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Full text of "History of the Eighty-fifth regiment, Illinois volunteer infantry"

UN!VE=U"M OF 

ILLINOIS LIBRARY 

AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN 



ILLINOIS HISTORICAL 




KOHEKT S MOOKE, 

< OI.ONEF,. 



HISTORY 

OF THK 

EIGHTY-FIFTH 
REGIMENT, 

ILLINOIS VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. 



COMPILED AND PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE 
REOIMENTAL ASSOCIATION, 

i>v 

HENRY J. ATEN, 

FIRST SKK<}EANT COMIIANY O ; 

MSMBEK OF THK JSOCIBxr OF THK AKMY OF THE CUMK_KL AND. 




HIAWATHA. KANSAS. 
18O1. 



, 1901, 



In the years that have passed since the close of the War of the 
Rebellion there has been more or less talk among its members of 
a history of the regiment. Colonel Dilworth gave the subject 
much attention, and at one time had about decided to undertake 
the work. He had long commanded the regiment, and was more 
than ordinarily well equipped for the compilation of such a work, 
and it is much to be regretted that he did not find time to accom- 
plish his purpose. Then there were several men in the ranks who 
kept diaries through the war, some of whom, at least, had the 
writing of a history of the Eighty-fifth as an end in view. But no 
definite steps had been taken until the matter was taken up by the 
Regimental Association. In order that the reader may know how 
the work was undertaken by the writer, and for the information of 
those of our comrades who have not enjoyed the privilege of at- 
tending its reunions, the following short sketch is given of the 
origin and purpose of the 



At a meeting of old settlers and ex-soldiers held in Rockwell 
Park, at Havana, 111., on September 16th, 1885, there were present 
fifty-six former members of the Eighty-fifth regiment, all of the 
companies being represented except Company F. At this meeting 
an organization was formed to be known as the Eighty-fifth Regi- 
ment Illinois Volunteer Association. 

The declared purpose of the association was to hold annual 
reunions on or about the eighth day of October, that being the 
anniversary of the first battle in which the regiment was engaged, 
for social enjoyment; for the cultivation of the friendships formed 
during the trying ordeals of soldier life; for the gathering of 
material for historic purposes, and for teaching patriotism to the 
young. The following named comrades were elected officers for 
the first year: Philip L. Dieffenbacher, commander; David Sig- 
ley, adjutant; William H. Hole, treasurer; Jacob H. Prettyman, 
quartermaster; James T. Pierce, commissary, and Joseph S. Bar- 
wick, chaplain. 

58461 



v j INTRODUCTION. 

The association has held a reunion each year since its organi- 
zation, with an average attendance of sixty-five members. 

At the annual meeting in 1899 it was decided to hold the next 
reunion on the third Wednesday in October, 1900, and a motion 
was adopted authorizing Comrade Henry J. Aten to compile and 
publish a history of the regiment. 

At the sixteenth annual meeting held in Havana on the third 
Wednesday in October, 1900, the association was broadened and its 
usefulness extended by amending the constitution so as to permit 
the wives of members to become honorary members of the asso- 
ciation, and their sons and daughters to become auxiliary mem- 
bers. At this meeting Havana, Illinois, was selected as the place 
for holding future reunions, the same to be held on the third 
Wednesday in October, and the following officers were elected for 
the ensuing year: A. D. Cadwallader, commander; William H. 
Hole and David Sigley, vice-commanders; James T. Seay, adju- 
tant; Thomas C. Eaton, quartermaster, and J. B. Shawgo, trustee 
of the Kennesaw Mountain Monument Association. 

When the task of writing a history of the gallant regiment in 
which it was my good fortune to serve during the War of the Re- 
bellion, was assigned to me, the trust was accepted with many 
misgivings. I knew the work would be both delicate and difficult, 
and after considering various plans, the one worked out in the 
following pages seemed to promise the best results, and I entered 
upon the work with such ability as I could command, regardless 
of the time required or the labor involved. Although present with 
the regiment every day from its organization until it was dis- 
banded, I found as the work progressed, my memory in conflict 
with the official reports, letters written at the time events to be 
narrated were occurring, and the diary kept by myself throughout 
the War. In all such cases I have relied upon the written record, 
believing it to be more trustworthy than mere recollection. 

Most of the personal incidents which would have enlivened the 
story have been lost in the years that have passed since the war 
ended, but it was believed that the official reports, histories of the 
Civil War, and the memories of leading commanders on both sides 
could be drawn upon to make up much that had been lost to mem- 
ory. It also appeared not only appropriate, but necessary, to a 
proper appreciation of the work accomplished by the regiment, to 
include a brief outline of the campaigns in which it was engaged, 
and connect its movements with the larger movements of the bri- 



INTRODUCTION. Vli. 

gade, the division, the corps, and the army of which it was a part. 
This has been attempted, and in the course of compilation, the 
writer has personally examined every book and paper in the office 
of the adjutant general at Springfield relating to the Eighty-fifth, 
the records of the pension office and of the war department at 
Washington have been searched, and the following authorities 
have been consulted: 

The Personal Memoirs of General Grant. 

The Personal Memoirs of General Sherman. 

The Personal Memoirs of General Sheridan. 

A Narrative of Military Service, by General W. B. Hazen. 

The Life of Gen. George H. Thomas, by Thomas B. Van Home. 

The American Conflict, by Horace Greeley. 

The History of the Army of the Cumberland, by Gen. Henry M. 
Cist. 

The History of the Army of the Cumberland, by Thomas B. 
Van Home. 

Atlanta, and the March to the Sea, by Gen. Jacob D. Cox. 

The History of the Ninety-sixth Illinois, by C. A. Partridge. 

The History of the 113th Ohio, by Sergeant F. M. McAdams. 

The History of the Fifty-second Ohio, by Nixon B. Stewart. 

The History of the Eighty-sixth Illinois, by John H. Kinnear. 

McCook's Brigade at Kennesaw, by Captain F. B. James. 

The Rebellion Records, published by the U. S. Government. 

A Narrative of Military Operations, by the Confederate Gen- 
eral, Joseph E. Johnston. 

Advance and Retreat, by the Confederate General, J. B. Hood. 

The Life of the Confederate General, N. B. Forrest, by General 
Thomas Jordan. 

The narrative has been made impersonal, and the personal 
sketches have been written with no desire to unduly exalt the per- 
sonal achievements of anyone. A blank, forwarded to every mem- 
ber of the regiment whose address could be ascertained, in many 
instances failed to elicit a reply. Such should not complain if they 
find their personal sketches deficient, although the writer made 
every effort to complete them. The work was undertaken as a 
labor of love, with no expectation of pecuniary reward, and with 
the entire edition sold, the copy retained by the writer will be the 
most expensive. 

Cherishing the memory of every old comrade, whether living or 
dead, proud of the fact that it was my privilege to be associated. 



viii. INTRODUCTION. 

with them through an heroic epoch, this work is submitted with 
the hope that it may awaken proud recollections in the breast of 
an old comrade; that it may make a son's heart exult at the sight 
of a father's name, and inspire him to unselfish and patriotic 
effort, and, above all, that it may help reveal and establish the 
truth, from which none of the brave men of the Eighty-fifth have 
anything to fear. The writer has made no effort to meet the re- 
quirements of critics, but has written for those who, by experience 
or sympathy, can enter into the spirit which actuated the volun- 
teer soldier in the war for the Union. And if the book shall meet 
the approval of surviving comrades, their friends, and the friends 
of those deceased, I shall feel amply rewarded for my labor. 

To all the comrades who have aided in the work I return cor- 
dial thanks, and it gives me pleasure to acknowledge my obliga- 
tions for information furnished to General I. N. Reece, adjutant 
general of Illinois, and his courteous office force, to the Hon. H. 
Clay Evans, commissioner of pensions, and to General R. A. Alger, 
secretary of war. 

HENRY J. ATEN. 

Hiawatha, Kansas, February 1st, 1901. 




xrf tihianrje Swhstritors. 



No. Copies. 

1. MRS. CARRIE A. PRENT1SS, Burlington, N. J. 

1. COLONEL R. S. MOORE, Littleton, Colo. 

2. WILLIAM A. DILWORTH, Omaha, Neb. 

3. GEORGE E. RIDER, Fort Smith, Ark. 

4. DR. PHILIP L. DIEFFENBACHER, Havana, 111. 
1. THOMAS STEVENS, Hiawatha, Kan. 

1. DR. GILBERT W. SOUTHWICK, 1213 Bath St., Santa Barbara, Cal. 

2. COLONEL JAMES R. GRIFFITH, Kenosha, Wis. 
1. MRS. JOSEPH S. BARWICK, Virginia, 111. 

1. COLONEL ALLEN FAHNESTOCK, Glasford, Peoria County, 111. 

3. LIEUT. ISAAC W. CHATFIELD, 514 21st Avenue, Denver, Colo. 
1. O. L. RIDER, Vinita, Indian Territory. 

1. N. L. RIDER, Vinita, Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory. 

1. MRS. O. H. HARPHAM, Havana, 111. 

1. SAMUEL JONES, ,Mason City, 111. 

10. LIEUTENANT D. L. MUSSELMAN, Quincy, 111. 

1. PHILIP CLINE, Harrisonville, Mo. 

1. JOSEPH A. MATES, Naron, Pratt County, Kan. 

i. WILLIAM MCLAUGHLIN, Manito, in. 

1. DAVID P. BLACK, Manito, 111. 

1. LEVI S. ANNO, Kingston, Hunt County, Texas. 

1. ROBERT PRINGLE, Hot Springs, South Dakota. 

1. JOHN W. ALYEA, Kingfisher, Oklahoma. 

1. WILLIAM T. LANGSTON, Abilene, Kan. 

1. BENJ. F. KRATZER, Soldiers' Home, Los Angeles, Cal. 

2. THOMAS C. EATON, Havana, 111. 

1. ALONZO F. KREBAUM, Duncan's Mills, 111. 

1. JESSE BAILOR, Bard, Louisa County, Iowa. 

2. STEPHEN B. NOTT, Lewlstown, 111. 

1. CHARLES T. KISLER, Havana, 111. 

2. MASSENA B. NOTT, Lewistown, 111. 

1. ANDREW J. OPYDKE, Cayton, Shasta County, California. 

2. LIEUTENANT A. D. CADWALLADER, Lincoln, 111. 
1. WILLIAM B. WINCHELL, Lewistown, 111. 

1. WILLIAM H. MITCHELL, 5941 Princeton Avenue, Chicago, 111. 

1. JAMES S. CHESTER, Easton, Mason County, 111. 

4. DAVID SIGLEY, Havana, 111. 

1. FRANCIS N. CHESTER, Teheran, Mason County, 111. 

2. BENJAMIN F. SCOVILL, McKenzie, North Dakota. 
2. FRANK BLANCHARD, Havana, 111. 

1. JOHN C. WILSON, Elk Creek, Johnson County, Neb. 

1. JOHN L. PHELPS, Cadams, Nuckolls County, Neb. 

1. JOHN R. NEVILL, Kincaid, Anderson County, Kan. 

1. JACOB S. DEW, Tecumseh, Neb. 



x . UST OF ADVANCE SUBSCRIBERS. 

No. Copies. 

1. ISAAC LAYMAN, Dewey, 111. 

1. GRANVILLE MADISON, Blue Springs, Gage County, Neb. 

1. JOHN SIZELOVE, Calispell, Stevens County, Washington. 

1. WILLIAM RHINEDERS, Rice Lake, Barron County, Wis. 

2. JOSEPH B. CONOVER, Kilbourn, Mason County, 111. 
1. NEWTON C. PATTERSON, Mason City, 111. 

1. CHARLES L. HAMILTON, Carlinville, 111. 

1. WILLIAM D. CLOSE, Forest, Woods County, Oklahoma. 

1. CAPTAIN P. S. SCOTT, Petersburg, 111. 

4. JAMES T. SEAT, Havana, 111. 

1. JAMES FERGUSON, Petersburg, 111. 

1. HENRY SUTTON, Havana, 111. 

1. JAMES LYNN, Mason City, 111. 

1. WILLIAM SPILLMAN, Spring Bay, 111. 

1. HENRY AMSLER, Pontiac, 111. 

1. MATTHEW L. WRIGLt, f, Alvaretta, Woods County, Oklahoma. 

1. JAMES F. BURT, Litchfleld, 111. 

1. JOHN LIVINGSTON, Bushnell, 111. 

2. CAPTAIN H. S. LA TOURRETTE, Winchester, 111. 
1. GEORGE COOPER, Summum, 111. 

3. JOHN ATEN, Astoria, 111. 

1. LEWIS P. WRIGHT, Enion, Fulton County, 111. 

2. DR. JOSEPH B. SHAWGO, Quincy, 111. 

1. JOHN THOMPSON, Oilman City, Harrison County, Mo. 

1. PERRY W. CLUPPER, Salem, Jewell County, Kan. 

1. JOHN N. PARR, Summum, Fulton County, 111. 

1. HENRY SHIELDS, Centralia, Lewis County, Washington. 

1. WILLIAM H. McLAREN, Canton, 111. 

1. THOMAS B. ENGLE, Coburg, Montgomery County, Iowa. 

1. JOEL A. BARNES, Summum, 111. 

1. CAPTAIN JAMES T. McNEIL, Table Grove, 111. 

1. GEORGE B. McCLELLAND, Plymouth, Hancock County, 111. 

1. SAMUEL THOMPSON, Lamar, Barton County, Mo. 

2. HENRY C. SWISHER, Lyndon, Osage County, Kansas. 
1. GEORGE H. WETZEL, Lewistown, 111. 

1. WILLIAM C. HUDNALL, Astoria, 111. 

1. JAMES P. ADDIS, Linden, Cleveland County, Oklahoma. 

2. WALTER HUDNALL, San Antonio, Texas. 
1. CHARLES DUNCAN, Duncan's Mills, 111. 

1. DR. HENRY H. WILSON, Lewistown, Fergus County, Montana. 

2. MARTIN K. DOBSON, Lewistown, 111. 

1. JOHN R. POWELL, Sheldon's Grove, 111. 

1. ANDERSON JENNINGS, Wister, Choctaw Nation, Indian Ter. 

1. WILLIAM LANDON, Ponca City, Kay County, Oklahoma. 

1. JOHN LAPOOL, Laclede, Cabell County, W. Va. 

1. JOHN WATSON, 807 Millman Street, Peoria, 111. 

1. CHARLES G. MATTHEWS, Renfrew, Grant County, Oklahoma. 

1. LEONIDAS COLLINS, St. John, Putnam County, Mo. 

1. WILLIAM SEVERNS, Clayton, St. Louis County, Mo. 

1. JOHN B. PALMER, Orondo, Douglass County, Washington. 

1. WILLIAM BECK, Rogers, Benton County, Ark. 



UST OF ADVANCE SUBSCRIBERS. XI. 

No. Copies. 

1. SEBASTIAN G. BLUMENSHINE, Clearwater, Sedgwick Co., Kan. 

1. ISAAC FOUNTAIN, Upland, Franklin County, Neb. 

1. D. P. VAN HORN, Cotter, Iowa. 

2. WILLIAM H. HOLE, Mason City, 111. 
1. LESTER N. MORRIS, Lincoln, 111. 

1. JACOB PRETTYMAN, Havana, 111. 

1. GEORGE N. HOPPING, Beaver City, Neb. 

1. DAVID ZENTMIRE, Cherokee, Crawford County, Kan 

1. GEORGE DRAKE, Clinton, Clinton County, Iowa. 

1. JOSIAH McKNIGHT, Mason City, 111. 

2. LIEUTENANT DANIEL HAVENS, Manito, 111. 
1. ELI M. COGDALL, Manito, 111. 

1. DALLAS A. TRENT, Manito, 111. 

1. MRS. MARTHA A. MALONEY, Manito, 111. 

1. MRS. MARY E. COX, Manito, 111. 

1. CAPTAIN SAMUEL BLACK, Menominee, Wis. 

1. COLONEL BYRON PHELPS, Seattle, Washington. 

1. MRS. SARAH LANGSTON, Forest City, 111. 

2. JOHN E. RENO, Table Grove, Fulton County, 111. 
1. MRS. MARY TOWN, Havana, 111. 

4. CHARLES MORRIS, Havana, 111. 

1. LUCIE J. ROBERTS, Manito, 111. 

1. QUARTERMASTER HOLOWAY W. LIGHTCAP, Havana, 111. 

1. CAPTAIN C. M. BARNETT, Geneva, Neb. 

1. PUBLIC LIBRARY, Havana, 111. 

1. JAMES GOBEN, Kilbourne, 111. 

1. CHARLES POND, Shubert, Neb. 

1. SAMUEL GRISSOM, Kilbourne, 111. 

1. L. G. BLUNT, Kilbourne, 111. 

1. MRS. LUCINDA BRYAN, Sciota, 111. 

1. JAMES J. PELHAM, Thermopolis, Wyo. 

1. JOHN L. HARBERT, Kilbourne, 111. 

1. CHARLES ERICK HULT, Swedesburgh, Henry County, Iowa. 

1. JAMES WALKER, Easton, 111. 



of ?0riraiis. 



Colonel Robert S. Moore. 

( FRONTISPIECE.) 

Colonel Caleb J. Dilsworth. 

Major Robert C. Rider. 

Surgeon Philip L. Dieffenbacher. 

Asst. Surgeon Gilbert S. Southwick. 

Adjutant Clark N. Andrus. 

Quartermaster Holovfay W. Lightcap. 

Captain George A Blanchard. 

Captain Henry S. LaTourette. 

Lieutenant D. L. Musselman. 

Lieutenant John M. Robertson. 

Sergeant W. Irving Shannon. 

First Sergeant Henry J. Aten. 

( GROUP.) 

Chaplain Joseph S. Barwick. 
Lieutenant A. D. Cadwallader. 

Corporal David Sigley. 
Corporal Joseph S. Conover. 

John Aten. 
Dr. P L. Dieffenbacher. 

Henry C. Swrisher. 

Dr. Joseph B. Shaw go. 

Prof. D. L. Musselman. 

Henry J. Aten. 






CHAPTER I. 



By the middle of the summer of 1862 there were few 
among the people either North or South, who had not 
found ample cause for revising their estimate of the mag- 
nitude and duration of the Civil War. During the year 
and more that had passed since the firing upon Fort 
Sumter, there had been many engagements, some of 
which had been bloody enough to satisfy the most san- 
guinary, and each side had scored its victories. Nearly 
twenty thousand men had been shot dead on the battle- 
field; upward of eighty thousand had been wounded, 
while an unknown number had died of disease, in the ser- 
vice. 

The early engagements were disastrous to the Fed- 
eral arms. Bull Run was a crushing defeat, the Union 
troops falling back in panic to the gates of the National 
Capital. At Wilson's Creek, Missouri, the army was 
forced to retreat, after the loss of their gallant leader, 
General Lyon, and many men. Some victories of minor 
importance had been gained in West Virginia, and the 
battle of Belmont, Missouri, was fought in November, 
1 86 1, which served to give the Western troops confi- 
dence in themselves and in their commander. At Mill 
Springs, Kentucky, the Union forces won a handsome 
victory, in which the enemy was beaten, driven, routed, 
his general slain and his standards captured. Driven 
and pursued from Missouri, the rebels were defeated in 
a hard fought battle at Pea Ridge, Arkansas. Fort Don- 
elson was captured with 15,000 prisoners and a large 
number of cannon. The 'battle of Shiloh, fought in 



14 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

April, 1862, was a decided victory for the Union arms, 
though dearly won, and on the thirtieth of May the Fed- 
eral forces occupied Corinth, Mississippi. And on the 
first of June, after having seized the peninsula in Vir- 
ginia, the army of the East was within five miles of the 
Confederate Capital. At this time, a line beginning on 
the Chickahominy river in front of Richmond, Virginia, 
thence running through Cumberland Gap on the south- 
ern border of Kentucky, and extending through Hunts- 
ville, Alabama, and Corinth, Mississippi, to Helena, 
Arkansas, would show the positions occupied by the 
Union armies, and also indicate the vast region that had 
been wrested from the foe. 

Meanwhile, the South had changed its opinion of 
northern pluck and endurance, and began to admit by its 
energetic action, that the military instinct was not a sec- 
tional monopoly. To recover their losses, the Confed- 
erate authorities devised a plan for an offensive cam- 
paign, in which the armies under Lee in Virginia, Bragg 
in Tennessee, and Van Dorn in Mississippi were to be 
largely reinforced, and at the same time attack the Fed- 
erals and drive them from the South. Then Bragg and 
Van Dorn would unite the standards of their victorious 
columns at Louisville or Cincinnati, while Lee should 
plant the Confederate flag on the dome of the National 
Capitol, and the two Confederate armies would invade 
the North and compel a recognition of the independence 
of the Southern Confederacy. 

The plan for driving the Union forces from Southern 
soil and invading the North by a simultaneous advance 
of all the Confederate armies, was popular with the peo- 
ple in rebellion, and under their united and enthusiastic 



THE CALL FOR ADDITIONAL TROOPS. 15 

support developed unexpected strength and at first met 
with signal success. Suddenly the Union armies were 
thrown on the defensive, and from the Chickahominy to 
the Mississippi the enemy appeared so confident and 
aggressive, that it became a question whether our armies 
were not to be forced backward, the scenes of strife 
transferred to the States north of the Potomac and Ohio 
rivers, and free soil be watered with the blood of heroes 
slain in battle. 

In this emergency, the governors of all the loyal 
States signed a letter to the President requesting him to 
issue a call for additional troops, and in response to this 
letter, Mr. Lincoln on July 2nd, 1862, issued a call for 
300,000 volunteers. The people fully appreciated the 
gravity of the situation, but there was some delay in 
assigning quotas to the various States, so that but little 
was accomplished in the way of recruiting until July had 
nearly closed. But by the time the recruiting machinery 
was in readiness volunteers were responding in large 
numbers, and the closing week in July and the early days 
of August witnessed large enlistments. The need of 
troops continuing and becoming more and more press- 
ing, the President on the fourth of August issued an- 
other call for 300,000 men in addition to the 300,000 
called out in July. 

That month of August, 1862, was one long to be re- 
membered by those who shared in its exciting events. 
The menacing attitude of the South had prepared the 
loyal people of the North for the most energetic action ; 
the successive calls for additional troops thrilled them 
with military ardor, and the response was a wonderful 
one. All sorts and conditions of men left their business 



16 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

and enlisted in the ranks. Boys of fifteen sat down and 
cried because they were not permitted to enlist, and 
everywhere there was manifest the most intense devotion 
to the Union and its starry banner. And the young men 
of the North, many of whom had others dependent upon 
them for support, to the number of more than half a mil- 
lion, responded to the call of their country within the 
brief space of two months. 

Amid the stirring- events of that period the Eighty- 
fifth Regiment, Illinois Volunteer Infantry, was organ- 
ized. Recruited at the most critical period of the war, 
it. was composed of excellent material. With few excep- 
tions officers and men had been familiar with the use of 
firearms from their youth, and very many were excellent 
marksmen. They had met men returning from the great 
battles of the previous year, wounded and maimed for 
life. The pride and pomp and circumstance of glorious 
war had disappeared, and all knew that war meant not 
only wounds and death, but hunger, hardship and 'priva- 
tion. Rapidly organized and equipped, it was hurried 
to the front to meet the rising tide of rebellion on the 
banks of the Ohio river. Commanded with ability and 
led with rare courage, it was given opportunity to bear a 
conspicuous part in the struggle for the preservation of 
the Union. It never turned its back to the foe but once, 
and then only in obedience to peremptory orders. To 
its gallant conduct in the fierce heat of many battles, and 
its noble bearing in every emergency its members have 
ever been able to refer with pride. To the recital of some 
of these events and to the narrative of the whereabouts of 
the command from day to day, the following chapters are 
devoted. 



RECRUITING OF THE REGIMENT. 17 



CHAPTER II. 



Captain Robert S. Moore, of Company E, Twenty- 
seventh Regiment Illinois Volunteer Infantry, had been 
wounded in the advance upon Corinth, Miss., and was at 
his home in Havana, on leave of absence when the first 
call for troops was issued in July, 1862. Impressed, by 
experience and observation at the front, of the urgent 
need of more troops in the field, he at once began to re- 
cruit a regiment under the following authority, which is 
copied from the original still in possession of Colonel 
Moore : 

GENERAL HEADQUARTERS, STATE OF ILLINOIS. 
ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE. 

Springfield, July llth, 1862. 

Captain Robert S. Moore, Twenty-seventh Regiment, Illinois Vol- 
unteers, Havana, 111. 

Sir: At direction of Governor Yates you are hereby authorized 
to enroll and report at Peoria ten companies of infantry for Gov- 
ernment service for three years unless discharged, to form a part 
of the forces authorized by late call of the President. 

Each of said companies to consist of not less than (83) nor 
more than (101) strong, able-bodied men, and to be reported with 
at least minimum number of men within thirty days from this 
date. 

If not reported with minimum number within thirty days, the 
companies will be liable to consolidation with others similarly 
situated or the men (previous to muster into service) at the pleas- 
ure of the Governor, discharged. Company officers will be ap- 
pointed and commissioned by the Governor, the recommenda- 
tions of the companies will be duly considered but fitness for 
position will be the rule governing appointments. 

You will keep me advised of your progress in recruiting, report- 
ing weekly the number (and names) actually enrolled, and state 



18 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

when squads or companies are ready to camp, and marching and 
transportation orders will be promptly supplied. 

Very respectfully, Your obedient servant, 

ALLEN C. FULLER, Adjutant General. 
Official: JOHN H. LOOMIS, Assistant Adjutant General. 

At this time Caleb J. Dilworth was practicing law in 
Havana, and he became associated with Captain Moore 
in recruiting a regiment. Under their energetic direc- 
tion recruiting was conducted in various towns, which 
resulted in raising five companies in Mason County. 

In the summer of 1861 the Hon. S. P. Cummings, of 
Astoria, was commissioned mustering officer with the 
rank of major, and was active in recruiting some of the 
companies that entered the service from Fulton County 
in that year. As soon as the quota had been assigned 
the state under the first call of 1862 he established re- 
cruiting stations in Astoria, Summum, and Marble's 
Mills, in South Fulton. And by the time supplies and 
transportation were provided, three companies were 
raised and ready to go into camp from Fulton County. 
Soon after the five companies from Mason and the three 
from Fulton arrived at Peoria, the designated rendez- 
vous, they were joined by a company commanded by 
Captain P. S. Scott, from Menard County, and one en- 
rolled by Captain John Kennedy, at Pekin, in Tazewell 
County, in the latter part of June. This completed the 
number of companies required to form the regiment; 
each company being under officers of their own selection, 
and all enlisted from adjoining counties. 

The camp at Peoria was pleasantly situated on high, 
well-drained ground, immediately above the city, and 
near the west bank of the Illinois river. The camp was 



MUSTERED IN THE SERVICE. 19 

supplied with tents and straw, but no blankets were fur- 
nished for several days, and meantime, the frequent rains 
and cool nights gave the men a foretaste of things to 
come. Those who had left home unprepared for such an 
emergency made no little complaint, while those who 
had brought blankets with them, were inclined to mani- 
fest an undue appreciation of their own wisdom and fore- 
sight. Eager to learn their new duties, the men were 
constantly drilled in that part of the school of the soldier 
which comprehends what ought to be taught recruits 
without arms. 

The twenty-seventh day of August, 1862, was made 
memorable by the appearance of the mustering officer, 
Captain S. A. Wainwright, of the Thirteenth United 
States Infantry. On his arrival the boisterous drums 
sounded the assembly, and that splendid body of nearly 
one thousand gallant men fell into line for the first time 
and became a regiment. The long line was formed with 
little delay and an inspection held, few being rejected and 
those in almost every instance on account of being over 
or under the age limit for service in the army. After the 
surgeons had completed their examination of the physi- 
cal qualifications of the men, the process of muster-in 
was proceeded with. And as these stalwart men stood 
there, with uplifted hands, and swore to serve their coun- 
try "for three years unless sooner discharged," it was 
indeed an impressive spectacle ; a scene that will never be 
wholly forgotten by the participants who still survive. 

The companies having elected their officers previous 
to their arrival in camp, the line officers repaired immedi- 
ately after the muster-in, to a large tent to complete the 
organization of the regiment by the election of field offi- 



20 HISTORY OF THE 8STH ILLINOIS. 

cers. At this meeting the field officers were elected and 
the appointment of staff officers agreed upon. The fol- 
lowing is the list of 

THE FIELD AND STAFF. 

Colonel Robert S. Moore, of Havana, Mason County. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Caleb J. Dilworth, of Havana, Mason 
County. 

Major S. P. Cummings, of Astoria, Fulton County. 

Adjutant John B. Wright, of Havana, Mason County. 

Quartermaster Samuel F. Wright, of Havana, Mason County. 

Surgeon James P. Walker, of Mason City, Mason County. 

First Assistant Surgeon Philip L. Dieffenbacher, of Havana, 
Mason County. 

Second Assistant Surgeon James C. Patterson, of Mason City, 
Mason County. 

Chaplain Joseph S. Barwick, of Havana, Mason County. 

NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. 

Sergeant-Major Clark N. Andrews, of Havana, Mason County. 

Quartermaster-Sergeant James T. Pierce, of Havana, Mason 
County. 

Commissary Sergeant Thomas J. Avery, of Bath, Mason 
County. 

Hospital Steward James L. Hastings, of Mason City, Mason 
County. 

Principal Musician John Hazlengg, of Bath, Mason County. 

According to the system of infantry tactics in use 
at this time, a regiment was composed of ten companies 
to be habitually posted from right to left in the following 
order : A, F, D, I, C, H, E, K, G, B, in accordance with 
the rank of captains. Under this provision of tactics, 
the honor of bearing the colors belonged to Company C. 
But for some reason unknown to the writer, the compan- 
ies were posted in the line of the Eighty-fifth, beginning 
with A on the right and running in consecutive order to 
K on the left. Under this arrangement, which was quite 




CALEB J. DILWORTH, 



21 



OF 



UNIFORMS AND ARMS SUPPLIED. 23 

unusual. Company E occupied the right center, and be- 
came the color company. This formation was continued 
throughout the service. 

On Thursday, August 28th, clothing was issued; 
each soldier receiving a dark blue blouse, sky blue pants, 
woolen shirts and socks, cotton drawers, a forage cap, 
blanket and a pair of shoes. This made a neat and com- 
fortable uniform, which proved so well suited to the ser- 
vice that its use was continued, with but one change, 
throughout the war. The forage cap afforded such 
slight protection in either sunshine or storm, that it soon 
gave way to the black felt hat. The next day, light blue 
overcoats of the regulation pattern, with capes, were 
issued, and each soldier received a kflapsack and canteen. 
In the afternoon, muster rolls having been prepared, 
each company was marched to headquarters and $13 paid 
to each member by the paymaster. This payment was 
made in carrying out a promise made the men at enlist- 
ment, that each should receive one month's pay in ad- 
vance. 

On Friday, September 5th, arms and accoutrements 
were received and issued to the companies. The arms 
were the Enfield rifled muskets, and were as good a 
weapon as was then in general use. The Eighty-fifth 
was considered very fortunate in securing new Enfields, 
especially so considered by the members of the regiment, 
of whom there were quite a number who had seen pre- 
vious service. Almost every regiment entering the ser- 
vice in 1861 was armed with old Austrian or Belgian 
muskets; doubtless the most unreliable and dangerous 
firearm ever invented. And among the terrors of the 
first year's service, these men always remembered the: 



24 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

uncertain action and the diabolic antics of those infernal 
guns. 

From the first the men had been kept almost con- 
stantly on the drill ground, and as all were anxious to 
learn, some progress was made in the school of the sold- 
ier. They had learned to step in time, and to march by 
squad and company. Eagerly they had awaited their 
arms and accoutrements, and now, everyone expected 
that a few days at least could be devoted to drill in the 
manual of arms before leaving the camp of instruction. 
But the pressing need of more troops at the front allowed 
the men of the Eighty-fifth but one day in which to drill 
in the manual of arms. 

The brief stay in camp at Peoria had been profitably 
employed, and calls up few but pleasant memories. 
Nearly all had suffered more or less from colds incident 
to a change from the comforts of home to the outdoor 
life of the camp, and the radical change of diet had 
affected some unfavorably. But few, however, had been 
sent to the building outside the camp grounds, over 
which floated the yellow hospital flag. Of those sent to 
the hospital, James Grant, private of Company K, died 
there on September 8th, his being the first death in the 
regiment. 

While more time was sadly needed for instruction, 
and officers and men alike felt the need of it, yet all were 
ready and anxious to go to the assistance of their brave, 
hard-pressed comrades who had gone to battle for the 
Union in the year gone by. They wanted to bear a hand 
in turning back the tide of invasion now threatening 
northern homes, and their opportunity was now at hand. 
A series of disasters had overtaken our armies while the 



OFF FOR THE SOUTH. 25 

regiment had been forming; the Army of the East had 
been routed from the front of the rebel capital ; Lee with 
his victorious army was already on northern soil, and the 
advance of Bragg's army had arrived within striking dis- 
tance of both Louisville and Cincinnati. 



CHAPTER III. 



At about nine o'clock on Sunday morning, Septem- 
ber 7th, 1862, the Eighty-fifth Regiment Illinois Volun- 
teer Infantry marched out of its camp at Peoria and down 
through the main street of the city to the railway station. 
The day was bright and clear, and although the ringing 
church bells were calling the people to worship the 
Prince of Peace, the patriotic citizens crowded the line 
of march to cheer and speed the departing soldiers. 
There was but little delay at the depot, and about one 
o'clock, or a little later, a start was made for Louisville, 
Kentucky. The trip was made without incident or acci- 
dent of especial note. Lafayette, Indiana, was reached 
at about eight o'clock the next morning, and Indianapo- 
lis at six o'clock in the afternoon, and at two o'clock on 
Tuesday morning, September gth, the regiment arrived 
at Jeffersonville. The men were very tired with the long 
ride in the crowded cars. Few had slept in all the pre- 
vious night, as there were two in every seat, and all were 
glad to change from the crowded cars to the ground for 
a short rest. About noon the regiment crossed the Ohio 
river, and marched through Louisville to the southern 
limits of the city, where it went into camp. The day 



26 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

was hot, the streets dusty, and the men were very much 
fatigued, although the distance marched was not great. 

Notwithstanding the alleged neutrality of Kentucky, 
the regiment was now in Dixie. In the city the people 
were laboring under the most intense excitement. 
Among the citizens every shade of opinion prevailed 
from that held by the most devoted loyalist to that of the 
most pronounced secessionist, and on the day following 
the arrival of the regiment martial law was proclaimed. 

Wednesday, September lotfi, was full of hard work, 
the day being spent in squad and company drill, particu- 
lar attention being paid to the manual of arms, the work 
ending with a dress parade. Dress parade was a new 
experience to nearly all of the officers and men, but the 
regiment made a fairly creditable appearance. In the 
afternoon of the next day a heavy thunder storm sud- 
denly broke upon the camp. The high wind leveled 
many of the tents to the ground, while the downpour of 
rain thoroughly drenched the men and the entire outfit 
of the camp. 



The insurgents having forced into their armies all the 
able-bodied men in the South, were now exerting their 
full strength against the Federal line. After a series of 
bloody defeats, accompanied with heavy loss, the Army 
of the Potomac had been driven from the peninsula in 
Virginia, and was now about to engage in a deadly con- 
flict with the flushed victorious enemy, on soil dedicated 
to freedom and far to the north of the National Capital. 
On August 1 7th, a part of Bragg's army under General 
Kirby Smith turned the Union force out of Cumberland 
Gap. Whereupon the Union commander blew up his 



THE) DANGER THREATENING LOUISVILLE. 27 

elaborate fortifications, abandoned his heavy artillery, 
destroyed his stores, and began a hasty and disastrous 
retreat. After capturing detachments of Union troops 
on garrison duty at various posts, the rebel column of 
invasion encountered a green Union force at Richmond 
Kentucky, which had been hurriedly concentrated to 
oppose the rebel advance. A fight ensued, in which the 
Union troops were driven back on reinforcements under 
Major General William Nelson, who assumed command, 
but a rebel victory had already been won. The Union 
troops were dispersed, and General Nelson wounded, 
while his army lost nine pieces of artillery and many pris- 
oners. The Confederate general set forward for Lexing- 
ton, which he entered on September ist, amid the frantic 
acclamations of the rebel sympathisers of that intensely 
disloyal region. He moved on through Paris to Cynthi- 
ana, and threw his advance well out toward Cincinnati. 

Meanwhile General Bragg with the main body of the 
Confederate army crossed the Tennessee river above 
Chattanooga, passed to the left of the Union army, and 
pushed into Kentucky. This compelled General Buel to 
abandon the whole of Tennessee except a small district in 
the immediate vicinity of Nashville, and hasten by forced 
marches to the defense of the line of the Ohio river. 
Louisville, with its immense resources, was the immedi- 
ate object of this gigantic raid, while the capture of Cin- 
cinnati and other northern cities was considered possible 
even probable, by the enthusiastic followers of the 
rebel chief. The near approach of the Confederate army 
filled the rebel citizens in the city with high hopes, while 
many of the loyalists fled for refuge to various points 
north of the Ohio. 



28 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

General Nelson was assigned to command the army 
forming at Louisville, and although suffering from a 
wound received at Richmond, his energetic action re- 
stored order, and the air of dejection soon disappeared. 
With the arrival of almost every boat and train came new 
troops, who were rapidly formed into brigades and divis- 
ions for the defense of the city. The troops that escaped 
from the battle at Richmond began to appear by this 
time, and the opportunity for capturing the city was 
numbered among the lost hopes of the southern people. 



On Friday, September I2th, the Eighty-sixth Regi- 
ment, Illinois Volunteer Infantry arrived. It had camped 
near the Eighty-fifth at Peoria, and was mustered in by 
Captain Wainwright on the same day. There was the 
usual Sunday morning inspection on the I4th, and on the 
1 5th a brigade was formed, composed of the Eighty-fifth, 
the Eighty-sixth and the One Hundred and Twenty-fifth 
Regiments, Illinois Volunteer Infantry, the Fifty-second 
Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and Battery I, Sec- 
ond Illinois Light Artillery, and designated as the 
Thirty-Sixth Brigade. The brigade thus formed had 
quite an unusual experience, in that these regiments and 
this battery remained together until mustered out at the 
close of the war, the only change in its composition being 
the addition of small regiments toward the close of the 
service. Colonel Daniel McCook, of the Fifty-second 
Ohio, being the ranking colonel, took command of the 
brigade by virtue of seniority, holding the position until 
mortally wounded while leading the command in a des- 
perate charge. The brigade moved at an early hour 
through the city, and passed in review before the com- 



THE FIRST LONG ROLL. 29 

manding general. The day was hot, the streets dusty, 
and the men were very tired when they reached camp at 
six o'clock in the evening. 

On the 1 8th the brigade was engaged in throwing up 
a line of entrenchments, the line running through the 
suburbs of the city. The next day the regiment was 
held in readiness to march at any moment, with two 
days' rations in the haversacks. On the 2Oth the Eighty- 
fifth moved out on the turnpike, some ten miles toward 
Bardstown, returning to camp on the evening of the 
22nd. No event of importance transpired on the march, 
but the trip was useful in seasoning the men for the 
longer marches soon to come. 

On Tuesday, September 23rd, at three o'clock in the 
morning, there was a call to arms, and the brigade 
marched to the entrenchments, where it remained under 
arms throughout the day. 

In the afternoon General Nelson reviewed the line, 
and urged the importance of firing low in case of an at- 
tack. The regiment spent the next day on picket, some 
distance out, returning to the entrenched line in the 
evening, when the men were instructed to occupy near- 
by houses for the night. 

On the 26th the regiment returned to camp, packed 
up the camp outfit, and moved into the city. Judged by 
the appearance and smell of this camp, it had recently 
been occupied as a horse or mule yard. The next day 
the camp was unusually dull until well along in the after- 
noon, when a captain of one of the companies, doubtless 
impelled by a sense of duty, undertook to discipline his 
first lieutenant. Then a breach of the peace occurred in 
which the captain prevailed and the lieutenant was thor- 



30 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

oughly disciplined in fact, if not in accordance with the 
provisions of army regulations. 

The veterans of General Buel's army were now arriv- 
ing, and within a few days that splendid body of trained 
soldiers were located in camps in the immediate vicinity 
of the city. They had made a race with the rebel army 
under Bragg from the Tennessee to the Ohio ; had won 
the race, and were now eager to be led against their old- 
time foe. Nor had they long to wait, as immediate 
preparations were made for taking the field against the 
enemy, who was known to be at Bardstown, only thirty 
miles away. 

On Monday morning, September 29th, the startling 
intelligence was brought to the camp of the Eighty-fifth 
that General Nelson had been shot and killed at the Gait 
House, and a detachment from the regiment was hur- 
riedly sent to the hotel for guard duty. The following 
account of the tragedy is condensed from reports cur- 
rent at the time, and is believed to be substantially cor- 
rect. About eight o'clock in the morning Brigadier 
General Jefferson C. Davis met General Nelson in the 
office of the Gait House and presented some grievance. 
A controversy ensued in which Nelson, after applying an 
insulting epithet to Davis, slapped him in the face. 
Whereupon Davis, who was unarmed, borrowed a pistol 
from a by-stander and shot Nelson, who died within a 
few minutes of the shooting. General Nelson was a 
man of powerful build, in perfect health, six feet two 
inches in height, and weighing over two hundred 
pounds, while General Davis was a small man, less than 
five feet ten inches in height, and weighing only about 
one hundred and twenty-five pounds. 



THE KENTUCKY CAMPAIGN. 31 

General Nelson had been in command of the depart- 
ment until the arrival of General Buel on the 25th. He 
was bred a sailor, and was holding a commission in the 
military service, although an officer in the navy. In- 
tensely loyal to his country, he was among the first to 
organize by his individual exertion a military force in 
Kentucky, his native state, to rescue her from the vortex 
of rebellion, toward which she was rapidly drifting. Un- 
fortunately for himself and his country, he was arbitrary, 
overbearing, and his outbursts of temper made him many 
enemies. So totally unfitted for the command of volun- 
teer soldiers was he, that it may well be doubted whether 
his violent end caused mourning in a single breast 
among the rank and file of the army. 

General Davis, after serving in the war with Mexico, 
entered the regular army, and was a lieutenant under 
Major Anderson at Fort Sumter, when it was bom- 
barded. At the beginning of the Civil War he led the 
Twenty-second Indiana to the field, and was soon pro- 
moted brigadier general. He commanded a division at 
the battle of Pea Ridge with conspicuous skill and gal- 
lantry. He was arrested for the killing of Nelson, but 
was never tried. The writer has always understood that, 
but for this lamentable affair, General Davis would have 
been assigned to command the division of which the 
Thirty-sixth Brigade was a part in the coming campaign. 
A year later he assumed command of the division, and 
finally commanded the corps to which the brigade was 
attached, and officers and men learned to admire the skill 
with which he handled his troops. 

The brigades of new troops that had been hurried to 
the defense of Louisville were distributed among the 



32 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

veteran divisons of Bud's army, and the army thus re- 
cruited, was divided into three corps, designated the 
First, Second, and Third, commanded by Generals 
McCook, Crittenden, and Gilbert respectively. The 
Thirty-sixth Brigade was assigned to a division under 
command of Brigadier General P. H. Sheridan, in Gil- 
bert's Corps. 

The twenty days spent in Louisville were of great ad- 
vantage to the new regiment. The men became accus- 
tomed to camp life ; much of the time was spent in drill, 
and something was learned in marching and picket duty. 
The regiment was weakened by sickness during the 
month, and quite a number had to be left in the general 
hospital when the command entered upon the Kentucky 
campaign. The deaths at Louisville were: Henry 
Howell, of Company A ; Robert Driver, of Company F, 
and William Cunningham, of Company H. 

