captain Ballard 
received the following dispatch from Adjutant General Falk: 

Milwaukee, Wis., July 8, 1894, 11 :40 p. m. 
Captain J. M. Ballard, 

Commanding Company E, Third Infantry, W. N. G., Eau 
Claire, Wis. 
■ Assemble your command at armory immediately, equipped 
for the field with two days' rations. Take all ammunition on 


hand. Will probably require your service in the morning. Expect 
Colonel Moore to be in Eau Claire tomorrow morning. Will wire 
further instructions later. Answer at once. 

(Signed) Palk, 

Adjutant General. 

Immediately upon the receipt of this order Captain Ballard 
communicated with his First aud Second Lieutenants, and or- 
dered them to notify each non-commissioned officer to report to 
him at once at the armory with his squad. At 2 :15 a. m. he 
instructed the First Sergeant to fall the company in and call the 
roll. There were found to be fifty-seven officers and enlisted men 
in the ranks present for duty. The company remained constantly 
in the armory ready to respond to all orders, and had a regular 
tour of duty. Guard mount at 8 a. m., drill at 9 a. m. and 3 p. m., 
and dress parade at 7:30 p. m. daily from the time it assembled 
at 2:15, July 9, until 8 p. m. July 11, 1894, when the company 
was dismissed. 

Companies L (Eau Claire), H (Menomonie) and C (Hudson) 
were also assembled and held in readiness at their armories dur- 
ing this pfiriod. 

Colonel Moore and Major Julius E. Kircheis arrived at au 
early hour July 9 and established quarters at the Eau Claire 
Hovise. The Regimental Sergeant Major, Marshall Cousins, re- 
ported to Colonel Moore for duty. The great railroad strike of 
1894 Avas then at its height and the sheriff at Spooner on the 
Omaha railway had made a call on the Governor for aid in pro- 
tecting property and securing the movement of trains. Fortu- 
nately the assembling of troops at their armories was accepted 
by the sti'ike leaders as a proof of the Governor's determination 
to prevent violence. General Louis Auer, Quartermaster General, 
visited Spooner and conferred with the strike leaders, and order 
was soon restored. The officers of the guard and men of the 
company were well pleased they were not required to visit the 
scene of the disturbance. 

Following this little occurred out of routine military work 
up to the call for troops in April, 1898. Rifle practice was taken 
up by E Company very soon after it was mustered into the State 
service. Moses W. Burns, a private in the company, was in- 
structor in rifle work. A range was fitted up on the prairie south 
of the city which the men reached by crossing the Milwaukee 
railroad bridge in the Fourth Ward. Mention of Private Burns 
will be made later. The company soon developed a number of 


shots who were much above the average and among them may be 
mentioned Captain Ballard, Sergeants Wall, Cousins and Farr, 
and Privates Burns, Burroughs, Ray, Parkinson, Larson, Charles 
and Carlson. The E Company rifle team won first place in the 
National Guard of Wisconsin at Camp Douglas in 1890 and in 
1891, in competition with teams from all other companies in the 
State, won a handsome and costly trophy, generously presented 
by Robert K. Boyd, of Eau Claire. In 1892 E Company lost the 
Boyd trophy by a few points. In 1891 Moses W. Burns qualified 
as sharpshooter and Captain J. M. Ballard, Sergeant Marshall 
Cousins, Private Robert E. Parkinson and Sergeant Edward V. 
Wall as marksmen. In the following season, 1892, Private Edward 
S. Burroughs was awarded the decoration of marksman. 

At a camp of instruction and interstate rifle competition held 
at Fort Sheridan, Illinois, October 24 to 29, 1892, Private Edward 
S. Burroughs was one of the contestants and Private M. W. Burns 
Avas present on detail as an instructor. 

In the social life of the city E Company in its earlier days 
took a prominent part and its dancing parties were the events of 
the season. 


Rank. Name. Date of Election. 

Captain, Harry B. McMaster July 27, 1887 

First lieutenants, Walter J. Fitch July 27, 1887 

John P. Sheridan July 27, 1887 

Joseph M. Ballard October 19, 1887 

Second lieutenant, John Fred Farr July 27, 1887 


Rank. Name. Date of Rank. 

Captains, Harry B. McMaster April 20, 1888 

Joseph M. Ballard April 15, 1890 

First lieutenants, Joseph M. Ballard April 20, 1888 

^ , John E. Horan April 15, 1890 

i ^"^^ "ETward G. Kehr September 25, 1890 

Thomas P. Cochrane March 19, 1891 

Second lieutenants, John F. Farr April 20, 1888 

John E. Horan^ April; 24, 1889 

.. Edward E. Kehr April 15, 1890 


Thomas P. Cochrane September 25, 1890 

Samuel F. Crabbe March 19, 1891 

Wesley 0. Smith December 5, 1895 

John E. Barron August 20, 1897 


Sketches of those prominently identified with the company 
in its earlier days are of special interest. 

The Griffin Rifles was named in honor of General Michael 
Griffin of Eau Claire. He was born in County Clare, Ireland, 
September 9, 1842. Enlisted in the Twelfth Wisconsin Infantry, 
September 11, 1861. Wounded in battle of Bald Hill, Ga., on 
February 11, 1865. With Sherman on the march from Atlanta 
to the sea. Commissioned First Lieutenant July 5, 1865. In 
1894 was elected to Congress and served two terms. Was De- 
partment Commander of the G. A. R. Died suddenly December 
29, 1899. 

General Griffin was Quartermaster General during the admin- 
istration of Governor Hoard, 1891 and 1892. He was an active 
and sincere fi'iend of the company from its organization to the 
time of his death. 

Harry B. McMaster, Captain from the organization, resigned 
and received his discharge January 28, 1890. He had two years' 
experience at West Point and served the interests of the com- 
pany with zeal, and established it upon a firm foundation. 

John Eugene Horan, a charter member of the company, was 
discharged as First Lieutenant August 25, 1890. He was a model 
officer, capable, indefatigable, and thoroughly informed. He is 
now a prominent lawyer in the State of Washington, residing in 

Edward G. Kehr was discharged as First Lieutenant March 
13, 1891. He rendered the company valuable service and was 
a particularly efficient and popular officer. 

John Fred Farr, now a prominent practicing physician of 
this city, resigned and was discharged April 4, 1889. His re- 
tirement was the subject of much regret. He was an able, ener- 
getic officer. In 1898 he resided at Stanley, Wis., and organized 
a company for service in the Spanish-American War, which was 
offered to the Government. The war ended before the services 
of this company were required. Several years later Dr. Farr 
again established his home in Eau Claire. 

W. Burns was the father of small arms practice in E 


Company and was among the first in the State to take up this 
branch of the military work. No attention had been paid to 
practice until after the establishment of Camp Douglas ranges. 
There in 1889 Cajitain Phillip Reade, of the regular army, started 
the work and from that day to this Wisconsin has been a shooting 
State and the Third Infantry has the reputation of being one 
of the best shooting regiments in the National Guard of the 
country. Private Burns was made the team Captain of E Com- 
pany and took entire charge of the instruction. For years he 
had been interested in rifle shooting and had made a reputation 
as a rifle shot before he began with the military rifles. With 
him rifle shooting had been reduced to a science. As an in- 
structor he was very efficient and took great satisfaction in 
imparting to the beginner information on the many fine points 
of the shooting game. He took more delight in coaching a recruit 
into a good score than to make one himself. 

He had been a member of the old City Guards, which existed 
in the seventies, and became a charter member of the Griffin 
Rifles. He served five years in the company, when ill health 
compelled his retirement. He died October 1, 1894. 





All through the month of April the people of the nation 
watched the gathering war clouds with deep concern. With all 
others of the National Guard of the country, the members of 
E Company were particularly close observers of developments, 
and as day by day went by the feeling became more certain war 
would result. The Armory, then situated at the corner of First 
avenue and Ann street, facing on the Chippewa river, was open 
every evening and the rendezvous of the men of the company. 

At 12:19 on the morning of Thursday, April 28, the following 
telegram was received by the company commander: 

"Captain J. M. Ballard, 
Eau Claire, Wis. 
Assemble all men enrolled at Armory ready to entrain at 
10:30 a. m., Omaha. Bring all extra property, one day's rations. 
By Command of the Governor, 

C. R. Boardman, 
Adjutant General ' ' 

Many men were in the Armory when the call was received 
and immediately were dispatched to carry the word to all other 
members of the company. It was a busy night and by eight 
o'clock on the morning of the 28th the company was assembled 
at its Armory ready to take up the march to the depot. 

Captain Ballard had been advised by General Boardman sev- 
eral days before, the maximum strength of volunteer companies 
was fixed at 101 and the minimum at 89. These figures included 
officers. Instructions had been given, however, not to enlist over 
65 men in the National Guard Company. 

All business in the city was practically suspended. At ten 
o'clock banks, stores and factories closed. Shortly after ten 
the company left the Armory and began the march to the Omaha 
Station. An immense cheering assembly greeted the men as, in 
heavy marching order, in column of fours, they moved out onto 
First avenue. An escort column was made up as follows : 


Metropolitau Band. 

Mayor, Aldermen and other City Officials, 

Eagle Post, Grand Army of the Kepublie, 150 strong. 

Griffin Rifles, E Company. 

From Armory to the depot was one grand ovation. At the 
depot it was estimated fully half of the people of Eau Claire 
had assembled. The troop train from Hudson did not arrive 
until 11:15 and the company immediately boarded the car as- 
signed to them. Plentiful lunches had been provided by the 
Grand Army and the Women's Relief Corps. Carnations and 
roses from the ladies decorated the blue uniform of every soldier. 
Ninety-seven men and officers were on the company roll. 

On this train was C Company, of Hudson, and H Company, of 
Menomonie. At Merrillau A Company, of Neillsville, was 

The Regimental Sergeant Ma.jor, Marshall Cousins, traveled 
with E Company. 

Among those who accompanied the troop train from Eau Claire 
were Captain Charles H. Henry, a veteran of the War of the 
Rebellion ; Harrj^ M. Atkinson, editor of the Leader, and Pro- 
fessor M. S. Frawley of the Eau Claire High School. 

Harry Atkinson was determined to enlist. He had, for a short 
period several years before, been a member of the Guard. His 
brother, Percy C, had already enlisted, but it required long 
argument on the part of Captain Ballard, Captain Henry, Pro- 
fessor Frawley and others to convince Harry his first duty was 
to remain with his paper. He only gave up when assured should 
a second call come, he would be permitted to go. 

In Captain Ballard's Company were a number of high school 
boys, among them members of the spring graduating class. The 
graduation essays of several of the young soldiers were then in 
the hands of Professor Frawley. At frequent intervals through- 
out the day the professor would take out these essays and gaze 
at them with tear-dimraed eyes. 

It was a bright sunny day and at every village and city along 
the route the troops received an ovation. Madison was reached 
late in the afternoon. There were assembled thousands of stu- 
dents and citizens. Several state officers boarded the train to 
extend their greetings, among them being the noted newspaper 
correspondent, Hon. Gilbert E. Vandercook, then Assistant Sec- 
retary of State, and Hon. Sewall A. Peterson, State Treasurer, 
a former officer of H Company. Nels Nelson, a University stu- 


dent, had served an enlistment with E Company. He boarded 
the Eau Claire car to bid his former comrades goodbye, but soon 
changed his mind and announced to his classmates on the plat- 
form he was going on with the company. He finished his course 
at Madison after the war. 

The Wisconsin troops were mobilized at the State Fair 
Grounds, near Milwaukee, the camp being named "Camp Har- 
vey," in honor of the War Governor, Louis P. Harvey, drowned 
April 19, 1862, at Pittsburg Landing, in the Tennessee river, 
while on a visit to the wounded Wisconsin soldiers at Shiloh. 

Sometime after dark the train reached the camp and was met 
at the depot by Governor Scofield, General Boardman, Colonel 
Patton and Colonel Ginty. The trotting horse stables were as- 
signed to Colonel Moore's Third Infantry, and to these quarters 
the troops from the northwest were conducted. The writer of 
this sketch recalls the trip in the darkness with Governor Scofield 
as a guide, from the station to the Administration Building, where 
the Governor had established his military headquarters. Lan- 
terns were few and the night dark, but the companies moved 
without confusion to the quarters. 

The large roomy box stalls had been plentifully supplied with 
fresh straw and the tired men were glad to roll themselves in 
their blankets and seek rest in these improvised barracks. 

From this point on, the war history of the company becomes 
intermingled with that of the other companies of the regiment. 
The history of the regiment will be given with such additions 
as pertain particularly to the Eau Claire Company. 

On the regimental roster when the regiment was called to 
service were the following field and staff officers : 

Colonel Martin T. Moore, La Crosse. 

Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin F. Parker, Milwaukee. 

Major Thomas J. George, Menomonie. 

Major Julius E. Kircheis, La Crosse. 

Major Randolph A. Richards, Sparta. 

Captain Orlando Ilolway, Adjutant, La Crosse. 

Captain George A. Ludington, Quartermaster, Neillsville. 

Major John B. Edwards, Surgeon, Mauston. 

Captain Edward H. Grannis, Assistant Surgeon, Menomonie. 

Captain Charles F. King, Assistant Surgeon, Hudson. 

Marshall Cousins, Regimental Sergeant Major, Eau Claire. 

In addition to the above, the regiment carried as a National 
Guard Organization three Battalion Adjutants, but at the first 


call for troops the Battalion Adjutants were not included. They 

First Lieutenant E. Bartlett Farr, First Battalion, Eau Claire. 
First Lieutenant Louis Sehalle, Second Battalion, Tomah. 
First Lieutenant Henry W. Klopf, Third Battalion, Neillsville. 

A few days after the regiment arrived at Camp Harvey, Con- 
gress passed a law accepting National Guard Organizations as 
they had existed in the states and the Battalion Adjutants were 
ordered into the camp. 

Immediately on arrival of the regiment at Camp Harvey, 
Colonel Moore looked about for a regimental headquarters. Be 
tween the barracks occupied by his men and the race track, 
under a spreading tree (not a chestnut) was the blacksmith shop, 
where the trotters, the former occupants of the barracks, had 
their shoes adjusted. This being the only available building, 
was quickly converted into the headquarters of the Third 

The morning of April 29 opened cold and raw. Throughout 
the stay of the troops at Camp Harvey the weather was uncom- 
fortably cold. The men sleeping in the barracks or box stalls, 
being well supplied with straw, did not suffer greatly from cold 
during the nights, but those officers who had been supplied with 
tents would get up in the morning chilled through and through. 
The dressing room facilities at this camp, while perhaps suitable 
for the former occupants of the barracks, were not exactly con- 
venient for the young soldiers, but they made the best of it. 
Going across the race track from quarters they would break the 
ice on the brook and make their toilets, talking and laughing 
even with chattering teeth. 

The period at Camp Harvey was full of excitement and uncer- 
tainty. Tlie air was charged with rumors of battles fought and 
orders to the front. It was fully expected the Wisconsin regi- 
ments would be rushed into Cuba. Governor Scofield made every 
effort to prepare the men properly for service. He looked with 
no enthusiasm upon war and much deplored it, although heartily 
endorsing the course of President McKinley. He had made a 
brilliant record for himself in the War of the Rebellion and re- 
ceived promotion to the rank of Major for gallantry on the 
field of Gettysburg. He knew what war meant. 

The troops were, immediately on arrival at Camp Harvey, 
put on the regular army ration. To this the Governor, however, 
insisted there should be added milk and butter. He said the 


great dairy state of Wisconsin could well afford to supply her 
soldiers with these articles while they were still in the state; 
that there would be time enough later for them to do without. 

A change in the personnel of the regimental staff took place 
during the period the regiment was in preparation for muster in. 
Captain George A. Ludington, who had for so many years served 
faithfully and well as Regimental Quartermaster, owing to his 
physical condition was rejected by the surgeons. Charles R. 
"Williams for some years had been in charge of Camp Douglas 
Reservation and held the rank of Captain in the Quai-tei-master 's 
Department. He was transferred to the regiment as Quarter- 
master, and Captain Ludington became depot Quartermaster at 
Camp Douglas. Captain Williams came to the regiment splen- 
didly equipped owing to his familiarity with the supply depart- 
ments of the army and proved to be a most efScient officer. 

Another change in the staff occurred at this time. Lieutenant 
E. B. Farr, of Eau Claire, was rejected by the surgeons and 
Marshall Cousins, then Regimental Sergeant Major, was conunis- 
sionecl as Battalion Adjutant and assigned to the First Battalion, 
commanded by Major George. Tliis position had been offered 
to Lieutenant Cousins in 1895, but he had declined it in order 
to find a place as a commissioned officer for Lieutenant Farr. 

May 1 was the first Sunday in the camp and the newspapers 
of Milwaukee estimated 60,000 visitors passed through the 
grounds. Daily during the time the troops were at Camp Harvey 
thousands of citizens visited the camp. Monday morning, May 2, 
the camp was aroused at an early hour by the cry of the news- 
boys annouucing Dewey's great victory at Manilla, "and many 
Spaniards killed." Cheer after cheer went up from the young 
soldiers and the chilly sunrise temperature was forgotten. 

Active preparations were going on night and day to complete 
the organization and to fully and completely prepare the troops 
for active service. Lieutenant Colonel Tildeu, Deputy Surgeon 
General of the United States Army, organized and swore the 
Regimental Surgeons as Government Examining Surgeons, and 
on May 5 the examination of officers and men was begun. A few 
of the Eau Claire boys failed to pass this physical examination. 
Several of them, on being informed by the kindly Dr. Tilden 
they could not be mustered in, could not restrain the tears. 

Wednesday, May 11, 1898, was an eventful day in the history 
of the soldiers of the Third Infantry, as well as of Wisconsin. 
For on this day at 1:30 o'clock, Captain William L. Buck, of 


, the United States Army, began mustering- tlie regiment into the 
United States service. 

Shortly after noon Captain Buck entered regimental head- 
quarters, formerly the blacksmith shop, where he found Lieuten- 
ant Cousins on duty. The headquarters' rolls were in readiness 
and Captain Buck asked they be immediately signed by the 
officers of the field and staff, handing a pen to the Lieutenant. 
That officer, however, suggested Colonel Moore be given the honor 
of first signing the oath as a soldier of the United States. Pol- 
lowing Colonel Moore, the Lieutenant signed and became the 
second to muster. After the headquarters had been mustered, 
one by one the companies were taken up, the roll called and in 
an impressive manner the men, with uncovered heads, took the 
oath as United States Volunteer Soldiers. ]\Iany spectators wit- 
nessed this interesting ceremony. 

The Third Infantry was the first Wisconsin organization to be 
mustered into the Federal service. 


Joseph M. Ballard, Thomas P. Cochrane, John E. Barron, 
Fred Arnold, Seymour H. Knight, Francis Deline, Guido H. Faber, 
Horace L. Whittier, Frank Hill, Donald Boyd, Joseph Bellmer, 
Percy C. Atkinson, Henry A. Bitter, Harry Stanard, Samuel Hill- 
stad, Wilfred A. Kutzner, Hugh 0. Beadle, Roy M. Baston, 
Sumner P. Bartlett, Russell C. Bailey, Ezra L. Catheart, Roy 
Fowler, ^EgjJJiJVbo, George Herron, Adam Ahneman, James G. 
Brackett, Hei'bert E. Bush, Herbert L. Boleman, William H. 
Bruce, Dwight C. Brace, Fred W. Bandoli, Holford F. Calvert, 
William J. Cameron, William P. Carroll, Malcolm J. Cernahan, 
William Cheators, Carl F. Bandeliu, Charlie Curry, Patrick De- 
chaine, Charles E. Day, William H. Dodge, George E. Ecklund, 
Eugene Eldridge, Philip C. Elbert, Charles Eek, William F. Elbut, 
Lawrence A. Flaghr, Harry F. Fowler, Jerome E. Gillett, Samuel 
E. Grout, Charles W. Hall, Edward Haggerty, Roy W. Hebard, 
George M. S. Hort, Julius W. Holberg, Clarence H. Hutchinson, 
Frank Humes, Martin H. Johnson, John F. Joyce, Charles E. 
Kelley, Prank S. Kopleberger, Hans S. Lund, Augus McKay, Al. 
S. Morgan, Charles T. Mosher, Nels B. Nelson, Bernie Nelson, 
Charles R. Nichols, Carl G. Nyquist, Joseph Nelson, George C. 
Ranous, Harry M. Samuels, Samuel L. Stafford, George Sherman, 
Christ H. Schroeder, George L. Slosson, Carl M. Toft, Herman 


Watsou, Harry W. "Werner, Felix H. H. Watterbury, Rosswell B. 
Van Wagenen, Charles Russell. 

The above is a list of officers and men who were mustered into 
the United States Volunteer Infantry May 11. 1898, by W. L. 
Buck, Captain U. S. A. When the orders came for volunteers, 
it called for three officers and 101 men. Company E left Eau 
Claire, Wis., April 28, 1898, with three officers and 99 men, for 
Camp Harvey. Before the time for mustering in, an order was 
issued reducing each company to 84 officers and men, the surplus 
being sent home. After ai'riving at Camp Thomas an order came 
to increase company to 106 officers and men. Following is a list 
of same : 

Simon Rohm, John Ahearu, Alfred G. Ballerd, William J. 
Baxter, Jolin H. Cheever, Thomas F. Dowling, Lester Frost, 
Eugene E. Hanson, William Hall, W. H. Ilawley, Harry Huey, 
Charles H. Johnson, W. P. Kennedy, Arthur Kalanguin, Gilbert 
N. Krohg, John Kungerman, August Kessler, Herbert S. Lyons, 
Louis Larson, Leonard Loken, Albert J. McClintock, Niles E. 
Meservey, Timothy J. Reagan, Ward Ross, John S. Shallenburger, 
Arthur S. Sherman, Homer W. Sloan, John Somerville, Arthur 
Thompson, Graham B. Thompson. 

The following named men came to Camp Harvey with E Com- 
pany, but were rejected by the examining surgeon and ordered 
sent to their homes: 

Richard Hollen, LeRoy Binder, William Myre, S. Edward 
Bostwick, 0. Olson, J. Frederick, Floyd Jones, William A. 
Schwahn, J. A. Cooper, J. B. Noble, Lieutenant E. Bart Farr. 
Most of these men were rejected owing to being under weight. 

Officers of the regular army assisting in the organization and 
muster of the Wisconsin troops were Lieutenant Frank M. Cald- 
well of the Seventh Cavalry. Lieutenant Caldwell went to West 
Point from Oshkosh and took a warm personal interest in Wis- 
consin. He was on an inspection tour of the Wisconsin companies 
when the call came and he was directed to report at Camp Harvey. 
He was detailed as Post Quartermaster and Commissary. When 
the Fourth Regiment was organized Lieutenant Caldwell was 
commissioned as Lieutenant Colonel and rendered valuable and 
able service with that regiment. 

Captain William L. Buck, Thirteenth Infantry, was the chief 
mustering officer. Captain Buck had several years previous to 
the war served a detail as United States inspector with the Wis- 
consin troops. 


A very popular oiBcer paid a visit to the regiment unofficially. 
Captain Phillip Reade. It was under Phil Reade's instruction 
the first rifle practice was had at Camp Douglas. This was the 
subject in which Captain Reade was greatly interested and the 
Wisconsin men quickly partook of his enthusiasm. He had a 
personal acquaintance, through the close contact on the range, of 
many officers and enlisted men, and has always been exceedingly 
popular with the Wisconsin Guard. Several years ago he retired 
as a Brigadier General. 

The medical department of the army was represented by Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Henry R. Tilton, Deputy Surgeon General of the 
army. He called to his assistance Dr. Ladd, of Milwaukee, and 
Dr. Reynolds, of Geneva. These three distinguished surgeons 
arranged for and supervised the physical examination of the 
troops previous to their acceptance by the Federal Government. 

Two interesting events occurred during the period the regi- 
ment was in Camp Harvey. One of these was the marriage of 
Sumner P. Bartlett and Miss Olga Arnold, one of Eau Claire's 
beautiful daughters. 

Charles W. Hall, of the company, was also married to a Mil- 
waukee young lady. 

The marriage of Corporal Bartlett was kept a secret from 
his comrades until shortly before his death in Porto Rico. 

During the period the regiment was at Camp Harvey many 
friends from home visited E Company. Among them may be 
mentioned General Michael Griffin, Captain C. H. Henry, Major 
William P. Bartlett, Captain John Kelley, John C. Fennessey, John 
F. Roberts, Captain Chris Schlosser, Mayor S. S. Kepler, D. A. 
Cameron, Aldermen — Hugh J. Forest, J. H. Young, Frank Gre- 
goire, Martin Severson, John H. Fleming, M. S. Beecher, Charles 
S. Lee, N. J. Mclutyre, Chief of Police John Higgins, William K. 
Atkinson and wife, Harry M. Atkinson, Florence Atkinson, Miss 
Clara Zwickey, Mrs. Thomas Hutchinson, Mrs. J. M. Ballard, Mi-s. 
II. L. Whittier, Mrs. Henry Cousins and Miss Mary Cousins. 
Other welcome visitors were George B. Early, of Chippewa Falls, 
and Lieutenant Governor Emil Baensch. 

This subject cannot be passed without special reference to the 
visit of Miss Vera I. Moore, daughter of Colonel Moore. For a 
long period Miss Moore had been known as "The daughter of 
the regiment," and annually encamped with the regiment, for 
which she felt the same love, admiration and pride as her worthy 



The organization in tli€ Wisconsin regiments differed in a few 
respects from the organization under the United States laws. 
The Wisconsin regiments had regularly appointed Quartermasters 
with rank of Captain, and also had regularly appointed Battalion 
Adjutants with rank of First Lieutenant, mounted, and Battalion 
Sergeants Major. In the regular service these positions were 
tilled by detail of line officers. 

General Charles King, some years previous to the war, had 
recommended to the Governor and Legislature the passage of a 
law making these positions permanent ones, and Marshall Cousins, 
when a member of the Legislature, had prepared and secured 
the passage of such a law. On the reorganization of the army, 
following the Spanish-American War, the Federal laws were 
amended and now closely follow the Wisconsin regulations of 
that day. 

As previously stated, the Battalion Adjutants and Battalion 
Sergeants Major were not included in the first call, but a few 
days after the call Congress enacted a law accepting the organi- 
zations as they had existed in the states, and those affected were 
ordered into camp. In the Wisconsin establishments the Regi- 
mental Adjutant and Regimental Quartermaster held the rank 
of Captain. Assistant Surgeons also held rank of Captain. When 
these officers were mustered into the United States service, how- 
ever, their rank was reduced to First Lieutenant. 

When the call was made, Marshall Cousins, of Eau Claire, 
went into the camp as Regimental Sergeant Major, which position 
he had held for several years. On the rejection of Lieutenant 
Farr by the Surgeons, the Sergeant Major was commissioned 
Battalion Adjutant with rank of First Lieutenant, and assigned 
to the First Battalion, commanded by Major Thomas Jefferson 
George, of Menomonie. Samuel E. Grout, of Eau Claire, was the 
Battalion Sergeant Major. 


In the State organization the regiment was divided into three 
battalions, and companies were grouped on geographical lines 
as far as possible. They took their numerical designations from 
the rank of their Majors. The same assignments and designations 
continued in the United States service, as follows: 


First Battalion. Second Battalion. Third Battalion. 

E— Eau Claire. B— La Crosse. A — Neillsville. 

C — Hudson. K — Tomali. D — Mauston. 

H — Menomonie L — Sparta. F — Portage. 

I — Superior. M — La Crosse. G — Wausau. 

May 13 formal orders were received for the regiment to move 
on Saturday, May 14. Their designation was Camp Thomas, 
Chickamauga Park, Ga. Friday was spent in packing up and 
saying good-bye to friends. Saturday morning bright and early 
the camp was astir and baggage hauled to the train. At 3:30 
o'clock the first section pulled out. The regiment moved in 
three sections. Colonel Moore, Major George and Major Kircheis, 
respectively, in charge of sections. In the second section, under 
Major George, were about five hundred men, being companies 
of B, C, E, H, I and M. Chicago was reached after dark and 
some time passed in switching in and about the stock yards. 
It was well along in the night before the train pulled away 
for the Southland. 

Sunday morning dawned on the regiment making its way 
through Indiana. At every station the troops were greeted by 
large crowds. The season was well advanced over that of Wis- 
consin. The ladies were out in summer frocks and bright colors. 
The grass was green and foliage well out. Leaving Indiana the 
regiment passed through Kentucky and into Tennessee. At 
Nashville they found Quartermaster Sergeant Ludington await- 
ing them. He had left the first section and reported a pleasing 
compliment paid the regiment by an officer of the regular army. 
For some time the first section stood in the Nashville depot. 
After they had pulled out an officer of the army, noticing Ser- 
geant Ludington, inquired of him what regiment had just pulled 
out. The Sergeant reported it was the Third Wisconsin, to 
which the officer replied, "No, it was some regular army regi- 
ment. No volunteer regiment carried itself as the regiment 
which just left." The Sergeant, however, convinced him it was 
the Third Wisconsin. 

Monday morning. May 16, tlie regiment found itself in Chat- 
tanooga and after several hours on the road reached Lytic, the 
detraining station for Camp Thomas. Between Chattanooga and 
Lytle they had their first view of Lookout Mountain. The First 
Battalion under Major George was quickly vmder way after 
detraining and was conducted by a guide to the Kelley Field, 
where they were instructed to await the arrival of the remainder 


of the regiment. While the battalion was resting on the field 
they first met their Brigade Commander, General Andrew S. 
Burt. The General, alone and dismounted, came out from under 
the shade and approached Lieutenant Cousins. He wore a plain 
service uniform, showing considerable wear, and was close up 
to the Battalion Adjutant before that officer discovered the stars 
on the shoulder straps. The General hardly waited for the 
formal salute, but stepped forward and extended his hand, in- 
troducing himself, remarked, "Possibly the order has not yet 
reached you, but I have the lionor to be your Brigade Commander. 
My name is Burt." 

General Andrew S. Burt had for many years been Colonel 
of the 25th Infantry, colored, and had made a soldierly, well- 
disciplined body of men out of that regiment. He was one of 
the first officers in the regular service promoted to Brigadier 
General of Volunteers. He had a long and splendid record 
and the Third Infantry of Wisconsin was pleased to be assigned 
to his brigade. General Burt also expressed pleasure at having 
the Wisconsin men assigned to him. 

Grounds for the camp were assigned to the regiment just 
oft' the Kelley Field. Streets were mapped out, all facing north. 
Baggage was very late in arriving and many of the companies 
were unable to put up their tents before night fall. Major 
George's tent and that of his Adjutant were but a few feet 
from the monument of the First Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, 
where they did severe fighting on September 23, 1863. There 
were other monuments in all directions. 

The camp was very well shaded and ground level. The Kelley 
Field, just to the west of the camp, furnished fine opportunity 
for drilling and parade. There were also fine grounds to the 
east of the camp in the woods, and here the battalion drilled 
during the stay at Camp Thomas in the battle exercises. 

On Tuesday evening the 17th, the Third put on evening 
parade on the historical Kelley Field and the exercises attracted 
a number of spectators. 

The regiment began daily drills, but during the mid-day hours, 
ten to four o'clock, owing to the heat, to which the men were 
unaccustomed, Colonel Moore ordered a general rest. 

Friday, May 20, unwelcome news reached the regiment that 
General Burt, to whom they had become much attached, had 
been transferred and ordered to Tampa. The command of the 
brigade devolved upon Colonel C. B. Hunt, of the First Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry. 


Sunday, May 22, occurred the first death in the regiment, 
that of Private Charles Eck, of E Company. He had been re- 
ported sick on Saturday and died at 4:20 Sunday morning. 
Captain Ballard was with him at the time of his death. The 
body was removed during the day and later interred in the 
National Cemetery at Chattanooga. Private Eck was one of 
those who had joined the company at the call for troops and 
his death was deeply regretted by all his comrades. 

Monday, May 23, a division review was held in the morning. 
Fifty-four hundred men passed the reviewing officer. The Third 
Wisconsin and the Sixteenth Pennsylvania were pronounced the 
best appearing regiments. 

Wednesday, May 25, a battle exercise was held. The division 
took part in the exercise. The first battalion of the Third 
marched to Snodgrass Hill, where they took post, and later 
under orders fell back towards McFarlane's Gap. This was the 
ground over which Wisconsin troops fought in September, 1863. 
Evening parade was before General James II. Wilson, who re- 
viewed the regiment following parade. 

May 27 the regiment was vaccinated from the Colonel down 
and many sore arms were the result for some days. Some of 
the men, after passing the surgeons themselves, found much 
amusement in watching the others wliile the surgeons were per- 
forming their task upon them. Sonu^ nu'u would walk up with- 
out a flinch or change of expression and smile while the virus 
was being applied. Others showed the greatest concern and 
several fainted. 

May 28, through the Chattanooga papers, the pleasing in- 
formation reached the regiment that their long-time friend, Cap- 
tain Charles King, had been named by President McKinley for 
Brigadier General of Volunteers. Major George's battalion 
Avired him their congratulations. This day was taken up with 
a tiresome, thorough inspection of equipment. Late in the after- 
noon General Charles R. Boardman arrived from Jacksonville. 
He represented Governor Seofield and presented new commis- 
sions made out on parchment. The regiment paraded before 
him. He was much pleased with the inspections reports on the 
Wisconsin troops. 

On Monday, May 30, the regiment assembled about the First 
Wisconsin monument at 10:30 and held Memorial day services. 
Addresses were made by Colonel Moore and the Chaplain. Never 
before did the men of the regiment so fully appreciate the mean- 
ing of the day. On this historical spot the First Wisconsin and 


the Tenth Wisconsin, on September 19 and 20, 1863, rendered 
valiant service for the Union cause. The Tenth "Wisconsin monu- 
ment shows a full-size figure of a soldier made to represent the 
brave Lieutenant Colonel John A. Ely, whose regiment was 
driven back across the ground now occupied by the Third In- 
fantry camp to the LaFayette road beyond the old Kelley Field. 
Colonel Ely fell at daybreak on September 20. Out of the 240 
men of the Tenth Infantry engaged, the total loss was 211 killed 
and wounded. 

June 1 a rumor reached the camp the Third would in all 
probability be ordered to the Philippines, but nothing further 
was heard concerning such an order. Several years afterwards 
it was learned it had been seriously considered by the authorities 
and it was probably only a rule established many years previ- 
ously by a division commander that prevented the Tliird from 
going to the Philippines in General King's brigade. 

Had battalion drill on June 2, Captain Ballard of E Company 
commanded. He was the senior captain of the battalion as well 
as of the regiment, and at frequent intervals during the absence 
or sickness of Major George Captain Ballard was in command. 
He was fully competent to handle the battalion and reflected 
credit not only upon himself but his company. 

On June 3, Colonel Moore was in command of the brigade 
owing to the absence of Colonel Culver, of the Fifth Illinois, 
and Colonel Hunt, of Ohio. The brigade was reviewed by Colonel 
Moore in the evening. 

Large detail from the regiment engaged June 8 and 9 in 
building bath houses. Captain Hommel, of A Company, took 
charge of this work and made the plans, and by the use of 
canvas partitions a very serviceable row of bath houses was 
erected in the woods east of the camp. The pipes supplying 
the water to the baths were placed very near the surface of the 
ground and the hot sun heated the water to a point where it 
was scalding when the showers were turned on. However the 
baths were exceedingly popular and served their purpose well. 

June 9 orders were received to recruit the companies to 106 
men and a Lieutenant from each battalion and a noncommis- 
sioned officer from each company were detailed to go to the 
home stations for this purpose. Lieutenant Hiram Nye, First 
Lieutenant C Company, Hudson, went from the First Battalion, 
together with Sergeants Horace L. Whittier, of E Company, 
Eau Claire ; Milton F. Swant, of H Company, Menomonie ; Charles 


W. Newton, of I Company, Superior, and Alfred P. Goss, of C 
Company, Hudson. 

On the 11th a division review was hold. The Third Wis- 
consin was the first regiment to pass and had the opportunity 
of seeing the other regiments march by. 

On June 15 an order came from headquarters directing that 
a Lieutenant from each company not already represented at 
home stations be sent on recruiting service at once. Lieutenant 
Cochrane, of E Company, was sent on this duty to Eau Claire. 
On this day General O. H. Ernest assumed command of the 
brigade. The Third is in the First Brigade, First Division, First 
Army Corps. Colonel Hunt, of the First Ohio, had been in 
command since the departure of General Burt. 

Sunday, June 26, orders were received to prepare to move 
at once. Twelve regiments, it was announced, would probably 
go. The First Kentucky was dropped from the First Brigade 
and the Eighth Massachusetts took its place. 

This day arrived the E Company recruits. The names appear 
elsewhere in this article, following the names of the original 
muster roll. The rookies were given a hearty welcome by the 
veterans of the company. 

Friday, July 1, was a welcome day, as Major Doyan paid off 
the regiment in crisp new bills. The Major was a Wisconsin 

July 8, Sunday, just after parade, received an order to pre- 
pare to start at any moment for the front. 

Independence Day was a day of rush and uncertainty. It 
opened with a salute by the Ohio battery in honor of the birth 
of the nation. The regimental commissary had gone to the 
depot at live o'clock to draw travel rations in accordance with 
orders. There the commissary found orders which directed the 
issue be withheld until three o'clock. In the meantime the regi- 
ment was breaking camp and preparing for the march to the 
trains. Shortly after three came an order directing the remak- 
ing of the camp and putting up of tents. It had been expected 
the regiment would march to Ringgold at eight in the evening. 
It was a disgusted and tired regiment at sundown. 

Early July 5 the commissary again reported for rations and 
after hours of delay the travel ration was issued. Again came 
the order to pack up and march to Ringgold. At three o'clock 
the regiment swung into the road for the twelve-mile march to 
the waiting trains. 


The recruits who joined in June had not been fully equipped 
or drilled and were left behind. They numbered about twenty 
in each company, or two hundred and forty in all. Major 
George, of the First Battalion, was left in command of the re- 
cruits and Captain Ballard, of E Company, commanded the bat- 
talion. Among other officers left behind was the popular, able 
and soldierly First Lieutenant of I Company, William H. Smith. 
Major Jeff and Billy Smith, as they were popularly called by 
their fellow officers, with tear-dimmed eyes watched the de- 
parture of the regiment. 

The march led through a beautiful country and the regiment 
was heartily greeted by the wayside, excepting in one instance. 
In this ease an unreconstructed rebel paraded his premises with 
an old musket over his shoulder, shouting threats of destruction 
upon the marching column. At one point a group of pretty 
girls came out with buckets of cooling drinks for officers and 
men. Ringgold was reached about dark and the regiment quickly 
entrained in three sections and was away for the coast. 

Wednesday morning found the trains in Atlanta and all that 
day they were traveling from Atlanta to the sea. The train 
service was slow and a number of breakdowns of the engines 
occurred. It was not until the morning of Friday, July 7, the 
regiment reached Charleston. After considerable delay the 
Third was assigned to its barracks, which were the old ware- 
houses on the docks, and into these they quickly moved. From 
the docks could be seen Fort Sumter, and two torpedo boats 
were anchored but a few rods from the docks. Down the bay 
were two recently captured Spanish prizes. On Friday, July 8, 
the day following arrival, the regiment marched through the 
city to Marion Square and there held evening parade just back 
of the heroic statue of John C. Calhoun and between the statue 
and the South Carolina Military Academy. This academy had 
been an institution of learning previous to the Civil War and 
when Charleston fell was taken by the Federal troops, who 
maintained a large garrison there for several years. 

The people and officials of Charleston extended a hearty wel- 
come to the troops. Every courtesy was shown them. Mer- 
chants sold the soldiers at cost price. Committees of ladies 
visited the organizations with a view to giving attention to the 
sick. They advised the city hospitals would care for those men 
the surgeons thought needed such care. The mayor of Charles- 
ton supplied each regiment with one thousand pounds of ice 
daily. Many invitations from citizens to officers and men for 


meals were extended. All clubs were thrown open to ofiScers. 
The people of Charleston did what they could to make the stay 
of the troops pleasant and comfortable. 

Thursday, July 14, came the news of the surrender of San- 
tiago. "When the regiment left Camp Thomas it was intended 
to rush it through to Santiago for the reinforcement of General 
Shafter, who had called for additional troops. In the mean- 
time, however, General Miles had gone into Santiago and quickly 
brought the Spaniards to terms. It was now announced the 
Third would go to Puerto Rico in an expedition under command 
of General Miles. The work of loading began on the 13th, and 
officers slept on board that night. Throughout the night a large 
force was engaged in coaling and loading. Ma.ior George and 
Lieutenant Smith, with the recruits left at Camp Thomas, arrived 
and were given a hearty welcome. Lieutenant Smith at once 
took command of the Superior Company, it having been with- 
out officers for several days. Captain Newton and Lieutenant 
Swift both being sick in the hospital. 

On the morning of the l-4th, orders came to unload. The 
same condition of indecision appeared to prevail as just before 
the regiment left Camp Thomas. A fire in the hold of the vessel 
during the day burned a part of the bedding rolls belonging to 
officers, but did no other damage. 

July 15 the orders were first to load and then to unload. 
This was repeated several times. 

On Satui'day, July Hi, tlu' n-onnent was ordered out for one 
of the |H-;irti<M- iiiai-i'hcs which m-rasioned so much comment in 
the Wisconsin papers, ^lany meii fell out during the march 
and some were very ill after being taken back, to the barracks. 
The day was particularly hot and very few of the men were 
properly prepared for a long march. Some had eaten little or 
no breakfasts and for some distance the line of march lay through 
tlie city. 

Another sucli march was taken on Monday, the 18th, over a 
different route, and while some men fell out the number was 
not as great as on Saturday. On Monday's marcli the column 
crossed a long bridge, which swayed, and the motion caused 
several men to become sick. 

These marches caused much criticism in Wisconsin and the 
brigade and division commanders were severely censured. Gov- 
ernor Scofield demanded an investigation by the war department. 

The marches were severe and uncalled for, but a few weeks 
later the regiment thought nothing of making considerably longer 


marches under worse conditions, without a man falling out or 
grumbling. Had these marches been made to meet an enemy- 
there would have been no falling out. As it was, the men 
were heartily tired of the indecision and uncertainty as to move- 
ments. They were anxious to be in Spanish territory. Time 
and time again had the boat been loaded and then unloaded. 
Just before the march began, a rumor came the regiment was 
to go up the coast several miles and go into a bivouac camp for 
a couple of weeks. The disappointment, and the failure to prop- 
erly prepare themselves for the march were largely responsible 
for the unfortunate results. 

On the 19th again they were loading. Men worked all night 
of the 18th-19th, loading the transportation into Transport No. 
21. About five o'clock on the 20th the men were ordered aboard 
the Obdam. This was a freighter which had been purchased by 
the government. Its official title was "Transport No. 30, Quar- 
termaster's Department, U. S. A." It was illy fitted for car- 
rying a large body of men. All the afternoon thousands of 
citizens had been crowding the dock and at six o'clock the 
Obdam pushed off, the regimental band playing national airs 
and men and citizens wildly cheei-ing. Just beyond Sumter 
anchor was dropped for the night. 

Eleven companies of the Third traveled on the Obdam. one 
company being detached and sent on No. 21 with the transpor- 
tation. The officers' horses were carried on the Obdam. General 
Wilson and staff traveled with the Third and General Ernst 
and staff with the Second, which was on the "Grand Duchess." 
Early on the morning of July 21 the Charleston bar was crossed 
and the troops were on their way to Puerto Rico. 

July 25 land was sighted in the afternoon about four o'clock. 
It was expected to meet a warship at this point. None, how- 
ever, was in sight. At dark all lights were ordered out and the 
Obdam cruised at half speed in a circle throughout the night. 
During the night, out of the darkness, came "The Wasp." Great 
consternation and fright was caused by her searchlight being 
suddenly thrown on the boat. She had come up with all lights 
out and discovered tke Obdam before the lookout on that boat 
knew another boat was anywhere about. The searchlight came 
through the blackness like a shaft of fire. 

Orders were then received to proceed to Guanico, where Gen- 
eral Miles had effected a landing the day before. 

The Obdam proceeded under full steam and about daylight 
was met by a warship, the Columbia. This great fighting ma- 


ehiue looked decidedly grim in the morning light. She wore 
lier battle garb of bluish-gray paint and was stripped for action. 
Cxuided by the Columbia, the Obdam made its way into the 
beautiful, tranquil harbor. Here a glorious view unfolded itself 
to the interested soldiers. They were not allowed to disembark 
and after an interval again steamed out into deeper water, where 
they came to anchor. The Massachusetts, in all her grim glory, 
lay but a few rods away. 

At daylight, July 28, Thursday, the naval vessels and trans- 
ports were on their way to Ponce. Accompanying the Obdam 
were the Massachusetts and the cruisers Gloucester and Dixie. 
Orders were given to disembark and the Third Infantry was 
given the honor of leading the way. The shallow harbor made 
it necessary to use lighters and the ships were anchored at a 
considerable distance from the shore. Major George, First Bat- 
talion, was given the lead, and Captain Ballard, with E Com- 
pany, entered the first lighter, which was slowly propelled 
towards the shore. The men were in readiness to fight for a 
landing. As the ships came to anchor they were surrounded by 
small boats containing natives cheering for the "Americanos," 
hut on the dock could be seen many men in uniform. These, 
from the ships, resembled soldiers. It was found later, how- 
ever, they were members of the Ponce fire department. Their 
red shirts made them very conspicuous. They were there to 
welcome and not repel. Captain Ballard landed without resist- 
ance and was directed by General Miles, who had run in ahead 
of the lighter in a launch, to take immediate possession of the 
custom house. The other companies were disembarked as rap- 
idly as possible. Before landing of the troops the civil authori- 
ties, through the foreign representatives, had surrendered the 
city to the naval officers. The gai'rison had withdrawn and was 
fleeing down the military road in the direction of Coamo. The 
story of the surrender and the lauding of the troops is told in 
the La Nueva Era, a newspaper published at Ponce, in the issue 
of July 30, ]898. The paper was printed principally in the 
Spanish language, but a few columns gave the account of the 
landing of the troops in English, and it is quoted herewith: 

"On the 27th inst., at 2 p. m., a fleet approaching the port 
was signalled from the signal hill, and truly from all the roofs 
and points of vantage of the city could be seen three ships near- 
ing our harbor at great speed, of which two were apparently 
transports and the other a tug. It did not take them long to 
come into port and anchor. After a while a boat was seen to 


leave the side of one of the ships bearing a white flag, reached 
the shore shortly afterwards with an officer, who on landing bent 
his steps to the captain of the port's office in search of the mili- 
tary commander of the town, for M'hom he had a despatch. 

"The captain of the port answered him that he had no mili- 
tary jurisdiction and sent for the military commander, residing 
up town here, to take delivery of the despatch brought by said 
officer. At about this time a small volunteer force got into posi- 
tion near the custom house, and the two companies of the regu- 
lars, which on the first alarm of the approach of the American 
fleet had been ordered to the port, were stationed on the road 
leading from here to the harbor. With the latter forces came 
the late military commander of this district. Colonel Sanmartin. 

"On the latter being informed that there was an Amei-ican 
officer bearing, under flag of truce, a despatch for him, he replied 
that without direct authority from the governor general he could 
not receive it. On getting this reply the American officer in- 
formed the captain of the port that he would give half an hour's 
grace for the military commander to come and take delivery of 
the despatch. 

"In the meantime Sanmartin bad come up town and liad a 
conference with the governor genei-al by wire, laying before him 
the state of affairs. But as the hour fixed by the American 
officer was drawing to its close, and he threatened to return on 
board with the despatch inidelivered, two members of the coun- 
sular body — Messrs. F. M. Toro, British vice consul, and P. J. 
Rosaly, vice consul of the Netherlands — went down to the port 
together with our mayor — Mr. R. U. Colom — and one of our 
citizens — Mr. P. J. Fournier — with the object of requesting an 
extension of the time fixed by the officer to await the reply of 
the governor general. 

"It seems that the latter "s answer to the military commander 
was that he should do his duty ; by which, we suppose, he implied 
that resistance should be made, in spite of the immense superior- 
ity of the invading forces and of the fleet, which, by this time, 
had increased by the arrival of several vessels more. As the 
American commander grew impatient at the non-return of the 
first boat sent ashore, they sent another, bringing two officers 
and a squad of soldiers, who bore with them the American flag 
and two rockets for signalling, we presume, in case of need. 
Said officers with the squad and flag advanced as far as the very 
door of captain of the port's office; but the British vice consul 
requested that the soldiers should witlidraw to the seashore, the 


officer with Old Glory, etc., remaining, however, at the door of 
the building. The consular and other officers entered the build- 
ing. They were there received by the captain of the port, who, 
by the way, was dressed in a soiled white drill suit without any 
insignia to denote his rank. The German vice consul — Mr. H. C. 
Fritze — joined his colleagues of England and the Netherlands in 
their good offices in the matter, together with the American mer- 
chant, Mr. Lucas Valliviese. 

"Said consuls began to work to bring about the surrender of 
the town (which had been demanded at discretion), in their 
desire to avoid bloodshed and damage to the town, as the Spanish 
forces were insignificant, compared with tliose of the United 
States and besides the Spaniards having no defensive works or 
artillery to answer the fire of the fleet. At about 10 p. m. it was 
rumored that an armistice had been arranged, in virtue of which 
the Spanish forces would evacuate the town and that the Ameri- 
can troops would not laud within a stipulated time to allow the 
former forces to get well on their way to Aibonito. It was re- 
ported that this arrangement was firm and the people began to 
treat more freely about the peaceful solution of the conflict. 
But unhappily their joy was of short duration as — about 1 a. m. 
— it began to be noised about that the governor general had de- 
posed the military commander, Sanmartin, ordering him to give 
up the command to the lieutenant-colonel of the Civil Guards, 
instructing the latter to offer resistance to the invading forces. 

"On this becoming known the alarm was great among all 
classes, and the exodus to the neighboring country, which had 
already begun in the afternoon and evening, was immense, ap- 
proaching nearly to a panic. But the vice consuls continued 
their labors to obtain that the armistice arranged with Colonel 
Sanmartin by them should be respected and kept in good faith, 
and the representative of England and Germany protested 
against its being broken and brought to bear on the negotiations 
all the weight that their nations represent. 

"The lieutenant-colonel of the Civil Guard, on his part, seeing 
the impossibility of resistance to the powerful fleet of the enemy, 
which had been reinforced by several ships more, with the means 
he had at his disposal, decided at length to evacuate the town, 
retiring with all the forces under his command, by the road 
leading to the interior of the island. 

"As soon as this decision was arrived at the retreat began, 
but not before attempting to set fire to the railroad station, in 
which they only succeeded in burning a few cars. But even after 


the retreat there was anxiety among the inhabitants, as it was 
reported that the powder magazine of the barracks would be 
blown up before the Spaniards left the town definitely ; we arc 
happy to say that this did not happen. 

"The town was left in charge of the local first brigade, who 
undertook the duty of keeping order, but their services were not 
called upon that night, nor have been since, as not the slightest 
disturbance has taken place. Ponce gave proofs of its good sense 
as usual. At daybreak the next morning a half dozen men of 
the American forces hoisted the Stars and Stripes on the custom 
house together with the headquarters' flag of the commander in 
chief. Later the flag was unfurled over the town hall. 

"The lauding of the troops began and were distributed about 
in accordance with instructions of the American commanders. 
The people welcomed the American forces as liberators and 
friends and with the greatest demonstrations of joy and hearti- 

"The commander of the expeditionary forces decided that the 
municipal and judicial authorities should remain at their post 
as well as the local police and the employees of the custom house, 
which latter is in charge of Colonel Hill, appointed inspector of 
the port and customs. The American troops have entered this 
town with the greatest order and are fraternizing with the people. 
Said troops later relieved the firemen at guard duty at the city 
prison and other places. 

"The political prisoners have been set at liberty and among 
them our friends, Messrs. Santiago Geraldino, Rudolfo Figueroa, 
Jose Hilaria Roche and others. We heartily congratulate them 
all. The inhabitants that had gone into the country have gradu- 
ally begun to return to town, in which the greatest order prevails. 

"At the town hall there took place an incident worthy of 
mention. Mr. Figueroa, who had been just set free, went up to 
the Seasions hall and unslinging the portrait of the queen regent 
with the king and the crown which overtopped them, attempted 
to throw them over the balcony, saying : ' There go the remnants 
of Spanish domination. ' But an American officer who was pres- 
ent interfered in a friendly, way, requesting that said picture 
and crown should be given him as a historical niemento of the 
occasion, which request was immediately granted." 

Notice. "To this office has been brought a hat belonging to 
one of the guards of the army at present in the city. It is 
marked R. J. Bilie, Fort Wingate, N. M. We hold same at the 
disposal of said guard." 


After landing, the troops were surrounded by frantic natives, 
shouting, laughing, waving flags and crying "Viva Americanos! 
Viva Americanos!" 

An orderly from General Roy Stone, of the army, reported 
a short time after Major George had landed, to that officer, with 
a message from General Stone requesting a detail be sent to him 
at the railway depot in the city. The orderly reported General 
Stone, with two or three staif officers and orderlies, had gone 
into the city and found the Spaniards had evacuated. The Gen- 
ei-al desired the escort for which he sent to accompany a train 
he was making up to proceed to Yauco. Before leaving, con- 
trary to pledges given the authorities, the Spanish troops had 
attempted to burn the depot and rolling stock and disable the 
locomotives. The fire department had saved the depot and most 
of the ears. Mechanics soon made the locomotives available for 

Major George directed Captain Ballard to detail a Lieutenant 
and seventeen men from his company to proceed to the station 
and report to General Stone. The detail was made up as follows : 

Corporal Bartlett, Corporal Bailey, Privates Carroll, Kelley, 
Harry Fowler, Curry, Eldridge, Watson, Holberg, Nichols, Cal- 
vert, Ilibbard, Charles Johnson, Rohn, McKinnon, Van Wagenan, 

The city of Yauco had been in possession of American troops 
for several days. None of the enemy were encountered on the 
trip. The train proceeded with caution, but found efforts to 
destroy the track had failed. 

A sensational and fabulous story was sent back from the 
island of the capture of Yauco by this detachment of E Com- 
pany, and many of the men were greatly annoyed that such a 
story should have been published. 

About noon Major George, witli Companies 11, Captain Ohn- 
stad, and I, Captain Newton, marched into the city and took 
possession of the barracks. This was a very fine building, built 
of concrete, located in a plaza, and was capable of housing a 
regiment. It had been occupied up to five o'clock on the morn- 
ing of the 28th, by the 25th Infantry of the Spanish Army. 
Everything in the barracks was in confusion. In the officers' 
quarters clothing and articles of personal property were strewn 
about everywhere. Evidently they had picked out the valuables 
but abandoned all else in their haste to get a change of air. 
The coiirtyard was surrounded by a high stone wall. A ladder 
against this wall showed that some had departed by this route 


rather than to lose the time to go around by the gate. Before 
leaving they had set fire to the magazine, which stood in one 
corner of the courtyard, but a detachment of the fire department 
had extinguished this blaze. 

In the office of the Commandant, Adjutant Cousins found, 
among other papers, a communication written in Spanish, ad- 
dressed to the commanders of detachments at other points, giving 
the plan for the defense of the islands. It was intended all 
troops should, after a resistance, gradually drop back, avoiding 
decisive engagements, but retard the American advances as 
much as possible until San Juan was reached. Here they pro- 
posed to annihilate Uncle Sam's men. This communication was 
forwarded by Major George to General Wilson. 

A large number of machetes and other weapons were found 
in the barracks, together with ammunition. Some of this am- 
munition created comment, as the balls appeared to be brass 
jacketed. A considerable quantity of rations was also captured. 
The hard bread was a great contrast to that in use by the Ameri- 
cans. It was made up in round disks about the size of an Amer- 
ican pie and five-eighths inch in thickness. To all appearances it 
made an excellent food and certainly looked appetizing, being 
nicely browned. 

H and I Companies remained at the barracks for several 
days. C Company, of Major George's battalion, was on out- 
posts to the west of the city. E Company was left at the port. 
Colonel Moore, with other companies of the regiment, estab- 
lished a camp north of the city on the road leading towards 
San Juan. 

The road from the port to the city is along a beautiful high- 
way. On both sides the luxuriant growth of tropical vegetation 
appealed to the eye. In all directions could be seen the flags of 
France, England, Holland and other European countries. A cele- 
bration was quickly organized by the citizens. 

To show their pleasure many engaged in festooning trees 
and the streets with strips of paper. These strips were put up 
in goodly-sized rolls and the rolls could be throwai over tree 
branches and across streets. In many of the yards foliage was 
largely concealed by this form of decoration. 

Most of the places of business in the city were closed and 
the windows protected by heavy wooden shutters. Many of 
the merchants and wealthier class had sent the ladies and chil- 
dren out of the city, expecting bombardment and a battle be- 
tween the Spanish troops and the Americans for possession. The 


Spaniards, for a long time, had industriously circulated reports 
of the villainies committed by the American soldiers and many 
of the natives stood in fear of the treatment they might receive. 
This feeling of fear quickly passed. 

A brief sketch of the island of Puerto Rico and the landing 
of General Miles will not come amiss at this point. 


The island of Porto Rico was discovered in 1493 and from 
that day until 1898 was under Spanish rule. It is one hundred 
and eight miles in length and about forty miles wide. It is a 
most healthful and delightful country, with mountain ranges 
and many streams. In area it is about thirty-six hundred square 
miles and the population in 1898 was computed at 800,000. It 
is fourth in rank, according to size, of the Greater Antilles group, 
but in prosperity and density of population it is first. The 
white population was claimed to outnumber the black. In few 
of the tropical islands was this the case. The commercial capital 
and largest city is Ponce, situated three miles inland from the 
port of the same name on the southern coast. The city rests 
on a rich plain, sui'roiuided by gardens and plantations. There 
are hot springs in the vicinity which are much frequented by 
invalids. At the port are extensive depots where products from 
tlie interior are stored for shipment. There were no docks and 
sliips were loaded and imloaded by means of lighters. The last 
enumeration gave to Ponce the population of 37,545, while San 
Juan, the capital on the north coast, had a population of 23,414. 
In Ponce are a number of fine buildings, among them being a 
town hall, theater, two churches, the Charity and the Women's 
Asylum, the barracks, the Cuban House and the market. The 
road connecting the city and the port was a beautiful promenade. 

Besides Ponce and San Juan, the largest towns were Arecibo, 
30,000; Utuado, 31,000; Mayaguez, 28,000; San German, 20,000; 
Yaueo, 25,000; Juana Diaz, 21,000; and there were reported to 
be ten other towns with population of 15,000 or over. Nearly 
half the population lived in the larger towns, where there were 
many fine residences. 

Porto Rico had been more lightly touched by Spanish rule 
than other provinces. Internal improvements had been inaugu- 
rated. There were nearly one hundred and fifty miles of rail- 
road. This Avas narrow gauge and skirted about the coast. A 
system of particularly fine military roads connected Ponce and 
San Juan with some of the other larger cities. 


In times of peace the island abounded in sugar, coffee, tobacco, 
honey, wax and fruits. A large part of the trade had been with 
the United States. The entire island is said to be rich in natural 
resources and very healthful. 

The capital, San Juan, was the best fortified city of Porto 
Rico, occupying there the relative position that Havana occupied 
in Cuba. When General Miles started on his expedition the 
expectation was it would effect a landing at Fajardo, on the 
northeastern coast. After this ostensible purpose had been well 
published the convoys and transports changed their course, 
swung around the east of the island and suddenly arrived off 
the harbor of Guanica on the southwestern coast at daylight on 
the morning of July 25. 

A small Spanish garrison in a blockhouse on the beach was 
utterly surprised when Commander Wainwright, of the Glouces- 
ter, ran into the beautiful little harbor and opened fire with 
small guns. The Spaniards attempted to reply, but were soon 
driven off and a party of marines landed and hoisted the Ameri- 
can flag over the blockhouse, the stars and stripes taking the 
place of the flag of Spain, which was first raised 405 years 
before. No Americans were injured, but the Spanish lost several 
killed and wounded. The 3,500 troops of this expedition were 
landed in the forenoon without difficulty. The Guanica harbor 
is the best in the island. East of Guanica are the towns Yauco 
and Ponce, the former not more than five miles distance and 
connected with Ponce by railroad. 

Marching on Yauco on the 26th, there was a skirmish with 
the enemy in which the Americans had four men wounded and 
the Spaniards lost sixteen killed and wounded. When General 
Miles' troops entered Yauco they were received with enthusiasm 
and joy, not unmixed, however, with some anxiety. The Alcalde, 
or Mayor, Francisco Megia, had issued in advance of the troops, 
a proclamation which accepted annexation to the United States 
as an accomplished fact: ' 

Citizens: Today the citizens of Porto Rico assist in one of 
her most beautiful festivals. The sun of America shines upon 
our mountains and valleys this day of July, 1898. It is a day 
of glorious remembrance for each son of this beloved isle, be- 
cause for the first time there waves over it the flag of the Stars, 
planted in the name of the government of the United States of 
America by the Major General of tlie American army, General 

Porto Ricans, we are, by the miraculous intervention of the 


God of the just, giveu back to the bosom of our mother America, 
in whose waters nature placed us as people of America. To her 
we are given back, in the name of her government, by General 
Miles, and we must send her our most expressive salutation of 
generous affection through our conduct toward the valiant troops 
represented by distinguished officers and commanded by the illus- 
trious General Miles. 

Citizens : Long live the government of the United States of 
America ! Hail to their valiant troops ! Ilail, Porto Rico, always 
American ! 

Yauco, Porto Rico, United States of America. 
The 29th, 30th and 31st of Jidy were passed quietly. Men 
and officers alike, when opportunity offered, were looking about 
the historic old city and viewing with great interest the moun- 
tains in which lay the enemy. 

Before daylight on the morning of August 1, E Company, 
wliich had been relieved from duty at the customs house by 
General Miles, went on outpost. Adjutant Cousins this day made 
an arrest of a private of the 16th Pennsylvania Regiment, whom 
he found trying to pass a worthless Confederate due bill for 
$300.00 on a merchant. The culprit was turned over to the 
Provost Marshal, who happened to be his own company com- 
mander. The prisoner attempted to bribe the Adjutant by offer- 
ing to give him the due bill. This incident is mentioned, as 
later it became a matter of considerable official agitation. The 
man came from a prominent family and was one of the leaders 
in Y. M. C. A. and Sunday school work when home. His regi- 
mental commander. Colonel Hulings, of the 16th Pennsylvania, 
and even an officer superior in rank to him, at different intei'- 
views suggested Adjutant Cousins withdraw his chafges against 
the prisoner. This the Adjutant would not do, as the man, when 
first arrested, had claimed to be a Wisconsin man. 

During the stay in the Ponce camp the old Springfield rifles 
with which the regiment were equipped at the time of their 
muster into the volunteer service, were replaced by the new 
Krag. This was a magazine rifle and entirely unfamiliar to 
most of the men. It is a far superior rifle to the old Springfield, 
being lighter, equipped with magazine, and more powerful. 

Second Lieutenant John E. Barron was taken sick during the 
stay at Ponce and left in hospital when the command marched 
into the interior. Later he came on to Coamo, but after a few 
days was sent with other sick soldiers back to Ponce, and did 
not again join the company until the return to Eau Claire. 


On Sunday, August 7, at 7 a. m., the regiment marched towards 
the interior along the San Juan road. This is a beautiful macad- 
amized road. There are several hundred miles of such roads 
on the island. They are known as the military roads and were 
built and kept in repair by the Government. The regiment 
passed through the city of Juana Diaz about noon. The Mayor 
met Colonel Moore outside of the city, extending a welcome to 
the American troops and made the request the band play during 
passage through the city. An enthusiastic welcome was extended 
by the citizens. At three o'clock the regiment went into camp, 
having marched about twelve miles. This camp was about five 
miles from the enemy's lines. On August 8, men were given an 
opportunity for a little practice with the new rifles. At noon 
the regiment, in light marching order, advanced about three 
miles and again went into camp. All extra baggage, together 
with the sick, were left behind, with the band as a guard. 

Camp was made in front of Coama, within striking distance 
of the Spanish troops. K Company, of Tomah, Captain Warren, 
was put on outpost to the front. 

The main military road from Ponce to San Juan, along which 
the brigade had been advancing, becomes quite tortuous before 
reaching Coamo, but has a general northeasterly direction enter- 
ing the town. About two miles from Coamo it is joined by the 
road from Santa Isabel, an excellent macadamized highway. Be- 
fore its junction with the Santa Isabel road it crosses, by an 
arch of masonry, a deep gorge with very precipitous sides. 

The town lies upon a plateau on the right bank of the Coamo 
river and well above its level, surrounded by high hills. It is 
in the foothills of the main ridge of the island, and the sur- 
rounding country is rough. According to the best information 
obtainable it was occiipied by about 400 Spanish troops well 
intrenched, and resistance was expected. A small blockhouse 
of corrugated iron on the Santa Isabel road was occupied by 
an infantry outpost, which had frequently fired upon our recon- 
noitering parties. The exact location of the other defenses was 
not known. 

A trail had been discovered practicable for infantry, by which 
a force leaving the main road well to the southwest of Coamo 
could, by a wide detour, reach the road again in rear of the 

The main body of the brigade, consisting of the Third Wis- 
consin Infantry (Colonel Moore), the Second Wisconsin Infan- 
try (Colonel Born), Battery F, Third United States Artillery 


(Captain Potts) aud Battery B, Fourth United States Artillery 
(Captain Anderson), the two batteries being under the command 
of Major J. M. Lancaster, Fourth Artillery, was in camp about 
two miles nearer Coamo, to which camp it had advanced that day. 

The division commander was present with the troops and 
directed their movements. With a view to capturing the gar- 
rison, he directed that one regiment he sent by the mountain 
trail above mentioned to the rear of the town, and that the front 
attack be deferred until this regiment could reach its position. 

The Sixteenth Pennsylvania Infantry was selected for the 
turning movement. It left its camp, 650 strong, at 5:15 p. m., 
August 8, and under the guidance of Lieutenant Colonel Biddle, 
marched six miles and then went into bivouac. At 6 a. m., 
August 9, the two other regiments of the brigade and four guns 
of Captain Anderson's battery left their camps to take position 
for the front advance upon the town. 

The Third Wisconsin Infantry, 788 strong, was sent to the 
right, with orders to cross the Coamo river and advance on the 
Santa Isabel road until the latter should reach the river, then 
to leave the road and advance up the left bank of the river. 
While it was moving to its position, fire was opened upon the 
blockhouse with the four guns of Captain Anderson's battery. 

An advance on the city by any other route than the pikes 
is next to impossible. Three roads lead into the city, one from 
the southwest, connecting with Ponce ; one from the northeast, 
connecting with San Juan, and the Santa Isabel road from the 
south. These were all military turnpikes, and streams were 
crossed by substantial iron and cement bridges, or, in ease of 
smaller streams, reinforced cement bridges. 

From the block house above mentioned the Spanish troops 
had a clear range of the valley leading towards the city. 

K Company, Captain Warren, had been on outpost through- 
out the night. K, together Avith G Company, Captain Abraham, 
was now posted on the high hills commanding the San Juan 
road and had a full view of the block house and the city. 

At four o'clock in the morning a silent reveille was had. 
The companies fell in and in light marching order, with only 
rifles and belts, haversacks with one day's rations, and ponchos, 
the regiment moved out to the position it was to occupy on the 
firing line. 

As the regiment advanced, Companies G and K were left 
behind on outpost duty. A Company, Captain Ilommel, was 
guarding the city of Juana Diaz and this left only nine com- 


panies in the field. The Third Battalion, Major Richards, with 
his two remaining companies, D, Captain Turner, and F, Captain 
Lee, was assigned to lead the advance. Following him came 
Major Kircheis, with three companies of the Second Battalion, 
B, Captain Sehultz, M, Captain Peck, and L, Captain McCoy. 
The advance began at 6 :30 and at 7 :05 the first shell from Lan- 
caster's Battery was fired. At the third shot the gunners had 
the range and the block house was set on fire. With the ad- 
vance began the opening fire by the enemy. The deep tropical 
grass almost concealed the Americans from view. The regiment 
followed closely the skirmish line. The opening by the battery 
started a lively battle. When the block house was fired by the 
shells the Spanish retreated along the road back into the city. 
Major Richards advanced the skirmishers towards the east and 
reached the range of hills on which the Spanish outpost was 
stationed. The Spaniards were firing thick and fast on the ad- 
vancing men, but little could be done towards returning the 
fire with small arms on account of the long, heavy grass. The 
troops were advancing all along the line and met with many 
natural obstacles, sucli as ravines, heavy growth of underbrush 
and other obstructions. The cactus hedges caused more anxiety 
than the whistling Spanish bullets. The line was still advancing 
when infantry fire from the north was heard, making known the 
Sixteenth Pennsylvania were engaged with the enemy north of 
Coamo. Between the Third Wisconsin and the town was tlie 
Coamo river. On the south side, where the regiment was de- 
ployed, the bank was almost perpendicular. Colonel Moore 
directed Lieutenant Holway and Lieutenant Cousins to make 
effort to find a place where the column could pass down in order 
to ford the river. After considerable search these officers found 
a place where a path or opening down the bluif had been made. 
This could only be used by lowering one's self by clinging to 
grape vines. The signal was passed back to the regiment and 
the men came down the grape vine ladder one at a time. Lieu- 
tenants Holway and Cousins had moved on, forded the river 
and struck a trail leading toward the military road. Soon after 
fording the stream a barb wire barrier obstructed the trail. While 
engaged in cutting through this barrier, Lieutenant Cousins was 
wounded. Colonel Moore had just come up and ordered him 
carried to the rear. An emergency dressing was applied by 
Sergeant Major Grout, and he proceeded with the column. While 
the wound was painful it was not serious. 

The column, after fording the river, followed the trail until 


the military road was reached and then marched into the city. 
Before reaeliing the city, natives came out to meet them and it 
was learned the Spanish troops had passed through the town 
and been engaged by the Pennsylvania men on the outskirts 
north of the city. The troops were given an enthusiastic and 
frantic welcome by the excited natives, and the Third Infantry 
flag was soon flying over the city iiall. The Spaniards had made 
entrenchments in many of the streets by ditching and sand 
bags. In some cases iron water and sewer pipes had been used. 

The citizens had been on short rations for some days. The 
Spaniards had swept the whole country for food stuff and those 
from the rural districts had been afraid to bring provisions into 
the toMU for over a week. Stores were closed and many of 
the merchants and business men, with their families, had fled 
the town. 

When the Spanish troops were driven from their blockliouse 
and entrenchments by the Wisconsin men, they retreated through 
the city and out onto the turnpike leading towards San Juan. 
Here they walked into the range of the Sixteenth Pennsylvania 
and a sharp, decisive battle occurred. The Spanish commander, 
Major Marlinez, made a brave effort to hold his position. He 
recklessly dashed up and down the Spanish lines, and finally fell, 
shot several times. As far as can be learned the Spanish loss 
was six killed, twelve wounded and one hundred and fifty pris- 
oners. Some one hundred and thirty-five Spanish escaped to 
the hills, but later some of them were captured. 

After a short rest in the city the regiment marched about a 
mile on the San Juan road and there went into camp. It was 
necessary to hold a large bridge four miles further up the road. 
Major Kircheis, with Companies D, Captain Turner, F, Captain 
Lee, L, Captain McCoy, and M, Captain Peek, was detailed for 
this outpost duty and at once marched to his position. An out- 
post was establislied at a point south of Aibonito Pass. The 
pass is where the military road goes over the Sierra Del Sur 
Mountains. On three hills, commanding the military road, the 
Spanish troops were thoroughly entrenched. Major Kircheis 
placed outposts in the hills covering the Spanish positions. 

August 12 Lancaster's Battery was ordered to the front to 
shell the enemy's works. The infantry could not have taken 
the works by assault, owing to the deep ravines and steep hills. 
In order to get a position for firing, the artillery was compelled 
to come out into full view of the Spanish works on the crest of 
the mountains. The Spanish artillery fired on the battery as it 


was advanced up the road, but with little effect. Later the 
Spanish gunners directed their fire towards the Wisconsin troops. 
One shell burst in the midst of L Company, killing Corporal 
Oscar R. Swanson and Private Fred Vought, and wounding Cor- 
poral Yanke and Private Buntz. 

A few moments later the again opened on Lancaster 's 
men and held them under a heavy fire. Owing to their better 
position the Spaniards could fire upon the Wisconsin line with 
small arms, but the elevation made the small arms fire of the 
Americans ineffective. The fire of Lancaster's guns was well 
directed and Spanish infantry could be seen leaving their posi- 
tions and retiring to stronger works in the rear. 

At length the Spanish guns became silent and the battery 
moved further up the road with F Company as support. They 
had advanced but a short way when they encountered a storm 
of rifle bullets from the infantry and shells from the big guns, 
and were compelled to fall back. The Spanish Infantry had 
left their entrenchment and concealed themselves in a banana 
field where it was almost impossible to discern them. This 
ended the direct attack on Aibonito Pass. 

It had been disclosed the Spanish position was such it could 
not be carried by a direct attack, and General James II. Wilson, 
commanding the division, directed an attack be made by going 
through the mountains. A mule pack train was assigned to the 
Third for carrying ammunition and rations and the command 
was ordered to prepare to take a trail up through the moun- 
tains, drive the enemy out of Aibonito and capture the pass and 
the city. 

On the evening of August 12, Colonel Moore called his officers 
together and informed them of the work laid out for them on 
the next day. All appreciated the movement would be a hard 
one and probably result in considerable loss. Colonel Moore 
spoke of the honor conferred upon the regiment by General 
Wilson in designating it to lead the advance. To Major George 
and his battalion he assigned the honor of opening the way. 
Captain Ballard, E, and Captain Kinney, of C Company, were 
designated by Major George to lead the advance, with Companies 
I and H in support and reserve. Just before the officers' meet- 
ing was dismissed Colonel Moore suggested all write letters home. 
Saturday, August 13, everything was made ready for the ad- 
vance on Aibonito. The regiment was in column of fours on the 
road and was waiting only for the pack train to form. Officers 
in charge of the train reported they would be in position within 


five minutes, but before the five minutes had passed, a staff 
officer froTU headquarters directed Colonel Jloore to withhold 
the march until further orders. The regiment was held in readi- 
ness to move at any moment. At about 2:30 came information 
of the signing of the protocol and that further movement was 
suspended for the time being. 

Officers and men alike were much disappointed. They liad 
made ready again for a movement which was cancelled. Later 
in the afternoon, to give the men something to do, Colonel Moore 
marched up the road some half a mile and established a new 
camp, where tlie regiment remained for several weeks. 

The signing of the protocol on August 13, instead of a week 
later, prevented an interesting bit of history being made. 

On August 31, Wednesday, occurred the death of George 
Edwards, Quartermaster Sergeant of H Company, Menomonie. 
Sergeant Edwards had formerly been a member of E Company 
and had many friends among the Eau Claire boys. 

The month of September was spent in the camp just north 
of Coamo. There was little happening of a nature to stimulate 
activity and much sickness developed. Colonel Moore and the 
medical department made every effort to keep the camp sanitary 
and officers looked closely after the habits of their men with a 
view to preventing illness. The lack of something to do induced 
homesickness and the malaria and typhoid quickly followed. The 
following table is taken from Captain Emanuel Rossiter's story 
of I Company. The figures, while not official, were gathered 
from reliable sources and are approximately correct: 

September 13 — September 19 — 

126 men sick in hospital. 138 men sick in hospital. 

200 men sick in quarters. 413 men sick in quarters. 

128 men sick in other places. 148 men sick in other places. 

18 men left this day. 

12 men died in Porto Rico. 

Officers and men were afflicted alike. For several weeks the 
number of officers available for duty was reduced to such a point 
that Lieutenant Cousins, acting regimental adjutant, and Lieu- 
tenant Smith, of I Company, who had been placed in command 
of P Company, alternated on serving as officer of the day. This 
detail was in addition to their other duties and there was no 
officer of the guard. Colonel Moore wished to help out by taking 
his regular turn as officer of the day, but this the two Lieutenants 


would not permit and they were tough enough to handle the 
situation between them. 

On September 3, Father Sherman, a Jesuit priest, a son of 
CTeneral William T. Sherman, paid the regiment a visit and was 
entertained at the officer's mess. He was an old friend of the 
Third, having visited at the Camp Douglas Reservation. 

On September 9 a second member of E Company passed to the 
great beyond. Corporal Sumner P. Bartlett died in the hospital 
at one o'clock in the morning. He had been taken to the hos- 
pital several days before. Corporal Bartlett had been a member 
of the company when it was first organized, but had been out of 
the service for several years when President McKinley sounded 
the call to the colors. He was a good soldier and popular with 
his officers and comrades. At four o'clock in the afternoon of 
the day of his death his remains were conveyed to the govern- 
ment cemetery, where they were deposited with military honors. 
In addition to members of his own company several men of other 
companies attended tlie services, showing his cheerful disposition 
and nature had made for him friends among the men from other 

Sergeant Major McCall was discharged by order of the War 
Department on September 10, and Colonel Moore at once ap- 
pointed Samuel E. Grout of Eau Claire to that position. He had 
been Battalion Sergeant Major of Major George's battalion and 
in addition to that duty had acted as Commissary Sergeant a 
large part of the time. The appointment of Sergeant Grout was 
a most deserving recognition of his able and conscientious serv- 
ices. When the call came for troops in April he was attending 
the medical department of the University of Minnesota and came 
on to Camp Harvey from there. He lacked but a year of com- 
pleting his course biit was informed by the faculty leave would 
be granted him and every opportunity given on his return to 
complete his studies. Sergeant Grout was of great assistance to 
the surgeons in their work and his spare time was put in at the 
hospital or among the sick in cjuarters. His appointment as 
Sergeant Major was a popular one with the men. who liad for 
him love, admiration and respect. He is at present practicing 
his profession in Alabama and has built up a tine practice and 

On Sunday, September 11, just after noonday mess, came a 
telegram from General Brooke at a point on the northern coast, 
advising a terrible hurricane was coming towards Coamo. This 
news broke the monotony of the life the regiment was leading. 


All hands turned tlieir eye« iu the direction of the north and 
waited with calmness the possible destruction. If the hurricane 
was coming they would have to take it on open ground, as the 
camp was not provided with cyclone cellars. Nothing, liowever, 
occurred, further than a brisk wind and heavy shower. 

September 12, General Ernst, brigade commander, issued an 
order fixing the price of provisions as follows: 

Eggs, each 4c 

Milk, per quart 8c 

Chickens, according to size 10 to 20c 

Melons 15c 

Bananas, small, i/l c ; large i/oc 

Oranges, per hundred 30e 

On the 13th, guard details were reduced to 22 non-commis- 
sioned officers and 69 privates. For some days 24 non-commis- 
sioned officers and 93 privates had been required. Twenty-seven 
men were detailed for duty at hospitals to assist the regular 
hospital corps of men in caring for the sick. 

September 19, the regiment received pay and Major M. R. 
Doyan had a long and busy day. His money, mostly in crisp new 
bills, was carried in three iron chests. The amount he carried 
was one hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars. 

Tuesday, September 20, notice was received of the third death 
in E Company, that of Pi-ivate Dwight C. Brace, which occurred 
in the hospital at Ponce on September 17. Private Brace was 
highly esteemed by his officers and comrades. Frequently he had 
attended to paper work in the company. He possessed consider- 
able talent as a caricaturist, handling the jiencil or crayon with 
much skill. 

Adjutant Cousins, in response to a request from the Secretary 
of War, cabled the strength of the regiment for duty on this day 
was 617. In this list B and A Companies rank first, with 68 
and 67 men, respectively, and F and L Companies last with 36 
and 37, respectively. 

September 23 a detail of ten men from E Company was sent 
to Barranquitas, a small town about nine miles as the crow flies 
from Coamo. By road it is a little longer. This detachment was 
there until October 17, and had an interesting tour of duty. Cor- 
poral Atkinson recalls many pleasant hours spent in the company 
of an old school master from whom he heard many interesting 
stories and traditions of the island. 

On the 27th came orders to march on San Juan on the 29th. 


This news worked a miracle with those who were on the siek 
report. Many men suffering from malaria and who could scarcely 
more than walk pulled themselves together and reported to their 
company commanders they were again fit for service. Later in 
the day came the disappointing news the order had been rescinded, 
but on September 30 orders were again issued to prepare for 
the march. Adjutant Cousins cabled the War Department the 
strength of the regiment was 534 on this date. 

Sunday morning, October 2, the regiment was on military 
road, advancing on San Juan. About ten-thirty the column 
passed through Aibonito Pass. This was where the Spaniards 
had expected to make their stand and it was at this point the 
regiment lost men in August. The sick of the regiment were left 
behind at Coamo with Major George in command. He was also 
placed in command of the sick of the Sixteenth Pennsylvania 
and of the battery. 

The animals of the command were spared as much as possible 
owing to lack of proper forage. No oats had been issued for 
some days and no hay. Horses and mules alike had to feed on 
corn and freshly cut grass. This forage was much too heating 
for the laboi'S they had to perform. Many of the mounted officers 
walked a good part of the distance to save their horses. Thirty 
bull teams had been issued to the regiment on September 29 and 
these were used to help out the mules. The march was along 
the finely constructed military road and beautiful scenery was 
disclosed as the column wound in and about the mountain side. 

October 3 the regiment was again on the march. The health 
and spirits of the men were revived by the movement and the 
scheduled day's mareli was covered before noon. The men re- 
quested their captains to ask Colonel Moore to continue the march 
and this request was granted. The regiment covered two days' 
scheduled march in one. About seven-thirty in the morning the 
column crossed over the divide. The camp was made a mile and 
one-half north of Cayey in a field covered with a beautiful turf, 
but soft and wet owing to the severe rains. 

October 4 and 5 was spent in the camp at Cayey. On the 5th 
the regiment was paid off by Major J. C. Muhlenberg. 

October 6, very much to the disgust of the command, orders 
came directing the regiment to turn back and march to Ponce. 
Over one-half of the distance from Ponce to San Juan had been 
covered and the road to San Juan was down grade. Reveille was 
sounded at four o'clock and in a heavy rain the camp was broken 
and march begun. Nearly all the way to Aibonito the rain came 


down. Canvas was in such condition it could not be used. Adju- 
tant Cousins took possession of the old barracks, a large wooden 
building, and under this covering the regiment passed the night. 

On the 7th the march was continued to Coarao and buildings 
were again used here. October 8, marched from Coamo to Juan 
Diaz. On the 9th, Sunday, the regiment reached Ponce. For 
the first time in many days there was no rain. Four rivers were 
forded with difficulty owing to flooded condition. The regiment 
moved into the already made camp of the Nineteenth Regular 
Infantry. They had been withdrawn to the barracks. The 
canvas was new and tents provided with floors. The camp was 
beautifully located on the bank of tlie river about two miles 
from Ponce. 

General Guy V. Henry was in command at Ponce and on the 
11th paid the regiment a visit. He came entirely alone, not even 
an oi-derly accompanying him, and insisted on holding his own 
horse while at regimental headquarters. He impressed the Wis- 
consin officers most favorably. He showed great interest in the 
welfare and comfort of the regiment. General Henry had a high 
reputation as a soldier and his face bore the scars of Indian 

October 12, Surgeon Major John B. Edwards was taken to 
the officer's hospital in Ponce from a severe attack of typhoid. 
He had a long siege of the fever and the regiment came home 
without him. It was many days after the regiment had sailed 
before the nurses dared to tell him he had been left behind. 

October 16, Senator Thomas B. Mills, of Superior, Wis., made 
the camp happy by his arrival. He had many personal friends 
in the Eau Claire Company, who joined with the men from Su- 
perior in extending to him a welcome. 

October 17 the steamship Manitoba was assigned to the regi- 
ment for the trip home. 

On the 20th this order was revoked and the Chester assigned. 
The Chester was a better boat for officers, but not as well equipped 
for carrying the men. Colonel Moore registered a vigorous pro- 
test with General Henry, which resulted in the order being 
rescinded and the Manitoba again assigned. 

Tuesday, October 18, was "Occupation Day," and the citizens 
of the city held a grand celebration. Frank Dana's Third In- 
fantry band, together with three other military bands and the 
troops quartered in the city, joined in the festivities. 

During the night of October 18-19, there occurred an exciting 
and later amusing event. Some days before this the 47th New 


York had disembarked and were held at the port for several 
days before going into camp on ground to the west of the camp 
occupied by the Third Wisconsin. It developed afterwards the 
men of the regiment, of the 19th infantry and of the regular 
artillery had devoted their attention to filling the New Yorkers 
with all kinds of tales of dangers. The New Yorkers had been 
led to believe they were in constant danger of being sprung 
upon from ambush and cut to pieces. In the early hours of the 
night a dummy figure had been set outside the 47th guard line. 
It had been so arranged long cords would make movements of 
the legs and arms. Between three and four o'clock a sentry got 
sight of this figure and challenged, and, receiving no reply, he 
fired. The sentry on adjoining post came up, challenged and 
fired. Then came the Corporal, who challenged and fired; fol- 
lowing him was the relief and at length the entire guard. The 
firing awoke Colonel Moore and Adjutant Cousins. Supposing 
something was wrong in the camp of the 47th, either an attack 
by guerrillas or a mutiny. Jack Hood, of the band, was directed 
to sound the long roll, and no man living could sound it better 
than Jack. 

In the darkness the men sprang into the ranks in all stages 
of dress and undress. Notwithstanding their haste, none forgot 
their rifles, belts and shoes. Some men were even thoughtful 
enough to strap on their wire cutters, thinking barb wire barriers 
might be encountered. The Adjutant, in the meantime, was 
trying to get in connection witli the 47th camp and about time 
firing died down there got the Adjutant of the 47th on the wire 
and offered Colonel Moore's assistance. This was respectfully 
but emphatically declined and no explanation given of the firing. 
After a reasonable interval the men were sent back to their tents. 
It was well along in the day before the cause of the disturbance 
was learned. It was not a safe subject to discuss with the 47th 
New York officers or men. 

Friday, October 21, the command was up and astir at four 
a. ra., packing and making ready to take the transport. In good 
order transportation and regiment passed through the city and 
arrived at the port in ample season. By five p. ra. all were on 
board. The wagon tvanspoilalion was left behind by direction of 
the quartermaster's (Icpaiinwnt. The horses traveled with the 
regiment and the last ol' them were loaded about midnight. Tlie 
boat, however, did not steam out until the next morning, Satur- 
day, it being contrary to the sailors' habit to sail on a Friday. 
At nine o'clock on Wednesday, the 26th, the Manitoba arrived 


off quarautiue New York harbor and anchored for the night. 
Early the next morning Colonel Moore directed Lieutenants 
Hohvay, Williams and Cousins to go ashore and report the regi- 
ment at the army headquarters. These officers arranged for the 
drawing of the warm clothing and the traveling, rations for the 
trip from New York to Wisconsin. 

Later in the day of the 27th the Manitoba, having been passed 
by the quarantine officers and given a clean bill, steamed up to 
the docks at Wechawken. The boat was still in motion when 
Governor Scofield came down the dock, accompanied by Edward 
Mullen, and extended an official welcome. The Governor was 
heartily cheered by officers and men. 

On the 28th, in three special trains, tlie regiment started for 
Wisconsin over the West Shore railway. Two sections of this 
train were pulled into Milwaukee, where the citizens of that city, 
on October 30, tendered all officers and men a banquet. The 
other section, carrying the companies from Eau Claire, Neills- 
ville, Menoraonie, Hudson and Superior, pulled through from 
Chicago, and by night of October 31 all the companies were in 
their home towns. 

A delegation from Eau Claire met the troop train before day- 
light. Among them were Captain Henry, Hon. William P. Bart- 
lett and William K. Atkinson. Eau Claire was reached about 
9 :30, and again at the Omaha station the men received an ovation 
from the people of Eau Claire. 

On November 1 a furlough was granted to all men of the 
regiment and leave of absence to officers. During this furlough 
Dr. McDonald, army surgeon, visited the home station of all com- 
panies to ascertain the health of the command. Dr. McDonald 
was a favorite with officers and men. He had accompanied the 
regiment in its march up the mountains, returned with the com- 
mand to Ponce, and accompanied the regiment to Wisconsin. 

Lentil January it was not known what the Government would 
decide to do with the regiment. There were reports it might 
be sent to Philippines and other reports it might be put into some 
of the Western forts. Li the meantime Captain Ballard was 
busily engaged in preparing the company for muster out or return 
into active service. In late December the order came for mus- 
tering out and on January 6, 1899, Captain E. P. Andrus, of the 
army, arrived in Eau Claire and by midnight of that day E 
Company had been discharged from the volunteer service. 

During the service losses occurred and some men liad been 
transferred to other organizations. 


Three had been lost by death : 

Private Charles Eck at Camp Thomas, May 22, 1898. 
Corporal Sxxmner P. Bartlett at Coamo, September 9, 1898. 
Private Dwight C. Brace at Ponce, September 17, 1898. 

By honorable discharge one man had been taken from the 
rolls ■ 

Private Leonard Loken, September 15, 1898. 

Four were transferred to the Hospital Corps, namely: 

Privates: Malcolm J. Cernahan. 
Alexander S. Morgan. 
William H. Bruce. 
Charles E. Day. 

All others of the rolls were mustered out January 6, 1899, 
as above stated. 

AU through the winter of 1898-1899 many of the men suffered 
from the effects of the campaign. Some of those who had malaria 
in their systems still feel the effects of it at times. 

On January 14, 1899, the officers of the field and staff' and 
non-commissioned staff were mustered out at Camp Douglas by 
Colonel Andrus. 

The State of Wisconsin at once set about the re-organization 
of the National Guard and companies in the volunteer service 
were given an opportunity to re-enter the guard. E Company, 
of the Third, was the only company in the State which failed to 
re-organize. Captain Ballard gave the company two opportuni- 
ties, and on the second failure referred the matter to the Adju- 
tant General, with the result that B Company, of the Fifth In- 
fantry, was transferred to the Third Infantry as E Company. 
Captain Otto H. Kitz)nan commanded this company and extended 
an invitation to all the volunteers to enlist, and several of them 
did so. On the reorganization of the regiment, June 10, 1899, 
Captain Ballard was commissioned as Major and assigned to the 
Second Battalion, consisting of Companies C, E, H and I. Mar- 
shall Cousins was appointed Regimental Adjutant with rank of 
Captain, and Percy C. Atkinson was appointed Battalion Sergeant 
Major. On the creation of the office of battalion quartermaster 
and commissary, he was promoted to that position with rank of 
Second Lieutenant, and at a little later date was again promoted 
to Battalion Adjutant, with rank of First Lieutenant. 

Marshall Cousins Avas promoted to grade of Major, December 


14, 1913, and was succeeded by Percy C. Atkinson as Regimental 
Adjutant on the same date. 

Major Ballard continued in the service until April 22, 1908, 
when he was discharged on account of ill health. The Major 
died October 15, 1909, and was interred with military honors in 
Forest Hill cemetery, Eau Claire. A number of the officers of 
the regiment from adjoining stations were present at the service. 
Following his retirement from active service a regimental order 
was issued making the announcement. This order is reproduced, 
as it gives a biographical sketch of the Major. 

General Orders, 
No. 18. 

Wisconsin National Guard 
La Crosse, May 11, 1908 

Announcement is hereby made of the retirement, after twenty 
years of continuous service, of Major Joseph M. Ballard, on April 
22, 1908. For some weeks prior to this time his health had rap- 
idly failed, to the sincere regret of his comrades and friends. 
Major Ballard's service in the military establishments of the State 
had been long and honorable, and gained for him a place of dis- 
tinction and high regard in the hearts of all with whom he had 
come in contact. 

Previous to his coming to Wisconsin he served in the "Worces- 
ter Continentals," C Company, Second Infantry, Volunteer Militia 
of Massachusetts. He became corporal in this company May 7, 
1880, and Sergeant December 27, of the same year. A few years 
later he came to Wisconsin, and when the suggestion was made 
to organize a military company in his home city of Eau Claire, 
Joe Ballard was one of the first to respond to the call and be- 
came president of the civil organization formed to finance the 
new company. He was active in perfecting the organization. 
The company was organized in the summer of 1887 as an inde- 
pendent company, known as the "Griffin Rifles." He was com- 
missioned First Lieutenant of the company November 14, 1887, 
having previous to that time served as First Sergeant. On April 
20, 1888, the company was mustered into service of the State as 
E Company, and he was re-commissioned as First Lieutenant in 
the Wisconsin National Guard. He was promoted to Captain 
April 15, 1890, and as such entered the volunteer service of the 
United States May 11, 1898. He served throughout the Porto 
Rican campaign with credit and honor to his country, his regi- 


ment, his company and himself. E company, under his command, 
was the first to land at the Port of Ponce July 28, 1898, the day 
of the surrender of that city by the Spaniards. By direct verbal 
command of Lieutenant General Miles, Captain Ballard took pos- 
session of Government Buildings and threw a guard and patrol 
about the port. On August 9 he took part in the battle of Coamo. 

He was mustered out with the regiment of January 6, 1899, 
and on the re-organization of the regiment he was commissioned 
Major, with rank from June 11, 1899, and commanded tlie Second 
Battalion from that date until his retirement, April 22, 1908. 

He was always ready and always willing to do promptly and 
do well every task assigned to him. His cheerful disposition was 
contagious, and made many a march and bivouac more endurable. 

A faithful friend, patriotic soldier, efficient officer, and brave 
man; to this, we, his comrades, bear testimony at the hour of 
his retirement. Maj' his future path be a pleasant one. 
By order of Colonel Holway. 

Marshall Cousins. 
Captain Third Infantry, Adjutant. 

Major Ballard was born February 18, 1853, at Gardiner, Me. 
His father was Augustus Ballard, a prominent and successful 
shipbuilder on the Kennebec river. For seven years he resided 
in Worcester, Mass., following his profession, that of druggist, 
and then removed to Chicago. November 19, 1883, he came to 
Eau Claire, buying a drug store from E. H. Playter. He was 
married April 25, 1883, to Miss Emily A. Browne, of Boston, who 
survived him and still resides in Eau Claire. 

This sketch Avould not be complete without a reference to the 
Regimental and Battalion Commanders. Colonel Martin T. Moore 
commanded the regiment. He was born at Wauwatosa, Wis., 
August 9, 1847, and when scarcely fifteen years of age enlisted 
in E Company, 24th Infantry, Wisconsin Volunteers, August 5, 
1862. On account of wounds received May 18, 1864, he was, in 
August of that year, assigned to duty with the Fifth United 
States Veteran Corps of Infantry. He was discharged as a Ser- 
geant June 5, 1865. Colonel Moore's service in the National 
Guard of Wisconsin began August 14, 1878, as First Lieutenant 
of the La Crosse Light Guards. He became Captain August 22, 
1879. Aided in the organization of the Third Battalion, W. N. G., 
of which he was the first and only Lieutenant Colonel, from or- 
ganization. May 19, 1881, until disbandment early in 1883. On 
the organization of the Third Infantry he was commissioned its 


first Colonel, June 11, 1883, and remained such until mustered out 
of service, Januarj' 14, 1899. Colonel Moore died in La Crosse 
March 24, 1903. 

The First Battalion, composed of Companies E of Eau Claire, 
H of Menomonie, C of Hudson and I of Superior, was commanded 
by another veteran of the Civil War, Major Thomas Jefferson 
George, who was born in Ohio, November 18, 1842, first enlisted 
May 8, 1861, and was discharged on account of sickness, by order 
of General Benjamin P. Butler, April 11, 1862. He served as 
First Lieutenant Wisconsin State Militia during the Indian dis- 
turbances, September, 1862, and was in the United States police 
service from 1863 to 1865. From January 11, 1877, to June 11, 
1883, he was Captain of the Guard Company of Menomonie. On 
the latter date he was commissioned Major in the Third Infantry 
and remained as such until the final muster out of the regiment, 
January 14, 1899. Major George is living at Menomonie in good 
health and respected and loved by all. For Major George officers 
and men of Wisconsin National Guard entertain a warm and 
kindly sentiment. 

Another officer, while not a member of the regiment, richly 
deserves mention in this sketch. Captain William A. Bethel, of 
the army, was Assistant Adjutant General on the staff of the 
brigade commander. He performed the trying duties of his posi- 
tion with intelligence, energy and tact and a mutual feeling of 
admiration soon sprang up between him and the Third Infantry. 
Officers and men alike felt free to go to Captain Bethel for infor- 
mation and instruction. Following the war he was ti*ansferred 
to the Judge Advocate General's Department and served a detail 
as instructor in military law at West Point. He now holds -the 
rank of Lieutenant Colonel. 


The good people at home, through the reports sent out by 
sensational newspaper correspondents, formed the idea the regi- 
ments in Porto Rico were suffering from neglect. On September 
14 a mass meeting was held, of which D. A. Cameron was chair- 
man and James T. Joyce secretary. Addresses were made by 
Hon. William II. Frawley, Mayor S. S. Kepler, Richard F. Wilson, 
A. A. Cutter and others, and committees appointed. At a second 
meeting, held on September 15, it was agreed to send Robert K. 
Boyd to Porto Rico with funds. On September 19 Mr. Boyd, 
accompanied by General Griffin, left Eau Claire for Washington. 


The War Department furnished him with transportation, passes 
and letters, and he sailed from New York on the Steamer Chester, 
October 2. He lauded at Ponce and reached the regiment on 
October 7, at Coamo on their return march. Owing to the high 
water, he was compelled to swim several rivers. 

Mr. Boyd was accorded a royal reception by E Company. lie 
found conditions on the island very much improved. The men 
had become acclimated. He remained with the regiment and 
accompanied it home, sending in the meantime reports which 
allayed the anxiety of the friends at home. 

By an E Company Man. 

Will the publishers of the Eau Claire County History give 
one of the men of the Puerto Rican expedition a little space to 
make mention of Happy Jack? He was the horse ridden by 
Adjutant Cousins during the Spanish-American War and for 
years after the war. Jack was a Kentucky thoroughbred, born 
in the state of fine horses and beautiful women, but as a young 
colt was sent to a Georgia plantation, about forty miles from 
Chickamauga Park. It was at Chickamauga Park he was pur- 
chased by the Eau (Claire officer on May 25, 1898. The planter 
from whom he was bought frankly stated he did not thiuk the 
horse suited for military purposes as he was a plantation saddler 
and had never been in the city or been among large bodies of 
men. Jack was accepted, however, and in a few days had estab- 
lished friendly terms witli matters military aud with officers and 
men. He quickly learned bugle calls and seemed to recognize 
the uniform. He was a particularlj' handsome, well-bred animal, 
and could take the single foot gait at considerably better than 
a three-minute gait. He was as intelligent as he was handsome. 
He received a painful Avouiid while on the island, Avhich was 
dressed and attended to by Captain E. H. Grannis, one of our 
regimental surgeons. 

Jack came home with the regiment and lived in Eau Claire 
until February 10, 1912, when he passed quietly away. From 
1899 on he annually attended the regimental encampments at 
Camp Douglas, and hundreds of men will recall his attitude as 
he would stand before the regiment at evening parade while his 
master. Captain Cousins, Regimental Adjutant, published the 


Jack, although spirited and lively, was never vicious except- 
ing when colored people were about. For the negro race he 
seemed to have a particular aversion and would not hesitate to 
use his hoofs or teeth to impress upon them his dislike. Jack 
rendered his country good and faithful service, and was a kind, 
affectionate and agreeable friend and comrade. 


The Constitution of 18-48 divided the state of Wisconsin into 
five judicial circuits. Chippewa county, which then embraced 
territory extending from La Pointe county on the north to Craw- 
ford county on the south, except wliat was embraced in St. Croix 
county, was attached to Crawford county for judicial purposes. 
In 1850 the sixth circuit was formed in part out of territory 
in Chippewa county, and in 1854 the remainder of Chippewa 
county was divided to form in part the eighth circuit. As late 
as 1857, this circuit included the counties of Eau Claire, Chip- 
pewa, Dunn, St. Croix, La Pointe and Douglas. 

Its first judge was S. S. N. Fuller, whose terra extended from 
January, 1855, to 1860. He was truly a pioneer judge, but a 
very indifferent lawyer. 

In the spring of 1859, L. P. Weatherby, a Hudson lawyer, 
was elected to succeed Judge Fuller, who early in the fall re- 
signed. Governor Randall appointed the late Judge Barron to 
fill Judge Fuller's unexpired term. 

Judge Barron was not a noted lawyer, and three months was 
not a sufficient time in which to achieve a judicial record. It is 
but simple justice, liowever, to his memory to observe that he 
was a most striking illustration of what is not unusual, tliat a 
very ordinary lawyer may make an excellent judge. Judge 
Barron was subsequently judge of the Eleventh circuit. 

Judge Weatherby came to the bench in January, 1860, as a 
code lawyer, which his immediate predecessor was not. This 
was a great advantage to most of the members of the bar then 
in Northwestern Wisconsin, as the code practice had then been 
but recently adopted by the state, and the practice was new 
to them. 

The guerrilla and skirmishing practice, tolerated in Judge 
Fuller's court, was allowed no quarter in his successor's, tlie 
effect of which was, during his term, to make a number of repii- 
table lawyers in this circuit. Judge Weatherby was an able 
lawyer and fortunately possessed an admirable judicial tempera- 

In 186-4 the eleventh circuit was formed, which detached from 


the eighth the counties of Ashland, Burnet, Dallas, Polk and La 
Pointe. In 1865 Dallas county, name since changed to Barron, 
was attached to the eighth. In 1876 Chippewa county and 
Barron county were detached from it and attached to the elev- 
enth. H. L. Humphrey, of Hudson, was the immediate successor 
of Judge Weatherby, and proved a very successful and popular 
judge, till his political friends demanded his retirement to be- 
come a member of Congress. He was succeeded in 1878 by 
E. B. Bundy, of Menomonie, who was successfully re-elected until 
1896, wlien he was defeated by Eugene Helms. However, at this 
date the county of Eau Claire had been detached from the eighth 
circuit, but his long term of service attests his fitness and integ- 
rity as a .iudge. 

In 1876 the thirteenth circuit was formed from the counties 
of Buffalo and Trempealeau from the sixth and Eau Claire county 
from the eighth. 

A. W. Newman, of Trempealeau, became its judge in 1877, 
but in 1878 the counties of Buffalo and Eau Claire were de- 
tached from the thirteenth circuit and attached to the eighth, 
and Judge Newman was left judge of the thirteenth with the 
counties of CJark, Monroe, Jackson, LaCrosse and Vernon added 
thereto by the act of 1878. He remained judge of the thir- 
teenth till, through his famous decision in the state interest 
cases and the popularity which he achieved thereby, he was 
elevated to the bench of the Suprem.e Court in 1894. 

The restiveness of the Eau Claire bar under the fact that it 
had not a resident judge, and some dissatisfaction among a part 
of its leading members, led to the formation of the seventeenth 
circuit in 1891, composed of the counties of Eau Claire, Jackson 
and Clark. 

Although the circuit was strongly Republican, local intiuences 
were so favorable to Judge Bailey that he defeated James O 'Neill, 
of Clark county, and came to the bench in 1892. During his 
incumbency he brought much judicial learning to the discharge 
of his official duties, but enjoyed the writing of law works, to 
which he has since given much time. 

Judge Bailey was succeeded by James O'Neill, who was 
elected, and assumed the duties of office in January, 1898. The 
present incumbent. Judge James Wickham, was elected in 1909, 
when the district was changed from the seventeenth to the nine- 
teenth circuit, which is now composed of the counties of Eau 
Claire, Chippewa, Rusk and Sawyer. 

The first trial upon an indictment for a capital offense which 


had ever occurred in Eau Claire eoimty, was that of Charles 
Naither for the murder of Andrew Seitz on the evening of April 
30, 1858. The two men, Germans, lived together, and Seitz up- 
braided Naither for neglecting to wash the dishes after eating 
supper. An altercation ensued and he was thrown downstairs. 
He went and purchased a knife and returned to the rooms Seitz 
and he occupied over the office of the receiver of public money, 
on Eau Claire street. After a war of words had ensued, and 
Naither was again ejected from the room, the parties clinched 
over the threshold of the door and in an instant Naither plunged 
his knife into the abdomen of Seitz. He died from the wound 
on May 11 following. The trial took place at the June term of 
the circuit coiirt. The accused was unable to employ counsel, 
and Mr. Alexander Meggett was assigned to that duty. Judge 
S. S. N. Fuller presided. District Attorney Bartlett and Mr. 
George Mulks conducted the prosecution. The jury were un- 
able to agree upon a verdict and were discharged. On a second 
trial the prisoner was found guilty of manslaughter in the third 
degree and sentenced to four years and twenty days' imprison- 
ment in the penitentiary with hard labor. Two years afterM'ard 
Gov. Alex W. Randall pardoned him out. 