On Tuesday morning, September 3oth, 1862, Gen- 
eral Buel's army of about 60,000 men moved out of 
Louisville, and the advance began. Bragg's army num- 
bered about 40,000 men, the greater part being in posi- 
tion at Bardstown. Many delays occurred during the 
day, and the Eighty-fifth camped for the night within 
one mile of the city. On the first of October the com- 
mand moved very slowly, passing through a fine country, 
on very dusty .roads. After reaching camp the Eighty- 
fifth, with the brigade battery, was thrown out on picket 
a mile and a half in advance of the camp. During the 
night enough rain fell to soak the men's blankets, and 
the next morning the regiment resumed the march with- 
out breakfast. A series of skirmishes commenced within 
a few miles of Louisville, which constantly increased until 



THE KENTUCKY CAMPAIGN. 33 

the cautious advance of the army reached Bardstown on 
October 5th, when it was found that the enemy had 
retreated. The regiment passed through that town on 
Sunday, and camped that night on Rolling Fork, a 
stream some six miles beyond Bardstown. A timid 
advance, which could scarcely be called a pursuit, was 
continued on the 6th and 7th, the regiment passing 
through Fredericktown, Springfield, Texas and Hunts- 
ville, and on the 7th Gilbert's corps, which was in the 
center, closed down on the enemy, who was concentrated 
and ready for battle in a position of his own choice near 
Perryville. 

The season had been very dry, the roads were dusty, 
the weather hot, and water was so scarce that the troops 
had suffered exceedingly. Men became so thirsty that 
it was no unusual sight to see them spread their handker- 
chiefs over stagnant pools, covered with scum, and slake 
their thirst with the water thus filtered. The brigade 
arrived at the front about eleven o'clock in the night of 
the 7th, and the men lay down, without water, in line of 
battle for such rest as might be had on the eve of their 
first battle. 



34 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. October, 1862. 

CHAPTER IV. 



On Wednesday, October 8th, at three o'clock in the 
morning, the men were quietly aroused from their brief 
sleep, and the brigade began the advance, with the 
Eighty-fifth in front. During the night some pools of 
still water were discovered in the bed of Doctor's creek, 
a tributary of Chaplin river, and the advance was made 
for the purpose of seizing a range of hills beyond the 
stream, with a view of securing a supply of water. It 
was very dark and absolute silence was enjoined, and 
while the regiment was marching by the right flank, the 
enemy's pickets opened fire from a position just beyond 
the creek. At once our skirmishers rushed forward, 
supported by the entire regiment, and after a short, sharp 
fight, Peter's Hill was carried, and before daylight our 
line was firmly established and a limited supply of bad 
water was obtained. 

In front was an open field, with heavy timber beyond, 
while timber and thick underbrush extended well toward 
the left of the regiment. About sunrise the enemy 
formed a column of infantry and artillery in this woods, 
and sent it forward, covered by a cloud of skirmishers, 
to retake the position from which the Eighty-fifth had 
driven him. His artillery opened with spherical case, 
which made it exceedingly uncomfortable for the regi- 
ment for a time, as it could not reply. But as soon as 
the brigade battery could be brought up, the guns of the 
enemy were silenced, and a few volleys cleared the field 
in front. Still the rebel force in the underbrush to the 
left kept up a very annoying fire, until the Second Mis- 



October, 1862. THE BATTLE OF PERRYVILLE. 35 

souri Infantry moved across the front under General 
Sheridan's direction, charged into and cleared the 
thicket. This regiment, contrary to the usual equip- 
ment, was armed with the sword bayonet, and met with 
heavy loss in this charge. After his efforts to retake the 
lost position had been repulsed, the enemy remained in- 
active on this part of his line for some three hours or 
more. 

The day was clear and the range of hills just beyond 
Doctor's creek afforded a fine view of the valley of that 
stream extending northeast to Chaplin river. In this 
valley were small farms, the homes of a peaceful com- 
munity, unused to the 'bloody scenes about to be enacted 
in its midst. Fields, from which the wheat had been 
gathered, now rank with ragweed. Corn standing in 
the shock, orchards that had yielded up their mellow 
fruit, and the timbered ridges which here and there ex- 
tended into the valley from the west all these were to 
be swept and torn before night by the hurricane of war. 

About ten o'clock the advance of McCook's corps 
arrived in the valley, and from the elevated position 
occupied by the Eighty-fifth, his troops could be seen as 
they came into line of battle across the foot-hills, without 
a shot being fired. When the First corps deployed there 
remained but the usual interval between McCook's right 
and the left of the Thirty-sixth brigade. But suddenly, 
and without warning, the enemy, who nad been con- 
cealed in the heavy timber in his front and east of the 
creek, made a furious attack along his entire line, and 
about one o'clock the Thirty-sixth brigade started to 
his assistance. It had not gone far, however, when the 
enemy advanced again to assault and carry the line of 



36 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. October, 1862. 

hills the brigade had seized in the morning, and quickly 
returning under orders, the command resumed its 
former position. 

The recall of the brigade was most opportune, for no 
sooner had it returned to its original line, than the enemy 
opened with two batteries, under cover of which his 
assaulting column began the advance. To this fire the 
batteries of the division at once responded, and for a time 
there was a well-sustained artillery duel. Soon, how- 
ever, our batteries turned their attention to the advanc- 
ing lines of infantry, using shell at first, then case and 
canister. This did not check the determined advance, 
and when the enemy came within short musket range 
our batteries ceased firing; the infantry advanced and 
poured into the rebel ranks a most destructive fire. The 
action was short, sharp and decisive. The rebel lines 
wavered for a moment and the next found the enemy in 
full retreat. During the action Carlin's brigade of 
Mitchell's division arrived on the right of Sheridan; 
wheeled partly to the left; struck the retreating enemy 
in the flank, and pursued him beyond Perryville. In 
this pursuit Carlin captured two caissons, an ammunition 
train of fifteen wagons, and a train guard of one hundred 
and thirty-eight men. 

As soon as the enemy was driven from Sheridan's 
front, his batteries were turned upon the masses of the 
enemy now surging against the right of McCook's 
corps. No longer menaced by the enemy on their own 
front, the men of the Thirty-sixth brigade had an unob- 
structed view of the terrible battle ranging along the 
front of the First corps. The quiet rural scene of the 
morning, whereon they had watched McCook set his 



October, 1862. THE BATTLE OF PERRYVILLE. 37 

troops in battle array without a sound of strife, now rilled 
with flame and fury, had become a veritable valley of 
death. The shells from our batteries could be seen tear- 
ing through the masses of the enemy, or bursting in the 
midst of his serried column, as he recklessly charged the 
Union line. The fleecy smoke rose from the batteries 
of friend and foe and hung in the palpitating air. The 
spiteful puffs from the file firing marked the infantry line, 
while far to the rear a burning barn, fired by rebel shells, 
appeared. In full view, the wounded who were still able 
to walk, were drifting to the rear, while the stretcher 
bearers bore the more severely wounded back from the 
blue line, so stubbornly contesting every inch of the 
ground. So the battle ebbed and flowed, until darkness 
closed the eventful day upon a never-to-be-forgotten 
scene ; one which neither tongue nor pen can adequately 
describe. 

The determined resistance made by McCook's corps, 
aided by the batteries of Sheridan's division, and the 
arrival of fresh troops, prevented the enemy from pursu- 
ing his advantage to a successful conclusion. His plan 
was rendered abortive ; no definite results were obtained 
by his desperate fighting, and as soon as darkness inter- 
vened he retreated, leaving the fielcl with his killed and 
wounded in possession of the Union army. The enemy 
abandoned the field so quietly that his retreat was not 
known until the advance began at daylight on the next 
morning. 

The losses in the Eighty-fifth were less in number 
than might have been expected, considering the work 
accomplished, but more than were sustained by any 
other regiment in the Thirty-sixth brigade. According 



38 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. October, 1862. 

to a table published in the Rebellion Records,* the bri- 
gade loss was : Seven killed ; 63 wounded, and 9 miss- 
ing, total, 79. In this same table, which purports to 
be a revised list, the loss in the Eighty-fifth is given as 
5 killed, 38 wounded and 9 missing. Assistant Surgeon 
P. L/. Dieffenbacher has kindly furnished the names of 
the killed and wounded, but as his list shows the number 
wounded to be less than the revised list published in the 
War Records, we must conclude that several men were 
slightly wounded who did not report to the surgeon. It 
is not possible to give the names of such, nor is it possible 
to give the names of the missing. The following are the 
names of killed and wounded, according to the list fur- 
nished the writer by Surgeon Dieffenbacher : 

COMPANY A. 

KILLED Corporal Benjamin White, Lemuel Y. Nash. 
WOUNDED First Sergeant Albert G. Beebe, Sergeant Daniel 
Havens, William D. Blizzard, Gibson Bass, and William M. 
Thompson. 

COMPANY B. 

WOUNDED Lieutenant Charles W. Pierce, Thomas M. Bell, Ben- 
jamin F. Kratzer, Ellis Southwood. 

COMPANY C. 

KILLED Henry Shay, Orlando Stewart. 

WOUNDED Sergeant John H. Duvall, James S. Chester, Chan- 
ning Clark, William Newberry, Jonathan P. Temple. 

COMPANY D. 

KILLED Sergeant Freman Brought. 
WOUNDED William Davis. 

COMPANY E. 
WOUNDED William F. Allen, Royal A. Clary, James Lynn. 

COMPANY G. 
WOUNDED John Aten. 



* Vol. LXVI, page 1036, Rebellion Records. 




ROBERT G. RIDER. 

MAJOR. 



tn m 
UNIYERSm of ILLINOIS 



October, 1862. THE BATTLE OF PERRYVILLE. 41 

COMPANY H. 

WOUNDED Henry Bloomfield, Marion Horton, Solomon Meyers, 
Lemuel J. Sayres, Daniel Worley. 

COMPANY I. 

WOUNDED Sergeant Laban V. Tartar, Corporal James Mosland- 
er, William Minner, John Watson. 

COMPANY K. 
WOUNDED Jefferson Bowers, Isaac Fountain. 

When the eventful day closed, it was with a sense of 
infinite relief that the tired, hungry men threw them- 
selves upon their blankets for rest and sleep. They 
began the fight without breakfast ; had no dinner, and 
now when night came the arbitrary orders of a grossly 
incompetent corps commander prevented the issue of 
rations until mid-night. All had looked' forward to the 
test of battle with more or less solicitude, lest some 
should fail to meet the stern demands of duty when the 
supreme hour of trial should come. But the men the 
boys in the ranks had proved themselves true born 
heroes, while the officers had shared with them alike the 
danger and the glory of the day. The Eighty-fifth had 
established a Deputation for both fighting and staying 
qualities ; a reputation that must be sustained in all future 
actions, and now, confident in themselves and in each 
other, officers and men awaited the coming of another 
day. 

At daylight on the morning of the Qth, the advance 
began by moving the troops, not engaged the previous 
day, against the left of the enemy. This movement soon 
developed the fact that the enemy had retreated during 
the night. Bragg had quietly and in good order retired, 
leaving his killed and wounded on the battlefield. About 



42 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. October, 1862. 

noon the Thirty-sixth brigade moved across the field 
from which the enemy had delivered his attack on 
McCook's corps, and after a short march camped at 
Perry ville; remaining in this camp throughout the loth 
and nth. In the meantime burial parties gave the dead 
of both friend and foe decent burial. At places on the 
field the dead were scattered very thick ; bearing striking 
proof of the deadly character of the conflict. The writer 
remembers a point where a Confederate battery had been 
taken and retaken. There the Union and rebel dead 
appeared in about equal numbers, and among them the 
faithful horses that had drawn the battery into action. 

Considering the number of troops engaged, the 
losses were severe, amounting to 4,348 in killed, 
wounded and missing more than one-fifth of the force 
engaged on the Union side. The loss of the enemy was 
never known, but it must have equaled, if it did not ex- 
ceed, ours. Bragg in his official report admits a loss of 
twenty-five hundred prisoners, but as fully 4,000 prison- 
ers, consisting mostly of sick and wounded, fell into our 
hands, he must have reported, as he usually did, much 
less than his actual loss. 

Buel reported the strength of his command before 
the battle at 58,000 effective men ; less than one-half of 
which was brought into action. The entire Confederate 
force in Kentucky did not exceed 40,000 men, and of 
this force fully 15,000 men were under Kirby Smith near 
Frankfort, too far from the battlefield to render Bragg 
any assistance whatever. But when the time came for 
striking a decisive blow, the Union commander failed to 
use his whole force, and the battle of Perryville furnishes 
a signal example of lost opportunities. Buel had a 



October, 1862. THE BATTLE OF PERRYVILLE. 43 

largely preponderating force; his men were well 
equipped and eager to be led against the enemy, but he 
utterly failed to rise to the demands of the occasion. 

General Don Carlos Buel graduated in the class of 
1841 at the West Point Military Academy, and served 
in the War with Mexico, where he was wounded and won 
the brevet rank of major. From 1847 to 1861 he served 
as assistant adjutant general in the regular army, and 
his long service in the routine of a bureau office probably 
unfitted him for handling, on the battlefield, the large 
number of troops which composed his command. After 
finding the enemy and closing down on his position on 
the evening of the /th, it appears to have been Buel's 
plan to spend the following day in preparing to fight a 
great battle on the 9th. But the Confederate com- 
mander disposed of that proposition by striking quick 
and hard on the 8th. Bragg was well known to be a 
fighting man, and a breach of the peace should have been 
expected by Buel, as soon as our army appeared within 
the usual murdering distance of the enemy. 

Although Buel was a soldier by education, he was 
without confidence in himself or in -the troops he com- 
manded. This lack of confidence was mutual, the troops 
distrusting the ability of their commander many going 
to the extent of questioning his loyalty. This unfortu- 
nate feeling was well nigh universal and was shared alike 
by both officers and men. General Thomas had urged 
Buel to fight at Sparta, Tennessee, before Bragg entered 
upon his gigantic raid in Kentucky. A corps com- 
mander, distinguished for his soldierly instinct, severely 
censured Buel for failing to attack the enemy at Glas- 
gow and other points, while the two armies were march- 



44 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. October, 1862. 

ing on parallel roads in Kentucky, so near each other 
that a battle might have been brought on if there had 
been any desire to fight. General McCook told the 
writer within a few years that if Buel had sent him any 
one of the five divisions standing idle, and in easy reach, 
at three o'clock in the afternoon at Perryville, he would 
have destroyed .that part of Bragg's army with which his 
corps was engaged. 

In the reorganization of the army at Louisville, some 
seemingly inexcusable blunders were committed. The 
division which General Thomas, doubtless the most able 
officer in our army, composed of veterans he had led so 
long, was taken away from him, and he was named as 
second in command, which really left this capable officer 
without any command whatever. But worst of all, by 
some "hocus pocus" unexplained to this day, Charles 
C. Gilbert, who had not then been appointed a general 
officer by the President, was assigned to the command 
of the Third corps. Without experience or other quali- 
fication, Gilbert was undoubtedly the worst appointment 
to command an army corps made during the war. On 
the day of battle, in utter disregard of the necessities of 
his troops, he left the men short of rations throughout 
the day and until late the following night. Even then 
his abritrary orders were only relaxed at the earnest so- 
licitation of General Sheridan. Fortunately for his coun- 
try, the battle of Perryville was the first and last appear- 
ance of this incompetent officer as a corps commander. 

After three days had been frittered away in useless 
tactical manoeuvres, a timid advance was resumed on the 
1 2th. The division moved through Danville and Lan- 
caster, where the batteries exchanged a few shots with 



October, 1862. THE BATTLE OF PERRYVIIJ,E. 45 

the rear guard of the enemy. But the foe was quickly 
routed and the march continued without further inter- 
ruption through Stanford to Crab Orchard, where the 
command arrived on the evening of the I5th. Bragg 
had made good his escape and the invasion of Kentucky 
was ended. 

It is a noteworthy fact that the campaign in Ken- 
tucky caused the most bitter feeling in the opposing 
armies against their respective commanders. But per- 
haps the feeling of disappointment was greatest among 
the Confederates, and certainly the most difficult for 
them to bear. They had entered upon the Kentucky 
campaign under the promise of 20,000 recruits for the 
rebel cause, and had brought guns along to supply that 
number of recruits with arms. But the hoped for upris- 
ing did not occur; the arms were never taken from the 
wagons, and needlessly encumbered the train of the flee- 
ing foe as he returned to Tennessee. General Bragg 
did not consider so far as the Confederacy was con- 
cerned that the state was worth fighting for, and now, 
disappointed in his scheme of conquest, and bitterly cen- 
sured by his own army, he made haste to get beyond the 
barrier the Cumberland river was supposed to afford. 

On Thursday, the i6th, F. S. Henfling, of Company 
F, was accidentally shot in the leg. The regiment had 
been out to give the men an opportunity to discharge 
their guns, and it seems probable that some gun missed 
fire, which may account for the accident. The wound 
proved fatal, Henfling dying a few days later in the hos- 
pital. 

On Sunday, the iQth, the regiment was detailed for 
picket duty. Rest for the tired men and animals had 



46 HISTORY OF THE 85TH IIJJNOIS. October, 1862. 

been the order of the day at Crab Orchard, and the new 
troops especially enjoyed their stay in that genial cli- 
mate. But the next day orders were received for a con- 
centration of the army at Bowling Green, and in the 
early morning the regiment took up the line of march 
from the picket line. After a march of twenty miles the 
regiment camped for the night on a stream known as 
Rolling Fork. The line of march led the Thirty-Sixth 
brigade through Lebanon, Parkville, New Market and 
Campbellsville. A fall of six inches of snow during the 
night and early morning of the 25th was the only inci- 
dent that happened to relieve the monotony of the 
march. This was a new, if not an agreeable, experience 
for troops without tents or shelter of any kind. 

On Saturday, November ist, the regiment arrived 
at Bowling Green. That night the tents which had been 
left at Louisville, were brought up, the mails arrived and 
were distributed, and from letters and papers received 
from home the men learned of the progress or the war 
the fortune that had followed the other armies in the 
broad field. They also learned without regret that Buel 
had been removed. From General Orders it appeared 
that our army, heretofore known as the Army of the 
Ohio, had been designated as the Army of the Cumber- 
land, under the command of Major General W. S. Rose- 
crans. 



November, 1862. ADVANCE TO NASHVILLE. 47 

CHAPTER V. 



The dark and gloomy days in which the Eighty-fifth 
entered the field were followed, as dark days usually are, 
by brighter and more hopeful ones. The operations of 
General Lee in Virginia and Maryland; of General 
Bragg in Tennessee and Kentucky, and of Generals 
Price and VanDorn in Northern Mississippi, during the 
summer and autumn of 1862, covered the broadest field 
and displayed the boldest aggression of the Confederate 
armies during the war. For a time the tide of invasion 
ran high in the east, where Lee pressed the Union army 
back into Maryland, but at Antietam he met a bloody 
defeat and his army was forced to retire into Virginia to 
defend the approaches to the Confederate Capital. In 
Kentucky some of the rebel rangers may have caught a 
hasty glimpse of the Ohio river, but after the battle of 
Perry ville Bragg made haste to get behind the moun- 
tains of Tennessee. Just when General Bragg lost hope 
completely is not revealed, but at the moment when suc- 
cess seemed within his grasp, his bold strategy failed and 
he drifted about in Kentucky until expelled by a far from 
energetic pursuit. But when Price and VanDorn at- 
tempted to play the role of invaders in Mississippi, and 
perform their part in the scheme of invading the North 
the result was different. Confronting them was the 
small army under General Grant, in positions chosen 
with admirable skill. And instead of retreating and call- 
ing loudly and without ceasing for reinforcements, like 
McClellan and Buel, the hero of Donelson and Shiloh 
defeated the enemy at luka, routed him at Corinth, and 



48 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. November, 1862. 

dispersed the foe at the Hatchie river. Grant not only 
did not retreat, but fixed more firmly than ever his re- 
lentless grasp on that end of the Confederacy. 

But promising as was the beginning of these cam- 
paigns to the South, like all others of similar character 
throughout the war, actual accomplishment fell far below 
Southern expectation. And when General Lee retreated 
from the battlefield of Antietam, General Bragg from 
Perryville, and Generals Price and_VanDorn from luka, 
Corinth and the Hatchie river, the Southern people saw 
plainly that the war was still to bring desolation to their 
homes and destruction to their section. They realized 
that their boldest strategy and the exertion of their full 
strength could only delay, but could not permanently 
prevent the advance of the Federal armies. During 
September and October the invading armies were driven 
back within the original limits of the Confederacy, and 
new offensive campaigns planned, the main one in the 
west, looking to the reconquest of Tennessee and North- 
ern Alabama, to be executed by the Army of the Cum- 
berland. 

On Tuesday morning, November 4th, marching 
orders were received, the destination being Nashville, 
Tennessee. All soldiers not able to march were sent to 
the general hospital which had been established at Bowl- 
ing Green. That evening the brigade camped a few 
miles beyond Franklin, and the next day crossed the 
state line and camped at Mitchellville in Sumner County, 
Tennessee. Here the Eighty-fifth was detailed for guard 
duty and remained at Mitchellville until noon on the 8th, 
when the march was resumed. The regiment arrived at 
Edgefield, a handsome suburb of Nashville, at noon on 



November, 1862. ADVANCE TO NASHVILLE. 49 

Monday, the loth, and camped on a plateau north of the 
river and just outside the little town. 

On Wednesday, the I2th, the division was reviewed 
by General Rosecrans, and the men saw the new army 
commander for the first time. The change of command- 
ers was hailed with delight, and, while almost any change 
would have been acceptable, the appointment of Rose- 
crans, fresh from his well-earned victories in Mississippi, 
was especially gratifying. Nor was he long in winning 
the entire confidence of his new command. 

On the i Qth there was a detail made from the Eighty- 
fifth, under command of Captain Scott, to guard a train 
sent out for forage. This detail had proceeded some 
sixteen miles down the Cumberland river, when a tree, 
suddenly and without warning, fell across one of the 
wagons, instantly killing William S. Potter and William 
Ray, of Company E. These men were sitting near the 
middle of the wagon, and others sitting in front and rear 
of them, in the same wagon, escaped wholly unharmed. 

On Friday, the 2ist, the Thirty-sixth brigade went 
on a foraging expedition. This trip, as well as others 
made in the next month, were made with the full equip- 
ment necessary for fighting a battle if necessary, the bat- 
tery accompanying the brigade. The expedition re- 
turned the next evening with sixty beef cattle, two hun- 
dred hogs, seventy-five sheep, and a large amount of hay 
and corn. 

On Saturday, the 22nd, the division marched 
through Nashville, and out on the Murfreesboro pike, 
some seven miles to the crossing of Mill creek. At this 
point the Eighty-fifth camped near the turnpike, and on 
the eastern slope of a timbered hill. On the 25th the 



50 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. November, 1862. 

regiment went on picket, the outposts overlooking the 
valley of Mill creek. On the hills beyond the outposts the 
enemy could be distinctly seen. Bragg was concentrat- 
ing the rebel army at Murfreesboro, and had strong out- 
posts at Lavergne, his cavalry pickets being advanced to 
the south banks of Mill Creek valley. In the immediate 
presence of the enemy it was usual for one-third of the 
command detailed for picket duty to be kept on outpost 
guard, one-third kept awake and under arms at the 
reserve post, and one-third allowed to sleep beside the 
fires. The guards on outpost duty from Company G 
brought in two prisoners captured at a farm house near 
the line during the day. 

At Peoria the Eighty-fifth was supplied with large 
Sibley tents, five of which were allowed to each com- 
pany. The men had by this time learned to make 
themselves quite comfortable. As soon as the 
weather became cold enough to require fires various 
kinds of fireplaces were improvised, and in this way 
made the large tents very pleasant and cheerful. 
Bayonets stuck in the ground answered the purpose 
of candlesticks, the accoutrements were hung to 
the center pole, while around its base were grouped the 
shining Enfield rifles. The men told stories, sang songs, 
wrote letters, played cards or checkers according to incli- 
nation, until tattoo and taps, when the lights went out 
and the men went to bed. When lighted up of an even- 
ing the camp at Mill creek seen from a distance pre- 
sented a very pretty picture. The white tents, standing 
in regular rows, and each lit up within, appeared as snug 
and cozy as any rustic village scene. 

During the month of November the following 



November, 1862. ADVANCE TO NASHVILLE. 51 

changes took place among the company officers: On 
the 1 2th John W. Neal, second lieutenant of Company 
A, resigned and returned home, and Private Daniel 
Westfall was promoted to be his successor. On the 
same day First Lieutenant Lafayette Curless, of Com- 
pany G, resigned, and Second Lieutenant John M. Rob- 
ertson was promoted to be first lieutenant, and First 
Sergeant D. L. Musselman was chosen second lieuten- 
ant. Captain Nathaniel McClelland, First Lieutenant 
Luke Elliot, and Second Lieutenant William Cothern, 
all of Company H, resigned during the month, and Pri- 
vate David Maxwell was chosen captain, Private James 
T. McNeil, first lieutenant, and Private Washington M. 
Shields, second lieutenant of Company H. 

During the month of October and November death 
was busy in the ranks, his victims being found in the hos- 
pitals at Louisville, Harrodsburg, Danville and Bowling 
Green. Those dying were : John W. Bradburn, David 
A. Gordon, Franklin Gill more and Corporal Joseph F. 
Rodgers, of Company A; Henry Connor and Samuel 
Danawain, of Company B; William Clark, Ephraim 
Gates, John A. Gardner, George Gregor)'-, Daniel W. 
Hastings, Robert S. Moore, Joseph O'Donnell, Eben- 
ezer Paul, George W. Reynolds, Archibald J. Stubble- 
field and Corporal William C. Pelham, of Company C; 
Michael Ekis, William A. Mence and Christopher Shutt, 
of Company E ; Henry Henfling, F. S. Henfling, Henry 
Stalder, John Turner and Alexander Woodcock, of 
Company F; John Cunningham and William Cunning- 
ham, of Company H ; Wilson Hughes and Thomas J. 
Roves, of Company I ; First Sergeant Robert F. Rea- 
son, Corporal : William K. Rose, George H. Cottrell, 



52 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. December, 1862. 

Charles P. Riddle, Moses Shaw, Michael Speicht and 
Everard Tegard, of Company K. 



CHAPTER VI. 



Active preparations were making for an advance of 
the army and a battle that all felt must be fought for the 
possession of middle Tennessee. There were many skir- 
mishes and affairs of outposts which, in one instance at 
least, approached almost to the dignity of battle. Trie 
foragers had almost daily encounters with the enemy, 
but all these were only incidental to the concentration of 
two large armies, each of which was anxious to try the 
issue of battle once more. 

In the reorganization of the army which took place 
about the beginning of the month, the Thirty-sixth bri- 
gade was detached from Sheridan's division, and on the 
loth returned to Nashville for garrison duty. General 
Rosecrans had assigned Brigadier Robert B. Mitchell to 
the command of that important post, with the brigades 
of Brigadier James D. Morgan and Colonel Daniel Mc- 
Cook, to garrison the city. Of the departure of tfie bri- 
gade from his division, General Sheridan said:* "Col- 
onel Daniel McCook's brigade reluctantly joined the 
garrison at Nashville, everyone in it disappointed and 
disgusted that the circumstances at the time existing 
should necessitate their relegation to the harassing and 
tantalizing duty of protecting our depots and line of sup- 
ply." On arriving at Nashville the brigade went into 

* Vol. I, page 210, General Sheridan's Personal Memoirs. 



December, 1862. GARRISON AT NASHVILLE. 53 

camp not far from where the Vanderbilt University now 
stands and occupied that camp or one in the immediate 
vicinity during its term of service in the Nashville garri- 
son. 

The two brigades assigned to garrison Nashville in 
December, 1862, remained together until the close of the 
war, and were composed of the following commands : 

FIRST BRIGADE. 

General James D. Morgan Commanding. 
Tenth Illionis Colonel John Tillson. 
Sixteenth Illinois Colonel Robert F. Smith. 
Sixtieth Illinois Colonel Silas C. Toler. 
Tenth Michigan Lieutenant-Colonel C. J. Dickerson. 
Fourteenth Michigan Colonel Myndert W. Quackenbush. 

SECOND BRIGADE. 
Colonel Daniel McCook Commanding. 
Eighty-fifth Illinois Colonel Robert S. Moore. 
Eighty-sixth Illinois Lieutenant-Colonel D. W. Magee. 
One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Illinois Col. Oscar F. Harmon. 
Fifty-second Ohio Lieutenant-Colonel D. D. T. Cowen. 

ARTILLERY. 

Captain Charles M. Barnett Commanding. 
Battery I, Second Illinois. 

The First brigade had been on garrison duty at this 
place since the beginning of the Confederate invasion of 
Kentucky. It was strong in numbers, thoroughly 
drilled, and officers and men appeared the seasoned vet- 
eran soldiers that they were. 

The campaign from Louisville to Nashville had been 
necessarily severe on the new troops. The men had been 
given and set out on this their first campaign with the 
full allowance of equipment, consisting of all that mys- 
terious and curiously contrived outfit which was for a 
long time issued to the infantry an outfit that no old 



54 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. December, 1862. 

soldier would, and no new soldier could carry and wear 
without breaking- down. The result was that many 
broke down under the unreasonable burdens, while the 
bad water available along the line of march, owing to the 
prevailing drouth, produced much sickness, which had 
greatly thinned the ranks of the Second brigade. 

All through the winter the camp regulations were 
very strict, no one being allowed to pass the limits of the 
camp without written permission. Reveille sounded 
every morning at half-past five o'clock. Roll-caH fol- 
lowed immediately, every man being required to take his 
place in line in the company street, those failing to re- 
spond being placed on extra duty. Then followed prep- 
arations for breakfast, after which the grounds were 
thoroughly policed. At half-past eight came guard- 
mount, a part of the detail being assigned for picket duty 
and a part for camp guard. At half-past nine company 
drill began, lasting from one to two hours. In the early 
afternoon there was battalion drill, and at half-past four 
came dress parade. Before the command left Nashville, 
guard-mount, battalion drill and dress parade became 
very elaborate affairs. 

The first thing demanding the attention of the new 
commander on his arrival at Nashville was the supply of 
his army. The railroad from Louisville to Nashville had 
been badly damaged by rebel cavalry raids and at least 
one long tunnel blown up. But the railroad was re- 
paired and the line of supply reopened, and sufficient 
supplies accumulated to justify an advance against the 
enemy. New clothing was issued and the divisions left 
on guard at points on the railroad were drawn in and 
placed in camps south of the city. During the first two 



December, 1862. GARRISON AT NASHVILLE- 55 

months of his command General Rosecrans had been 
untiring in his efforts to assimilate with his army the 
new troops that had been attached, and had obtained 
authority from Washington to dismiss from the army all 
officers who failed from any cause to do their whole duty. 
Under this authority many officers were permitted to 
resign their resignation being endorsed at army head- 
quarters "for the good of the service." 

On the 26th General Rosecrans with 47,000 men of 
all arms began the advance against the enemy, who was 
known to be fully as strong in numbers and in a position 
of his own choice in front of Murfreesboro. The advance 
met with stubborn resistance, which steadily increased 
until the battle of Stone River had been fought and won 
and Murfreesboro wrested from the defeated foe. Early 
in the day the roar of artillery could be distinctly heard 
in the camp of the Eighty-fifth, and from that time there 
were rumors of disaster to the Union army. These 
rumors may have been inspired in part by the citizens of 
the city, who were notoriously disloyal, and in part by 
anxiety caused by the well-known fact that the rebel 
army was quite as strong in numbers as that of its assail- 
ant. These rumors and the impossibility of getting reli- 
able news from the front made the closing days of the 
year days of great anxiety for the "Government people" 
at Nashville. 

At noon on January 2nd, 1863, the Eighty-fifth, with 
the Fourteenth Michigan, and a brigade of Kentucky 
and Tennessee troops, moved out on the Murfreesboro 
pike. While waiting tHere we learned from soldiers re- 
turning from the front, who had been slightly wounded, 
that a bloody battle was still in progress, and that while 



56 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. January, 1863. 

it had opened on the morning of December 3ist, with a 
decided advantage to the enemy, who at that time as- 
sumed the offensive, that since noon of that day the bat- 
tle had been in favor of the Union arms. Moreover, we 
learned another thing, which at first was disagreeable 
news, but after a moment's reflection was accepted as an 
assurance that our army was not only still fighting, but 
proposed to continue the battle. This report was that 
a large train loaded with provisions and ammunition, 
which had been sent out from Nashville, had been at- 
tacked that morning at Lavergne by rebel cavalry, the 
guards dispersed, and the train captured and destroyed, 
and that the command was then waiting to guard an- 
other train to the front. This train was composed of 
three hundred and three heavily loaded wagons, contain- 
ing both provisions and ammunition. 

It was near sunset when the long train closed up on 
the pike, and the long night's march began. Near the 
asylum, some seven miles out, the advance had a sharp 
fight with the cavalry of the enemy, in which the enemy 
was routed, with the loss of several in killed and wounded 
and ten prisoners. Soon after dark, as if the elements 
were in league with the foe, rain began to pour down, 
which continued without ceasing throughout the weary 
night. At Lavergne the command passed the wreck of 
the train captured in the morning, the wagons still burn- 
ing. The turnpike was in fairly good condition and 
steadily, hour after hour, the men marched on through 
mud and rain and darkness, to the tedious rumble of the 
wagons. The tiresome monotony of the march was only 
broken when some driver felt called upon to exhort his 
mules with warlike language to greater effort. It was a 




P. L. DIKFFlfiNBACHKR, 

SL'KGECm, 



57 



Of H<f 

uf ILLINOIS 



January. 1863. GARRISON AT NASHVILLE. 59 

hideous night, but knowing that our comrades at the 
front were hungry and in need of both food and ammu- 
nition, the thought sustained the men, and after a night 
march of thirty-two miles, the train was delivered on the 
line of battle the next morning about the usual hour for 
breakfast. During the day the Eighty-fifth was moved 
to support threatened points in the line, and in the even- 
ing it supported the charging column that broke through 
the rebel right. The experience of the regiment through- 
out the day was a most trying one, as the fire to which it 
was subjected could not be returned, while shot and shell 
fell all around ; but, strangely enough, not a man of the 
regiment was killed, although a few were slightly 
wounded. 

That night the enemy retreated and the Eighty-fifth 
returned with the wagon train to Nashville. It is doubt- 
ful if any infantry regiment ever endured a longer march, 
without rest, than that of the Eighty-fifth to Murfrees- 
boro and return. In two nights, with a day of battle 
intervening, the regiment marched sixty-four miles. Nor 
was the length of the march all, for both ways it had to 
guard a train, which always adds to the discomforts of 
the march. 

The wounded at the battle of Stone River were: 
Robert Porter, of Company B ; George Cooper, of Com- 
pany G ; John E. Jackson and Lester N. Morris, of Com- 
pany K. 

The following were the changes among the regi- 
mental and company officers during the month of De- 
cember : Samuel F. Wright, regimental quartermaster, 
was dismissed from the service, and Haloway W. Light- 
cap, of Havana, Illinois, was commissioned to be his sue- 



60 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. January, 1863. 

cessor. Comfort H. Ramon, first lieutenant of Com- 
pany D, resigned, and Second Lieutenant Charles H. 
Chatfield, was promoted to first lieutenant, and Sergeant 
William W. Turner was promoted to be second lieuten- 
ant. Joseph M. Plunket, first lieutenant of Company E, 
resigned, and Sergeant Hugh A. Trent was promoted 
to be his successor. Captain William McClelland, of 
Company G, resigned and returned home, and Private 
Henry S. LaTourrette was commissioned to succeed 
him. 

Death came very near claiming a victim for each day 
in the month of December. Those dying were : Cor- 
poral George M. Welch, Edmond Cratty, Aurelius Lay- 
ton, Hiram Mason, Wesley J. Whittaker and Martin L. 
White, of Company A; Thomas E. Paul and Jasper N. 
Wilcox, of Company B ; Samuel Derwent, Hiram Ram- 
sey and William Smith, of Company C; Daniel Kicer, 
John W. Price, Merton Steley and Ira Welch, of Com- 
pany D ; David Armstrong and Wesley Frost, of Com- 
pany E; John E. Bolen, Daniel Hays and Samuel Still, 
of Company G; George W. Shaw, of Company H; 
Edward McCroskey and Jasper Wilcox, of Company I ; 
Corporal Thomas Jemmison, Romeo MaGill, David B. 
Colglazier, Abner D. Griffin and John Zanise, of Com- 
pany K. 



January, 1863. GARRISON AT NASHVILLE. 61 

CHAPTER VII. 



The battle of Stone River was not only a very bloody 
one, but exhibited in a marked degree the endurance of 
Rosecrans and his army. The two army commanders 
had conceived a precisely similar plan of battle, each in- 
tending to turn and crush the other's right flank. Bragg 
won in the outset by attacking an hour earlier than the 
time set by Rosecrans for his assault. At first the dash 
of the Southern troops was resistless, and before noon on 
the 3 ist, the right of the Union army had been doubled 
back on the center. But here, as usual, the tide was 
turned. The impetuous rush of the Southern soldier 
had spent itself, and the superior staying qualities of his 
Northern opponent began to tell. The enemy's success 
of the morning had not been gained without desperate 
fighting and heavy loss, and when the extent of the dis- 
aster to his right flank, with its crushing force was re- 
vealed to the commander of the Union army, he realized 
the full burden of his responsibility, and rising to tRe 
demands of the hour he was simply superb. Far the 
greater part of his troops had never seen Rosecrans 
under the enemy's fire before, and seeing him riding fear- 
lessly on the extreme front, cool and collected in the heat 
of battle, giving orders and encouraging his men, his 
presence was an inspiration. Personal bravery was sel- 
dom more strikingly displayed. And as Rosecrans 
dashed from one point to another, he massed his artillery 
where his quick eye saw the exposed points, and with 
manifest confidence in ultimate success, he showed that 
he had confidence in his men. Nobly they responded to 



62 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. January, 1863. 

the enthusiasm of their commander, and guided by his 
unconquered spirit, they plucked victory from impend- 
ing defeat. 

When General Bragg retired to Murfreesboro after 
his Kentucky campaign, he fully expected to remain 
there unmolested through the winter. No one dreamed 
that Rosecrans would attack the place before spring, and 
there was high festivity among the insurgents about 
Christmas time. One of the most dashing of the rebel 
cavalry leaders was married in Murfreesboro, the cere- 
mony being performed by Bishop and General L,eonidas 
Polk, the Confederate President being present as a 
guest. On this occasion the floor was carpeted with a 
United States flag, on which the company danced, to sig- 
nify that they had put its authority under their feet, but 
their revelry was rudely interrupted by the unexpected 
advance of the defenders of the National flag. 

In the campaign which ended in the occupation of 
Murfreesboro, the losses had been very heavy. General 
Bragg reported his losses at ten thousand in killed, 
wounded and captured, while General Rosecrans lost in 
killed 1,553, wounded 7,245 and 2,800 prisoners total 
11,598. Thus more than 25 per cent of the troops en- 
gaged on the Union side had been lost, nor was this all. 
Rosecrans had lost 28 pieces of artillery and a large por- 
tion of his wagon train had been captured and destroyed. 
But a victory had been gained by the Army of the Cum- 
berland, and in view of the early success of the enemy, it 
was a great victory. The final battle for Kentucky had 
been fought by the enemy and lost. The victory for the 
Union was a long stride toward the restoration of the 
status of the preceding summer in Middle Tennessee. 



January, 1863. GARRISON AT NASHVILLE. 63 

The railroad from Nashville to Murfreesboro had 
been broken, and until its track could be repaired and its 
bridges rebuilt, the army depended solely on wagon 
trains for supplies. The vastness of the daily demand, 
the reduced wagon train and the contingencies of bad 
weather and bad roads, made it imprudent to immedi- 
ately increase the force at the front, where the men were 
already on half rations and in need of clothing. Then, 
too, at that period of the war it was considered necessary, 
after each great battle, to spend some time in reorganiz- 
ing the army and in filling vacancies caused by loss in 
action. But it is a universal principle that there is no 
vacancy in an army while in the field. The instant a 
superior falls, the man next in rank to him takes his place 
without an order, without an assignment. The col- 
onel replaces the general, the line officer the field officer, 
the non-commissioned officer the commissioned officer. 
However, vacancies may be filled by orders from head- 
quarters, whatever form promotions may take, this is the 
invariable rule in action. As soon as a vacancy occurs, 
the man next in rank fills it the moment he knows it 
exists, and he continues to fill it till superior orders make 
a different arrangement. If, therefore, supplies could 
have been transported to the front sufficient for the de- 
mands of the army, together with the reinforcements 
then near at hand, the enemy might have been pursued 
within a few days after the battle ended. As it was, How- 
ever, the army remained at Murfreesboro until well into 
the next summer. 

The most elaborate fortifications were erected at 
Murfreesboro during the six months which followed the 
occupation of that place. Earthworks of the strongest 



64 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. January, 1863. 

type were thrown up on the high ground between the 
town and Stone's river, on each side of the railroad, and 
on the elevated ground north of the river. These heavy 
works were commanded in turn by a succession of forts, 
which offered vulnerable sides to the great central fort- 
ress. And in front of the camps of the army, lines of 
lighter works were thrown up. These defenses a year 
later furnished refuge for troops stationed for the protec- 
tion of communications and the depot of supplies at 
Murfreesboro, but no great army ever had an opportun- 
ity of defeating a greater army by their friendly aid. 

At this period of the war, the cavalry of the enemy 
outnumbered that arm of the service in the Army of the 
Cumberland at least two to one. These troopers were 
nearly all veterans in the service ; led with dash and skill ; 
accustomed to all the hardships and privations of their 
calling, and it was amazing with what rapidity they 
moved and the amount of fatigue they could undergo. 
Small bands of rebel cavalry continually raided the 
Louisville & Nashville railroad, burning bridges, de- 
stroying trestle work, water tanks and stations. In a 
report of the superintendent of that road for the year 
ending July ist, 1863, he states that during this time, 
"The road has been operated for its entire length only 
seven months and twelve days. All the bridges and 
trestle-work on the line, except the bridge over Barren 
river and four small bridges, were destroyed and rebuilt 
during the year." 

As the army was dependent upon this railroad for the 
bulk of its suppiles, it can readily be seen that the men 
must live on short rations, and endure the winter with a 
limited supply of clothing. Indeed, for the first few 



January, 1863. GARRISON AT NASHVILLE. 65 

weeks after the battle of Stone River, the troops were on 
half rations, and many of the articles constituting the 
"ration" were entirely dispensed with, leaving but three 
or four on the list. The surrounding country for miles 
was scoured for forage and provisions. Everything of 
that kind was gathered by foraging parties, strong 
enough in numbers to fight a battle if found necessary. 
In many instances these foraging parties left scarce 
enough for the actual necessities of the inhabitants. To 
such an extreme did this shortage of food extend that 
officers who had the means to purchase what they needed 
found potatoes and onions luxuries beyond their reach. 
And this deplorable condition was even worse with the 
troops on garrison duty at Nashville, as they could not 
reach the country where forage and vegetables could be 
obtained in any quantity, and the whole army was threat- 
ened with the scurvy. 