The second murder occurred in September, 1864. A man 
by the name of Sloan, a resident of the town of Seynour, in Eau 
Claire county, got into an altercation with John Stoepler. In 
a fit of passion, he picked up a maple stick and struck Sloan 
over the head with it, fracturing his ski;ll. The result was 
death. Stoepler was immediately arrested and indicted. He 
was held for trial on April 6, 1865. The district attorney, W. P. 
Bartlett, conducted the prosecution, assisted by Alexander Meg- 
gett. The accused was ably defended by Horace "W. Barnes 
and N. B. Boyden, but the evidence against him was conclusive, 
and he was found guilty of murder in the third degree and 
sentenced to three years and a half and one day's solitary con- 
finement in the state prison, but he was recommended by many 
influential citizens to executive clemency, and two years of his 
term were remitted. 

S. S. N. Fuller was born at Montrose, Susquehanna county, 
Pennsylvania. He came to Wisconsin and resided for a time 
at Fond du Lac, where his name is enrolled as an attorney under 
date of February 3, 1851. His stay there was brief. After his 
removal to Hudson, St. Croix county, he was elected county 
judge and later circuit judge. His service did not cover the 


full term for which he had been elected. Soon after resigning 
he removed to Kansas and died there in about 1876. 

Lucien P. Wetherby, one of the early judges, was born at 
Eagle, Ouondago county. New York, October 12, 1822. He was 
educated in the public schools and at an advanced academy at 
Baldensville ; he studied law in the office of Angel & Grover in 
Allegany county, and was admitted to the bar in 1840. Was 
district attorney and surrogate of that county, in which he began 
practice of the law at Angelica. He came to Wisconsin in 1856, 
and located at Hudson, where he resided all his subsequent life. 
In 1860 he was elected judge of the Eighth circuit and sei-ved 
the full term. He died December 11, 1889. 

Judge Wetherby was a lawyer both by instinct and educa- 
tion. He was a conspicuous figure at the bar and on the bench. 
He was thoroughly informed in the fundamental principles of 
law, and well versed in the statutes. His comprehension of legal 
propositions, the accuracy of his discrimination and his ability 
to apply principles to stated cases were remarkable. He gave 
dignity to his profession by his ability, knowledge and fairness. 
He despised the tricks of the pettifogger and pleaded for law 
and justice. 

Henry Danforth Barron was a native of New York, was born 
at Wilton, Saratoga county, April 10, 1833. After obtaining a 
common school education, he entered the law school at Ballston 
Spa. New York, and graduated therefrom. In 1851 he became 
a resident of Waukesha, Wis., and conducted a newspaper there 
for some time ; the newspaper being known as the Waukesha 
Democrat until its name was changed to the "Chronotype." In 
1853 Mr. Barron was postmaster at Waukesha. In 1857 he re- 
moved to Pepin, Pepin county, and practiced law there until 
1860, when he became by appointment of Governor Randall, 
judge of the eighth circuit. His service in that capacity was 
brief, lasting only until the vacancy he was appointed to fill 
could be filled by an election. In a short time he removed to 
St. Croix Falls, Polk county. In 1862 he was unanimously 
elected a member of the assembly from the district comprising 
the counties of Ashland, Bayfield, Burnett, Douglas, Barron and 
Polk. He served as a member of the assembly in 1864, 1866, 
1867, 1868, 1872 and 1873. In 1868 and 1872 he was chosen one 
of the presidential electors on the republican ticket ; from 1863 
till 1876 he was a regent of the State University. In March, 
1869, President Grant nominated Judge Barron for chief justice 
of the territory of Dakota, which office he declined. In 1869, 


the President appointed him fifth auditor of the treasury, and 
he discharged the duties of that office till January 1, 1872, when 
he resigned to take a seat in the assembly. In May, 1871, he 
was appointed by Governor Fairchild Wisconsin's trustee of 
the Antietam Cemetery Association. In 1874-5-6 Mr. Barron 
was a member of the State Senate and president pro tem of that 
body in 1876. In the spring of that year he was elected judge 
of the eleventh circuit. His death occurred before the expira- 
tion of his term at St. Croix Falls, January 23, 1882. 

Herman L. Humphrey was born at Candor, Tioga county, 
NeM' York, Mai'ch 14, 1880. His education, except one year 
spent in the Cortland academy, was limited to the public schools. 
At the age of sixteen he engaged as clei'k in a store at Ithaca, 
New York, and so continued for several years; later he read 
law in that city and was admitted to the bar in July, 1854. In 
January, 1855, he located at Hudson, Wis., and began the prac- 
tice of la^v. Soon after he Avas appointed district attorney to 
fill a vacancy; in 1860 he became judge of the county by ap- 
pointment, and in 1861 was elected to that office for a full term. 
He resigned in February, 1862, having been elected State Senator. 
In 1865 he was mayor of Hudson and in April, 1866, was elected 
judge of the eighth circuit, and re-elected in 1872. That office 
was resigned in March, 1877, when Judge Humphrey's term as 
a member of Congress began, he having been elected as the Re- 
publican candidate in November, 1876 ; he was twice re-elected, 
having served from 1877 to 1883. On completing his congres- 
sional service. Judge Ilumplirey resumed the practice of law at 

Egbert B. Bundy was born at Windsor, N. Y., February 8, 
1833. He received his general education there at the academy, 
and his legal education in law offices at Windsor and Depoint, 
in his native state. He became a member of the bar at Cortland, 
N. Y., in January, 1856. On coming to Wisconsin he began his 
law practice at Dunnville, the then county seat of Dunn county, 
thereafter removing to Menomonie. He served as county judge, 
and April, 1877, was appointed judge of the eighth circuit, then 
composed of the counties of Bau Claire, Dunn, Pepin, Pierce 
and St. Croix, to fill out the unexpired term of Judge Humphrey. 
In April, 1878, he Avas re-elected and at the expiration of tlie 
term was again re-elected. 

As a lawyer, Judge Bundy Avas highly valued. Making no 
claims to oratorical gifts, he was nevertheless forcible, impres- 
sive and strong as an advocate. Never "ingenious" in discuss- 


iiig legal propositions to the court, he went strauglit to the core 
of the questions, and never burdened or blurred a brief with 
cases not in point. In the counsel room he was eminently frank, 
practical, able, safe. It was, however, on the bench that Judge 
Bundy did the major part of his life work. 

Alfred William Newman, an associate justice of the Supreme 
Court of Wisconsin, departed this life at the city of Madison, 
January 12, 1898, his death resulting from accidental injury 
received the day before. Justice Newman was born April 5, 
1834, at Durham, Greene county. New York. He was of English 
descent, his ancestors being found among the early Puritan set- 
tlers of New England. He was born upon a farm and grew up 
as a farmer's boy, receiving such education as the neighborhood 
schools afforded, and subjected at home and at school to the 
strict discipline and religious instruction and observances re- 
ciuired by the Presbyterian church, of which both his parents 
were devout members. 

When thirteen years of age he accompanied his father to 
Albany and was present in court when his father M^as exam- 
ined as a witness, and it is said that he then and there deter- 
mined to become a lawyer, and that thereafter all his efforts to 
obtain an education had that in view. When about eighteen 
years of age he entered an academy at Ithaca and after two 
terms there he entered the Delaware Literary Institute at Frank- 
lin, N. Y., where he also remained two terms. He then entered 
Hamilton College, at Clinton, N. Y., joining the class of 1857, 
with which he was graduated, receiving the degree of A. B. 
While at college he diligently pursued extra law studies under 
Professor Theodore W. Dwight, and after graduation he con- 
tinued the study of law^ in the office of John Olney, Esq.. at 
Windham Center, in Greene county, until admitted to the bar 
at the general te)'m of the Supreme Court at Albany, Decembei' 
8, 1857. 

In January, 1858, he started for the west. Stopping tirst at 
Alnapee, in Kewaunee county, he removed in March, 1858, to 
Trempealeau county, which ever after remained his home until 
his removal to Madison in 1894. 

He held the office of county judge of Trempealeau county 
from April, 1860, until January, 1867, when he assumed the 
office of district attorney, to which he had been elected in the 
fall of 1866. He was re-elected district attorney in 1868, 1872 
and 1874, thus holding that position for eight years. 

He was twice elected to the State Legislature, serving as a 


member of the assembly iu 1863 and senator from the thirty- 
second district in 1868 and 1869. 

While he was holding the office of district attorney the leg- 
islature, in 1876, formed a new judicial circuit — the thirteenth 
— consisting of the counties of Eau Claire, Buffalo and Trem- 
pealeau. In April of that year Mr. Newman was elected judge 
of this new circuit, and discharged the duties of that position 
until 1878. As a result of legislative action, he was transferred 
to and became judge of the sixth circuit. He was re-elected, 
without opposition, in 1882, 1888. The third term for which he 
was elected expired January 1, 1895. 

In the spring of 1893, Hon. William Penn Lyon, chief justice 
of the Supreme Court, having expressed his intention not to be 
a candidate for re-election, Judge Newman was called out as 
a nonpartisan candidate and was elected to the position of 
associate justice. His services began at the opening of the 
January term, 1894. He had completed four years of his term 
and about beginning the fifth year with the opening of the Janu- 
ary term, 1898, on the day — January 11 — when he met with an 
accident which terminated his life. 

William F. Bailey served for six years as judge of the seven- 
teenth circuit. He enlisted at the beginning of the war in the 
Thirty-eighth New York Infantry, but in the early spring of 
1862 became captain of Company K, Ninety-fifth New York Vol- 
unteers, serving with McDowell until after the battle of An- 
tietam. Some time after the close of the war — that is, in 1867 — 
he came to Eau Claire, where he has served in a number of 
important positions. 

During his term of service in the seventeenth. Judge Bailey 
sat in several important trials, most notable among which was 
that of the State vs. Elizabeth Russell. In this ease the jury 
rendered a verdict of guilty, but judgment was arrested by 
direction of the Supreme Court. 

The foregoing was not written by Mr. Bailey. 

As the Russell trial is mentioned, he desires to correct a false 
impression pervading a considerable portion of the public, with 
respect to the outcome of that trial. At the suggestion of Mr. 
Frawley and the request of the county board, he appointed 
William Irwin, a celebrated criminal lawyer of St. Paul, to 
assist the district attorney in the prosecution of Mrs. Russell. A 
statute of Wisconsin provided and still provides that in crim- 
inal cases the trial court may obtain the opinion of the Supreme 
Court as to its duty in cases of doubt as to the law. It requires 


that the trial court submit questions to be answered by the Su- 
preme Court certifying the evidence relating thereto. During 
the trial it appeared from the testimony of the district attorney, 
that he had sought to entrap Mrs. Russell, then confined in the 
county jail, and to this end he sent Russ Whipple to the jail to 
represent to her that he was sent by Mr. James, her counsel, to 
obtain the facts within her knowledge; that Mr. James could 
not come in person; that he was going to Chicago on a late 
train that evening, and in order to assure her that he was sent 
by Mr. James, he was to tell her, and did tell her, to call up Mr. 
James by telephone. She called up Mr. James, but instead of 
Mr. James answering, Mr. Frawley was at the other end and 
answered, not disclosing he was not Mr. James, and advised her 
to tell everything to Mr. Whipple. The judge was in doubt as 
to the legal effect of the appointment of Mr. Irwin, he being a 
non-resident of the state and not a member of the Wisconsin 
bar, .and also as to the conduct of the district attorney, and 
hence, in order to save further delay and the expense of a writ 
of error to the Supreme Court, he certified the following ques- 
tions in substance: 

First With reference to the appointment of Mr. Irwin to 
assist the prosecution : Shall the court proceed to judgment and 
sentence upon the verdict ? To which question the Supreme Court 
answered "No." 

Second. The testimony of Mr. Frawley being certified, shall 
tlie court proceed to judgment and sentence upon the verdict in 
view of such conduct? To which question the Supreme Court 
answered "No." That court delivered an opinion severely cen- 
suring the district attorney for his conduct. Thus the trial court 
was instructed not to proceed to judgment and sentence. The 
Supreme Court arrested the judgment and not Judge Bailey. 
Persons who want otherwise than here to satisfy themselves of 
the facts as here given, are referred to the published opinion of 
the Supreme Court found in the Wisconsin reports. 

In spite of the exceedingly arduous duties pertaining to his 
office, the judge found time to make some valuable contributions 
to professional literature in his works entitled "Masters' Lia- 
bilities for Injuries to Servants," and Bailey's "Personal In- 
juries," both of which have met with general approval and large 

The judge was born in Carmel, Putnam county, New York, 
June 20, 1842, the son of Benjamin Bailey, a lawyer who at- 
tained nuich prominence during a quarter century of practice 


at the New York bar. Judge Bailey received his early educa- 
tion at Clavereck Academy in Columbia county, New York, and 
his legal education was obtained in New York. He was admitted 
to the bar at Brooklyn in 1863. His service to the public in- 
cluded three terms as mayor of Eau Claire, one terra as district 
attorney of Eau Claire county, and as judge of the seventeenth 
circuit, the latter covering the years of 1892-97. 

James O'Neill was born in Lisbon, St. Lawrence county. New 
York, September 3, 1847. His parents were Andrew and Mary 
(HoUiston) O'Neill, his father being a farmer by occupation. 
Tracing his ancestors to an early date, it is found that his pater- 
nal grandfather, Andrew O'Neill, was born in Shanes Castle, 
Ireland, September 23, 1766. Emigrating to America about 
1790, he settled at Edwardsburg, Canada, where on February 
18, 1798, he married Jane Armstrong. During October of the 
next year they located at Lisbon, New York, Mr. O'Neill being 
the first settler of that town. Here as a farmer he lived and 

The maternal ancestry was Scotch, Andrew Holliston and 
Mary Lees, the grandparents, coming from the banks of the 
Leader, a branch of the historic Tweed in Berwickshire, Scot- 
land. In the early forties they left their native land, locating 
in Oswegatchie, St. Lawrence county, New York. 

In the district schools of his native state James O'Neill pre- 
pared for the higher branches of learning, entering St. Lawrence 
University in the fall of 1863. Here he spent three years, then 
entered Cornell University where, after spending three years, 
he was graduated in 1871 with the degree of A. B. He obtained 
his legal education in the office of John McNaughton, of Ogdeus- 
burg, and at the Albany Law School, graduating from the latter 
institution in 1873. 

After his admission to the bar at Albany, Mr. O'Neill came 
to Neillsville on a visit to his uncle James. This was in 1873. 
So favorably impressed was he that he decided to locate there 
for the practice of his profession. Opening an office, he continued 
alone for four years, after which, in August, 1877, he formed a 
partnership with H. W. Sheldon, which was terminated with 
the death of Mr. Sheldon in February, 1879. For one year he 
was associated with Mr. Joseph Morley, and in 1890 formed a 
partnership with Spencer M. Marsh, which continued until Mr. 
O'Neill left the profession for the bench, in January, 1898. 

James Wickham, judge of the circuit court for the nine- 
teenth district, is a native son of Wisconsin, having been born 


in Richland county, this state, January 31, 1862, the sou of Pat- 
rick and Catherine (Quigley) Wickham, natives of Ireland. The 
parents of Judge Wickham emigrated to the United States in 
early life, and first located in New York. They removed to Cleve- 
land, Ohio, where they remained four years, then came west to 
Wisconsin, stopping first at Whitewater, thence to Richland 
county, where they arrived in 1859 and engaged in agricultural 
pursuits. Both parents died in 1894. They were progressive 
citizens and held a place of prominence in the community, and 
many times Mr. Wickham was called upon to fill offices of trust. 

Judge Wickham received his preliminary education in the 
l)ublic schools of Richland county and the Richland Center high 
school, which was supplemented by a thorough course in the law 
department of the University of Wisconsin, from which he was 
graduated with the class of 1886 and began practice in August of 
that year at Eau Claire. Prior to his graduating from the law 
department he was engaged for a time in school teaching. After 
his arrival in Eau Claire he was appointed citj' attorney in 1897 
and from 1899 to 1906. From 1889 to 1910 he was engaged in 
the practice of law with Frank R. Farr, under the firm name of 
Wickham & F'arr. He was elected judge of the circuit court in 
1909, assuming the duties of that office January 1, 1910. 

In 1891 he was married to Miss Ida Haskin, daughter of 
Wright Haskin, of Eau Claire. She passed away in 1904. In 1908 
the .iudge married for his second wife Helen Koppelberger, 
(lauuliter of H. B. Koppelberger. His children are James Arthur, 
William E., Catherine Ida and Walter Leo. 


Everything in municipal affairs has its beginning and the 
establishment of the county government by law brought with 
it the inauguration of the county or probate court ; naturally, the 
duties of the judge were very light for a number of years, and 
the pay small, but with the lapse of years the work has grown to 
such an extent as to occupy nearly the whole time of the judge. 
During the last fifty-six years the court has had nine judges, as 
follows : Starting with William Pitt Bartlett, who occupied the 
office from 1858 to 1861, his successors have been Ira Mead, 1862 ; 
John W. Stillman, 1863-65; H. W. Barnes, 1866-68; George C. 
Teall, 1869-73 ; Arthus C. EUis, 1874-80 ; George C. Teall, 1881-86 ; 
A. C. Larson assumed the duties of the office in 1887 and was 
succeeded by ilartin B. Hubbard, who took charge in 1897. He 


remained one term of four years and was succeeded by the pres- 
ent encumbent, George L. Blum, who was first elected in 1901. 

William Pitt Bartlett, nestor of the bar of Eau Claire county, 
was born at Minot, Maine, September 13, 1829. His early educa- 
tional opportunities were meager, but he obtained a teacher's 
certificate at the age of fifteen years. He paid his way through 
the academies at Farmington and Bloomfield and at the age of 
twenty years entered Waterville College and was graduated in 
1853. He was elected principal of the Hallowell (Maine) Acad- 
emy and served in that capacity until he resigned in 1855, hav- 
ing in the meantime begun to study law. Being of weak physique, 
it was deemed advisable to seek more favorable climatic influ- 
ences, and he located at Watertown, Wis., where he taught school 
for six months and continued the study of law. He was admitted 
to practice in the spring of 1856, and the following year moved 
to Eau Claire, Wis., where he has since resided. He was the first 
lawyer to locate in Eau Claire county. He is the nestor of the 
school board of Eau Claire; has always taken great interest in 
educational matters, and for many years was a member of and 
president of the board of regents of the University of Wisconsin. 
He was elected district attorney in 1859, and during his term of 
office became a member of the legislature. In the spring of 1860 
he was appointed judge of Eau Claire county by Governor Ran- 
dall, and in 1861 and 1863 was again elected district attorney. In 
1872 he was again elected a member of the legislature, in 1874 
appointed register of the United States land office by President 
Grant, and re-appointed in 1878 by President Hayes. From 1857 
to 1872 Mr. Bartlett practiced by himself, but in the latter year 
he formed a partnership with H. H. Ilayden, which, under the 
firm name of Bartlett & Hayden, became one of the strongest 
law firms in Wisconsin. In 1884 this partnership was dissolved 
and since then Mr. Bartlett has practiced by himself. 

Col. Edward M. Bartlett came to Dead Lake Prairie, in Dunn 
county, later town of Frankfort, Pepin county, in 1855, and lived 
there two winters and in the southern part of the state one win- 
ter. In 1858 he settled in Dunn county, residing in Dunnville 
and Menomonie until October, 1862. He was commissioned lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the Thirtieth Wisconsin Infantry in 1864, serving 
until the close of the war. He was born in the town of Victor, 
Cayiiga county. New York, August 3, 1839, came to Wisconsin 
when sixteen years old, and while at East Troy studied law in 
the office of Henry Cousins, and was admitted to the bar in 1856, 
and settled at Eau Claire in 1866, practicing his profession for 


many years. He was for five years register of the United States 
land office, and at one time city attorney of Eau Claire. For 
several years he was municipal judge of the city of Eau Claire. 

Milton D. Bartlett was born in the town of Victory, Cayuga 
county, New York, November 3, 1833, and lived in Auburn, 
N. Y., after he was twelve years old until the spring of 1852, 
when he came to Wisconsin, locating in East Troy, "Walworth 
county. In October, 1852, he returned east, and in the spring of 
1854 came to Delavan, remaining there one year. Was then for 
one year at East Troy, and in the spring of 1856 moved to 
Dunn county, where he lived until the spring of 1860, when he 
went to Durand, remaining there until the winter of 1865-66. 
He then went to Minneapolis, and in 1870 came to Eau Claire. 
He studied law in Auburn and Syracuse, New York, and prac- 
ticed at Delavan, discontinuing it for a short time while he was 
engaged in fanning. He resumed the practice in 1859, and at one 
time was county judge for Pepin county, resigning the position 
to go to the legislature, having been elected to the state senate 
in 1861. 

J. F. Ellis was born in Jerusalem, Yates county. New York, 
June 5, 1843. He came to Eau Claire in 1866 and studied law. 
He began his practice in 1870. Was county superintendent of 
schools for two years, and for six years a member of the school 

Arthur C. Ellis came to Eau Claire in 1861, and in May of 
that year enlisted in the Sixth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, 
serving until 1867, when he was mustered out. He was wounded 
at the battle of South Mountain in 1863 and transferred to the 
reserve corps. He was lieutenant of Company B, and was with 
Sheridan in Louisiana after tlie war. In the fall of 1867 he 
returned to Eau Claire and practiced law from 1870 to 1880. 
Was county judge for seven years prior to his resignation in the 
fall of 1880, when he became connected with the Northwestern 
Lumber Company. He was born in Licking, near Granville, 
Ohio, September 17, 1843, and moved to Aurora, 111., in 1856., 
remaining there until he came to Eau Claire. 

Michael Griffin was born in county Claire, Ireland, September 
9, 1842. In 1847 his parents emigrated to America, and after 
a short time spent in Canada in 1851, they moved to Hudson, 
Summit county, Ohio, where the boy attended the common 
schools. In 1856 the family moved to Wisconsin, locating in 
Newport. Sauk county, where he continued his studies in the 
district school. He enlisted at the age of nineteen, September 11, 


1861, in what became Company E of the Twelfth Wisconsin Vol- 
unteer Infantry. He was with the rest of the company mustered 
into the United States service November 5, 1861, and was ap- 
pointed sergeant the same day. January 11, 1862, the regiment 
left Wisconsin, being ordered to Fort Leavenworth. The regi- 
ment finally joined Grant in the south and participated in many 
engagements. At the battle of Bald Hill, Atlanta, Ga., July 21, 
1864, Mr. Griffin was wounded in a charge on the enemy. He 
was ordered to the hospital, and though suffering severe pain, 
assisted the surgeons in tending to the more seriously wounded. 
He was commissioned second lieutenant February 11, 1865, and 
mustered as such on March 30 following. He was commissioned 
first lieutenant July 5, 1865. He was mustered out of the service 
July 16, 1865, on account of the close of the war. He then 
returned to Newport, and during the following fall began read- 
ing law in the office of Jonathan Bowman, at Kilbourn City, Wis. 
He was admitted to the bar of the circuit court at Portage 
City, May 19, 1868, and entered on the practice of his profession 
at Kilbourn City, where he resided until 1876. In addition to his 
professional duties, from 1871 to 1876 he acted as cashier of the 
bank of Kilbourn. In 1875 he was elected to the assembly from 
the first district of Columbia county. At the close of the session 
of 1876 he moved to Eau Claire, where he became actively en- 
gaged in the practice of law. He was appointed city attorney in 
1878, and reappointed in 1879 and in 1880. In 1879 he was elected 
state senator from the thirteenth senatorial district, comprising 
the counties of Dunn, Eau Claire and Pierce. 

In 1889 he was appointed by Governor W. D. Hoard quarter- 
master general of the state. During the two years he occupied 
that position the Wisconsin rifle range for the militia was estab- 
lished at Camp Douglas, and out of the first appropriation made 
by the state he purchased the land and directed the construction 
of suitable buildings for that purpose. 

General Griffin was an active member of the Grand Army 
of the Republic and occupied many positions of trust in that 
body. He served several times as post commander, and two years 
served as judge advocate of the department of Wisconsin. In 
February, 1887, he was elected department commander, and 
served one year. He was a member of the Wisconsin Command- 
ery, Milwaukee Order of the Loyal Legion, also of the com- 
mandery, chapter and blue lodge of the Masonic fraternity. 
Knights of Pythias and Royal Arcanum. 

In the early fall of 1894 the death of George B. Shaw left 


his congressional district without a representative. General Grif- 
fin yielded to the request of his friends and agreed to accept 
the nomination. His name was brovight before the convention 
held at Eau Claire on October 3, 1894, and on the first baUot he 
was chosen to lead the party to victory ; was re-nominated in 
1896 and served on committee on military affairs in 54th and 
55th congresses. As a man of business Mr. GrifSn displayed the 
same ability as he did in his profession, and was successful. 
He was interested in the Lea Ingram Lumber Company, of Iron 
River; the Eau Claire Grocery Company, and the Eau Claire 
National Bank. 

Henry H. Hayden. Among the successful and prominent 
lawyers of Wisconsin for many years was H. II. Hayden. He 
was born in Seheuectady, N. Y., May 3, 1841. His father, Edwin 
S. Hayden, a Connecticut Yankee, was a mechanic and farmer; 
his mother, Matilda Hayden, nee Joyce, was of Dutch ancestry 
and a daughter of a survivor of the Mohawk massacre. Raised 
on a farm, his boyhood was uneventful. After obtaining a good 
common school education at Crystal Lake, 111., he became a stu- 
dent in the law office of M. L. Joslyn, at Woodstock, 111. His 
legal studies were continued in Oshkosh, Wis., in the office of 
Jackson & Halsey and of Felker & Weisbrod. He was admitted 
to the bar in September, 1871, and on January 1, 1872, located 
in Eau Claire, where he became associated with William Pitt 
Bartlett under the firm name of Bartlett & Hayden. Mr. Hay- 
den soon demonstrated his ability in liis profession, and in a short 
time, through close application and indefatigable energy, he 
became one of the leaders of the bar m the state. After the 
partnership of Bartlett & Hayden had continued for fourteen 
years it was dissolved, and Mr. Hayden shortly thereafter formed 
an association with T. F. Frawley, which continued for three 
years. He next admitted R. H. Start into his business, form- 
ing the firm of Hayden & Stai't. This partnership continued 
two years, and from that time Mr. Hayden practiced alone. He 
was engaged in many cases of more than local importance, and 
probably argued as many cases before the higher courts as any 
member of the bar in the state, outside of a few members of 
the Milwaukee bar. His knowledge of the law, his energy and 
industry, his tact and force before judge and jury, earned him 
a position in the front rank of a small body of men who, collec- 
tively, were the ablest lawyers in the state. His success was 
largely attributed to the care with which he prepared his cases 
before trial and to the conscientious manner in wliich he treated 


his clients, always endeavoring to avoid litigation wlieu just 
settlement eould be obtained out of court. 

Although his time was almost entirely absorbed by his pro- 
fession, Mr. Hayden became largely interested in manufacturing 
enterprises and financial institutions, and was the vice president 
of the bank of Eau Claire. He served in the war of the rebellion 
as sergeant in Company II, Thirty-Sixth Illinois Volunteer 

Mr. Hayden was twice married. His first wife was Florence 
Slocum, by whom he had two daughters, Avis and Georgie. On 
March 18, 1885, he was again married to Alice W. Ellis. In the 
death of Mr. Hayden, which occurred January 4, 1903, the bar lost 
one of its brightest legal minds, and the city, one of its most 
influential and highly respected citizens. 

Lewis R. Larson was born near Bergen, Norway, September 
1, 1849, and came with his parents to Columbus in the spring 
of 1850. He was educated in the public schools of Columbus 
and at the Wisconsin University at Madison, graduating from 
the latter institution in the class of 1872. He read law in the 
office of A. G. Cook, of Columbus, and was admitted to the bar 
May 20, 1874, at Portage, and May 28, 1880, to practice in the 
supreme court. He remained in the office of A. G. Cook until 
June 14, 1875, when he came to Eau Claire and began practice 
alone. He was city attorney from April, 1877, to April, 1878, 
when he was elected municipal judge for a term of four years. 
He subsequently moved to Minneapolis, practicing his profession 
there. He died there in August, 1914. 

Levi E. Latimer was born in the town of Bloomfield, near 
Hartford, Conn., April 12, 1838, and lived there until 1858, when 
he went to La Porte, Ind., and studied law. He came to Eau 
Claire June, 1860, and engaged in the practice of law until 1872, 
when he became municipal judge, which office he held for six 
years. He also held various town offices, and in 1878 engaged 
in the real estate business. He subseciuently moved to Chicago, 
where he died in 1909 or 1910. 

Samuel W. McCaslin was born at Neillsburg, Pa., November 
3, 1844, and lived there until 1865, when he went to Painesville, 
Ohio. He read law, was admitted to the bar and began prac- 
ticing in September, 1866. In 1868 he removed to St. Charles, 
Winona county, ]\Iinnesota, where he remained until he came to 
Eau Claire in 1872. 

Alexander Meggett was born in Glasgow, Scotland, March 
26, 1824, and came to America with his parents when a little over 


three years old. They settled at Uxbridge, Mass., living there 
until 181^6 or 1837, when they removed to Chicopee Falls, town of 
Springfield, Mass., where they resided until 1841, in which year 
they located at Slaterville, R. I. Mr. Meggett worked in cotton 
manufactories until he was nineteen, when he commenced to edu- 
cate himself. At Wilbraham Academy, Wilbraham, Mass., and at 
Washington, Conn., he prepared himself for the Middleton Uni- 
versity. He spent three years in that institution in the sciences, 
two years in belle letters and one year in mathematics. In the 
winter of 1847-48 he removed to Pawtucket, Mass., and taught in 
the public schools for five years. He studied law in 1851-52 while 
engaged in teaching with Hon. C. B. Farnesworth, of Pawtucket, 
and completed his legal studies the year following with Hon. 
Thomas A. Jenckes, of the city of Providence, and was admitted 
to the bar in March, 1853, and commenced practice at Pawtucket, 
R. I., and practiced at Providence one year prior to coming west 
in May, 1857. In June, 1857, he visited Eau Claire and perma- 
nently located here in July following, when he commenced the 
practice of his profession. During the winter of 1857-58 he was 
editor of the Eau Claire Times. He was the second lawyer to 
settle in Eau Claire county. He held the offices of town super- 
intendent of schools and city attorney, and was also at one time 
candidate for judge of the district. 

Mr. Meggett was doubtless engaged in more important crimi- 
nal cases than any other lawyer in this section of the state, having 
been either sole or leading counsel in the following cases : State 
vs. Nethers, Fritz, Noble, Murray, Moseby, Mrs. Wheeler and 
Carter, Davy, Jump and Muzzy, besides many cases of homicide 
in various degrees and other important cases, both criminal and 
civil. His untiring zeal for his client's cause, his professional 
learning and ability, and his peculiar forcibleness and success 
in jury trials, both criminal and civil, justly merited him that 
prominence which was so generously accorded him by members 
of his own profession as well as by others. 

Levi M. Vilas, formerly of the Eau Claire bar, and at the 
time of his death judge of the district court of Ramsey county, 
Minnesota, was born February 17, 1844, at Chelsea, Orange 
county, Vermont. He completed his general education in the 
University of Wisconsin, from which he was graduated in 1863. 
His graduation from the Albany law school occurred in 1864, 
in which year he was admitted to the bar in New York. Return- 
ing to Madison, he engaged with his brother, William P., in the 
practice of the law for about one year, after which he went into 


the quartermaster's department of the army as c-hief clerk, 
remaining in that position two years. In 1868 he removed to Eau 
Claire, Wis., where he built up and maintained a large practice. 
He was elected to the office of city attorney in 1872, and mayor 
in 1876 ; district attorney in 1877 and 1879. Mr. Vilas removed 
from Eau Claire to St. Paul, Minn., in June, 1887. In less than 
two years after becoming a resident of St. Paul he was selected 
by the governor for judge of the district court of Ramsey county, 
which appointment was accepted and the duties of the oifice en- 
tered upon. But the worthy recipient of that honor was not 
long permitted to hold the scales of justice ; disease even at the 
time he left Wisconsin had laid hold of him, and on August 25, 
1889, he passed away at the family home at Madison. 

Levi M. Vilas was aii excellent lawyer. His standing in the 
profession was such as any member of the bar might envy ; such 
as cannot be reached otherwise than by diligent application of 
a trained and strong mind. His manner of expression was 
marked ; his style was his own — clear, terse and strong. His 
voice was strong, but musical. His appearance was prepossess- 
ing and indicated great strength. 

James F. Salisbury came to Wisconsin, locating at Hudson 
in 1876, remaining there one year. He came to Eau Claire and 
was associated with Joseph F. Ellis in the practice of law. He 
was born in Brockport, Monroe county, New York, November 7, 
1849. J. F. Salisbury was educated in St. Paul, Minn., and at 
the Michigan State University, graduating from the latter insti- 
tution in 1871. He was admitted to the bar in 1871 and com- 
menced practice at St. Paul. 

Ira B. Bradford, a member of the Eau Claire county bar, lias 
practiced law at Augusta since 1873. He was born in the town 
of Fulton, Rock county, Wisconsin, June 24, 1851. He was edu- 
cated in the academies and seminaries of New Hampshire, and 
in the fall of 1869 went to Edinboro, Pa., and entered upon the 
study of law. In the fall of 1871 he returned to New Hampshire 
and continued his studies at Newport until the summer of 1872, 
when he went again to Edinboro. In February, 1873, he reached 
Janesville, Wis., and entered the law office of Cassoday & Car- 
penter as a student. In March, 1873, he was admitted to the 
bar at Monroe and immediately went to Augusta. 

Mr. Bradford was the first mayor of Augusta. In 1879 and 
1881 he was a member of the assembly, and served as speaker 
during the latter year. 


Eosiel D. Campbell was born in LaFayette, Onondago county, 
New York, Feliruary 15, 1810. Came to Beloit, Wis., in 1838, 
resided there for some years, then went to Lee county, Illinois, 
where he resided for a time, then went to Boone county, Illinois, 
for two years, and in October, 1861 enlisted in Company I, Forty- 
sixth Regiment, Illinois Volunteer Infantry. After the battle of 
Ft. Donelson he was promoted to captain, receiving his commis- 
sion just before the battle of Pittsburg Landing. In the fall of 
1862 he resigned and came to "Waterloo, Wis., where he resided 
until 1867, when he located in the town of Ludington, Eau Claire 
county, and in 1869 moved into Augusta. He served as president 
of the village and also held the office of court commissioner, 
and for several years was justice of the peace. Mr. Campbell was 
admitted to practice in the territory of Wisconsin in 1842, and 
was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1843. 

Judson C. Crawford was born in Ulysses, Tompkins county. 
New York, April 26, 1823 ; lived there until he came to Wiscon- 
sin in the fall of 1847. He taught school at Sheboygan and two 
years at Waupun, and one year at Ceresco. Afterward for many 
years he was engaged in the general missionary work, being a 
regularly ordained minister of the LTniversalist Church. In 
March, 1875, he settled in Augusta and engaged in the practice 
of law. 

Thomas F. Frawley was born near Troy, N. Y., March 6, 1851. 
His parents, Thomas and Honora (Hogan) Frawley, were natives 
of Ireland, and possessed such attainments of mind and heart as 
especially fitted them to mould the character of their children. 
The father was studious, thoughtful, industrious, independent and 
energetic, and the mother of kindly, cheerful and benevolent 
disposition, being a woman of deep religious convictions. The 
family consisted of seven sons and two daughters, all of whom 
were thoroughly educated. It is quite a remarkable fact that 
six of the sons graduated from the University of Wisconsin and 
that from 1870 to 1896 some member of the family was a student 
at that institution. 

A short time after the birth of Thomas F. Frawley, the family 
moved to Wisconsin and settled upon a farm in the tovra of Ver- 
mont, Kane county, and there he resided until 1875. Until he 
was seventeen years of age the boy assisted in the cultivation of 
the farm, attending district school during the winter months. 
For two terms he was a student at the Albion Academy in Dane 
county, and in the spring of 1872 entered the University of Wis- 


t'onsin. Prom October, 1873, until June, 1874, he taught school 
at Highland and Dodgeville, but during that period he continued 
his studies in the university and was graduated therefrom in 
1875, having largely paid the expenses of his collegiate education 
with the money he earned as a teacher. As a university student 
lie was an acknowledged leader in debate, being a participant 
in the joint oratorical contest of 1874. 

For five years after his graduation Mr. Frawley served as 
principal of the high school in Eau Claire. During this period 
he commenced the study of his profession and formed the nucleus 
of his law library, which was considered one of the most complete 
private collections in the state. Upon his admission to the bar 
in 1880 he abandoned the educational field and earnestly assumed 
the duties of his new profession. During the first few years of 
his career he conducted the defence of many important criminal 
cases. Among those being best known may be mentioned that 
growing out of the lynching of Olson in Trempealeau county in 
1889. In later years he gave most of his attention to civil cases, 
especially those involving important question of corporation law. 

Mr. Frawley was a democrat of high standing. In 1888 he 
served as a delegate to the National Democratic Convention held 
in St. Louis. In 1892, upon the delivery of his telling speech 
before the state convention, the old ticket was nominated for re- 
election. For many years prior to 1896 Mr. Frawley was a mem- 
ber of the Democratic State Central Committee. In June of that 
year he was chosen both temporary and permanent chairman of 
the state convention, which convened in Milwaukee for the pur- 
pose of selecting delegates to the national convention called to 
meet in Chicago. Mr. Frawley was for ten years a member and 
for several terms president of the Common Council of Eau Claire. 
Interested in educational matters, he was for many years a 
member of the Board of Education, and in that capacity did 
much to improve the school system of the city. He was financially 
and professionally interested in several corporations, being a 
stockholder and director of the Chippewa Valley Bank, and stock- 
holder and attorney for the Eau Claire Light & Power Company, 
in addition to holding similar relations to other corporations. 

On the sixth day of August, 1877, Mr. Frawley was married 
to Lydia A., daughter of Joseph Lawler, one of the early settlers 
of Eau Claire, and one of its most highly respected citizens. They 
had one son, Thomas F. Frawley, Jr., who is now a practicing 
attorney in Eau Claire. During the many years that Mr. Fraw- 
ley was a member of the legal profession he formed several eon- 


neetions. From 1881 to 1884 he was of the firm of Frawley, Hen- 
tirix & Brool-.s; from 1884 to 1888 he practiced alone; the follow- 
ing year his brother, W. H. Frawley, was his partner, and from 
August, 1889, to August, 1890, he was associated with H. H. 
Hayden as a member of the firm of Hayden & Frawley. From 
August, 1890, until September, 1897, Mr. Frawley had no part- 
ner, but at the latter date the firm of Frawley, Bundy & Wilcox 
was formed. The death of Mr. Frawley occurred in 1902. 

George Clinton Teall was born in Seneca county. New York, 
May 20, 1840, and at the age of twelve removed with his parents 
to Geneva, N. Y., where he was principally educated. At the age 
of eighteen he entered Hobart College, in which he was a mem- 
ber of the class of 1862. His father, G. C. P. Teall, was a son of 
Nathan Teall, whose father was one of three political fugitives 
from the oppression of Switzerland, who settled in Connecticut 
about 1730. His grandfather, Nathan Teall, was a soldier in the 
Revolutionary War under General Knox. In 1792 this grand- 
father settled in Newtown, N. Y., which was afterward named 
Elmira. On the side of his father's mother the ancestors were 
among the Pilgrim Fathers who landed from the "Mayflower" 
at Plymouth in 1620, and her father was a colonel in the Revolu- 
tionary War. Mr. Teall studied law at Rochester, N. Y., in 
1862-3-4 in the office of Hon. Theron R. Strong and Hon. Alfred 
G. Mudge, and also attended a course of lectures in the winter 
of 1863-4 at Rochester. In February, 1866, he came to Eau Claire 
with his family, and in April, 1867, was elected justice of the 
peace, and in January, 1868, was appointed county judge by 
Governor Fairchild. In the spring of 1869 he was elected his 
own successor and administered that office until January, 1874. 
He was from 1866 for several years interested in the mercantile 
firm of George C. Teall & Co., and from 1868 to 1873 Was one of 
the firm of William A. Teall & Co., general insurance agents. He 
was admitted to the bar in Wisconsin at Milwaukee in January, 
1872, and soon afterward to the supreme court and the United 
States courts at Madison. In 1873 he formed a partnership with 
Alexander Meggett and was a member of that law firm until the 
spring of 1881, when the firm was dissolved. In December, 1880, 
he was again appointed count}' judge by Governor Smith, and in 
1881 was re-elected without opposition for the term ending 
January, 1886. 

Hon. Henry Cousins (deceased). Among the names of the 
strong men who helped to make the Eau Claire bar famous stands 
that of Hon. Henry Cousins. From early boyhood to the day of 


his death his character was never tarnished by a blot. Although 
quiet and unassuming, he became widely known in legal, political 
and social circles as a man to be trusted in all relations of life. 
His demise called forth the most glowing tributes and eulogies 
that were ever bestowed on a deceased member of the Eau Claire 
bar by members of that association. He was born in Mayville, 
Chautauqua county, New York, on February 7, 1826, and with 
his parents, John and Mary Cousins, removed to Dover, Cuyahoga 
county, Ohio, in the spring of 1837, where, until the age of fif- 
teen years, he had the advantage of such schools as the newly 
settled district afforded. For two years he was employed as a 
clerk in a dry goods store, but the confinement being somewhat 
irksome he sought a wider field of labor, and, as expressed in 
his own peculiar diction, he "went to work on his father's farm, 
where he had the reputation of taking more time to do less work 
than any other boy in the neighborhood." At this time a taste 
for study and general reading was developed wdiich was stimu- 
lated and directed by a Baptist clergyman of Dover, who kindly 
placed his library and advice at his command. Thereafter he 
commenced the study of law at Elyria, Ohio, in the office of J. D. 
Benedict, and in 1848, when twenty-two years old, was admitted 
to practice by the supreme court of the state. In 1848 he became 
interested in the anti-slavery discussion which convulsed the 
country, espoused the advance opinions on that subject, having 
the confidence of such men as Giddings and the Wades of that 
state, and was known as an abolitionist of the voting school, 
when the term implied more of approbrium than honor. 

A letter from the Hon. Joshua R. Giddings, then in Congress, 
relative to his candidacy for re-election was a greatly cherished 
memento of this beginning of Mr. Cousins' political activities. 

In 1850 he came to Wisconsin and entered on the practice of 
his profession at East Troy, Walworth county; was elected clerk 
of the court in 1854 and held office for six consective years. 
While in East Troy a warm and confidential friendship sprang 
up between the young attorney and Judge John F. Potter — - 
Bowie Knife Potter — and he attended to many legal matters for 
the judge during the period he was in Washington. When Judge 
Prior, of Virginia, challenged Judge Potter to a duel, the latter, 
before public announcement of the matter was made, returned 
to East Troy for the purpose of putting his affairs in order. To 
Mr. Cousins he made known his ideas as to how pending litiga- 
tion was to be handled. Many matters of a confidential nature 
were entrusted to the younger man, and in explanation shortly 




before the judge 's return to Washington, while the two men were 
occupying the same room as a sleeping apartment, the judge an- 
nounced he had received a challenge just before his departure 
from Washington and that his trip was to prepare for what might 
happen. Mr. Cousins tried to dissuade him from accepting the 
challenge, but was met with the statement, "No, by God, I have 
accepted, and if I ever get Judge Prior on the field I will kill 
him if I can." But the outcome of this challenge is a matter 
of historj'. 

On the outbreak of the War of the Rebellion he received a 
provisional commission authorizing him to recruit a company, 
which, on its acceptance by the United States, would entitle him 
to a captain's commission. The company was recruited, offered 
to the government, and every man on the rolls, with the exception 
of Captain Cousins, passed a physical examination. After his 
rejection by the army surgeons he devoted his labors, until the 
close of hostilities, to assisting and aiding others in recruiting 
and in fostering loyal sentiment among the people. 

His father, John Cousins, as a boy of 14, served with Mae- 
donough at Lake Champlain, and the grandfather, a sea captain 
previous to the Revolutionary War, was issued letters of marque 
by Congress and assisted in naval operations. 

In 1866 he located in Eau Claire. In 1867 was elected district 
attorney and re-elected in 1869 ; was elected to the assembly in 
1871 without opposition, and bore an honorable part in the Dells 
improvement struggle, and was thereafter alderman for the Third 
Ward in this city for two years. He was also a member of the 
county board of supervisors. 

In consequence of failing health in 1881 he accepted the posi- 
tion of register of the United States land office in Arizona, but 
in 1883 returned to Eau Claire, having voluntarily resigned the 
office. In 1885 he was again elected district attorney for Eau 
Claire county, and in 1887 declined nomination, thus closing his 
official career. After several weeks of sickness he departed this 
life late in the afternoon of Thursday, October 25, 1888, at the 
age of sixty-five years, eight months and eighteen days. While 
taking no place in religious controversy, nor holding dogmatic 
theology in high esteem, he held as supremest truth the fact of 
a Creator, Ruler and Father of all mankind, and that at some 
period, somewhere in the time to come, would be accomplished 
the final exaltation of the race. 

As a politician, while deeming principle above party, and while 
indulging in free criticism of its policies, he held to the last pro- 


found regard for the party he believed had wrought well for the 
people, and revered with all the force of his nature the stead- 
fastness of those men Avho strove for the extinction of chattel 
slavery and the equality of all men before the law. As a lawyer 
he came to the profession believing the machinery of the law 
should be so used as to ameliorate conditions, protect society and 
uphold the right. 

At the exercises of the Eau Claire Bar Association held in 
Circuit Court January 15, 1889, many tributes of respect were 
paid to his memory. The resolutions of the committee made 
special mention of the high esteem of his colleagues for "his ripe 
attainments through mastery of details, conscientious practice 
and large experience in his profession ; for his uniform recogni- 
tion of courtesies due to the bench and the bar, and for his great 
veneration for the law as an ample shield of protection for the 
citizens against encroachments of wrong." A special mention 
was made to the helping hand he was always ready to extend to 
the young practitioner. 

Mr. Cousins had a keen appreciation of wit and a never fail- 
ing stock of stories which illustrated his points, either in arguing 
before a jury or in making a political address. In the use of 
sarcasm he was an adept, but, as one fellow practitioner stated, 
"Henry's shafts, though telling and eifective, are so tempered 
as not to sting and hurt." To this day some of his former asso- 
ciates repeat his stories. 

Mr. Cousins was one of those who remain cool and collected 
when most people are in a state of great excitement. One gen- 
tleman described his entrance into Mr. Cousins' office, then in the 
old Music Hall Building, which was on fire. Mr. Cousins sat at 
his desk writing. The excited friend dashed in, crying out, 
"The building is on fire. What shall I do first?" Mr. Cousins 
continued his writing without looking up until the paragraph was 
finished, then calmly blotting it, he glanced up and replied, 
"Well, under the circumstances I would suggest you better get a 
pail of water." When provocation appeared to demand the use 
of emphatic language, Mr. Cousins was not found wanting, but 
as a friend says, "However emphatic his expressions are, they 
are nevertheless picturesque and artistic." 

January 21, 1861, he married Louise, daughter of Otis and 
Julia (Corbin) Preston, the former a native of Massachusetts 
and the latter of Ohio, but of French descent. Mrs. Cousins was 
born October 26, 1840, in White Pigeon, Mich. She is a culti- 


vated, broadiuiiided woman, and interested in social and educa- 
tional progress. She has two children. 

John E. Stillman settled in Eau Claire in its earliest days. He 
was the first teacher in the first public school. The building 
was erected in the village of Eau Claire in the winter of 1856-57. 
It was of green, rough boards, located on what is now Barstow 
street, near Grand avenue. East, and in dimension was 16 by 24 
feet. As schoolmaster Mr. Stillman was succeeded the following 
summer by Miss Mary Arnold. At that time there were fifteen 
pupils. Later Mr. Stillman engaged in the practice of law. 
Served as county judge from 1863 to 1865. 

In 1860 he married Miss Mary Lashier, of Fall River, Wis., to 
whom there were born three sons and two daughters. In 1872 
he was practicing law under the firm name of Stillman & Ed- 
wards. In 1873, on account of ill health, he removed to Florida, 
where, with other Eau Claire men, he helped establish the town 
of Orange City. In 1882 Mr. Stillman moved to Washington, 
D. C, where he resided for one year, then returning to Orange 
City. He died in 1883. 

Horace W. Barnes was born in the town of Colesville, Broome 
county. New York, in 1818. His boyhood was spent in the family 
of an uncle who settled in a dense beech and maple forest in 
Medina county, Ohio, where he lived a life of constant toil, with- 
out one day's schooling until his majority, and Shakespeare's 
line would then forcibly apply to the youthful Buckeye : 

"This boy is forest-born, and hath been tutored in the rudi- 
ments of many desperate studies." 

How many men famous in American history have laid the 
superstructure of their education and built up an honorable 
name from such rough materials as poverty and the adverse cir- 
cumstances that pioneer life always impose ! There seems to have 
been something inspiring in the grand old woods where the 
early days of many of our most distinguished men first saw the 
light; and in overcoming the many natural obstacles always 
encountered in new districts, high aspirations and a determina- 
tion to achieve grander results take possession of the hardy 
backwoodsman and frequently leads to victory, honor and 

These feelings inspired Mr. Barnes, and with indomitable 
energy he set himself to earn the means to educate himself. By 
the most rigid economy and assiduous attention to his studies, 
he acquired a good English and mathematical education and con- 


siderable proficiency in the classics at Oberlin Institute, Ohio, 
acquisitions that he utilized in teaching and surveying until 
1852, when he commenced the study and practice of law in which 
he soon won distinction as a sound legal adviser and laborious 
faithful advocate. 

As a pleader, Mr. Barnes displayed qualities which, if not 
always insuring his own success, were well calculated to quench 
the ardor and paralyze the force of his adversary. 

Carefully noting, as the cause proceeded, the points which 
his antagonist intended to make, he would anticipate him and 
tell the court and jury precisely what his opponent would say, 
frequently using the exact language in which it would be clothed, 
and emasculating the argument of all points of power before it 
was uttered. He felt defeat intensely and seemed to suffer even 
more than his client the loss incurred by any want of skill or 
foresight in managing a suit, and hence in all civil suits was 
wary and cautious, always exacting a full, impartial statement 
of the case from his client before taking it, and not then unless 
the evidence, justice and a reasonable prospect of success jus- 
tified it. 

In serving the public, no matter in what capacity, his industry 
and perseverance Avere untiring, and he shares with Mr. Thorp 
the honor of exposing frauds in the accounts of the Eau Claire 
county treasurer and of restoring the credit of the county. 

Mr. Barnes came to Eau Claire in 1858 and was elected district 
attorney the next year, 1859, and county judge in 1865; was a 
member of the legislature in 1861 and 1867. In politics, was a 
steadfast republican, and during the war zealous and active in 
carrying forward any and every measure for its prosecution. 

In his friendship he utterly ignored position or caste, and 
wherever he found what he considered a true man, he was his 
friend, but scorned obsequious or patronizing airs, and was some- 
times so impolitic as to prefer blunt honesty to assumed gentility. 
In 1872 he removed to Oswego, Kans., with his family, where he 
now resides in the practice of his profession. 

Abel Davis, who was one of the early settlers of Eau Claire, 
was born January 16, 1842, in the town of New Portland, Maine. 
He spent his early life on a farm, receiving a common school 
education, and in January, 1862, enlisted in the Fourth Maine 
Battery, serving until August 9, 1862, when he was wounded at 
the battle of Cedar Mountain, for which he received his honorable 
discharge. Returning home he resumed his former occupation, 
at which he worked until the spring of 1868, when he came to 


Eau Claire, Wis., and from tliat time until 1872 labored in the 
saw mills and woods. In the last named year he commenced the 
study of law in the office of J. F. Ellis and later entered the law 
department of the Wisconsin State University, from M'hieh he 
graduated in 1874. Returning to Eau Claire he engaged in prac- 
tice with J. F. Ellis, remaining in that firm for five years, when, 
on account of ill health, he retired from active practice and re- 
turned to Maine in 1888. He resumed the practice of law in 
Pittstield, JMaine, where lie died on October 12, 1905. 

Loren Edwards, formerly a prominent attorney of Eau Claire 
and now a resident of Oconomowoe, this state, was born in Erie 
county, Pennsylvania, on September 7, 1843, the son of David 
and Margaret Edwards. His father was born in New Haven, 
Conn., and of the same family ancestors as Jonathan Edwards. 

Loren Edwards received his early education in Erie countj', 
Pennsylvania, where he resided until 1865. He attended the 
Waterford Academy there, supplementing that with a course in 
the Lawrence University, Wisconsin, and was graduated with the 
first class in the Law Department of tlie State L'niversity at 
Madison, after which he studied law for a time in the office of 
Gregory & Pinney in Madison. In 1871 he removed to Sacra- 
mento, Cal., and practiced law there for two years, then came to 
Eau Claire and practiced until 1878, thence to Milwaukee, where 
he continued until 1881, and from that date until 1886 he prac- 
ticed in Allegany county. New York. He went from there to 
Kansas, where he practiced for ten years and in the meantime 
served as County Judge of Barber county. In 1896 he moved to 
Oconomowoe where he has since resided, and enjoys a lucrative 
business. He was admitted to practice in the Supreme courts of 
Wisconsin, California, New York and Kansas, and to the United 
States Circuit courts in Wisconsin. With the exception of his 
partnership relations with Mr. Stillman, of Eau Claire, and with 
Mr. Westover, in Oconomowoe, he has practiced alone, and while 
in Eau Claire he held the office of District Attorney, and for some 
time was Municipal Judge of the Western District of Waukesha 
county, this state. He served in the United States Navy during 
the civil war, and is a bachelor, a Mason and a republican. 

Andrew Judson Sutherland, one of the well known lawyers 
of Eau Claire, is a native son of Wisconsin, having been born 
in London, Dane county, this state, April 28, 1856. His parents, 
Andrew and Catherine (Mc Vicar) Sutherland, who were natives 
of New Brunswick, Canada, settled in Eau Claire county in 1856, 
the same year our sub.ject was born, and located in the town of 


Union, where the father purchased 240 acres of wild land, which 
he cleared and improved, making one of the banner farms of the 
township. He lived to the ripe age of 87 years, and died in 1909. 
His widow, mother of our subject, is now (1914) still living at 
the age of 90 years. They reared a family of nine children as 
follows: Christinia, married Angus McVicar; Peter, George, 
Charles, John, Andrew J., Flora M. (became the wife of Austin 
H. Langdell), Margaret and Neal Sutherland. 

Mr. Sutherland was reared on the homestead farm, spending 
his boyhood days in much the same way as do most farmer boys, 
attending the district school and assisting in the farm work. 
Deciding to enter upon the career of a lawyer, he entered the 
law department of the State University, at Madison, and was 
graduated with the class of 1884. Soon after his graduation he 
opened an office in Eau Claire for the practice of his profession, 
in which he has since successfully continued. 

On November 30, 1884, Mr. Sutherland married Mary Brown, 

daughter of Henry and (Baker) Brown, of Cambia county, 

Pennsylvania, and has four children, Mary Elsie, wife of Rollen 
Alcott ; Laura Edith, Bessie Irene and Judson Clair. Mr. Suther- 
land is a member of the First Baptist Church, of which his mother 
is the only survivor of the original members. Politically Mr. 
Sutherland is a democrat. He was a candidate for Congress on 
the democi'atic tii'ket in 1914 for the tenth district. 

LaFayette M. Sturdevant, attorney-at-law, Eau Claire, Wis., 
was born in Warren county, Pennsylvania, September 17, 1856. 
His parents, Hiram N. and Sarah A. (Reed) Sturdevant, were 
both natives of the Keystone state and of Holland Dutch descent. 
In 1865 they came to Wisconsin and settled in Clark county, 
where the father purchased a 120-acre tract of land, to which he 
subsequently added 80 more acres, all of which he cleared and 
improved with substantial buildings and the land brought to a 
good state of cultivation. Here he made his home until his death 
in 1888 at the age of sixty-seven years. He reared a family of 
six children as follows: LaFayette M., Mary, wife of Amenzo 
Verbeck; James E., Arthur H., Fred F., and Almeda. 

LaFayette M. was reared on the farm from the age of nine 
years, and grew to manhood in Clark county, receiving his educa- 
tion in the public schools, and taught school five terms in that 
county. At the age of 20, in 1876, he began the study of law in 
the office of his cousin, J. R. Sturdevant, at Neillsville, Wis., and 
was admitted to the bar in 1878, when he at once began the prac- 
tice of his profession with L. A. Doolittle under the firm name of 


Doolittle & Sturdevant. At the end of two years, in 1880, he 
severed his connection with Mr. Doolittle and entered into part- 
nership M'ith J. R. Sturdevant, forming the well-known firm of 
Sturdevant & Sturdevant, which arrangement continvied for eight 
years, when the partnership was dissolved, and from 1888 to 
1903 Mr. Sturdevant practiced alone at Neillsville. In the latter 
year he was elected attorney general of the state, and re-elected 
in 1905. Finishing his second term in 1908, he became attorney 
for Governor Davidson, at Madison, holding that position until 
August, 1910, when he located at Eau Claire, where he has since 
been in active and successful practice of his profession as a 
member of the firm of Sturdevant & Farr. 

Mr. Sturdevant has been twice married ; his first wife was 
Minetta, daughter of Orson and Euretta (Hastings) Bacon, of 
Neillsville, Wis., by whom he had three children, viz.: Clarence 
L., Hugh. II., and Viola E. The present Mrs. Sturdevant was 
Mary E. "Williams, daughter of Peter "Williams, of Camp Point, 111. 

In politics Mr. Sturdevant is a republican, and as such repre- 
sented Clark county in the legislature for two terms and served 
the same county two terms as district attorney. He is a mem- 
ber of the Unitarian Church, Modern "Woodmen of America and 
the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. 

John C. Gores. Born March 26, 1857, at Oshkosh, "Wis. "When 
thirteen years old left school to earn his living. Admitted to the 
bar in his native city June 26, 1881, and thereupon removed to 
Eau Claire, where he has resided ever since. For several years 
a member of the legal firm of Gores & Miner, afterwards Gores, 
Frawley & Miner. In 1889 chosen by the Common Council alder- 
man of the Eighth "Ward to fill a vacancy, which choice was 
unanimously ratified by the people at the following election. 
Twice thereafter elected alderman, the last time without opposi- 
tion. Served on the School Board and County Board. 

Since 1890 practiced law alone, specializing in office work 
In 1897 acted as referee to try the case of Laycock vs. Parker, 
which, up to that time, was the most lengthy ease tried in Eau 
Claire county. On appeal to the supreme court, the case was 
afiSrmed and the court in the opinion expressed its special appro- 
bation of the manner in which the trial was conducted by the 
referee. In 1897 appointed as city attorney, to which office there- 
after two different proffered appointments were declined. 

In civic affairs and in politics has always taken a proper 
degree of interest. At all times a thorough-going, independent 
and progressive, though not an extremist. Believes that the 


spoils system tends to draw the worst instead of the better men 
into politics. During the time of the greenback and free silver 
agitation in 1877 and 1878, contributed newspaper articles in 
favor of the resumption of specie pajrment and against free sil- 
ver. In the last battle for silver in 1896 wrote a pamphlet 
entitled "Honest Money — An Essential in the Prosperity of the 
Republic." "Was the first in the city to advocate publicly the 
adoption of the commission form of government for cities. There- 
after visited Galveston, Tex., where the plan was first tried, to 
observe its practical workings. In 1905, when it was proposed 
by the governor in his message to Wisconsin legislature to 
re-establish the former metliod of taxing mortgages, Mr. Gores 
opposed the proposition in an exhaustive printed argument en- 
titled "The Taxation of Mortgages with Reference to Northern 
Wisconsin," which was submitted to the legislature. The law 
was left unchanged notwithstanding the governor's attitude. 

Throughout life has been a strong book lover, and acquired 
a reading knowledge of several foreign languages. June 18, 1890, 
was married to Kate Schultze, Avho has resided in the city since 
her birth. 

Julius C. Gilbertson, a well-known lawyer of Eau Claire and 
member of the legal firm of Larson & Gilbertson, was born in the 
city of Eau Claire, June 28, 1875, and is a son of Tolof and Susan 
(Lamb) Gilbertson, both natives of Norway. The paternal grand- 
father of Julius C. — Gilbert Peterson — came to the United States 
in 1867 and settled in the state of Iowa, where lie resided until 
his death. John Lamb, maternal grandfather of Mr. Gilbertson, 
emigrated to the United States and was among the pioneer farm- 
ers of Dunn county, Wisconsin, having located there in 1866, 
where he lived and died. Tolof Gilbertson, the father, who was 
a machinist by trade, came to Eau Claire in 1867. He was an 
industrious and hard working man and worked at his trade at 
the time of his death in 1911 at the age of sixty-three years. He 
was the father of ten children, eight of whom are now (1914) 
living, as follows: Mary is the wife of Charles Sullivan; Julius 
C, Tilla, now Mrs. Vigo Neilson; Adolph, Cora, Victor, Robert, 
and Clarence. 

Julius C, whose whole life has been spent in Eau Claire, 
acquired his elementary education in the public schools. In 1893 
he matriculated with the University of Wisconsin, at Madison, 
where he spent four years, graduating from the College of Letters 
in the class of 1897. He was admitted to the bar of Wisconsin. 


In 1898 he was elected judge of the munifipal court for a term 
of four years, and in 1902 was re-elected. 

Judge Gilbertson is a man of ripe scholarship, well grounded 
in the fundamental principles of the law, with ability to apply 
them in practice, and both as an office counsellor and a practi- 
tioner in court has won most gratifying success. He is a repub- 
lican in politics. He was a member of the state legislature in 
1911. He is highly esteemed for his manly qualities, and by none 
more than those intimately associated with him who know him 
best. He is a member of Eau Claire Lodge, No. 242, A. F. and 
A. M., the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, Modern 
"Woodmen of America, Knights of Pythias, I. S. W. A., and the 
Sons of Norway. 

Judge Gilbertson married in 1903 Miss Jessie McGrath, daugh- 
ter of John F. and Mary (Burns) McGrath, one of the old and 
highly respected families of Eau Claire. To Mr. and Mrs. Gil- 
bertson have been born two children — Jocylyn M. and Julius C- 
Gilbertson, Jr. 

Joseph W. Singleton, a proiniiu'ut incinbt-r of the Eau Claire 
county bar, was born in Louisville, St. Lawi'enee county, New 
York, September 8, 1861, son of Peter and Ellen (McCarthy) Sin- 
gleton, both natives of St. Lawrence county. Thomas Singleton, 
paternal grandfather of Joseph W., was a native of England and 
followed the trade of ship carpenter prior to coming to the 
LTnited States, and was a soldier in the Napoleonic War. Emi- 
grating to America, he became one of the pioneers of St. Lawrence 
county, New York, where he engaged in farming and lived there 
until his death. 

The maternal grandfather, Dennis McCarthy, was a native of 
County Mayo, Ireland, and was also a pioneer of St. Lawrence 
county, settling on Long Sault Island, where he resided until his 
death by drowning in Sault rapids. Peter Singleton, father of 
Joseph, was a farmer by occupation, and spent his whole life 
in the county where he was born, and died at the age of seventy- 
two years. 

Joseph W. was educated in the common schools of St. Law- 
rence county, the Jesuit College, the Georgetown University of 
Washington, where he was graduated with the degrees of bache- 
lor of philosophy and bachelor of laws in 1888. He also after- 
ward taught school for one year in the St. Joseph College, at 
Burlington, Vt., and in October, 1889, was admitted to the bar of 
that state and practiced his profession in Burlington three years. 


He came west, and on January 4, 1892, located in Eau Claire, 
where he has since carried on a successful practice of law. The 
first two years after coming to Eau Claire he was connected with 
the office of the late Thomas F. Frawley, and on February 1, 
1894, became the first tenant in the Ingram Block where he has 
since had his office. 

Mr. Singleton was married to Miss Ellen Francis, daughter of 
Patrick and Bridget (O'Brien) Gleason, of Cylon, St. Croix 
county, Wisconsin, and four children have been born to them, 
viz. : Joseph W., Jr., and Ellen Geraldine, twins ; Lydia F. and 
Paul G. Mr. Singleton is a prominent member of St. Patrick's 
Church, the Catholic Knights of Columbus. He served as city 
attorney of Eau Claire from 1895 to 1897 and represented the 
Sixth Ward as alderman in the Common Council for six years, 
and was municipal .judge for four years, and in politics is a 

Lelon Ansil Doolittle, a prominent attorney of Eau Claire, was 
born in Russell, St. Lawrence county, New York, July 22, 1853, 
a son of Ansil, Jr., and Jane Ann (Smith) Doolittle. His great 
grandfather, Abraham Doolittle, was one of five brothers who 
were representative farmers, merchants and mechanics of their 
day in the town of Cheshire, New Haven county, Connecticut. 
The grandfather, Ansil Doolittle, married Maria King, and they 
were the parents of three sons and three daughters. The eldest 
son, Ansil, Jr., father of Lelon Ansil, married Jane Ann Smith, 
and they were the parents of three sons and one daughter; the 
latter married Edgar E. Davis. The eldest son, Marshall Erwin, is 
a practicing physician. The youngest son, RoUin Edson, is a 
lawyer, as is also our subject. 

Lelon Ansil was reared on the farm, attended the district 
school, and at the age of seventeen secured a second grade teach- 
er's certificate and made a success as a school teacher. At the 
age of twenty-two years he had completed a regular college 
course and was graduated from the St. Lawrence University 
with the class of 1875, paying his tuition by teaching as principal 
of graded schools, selling subscription books, and farm laborer. 
The practice of awarding honors at graduation had not then 
been adopted in this institution, but his good work and conduct 
were recognized by electing him to membership in Phi Beta 
Kappa. Through the influence of friends he came to Wisconsin 
in 1877 and settled at Neillsville, where, during the summer of 
that year, he accepted the position as principal of the high school 
of that city. After serving one year, he resigned and entered 


the law department of the University of Wisconsin, finishing the 
two-year course in one year. After graduating with the class 
of 1879, he returned to Neillsville and was soon thereafter ap- 
pointed county judge of Clark county. Up to that time no 
indexes had been made of the probate records ; there was no court 
calendar, minute book nor court record in the office ; all the papers 
except such as had been lost or destroyed were in a heterogeneous 
mass, but within six months every paper entitled to record was 
recorded, and all the records of the office were as complete and 
as perfect as it was possible to make them. Before his term of 
oifiee as judge had expired he was elected county superintendent 
of schools, a position he filled with honor to himself and to the 
satisfaction of his constituents until he moved to Eau Claire in 
January, 1885. While much of his time at Neillsville was taken 
up with his official duties, he built up and conducted a success- 
ful law business, and in 1879, in company with Hon. James 
O'Neill, founded the Neillsville Times, which they edited jointly 
until Judge Doolittle moved to Eau Claire, and which, under 
their management, became the leading weekly paper of the 

Judge Doolittle came to Eau Claire to avoid newspaper work 
and politics, and after his arrival gave his sole attention to the 
practice of law, and has since been engaged in the general prac- 
tice of his profession. He served as city attorney for three years, 
and for several terms as president of the Associated Charities. 
He has been one of the directors of the Eau Claire Public Library 
for many years, and for several terms has been president of the 
board. Since 1903 he has been largely interested iu real estate 
in northern Wisconsin, being president of the Traders' Land Com- 
pany, which is capitalized at ."filOjOOO.OO, and also of the Guaran- 
teed Investment Company, with a capital of !^76,000.00, both of 
which were incorporated in 1904. 

Judge Doolittle was married May i, 1880, to Bessie Adams 
Weeks, daughter of Friend and Betsey Maria (French) Weeks, 
of Rutland, Vt., and they have one adopted son, Maxson Rusk 
Doolittle. The judge is a member of the First Congregational 
Church of Eau Claire. 

Roy P. Wilcox has made an indelible impression on the public 
life of Eau Claire, and, as a lawyer, stands preeminently high. 
Tlirough his seventeen years as an active attorney he has come 
to be recognized as one of the able practitioners of the bar of 

Rov P. Wilcox was born in the city of Eau Claire, June 30, 


1873, and is the son of Nelson C. and Angeline (Tewkesbury) 
Wilcox. He is of English and Irish lineage and comes of one of 
the oldest families in America, the Wilcox ancestry dating back 
to early colonial days. He received his eai-ly education in the 
public schools of Eau Claire and then took a course in the law 
department of Cornell University, at Ithaca, N. Y., graduating in 
the class of 1897. One year previous to his graduation he had 
been admitted to the bar of Wisconsin, and immediately after 
leaving Cornell he began the practice of his profession in his 
native city. On September 1, 1897, he became a member of the 
law firm of Prawley, Bundy & Wilcox; since the death of the 
senior partner, July 1, 1902, the firm has been Bundy & Wilcox. 

Mr. Wilcox has achieved success at a time in life when most 
men are fortunate if they have laid the foundation for success ; 
and this has been accomplished by his own ability and energy, 
for he left college not only with exhausted resources, but with 
debts to pay. While his success has been due mainly to his legal 
abilities, he has shown a capacity for business that, of itself, 
would have made him a success in commercial afi'airs, and has 
been connected with some large projects that have been man- 
aged most admirably, notably the water power and utility prop- 
ei"ties formerly owned by the Chippewa Valley Railway, Light 
and Power Company, the values of which were greatly enhanced 
under the management of this company, of which he was one of 
the organizers. 

On occasions Mr. Wilcox has been active in public affairs, but 
never as an official, nor obtrusively. For instance, Eau Claire 
was the first city in Wisconsin to adopt the commission form of 
government, and Mr. Wilcox was very distinctly connected with 
the movement that culminated in that result. He assisted in 
drafting the bill providing for government by commission in the 
cities of Wisconsin, and when the bill was introduced in the 
legislature he went to Madison and worked for its passage. 
Then, when the bill became law, he took the platform in Eau 
Claire to advocate the adoption of this form of government in 
his home city, and to his efforts is due, in no small degree, the 
fact that Eau Claire has its present satisfactory form of city 

After this he was invited to other places to address the citi- 
zens on the new plan of managing civic affairs, with the result 
that the commission form of government was adopted in every 
city he visited, with two exceptions. 

As a lawyer, Mr. Wilcox is both a wise counsellor and an 



exceedingly able advocate, and his record as a trial lawyer has 
seldom been equalled. He has acted as attorney for railroads 
and other corporations for years, defending them against damage 
claims for injuries, losses, etc., and his success has been startling, 
considering that he has had to appear before juries on the unpopu- 
lar side of every such case. He is a forcible, logical, impressive 
speaker, possessing forensic qualities of a high order, and a 
manifest honesty of purpose glowing in all his efforts makes him 
formidable as a pleader in any cause. During the last fifteen 
years his firm has appeared on one side or the other of most of 
the big legal cases in and around Eau Claire. 

On June 17, 1903, Mr. Wilcox married Maria Louisa, daughter 
of Manuel and Clementina (Santander) de Freyre, of Lima, Peru, 
South America. They have two children, Louisa M. and 
Francis J. 

Mr. Wilcox is prominently connected with St. Patrick's Catho- 
lic Church, of Eau Claire, the Knights of Columbus, the Sons of 
the American Revolution, the Benevolent and Protective Order 
of Elks, the American Bar Association and the Wisconsin Bar 
Association, of which he is a member of the committee on legal 

Martin B. Hubbard, ex-judge of the county court, was born 
near London, Ontario, Canada, August 11, 1849. His parents, 
Alfred and Mary A. (Dightou) Hubbard, who were natives of 
Jefferson county, New York, emigrated to Eau Claire county, 
Wisconsin, in 1865, settling on a farm in Bridge Creek township, 
and were among the early pioneers and most progressive and 
influential citizens of that town. The father retired from active 
farm duties at the age of sixty-five years and moved to the city 
of Eau Claire, where he died on May 6, 1908, at the age of eighty- 
two years. His wife, mother of our subject, passed away March 
31, 1910, aged eighty-four years. They were both devoted mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church and were held in the 
highest esteem by all who knew them. 

. The original Hubbard family emigrated from England to 
America and were among the early settlers in Connecticut. Mar- 
tin Hubbard, grandfather of Judge Hubbard, who was a success- 
ful lumberman and manufacturer in Canada during the early 
forties, died in 1855 at the age of fifty-five years. His wife, 
Maria Putnam, died in 1866. Benjamin Dighton, maternal grand- 
father of our subject, also a native of Jefferson county. New York, 
whose wife was Amanda Cole, was a prominent Methodist clergy- 
man in Canada. 


Martin Hubbard is the eldest of a family of four children, 
the others being Amanda, wife of N. E. Pride, of Otter Creek 
township, Eldred, also of Otter Creek, and Elva, wife of J. H. 
Tifft, of Eau Claire. Judge Hubbard received his education in the 
public schools of Canada and Augusta, Wis. He early served as 
town clerk of Bridge Creek township, resigning that office in 1876 
to enter the office of the clerk of court, and while thus engaged 
commenced the study of law. In 1883 he entered the office of 
L. R. Larson, as clerk, and while in that position performed the 
duties of municipal judge under Larson. He was admitted to tlie 
bar of Eau Claire county in 1883, continuing in Mr. Larson's 
office until 1885, when he entered upon the practice of his pro- 
fession, in which he has since continued. lie was elected judge 
of the county court in 1896 and served one term of four years. 
A republican in politics, he has been a member of the republican 
central committee for ten years, and for eight years served as its 
chairman. He has been a member of the board of education eight 
years, and president of the same for two years. Judge Hubbard 
is prominently identified with the commercial and financial inter- 
ests of Eau Claire, being secretary of the II. T. Lange Company, 
secretary of the Dells Lumber Company, secretary of the Reeds- 
burg Canning Company and a member of the board of directors 
of the Eau Claire National Bank and of the Eau Claire Savings 
Bank. He stands high in Masonic circles, is a member of the Blue 
Lodge, chapter and commandery. 

In 1889 Judge Hubbard was married at Augusta, Wis., to 
Miss Elizabeth Reed, daughter of William and Elizabeth 

William W. Downs, who ranks among the influential, success- 
ful progressive members of the bar of Eau Claire county, Wis- 
consin, was born in Menomonie, Dunn county. Wis., November 7, 
1851. His parents, Burhee and Laura J. (Dunn) Downs, were 
natives of eastern Maine, and pioneers of Dunn county, having 
sctth'd at Menomonie in 1849, where the father engaged in the 
hnuber business as a member of the firm of Knapp, Stout & Com- 
pany. He later was a member of the firm of Carson, Rend & 
Company, and then for a number of years was engaged in busi- 
ness alone. After a residence in Eau Claire of a decade or more, 
he died in about the year 1888 at the age of seventy-four. 

William W. Downs came to Eau Claire in 1868, receiving his 
primary education in the public schools of the city. He after- 
wards entered the University of Wisconsin and was graduated 
from tlie law department in 1874. He commenced the practice of 


law the same year at Eau Claire, where he successfully continued 
until 1886, when he removed to Bayfield county, "Wisconsin, and 
was there actively engaged in the practice of his profession until 
1913, then returned to Eau Claire and resumed his practice there. 
Mr. Downs is a careful and conscientious student of the law, and 
in his practice employs the force of a clear, logical and judicial 
mind, thoroughly disciplined and trained by varied experiences 
of his forty years of study and practice. 

In June, 1874, he was wedded to Alice Daniels, a native of 
Ohio. Mr. Downs is an attendant and supporter of the Lake 
Street Methodist church, is a member of the Bayfield Lodge Free 
and Accepted Masons, and a member of the Royal Arch Masons 
of Eau Claire. While a resident of Bayfield, he served one term 
as district attitrney for Bayfield county. 

George J. Losby, who is one of the promising young lawyers 
of Eau Claire, was born in that city June 30, 1873. His parents, 
John and Christian Losby, were born in Norway and emigrated 
to the United States in the late sixties. They settled in Eau 
Claire, where the father was variously employed by different lum- 
ber companies up to the time of his death, which occurred in 1901. 
George J., the only son in tlic family, grew to manhood in this 
city, obtaining his education in the public schools and in the Eau 
Claire Business College, and for six years held a position as law 
stenographer. He began the study of law in 1894 in the offices 
of Judge William F. Bailey and L. A. Doolittle. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1897 and in 1901 was elected clerk of the court, serv- 
ing in that capacity five consecutive terms or a period of ten 
years, and since 1910 has been in the active practice of his pro- 
fession. He married in 1901 Miss Josephine Hansen, of Eau 
Claire, and two children have been born : Alden and Idele Losby. 

Mr. Losby is a member of the Norwegian Lutheran church 
and the I. S. W. A. Before the Eau Claire city government went 
on the commission form basis he represented tlic Eighth ward in 
the city council four years. 

Chajles T. Bundy, member of the well known law firm of 
Bundy & Wilcox, was born in Menomonie, Wis., March 2, 1862, 
son of the late Judge Egbert B. and Reubena (Macauley) Bundy. 
The father was born at Windsor, N. Y., the son of Dr. 0. T. 
Bundy, of Deposit, that state. The mother was born in Glasgow, 
Scotland, a daughter of William and Margaret Macauley. 

Charles T. grew to manhood in Menomonie and there resided 
until he came to Eau Claire in 1894. He was educated in the 
public schools of his home rity and IMadison. graduating from the 


law department of the State university and was admitted to prac- 
tice in all the courts of the state, both state and federal, the 
Supreme Court of the United States, courts of appeals in Chicago, 
St. Louis and San Francisco. He commenced his practice at West 
Superior in partnership with C. R. Fridley until he formed a 
partnership with T. F. Frawley and Roy P. Wilcox in 1897, under 
the name of Frawley, Bundy & Wilcox, which business arrange- 
ment continued until the death of Mr. Frawley in 1902. Since 
that time he has been associated with Mr. Wilcox under the firm 
name of Bundy & Wilcox. Mr. Bundy has been connected with 
much important litigation, among wliich may be mentioned the 
following cases : Harrigan vs. Gilchrist, United States vs. Barber 
Lumber Company et al., the Eau Claire National Bank vs. Jack- 
man in the United States Supreme Coiu-t, and water power cases 
in Wisconsin, including the famous Dells case. 

On October 22, 1890, Mr. Bundy married Miss May Kelley, 
daughter of John, Jr., and Cornelia (Drawley) Kelley, of Menom- 
onie. To Mr. and Mrs. Bundy have been born four children, viz. : 
Nell R., Katherine M., Egbert B. and Lillian, the youngest of 
which died in 1910. Religiously Mr. Bundy affiliates with the 
Episcopal church, while fraternally and socially he is a member 
of the Knights of Pythias and the Benevolent and Protective 
Order of Elks. 

Robert D. Whitford, attorney-at-law, was born in Jefferson 
county. New York, July 2, 1851, son of Edward W. and Clarinda 
(Odell) Whitford. Edward Whitford, paternal grandfather of 
Robert D., was for many years a resident of Rensselaer county, 
New York, and one of the pioneer farmers of Jefferson county, 
that state, where he settled in 1833 and died in 1862, aged 84 
years. Robert S. Odell, the maternal grandfather, was a farmer 
of Rensselaer county. New York, where he died. The father of 
Mr. Whitford farmed for several years in Jefferson county, and 
later in Fayette county, Illinois, where he died in 1892. 

Jlr. Whitford was reared in his native county, coming to 
Wisconsin in 1869. He located at Milton. He took a classical 
course in Milton college, read law in the office of Bennett & Sale, 
at Janesville, and was admitted to the bar in November, 1878, 
after which he located at Menomonie January 1, 1880. He prac- 
ticed there until 1893, M^ien he went to Superior, and on Septem- 
ber 1, 1899, located at Eau Claire. He married September 4, 1882, 
Miss Anna Shaw West, a niece of the late Daniel Shaw, and they 
have two children. 


George L. Blum, Judge of the County Court of Eau Claire 
county, was born October 6, 1869, at Eau Claire, "Wisconsin. He 
received his education in the public schools of Eau Claire and at 
the University of Wisconsin, gradviating from the law depart- 
ment in 1893, and was admitted to the bar the same year. In 
February, 1895, he formed a partnership in Eau Claire with John 
B. Fleming under the firm name of Fleming & Blum, which 
arrangement continued until January 1, 1908, since which time 
he has practiced alone. He was elected Judge of the County Court 
in April, 1901, and is now — 1914 — serving his fourth term of six 

Judge Blum married Margaret D. McGillis, of Eau Claire, and 
they are the parents of three children : Genevieve F., Margaret 
G. and George L., Jr. 

John Bernard Fleming, mayor of Eau Claire, was born in the 
village of this name, June 27, 1866, to Michael and Catherine 
Fleming, and is of Irish descent. His father was born in Buffalo, 
New York, and his mother in Washington county, AVisconsin. 
They settled in Eau Claire in 1865. 

Mayor Fleming was educated in the parochial and public 
schools, entered the law office of Levi M. Vilas in 1884, and was 
graduated from the law department of the Minnesota State Uni- 
versity, and was admitted to practice in the state and federal 
courts of Minnesota in 1889, and to the state and federal courts 
of Wisconsin in 1891. He became cashier of the Union Savings 
bank of Eau Claire, and secretary of the Union Mortgag-e & Loan 
Company in 1907, resigning when elected mayor in 1910 for a 
term of six years, and is the first mayor of Eau Claire and Wis- 
consin to serve under the new commission form of government. 
He was associated in practice with George L. Blum for ten years, 
M-as private secretary for Hon. William F. Vilas 1891 and 1892 ; 
register of the United States land office in Eau Claire 1895-1900. 
He is a member of the Elks, the Knights of Columbus and St. 
Patrick's church. He married Edith S. Robinson at Milwaukee, 
December 12, 1894, and has one daughter — Edith Marion. 

Joseph C. Culver was born in Eau Claire, July 26, 1880, the 
son of Joseph C. and Emma (Kern) Culver. He was educated in 
St. Jolin"s Military Academy, Delafield, Wisconsin, and at the 
Cornell University at Ithaca, New York. He was married Novem- 
ber 8, 1905, to Miss Mary McDonough, of Eau Claire. 

Henry McBain, attorney-at-law and judge of the Municipal 
Court of Eau Claire, was born in St. Lawrence county, New York, 
September 3, 1857, the son of John and Mary (Fisher) McBain, 


and is of Scotch descent. He acquired an academical education 
at Canton, New York, and came to Eau Claire county in 1871, 
locating at Augusta, where for several years he was clerk in the 
postoffice. Associated with others he was for three years engaged 
in merchandising at Augusta. He was elected clerk of the Circuit 
Court and came to Eau Claire in 1885. For sixteen years he 
served as clerk of the court, during which time he studied law 
and was admitted to the bar September 3, 1898, and since 1910 
has served as municipal judge. He married Emma B. Crawford, 
of Augusta, and has two children — Gladys and Mabel. Judge 
McBain is a member of the A. F. and A. M., the R. A. M. and 
Knights Templar. 

Burt E. Deyo was born in Peru, Huron county, Ohio, son of 
Erastus and Salome (Mauley) Deyo. The father was born in 
New York state and descended from the Huguenots, while the 
mother was born in Ohio of English ancestry. 

Burt E. was educated at Oberlin College and the law depart- 
ment of Harvard University ; read law in the oiRee of Bartlett & 
Hayden, was admitted to the bar in 1882, and to practice in the 
Supreme Court of the state in ] 900. 

The foregoing list is not complete. We have endeavored to 
make it complete, but many who are now living at Eau Claire 
have neglected to furnish the proper data from which personal 
mention could be made, while some others have died, and still 
many others have moved away, and we have not been able with 
reasonable eifort to reach them. 

Among those omitted may be mentioned Texas Angel, Abel 
W. H. Frawley, Frank R. Farr, De Alton Thomas, A. C. Larson, 
A. H. Shoemaker, E. M. Bradford, Heman Day, T. F. Frawley, Jr., 
V. W. James. 

In the early days the practice of law was not very remunera- 
tive, and the strict method of procedure and decorum was not 
always observed. It was within the province of the judge to 
admit applicants to membership of the bar. Judge Fuller was 
very accommodating in performing this part of his official duty. 
It was not by him deemed essential that the applicant should 
have even read or looked into a law book. All that he required 
was that some members of the bar move the admission of the 
applicant, and with one exception the motion was granted. 
Hence we had a number of members of the bar not mentioned 
in the foregoing statement who never read or practiced law, 
among which were R. F. Wilson, James Gray, Captain Seeley and 


some others whose names I do not now remember. The excep- 
tion was Arthur Delaney, who edited a paper on the west side. 
His admission was moved by Alexander Meggett. Evidently the 
judge Avas not in a receptive mood, or else nourished a grievance 
against Delaney. The judge promptly denied the application. 
When asked for a reason he replied that Delaney was drunk. 
The young Irishman's ire was aroused; he felt he had not only 
been abused but grossly insulted. Quick as a flash he came back 
with the retort: "Judge Fuller, you are so drunk yourself you 
cannot get off the chair." The judge called upon the sheriff to 
put him out. Delaney, as he was being forced through the door 
by the obedient sheriff, turned and addressing the indignant 
judge, said: "Judge Fuller, I am going over to my ofSce and I 
will write an article about you which will cut a wound so deep 
that even whiskey won't heal.'" And he did. It is not improb- 
able that the judge was somewhat under the influence of ardent 
spirits, which, if reports are true, lie was addicted to their use 
in no slight degree. 

Delaney was quite a character in some respects. He was able, 
even brilliant, and possessed a genuine Irish wit to a considerable 
degree. He was an ardent democrat and so was Dr. W. T. Gallo- 
way. Democrats in those days were about as scarce as hens' 
teeth. The congressional district was very large, with scattered 
settlements here and there, and in the northwestern part of it 
Pepin and Prescott on the Mississippi river were the most promi- 
nent. Delaney and Galloway, with the latter 's team, started to 
attend the convention at Pepin, some sixty miles west. They 
had an ample supply of democratic enthusiasm with them. Every- 
thing went along well until they reached a point somewhere near 
Fall City, when a dispute arose, and the doctor, being a powerful 
man, weighing over two hundred pounds, and Delaney rather 
slight in build, threw Delaney out of the buggy and started on 
without him. Delaney, not daunted by this little mishap, trudged 
on on foot, occasionally catching a short ride, reached the con- 
vention just as it was about to adjourn. He was granted the 
privilege of addressing that body, and in the course of his remarks 
explained why it was that his arrival was so late. In eloquent 
words he stated how the doctor and himself had started out from 
Eau Claire full of enthusiasm and of mind socially and politically ; 
how a disagreement occurred over some slight matter, how the 
doctor forcibly ejected him from the buggy; of his long and 
weary march to reach the convention, and added: "Gentlemen 
of the convention, that was a contest. It was a contest between 


stomach and brains, and stomach was ahead." Ever afterward, 
if you wanted to arouse the ire of the genial doctor, all that was 
necessary was to refer to the closing remarks of Delaney. 

A special term for the whole district was provided by law to 
be held at Prescott, in the extreme northwest corner of the state, 
in the month of July. There was no railway then from Eau 
Claire, and the Eau Claire lawyers having business before the 
court were obliged to journey by team, usually a two days' drive. 
One morning Messrs. Meggett, Cousins, H. Clay Williams and 
the Avriter started for Prescott to attend the July term. We got 
started a little late owing to the fact that we had to wait a long 
time for Mr. Cousins. His tardiness, however, was explained by 
a statement of the fact that the night before a baby boy had come 
to gladden his household, and thus Marshall, his first born, was 
ushered into the world. It is needless to state that his tardiness 
was excused. The first night we stopped at Brookville, near 
Hersey, a stage station on the road from Eau Claire to Hudson, 
if I remember right. It was about dusk, as we drove up; the 
keeper of the stable came out with a lantern and was engaged in 
assisting to i;nliitch the team, when Meggett asked him the ques- 
tion: "Say, how many votes did I get in this town for senator? 
My name is Meggett." The stable keeper, thinking for a 
moment, replied: "I guess you got two." Meggett indignantly 
retorted: "Well, if that is the case, we will drive on to the next 
station." That he would not stay over night in a town where 
he got only two votes. This was met by the statement from the 
stable keeper: "If I was in your place I wouldn't mind. You 
didn't get any votes in that town." 

It was Judge Humphrey's first year upon the bench. We 
returned by the way of Hudson and were the guests that evening 
of the judge and his estimable wife. She was a most devout 
Christian lady, and in the course of the evening, addressing her- 
self to Mr. Williams, inquired if he was a member of the church, 
and he, without even the slightest hesitation, replied: "Yes, of 
the Episcopal church." If he had ever been inside of the church 
no one ever had any recollection of it. She further inquired if 
he was a member of the Bible class, to which he replied that he 
was its leader. She was much interested and pursued her 
inquiries as to whether many of the prominent residents of Eau 
Claire belonged to the class, and, without even a smile, he replied, 
"Most of them," mentioning Cal Spafl'ord, Jan Gray, Dick Wil- 
cox and several others. To fully appreciate the cheek of Williams 
under the circumstances a person would have to be acquainted 


with the habits of himself and those he mentioned as members of 
his Bible class. The judge was a great humorist and enjoyed a 
practical joke. It was amusing to observe his efforts to keep his 
face straight while Williams was thus responding to Mrs. Hum- 
phrey's inquiries. 

Another incident then I have done, although there were many 
of a somewhat similar character that, occurred in those days 
wliich would today shock the dignity of courts if indulged in. 

At Judge Humphrey's first term at Chippewa Falls, Judge 
Wiltse, a long time justice of the peace, applied for admission 
to the bar. The judge appointed Mr. Cousins, Meggett and the 
writer as a committee to examine him in open court as to his 
((ualitii-atioiis. The court was held in Mitchell's Hall, if I recol- 
lect i(iric(tly ; at any rate it was in a hall over the corner drug 
store formerly kept by Harry Goddard. There was no court 
house then. The room was full to overflowing, as almost the 
entire population, as was usual, were present. Andrew Gregg, 
Jr., was district attorney and the only resident lawyer. Some 
farmer who owned a pair of mules had hitched them immediately 
in front of the hall. While the committee in the presence of the 
court was proceeding with great dignity in interrogating Mr. 
Wiltse one of the mules set up an unearthly bray. Mr. Gregg, 
wlio was in the back end of the hall, immediately addressed the 
court : ' ' Hold on ! Hold on ! There is another jackass that wants 
to be admitted."' It seems that Mr. Gregg liad no liking for 
Mr. Wiltse. 


As far back as history takes us we fiud that as soon as meu 
began to dAvell together in the primitive tribe there was one of 
this number who was known as the "Medicine Man." In Biblical 
times people lived to be much older than now, and were evidently 
not as much subject to sickness and disease, so our medicine man 
could serve many, but sooner or later sickness has overtaken all 
and then they seek the aid of one who knows something of the 
healing art. In those primitive times the healers sought to cure 
people by charms and by driving away the evil spirits through 
noises, and thus they beat on drums and sang songs. This primi- 
tive idea has not altogether disappeared to the present day, as 
witnessed by Dowieism and other cults, who maintain that disease 
is the work of the devil, who must first be driven out before the 
person can get well. 

Following the idea of charming awa.y disease came the dia- 
tetic idea, in which health was to be maintained only through 
the eating of certain foods and avoiding others. This was exem- 
plified by the Jewish race. 

Next we come to the physiologic period, when the functions 
of the various organs were paramount, and the symptoms they 
produced were the sole thing to be regarded in treating disease. 
To a certain extent this is used to the present day, but we have 
added to it the etiologic period of medicine, in which we endeavor 
to discover the cause of the disordered function of any organ. 
This has been made possible only through the vast laboratory 
researches that have been carried out during the past fifty years, 
by the discovery of bacteria and by animal experiments to deter- 
mine the part the bacteria play in man's anatomy. Also in the 
discovery of the cell or unit of which our body is composed and 
observing the changes that occur in these cells as the result of 
disease. Thus it is that medicine has changed from an act to a 
science. It has not reached the pinnacle of an exact science, but 
it is approaching that goal. When we consider how we have con- 
quered many of the dread diseases, as diphtheria, typhoid fever, 
malaria, etc., and robbed them of their terror through the knowl- 
edge of their cause and the application of the one and the only 


thing that will destroy that particular cause, then we begin to 
realize what is being accomplished in modern medicine. 

The Panama canal stands not only as a monument to the skill 
and energy of American engineers, but even more to the glory 
of American physicians. DeLesseps' failure was not due to a 
lack of skill or courage on his part, but to yellow fever and 
malaria. The medical profession has paved the way for this great 
undertaking by discovering and proving that certain mosquitos 
are responsible for the spread of both these dread disease, but 
not until two loyal and unselfish physicians, Carroll and Lazear, 
had given their lives to prove this. Today we know that if we 
destroy the mosquito we can stamp out yellow fever and malaria. 
As a result of the energies of the American physicians the Canal 
Zone, with its heterogeneous population, has been made more 
healthy than New York City. 

When Eau Claire county was first organized and began to be 
settled the etiologic phase of medicine was unknown. All the 
diseases we now know were known then and were perfectly 
described except for their cause, and armed with this knowledge 
the pioneer doctors came into this wilderness and worked hard 
and faithfully in the endeavor to relieve the suffering of their 
fellow men. There being but few doctors in this section the 
mother of the family applied "home remedies" as long as she 
could before sending for a doctor, who often came too late. There 
was, therefore, great rejoicing when the first doctor came into 
the county and cast his lot with those early pioneers. The people 
were scattered and drives were long and hard, especially in the 
Manter. In those days there were not the fine roads we have now. 
but one had to pick his way around stumps, over logs and through 
creeks. Many times the doctor had to go afoot or on horseback 
because the roads would not permit the use of a buggy. Without 
the telephone a man had to drive for the doctor, and if he lived 
twenty or thirty miles away the doctor could not get there until 
the next day. Many trips were so long that it required two days 
to make the trip and return. The people were very poor and 
were unable to pay more than a very meager compensation or 
nothing at all for the services rendered. However, those early 
men cared not for that, they went and did all they could to relieve 
the suffering. They often had to act as nurse as well as physician. 
They sat by the sick bed for long weary hours to see whether the 
spark of life was going to be snuffed out or would take on added 
vigor and begin to burn anew. They were the recipients of family 
secrets and their advice was sought in times of trouble. They 


healed and soothed the troubled mind, soul and body with their 
cheerful words, kindly advice, or some simple decoction. Is it 
any wonder that they gained a place in the hearts of the people 
that could not be supplanted, and as long as they were able to 
drag one foot were sought, and no one else would do but the 
old family doctor? 

As preachers and lawyers were equally scarce, the doctor was 
called upon to perform the services of both, and was held to be 
thoroughly competent. In those days there were no specialists, 
so the family doctor administered to all ailments. Today certain 
men specialize on different parts of the body, and become more 
expert in dealing with that part. They are thus enabled to give 
the people better service, but in order to do this they have sacri- 
ficed much in the love and esteem in which they were held in the 
hearts of the people. Who would think of going to an eye 
specialist or an abdominal surgeon with his family troubles and 
expect sympathy and advice? The days of the old-time family 
physician are past. To be sure we still have the general prac- 
titioner who looks after the general sickness in the family, and is 
ready to call the aid of some one especially skilled when needed. 
Indeed this must be so when we considered what is being done 
all around us. Some wealthy men, as John D. Rockefeller and 
McCormick, have given large sums of money to establish research 
laboratories, to equip them, and to pay men to devote their whole 
lives to the study of one disease, as infantile paralysis, etc. 

Some men are devoting their lives and energies to performing 
and perfecting surgical operations, so that today there is not a 
single organ of the body that is not the subject of operation. And 
then there is the pathologist and physiologist, who works in the 
laboratory experimenting with animals to ascertain the cause of 
disease and its treatment before applying the same to man (yet 
there are those who would say do not experiment with animals 
in order to learn how to save a human life, but rather let men 
die). When we consider these and the many more departments 
of medicine, with all the accumulating knowledge, it is no wonder 
that one poor man cannot master them all. 

About the only thing that keeps alive the old spark of grati- 
tude and love for the general practitioner is his obstetrics. He 
who stands beside a woman during her suffering and comforts 
her and encourages her in her great and holy, yet trying mission, 
of bringing a new soul into the world endears himself to her in 
a way that is not easily forgotten or cast aside. What a pleasure 


it is and what gratitude one receives only he who has had the 
experience knows. 

The doctor's life must be an unselfish one, for how often is 
he aroused from a sound sleep or disturbed while at a meeting, a 
social gathering, to go and relieve the suffering. If he is fortu- 
nate enough to make a discovery or invent some new instrument 
he does not hurry to the patent office to protect himself and 
enrich his purse, but gladly gives his knowledge to his brothers 
for the good of mankind. This has been handed down to him 
from the days of Hippocrates that he is in honor bound to impart 
all good knowledge to his worthy brother practitioners. Neither 
does he go to the newspaper office that his fame may be heralded 
abroad, but rather spreads the glad tidings only among those 
who will be able to use them. And many is the doctor, whose' 
epitaph has overtaken him, long before his good works are known. 
Grant, Sherman and Napoleon are household names, because they 
have commanded armies and lead many men to death, while 
Pasteur, Koch, Virchon, Seun, Billings, and hosts of others are 
hardly known, and yet for every life the generals have sacrificed 
these men have saved hundreds. Few people know what a debt 
they owe to Lord Lister, when he discovered that by the use of 
antiseptic, surgical operations could be performed without being 
followed by the dread hospital gangrene or suppuration. This, 
together wuth the i;se of anesthesia, has enabled the surgeon to 
go fearlessly at his task, and thus Darwin's law of the "survival 
of the fittest" no longer applies. 

As there were no large cities in this county, hospitals were 
slow to make their appearance, and the doctors were compelled 
to perform many operations in private houses, which they did 
with the skill and success of their more fortunate brethren at 
the hospital in the cities. 

A doctor not only devotes his time and energies to the study 
of cause and treatment of disease, but places before himself the 
higher ideal of preventive medicine. Thus, he goes about telling 
Ijeople how to live to avoid sickness. However, they are very 
slow to change their habits that they may enjoy better health. 
If you tell them to eat plainer food and masticate it more thor- 
oughly, so as to avoid dyspepsia, they think they are wasting too 
much time. If you tell him to live in the sunshine and exercise 
more they are afraid they will neglect their business. When you 
tell them to breathe plenty fresh air and sleep with windows 
open at night, they are greatly alarmed lest some dread monster 


will come in with the "night air," little thinking that after sun- 
down all air is ' ' night air. ' ' People are no more ready to harken 
to our modern physicians than they were to the great physician 
when lie said, "Oh, Jerusalem, Jerusalem, how oft would I have 
gathered you under my wings as a hen gathers her chickens, and 
ye would not." 

(The above excellent article is liere supplemented with a short 
sketch of the hospitals and the lives of the physicians of the 
county, living and dead, as far as we have been able to obtain 


The Sacred Heart Hospital, of Eau Claire, was first started in 
1889, by the Sisters of Saint Frances. Tlie first building con- 
tained seventeen rooms and was xmder the charge of three sisters. 
Since this time the buildings have been three times enlarged, the 
last building being erected in 1912, is used as a convent for the 
sisters, while the entire upper floor is used as the operating room. 
The Sacred Heart Hospital is the oldest in the city, and the large 
three-story brick buildingb are located on a large plat of ground 
high on the hill, which affords an abundance of fresh air for its 
patients. The hospital has now accommodation for one hundred 
and thirty patients, whose wants are looked after by thirty-four 
sisters. This institution is open for all classes regardless of their 
religious belief, and all doctors of good repute are admitted to 
practice. Tlie mother hospital is located at the city of Spring- 
field, 111. 


Efforts to establish a Protestant hospital in Eau Claire were 
made as early as 1895. But no practical results from this or sub- 
sequent attempts were obtained until 1905, when it was decided 
by some ministers attending a United Church convention at 
Menomonie, Wis., to call a mass meeting to consider said matter. 

At this mass meeting, which was held at Eau Claire, February 
9, 1905, it was imanimously resolved to establish a Protestant 
hospital in Eau Claire to be called Luther Hospital. Thereupon 
two committees were elected, one for incorporation and one for 
soliciting funds. 

On the first of May, 1905, the hospital association was incor- 
porated by John Gaustad, M. 0. Waldal, Peder Taugjerd, Alfred 
Cypreansen and Peder B. Treltsad. 

The Hoyme property, on which an option had previously been 


secured, was bought July 31, 1905, and an adjoining property- 
secured later on. During the fall of 1906 the basement wall of 
the proposed hospital was built and the building proper erected 
during the summer and fall of 1907. On account of unavoidable 
delay cornerstone laying and dedication was deferred until Sun- 
day, August, 30, 1908, the main speeches being delivered by Con- 
gressman Lenroot and President J. N. Kindahl, of St. Olaf Col- 
lege. But five months earlier on March 30, 1908, Luther Hospital 
threw open its doors to receive the unfortunate sick of the com- 
munity and accomplish the glorious work for which it was estab- 

The articles of incorjioratiou and by-laws of Luther Hospital 
provide for an association, the membership of which is open to all 
upon the payment of a membership fee of il^lO.OO and a due of 
$1.00 annually. The present membership is over 100. It has been 
as high as 272. 

The general management of the hospital is vested in a board of 
directors of five members (origiualh^ nine), of which a majority 
must belong to some Lutheran church. This board may appoint 
additional officers, make by-laws, rules and regulations and have 
general control and supervision of the affairs of the corporation, 
subject to the association. 

The first board of directors were: George M. Rand, Syver 
Rekstad, S. 0. Mauseth, P. B. Trelstad, Peder Tangjerd, H. C. 
Hanson, M. 0. Waldal, L. I. Roe and T. Slagsvol. M. 0. Waldal 
was elected president, L. I. Roe vice-president, Peder Tangjerd 
secretary and H. C. Hanson treasurer. Besides these the follow- 
ing have served as directors: Carl Luudquist, M. 0. Soley, 
A. Anderson, Alfred Cypreansen, H. M. Knudtson, Guuder 
Thompson and Chr. Midelfart. 

The special management of the hospital is vested in a " direct- 
ing sister" (deaconess), who shall admit and receive pay from 
patients, purchase provisions, direct the training school, secure 
the necessary help and have general supervision of patients, sis- 
ters, nurses and other workers of the institution, subject to the 
board and corporation. As it proved impossible from the begin- 
ning to secure any deaconess the board was fortunate enough to 
secure the services of an exceedingly able graduate nurse from 
the Augustana Hospital, Chicago, 111., Miss Ida C. L. Isaacson. 
As superintendent of nurses she had opened two hospitals before, 
and Luther Hospital had the benefit of her experience, as she 
practically directed the furnishing of the hospital (the purchase 
of operating and sterilizing outfits, furniture, bedding, medical 


and surgical supplies, pi-ovisions, etc.), started the training school 
and worked to secure such patronage from the doctors and gen- 
eral public as was necessary that the hospital might be able to 
perform the work for which it was established. 

After her resignation Miss Margaret Thomas, of this city, 
served as superintendent of nurses about eight months until at 
last Luther Hospital, in accordance with its original plan of 
organization, secured the services of a deaconess from the Nor- 
wegian Lutheran Deaconess' Home and Hospital, Chicago, our 
able present directing sister, Amalia Olson, under whose wise 
direction Luther Hospital and its training school have become 
such a marked success. On July 17, 1912, the hospital was for- 
tunate enough to secure the services of an'other deaconess from 
the Chicago mother house. Sister Agnes Daae, who has proved 
herself a very efficient and valuable assistant. 

After thorough investigation the beautiful home and grounds 
of the late Rev. G. Hoyme, president of the United Norwegian 
Lutheran Church of American, was unanimously decided upon as 
hospital site. It is located near the center of the city in a resi- 
dence section, away from the busy business streets and the noise 
and smoke of the factories and railroads. A fine view may be 
had from the hospital to a small lake two blocks away; and the 
street cars running by afford easy access from all directions. 
Luther Hospital, when completed according to plans, will consist 
of three parallel buildings, planned so as to admit air, light and 
sunshine in every sick room and connected with a corridor, reach- 
ing from street to street, crossing all the three buildings, a dis- 
tance of about 200 feet. The central building (the one now in 
use) is 81x43 feet, and the two wing buildings will be about 
115x45 feet each, all of them three stories beside basement and 
attic. The west wing to be built as soon as possible will be called 
Sigvald Qvale Memorial. At the present time the hospital con- 
sists of three buildings: the above mentioned main or central 
building, the laundry and the nurses' home, the late Rev. Hoyme 's 
residence. This is a large commodious wooden building with 
ample accommodations for the nurses. 

The building is fireproof, only floors, doors, casings and win- 
dow frames being of Avood. Elevator and stair opening are 
inclosed to prevent draft, and the roof is covered with slate, so 
the building practically cannot burn, an extremely important 
thing in a hospital. 