Among the smaller annoyances of soldier life on 
ground that had long been used for camps, was the un- 
ending struggle with that pestiferous little insect known 
to military men as the "greyback." Perhaps a few had 
made his acquaintance before, but his presence did not 
become general until the regiment located on the old 
camp grounds at Nashville. From that time forward, 
the command was abundantly supplied with this numer- 
ous, industrious and persistent camp follower. It was 
one of the serious annoyances of army life, and no 
amount of care on the part of the soldier could perma- 
nently rid him of the pest. Boiling the clothes and the 
most diligent and unwearied "skirmishing" on the part 
of the soldier only kept them in check, but did not exter- 
minate them. Two or three days and nights of active 



66 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. January, 1863. 

service, in which the clothing could not be removed, 
gave ample assurance that the pest was still there, ready 
for business at the old stand. Nor did these unwearied 
workers have any respect for rank, but subjected officers 
and men alike to his bite. All had to "skirmish," as the 
work of hunting through the seams of the soldiers' cloth- 
ing was called. 

A few months of army life bring out the characteris- 
tics of the men; not only their aptness to acquire the 
habits of a soldier, but their courage and their devotion 
to duty. The reputation of a man as a citizen at home 
did not always prove a suitable standard with which to 
measure him as a soldier. The brawling bully, the ter- 
ror of the community in which he lived the man who is 
always ready to fight his neighbor, is among the first to 
skulk from duty, the first to act the coward's part in bat- 
tle. The modest, timid boy, or bashful man, becomes 
the trusty soldier, who would rather suffer than neglect 
his duty or disobey an order, rather die than desert his 
post or leave the ranks while under fire. The morals of 
the reckless dare-devil improve under military discipline, 
while those of his comrades of more pious pretensions 
become greatly modified if not wholly wrecked. The 
man of great strength and giant proportions frequently 
falls a prey to disease, grows weak and helpless, and 
finally finds his way to the hospital and the grave, while 
the spindling boy is rounded into vigorous manhood, 
and seems to thrive on duty, danger and exposure. It is 
not mere animal courage that leads men up to the can- 
non's mouth, but moral and intellectual force devotion 
to duty, while fully realizing the danger. 

During the month the regiment was usually called at 



January, 1863. GARRISON AT NASHVILLE. 67 

four o'clock in the morning, as were all the troops at 
Nashville, and stood to arms until after daylight. The 
men were obliged to stand in line, or engaged in drill- 
ing as they preferred, for at least an hour before day- 
light every morning, and occasionally reveille sounded at 
three o'clock. This was a necessary precaution, ren- 
dered so by the activity of the enemy's cavalry, who were 
continually raiding the outposts, and boldly threatening 
an attack on the garrison. Much of the time there was 
snow on the ground, or it was covered with sleet. Gen- 
erally the weather was damp and cold, and the mornings 
almost always foggy, rendering the dull, daily routine of 
the garrison exceedingly unpleasant, and adding largely 
to the sick list. 

The great number of wounded in the battle of Stone 
River, and the ever-increasing number of sick taxed the 
medical department to its utmost capacity. Many of the 
public buildings in Nashville were turned into hospitals, 
while a large number of the slightly wounded were sent 
farther north. These Hospitals were models of neatness, 
and all that medical and surgical skill could do to relieve 
the suffering inmates, was promptly done. But sadly 
and slowly, to those yet helpless but recovering from 
wounds and disease, the days passed in a kind of dreary 
dream as they listened to the groans of the suffering men 
about them, the gasping breath or muttered prayer of 
the dying, the raving of fever's delirium, and the slow 
tramp of those who bore away the tenant of some now 
useless couch to a yet more narrow resting place. This 
was relieved at times by the happier sounds of chatting 
convalescents, and the pleasant speech of the faithful 
army nurse. But perhaps the saddest sights in all the 



68 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. January, 1863. 

hospital were those suffering from nostalgia, for, who 
can minister to the mind diseased? Many were the cases 
where the soldier's longing for home resulted in death, 
and it was surprising the number of fatalities there were 
attending that heart-breaking disease. 

On the nth the resignation of Captain Matthew 
Langston, of Company A, was accepted, and First Lieu- 
tenant Thomas R. Roberts was promoted to be captain. 
Second Lieutenant Daniel Westfall being appointed his 
successor, and Sergeant Daniel Havens was promoted 
second lieutenant. On the I3th the resignation of Sec- 
ond Lieutenant Richard W. Tenney, of Company F, 
was accepted, and First Sergeant Edwin D. Lampitt was 
promoted to the place made vacant. On the 2Oth Abra- 
ham Clarry, second lieutenant of Company E, resigned, 
and Sergeant Major Clark N. Andrus was appointed his 
successor. On the 24th James A. Mallory, second lieu- 
tenant of Company B, resigned, and First Sergeant Wil- 
liam Allen was commissioned his successor. But before 
he was mustered his commission was cancelled, and he 
was appointed sergeant major, and Sergeant George 
Myers was appointed and mustered second lieutenant. 

The following died during the month of January: 
Johnston Galbraith, Batholomew Hurley and James B. 
Thomas, of Company B ; Richard A. Lane, of Company 
C; Joseph Cady and William H. Ransom, of Company 
D; Samuel Havens, of Company E; John Maloney, of 
Company F; George W. Barnes, John B. Hagan and 
Josiah Kelley, of Company H; Thomas Burbige, John 
Cokley and Thomas Frazee, of Company I; Corporal 
John M. Durham, Benjamin H. Grover and John Rake- 
straw, of Company K. 



February, 1863. GARRISON AT NASHVILLE. 69 

On February 3rd, the enemy, under command of 
Generals Forrest and Wheeler, with a force of cavalry 
and mounted infantry of fully six thousand men. made a 
daring attack on the garrison at Fort Donelson, with a 
view of closing navigation on the Cumberland river, then 
but recently resumed. The Federal garrison consisted 
of nine companies of the Eighty-third Illinois, number- 
ing six hundred and fifty men, under command of Col- 
onel Harding, a single battery of artillery and a thirty- 
two-pounder rifled siege gun. The battle lasted from 
early in the afternoon until half-past eight o'clock in the 
evening, when the enemy retreated after being terribly 
punished. The attack was made and repeated, time and 
again, with utter recklessness, and the defense made 
by the little garrison stands among the most brilliant of 
the war. The garrison lost sixteen killed, sixty wounded 
and twenty prisoners, while the enemy lost two hundred 
killed, six hundred wounded and one hundred captured. 
Especially brilliant does this feat of the Federal arms 
appear when it is remembered that the attacking force 
outnumbered the garrison at least ten to one, and that 
we killed and wounded more of the enemy than the de- 
fenders numbered. 

The resumption of navigation on the Cumberland 
river opened up another line of supply, and steamboats 
loaded with military stores arrived almost daily. And, 
from this time on, the garrison at Nashville received full 
rations, but the single line of railroad from there to the 
front, even when assisted by the wagon train, was still 
unable to furnish the army with full supplies. Soon sup- 
plies began to accumulate, and large details were made 
from the troops on garrison duty to unload the trans- 



70 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. February, 1863. 

ports, which were usually convoyed by gunboats. After 
the warehouses had been filled with clothing, provisions 
and ammunition, the river front was piled mountain high 
with grain and forage, and it appeared to the tired men 
that General Rosecrans was laying up supplies for the 
world to come. 

Elaborate fortifications were constructed on the hills 
south of the city, one of which, Fort Negley, became a 
fortress of the strongest type. These defenses subse- 
quently had a prominent part in the battle of Nashville, 
in which a rebel army was practically destroyed within 
the sound of their guns. But this happened almost two 
years later, when few supposed that an experienced 
soldier of the Confederacy would stake his all upon a 
single hazard. 

On the 7th a large fleet of transports, convoyed by 
several gunboats, having on board eighteen regiments of 
infantry and four batteries of artillery, steamed up the 
Cumberland river and landed at Nashville. This fleet, 
as it came winding round the bends of the crooked river 
below the city, presented an imposing appearance. The 
boats were covered with troops, their arms and banners 
flashing in the sunlight, bands, playing, and the men full 
of enthusiasm. It was a picture of power and splendor 
and a revelation alike of the strength and determination 
of the Federal Government to resume its authority over 
its rebellious subjects. It was a stately, floating column, 
a triumphal procession. These troops with other regi- 
ments arriving a little later numbered about fourteen 
thousand men, and formed an army corps commanded 
by Major General Gordon Granger, afterward known as 
the reserve corps of the Army of the Cumberland. 



February, 1863. GARRISON AT NASHVILLE. 71 

During the entire time the brigade remained in Nash- 
ville, the activity of the guerillas was such that heavy 
details were required to guard all trains going to and 
coming from the front. Then, too, the turnpike had to 
be kept in repair, and large working parties were con- 
tinually at work in order to keep it passable for wagons. 
These working parties had also to be protected by troops 
detailed from the garrison. Trying and exasperating 
were these duties, and the men longed for relief that they 
might go to the front, where more congenial employ- 
ment might be found. 

On the 7th Captain Samuel Black, of Company C, 
resigned for disability, whereupon First Lieutenant 
George A. Blanchard was promoted to be captain, Sec- 
ond Lieutenant William W. Walker being commissioned 
first lieutenant and Sergeant James M. Hamilton second 
lieutenant. On the Qth Second Lieutenant Hugh Mc- 
Hugh, of Company I, resigned on account of failing 
health, and Sergeant Albert P. Britt, of Company E, 
Twenty-seventh Illinois Infantry, was commissioned to 
succeed him. On the i6th Second Lieutenant Wash- 
ington M. Shields, of Company H, resigned for disabil- 
ity, and Sergeant Andrew J. Horton was promoted to 
the vacancy. On the 23rd Adjutant John B. Wright 
resigned, and Second Lieutenant Clark N. Andrus, of 
Company E, was promoted to be adjutant. On the same 
date Sergeant Andrew J. Shackey was promoted to be 
second lieutenant of Company E. 

The deaths reported during the month of February 
were: James P. Arnett and Andrew Conley, of Com- 
pany A; James McKalip, of Company B; Martin L. 
Treadway, of Company D ; Leander Veileit, of Company 



72 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. March, 1863. 

E ; P. D. Cleavland and Our Mike,of Company F ; Alfred 
Smith, of Company G; Henry Bloomfield, of Company 
H ; Oliver Trapp, of Company I, and John M. Barr, of 
Company K. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



By the first of March, the threatening attitude of the 
enemy under General VanDorn, now commanding the 
left wing of Bragg's army, led to a concentration of Fed- 
eral troops at Franklin, about eighteen miles south of 
Nashville. On the 4th General Gilbert, in command at 
that point, ordered Colonel Coburn, with five regiments 
of infantry, four detachments of cavalry and a battery of 
artillery, the whole command nearly three thousand 
strong, to proceed south from Franklin with a wagon 
train of one hundred wagons. While this was seemingly 
a foraging expedition, it was really intended to recon- 
noitre the enemy's front toward Columbia. 

The enemy was encountered three miles south of 
Franklin, but after sharp fighting, Coburn drove him 
back to Spring Hill. That night Coburn advised Gil- 
bert that he was confronted by a largely superior force, 
and suggested that he be permitted to fall back. But 
Gilbert ordered him to continue the advance, and, pro- 
ceeding the next morning, the column found the enemy 
in overwhelming numbers. Soon the small Federal 
force found itself surrounded, and after exhausting his 
ammunition, Coburn and most of his command sur- 
rendered. The force of the enemy was fully fifteen thou- 
sand strong, and the surrender, after Colonel Coburn 



March ,1863. GARRISON AT NASHVILLE. 73 

had gone into the midst of the enemy, was doubtless a 
necessity. He went forward against his own convic- 
tions, under orders from his superior who was miles in 
the rear, and that officer must be held responsible for the 
disaster. This surrender did not, however, take place 
without sharp fighting, in which Coburn lost fifty killed, 
one hundred and fifty wounded, and a total of twenty- 
two hundred prisoners. 

On the 5th the south wind wafted the sound of dis- 
tant cannon to the camps about Nashville, and the omin- 
ous sounds sent the troops from their usual drill back to 
camp to await orders. While there were many rumors 
of disaster floating thrpugh the camp, it was not until 
evening that the extent of the defeat became known. 
But upon receiving definite information of the defeat and 
surrender, General Granger threw General Baird's bri- 
gade into Franklin by rail, and following in person, he 
assumed command of that important post. 

The whole country between Nashville and the army 
at the front was infested with guerrilla bands. These 
bands were largely, if not wholly, composed of citizens, 
who, during the day, while apparently attending to their 
usual avocations in a quiet and lawful manner, learned 
the position of troops, where a picket might be shot, or 
foragers or stragglers murdered with little risk to them- 
selves. When this information had been secured they 
quietly assembled at night in some out of the way place, 
from whence they sallied forth and accomplished their 
murderous task. This done, they quickly dispersed and 
resumed the role of virtuous, law-abiding citizens. They 
were usually led by some local celebrity, whose cunning 
and reck 'ess daring fitted him for leadership. 



74 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. March, 1863. 

Living on a large plantation not far from Lavergne, 
was one Dick McCann. This man was suspected of 
being the leader of a band that had been very active in 
destroying culverts, ditching trains, harrassing men of 
supposed loyalty, killing pickets and murdering foragers 
when in parties small enough to make it a safe pastime. 
One evening early in the month, soon after dark, the 
Eighty-fifth was ordered aboard a train of freight cars, 
and ran out opposite the McCann plantation. The night 
was very dark, the thunder roared, the lightning flashed 
and the rain poured down in torrents, as the regiment 
marched a mile or more west of the railroad to McCann's 
home. There was a large mansion, fine barns and many 
slave cabins. The men removed the family from the 
house, the slaves from the cabins, and turned the stock 
out of the barns. This done, the order was given to set 
fire to everything that would burn, and very soon every- 
thing that could shelter man or beast was consumed to 
ashes. After this had been accomplished, the regiment 
took up the line of march to the train. The small streams 
crossed in going out were now swelled by the deluge of 
rain, so as to be almost too deep to ford, but fortunately 
not entirely so, and the regiment returned to Nashville 
before daylight the next morning. This expedition had 
the best possible effect, and henceforth our pickets, train 
guards and foragers were not molested or murdered in 
that neighborhood. 

The Federal authorities were slow to learn how to 
stop the depredations and murders committed within the 
territory occupied by the Union armies. Such outrages 
were almost universally committed by men who were too 
cowardly to engage in open, manly warfare; men who, 




GILHEKT W. SOUTHWICK, 

ASSISTANT SCKGEOX. 



75 



March, 1863. GARRISON AT NASHVILLE. 77 

under the guise of peaceable citizens, demanded protec- 
tion for their property, and who became cruel assassins 
when it appeared perfectly safe to indulge their blood- 
thirsty desires. But within less than a year after the 
McCann neighborhood had been quieted, General 
Thomas found a way to deal with southern banditti that 
aroused the admiration of the writer and was at once so 
just and far reaching that a copy of the order is here set 
out in full.* It will be observed that it not only provided 
a pension for the families of the murdered soldiers, but it 
made it lawful for any one to kill the murderers on sight. 

GENERAL ORDERS, No. 6. 
Headquarters Army of the Cumberland, 

Chattanooga, Tenn., January 26th, 1864. 

It having been reported to these headquarters that between 
seven and eight o'clock, on the evening of the 23rd ult., within 
one and one-half miles of the village of Mulberry, Lincoln County, 
Tennessee, a wagon which had become detached from a foraging 
train belonging to the United States was attacked by guerrillas, 
and the officer in command of the foraging party, First Lieutenant 
Porter, Company A, Twenty-seventh Indiana Volunteers, the 
teamster, wagonmaster, and four other soldiers who had been sent 
to load the train (the latter four unarmed), were captured. They 
were immediately mounted and hurried off, the guerrillas avoiding 
the road, until their party halted about one o'clock in the morning, 
on the bank of the Elk river, where the rebels stated they were 
going into camp for the night. The hands of the prisoners were 
then tied behind them, and they were robbed of everything of 
value about their persons. They were next drawn up in line about 
five paces in front of their captors, and one of the latter, who 
acted as leader, commanded ready, and the whole party immedi- 
ately fired upon them. One of the prisoners was shot through the 
head and killed instantly, and three were wounded. Lieutenant 
Porter was not hit. He immediately ran, was followed and fired 
upon three times by one of the party, and, finding that he was 
about to be overtaken, threw himself over a precipice into the 



* Chaplain Van Home's Life of General Thomas, pages 214-216. 
6 



78 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. March, 1863. 

river, and, succeeding in getting his hands loose, swam to the 
opposite side, and, although pursued to that side and several times 
fired upon, he, after twenty-four hours of extraordinary exertion 
and great exposure, reached a house, whence he was taken to 
Tullahoma, where he now lies in a critical situation. The others, 
after being shot, were immediately thrown into the river. Thus 
the murder of the men Newell E. Orcutt, Ninth Independent 
Battery, Ohio Volunteer Artillery; John W. Drought, Company 
H, Twenty-second Wisconsin Volunteers; George W. Jacobs, Com- 
pany D, Twenty-second Wisconsin Volunteers was accomplished 
by shooting and drowning. The fourth, John W. Folley, Ninth 
Independent Battery Ohio Volunteer Artillery, is now lying in the 
hospital, having escaped by getting his hands free while in the 
water. 

For these atrocious, cold-blooded murders, equaling in savage 
ferocity and everything ever committed by the most barbarous 
tribes on the continent, committed by the rebel citizens of Ten- 
nessee, it is ordered that the property of all citizens living within 
a circuit of ten miles of the place where these men were captured 
be assessed each in his due proportion, according to his wealth, to 
make up the sum of thirty thousand dollars, to be divided among 
the families who were dependent upon the murdered men for their 
support. 

Ten thousand dollars to be paid to the widow of John W. 
Drought, of North Cape, Racine County, Wisconsin, for the sup- 
port of herself and two children. 

Ten thousand dollars to be paid to the widow of George W. 
Jacobs, of Delevan, Walworth County, Wisconsin, for the support 
of herself and one child. 

Ten thousand d'ollars to be divided between the aged mother 
and sister of Newell E. Orcutt, of Burton, Geauga County, Ohio. 

Should the persons assessed fail, within one week after notice 
has been served upon them, to pay in the amount of their tax in 
money, sufficient of their personal property shall be seized and 
sold at public sale to make up the amount. 

Major General H. W. Slocum, United States Volunteers, com- 
manding the Twelfth Army corps, is charged with the execution 
of this order. 

The men who committed these murders, if caught, will be sum- 
marily executed, and any persons executing them will be held 
guiltless, and will receive the protection of this army, and all per- 



March, 1863. GARRISON AT NASHVILLE. 79 

sons who are suspected of having aided, abetted or harbored these 
guerrillas will be immediately arrested and tried by military com- 
mission. By Command of 

MAJOR GENERAL THOMAS. 
WILLIAM D. WHIPPLE, Assistant Adjutant General. 

The full amount of the assessment levied 'by the fore- 
going order was promptly collected, and the entire thirty 
thousand dollars was distributed among the dependent 
relatives of the murdered soldiers. 

Desertions from the ranks and resignations tendered 
by commissioned officers under circumstances which 
rendered the latter method of quitting the service, little, 
if any less, dishonorable than the former, became alarm- 
ingly frequent in the early months of 1863. Prior to this 
time the copperheads of the North had confined their 
treasonable efforts to discouraging enlistments, and 
opposition, more or less violent, to all measures adopted 
by the Federal authorities for the preservation of the in- 
tegrity of the National Union. But now they entered into 
an organized conspiracy to aid and assist their allies in 
open rebellion by encouraging desertions and promoting 
resignations for the purpose of reducing the strength and 
destroying the efficiency of the armies in the field. To 
accomplish this purpose the methods they employed 
were as diabolic as their intentions were disloyal. The 
emancipation proclamation had gone into effect at the 
beginning of the year, and they eagerly seized the oppor- 
tunity they thought it afforded, to incite insubordination 
and dissatisfaction in the army. Officers and men re- 
ceived letters from pretended friends and neighbors, and 
unfortunately, in some instances from parents, urging 
the officers to resign and the men to desert and come 
home. To this effort of the individual copperhead the 



80 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. March, 1863. 

disloyal press of the North added its hearty and enthusi- 
astic support. The columns of the copperhead press 
teemed with articles denouncing the government, while 
expressing sympathy for the men who had volunteered 
from patriotic motives, now forced to engage in an 
unholy war for the abolition of slavery. 

The writer remembers seeing many of these letters, 
some of which he was allowed to read entire, in others a 
few sentences were shown, while the name of the sender 
was withheld. But the general trend of the argument 
used was the same in all tainted with treason, while ex- 
pressing boundless friendship for the soldier. These 
letters ran substantially as follows : "When you enlisted 
in defense of your country it was for the sole purpose of 
restoring the Union, and it was understood as a part of 
the contract that the war would be waged wholly for the 
attainment of that end. But by the use of despotic power 
and the adoption of unconstitutional means, the Presi- 
dent has changed all this, and you are now called upon 
to fight to free the negro, and perhaps sacrifice your life 
for the abolition of slavery. You are therefore no longer 
bound by the contract under which you entered the ser- 
vice, the government having violated both the letter and 
the spirit of its agreement," usually closing with, "Come 
home and we will protect you from arrest." This in 
brief was the argument used by the copperheads to in- 
duce young men to desert the service, abandon the flag 
they had sworn to defend and stain their names with a 
crime which no after life could wholly obliterate. To those 
who had no well-founded conviction upon the question 
of slavery, such advice, coming from pretended friends, 
could not fail to have the most unfortunate results. 



March. 1863. GARRISON AT NASHVILLE. 81 

While the army lay in winter quarters at Murfrees- 
boro so many officers tendered their resignations that it 
raised suspicion and seemed to point to a conspiracy to 
injure the service. On one occasion General Rosecrans 
received for approval the resignations of all the commis- 
sions held by both the field and line officers of a certain 
regiment. As these resignations came to headquarters 
in a single package, all bearing the same date, and all in 
the same hand writing except the signatures, the proof 
of conspiracy was conclusive and the disloyal purpose of 
these officers manifest. This afforded the commanding 
general an opportunity of giving the army a much 
needed object lesson by making an example of these 
worthless officers that would prevent others from com- 
bining to injure the service. Accordingly he had the 
regiment paraded, when an order was read reciting the 
circumstances surrounding the offense and ended by dis- 
missing the guilty officers from the service. Then, in 
the presence of the command, he caused the shoulder 
straps to be stripped from the shoulders and the buttons 
cut from the uniforms of the offending officers and then 
drummed them out of camp. This prompt and ener- 
getic action had an admirable effect, and resignations 
became less and less frequent. Indeed, after this an 
officer seldom tendered his resignation unless it was 
accompanied with a surgeon's certificate of disability. 

That the copperhead influence, so potent for evil, 
causing such heavy losses by desertion, was not confined 
to the Army of the Cumberland will fully appear by ref- 
erence to a special order of the war department, issued 
April ist, 1863. This order recites that a certain regi- 
ment in the Army of the Tennessee entered the service 



82 HISTORY OF THE 85xe ILLINOIS. March, 1863. 

with an aggregate of eight hundred and sixty-one, and 
in the short space of five months it had been reduced to 
one hundred and fifty-one, principally by desertion. The 
order then directs that the colonel, lieutenant colonel, 
quartermaster, chaplain, ten captains and seventeen lieu- 
tenants be dismissed, the remaining men to be formed 
into a detachment to be commanded by a lieutenant and 
the detachment be consolidated with some other regi- 
ment. 

Throughout the winter the rebel troopers under Gen- 
erals Forrest and Wheeler were exceedingly active in 
their efforts to surprise and capture detachments in local 
garrisons. On the twenty-fifth of March they made a 
dash to within nine miles of Nashville and captured at 
Brentwood, after a short engagement, about four hun- 
dred men of the Twenty-second Wisconsin, under com- 
mand of Lieutenant Colonel Bloodgood. They also 
captured, at a stockade south of Brentwood, a detach- 
ment of the Nineteenth Michigan. General Smith at 
the time was moving to the support of Colonel 
Bloodgood and pursued the enemy. He overtook a 
rebel regiment four miles south of Brentwood, inflicted 
severe loss upon it and recaptured considerable property, 
but was forced to retire before Forrest's whole command. 
For a time after this Brentwood was garrisoned by the 
Ninety-sixth Illinois infantry. 

On the 25th the resignation of Daniel Westfall, sec- 
ond lieutenant of Company A, was accepted, and Ser- 
geant John K. Milner was promoted to be second lieu- 
tenant. William W. Turner, second lieutenant of 
Company D, resigned on the 3Oth, but the company was 
too small to permit of a successor being appointed. 



March, 1863. BRENTWOOD, TENNESSEE. 83 

John P. Vandeusen, of Company A, died at Nash- 
ville on the 3rd. James Hanks and James Ross, of 
Company F, were killed by guerrillas on the 9th, but the 
writer has been unable to obtain particulars. Milton 
Stodard, of Company I, died at Nashville on the 23d, and 
Wesley C. Blakesley, of Company K, died at the same 
place on the 7th. 



CHAPTER IX. 



On the eighth of April Brigadier General James D. 
Morgan received orders to take the First and Second bri- 
gades from the garrison at Nashville and relieve the 
troops then stationed at Brentwood. All soldiers not 
able to march were sent to the hospitals in the city, and 
the usual preparations made for breaking camp. 
Promptly the command took up the line of march, arriv- 
ing at Brentwood about five o'clock in the afternoon, 
when the troops relieved returned to Franklin. The 
Sixth Kentucky cavalry, under command of Colonel 
Louis D. Watkins, remained at Brentwood, and was 
attached to the command of General Morgan for the 
time being. The Eighty-fifth was assigned a very pleas- 
ant camp near the railroad station, the Eighty-sixth Illi- 
nois occupied the earthworks on a near-by hill, while the 
other regiments of the command occupied camps con- 
venient for the defense of the place. 

Glad to escape from the exacting duties of garrison 
life in the city, the men quickly made themselves familiar 
with the resources of the surrounding country, and have 
ever looked back upon their stay among the Brentwood 



84 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. April, 1863 

hills with pleasure. Between the high hills were fertile 
valleys which had not as yet greatly suffered from the 
ravages of war. And although they had to be a little 
careful, owing to the active guerrrilla bands scattered 
through the hills, the men made frequent excursions in 
the country, from which they returned with potatoes, 
chickens, fresh pork and cornmeal. No doubt more 
than one citizen was surprised on attempting to milk his 
cows in the morning to find that he had been anticipated 
by enterprising Yankees. 

About noon on Friday, the roth, heavy firing was 
heard in the direction of Franklin, and in a moment all 
was excitement at the camp. Without delay a line of 
battle was formed and the entire command was ready 
for action. But the force at Franklin was sufficient to 
repulse the enemy, who made a very determined attack 
with a large force after two hours fighting. The enemy's 
cavalry charged through the line of outposts and dashed 
into the town, which lies on the south side of the river. 
Some of the most reckless of his troopers rode almost to 
the bridge across the Harpeth, just beyond which was a 
force of over seven thousand Federals, supported by the 
artillery in Fort Granger. When he retired, the enemy 
left nineteen dead in the town and quite a number of 
wounded. It is difficult to see just why this attack was 
made and so suddenly abandoned. But many queer 
manoeuvres were made by the enemy and some ex- 
traordinary events occurred in and near Franklin, while 
the Eighty-fifth lay at Brentwood. 

Major Earl Van Dorn resigned his commission in the 
Second United States cavalry on January 3ist, 1861. 
Major Van Dorn had been educated at West Point at the 



April, 1863. BRENTWOOD, TENNESSEE. 85 

expense of the United States. On June loth, of the 
same year, William O. Williams, a first lieutenant in the 
regiment of which Van Dorn was major, resigned, and 
both at once engaged in open Rebellion. They had sworn 
to defend the flag and support the constitution of the 
Federal Union, nevertheless they immediately engaged 
in a wicked conspiracy to disgrace the one and subvert 
and overthrow the ether. But an avenging hand was 
pursuing them, and both met a well-deserved but tragic 
fate. One fell by the hand of a comrade whose brain had 
been crazed when he learned that his young wife had 
been defiled by a brother officer; the other died at the 
end of a rope after having been duly convicted as a spy. 

Van Dorn was made a lieutenant-general in the rebel 
army, and after being defeated at Corinth and luka, in 
Mississippi, he was sent with his command to reinforce 
the army under General Bragg in Tennessee. He was 
placed in command of the left wing of Bragg' s army, and 
for a time in the spring of 1863, himself and staff were at 
Spring Hill, about midway between Franklin and Co- 
lumbia. While at Spring Hill, Van Dorn enjoyed the 

hospitality of one Dr. V , whose two sons were in the 

rebel army. His only daughter was living at home, while 
her husband, Dr. Peters, was a surgeon in the Confeder- 
ate army. Soon after the enemy retreated from Spring 
Hill, Dr. Peters returned home, to find that while a guest 
at her father's house, Van Dorn had dishonored his 
young wife. When he learned of the scandal, Dr. Peters 
mounted his horse and rode over to Columbia, handed 
the reins to an orderly at headquarters, entered the gen- 
eral's tent and shot and instantly killed Van Dorn. Then 
before those at headquarters recovered from their sur- 



86 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. April, 1863. 

prise. Peters threw himself into his saddle and rode into 
the Union lines, where he told what he had done, and 
claimed the protection of the flag he had insulted the 
country he had tried to overthrow. 

Late one afternoon two men rode into the Union 
camp at Franklin, Tennessee, and proceeded to the head- 
quarters of Colonel J. P. Baird, of the Eighty-fifth Indi- 
ana infantry, then commanding the post. To him they 
introduced themselves as Colonel Orton and Major Dun- 
lap, inspector-generals of the United States army. They 
presented an order from the war department at Wash- 
ington, directing Colonel Orton, in company with Major 
Dunlap, to proceed to make a careful inspection of the 
outposts and defenses of the Union army in Tennessee. 
They also presented an order from General Rosecrans, 
then at Murfreesboro, to all officers commanding out- 
posts and detachments to afford every facility possible to 
enable these officers to promptly perform their duties. 
The papers appeared to be genuine, and the soldierly 
bearing and fine address of the men won the entire con- 
fidence of Colonel Baird. He accompanied them in their 
examination of the defenses, and was complimented by 
them upon the splendid sanitary condition of the camp. 
On returning to headquarters he gave them a substan- 
tial supper, and upon the request of Colonel Orton, he 
loaned the men fifty dollars. In the dusk of the evening 
the men, after stating that they were going to Nashville, 
started in that direction. But fortunately Colonel Wat- 
kins, of the Sixth Kentucky cavalry, was at headquarters 
when the men rode away, and suspecting that they might 
not be what they appeared, he concluded to satisfy him- 
self as to their real character, and calling his orderly to 



April, 1863, BRENTWOOD, TENNESSEE. 87 

follow, Watkins was off in hot pursuit. It was getting 
dark and there was no time to call a guard, so Watkins 
instructed his orderly to unsling his carbine and carry it. 
at a ready, and when they overtook the men, if he saw 
any suspicious motions on the part of either to fire on 
them without waiting for orders. The men were quickly 
overtaken and informed that Colonel Baird wanted them 
to return to headquarters, as he desired to make some 
further inquiries. After expressing surprise at the re- 
quest, and offering some remonstrance on account of the 
lateness of the hour, and the distance they had to travel, 
they consented to return. Colonel Watkins led them 
to his own tent, where he placed them under guard, and 
relieved them of their side arms. They complained of 
this as an indignity offered, but when the major's sword 
was drawn from the scabbard these words were found on 
its blade: "Lieut. W. G. Peter, C. S. A." Upon a 
further search many papers were discovered on their per- 
sons, which showed that they were rebel spies, and they 
then confessed the whole matter. The facts were tele- 
graphed to General Rosecrans, who ordered that the 
prisoners be tried by a drum-head court-martial, and if 
found guilty, that they be hanged immediately. 

The court convened, and before daylight the case 
had been decided, and the prisoners informed that they 
must prepare for immediate death by hanging. When 
they learned that they were to be hanged, they requested 
that the sentence be commuted to being shot to death 
with musketry, but this request could not be granted. 
A chaplain of the command visited the condemned men, 
and at their request administered the sacrament to them. 
A scaffold was erected in a public place near the depot, 



HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. April, 1863. 

with two ropes hanging from the beam. At nine o'clock 
in the morning, the garrison was paraded around the 
scaffold, near which lay two coarse board coffins. 
Twenty minutes later the guards escorted the prisoners 
within the hollow square of glistening steel, and with 
firm and steady step they mounted the fatal cart, appar- 
ently unmindful of the awful fate awaiting them. Hand- 
kerchiefs were tied over their faces and the rope adjusted 
to their necks. They requested the privilege of bidding- 
each other farewell, which was promptly granted, and 
they tenderly and lovingly embraced each other. Then 
the cart moved from under them and they hung in the 
air. When life was pronounced extinct by the attending 
surgeon they were placed in the rude coffins in their full 
dress, and buried in one grave, companions in life and 
crime, and in death they were not separated. 

The elder and leader of these reckless men turned out 
to be First Lieutenant William O. Williams, who re- 
signed from the Second United States cavalry at the be- 
ginning of the rebellion. Later he seemed to have been 
inspector-general on the staff of General Bragg, but 
more recently he had been in command of a brigade of 
Confederate cavalry under his old-time comrade Van 
Dorn. The other victim of this mad-cap adventure was 
Walter G. Peter, who was a tall, handsome young man, 
about twenty-five years old, but of whom nothing further 
could be learned. Both were men of captivating address, 
finely educated and of rare intelligence, but they must 
have been sadly lacking in judgment to engage in such 
reckless folly as that which cost their lives. History fails 
to furnish a parallel in the character and standing of the 
parties, the recklessness of the undertaking, and the 



April. 1863. BRENTWOOD, TENNESSEE. 89 

swiftness with which discovery and punishment were 
visited upon them. 

Monday, the 27th, the entire command was called 
out at three o'clock in the morning, and after marching 
some two miles or more to the south, remained in line of 
battle and under arms until after daylight. In the mean- 
time, the Sixth Kentucky cavalry, under Colonel Wat- 
kins, who was out on a surprise party, descended upon a 
rebel camp in the Tank hills, and captured one hundred 
and twenty-eight prisoners, three hundred horses and 
mules, eight wagons, and a complete outfit for a large 
force. The expedition was well planned, and brilliantly 
executed, reflecting great credit on the Kentuckians and 
their dashing commander. 

Thursday, the 3Oth, was set apart by President Lin- 
coln as a day of fasting and prayer, and the commanding 
general issued an order that the day be observed by ap- 
propriate religious service. Consequently there was no 
drill or dress parade, but in the morning there was mus- 
ter and inspection, and the chaplain preached a sermon in 
the afternoon. The chaplain of the Eighty-fifth was 
greatly respected even loved by the men. He mainly 
devoted his time to works which helped to promote their 
comfort and welfare, and thus endeared himself to the 
soldiers. 

The men were not in the service on account of the 
wages, nevertheless they watched eagerly for pay-day, 
and wanted a settlement with the United States as soon 
as possible after their money became due. That was one 
of the links that kept the soldier in touch with his family 
and home. Early in the month of May, the troops at 
Brentwood received four months' pay, and the long- 



90 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. May , 1863. 

delayed remittances could be made to those at home, 
where the money would prove most welcome, although 
the amount was small. At this time the express com- 
panies would not guarantee safe delivery on account of 
the risk on part of the route northward, but officers who 
had resigned or soldiers who had been discharged for dis- 
ability, lent their kindly offices in this behalf, and so far 
as the writer knows no one betrayed the trust reposed in 
them. Then there were many who liked to fold up the 
crisp new bills and put them in a letter and send it to the 
woman who always wrote so cheerfully, regardless of the 
suspense that made even her dreams a source of agony. 
Some had arrearages to settle with the sutler for goods 
had and consumed, others found a charge for extra cloth- 
ing or lost accoutrements standing against their names 
on the pay-roll, which reduced the amount coming to 
them, and a few retained a. little change to invest in 
chuck-a-luck and draw-poker, but almost everyone sent 
part of his pay to friends at home. 

The Eighty-fifth remained at Brentwood with the 
other regiments of the brigade until the first of June, and 
as no important event occurred beyond the ordinary rou- 
tine of camp duty, an account of the daily doings of the 
command would prove rather monotonous. About the 
middle of the month General Morgan took the First bri- 
gade and returned to Nashville, which increased the daily 
detail for picket duty. But for much the greater part of 
the time the weather was all that could be desired, and 
the stay at Brentwood was about as near ideal soldiering 
as the regiment was ever destined to see. 

Here, as elsewhere, the men in the ranks were much 
given to speculation concerning future movements of the 



May, 1863. BRENTWOOD, TENNESSEE. 91 

army. They could not know what unseen complications 
their commander had to deal with, nor what sinister in- 
fluences sometimes frustrated the best laid plans. But 
frequently they anticipated important events, with as 
much accuracy as if they had been fully advised. They 
kept themselves thoroughly posted on the movements of 
all the armies of the Union. They knew that Grant was 
smashing things in the rear of the enemy at Vicksburg, 
and never doubted his entire success. They also knew 
of the second invasion of the North by General Lee, but 
had no fear but what he would be overthrown when the 
hour of battle should come. 

On Wednesday, May 6th, Major Samuel P. Cum- 
mings resigned and returned home, whereupon Captain 
Robert G. Rider, of Company K, was promoted to be 
major; First Lieutenant Samuel Yates was made captain 
of Company K ; Second Lieutenant Isaac C. Short being 
promoted first lieutenant, and Private Eli F. Niekirk was 
promoted to second lieutenant. 

On the Qth, Captain William H. Marble, of Company 
I, resigned, First Lieutenant David M. Holstead being- 
made captain ; Second Lieutenant Albert P. Britt was 
promoted to first lieutenant, and First Sergeant Albert 
O. Collins promoted to be second lieutenant. On the 
1 4th, Captain David Maxwell, of Company H, resigned 
and returned home, whereupon First Lieutenant James 
T. McNeil was promoted to be captain, and First Ser- 
geant Tra A. Mardis was made first lieutenant. 

The service at Brentwood improved the health of the 
command, and the death rate decreased. Those dying 
during the months of April and May were: John S. 
Gardner, George Hcwell and Idea F. Peters, of Com- 



92 HISTORY OF THE 85?H ILLINOIS. June, 1863. 

pany A ; Corporal Almon Brooks, of Company C ; Isaac 
Stilts, of Company D; William Deford, of Company F; 
Michael Fawcette and Franklin Kerns, of Company G, 
all of whom died in the hospital at Nashville, Tennessee. 



Wednesday, June 3rd, the defenses at Brentwood 
were demolished, and the brigade returned to Nashville 
that evening. The Eighty-fifth occupied its former 
camp ground, which the men thoroughly cleaned, but 
they missed the shade the trees at Brentwood afforded, 
and the pure spring water found there so abundant and 
easy of access. Company and battalion drill was had 
each day, and the brigade was again called upon to fur- 
nish heavy details for train guard. No train was per- 
mitted to leave for the front at Murfreesboro without at 
least one car filled with soldiers ready for instant battle. 
Every possible effort was being put forth to accumulate 
sufficient supplies of forage, provisions and ammunition 
at the front to enable the army to advance against tht 
enemy. New clothing was issued to the men at Mur- 
freesboro, the excess of baggage was stored or destroyed, 
and the allowance of tents and camp equipment greatly 
reduced in expectation of a vigorous campaign. 

June 1 4th, Colonel Robert S. Moore resigned his 
commission on account of failing health, whereupon 
Lieutenant Colonel Caleb J. Dilworth was promoted to 
be colonel, Surgeon James P. Walker being made lieu- 
tenant colonel, and Assistant Surgeon Philip L. Dieffen- 
bacher surgeon. 

On the 23rd, General Rosecrans moved his army 
against the enemy, and in a campaign of nine days, con- 
ducted in a series of rain storms the like of which had not 




CLAKIC X. ANJXRU.S, 

AD.TUTAN'T. 



ftM V or ILLINOIS 



July, 1863. RETURN TO NASHVILLE. 95 

before occurred in Tennessee at that season of the year, 
drove General Bragg and his army beyond the Cumber- 
land mountains. Through this brief but brilliant cam- 
paign, Middle Tennessee was again placed in possession 
of the Army of the Cumberland. General Rosecrans 
lost in killed, wounded and captured five hundred and 
eighty men. Bragg's loss in killed and wounded was 
not ascertained, but he left behind him as prisoners six- 
teen hundred and thirty-four men, eleven pieces of artil- 
lery, and a large amount of stores and supplies. Bragg's 
army arrived in Chattanooga during the first week in 
July, where he established headquarters, and at once 
began to fortify his position, and so that ,point became 
the objective of the next campaign. 

On Monday, June 3Oth, the brigade moved out to 
Murfreesboro, Colonel Daniel McCook having been as- 
signed to the command of that important point. Major 
Robert G. Rider, of the Eighty-fifth, was assigned to 
duty as provost marshal, and the brigade at once took up 
the routine of garrison life. The town was, or rather 
had been, a wealthy place, and was surrounded by a rich 
agricultural country, in which the planters were as 
wealthy as they were disloyal. Their former slaves were 
enlisting in the Union army in large numbers, and col- 
ored regiments were being rapidly organized. Ready 
imitators, these freedmen were quick to learn military 
drill, and in a very short time excelled in the manual of 
arms. 

Friday, July iQth, the brigade was relieved from duty 
at Murfreesboro and returned to Nashville. The army 
at the front was accumulating supplies at Winchester, 
and soon after this the railroad was repaired and trains 

7 



96 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. July, 1863. 

ran to Stevenson, Alabama. To escape the tedious rou- 
tine of camp duty, enough men usually volunteered to 
supply train guards the men considering that a visit to 
the front, where all would like to be, more than repaid 
the toil and risk entailed. At this period General Mor- 
gan established brigade and division drills, and the after- 
noon of each day was devoted to manouevres of the 
entire command. The intense heat of mid-summer was 
at times rather trying, but these drills added much to the 
efficiency of the command in the part it was soon called 
upon to act.* 

The quartermaster, Holaway W. Lightcap, resigned 
on July 3Oth, but his successor was not appointed until 
some six months later. 

There were but two deaths in the months of June and 
July, and both occurred in the hospital at Nashville. 
George Hodge, of Company F, died on June I7th, and 
Gibson Bass, of Company A, on July 3rd. 

* The following spirited description of one of our division drills 
is copied, with a few verbal changes, from the Rev. Nixon B. 
Stewart's History of the Fifty-second Ohio: "The polished steel 
glitter's and the flags dance in the sunlight, as the various regi- 
ments form a dark blue line. Aids gallop out from the group 
around the general, down the line and back to position again. 
The bugles blow and the stately line is a column. It was a line 
of battle, it is an order of march. The bugles blow on, and the 
field is checkered with squads, like a chess-board for a mighty 
game. They are as true as a die, as exact as a problem in Euclid. 
They wheel again, enclosing a square with steel-crowned walls. 
In equal spaces, within the walls stands Barnett's battery. How 
it got there no one can tell. In an instant there is a glitter and a 
flash. The cavalry is upon them. The battery disappears, the 
lines of the square wheel into column, the column into lines, and 
the battalions march away. In all there is no shout, no oath, no 
loud command. General Morgan is an artist in handling troops, 
and as he sits away yonder on his horse, he molds and fashions 
the thousands of his command at will." 



August, 1863. THE MARCH TO CHATTANOOGA. 97 

CHAPTER X. 



From the first of July to the middle of August the 
Army of the Cumberland occupied a line from Win- 
chester to McMinnville, in readiness to cross the Cum- 
berland mountains and seize Chattanooga as soon as suf- 
ficient supplies could be secured. To the accomplish- 
ment of this purpose all energies were directed, and even 
the ripening corn in the Tennessee valley was relied upon 
to furnish a part of the forage necessary for the animals. 
In view of the strength of Chattanooga against direct 
attack General Rosecrans resorted again to a flank move- 
ment to dislodge his antagonist, directing his first ma- 
noeuvres so as to mislead the enemy with regard to his 
ultimate design. The crossing of the mountain range 
was begun on the i6th, and by the evening of the 2Oth. 
the advance of the Federal army arrived at Bridgeport, 
the point selected for crossing the Tennessee river. 
Bragg was now forced to concentrate his entire com- 
mand south of the Tennessee, and the withdrawal of his 
raiding troopers permitted Rosecrans to reduce the gar- 
risons at various points in his rear, and thus reinforce 
his army at the front. 

Thursday morning, August 2Oth, the Eighty-fifth 
received orders to turn over to the quartermaster the 
large Sibley tents drawn at Peoria, and be ready to march 
at a moment's notice. In a remarkably short time the 
canvas village disappeared, and the tents were rolled up 
and placed in army wagons waiting to haul them to stor- 
age warehouses in the city. Many of the camp conven- 
iences were destroyed, and the command was soon 



98 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. August, 1863. 

stripped to light marching order. The Second brigade, 
under command of Colonel McCook, moved out on the 
Franklin pike about noon, and camped that night at 
Brentwood. 

The next day the command marched to Franklin, 
and the Eighty-fifth camped near the railway bridge, 
remaining there several days. General Morgan's orders 
directed him, while moving to the front by easy marches, 
to protect the mechanics and laborers while repairing 
the railroad from Nashville to Stevenson, thereby open- 
ing up another line of supplies, a matter of vital impor- 
tance to the army now nearing Chattanooga. When the 
brigade left Franklin, the Eighty-sixth Illinois was de- 
tached and marched throughout the journey some three 
or four days in the rear of the main column. 

The distance from Nashville to Chattanooga by the 
route over which the Eighty-fifth marched was two hun- 
dred miles. Of the towns along the route Franklin, 
Columbia and Pulaski in Tennessee, and Athens and 
Huntsville in Alabama, were the most important. Co- 
lumbia was a fine old town, the early home of James K. 
Polk, the eleventh President of the United States. Sit- 
uated on high ground in a deep bend of Duck river, it 
was supplied with water from that stream in a curious 
and primitive manner. A huge water wheel was thrust 
out into the river, which the rapid current caused to re- 
volve, and a long rod attached to a crank on the shaft of 
this wheel, supplied the motive power to the town pump. 

The First brigade, which had been stationed some 
forty miles south of Murfreesboro for a month or more, 
moved to Columbia on August 2Oth, and upon its arrival 
the Second brigade moved on after a stay of two days at 



September, 1863. THE MARCH TO CHATTANOOGA. 99 

Columbia, and the next evening reached Pulaski. This 
town won much unenviable notoriety soon after the war 
closed. Here the Ku-Klux-Klan was organized ; had a 
rapid growth, and became a menace to law and order. It 
spread rapidly over the South, and carried consternation 
and desolation wherever x its oath-bound assassins rode. 
The "Invisible Empire," as this society of cut-throats 
was called, could have existed in no civilized country in 
the world, unless encouraged by lawless sentiment and a 
lax administration of justice. 

From Pulaski the brigade moved steadily on through 
Athens, Huntsville and Stevenson, crossing the Tennes- 
see river at Bridgeport on the zoth. That evening the 
Eighty-fifth camped at Shellmound, and all had an op- 
portunity of visiting the famous Nick-a-Jack cave, from 
whose cavernous depths cooling waters issued from a 
mammoth spring. This cave contained an extensive 
saltpetre deposit, the most extensive within the borders 
of the ever narrowing limits of the Confederacy, and 
near by were extensive saltpetre works, which had fur- 
nished the insurgents large quantities of material for 
gunpowder. 

On Sunday afternoon, September I3th, the Eighty- 
fifth crossed the nose of Lookout mountain. For three 
days past urgent orders had kept the toiling column 
moving on, up and down, over the hills and through the 
narrow valleys, while the scenery increased in grandeur. 
Sand and Lookout mountains were bald peaks, that 
appeared near at hand, while the weary soldiers marched 
many miles before they reached the rugged base of the 
latter. But when the highest point of the wagon road 
was reached, the scene which there opened out was one 



100 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. September, 1863. 

of magnificence and beauty. Chattanooga appeared in 
the distance, while the placid Tennessee seemed like a 
silver ribbon winding in and out among the rugged, tim- 
bered hills which lined its banks. To the left were huge 
ledges of rock that fell almost perpendicular to the river. 
To the right loomed up the palisades, crowned by the 
crest of that soon to be historic mountain. 

The brigade spent a restful day at Chattanooga, and 
on the morning of the I5th it moved four miles south to 
Rossville. At this point a gap, through which the road 
from Chattanooga to Lafayette runs, cuts Mission Ridge 
almost to its base. Here the Eighty-sixth Illinois re- 
joined the brigade on the next day. General Morgan, 
commanding the Second division, having been assigned 
to the command of the post at Bridgeport, with the First 
brigade as garrison, the Second brigade was here at- 
tached for the time being to the First division, under 
command of General James B. Steedman. This arrange- 
ment continued until the ninth of October, when a gen- 
eral reorganization of the Army of the Cumberland took 
place. 

By a series of brilliant manoeuvres General Rosecrans 
had driven the rebel army under General Bragg over the 
Cumberland mountains and across the Tennessee river. 
Then, by a skillful flank movement, full of audacity, gen- 
ius and daring, he turned the Confederates out of Chat- 
tanooga. Thus, without a battle or heavy skirmish, the 
"Gateway to Georgia," and the southern entrance to 
East Tennessee, fell into his hands as the result of his 
masterly strategy. But brilliant campaigns without bat- 
tles do not destroy an army and a campaign like that 
from Tullahoma to Chattanooga always means a battle 



September, 1863. BATTLE OF CHICKAMAUGA. 101 

at some other point. It was therefore evident to the 
officers and men of both armies that they were soon to 
meet in deadly strife, but where and when was a question 
none could answer. Chattanooga, with its railroads and 
its river, was a prize so great and a position so vital as to 
render it certain that the Confederate government would 
put forth every possible effort to retake it, and that a like 
effort should be made by the Federal government to 
retain a position of such vast importance. The rebel 
government was the first to act with the promptness, 
energy and decision demanded by the situation, and 
Longstreet's corps, the flower of the Army of Northern 
Virginia, composed of three full divisions, was hurried 
by rail to Bragg's assistance. Nor were Longstreet's 
troops the only reinforcements two divisions from 
Mississippi and General Buckner's command from East 
Tennessee, arrived in time for the coming battle. 

To meet this largely reinforced army now confront- 
ing him, General Rosecrans could only rely upon troops 
drawn from garrisons in his rear, and these were now 
concentrated at Rossville under the command of Gen- 
eral Gordon Granger, and were composed of the follow- 
ing commands : The First brigade of the First division, 
under command of General Walter C. Whittaker; the 
Second brigade of the same division, under command of 
Colonel J. G. Mitchell, both of which had marched from 
the vicinity of Wartrace and Shelbyville; the Twenty- 
second Michigan of the First brigade of the Second 
division of the same corps, and the Second brigade of 
the same division, to which brigade the Eighty-fifth 
belonged, under command of Colonel Daniel McCook, 
both of which had marched from Nashville. This was a 



102 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. September, 1863. 

paltry number, a beggarly reinforcement compared with 
the scores of regiments that had been sent at the call of 
the rebel commander. 

A very exciting event occurred while the troops lay 
resting at Rossville. In the face of stringent orders to 
the contrary, some of the men would evade the guards 
and go foraging. Some men were caught returning 
from a trip of this kind, and General Granger, the com- 
mander of the corps, in order to impress the command 
with a due regard for his authority, caused several men 
to be tied up by the thumbs near his headquarters. In- 
stantl) 7 the camp was filled with indignation at the need- 
lessly cruel treatment of the men. Officers demanded 
the release of the men, and thousands of soldiers gath- 
ered near by. General Granger was profane as usual, 
and made terrible threats, but the murmur of suppressed 
excitement that ran through the ever-increasing crowd 
indicated that this was to be a test case. The men had 
determined that intelligent volunteers should not be thus 
cruelly treated in an active campaign in the enemy's 
country and on the eve of battle. But not until a bat- 
tery was trained upon headquarters, and a given number 
of minutes allowed for the release of the men, did the 
general yield. Then he gave the order for their release, 
and slunk away into his tent, cursing everybody. He 
did well to surrender ; had he not heeded the demands of 
the outraged soldiers there would have been a tragedy. 
This was the only approach to a mutiny the writer ever 
witnessed. 

Friday, the i8th, the Second brigade was ordered to 
move out to Reed's bridge, at a crossing of the Chicka- 
matiga, on the Ringgold road, but events transpired 



September, 1863. BATTLE OF CHICKAMAUGA. 103 

which prevented the command from reaching- that point. 
Arriving within a mile of the bridge at dark, the skir- 
mishers ran into McNair's rebel brigade and captured 
twenty-two prisoners.* As the purpose of the expedition 
was to reconnoitre and not to fight, a line of battle was 
quickly formed, and the metf rested on their arms, with- 
out fire for the night. During the evening conversation 
with the prisoners developed the fact that Bragg had 
been largely reinforced from Mississippi, from whence 
they had recently come. The prisoners appeared greatly 
elated at the prospect of battle which they claimed would 
take place the next day. In the course of the conversa- 
tion, one of the prisoners stated that "Lee had sent 
Longstreet's corps out west to show Bragg' s army how 
to fight," ending his statement with, "You Yanks will 
find fighting to-morrow such as you have not found 
hitherto." These statements were not made in the style 
of mere bravado, but evidently expressed the confidence 
the enemy felt in his superior numbers; the assurance 

* These prisoners were captured by Eli Shields and Henry C. 
Swisher, of Company H; Thomas Brown, Joseph B. Shawgo and 

George Workman, of Company G, of the Eighty-fifth, and 

Pierce, of the Fifty-second Ohio, at the time mounted scouts at 
brigade headquarters. The writer is indebted to Dr. Joseph B. 
Shawgo for the following racy account of the affair: "Eli Shields 
was in the lead when we ran into the rebel army and had the 
nerve to sing out in a clear voice, "Halt!" To this some thought- 
ful Johnny replied, "Keep your dam mouth shut!" We pulled 
Shields off and pushed him back into the brush out of the imme- 
diate sight and hearing of the enemy, then crept back to the road 
and picked up one after another, and placed them with Eli to 
guard, until we had taken twenty-two prisoners. (I have been 
telling the story with thirty-seven as the number captured, and 
if you had not corrected me, I should have had one hundred cap- 
tured before long.) Among the prisoners were several belonging 
to a band, and their instruments were taken with them. There 
was also a rebel major, whose horse, a very fine one, we gave to 
Colonel McCook. This horse was afterward known as McCook's 
Chickamauga pacer." 



104 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. September, 1863. 

that he could return to Chattanooga, and his hope of de- 
stroying the Union army. 

Before the first glimmer of dawn the next morning 
the men were ready for action. Nor had they long to 
wait, for at daylight the enemy advanced his skirmishers 
against the left of the brigade ; then as it changed front 
the attack came from a different direction. Companies 
D and K, of the Eighty-fifth, were on the skirmish line, 
and barely escaped capture. Assailed on the right, left 
and rear with both infantry and artillery, the engagement 
was fast becoming general when, at seven o'clock, a per- 
emptory order recalled the brigade to Rossville. This 
order came not a moment too soon, as we now know the 
brigade had spent the night in the midst of an over- 
whelming force of the enemy, then in position west of 
the creek and under orders to attack at daylight. As 
coolly as if on parade the brigade withdrew, under a 
heavy fire, in which two men of Company D were 
wounded and fell into the hands of the enemy. 

Arriving at a point where the Ringgold road enters 
the road to Lafayette, and some three miles south of 
Rossville, the command met the head of General Bran- 
nan's division of the Fourteenth corps. The men were 
covered with dust ; had marched all night in their effort 
to reach the threatened point of attack, and now, with- 
out rest, they resolutely advanced against the enemy. 
This division opened the battle of Chickamauga by a 
determined and successful attack on the advancing 
enemy within a mile of the Lafayette road. On the 
arrival of the brigade at Rossville, fires were kindled, 
and very soon the men were enjoying the exhilarating- 
coffee and the satisfying hardtack. 



September, 1863. BATTLE OF CHICKAMAUGA. 105 

Throughout the I9th the roar of artillery and at 
times the rattle of fierce musketry could be heard, as the 
tide of battle ebbed and flowed in the valley toward Lee 
and Gordon's Mills. All were favorably impressed with 
the fact that few if any stragglers and skulkers came from 
the field where the conflict rage^, and although the noise 
of battle indicated desperate fighting, no report of dis- 
aster reached the camp at Rossville. That evening the 
brigade moved out on the Cleveland road to the top of a 
hill east of Rossville a mile or more, and the men lay in 
line all through the chilly night without removing their 
accoutrements, every one clutching his rifle and thinking 
of the morrow. No fires could be built ; even the solace 
of a cup of hot coffee was denied them, and the teeth 
chattered as the weary hours rolled slowly by. 

Sunday morning, the 2Oth, opened with a dense haze 
or smoke, which was slow in rising, but soon after day- 
light the brigade moved to McAfee's Church, where it 
remained in line of battle until noon. About nine o'clock 
the sounds of battle floated up from the south, indicating 
a renewal of the conflict between the main armies. The 
roar deepened as the day advanced, and at times mus- 
ketry could be plainly heard in ever-increasing volume. 
Throughout the morning the enemy's skirmishers in our 
immediate front contented themselves with firing an 
occasional shot, showing that an attitude of observation 
was being maintained, rather than an advance contem- 
plated. About noon General Steeclman led the brigades 
of Whittaker and Mitchell southward, with the sound of 
battle as a guide. An hour later Colonel McCook re- 
ceived orders to move his brigade in the same direction, 
and the command moved off at a rapid pace. When the 



106 HISTORY OF THE 85TH IIJJNOIS. September, 1863. 

Lafayette road was reached the column turned south, 
and while marching by the right flank the enemy opened 
with artillery, which enfiladed the line. But steadily the 
brigade moved on while shot and shell fell around at 
every step. The position assigned the command was a 
hill overlooking the McDaniel's house and field, and 
about a mile north of the left of the line held so stubborn- 
ly by General Thomas. The hill commanded the road to 
Rossville, and afforded an admirable position for defense. 
The brigade was quickly formed in two lines, the Eighty- 
fifth in front, its left resting on the battery and its right 
on the Eighty-sixth Illinois, and Company K deployed 
as skirmishers. The bursting shells set the woods 'on fire, 
and the first fight was to prevent the fire from reaching 
the dry weeds and high grass around the battery. For 
a time the smoke hid the enemy from view, but soon the 
fire was put out, the smoke lifted, and the infantry and 
artillery of the enemy could be seen in the edge of the 
timber beyond the McDaniel's field, but beyond musket 
range. 

After deliberate preparation under a shower of shot 
and shell, the battery opened on the enemy with such 
accuracy that another rebel battery was brought into 
action. At this time the enemy was moving against the 
left and rear of General Thomas, and these batteries were 
attempting to cover this movement, and divert attention 
from the manoeuvre. Then there was "music" in the 
air. Two rebel batteries seemed to interest the com- 
mander of the brigade battery, and in a very short time 
Captain Charles M. Barnett blew up the caissons of the 
intruding battery and drove its remains from the field. 
This cleared the field for a successful charge, which was 



September, 1863. BATTI,E OF CHICKAMAUGA. 107 

promptly made by General Tttrchin's brigade, and the 
enemy was driven beyond the Lafayette road, to the seiz- 
ure of which his efforts had long been directed. Many 
of Turchin's men returning from their brilliant and suc- 
cessful charge passed through the line of the Eighty- 
fifth. One of these heroes was struck by a solid shot, 
and had his leg torn off while crossing the line between 
the regiment and battery. Seemingly all the more sad, 
as it was almost the last shot fired by the enemy. 

After dark the brigade was ordered to retire quietly, 
and with flankers thrown out toward the enemy. As the 
command retired, the last to leave the field, the rebels 
could be seen around their bivouac fires, but showed no 
desire to interrupt our movement. It was nearly mid- 
night when we reached Rossville, and the tired men 
sought rest to enable them to meet whatever fate had in 
store for them on the morrow. Some of the commands 
had been more or less broken, and Monday morning, the 
2 ist, found the army in some disorder. But by sunrise 
preparations were made to defend a new line by dispos- 
ing the available force so as to hold Mission Ridge. In 
the new line the Second brigade was placed on the top of 
the Ridge immediately south of the Gap. Throughout 
the day it was expected that the enemy would move for- 
ward and attack the new position, but their losses had 
been so heavy that they were not anxious to renew the 
battle, but contented themselves with a spirited recon- 
noisance, in which there was sharp skirmishing, and the 
brigade was subjected to a severe artillery fire. The 
position of the army was admirable for defense against a 
direct assault, but its right might be easily turned, and 
that night after firing ceased, the army was withdrawn to 



108 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. September, 1863. 

Chattanooga. This was accomplished before daylight 
the next morning, without confusion and without loss 

Bragg had earned a tactical victory at immense cost, 
and the Army of the Cumberland had met its first and 
last defeat. But the Federal army had retired deliber- 
ately and in good order with its face to the foe, to per- 
manently occupy Chattanooga, the prize for which the 
battle had been fought. The men were in wonderful 
spirit, considering their excessive fatigues and heavy 
losses, and no thought of further retreat was entertained 
for a moment. All worked with a will, and by the time 
the advance of the enemy closed down on our outposts, 
a line of earthworks extending from the river above to 
the river below the town, had been erected, which was 
virtually impregnable. The enemy, however, had no 
intention of assaulting such well fortified lines, but con- 
tented himself with investing them closely. To this end 
he established his right on the crest of Mission Ridge, 
massed the bulk of his army across the valley in our im- 
mediate front, and with his left occupied and fortified 
the base of Lookout mountain. Then the siege of Chat- 
tanooga began. 

Colonel McCook reported the loss of the brigade at 
Chickamauga as follows: Two killed, 14 wounded and 
thirteen captured. There were none killed in the Eighty- 
fifth, but the following list gives the wounded and cap- 
tured : 

WOUNDED A. F. Krebaum, of Company B; Robert Neider, of 
Company D; John R. Powell, Frederick T. Zellers and John T. 
Zimmerman, of Company H; Lieutenant David M. Holstead, 
Sergeant John E. Reno and Lemuel Welker, of Company I. 

CAPTURED Willard Hicks and Robert Neider, of Company D, 
and Matthew L. Wrigley, of Company F. 



September, 1863. SIEGE OF CHATTANOOGA. 109 

CHAPTER XL 



On the afternoon of the 23rd, General Steedman's 
division moved to the north side' of the river, and a line 
was established, in which each brigade occupied a de- 
tached camp. The First brigade on Moccasin Point, 
opposite the north end of Lookout mountain ; the Sec- 
ond brigade on Stringer's ridge, opposite the city, while 
to Colonel McCook and his brigade a camp was assigned 
at Friar's Ford, some six miles above the city. The 
camp of the Eighty-fifth was a quarter of a mile from the 
river, facing the ford, which was opposite the north end 
of Mission Ridge, on which the right of the rebel line of 
investment rested. The ridge, as well as the narrow 
valley between it and the river, was covered with heavy 
timber. Pickets were posted on the river bank in front 
of the camp, which was in full view from the other shore, 
while the timber concealed the movements of the enemy 
and invested the opposite side of the river with the inter- 
est which always attaches to the unknown. Far in the 
rear of the camp rose Wallen's Ridge, with its pictur- 
esque palisades. The men were now on half rations, 
their clothing was worn and thin and they were entirely 
without tents. But timber was abundant and conven- 
ient in the rear of the camp ,and very soon the men built 
for each mess a small, but comfortable cabin. 

The only road left open to the rear was that over 
Wallen's Ridge, and down the Sequatchie valley to 
Bridgeport, a distance of sixty miles. To supply an 
army of forty thousand men over this route in fair 
weather and with teams in good condition was barely 



110 HISTORY OF THE 85TH IIvIJNOIS. September, 1863. 

possible. But on the first of October the rainy season 
set in, the streams, small and insignificant in the dry sea- 
son, became raging torrents, while the incessant hauling 
rendered the road almost impassable. Our trains were 
frequently attacked by the cavalry of the enemy and hun- 
dreds of wagons were captured and burned. The faith- 
ful mules were pressed beyond endurance and became 
exhausted by hard driving and lack of forage, and each 
successive trip consumed a longer period of time. Not 
only that, but each trip reduced the number of wagons 
and the weight of their contents. Hundreds of mules 
died from hard usage and starvation, until it was said 
with but little exaggeration that the road from Chatta- 
nooga to Bridgeport was, when the siege ended, "walled 
in with dead mules." At each succeeding issue the 
rations were reduced, until goaded on by the despera- 
tion of hunger, the men robbed the horses and mules of 
the scanty pittance of corn given them, and parched and 
ate it. 

Over in the city the conditions were even worse than 
with the troops outside. There the thinly clad men not 
only suffered from hunger, but also from the scarcity of 
fuel. At first they used the smaller branches of the trees 
found within the lines, and such portions of the trunk as 
could be easily made into firewood. Later they were 
glad to work up and use the tough and knotty parts, and 
when these had been consumed they attacked the 
stumps, and finally they dug out the roots and carefully 
gathered and used them even to the smallest chip and 
fragment. Yet the men were by no means discouraged, 
each had an abiding faith that help would come from 
some source, and thev were determined to succeed in 




HOLOWA5T W. LIGHTCAP, 

wi Altri'i: M \-TI.I:. 



Ill 



September, 1863. SIEGE OF CHATTANOOGA. 113 

driving the exultant enemy from his strongholds in their 
front. During the siege the battle of Chickamauga was 
much discussed, and as the men reviewed the bloody 
struggle they found much to criticise. To one and all 
the battle had been far from satisfactory, and without 
unduly blaming the commanding general, they became 
almost unanimous in the opinion that the army should 
have been concentrated, communications firmly estab- 
lished with Chattanooga as a base, and abundant supplies 
accumulated before a farther advance was attempted. It 
was obvious to all on the evening of the first day's battle 
that a renewal of the conflict was inevitable. As the bat- 
tle was not renewed until nine o'clock on the morning of 
the second day, the men could not understand why the 
right wing, during the interventing time, had not been 
closed down and firmly connected with the left. This 
would have obviated the necessity of moving troops in 
that direction after the battle opened, and prevented a 
movement which resulted in hurling regiments and bri- 
gades successively against the compact masses of the 
enemy, only to be broken and swept from the field. The 
officers and men who entertained these opinions were 
veteran soldiers, whose gallant conduct at Shiloh, Perry- 
ville and Murfreesboro had been such as to render prob- 
able their claim that if the right of the army had been 
retired during the night following the first day's fight to 
a position as strong for defense as that selected by Gen- 
eral Thomas for the left wing, they could and would have 
repulsed any assault the enemy could possibly have 
made. 

Long years have passed since the field of Chicka- 
mauga was baptised into immortality. Then it was a 



114 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. September, 1863. 

dense forest, with here and there a small clearing and 
rude cabin. Now it is a national park, in which the 
positions occupied by the contending forces are accur- 
ately marked by tablets, and monuments erected to the 
memory of heroes slain in battle. Owing to the timber 
and underbrush, compartively little could be seen of the 
deadly struggle by the general officers, much less by line 
officers or enlisted men, except of their immediate sur- 
roundings. Divisions, brigades, and even regiments at 
times became detached and had engagements that 
seemed wholly their own. And in the end, for bold at- 
tack, firm defense and desperate fighting, the battle of 
Chickamauga became by far the most sanguinary con- 
flict of the West. 

The best authorities differ widely in estimating the 
results of the battle of Chickamauga, general officers 
have grown angry in discussing it, and often disagree as 
to the location and work accomplished by their com- 
mands. The Confederate general, Hindman, says in his 
official report that he had "never known Federal troops 
to fight so well, and that he never saw Confederate 
troops fight better." The largest number of troops 
Rosecrans had on the field during the two days' fighting 
was 55,000 effective men, out of which his total loss 
amounted to 16,336. During the battle, when his entire 
five corps were engaged, Bragg had about 70,000 troops 
in line, but the rebel commander made no detailed state- 
ment of his losses in killed and wounded, contenting 
himself with the blunt statement in his official report that 
he lost two-fifths of his army. It was a frightful loss, 
for which no real benefits were obtained.* 



* Of the results of the battle the Confederate historian, Pollard, 



September, 1863. SIEGE OF CHATTANOOGA. 115 

On the 3Oth occurred an explosion of ammunition 
piled up on the hill at Bridgeport, in which a number of 
men belonging to the First brigade were killed and 
wounded. Finding but little in the official reports con- 
cerning this unfortunate affair, the writer addressed an 
inquiry to Noble L. Prentis, a member of the Sixteenth 
Illinois, the regiment supposed to have suffered most in 
the accident, which elicited the following reply : 

Kansas City, March 17th, 1900. 

My Dear Aten: I saw the explosion of which you write me. I 
was midway of the regiment, and the ordnance was piled up just 
beyond Company K, the right company, and between 'their quar- 
ters and a little square earthwork with a ditch around it. On the 
side of the pile of boxes of ammunition, etc., was the regimental 
field hospital. There was a flame like a volcano, and a tremend- 
ous roar, then a shroud of smoke, and the whole air was full of 
flying fragments. The men said this was caused by two barrels of 
loose powder which went up first.* Then the pile of boxes kept 
burning, and there were constant explosions, sometimes of fixed 
ammunition and sometimes of cartridges, that lasted for hours. 1 
went up to the place and saw the dead mules 'Of the wagon that 
was either loading or unloading at the pile; the tents of Company 
K, "pup tents," were burning, and the field hospital tent was burn- 
ing. I helped get the people out of the tent and into the ditch of 
the redoubt I have spoken of, and under a Sort of sally port plat- 
form, where falling fragments could not reach them. I remember 

says: "Chlckamaugua had conferred a brilliant glory upon our 
arms, but little else. Rosecrans still held the prize, Chattanooga, 
and with it the possession of East Tennessee. Two-thirds of our 
niter-beds were in that region and a large part of the coal supplied 
our foundries. It was one of the strongest countries in the world, 
so full of lofty mountains that it had been called, not unaptly, the 
Switzerland of America. As the possession of Switzerland opened 
the door to the invasion of Italy, Germany and France, so the 
possession of East Tennessee gave easy access to Virginia, North 
Carolina, Georgia and Alabama." 

* W. R., Part III, Vol. XXX, page 947, says, "Careless handling of box 
percussion shell." 



116 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. October, 1863. 

a horse had got into the ditch and when an explosion occurred he 
would shiver all over, and we had to drive him back when he tried 
to get under the platform where the sick people were. There were 
people killed, and the history of our regiment, Sixteenth Illinois 
Volunteer Infantry, in the adjutant general's report (Illinois) 
says fourteen were killed and wounded, but I have been entirely 
through the roll of the regiment in the report and cannot find a 
man set down as killed or wounded at that time.** 

The ammunition pile was a regular fixture there, and the men 
made it a lounging place, and there was usually a crowd, but as I 
remember, the Eleventh corps people commenced arriving at the 
depot that day, and our folks went down to look at the "Yankees," 
as they called them. 

I do not know who the fourteen were. From the report it 
might be inferred they were all our people. 
As ever yours, 

NOBLE L. PRENTIS. 

Following Chickamauga there was a reorganization 
of the army in and around Chattanooga. The Twen- 
tieth, Twenty-first, and reserve corps were broken up, 
and the troops of which they were composed were 
formed into a new army corps, designated the Fourth, or 
added to the Fourteenth corps, which, with the Eleventh 
and Twelfth corps from the Army of the Potomac, were 
officially designated the Army of the Cumberland. In 
the new organization the Second brigade, to which the 
Eighty-fifth was still attached, was most fortunate, the 
Second brigade of the First, and the First and Second 
brigades of the Second division of the reserve corps 
forming the Second division of the Fourteenth corps. 
Additional regiments were added to the brigade, and 
Brigadier General Jefferson C. Davis was assigned to the 
command of the division, the corps being commanded 
by Major General George H. Thomas. This division 



* W. R., Part IV, Vol. XXX, page 19, gives, "7 killed and 12 wounded. 



October, 1863. SIEGE OF CHATTANOOGA. 117 

remained as then organized until the close of the war and 
was composed of the following commands : 

SECOND DIVISION. 
Brigadier General Jefferson C. Davis, Commanding. 

FIRST BRIGADE. 

Brigadier General James D. Morgan, Commanding. 
Tenth Illinois Infantry Colonel John Tilson. 
Sixteenth Illinois Infantry Colonel Robert F. Smith. 
Sixtieth Illinois Infantry Colonel W. B. Anderson. 
Tenth Michigan Infantry Colonel C. J. Dickerson. 
Fourteenth Michigan Infantry Colonel H. K. Mizner. 

SECOND BRIGADE. 

Brigadier General John Beatty, Commanding. 
Ninety-eighth Ohio Infantry Colonel James M. Shane. 
108th Ohio Infantry Major Joseph Good. 
113th Ohio Infantry Colonel J. G. Mitchell. 
121st Ohio Infantry Major John Yager. 

Thirty-fourth Illinois Infantry Lieut. Col. Oscar Van Tassel. 
Seventy-eighth Illinois Infantry Colonel Carter Van Vleck. 

THIRD BRIGADE. 
Colonel Daniel McCook, Commanding. 

Fifty-second Ohio Infantry Lieut. Col. Charles W. Clancy. 
Eighty-fifth Illinois Infantry Colonel Caleb J. Dilworth. 
Eighty-sixth Illinois Infantry Lieut. Col. David W. Magee. 
125th Illinois Infantry Colonel Oscar F. Harmon. 
110th Illinois Infantry Lieut. Col. E. H. Topping. 
Twenty-second Indiana Infantry Colonel W. M. Wiles. 

ARTILLERY. 

Second Minnesota Battery Lieutenant Richard L. Dawley. 
Fifth Wisconsin Battery Captain George Q. Gardner. 
Battery I, Second Illinois Captain Charles M. Barnett. 

Until late in the month the Third brigade patrolled 
the north bank of the river from Chattanooga to Dallas, 
a distance of fourteen miles, which necessitated heavy 
details for patrol duty. The trains sent far into the 
country to procure forage for the animals required 



118 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. October, 1863. 

strong guards for their protection, and the men were 
kept exceedingly busy. Toward the last of the month 
the First brigade arrived from Bridgeport, and was sta- 
tioned at Dallas, which afforded some relief to the over- 
worked and underfed troops. But notwithstanding the 
short rations, lack of clothing and blankets, the continu- 
ous exposure, the constant danger, and the anxiety 
sometimes felt if not expressed lest retreat might become 
necessary, and disaster to the army and the cause result, 
the men were cheerful and uttered few complaints. 

Throughout the summer campaigns there had been 
an evident lack of co-operation in the movements of the 
three armies, whose fields of operation were penetrated 
by the Tennessee river. True the Army of the Tennes- 
see had won a most brilliant and satisfactory success in 
the capture of Vicksburg, but the end of the summer 
found the Army of the Cumberland on the defensive at 
Chattanooga, and the Army of the Ohio occupying a 
like unsatisfactory position at Knoxville. In order to 
secure intimate co-operation between these three armies 
in the future, the military division of the Mississippi was 
created by the President, and General Grant assigned to 
its command. This order of the President placed Gen- 
eral Thomas in command of the Army of the Cumber- 
land, and on the 2Oth he assumed command formally, 
and General Rosecrans left for Cincinnati before it was 
generally known that he had been relieved. 

General Rosecrans was one of the most successful 
generals of the Civil War, and perhaps the most brilliant 
strategist. He was a scholar, a philosopher, an eminent 
engineer, and a religious enthusiast. When the war 
broke out he gave his whole soul to it, and with one ex- 



October, 1863. SIEGE OF CHATTANOOGA. 119 

ception he was victorious in every battle. In the early 
campaigns in West Virginia he beat General Lee in bat- 
tle, and out-general eel him with his strategy. At luka, 
Corinth and Stone River his splendid dash along the 
firing line aroused his troops to an enthusiasm which 
won. His personal daring everywhere raised the spirit 
that flamed into victory, but through a contingency that 
could not be foreseen, disaster overtook the right wing 
of his army at Chickamauga, and he was caught and 
forced with it off the field. Deceived by the treachery 
of his chief of staff, who was even then intriguing for the 
position of his chief, he rode into Chattanooga. There 
he was helped out of his saddle and assisted into depart- 
ment headquarters, broken in body and in spirit. It was 
the turning point in a successful career, and his hour had 
come. 

The appointment of General Thomas was hailed with 
delight by the entire army. Officers and men recognized 
in this appointment a fitting reward for his eminent ser- 
vice, uniform success and unselfish devotion to his coun- 
try's cause. In rain and mud and cold, among the rough 
hills and tangled woods, on the banks of the Cumber- 
land river in January, 1862, General Thomas fought the 
battle of Mill Springs. The enemy was routed, his gen- 
eral killed and his battle flags captured. It was the first 
decisive victory for the Union arms in the west, and was 
rich with the spoil of the battlefield. Twelve pieces of 
artillery, 150 wagons, 1,000 head of horses and mules, 
and 392 killed and captured of the enemy, attest the com- 
pleteness of his victory. At Murfreesboro when the 
right of the army had been routed, it was the center 
under Thomas that repelled the assaults of the eager 



120 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. October, 1863. 

enemy, although assailed with a fierceness and tenacity 
unsurpassed in the annals of war. And it was Thomas, 
calm and self-reliant in emergencies, stubborn in defense, 
and masterful in resources that met the crisis at Chicka- 
mauga and wrought out deliverance for our imperiled 
army. Indeed, the logic of the situation so strongly 
pointed to Thomas as the future commander of the 
Army of the Cumberland, that a rumor to that effect had 
been current in the camps from the time the army retired 
to Chattanooga. 

In the meantime, the men had seen their rations re- 
duced to one-half, one-third and one-fourth, but all rec- 
ognized the necessity for this and no one felt willing to 
abandon Chattanooga, while the rebel flag floated in full 
view from Lookout mountain and Mission ridge. The 
dispatch from General Thomas to General Grant, in 
which he said, "We will hold Chattanooga till we starve" 
not only expressed his own purpose but the determina- 
tion of his men. It was an heroic message, backed by 
inflexible faith, and invincible arms. The men felt that 
they had been forced to fight at Chickamauga under ad- 
verse circumstances, against superior numbers, and 
under conditions which rendered success impossible, but 
in leaving that field there had been no panic, and officers 
and men were alike eager to again try conclusions with 
their old-time foe. 

On the i Qth a detail from the Eighty-fifth was en- 
gaged in gathering corn from a field on an island in the 
river some considerable distance above camp. After 
the corn was gathered it had to be brought across an arm 
of the river in boats to a point where it could be loaded 
into wagons. On the last trip one of the boats capsized, 



October, 1863. SIEGE OF CHATTANOOGA. 121 

and Corporal Deford and Michael Rhoads, of Company 
F, were drowned. 

General Grant arrived on the 23rd, and his coming 
to Chattanooga was an event illustrating both his deter- 
mination and his endurance. A short time previous his 
horse had fallen and so severely crippled him that he had 
to be lifted into and out of his saddle. Yet he made the 
difficult journey from Bridgeport to Chattanooga on 
horseback and almost alone. The distance was forty 
miles, over almost impassable roads, strewn with broken 
wagons, dead mules and infested at every turn with guer- 
rillas an awful journey for even a well man to make. 

Previous to General Grant's arrival various plans for 
opening a line over which the starving men and animals 
might be supplied with food and forage had been pre- 
pared. These plans he examined the night of his arrival, 
and on the next day he examined the field; decided on 
one of the plans, and issued orders for its immediate exe- 
cution. Before daylight on the 27th, within four days 
after Grant's advent, Lookout valley was seized and oc- 
cupied by General W. B. Hazen and a brigade of troops. 
Before noon a pontoon bridge was laid at Brown's Ferry, 
a short road to Bridgeport opened and the all-absorbing 
question of supplies was solved. This brilliant feat of 
arms, so skillfully executed by General Hazen and his 
command, not only completely surprised the enemy, but 
won alike his admiration.* It was no longer a question 
how long we could hold Chattanooga, but how long the 
enemy should be permitted to occupy Mission ridge and 

* The Richmond Press, in describing this event, said: "The 
admirably conceived and perfectly executed coup at Brown's 
Ferry, on the night of the 27th of October, has robbed the Confed- 
eracy of all its dearly earned advantages gained at Chickamauga." 



122 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. October, 1863. 

Lookout mountain, and the rebel banners wave defiance 
from their rugged heights. 

A few days before the opening of the short line to 
Bridgeport, and the practical ending of the siege, the 
rebel President appeared on Lookout mountain, and 
from "Pulpit Rock/' as he looked down exultingly upon 
the beleagured army, predicted its utter ruin. But not 
all of that brilliant group of Confederates seemed so san- 
guine of success. It is said that during this visit of exul- 
tation and prophecy, some one in the party of distin- 
guished visitors remarked the beauty and the grandeur 
of the scene, to which a cool headed officer replied, 
"Truly a fine scene," adding in an undertone, "but a 
damned poor prospect." 

William Tiery, of Company H, died at Nashville on 
August 1 2th; Albert J. Hamilton, of Company D, died 
October nth, and John W. Snodgrass, of Company H, 
died at Chattanooga, October 8th. 

On the 6th Lieutenant Colonel James P. Walker was 
dismissed from the service, but his successor was not 
appointed until long afterward. On the 7th William W. 
Walker, first lieutenant of Company C, resigned and 
returned home. Second Lieutenant James M. Hamilton 
being promoted to first lieutenant. On the 27th Andrew 
F. J. Sharkey, second lieutenant of Company E, resigned 
but the company was now too small to be entitled to 
three commissioned officers. Robert A. Bowman, first 
lieutenant of Company F, resigned on the I7th and Ser- 
geant Andrew J. Mason was appointed his successor. 
On the loth Edwin D. Lampett, second lieutenant of 
Company F, resigned, but no successor was appointed. 
David M. Holstead, captain of Company I, resigned on 



November, 1863. BATTLES NEAR CHATTANOOGA. 123 

the 7th, and Second Lieutenant Albert O. Collins was 
promoted to be captain. On the 2/th Albert P. Britt, 
second lieutenant of Company I, resigned and Private 
Preston C. Hudson was promoted to be his successor. 



CHAPTER XII. 



The plan prepared by General Grant for the battle 
of Chattanooga provided for an attack on the rebel right 
flank, supposed to rest on the north end of Mission 
ridge. The defective maps of that period showed that 
this ridge extended to the river, but the view from our 
camp discredited the maps, and the dense forest beyond 
the river concealed the enemy and his line of defenses. 
It therefore became necessary to learn where the right 
of the enemy rested, and the nature of the ground over 
which the attacking columns must move after crossing 
the river. On the 7th General Thomas requested Col- 
onel McCook to select a man of known courage and 
sound discretion to cross the river at night and hide by 
day, while examining the ground between the river and 
the enemy's right. For this hazardous and delicate 
duty Colonel McCook selected Captain James T. 
McNeil, of Company H, of the Eighty-fifth. 

Captain McNeil made several trips across the river, 
from which he returned in safety, but on the fifth trip 
Captain Pleasant S. Scott, of Company E, accompanied 
him, and both were captured and sent to Libby Prison 
at Richmond. Both escaped after many hardships and 
returned to the regiment during the winter, when we 



124 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. November, 1863. 

learned the particulars of tfieir adventures in the Con- 
federacy. Captain McNeil, with others, were caught in 
the act of digging a tunnel, through which they hoped 
to escape, and for a time he was confined in a dungeon. 
After his release from the dungeon he succeeded in trad- 
ing for the uniform of a Confederate lieutenant, and 
dressed as a rebel officer he walked out of prison while a 
ball was in progress in the officers' quarters, and follow- 
ing others until near the picket, when he eluded the 
guards and passed the rebel lines. Then he fell into the 
swamps around Richmond, got lost and wandered for 
thirteen days, living on persimmons occasionally found 
hanging on the trees in winter. But after intense suf- 
fering he finally reached the Union lines at Yorktown. 
Captain Scott escaped from a small-pox hospital, the 
loathsomeness of the disease accounting for the lack of 
vigilance observed among the guards. 

At daybreak on Tuesday, the i/th, while the com- 
mand was at roll-call, a rebel battery which had been 
quietly placed in position on the opposite bank of 
the river during the night, fired a volley into the 
camp of the Third Brigade. It was observed that 
the roar of Captain Barnett's guns instantly followed 
the flash of the enemy's guns and the rebel bat- 
tery fired but one volley. The prompt response of 
our battery was a striking illustration of the value 
of being prepared for instant battle. It was Cap- 
tain Barnett's custom at morning roll-call to require 
his men to be in their places at their guns and ready for 
action. This occasion found the battery in position, the 
men at tfieir respective places, with their guns loaded, 
and their response was so prompt, the fire so rapid and 



November, 1863. BATTI.F OF CHATTANOOGA. 125 

accurate that the rebel battery was overthrown before it 
could fire a second round. The rebel battery had fired 
into the camp at short range at a time when all the men 
were at roll-call, yet the only one killed or wounded by 
the enemy's shells was Levi W. Sanders, chaplain of the 
One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Illinois. A shell which 
failed to explode passed in its flight through the soldiers' 
quarters, entered a small cabin the men had erected for 
their spiritual adviser, struck the wall and in the re- 
bound killed that worthy officer while yet in bed.* 

At this time Chattanooga was the scene of the most 
intense activity. Following the restraint imposed by in- 
vesting lines, the menace of starvation, and the dread of 
possible disaster, the Army of the Cumberland displayed 
new vigor, while the genius of General Grant directed 
the concentration of forces sufficient for the accomplish- 
ment of his full purpose. All the troops that could be 
spared from the rear were ordered forward, and General 
Sherman, commanding the Army of the Tennessee, was 
directed to move with the Fifteenth corps four divis- 
ions to Chattanooga as rapidly as possible. To facili- 
tate the movement of troops in the coming battle, and to 
render the crossing of the river feasible at different 
points, the construction of pontoons for two additional 
bridges was ordered. The coming of troops, the arrival 
of supplies, and the din of preparation for the approach- 
ing conflict would have made the place historic without 
the great victory which was soon to send joy to the loyal 
people throughout the land. 

* We asked one of the 125th boys a few days afterwards why the 
chaplain was the only man touched, and he said: "I suppose he was 
the only man in the regiment that was prepared to die." The His- 
tory of the 52nd Ohio, by the Rev. Nixon B. Stewart. 



126 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. November. 1863. 

The topography of battlefields suggests plans of bat- 
tle; dominates tactical combinations, and is intimately 
connected with the story of the conflict waged upon 
them. When the war began Chattanooga was a town of 
some two thousand inhabitants, situated in a natural 
amphitheater, and surrounded by the magnificence of 
mountain view and the beauty of the quiet valley. The 
Tennessee river flows in a general southwesterly course, 
but just above Chattanooga it turns due west. Below 
the town it turns south until it runs against the perpen- 
dicular base of the north end of Lookout mountain. 
This turns the river west for a mile or more, when, with 
an abrupt turn, it runs due north some five miles, thence 
northwest, until it flows through the narrow pass be- 
tween Raccoon mountain and Wallen's ridge, when it 
again resumes its southwesterly course. 