The building is equipped with Paul vacuum system for even 
distribution of heat and the direct-indirect ventilation to secure 


pure fresh air in rooms and corridors. The laundry was per- 
manently located in a separate concrete building (24x36) in the 
rear. It is fitted up with steam, hot and cold water and electric 
current, ready for the machinery. "With the exception of the dry 
house none of the permanent machinery has yet been installed, 
however. The home is fitted up for the nurses, the whole second 
floor being used for dormitory. The first floor contains a large 
commodious nurses' parlor, three smaller sleeping rooms and a 
patients' ward of seven beds. As the present hospital building 
will form the main or central part of the completed building it 
had to be arranged so that all the important special hospital 
accessories were placed there. The office, waiting room, elevator 
as well as the operating, culinary and heating departments must 
therefore necessarily be located in said building in order to con- 
veniently serve the two wings or buildings to be erected on both 
sides later on. When all buildings are completed this central 
part will most likely be used exclusively for administration and 
nurses' home. The basement contains the X-ray department, 
kitchen, storage and pantry rooms, service kitchen, dining room, 
beside a couple of rooms now used by the help. Ambulance 
entrance to elevator is also to be found here. First floor has 
office, waiting room, service kitchen, toilet rooms, dressing room, 
men's ward, drug room and five private rooms. Second floor is 
arranged like the first, only instead of office and waiting rooms 
there are two more private rooms. Third floor has the same 
amount and arrangement of private rooms as the second. But 
here we find the all important operating department, which is 
entirely separated from the rest of the floor. First an ante-room 
with lockers. To the left instrument room. Straight ahead the 
sterilizing room with the two operating rooms, one on each side. 
The equipment is first class. Sterilizing outfit, operating tables, 
instruments, etc., are of the most up to date. Furniture, bedding, 
etc., are of a better quality than found in most hospitals. The 
best is none too good for the unfortunate sick and sufl'ering. 

Ever since Luther Hospital opened its doors its aim has been 
to be strictly modern in every way. We are very glad to 
announce that since our last report was issued we have been able 
to make another much needed improvement by the establishment 
of an X-ray department and that we are now in position to meet 
the great demands for X-ray work. The apparatus used is of 
the very latest modern type and the equipment is complete in 
every detail. No expense has been spared to bring everything 
as near perfection as possible and our department represents the 


last word in X-ray work. It is possible with this apparatus to 
make a picture of any part of the body in a few seconds, elimi- 
nating the danger at one time present when it was necessary to 
make an exposure of several minutes or hours. The best of 
machinery and instruments, however, are of little or no value 
without a competent person in charge. We consider ourselves 
very fortunate in having secured so able and experienced a man 
for this department as Dr. Baird. Both the institution and the 
city of Eau Claire are to be congratulated that our X-ray depart- 
ment is in charge of a man of such experieuce and ability. The 
high grade of work done is attested by the constantly increasing 
patronage of the department. 

Since March 23, 1908, when three pupils were admitted to the 
Luther Hospital Training School for Nurses, there has been made 
a rapid progress. "We have been fortunate to secure enough 
applicants and every year brings us more than we can take care 
of. From March, 1908, to January, 1909, Miss Isaacson had 
charge of the training school and Miss Margaret Thomas from 
February, 1909, till October, 1909. Since November, 1909, the 
training school has been in charge of Sister Amalia, who for 
almost three years had the able assistance of Miss Howlaud, who 
on account of ill health was forced to resign from her duties. For- 
tunately Sister Agnes arrived in time to begin with the fall work 
of 1912. 


The old hospital or sanatorium was founded in 1898. Then 
the Inebriate law, which compelled the taking into the institution 
all inebriates and persons afflicted Avith the drug habit, was in 
force. They treated nearly four thousand of such cases. But 
owing to some doubt which sprang up among some of the attor- 
neys of the state the law was brought to a test and declared 
unconstitutional. In 1908 Dr. Montgomery constructed the new 
hospital, which is situated on the site of the old sanatorium, at 
the corner of Oxford avenue and Central street, one block north 
from the court house. This hospital is divided into wards : mater- 
nity, special and general, with a contagious ward entirely cut 
off from the other apartments. The present inventory of the 
institution is fifty-four thousand dollars ($54,000), and during 
the past year the Drs. Montgomery have installed a new and 
powerful apparatus with accessories for every kind of thermo 
therapy. The Montgomery Hospital presents no distinction as 
to race, difference of religious beliefs or circumstances in life. It 


is under the direct control of the Drs. Montgomery, but its facil- 
ities are at the command of any reputable physician or surgeon, 
to whom are given assurance of faithful and efficient service. 

They offer better inducement in the hospital ticket line than 
any other hospital in existence. They have three classes of tickets 
in the field. The leader is a ten dollar ticket, which insures the 
holder against all sickness or accidental injury regardless of 
what the cause may be. The $7.50 ticket has not the same excep- 
tions that other hospitals have, and is much more liberal than the 
so-called accident and benefit policies. The family ticket is the 
largest opportunity in the field. Just think of insuring the health 
of any member of your family for one year for fifteen or twenty- 
five dollars ! The tickets cover all expenses in case of operations 
of any kind. There is no age limit. All that is required is that 
the purchaser be in good physical and mental condition when he 
buys the ticket. The training school presents a three years' course 
of practical and theoretical training in modern medical and sur- 
gical science. The nurses entering the institution to prepare for 
their life's work get a practical knowledge of cases of all kinds. 
They get also the benefit of the lectures given by outside physi- 
cians and citizens, and the efficiency of the work of the graduates 
is proven by the fact that they are continually in demand. 


The Eau Claire County Tuberculosis Sanatorium was officially 
opened on Monday, December 15, 1913, when the twenty patients 
who had made application were admitted for treatment. 

"When approaching the new institution one is struck by the 
beauty of the site. It is situated ou the south slope of Mt. Wash- 
ington, protected from north and westerly winds by the bluff. 
The front windows overlook the Chippewa Valley. The site con- 
sists of nine acres of well drained land, where the patients may 
pitch their tents or build their shacks, or work in the garden, that 
will be kept in connection, if they are able. The view from every 
window is grand. A long search for a better site than the present 
would probably be in vain. The building is cement plaster and 
sloat finished, contracted for by the E. M. Fish Company for 
$16,000, exclusive of equipment. The site was purchased by the 
Eau Claire Anti-Tuberculosis Society, which also guaranteed 
equipment. This was raised by popular subscription. It is due 
to the efforts of the committee that the society has been so suc- 
cessful in raising enough money for equipping the institution. 


Following is what the county has done for the tuberculosis sana- 
torium: April, 1912, $4,000 appropriated; November, 1912, 
$12,000 tax levy made ; April, 1913, $500 appropriated ; November, 
1913, $8,266.35 appropriated and $12,000 tax levy made ; $20,000 
of this remains. 

The two wings of the building are occupied by twenty-four 
patients' single rooms and four large porches at the ends of the 
wings. These porches are open and have only heavy canvas cur- 
tains, which were put iu place by William Schroeder. 

The four patients' single rooms were furnished at an esti- 
mated cost of $33 each, but in reality cost a little more. They 
have their windows in the front of the building with the hall in 
the rear. The large part to the rear is occupied by the kitchen, 
serving rooms, office and cook's and maid's apartments. It may 
be interesting to know that the large living room and dining- 
room was furnished by a donation from the Elks and Knights of 
Columbus, and that much of the mission furniture was manufac- 
tured at our own Phoenix Furniture Company. The lodges fur- 
nished the electric fixtures also. These were furnished by the 
county in the other rooms. 

The floors throughout the building are of hardwood and all 
the walls are of the same spotless white. There are magazines 
and books on the rack beside the large cheerful fireplace. The 
woodwork is selected Georgia pine with two panel doors. The 
mantelpiece is a solid three-inch piece of the same wood. The 
next place to be inspected was the kitchen, where Mrs. Julia A. 
Brown holds full sway. It is here that all the food will be cooked. 
The cupboard is used for the dishes of the nurses and the help 
and such supplies as are needed for the day. A splendid Majestic 
range is to be seen here, which was purchased from the Foss- Arm- 
strong Company. The Norden Lodge donated the money for this 
and also for the fine kitchen utensils, which were purchased from 
Schlieve Bros. The fine cooling room was built by the "Wisconsin 
Refrigerator Company, and paid for by a donation from the 
Masonic Lodge. The dishes used in the institution are the 
unbreakable rolled edge Syracuse china purchased through Mr. 
Richard Kaiser, the money being given by the Norwegian 
Lutheran church and a $50 check from an "Unknown Friend." 

Nothing that leaves the kitchen going to the patients will 
return. The food is taken to the serving room, where it is dished 
up by the maid. When the dishes are returned they are washed 
and sterilized. The same care that is used here is in force all over 
the building, so there is no danger of infection. A dumb waiter 


is used for sending the food to patients on the upper floor and 
bringing supplies up from the basement. The office of the super- 
intendent, ]\Iiss Ramstead, is simply furnished, as she will spend 
much of her time looking after the patients. There will be two 
other day nurses and one night nurse on the staff. Dr. R. E. 
Mitchell will serve in the capacity of visiting physician. Miss 
Ramstead 's parents live in this city, but she has for several years 
been connected with the city hospital at Minneapolis. 

The entrance will be in the angle of the building on the east 
side. This opens into the reception room, adjoining the superin- 
tendent's office. The drive leads around the building. 

The single rooms on the first floor are very cheerfully fur- 
nished, with the regulation hospital beds and a solid maple chair. 
A flue for ventilation opens into each room. It was planned to 
have a locker for the patients' clothes under these flues, but it 
was found to be too great an expense, so closets have been pro- 
vided. There are drinking fountains in the halls and bath rooms 
within easy reach. 

The halls open onto the porches at either end and the beds will 
pass through the doors easilj% so when the patients cannot be 
moved their beds can be rolled out. There are two windows in 
each room, so there will not be a lack of light. There are two 
wheel chairs for those who are able to sit up, and more will be 
provided later if it is seen that they are necessary. 

Two double nurses' rooms occupy the front of the second floor. 
They are furnished with a fumed oak dresser and chairs. Across 
the hall is the room that will be occupied by the night nurse. The 
patients' rooms are the same as those on the flrst floor and there 
is a ward containing four beds. The sanitary rugs which were 
given by the Woman's Club deserve particular mention, as they 
were seen in every patient's room and in the living room. The 
women of the club sewed the rags for them during the last sum- 
mer and had them woven by Mr. and Mrs. Richard Koshoshck, 
McDonough street. C. H. Metcalf will have charge of the base- 
ment. There is a grocery room, a vegetable room, the janitor's 
room, rooms for coal and wood, a laundry and a trunk room. 

The object of the sanatorium is to provide treatment for the 
more advanced cases of pulmonary tuberculosis from Eau Claire 
county. Should there at any time be vacancies, suitable patients 
from other counties may be admitted. In every instance the 
patient must make an application for admittance, and no one will 
be received without having received a previous notice from the 
superintendent. So far as is practical, the treatment will consist 


essentially of out of door living, an abundance of wholesome, 
nutritious food together with supervision of exercise and rest. 
Such medical treatment as seems best indicated will be prescribed 
for the individual case. As a part of their prescribed exercise 
l^atients may be required, as their condition permits, to do a cer- 
tain amount of useful labor. This applies equally to those paying 
for their maintenance, as well as to those who do not pay. 

Application for admission to the sanatorium must be made in 
writing upon blanks provided for that purpose, which will be fui-- 
nished by the superintendent upon request. As soon as this formal 
routine is completed in a satisfactory way the applicant may be 

It is expected that every patient will pay the cost of his or her 
maintenance, if able to do so. This amount, at present, is $10.00 
per week but may be raised or lowered at any time if found 
necessary or advisable. 

For those unable to pay any part of their maintenance, pro- 
vision is made whereby they may be admitted at the expense of 
the county in which they reside upon recommendation of the 
judge of the probate court. For those desiring to take advantage 
of this provision of the law, necessary blanks will be furnished 
upon request. To meet the requirements of those who are unable 
to pay the full cost of their maintenance, but who are able or 
desirous of paying a portion of the amount, provision is made 
for a rate of $5.00 per week, if the probate judge, after investiga- 
tion, shall have found that tlie patient is really unable to pay 
more than that amount. 

Clarence Sprague, Charles A. Cox and W. K. Coffin are the 
trustees of the institution. 

The following is the list of those who furnished the rooms — 
and they are given in the order in which they were received. 
Later the rooms will be numbered to correspond with this list. 

1. The Rev. A. B. C. Dunne. 2. Tom Fleming. 3. Mrs. Kate 
Porter. 4. Alex Dean. 5. 0. H. Ingram. 6. Mr. and Mrs. George 
Lufkin. 7. German Reading Club. 8. Chippewa Valley Ladies' 
Aid (Jewish). 9. Louis Levy. 10. Labor Organizations (A. T. 
Le Due). 11. The Kepler Co. 12. Ninth Ward Social Center. 
13. Knights of Maccabees. 14. Mrs. C. H. Ingram. 15. Tenth 
Ward Civic Center League. 16. ShawtoM^n Ladies. 17. St. 
John's German Lutheran Church (Rev. A. F. Augustine). 18. 
Our Saviour's Norwegian Lutheran Church. 19. E. B. Ingram. 
20. Mt. Hope Church (Town of Brunswick). 21. Christ Episco- 


pal Church. 22. Helping Hand Society (Town of Washington). 
23. U. C. T. 24. King's Daughters of Shawtown. 

In closing, special mention may be made of the fine appear- 
ance of the building when it was lighted up. It was remarked by 
several as they approached it in the evening, "that it had the ap- 
pearance of a fine summer hotel in the mountains." 


The organization of the American Medical Association in 
1846-47, as a national representative body composed of dele- 
gates from the several states, gave a fresh and strong impetus 
to the woi-k of uniting the members of the profession in social 
organizations for mutual improvement and scientific advance- 
ment, in every part of the country. Wisconsin as well as nearly 
every state in the Union has her medical society, and a few years 
ago the medical society of the Chippewa Valley was organized, 
to which a good many doctors from Eau Claire county held mem- 
bership, and in 1902, the Eau Claire County Medical Society was 
formed with the greater part of the practicing physicians as mem- 
bers. The first president of the society was Dr. J. V. R. Lyman, 
who in turn has been succeeded by doctors J. F. Farr, Chr Midel- 
fart, D. W. Ashum, A. L. Payne and F. S. Cook. The purpose of 
the organization is to bring the doctors closer together, and create 
a good fellowship feeling atoong them, and for the discussion of 
important medical subjects. Special papers are discoursed at 
the meetings by members of the society on the important issues 
of the day, calculated to impart to the members the latest dis- 
coveries in medical science for the up-to-date treatment of dis- 

The following is a list of the members of the society : 
Dr. D. W. Ashum, P. B. Amundson, J. 0. Arnson, J. C. Baird, 
R. R. Chase, W. J. Clancy, F. S. Cook, M. C. Crane, H. F. Derge, 
J. F. Farr, L. H. Flynn, H. A. Fulton, J. B. Goddard, Dr. E. P. 
Hayes, E. S. Hayes, A. P. Hahn, Sue Ilebard, Dr. Fred Johnson, 
F. A. La Breck, J. V. R. Lyman, E. L. Mason, J. Mathiesen, C. 
Midelfart, R. E. Mitchell, Alex. Montgomery, John L. Montgom- 
ery, Wm. Montgomery, A. L. Payne, H. P. Prill, P. E. Riley, W. 
0. Seemann, E. M. A. Sizer, G. M. Smith, A. D. H. Thrane, E. E. 
Tupper, R. F. Werner, E. H. Winter, S. Williams, C. W. Wil- 
kowske, A. E. Olson, Oscar Knutson, H. C. Ericksen. 


Edwin J. Farr, M. D., came to Kenosha in 1855, and the fol- 
lowing year removed to Prairie du Sac, Sauk county, and in 1857 
to Mauston, Juneau county, and in 1869 to Eau Claire. He was 
born at Corinth, Orange county, Vermont, August 24, 1832. He 
was educated at Castleton Medical College and graduated in 
1851, and practiced at White River Junction, Vermont, until he 
came to Wisconsin. He was assistant surgeon of the Second Wis- 
consin Volunteer Infantry for five months, and with Thirtieth 
Wisconsin Regiment for nearly three years. He was post surgeon 
at Ft. Sully from July, 1863, to October, 1864, and had charge of 
the prison hospital at Louisville from January to August, 1865. 

Dr. Farr was mayor of the city of Eau Claire and railroad 
surgeon for the Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha and the 
Wisconsin & Minnesota Railway Companies. He was a member 
of the A. F. & A. M. (Grand High Priest and Grand Master), 
I. 0. 0. F. and A. 0. U. W. He was married at White River Junc- 
tion in January, 1855, to Emily L. Sawyer. They had two chil- 
dren, tAvins: Ewin B. and Emily B., born August 14, 1867. Dr. 
Farr died July 10, 1914. 

Dr. W. T. Galloway was born in Ogdensburg, St. Lawrence 
county, New York, April 15, 1822, and graduated from Castleton 
Medical College at Castleton, Vermont. He began practice in 
1850. He went to Fond du Lac in 1851, remaining there until he 
came to Eau Claire in 1857. He was appointed register of the 
United States land office, and held that position until 1861. He 
served six years as alderman of Eau Claire, was supervisor three 
years when Eau Claire was a village, and six years after it became 
a city. He was engaged for four years in the manufacture of 
lumber on Duncan creek, near Chippewa Falls, and for twelve 
years in foundry and machine shops in Chippewa Falls and Eau 
Claire, besides managing a farm. In 1874 he built the Galloway 
house and numerous dwellings. He erected the foundry and 
machine shops at Chippewa Falls, which was later converted into 
gas works. He stood as an ancient Odd Fellow and had taken aU 
the degrees in Masonry. 

Charles E. Hogeboom, M. D., came to Eau Claire and engaged 
in the piactice of medicine in May, 1876. He graduated from 
Rush Medical College, class of 1869, and began his practice at 
Blackberry Station, Kane county, Illinois. He went from there 
to St. Charles, and remained there until he came to Eau Claire. 
He was born in DeKalb county, Illinois, April 28, 1846, and was 
educated in the public schools of that county, and the high school 
at Sycamore and by private instruction. 


Henry G. Morgan, M. D., came to Wisconsin in 1869 and 
located at Alma, where he practiced two years. He came to Eau 
Claire in 1871 and began his practice. He was born in Brecks- 
ville, Ohio, and got his medical education at the Chicago Medical 
College, graduating in the spring of 1868. 

Dr. James H. Noble M'as born in Madison, March 30, 1851. He 
was educated at the University of Wisconsin and studied medicine 
Avith Dr. Boweu, of Madison. He graduated from the Hahne- 
mann Medical College, of Chicago, in February, 1871, and came 
to Eau Claire, March 30, of that year. 

Dr. Edward H. Parker, who came to Eau Claire July 12, 1879, 
Avas born at Hartford, Washington county, in November, 1854, 
and moved to Fond du Lac when thirteen years old. Graduated 
from Fond du Lac high school in 1876, read medicine with Drs. 
Patchen and Bishop, of that place, graduated at Hahnemann Col- 
lege, Chicago, came to Eau Claire in 1879, and engaged in prac- 
tice with Dr. DM'ight W. Day, remaining with him until 1881. He 
died in 1913. 

George F. Hamilton, M. D., was born in Chemung county, New 
York, April 28, 1839. Came to Wisconsin in the fall of 1852, 
resided at Pond du Lac one year, moved to Oakfield, Dodge 
county, in 1853, remaining there until 1856, and then for a time 
lived in Hillsboro, Vernon county. In 1862 went to Sheldon, 
Monroe county, remaining there until 1866, then returned to 
Vernon county, residing at Bloomingdale one year and two years 
in Springville, then for one year resided at Sparta. In 1870 he 
went to Augusta. He received his medical education at the Ben- 
nett Eclectic Medical College, Chicago, and commenced practice 
in 1866. After coming to Augusta he ran a drug store in connec- 
tion with his practice. He was the first village president of 
Augusta who was elected on the no-license ticket. He enlisted in 
Company I, Thirty-seventh Wisconsin Volunteers, was discharged 
March 18, 1865, on account of wounds received before Peters- 
burg, Va. 

Dr. W. W. Allen came to Eau Claire in tlie spring of 1857, 
and with George W. Sanford opened the first shanty store in 
the village located on the banks of the Chippewa. Dr. Allen 
left Eau Claire with Captain Wheeler's company in the fall of 
1863, and on the reorganization of the Second Wisconsin Regi- 
ment was appointed assistant surgeon. He continued with the 
regiment until mustered out at the close of the war and then 
settled at Mason City, Iowa, where he died and was buried on 
June 20, 1878. 


Dr. Dwight W. Day came to Eau Claire from Elkader, Clinton 
county, Iowa, in October, 1868, and engaged in the practice of 
his profession. He was born in the town of Eagle, Wyoming 
county, New York, May 14, 1841, and graduated from the Buffalo 
Medical College February 22, 1861. He was resident physician 
in the Buffalo General Hospital and Lying In Hospital, and was 
surgeon of the One Hundred and Fifty-fourth New York Volun- 
teer Infantry. He went out as first assistant .surgeon, was pro- 
moted to surgeon of the regiment and to acting brigade surgeon. 
He served three years in the medical department, and then 
returned to Arcade, New York, where he practiced until 1866, 
when he moved to Iowa. His father was a prominent doctor in 
Eagle, New York. Dr. Day was a brother of the late Henry 
Day and a cousin of Dr. R, R. Chase. He died in 1901 while 
reading a paper before the Medical Society in Eau Claire, which 
sudden demise was characteristic of the Day family. Dr. Day 
was a good doctor and had many warm friends. 

Dr. Henry Day was born in Eagle, Wyoming county. New 
York, September 1, 1840. He was educated in the Buffalo Med- 
ical College, graduating in 1860. He commenced practice at 
Arcade, remaining there until he came to Wisconsin. He was 
in the state in practice with his brother in 1876, and came to Eau 
Claire in 1881. Dr. Day was assistant surgeon of the Seventy- 
eighth New York Volunteer Infantry, and acting surgeon of that 
regiment for six months during the war. While his practice here 
never assumed the proportions that his brother's did, he had a 
good general practice and was well liked. He was twice mar- 
ried. His first wife still lives in her old New York home, while 
his second wife is matron of the Sparta Home for Dependent 

Dr. Clinton Straw Chase was born May 25, 1831, and came 
from Springtield, Vermont, to Eau Claire. He fitted for college 
at Springfield, Vermont, graduated from Dartmouth College in 
1852, studied medicine at Castleton and in New York City, and 
received his degree of M. D. in 1855. Practiced two years at 
Springfield and was in the drug business there and at Detroit, 
Michigan. He came to Eau Claire in 1859 and went into the drug 
business with Dr. Skinner, theirs being the first drug store in 
the Chippewa Valley. He died at Detroit about 1899. October 
29, 1869, he married Harriet Eliza Sherwin, of Weathersfield, Ver- 
mont, and had three children: Anna, Alfred and Alice. 

Dr. Ketchum was another one of the early doctors who prac- 
ticed but a sliort time here, when he moved to the far west. He 


practiced here during the reign of Dr. Chase and Dr. Skinner, 
and these three physicians were styled in a sort of floating joke 
as "Chase 'em, Ketch 'em and Skin 'em." 

Dr. W. W. Day was born in the state of New York, came to Eau 
Claire county in 1858 and settled on a farm between Eau Claire 
and Chippewa Falls, where he farmed and practiced medicine. 
He later came to Eau Claire and practiced his profession until 
he moved to Walla Walla, Washington, in about 1879, where he 

William Young, farmer and physician, came to Wisconsin in 
1839. Located in Waukesha county, farming some two years; 
then in Jefferson county for fifteen years, farming and practicing 
medicine. Came to Eau Claire county in 1856, engaged in farm- 
ing and practicing medicine for many years. Was supervisor of 
Otter Creek township for several years. He was born in Scot- 
land in 1816 and came to America in 1828. 

Peter McKittrick, M. D., was born near Lauart, Ontario, 
•January 7, 1866, coming to this country when a young man of 
tender years to carve out a future for himself. By application 
and thrift the subject of this sketch procured an education and 
took up the profession of teaching. Later he attended the Rush 
Medical College, from which he graduated in February, 1889. 
Immediately after he began the practice of his profession at 
Thorp, Wis., and with the exception of one year he practiced 
there continuously till February, 1908. During the one year 
intervening the doctor practiced at Portland, Oregon. 

Seeking a larger field. Dr. McKittrick came to Eau Claire 
from Thorp and had since continuously resided and practiced 
here. He was alone in the practice here until February 1, 1910, 
when he formed a partnership with Dr. E. L. Mason. 

The doctor had been ailing for several months, and after this 
prolonged illness he died December 17, 1913. All recognized in 
Dr. McKittrick a man of strong character and kindly disposition 
— the kind that makes the world better and brighter for their 
having lived. It can be truthfully said that Dr. McKittrick 's 
existence was void of enmity. His traits of character were such 
as to endear him and draw him closer in the bonds of friendship 
to those who formed acquaintance and association with him. 
Thus it is but natural, even in anticipation of the inevitable, that 
the summons would bring tears, grief and sorrow to family, 
friends and acquaintances. 

Joseph J. Selbach, M. D. Among the able physicians of Eau 
Claire county whose life was devoted to the benevolent work of 


alleviating the sufferings of humanity none stood more prominent 
than Dr. Selbaeh. A native of Germany, he was born August 2, 
1864, and came to America in 1883. His primary education was 
received in the common schools of Germany, which was supple- 
mented by a thorough course at the University of Ann Arbor, 
from which he graduated with honor. His medical education was 
received at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in Chicago, 
from which institution he was graduated in 1887. Upon the 
arrival of Dr. Selbaeh in this country he came to Wisconsin, 
locating at Green Bay and there made his home until 1888, when 
he moved to Eau Claire and commenced the practice of medi- 
cine in this city. A man of culture and attainments, he possessed 
excellent personal qualities, which won for him the esteem of 
all with whom he came in contact. As a member of the Inter- 
County Medical Society he was often called upon for papers on 
topics of interest to his profession, and his opinions were much 
valued by his associates. He was popular in the social circles of 
Eau Claire, and one of his chief diversions was fine music, both 
vocal and instrumental. 

Dr. Selbaeh was a leading member of the German Catholic 
church, a member of the Catholic Order of Foresters, also the 
Catholic Knights of Wisconsin and of the Equitable Fraternal 
Union. He married Mary M. Hedergott at Green Bay, Wis., and 
eight children were born to them : Joseph W., William J., August 
H. was drowned at the age of eight years, Hubert H., Cecelia M., 
Amelia M., Lucile I. and Marie A. The two elder sons, Joseph W. 
and William J., are bright and promising young men, holding 
positions in the Union National Bank, of Eau Claire. Hubert H. 
is employed at the International Harvester Company office in Eau 
Claire as bookkeeper. 

F. R. Skinner, M. D., was born in Utica, New York, April 21, 
1831. He began his education in the old Utica Academy, was at 
Clinton Liberal Institute one year, Utica Academy five or six years 
and at Springfield Wesleyan Academy preparing for college. He 
entered Dartmouth College in the fall of 1849 and graduated in 
1852. He then went to Castleton, Vermont, to study medicine, 
and graduated in 1854. He attended a course of medical lec- 
tures in New York City, and after reading awhile with Professor 
.Goldsmith and also Dr. Bodd, of Utica, he took a general tour of 
the West and Southwest. He located at Stevens Point in the fall 
of 1855, was taken sick in the spring of 1856 and returned to 
New York. He came to Eau Claire in 1857, spending a few 
months in Stillwater, Minnesota, learning the banking business. 


In the interim he built aud started a drug store in Eau Claire, 
wliirli he ran till the spring of 1869, when he sold out to Farr, 
Freneli & Co. He died March 1, 1904. 

Dr. Arthur Thrane, M. D., came to Eau Claire in November, 
1875, and has since been engaged in the practice of medicine here. 
He was born in Norway, January 26, 1844, and came to America 
in April, 1865. Remaining in New York one year he came to 
Chicago and commenced the study of medicine with Dr. Paoli, 
and graduated from Rush Medical College in 1868, beginning his 
practice in Chicago. 

Christian H. U. Midelfart, M. D., a prominent and successful 
physician of Eau Claire, was born in Christiania, Norway, August 
5, 1865, the son of Peter A. aud Nicolena (Solberg) Midelfart. 
He was reared to manhood in his native country, received his 
classical education in private schools and his medical education 
was obtained in the University of Norway at Christiania, where 
he was graduated in 1892. In 1893 he came to the United States 
and located in Eau Claire, where he has since succeeded in build- 
ing up a large and lucrative practice, second to none in this sec- 
tion of the state, and is widely known as one of the leading mem- 
bers of his profession. He was the first member of his family to 
emigrate to the United States. He was married in 1898 to Mar- 
garet, daughter of Rev. Ilalvard and (Helberg) 

Hande, of Chicago, Illinois, who were formerly of Norway. Her 
father was a clergyman of the Lutheran church and after com- 
ing to the United States preached the gospel for several years, 
and later engaged in newspaper work for the Norden Newspaper, 
published in Chicago, and was considered one of the best Nor- 
wegian penmen in the Ignited States. Dr. Midelfart and wife 
are the parents of eight children : Anna L., Margaret E., Dangny 
N., Peter A., Christian F., Ingeborg, Elise and Signe. The doctor 
is a member of the Eau Claire County Medical Society, of which 
he served one term as president, the Wisconsin State Medical 
Society, the American Medical Association and the Norwegian 
Physicians' Society. He was one of the directors of the Luther 
Hospital, aud is at the head of the medical and surgical staff of 
that institution. He occupies a prominent place in social circles 
of the city aud in politics is affiliated with the democratic party. 

Roy E. Mitchell, M. D., of Eau Claire, has attained the front 
rank among the members of his profession in the city. He was 
born at Porter's Mills, this county, March 17, 1876, a son of 
Squire F. and Laura (Mcintosh) Mitchell, natives of the state 
of New York and Maine respectively. His paternal grandfather. 


Samuel Mitchell, whose wife was Adaline Lombard, settled iu 
the town of Brunswick, Eau Claire county, in 1871. He was a 
lumberman and farmer, cleared and improved a farm in that town 
and died there. His maternal grandfather, Benjamin G. Mcin- 
tosh, a native of Maine, with his wife, Lydia, were also pioneers 
of the town of Brunswick, where they settled in 1864, cleared a 
part of a farm of 200 acres and resided in the town until his 
death in May, 1913, aged eighty-nine years. He was a prominent 
man of affairs and served as a member of the county board several 
terms. Squire F. Mitchell, father of our subject, was born in 
Allegany county. New York, November 4, 1851, and attended 
the common schools of liis native state until fifteen years of age. 
He came to Eau Claire county in 1871 and entered the employ 
of the Daniel Shaw Lumber Company, Avhich was the commence- 
ment of his career, details of which are more fully given in his 
sketch to be found elsewhere in this work. 

Dr. Mitchell was reared in his native town, received his educa- 
tion in the schools of Eau Claire and graduated from the medical 
department of tlie University of Minnesota in the class of 1901. 
He served as interne and chief of staff of the Metropolitan (B. I.) 
Hospital, New York City, for one and a half years, and in the 
New York state service at Middletown, New York, nine years. 
In August, 1911, he located at Eau Claire and has since built up 
a lucrative practice. He was married September 1, 1908, to 
Emily, daughter of John Dean and Lucy (Talcott) Judson, of 
Vernon, New York, and has two children: Marjorie D. and 
Mancel T. 

Dr. Mitchell is a member of the Eau Claire Medical Society, 
the Wisconsin State Medical Society, the American Medical Asso- 
ciation and the Amei-ican Medico-Psycological Association. He 
is also a member of Eau Claire Lodge No. 112, A. P. and A. M. ; 
Eau Claire Chapter No. 36, R. A. M. ; Eau Claire Commandery 
No. 8, K. T. ; the Germania Lodge No. 49, K. of P., I'ku Claire, 
and the Modern Woodmen of America No. 3159, town of Bruns- 
wick, Eau Claire county. Politically he is independent. In 
December, 1913, Dr. Mitchell was appointed visiting physician 
to the new Mt. Washington Tuberculosis Sanitarium. 

Hiram A. Fulton, M. D., is another one of the progressive and 
representative medical men of Eau Claire and the son of Marcus 
and Adelia (Ansley) Fulton, natives of New York state. Com- 
ing from Geneva, New York, to Hudson, Wisconsin, in the early 
sixties, the father embarked in the real estate business and was 


oue of the prominent and influential business men of that place, 
where he resided until his death at the age of fifty-eight years. 

Dr. Fultou was born November 23, 1877, at Hudson, Wiscon- 
sin. He was educated in the public schools of that place and the 
McAlister College at St. Paul, Minnesota, and received his med- 
ical education at the Marquette College, iu Milwaukee. Enter- 
ing the medical department of last named institution in 1897 he 
was graduated in 1901 and iu June of the same year located at 
Eau Claire, where he has since succeeded in building up a large 
and growing practice. On November 5, 1902, he was united in 
marriage with Miss Jeauuette Putnam, daughter of Samuel and 
Caroline (Balcom) Putnam, of Eau Claire. To tliis union has 
been born oue daughter — Frances C. 

Dr. Fulton is a member of the Eau Claire County Medical 
Society and the Wisconsin State Medical Society. He is a Royal 
Arch Mason, stands high with the medical profession of the city 
and is much esteemed for his social qualities. 

John B. Mathiesen, M. D., ranks among the prosperous young 
professional men of Eau Claire. He was born in Drammen, Nor- 
way, November 13, 1872, the son of Thomas and Marie (Berger) 

Tlie subject of this sketch was raised in his native town, 
received his education in private schools and the gymnasium. 
Having determined to fit himself for the practice of medicine, he, 
in 1890, entered the medical department of the University of 
Norway at Christiania, and was graduated from there with the 
class of 1898. He began his practice in Norway the same year 
and remained thus engaged until 1900, when he came to the 
United States and located in Eau Claire, where with the excep- 
tion of three years spent abroad and two years spent in practice 
at Whitehall he lias been associated with Dr. Christian Midelfart. 
He is a member of the Eau Claire County Medical Society, the 
Wisconsin State Medical Society and the American Medical 

On June 24, 1903, Dr. ilathiesen married Miss Augusta, daugh- 
ter of Einar Selmer, for many years a prominent druggist of Eau 
Claire. They are the parents of three children — Anna, Erling 
and Birgit IMatliiesen. 

Albert F. Hahn, M. D., physician and surgeon, of Eau Claire, 
Wisconsin, was born on a farm in Butler county, Iowa, April 17, 
1868, a son of August H. and Thusnelda (Kaltwasser) Hahn, both 
of whom were natives of Germany. His father came to the United 


States in 1849 and for eighteen years was variously employed in 
the states of Pennsylvania, Illinois and Colorado. He went to 
Iowa in 1866 and settled on a farm in Butler county, where he 
was successfully engaged in general farming until 1889, Avhen he 
retired. After a long and busy life he died at Shellrock, Iowa, 
in November, 1902, aged seventy-one years. The death of his 
wife, mother of the doctor, occurred in 1889, at the age of forty- 
three years. 

Raised on the homstead farm in his native state, Dr. Halm 
acquired his primary education in the district schools, which was 
supplemented by courses of study at Wartburg College, Waverly, 
Iowa, and the Iowa State Normal School at Cedar Falls. During 
the years of 1888, '89 and '90 he taught school, and in the fall 
of the last named year matriculated with the Rush Medical Col- 
lege in Chicago, where he spent two years and was graduated 
from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Chicago in 1893, 
and was a post-graduate from the Chicago Clinical School in 
1896. He began the practice of his profession at Michieot, Mani- 
towoc county, Wisconsin, in 1893. In 1898 he located in the city 
of Eau Claire, where he has since conducted a successful and con- 
stantly growing practice. 

Dr. Hahn was married June 1, 1898, to Anna Gutwasser, 
daughter of Fred and Bertha (Hafermeister) Gutwasser, promi- 
nent residents of Dorchester, Wisconsin. Dr. and Mrs. Hahn 
have an interesting family of three children — Thusnelda, Cecil F. 
and Waldemar. The doctor is a member of the American Medical 
Association, the Wisconsin Medical Society and is prominently 
identified with the Knights of Pythias, the Maccabees and Mystic 
Workers. Mrs. Hahn is a descendant in the fourth generation on 
the paternal side from that sturdy Milwaukee pioneer, Gutwasser. 

Dolenna Carlos Leavens, M. D., Fairchild, Wisconsin, is one 
of the prominent physicians of Eau Claire county. He was born 
on a farm in Lee Center township, Lee county, Illinois, April 26, 
1850, the son of Daniel T. and Angeline (DeWolf) Leavens, 
natives of New York and Pennsylvania respectively. They were 
among the pioneers of Lee county, taking up land in Brooklyn 
township, that county, in an early day, which they improved. In 
later life the father retired from active labor, moving to Lee 
Center and resided there until his decease at the age of eighty-one 
years, and where also the mother died at the age of eighty-nine 
years. Of a family of twelve children born to them, ten grew to 
maturity: Dolenna C. ; Euretta married D. M. Sawyer; Estella 
married Cyrus Clark ; Freeman B. ; Ernest ; Elviek and Josephine, 


who married I. N. Wood. Those deceased are Alfred, Eugene and 

Dr. Leavens was reared on the homestead farm in Lee county, 
Illinois, receiving his early education in the common schools. He 
began the study of medicine in 1875 with Dr. J. H. Broffet, of 
Paw Paw, Illinois. He entered Rush Medical College, Chicago, in 
1880 and graduated with the class of 1883. The same year he 
began practice at Lee Center, Illinois, remaining there for sixteen 
years, whence he moved to Amboy, Illinois, and practiced there six 
years. In 1902 on account of ill health he came to Wisconsin and 
purchased eighty acres of land in the town of Fairchild, Eau 
Claire county, and was there engaged in farming two years. He 
later took the examination before the Wisconsin State Board of 
Medical Examiners and has since been in the active and success- 
ful practice of his profession in the village of Fairchild. 

Dr. Leavens has been twice married. His first wife was Helen, 
daughter of Jacob N. and Lydia (Robinson) Hill, of Lee county, 
Illinois, by whom he had three children, viz. : Mae, wife of 
Thomas Courtright; Daniel Earl and Carl II. Mrs. Leavens died 
in 1895, and the doctor married the second time Ella F. Taylor, 
daughter of Ephriam and Ellen (Clatiin) Taylor, of Lee Center, 
111., and by her has one son — Wray T. 

Fraternally Dr. Leavens is a member of Lee Center Lodge 
No. 146, A. F. and A. M., of which he was Master one term. He 
is an honorary member of the Lee County Medical Society and 
politically is a republican. 

David W. Ashuin, M. D. Standing prominent among the 
medical profession of Eau Claire county is Dr. David W. Ashum, 
who was born iu Findley, Ohio, January 18, 1854. His parents 
were John and Fannie (French) Ashum, natives of Virginia and 
descended from German and English ancestry. The father was 
a farmer by occupation, and both parents were of fine sensibil- 
ities, high minded, cultured tastes, of refined manner and charm- 
ing personality, and were highly esteemed for their sterling qual- 
ities of mind and heart, and many blessings followed them for 
their acts of charity to those in need. Tliey both died when Dr. 
Ashum was a small boy. 

The early education of Dr. Ashum was principally received in 
Michigan. He became interested in the study of medicine and 
applied himself arduously to it under the preceptorship of Dr. 
John A. Waterhouse, an eminent physician of Bay City, Mich- 
igan. He entered the Eclectic Medical Institute at Cincinnati, 
Ohio, and graduated with the class of 1881. He commenced his 


practice at Bay City, Mich., and at the end of one year he 
removed to Stevens Point, Wisconsin, where he organized a lum- 
berman's hospital, under the name of the Michigan and Wiscon- 
sin Hospital Company. In the spring of 1883 he removed to Eau 
Claire and here started another lumberman's hospital, which he 
conducted for seven years. He was instrumental in effecting the 
organization of the American Hospital Aid Association, at Stev- 
ens Point, Wausau, Eau Claire and Ashland, Wisconsin, and 
Minneapolis and Grand Rapids, Minnesota. 

As a practitioner Dr. Ashum has been successful. He has 
built up a large practice and made many warm friends among all 
classes of people. He keeps abreast of the times and is thor- 
oughly up-to-date in the practice of his profession. In the fall 
of 1889 he attended the new York Polyclinic, and he holds mem- 
bership in the National and State Eclectic Medical Societies. He 
is a member of the National Union, the Ancient Free and 
Accepted Masons and the A. 0. U. W. 

Dr. Ashum was married at Alpena, Michigan, May 17, 1883, to 
Miss Carrie Harper, daughter of John and Abbie (Milliken) 
Harper, the former a native of New Brunswick, and the latter 
of Maine, both descended from Scotch ancestry. 

Alexander Harper, father of John Harper, was born in Aber- 
deen, Scotland, and came to the western continent in 1818, first 
settling at Halifax. Benjamin IMilliken, father of Abbie Harper, 
was a native of Maine, and served in the War of 1812. His 
father, Joel Milliken, was a soldier in the War of the Revolution, 
and was likely born in this country, being a son of one of three 
brothers who came from Scotland, and who at one time owned 
nearly all of the Saco Valley, having purchased it from the 
Indians. Dr. and Mrs. Ashuna were the parents of two children : 
John H. and Maude Harper Ashum. Mrs. Ashum died March 
8, 1911. 

Ralph RolUn Chase, M. D., of Eau Claire, has attained to a 
prominent place in the ranks of the medical profession of Eau 
Claire county. He was born in Lima, Livingston county, New 
York, July 4, 1860, a son of Levi C. and Lucy A. (Crouch) Chase, 
and comes of English ancestry. Their coat of arms was obtained 
through Queen Ann, who knighted John Chase, who accompanied 
her from France as her licentiate or court physician when she 
returned to England to become queen in 1702. His father, who 
was born April 11, 1809, died in 1903, and his mother, who was 
born December 7, 1817, died April 10, 1891. 

Dr. Chase was graduated from the Geneseo College, New 


York, with the class of 1882. He later studied medicine in New 
York City, where he had rare clinical advantages at several hos- 
pitals, and was graduated from the medical department of the 
University of Minnesota in 1889, being valedictorian of his class 
and prosector. On April 22, 1889, he located at Eau Claire, where 
he has since been in the active and successful practice of his pro- 
fession. Dr. Chase is a member of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation, the Wisconsin State Medical Society and the Eau Claire 
County Medical Society. He is a ;i2ii,l dcuicc .Mason and Shriner, 
also a member of the Knights of Pythias and tlie Knights of Her- 
mann, being past dictator and representative of the Grand Lodge 
of Wisconsin of the last named order. He is also a member of 
1 he Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, is medical examiner 
j'or the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and the Mutual Benefit 
Insurance Company of New Jersey. 

The Chase family is noted for its longevity and for their pref- 
erence for the medical profession, the majoi'ity of the male mem- 
liers of the family being disciples of Esculapius. Dr. Chase is a 
cousin of Drs. D wight and Henry Day, who successfully practiced 
tneir profession in Eau Claire for over thirty .years. Dr. Chase's 
father died in Eau Claire at the resideiu'e of our subject in 1903 
at the age of ninety-four years. 

Dr. Chase has large real estate holdings in Eau Claire. He 
was married June 1, 1908, to Belle, daughter of Lucius V. and 
Belle (Burdette) Ripley, of Eau Claire. 

In addition to the many other prominent positions filled by 
Dr. Cliase, he served as health physician for the cit.y of Eau Claire 
nine years. 

Arthur L. Payne, M. D. Standing prominent among the med- 
ical i>rofessiou of Eau Claire is Dr. A. L. Paj'ne, specialist in dis- 
eases of the eye, ear, nose and throat. He was born in Marietta, 
Ohio, January 16, 1866, the son of Wallace M. and Alary E. 
(Gates) Payne. The doctor received his preliminary education 
at the Marietta Academy, and in 1887 matriculated with the 
Starling Medical College at Columbus, Ohio, and was gi-aduated 
from the Ohio Medical College, which is now known as the med- 
ical department of the University of Cincinnati in 1890. He 
began his practice in the city of Dayton the same year, remaining 
there until 1899, during which time he took up the specialty of 
the eye, ear, nose and throat, in which he had made a special 
study. In the year 1899 he moved to Eau Claire and has since 
been engaged in a successful practice. 

On October 8, 1890. Dr. Pavue was married to Nellie R. 


Beachem, daughter of T. W. and Samantha (Terry) Beaeliem, of 
Dayton, Ohio, and they are the parents of one son — Norman B. 
Dr. Payne ranks among the leading specialists in Northwestern 
Wisconsin, and enjoys the confidence and esteem of the com- 
munity generally. He is a member of the Eau Claire County 
Medical Society, the Northwestern District of Wisconsin Med- 
ical Society, the Wisconsin State Medical Society, the American 
Medical Association, the American Academy of Ophthalmology 
and Autolaryngology, the College of Surgeons of America and 
the Clinical College of Surgeons. 

Dr. Payne is also prominent in fraternal and benevolent socie- 
ties, being a member of Dayton Lodge No. 147, Ancient Free and 
Accepted Masons, the Eau Claire Chapter No. 36, R. A. M. ; Eau 
Claire Commandery and the Benevolent and Protective Order of 

William 0. Seemann, M. D., Eau Claire, the well known spe- 
cialist in chronic disease, is the son of Hans and Mary (Peterson) 
Seeman, both natives of Schleswig, Holstein, Germany, who emi- 
grated to the United States in 1853. Upon arriving in this coun- 
try they settled in Lyons, Iowa, where the father engaged in farm- 
ing and made that his home until 1884, when he moved to South 
Dakota, having previously purchased a tract of valuable farming 
land there, making that his home until his death. 

Dr. Seeman was born in Lyons, Iowa, August 6, 1870, receiv- 
ing his preliminary education in the public schools of Sutherland, 
Iowa. In 1892 he entered the medical department of the State 
University at Iowa City, and was graduated with the class of 
1895, receiving his degree of M. D. Following his graduation lie 
served one year as interne in the hospital connected with the 
university, then went to Dubuque, Iowa, where he had charge of 
his brother's practice for one year. In 1897 he came to Eau Claire 
and has since been in active practice here. The doctor ranks 
among the foremost physicians of the city, and enjoys the con- 
fidence of a large clientele. 

On September 6, 1898, he married Miss Elizabeth, daughter of 
Gabriel and Elizabeth (Herd) Weis, of Dubuque, Iowa, and they 
are the parents of two children — Lester W. and Mary B. The 
doctor is a member of the Eau Claire County Medical Society, the 
Wisconsin State Medical Society and is also a member of the 
Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks and a 32nd degree 

Edward S. Hayes, M. D., one of the prominent physicians of 
Eau Claire, was born in Franklin county, JMaine, December 27, 


1856, a sou of Charles and Emma (Bullen) Hayes, both natives 
of Maine. Edward S. received his preliminary education in the 
public schools of Maine and prepared for college at the Maine 
Wesleyan Seminary, Kent's Hill, that state. He attended Amherst 
College one year — 1877 and 1878 — and then entered the medical 
department of Harvard University, graduating from the latter 
in 1881. He then spent one year as interne in the hospital at 
Providence, Rhode Island, and in 1883 located at Eau Claire, 
where he has since been actively engaged in the practice of medi- 
cine and has attained to a place of prominence among the med- 
ical profession. 

On June 1, 1887, Dr. Hayes married Miss Miriam, daughter of 
Orrin H. and Cornelia (Pierce) Ingram, pioneer of Eau Claire, 
and among her most highly respected citizens (sketch of whom 
appears elsewhere in this volume). Dr. and Mrs. Hayes have two 
children : Ruth I. and Edmund. 

Dr. Hayes is a member of the Eau Claire Medical Society, the 
Wisconsin State Medical Society and the American Medical Asso- 
ciation, and has been a member of the State Board of Health 
since 1909. Fraternally he is a member of Eau Claire No. 112, 
A. F. and A. M., and politically is a republican. 

Eugene E. Tupper, physician and surgeon, of Eau Claire, 
Wisconsin, was born in Sheboygan Falls, this state, January 15, 
1871, the son of George L. and Sarah (White) Tupper. His 
paternal grandfather, Eben Tupper, a native of NeAV Hampshire, 
was one of the first settlers in Sheboygan county, where he 
cleared up and improved a farm of 250 acres and was the first 
man to own a team of horses in that county. The doctor's 
maternal grandfather was Rand B. White, a native of New York 
state, who was also a pioneer of Sheboygan county. He was a 
carriage maker by trade and also a physician, having been 
graduated from a medical college in the state of New York. 

Dr. Tupper spent his boyhood in Sheboygan Falls, receiving 
his primary education in the public schools, which was supple- 
mented with a course at the Knox College, Galesburg, Illinois, 
and the University of Chicago. He entered the medical depart- 
ment of the Illinois University in Chicago, and was graduated 
with the class of 1905. The same year he began his practice at 
Hingham, Sheboygan county, remaining there until 1908, when 
he located in Eau Claire, and has since remained here in the 
active and successful practice of his profession. 

On November 1, 1900, Dr. Tupper married Rose D., daughter 
of Augustus D. and Celia (Doane) Bemis, of Plymouth, Wiscon- 


sill. Dr. Tupper is one of the foremost men of his profession, 
iu which lie is an efficient and conscientious worker, and enjoys 
the confidence of the community. He is a member of the Amer- 
ican Medical Association, the West Wisconsin District Medical 
Society, the Eau Claire County Medical Society, of which he has 
served as secretary. Also a member of the Wisconsin State 
Surgical Society. He is also a member of the Knights of Pythias 
and the Baptist cliurch. 

John Van Reed Lyman, M. D. Of the galaxy of medical men 
for which this part of the state of Wisconsin has gained no little 
fame, is to be found in the front rank, if not iu the very van, the 
gentleman whose name is here recorded. He was born iu North 
Pepin, Wis., January 13, 1857, a son of Reverend Timothy and 
Valleria (Reinhart) Lyman. The first known ancestor of the 
Lyman family was Thomas Lyman, who lived in England in 
1275. Dr. Lymairs first ancestor in America was Richard Lyman, 
who came from Norton, Mandeville, Parish of Ongai-, county of 
Essex, England, iu 1631, settling at Charlestou, Mass. Twenty- 
six members of the fifth and sixth generations in America fought 
for independence in the war of the revolution. The generations 
in liue of descent to our subject from Richard, were John, Moses, 
Moses, Elias, Timothy, Timothy, Timothy, and Timothy. Tim- 
othy III, grandfather of our subject, married Experience Bard- 
well and was a resident of Chester, Mass., Mdiere he died at the 
age of 52 years. Timothy, father of Dr. Lyman, was born August 
28, 1819, graduated from Amhurst College in 1844, and was or- 
dained to the Congregational ministry in 1850. For fifteen years 
he was engaged in missionaiy work in the west and south. He 
was installed pastor of a church iu Killingworth, Conn., in 1866, 
serving as active pastor of a church at Southwick, Mass., in 1869, 
and died at the age of 67 years at Bar Harbor, Maine. He was 
married to Valeria Van Reed Reinhart, June 15, 1854, and they 
had two sons, William Bardwell, M. D., a graduate of Rush Med- 
ical College, Chicago, in the class of 1880, located in Eau Claire 
in 1882, where he became prominent in his profession, and is now 
actively engaged in practice in Boise City, Idaho, and our subject. 

Dr. J. V. R. Lyman, second son and subject of this review, 
received an academic education at Fort Madison, loAva, gradu- 
ating therefrom in 1873. He then engaged in mercantile piirsuits 
until 1876, when he began the study of medicine and later was 
appointed hospital steward in the Ft. Madison, Iowa, penitentiary, 
where he enjoyed rare clinical advantages. In 1877 he attended 
the St. Louis Medical College and the followiug two years In* 


spent at the Rush Medical College in Chicago, where he was grad- 
uated in 1880. He located in Eau Claire the same year, where 
he has since been engaged in active and successful practice of his 
profession, making a specialty of surgery and gj'necology, de- 
voting considerable time to this specialty. In the meantime, he 
made a trip to Europe, spending some time in Berlin, where he 
took advanced instructions and now stands at the head of his 
profession in Eau Claire county. He is a member of the Amer- 
ican Medical Association and the Wisconsin State and Eau Claire 
County Medical Societies. 

E'r. Lyman was married Juue 7, 1881, to Maud, daughter of 
W. L. and Sarah (Williams) Kepler, pioneers of Eau Claire. To 
this union were born two children, John Van Reed, Jr., who is 
connected with tlie Press of Minneapolis, and Valeria, deceased. 

The present wife of Dr. Lyman was Mary, daughter of Otis C. 
and Harriet (Disbro) Sylvester, of Minneapolis, to whom he was 
married August 27, 1909, and by her has one son, Richard Van 

Dr. Lymaa is a 32nd degree Mason, and in politics a Repub- 
lican. A half-brother, Timothy Fifth, is a graduate of Dartmouth 
College and is noAV a student of medicine in the medical depart- 
ment of Leland Stanford University in California, and a half- 
sister, Helen jM.. a graduate of Mt. Hol.yoke Seminary, is a teacher 
in the high school of Eau Chi ire 

James Bell Goddard, M. D.,'- was born in Lena, Stephenson 
county, Illinois, October 25, 1856. His parents, William R. and 
Catherine (Bell) Goddard, were natives of Vermont and Penn- 
sylvania respectively. His paternal grandfather was a native 
of Vermont and one of the pioneers of Stephenson county, Illi- 
nois, and by occupation a farmer. He retired with a competency 
and died at the age of 92 years. His maternal grandfather, 
William Bell, was a native of Pennsylvania and made his home 
near Altoona. William R. Goddard, father of the doctor, came 
to Illinois with his parents when a boy and was a farmer by 
occupation. He fought in the Mexican war and when the civil 
war broke out raised a company at Lena and Freeport. Entering 
the service, he was promoted to Major of the 15th Illinois Regi- 
ment and served under General Grant and was killed in the 
battle of Shiloh, April 7, 1862. His wife, with her brother, Robert 
Bell, emigrated to Illinois via the Ohio and Mississippi rivers by 
boat. Landing at Savannah, 111., they traveled overland by teams 
to Stephenson county and there joined an elder brother for whom 
she kept house until her marriage. 


Dr. Goddard was reared on a farm, received his education in 
the public schools at Lena, 111., and Knox College at Galesburg, 
from which he graduated in 1886. The same year he matricu- 
lated with Rush Medical College of Chicago and was graduated 
in 1888. He began practice at Winslow, 111., remaining there 
until 1891, then spent a year and a half at Berlin and Vienna, 
taking laboratory and clinical work. On his return to the United 
States, he located at Austin, 111., where he remained until 1900, 
when he came to Eau Claire. He is now a member of the Eau 
Claire County and the "Wisconsin State Medical societies. 

Richard F. Werner, M. D.,*' was born in Eau Claire, September 
11, 1871, to Peter and Augusta (Kitzman) Werner. The parents 
of Peter Werner were natives of Germany and pioneer settlers 
of Sheboygan, Wis., and owned and operated the first saw mill 
there. He carried on lumbering until his death in 1854:. Tlie 
maternal grandfather, August Kitzman, a native of Germany, 
whose wife was Rose Otto, was among the pioneers of Eau Claire 
county. He was a farmer and lumberman, and died in 1898 at 
the age of 80 years. His wife died in 1911, aged 86 years. 
Peter Werner, father of our subject, came to Eaii Claire in 1862 
and followed lumbering also until he retired in 1902. He now 
resides in Los Angeles, Cal. There were five sons and three 
daughters in the family, viz: Charles, Richard F., Harriet, Henry, 
Otto H., Ewald, Helen, and Rose. 

Dr. Werner was educated in the public schools of Eau Claire 
and at the Beloit College. His medical education was obtained at 
the Rush Medical College of Chicago, from which he graduated 
in 1897. He began his practice at Augusta, remaining there until 
1095, when he removed to Eau Claire. He married November 15, 
1899, Agnes Keith, daughter of John and Agnes (Barlaud) 
Keith, and has three sons, Richard K., Keith, and Thomas. Dr. 
Werner is a member of the Presbyterian church, the Masons, Odd 
Fellows, Knights of Pythias, the Eau Claire County Medical So- 
ciety, the Wisconsin State Medical Society, the American Medical 
Association and the Congress of Surgeons of North America. 

Frederick Sutton Cook, M. D., Eau Claire's well known special- 
ist in diseases of the eye, ear, nose, and throat, is the son of 
Judge William Cook, one of the pioneer jurists of Davenport, 
Iowa, and Mary (Fletcher) Cook, natives of New York and 
Derbyshire, England, respectively. 

Dr. Cook was born in Davenport, Iowa, July 16, 1880, was 
reared in that city, receiving his primary education in the public 
schools. He afterward entered the Iowa State University Col- 


lege of Medicine, from which he was graduated iu 1906 with the 
degree of M. D. While attending college he acted as assistant to 
Professor L. W. Dean, of the university. He made a special study 
of diseases of the eye, ear, nose, and throat, and in 1907 came to 
Eau Claire, where he has since built up a large and lucrative 
practice in these specializations, and has become well and favor- 
ably known. 

On September 15, 1909, Dr. Cook was married to Ida Snyder, 
daughter of Samuel and Mary E. (Brown) Snyder, of Chippewa 
Falls. Dr. and Mrs. Cook have one daughter, Mary Elizabeth 
Cook. The doctor is a member of the Eau Claire Medical Society, 
president in 1914 the Wisconsin State Medical Society, West Wis- 
consin District Medical Society, the American Medical Associa- 
tion, and the Clinical Congress of Surgeons. He is prominently 
connected with Eau Claire Lodge, No. 112, Free and Accepted 
Masons, and of Eau Claire Chapter, No. 36, R. A. M., Eau Claire. 
He is also a member of Commandery Knights Templars, a member 
of Germania Lodge, No. 49, Knights of Pythias, and a member of 
the Episcopal church. 

Herman F. Derge, M. D. Standing prominent among the mem- 
bers of his profession in Eau Claire is Herman F. Derge, a son 
of Ferdinand and Ida (Schultz) Derge. Dr. Derge was born in 
Eau Claire, Wis., August 22, 1883. His paternal grandparents 
were Ferdinand and Augusta (Grewe) Derge, of the Province of 
Brandenburg, Germany, where the father was born January 25, 
1855. He came to America in 1870, locating first in Milwaukee. 
In 1875 he engaged in the manufacture of cigars with his brother 
Julius at Eau Claire, which business he continued until his death, 
which occurred in 1891. His wife, mother of our subject, was a 
native of J\Iilwaukee, and they were the parents of two sons, 
Herman F. and Ferdinand. Herman Schultz, matei-nal grand- 
father of Dr. Derge, a native of Germany, was a pioneer of the 
city of IMilwaukee and later of Eau Claire, where he settled in 

Dr. Derge Avas reared in this city, receiving his primary edu- 
cation in the public schools, which was supplemented by a thor- 
ough course in the Wisconsin State University at Madison, from 
which institution he was graduated in 1904 with the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts. He then entered the medical department of 
the Johns Hopkins University at Baltimore, Md., graduating with 
first honors in the class of 1908. While at the University of 
Wisconsin he was elected to the honorary fraternity. Phi Beta 
Kappa. At the Johns Hopkins University a similar honor was 


bestowed upon him when he was made a member of the honorary 
medical fraternity, Alpha Omega Alpha. From 1908 to 1910 he 
practiced as house physician at the Johns Hopkins hospital at 
Baltimore. Returning to Eau Claire in 1910, he began practice 
with Dr. Lyman as a member of the firm of Lyman & Derge, and 
since 1912 as a member of the firm of Lyman, Derge, and Curtis. 

Dr. Derge married September 8, 1909, Miss Margaret Ziegler, 
daughter of Dr. Charles B. and Jennie (Baker) Ziegler, of Balti- 
more, Md., and they have two children : Dorothy and Elizabeth. 
Dr. Derge stands high in his profession and in the social life of 
the community. He is a member of the Eau Claire County Med- 
ical Society, the Wisconsin State Medical Society, the Wisconsin 
Surgical Society, and the American Medical Association, and is 
prominently identified with the Jlasonic fraternity. 

John F. Farr, M. D.,* of Eau Claire, is the son of Rufus and 
Ellen (Thomas) Farr, and was born at Wellsboro, Pa., March 15, 
1862. His father, who was a native of Vermont, and his mother 
■ of Wales, came to Eau Claire in 1879, remaining here two years, 
whence in 1881 they located at Menomonie, Wis., where the father 
engaged in the hotel business, conducting the Menomonie House 
for several years. He later purchased the Merchants' Hotel, 
which he carried on until it was destroyed by fire, this being his 
second misfortune of the kind while a resident of Menomonie. 
After the destruction of the Merchants' Hotel, he went to Hudson, 
Wis., and there became the proprietor of the Chapin Hall House 
until 1895, when he retired from active business and returned to 
Eau Claire, where he died in 1902 at the age of 79 years. His 
family consisted of two sons, Frank, who is an attorney at law, 
occupies a prominent place in the legal profession of Eau Claire, 
and our subject. 

Dr. Farr was reared in Blassburg, Pa., receiving his education 
in the public schools. He came to Eau Claire with his parents in 
1879 and in 1881 embarked in the drug business with his brother 
Frank, under the firm name of Farr Brothers, in which business 
he continued until 1892. He entered the medical department of 
Hamlin University, Minneapolis, Minn., graduating therefrom in 
1897. He practiced one year before coming to Eau Claire, and 
since 1898 has been actively and successfully engaged in the 
practice of his profession in this city. 

On March 23, 1888, Dr. Farr married Miss Anna, daughter of 
Albert C. Peck, of Eau Claire, by whom he has three children, 
Ellen, John, and Marion. The doctor is a member of the Eau 
Claire County Medical Society, the Wisconsin State Medical So- 


eiety, and the American Medical Association. He has been health 
officer of Eau Claire since 1905. He is a member of the Masonic 
fraternity and of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. 

Everett L. Mason, M. D., whose entire business career has been 
devoted to the practice of medicine, ranks among the leaders of 
his profession in Ean Claire county. He was born in Eau Galle, 
Dunn county, Wisconsin, June 29, 1878. His parents, Edwin C. 
and Sarah Jane (Wilmarth) Mason, natives of Illinois and Athens, 
Ohio, respectively, settled in Dunn county, this state, about 1867, 
where the father purchased a farm and made his home until he 
retired from active labor, removing to Careyville, the same county, 
where he still resides. 

Dr. Everett L. Mason Avas reared in Dunn county, receiving 
his education in the public schools and the high school of Me- 
nomonie. He subsequently spent three years as a teacher in the 
public schools of Dunn and Pepin county, and in the fall of 1899 
began the study of medicine and was graduated from the Chicago 
Homeopathic Medical College Avith the class of 1903. After his 
graduation, he spent one and one-half years as interne in the 
Cook County (Illinois) Hospital, and in December, 1904, located 
in the city' of Eau Claire, where he practiced his profession until 
1908, at which time he took a post-graduate course at the North- 
western University of Chicago, graduating in the spring of 1909. 
He then returned to Eau Claire, where he has since been in an 
active and successful practice. 

Dr. Mason married September 15, 1909, Miss Agnes Shumway, 
daughter of Arnold Shumway, of Janesville, Wis., and has one 
son, Robert Arnold. For five years past Dr. Mason has been 
president of the Eau Claire Anti-Tuberculosis Association ; he is 
a member of the Eau Claire County Medical Society, Wisconsin 
State Medical and the American Medical Association. The doctor 
served as president of the Eau Claire County Medical Society 
for one year, and was for two years its secretary. Fraternally he 
is a Knight Templar Mason and a member of the Knights of 
Pj'thias, and Grand Medical Examiner of the Beavers' Reserve 
Fund Fraternity. 

William Montgomery, M. D., secretary of the Montgomery 
Hospital of Eau Claire, is a son of Alexander and Anna May 
Montgomery, natives of Glengarj-, Province of Ontario, Canada, 
and Eau Claire, respectively. Alexander Montgomery, father of 
William, is a graduate of the Illinois College of Medicine, and has 
been in the practice of his profession in Eau Claire since 1889. 
He founded the Montgomery Sanitarium in 1898, and the Mont- 


gomery Hospital in 1905, erecting the hospital buildings that 
year at a cost of $55,000, and since its completion the hospital has 
been constantly filled with patients. Its present officers are : 
Alexander Montgomery, Sr., president; John Montgomery, vice- 
president ; William Montgomery, secretary, and Alexander Mont- 
gomery, Jr., treasurer. Mrs. Montgomery, mother of our subject, 
was a daughter of August Benick, a pioneer of Eau Claire. Doctor 
and Mrs. Montgomery are the parents of six children : William, 
Alexander, Jr., practicing in Milwaukee ; John, practicing phy- 
sician in Eau Claire ; Elizabeth, Agnes, and Robert. 

Dr. William Montgomery was born in Eau Claire October 11, 
1886. He was educated in the public schools of Eau Claire and 
the Hyde Park high school of Chicago, and later graduated from 
the medical department of the Illinois University, and has been 
in the active practice of his profession in Eau Claire. In 1911 
he married Miss Alma, daughter of John Olson, of Eau Claire. 
The doctor is a member of the Eau Claire County Medical So- 
ciety, the Wisconsin State Medical Society, the American Medical 
Association and the Western District Medical Society of Wiscon- 
sin, the Knights of Columbus. Brotherhood of American Yeoman, 
and Equitable Fraternal Union. 

John Lawrence Montgomery, M. D.,* who belongs to the 
younger class of practicing physicians of Eau Claire, was born in 
this city March 2, 1890. His father, Dr. Alexander Montgomery, 
one of the well known ph.ysicians of the city, is president of the 
Montgomery Hospital, which was established by him in 1905. 

A native born son of Eau Claire, Dr. Montgomery received his 
primary education in the public schools. He later attended the 
Eau Claire Business College and took a course at the New Era 
Business College at Superior, Wis., after which he took a classical 
course at St. Norbets College at DePere, Wis., and studied phar- 
macy one year. He received his medical training at the Loyola 
University in Chicago, where he spent four years, graduating in 
1911, after which he spent one year in the Marquette Univer- 
sity and the Jefferson Park Hospital, and then located at Eau 
Claire, where he has since been in the active practice of his pro- 
fession, with offices in the Eau Claire Savings Bank building. 
He is connected with the Montgomery Hospital as vice-president, 
is a member of the Catholic Order of Foresters, the Equitable 
Fraternal Union and the Eau Claire County Medical Society. 

Dr. Montgomery was married in 1911 to Miss Winnifred 
Loughuey, daughter of Roger Loughey, of Duluth, Jlinn., and 
they are the parents of one son, John Alexander IMoutgomery. 


Edward Patrick Hayes, M. D.,* of Eau Claire, is the son of 
Thomas and Elizabeth (O'Connell) Hayes, and is one of a family 
of eight children, all born in the state of Wisconsin. Thomas 
Hayes, father of the doctor, was born at Richtield, Wis., in 1847, 
and during his whole lifetime has been engaged in general farm- 
ing. He married Elizabeth O'Connell, daughter of John and 
Mary O'Connell, and they were the parents of eight children as 
follows: Martlia, wife of Henry Kiietzel, resides in Milwaukee; 
Elizabeth niairiiMl l;iH.iamin Herziger ; Eleanor; Thomas resides 
on the home fanii ; Eilward is deceased ; Edward P., the subject 
of this sketch; Mary is engaged in teaching at Granville, this 
state, and Florence, who died at the age of eight years. 

Thomas Hayes, grandfather of Doctor Hayes, was born in 
Cork, Ireland, and at the age of 27 came to America. In 1839 
he came west and located at Richfield, Wis. He was a farmer by 
occupation and the owner of large tracts of land. 

Dr. Edward P. Hayes was born at Richfield, Wis., September 
24, 1886. He obtained his early education in the common schools 
and the Menomonie high school. After graduating from the 
latter, he taught school one year at Hartford, this state, after 
which, in 1909, he commenced the study of medicine at the Mar- 
quette University and graduated with the class of 1913 with the 
degree of M. D. Immediately after this he went to St. Paul, 
Minn., and for one year was house physician in the Luther Hos- 
pital. He came to Eau Claire highly recommended and associated 
himself with Dr. E. L. Mason on May 15, 1914. Their offices are 
located in the Rust building on South Barstow street. The doctor 
is a member of the Eau Claire Medical Society and affiliates witli 
the Catholic church. 

Leo. H. Flynn, M. D.,* who ranks among the younger class of 
professional men of Eau Claire, was born in Ohio, December 25, 
1882, and is a son of John C. and Mary (Hayes) Flynn, natives of 
New York and Ireland, respectively. The paternal grandparents, 
Patrick and Mary Flynn, came from Ireland to the United States 
and first located in the State of New Y'ork, where John C, father 
of our subject, was born. They later moved to Illinois and were 
among the pioneers of Bloomington, where the grandfather, who 
was a carpenter by trade, resided until his death. The father of 
Dr. Flynn, who is an iron moulder by trade, has resided in Bloom- 
ington, 111., for many years, where he has been engaged in the 
grocery business for the last fifteen j'ears. 

Dr. Flynn was reared in Bloomington, where he obtained his 
primary education in the public and high schools, graduating 


from the latter in 190:]. He then attended the State Normal 
school at Normal, 111., and in 1908 eommeneed the study of medi- 
cine in the medical department of the Northwestern University 
of Chicago and was graduated in 1912 with the degree of M.D. 
lie served one j'ear as interne in St. Francis' Hospital in La 
Crosse, and in July, 1913, came to Eau Claire, where he has since 
been in active practice. He is a member of the Eau Claire Med- 
ical Society, the Wisconsin State Medical Society, and the Ameri- 
can Medical Association. He is a member of the Knights of 
Columbus and of the Catliolic church. 

Julius 0. Arnson, M.D.,* was born in this city July 3, 1888, 
a son of Martin and Johanna (Eck) Arnson, both of wliom were 
born in Norway but reared in Eau Claire, where they married 
and where the father has been connected with the R. J. Kepler 
Company for about twenty years. Mr. and Mrs. Arnson have a 
family of three children: Julius 0., the subject of this sketch; 
Anna, now Mrs. P. W. Anderson, and J. Martin. 

Raised in Eau Claire, Dr. Arnson acquired his primary edu- 
cation in the public schools of the city, which was supplemented 
by a thorough course at the Wisconsin University. He obtained 
his medical education at the Northwestern University Medical 
College in Chicago, from which he was graduated with the class 
of 1911. After spending a year and a half as interne in the hos- 
pitals of Chicago and Minneapolis, he located at Osseo, Wis., in 
1912. In May, 1913, he went to Minneapolis, Minn., remaining 
in practice there until January 1, 1914, when he returned to Eau 
Claire, associated with Dr. E. E. Tupper, practicing with him 
until he moved to Kimball, Minn. He is a member of the Eau 
Claire County Medical Society, the Wisconsin State Medical So- 
ciety, and the American Medical Association, and the Oseo Lodge, 
No. 213, Free and Accepted Masons. 

Joseph C. Baird, M. D.,"* one of the rising .young physicians of 
Eau Claire, whose practice is limited to Roentgenology, was born 
in McGregor, Iowa, February 1, 1884, to David and Mary (Miller) 
Baird, natives of Wisconsin and Iowa, respectively, and is of 
Scotch and Swiss descent. 

Dr. Baird was raised in Chicago, 111., and attended tlie public 
schools of that city. Deciding on a medical career for his life's 
work, he matriculated Avitli the Hahnemann Medical College, of 
Chicago, irom which institution he graduated with the class of 
May, 1907, and one year later, in 1908, was graduated from the 
school of Electro Therapeutics of the same city. He began the 


practice of his chosen profession at Prairie du Chien in the spring 
of 1908, remaining there until September, 1909, when he came to 
Eau Claire and by his close application has succeeded in building 
up a large and lucrative practice. 

Dr. Baird stands "well in the medical profession as well as 
socially, and is a member of the Eau Claire County Medical So- 
ciety, the Wisconsin State Medical Society, and the West Wis- 
consin Medical Society, of which he is at present (1914) secretary, 
and is also a member of the American IMedical Association. He 
is connected as Roentgenologist with the Sacred Heart and Luther 
Hospitals of Eau Claire and the St. Joseph's Hospital at Chippewa 

Robert L. Frisbie, M. D.,* a successful pliysician and surgeon 
of Fairchild, this county, was born in Audrain county, Missouri, 
October 8, iSb'9, the son of James and Henrietta (Pettibone^ 
Frisbie, both natives of Connecticut, of Scotch-Irish ancestry, 
and is a direct descendant of Edward Frisbie, who came to Amer- 
ica in 1653, settling in New England. 

Dr. Frisbie was raised to manhood in this state and received 
a good education in the public schools. He began the study of 
medicine in 1890, and was graduated from the Marion Sims Med- 
ical College (now Washington University), St. Louis, Mo., in 
the class of 1894. He soon afterward began the practice of 
medicine at Freeport, 111., where for five years he was assistant 
superintendent of the Home for Feeble-minded. In February, 
1907, he located at Fairchild, where he has since carried on a 
large and successful practice. He was married on June 17, 1902, 
to Miss Ida, daughter of Franklin iMoore. of Fi'eeport, 111., and 
they have one son, Robert. 

Dr. Frisbie is a member of the Eau Claire County Medical 
Society and the State Medical Society, and fraternally is a mem- 
ber of the Masonic Order and the Modern Woodmen of America. 
He affiliates with the Presbyterian churcli, is a republican in 
politics, and has served two years as member of the Board of 
Trustees of the village of Fairchild. 

Elmer M. A. Sizer, M. D., the M'ell known physician of Fall 
Creek, Eau Claire county, is a son of George W. and Fannie Ann 
(Newman) Sizer, natives of Oneida county, New York, and West 
Wiusted, Conn., respectively. Jabez W. Sizer, paternal grand- 
father of Dr. Sizer, was born in the Mohawk Valley, New York, 
and was a colonel in the United States army in the war with 
England during the years of 1812 and '15. He was a son of 


Jabez W. Sizer, a sergeant under General Washington in the 
Revolutionary war, and whose discharge papers are now in the 
hands of Jabez W. Sizer, of Fond du Lac, Wis. He was a native 
of Sleepy Hollow, near Tarrytown, N. Y., and a son of Jabez W.. 
son of Jabez W., son of Jabez W., a native of France, and son of 
Anton de ZoSieur, beheaded during the French crusade, whose 
sons, seven in number, emigrated to New Amsterdam (now New 
York City) in the latter part of the Seventeenth century. Jabez 
W. Sizer, grandfather of Dr. Sizer, came to Wisconsin in 1848, 
settling in Springvale, Fond du Lac county. He was a tinsmith 
by trade, as was also his father, who were employed on the first 
government buildings erected at Washington, D. C. 

George W. Sizer, father of the doctor, served two years in 
the Mexican war, with the rank of Corporal. He settled in 
Springvale, Wis., in 1847, where he owned a farm of 280 acres on 
which he made all the improvements, and where he made his 
home until his death in 1880. His wife, mother of our subject, 
was a daughter of Ezra Newman, of Connecticut, who, with his 
five sons, were manufacturers of hand-made scythes. Her father 
was a cousin of the late Cardinal Newman, of England, and she 
was a cousin of Bishop Newman, of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. George W. Sizer and wife were the parents of eleven 
children, viz: Georgia S., a practicing physician of Muskogee, 
Okla., and widow of Dr. Hiel F. Orvis ; Jabez W. ; George W. ; 
Helen, wife of Dr. George A. Rogers, of Chicago, 111. ; Charles II. ; 
Ada D. ; Mary, wife of C. E. Pardridge ; Frank S., a contractor 
and real estate dealer of Oklalioma ; L. J., a dentist of Broken 
Bow, Okla. ; Lucy B., wife of F. M. Davis, lawyer and real estate 
dealer of Muskogee, Okla., and Elmer M. A., the subject of this 

Dr. Sizer was born in tlie town of Springvale, Fond du Lac 
county, Wisconsin, April 15, 1867; he was raised ou the family 
homestead and acquired his primary educaition in the public 
schools of his home county. His medical education was received 
at the Chicago Homeopathic Medical College, which he entered 
in 1891, and was graduated with the class of 1894. He first 
began practice at Ilartland, Wis., and later located at White Fish 
Bay, and in 1896 came to Fall Creek, Eau Claire county, where 
he has since been engaged in the active and successful practice of 
his profession. 

In 1898 Dr. Sizer married Amanda, daughter of Ferdinand 
and Wilhelmina (Bruesewitz) Zieman, of Fall Creek, and they 
have one son, Frank Ilobart Knoll. The doctor is a member of 


the Eau Claire County Medical Society, the Tenth District Med- 
ical Society, the State Medical Society, and the American Medical 
Association. He is prominently identified with fraternal and 
benevolent societies, being a member of the Independent Order 
of Odd Fellows, the Modern Woodmen of America, the Free and 
Accepted Masons, with the degrees of R. A. M. and Knights 
Templar. He has served as chairman of the town of Lincoln, 
and during his second year of such was successful in getting 
tlie village of Fall Creek incorporated. In his political affilia- 
tions he is independent, while in social life he is in the full enjoy- 
ment of the respect and esteem of a wide circle of friends and 

Ephraim H. Winter, M. D.,* of Augusta, stands prominent 
among the medical profession in Eau Claire county, Wisconsin. 
He was born in Aroostook county, Maine, November 3, 1867, the 
son of Joseph and Lydia ]\I. (Rollins) Winter. Dr. Winter's 
grandfather was Benjamin Winter, and his grandmother's maiden 
name was Olive Gray. The Winter family are of English descent, 
the early ancestors coming to this country with the Puritans 
on the Mayflower, and first settled in Massachusetts, members of 
the family taking part in the Revolutionary War and also in the 
war of 1812. The family contained many millwrights and in 
1874 the doctor moved with his parents to Black River Falls, 
where the father engaged in the sawmill business. He died in 
1896 and the mother passed away in 1878. They were the parents 
of four children, viz.: Cora, wife of Joseph E. Dimmick, who 
resides at Black River Falls ; Elmer, Ephriam H., and Lena, who 
married Ottie Sweet and lives at Los Angeles, Cal. 

The subject of this sketch received his early education in the 
public schools of Black River Falls, then entered the medical 
college at Ann Arbor, Mich., from which he was graduated with 
honors. He located for the practice of his profession at Fair- 
child, subsequently removing to Reno, Nev., where he practiced 
for four years. Returning to Wisconsin in 1902, he located at 
Augusta, where he has since enjoyed a lucrative practice. Polit- 
ically, he is a republican. He is a member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity and the Modem Woodmen of America, also the Baptist 

In 1898 Dr. Winter married Miss Henrietta Thompson, of 
Fairchild. She was born in Liverpool, England, and is a daugh- 
ter of Daniel Thompson, a millwright. Doctor and Mrs. Winter 
are the parents of three children — Wayland V., born in 1899 ; 
Marjorie B., born in 1900, and Ernest A., born in 1903. 


Herman Frederick Prill, M. D.* One of the popular physicians 
and surgeons of Augusta, WisL-oasin, where he was born March 
31, 1875, is the son of August F. and Amelia (Ludke) Prill. The 
father came to the United States and to Wisconsin, locating at 
Ripon, where he engaged in the lumbering business. Later on he 
came to Augusta and embarked in the hotel business, being for 
many years proprietor of the Park House. Having disposed of 
his hotel interests, he is now living in retirement, enjoying the 
fruits of many years of toil. 

Dr. Prill was reared in Augusta, receiving his preliminary 
education in the common and high schools. After graduating 
from the latter, he took a preparatory course at Concordia college, 
Springfield, Illinois, and for a short time attended the State Uni- 
veisity of Minnesota. His medical education was received at the 
Medical college in Milwaukee, from which he was graduated in 
1902. He almost immediately commenced the practice of medicine 
in his native town where he has built up a large clientele, and is 
very successful. He holds membership in the Eau Claire County 
Medical society. State Medical society and the American Medical 
association. In politics he is independent, and has served as 
Alderman in the city of Augusta. Dr. Prill was married in 1904 
to Miss Carrie Cebell, daughter of William Cebell, of Augusta. 

William J. Clancy, M. D.," of Eau Claire, was born in Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin, October 25, 1885, son of James and Mary 
(Schultz) Clancy, and is of Irish, German and French lineage. 
He was raised in Milwaukee, receiving his education in the public 
schools, the Marquette Academy and Marquette college, from 
which institution he was graduated in 1906 with the degree of 
A. B. He then spent two years at the University school of medi- 
cine, St. Louis, Mo., and three years in the Medical department 
of the Marquette college, Milwaukee, where he was graduated in 
1911, after which he spent three months as Interne in the St. 
Mary's Hospital in Duluth, Minnesota. In the Fall of 1911, he 
located at Eau Claire, where he has built up a successful practice. 
He is a member of the Eau Claire County Medical society, the 
Wisconsin Medical society and the American Medical association. 
He is also a member of the Knights of Columbus and the Catholic 





On July 25, 1881, a club was organized under the name of 
the Eau Claire Coiinty Settlers' Association, of wliieh any person 
who had settled in said county twenty years or more previously 
should be eligible as member. The object of the association, as 
set forth in the preamble, was "to the end that the i-eminiscences 
and memories of the early history may be preserved, mutual 
acquaintance be more strongly cemented, social enjoyment pro- 
moted and influence for the well-being of the future better felt 
and more effectually directed." The following named persons 
signed the constitution, duly prepared by a committee, and 
became members of the association : George W. Sprague, Henry 
W. Butler, Peter Truax, John Pettipher, Archie Mc Vicar, Stephen 
Marston, A. S. Bostwick, Daniel J. Chandler, B. C. Dann, William 
P. Bartlett, Alexander Meggett, John T. Tinker, John Ilobbs, 
C. R. Gleason, A. E. Blake and Alma A. Sprague. Alexander 
Meggett was elected president ; Peter Truax, vice-president ; C. R. 
Gleason, secretary; W. P. Bartlett, treasurer. John Hobbs was 
elected a vice-president from the town of Washington and George 
Sprague from the town of Brunswick, and later S. E. Coolidge 
from Otter Creek, H. W. Jones from Union, O. Works from 
Lincoln, John Ward from Seymour and J. C. Hackett from 
Augusta. In 1889 the constitution was amended to permit the 
election of three directors, who with the other officers constituted 
an executive committee. As time passed it seemed best to change 
the limit of date at which persons should be eligible to member- 
ship, and it was decreed that sons and daughters of active mem- 
bers born before January 1, 1870, should be admitted. In 1890 
there were 500 members, 178 active, the remainder honorary. In 
1894 the honorary members present at a banquet voted to tax 
themselves 50 cents annual dues. The financial resources of the 
association are the $1.00 admission fee for active membership and 
the 25 cents annual dues from active members. By careful man- 
agement the club has for every year, with one exception, had a 


balance, greater or less, in its treasury. In 1901 the qualification 
to membership, both active and honorary, was extended "to all 
those who have had an actual residence in the county for a 
period of thirty years," and in 1904 sons and daughters of active 
members "born prior to 1880" were admitted as honorary mem- 
bers. Mr. Meggett was the president of the association for 
twenty-five years, until the time of his death, which occurred in 
March, 1907. His services to the organization can hardly be 
measured, his labors were constant and unwearying, his enthu- 
siasm keen, and at the banquet of October 17, 1894, the apprecia- 
tion of the association was shown in the presentation to him of a 
handsome gold watch as a token of esteem and gratitude for his 
successful efforts to maintain the high character of the fraternity 
whose affairs he had administered so long and so well. 

Mr. Meggett 's successors in the president's chair have been: 
W. P. Bartlett, A. E. Blake, C. A. Bullen, 0. H. Ingram, A. D. 
Chappell and R. J. Kepler. The social meetings held by the asso- 
ciation in the form of banquets and picnics are attended by large 
numbers and are seasons of genial gayety, in which age forgets 
the years, business lays aside its cares and the moments at well 
filled tables, attended by light music and good cheer are all too 
short. These meetings are often supplemented by neighborly 
gatherings of old settlers in all parts of the county, but these 
festive evenings when a larger number still are brought together 
to recall early days, compare experiences, comment on the 
changes "since then," and exchange friendly greetings — these 
are truly fraternal and heart warming and prove that the Old 
Settlei's' Association has good sanction for a long and useful 
existence. The membership now numbers 225. 



The Eau Claire County Asyhuii was l)uilt in the year 1900, 
and the original cost, including a farm of -Kili acres, the buildings 
and all equipment, was $135,284.00. The first board of trustees 
M'as : August Bartz, Ira B. Bradford and Thomas F. Frawley. 
August Bartz died during the first year and his place was filled by 
Louis Germann. Dr. D. W. Day was the first visiting surgeon. 
In 1901 both Dr. Day and Mr. Frawley died, and Dr. Williain B. 
Lj'man became visiting surgeon, while Julius G. Ingram suc- 
ceeded Mr. Frawlej' on the board of trustees. The personnel of 
the board then remained the same until 1907, when it became 
Julius G. Ingram, Clarence B. Sprague and Charles A. Cox. In 
1912 David Douglas succeeded Mr. Ingram, who resigned, and 
in 1913 W. K. CofSu succeeded Mr. Douglas, so that the present 
board is composed of C. G. Sprague, Charles A. Cox, and W. K. 
Coffin. Dr. J. F. Farr is the present visiting surgeon and has 
been for some years. 

The first secretary to the board of trustees Avas Miss Nettie 
Thurston, who served but a short time, and was succeeded by 
Miss Ruth Kelley. She acted until 1912, when she was succeeded 
by Miss N. McLeod. 

The asylum is splenditlly located on a fine eminence .iust west 
of the city of Eau Claire, and in the otlier three directions com- 
mands a broad view of fertile farming country. When this site 
and the large farm were purchased for asylum purposes the 
grounds were laid out by F. "W. Woodward, and there was a 
serio-comic phase to some litigation he had with the board of 
trustees. They thought he was doing the work in a spirit of 
philanthropy to aid the project of caring for the insane, but he 
rendered a bill for his work and claimed they were a "little oif " 
in their understanding of the matter. 

The roads, buildings and grounds are maintained in good 
order, and, with the assistance of the inmates, who are able to 
work, a large amount of produce is raised on the farm. Also 
many articles of wearing apparel and for household use are made 
by the women. 



The cost of maintenance for 1913 was $18,910.11, and the 
number of patients was 168, of whom 71 were from Eau Claire 
county. The first superintendent was 0. H. Kitzman, who served 
from 1900 to 1908, when he was succeeded by the present incum- 
bent, Mr. Horrel. Mrs. Horrell is matron. 

The Poor Farm. The poor farm was originally situated about 
four miles to the sovitheast of Eau Claire, but that was sold and 
31 acres of ground purchased to the west of what is now the 
asylum farm. Subsequently 80 acres more were added, so that 
the farm now comprises 111 acres. It is under the same man- 
agement as the asylum and is well conducted. The total number 
of inmates in 1913 was 14, and the cost of maintenance was 


A CITY IN 1872. 

We premise this part of our history of Eau Claire by the 
statement that originally and before the city of Eau Claire was 
incori^orated, that what was generally spoken of as Eau Claire 
comprised a part of three separate towns, Eau Claire, West Eau 
Claire or Oak Grove and North Eau Claire. The Eau Claire river 
at or near its confluence with the Chippewa river was the divid- 
ing line between the towns of Eau Claire and North Eau Claire, 
while the Chippewa river was the dividing line between the towns 
of West Eau Claire and Eau Claire and North Eau Claire. The 
settlements in each town were on and near the banks of these 
rivers. Therefore when we speak of Eau Claire generally, it is 
meant to include the three settlements or portions of the three 
towns. When special mention is made to either subdivision, it is 
to be designated either as the north, east or west side. In 1868 
or 1869, a portion of the west side was incorporated as a village 
under the corporate name of Eau Claire City, and so remained 
as a separate corporate entity until the incorporation of all Eau 
Claire as a city. It should also be noted that all the mills on 
the Eau Claire river were located on the north side, and all those 
on the Chippewa river were located on the west side, except 
the Eddy Mill and that of the Wilkin's Island Mill Company, 
which were located on the north side. 

An old Wisconsin history says that two French trappers, one 
named LeDuc, had a post in 1784 at the lower rapids of the Chip- 
pewa. As they treated with the Chippewas who came from up 
tlie river, their post must have been at the head of the rapids 
where is now the log reservoir. They got into trouble with the 
Chippewas and went down the river to trade with the Sioux, 
taking with them two Chippewa scalps as the best method of 
introducing themselves to the Sioux. This is the first record of 
any white man living at Eau Claire. There was then an Indian 
village on the high land opposite the paper mill, and one also at 
the head of the Dells rapids opposite Mt. Simon. 

Previous to any settlement being made on the land on either 
side of the Chippewa river at or near the mouth of the Eau Claire 


river, or the land on either side of that stream, there was a rank 
growth of brush in nearly every direction. The whole country 
as far as the eye could see was in a wild state of nature. Not 
even a track made by man was to be found, nor the rudest hut 
for a resting place. Yet this spot was to attract hundreds of pio- 
neers in a very few years from the time of the arrival of the 
first settler. 

In the summer of 1845, Stephen S. McCann, from Spring 
Creek, named from a tributary of the Menomonie river, near 
Menomonie, and Jeremiah C. Thomas entered into a partnership 
and erected a plain shanty near the site of what was afterward 
the Eau Claire Lumber Company's water mill on the Eau Claire 
river. Stephen S. McCaun also built a cabin near the confluence 
of the Eau Claire with the Chippewa, which he designated as a 
warehouse, and another on the site of what was subsequently the 
American House. These structures were erected for the express 
purpose of establishing the right of the settler to an uncertain 
quantity of government land. McCann transformed the last- 
named cabin into a home for his family and moved into it. These 
were the first attempts at civilization in what was subsequently 
to be the villages of Eau Claire, and fiinally the present city. Thus 
it will be seen that Stephen S. McCann and Jeremiah Thomas 
were the first actual settlers in this region. The main object of 
this firm in locating at this place was to build a sawmill and 
manufacture lumber from the logs obtained from the pine forests 
on the Eau Claire river and its tributaries. The product could 
be easily and inexpensively floated down the Chippewa to mar- 
kets on the Mississippi river. They had not, however, the ade- 
quate means to launch such an enterprise, but were successful in 
starting two logging camps on the Eau Claire for the Avinter's 
work. In the following year, Simon and George W. Randall 
secured a half interest in the claim of McCann & Thomas at the 
mouth of the Eau Claire. They associated themselves together 
under the firm name of McCann, Randall & Thomas. The con- 
struction of a dam and sawmill was at once begun by them on 
the site of what was later on the Eau Claire Lumber Company's 
waterpower mill. The dam was completed in October, 1846. 

Thomas E. Randall conducted the first religious services here. 
They "were started in September of this year at the residence of 
S. S. McCann, and were continued each alternate Sunday until 
the setting in of winter, when a severe illness prevented the con- 
tinuation of them. The first wedding in Eau Claire took place 
in the fall of the same year. The parties to it were George W. 



Randall imd Miss Mary LaPoint, of Prairie du Chien. The eere- 
iiioiiy was performed at the home (a very comfortable dwelling 
ill those primitive times) of Mr. and Mrs. McCann by Jacob W. 
Bass, of Chippewa Falls, who had received from the governor of 
the territory a commission as justice of the peace. The marriage 
was looked upon as a notable event in those days, and was made 
the occasion of unusual festivities, f^he bridegroom's brother, 
riimou Randall, found it desirable to go and do likewise in the 
same winter. He chose for his bride one of the Indian maidens 
of the forest, but however securely the nuptial knot was tied, 
they were not long to remain united. Death stepped in and 
claimed the young wife for its own a few months afterward. 
The funeral services were performed by Thomas E. Randall, 
and this was the first funeral that occurred in the settlement. 

In the fall of 1845, the first preliminary step was taken to 
construct a dam and improve the "Lower Dell" of the Chip- 
pewa, a short distance north of its confluence with the Eau 
Claire. H. S. Allen and G. S. Branham were at that time associ- 
ated in business on Wilson's creek, in close proximity to the 
now city of Menomonie. They had by their lumbering operations 
accumulated considerable capital, and in the folloAving winter 
prospected with the view to investing it in some more extensive 
enterprise than they had been engaged in. They associated with 
themselves Simon and George "W. Randall under the firm name 
of Allen, Branham & Randall. After a thorough examination of 
all the numerous eligible locations, they fixed upon the lower 
dells as the best place on the river where logs could be safely 
handled in all stages of the river. Their plan of operation was 
to erect a dam half the distance across the river, thence a side or 
wing dam near the raft channel to the head or iipper reef of 
rocks on the dells, and by a low dam across to the opposite bank, 
raise a sufficient head of water Avithout interrupting navigation 
for boats and rafts. Every arrangement was made to carry the 
undertaking to completion. Timber was got out near the Half 
Moon lake for the construction of a large sawmill there. Having 
proceeded thus far, the parties, Avho had personal interests to look 
after, separated to do so. Work Avas suspended on the supposi- 
tion that it Avould be resumed in the spring. The first ncAvs, hoAV- 
ever, that came up the river AA'hen that time came Avas that the 
Avhole project had been abandoned ; that the firm had dissolved, 
and that Mr. Allen, Avho Avas tlie head of it, had associated him- 
self Avith Mr. Bass at the falls. 

The Avinter of 1846-47 Avas long remembered by the fcAV resi- 


dents of the embryo village, owing to the intensely cold weather. 
Scarcely any snow fell, but the rivers were frozen to their beds. 
The spring was quite as remarkable for lack of rain, especially 
during the months of April and May. The evening of June 5 was, 
however, visited by one of the most terrible thunderstorms on 
record in the valley. The rain came down in torrents until the 
following morning was well advanced toward noon, accompanied 
by vivid lightning and heavy peals of thunder. The storm was 
reported by eye-witnesses to have been fearful. The Chippewa 
rose twelve feet and was covered with driftwood, logs and the 
debris of piers and booms from the falls. Thomas E. Randall, in 
his history of the Chippewa valley, says: "In my endeavors to 
save part of my boom, I was taken into the wild and surging 
current on it as it fidatcd away. I have been on many log drives, 
and often placed in positions of extreme peril, but never has 
death stared me more directly in the face than while afloat on 
the frail boom — bent, crushed and broken, between masses of 
logs and driftwood. I could do nothing with it, and on and on it 
went, with the rapidity of a railway train, passing repeatedly 
under the branches of reclining trees. I lay flat on my face and 
clung to those strained timbers, well knowing that once in that 
boiling flood, no skill in the art of swimming could save me from 
a watery grave ; but, as the fates would have it, my rickety craft 
shot like an arrow out of the current and went ashore at the eddy 
where Sherman's mill was afterward built." 

By noon of that day every log, pier and boom on the Eau 
Claire was swept away by the fast swelling flood. In another 
hour the new double sawmill that had just been erected and was 
ready to be operated was borne almost bodily away by the resist- 
less current. The results of the labor and savings of years were 
gone forever, and the firm of McCann, Randall & Thomas, with 
liabilities to meet, found themselves in a bankrupt condition. A 
dissolution of the partnership was the result. J. C. Thomas went 
back to the Blue Mill, and S. S. McCann engaged in farming on 
Eagle prairie above the falls. George W. and Simon Randall 
entered into co-partnership with Philo Stone and II. Cady. They 
built the mill on the Eau Claire in the winter of 1847-48. 

Philo Stone and his brother Roswell Stone came from Ver- 
mont in 1838 and engaged in hunting on the river and adjacent 
country. The former was turbulent, but brave to a degree, small 
in stature and quick as lightning; he never avoided a contest, 
being always victorious. He had a full-blooded squaw for a 
housekeeper Avhoni he trained to considerable domestic useful- 


iiess. Such a course was quite common among the early white 
settlers, lie had for a while operated a tavern at Dunnville, pre- 
viously belonging to Arthur McCann. New settlers were steadily 
arriving, and among them were J. J. Gage, James Reed and 
Captain Dix. They purchased the lower mill site and built a dam 
and mill where the Eau Claire Lumber Company's flouring-mill 
afterward stood. 

Mrs. J. P. Stein, who lives about one mile north of the village 
of Cochrane, Wisconsin, it seems, was the first white woman who 
had a permanent residence and settled within the present limits 
or site of the city of Eau Claire, and her son, John A. Stein, who 
resides in this vicinity, is probably the first white child born there. 

Mrs. J. P. Stein (nee Ann Elizabeth Bock) was born in the vil- 
lage of Rasdorf, near the city of Fulda Cur Hessia, Germany, 
April 17, 1818, where she obtained a fairly good common school 
education. In 1844, when 26 years of age, she decided to leave 
the fatherland, and landed in New York city the same year, 
going from there via the Eria canal to Buffalo, New York, the 
trip taking one week on the canal boat. Here she received a posi- 
tion as cook for the family of Captain Day, an army physician, 
stationed at Detroit, Michigan, and later going with this family 
to Allegheny Arsenal, near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Here she 
made the acquaintance of J. P. Stein, who was a blacksmith 
liolding a position in the United States arsenal there. 

When the Mexican war broke out, Mr. Day was ordered to the 
front, and not wishing to accompany him, she quit her position, 
and in company with Mr. Stein went west, locating in Fort 
Madison, Iowa, where they were married. This was early in the 
spring of 1848. They moved from Port Madison to Galena, Illi- 
nois, and here they met a Mr. Knapp from Fort Madison, to 
whom Mr. Stein hired out and at once started north with him, 
i\Irs. Stein remaining at Galena. They landed at Nelson, Wis- 
consin, where Mr. Gilbert kept a stopping place or hotel. Here 
Mr. Stein met a Mr. Cady, who was in search of a blacksmith 
to woi-k for a company which was erecting a small sawmill a short 
distance above the junction of the Eau Claire and Chippewa 
rivers, where later the water-mill of the Eau Claire Lumber 
Company was constructed. The company consisted of Captain 
Dix, who -was at the head of it ; Messrs. Cady, Gage, Swimm, Philo 
Stone, George and Simon Randall. Mr. Stein at once hired out 
to this company, he as a blacksmith and mechanic, and his wife 
to do the cooking for the members of the company who were 
not married, one of the Randalls being married to a half-breed 


woman. Mr. Stein at once returned to Galena ; started by steam- 
boat for their destination, landing at Nelson, Wisconsin, stop- 
ping with Gilbert until the company came down with a keel boat 
after them, it taking several days to make the trip up the Chip- 
pewa to the junction. The company had built many log cabins, 
one of which they occupied. They landed on the seventh day 
of May, 1848, she doing the cooking, and Mr. Stein the black- 
smith work for the company. During the first summer, however, 
they built their own cabin and moved into it in the fall, and in 
this cabin their eldest son, John A., was born. His birth occurred 
November 1, 1848, and he, Mrs. Stein thinks, was the first white 
child born in the city of Eau Claire. She remembers no other 
settlements on the Chippewa at this time excepting one about 
twelve miles north of the then called "Allen's Mills" (the present 
site of Chippewa Falls). Mr. H. S. Allen then operated a sawmill 
where Menomonie now is. Four men from Prairie du Chien had 
built the mill at Chippewa Falls, and a Frenchman by the name 
of Brunat operated it. Mr. and Mrs. Stein, while living on the 
Eau Claire, acquired the Chippewa and Sioux languages, and 
did a lot of trading with the Indians, thereby making good 
money. They lived here until the fall of 1850, when they decided 
to give up their positions with the company and move to Wa- 
basha, Minnesota. The company being unable to pay them any 
money, they took their pay in lumber, which was rafted, and 
they, in company with a half-breed Indian by the name of Peter 
Ortobee, piloted a raft to Galena, Illinois, Avhere they sold the 
lumber and came back to Wabasha, built a cabin and lived the 
winter of 1850 and '51, in the spring moving to the farm where 
she now resides and has lived ever since. Mrs. Stein relates 
many thrilling experiences during her two and a half years' resi- 
dence in Eau Claire, especially with the Indians, the Sioux and 
Chippewas being constantly at war with each other. She remem- 
bers well when, in the fall of 1849, the two tribes had a peace 
conference at Eau Claire, the tribes being engaged in great fes- 
tivities, during which both chiefs left their headdress in her 
care. Although 96 years of age, Mrs. Stein's memory is very 
good now (1914), and she would be willing to answer any ques- 
tions asked her in connection with her residence there. She says 
she has never met any of that company except Mr. Swimm, who 
visited them some time in the early sixties, he then being a farmer 
somewhere between Mondovi and Eau Claire. [The above is prin- 
cipally taken from Mrs. Stein's own story of her experiences.] 
The lumbering business continued to gradually increase, but 


there was no communication with the outside world, except by- 
water or private conveyance, until 1850, when a mail route was 
ordered by Congress from Prairie du Chien, and a post-office 
shortly afterward established in the village. This was an impor- 
tant event in its history, and gave an impetus to its early prog- 
ress. From this time to 1854, nothing of general public interest 
occurred in the settlement. Some changes, however, took place 
in regard to the ownership of the mill property. H. Cady sold 
out his interest in the mill on the Eau Claire to a young man 
named Swimra, and Simon Randall parted with his share to Mr. 
Pope and purchased that of Captain Dix in tlie mill on the lower 
dam. These new firms carried on business under the respective 
names of Gage, Reed & Randall and Stone, Swimm & Co. Like 
all other lumbering firms, these men were compelled to seek 
credit for merchandise, etc., during the winter months, while 
trade was at a standstill with them. Among others who furnished 
them with goods was a ]Mr. Sincere, of Galena, then the center of 
lumbermen's supplies. He had exacted the promise that his 
account should be liquidated out of the proceeds of the first raft 
that went down the river in the spring. Several other creditors 
hild similar claims, and Mr. Swimm found it necessary to ask 
]\lr. Sincere to wait for payment until the second raft went down. 
Instead of compljang with this request, he procured a warrant 
luider the laws then existing in Illinois, and lodged his debtor 
in prison, although no fraud had been attempted. There he 
remained until his partners secured his release. 

The Rev. Thomas Barland, a Congregationalist, who had set- 
tled on a farm two miles from the village in the fall of 1819, was 
the first man to conduct a regular Protestant church service in 
Eau Claire. The meetings were held in Gage & Reed's boarding- 
house (the site of the Eau Claire Grocery Company's building 
on Eau Claire street) during the winter of 1852-53. The same 
thing had been attempted by a Methodist minister named Mayne 
in the previous summer. A Catholic mission was, however, estab- 
lished on what was afterward known as the North Side, in 1850, 
a part of which Avas, a little later on, laid out and platted by 
Augustus Iluysen and W. T. Galloway. The mission flourished 
and developed into St. Patrick's Churcli. This was the first sa- 
cred edifice built in Eau Claire. "^ 
- In 1855, W. H. Gleason and R. F. Wilson negotiated with the 
owners, J. J. Gage and James Reed, for, and obtained, a half 
interest in the town plat of Eau Claire known as East Eau Claire. 
By agreement, it was immediately surveyed by the first-named 


parties and recorded at Chippewa Falls, the then county seat, as 
the village of Eau Claire, the first in the valley, with the names 
of W. II. Gleason, E. F. Wilson, J. J. Gage and James Reed as 
proprietors. Congress had, in March, 1856, passed an act donat- 
ing all the alternate sections of land embraced within certain 
parallels along the lines of certain proposed railroads therein 
described in trust to the state of Wisconsin. One of these roads, 
commencing at Portage City, was to extend to Tomah, and thence 
to St. Croix county. This branch was designated in the charter 
of 1857 as the Western Wisconsin Railroad. Ten years was the 
time fixed upon within which it was to be completed. The valley 
had to be crossed at some point, and speculators were everywhere 
on the alert to know where that particular point was to be, espe- 
cially as the general supposition was that the road would be con- 
structed forthwith. Some of the wildest and most visionary 
schemes ever generated in the mind of man owed their birth to 
this land grant, which was conferred upon an organization 
known as the Milwaukee & LaCrosse Railroad Company, at the 
head of which was Byron Kilbourne, of Milwaukee. Stock was 
issued to the extent of several thousand dollars. The undertak- 
ing was boomed to the utmost extent. Various routes for the 
road were considered, some crossing the Chippewa from above 
and others below the falls. Reports were circulated that sur- 
veys were being made in several sections, and speculation was 

Early in the summer of this .year, Stone, Swimm & Co. sold 
the mill owned and operated by them to Carson, Eaton & Downs, 
of Eau Galle. They immediately repaired and remodeled it, put- 
ting in the latest improved sawmill machinery, and invested lib- 
erally in pine lands on the streams tributary to Eau Claire. At 
this period there was not a dry-goods store, nor even a black- 
smith shop, nor any business, in fact, outside the manufacturing 
of lumber, existing in the locality. The population was esti- 
mated at one hundred. Two houses only were owned in the 
village, and the whole volume of capital invested there did not 
exceed !ii20,000. Adin Randall came from Madison and began 
the erection of the Eau Claire House. E. E. Shaw and Henry 
Huntington started a store on a small scale, afterward the Ameri- 
can House, and latterly the Hart House, and Chapin M. Seely 
erected a residence house, all on the east side. It was finished for 
occupation the following spring, and M'as the first plastered build- 
ing in Eau Claire. The first death and burial of a white man, 
William Reed, occurred in June, 1855. 