The city is on the south bank of the Tennessee and 
at the north end of Chattanooga valley. This valley 
varies in width from two to six miles, and is some twenty 
miles in length from northeast to southwest. Immedi- 
ately below the main street, which runs perpendicular to 
the river, Cameron hill rises abruptly one hundred and 
fifty feet from the river bank. From the top of this nat- 
ural observatory an unobstructed view may be had of the 
accessories, of mountain and valley, of stream and plain, 
with which nature furnished the stage whereon the 
grandest scene of real war was enacted. Three miles 
southwest, Lookout mountain rises twenty-four hundred 
feet above sea level. At its northern end it rises per- 
pendicularly one hundred and fifty feet, then ascends 
with a gradual slope to the palisades, which are from 
forty to one hundred feet in height. These perpendicu- 



November, 1863. BATTLE OF CHATTANOOGA. 127 

lar palisades extend across the north end, and along its 
east and west sides some considerable distance. West 
of Lookout mountain is Lookout creek, and west of that 
Raccoon mountain, which extends north some seven 
miles beyond the northern limit of Lookout mountain. 
Flowing along the eastern base of Lookout mountain 
for twenty miles, is Chattanooga creek, which drains 
Chattanooga valley. At the south end of the valley the 
cone-shaped Pigeon mountain stands like a sentinel on 
duty. To the east of the valley is Mission ridge, its 
irregular summit rising from six to eight hundred feet 
above the plain, and ending in foot hills near the Tennes- 
see. East of the city and midway between it and Mis- 
sion ridge, Orchard Knob rises one hundred and fifty 
feet above the general level of the valley. Brush Knob, 
a similar elevation, stands a half mile toward the north- 
east. North of the river is Moccasin Point, a range of 
hills one hundred and fifty feet high, extending from 
above Chattanooga, and jetting into the bend in the 
river north of Point Lookout. Beyond Moccasin Point 
Wallen's ridge rises thirteen hundred feet above tide 
water. On the opposite side of Moccasin Point, due 
west of the city and two miles distant, is Brown's ferry. 
The valley between Moccasin Point and Wallen's ridge 
concealed the movements of Sherman's army as soon as 
it crossed the river at Brown's ferry, and left the enemy 
to mere conjecture as to whether it would appear in the 
attack on Mission ridge or move on to reinforce Burn- 
side at Knoxville. 

Notwithstanding General Grant's energetic prepara- 
tions for battle, which could not have escaped the notice 
of General Bragg, General Longstreet, with a large force 



128 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. November, 1863. 

of the enemy, was detached and sent to Knoxville to 
overwhelm Burnside and attempt to regain what had 
been lost in that region. This movement against Knox- 
ville increased Grant's eagerness to attack Bragg, and 
caused much anxiety lest Knoxville should fall before 
reinforcements could be spared to assist in the defense 
of that place. But General Sherman was delayed by bad 
roads, high water and broken bridges until the 23rd, 
when he massed three of his divisions behind the hills at 
Caldwell's ford, ready to cross the Tennessee the next 
morning. 

The North Chickamauga, a stream flowing into the 
Tennessee just above the camps occupied by the Third 
brigade, afforded an opportunity to launch the pontoons 
for bridging the river, while the movement would be 
screened by timber from the enemy's view. A detail 
from the Third brigade, in charge of Captain John Ken- 
nedy, of Company F, of the Eighty-fifth, launched one 
hundred and sixteen pontoons in this stream on the 23rd. 
Captain Kennedy had been a boatman on the Illinois 
river prior to the war, and so expert was he in his work 
that he launched as many as three of the boats in a min- 
ute. In the evening a detail was made from the brigade 
of sufficient numbers to row the boats out of the creek 
into the river and down to the place where the bridge 
was to be thrown across. This detail was made from 
among the men used to boating, and was under com- 
mand of Captain H. S. LaTourrette, of Company G, of 
the Eighty-fifth, with orders to be ready to man the 
boats at midnight. Promptly at the appointed hour one 
hundred and sixteen boats, each carrying thirty well- 
armed men in addition to the rowers, pulled out of the 




GEORGE A. BLANCHARD, 

CAPTAIN COMPANY C. 



129 



November, 1863. BATTLE OF CHATTANOOGA. 131 

creek and silently dropped down the river, hugging the 
north bank until they reached the point for the intended 
bridge, when all pulled for the other shore. This was 
quickly reached, when the men jumped ashore and cap- 
tured the picket post known to be at this point. So 
quickly and quietly was this done that the nineteen men 
constituting the post were taken without firing a shot. 
Two divisions of troops were quickly carried over in the 
boats, when the work of laying the pontoon bridge was 
commenced, and by eleven o'clock in the morning of the 
24th troops were crossing on a bridge thirteen hundred 
and fifty feet in length. Ample preparations for forcing 
a crossing, in case resistance should be offered, by plant- 
ing fifty-six pieces of artillery on the hills north of the 
intended crossing, had been made during the night be- 
fore. But Bragg had been suddenly and somewhat 
roughly aroused from his dream of fancied security on 
the afternoon of the 23rd. 

.Fearful lest Bragg should retreat, General Grant 
ordered an attack on the enemy's advanced line, which 
extended from Brush Knob on the north, around the 
base of Orchard Knob, and for a mile or more farther 
south. Promptly at one o'clock on the 23rd the divis- 
ions commanded by Wood and Sheridan moved out of 
their works and formed on the open plain. Between 
the Union and rebel lines lay open fields without stump 
or tree or fence, save the thin belt of timber which here 
and there concealed the enemy's line. The Eleventh 
corps, under General Howard, was formed in solid col- 
umn as a reserve to the attacking force, which moved 
with eager step in perfect time. The flying flags and 
the sun flashing from ten thousand polished rifles pre- 



132 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. November, 1863. 

sented a spectacle of singular magnificence. Groups of 
rebel officers viewed the scene from Bragg's headquar- 
ters on Mission ridge, while the enemy's pickets, but a 
few hundred yards away, stood idly looking at what they 
supposed to be preparations for a grand review. 

When the advance sounded the line moved forward 
with the steadiness and precision of veterans on parade. 
Not a straggler nor a skulker could be seen as all went 
eagerly forward. Soon the enemy realized it was not a 
review, but a bold attack. His pickets fell back to the 
main line and their scattering shots were quickly fol- 
lowed by the roll of musketry and the roar of cannon. 
The plain was dotted here and there with fallen men in 
"blue, and men were seen with stretchers bearing off the 
"wounded. Puffs of blue smoke mark for a moment the 
line of rebel works, a moment more and a hearty cheer is 
heard, and the works are ours with 200 prisoners. 

A break in the bridge at Brown's ferry prevented the 
division of General Osterhaus, of the Army of the Ten- 
nessee, from crossing the river in time to take part in 
Sherman's attack on Mission ridge, and it was attached 
to General Hooker's command in Lookout valley. This 
accident caused the Second division of the Fourteenth 
corps to be assigned to Sherman's command at the last 
moment, and we crossed the river at one o'clock on the 
24th, and the advance began. No resistance was offered 
by the enemy save that easily overcome by a strong skir- 
mish line, until one of the foot hills in which Mission 
ridge ends was taken. A little later the enemy made an 
effort to retake it, but was decidedly repulsed, when the 
hill was fortified and we rested on our arms in line of 
battle for the night. 



November, 1863. BATTLE OF CHATTANOOGA. 133 

The day was cold, with drizzling rain at times, but far 
to the right could be heard the sound of battle. Thick 
clouds of mist enveloped the top of Lookout mountain, 
and at times reached to its base. From the veiled sum- 
mit burst the peal of thunder and the lightning flashed 
out, while the soldiers in the valley anxiously awaited the 
result of the conflict among the clouds. In the after- 
noon the mist was blown away for a few moments, when 
the Union line appeared in full view. The flash of gun 
and gleam of steel stood out distinctly on the dark back- 
ground formed by the mountain's rocky face, and re- 
vealed the right of the line firmly fixed at Point Lookout, 
while the left was sweeping in triumph toward Chatta- 
nooga. Then the brigade bands in the valley began to 
play. 

That night came on clear and cold, and the lines 
were swept by the eager north wind. Camp fires seemed 
indispensable, but they were a dangerous luxury in the 
face of alert sharpshooters. But the men were elated 
with another victory. The entire army was now united 
in a continuous line on the south side of the river, and 
during the night Bragg withdrew his troops from Look- 
out mountain and Chattanooga valley to strengthen his 
lines on Mission ridge. So with snatches of sleep, 
achieved under much difficulty, the men were ready for 
whatever might be provided for them in the morning. 

As soon as it was light enough to see on the morning 
of the 25th General Sherman moved his three divisions 
against the main fortified line of the enemy, holding 
General Davis, commanding the division to which the 
Eighty-fifth belonged, as a reserve in supporting dis- 
tance of his attacking columns. The enemy was found 



134 HISTORY OF THE 85TH I ILLINOIS. November, 1863. 

strongly entrenched, on commanding ground, in a posi- 
tion of vital importance to the safety of the rebel army. 
Bragg was now fully aroused to his danger, and as this 
point protected his line of supplies and of retreat if found 
necessary, he hurried reinforcements to this part of his 
line. After terrific fighting Sherman's center division 
gained a high crest within three hundred feet of the 
enemy's entrenchments, which it held tenaciously 
throughout the day and from which it made repeated 
assaults, but without securing a lodgment in the rebel 
line. About noon a brigade of the Eleventh corps, 
which connected Sherman with the Army of the Cum- 
berland, was sent in, but was repulsed. At two o'clock 
a brigade that had worked its way almost up to the ene- 
my's works, was caught in the flank by a rebel force and 
rather roughly handled. This rebel success was, how- 
ever, but for the moment, when the enemy was in turn 
struck in the flank, his brigade broken and his troops 
dispersed. By three o'clock the fighting along Sher- 
man's front was virtually over, and the rebel right stood 
unshaken, but his determined and persistent attack at a 
vital point had caused Bragg to weaken his lines farther 
south, and thus rendered success easier for the attack on 
his center. 

By this time Hooker, with three divisions, was form- 
ing his line of battle across the enemy's left at Rossville, 
while Thomas, with four divisions, stood ready to strike 
the center of Bragg's weakened line. Between Orchard 
Knob and the rebel line was a valley covered in part by 
timber and underbrush. This field was in range of the 
direct and enfilading fire of all the rebel lines, the one at 
the base, the one half way up, and the main line at the 



November, 1863. BATTLE OF CHATTANOOGA. 135 

top of Mission ridge. The ridge in front of Thomas was 
about six hundred feet in height ; its sides furrowed with 
gullies ; clotted over with timber, some of which had been 
felled, and in places huge rocks cropped out. At the 
summit a heavy line of earthworks protected fifty pieces 
of artillery which commanded the field, while at a small 
house on top of the ridge Bragg had his headquarters. 
This house was directly in front of Orchard Knob, and 
from it floated the rebel flag. 

At four o'clock six guns are fired at regular intervals 
from Orchard Knob, and twenty thousand men move 
forward in line of battle, exposed at every step to a ter- 
rific artillery fire. The air over their heads is dotted with 
the white, round clouds formed by bursting shells. But 
never faltering, quickening the pace as it goes, the blue 
line moves on until it dashes up to the line of leveled 
rifles at the base of the ridge. There is a moment of 
death and terror, and the men leap over the parapet and 
into the trench, capturing the defenders to a man, who, 
as they stream to the rear, are pursued by the iron hail 
beating down from the hill top on both friend and foe. 
Sense of time is lost in such an hour, and seemingly but 
a moment passes before the long blue line begins the 
perilous ascent. Then the enemy redoubled his efforts 
and the firm earth trembled with the incessant roar of 
artillery. At this time artillery firing increased in rapid- 
ity until it reached, by the count of a cool-headed officer 
at Grant's headquarters, fifty-eight guns in a single min- 
ute. And now there comes, as the blue line nears the 
crest, the quick, sharp rattle of musketry, which soon 
deepens into a continuous roll. This is far more dread- 
ful to the experienced ear than the loudest cannonade. 



136 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. November, 1863. 

It tells that the final scene is about to be enacted; that 
victory must be quickly seized or a few retire in the bit- 
terness of bloody defeat. But the line goes surging over 
the crest of Mission ridge. Almost simultaneously the 
rebel line is carried in half a dozen places, and the enemy 
break in full retreat. Regiments are captured entire, 
and battery after battery is taken. 

During the afternoon General Davis proposed to 
General Sherman to take the Second division and assault 
the rebel works beyond the left of Sherman's line of at- 
tack. The division was fresh and strong in numbers 
over seven thousand effective men and if successful in 
the proposed attack we would have seized the road over 
which Bragg retreated during the night. But General 
Sherman, no doubt wisely, declined the offer of his enter- 
prising subordinate. And so it turned out that the Sec- 
ond division did not become engaged, although shells 
passed over and fell around about us throughout the 
entire day. 

Arrangements were promptly made for the pursuit 
of the enemy, and the Second division at head of the col- 
umn moved about midnight across South Chickamauga 
creek and proceeded up the north bank of that stream as 
rapidly as possible. Toward morning the fog became so 
dense that it was found impossible to proceed without 
great risk, and the command was ordered to make cof- 
fee and get their breakfast. As soon as the fog began 
to rise the troops were put in motion, but the enemy 
offered little resistance until the railroad at its crossing 
of Chickamauga creek was reached. Here the enemy 
seemed disposed to fight, but after a brisk skirmish he 
was driven toward the station. Chickamauga station 



November, 1863. BATTLE OF CHATTANOOGA. 1ST 

was now in full view, presenting a couple of formidable 
looking fieldworks, with an open plain in full view, over 
which the troops would have to move in direct attack. 
The battery opened but failed to bring a reply, when the 
skirmishers of the First brigade advanced, and after a 
sharp fight drove the enemy from the little hamlet. This 
rapid advance compelled the enemy to abandon consid- 
erable property undestroyed. 

In this spirited affair the Twenty-first Kentucky, of 
the First brigade, learned through prisoners taken from 
a Kentucky regiment in the Confederate army, that it 
was a fight between Kentucky loyal and Kentucky rebel 
face to face, and it created intense enthusiasm through- 
out the line. The order to advance and attack the field- 
works in their front was received with cheers, and 
executed with a dash that soon sent the enemy back to 
his main line, now formed on a hill beyond the town. A 
battery in the road opened fire, but was soon driven from 
its position by the fire of the Third brigade battery. In 
the meantime, the entire division had been deployed, 
and when the advance began the enemy retired in great 
haste, leaving two twenty-four-pounder siege pieces in 
our hands and considerable commissary, quartermaster's 
and ordnance stores were captured and saved, notwith- 
standing the efforts of the enemy to destroy them. Thus 
ended a gallant little fight with the rear guard of Bragg's 
army. 

General Sherman arrived at the head of the column 
at this time, and by his direction the troops were allowed 
a short rest, after which the pursuit was renewed with 
increased vigor. The roads were now strewn with 
broken wagons, and two caissons were captured. The 



138 HISTORY OF THE 8STH ILLINOIS. November, 1863. 

pursuit grew in interest as the prospect of overtaking 
the foe increased, and the usual marching pace gave way 
to the double quick. This was kept up some two miles, 
when the enemy was found again in position near Grays- 
ville, beyond some open fields. For some distance the 
troops had been confined to a narrow, muddy road while 
passing through a swamp. Here the enemy opened on 
the column with a two-gun battery, but as the eager 
troops reached the open ground, regiments rushed into 
line, the men fixing their bayonets as they ran; the 
charge was sounded, and the rebel line was routed and 
two pieces of artillery captured. This happened at night- 
fall and the command bivouacked for the night. The 
force here encountered proved to be two brigades, com- 
manded by General Maney, who was severely wounded 
in the fight. 

The next morning the pursuit was resumed at day- 
light, the Third brigade in advance. But about eight 
o'clock we formed a junction with General Palmer, com- 
manding the Fourteenth corps, and found that other 
troops had the right of way on the Ringgold road. The 
skirmishers from the Third brigade had taken the Ring- 
gold road and opened communications with General 
Hooker, then engaged with the enemy just beyond 
Ringgold. In doing this they captured one hundred 
and fifty-two prisoners. The division remained at Park- 
er's Gap during the 28th, awaiting instructions. 

Fear for the safety of General Burnside at Knoxville 
had a dominating influence over all of General Grant's 
plans for battle at Chattanooga, and over his pursuit of 
the defeated enemy. As soon, therefore, as Bragg had 
been driven beyond Taylor's ridge, and the left of the 



November, 1863. BATTLE OF CHATTANOOGA. 139 

Union army interposed between Bragg and Longstreet, 
General Grant arrested the pursuit of the enemy and 
ordered a strong force to march rapidly to the relief of 
Knoxville. 

On Sunday morning, the 2Qth, the Second division 
moved with the force under command of General Sher- 
man for the relief of Burnside. This force was without 
camp or garrison equipage, and moved with a train only 
sufficient for carrying ammunition to fight a battle which 
was to be expected. It marched rapidly over muddy 
roads; through winter rains, and was compelled to live 
on such scanty fare as the country afforded after being 
ravaged by our enemies. The command arrived within 
a few miles of Knoxville on the evening of December 
6th, when it was discovered that Longstreet was in full 
retreat up the Tennessee valley. He had made an at- 
tack, but w r as repulsed before the relieving column came 
within striking distance, and at once the command 
started on its return to Chattanooga. 

The Second division returned by way of Morgan- 
town, Madisonville and Columbus, where the division 
remained five days, operating some mills in order to sup- 
ply the men with food, and in breaking up bands of guer- 
rillas and murderers infesting the vicinity. Parties of 
infantry, mounted upon horses procured from farmers, 
were sent out and gathered in many of these scoundrels. 
Resuming the march on the 1 5th, by the way of Charles- 
ton, Cleveland, and McDaniel's Gap, and passing 
through Chattanooga, the Eighty-fifth reached its camp 
at Friar's Ford or North Chickamauga, on Decem- 
ber i Qth. 

During the Knoxville campaign it was necessary to 



140 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. November, 1863 

obtain food and forage from the East Tennessee farmers, 
a majority of whom were loyal, and every effort was 
made to compensate those from whom supplies were 
taken. This could only be done by a regular detail in 
charge of an officer authorized to issue vouchers, and 
very stringent orders were issued against individual for- 
aging. This led to some amusing incidents, one of 
which was told at the expense of the commander of the 
Third brigade. It was said that one morning Colonel 
McCook was riding some distance in advance of the 
command, when he suddenly encountered a soldier 
standing beside a hog in its death struggle, holding in his 
hand a knife from which the blood was still dripping. 
Amazed at this flagrant violation of orders, the colonel 
thundered out, "Who killed that hog?" Whereupon 
the soldier politely saluted the colonel, and said : "Col- 
onel, I am a butcher by thrade and I offer it as me profes- 
sional opinion that this hog died a natural death." Pat's 
ready wit caused the colonel to burst out laughing and 
saved the man from arrest and punishment. 

The writer remembers an exhibition of loyalty on the 
part of an East Tennessee farmer, which, under the dis- 
tressing circumstances, appeared heroic. On a very cold 
night our brigade camped on a farm from which all the 
fence rails were taken and consumed during the night. 
As we resumed the march about sunrise the next morn- 
ing we saw the owner of the farm, an old white-haired 
man, with maul and wedge, busy splitting rails at the 
roadside. And while the column passed by he stood 
with uncovered head, his face radiant with loyal enthusi- 
asm, cheering the flag of the Union. 

In this campaign the men exhibited the utmost forti- 



November, 1863. BATTLE OF CHATTANOOGA. 141 

tucle under ever-increasing difficulties. The weather 
was cold and stormy; the men without tents or over- 
coats; a large number without blankets, and many were 
barefoot. On frosty mornings the men could be 
tracked by the blood from their bleeding, shoeless feet, 
and in the entire campaign but six days' rations were 
issued. The distance marched counting both ways 
was two hundred and forty miles; thoroughly testing 
their endurance and their discipline. Their soldierly 
conduct greatly pleased General Sherman, and in a letter 
written to General Davis, he said : * 

"Your division led in the pursuit of Bragg's army on 
the route designated for my command, and when Gen- 
eral Grant called on us so unexpectedly and without due 
preparation to march to the relief of Knoxville, you and 
your officers devoted yourselves to the work like soldiers 
and patriots, marching through cold and mud without 
a murmur, trusting to accident for shelter and subsist- 
ence. During the whole march, wherever I encountered 
your command, I found its officers at their proper places 
and the men in admirable order. This is the true test, 
and I pronounce your division one of the best ordered in 
the service. Be kind enough to say to General Morgan, 
General Beatty, and Colonel McCook, your brigade 
commanders, that I have publicly and privately com- 
mended their brigades." 

And in his official report,** General Sherman thus 
compliments the division and its commander: "Gen- 
eral Davis handled his division with artistic skill, more 
especially at the moment we encountered the enemy's 

* Rebellion Records, Serial No. 56, page 439. 
** Sherman's Memoirs, Volume I, page 384. 



142 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. November, 1863. 

rear guard near Graysville at nightfall. I must award 
this division the credit of the best order during our 
movement through East Tennessee, when long marches 
and the necessity of foraging to the right and left gave 
reason for disordered ranks." 

The battles around Chattanooga were fought on 
three successive days, but as all were parts of one com- 
prehensive plan directed by one master mind they 
appear in history, and rightly so, as the battle of Chatta- 
nooga. It was the most picturesque battle of the war, 
and the storming of Mission ridge was one of the marvels 
in military history. And when the enthusiasm of the 
troops bore them up the steeps, and they surged over the 
rebel works at the crest, the hold of the Union army was 
firmly fixed on the very vitals of the South. 

General Grant had sixty thousand men in action, and 
General Bragg probably liad forty thousand, but the dis- 
parity in numbers was more than made good by the 
almost impregnable position occupied by the insurgent 
army. The losses of the Union army were 757 killed, 
4,529 wounded, and 330 missing, making a total of 
5,616. Bragg's losses in killed and wounded are not 
known, his official report being rendered untrustworthy 
by the fact that his total loss is reported at much less than 
the number of prisoners captured by the Union army. 
He lost by capture 6,142 men, 42 cannon, 69 gun car- 
riages, and 7,000 stands of small arms. His loss in ma- 
terial was immense, part of which he destroyed in his 
precipitate fligfit, but much was left uninjured and fell 
into loyal hands. 

The second division, although in close support of the 
attacking column, did not become actively engaged at 



December, 1863. BATTLE OF CHATTANOOGA. 143 

Mission ridge. Yet shot and shell passed over and fell 
all around us. The official reports include the Knox- 
ville campaign, and the losses are given as 41 in the divis- 
ion, 1 1 of which are credited to the Third brigade. The 
losses in the Eighty-fifth were : 

WOUNDED Levi Clifton, of Company F, and Charles R. Bran- 
son, of Company H. 

Charles W. Pierce, first lieutenant of Company B, 
was transferred to the invalid corps on November 2nd, 
and First Sergeant Albert D. Cadwallader was promoted 
to be first lieutenant. Captain Charles W. Houghton, 
of Company D, resigned on December 27th, and First 
Lieutenant Charles H. Chatfield was promoted to suc- 
ceed him, First Sergeant Samuel Young being promoted 
first lieutenant. 

On November 2/th John W. Booth, of Company A, 
died in the field hospital, his being the only death in the 
regiment in the two months of which this chapter treats. 

On Saturday, the 26th, the brigade abandoned its 
comfortable camp at North Chickamauga, and moved 
through Chattanooga to a place beyond Mission ridge, 
and camped at McAfee's Church. As the men were still 
without tents, and although the next day was Sunday, 
they began as soon as it was light to construct quarters. 
It was a rainy day, but the work went merrily on, and it 
was remarkable how soon the small pine trees were con- 
verted into very comfortable cabins. It was well that no 
time was lost, for the new year came in with snow and 
extreme cold. 



144 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. January, 18M. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



So far as the military situation is concerned, the 
Union victories gained at Gettysburg, Vicksburg, and 
Chattanooga decided the fate of the Confederacy, and 
there the struggle should have ended. In most wars 
the side on whose soil the battles were fought has been 
the losing side. The belligerent that can not prevent his 
own territory from becoming the seat of war must ulti- 
mately surrender. This is an important lesson to bear 
in mind when it becomes necessary to determine the 
great moral question of responsibility of continuing a 
hopeless contest. 

The second attempt at invading the North ended in 
disaster at Gettysburg, and Lee returned to Virginia and 
to the defense of the rebel capital, after losing at least 
forty per cent of his army. On the next day Vicksburg 
fell ; the army defending it became prisoners of war ; the 
Mississippi river was opened, and the Confederacy was 
cut in two. The capture of Chattanooga, the martial 
throne of strategy far and near, and the objective of the 
Federal army for almost two years, was recognized by 
the Southern leaders and people as a direct menace to 
the existence of the rebellion. And General Lee wrote 
the rebel president, "That upon the defense of the coun- 
try now threatened by General Grant depends the safety 
of the points now held by us on the Atlantic." 

The Confederate army felt its defeat at Chattanooga 
most keenly, and to General Bragg it came with crushing 
force. In his official report, after acknowledging the 



January, 1864. PREPARING FOR A NEW CAMPAIGN. 145 

total defeat and panic of his army, in language which 
showed his surprise, he said : "The position ought to 
have been held by a skirmish line against any assaulting 
column." This statement no doubt expressed his own 
opinion of the strength of the position, but it was by no 
means true. No doubt his men had been somewhat 
overawed by the magnitude of General Grant's prepara- 
tions, and the successes of the previous days ; but the loss 
of more than twenty per cent in the two central divisions 
of the storming column, in a contest of less than an hour, 
proves that they did not yield without a struggle. Their 
retreat was not caused so much by fear as by a convic- 
tion that resistance was useless. It is said that while 
Bragg was riding among his men, he vainly tried to rally 
them by shouting, "Here's your commander!" They 
answered in derision, "Here's your mule !" 

Soon after reaching Dalton and learning that the 
pursuit had been discontinued, Bragg appears to have 
realized that he had lost the confidence of his troops, and 
he asked to be relieved and that a new commander be 
assigned to the rebel army. His request was granted so 
far as his relief was concerned, and General William J. 
Hardee was assigned to temporary command. As a per- 
manent assignment the position was not sought, and 
among others General Lee declined the honor of being 
thrust forward, to meet and check the triumphant career 

of General Grant.* 

Richmond, December 5th, 1863. 
General R. B. Lee, Orange Court House, Va. 

Could you consistently go to Dalton, as heretofore explained? 

JEFFERSON DAVIS. 

Two days later General Lee wrote the following re- 
* Rebellion Records, Serial No. 56, page 785. 



146 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. January, 186*. 

markable letter in response to the request of the rebel 

president : ** 

Headquarters Army of Northern Virginia, 

Rapidan, December 7th, 1863. 
His Excellency Jefferson Davis, President Confederate States, 

Richmond: 

Mr. President I have had the honor to receive your dispatch, 
inquiring whether I could go to Dalton. I can if desired, but of 
the expediency of the measure you can judge better than I can. 
Unless it is intended that I should take permanent command, I 
can see no good that will result, even if in that event any could 
be accomplished. I also fear that I would not receive cordial 
co-operation, and I think it necessary if I am withdrawn from 
here that a commander for this army be sent to it. General Ewell's 
condition, I fear, is too feeble to undergo the fatigue and labor 
incident to the position. I hope your excellency will not suppose 
that I am offering any obstacles to any measure you may think 
necessary. I only seek to give you the opportunity to form your 
opinion after a full consideration of the subject. I have not that 
confidence either in my strength or ability as would lead me of my 
own option to undertake the command in question. 

I am, with great respect, your obedient servant, 

R. E. LEE, General. 

The camp at McAffee's church was situated at the 
northern limits of the battlefield of Chickamauga, and 
distant some six miles from Chattanooga. The line 
between the states of Tennessee and Georgia ran through 
the division camps, but state lines had lost much of their 
former importance. The dense forest surrounding the 
camp had formerly been the refuge for the thieves, mur- 
derers and outlaws of the two states. An old resident 
said that he had seen hundreds of these scoundrels en- 
camped around the spring from which we obtained our 
water supply. When an officer of Tennessee came with 
a writ to arrest them, they would step a few yards int.o the 
state of Georgia and laugh him to scorn. So when 
Georgia sought to lay her official hand on an offending 
citizen of that state, he would walk over into Tennessee 



Rebellion Records, Serial No. 56, page 792. 




HKNRY s. LATOT T RRKTTE, 

CAPTAIN COMPANY G. 



147 



January, 1864. PREPARING FOR A NEW CAMPAIGN. 149 

and argue the case across the line. It was indeed an 
ideal spot for criminals. Requisitions from the gover- 
nors of Georgia and Tennessee could of course be 
obtained, but this would take time, and in the meantime 
the culprit could walk leisurely into Alabama or North 
Carolina, neither of which was far away. For years the 
presence of these desperadoes in large numbers had kept 
that locality from being settled by good men, and conse- 
quently there were thousands of acres in which there had 
not been a field cleared or a tree felled. 

The winter was unusually severe, both North and 
South ; but we had abundance of wood close at hand, and 
the prospect seeming to promise a stay more or less 
peaceful and extended, the men .proceeded with much 
labor and ingenuity to make, their stay comfortable. 
Among the most enterprising and'luxurious, cabins were 
built and covered with their own make of clapboards. A 
blanket over the doorway excluded the wintry blasts, 
while a mud fireplace with a mud and stick chimney gave 
the single room a somewhat cheery aspect. Yet on cold 
nights the men had to get out of their bunks and warm 
by the fire between their snatches of sleep. 

Toward the end of January the weather became mild 
and pleasant, and on the 26th the Third brigade took 
part with other commands in a reconnaissance to Tunnel 
Hill, returning on the 28th without loss or adventure. 
Our old enemy was known to be at Dalton, one of the 
oldest towns in Georgia, some thirty miles south of Chat- 
tanooga. And the fact that General Joseph E. Johnston, 
probably the most skillful army commander in the Con- 
federate service, had been selected to lead the rebel army 

in the coming campaign was due notice to all concerned 
10 



150 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. February, ig&t. 

that soon or late we must be prepared for an ener- 
getic renewal of the contest. But he required time in 
which to organize his army, and both men and material 
must be had to replace the losses sustained under Bragg 
at Chattanooga before he could become a source of much 
apprehension. So we remained quietly in camp for 
almost a month, but with strong outposts thrown out 
well to the front. On the tenth of February the Third 
brigade relieved the Second brigade at Chickamauga 
Station, where it remained on outpost duty until ordered 
to join the division at Ringgold, where we arrived on the 
evening of the 23rd. General Grant had ordered Gen- 
eral Thomas to take Dalton if possible, and at Ringgold 
we found all of the Army of the Cumberland available at 
the time for the undertaking. 

Early on the morning of the 24th the Third brigade 
pushed on through Thoroughfare Gap, and soon after 
the skirmishers found the enemy at Tunnell Hill. The 
enemy was driven until near sunset, when we closed 
down on his position in Buzzard Roost, a gap in Rocky 
Face ridge. Mill creek runs through this gap, as does 
the railroad from Chattanooga to Atlanta. At this time 
the First brigade was moving on the left of the railroad, 
the Third brigade on the right, and as the Eighty-fifth 
came into line, the enemy opened with a battery of Par- 
rot guns from a position until then concealed from view. 
One of the shells struck the railroad bed without burst- 
ing and came bounding toward the regiment. Its motion 
was so slow that we could see it whirling end over end, 
and apparently going to pass harmlessly by the column. 
But suddenly it changed direction and struck Sergeant 
Marion Horton, of Company H. wounding him severely, 



February, 1864. PREPARING FOR A NEW CAMPAIGN. 151 

The enemy was driven from a range of mound shaped 
hills, through which both wagon and railroad mean- 
dered, and whicfi. intervened between us and the enemy's 
main line in the gap. From these hills the position of 
the enemy could be easily reconnoitered, and from the 
fire of his artillery two strongly posted field batteries were 
discovered. By this time it was almost dark, and strong 
pickets were thrown out well to the front. The com- 
mand was located so as to be protected from the enemy's 
artillery and at the same time be able to resist an attack, 
and the troops rested on their arms for the night. 

Early the next morning sharp skirmishing began, 
and the line of battle was advanced to the crest of the 
hills secured the evening before. The Eighty-fifth and 
the Eighty-sixth Illinois in the front line, with the other 
regiments of the brigade in reserve. Buzzard Roost is a 
rocky gorge between two mountains, in which there are 
many sharp spurs, abrupt ravines, steep hills and isolated 
knolls, forming an almost impregnable position. Dur- 
ing the morning thick smoke and haze obscured the 
sight, making it difficult to see objects even at a short 
distance ; but the skirmishers pressed on with vigor until 
their fire commanded the enemy's rifle pits. About noon 
the smoke was blown away, when the skirmish line was 
reinforced and the firing became very brisk. In our 
front was a cleared field some two hundred and fifty 
yards in width and beyond it a ravine ran from right to 
left. Beyond this depression was heavy timber, which 
concealed the enemy's line. At three o'clock the ad- 
vance was sounded and the First brigade on the left, and 
the Third brigade on the right of the railroad, moved for- 
ward. This brought a prompt response from the ene- 



152 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. February, 1864. 

my's artillery and infantry. Three batteries opened on 
our advancing lines, with great fierceness from right, left 
and front, making it exceedingly hot until the ravine was 
reached. There the line was halted, and being fairly well 
covered from the artillery fire we watched a well-matched 
contest of sharp-shooting by the skirmish lines until 
dark. 

Our advance had been rapid, and brought the line so 
close to the rebel batteries that they served us with grape 
shot, which the writer remembers made a whirring noise 
in its flight very much like that made by a flock of rising- 
birds. During the day the regiment lost three men 
killed and eleven wounded. After dark the Third bri- 
gade was relieved by a brigade of the First division, and 
we retired behind the hills where we could cook and eat 
in safety. The fact had been demonstrated that the 
enemy's position was too strong to be carried by direct 
assault, and the next day, while sharp skirmishing was 
maintained along our front, his flanks were felt by other 
troops. But our army was not then strong enough in 
numbers to render a turning movement possible, and 
during the night of the 26th we returned to Ringgold. 
The next day the division returned to its camp at Mc- 
Affee's church. 

Tjie losses in the Third brigade fell upon the Eighty- 
fifth and the Eighty-sixth Illinois, and were 14 in the 
former and 8 in the latter. The killed and wounded in 
the Eighty-fifth were as follows : 

KILLED Joseph Dunn, of Company C; Joseph Forner, of Com- 
pany F; Robert C. Garrison, of Company K. 

WOUNDED Lieutenant A. D. Cadwallader, of Company B; Clin- 
ton Black, of Company D; James Carey, of Company F; John 
Thompson, of Company G; James T. Toler and Marion Horton, 



March, 186*. PREPARING FOR A NEW CAMPAIGN. 153 

of Company H; Orpheus Ames, Isaac Fountain, Josiah Mc- 
Knight, Zimri Thomas, and Jas. M. Whi'ttaker, of Company K. 

The events of the past year, when viewed from either 
a military or political standpoint, were full of encourage- 
ment to the defenders of the Union. The victories of 
the Federal armies and the support of war measures by 
the vote of the loyal people, alike indicated that the crisis 
in the nation's destiny had passed. That the strength of 
the insurrection had culminated, was evidenced by the 
ever-increasing desertions from the rebel army. This 
had been greatly stimulated by President Lincoln's offer 
of pardon to all who gave up and came in, below the 
rank of brigadier general. The reports of the provost 
marshal-general show that the number of deserters com- 
ing into the lines of the Army of the Cumberland for the 
six months ending on May ist, 1864, aggregated 3,731, 
or an average of over 600 for each month. 

With the beginning of the new year the maintenance 
of the full strength of the Federal armies became the 
great problem. The term of enlistment of very many 
regiments would expire early in the year. Their retire- 
ment in the midst of active operations would endanger 
the success of all plans of aggression which might be 
formed. In fact, the hope of the speedy suppression of 
the revolt, turned upon the retention of these hardy, 
well-seasoned troops, and yet there was no law to hold 
them. Fortunately for the country the patriotism of 
these citizen-soldiers was equal to the emergency, and 
their voluntary re-enlistment gave assurance of adequate 
armies for the coming campaign. Many of them had 
been engaged in the winter campaign for the relief of 
Knoxville, in which they had endured hardships and pri- 



154 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. March, 1864. 

vations such as had only been equalled at Valley Forge. 
And no event throughout the war gave more eloquent 
testimony to the devotion and courage of the volunteer 
soldier. 

Upon re-enlistment these veterans were given a 
thirty-days' furlough to visit their homes, and for the 
time being the army at Chattanooga was so reduced in 
numbers that the enemy at Dalton had tfie greater force. 
In the Army of the Cumberland seventy regiments of 
infantry, twelve of cavalry, thirteen batteries, and thirty- 
one detachments re-enlisted as "veteran volunteers." 
When these veteran organizations returned to the front 
at the expiration of their furloughs, they brought with 
them some five thousand recruits, mostly young 
men. These recruits arrived clean-shaved, hair close- 
cropped, freshly vaccinated, and newly baptised, ready 
for any kind of carnage, from squirrel hunting to man- 
slaughter in the first degree, but their enormous appe- 
tites threatened the peace and quiet of the camp. 

On Saturday, the 3rd, Wheeler's rebel cavalry made 
an attack on an outpost at Leet's tanyard, and dispersed 
a regiment of mounted infantry stationed at that point. 
As a result of this raid the Third brigade was ordered to 
Lee and Gordon's mills, where we went into camp that 
evening on ground held by the right of our army 
throughout the first day's battle at Chickamauga. The 
next day many of the men went out to Leet's tanyard 
and spent some time in looking over the remains of the 
mounted infantry camp, and as they wandered among 
the ruins they wondered how the "acccident" happened. 

The Eighty-fifth had been without tents since leav- 
ing Nashville, but here the men were supplied with 



March, 1864. PREPARING FOR A NEW CAMPAIGN. 155 

shelter tents, as they were termed in general orders, or, 
as they were always spoken of by the men, the "dog 
tents" or "pup tents." This was another step in the 
process of reducing the wagon train by taking the bur- 
den from the animal and placing it on the man, and per- 
haps these tents should be described at this point. To 
each man was given a piece of white cotton cloth, five 
feet six inches square. The edges were made double by 
a strip three inches wide being sewed across them. At 
two of the corners a loop of rope was fastened so that 
stakes might be driven through them into the ground. 
At the opposite edge there was a row of buttons and 
button holes. When camp was reached and tents were 
to be pitched there was no waiting for the wagons to 
come up before the men could provide shelter. Two 
men who had cast their fortunes together would drive 
two stakes four and one-half feet in length into the 
ground, lay a pole six feet long across the top of the 
stakes, button their pieces of tent together, place it over 
the pole, and fasten the lower corners to the ground with 
tent pins. As there was no protection at the ends, they 
were unusually well ventilated, and in case of storm they 
could be readily shifted so that the rain would not blow 
in. But for some reason or prejudice shelter tents never* 
became very popular in the Eighty-fifth. 

The 22nd is memorable for a very severe snow storm 
which prevailed throughout the night and covered the 
ground to a depth of ten inches. Commands that hap- 
pened to be on the move at that time suffered greatly, 
but fortunately the Eighty-fifth was in camp with an 
abundance of fuel near at hand. This storm tended 
somewhat to reconcile the men to their shelter tents. 



156 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. March, ww. 

The snow being in good packing condition suggested 
the idea that a snow ball battle would be good sport, and 
on the next day a very vigorous fight, with snow balls 
for weapons, took place between different regiments in 
the brigade. In the evening the weather turned very 
cold, and the freezing snow quickly formed lumps of ice. 
Not content with the sport had during the day, snow 
balling was resumed at night, and the engagement was 
fast becoming both general and serious, when the dam- 
aged heads that had come in contact with lumps of ice 
led the officers to stop the sanguinary sport. 

On the 3 ist the Second division was reviewed by 
General Thomas, the Third brigade joining the First 
and Second for that purpose, at a point about half way 
between their camps at McAffee's church and Lee and 
Gordon's mills. 

The period of which this chapter treats was one of 
active preparation, in which General Grant's genius for 
organization, concentration and the supply of his armies 
in the field was strikingly manifest. Forces were con- 
centrated around Chattanooga and organized and 
equipped for an extended campaign into the heart of 
the Confederacy. But General Grant was not allowed 
to direct in person the campaign he had planned for the 
Army of the West. Before spring opened he was ap- 
pointed lieutenant general, and was placed in command 
of all the armies of the United States. And true to his 
soldierly instincts, Grant at once started east to direct in 
person the Armies of the Potomac and the James against 
the largest and best equipped of all the Confederate 
armies. The Army of the Potomac had been most un- 



April, 1864. PREPARING FOR A NEW CAMPAIGN. 157 

fortunate in its commanders, and up to this time its only 
important victories were those won at Antietam and 
Gettysburg. After Gettysburg it became so quiescent 
that Longstreet with 20,000 men slipped away from its 
front and was fighting at Chickamauga before the com- 
mander of that army learned of his departure. It had 
now been dormant for more than nine months, permit- 
ting Longstreet and his troops to remain in East Ten- 
nessee throughout the winter, living off the loyal people 
of that region until time to rejoin Lee at Richmond for 
the spring campaign. Perhaps one of the most amazing 
facts in the history of the war is that this army, eager to 
be led against the foe which it greatly outnumbered, 
with a secure base on tide water, should be held in check 
so long by the incompetence of its commander. 

In accordance with Grant's desire, the President as- 
signed General Sherman to the command of the military 
division of the Mississippi, left vacant by his promotion. 
The sentiment of both the country and the army ap- 
proved of General Grant's choice of his successor, and 
from the day of his assignment to the close of the war, 
the confidence of the army in General Sherman never 
wavered, but grew in strength day by day. 

When on the march in the early days of the war the 
men were loaded down with well-filled knapsacks, over- 
coats and blankets, in addition to their arms and accou- 
trements. Gradually the contents of the knapsack were 
reduced, and finally it and the overcoat were thrown 
away. The men found that a wool blanket and a rubber 
poncho, which could be rolled up and thrown in a coil 
over the shoulder, the two ends tied on the opposite side, 
answered their necessities much better than the clumsy 



158 HISTORY OP THE 85TH ILLINOIS. April, 1864. 

gear furnished them at the outset. So, too, in the begin- 
ning each company was provided with a wagon drawn by 
six mules, and three such wagons and teams were 
allowed for regimental headquarters. But so many 
mules died from starvation during that period of hunger 
and raggedness which covered the siege of Chattanooga 
that as a matter of necessity the campaign in East Ten- 
nessee was made with a very limited wagon train. And 
what was looked upon as a doubtful experiment at the 
beginning was regarded at the successful conclusion of 
that campaign as a demonstration that the wagon train 
might be safely and permanently reduced. 

Accordingly, along the lines of previous experience,. 
Genera] Sherman continued the cutting down process 
until but one wagon was allowed to a regiment, and that 
was to carry ammunition and the regimental records 
only. Attached to each army corps of about twenty 
thousand men was an ammunition and provision train 
which was limited to five hundred wagons. Man's en- 
durance surpasses that of the beast, and while the num- 
ber of animals was reduced and their burdens decreased, 
additional loads were put upon the troops. Each man 
was required to carry in addition to his musket and ac- 
coutrements forty rounds of ammunition in his cartridge 
box, and one hundred and sixty more in his pockets or 
haversack. The provision issued was a much abridged 
ration, but each soldier was required to carry a five-days' 
supply of hard bread and salt pork, and with its issue 
came the information that such supply must last him 
from seven to ten days as occasion might require. A 
herd of live cattle was to be driven in the rear of the 
army, from which fresh meat was to be issued occasion- 



April, 18M. PREPARING FOR A NEW CAMPAIGN. 159 

ally, but these soon grew so thin from hard driving and 
lack of forage that the men spoke in derision of that part 
of the ration "as beef dried on the hoof." 