The year 1856 was quite an eventful one, and the new village, 
proud of its position, began to show unmistakable signs of pros- 
perity. New settlers came in, and there was a general movement 
forward. An added impetus was created when the legislature, 
having this year created the county of Eau Claire, selected this 
village as the county seat. According to the provisions of the 
act for the organization of the county, an election of officers was 
held on the last Tuesday of December, 1856, and the town board 
of tlie town of Eau Claire was constituted the county board until 
the next annual election. The town boai'd was represented by 
C. M. Seeley, chairman; E. W. Robbins and M. A. Page, super- 
visors. The officers elected were : treasurer, Adin Randall ; county 
clerk, C. F. Babeock ; register of deeds, C. H. Howard ; clerk of 
the circuit court, Mr. Olin. 

Gage & Reed disposed of their entire interest in the mills, pine 
lands and half the village plat to Chapman & Thorp, who, during 
the first year, entrusted the whole business to Gilbert E. Porter, 
of Michigan, a young man full of energy and capacity, who after- 
ward became a prominent citizen. The Eau Claire House was 
completed by Adin Randall and opened for business. The first 
bauk was started under the free banking law with the title of 
the Bank of Eau Claire. W. H. Gleason was president, and C. H. 
(Jlcnson cashier. Its principal manager was C. M. Seeley, who 
liad liad considerable experience in the matter of finance, and was 
to all appearani'c cautious and conservative in his business meth- 
ods. As a consequence confidence was inspired in the institution. 

Daniel Shaw located a sawmill at what was called Shawtown, 
on the west side. He soon proved himself to be an important 
accession to Eau Claire, and his operations were among the first 
incentives to the growth of the west side to its present dimensions 
and popularity as a residence location. Ingram, Kennedy & 
Dole purchased the site for their first mill at this time, and a small 
mill was put up by Adin Randall. He had the west side platted 
in August of this year (1856) by Frank Moore and W. W. 
Spear, and recorded it as Eau Claire City, but it was more famil- 
iarly known as Randall Town for a number of years. The land 
was covered with brush at this time, without a finished building 
on it. By the fall of the following year about thirty houses had 
been erected, but fiirther progress in this direction was ulti- 
mately checked for some time when it was discovered that Adin 
Randall had executed a mortgage on the whole of the land, and 
no title could be given to intending purchasers. Mr. Thomas 
E. Randall, in his story, says of him that he was "a strange com- 


position of reckless energy, of daring enterprise, with want of 
punctuality, or an adaptation of means to end. With many good 
business traits, he lacked some element of success that made him 
always unsafe, and lost to him the confidence of the business 

Permission was given to Adin Randall by the board of super- 
visors in the following March to operate a ferry across the Chip- 
pewa river between the east and west sides of the city. Reed's 
Hall, which became famous by reason of the meetings held in it, 
was erected in 1857 and opened on September 15 of that year. 
It was burned down in April, 1869. The following winter, 1857- 
58, a school was opened in what is now the second ward. This 
building was afterward known as the Universalist Church. The 
seed of the first Methodist Episcopal Church was sown on the 
east side in the fall of 1858, which also has to its record the ar- 
rival of the first Norwegian settler, S. A. Lund. The Eau Claire 
"Times" was started in August, 1857, and the Eau Claire "Free 
Press" in the folloAving October. A number of efforts were made 
to establish similar enterprises about that time, but they lacked 
support. Another bank came into existence this year, that of 
Hall & Brother, wlio were non-residents. Its manager was D. R. 
Moon. This and the one previously mentioned were banks of 
issue. The terrible convulsions in the financial and commercial 
world that set in this year came with a crushing effect on these 
institutions, and they were forced into liquidation. W. H. Glea- 
son, who was president of the Eau Claire Bank, and R. F. Wilson 
were proprietors of half the village on the east side. Flushed 
with siiecess of their speculations during the previous eighteen 
months, they were ambitious for fresh operations. Unfortunately 
for them and their connections, they acted precipitately on an 
unverified report that the Tomah and St. Croix Railroad would 
cross the Chippewa at O 'Neil's creek, and invested $20,000 in 
lands at that point. A village plat had been laid out and re- 
corded at ChippeAva city, a few lots sold, a saloon or two started 
and a state bank. That was all. Byron Kilbourne's organiza- 
tion vanished into air, and, like the baseless fabric of a vision, 
left not a cent behind. The bank of Mr. Gleason, it was claimed, 
was compelled to siispend mainly by reason of the withdrawal 
of deposits to embark in Chippewa city property. 

The firm of Chapman & Thorp had, early in the season of 1857, 
purchased the entire interest of Carson & Eaton in the Eau 
Claire mill, pine lands, power, etc., for $125,000, and began the 
construction of a steam mill on the site of their lower mill. Tlie 


subsequent tightness of the money market forced them into pecu- 
niary difficulties, and they were only saved from bankruptcy 
through the temporary assistance of friends in the East. The 
first shipment of wheat from this point occurred this year. It 
is true that it was only a few hundred bushels, but in 1861 it had 
increased to 150,000 bushels. 

A bill was introduced in Congress this year by C. C. Wash- 
burn for the creation of a new land district in and in close prox- 
imity to the valley, with Chippewa Falls as its headquarters. 
Just before its final passage, Eau Claire was offered as a substi- 
tute. A strong fight was made by the respective partisans of 
each village. Ultimately it was agreed to refer the point to the 
Pi-esident of the United States, who decided in favor of Eau 
Claire. Dr. W. T. Galloway was appointed registrar, and N. B. 
Boyden receiver. The Methodist Episcopal Church inaugurated 
a school on the west side in 1857 known as the Methodist Insti- 
tute, and erected the necessary building, aided by a local sub- 
scription and a contribution from an eastern educational fund. 
It was conducted with considerable ability for several years, and 
did a large amount of good. The introduction of the public 
graded school system superseded its iisefulness, and it was ulti- 
mately sold to the city and was occupied temporarily by the high 
school of Eau Claire. 

Among the settlers in the village in 1857 were the Rev. A. 
Kidder and family, Joseph G. Thorp and family, Peter Wyckoff, 
the Jackson brothers, John Wilson, George A. Buffington, Dr. 
F. R. Skinner, W. P. Bartlett and Alex. Meggett. During the 
winter of 1857-58 many of the villagers had to mutually assist 
each other, owing to the depressed condition of the money mar- 
ket and commercial interests. Credit was, temporarily, an un- 
known quantity. 

The lands of the Fox River Improvement Company were in 
the market to a limited extent in 1859, and the business of dis- 
posing of some of them was transacted at the land office on Eau 
Claire street. By the terms of the grant, the lands could not be 
pre-empted by actual settlers, but could be covered by land 
warrants, which was issued in great quantities. N. B. Boyden 
was the receiver at this period. One night near the time the 
returns were due at Washington, the office was broken into by 
burglars, the safe blown open and a large sum of money taken. 
The loss fell upon the government. A stage route was estab- 
lished in this year between Eau Claire and Wabasha, and the 
first graded school opened on the west side. The second Aletho- 


dist Episcopal Chureli was orgauized iu 1861, located on the 
west side. What is now the Eau Claire National Bank was or- 
ganized by C. C. Spafford in this year. 

Reference has already been made to the grant of land by 
Congress in 1856 for the construction of a railroad from Portage 
City to the Mississippi at LaCrosse, wdth a branch from Tomah 
to the St. Croix river. The scheme collapsed. In March, 1863, 
several business men of St. Croix, Dunn, Chippewa, Eau Claire 
and Jackson counties, among whom were D. A. Baldwin, Capt. 
William Wilson, J. G. Thorp, H. S. Allen and W. T. Price, pro- 
moted a new organization to construct that part of the road from 
Tomah to the St. Croix. It was incorporated under legislative 
act at the date named with the title of the Tomah & St. Croix 
Railway Company. The first meeting was held at Durand on 
July 9 of that year. At the next session of the legislature, the 
land grant was conferred upon the company with the right of 
way and the privilege of locating the line on its present course, 
except that its terminus was to be at Tomah. Subsequently, the 
line was changed, leaving the original line at Warrens and run- 
ning to Camp Douglas on the Milwaukee road. It was deter- 
mined by the courts that the terminus could not be thus changed, 
and settlement, however, was finally made by which the change 
became legalized. The grant was renewed and the land exempted 
from taxes until 1870. The preliminary expenses in surveying the 
route, etc., were $20,000. D. A. Baldwin, of Hudson, had sufficient 
confidence in the success of the undertaking to advance the 
money. The work was done and the necessai'y maps prepared 
in 1864-65. The next step Avas to find capitalists who would 
invest the requisite funds to construct and equip the road. Mr. 
Baldwin was selected by the directors of the company to carry 
on the negotiations in this direction. After trips had been made 
to the principal eastern cities, and the Atlantic twice crossed, 
Mr. Baldwin's efforts were, after the labor of two years, crowned 
with success. Mr. Jacob Ilumbird, of Cumberland, Maryland, a 
prosperous railroad contractor, furnished the entire funds to com- 
plete the first thirty-two miles of track to Black River Palls, 
the payment of which, and all other sums for contract work, 
was secured by first mortgage on the roadbed. Before com- 
mencing operations, the name of the company had been changed 
to the West Wisconsin Railway by an act of the legislature. 
The road was completed to Augusta early in 1870, and in the 
following August the then welcome sound of the locomotive 
which connected it with the East Avas heard in Eau Claire. It 


was made the occasion of such rejoicing as has never been 
equalled in Eau Claire. A meeting of citizens was held at Mar- 
ston's Hall on the evening of July 25, 1870, M'hen the subject was 
discussed, and the following committee appointed with full power 
to make all necessary arrangements to celebrate the event in a 
proper manner: Alexander Meggett, H. P. Graham, Daniel Shaw, 
Martin Daniels, George A. BufRngton, John Wordsworth Nel- 
son, Texas Angel, Orrin H. Ingram, D. E. Brown, Ole Bruden 
and Matthias Leinenkugel. The reception and entertainment 
took place in the public park on the west side. Provisions were 
made for free entertainment by private hospitality of not less 
than 300 persons for not less than two days. The amount raised 
by voluntary subscription Avas $1,500, and was sufficient to defray 
the entire expense of the occasion. Not less than 3,000 guests 
were provided for and dined in a sumptuous manner, ladies pre- 
siding at the tables. 

The electors of the county had voted in aid of this road the 
sum of $60,000 in bonds. By a trick, the wording of the 
resolution was made to read, "the county may issue bonds" to 
that amount, instead of "shall." Judge Mead and W. P. Bartlett 
each claim the credit for this deception. This aid was voted to 
secure the location of the road at Eau Claire instead of Chippewa 
Falls. The court decided that under the particular phraseology 
tlie county board had an option either to issue or refuse to issue 
the bonds. The county board, after the road Mas secured at 
Eau Claire, refused to issue the bonds, a clear case of repudiation. 

The first congregation of the Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran 
church was organized in 1864, and the Second district school 
was established this year on Farwell street. It became well 
known as the Bartlett high school. 

A destructive flood occurred in 1866 on the Chippewa liver. 
Jams of ice, logs and driftwood came down in such force that 
booms, piers and all other obstructions to the irresistible waters 
were carried away. Many thousand logs were deposited on tlie 
islands of the Mississippi. 


Tlu- actual basis of the industries of the whole of Eau Claire 
was the immense forests of pine above it and tributary to the 
Chippewa and Eau Claire rivers. The only method in those early 
days of securing the timber was to put it into the streams and 
float it down to the mills, whii^h were located at Eau Claire and 


below on the Chippewa river. This method was confined to 
seasons of freshets or high water. In order to secure the supply 
of logs that had been or were to be floated down the streams it 
was necessary originally that piers should be constructed in the 
streams and booms attached thereto, thus making a reservoir 
from which the logs would be taken into the mill and manu- 
factured into lumber. In order that those belonging to each 
concern could be thus secured, they had to be taken from the 
mass of logs coming down the river and turned into such reser- 
voirs, permitting those owned by other parties, as well as those 
bound for a distance below to pass without hindrance. Such 
method of securing logs was not only expensive and difficult 
when large quantities were floating in the stream, but a consid- 
erable portion of those belonging to the mill owner could not be 
secured and would pass beyond his booms or reservoir down the 
stream, and be lost, unless they were subsequently picked out 
and brailed or rafted and disposed of to parties operating on 
the Mississippi river. '' 

In order, therefore, to successfully operate the mills at Eau 
Claire, it became imperative that some other means should be 
provided by which the logs destined for manufacture at Eau 
Claire could be safely secured and deposited, so that each mill 
could and would receive what was destined for it. At an early 
date this was attempted by excavating a canal from the river, 
commencing near the mill of Smith and Buffington, into Half 
Moon lake, a distance of 100 rods or more, such lake forming a 
natural reservoir for an almost unlimited quantity. This was 
not a complete success for two reasons. First was the fact that 
the lake was considerably higher than the river, and the river 
had to be at a flood of twelve or more feet in order to obtain a 
current through the canal. Second, when the logs were floating 
in the river in great quantities, the piers and booms constructed 
in the river for the purpose of turning the logs into the canal 
were inadequate, and the logs would become jammed, and the 
pocket thus made become full, and the logs not held therein 
would pass by and down the stream. It therefore became an 
imperative necessity to the operation of the mills and the growth 
and prosperity of Eau Claire, that other means must be provided 
for securing logs. The Dells, so called, rapids in the Chippewa 
river, seemed to be a natural place for a safe and secure resei'- 
voir. At that point there were high, rocky banks; the river 
■was narrow, with a rock bed, and hence a dam at that place 
would create slack water for several miles up the stream. The 


construction of a canal or flume from the dam to Half Moon 
Lake, a distance of nearly a mile, through which the logs des- 
tined for the mills on the west side could be passed when assorted, 
would solve the difficult problem of which we have spoken. In 
order to accomplish this, liowever, as the Chippewa was a navi- 
gable stream, not only for saw logs, but, in the extreme high 
water, for small steamboats, with great effort the consent of the 
legislature had to be obtained. At that time, though since ex- 
ploded, it was thought that even the legislature was powerless 
to grant the right or privilege. That to stop logs destined for 
points below, even for the limited time required to assort them, 
was an obstruction to navigation, which, under the ordinance of 
1787, providing that the waters of the Mississippi and its tribu- 
taries should ever remain free, could not be granted. 

It would seem that the project would not have met with 
opposition from any source, other than such as was engaged in 
navigation. Not so, however. About ten miles above was the 
village of Chippewa Falls. Its citizens would not be affected 
by the proposed improvement Mdiich meant so much for Eau 
Claire. A large sawmill was located there, operated by the 
Hrm of Pound & Halbert, who had constructed a dam completely 
across the river with only a slide therein upon which lumber 
manufactured at points above, at Yellow River and Jims Falls, 
i-ould pass. They also had piers and booms in the river by which 
logs destined for points below were detained until they were 
assorted from the mass and placed in their storage booms what 
was their own. 

It was proposed by the interests at Eau Claire, to not only put 
in a slide for the passage of lumber in the dam, but also a lock 
through which boats, if any should want to ascend the river, 
could be passed through, and with this proposition they sought 
a grant or license from the legislature at its session in 1866, to 
construct such a dam, flume and necessary piers as has been 

It should be stated that there existed a rivalry between the 
two localities, Eau Claire and Chippewa Falls, and that rivalry 
was so extreme on the part of the citizens of Chippewa Falls 
that it prompted them, at the instigation largely of Thad. C. 
Pound, to oppose the construction of such improvement at the 
Dells, not on the ground of any injury to them or their village, 
but solely on the ground that it would be the means of the 
building up of a large business center of Eau Claire, and make 
it the leading point for the manufacture of lumber in the north- 


western part of the state. It would thus outstrip its rival in this 
respect. The opposition to the improvement, as stated, was one 
of jealousy, pure and simple. 

The legislature, after the most stubborn opposition on the 
part of Mr. Pound and his followers, defeated the measure. The 
measure Avas defeated again in 1870. In 1871 the franchise was 
granted by the legislature, but was promptly vetoed by Governor 
Fairchild. It should be stated here that Mr. Pound was not 
only a lumberman but a very prominent republican politician, 
a genial fellow and of considerable influence with his party. Al 
the next session of the legislature the franchise was granted and 
the bill signed by the governor. 

The separate villages of Eau Claire, Eau Claire City and 
North Eau Claire, the latter not incorporated, were incorporatetr 
as a city in March, 1872. The effort at this time was in the name 
of the city, ostensibly for the purpose of creating a waterworks 
system for the city. Incidentally for the booming, assorting 
and storing of logs, as well as the improvement of the navigation 
of the river. Tliis bill was attacked in the Supreme Court by 
the opposition, and by the court declared invalid on the ground 
that the primary purpose of the bill, as appeared from its text, 
was the booming and storage of logs, and the matter of water- 
works was secondary. At the next session this defect in the bill 
was remedied, the waterworks being made the primary purpose, 
and the lumber interests the incidental purpose. To remove all 
question as to the validity of the latter measure and to forestall 
any further eff'ort on the part of the Chippewa Palls people, the 
writer obtained the consent of the attorney general and in behalf 
of Ely and Vail, non-resident owners of land in Eau Claire, applied 
to the supreme court for an injunction to prevent the building of 
the dam by the city on the ground that the act was void, using 
all the arguments of the Chippewa Falls people in prior contests, 
and succeeded in being defeated (a paradox), the court uphold- 
ing the validity of the act. 

It may be of interest to here refer to the circumstances attend- 
ing its passage and showing by what a narrow margin it escaped 
defeat. Mr. Pound had succeeded in postponing final action 
upon the bill in the Senate until the evening of the last day of 
the session, the bill having passed the Assembly eai'ly in the ses- 
sion by a large majority. In the Senate the friends of the meas- 
ure lacked one vote of the necessary two-thirds to suspend the 
rules, and hence it appeared almost hopeless in the evening before 
the session to make any attempt to pass the bill. To say that its 


friends were discouraged is putting it very mild, indeed. The 
writer alone insisted upon continuing the fight to the last ditch, 
but with only the slight hope that some accident or unforeseen 
event might occur to our advantage. Senator Rice, of Waukesha, 
had charge of the bill, and the writer was to assist him in the 
parliamentary fight. Mr. Pound's tactics was to talk the bill to 
its death, and the senator from Columbus was selected to obtain 
the floor and talk and not sit down until both hands of the clock 
was at the hour of twelve. He obtained the floor, commenced 
his harangue, when it was noticed one of their supporters. Sen- 
ator Barny, was not in his seat. The sergeant-at-arms was dis- 
patched in haste to bring in the delinquent senator. He was 
finally corralled and brought to his seat, the senator from Colum- 
bus in the meantime still holding the floor. As Senator Barny 
reached his seat he immediately began addressing the chair. 
Tlie senator from Columbus, knowing he was friendly, slowly 
dropped into his seat, the chair recognizing Senator Barny. As 
Barny concluded, quick as a flash, and before the senator from 
Columbus could rise, the writer prompted Senator Rice to rise 
and obtain recognition from the chair (the late Judge Barron 
occupying it), which he did, and moved a suspension of the rules. 
This created a flurry in the enemy's camp, L. C. Stanley, of Chip- 
pewa Falls, immediately springing to the side of Senator Quimby. 
from Sauk county, and engaged his attention. In the meantime 
the call of the roll proceeded and the clerk announced that the 
rules were suspended. It appeared that Senator Quimby was so 
engaged with Mr. Stanley that when his name was called he did 
not pay attention to it and did not vote. After the vote was 
announced Quimby claimed the right to vote. The chair ruled 
that he had no authority to grant him that right after the result 
had been declared, but he would leave it to the Senate whether 
he should at that stage be permitted to vote. This, of course, 
required a majority vote, and hence not having a majority, the 
majority, disgusted at the method of filibustering to defeat the 
bill, voted against the motion. Senator Rice stood in his position 
to the end, the rules were suspended and the measure passed in 
regular order in quick time. 

We all thought that danger of defeat was passed. The friends 
of the measure, after an elaborate banquet, departed for their 
homes, except the writer and one other, the duty of having the 
bill properly signed and placed in the office of -the Secretary of 
State being imposed upon the writer. Eau Claire was all ablaze 
with joy and enthusiasm. The most elaborate preparations were 


being made for a monster celebration. It was complete and the 
people in mass assembled on the day the word was expected that 
the bill had been signed. 

However, there was not only delay, but danger. Taylor was 
Governor. H. S. Palmer was the leading democrat in the state. 
John C. Spooner was a leading republican. They appeared before 
the Governor and made a plea for a veto. They had the ear of 
the Governor. The writer was there alone to oppose. Palmer 
and Spooner argued that the bill Avas unconstitutional. The 
writer not only argued the contrary, but tried to impress upon 
the Governor that the able lawyers in both branches of the legis- 
lature on the judiciary committee had determined the bill was 
valid, and it would seem highly injudicious for him, not being a 
lawyer, to disagree with them. The Governor hesitated. I kncM- 
the inriuence against us was strong. We Avere all democrats but 
Spooner. I urged him not to weaken our party. After we had 
left the executive chamber, I returned. I felt the Governor would 
veto the bill, and I asked him if there was any lawyer in the state 
whose opinion he would respect, and eliminate what Palmer, 
Spooner and myself had urged. He finally said there was one 
man, and that was Judge Miller, of the United States Court, in 
Milwaukee. He consented to wait until his opinion could be 
obtained. I immediately went to Milwaukee, saw Judge Miller. 
He kindly consented to come to Madison. He came that night, 
and I received word late that night to meet the Governor at 
eight o'clock in the morning and he would sign the bill. I was 
there promptly and the Governor signed it and handed it to nie, 
and I personally carried it into the office of the Secretary of 

The most critical period in the history of Eau Claire was tlie 
spring of 1867. During the previous winter parties represented 
by one Bacon and Davis had put into the upper waters of the 
Chippewa a considerable quantity of saw logs for the purpose of 
driving, them down the Chippewa past Eau Claire and turning 
them into Beef Slough, through which considcvable of the water 
flowed, the slough leaving the main stn'iiiu ;i IVw miles above its 
mouth and entered into the Mississippi a short distance from 
Alma, the slough foi-ming a natural reservoir for logs where at 
its mouth the logs could be rafted and floated to mills on the 
Mississippi. It was the purpose, and such would be its effect, 
to make a log-driving stream of the Chippewa and destroy the 
)uanufacturing industries along the Chippewa river. It would not 
necessarily have this effect if tliere were facilities along the river 


at manufacturing points lawfully exercised to hold logs a suffi- 
cient time to allow them to be assorted, passing those destined 
for points below. But the purpose was, as stated, to make the 
stream, as had been done with Black river, exclusively a log- 
driving stream where logs could be driven throughout its length 
without any hindrance or delay. In the spring of 1867 Bacon 
and Davis started their drive. The first obstruction they met 
was at the mill of French & Giddings located at Jim's Falls, sev- 
eral miles above Chippewa Falls. They had employed a large 
force of drivers, and without any ceremony cut the booms of 
French & Giddings, thus releasing all their logs as well as those 
of their own. They came down the river doing the same with all 
the booms as far as the Eau Claire county line, intending to do 
the same with all booms in Eau Claire and below, of which there 
were a large number. The result was that the river at Eau Claire 
was one mass of floating logs extending from bank to bank, 
which made it impossible to any great extent to utilize the Half 
Moon lake canal. The owners of mills on the Chippewa realized 
that unless something was done to stay the operations of this 
lawless band that financial ruin was the inevitable i-esult; that 
their mills were worthless ; that manufacturing lumber on the 
river was at an end. It was pitiful as we stood upon the dam at 
the inlet of Half Moon lake canal on that Sunday morning to see, 
among others, Daniel Shaw, C. A. Bullen, 0. H. Ingram, Donald 
Kennedy, George A. Buffington and Stephen Marston, each with 
pike pole in hand, attempting to push a few of their logs through 
the canal into Half iloon lake. The writer had never seen logs 
floated, assorted or secured before. He had but recently come to 
Eau Claire. As he stood iipon the dam in wonder and surprise 
why such operations were permitted which caused so much de- 
struction and such ruin, he asked why it was permitted to be 
done, and received the reply that advice had been taken and they 
were powerless to prevent it. He replied that was strange. If 
there was no law in Wisconsin to prevent such lawlessness it was 
no place for him. He was asked if he could stop it, to which he 
replied he could or would move out of the state. To be brief, 
arrangement was made to meet him at his office at a later hour. 
In the meantime he had satisfied himself there was a remedy 
under Wisconsin laws of which he did not have much doubt at 
any time. At that meeting the parties Avere told that in view of 
the situation not only prompt but severe measures must be re- 
sorted to. He outlined his plan. To issue warrants for the arrest 
of Bacon and Davis and put them under bonds to keep the peace. 


To have the sheriff call out a posse eommitatus, arm them and be 
present at the first boom in Eau Claire county, which was that ot 
L. W. Farwell, and as the lawless band of drivers reached that 
boom to arrest them all as being engaged in a riot which the stat- 
utes clearly defined. Bacon and Davis were arrested at two 
o'clock Monday morning as tliey came to the Eau Claire House 
from the scene of their operations above. The crew of drivers 
had not reached the Farwell boom at this time. The sheriff had 
called out more than 250 men, and every man was armed with a 
rifle or shotgun. Not one shirked. The remaining booms in Eau 
Claire were to be protected at all hazards. Bacon and Davis 
were early in the morning brought before R. H. Copeland, a jus- 
tice of the peace, who fixed their bonds at $20,000. They saw 
the temper of the people, the 200 or more armed men parading 
the street ; they realized there was not only danger to their crew 
but possibly to themselves. Dr. W. T. Galloway, a personal friend 
of Davis, became their bondsman. Finally they agreed, if their 
men would not be molested and their personal safety guaranteed, 
to withdraw their men and resume their drive only at the south- 
ern extremity of the county. 

The end, however, was not yet. The next year they threat- 
ened to drive the Menomonie river, but learning that Knapp, 
Stout & Co. had secured a stand of arms from the state, and real- 
izing that any such attempt would be met by force, they aban- 
doned it. However, they threatened the Chippewa again, and 
this time to cut the booms of the Union Lumber Company at 
Chippewa Palls. The writer was called in and in a stormy inter- 
view with Mr. Bacon the latter was told that Chippewa Falls 
was prepared with arms that had been sent to Menomonie, and 
that the temper of the people at Chippewa was the same as that 
of Eau Claire, which he had seen. The result Avas that all at- 
tempts thereafter to cut booms and make a log-driving stream, 
except a little threat made by one Alonzo Shrinker, who was 
president of the Beef Slough Company or Mississippi Lumber 
Company, were abandoned. 

Referring again to the Dells dam, in order to comply witli 
the decision of the Supreme Court, it was thought to be neces- 
sary that the city be clothed with all the rights and property, 
not only such as were essential to the construction and operation 
of waterworks, but also the booming and assorting of logs. To 
this end the Half Moon Lake Canal Company conveyed its rights 
to the city. The millowners had spent a large amount of money, 
in the aggregate at least $75,000, in the several attempts to obtain 


the franchise aud the litigation growing out of it. The city issued 
its bonds to the amount of $95,000, the proceeds to be used in 
construction of the proposed dam. 

A corporation was formed to construct the dam and lo oper- 
ate it, the city to construct its own waterworks except certain 
M-aterwheels in consideration of the $95,000 for which the city 
was bonded, and also when completed the works were to be 
leased to the company for the sum of one dollar per year for 
the terra of ninety-nine years, and in addition the water rights 
aud privileges other than such as was required by the city for 
waterworks. The flowage rights were to be obtained by the city 
but paid for by the Improvement Company. The works as con- 
structed comprised a dam sixteen feet in height across the river, 
necessary booms and piers for holding and assorting logs, and 
a canal or liume from the west end of the dam to Half Moon lake. 
The expense of the dam and works was considerable in excess 
of the $95,000 which was paid by the Improvement Company. 

The Mississippi River Logging Company, a corporation cre- 
ated under the laws of Iowa, succeeded to the property and rights 
by lease or purchase of the original parties holding and oper- 
ating Beef slough. The millowners on the Mississippi river still 
longed for the volume of pine adjacent to the Chippewa river. 
Some of them had made large purchases on their own account. 
Realizing that any further attempt to drive the Chippewa by 
force would be futile, they resorted to another scheme which 
proved eminently successful. The plan was for practically all 
the Mississippi millowners to join with those at Eau Clpire in 
a common pool. That is, the operations should be carried on in 
the name of the Mississippi River Logging Company, in whose 
name the purchase of timber and logs should be made, each sub- 
scriber to have a certain interest in the assets ai-cording to his 
subscription, and entitled to a certain quantity of the logs to be 
manufactured by him to be taken from the common mass. This 
scheme proved attractive to the millowners at Eau Claire It 
saved part of the expense of handling logs. It assured to them 
at all times a stock of logs. It removed all opposition to holding 
logs in check at the Dells for a sufficient time to turii logs as 
required into their reservoir, principally Half Moon lake. By 
reason of the extensive holdings and purchase of logs by the com- 
pany, its immense resources in the way of money, logs could be 
secured at practically their own price. There was no other mar- 
ket for the independent logger. He must sell his logs to the pool 
or not sell at all. It was the most complete monopoly that ever 



existed in any branch of trade. Its restraint of trade was never 
equalled. The advantage on the part of the millowners upon the 
Mississippi was in thus being able to get their supply of logs 
from the Chippewa without serious opposition on the part of the 
millowners upon that stream. In securing all that interest as 
friends instead of foes, their interest in the concern was prac- 
tically in proportion eight to one. The result was not only the 
making of millionaires of those who became members of the 
monopoly, but to rapidly denude the forest of pine, some eight 
hundred million feet passing out of the state each year to be 
manufactured, and thus to limit the period in which manufacture 
of lumber could be carried on within the state. To deprive the 
state and locality of the incidental benefits ai'ising from manu- 
facture in the •way of employment of labor, the increase in popu- 
lation, the increase of manufacture, and the revenue by means 
of taxation. It was a partial paralysis of the growth and devel- 
opment of Eau Claire. 

To be able to successfully carry out this scheme, the exten- 
sive mill and works and the large holdings of pine of the Union 
Lumber Company at Chippewa Falls were purchased by the 
same interest, but in the name of a separate corporation, the Chip- 
pewa P'alls Lumber and Boom Company. Extensive dams were 
constructed on the main Chij^pewa and its branches for flood- 
ing purposes, and to further obtain complete control of the 
stream, another corporation, merely in name, was formed to 
monopolize the floating of the logs, named the Chippewa River 
Log Driving Company. 

As a temporary bait to the citizens of Eau Claire and to stifle 
opposition on their part, it was proposed to locate the office of this 
great concern at Eau Claire. It was never intended to be per- 
manent. Tlie office of the Chippewa Lumber and Boom Company 
was necessarily at Chippewa. The business and interest of the 
two concerns was common and it would not be good business 
judgment to have the offices of the two concerns at difi:erent 
places. However, the greed of this giant monopoly is not only 
apparent from the immense profits realized, but was made appar- 
ent at that day and continuously thereafter by the fact that it 
refused to pay taxes upon its property. It was found that it had 
125,000,000 feet of logs that year by the records, although it had 
in fact twice that quantity. The authorities at Eau Claire, as 
was their bouuden duty, assessed it for this holding of 125,000,- 
000 feet. Then came the direct threat in which the membei's from 
Eau Claire joined, that if the assessment was insisted upon the 


office would be removed to Chippewa Falls. No attention was 
paid to this threat, the assessment stood and in a few days the 
clerks, typewriters and the few articles of furniture of the office 
of two small rooms were taken to Chippewa Falls, leaving behind 
only the threat of Weyerhauser, the chief organizer, that he would 
make the grass grow in the streets of Eau Claire. When the tax 
thus levied became due, paj^ment was refused, and it was only 
after the safe and its contents of the company then at Chippewa 
Falls was seized for the tax that the tax was paid, amounting to 
nearly $12,000. The common council of Eau Claire, all but one 
of two-thirds of the members of that body, were either interested 
in the pool or controlled by some of the local members, adopted 
a resolution to refund the money thus collected. The mayor 
promptly vetoed it. The attempt to pass it over the mayor's 
veto failed only by the lack of one vote. No reason was ever 
given or argument advanced why the tax should not have been 
paid except that the citizens would derive an incidental benefit 
from having the office at Eau Claire. That the prup!_'!ly was 
subject to taxation was never questioned. The rates of toll were 
fixed at seventy-five cents per thousand feet of logs and timber, 
two cents for railroad ties and one cent for fence potts. The 
works were completed with a capacity of 200,000,000 feet. 

The music hall at the corner of Barstow and Kelsey sti'eets 
was erected in 1867 and destroyed by fire in 1871. After a lapse 
of three or four years, what was known as the Music Hall Block 
was built on its site, and that part of it which was devoted to 
amusements was called the City Opera House iintil the Eau Claire 
Opera House was built in 1883. 

A volunteer fire department was organized on the west side 
as far back as 1868, with the following officers: First foreman, 
James Tarrant; secretary, W. E. Demming. Engine Company 
No. 1 — J. Scott, Fred Rawlins, Jerry Murphy, Benjamin and 
John "Wells. Wales II. Willard was the first engineer. The en- 
gine was named after Hon. W. F. Bailey, president of the village. 
The village afterwards became merged into the city of Eau 
Claire. Hook and Ladder Company No. 1 was organized. At 
a meeting held April 29, 1873, at the then city rooms in the 
Gleason Block the following officers were appointed : William 
Bonell, Sr., foreman; Peter Girneau, first assistant; W. F. Cook, 
second assistant; H. Slingluff, secretary; John Joyce, treasurer, 
and Captain John Kelly, fire warden. Among the members were 
John Bubser, John Hancock, John Foster, Hugh Fitzpatrick, 
Philip Fitzpatrick, George Sebenthal, William Bonell, Jr., D. C. 


Whipple, William Dean, Andrew Oleson, John McCool, Charles 
Lang, M. R. Brown, Matt Stoddard, A. D. Wyman, T. B. John- 
son, S. Braekett, W. M. Bell, M. II. Donaldson, Henry Hendricks, 
Den Callahan, W. G. Butterfield, P. B. Buell, I. Norman, James 
Graves, L. Barnard, George Wyman, D. Merrimau, Elisha Ross, 
James McMahan, D. H. Murphy, T. Gilbertson, D. 6. McDonald, 
Jacob Kuhn, P. Yeager, J. H. Hartman, John Hallman, N. Sloggy, 
John Hancock and Charles Mabbit. 

At a meeting of the fire-fighters held June 25, 1873, at the west 
side engine house, the City Volunteer Fire Department was or- 
.ganized when the following officers were elected: Eugene Bul- 
lard, chief; William Bonell, Sr., first assistant; Jerry Murphy, 
second assistant ; W. E. J. Demming, secretary, and John Joyce, 
treasurer. In 1874 Capt. A. M. Sherman was chief. The changes 
in 1875 were the appointment of W. F. Cook as chief, and Edward 
Oliver as second assistant. John T. Tinker was chief in 1876, and 
Julius Churchill held that position in 1877. The city purchased 
an additional steamer in April, 1875 — G. E. Porter No. 2. It was 
assigned to the members of Hook and Ladder Company No. 1, 
and they changed the name of their organization to Hook and 
Ladder Company No. 2. Engine Company No. 1 was continued 
up to the time the city took charge of the department. 


The Imnber interests have always been foremost in the growth 
and prosperity of the whole Chippewa valley and Eau Claire 
I'spoeially. The water facilities at this point for sawmills, espe- 
ciiiUy (111 the Eau Clair(> river, is what first attracted lumbermen 
to this locality. From one little mill started in 1846 by McCann, 
Randall & Thomas, there grew up a number of what may be 
justly called mammoth institutions. The almost insurmountable 
difficulties some of them had to contend with by reason of floods, 
the natural courses of the rivers and linancial depression are 
noted at length elsewhere. This mill was destroyed by the flood 
of 1847, and another one was erected in its place in the winter of 
1847-48 by George W. and Simon Randall in association with 
Philo Stone and H. Cady. The last named disposed of his inter- 
est to Mr. Swim, and Simon Randall's share went to Mr. Pope. 
'I'liis was early in the "fifties." The firm thus became Stone, 
Swim & Co., and they parted with the jn-operty in the spring 
of 1855 to Carson, Eaton & Downs. 

The second sawmill was built on the Eau Claire river by J. J. 
Gage, James Rfi'A an.l C.iptain Dix in 1848. This property with 
large tracts of pine lands and one-half the village plat became 
vested in the two first named parties. After operating the mill 
for several years the whole property was placed on the market. 
Adin Randall came to Eau Claire in the summer of 1855 and 
undertook to find a purchaser. As a preliminary step he obtained 
a bond from the owners agreeing to dispose of the property at a 
fixed price. He negotiated with Nelson C. Chapman and J. G. 
Thorp, who purchased the property in May, 1856, for $42,000, 
although they did not come to Eau Claire and take possession 
until the following year. Shortly afterward they purchased the 
entire property of Carson, Eaton & Downs, and thus became the 
proprietors of both mills. Nelson C. Chapman was born in Dur- 
ham, Green county, N. Y., in 1811, removing to Norwich, Che- 
nango county, when sixteen years of age. He remained there, 
doing a successful business, until 1846, when he removed to Ox- 
ford in the same county and entered into partnership with J. G. 
Thorp. His birthplace was Butternuts, X. Y., and the date 1812. 


He entered the store of Ira Wilcox at Oxford in 1829. Seven 
years afterward he was taken into partnership and the firm was 
known as I. Wilcox & Co. In 1846 the senior member disposed 
of his interest to N. C. Chapman, and thus was formed the firm 
of Chapman & Thorp. The business Avas carried on in the same 
place until 1857, when Mr. Thorp removed to Eau Claire and Mr. 
Chapman went to St. Loiiis where he continued the business of 
the firm until his death in 1873. 

An amusing incident grew out of the contract with Gage & 
Reed, at least to those who were not affected by it. A certain 
sum was paid down and the balance was to be liquidated by in- 
stallments. Gold was plentiful at this time and did not command 
a premium, so no stipulation was made as to the mode in which 
the accruing sums were to be discharged. Before the last pay- 
ment became due, money in any shape, but especially gold, was 
not to be found in the West. Gage & Reed having signified their 
intention not to accept anything else, looked forward to a fore- 
closure, particularly as the sum amounted to $9,000. When the 
day for settlement came their astonishment can be more readily 
imagined than described when the money, principal and interest, 
was handed to them in American gold. Such was the manner in 
which this firm condiicted their business. By adhering to this 
system they established a name and credit that carried them not 
only through the monetary eri.sis that existed from 1861 to 1865, 
while thousands became bankrupt, but to success. Not only did 
they surmount all difficulties, but in t^n years they had made 
valuable accessions to their real estate. ' ' - , 

In 1866 the Eau Claire Lumber Company was incorporated, 
with a paid-up capital of $160,000, with Joseph G. Thorp as its 
president. Such was the magnitude of its rapidly increasing busi- 
ness that in 1880 its capital had increased to $3,000,000. In addi- 
tion to the lumber mill plant it had at one time machine shops, 
flouring mills and an elevator in Eau Claire, besides mills at Ma- 
ridean and Alma, giving a combined capacity of 100,000,000 feet 
a year. As much as 40,000,000 feet of lumber was cut in one 
year. The company erected a large brick store in 1874 to replace 
the one destroyed by fire that year for the retailing of general 
merchandise at a cost of $30,000. At one time the transactions 
of this branch of the business amounted to $350,000 a year. 

The losses of the company at variQus times by fire and flood 
would aggregate a very large amount. The extensive flourmill 
was destroyed by fire in 1877 when a loss of $50,000 was sus- 
tained, with insurance of $27,000. On December 19, 1878, the 


machine shop was also burned clown. A year afterward the boiler 
of the planing mill exploded, killing J. Wright Hoskins (the 
engineer), Anthony Gallagher and Michael Helping. Thomas 
Hall was also injured and the mill badly shattered. The shingle 
mill went up in flames in June, 1890, inflicting a loss of $15,000. 
The Mississippi River Logging Company purchased the whole 
of the property in 1887 and the business \vas carried on by them. 

Another successful mill enterprise was that inaugurated by 
the late Daniel Shaw at what was named after him, Shawtown. 
He located his plant at the outlet of Half Moon lake in 1856. He 
was born in 1813 at Industry, Franklin county, Maine, and chose 
lumbering as a vocation and engaged in business in Allegany 
county, N. Y. He was successful in the selection he had made, 
but, desiring to enlarge his sphere of operations, he came to Wis- 
consin in 1855 and traveled through the Chippewa valley pine 
district. Satisfied with the outlook, he, in association with Mr. 
Clark, the father of Dewitt C. Clark, purchased a large quantity 
of pine lands and removed to Eau Claire with his family the fol- 
lowing year. Another element that induced him to take this 
course was that he had been successful in associating himself 
with Ingram & Kennedy, Smith & Ball and Adin Randall, and 
obtaining a charter from the legislature authorizing them to 
excavate a race or canal from the river to Half Moon lake and 
establish a sheer boom at a suitable point, and so stock the mills 
at Shawtown. The whole work was pressed forward with com- 
mendable dispatch, but the terrible collapse in the commercial 
centers of the West and the almost total prostration of the lumber 
trade in the next succeeding years placed an effectual cheek on 
these operations and presented obstacles to running the mill with 
satisfactory results that few men could surmount; but he battled 
with them all and came out the victor by associating himself 
with Mr. C. A. BuUeu. The firm finally succeeded in establishing 
the business on a solid basis when the mill was destroyed by fire 
in August, 1867. Nothing daunted, the firm rebuilt the mill in 
the same year on a more extensive scale and with improved 
machinery, augmenting their resources by taking into partner- 
ship with them Newell & Ferguson. 

The institution was incorporated in 1874 as the Daniel Shaw 
Lumber Company, with a capital of $500,000. The first officers 
were : Daniel Shaw, president ; C. A. Bullen, vice-president ; C. S. 
Newell, treasurer, and G. B. Shaw, secretary. Additions were 
made to the plant which occupied many acres of land with twelve 


The Empire Lumber Company also had its works at Shaw- 
town. A mill was erected there by Ingram. Dole & Kennedy in 
1856. Mr. Dole retired soon afterward and the firm became 
known as Ingram & Kennedy. They were previously operating 
in Canada. The hard times of 1857 taxed their resources to the 
utmost, and to add to the impediments in the way to establish- 
ing a successful business the mill was, about two years later on, 
consumed by fire. This loss was, however, overcome, and after 
struggling through the depression that existed during the war 
period, business gradually improved under the able management 
of the senior partner. At about the same time, and adjacent to 
the site of the Ingram & Kennedy mill, another mill was con- 
structed by John P. Pinkum and operated by him, liaviiig a 
capacity of about 30,000 feet per day. 

In 1869 they purchased of Arthur M. and John S. Sherman 
what is known as the "Eddy" mill, which was located north- 
east of Mount Simon on the Chippewa river. The members of 
the firm ultimately associated themselves with the Charles Hor- 
ton Lumber Company, of Winona, Minn., and Dulany & McVeign, 
of Hannibal, Mo., and organized the Empire Lumber Company 
on March 26, 1881, witli a capital of ^800,000, Jlr. Kennedy 

The sawmill erected by Adin Randall in 1856 on what later on 
became Menomonie street, "Randall's Land" passed shortly 
after into the hands of Smith & Ball. George A. Buffington, who 
came to Eau Claire in 1856 from Cattaraugus county, New York, 
and ran a livery and kept a hotel, purchased the interest of the 
junior member of the firm in the mill property in 1859. The 
institution was thenceforth and until March 5, 1872, operated 
by Smith & Buffington, when it was incorporated with a capital 
of $250,000. The first officers were George A. Buffington, presi- 
dent ; C. M. Smith, vice-president, and C. M. Buffington, secretary. 
The old mill was removed in 1874 and one of the largest steam 
mills in the valley erected on its site, William Carson having 
purchased the interest of Smith, and with this addition the com- 
pany became financially strong, and owing to the integrity and 
good business judgment of both Mr. Carson and Mr. Buffington, 
the entire transaction was a grand success. The capacity of the 
plant was 25,000,000 feet of lumber, 20,000,000 shingles and about 
15,000,000 laths and pickets a year. The number of men em- 
ployed was 200, including tlie mill hands and those engaged 
in the lumber camps. 

In 1868 a small rotary sawmill was built on an island above 


the Dells, three miles and a half from Eau Claii-e, but within the 
city limits, by Preseott, Burditt & Co., with a daily capacity of 
nearly 40,000 feet. A few years afterward, 1873-74, this mill 
was torn down and replaced with a gang and rotary mill having 
a daily capacity of 100,000 feet. It was operated until and 
including- the year 1889, cutting from 10,000,000 to 16,000,000 
feet of lumber each season. The business was organized in 1879 
as a corporation under the name of the Dells Lumber Company, 
with a capital of $100,000. 

A gang and rotary mill was built by R. F. Wilson, of the Avest 
side of the Chippewa river, a short distance north of the Madison 
street bridge, in about 1878, but was burned down two years 
later. It was rebuilt by the Pioneer Lumber Company, which 
operated for a time, then it remained idle for about four years 
iind was then sold to the Dells Lumber Company. 

Arthur M. and John S. Sherman settled in Eau Claire in the 
winter of 1856-57, and in 1860 commenced the erection of a mill 
at Big Eddy, later known as the Eddy mill. It was sold by them 
to Ingram & Kennedy in 1869. The brotliers then engaged in 
the logging business and bought an interest in what was known 
as the Boyd mill, which Avent out with the flood of 1880 and was 
landed in a completely demoralized condition seven miles down 
tlie river. In the fall of 1880 they began the erection of the 
Sherman mill on the east side of Half Moon lake, which was com- 
pleted in July, 1881. After operating about one year it was 
burned down. It was tlien rebuilt by the owners, who sold a con- 
trolling interest in it to the Chippewa Logging Company. The 
logging company then purchased the interest of the Sherman 
brothers. After running the mill for several years under the 
name of the Sherman Lumber Company, it was shut down. It 
was next sold to John S. Owen and R. E. Rust, who associated 
themselves together and organized the West Eau Claire Mill 
Company in 1887. with a capital of $42,000. The Sherman mill 
thus became merged in this company. 

The Westville Lumber Company was incorporated in 1882, 
with a capital of $100,000, for the manufacture and marketing of 
lumber, and operated a mill at Shawtown on or near the site of 
the Alexander Boyd mill hereafter referred to. 

The Rust-Owen Lumber Company was incorporated in April, 
1882, with a capital of $300,000, with the mills at Drummond, 
Bayfield county. Wis. The principal office was at Eau Claire. 

The Davis & Starr Lumber Company was organized in June, 
1886, with a capital of $100,000, which was increased to $250,000. 


The corporation owned and operated a small mill at Little Black, 
Taylor county, on the Ashland division of the Wisconsin Central, 
now the Soo Railroad. This mill was burned down in the spring 
of 1889, and a new plant with the latest improvements was 
erected the same year. The main ofSce was at Eau Claire. 

The Montreal Lumber Company was incorporated, Avitli its 
principal office at Eau Claire, in August, 1887, with a capital of 
$500,000. The works were at Gile, a suburb of Hurley, on the 
Montreal river, Ashland county, "Wis. 

The Sterling Lumber Company was incorporated in March, 
1888, with a capital of $100,000, with main offices in Eau Claire. 
The mill was located at Sterling, Clark county, Wis., on the Wis- 
consin Central Railway. 

At an early date, the exact date not being remembered, a mill 
was constructed near the entrance of the canal into Half Moon 
lake by Stephen Marston. This mill was abandoned a few years 
later. Mr. Marston came from Maine and was among the early 
settlers of Eau Claire. He engaged in the mercantile business 
which he carried on successfully. He died many years ago. 

jMead and Angel operated a mill on Plalf Moon lake in 1867 
and 1868 and prior thereto. Wilcox and Parker also operated 
a shingle mill on the lake during the same time. Wilson and 
Poster in 1867 and prior thereto operated a mill near the en- 
trance of the canal and adjacent to the Pinkum mill. It was 
not a success financially and was finally abandoned. 

Porter and Moon operated a mill at or near the outlet to 
Wheatou Springs for some years. 

This firm also had an extensive mill located at Portersville, 
in the town of Brunswick, particular mention being made where 
that town is considered. It purchased from the Mississippi River 
Logging Company the interest they purchased from the Eau 
Claire Lumber Company and operated the mills until within a 
few years. Also their extensive mill and interest at Stanley, 
th(> principal office being at Eau Claire, the name of all the con- 
cerns here being changed to that of the Northwestern Lumber 
Company. The Northwestern Lumber Company is found in the 
industries of Eau Claire. 

Alexander Boyd owned and operated a mill at Shawtown as 
early as 1866. Also W. B. Estabrook. McGuire and McRae 
owned and operated a mill in the town of Union, located on the 
west side of the Cliippewa river a few miles south of Eau Claire. 
There was also another mill called the Gordon mill located a 
short distance from the mill last named. 


Early in August, 1862, bands of the Sioux Indians fell upon 
New Ulm and other towns in Minnesota, murdering men, women 
and children, and sending terror into every settlement. Stories 
of these deeds were widely spread and magnified until the atmos- 
phere was laden with terror and tidings of danger sent abroad 
without reason. In the early morning of the last Sunday of this 
month a dense fog rested upon the Chippewa Valley, and many 
Miiose nerves were shaken with vague fears fancied that they 
saw savages lurking in the woods. The whole country became 
panic stricken, the wildest tales were believed, "a thousand of 
the fiends lurked in the big swamp and on the Chippewa bot- 
toms," in short, all through the valley. The farmers around the 
town gathered here, bringing additional stories of savages in 
ambush, smoke rising from burning houses, etc. The churches 
were quickly emptied, a committee of safety was appointed, and 
women and children assembled in Maxston's Hall, which was ■' 
chosen as a fort of defense on the east side, while the home of 
0. H. Ingram served the same purpose on the west side of the j. - i- ■ V 
river. W. P. Bartlett bore the rank of major, having received -tv,/-yv^'6« 
his commission from the governor previously, but he agreed with 
the citizens in the choice of a tried soldier as leader. This proved 
to be E. R. Hantzsch, a gallant follower of Walker in his expedi- 
tion against Nicaragua in 1855. He organized and drilled his 
forces, armed them with rifles, pitchforks, scythes and spades, 
sent out patrols to guard the streets and scouting parties to 
watch for the foe, and did all that valor, experience and zeal 
could put forth against the real and imminent danger. 

The few hotels as well as the improvised forts were filled witli 
women and children who had thronged in from the country fos 
miles around. The day passed, citizens and refugees alike were 
forcibly alive to sounds which might mean attack from the 
dreaded Indians. At nightfall mothers hushed their children to 
sleep and longed for daybreak. Valorous citizens of every rank, 
profession or trade, were at their stations of defense, with pike 
pole, axe or shotgun listening for the stealthy tread of the wily 
Sioux. But at sunrise the cheerful mien of the brave defenders 


proved that the foe had existed only in the imaginations of 
excited minds, refugees returned to their deserted homes, village 
housewives replenished their pantry shelves, which had been 
freely emptied to feed the invading hosts, and returned to cus- 
tomary duties with thankful heart — the valley settled down to its 
wanted calm — and "the Indian scarce" became an idle talc to 
furnish amusement in days to come. 

Mr. Thomas McBean has to say in regard to an article pub- 
lished in a neighboring newspapers wherein Mr. Warren L. Brad- 
shaw, of Durand, mentioned an incident which occurred in the 
lower Chippewa Valley, in which the Chippewa and Sioux Indians 
met in conflict near Chippewa Falls and three Chippewas were 
scalped. "It calls to my mind," says Mr. McBean, "that when 
I came to Chippewa in 1856 the talk was still fresh of a fight 
between the Chippewas and the Sioux on the blufl" across from 
the Chippewa river from the Blue Mills (now Lake Hallie) that 
occurred in the fall of 1855. At that time and for years before 
the big woods over on the Menomonie was the dividing line 
between the hostile Chippewas and Sioux. 'Thus far thou shalt 
come but no farther,' was the war cry, although they fought 
wherever they met. On this occasion a band of Sioux crossed 
the 'dead line' and were met by a band of Chippewas on the 
Chippewas Bluff, and an all day fight in the woods and brush 
took place. Who were victorious it was hard to tell, for as night 
came on the Sioux decamped for a 'Happier hunting ground." 
The Chippewas came to the Falls with the mangled remains of 
their Sioux left on the field of battle, and as the braves marched 
back, around their necks hung the trophies of war ; some had a 
head, some an arm, others a leg and different parts of the anatomy 
decorated the valiant warriors. That night a big war dance was 
held over by the big mill, bonfires were lit, the tom-toms brought 
into play, and the night was spent in a grand pow-wow. This, 
it is said, was the last fight that took place between the Chip- 
pewas and the Sioux on Wisconsin soil." 