But if the men were limited in their supply of bread 
and meat, the ration was more than made good by the 
bountiful issues of sugar and coffee, which were gener- 
ous in quantity and above reproach in quality. The 
men had learned how to extract from the coffee its most 
subtle virtues, and although brewed in the most primi- 
tive manner, "strong enough to float an iron wedge" 
and innocent of any adulteration, it gave strength to the 
weary and heavy laden, and courage to the despondent 
and sick at heart. 

Thus stripped of all baggage that could possibly be 
dispensed with, and ready for instant battle, the army 
was prepared to move from Chattanooga. The sick 
and the afflicted were sent to the rear, and for twelve 
long months and until the end of the war, drills and 
parades were abandoned. The fife's shrill note and the 
sounding drum-beat were seldom heard, as to the stir- 
ring bugle call the army marched and fought its way to 
the sea, and on through the birthplace of secession to 
victory and to peace. 

It is true our army largely outnumbered that of the 
enemy. But the strength of his defensive positions in a 
country abounding in mountains and rivers, where 
almost every citizen was an active scout or spy, and his 
shorter lines of communications fully compensated him 
for his inferior numbers. Thus Sherman would be com- 
pelled to attack the enemy in positions naturally strong, 
chosen with skill, carefully fortified and defended with 
the courage of desperation. 



160 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. April, 1864. 

The following- commissioned officers resigned on the 
dates given below, but on account of the reduced 
strength of the regiment none of the vacancies created 
were filled at the time, and some never were: George 
Myers, second lieutenant of Company B, on January 
2 ist; William W. Turner, second lieutenant of Company 

D, on March 3Oth ; Thomas R. Roberts, captain of Com- 
pany A, on April I5th, and James C. Patterson, second 
assistant surgeon, on April i6th, leaving Surgeon P. L. 
Dieffenbacher without an assistant in the discharge of 
his arduous duties until late in the summer. 

The following enlisted men died during the period 
of which this chapter treats : John Barnett, of Company 

E, in field hospital at McAffee's church, April 2Oth; 
Aaron Brewer, of Company G, in the field hospital at 
McAffee's church, on January 22nd ; Daniel T. Joneson, 
of Company K, at Richmond, Va., on February 4th ; 
James Gary, of Company F, of wounds on March nth, 
and Joseph Orange, of same company, on March 28th, 
in the field hospital at McAffee's church. 

The official report for April 3Oth gives a total present 
for duty in the Eighty-fifth of 439. 



May, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 161 

CHAPTER XIV. 



On May ist, 1864, more than two hundred thousand 
men stood ready to move against the enemy at the bid- 
ding of Lieutenant General Grant. While these troops 
were divided into two widely separated columns, of 
nearly equal strength, they had a common object, the 
destruction of the rebel army under General Lee in front 
of Richmond, and that under General Johnston standing 
in front of Dalton. And on the fate of these armies 
rested the hopes of the Confederacy. 

The column which General Sherman was to move 
against the enemy at Dalton was composed of the Army 
of the Ohio, comprising the Twenty-third corps, com- 
manded by Major General J. M. Schofield, with 13,500 
men and 28 guns ; the Army of the Tennessee, compris- 
ing portions of the Fifteenth, Sixteenth and Seventeenth 
corps, now arriving at Chattanooga under command of 
Major General James B. McPherson, with 24,000 men 
and 96 guns, and the Army of the Cumberland, com- 
manded by Major General George H. Thomas, with 
60,000 men and 130 guns. The Army of the Cumber- 
land was composed of the Fourth, Fourteenth and 
Twentieth Army corps, and three divisions of cavalry, 
commanded by Generals Judson Kilpatrick, Edward M. 
McCook and Kenner Garrard the whole making a 
grand aggregate of 98,797 men and 254 guns.* 

The Fourteenth Army corps, commanded by Major 
General John M. Palmer, numbered 19,637 effective 



* Memoirs of General W. T. Sherman, Vol. II, page 24. 



162 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. May, 18W. 

men. The First division was commanded by Brigadier 
General Richard W. Johnson; Second division, by Brig- 
adier General Jefferson C. Davis, and the Third division, 
by Brigadier General Absalom Baird. The brigade 
commanders in the Second division were: First bri- 
gade, Brigadier James D. Morgan; Second, Colonel 
John G. Mitchell, and Third, Colonel Daniel McCook. 
The monthly report of the Army of the Cumberland for 
April 3Oth, 1864,* shows 7,135 effective men in the Sec- 
ond division. But unfortunately these monthly returns 
do not descend to brigades and regiments. 

On the part of the Eighty-fifth the campaign began 
on Tuesday morning, May 3rd, when the Third brigade 
left its camp at Lee and Gordon's mills, and that evening 
it joined the First and Second brigades from the camps 
at McAffee's church, at Ringgold. On the 5th we moved 
through Thoroughfare Gap, and camped at the forks of 
the Cleveland and Dalton roads, not far from Catoosa 
Springs. Before the war Catoosa Springs had been a 
favorite health and pleasure resort, but at this time both 
buildings and grounds were in a very dilapidated condi- 
tion. During the day, although the enemy was in plain 
view on the hills beyond, there were few in the command 
who did not visit the famous watering place. 

By the evening of the 6th all the forces were in line, 
and General Sherman's grand army ready to close down 
on Dalton and General Johnston's veteran army. We 
were on familiar ground, having skirmished over it in 
February, and all understood that we would be up 
against a tough proposition as soon as the advance 
began. 
* Rebellion Records, Serial No. 75. 



May, ISM. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 163 

Saturday, the 7th, the entire army moved forward. 
Reveille sounded at half-past three o'clock, and before 
sunrise the troops were on the march. The advance 
was assigned to our division, with the Third brigade in 
front. The enemy's cavalry pickets were soon en- 
countered, but were steadily driven by the skirmish line 
of the Fifty-second Ohio until within cannon range of 
Tunnel Hill. At this point the enemy opened with ar- 
tillery; our batteries were brought into action, and a 
sharp fight ensued, in which the enemy were driven into 
Buzzard Roost. The advance seized a high round hill, 
known to us as Signal Hill, and around it the Second 
Division bivouacked until the Qth. On the afternoon of 
that day the Second brigade, supported by the Third, 
advanced along the left of the railroad and swept the 
enemy from a line of hills in front of the gap, and the en- 
tire division took a position in Buzzard Roost. 

On the loth the division pressed the enemy back into 
the gorge until his lines were fully developed, and our 
batteries were brought to bear on his entrenchments. 
The rattle of musketry and the roar of cannon continued 
throughout the day. Rain was falling steadily and the 
pungent smell of battle smoke filled the valleys. The 
faces of the men were powder-grimed and their clothing 
stained with the soil from the protecting hillsides. After 
the advance had gone to the utmost and the men began 
to make the best of an ugly situation, the first mail ar- 
rived since the regiment left Lee and Gordon's mills. 
But as soon as its distribution drew a crowd, the vigilant 
enemy's shells began to fall around in such numbers that 
the men quickly returned to such shelter as tree, or rock, 
or hillside afforded. In the evening the weather turned 



164 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. May, 1864. 

unusually cold for the time of year, but the position held 
by the command was so close under the enemy's guns 
that the men had to spend the night without fire. The 
next morning we were relieved by a brigade from the 
Fourth corps, and retired to the vicinity of Signal Hill, 
where we enjoyed a day of rest. The Eighty-fifth lay 
near the signal station, at which General Sherman spent 
most of the day, and from which the fighting in the gap 
and on the hills to the right and left of it could be plainly 
seen. 

On the I2th the Second division marched at sunrise 
for Snake Creek Gap, which was reached after a march of 
fourteen miles at dark. After a brief halt for supper the 
march was resumed, and continued until near daylight. 
The night trip, through this famous gap, was one to be 
remembered. The division was in the rear of the corps, 
and through the long hours the column toiled on 
through the narrow, crooked defile. The night march 
was not a long one when the number of miles traversed 
is considered, for this wild and picturesque defile is but 
six miles in length. But the road was only such a track 
as country wagons had worn in the bed of a stream that 
meanders through Rocky Face mountain, or passed over 
projecting spurs. The artillery and ammunition trains 
in front delayed the march, yet the men were not allowed 
to tarry more than a few moments at any point for rest. 
Many sank down from exhaustion, feeling they could 
not go another step. At last, near daybreak, the weary 
column halted, and the soldiers set about preparing cof- 
fee and frying meaj; over quickly kindled bivouac fires. 

The Army of the Tennessee passed through Snake 
Creek Gap on the afternoon of the Qth, but after pressing 




D. L. MUSSULMAN, 

2O LIEUTKNANT COMPAXr <i, II 



165 



M.f 



May.lSW, ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 167 

his advance close to the enemy's fortifications, General 
McPherson decided not to attempt to carry them by 
assault and prudently waited the arrival of reinforce- 
ments. The movement of a strong column to his sup- 
port rendered the position of General Johnston at Dai- 
ton untenable, and while the Twenty-third corps of the 
Army of the Ohio, and the Fourteenth and Twentieth 
corps of the Army of the Cumberland were moving 
through Snake Creek Gap, the enemy retired to his de- 
fenses near Resaca. This town stands on the north bank 
of the Oostanaula river. The Connasauga falls into 
the river just above the town, while Camp creek 
flows into the Oostanaula immediately below. North 
of Resaca, and between Camp creek and the Conna- 
sauga, were hills, which made it a very strong place for 
the entrenched camp which the rebel commander had 
prepared for his army. 

After a brief rest on the morning of the I3th the 
Second division took a position on the left of the corps in 
the advance upon the enemy's entrenched lines. The 
fighting during the day was confined principally to our 
right, and but little opposition was encountered on our 
immediate front. That night the Third brigade occu- 
pied a position on the left of the corps, our pickets con- 
necting with the right of the Army of the Ohio. On 
the I4th the command advanced, conforming to the 
movements of troops on the right, but without becoming 
actively engaged. During the day there was heavy 
fighting along the lines, and part of the enemy's works 
were captured with several pieces of artillery. In the 
afternoon the Third brigade was massed in support of 
the First division, and came under a sharp artillery fire. 

11 



168 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. May, 1864, 

That night we relieved the brigade of General Carlin, of 
the First division, and during the night completed the 
works he had already begun on the front line. All day 
Sunday, the I5th, there was sharp skirmishing and shot 
and shell came plunging through the timber. The 
muskets spoke spitefully and the bullets sped singing 
over the works and many came pattering down among 
the men, striking logs and trees, or cutting off leaves 
overhead,- Jacob Bortzfield, of Company A, being 
wounded. 

During the day Sherman contracted and strength- 
ened his lines, and a pontoon bridge was laid below the 
town, and the cavalry crossed, threatening the enemy's 
flank. Johnston's position, although very strong, had 
the fatal defect of giving him a river at his back, and a 
small force on the opposite bank would make his invest- 
ment complete. Seeing that he could no longer remain 
in safety, he withdrew during the night of the I5th, de- 
stroying the railroad bridge behind him. So when the 
bugles sounded on the morning of the i6th the rebel 
works were found to be deserted, and the army entered 
upon a vigorous pursuit of the enemy. 

At sunrise General Davis moved the Second division 
rapidly down the west bank of the Oostanaula, under 
orders to cross the river at a bridge supposed to be near 
the mouth of Armuchee creek, and thrust the division 
between the retreating enemy and a rebel force known to 
be at Rome. After a rapid march of fifteen miles the 
command reached the point where the bridge was sup- 
posed to be, but there was no bridge, indeed, there had 
never been any. The river was too deep to ford. We 
had no pontoons, and how to act under the embarrassing 



May, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 169 

circumstances became a difficult problem. But General 
Davis was a man of action, and believing that the main 
object of the expedition could best be obtained by push- 
ing on to Rome, he determined to try to seize a bridge at 
that place. 

The next morning a rapid march began at daylight, 
and ten miles were covered by noon, when we encount- 
ered the enemy's pickets at a creek eight miles from 
Rome. Here the men cooked and ate dinner; the trains 
were parked and left under guard of two regiments, and 
at two o'clock the headlong march was resumed. A 
double skirmish line drove the enemy without causing a 
halt in the column, until he opened with artillery from 
his works on De Soto hill, on the west side of the Oos- 
tanaula river. Preparations for attack were quickly 
made ; the Second brigade on the right, the Third on the 
left of the Resaca and Rome road, and the First massed 
in support. The Eighty-fifth was formed in the second 
line, and on the left of the brigade. The order to ad- 
vance was given and the entire line moved rapidly for- 
ward, arriving at the top of a ridge just in time to meet 
the enemy ascending trie opposite slope. Instantly both 
sides opened fire, which was furious and well sustained 
for some time, but we had the ridge and soon drove the 
enemy into his entrenchments, capturing one piece of 
artillery abandoned by the insurgents in their hasty 
flight. Near the close of the action the Eighty-fifth was 
moved to the left and front, and at the end of the fight it 
was in the front line. 

At dark the left of the Eighty-fifth rested on the river, 
and the enemy had been driven into his defenses erected 
for the protection of Rome, the county seat of Floyd 



170 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. May, 1864. 

county, Georgia. This was a city of some three thou- 
sand inhabitants when the war commenced, and is situ- 
ated at the point where the waters of the Oostanaula and 
the Etowah unite to form the Coosa river. As the city 
was known to contain extensive iron works, foundries 
and machine shops, it was reasonable to expect a stub- 
born defense, and the line was connected and made 
strong during the night. Our line extended from the 
river above to the river below the town, completely in- 
vesting the enemy's works. Then the tired men, who 
had marched eighteen miles and fought a very pretty lit- 
tle battle, rested on their arms for the night. 

A heavy fog delayed the attack until nine o'clock the 
next morning, when the skirmish line rushed forward 
and wrested the works from the enemy's skirmishers. 
But the retreating enemy burned the bridges in his 
flight, and under the protection of his batteries hoped to 
hold the city until his stores could be removed to a place 
of safety. Two batteries located in formidable looking 
field works, one above the city on the east bank of the 
Oostanaula, and one on the south bank of the Coosa 
below, opened fire on our advance, but our batteries soon 
silenced them. In the meantime, the Eighty-fifth had 
been constructing rafts of fence rails, on which the men 
placed their arms, ammunition and clothing, then swim- 
ming the Oostanaula they pushed these rafts before them 
to the opposite shore. Once on the other side a skir- 
mish line was quickly formed under the direction of 
Colonel Dilworth and other officers of the Eighty-fifth, 
which drove the enemy from the city and raised the ban- 
ner of freedom over rebellious Rome. So rapid was the 
advance of the Eighty-fifth from an unexpected quarter 



May, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 171 

that a sufficient number of pontoons were captured to 
bridge the Oostanaula, and a few hours later the Third 
brigade crossed the river and occupied the city. 

The division captured three pieces of field artillery, 
five 32-pounder garrison guns, and two 8-inch Howitz- 
ers, together with large stores of quartermaster, commis- 
sary and medical supplies, great quantities of cotton and 
tobacco, a train loaded with salt, and the extensive iron- 
works, foundries and machine shops, upon which the 
enemy relied for a large part of his ordnance supplies and 
repairs. It was the intention of the enemy to remove 
the stores and destroy the shops and foundries, but our 
advance was so rapid and the attack so prompt and ener- 
getic that he was compelled to fly before his purpose 
could be accomplished. 

The men always took great pride in this battle, which 
was fought out by the Second division alone. The day 
was very warm ; the men marched eighteen miles, and for 
almost half the distance had skirmished with the enemy. 
And had it not been for the fact that the attention of tne 
entire country was so largely directed to the manouevres, 
battles and actions of such vast armies, both east and 
west, this battle would have been considered, and justly 
so, a very important victory for the Union cause. The 
division lost in this engagement one hundred and forty- 
nine in killed and wounded. The losses of the enemy 
were never reported, but as he fought behind entrench- 
ments most of the time, his killed and wounded probably 
numbered less than ours. 

The pickets of the enemy continued to hold the south 
bank of the Coosa river for several days, and kept up at 
intervals a vicious skirmish firing into the city, killing 



172 'HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. May, 1864. 

and wounding- soldiers and citizens indiscriminately. But 
we were compelled to await the arrival of additional pon- 
toons from the main army before we could dislodge the 
enemy from the farther shore. However, on the 22nd 
sufficient pontoons arrived to span the river below the 
city, when the First brigade laid a bridge, crossed the 
river, seized the enemy's works, and drove him from that 
entire front. The six days of rest at Rome were most 
welcome, and the men made good use of their opportu- 
nity. The first thing with most of them was a bath, next 
they thoroughly washed their clothing. Then after they 
had slept all they cared to, they wandered through the 
cosy little city, and if the company of the Roman 
Nobles (?), most of whom had fled with the rebel army, 
was missed, no soldier complained of their absence. On 
the 23rd. the Second brigade and the batteries crossed to 
the south side of the Coosa; three days' rations were 
issued to each man, and preparations completed for an 
early advance on the next morning. The casualties in 
the Eighty-fifth were: Richard Maguire, of Company 
E, wounded, and N. J. Kemp, of Company K, wounded. 
At five o'clock on Tuesday morning, the 24th, the 
Second division moved out of Rome on the direct road 
to Van Wert. A march of eighteen miles brought us in 
touch with the main army, the right under General Mc- 
Pherson being at Van Wert. That night we camped on 
Euharlee creek. The next day we passed to the left of 
Van Wert, over a point of Alatoona mountain, and that 
night camped near Dallas and in close support of the 
main column. The march had been long and rapid, and 
during the afternoon a pouring rain fell. The noise of 
battle mingled with the peals of thunder, for in the midst 



May, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 173 

of the storm the troops under General Hooker fought a 
bloody battle near New Hope church. The rain contin- 
ued through the night, making our camp, which we 
reached very late, utterly wretched. 

On the 26th the division was ordered to move toward 
Dallas, and after crossing Pumpkin Vine creek at Bish- 
op's bridge, some two miles northwest of the town, the 
enemy's pickets were found on the Burnt Hickory road. 
Our skirmishers drove the enemy through Dallas, and 
the division formed a line of battle on the East Marietta 
road. The enemy was found behind strong entrench- 
ments extending across this road, his right resting on 
the west end of Ellisberry mountain, and the men rested 
on their arms for the night. The next morning the Third 
brigade advanced with sharp skirmishing, a mile or more 
into a gorge in the mountain, and during the day the bri- 
gade in single line was entrenched so as to secure this 
pass. During the afternoon the noise of fierce battle 
was heard a few miles to our left, and it was learned that 
a severe engagement resulted in an attempt to turn the 
rebel right at Picket's mills. 

During the day, the Twenty-second Indiana was on 
the skirmish line, sustaining a loss of three killed, six 
wounded, and two missing. That night while being re- 
lieved by the One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Illinois, 
the enemy made a vigorous attack, which led to an excit- 
ing conflict. In the darkness and confusion of the first 
onset it was hard to distinguish friend from foe, and the 
enemy captured one officer and fourteen men. A coun- 
tercharge was made immediately, in which two officers 
and twenty-seven men were captured from the enemy. 
There were a number killed and wounded on both 



174 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. June, 18M. 

sides in this fight in the dark, but in the end our advanced 
position was retained, and the enemy retired in utter con- 
fusion. The Third brigade occupied this position, with 
some sharp skirmishing, until the end of the month. 



CHAPTER XV. 



On Wednesday, the ist, the Second division moved to 
the left and joined the corps in the vicinity of New Hope 
church. During the night it relieved Hovey's division 
of the Army of the Ohio, and occupied its entrenchments 
on a branch of Pumpkin Vine creek. As the Eighty- 
fifth moved into position, through thick timber and tan- 
gled underbrush, the soldiers of the retiring force cau- 
tioned us to be very careful, as the line was within short 
rifle range of the enemy, who had "sharpshooters in the 
trees." Colonel Dilworth on hearing this statement 
said : "Well, we will turkey hunt them in the morning." 
This grim reply of the colonel had a good effect on the 
men, who found the situation fully as ugly as it had been 
represented. A line of hills within short range was held 
by the entrenched line of the enemy, and dominated our 
line completely. Our skirmish line was close in, and 
every shot fired by the enemy swept our works and the 
ground behind them. Several men were wounded close 
by the works, two of whom, William Collins and John 
W. McClaren, of Company H, were wounded by the 
same ball. 

This ugly fight at short range continued until the 
4th, when the brigade was relieved from the firing line, 
and moved four miles to the left in a soaking rain. Dur- 



June, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 175 

ing the night of the 5th the enemy evacuated his works, 
and early the next morning, the brigade having the ad- 
vance of the corps, moved to Proctor's creek, two miles 
south of Ackworth, on the road from that town to Big 
Shanty. Here the Eighty-fifth remained in comparative 
quiet until the loth, when it took part in the advance of 
the entire army. The advance was made through heavy 
woods, with here and there a small clearing ; over swollen 
streams and muddy roads; with constant skirmishing, 
and in frequent heavy rain storms. This continued until 
the evening of the I3th, when the lines closed down on 
the enemy's lines at Pine mountain. The left of the 
division now rested on the Atlantic and Western railway, 
where it connected with the Sixteenth army corps. On 
the bald crest of Pine mountain the enemy had his signal 
station and a battery of field artillery. On the I4th a 
group of rebel officers was seen near their signal station, 
evidently observing our lines with their glasses. At the 
time General Sherman was near a battery near our right, 
which he directed to fire on the group. This battery 
fired three volleys, and the commotion caused in the 
enemy's ranks showed that the shots had been well 
aimed. Very soon a message was taken from the rebel 
signal station and translated by one of our officers who 
had learned the enemy's "key," which read: "Send an 
ambulance for General Polk's body." From this it was 
surmised that General Polk had been killed, and later in 
the same day this was confirmed by the admissions of 
prisoners captured. 

General Leonidas Polk was a brother of James K. 
Polk, the eleventh President of the United States.* He 

* Campaigns of the Civil War, by General J. D. Cox, page 98. 



176 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. June, law. 

was graduated at the West Point Military Academy in 
the class of 1827, and was appointed second lieutenant of 
artillery. He resigned his commission before the end of 
the year, studied theology and was ordained as deacon in 
the Protestant Episcopal church in 1830. In 1841 he 
was chosen bishop of Louisiana, holding this position at 
the time of his death. He had grown very wealthy at 
the time of the breaking out of the war, and was reported 
to be the owner of seven hundred slaves. Entering the 
rebel service in 1861, his military education and promi- 
nence in the church secured for him an important com- 
mand, probably more important than his talents and 
luxurious habits fitted him for filling. At Chickamauga 
he commanded the right of the rebel army, but was 
relieved from command and placed under arrest for dis- 
obedience of orders soon after the battle ended. A few 
months later he was relieved from the severe censure put 
upon him by General Bragg for dilatory conduct, and at 
the time he was killed he was in command of one of the 
three corps composing the insurgent army in our front. 
He was a man of full habit ; deliberate in his actions, and 
had influenced a multitude of his followers in casting 
their lot with the enemies of his country. At the time he 
was killed the first volley from the battery dispersed his 
companions on the mountain, but his bulk and dignity 
alike forbade hasty retreat, and a shell from the second 
volley severed the body of the bishop general of the Con- 
federacy. 

From the I4th to the evening of the i8th the advance 
was continued with sharp skirmishing at all times, and 
with frequent hard fights, the division closing down on 
the entrenched line of the enemy at Kennesaw moun- 



June, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 177 

tain on the latter date. On the igth the battle of 
Gulp's farm was fought by Hooker and Schofield, far to 
the right, in which the enemy was defeated with heavy 
loss. Rain fell every few hours, and in the intervals be- 
tween showers the weather was very hot and sultry. On 
the 2 ist General Sherman telegraphed to Washington: 
"This is the nineteenth day of rain, and the prospect of 
clear weather is as far off as ever. The roads are impas- 
sable, and fields and woods become quagmires after a 
few wagons have crossed, yet we are at work all of the 
time." 

In our front the enemy had an earthwork on top of 
the mountain, in which were ten or twelve pieces of artil- 
lery, and these guns commanded the entire line of the 
division. We threw up a strong line of earthworks for 
the infantry line and field works were constructed for our 
batteries. A stream ran from left to right across our 
front and near the base of the mountain. The enemy's 
skirmish line was beyond the stream, and still higher on 
the mountain side was his main line of entrenchments. 
His lines and batteries were all in thick timber except his 
guns on the mountain top. 

Screened by the dense forest, the enemy found it dif- 
ficult to get accurate range of our entrenchments. But 
during the day if men were seen or a glimpse of a tent fly 
was caught through the wind-tossed leaves and 
branches, his alert gunners would sweep the spot with 
shot and shell until it seemed no living thing could 
escape. And at night the flickering light from candle or 
fire would provoke a shower of shot from the ever-ready 
batteries of the enemy. Near midnight of the 22nd, while 
Surgeon Wilson, of the H3th Ohio, was dressing the 



178 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. Ju ne, 1864. 

wounds of one of his men, assisted by two others, the 
candle he was using drew the fire of the rebel battery, 
when a solid shot carried away a leg from each of the 
surgeon's assistants.* Our earthworks were proof 
against both shot and shell, and the men, suffering from 
the heat and weary of the trench, would select some one 
to watch the battery and give notice when it was about 
to fire. This was entirely practicable, as the gunners 
could be seen as they rammed the charge home, then a 
puff of smoke would appear, and in two or three seconds 
a shot or shell would follow, screeching and shrieking 
through the air. On the signal being given the men 
would quickly get under cover, while shot and shell tore 
through the tree-tops, or striking in front, ricochetted 
across the works, to burst or land far in the rear. The 
exploding shells at times made an almost constant roar ; 
pieces of jagged iron were thrown in all directions, and 
great branches were torn from the trees and fell among 
the men. And day and night this trying ordeal contin- 
ued until the division was relieved for a most desperate 
undertaking. 

Men get desperately tired and reckless under such 
conditions, and on the 25th, when the rebel batteries 
opened. Sergeant James Leeper, of Company C, was 
lying in a shade only ten feet from the trench when the 
danger signal was given, but he declined to seek cover. 
An instant later a shell burst directly above where he was 
lying, the larger part of which descended in a direct line 
and separated his body into two parts. 

But in the midst of this deadly work amusing inci- 
dents happened now and then. Brigade, division, and 

* Sergeant McAdams' History 113th O. V. I., page 86. 



June, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 179 

corps headquarters, while in the rear, were still within 
the range of that vicious battery on the mountain, and of 
course entirely unprotected. Captain Wiseman, assist- 
ant adjutant general on the staff of the First brigade, had 
occasion to visit corps headquarters one morning, after 
the enemy had snellecl each headquarters impartially and 
with unusual vigor and accuracy. On this occasion 
Wiseman said : "Around corps headquarters I found 
the ground literally covered with limbs torn from the 
surrounding trees, and the tents torn by shot and shell. 
In the midst of .this desolation sat General John M. 
Palmer, in his shirt sleeves, vigorously fanning himself, 
behind the trunk of a large tree whose top had been shot 
away that morning. After attending to my business and 
chatting a moment about the situation, I turned to leave, 
when the general called me back and said, 'Adjutant, 
don't you wish this cruel war was over?' I replied that 
it certainly was an event earnestly desired by all, and by 
none more than by his command under present circum- 
stances, and again I turned to leave, when the general 
said, 'Adjutant, present my compliments to General 
Morgan, and say to him that these headquarters will 
move as soon as darkness will permit.' ' 

At nine o'clock on Saturday night, the 25th, the Sec- 
ond division was relieved by Harrow's division of the 
Fifteenth corps, and withdrew from the works at the 
northwestern slope of Kennesaw, which it had occupied 
since the i8th. The withdrawal was made in silence, 
and every precaution was observed on the march to pre- 
vent the enemy from gaining a knowledge of the move- 
ment. The route by which we retired lay through thick 
timber, and was crossed by numerous ravines, which de- 



180 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. June , MM. 

layed the march, so that the rear of the column arrived at 
camp about daylight. The camp selected was at a point 
in the rear of the right of Stanley's division of the Fourth 
corps. 

It was Sunday, and for the first time in weeks the 
men had an opportunity to spend a day in the silence of 
the shady woods. There were no bugle calls that day, 
and after a quiet inspection of arms and an issue of extra 
ammunition, the time was devoted to undisturbed rest. 
In the distance an occasional cannon could be heard, but 
the camp was out of reach of shot and shell, and beyond 
the sound of the rifles on the skirmish line. Few outside 
the officers knew of the proposed assault, and the orders 
received in the evening directing the men to have break- 
fast over and to be ready to march at daylight, was by no 
means so unusual as to excite curiosity or provoke com- 
ment. Yet there were rumors floating through the 
camp to the effect that Monday would be an eventful 
day. 

The condition of the roads and the long lines of 
wagon trains necessary to supply the daily demands of 
the army made it difficult for General Sherman to extend 
his lines further to the right, and he resolved to make a 
change of plans. And, while keeping up a show of mov- 
ing to the right, he ordered columns to be formed near 
his center, for the purpose of assaulting the enemy's for- 
tifications. The assaulting columns were to move at 
nine o'clock on Monday morning, while a general attack 
all along the lines was ordered for the same hour as a 
diversion in favor of the main assault. This assault was 
to be made near the road leading from Gilgal church to 
Marietta. 



June, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 181 

At eight o'clock on Monday morning, the 2/th, the 
troops selected for the assault were formed in the follow- 
ing order: The Second brigade, Colonel John G. 
Mitchell commanding, on the right. On his left the 
Third brigade, Colonel Daniel McCook commanding, 
both of Davis' division, in columns of regiments at ten 
paces interval. On the left of McCook was Newton's 
division of the Fourth corps, with the brigades of Harker 
and Wagner, both formed in column of division, left in 
front. This formation, although prescribed by General 
Howard, commanding the Fourth corps, was unfortu- 
nate, in that it separated the brigades of Harker and 
Wagner from McCook by a brigade interval, and per- 
mitted the enemy, as the columns neared his works, to 
enfilade not only McCook's left, but these brigades as 
well. The First brigade, General James D. Morgan 
commanding, of the Second division, had occupied our 
advance line of works early in the morning, while the 
two remaining divisions of the Fourteenth corps under 
General Palmer, the Twentieth corps under General 
Hooker, and parts of the Fourth corps commanded by 
General Howard, were near at hand, ready and waiting 
to take advantage of a breach in the enemy's line. 

All the ground to be passed over was rough and diffi- 
cult, and the distance to be traversed before the rebel 
works would be reached, was about five hundred yards. 
The brigade was formed in an open field, which sloped 
toward the marshy bed of a small creek lined with trees 
and matted vines. Near the creek, but on the hither 
side, was our main line of works, now occupied by the 
First brigade. Beyond the creek lay another field, and 
on the far side of this were the enemy's skirmishers in a 



182 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. Ju ne, MM. 

line of rifle pits. From his skirmish line to the crest of 
the hill, crowned with the enemy's main works, the 
ground was thickly covered with timber, and rose rather 
abruptly. Directly in front of the brigade was an angle 
in the rebel works, and he had posted sixteen pieces of 
artillery some distance to the right and left, which would 
sweep the sides of the angle. 

The Third brigade, in column of regiments at ten 
paces interval, was formed in the following order : The 
Eighty-fifth Illinois, Colonel C. J. Dilworth command- 
ing ; One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Illinois, Colonel O. 
F. Harman commanding; Eighty-sixth Illinois, Lieuten- 
ant Colonel A. L. Fahnestock commanding; Twenty- 
second Indiana, Captain W. H. Snodgrass commanding ; 
Fifty-second Ohio, Lieutenant Colonel C. W. Clancy 
commanding. 

The orders were to make the assault in silence, cap- 
ture the works and then cheer, as a signal for the reserves 
to move forward and beyond us, it being the plan for 
them to seize the railroad and cut Johnston's army in 
two. The undertaking was the most difficult and des- 
perate ever assigned to the troops designated for the 
assault, but if successful the victory would be greater 
than any they had yet gained. 

The firing of a single gun near General Thomas' 
headquarters at nine o'clock was the signal for all our 
batteries to open along the main lines for ten miles or 
more, and for the storming columns to start. The col- 
umn of regiments started promptly on the signal given, 
moving at quick time to the chorus of three hundred 
loud-mouthed cannon, until our works and the creek had 
been reached and passed. The tangled vines and marshy 




OKOUP OF COMPANY (i. 

LIEUT. JOHN M ROBEKTSON. 
-r:i. r. W. IRVING SHANNON. 1ST SEHGT. JIENKV J. ATEN. 



183 



UHHAfiV 

Of THE 
UNIVERSE of ILLINOIS 



June, 18<H. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 185 

creek somewhat broke the formation, but being a well- 
drilled brigade good order was at once restored as the 
line entered the open beyond the creek. Here a cloud 
of skirmishers was thrown forward on the run from the 
Eighty-fifth, and these skirmishers seized the enemy's 
rifle pits, capturing his skirmishers to a man. Even then 
the brigade was under a heavy fire of both musketry and 
artillery, 'but the men moved through the field steadily 
on the double quick. When the timber was reached on 
the farther side, all ran eagerly up the hill, which became 
steeper as we neared the crest. Now the enemy re- 
doubled his efforts, and his cannon gave forth a continu- 
ous roar. The air seemed full of bullets, while a cross- 
fire of shot and shell tore diagonally through our ranks. 
But the men ran stubbornly on until, within a few feet of 
the enemy's works, the limit of endurance was reached, 
and out of breath and almost overcome with the heat, 
they halted, crouched, and with one accord began firing. 
Indeed, the momentum of the column carried a few men 
over the works, to fall covered with wounds into the 
hands of the enemy. 

Each regiment in the brigade breasted the storm, and 
strove to gain the works, until all had tried and failed. 
The colors of the Eighty-fifth and of other regiments 
were planted on the outer edge of the enemy's works. 
It is now known that Captain Beasley, of the First Rebel 
Tennessee infantry, lost his life in attempting to seize the 
colors of the Fifty-second Ohio. Colonel McCook, 
while urging his men on, himself in the lead, fell mortally 
wounded before the charge had failed. After McCook 
fell the voice of Captain Fellows, brigade inspector, was 
heard, but his half-finished rallying cry was cut short by 

12 



186 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. Ju ne, 1864. 

a shot, and the brave captain fell dead within a few feet 
of the coveted works. The command now devolved 
upon Colonel Harmon, who at the instant of giving the 
command "Forward !" fell into the arms of his men, shot 
through the heart. Colonel Dilworth, the next in rank, 
now assumed command of the brigade, and the com- 
mand of the Eighty-fifth devolved upon Major R. G. 
Rider. Each attempt to push forward was met with 
deadly volleys, the ground was thickly strewn with the* 
dead and dying, and the living, crouched behind their 
dead comrades, still firing. 

When the men realized that they could not carry the 
works by storm, they fell back doggedly a few paces at a 
time, taking advantage of every available shelter. Very 
soon, from every stump and tree, a well-sustained and 
deadly fire was directed at any head that appeared above 
the enemy's works. The deadly aim of our men, from 
a line so close that the features of the foe could be dis- 
tinguished, composed as it soon was of the crack shots of 
the brigade, caused the fire of the enemy to slacken, and 
finally it almost ceased. In the meantime the energetic 
efforts of Colonel Dilworth, supplemented by the effi- 
cient assistance of Major Rider and the officers of the 
other regiments in the brigade, straightened out the 
tangled regiments, which had become somewhat 
bunched on the right, and the well-trained men quickly 
found their proper places. 

The active attack along the line having ceased, and 
seeing that our fire completely dominated the rebel 
works, Colonel Dilworth advised General Davis that his 
line rested within forty paces of the enemy's works, and 
stated that he could hold the ground gained. He also 



June, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 187 

requested that entrenching tools be furnished the com- 
mand at once. This message fell into the hands of Gen- 
eral Thomas, who appeared to be rather incredulous as 
to the reported distance between the lines. After ques- 
tioning Captain E. L. Anderson, brigade adjutant gen- 
eral, closely in that regard, General Thomas decided that 
owing to the close proximity of the brigade to the ene- 
my's works, entrenching tools could not be safely sent 
until night-fall. So in this critical position, while a large 
portion of the men kept on firing, the remainder, work- 
ing with bayonet and tin cup or spoon and tin plate, man- 
aged to throw up a light earth-work sufficient to protect 
their prostrate bodies. Here the brigade remained six 
long days and nights, for while the offer was made, the 
men declined to be relieved, preferring themselves to 
guard what it had cost so much to gain. 

In the evening, after darkness had set in, the enemy 
made a noise which the men supposed to be preparations 
for a countercharge, but it was probably a ruse. Instantly 
the men were on their feet, when a volley was fired by the 
enemy which killed Captain Charles H. Chatfield, of 
Company D, and several enlisted men of the Eighty- 
fifth. About this time entrenching tools arrived, and a 
permanent line of works was erected, the flanks of the 
brigade being slightly retired to meet connecting lines 
on the right and left. And night and day the fight was 
continued over the narrow strip of ground, the firing 
being almost constant, and the men at all times ready to 
repel a countercharge, an emergency that might arise at 
any moment. 

On the 29th a truce was arranged, lasting from 9 
a. m. to 4 p. m., under which we were allowed to gather 



188 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. Ju ne, 18W. 

and bury our dead between the lines. Unarmed guards 
detailed from each side were stationed in two lines facing 
inwardly, to prevent the passing of other than the burial 
party working between. News of the truce soon spread, 
and our works were filled with armed men from all the 
commands in the vicinity. The rebel works were also 
crowded with spectators, who gathered from far and near 
to witness the unusual spectacle. Generals Cheatham, 
Terrill and Maney circulated freely between the lines, 
although this was in direct violation of the terms of the 
truce. Newspapers, coffee and tobacco were exchanged, 
and much good-natured chaff and gossip were indulged 
in among the men. But there came a time when, for the 
moment, things began to wear a serious aspect. Some of 
the rebels began to gather up the arms lying between the 
lines, with the intention of carrying them away. Against 
this violation of the truce our men protested, and the 
situation was becoming ugly, when Colonel Dilworth 
appeared upon the scene. He said to the men engaged 
in dispute, "These guns belong to the side that finally 
holds the ground ; they have not been captured yet ; pos- 
sibly they may not be ; let them remain where they now 
are until the fight is ended, then whoever holds the 
ground will get the guns." This was a proposition so 
fair that the men accepted, and the arms remained on the 
field, until there was no one to question their ownership. 
During the truce we learned that the troops in our 
front belonged to Cheatham's division of Hardee's corps, 
under the immediate command of General George 
Maney. His command had occupied the works since 
the igth, and was composed of the following regiments: 
The First, Fourth, Sixth, Ninth, Nineteenth and Twen- 



June, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 189 

ty-Seventh Tennessee, which were among the oldest reg- 
iments in the Confederate service. 

When the truce expired a soldier stood on our works 
and fired a single shot in the air, then dropped back into 
the trench. This was the signal agreed upon to end the 
truce, and firing was at once resumed along the entire 
line. It was, indeed, a strange sight. During the truce 
all was peace and apparent amity, but as soon as the last 
sad service the living can render to the dead had been 
performed, both sides resumed their efforts to kill, and 
maim, and cripple. 

Standing midway between the works was a large tree 
with a double trunk, which was used by us as an outpost, 
two or three men being stationed behind its ample body. 
In broad daylight on the afternoon of the 3Oth a man in 
Federal uniform, mess-pan in hand, climbed deliberately 
over our works and walked forward as if intent upon 
joining his comrades at the outpost. But instead of 
stopping there he passed to one side and with several 
bounds leaped the rebel works. No one had time to 
realize that he was a spy until his perilous journey was 
completed, and he landed in safety among his friends. 
It was a daring feat, but it may well be doubted if the in- 
formation gained justified the risk assumed. 

It was soon evident that both sides improved the 
opportunity afforded by the truce to plan for future de- 
fense and aggression. On the night after the truce the 
enemy, by the use of ropes, threw over their works a con- 
tinuous line of chevaux-de-frise, in front of the Third 
brigade, and at night from this on illuminated the space 
between the lines with fire-balls of cotton soaked in tur- 
pentine or tar. On our side it was determined to estab- 



190 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. June, 1*. 

lish an advance line some ten yards higher on the hillside, 
and by daybreak on the 3Oth this work was completed. 
At this point mining was determined on, and with such 
tools as were available the work began. But the tools 
were unsuitable ; the work new to the men, and our prog- 
ress slow, yet by persistent effort the main entrance was 
opened for quite a distance. But fortunately this mine 
was not destined to be sprung. 

Early on Sunday morning, July 3rd, after an unusual 
period of quiet, a voice from the front called out : "Say, 
Yanks, don't shoot; I want to come in; they're all gone." 
Of course no one would shoot at the bearer of such good 
news, and the "Johnny" quickly crossed over the lighted 
space. The retreat of the enemy was not entirely unex- 
pected, and after a hasty examination of the deserter, a 
line of skirmishers moved forward and occupied the 
silent works. The line advanced with caution at first, 
fearing some ruse; but the enemy had indeed gone, and 
the advance reached Marietta about daylight. The re- 
treat had been made deliberately and without the loss of 
material. 

The loss of the Third brigade in this assault was two 
commanders and four hundred and seventeen officers 
and men out of some 1,400 taken into the action. The 
loss in the Second brigade was three hundred and ninety- 
four officers and men making a total loss in the Second 
division of eight hundred and eleven in killed and 
wounded. The loss in Newton's division numbered six 
hundred and fifty-four killed and wounded, and one bri- 
gade commander, General C. G. Harker, who fell mor- 
tally wounded. 

In this action we witnessed for the first time the 



June, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 191 

wonderful possibilities of the repeating rifle. A few men 
in the Third brigade had armed themselves at their own 
expense with the Henry rifle, a magazine gun, carrying 
sixteen shots. And it cannot be doubted that the rapid, 
accurate fire from these guns was an important factor in 
enabling the men to hold and fortify a line so close to the 
enemy's main line of works. 

Our gallant commander, Colonel McCook, was taken 
to his home in Steubenville, Ohio, where he died on the 
1 7th of July at the early age of thirty years. He entered 
the service in May, 1861, as captain of Company H, First 
Kansas infantry.* After serving as staff officer of divis- 
ion for a time he was commissioned colonel and led the 
Fifty-second Ohio infantry to the field. At the organi- 
zation of the Third brigade, of which his regiment was a 
part, he was assigned to command the brigade, which he 
led with distinguished skill and courage for two years, to 
finally fall at its head, in its most desperate and daring 
undertaking. The day before his death, this former law 
partner of General Sherman and fellow-townsman of 
Secretary Stanton received from the latter a brevet of 
brigadier general. This tardy and miserly recognition 
of his services he wrathfully and unceremoniously re- 
jected. So to us, who knew him best and followed him 
so long, he will always remain Colonel McCook.** 

During the six days' fighting at Kennesaw mountain 
the Eighty-fifth sustained the following 

CASUALTIES. 
FIELD AND STAFF. 

WOUNDED Adjutant Clark N. Andrus, died July 23rd, and Ser- 
geant Major William S. Allen. 

* Wilder's Annals of Kansas, page 277. 

**Captain F. B. James, of the 52nd Ohio, in a paper read before 
the Loyal Legion of Ohio, entitled, "McCook's Brigade at Kenne- 
saw." 



192 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. June, 1864. 

COMPANY A. 

WOUNDED Corporal Calvin W. Boon, James M. Bradburn, Jr., 
David Kratzer, and Henry R. Streeter. 

COMPANY B. 

WOUNDED Captain James R. Griffith, Sergeant Thornton S. 
Pierce, Corporal David Sigley, Simon Burkholder, Joseph H. 
Fitch, and Alvro C. Mintonye. 

COMPANY C. 

KILLED Sergeant John H. Duvall, Sergeant Henry H. Buck, 
Sergeant James Leeper, James L. Burnett, and John H. Tomlin. 

WOUNDED Corporal Andrew J. Opdyke, William D. Alkire, 
Jeremiah Dietrich, Daniel Daugherty, Green B. Lane, George 
W. Moslander, William H. Neeley, and James K. Young. 

COMPANY D. 

KILLED Captain Charles H. Chatfield. 

WOUNDED Isaac Layman, Hugh Morgan, John J. Murphy, Will- 
iam H. Morgan, Oliver W. Parks, Nathaniel S. Rochester, 
William Rhineders, and John Scholes. 

COMPANY E. 

KILLED J. C. Miller, and George Watterman. 
WOUNDED Captain Pleasant S. Scott, John H. Arnold, Andrew 
Robinson, and James E. Thomas. 

COMPANY F. 

KILLED D. A. Brandon, Alexander Hodge, and Matt. Riley. 

WOUNDED Captain John Kennedy, James F. Burt, and Barn- 
hart Noblack. 

COMPANY G. 

KILLED Sergeant W. Irving Shannon, Sergeant Daniel G. Long- 
fellow, Berry Prentice, Horace J. Snodgrass, James Shields, 
Francis M. Severns, and Corporal John Shores. 

WOUNDED Captain Henry S. LaTourrette, First Lieutenant 
John M. Robertson, Second Lieutenant D. L. Musselman, Ser- 
geant Lewis P. Wright, Corporal Alexander R. Tidrick, Silas 
Dodge, and Corporal Peter Rever, who fell into the hands of 
the enemy and died in rebel prison. 

COMPANY H. 

KILLED Sergeant Eli Shields, Corporal Elisha J. Elliott, and 
John M. Saffer. 



June, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 193 

WOUNDED Corporal George H. Wetzel, John D. Fenton, John 
R. Powell, John A. Thompson, William Severns, and Frederick 
T. Zellers, who fell inside the enemy's works and was held in 
reibel prisons until the close of the war. 

COMPANY I. 
KILLED Austin Walker. 
WOUNDED Charles G. Matthews and John Watson. 

COMPANY K. 

KILLED Corporal James Jimmison, and Conrad Nuhn. 
WOUNDED Corporal George Hetzeler, George Drake, Henry F. 
Molenbrink, and Jacob H. Prettyman. 

Note Colonel Dilworth filed with his official report, a list giv- 
ing the names of the killed and wounded in the Eighty-fifth in the 
Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, but this list has been lost, and the 
list here printed probably does not contain all the names of the 
wounded. But in presenting the above, the writer believes it to be 
as near complete as can be hoped for at this late day. 



194 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. July, 1864. 

CHAPTER XVI. 



Pursuit of the rebel army began early on the morn- 
ing of the 3rd, but the Second division did not move until 
eight o'clock. So the men improved the early hours of 
a quiet Sunday in examining the enemy's abandoned 
works. The entrenched line was found very strong and 
admirably constructed for defense, with traverses, and 
lunettes for artillery which commanded the entire front. 
On the narrow field between the lines effects of the 
deadly struggle were seen on every hand. A tree almost 
as large as a man's body was girdled except some three 
inches in width and smaller ones were entirely cut off by 
rifle balls about six feet above the ground. 

The division moved to the right of Marietta on by- 
ways, and in the evening the First brigade closed down 
on the enemy's works on Nickajack creek. The Eighty- 
fifth camped after a march of six miles in a pleasant, well- 
shaded grove, where we remained the next day. This 
was a genuine Fourth of July in its noise, but the firing 
was of shotted cannon, and in place of the harmless fire- 
cracker, was heard the rattle of musketry throughout the 
day. The men had grown thin and haggard under the 
strain of the continuous campaign, and very many then 
on duty were really fit subjects for the hospital. No 
clothing had been issued, and nearly all were mud- 
stained and ragged. But all were confident, determined, 
and no one found fault. 

On the morning of the 5th the enemy's works were 
again found deserted, and we advanced some five miles 
toward the railroad bridge over the Chattahoochee river. 



j.ly,186t. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 195 

Here the division was formed with the Second and Third 
brigades in front, and a strong line of skirmishers from 
the One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Illinois drove the 
enemy in confusion to his main line of works. The other 
regiments of the brigade followed and threw up works 
during the night. At this place the brigade was formed 
in single line, behind strong earthworks, in order to give 
ample strength to flanking columns ; one to feign on the 
right, while the other should effect a crossing of the river 
on the left. At this place our skitmish line ran through 
open fields, while that of the enemy was on much higher 
ground and in dense timber. The men established a line 
of detached rifle pits, each large enough to protect six or 
eight men, but the position was a most trying one, espe- 
cially during the day, on account of the scorching sun. 
At all times the enemy from higher ground, completely 
screened by thick timber, could rake the line as well as 
the ground in the rear, with a deadly fire at short range. 

While the division kept up a sharp skirmish and 
heavy artillery fire along its extended front, a column of 
cavalry pushed northeast to Roswell, where were numer- 
ous cotton, wool and paper mills engaged in manufactur- 
ing supplies for the Confederate armies. These were 
taken and destroyed. On the 8th a part of the Army of 
the Ohio effected a crossing by the use of pontoon boats 
near the mouth of Soap creek. This force was quickly 
entrenched, when a pontoon bridge was laid, and soon a 
large part of Sherman's army was wheeling toward 
Atlanta. This successful manoeuvre turned General 
Johnston's right, and during the night of the Qth he with- 
drew his army from tne north bank of the Chattahoo- 
chee. The forenoon of the loth was exceedingly hot 



196 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. j u i y , 1864. 

and sultry. In the evening a sudden and terrific thun- 
der storm broke over the camp. The lightning played 
most vividly and several trees were struck in the imme- 
diate vicinity, two men being killed by a single bolt in a 
regiment near by. The storm, which did not last long, 
cleared the air, but the men were badly used up and glad 
when it was over. We remained in camp near the rail- 
road bridge for several days ; a limited supply of much- 
needed clothing was brought up and issued, and there 
was a general cleaning up of arms and accoutrements. 

On Sunday, the 17th, the First and Second brigades 
crossed the Chattahoochee river at Pace's ferry and 
drove the enemy's pickets to and beyond Nancy's creek. 
On the 1 8th the Third brigade crossed the river before 
daylight and, taking the advance of the division, the 
skirmishers from the Twenty-second Indiana drove the 
enemy to Peach Tree creek, near Howell's mill. The 
Second division was now the extreme right of the army, 
and so remained throughout the battles of the next few 
days. 

The enemy destroyed the bridges as he retired be- 
yond Peach Tree creek, and the forenoon of the iQth was 
spent in searching for a place where that stream could be 
crossed. The weather was very warm, and the brigade 
moved slowly, making many short stops. There were 
occasional shots, and rifle balls fell about or whizzed 
harmlessly overhead. At each brief halt the men busied 
themselves gathering the fresh ripe blackberries that 
grew in great abundance by the roadside. As we 
neared the creek General Thomas, General Palmer and 
General Davis were seen standing near the line of march. 
The presence of these distinguished officers was accepted 



July, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 197 

as a certain indication that the enterprise the command 
was about to undertake was one of vital importance. As 
the Eighty-fifth passed the group, a well-spent ball 
struck the boot of General Davis, making his foot sting 
for a moment, and his companions rallied him on getting 
the first hit. 

At one o'clock a foot-log was found over which the 
troops could be passed, and Major J. T. Holmes, in com- 
mand of five companies of the Fifty-second Ohio, crossed 
Peach Tree creek. This was at a point near the mouth 
of Green Bone creek, and a short distance beyond the 
crossing was a bluff some fifty feet in height, on which 
the enemy's skirmish line rested. Major Holmes de- 
ployed his skirmishers in the bushes to the right and 
down the stream, and as soon as his reserve reached the 
south bank, all dashed forward with a shout and drove 
the enemy from the crest of the bluff and some four hun- 
dred yards beyond. The sharp, continuous firing gave 
notice that there was hot work on hand, and the Eighty- 
fifth was hurried to the support of the Fifty-second. 
Crossing a stream in single file on a log takes time, but as 
all realized the emergency the men passed rapidly over ; 
ran eagerly up the bluff, and into line at the top. In 
front of the regiment as it formed on the crest, lay an 
open field, and beyond that was thick timber. By the 
time the rear files of the Eighty-fifth reached the regi- 
mental line the enemy had caught his wit and wind, and, 
in overwhelming numbers, was making a return charge 
on the Fifty-second. It was the supreme moment the 
crisis of the day, and Major Rider gave the order for the 
Eighty-fifth to advance. The men rushed forward under 
a terrific fire, passed through the open field on the double 



198 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. Ju i y , im. 

quick, and struck the advancing enemy at the edge of the 
woods. This brought the Eighty-fifth in line on the left 
of the Fifty-second. Two small regiments were now 
face to face with a rebel brigade of six regiments, and 
along the entire line the firing became fierce and deadly. 
On the right of the Eighty-fifth it was a desperate hand- 
to-hand conflict, in which muskets were clubbed and the 
bayonet was freely used. While engaged in this deadly 
struggle a large force of the enemy passed beyond the 
right of the Fifty-second, then wheeling to the right it 
poured a wicked fire lengthwise of the line. The ad- 
vanced position of the two regiments was clearly unten- 
able, but it was now a fight for time, in which the other 
regiments of the brigade might make the crossing and 
gain the crest of the bluff. No command was given, and 
if given, none could have been heard above the infernal 
din of battle. But the instinct of self-preservation was 
strong enough to tell experienced soldiers what to do, 
and when they saw the brigade formed .and ready to re- 
ceive the enemy on the bluff, the movement to the rear 
began at almost the same moment along the entire line. 
There was no panic no rout, as the men retired by the 
right and left behind the brigade, but their ranks were 
sadly thinned, and along the line of fierce conflict win- 
drows of dead were afterward found, in which the ming- 
ling of the blue and gray attested the stubborn nature of 
the fight. When darkness ended the struggle the entire 
brigade had been engaged. But we held the ground, 
and had secured for Sherman's army a safe footing on the 
south side of Peach Tree creek. 

After dark as the regiment gathered on the bank of 
the creek there was many a hearty handshake as com- 



July, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 199 

rades greeted those whom they feared had been killed or 
captured, and many anxious inquiries for those not in 
line. While thus engaged Lieutenant Musselman, of 
Company G, and others ran back into our line unhurt. 
At the end of the charge they found themselves close 
under the guns of the enemy, and under fire from both 
friend and foe. In this dilemma they dropped to the 
ground and remained between the lines until darkness 
afforded them an opportunity to escape from a very try- 
ing and perilous position. Their coming was a delight- 
ful surprise, and produced a sensation not unlike that 
which the returning dead might be expected to create. 

The engagement was fought out by the Third bri- 
gade alone, while the First and Second, with the batter- 
ies, were massed in reserve on the north side of the creek. 
General Jefferson C. Davis, commanding the division, 
was greatly pleased with the success gained, and in his 
official report said : "The loss was heavy on both sides 
considering the numbers engaged, and the day's work 
was exceedingly creditable to both Colonel Dilworth and 
his command."* Major J. T. Holmes, commanding the 
Fifty-second Ohio, said: "Without the Eighty-fifth 
Illinois, the Fifty-second Ohio would all have been killed 
or captured, and that movement would have failed. I 
mean by the statement to say, with emphasis, that if the 
part taken by your regiment in that day's work had been 
omitted, the crossing would have ended in disaster and 
failure."** 

During the night earthworks were thrown up and 
the ground gained south of the creek was firmly secured. 

* Rebellion Records, Serial No. 72, page 635. 

** Letter from Major J. T. Holmes, of Columbus, Ohio, to the 
writer, January 20th, 1896. 



200 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. July, 1864. 

The Second brigade built a bridge that night, a log 
house near by furnishing the material, and early next 
morning the entire division with its artillery was united 
on the south side of the stream. While engaged in build- 
ing the bridge some of the men observed the body of a 
beardless boy floating in the creek. He had been shot 
through the body and fallen unnoticed by his comrades 
into the stream. He was clothed in the faded blue uni- 
form of a private soldier of the Union, but beyond that 
nothing could be found to identify him in any way. So 
he was buried in a nameless grave, hero that he was, to lie 
among the unknown dead, while the only report that 
could ever reach his northern friends was that on the 
1 9th of July, 1864, he was numbered with the missing. 

That night the enemy covered his front with a line of 
detached works, and behind each stationed a group of 
eight or ten men. Although these works had been 
hastily constructed of fence rails and but lightly covered 
with earth, they afforded ample protection against mus- 
ketry, arid being within short range the enemy's fire was 
very severe for a time. But by ten o'clock two sections 
of Gardner's battery were brought up by hand, and with 
the aid of sharp-shooters quickly drove the enemy from 
his works. In this action there were many fine shots. 
After obtaining the exact range, Captain Gardner never 
failed to plant a shell in one of these detached works, and 
when the shell burst {hose unhurt ran for the rear in the 
wildest confusion. But the accurate aim of our men 
allowed but few of the enemy to escape. 

The writer is indebted to Surgeon Philip L. Dieffen- 
bacher for a list of the killed, wounded and captured in 
the Eighty-fifth. And as he compiled the list on the 




JOSEPH S. BARWICK, 

CHAPLAIN*. 



201 



July, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 203 

field at Peach Tree creek, it is undoubtedly as nearly cor- 
rect as such lists can be made : 

COMPANY A. 

KILLED Charles W. Reagan and Philip Sanit. 

WOUNDED John F. Anno, William Bortzfield, John Bortziield, 
Jr., and First Sergeant John K. Milner. 

CAPTURED First Lieutenant Daniel Havens, Sergeant Josiah 
Stout, Sergeant William McLaughlin, Sergeant Newton King, 
Corporal Alonzo McCain, Benjamin E. Jordan, Dallas A. Trent 
and David Wood. 

COMPANY B. 

KILLED First Sergeant George D. Prior, Corporal John John- 
ston, Corporal Warren Tippey, David Cornman, Amos Eveland, 
Bazil Cozad and Charles Spink. 

WOUNDED First Lieutenant Albert D. Cadwallader, right arm 
amputated; Sergeant John H. Cleveland, right arm amputated; 
Sergeant Charles T. Kisler, Sergeant Thomas Cluney, Oliver P. 
Behymer, William Buffalow, William D. Holmes, Corporal 
David Sigley and Joshua T. Singletpn. 

CAPTURED Corporal David S.igley, William Buffalow, Jesse 
Bailor, Charles D. Dair, Stephen H. Nott, John H. O'Leary, 
Joshua T. Singleton, William B. Winchell and George Winchell. 

COMPANY C. 

WOUNDED Edwin M. Hadsall, Corporal Andrew McClarin, 
Aaron Ritter, Corporal Thomas Stagg, Jeremiah Wagoner and 
Thomas M. Young. 

CAPTURED Captain George A. Blanchard, First Lieutenant 
James M. Hamilton, First Sergeant John Houseworth, Sergeant 
George Black, Corporals Andrew McClarin, Thomas Stagg and 
Jeremiah Holley, Corporal William D. Allure, Michael Atchin- 
son, David Bradford, James M. Gardner, Louis Ishmael, George 
W. Moslander, John W. Mosier, Sterling Pelham, Aaron Ritter, 
Benjamin F. Scovil, John Stubblefield, William A. Tyrrell and 
Thomas M. Young. 

COMPANY D. 

KILLED Cadmus Floro and James H. Welch. 

WOUNDED Sergeant Miles McCabe, Corporal Joseph B. Conover 
and Noah Davis. 

CAPTURED Corporal Joseph Conover, lost right arm; Joseph 
Larance and John Sizelove. 
13 



204 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. Ju i y , 1864. 

COMPANY E. 

WOUNDED First Lieutenant Hugh A. Trent, First Sergeant A. 
J. Taylor, Color Sergeant William F. Hohamer, Corporal Bowl- 
ing Green, Corporal Ezekiel Sample, Corporal James N. Sheets, 
John H. Arnold, Richard Griffin, Franklin F. Scott, James T. 
Senter and James E. Thomas. 

CAPTURED Color Sergeant William F. Hohamer, Corporal 
James N. Sheets and William Clarey. 
COMPANY F. 
KILLED Captain John Kennedy, Corporal Philip Beck and 

Maurice Landerer. 

WOUNDED Corporal Nathan Kellogg, Color Corporal Edward 
Scattergood, William Dean, Americus Hinsey, Reuben Hamil- 
ton, B. F. Varnum and Jacob Whittaker. 

CAPTURED Corporal Edward Scattergood, Corporal Nathan 
Kellogg, John J. Clark and Joel F. Terry. 

COMPANY G. 
WOUNDED Francis M. Plank. 

COMPANY H. 
WOUNDED Eli Severns. 

The losses in the Third brigade were as follows: 

Twenty-second Indiana 57 

Fifty-second Ohio 83 

Eighty-fifth Illinois 89 

Eighty-sixth Illinois 10 

One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Illinois 6 

Total ., ..245 



July, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 205 

CHAPTER XVII. 



The desperate fighting along the line of Peach Tree 
creek on the iQth and 2Oth was the result of an elaborate 
plan prepared by General Johnston before he retired to 
the south side of the Chattahoochee river. In pursu- 
ance of this plan he selected a position for his army on 
the high ground south of the creek, which he made very 
strong by elaborate earthworks. From these earth- 
works he proposed to direct his army in swift attack 
against the different columns of Sherman's army while 
in the act of crossing v broad and muddy stream. Know- 
ing the difficult and densely wooded country by occupa- 
tion, and well aware that his adversary must depend 
upon imperfect maps. General Johnston relied with con- 
fidence on the chance of dealing a crushing blow. Then 
while the Federal army was surprised and thrown in con- 
fusion by this unexpected attack, he hoped to drive it 
over the creek and throw its scattered columns into the 
river beyond. It was a bold plan, and if successfully 
executed would not only defeat, 'but destroy the Union 
army, while if it failed he had, as he thought, a place of 
refuge in Atlanta. He believed the defenses around the 
"Gate City," which had been skillfully planned and 
strongly constructed, were too extensive to be invested, 
and too strong to be carried by storm. 

But General Johnston was not to be permitted to 
execute the plan of offense his genius had conceived. By 
an order of the Confederate President he was relieved on 
the 1 7th. Since that date a new commander, General J. 
B. Hood, had directed the movements of the rebel army. 



206 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. Ju iy, 1864. 

The plan devised by General Johnston was, however, 
well calculated to tempt the reckless energies of a com- 
mander as daring as General Hood, and he proceeded 
to its execution with all the resources at his command. 
In his initial effort General Hood was favored with the 
most fortunate conditions, and his attack fell on the 
Army of the Cumberland while it was far from the sup- 
port of either the Army of the Ohio or the Army of the 
Tennessee. 

The movement against Atlanta was a grand right 
wheel, with the Fourteenth corps as a pivot. Early on 
the morning of the 2Oth the Fourth and Twentieth 
corps, connected with the Fourteenth on the south side 
of the creek, having met but little opposition in cross- 
ing. About ten o'clock skirmishers advanced along 
the entire front, capturing many prisoners. Many of 
these were pretended deserters, who reported that their 
army had fallen back to the fortifications around the city. 
These men had been sent into our lines with a false re- 
port, in order to render the intended surprise complete, 
and to make the impending rebel assault more certain of 
success. But it is very difficult to surprise and put to 
rout a veteran army of fifty thousand men, and although 
its left flank was exposed, and the rear of its column was 
still crossing the creek, it was ready for instant battle. 

Early in the afternoon the enemy rushed from the 
woods, behind which his charging columns had been 
massed, and assailed the left flank of the Army of the 
Cumberland. His preparations had been carefully con- 
cealed and his assault was delivered with desperate, per- 
sistent energy under the most favorable conditions. 
Charge after charge was made and repulsed, but when 



July, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 207 

his whole line came into action and his full strength had 
been developed, his charging masses only reached within 
cannon range of Baird's division, next on our left. At 
last, when darkness put an end to the sanguinary con- 
flict, the enemy retired from the field. In this day's bat- 
tle the enemy lost 4,400 in killed and wounded and 1,600 
prisoners, while the Union loss in killed, wounded, and 
captured numbered but 1,707. 

All accounts agree in saying this was intended for a 
decisive engagement. The order given to the troops 
by the rebel officers directed them to attack whatever 
they might find in front of them, and urged them to end 
the campaign in triumph there. It seemed to them the 
opportune moment, one for which they had long waited, 
but the result was a crushing defeat with an enormous 
loss. And at no time did the blow intended to initiate 
the ruin of Sherman's army engage more than one-third 
of his force. But the advance of Sherman's left wing 
was so rapid on that day, that the rebel commander 
found just cause for alarm on the east side of the city. 
Indeed, before the battle ended on the evening of the 
2Oth, Hood had to send reinforcements to his right to 
keep General McPherson out of Atlanta. 

On the morning of the 2oth, the One Hundred and 
Tenth Illinois, Lieutenant Colonel Topping command- 
ing, joined the brigade and was assigned to a position on 
the right of the line. From the beginning of the cam- 
paign this regiment had been detached from the brigade 
for train guard and for duty at division headquarters. 
But from this date until the end of the campaign no regi- 
ment was absent from the brigade. 

On the morning of the 22nd it was found that the 



208 HISTORY OF THE 85TH II^INOIS. July, 1864. 

enemy had retired from our front, and the division 
moved forward, closing down on the enemy's works on 
the west side of Atlanta about noon. The division 
formed a line parallel with the road from Atlanta to Tur- 
ner's ferry, and just beyond Proctor's creek, fronting to 
the southwest. The left of the division was within a mile 
and a half of the city, and still being the right of the 
whole army, the position was made secure by strong 
earthworks. Our batteries were now within easy range 
of the city, and shells could be seen bursting among the 
buildings. Soon after going into position at this point, 
we could hear the roar of a furious battle almost opposite 
our front, but beyond the city. In this heavy engage- 
ment the Eighty-fifth had no part. It transpired that 
General Hood had sent a part of his army far out to his 
right and turned the Union left, and we lay in line anx- 
iously awaiting the result of the terrible struggle, in 
which General McPherson, commanding the Army of 
the Tennessee, had fallen early. Again Hood was de- 
feated with heavy loss. This time the enemy lost 8,000 
in killed and wounded, and 2,000 prisoners, making an 
aggregate loss of 10,000 men. 

The total loss in the National army was three 
thousand, five hundred and twenty-one killed, wounded 
and missing. At first fortune favored the skillful tac- 
tical combinations of the enemy, which were made with 
care and executed with precision, and the Union army 
was temporarily thrown into confusion. But soon the 
wavering lines were strengthened, and after a desperate 
struggle the tide was turned and the enemy was driven 
back into his works close to the city. This second de- 
feat of a long cherished plan should have convinced the 



July, 1864 ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 209 

enemy that he was not strong enough to cope with our 
army in the open field. But General Hood had been 
placed in command by the Confederate authorities, be- 
cause of his reputation for reckless courage, and before 
he settled down to the defensive tactics, so long pursued 
by his predecessor, he led his army to another bloody 
defeat. 

The rebel column which turned the Union left in this 
battle was led by the author of Hardee's Tactics. This 
work was used by both sides until late in the war. The 
manoeuvre by which General Hardee withdrew his com- 
mand from the front of our right, and formed it in posi- 
tion to attack the rear of the left wing of the Union 
army, was as fine as any of the flanking operations of 
either side throughout the war. The night was dark 
and the distance his troops had to march was fully fifteen 
miles, and the heat was most intense. Yet he had his col- 
umn closed up, his line of battle formed, and had begun 
his attack before a man in Sherman's army knew of his 
approach. Certainly there was no more skillful move- 
ment, no tactical combination executed with greater pre- 
cision on either side, in the long months of the Atlanta 
campaign. 

In order to make a strong right flank for the army, 
the First and Second brigades of the Second division 
were refused and threw up very strong works, while the 
Third brigade was placed in reserve on the right rear of 
the Proctor's creek line. The Eighty-fifth remained at 
this point in comparative quiet for several days. A con- 
stant skirmish was kept up between the lines, and now 
and then a huge shell from the siege guns in the enemy's 
works would pass through the camp or tear branches 



210 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS, July, 1864. 

from the trees. One regiment was detailed from the 
brigade to picket the right and rear each day. Black- 
berries were found in great profusion, growing wild in 
the woods. These, when stewed with our hard bread, 
made a somewhat novel but very palatable dish. But 
the great number of men, all ravenously hungry for fruit 
or berries of any kind, soon exhausted the supply, and 
men wandered in search of berries too far from camp for 
safety. Some such paid the penalty by serving a term in 
the prison pen at Andersonville, where the living was 
much worse than with our army. 

General Sherman's purpose in moving the Army of 
the Tennessee upon Atlanta from the east was to so 
thoroughly destroy the Augusta railroad as lo prevent 
its use by the enemy during his operations for the cap- 
ture of the city. As soon, therefore, as the Georgia 
railroad had been destroyed far enough east to prevent 
its use, and his own line of supplies repaired, he began 
to thrust his right flank toward the railroads leading 
south to Macon and southwest to Montgomery. The 
enemy was now wholly dependent upon the two last 
named roads for his supplies, and when the Union army 
should be placed securely upon them, the enemy must 
retire or surrender. 

Wednesday, the 27th, the railway from Chattanooga 
was in running order to the camps of the Army of the 
Cumberland, the high bridge over the Chattahoochee 
having been rebuilt in six days. General Sherman was 
now ready for a new movement of his infantry by the 
right flank, and the Army of the Tennessee began to 
move by successive corps from the extreme left to the 
extreme right. By the next morning that army occu- 



July, 18M. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 211 

pied a position facing the city from the west on a pro- 
longation of the general line of the Army of the Cum- 
berland. This brought the left of the Sixteenth corps 
in front of the Second division, which had inclined 
sharply to the rear. 

About nine o'clock on the morning of the 28th the 
skirmish fire began to warm up, and we observed signs 
of approaching battle. But to the surprise of all the 
Second division moved away from the front and 
marched at a rapid pace to Turner's ferry. From there 
it moved on a road leading to East Point on the Macon 
railroad. On this woods road the advance soon en- 
countered the enemy, and heavy skirmishing began. 
From one position the enemy was driven, only to be 
found in another, until late in the afternoon. For sev- 
eral hours we could hear the roar of battle in the direc- 
tion from which we had moved in the morning, but 
about the time the noise of battle ceased the enemy dis- 
appeared from our front, and the command moved in the 
direction of our former camp. During the day the heat 
was excessive ; the night was very dark ; we got tangled 
up in a swamp, where the marching was of the worst, and 
finally camped at midnight on the edge of the battlefield 
of Ezra Church. Some one had blundered. The men 
were mad, tired and hungry, and they came straggling 
in, making the night air streaked with the most lurid 
profanity. They did not know who had caused the 
eccentric movement of the day, nor on whom to fix their 
curse. So they consigned every one from the com- 
manding general down who might be suspected of hav- 
ing any connection with that day's march, either direct 
or remote, to the sulphurous flames of a Hadean future, 



212 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. July, 1864. 

together with their heirs, administrators and assigns 
forever. 

Whoever wrote the order should have written 
"toward" Turner's ferry, instead of which he wrote "to" 
Turner's ferry.* In obedience to the express terms of 
the order the division was marched to the ferry, several 
miles too far to the rear to permit it to join General 
Howard's right in time to take part in the battle at Ezra 
Church. The mistake was in the order, and no blame 
could be attached to the division commander under 
whose direction it was executed. 

The next morning the battlefield around Ezra 
Church presented a sickening sight. Almost seven hun- 
dred dead Confederates were scattered over the field in 
front of the Fifteenth corps. The ground occupied 
during the battle by that corps was a high ridge and the 
sloping ground in its front was dotted over with open 
fields. As the charging columns of the enemy ad- 
vanced they met a murderous, well-directed fire which 
no troops could stand. In conversation with the men 
who bore the brunt of the fight on this line, they told the 
writer "That to repulse the enemy was as easy as lying ; 
that each attack was less vigorous than the one before it, 
and that in the last attack officers were seen in front of 
their commands urging troops to advance that would no 
longer follow them. 1 ' In this the last of the desperate 



* July28th,1864. 

Major General George H. Thomas. 

Order General Davis to move to Turner's ferry, and then by a 
road leading toward East Point, to feel forward for Howard's 
right, back into some known point of Turner's ferry. I will be 
over on that flank all day and await to reach out as far as possible. 

W. T. SHERMAN, Major-General. 

Rebellion Records, No. 72, page 650. 



August, 186+. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 213 

assaults of the new commander of the rebel army, he lost 
in killed, wounded and missing fully five thousand men. 

General Hood tried the bold offensive on three sep- 
arate occasions with the energy born of despair. The 
loss of more than twenty thousand men in but little more 
than a week was looked upon as a useless sacrifice by the 
rank and file of the Confederate army. These bloody 
defeats coming in quick succession could but have a dis- 
couraging effect on the bravest men. It was the camp 
talk at the time, that in the chaffing between the pickets, 
the rebel soldier in answer to the question, "Well, 
Johnny, how many of you are left?" replied, "Oh! about 
enough for another killing." This was a severe judg- 
ment on the reckless efforts of their new commander and 
especially severe when coming from men whose fighting 
qualities were unexcelled. 

On the afternoon of the 29th the division moved into 
position on the right of the Army of the Tennessee, and 
for the next few days our duties were various. We 
entrenched several lines and took ground to the right at 
each change of position. On August 4th the entire 
division advanced some three miles to the right and 
front, going into position that evening on Utoy creek, 
the Third brigade connecting with General Baird on the 
left. This day had been set apart by the President as a 
day of fasting and prayer, but we ate all we could get and 
had our usual daily controversy with the enemy. That 
night the Eighty-fifth went on picket. 

At daylight Thursday, the 5th, the advance began 
with the Eighty-fifth on the skirmish line. Soon the 
enemy was encountered in the heavy timber and thick 
underbrush, and the fight was on. After driving the 



214 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. August, 1864. 

enemy a mile or more and capturing a number of pris- 
oners, we ran up against his main line near the Sandtown 
road. The enemy opened from three batteries on our 
right, left and front. To this heavy concentrated fire we 
could make no successul reply, as the dense woods 
through which we had moved prevented our batteries 
from following, and for several hours we were subjected 
to a most furious shelling. Unable to return the enemy's 
artillery fire we had to lie down and take it, trusting to 
luck and such scant, uncertain protection as the timber 
afforded. The shot and shell cut the tops out of some 
trees and tore great branches from others, which fell 
around and among us, adding additional terror to the 
bursting shells. However, toward evening the enemy 
seemed to realize that we had come to stay ; his fire slack- 
ened and finally ceased, but it had been a day of great 
peril. 

During the fight Lewis Dial, of Company H, re- 
ceived a gunshot wound, the ball entering below the left 
shoulder blade, and passed entirely through his body. 
The writer saw and talked with him a few minutes after 
he was wounded, and found him full of grit and hopeful 
of a speedy recovery. But his wound, like that of so 
many others, disabled him for life. 

Sunday, the 7th, the division advanced by a left 
wheel, using the Third brigade as a pivot, until the com- 
mand faced northeast. All day long the advance was 
stubbornly contested by infantry and artillery, but after 
a noisy battle the brigade took possession of the Sand- 
town road, and entrenched a strong line across it. In 
the sharp fighting of the day the brigade sustained a loss 
of forty-two in killed and wounded. Among the 



August, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 215 

wounded was Frank Shelly, of Company H, who re- 
ceived a severe wound in the shoulder. 

During the operations against Atlanta there was 
much severe fighting, and a constant skirmish at short 
range was maintained at all times. The danger was 
constant, as bullets and shells passed through or over 
the camp at all hours, and more than once men were 
killed or wounded while asleep, close beside the breast- 
works. The skirmishers had learned how to protect 
themselves, and casualties among them were not very 
numerous. 

In the hope of overlapping the rebel line the divis- 
ion was frequently moved to the right, and the line ex- 
tended to the last degree. In one of these changes the 
Eighty-fifth moved into a line of works built by another 
command. These works were exposed to a fire at short 
range from the enemy, who were concealed by a thick 
curtain of timber. Before the men became familiar with 
the situation, David Taylor, of Company G, received a 
shot in the face. The ball made an ugly wound, but he 
soon recovered and returned to duty. 

The railroads from Atlanta to Montgomery, Ala., 
and to Macon, Ga., run out over a single track to the 
southwest, a distance of eight miles, to East Point, where 
they separate, the former continuing its course nearly 
parallel with the Chattahoochee river, and the latter 
turning away at a right angle to the southeast. During 
the night of the iQth, the First and Third brigades re- 
tired, leaving the Second brigade to occupy the space 
heretofore held by the entire division. The next morn- 
ing our two brigades were reinforced by three brigades 
from the First and Third divisions of our corps, forming 



216 HISTORY OP THE 85TH ILLINOIS. August, law. 

a column of five brigades, and at daylight we moved 
toward Red Oak, the first station beyond East Point, on 
the Montgomery railroad. The Third brigade had the 
advance, with the Twenty-second Indiana as skirmishers. 
The fact that General Thomas went with the column in- 
dicated the importance of the movement. We reached 
the railroad at noon; destroyed some of the track and 
telegraph line ; found the enemy in force in front of East 
Point, and returned to our former position, having 
marched twenty miles. During the day there was a ter- 
-rifiic thunder storm, in which the lightning played most 
vividly, and the rain fell in torrents. 

An incident occurred during the day a capture and 
a rescue which illustrates the danger attending ma- 
noeuvres in the presence of an active and vigilant foe, 
and the courage and prompt action of a soldier of the 
Eighty-fifth. When the brigade moved in the morning 
Captain J. L. Burkhalter, of the Eighty-sixth Illinois, 
assistant inspector general on the brigade staff, was left 
in charge of the lines around the camp. After making 
the rounds and satisfying himself that proper arrange- 
ments had been made for the day, he could not content 
himself in idleness, snd mounting his horse, sought to 
overtake the expedition. This was in disobedience of 
orders, but being neither lazy nor timid, he wanted to see 
and have a part in all that was going on. After riding 
several miles beyond the outposts, the heavy storm men- 
tioned above entirely obliterated the trail of the column. 
This was unfortunate, and for some distance he traveled 
in doubt, but believing that he knew the direction and 
destination of the command, he proceeded until suddenly 
he heard the sharp "click," "click" of the cocking of a 



August, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 217 

musket, and "Surrender, you Yankee son of a ." 

His horse stopped as a rebel stepped from behind a large 
tree, and with a musket at his breast, Captain Burkhalter 
surrendered as gracefully as possible under such embar- 
rassing surroundings. The rebel at once demanded his 
watch and money, but when the captive moved forward 
to hand them over, he was promptly halted and ordered 
to lay them on the ground. When this order had been 
complied with, the prisoner was ordered to one side 
while the booty was secured by his captor. Then the 
prisoner was ordered to mount and ride in front, neither 
too fast nor too slow, toward the lines of the enemy. All 
the time the rebel, who was on foot, covered the prisoner 
with his gun cocked and at the ready. They had pro- 
ceeded but a short distance in this way when the rebel 
was himself surprised and captured, and his prisoner res- 
cued in a manner as gratifying as it was unexpected to 
the captain. 

When the object of the expedition had been accom- 
plished, by cutting the telegraph line and destroying the 
railroad for some distance near Red Oak station, Gen- 
eral Morgan wrote a brief report of his success. This 
dispatch was handed to Henry C. Swisher. of Company 
H, of the Eighty-fifth, then an orderly at brigade head- 
quarters, with orders to report to General Davis at divis- 
ion headquarters. By the merest accident the route 
Swisher took on his return to camp crossed the road on 
which the rebel was marching with his captive. When 
the rebel saw Swisher he ordered him to halt, but 
Swisher kept riding on until he came within reach, when 
he seized the rebel's gun, and as he pushed it to one side 
the rebel fired, and started on the run. But Swisher, 



218 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. August, 18W. 

after vainly trying to fire his revolver at the fleeing fugi- 
tive, rode him down, and turned him over to Captain 
Burkhalter, who, with the prisoner, soon after reached 
the head of the returning column. 

Swisher affirms that he is not in the least supersti- 
tious, still he admits that his revolver acted strangely on 
that occasion. It failed him utterly in every effort to fire 
while aimed at the rebel ; this had never happened before, 
and when a few minutes after leaving the scene of his 
adventure he tried it at a tree, his pistol responded as 
promptly as ever before. An example, perhaps, of the 
perverseness of things. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



On the 22nd General Jefferson C. Davis was assigned 
to the command of the Fourteenth corps and General 
James D. Morgan was assigned to the command of the 
Second division. Both were promoted for meritorious 
conduct, and their advancement was alike satisfactory to 
officers and men. General Morgan had been an officer 
in the War with Mexico, and had entered the service in 
1 86 1, as colonel of the Tenth Illinois. He proved to be 
an able and worthy division commander, and held the 
position until the close of the war. 

It appears that General Sherman thought it impos- 
sible for the enemy to extend his line far enough to pro- 
tect the railway junction at East Point. But General 
Morgan's expedition found the enemy in force at that 
place on the 2Oth, and it was finally found that the 
enemy's line,well fortified and firmly held, extended from 




A. D. CADWALLADKR, 

LIEUTENANT COMPANY B. 



219 



Of THE 



August, MM. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 221 

the Decatur road on the east of Atlanta to East Point, a 
distance of fuly fifteen miles. It soon became appar- 
ent that a change of plans was to be made by the com- 
manding general, but what the movement contemplated 
could be no one assumed to know. The sick and those 
not able to mako a long and rapid march were sent to the 
rear, and an air of mystery enveloped all in authority. 
All efforts to take Atlanta or to reach and occupy the 
Macon railroad had failed, but soldiers and officers felt 
no fear that the attempt was to be abandoned. 

Unable to reach the left flank of the rebel army and 
maintain his line of communications, General Sherman 
decided to throw his army upon the Macon railroad. 
The Twentieth cores, with the surplus trains of the army, 
were placed in an entrenched camp at the Chattahoochee 
river, and on the morning of the 26th the grand move- 
ment to the rear r>f Atlanta began. The Fourteenth 
corps held on to the Utoy creek line until all the other 
corps passed to its rear and on toward the coveted rail- 
road. At three o'clock on the morning of the 27th the 
Second division retired from the line at Willis Mills on 
Utoy creek, and marched some two miles southwest, 
where it was massed, and the Eighty-fifth was sent to the 
picket line. In the afternoon the enemy's pickets came 
in sight, but as they maintained an attitude of observa- 
tion at a safe distance they were not molested. The next 
morning we moved to Mount Gilead church, where we 
passed the Fourth corps, and the division again became 
the right flank of the entire army. The enemy was found 
on the south side of Camp creek, but he was quickly dis- 
persed by the skirmishers of the Second brigade. A 
bridge was built, over which we crossed, and the division 

14 



222 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. September, 1864. 

arrived on the Montgomery railroad, one-half mile east 
of Red Oak, that evening. During the 2Qth the com- 
mand was engaged in destroying the railroad, and on the 
next morning we marched to Shoal Creek church, where 
we rested for several hours, the division being massed as 
if an attack was anticipated. In the afternoon the com- 
mand moved to within six miles of Jonesboro, on the 
Macon railroad, and camped for the night. 

Orders were issued to be ready to march at daylight 
on the 3ist, but no movement was made until afternoon. 
About three o'clock the noise of battle was heard in the 
direction of Jonesboro, and the First and Third brigades 
moved rapidly in the direction of the fighting. But the 
firing soon ceased, and the division camped at Renfroes 
cross roads. The enemy had been found in strong force 
at Jonesboro, a small town on the Macon railroad, 
twenty-two miles south of Atlanta, behind heavy earth- 
works. West of the town his line ran nearly north and 
south, but north of the village it made an abrupt turn, 
ran east to the railroad, and beyond that extended some 
distance to the southeast. His entire line was well for- 
tified with artillery at the angles, in position to sweep his 
front, making a very difficult line to carry by direct as- 
sault. During the afternoon the Army of the Tennes- 
see had closed down on the enemy from the west, devel- 
oped his line to the angle north of the town and en- 
trenched a position facing that of the enemy. 

On Thursday morning, September ist, the Four- 
teenth army corps wheeled to the right, using our divis- 
ion as a pivot, with the intention of storming the rebel 
right. The Second division was to keep in touch with 
the left of the Army of the Tennessee. About noon the 



September, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 223 

movement brought the corps in line parallel to the ene- 
my's works north of the town, and it was formed into an 
assaulting column in an old open cotton field. As we 
emerged from the woods just beyond Flint river a shell 
from a rebel battery revealed to us the position of the 
enemy's line. The first shot was succeeded by others in 
quick succession, and as our column formed in full view 
it made an attractive mark for the rebel gunners. Their 
first shots passed over our heads or struck the ground in 
front, but they soon got the range and their shells burst 
around and among us at a lively rate. Our division was 
formed with the Second and Third brigades in front, 
each in two lines, with the batteries in the interval be- 
tween the brigades, while the First brigade was held in 
reserve. The Third brigade had the right of the line and 
was formed in the following order: First line, Twenty- 
second Indiana on the right, the Fifty-second Ohio on 
the left, and the One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Illinois 
in the center, the Eighty-fifth, Eighty-sixth and One 
Hundred and Tenth Illinois forming the second line. 

From our line it was about one thousand yards to 
the rebel batteries in the angle, with a swamp and sev- 
eral deep ditches intervening. As soon as our batteries 
could get into position they opened fire and a furious 
cannonade ensued. To the left as far as we could see 
brigades were massed for a charge, with batteries thun- 
dering from the intervals between them, flags waving 
and flashing in the sunlight, staff officers dashing here 
and there, all made a martial scene grand and inspiring 
in the highest degree. At the command the men moved 
forward with bayonets fixed and their empty guns at the 
right shoulder-shift. 



224 . HISTORY OF THE) 85TH ILLINOIS. September, 1864. 

The swamp and ditches encountered were .so difficult 
to cross that the Second and Third brigades had to move 
by the right flank some distance, and then cross in regi- 
mental column. The crossing was accomplished as rap- 
idly as possible, and the First brigade was brought up 
and placed in the front line on the left of the division. 
All this time the troops were under fire from the rebel 
batteries, and many were killed and wounded by shells. 
The assaulting column was reformed on the slope of a 
hill beyond the swamp, within about two hundred yards 
of the enemy's position. Here the ground offered a 
slight protection, a brief halt was made, and the line rec- 
tified. Soon the bugles sounded the charge, and the 
whole line rushed forward. The enemy, self-confident 
and exultant at our audacity in attacking lines so strong, 
held his musketry fire until we were in short range, when 
his first volley killed and wounded at least one-half the 
men lost in the assault. The fight was short and bloody, 
but his entire line of works was carried. Eight hundred 
and sixty-five officers and men, including one brigade 
commander, were captured in the works. About one 
thousand more were picked up during the night which 
should be credited to the assault. The Second division 
captured two four-gun batteries, one thousand stand of 
small arms and six battle flags. These trophies were 
won at the point of the sword and bayonet, under a furi- 
ous fire of musketry, on ground swept by grape and can- 
nister, from men whose fighting qualities have never 
been excelled, posted behind breast-works as strong as 
men long trained in the art of constructing defensive 
works could make them. 