In March, 1872, the residents of Eaii Claire obtained a charter 
fi'om the legislature whereby the villages became a city. It is 
picturesquely situated in the valley of the Chippewa river, and 
is x)rotected on the northeast side and northwest by two ranges 
of hills, or series of bluffs, through which the river runs. Directly 
in front of them, and due north, is Mount Simon, the highest of 
the hills. On the south is a sweeping range of bluffs, which turn 
to the southeast, and, turning again due east, form the southern 
bank of the Eau Claire river, with Mount Agnes in the southeast 
corner and Mount Tom due east. West of Half Moon lake is 
another range of bluffs, so that the city is surrounded by hills, 
except at the inlet and outlet of the Chippewa river. The cit.y 
is well watered by the river named and the Half Moon lake on 
tile west, in the center of which is Island Park. 

The city is divided into three parts, known as the North, 
East and West sides. They are all well laid out in streets, espe- 
cially on the West side, most of which run from north to south 
and east to west. They are nearly all graded and aggi-egate 
sixty-five miles in length. The principal business thoroughfares 
on the East side are: Barstow, Kelsey, Eau Claire, Gibson and 
J\iver streets. On the North side : North Barstow, Galloway, 
;\Iadison and Wisconsin streets. On the West side : Water, 
Bridge, Bellinger and Meuomonie streets. The majority of the 
business houses are of brick. The leading residence streets on 
the East side are Farwell, State, River and Summit, Marston 
and Gilbert avenues. Those on the West side are : Niagara, Hud- 
son, Lake and Bridge streets, Broatlway and Second, Third and 
Fourth avenues. On the North side are : Wisconsin and Gallo- 
way streets. The finest residences are on the West side and in 
the southern part of the East side. 

The whole city is well lighted by electricity — the power for 
Avhicli is obtained from the Dells dam on the Chippewa. Thei'e 
ai'e five commodious cemeteries, one at Forest Hill, on the east 
side; Lake View ciinctcry on the plateau immediately beyond the 
l)luffs west of Half-iloon lake, and four on the north side — two 
Catholic, one Norwegian and one Jewish. 


These are under the control of the city council, and every 
effort will be made to beautify them. New additions have been 
opened for each cemetery, and a plan has been developed under 
which lot owners can provide for perpetual care of the lots 
through the income from special deposits they may make. Lake 
View overlooks Carson Park on its lovely island below, and is 
bordered on the north by Buffington Heights, the latest of the 
parks added to the city's beauty jslaces. 

Eau Claire has a population of nearly twenty thousand people, 
is the county seat of Eau Claire county, is situated at the junction 
of the Chippewa and Eau Claire rivers and is 84 miles east of St. 
Paul and 231 miles northwest of Chicago. In and tributary to 
Eau Claire there are about 100,000 H. P. of water, making it the 
great waterpower city of northern Wisconsin. The Chippewa 
Valley Railway, Light and Power Co. have just completed a 
hydro-electric plant at Cedar Falls, which will bring 12,000 H. P. 
to Eau Claire to be used for manufacturing and power purposes. 
On the three railroads which enter and leave the city forty-eight 
trains pass through daily. Nineteen million people can be reached 
within less than eleven hours' travel from Eau Claire. There are 
about one hundred and eleven factories and all are busy. Eau 
Claire machinery is sold all over the world. The $100,000 Y. M. 
C. A. building, the Public Library, and the Eau Claire Club are 
the best of buildings for the purposes they serve and are unsur- 
passed in the state except in Milwaukee. There are three hos- 
pitals, one tuberculosis sanitarium and a county asylum. A shale 
and gravel roadway extending from the cemeteries on the north 
side to the line of the city limits on the Chippewa road, a distance 
of 21^ miles, has just been completed. The Eau Claire automobile 
owners contributed one-half the cost of this improvement, which 
forms a splendid thoroughfare nearly half the way to Chippewa 
Falls, these two cities being also connected by an excellent street 
car service. The interurban street car line between Eau Claire 
and Altooua is of great value, and doubtless the Wisconsin-Minne- 
sota Light and Power Company will soon extend lines to other 
neighboring cities, Menomonie, Mondovi, Augusta, and Bloomer. 

There are two miles of forest drive in Putnam Park, and when 
the parks lately donated to the city are united by the proposed 
parkway system there will be a continuous stretch of charming 
scenery for many miles through and around the city to be en- 
joyed by beauty lovers in carriages, automobiles, or on foot. 
There are two miles of brick pavement in the city streets and 
nine miles of macadam and manv miles of concrete sidewalk. 


The present commission plan of city government was inaugu- 
rated in April, 1910, Eau Claire being the first city in Wisconsin 
to adopt the plan. All municipal business is managed by the 
mayor and two couneilmen who maintain a strict supervision of 
the various city activities. The city owns the waterworks system 
and administers the same through the council. The rates are ex- 
tremely low and it is difficult to keep pace with the demand for 

There are twenty-one miles of sewer, including the storm 
Avater and sanitary drainage system. Additional sewer work is 
demanded every year and is being provided as rapidly as possi- 
ble. The lighting plan at present covers 154 arc lights. A new 
system has been laid out for the addition of a large number of 
lamps which will include a high illumination district extending 
from Madison to Jones street on Barstow and from Farwell street 
to Second avenue on Grand avenue. 

There are six theaters, including the moving picture houses, 
and three large hotels, the Eau Claii'e, the Galloway, the Com- 
mercial, and a number of smaller ones. 

The city's assessed valuation is about $10,500,000. The net 
bonded indebtedness will be less than $200,000.00, including the 
recent issue of $75,000 for the new bridge. 

The bank clearings are over ten millions for the year 1913. 
The city has a thoroughly adequate natural drainage. The 
street grades are good, and have a sufficient fall to rapidly clear 
themselves of water in time of storm. The soil is extreraely 
porous, thus making it possible for tlie city to be healthy without 
as complete a sewerage system as would otherwise be necessary. 
Tliere is abundant means for the disposal of sewage. Witli the 
Chippewa river running through the city from north to south 
and the Eau Claire passing through much of the thickly inhabited 
portion, together with the Little Niagara stream, south of the east 
side, which will, in the future, be very valuable as a sewage re- 
ceptacle for that portion of the city, and Half Moon lake, Avhich 
can be used at any time when necessary, the complete sanitation 
of the city is at all times assured. There are many miles of sewers, 
including separate and distinct systems, each having an outlet of 
its own. All the paved streets are well provided with catch 
basins for conducting the water from the surface to the seWers, 
which empty themselves into the two rivers. The sewage is thus 
transported via "The Father of Waters" to the Gulf of Mexico. 
The highest point under the established grade, that is the 
highest street that has a grade established on it, is 151 feet above 


the low water level of the Chippewa river. The levels all run, 
taking the low water mark of the river as a base or level datum. 
This base is 180 feet above Lake Michigan, which is 589 feet 
above sea level. Hence the city is 769 feet above sea level at 
the low water mark of the Chippewa river, and the main portion 
of it 31 feet above this mark, so that, on an average, it is 800 feet 
above the sea level. The climate is pleasant, healthy and invig- 
orating, the yearly mean temperature being 46 degrees Fahren- 
heit. The average mean temperature of winter is 20 degrees, 
of spring and autumn 47, and of summer 72. The prevailing 
winds in the spring are from the northeast, in the summer from 
the south and southeast, and in the autumn and winter from the 
west. According to the reports furnished the State Board of 
Health and vital statistics, Eau Claii'e is one of the healthiest 
cities in the United States. 

The different sections of the city are linked together with six 
liighway bridges, four of these span the Chippewa river, one 
connecting the north and west side, and three, the east and west 
sides. The tirst mentioned is a combination bridge of steel and 
wood. The first of the other three is of steel and connects Grand 
avenue east and Grand avenue west. The next in order is 
of solid concrete, nearly finished, connecting Summit avenue on 
the east side with Water street on the west side. The last is a 
wooden structure connecting Suawtowu with the vacant lajid o:i 
the east side. There are also b'idges across the Eau Claire river 
connecting the east and north sides, one of which is of solid con- 
crete and the other of steel. The floods of 1880 and 1884, as fully 
appears in the article devoted to floods, destroyed the several 
bridges then existing at these several locations, and those men- 
tioned here are such as have been erected since. 

In January, 1857, preliminary instructions were given by the 
Board of Supervisors for the construction of a bridge across the 
Eau Claire river, between Chapman & Thorp's and Carson & 
p]aton's mills on the north side and opposite Dewey street on the 
south side. There was .$750.00 appropriated for this purpose, and 
the bridge was open to the public in 1859. Previous and up to 
this time a ferry had been operated between the two points by 
Adin Randall. A new structure was erected in 1874 by the Eau 
Claire Lumber Company at a cost of $2,947.00, and in 1887 an iron 
bridge was substituted for it at an outlay of $10,000. The bridge, 
a wooden structure, across the Eau Claire at Barstow street was 
washed away by the flood of 1884 and a new one built in its place. 
The other bridge in the heart of the city is that of Madison street. 


acd connects the two northern sections of Eau Claire together. 
There are also two bridges in the southern and southwestern sec- 
tions of the city across the Chippewa. The Mississippi Logging 
Company had two foot bridges over the Eau Claire, one at its 
lower mill and the other at its upper mill. 

According to the act approved March 28, 1889, revising the 
original charter of the city, and the several amendments thereof, 
the territory and limits of the city are all of sections 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 
16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 28, 29, and 30, of township 27 north, of 
range 9 west, and lots 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 and the east half 
of the northwest quarter of section 25, and the east half of section 
24 of township 27, north of range 10 west. 

Since the incorporation of Eau Claire as a city the following 
gentlemen have held the office of mayor: Hiram P. Graham was 
the first mayor, he having been elected in 1872, and served two 
terms. He was followed by J. P. Nelson in 1874, G. E. Porter 
in 1875, G. A. Buffington in 1876, L. M. Vilas in 1877, W. F. Bailey 
in 1878-79, George W. Chapman in 1880, J. F. Moore in 1881, Dr. 
E. T. Farr in 1882-83, W. P. Bailey in 1884, PI. D. Davis in 1885, 
D. W. Day in 1886, John Grinsell in 1887, W. A. Rust in 1888-89, 
George B. Shaw in 1890, John Hunner in 1891-92, John Ure in 
1893, George H. Hopper in 1894, T. A. Cameron in 1895-96, Henry 
L. Day in 1897, W. II. Frawley in 1898, S. S. Kepler in 1899, David 
Douglas in 1900-01-02-03-04, and 1905, William Rowe; 1906- 
07-08-09, W. H. Frawley. The present mayor, John B. Fleming, 
was elected in 1910, and by re-election has held the office till the 
present time. 


In the early 80 's Eau Claire was known throughout the country 
as a great sawmill center. The industry had developed from 
the early 50 's and but few labor disputes or difficulties had 

Early in July, 1881, agitation for a ten-hour day was started 
and on Monday, July 18, with scarcely any warning, several 
hundred men employed by the Eau Claire Lumber Company quit 
work at an early hour in the morning. Their demand for a 
ten-hour day was refused. A procession was formed and the 
strikers went around several of the other mills, compelling all 
men to quit work and join their ranks. They were successful in 
gaining recruits at every mill but one, that of Sherman Bros., 
on the east side of Half Moon Lake. The fires were put out at 
some of the mills and in several instances physical violence was 


resorted to, to induce the workers to leave. As days went by the 
excitement became more intense and labor agitators made threats 
of destruction of the milling properties. 

Mayor E. J. Farr kept Governor William E. Smith infonned 
of the condition of affairs. The Governor came to the city and 
personally investigated the trouble, with the result that on July 
22, 1881, General Edwin E. Bryant, Adjutant General of Wis- 
consin, issued Special Orders No. 20, directing Lieutenant-Colonel 
W. B. Britton to assemble A Company (the Janesville Guards), 
B Company (the Bower City Rifles), and the Beloit City Guard 
for active service at Eau Claire. Lieutenant-Colonel Chandler P. 
Chapman was ordered to assemble the Lake City Guards, the 
Governor's Guard, the Guppy Guard, and the Watertown Rifles 
and proceed to Eau Claire. Captain B. F. Parker, at Mausten, 
was also directed to assemble his company' and proceed to Eau 
Claire. All of these companies arrived the following day and 
reported to the Mayor, Hon. E. J. Farr. In all there were about 
three hundred and seventy-five officers and men. Shortly before 
their arrival some of the more prominent strike leaders were 

A portion of the companies encamped on Randall Park, which 
Avas named "Camp Farr," and others at the County Court House. 
The presence of the troops in the city had a quieting influence 
and the differences between the employers and the employees were 
finally settled. A portion of the troops remained until July 28. 

Previous to the departure of the soldiers, the ladies of the 
west side served a banquet to officers and men. IMayor Farr and 
a niimber of leading citizens were also present and made addresses 
complimentary to tlie conduct and discipline of the troops. 

Among people of note who had their home in Eau Claire we 
mention the widow of 6. P. R. James, the English historian and 
novelist. Mrs. James dwelt here with her two sons for many 
years after the death of her husband in Venice, where he was 
then British Consul-General. She was a woman of refinement, 
strength of character and many lovable traits which endeared 
her to all who knew her. Also the wife of Ole Bull, the renowned 
violinist, passed a part of her childhood in the village, and after 
her marriage to the eminent musician was a frequent visitor here 
with her father, the Honorable J. G. Thorp. 



Prior to 1872 Eau Claire was composed of three villages, West, 
East and North Eau Claire, each under a separate government. 
While East Eau Claire was the greatest sufferer from fire in those 
early days, it appears that West Eau Claire was the most pro- 
gressive in regard to fire protection. Eau Claire, dating from the 
year 1856, down through the years of its infancy and until such 
a time when there was some organized effort made for fire 
extinguishment, suffered greatly from the ravages of fire. 

I will herewith review a few fires \\'hich in those early days 
were considered of a serious nature. On January 19, 1864, a fire 
occurred on the corner of Barstow and Eau Claire streets, com- 
pletely destroying a building occupied by John^Horan. The citi- 
zens .worked with great energy and finallj' succeeded in prevent- 
ing the further spread of the fire. This was the first fire that 
occurred on the east side of the river. The Free Press comments 
on this fire and points the necessity of a hook and ladder company 
for this place. On January, 1866, what was called the Williams 
block fire occurred, one of the sufferers in this fire was the Free 
Press, being the second time that they burned out ; previous fire 
occurred in 1864. On September 27, 1866, the Free Press came out 
strongly in an editorial urging upon the people to organize a 
fire department. On August 8, 1867, Daniel Shaw & Co.'s mill 
burned, thereby sustaining a loss they could ill afford in those 
early days. On October 17, 1867, the Free Press again advocated 
the organization of a fire department. November 8, 1867, the 
Lower mill on the Eau Claire river, owned by Chapman & Thorp, 
burned. On January 23 the Free Press again urged some fire pro- 
tection. Thursday, May 15, 1869, Eau Claire House barn 
destroyed ; large body of river men succeeded in stopping spread 
of fire. On May 27, 1869, a disastrous fire occurred, destroying 
the two blocks on the west side of Barstow street between Main 
and Gibson, also one block on the east side of Barstow street 
between Main and Kelsey (now Grand avenue E.). A hard fight 
was successfully made at Main street to stoj) the fire. The stop 


was made at Mommoth Wooden Store of S. Marston, in which the 
post office was located, S. E. corner of Main and Barstow. Com- 
ment was made by Free Press that a small hand engine might 
have saved much property; loss estimated at $150,000.00. June 
16, 1869, Johnston Hall building, in West Eau Claire, burned. 
H. H. DeYarman, owner. Insurance, $11,000.00. September 27, 
1869, building opposite Niagara House, in West Eau Claire, 
occupied by E. C. Monroe harness shop; D. P. Barnes as fanning 
mill manufacturing; building adjoining the Anthony Schaefer 
liquor store ; extraordinary labor j^revented spread of fire. Janu- 
ary 26, 1870, unknown cause of fire in J. P. Nelson's barn. Busi- 
ness houses destroyed. E. Robert Hantzsch distillery; Foster & 
Jones grocery store; Buck & Anderson, hardware; Ed. Munden, 
grocer; John Moe, jewelry ; comment by Free Press, one fire engine 
could have stopped fire. This fire was west of Barstow, near Main 
street. August 18, 1870, residence of D. Kennedy caught fire. 
Capt. Frank Hatch, chief of fire department, LaCrosse, and editor 
of LaCrosse Leader, happened to be riding by at the time. He 
combated the fire successfully. January 19, 1871, Weber Hall, 
corner Main and Barstow, building back of hall occupied by Hor- 
rigan & Groundwater tailor sliop. G. B. Chapman & Co. 's estab- 
lishment adjoining on Barstow street, threatened. Loss, $16.- 
000.00. June 24, 1871, fire James Notes' bakery, Gibson street. 
Communicated to adjoining structures. Nearly entire block in 
ruins. Nobes' bakery insured for $2,000.00. White tin shop 
insured for $3,000.00. F. R. Skinner frame building on Eau Claire 
street, insured for $1,650.00. E. R. Hantzsch saloon, insured for 
$800.00. Total, $7,450. 

April 24, 1875. A block of buildings now occupied by tlie 
Y. M. C. A. property was entirely destroyed by fire which included 
the W. H. Bailey paint store; M. E. Stearns shoe shop; James 
Black, barber ; William Burns, dwelling, and the American House, 
which was owned by Peter Hart. 

May 5, 1875. Our jail, a large wooden structure located on 
Doty street between Main and Graj- streets, Avas destroyed. 

August 20, 1875. The Graham & White Co. plant (now the 
Phoenix Manufacturing Company) burned to the ground. This 
plant at that time was located on north side of Eau Claire river, 
directly opposite the W. H. Hobbs garage. 

April 23, 1882. A fire occurred, entailing the largest loss ever 
sustained in the city of Eau Claire. This fire occurred on AVater 
street, completely destroying three blocks of buildings situated 
between Fourth and Sixth avenues. Two blocks on the north side 

" '^i 




and one on the south side of Water street. Seventy-three build- 
ings were burned, of which thirty-three were business houses, and 
destroyed property to the extent of $250,000.00. Fire brands from 
a steam boat while moving out from its landing at the foot of 
Fourth avenue ignited rubbish near an oil house" and from there 
spread very rapidly. Wales Willard, engineer of Fire Engine No. 
1, with admirable fidelity to his trust, stood by his engine and 
worked it effectively upon adjoining property while his own 
house and shop, a short distance away, caught fire and burned. 
No. 1 Engine House was also destroyed in this fire. 

Early in the year 1870 tliree six-gallon fire extinguishers 
were provided for East Eau Claire, to be kept at the residence 
of each of the three trustees of the village. B. J. Churchill was 
one of the trustees at that time and answered many alarms of 
fire with the chemical strapped to his back. In the same year a 
liand fire engine was purchased by West Eau Claire which proved 
somewhat of a failure; later (1874) it was sold to Matt Johannes 
for $7.50, he buying it for his boys to play with. On January 27,. 
1871, a new third class Silsby steam fire engine, purchased by 
West Eau Claire village, arrived amid great rejoicing. This 
was the first substantial fire fighting apparatus that was purchased 
in Eau Claire. About this time Captain A. M. Sherman was 
identified with the fire department, also was in charge of the 
police. Nathan Rundle was at, or about this time, foreman of our 
only fire company, located at the site now occiipied by No. 5 
hose eompanj', the new steam engine was also located there and 
christened the W. F. Bailey; this was brought about by Mr. 
Bailey furnishing some funds toward the purchase of the engine. 
This engine was given its initial test by taking water at the foot 
of Fourth avenue and forcing it through 1000 feet of hose and 
over the Baptist church spire, on the corner of Niagara and 
Fourth avenue, then they forced water through two lines of hose 
to a height of eighty feet. This test took place January 30, 1871. 
W. H. Willard was given charge of this engine at this time, he 
l)eing the first full paid fireman to sei've in the Eau Claire Fire 
Department. His term of service, dating from January, 1871, to 
May 6, 1885, at which time he resigned to accept the position of 
superintendent of our water works system, a position which he 
still holds. The W. F. Bailey engine went into reserve in 1885 
and was sold January 16, 1900, to the W. S. Nott Co., of Min- 
neapolis, for $500.00. 

In the spring of 1872 the three villages were combined and 
incorporated as a city, with great benefit to all concerned. 


May 29, 1872, an appraisement of property owned by the city 
covered the following fire equipment : One engine and hose cart, 
$7,150.00 ; one engine house, $1,800.00 ; runway to river and well, 
$375.00; stove and pipe in engine house, $15.00; firemen's shirts, 
caps, belts, trumpets, etc., $425.00 ; one Babcoek hand fire engine 
and hose $000.00. Total, $9,765.00. On April 8, 1872, the first 
officers of the fire department of the city of Eau Claire were 
elected by the Common Council under the following motions : On 
motion of Alderman Deming, William Lea was elected chief 
engineer. On motion of Alderman McDonough, John T. Tinker 
was elected first assistant engineer. On motion of Alderman 
Bullen, M. J. Argand was elected second assistant engineer. 

About the first move towards a fire company on the east side 
of the Chippewa river was made by the following communication : 

April 30, 1873. Communication from Mr. William Bonell, 
Sr., foreman of Eau Claire Hook and Ladder Company No. ], 
informing Common Council of the formation of the company and 
asking such action by the council as would place the company 
upon an efficient working basis. Referred to committee on fire 
and water. Committee reported favorably and on May 7, 1873, 
Alderman Smith moved that a committee of two be appointed 
by the Mayor to visit St. Paul in company witli Mr. Bonell to 
examine hook and ladder truck implements and that said com- 
mittee report thereon at next meeting of council. Motion carried 
and his honor the Mayor appointed Aldermen Smith and Kennedy 
such committee. A favorable report was reported back and on May 
14, 1873, a resolution that the city clerk be and he is hereby 
authorized to purchase from the city of St. Paul the hook and 
ladder truck offered by said city to be sold and which was 
examined by a committee of members of the Common Council of 
this city upon the terms offered by said city of St. Paul. Adopted. 
Truck received and placed in service shortly thereafter. 

I might state here that said truck stood at or near our present 
government building site, exposed to the weather for about one 
year; at times it was necessary to chop the wheels out of the ice 
before it could be moved; finally a shed was provided to protect 
it from the weather. May 21, 1873, the officers of the fire depart- 
ment were elected under the following motions: On motion of 
Alderman Angel the council proceeded to the election of officers 
and elected Eugene S. Bullard chief engineer; D. C. Whipple, first 
assistant engineer, and Arthur Smith, second assistant. On June 
18, 1873, a communication from the Turnvereius, tendering their 


services to the council as a hand fire engine company foi* present 
and for a steam fire Engine company, as soon as the city shall pro- 
cure another steamer. Services accepted. On July 16, 1873, a 
communication from Chief BuUard urging upon the council the 
necessity for another hose cart, 1000 feet of hose, a fire-alarm 
bell, and a heavy team and equipment. Referred to committee on 
fire and water. On August 20, 1873. Resolved by the Common 
Council of the city of Eau Claire that the committee on fire and 
water be instructed to purchase a good horse team, one hose cart 
and at least 1000 feet of hose immediately on the best terms 
possible and also to select and purchase a lot in some good cen- 
tral location on the east side of the Chippewa river and build a 
building of sufficient size to accommodate a new engine and hook 
and ladder truck recently purchased. The building to be built 
of some fire proof material, also to purchase two fire bells for the 
two engine houses. Passed and approved August 20, 1873. 

George W. Deming, 
President of Council and Acting Mayor. 

C. R. Gleasou, Clerk. 

On August 20, 1873, the chief of the fire department reported 
to the council the following officers as elected by the fire depart- 

Fire wardens: First ward, Frank McDouough; Second ward, 
W. A. Teal ; Third ward, J. T. Tinker ; Fourth ward. Mills Bain ; 
Fifth ward, George W. Deming; Sixth ward, Texas Angel. Treas- 
urer, W. H. Willard ; secretary, H. Slingluff. Election confirmed 
by the council October 17, 1873. Resolved by the Common Coun- 
cil of the city of Eau Claire that the committee on fire and water 
be and they are hereby authorized to purchase fifty feet front 
on Eau Claire street by eighty feet deep on Farwell street, of lots 
five and six of block fifty-nine at a price not exceeding $1000.00, 
provided perfect title thereto can be had and such terms of pay- 
ment agreed upon as the city treasurer can meet and that said 
committee procure proposals for the immediate erection of a 
foundation and frame of a building thereon of suitable dimensions 
to accommodate the hook and ladder truck and a steam fire 
engine and hose cart and the teams necessary to handle the 
same. Passed and approved October 17, 1873. 

C. R. Gleason, Clerk. J. P. Nelson, Mayor. 

January 22, 1874, the committee on fire and water reported 
an agreement entered into between them in behalf of the city and 


Graham and White Co. for the carpenter work on engine house, 
which was read and agreement ratified by the Common Council. 
The action of October 17, 1873, and of January 22, 1874, was the 
first move towards the construction of our present city building, 
and considering the entire absence of mention of city officers, 
makes it quite evident that the first plans were for a building 
suitable for fire department purposes only. April 6, 1874. The 
report of the proceedings of the annual meeting of the fire depart- 
ment reporting the election of: E. S. Bullard as chief engineer; 
"William Bonell, Sr., first assistant engineer; Phillip Fitzpatrick, 
second assistant engineer; J. H. Miutou, secretary; John Joyce, 
treasurer. Fire Wardens: John Hancock, First ward; Elijah 
Ross, Second ward; Mr. Karlan, Third ward; George Wilcox, 
Fourth ward ; H. G. Stafford, Fifth ward ; John Clark, Sixth ward. 
Trustees : James Tarrant, John MeCoole and W. H. Willard. On 
motion of Alderman Spaulding the election was confirmed by 
the council. 

April, 1874. At this time the city of Eau Claire bought and 
placed in the fire service a team of horses ; however, they were 
under the control of the superintendent of streets and during the 
day were worked anywhere within the limits of the city with the 
result that they were very often not in evidence when wanted to 
haul apparatus to a fire. Frank Ferres was the teamster, he 
being the second full paid fireman doing service in the Eau Claire 
Fire Department. His service was a lone one, dating from April, 
1874, until his retirement, April 1, 1902. On May 20, 1874, the 
committee on fire and water reported the result of its bids received 
for all mason work on Engine House No. 2 ; eight bids were 
received, of which the total cost under four of the lowest, upon 
an estimate of the amount of each kind of work required, are as 
follows: Nelson McNeal, $1,589.80; MeCool & Gray, .$1,603.45; 
N. H. Nasher, $1,654.27 ; Isiah Nauman, $1,707.78. By Alderman 
McDonough — Resolved by the Common Council of the city of Eau 
Claire that the mason work for Engine House No. 2 be and the 
same is hereby let to Nelson McNeal, provided he will contract 
to do as good work in all respects as is done in the Eau Claire 
Library company building, situated upon the south part of lot 
one, block sixty, plat of village of Eau Claire. Which was adopted 
and the clerk directed to have the city attorney draw the con- 
tract, therefore. 

Resolved by the Common Council of the city of Eau Claire 
that the committee on fire and water be and they are hereby 
authorized to purchase a third class steam fire engine and a two 


wheel horse hose cart for same, capable of reeling one thousand 
feet, upon the best terms possible. Passed and approved February 
10, 1875. 

C. R. Gleasou, Clerk. G. E. Porter, Mayor. 

Another resolution passed at the same meeting authorized 
the purchase of a two-horse hose cart for No. 1 Engine company 
(now No. 5). The carts and engine were purchased. Engine 
was named the G. E. Porter, and is at this writing in reserve 
service in this department. March 24, 1875. On motion of Alder- 
man MeDonough the election of the following named persons as 
officers of the fire department Avas approved : Chief engineer, 
Eugene Bullard ; first assistant engineer, William Bonell, Sr. ; sec- 
ond assistant engineer, John Clark ; treasurer, John Joyce ; sec- 
retary, Phillip Fitspatrick. Fire wardens : First ward, John Han- 
cock ; Second ward, Joseph Lawrence; Third ward, John Foster; 
Fourth ward, Noah Shaw ; Fifth ward, G. A. Buffington ; Sixth 
Mard, Frederick Kutzner. Approved. 

March 31, 1875. Communication of hook and ladder company 
No. 1, asking for the control and management of the new steam 
fire engine, was taken up and considered. Alderman MeDonough 
moved that the control and management of fire engine No. 2 be 
given to hook and ladder company No. 1. Alderman Leinen- 
kugel moved that action upon said motion be postponed until the 
next regular meeting, which was lost. Motion of AlJerman 
]McDonougli adopted. April 9, 1875. The committee on fire and 
Avater reported upon the four applicatious for the position of 
engineer of the fire engine G. E. Porter, and recommended that 
the position be given to Charles Cutler. Adopted. I might .state 
here that Charles Cutler had charge of Engine G. E. Porter from 
this date until February 1, 1882; also being the third nil paid 
fireman to take service in the Eau Claire Fire Department. James 
Tarrant succeeded Charles Cutler as engineer of the Fire Engine 
G. E. Porter, holding the position until water wo'-ks system was 
installed, thereby retiring the engine. 

Free Press of April 10, 1875, had this to say : The new fire 
steamer G. E. Porter Thursday had a trial test with the old 
steamer named W. F. Bailey, previous to the acceptance of the 
new machine by the city council. We learn that entire satisfac- 
tion with reference to its efficiency was manifested by the com- 
mittee of inspection, also states that our citizens ought to feel 
a degree of satisfaction witli reference to the efficiency of our 
fire department. New Years night of 1875-1876 the firemen held 


a dance that was patronized by over seventy couple. Fowler's 
band furnished the music. Supper was served at the Peabody 
House and during or immediately following the banquet Mr. Wil- 
liam Bonell, Sr., foreman of the hook and ladder company, was 
the recipient of an elegant silver trumpet as a testimonial of 
esteem from his company. The presentation was made by Alex- 
ander Meggett, Esq., iu a neat speech and some appropriate 
remarks in acceptation was made by Mr. Bonell. 

On June 1, 1875, Mr. Eugene Bullard tendered his resignation 
as chief engineer, which, upon being referred at this meeting, was 
accepted June 16, 1875. On June 16, 1875, A. M. Sherman was 
elected as chief of the fire department. March 23, 1876. Com- 
munication from the fii-e department informing the council that 
the officers elected for said department for the ensuing year were : 
Chief engineer, W. F. Cook ; first assistant engineer, William 
Bonell, Sr. : second assistant engineer, Edward Oliver ; treasurer, 
John Joyce; secretary, Phillip Fitzpatrick. Confirmed. Sep- 
tember 12, 1876. Secretary W. E. J. Deming submitted the annual 
report to the foreman and members of Engine Company No. 1, 
placing the loss for the year at $38,140.00, and the membership of 
Engine Company No. 1 as follows: J. H. Tarrant, I. R. Soath, 
W. H. Willard, W. E. J. Deming, Jere Murphy, S. P. Benjamin, 
J. H. Minton, J. J. Merritt, C. E. Bullard, G. T. Rowlings, Frank 
Lampman, F. H. Green, John Wells, J. W. Kiddell. 

This report would indicate a somewhat independent action 
between the two engine companies at this time. 

February 3, 1877. Report of Chief Cook gives manual force 
as follows: W. F. Bailey, Engine Company No. 1, eleven men; 
G. E. Porter, Engine Company No. 2, fourteen men ; Pioneer Hook 
and Ladder Company No. 1, seven men. Apparatus — Two steam- 
ers in good working order; three hose carts, with recommenda- 
tion that they be changed from one horse to a two horse hitch; 
one hook and ladder truck in serviceable condition; 1500 feet 
good hose ; 1200 feet inferior hose ; 10 alarms with a fire loss 
of $24,585.00 ; insurance loss, $19,810.00 ; insurance on property 
at risk, $65,320.00. April 10, 1877. Council proceeded to the 
election of officers of the fire department. Chief engineer, J. H. 
Tarrant; first assistant engineer, Peter Girnau; second assistant 
engineer, Frank Buell; treasurer, Phillip Yager; secretary, S. F. 
Benjamin. Fire wardens — First ward, Thomas Randall; Second 
ward, W. F. Cook; Third ward, William Bonell, Jr. ; Fourth ward, 
George B. Shaw ; Fifth ward, G. A. Buffington ; Sixth ward, C. L. 
James ; Seventh ward, Wallace Goff ; Eighth ward, Victor Wolf. 


Confirmed. March 20, 1878. Comnnmieation from the fire depart- 
ment statiug that at an annual meeting of said department the 
following officers were elected: Chief, John T. Tinker; first 
assistant, J. Heinian; second assistant, E. Oliver; treasurer, 
Phillip Yager; secretary, Samuel Naumau. The chief's salary at 
tliis time was H^oO.OO per year. Confirmed March 19, 1879. On 
motion of Alderman Kepler the following officers were confirmed: 
Chief, J. C. Churchill ; first assistant, John Wells ; second assistant, 
Henry Bradford; treasurer, II. R. Potter: secretary, Daniel 

I might state here that J. C. Churchill held the of chief ' 
of the fire department from the above date until May 1, 1887. 
In the records of January 18, 1882, we find the report of secretary 
of department, D. J. Chandler, giving the time of members of 
Fire Company No. 2 for the year ending January 31, 1882, as 
follows: William Moldenhouer, 12 mouths, $96.00; Fred Raw- 
lings, 12 mouths, $96.00 ; Charles Damm, 12 months, $96.00 ; Frank 
Zimmerman, 12 months, $96.00 ; Daniel Murphy, 12 months, $96.00 ; 
D. J. Chandler, 12 months, $96.00; reported 15 fires, classified as 
follows: dwelling fires, 12; hotel, 1; store, 1; warehouse, 1. 
Total, 15. May 2, 1883, the following officers were elected; 
J. C. Churchill, chief; T. A. Fletcher, assistant chief; George Stoue, 
secretary ; D. J. Chandler, treasurer. 

January 3, 1884. A petition was signed by J. C. Churchill, 
chief, and by the fireman asking that as they have now been in 
the service of the city five years the annual salary of each be 
raised. That of the chief to be $200.00 and that of the firemen to 
$144.00. Referred. On February 9, 1884, the following salaries 
for members of the fire department were adopted. Each fireman 
shall receive the sum of $13.00 per mouth for the months of 
I\Iarch, November, December, January and February, and $8.00 
for the months of April, May, June, July, August, September aud 
October, and that the chief engineer shall receive $200.00 per 
annum. April 9, 1885, the secretary reported the following offi- 
cers elected : J. C. Churchill, chief ; E. Fuller, first assistant chief ; 
F. 0. Zimmerman, second assistant chief ; Mike Schmitz, treasurer ; 
W. H. Kendall, secretary. May 6, 1885. W. H. Willard tendered 
liis resignation as engineer of Engine No. 1. W. H. Rogers ap- 
l)ointed to the position at a meeting of the Common Council held 
October 7, 1885, a committee was authorized to establish aud 
build additional hose houses No. 1, No. 6, No. 3 and the Shaw 
Town Service. 

March 17, 1886. The secretary of the fire department reported 


for eoufirmatiou the following uamed officers elected by the 
department at its meeting held March 15, 1886 : J. C. Churchill, 
chief; E. C. Fuller, first assistant chief; J. W. Waylaud, treas- 
urer; Prank Zimmerman, second assistant chief; D. J. Chandler, 
secretary. February 2, 1887. Alderman McDouough, chairman 
of committee appointed to investigate the report of the insur- 
ance underwriters, submitted the following recommendation, that 
the city purchase the hook and ladder truck and hose cart from 
the Daniel Shaw Lumber Company at a cost of $1200.00. Truck 
to be placed in Engine House No. 2. Also recommended a full 
paid department. June 1, 1887. Alderman McDonough, chair- 
man of committee on reorganization of Eau Claire fire depart- 
ment, submitted the following report: That the fire department 
of said city shall consist of one chief, one assistant chief, seven 
pipemeu and six teamsters, located as follows: Three in No. 1. 
Four in No. 2. Three in No. 5. Two in No. 6. One iu No. 3. Also 
two part paid firemen located at No. 2 and two at No. 3. The fol- 
lowing members were appointed: George H. Daniels, chief; 
John McGawan, assistant chief; James Tarrant, Frank Zim- 
merman, Hugh Forest, James McMahon, Lanis Young, Joseph 
Eldridge, engineer and pipeman; Frank Ferres, William Se-aver, 
Fred Rawlins, Patrick Kenney, Mike Schmitz, teamsters ; William 
Bonell, Jr., A. Evaus, Dwight Chandler, Wilhelm H. Wedemeyer, 
callmen-pipemen. Thus a full paid fire department was fairly 
launched, giving the people of our city the benefit of a more 
efficient service. June 15, 1887. Recommendation of committee 
on reorganization recommending that the Richmond Fire Alarm 
Company be given contract for the installing of fire alarm system 
composed of three circuit No. 12 H. D. copper wire 2-1 boxes, and 
other instriiments for receiving alarms. Signed: Frank Mc- 
Donough, George A. Buffington, D. A. Cameron, George C. Hue- 
bener, George B. Shaw. December 19, 1887. Fire alarm system 
installed and accepted by recommendation of committee and chief 
of fire department. 

Too much credit cannot be given George H. Daniels for the 
able manner in which he built up the fire department after itu 
reorganization in 1887. While all other departments of the city 
were affected by political conditions from year to year, the fire 
department, under the guiding hand of George H. Daniels, stood 
out alone as the one municipal department unaffected by the many 
political changes of administration. The committee on reorganiza- 
tion certainly chose wisely and well. In the year 1897 a state 


law was passed placing fire departments in all cities of the second 
and third class nnder civil service, controlled by a police and 
fire commission, said commission appointed by the mayor. Under 
this law all appointments were subject to the approval of the 
commission. On January 1, 1908, a fireman pension law went into 
effect which provided for pension after twenty-two years' service 
and which also provided for the widows and orphans of deceased 
firemen, also provided for a fireman if permanently disabled. 

On May 1, 1905, George H. Daniels retired from the fire 
department after a service of eighteen years. Shortly after retire- 
ment he was appointed to the board of police and fire commissions, 
in which position he served as president of the board until the 
time of his death, which occurred July 17, 1912. On May 1, 

1905, Joseph Eldi-idge, assistant chief, was appointed to the 
position of chief of the fire department with James P. Welsh, 
superintendent of fii-e alarm system, appointed to the position of 
assistant chief, holding both positions. On November 2, 1906, 
Chief Joseph Eldridge resigned from the position of chief of the 
fire department. On November 2, 1906, James P. Welsh was 
appointed to the position of chief of the fire department with 
William Ilerron, captain of Hose Company No. 6, appointed 
assistant chief and Walter Ressler appointed to the position of 
superintendent of fire alai-m. 

The members of the fire department at the present time are 
as follows : James P. Welsh, chief ; entered the service November 
7, 1889, as pipeman; on November 1, 1891, was appointed to the 
position of superintendent of the fire alarm system. On May 4, 
1899, was appointed city electrician. On May 1, 1901, was ap- 
pointed to the position of fire warden. On May 1, 1905, was 
appointed to the position of assistant chief, holding the four 
positions luitil November 2, 1906, wlien appointed as chief of the 
fire department. 

William Herron, assistant chief, entered the service May 13, 
1892, as reliefman, retiring April 1, 1893. Re-entered the service 
June 1, 1893, as reliefman. Appointed captain May 1, 1896. 
Appointed assistant chief November 2, 1906. Appointed fire 
warden November 2, 1906. At this date holding last two posi- 
tions. Walter Ressler, superintendent fire alarm and city elec- 
trician, entered the service September 1, 1904, as house watchman, 
retiring September 25, 1906. Re-entered service November 8, 

1906, to accept above positions, which he holds at this date. John 
Dougherty, captain, entered the service May 10, 1890, appointed 


captain April 1, 1905. Fred Welsh, captain, entered the service 
April 1, 1901, appointed captain August 1, 1905. Joseph Eldridge, 
captain, entered the service May 1, 1887, appointed assistant chief 
July 15, 1891, appointed chief of department May 1, 1905. Re- 
signed from the position of chief November 2, 1906. Accepted 
position of captain of No. 6 November 2, 1906. Mr. Eldridge is 
the oldest man in point of service in the department, having 
sei'ved in the volunteer days. Edward Bullis, driver of motoi- 
apparatus. Entered service September 1, 1910. Edward Golden, 
driver hook and ladder. Entered the service March 20, 1902. 
Joseph Robillard, pipeman. Entered service December 27, 1912. 
Johii Hancock, pipeman. Entered service February 1. 1893. Ap- 
pointed captain September 1, 1904. Retired from the service 1, 1905. Re-entered the service November 1, 1911. Paul 
Miley, house watchman. Entered the service May 1, 1912 Law- 
rence Smith, reliefman. Entered the service April 1, 1912. Wil- 
liam Ward, pipeman. Entered service November 19, 1906. Ni'ls 
Geroux, pipeman. Entered service September 8, 1901. Retired 
February 27, 1903. Re-entered July 4, 1904. William Cowan, 
driver. Entered the service May 1, 1906. John Segoin, driver. 
Entered service May 1, 1905. Clarence Chambers, pipeman. En- 
tered service December 1, 1897. Retired January 15, 1902. Re- 
entered November, 1912. William Lawi-ence, driver. Entered 
service July 1, 1907. Joseph Gort, pipeman. Entered service 
September 19, 1898. Retiring August 1, 1908. Re-entered Jan- 
uary 21, 1911. Edward Farrell, reliefman. Entered service Sep- 
tember 19, 1913. 

The department equipment and fire quarters consists at the 
present time of four hose company's equipped with three hose 
wagons, horse drawn, 1 hook and ladder truck, horse drawn ; 1 
hose chemical truck, motor propelled; 1 chief's motor car with 
chemical equipment ; 8 horses ; 8000 feet of hose ; the old Porter 
fire engine in reserve. The fire alarm system has been greatly 
improved since its first installation and now consists of a first- 
class gamewell office equipment, which includes an eight circuit 
storage battery control switch board, one six circuit non-inter- 
fering, interlocking automatic repeater, one central office trans- 
mitter, one tape register, one tower bell transmitter and one 
private telephone switch board in addition to this, all hose houses 
and pump house are equipped with 18-inch gongs, tape registers 
and department private telephone instrument. Outside equip- 
ment consists of thirty miles of copper wire and 41 alarm boxes. 
Our water service for fire purposes is ideal, giving us 120 pounds 


pressure at hydrant. We have 450 hyrants within the city to 
work from. 

A review of the terms of service of the different fire chiefs 
are as follows: 

Appointed. Retired. 

William Lea April 8, 1871 May 21, 1873 

Eugene S. Bullard May 21, 1873 June 16, 1875 

A. M. Sherman June 16, 1875 March 23, 1876 

W. F. Cook March 23, 1876 April 10, 1877 

J. H. Tarrent April 10, 1877 March 20, 1878 

John T. Tinker March 20, 1878 March 19, 1879 

J. C. Churchill March 19, 1879 May 1, 1887 

George H. Daniels May 1, 1887 May 1, 1905 

Joseph Eldridge May 1, 1905 Nov. 2, 1906 

James P. Welsh Nov. 2. 1906 


The Wisconsin legislature of 1897 enacted a law creating the 
Board of Police and Fire Commissioners in cities of certain 
classes in the state. The law provided for a board of four mem- 
bers, to serve Avithout compensation, to be appointed by the 
mayor. Mayor William H. Frawley, at a meeting of the Common 
Council held on April -28, 1897, made announcement of the fol- 
lowing appointments of commissioners: For term of one year. 
Matt C. Anderson; for term of two years, Hon. John Ure, Sr. ; 
for term of three years, Hon Frank McDonough, Sr. ; for term 
of four years, Albert F. Sehwahn. 

The law did not reciuire confirmation by the council, but 
Mayor Frawley asked the council to pass upon such appoint- 
ments. The nominations were confirmed, two aldermen, Seben- 
thal and Scallon, voting against such confirmation. On the even- 
ing of May 3, 1897, the board met at the office of Ma.yor Frawley, 
but adjourned on account of the absence of one member. On 
May 10 they again met at the mayor's office, together with the 
mayor and J. C. Gores, the city attorney, and formally organized 
by the election of Mr. Ure as president and Mr. Anderson as 

The board had hardly organized before the commissioners 
were called upon to act in their jiidicial capacity. On May 12, 
two days after the organization, the chief of police, John Higgins, 
suspended Patrolman Paul Thompson for sleeping during the 


period lie was supposed to be on his beat. On June 1 the board 
gave Patrohnan Thompson a trial, found him guilty as charged 
and dismissed him from the force. A second case of this nature 
came before the board ou August 3, when Patrolman Frank 
Nugent was suspended by the chief for neglect of duty. He was 
tried on Augiist 12, found guilty and dismissed from the service. 
During the summer and fall of 1897 the board met frequently 
for the purpose of examining members who were serving in the 
police and fire departments. The examinations were conducted 
so as not to interfere with the regular work of the men. On 
November 15 examinations had been completed and the respec- 
tive chiefs of the two departments notified the board of the ap- 
pointment of the men then serving, and such action by the chiefs 
was duly confirmed. The men appointed were as follows: In 
the fire department — Joseph Eldridge, assistant chief; James P. 
Welsh, electrician ; John Hancock, James II. Looby, Thomas 
Wiley, M. F. Tibbitts, Willis E. Herron, James Sullivan, John 
Kjorstad, G. P. Childs, Frank Ferris, John Dougherty and Joseph 
De Mars. In the police department — La Fayette Elliott, sergeant ; 
Frank Harrington, John Taylor, George Wolf, T. J. Gonderzik, 
Prank Reinhart, Clifford Luce, Paul Branstad, John M. Gallgher. 
The board on June 1 had elected George H. Daniels chief engineer 
of the fire department, and John Higgins chief of police. May 
24, 1897, Dr. A. D. II. Thrane was elected surgeon of the board 
and still holds that position. 

The following citizens have served as police and fire commis- 
sioners : M. C. Anderson, 1897-1898 ; John Ure, 1897-1905 ; Frank 
McDonough, 1897-1904; Albert F. Schwahn, 1897-1901; George S. 
Long, 1898-1900; George H. Daniels, 1905-1912; David Drum- 
mond, 1904-1908; John C. Neher, 1905-1910; John J. Auer, 1901- 
1905. Present commissioners: Marshall Covisins, 1900 to date; 
Louis Running, 1907 to date ; James T. Joyce, 1908 to date ; John 
J. Auer, 1910 to date ; John Huebsch, 1912 to date. 

George H. Daniels, M-ho was appointed to the board to suc- 
ceed John Ure in 1905, died July 17, 1912, following an operation 
at Rochester, Minn. Mr. Daniels, previous to his appointment 
as a member of the board, had served many years as chief 
engineer of the fire department. Under his administration the 
department had developed into one of the best in the state. 
John Ure, George S. Long and John C. Neher resigned from the 
board on removal from the city. At the organization of the 
board, John Ure was elected as president of the commission and 
served as such until he resigned in 1905. He was succeeded as 


president by George H. Daniels, who served until his death in 
•July, 1912. James T. Joyce then became president. Matt C. 
Audersou, the first secretary, left office in May, 1908, and was 
succeeded by George S. Long, who served until May 1, 1900, when 
lie resigned his membership. Marshall Cousins was appointed to 
the board as Mr. Long's successor and elected secretary, which 
position he has held continuously since that time. 

The board, as first constituted, was made up of four members, 
liut a law becoming eft'ective March 30, 1907, increased the num- 
ber to five members. A still later law provides for a member of 
the City Council being a member of the fire and police board. 
The council designated John B. Fleming for such position and he 
is ex-officio member of the board. Since the first year of the 
board's existence there have been but few instances requiring 
the board to act in its judicial capacity. In the spring of 1908 
a controversy arose between the chief of police, Edward J. 
O'Brien, and the municipal judge, Joseph W. Singleton. The 
judge filed charges against the chief but failed to press the 
charges before the board. The chief replied by filing a report 
with tlie Common Council covering relations of the police depart 
ment with tlu' Municipal Court. 


The city of Eau Claire has always liad an efficient polu-e 
department, which has been guided by the following chiefs: 
Victor Wolf was the first chief of the department, and Lewis 
Parish and James Harmson were the first policemen. Victor 
Wolf served until 1875, and was succeeded by Michael Fleming. 
A. M. Sherman was the next chief in 1876, and he was followed 
by Charles li. Jefferson in 1877: Victor Wolf in 1878; Thomas 
Donnelly in 1879-1880-81-82-83-84-85-86-87-88-89 and 1890, his 
service of twelve years being the longest of any one who has held 
that position. John Higgins became chief in 1891 and held the 
office four years. Lafayette Elliott took charge of the force in 
1895, and served until Henry L. Day was elected mayor in 1897, 
and John Higgins succeeded him and served continuously until 
March 15, 1907, when he resigned, having been in the service 
constantly for eleven years. Ed J. O'Brien was appointed to fill 
the place March 18, 1907, and served until November 11, 1909, 
when he tendered his resignation to take afl:'ect December 1 of 
that year. Lafayette Elliot was appointed chief on November 26, 
1909, and is still serving in that capacity. 





Provisions for common school education were made at an 
early date. It is true that oftentimes these provisions were crude. 
School houses in those early days were frequently simple struc- 
tures put up out of rough boards and in some cases out of logs, 
but these primitive structures served their purpose. The first 
school house in Eau Claire was a building of this type. It was 
erected during the year 1856. It was not very large, the size 
being only 16 by 24 feet. The structure was built out of rough 
boards, and it was located on what is now Barstow street. Dur- 
ing the winter of 1856 and 1857 the school was opened to the 
public. John E. Stillman Avas the first teacher. The number of 
pupils in attendance was not large. During the following sum- 
mer the school was taught by Mary Arnold. The register shows 
an enrollment of fifteen pupils. In those early days the school 
house was used for various public purposes. In many cases it 
was the only available structure for religious services. This was 
also the case in Eau Claire. It was in this small primitive struc- 
tiire that the Rev. A. Kidder held the first services of the Congre- 
gational church. In the autumn of 1857 another school house 
was erected on the Sparta road, three miles from the village. 
This was then known as the Olin settlement. In those days town 
government and county government were practically one. There 
were no county or city superintendents of schools in those days. 
It was the period of township superintendents. Frequently there 
were only two or three towns in a county and sometimes a county 
consisted of only one town. In 1856 the board of supervisors 
voted $400 for a school house to be erected in School District 
No. 2. This district had been recently organized. The school 
building was erected in 1857 on Farwell street near where 
Christ's Episcopal church now stands. It Avas during that year 
that the treasurer of the board, Adin Randall, paid to the treas- 
urer of School District No. 2 .$199.31, the probable cost of the 
school building. This building was rather commodious consider- 


iug the demands of the day. It was a structure of 28 by 40 feet, 
and contained one large room well finished and provisions for 
another room. This building was used for school purposes for 
quite a number of years. Later it was sold and used as a Univer- 
salist church. This building was so much larger and better than 
the ordinary school house that for years it was pointed to with 
considerable pride as one of the great achievements of the village. 
This school house was also used for various public purposes as 
well as for school. During 1864 this building was abandoned 
for school purposes because it was too small. During this same 
year a much larger and better school house was erected on Far- 
well street between Emery and Earl streets, opposite Wilson 
Park. In the seventies, when a high school was organized, this 
building was used for grade and high school purposes. It was 
then called the Bartlett High School. It seems that this was the 
tirst regularly organized school district. It was organized accord- 
ing to the legal provisions of the state by the town board. The 
east side of the village was then known as School District No. 2. 
It was in this Bartlett school that really the first graded school 
work was done. The Rev. J. O. Barrett was the first principal. 
He continued at the head of this school until the Spring of 1868. 
During the year 1868 Prof. H. C. Howland was engaged as prin- 
cipal. He served the school district with very marked success. 
It was during his administration that the high school was organ- 
ized. It was during the year 1872 that the first high school class 
was graduated. During Prof. Howland 's administration about 
100 students were graduated from this high school. After Prof. 
Howland 's resignation this school was in charge of