While gallantly leading the brigade near the enemy's 



September, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 225 

works Colonel Dilworth received a severe wound, a 
musket ball passing through his neck, and he was carried 
from the field. Lieutenant Colonel J. W. Langley, of 
the One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Illinois, being next 
in rank, assumed command of the brigade. The Eighty- 
fifth was now on the right of the front line, and under a 
heavy fire from a force seeking to penetrate between our 
right and the left of the Army of the Tennessee. Here 
Major Robert G. Rider, commanding the Eighty-fifth, 
received a gunshot wound in the head .and the command 
of the regiment devolved upon Captain James R. Grif- 
fith, of Company B. Other regiments were brought up 
in line with the Eighty-fifth, and heavy firing was kept 
up until long after dark, checking the advance of the 
enemy, who was then no doubt preparing to retreat. 

The assault was the only entirely successful one of 
the campaign, and decided the fate of Atlanta. The 
troops slept on their arms, and were startled during the 
night by what appeared to be terrific artillery firing in 
the direction of Atlanta. All supposed there had been a 
night assault by the Twentieth corps, but w^e learned 
next day that the noise proceeded from the explosion of 
ammunition, the rear guard of the enemy having de- 
stroyed his abandoned ordnance stores as his army 
retreated from the city. The Twentieth corps moved 
forward at daylight, occupying the city and taking 
charge of the property not yet destroyed. The morn- 
ing of the 2nd found nothing in our front save the wreck 
of a defeated enemy, who had retreated during the night, 
leaving his dead unburied and his wounded uncared for. 

It is the most trying moment in the experience of a 
soldier, when a charging column is preparing for the 



226 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. September, 1864. 

final dash against the enemy's works. The pressure on 
brain and nerve is intense, and under the strain some 
become panic stricken, while others perform the most 
valorous deeds. Just as the line was being adjusted for 
the supreme effort three men broke from the ranks of a 
certain regiment and ran back into the fields. While 
running up the side of a hill seemingly beyond the 
danger Hne an avenging Confederate shell passed over 
the heads of hundreds at the front and, as if directed by 
fate, tore two of the fleeing fugitives to fragments. 

On no other occasion was the use of the bayonet so 
general or so well authenticated. Three brothers 
named Noe, of the Tenth Kentucky, went over the rebel 
parapet together, and two of them pinned their adver- 
saries to the ground with the bayonet.* In this assault 
the fact was demonstrated that where men make an as- 
sault with empty guns the bayonet can be freely and 
effectively used. 

Of the troops engaged in the assault at Jonesboro all 
belonged to the Fourteenth corps, and those composing 
the storming column consisted of the Second division 
entire, and one brigade of the Third division. The vic- 
tory was rich in the spoil of the battlefield. Nearly two 
thousand prisoners, two batteries, one thousand stand 
of small arms and seven battle flags were among the 
trophies. No such capture of men and material had been 
made since the storming of Mission Ridge. In addition 
to being the only successful assault on the enemy's main 
line in the long campaign, more cannon, battle flags and 
munitions of war were captured by the Second division 
at Rome and Jonesboro than were captured by the entire 

* Rebellion Records, No. 72, page 753. 



September, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 227 

army between Dalton and Atlanta. And the glory be- 
longs in part to the officers and men of the Eighty-fifth, 
the living and the dead, who had a part in that trying 
campaign. For nearly four months they had been 
almost constantly under fire, at every moment liable to 
be picked off, while the sound of whistling bullet and 
bursting shell had seldom been out of their ears. 

In the assault the Second division lost five hundred 
and forty in killed and wounded, of which one hundred 
and thirty-five were from the Third brigade. At Jones- 
boro the Eighty-fifth sustained the following 

CASUALTIES. 
FIELD AND STAFF. 

WOUNDED Colonel Caleb J. Dilworth, commanding the brigade; 
Major Robert G. Rider, commanding the regiment. 

COMPANY B. 
KILLED Corporal Lewis Boarmaster. 

COMPANY D. 

WOUNDED Corporal William D. Close, Jacob S. Dew, Henry 
Howarth and Newton C. Patterson. 

COMPANY E. 
KILLED Thomas Owens. 

COMPANY F. 
KILLED Sergeant David Hamilton. 

COMPANY H. 
WOUNDED Corporal Thomas B. Engle and William Frietley. 

COMPANY I. 
WOUNDED Sergeant Neal P. Hughes and Ellis Moore. 

COMPANY K. 

KILLED First Sergeant Smith B. Horsey. 
WOUNDED Sergeant Charles Pond. 

On Sunday morning, the 4th, the Third brigade was 
ordered to escort the prisoners and hospital train to 
Atlanta. The men enjoyed their two days of rest after- 
the battle, and were prepared for a long and rapid march, 



228 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. September, 1864. 

and reached the city that evening. The prisoners able 
to march numbered some seventeen hundred men, and 
these marched two and two in the middle of the road, 
while the command marched in four ranks, two on either 
side of the captives. Arriving in the city the prisoners 
were turned over to the garrison, and the Third brigade 
went into camp on the west side. Within the next few 
days General Sherman's entire army returned to the 
vicinity of the city, and went into camps at the follow- 
ing points : The Army of the Tennessee at East Point, 
the Army of the Ohio at Decatur, and the Army of the 
Cumberland in and around Atlanta. 

During the campaign the following changes oc- 
curred among the commissioned officers: Adjutant 
Clark N. Andrus died on July 23rd of wounds received 
at Kennesaw mountain, and First Lieutenant Preston C. 
Hudson, of Company I, was commissioned to succeed 
him on that date. The position of first assistant surgeon 
had long been vacant, when Dr. Gilbert W. Southwick, 
of Arcadia, 111., was appointed to that position under 
date of August 29th. First Sergeant John K. Milner, 
of Company A, died of wounds received at Peach Tree 
creek; he had been commissioned first lieutenant of his 
company on March 2Oth, 1863, but for lack of the re- 
quired number of men he had never been mustered. He 
died on the twentieth of August in the hands of the 
enemy. On the 2Qth of August Captain James T. Mc- 
Neil, of Company H, resigned and First Lieuten- 
ant Ira A. Mardis was promoted to be captain. Captain 
McNeil had never recovered from the hardships and 
exposure of the rebel prison. 

During the Atlanta campaign the following deaths 



September, 1864. ATLANTA CAMPAIGN. 229 

occurred in the Eighty-fifth from diseases or wounds : 

FIELD AND STAFF. 
Adjutant Clark N. Andrus. 

COMPANY A Corporal Calvin W. Boon, John F. Anno, William 
Dortzfield and David Kratzer, of wounds. 

COMPANY B William Buff alow, of wounds; William H. Skiles, 
of disease. 

COMPANY C Corporal Thomas Stagg, Jeremiah Deiterich, Dan- 
iel Daugherty, William H. Neeley, James K. Young and 
Thomas M. Young, of wounds; and James Moslander, of dis- 
ease. 

COMPANY D John J. Murphy and Hugh Morgan, of wounds; 
and Willard Hicks, of disease in Andersonville prison. 

COMPANY E First Sergeant A. J. Taylor, Sergeant William F. 
Hohamer, Corporal Bowling Green, Corporal James N. Sheets 
and James E. Thomas, of wounds. 

COMPANY G Silas Dodge, of wounds. 

COMPANY H Charles A. Hughes, of disease; John A. Thompson, 
of wounds. 

COMPANY I Charles Cain, of disease. 
COMPANY K John Seibenborn, of disease. 

The official reports at the close of the Atlanta cam- 
paign show that the aggregate loss of the Third brigade 
was one thousand and eighty-nine, distributed among 
the regiments as follows :* 

Twenty-second Indiana 231 

Fifty-second Ohio 253 

Eighty-fifth Illinois 194 

Eighty-sixth Illinois 176 

One Hundred and Tenth Illinois 29 

One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Illinois 206 

Total . ....1,089 



* Rebellion Records, Serial No. 72, page 717. 



230 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. September, 1864. 

The casualties in the Second division numbered 
twenty-four hundred and seventy-two, and the aggre- 
gate loss by each brigade was reported as follows :* 

First brigade 536 

Second brigade 847 

Third brigade 1,089 

Total 2,472 

The Atlanta campaign had ended; a campaign des- 
tined to live in history as long as brilliant strategy is 
studied, and the history of stubborn, continuous fighting 
is read. And well had the Eighty-fifth borne its part, 
and sustained the record for heroism and gallantry won 
on the threshold of its career, at Perryville. The Presi- 
dent, Congress, the press and the loyal people of the land 
gave unstinted praise to General Sherman and the gal- 
lant officers and soldiers who had forced their way over 
broad rivers and through mountain passes from Chatta- 
nooga to the "Gate City." But tne rebel army had not 
been destroyed, and other arduous campaigns, much 
marching, and hard battles must yet be fought, and in 
them the Eighty-fifth was to have a conspicuous part. 
At this time the official reports show an aggregate pres- 
ent for duty in the regiment of two hundred and nine- 
teen. 



* Rebellion Records, Serial No. 72, page 643. 



September, 1864. RESTING AT ATLANTA. 231 

CHAPTER XIX. 



During the stay in Atlanta the Eighty-fifth camped 
on the left of the White Hall road, just beyond the city 
limits. The camp was well located, fuel and water con- 
venient, little duty was required, the men were allowed 
the freedom of the city, and all who cared to do so made 
the circuit of the works erected for its defense. These 
earthworks had required the labor of thousands of slaves 
for months, and were models of strength and solidity, 
and while General Sherman was preparing plans for a 
new aggressive campaign, the men discussed the prob- 
able direction of their next march. In the meantime, 
General Hood was preparing to assume the offensive, 
and startle the country by a campaign bold in its concep- 
tion, but destined to end in signal failure. 

The rest at Atlanta continued for nearly a month, 
the health of the regiment was greatly improved, and its 
numbers were increased by the return of many of those 
who had fallen out because of sickness or wounds during 
the campaign. In the exchange of prisoners, which 
took place at this time, some of our comrades were for- 
tunate enough to be included, and returned to duty. A 
strong inner line of earthworks was constructed so that a 
small force might hold the city against assault, and 
nearly all non-combatants were sent north or soutfi, 
whichever way they chose to go. Upon a hint from 
army headquarters that a limited number would be fur- 
loughed, a few officers and men applied for twenty-five- 
days' furloughs. But the approval of these applications 
was destined to meet the command far to the north. 



232 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. October, 186*. 

On Thursday, the 29th, the Second division received 
orders to be ready to march at a moment's notice, and 
there were rumors of a raid in the rear. By eight o'clock 
three days' rations had been issued, and all were in readi- 
ness, but the day passed without further orders. Mean- 
while the men waited and ate, and ate and waited, until, 
as is usual under such circumstances, many of them had 
eaten their three days' allowance in a single day. Soon 
after dark the command moved to the railroad and 
boarded a train of empty freight cars, which reached 
Chattanooga the following evening. From there the 
division proceeded on the same train to Huntsville, Ala., 
where it arrived at noon of Sunday, October ist. The 
brigade went into camp south of the town, and soon the 
tired men were fast asleep. But this much-needed rest 
only lasted two hours, when the bugles sounded the as- 
sembly, and the command hurried back to the station to 
take the train so lately abandoned for Athens. A few 
miles out from Huntsville the railroad track was found 
torn up and the command left the train and marched to 
Athens, arriving on the afternoon of the 3rd. 

When the Eighty-fifth, with the other troops com- 
prising the Second division, hurried aboard the train at 
Atlanta, and officers and men were packed in dirty 
freight cars like sardines in a box, it was understood that 
the movement was of great urgency, but nothing was 
known of our destination. Now it was learned that the 
rebel general, Forrest, with a large force of cavalry had 
crossed the Tennessee river and attacked the garrison at 
Huntsville. But the advance of the Second division 
compelled him to abandon the fight, and retire in the 
direction of Athens. Damage to the railroad 'was For- 



October/1864. BACK IN ALABAMA. 233 

rest's main object, but General Morgan's advance was so 
rapid that little was accomplished in that line by the raid- 
ers, and they soon sought safety in flight. 

From Athens the enemy moved in the direction ol 
Florence, on the Tennessee river, and on the morning of 
the 4th the Second division moved in pursuit. In the 
afternoon the command forded Elk river, the water 
reaching to the arm-pits of the men, and camped for the 
night at Rogersville, some four miles beyond. A heavy 
rain had been falling through the day, which continued 
without ceasing throughout the night, and the men 
spent a miserable night. An early start was made on 
the next morning, the command crossing Shoal creek 
during the day, and camped for the night within six 
miles of Florence. The Third brigade had the advance 
on the morning of the 6th. Our skirmishers soon found 
the enemy, and rapidly drove Forrest's rear guard 
through the town and beyond the river. In this skir- 
mish John W. McClaren, of Company H, was wounded. 
He had but recently recovered from a wound received 
near Dallas, Georgia. 

On the evening of the Qth a division of cavalry com- 
manded by General C. C. Washburn arrived to take up 
the pursuit of Forrest. The men thought that these 
troopers boasted overmuch of what they would do with 
Forrest when they found him, and were not at all sur- 
prised to learn later that they had found him a very 
tough proposition. The Second division started back 
to Athens on the morning of the loth, and at the same 
time, with a flourish of trumpets, the cavalry division 
crossed the river to hunt Forrest. Soon after starting 
we could hear the roar of artillery in the direction the 



234 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. October, 1864. 

cavalry had taken, and the men were assured that our 
troopers had ''found Forrest." Long afterward we 
learned that Forrest had turned on his over-confident 
pursuers and whipped them to his heart's content. An- 
other illustration of the truth that "He should boast that 
putteth off the armor rather than he that girdeth it on." 

From the time the command took the train at At- 
lanta until it arrived at Florence the rain fell heavily and 
almost continuously. The roads became very muddy 
and the streams were swelled to the tops of their banks. 
The bridges had been destroyed by the enemy, the com- 
mand had no pontoons, and the men had to ford the 
streams. The water, reaching at times to the armpits, 
kept their clothing wet and increased the weight they 
had to carry. The little sleep they secured was that of 
exhaustion and afforded them but little rest. Their 
clothing was worn, many were without shoes, and all 
were footsore and weary. Perhaps the trip from At- 
lanta to Florence came as near taxing to the utmost the 
physical endurance of the men as any campaign thus far 
experienced. However, the weather cleared up while at 
Florence, and the return to Athens was much more com- 
fortable, although the march was rapid, the command 
arriving there on the evening of the I2th. 

The application for furloughs made at Atlanta was 
approved and met the command at this point, and a few 
of the Eighty-fifth left for home on the first train for the 
north. They little thought that the fortunes of war 
would interfere with their return to duty with the regi- 
ment until the following spring. But at the expiration 
of these furloughs Sherman's army was on its way to the 
sea, and those returning from the north were held at 



October, 1864. AGAIN IN CHATTANOOGA. 235 

Chattanooga until they could reach the army on the 
Atlantic coast. 

On the 1 3th the Third brigade boarded a freight 
train and arrived in Chattanooga the next day. While 
at this place about one-half of the men received shoes, 
and some clothing was issued, but still there was but a 
meager supply. The division was kept under marching 
orders during the stay in Chattanooga, and while there 
General Sherman was using all the means in his power 
to bring General Hood's army, which was known to be 
between Resaca and LaFayette, to battle. 

In order to understand the situation it is necessary 
to briefly review the movements of the two armies since 
the Second division left Atlanta. In the last days of 
September the President of the Southern Confederacy 
made a visit to the headquarters of General Hood, and a 
bold plan of aggression was mapped out. According to 
this plan Hood was to throw his entire army upon our 
communications, capture the garrisons and destroy the 
railroad, then cross the Tennessee river and invade Ten- 
nessee and Kentucky. In pursuance of this plan Hood 
soon appeared on the railroad north of Atlanta and with 
his whole army began destroying the road. This, the 
first step in the second great Confederate scheme of 
northern invasion, it was hoped would compel Sherman 
to abandon Atlanta, and force his armies out of Georgia. 
But, leaving the Twentieth corps to garrison Atlanta, 
Sherman moved with all his remaining troops in hot pur- 
suit, with the hope of forcing the enemy to a general en- 
gagement. Hood destroyed over thirty miles of rail- 
road, captured the garrisons at Big Shanty, Ackworth, 
Tilton and Dalton, but was repulsed at Altoona and 



236 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. October, 18W. 

Resaca. At Altoona Hood met a decided repulse with 
heavy loss. Although the garrison at this point num- 
bered less than two thousand men, it captured over four 
hundred prisoners and buried two hundred and thirty- 
one of the enemy's dead left on the field. This would 
show, according to the usual proportion of killed ;:o the 
wounded, that the loss of the enemy exceeded in num- 
ber the entire strength of the garrison. But Hood was 
marching light and living on the country; his strategy 
was brilliant; his movements were executed with dash 
and skill, and it was found impossible to bring him to a 
general engagement, 

Tuesday, the i8th, our division, with Wagner's di- 
vision of the Fourth corps, under the personal command 
of General Schofield, moved out on the L/aFayette road 
across the battlefield of Chickamauga, camping for the 
night at Lee and Gordon's mills. The next day the march 
led through LaFayette, the command camping just be- 
yond the town. On the 2Oth we passed the camps occu- 
pied the night before by the rebel army under General 
Hood. During the day the Second division came in 
touch with other divisions of Sherman's army, and for a 
time a battle seemed probable. The rear guard of the 
enemy showed a disposition to fight, but after making a 
pretentious demonstration, he suddenly withdrew from 
our front, and continued his retreat toward Gadsden, 
Ala. Within the next two days the entire army was 
concentrated around Gaylesville, ready for the next 
move in the game. 

At Gaylesville, a small town on the eastern border of 
Alabama, General Sherman's army remained almost a 
week. It was a period of comparative rest to the rank 




I>AVIli SIOLKY, 

CORPORAL. COMPANY B. 



237 



October, 1864. THE MARCH TO GAYLESVILLE. 239 

and file, but of great activity to their commander, for he 
was completing plans for his march to the sea. Three 
days' rations of bread, meat and coffee were issued, with 
orders that they must last five. But as forage was 
abundant in the rich valleys of that pleasant region this 
was considered no great hardship. Guard duty was 
light, as the troops were well massed, and the details sent 
out for supplies brought in sweet potatoes, meat, mo- 
lasses and honey. The men operated the mills in the 
vicinity, and in this way obtained a supply of corn meal 
and unbolted flour. But by the end of our stay the 
country was eaten out. 

While Sherman's army lay at Gaylesville Hood 
began to move north from Gadsden as if bound for Ten- 
nessee, and on the 28th, when the main body of our 
forces moved south from Gaylesville the Fourth corps 
was sent back to defend the line of the Tennessee river. 
That day we marched nine miles toward Rome, camp- 
ing for the night at Missionary station, near the Georgia 
and Alabama line. The next morning the march was 
resumed, the command arriving at Rome that afternoon. 
The Eighty-fifth camped on the north side of the 
Etowah river on the ground where the Second division 
fought the battle of Rome in the month of May. On 
the last day of October the Third brigade guarded the 
trains of the Fourteenth corps to Kingston, to which 
point the First and Second brigades followed on the 
next day. 

At this time the curious and extraordinary spectacle 
was seen, of two hostile armies moving in exactly oppo- 
site directions. As Hood moved north, Sherman 
marched south, and each embraced in his plan the same 

15 



240 HISTORY OF THE 8STH ILLINOIS. November, 1864. 

object the invasion of his adversaries' country. Both 
were men of sanguine temperament, but the Union leader 
manoeuvered with a degree of prudence unknown to the 
insurgent general. At first, General Sherman thought 
Hood would abandon his plan of invasion, and throw his 
army to our front, or move south on parallel lines until 
opportunity offered for battle; but as the enemy's north- 
ward march continued, it became necessary to provide 
for the defense of Tennessee. To this end, the Twenty- 
third army corps was turned back from Rome, with 
orders to report to General Thomas, who was organiz- 
ing an army at Nashville to meet and destroy the rebel 
army in the event it crossed the Tennessee river. 

Friday, the 4th, Major Harris visited the Eighty- 
fifth, and officers and men each received eight months' 
pay. The soldier is a very honest sort of person, 
although much given to borrowing between pay days, 
and soon the men were engaged in paying off their small 
debts. But this large payment coming at a time and 
place where there was little opportunity for spending 
money, made the camp unusually flush, and what to do 
with the surplus money became the question of the hour. 
Fortunately the regiment had a chaplain whom all could 
trust, and after securing a leave of absence for that pur- 
pose, he gathered up the money the men wished to send 
to family and friends, and left for the north. On arriv- 
ing home he went to all for whom he had money and 
delivered it in person. This was but one of the many 
kindly acts of the good chaplain which endeared him to 
the men. 

The presidential election occurred while we lay at 
Kingston, and on the 8th of November, the regiments 



November, 1864. THE RETURN TO ATLANTA. 241 

from nearly all of the states voted for president. Com- 
missioners were sent to receive the ballots of those in the 
army who would have been entitled to vote if at home. 
But the Illinois soldiers were denied this privilege 
because a Copperhead legislature had refused to make 
the necessary provision. So while the men from other 
states were exercising the elective franchise, those from 
Illinois had to content themselves with expressing 
their contempt and hatred for those who brought 
this wrong upon them. Doubtless among the men from 
Illinois, there were many "souls made perfect," but if the 
remarks made upon that occasion are to be considered 
in evidence, then surely none but the wholly unregener- 
ate gave utterance to their feelings. 

On the afternoon of the loth, we marched through 
Cassville, and then went into camp at Cartersville, where 
we remained until the morning of the J3th. On the I2th 
the last railway trains passed going north, and later in 
the day the telegraph was cut and Sherman and his army 
were left in the middle of the Southern Confederacy, 
with no means of communication with the outside world 
or base of supplies, until he should open one on the sea 
coast. That day General Sherman took dinner at the 
headquarters of the Second division, and while there 
received and answered the last dispatch from the north, 
and the work of burning surplus army stores and 
destroying the railroad was commenced. That night 
the line of fire lighting up the road as far as the eye could 
reach, revealed the thorough manner in which the work 
of destruction was being done. 

On the 1 3th, the division moved at an early Hour, 
and, after destroying six miles of railroad, marched five 



242 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. November, 1864. 

miles further, camping for the night at Ackworth. The 
next day we marched twenty-one miles and arrived at 
Atlanta on the I5th. From Kingston to Atlanta the 
line of march lay over familiar and historic ground. 
Trees riven by cannon balls or girdled with fierce mus- 
ketry; breastworks the command had struggled for but 
a few short months before, and the graves of both blue 
and gray, all testified to the determined nature of the 
summer's conflicts. 

Everything in the city that could make it valuable 
to the enemy as a military point was to be destroyed and 
we found Atlanta wrapped in flames. That night the 
burning mills, machine shops and warehouses afforded 
a grand and awe inspiring sight; a sad and melancholy 
exhibition of the blighting desolation of war. We had 
left that vicinity forty-five days before, and in that period 
the Second division marched over two hundred miles, 
traveled by rail four hundred miles and destroyed seven- 
teen miles of railroad. 

Eli F. Neikirk, second lieutenant of Company K, 
resigned on November 4th, but as the company was 
below the minimum number, no successor was commis- 
sioned to fill the vacancy. 

During the period of which this chapter treats, the 
following deaths occurred : Henry P. Jones and Martin 
Troy, of disease, Company D ; Richard Griffin, of Com- 
pany E, wounds; Clinton Logan, of Company F, was 
killed by accidental discharge of a musket, and Barn- 
hart Noblack, of same company, died of wounds; and 
Sergeant Lorenzo D. Gould, of Company G, died of 
disease. 



November, 1*. THE MARCH TO THE SEA. 243 

CHAPTER XX. 



General Sherman divided his army into two grand 
divisions or wings, the right wing composed of the Fif- 
teenth and Seventeenth corps, commanded by Major- 
General O. O. Howard, and the left wing consisting of 
the Fourteenth and Twentieth corps, commanded by 
Major-General Henry W. Slocum; and, in addition, 
there was a cavalry division, commanded by Brigadier- 
General Judson Kilpatrick, making in round numbers 
an army of about sixty-five thousand men. 

The regiments composing this veteran army had been 
reduced by the casualties of constant service to one-third 
their original number. The space occupied by a brig- 
ade at this time was no longer than that filled by a regi- 
ment when first mustered. A regiment that could 
parade three hundred men out of the thousand it 
entered the service with, was considered lucky, and 
thirty men made more than the average company. Such 
had been the loss ratio that the files of four at the outset 
had been reduced, in many instances, to a single soldier. 
This veteran army was an army of boys and very many 
of them, while veterans in the service, were yet too 
young to vote. Commanders of regiments were often 
less than thirty years of age, while the company and staff 
officers were generally much younger. Their long hard 
service had made them fertile in resources, and inspired 
them with unbounded self-confidence. Glorying in 
their strength, they waded streams flushed with recent 
rains; built corduroy roads through dismal swamps; 
pulled wagons and cannon out of bottomless mudholes 



244 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. November, 1864. 

and stormed the enemy's entrenched lines, with as little 
concern as they resumed the march in the morning-. 

Through the return of those recovering from 
wounds, the exchange of prisoners, and a small number 
of recruits, the aggregate present for duty had been 
materially increased. When the march to the sea began, 
the Second division had an aggregate present for duty 
of 5,542, of which number 1,721 belonged to the Third 
brigade. But for the reason given below the number 
present for duty in the Eighty-fifth cannot be given. 

Up to the time of the arrival of the Eighty-fifth at 
Atlanta, each company had been allowed room in the 
wagon train for a box containing its books and papers, 
which box, when opened, answered the purpose of a 
desk. But in September orders were received to pack 
the records and turn the boxes in to the quartermaster. 
The understanding at the time was that at the end of the 
campaign they would be returned. Accordingly morn- 
ing reports, order books, and retained copies of all 
papers were packed in company desks and delivered to 
the quartermaster. It was afterwards reported that all 
had been shipped to Chattanooga for safe keeping and 
later that they had been accidentally destroyed by fire. 
That they were destroyed by fire the writer has no rea- 
son to doubt, and whether the burning was accidental 
or intentional, the result was the same all were lost. 
This was most unfortunate, as the loss of the morning 
reports renders it impossible to give the strength of the 
regiment at important periods, and that of the order 
books makes it equally impossible to give credit to indi- 
viduals and detachments detailed for special duty. 

The march to the sea began on the morning of 



November, IBM. THE MARCH TO THE SEA. 245 

November I5th, by the two corps of the right wing mov- 
ing directly toward Macon. And bright and early on 
the 1 6th, the Twentieth corps began to march past our 
camp, but it was near noon before the Second division 
moved in the rear of the left wing toward Augusta. It 
will be observed that the two corps of each wing moved 
on sharply diverging lines, threatening both Macon and 
Augusta, but the general plan contemplated a concen- 
tration of the entire army at Milledgeville, the capital 
of the state, about one hundred miles southeast of 
Atlanta. We marched ten miles the first day, and 
camped for the night on Snapfinger creek. The next 
day we marched sixteen miles, passing through Litho- 
nia, destroying four miles of railroad, and camped for 
the night at Con)^ers, thirty miles east of Atlanta by rail. 
As the destruction of railroad communications between 
Richmond, the Confederate capital, and the gulf states 
was an important part of General Sherman's plan, he 
spared no effort to accomplish that end. And as the 
method finally adopted for this purpose was both novel 
and thorough, a brief description is here inserted. A 
brigade would halt in its march along a railroad line, 
stack arms and the men scatter along one side of the 
track Then each man would take hold of a tie, and at 
the word of command, all lifting together, would throw 
the ties end over end, the fall breaking the rail loose 
from the ties. Then the ties would be piled up like cob- 
houses, and these with other fuel would be set on fire, 
and the rails thrown across them. In a short time the 
rails would be red hot in the middle, when the soldiers 
would seize the rail by the two ends, and wrap it around 
a tree like a necktie or interlace and twine a pile of them 



246 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. November, WM. 

together in great iron knots, while others with cant- 
hooks would twist the hot rails into corkscrew patterns, 
which .it was impossible to straighten, and rendering 
them useless for any purpose other than old iron. In 
this way an army corps marching along a railroad could 
easily destroy ten to fifteen miles in a day. Moreover, 
to complete the destruction of the enemy's communi- 
cations, the railway culverts were blown up, the bridges 
burned and the machine shops were leveled to the 
ground. The extent of line destroyed was enormous. 
More than a hundred miles of the road from Chatta- 
noga running through Atlanta to Macon ; from Atlanta 
east toward Augusta another hundred miles, and almost 
the entire length of the Georgia Central was ruined to 
the suburbs of Savannah. On the iSth, we marched 
sixteen miles, passing through Covington and Oxford, 
and destroyed three miles of railroad, camping beyond 
the-Ulcofauchee river. On the next day we marched 
twenty miles, passing through Sandtown and camping 
near Shady Grove. We marched twenty miles on Sun- 
day, the 2Oth, and camped near Eatonton factories, 
which we burned. The next day we turned south, 
marched twelve miles toward Milledgeville, through a 
heavy rain and over bad roads, and camped south of 
Cedar creek. We remained in camp the 22nd and the 
First and Third divisions with the pontoon train passed 
to the front. Weather cleared up cold after a slight 
flurry of snow. On the next day, we marched fourteen 
miles, camping on the plantation of Howell Cobb, who 
had been secretary of the treasury under Buchanan, and 
was then a general in the Southern army. This planta- 
tion abounded in corn, beans, peanuts and sorghum 



November, 186*. THE MARCH TO THE) SEA. 247 

molasses, all of which, together with the fences and 
buildings, were appropriated by General Davis to the 
use and comfort of his men. Near our camp was a 
stack of peanuts, containing probably more than a thou- 
sand bushels. That night the men roasted and ate of 
them until many have never cared for peanuts since, and 
when we left in the morning, the stack caught fire and 
the remainder was consumed. Indeed the fire con- 
sumed about all found on this traitor's plantation that 
hungry men and animals could not eat. 

We passed through Milledgeville about ten o'clock 
on the 24th, crossed the Oconee river, and moved in the 
direction of Louisville. Up to this time there had been 
no organized force to resist our progress, or to even 
seriously interfere with our rollicking foragers. Appeals 
as fervid as they were futile had been made by both Con- 
federate and state authorities, calling upon the people 
to rise and expel the invaders from the state, but the 
utter helplessness of the situation was so apparent to 
all that the people, paralyzed with fear, paid little or no 
heed to the noisy but impotent proclamations. But 
when near Saundersville, on the 26th, our old time 
enemy, General Wheeler, with his cavalry appeared on 
the scene and drove our foragers in on the main column. 
The Second brigade being in advance deployed, and, 
after a sharp skirmish, drove the enemy through the 
town, with the loss of one killed and two wounded. We 
crossed the Ogeechee river on the next day and arrived 
at Louisville on the evening of the 28th, where we 
remained for two days. 

On the next day a foraging party was suddenly sur- 
rounded and captured. They were disarmed and hur- 



248 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS November, WM. 

ried a short distance into the woods, where they were 
stood in line by their inhuman captors, and deliberately 
shot down in cold blood. Several were instantly killed, 
and the wounded shammed death until their captors left 
the scene. Soon after the camp was aroused by one of 
the slightly wounded, and a strong skirmish line 
advanced and recovered the dead and relieved the 
wounded. In this affair the loss of the Eighty-fifth was 
as follows: 

KILLED William Earp, sergeant of Company F; Simon Heaton, 
of Company H. 

WOUNDED Sergeant F. M. McColgan, of Company F; Corporal 
Perry W. Clupper, of Company G. 

Warned by this experience, our foraging party was 
strongly reinforced the next morning, which was very 
fortunate as the events of the day proved. The forag- 
ing party of the 3Oth, found abundant forage some 
eight miles from camp and had filled their wagons by 
noon. But while eating their dinner previous to the 
return trip, the rebel cavalry suddenly appeared between 
them and camp and opened fire. The men quickly ral- 
lied, however, and charged through the enemy's line, 
but by the time they had routed the foe and closed up- 
their forage train, the enemy was found again in their 
front. The news of the peril surrounding the foragers 
soon reached camp and the Eighty-fifth started on the 
double quick to their assistance, reaching them none 
too soon, as they had charged and scattered the rebel 
cavalry eight times that afternoon and were well nigh 
exhausted. They had, however, pluckily held on to 
their forage train. About the time the regiment started 
to the relief of the sorely-pressed foragers the other regi- 



December, 1864. THE MARCH TO THE SEA. 249 

ments were advanced against the enemy, who were 
boldly threatening the camp, and after a sharp skirmish 
drove him out of a line of earthworks and a mile or more 
beyond. A cotton gin containing forty or fifty bales of 
cotton, from behind which the enemy had fired on our 
men, was burned. 

We moved from Louisville on December ist, our 
division guarding the corps train and reserve artillery, 
while the other two divisions marched on parallel roads 
to our left. We marched in this way for several days 
until we reached the Savannah river. The roads ran 
through swamps that had to be corduroyed before the 
train could pass, the country was generally flat and 
sparsely settled, and while the foragers found a fair sup- 
ply of meat and sweet potatoes, flour and meal were 
very scarce. On Sunday, the 4th, we destroyed three 
miles of railroad at Lumpkins station, and the next 
evening, after a hard day's march over difficult roads, 
we camped at Jacksonboro, near the point where Brier 
creek falls into the Savannah river. On the 6th, we 
marched twenty miles, moving not far from and parallel 
with the river. Our route led us through dismal swamps 
and deep loose sand, through which the train moved 
with great difficulty. We camped after dark near Hud- 
son's Ferry. 

An amusing incident occurred at this camp, which 
delayed the supper of a hungry mess. Near Milledge- 
ville a colored man came to a certain mess and offered 
to cook meals and carry its outfit on the march, in 
return for permission to go along with the army. He 
was the blackest man the writer ever saw; of powerful 
build and gigantic stature. But his speech was a kind 



250 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. December, 1864. 

of jargon and very difficult to understand, and from 
the disconnected story he told around our camp fire, it 
appeared that he was a native of Africa; that he had 
been brought oyer by a slave trader from the African 
coast but a short time before the war began, and sold 
to a Georgia planter living in the vicinity of the state 
capital. He proved to be a good cook, a noble forager 
and provided the best the country afforded for the mess. 
As soon as fires had been kindled on that occasion for 
cooking supper, and as the colored man, with a camp 
kettle in each hand, was starting for a supply of water, 
a rebel gun-boat over in the river opened fire, sending 
a monstrous sixty-four-pounder shell screaming over 
our heads. In passing, it tore branches from the trees, 
which added to the infernal noise made in its flight. At 
the moment of its passage, the writer was looking at the 
cook, perhaps somewhat anxiously, as he was very 
hungry, and saw him bound into the air, give an 
unearthly scream, fling his camp kettles to the wind and 
go bounding end over end through the brush, to disap- 
pear in the darkness. He vanished as completely as if 
he had been translated, and we never saw him afterward. 
Fortunately the gunboat, which was probably patrolling 
the river, only fired one shot, but it was observed that 
the men were content to cook on low fires and eat in 
the dark. 

On the 7th, we marched fifteen miles, passing 
through two swamps that were badly obstructed by trees 
felled by the enemy to delay the advance, and camped 
near Ebenezer Creek. The next day we had to wait 
until pontoons were brought up and bridges built before 
we could cross the two streams known as Big and Little 



December, 1864. THE MARCH TO THE SEA. 251 

Ebenezer. This was historic ground, Ebenezer church, 
standing at the roadside, having been a rallying point 
for General Marion and his men in the War of the Revo- 
lution. It was dark when we camped that evening, the 
rain was falling steadily, and everything in the shape of 
fuel was soaked with water. Finally, when with much 
effort the men had succeeded in starting their fires, and 
had just put their coffee on to boil, orders were received 
to fall in and return to Ebenezer creek. Wheeler's cav- 
alry was pressing the rear guard and threatening the 
pontoon train with capture. The wet, tired, and hun- 
gry men, while taking their places in the ranks, made 
many forcible if not elegant remarks descriptive of their 
feelings, and expressive of their forlorn condition. But 
perhaps no one came nearer expressing the sentiment 
of the entire brigade than did a soldier who was 
observed to linger to the last, over a coffee can that 
refused to boil. At the last moment, he kicked his can 
over and his fire out, and as he slung his musket across 
his back and started to take his place in his company, his 
strong, clear voice rang out in perfect time, as he sang 
a profane parody of the line in that familiar song, 
"O, when this cruel war is over." 

The return of the Third brigade to Ebenezer creek 
promptly checked the enemy and we camped about 
midnight on the north bank of that stream. On the 
9th, we marched eight miles, built bridges over two 
creeks, and ran up against a line of rebel earthworks, 
with a battery planted at the point where the works 
crossed the road. 

The enemy had selected a strong position to make a 
brief stand with a few men, at a point where a road 



252 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. December, 1864. 

passed between two swamps. When the rebel battery 
opened on the head of the column, the Third brigade 
was promptly deployed on both sides of the road, and 
our battery was brought up and returned the enemy's 
fire. In the artillery duel which followed, Lieutenant 
Coe, of Battery I, Second Illinois artillery, was killed, 
and two men on the skirmish line were wounded. The 
death of Lieutenant Coe cast a gloom over the entire 
brigade, where he was well known for his courage and 
skill, and where he was universally respected for his 
gentlemanly bearing. At this time darkness intervened 
and the entire brigade remained as a picket line for the 
night. We afterward learned that the enemy had 
intended to defend the city, only fifteen miles distant, on 
the line of defenses here encountered. This line of de- 
tached works extended from the Savannah river on the 
east to the Ogeechee river on the west. But the rapid 
advance of the right wing of the army down the right 
bank of the Ogeechee turned the enemy under General 
Hardee out of this line of works, and forced him to fall 
back to his interior line at the city. The next morning 
we found the works in our front abandoned and we 
advanced to the Ten-mile House, where we fell in with 
the Twentieth corps, which had the right of way, and 
we camped at that point for the night. On Sunday, the 
nth, we closed down on the enemy's defenses at Savan- 
nah, which were found to be very formidable and armed 
with an abundance of heavy artillery. 

Savannah was then a city of some twenty-five thou- 
sand people, is situated on the right bank of the Savan- 
nah river and distant but fifteen miles from the ocean. 
It is built upon an elevation about forty feet above tide 



December, 186t. THF MARCH TO THE SEA. 253 

water, as near the harbor entrance as suitable ground on 
which to build a city could be found. Just below the 
city the land sinks almost to the level of the sea, and is 
cut into islands by canals or creeks. The Savannah and 
Ogeechee rivers fall into the ocean near each other, and 
for about fifty miles from the sea, a strip of land sep- 
arates them not more than ten to fifteen miles in width. 
As our army approached from the north, down this nar- 
row strip of land, it formed a compact line from the 
Savannah river on the left to the Ogeechee near King's 
bridge on the right. The skirmish line in front of the 
Second division was near the three-mile post, the 
entrenched lines of the enemy being about a quarter of 
a mile nearer the city. 

On December I3th, a division of the Fifteenth army 
corps, commanded by General William B. Hazen, 
stormed and carried Fort McAllister, on the right bank 
of the Ogeechee, capturing the entire garrison, together 
with the armament of the fort. This brilliant feat of 
arms solved the question of a base of supplies on the 
sea coast, by opening the Ogeechee river to light 
draught steamers, by the use of which supplies could be 
brought up to King's bridge and landed in the rear of 
the right of the army. The capture of this fort v/as of 
vast importance. The foragers were no longer able to 
procure either food or forage, in a country almost 
entirely devoted to rice farming, and for several days the 
army had been living on short rations drawn from the 
scant supply brought from Atlanta in the wagon trains. 
But the successful issue of the assault on Fort McAllis- 
ter not only insured abundant food supplies, as soon as 
the river could be cleared of obstructions, but the mails 



254 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. December, 1864. 

would be brought up and we would hear from the loved 
ones at home. 

Through the thoughtfulness of General Grant, a 
fleet of vessels loaded with supplies for the army was 
waiting for the arrival of Sherman's army on the coast. 
The mails which had accumulated since his departure 
from Atlanta had with like care been forwarded by a 
despatch boat, and on the i/th the hearts of the men 
were made glad by the distribution of the mails that had 
piled up during their sojourn in tfie tottering Confed- 
eracy. 

In the meantime a heavy fire was maintained along 
the skirmish lines and the enemy's workswere reconnoit- 
ered to find, if possible, points where they might be car- 
ried by storm. Several points in front of the Fourteenth 
corps were selected, where it was thought the enemy's 
entrenched lines might be carried. Siege guns were 
brought up from the fleet outside the harbor, and placed 
in batteries to protect the assaulting columns. Light 
bridges were constructed for the men to carry, with 
which to cross the canals and ditches that might be 
encountered in the charge, which promised to be san- 
guinary. But before arrangements for the assault had 
been completed, the enemy withdrew from the city, 
crossed the river and retired into South Carolina. The 
enemy retreated during the night of the 2Oth, and before 
daylight the next morning our skirmishers entered his 
abandoned works, thus ending a brilliant and successful 
campaign by the capture of Savannah. Among the 
property abandoned by the fleeing enemy were two hun- 
dred and fifty pieces of heavy artillery and over thirty 
thousand bales of cotton. 




.JOSEPH B. CO3VOVKR, 



255 



December, 1864. THE MARCH TO THE SEA. 257 

The Third brigade arrived at Savannah with an 
aggregate strength of 1,714, of which there were present 
for duty in the Eighty-fifth 232. 



CHAPTER XXI. 



When General Sherman determined to abandon 
Atlanta, march quickly across three hundred miles of 
hostile country and seize one of the harbors on the sea 
coast, the subsistence of the army upon the country 
became a necessary part of his plan. An army can live 
on the country while on the march, but it must have the 
ordinary means of supply within a very few days after it 
halts, or it will starve. All the ports on the southern 
coast were known to be fortified ,and presumably strong 
enough to render abortive any attempt to carry them by 
storm. Ordinary prudence, therefore, demanded that 
sufficient provisions be carried in the wagon trains to 
supply the army while engaged in gaining possession of 
a harbor on the coast suitable for a new base of supplies. 
To meet such an emergency twenty days' rations were 
taken in the wagon trains from Atlanta, but these were 
not to be issued while the army was moving into new 
fields each day. 

In an elaborate general order issued at the beginning 
of the campaign, General Sherman said, "The armv will 
forage liberally on the country during the march," and 
provided for daily details from each brigade, whose duty 
it should be to gather from the country along the line 
of march food for the men and forage for the animal s. 

16 



258 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. December, 18W. 

The order also provided that the details for foraging 
should be under the command of discreet officers, and 
the supplies gathered should be issued by the commis- 
sary department. The result proved unsatisfactory ; the 
forage detail lived on the fat of the land, while the troops 
claimed that they did not get a fair share of the hams 
and honey, the turkeys and chickens, the pigs, potatoes 
and molasses. So the plan was modified by authorizing 
a detail of four men from each company, making a 
detachment of forty men, under the command of a bold 
and enterprising officer, to forage for each regiment, the 
provisions gathered to be issued independent of the 
commissary department. This plan proved entirely 
satisfactory. 

Having been advised of the intended line of march 
and the probable location of the next camp, the foragers 
would start before daylight and visit during the day 
every farm and plantation within five or six miles of the 
marching column. Wagons, ox-carts and family car- 
riages were pressed into service and loaded with provi- 
sions and forage, in short, everything that could be used 
as food for man or beast was taken, and brought to the 
road on which the column was marching, if possible, in 
advance of the trains. Then as we drew near camp in 
the evening the strange and varied collection, not only 
of food and forage, but of ingeniously contrived make- 
shifts of transportation, made a mirth provoking caval- 
cade. A wagon loaded with corn and cornfodder, drawn 
by a thoroughbred horse and a scrawny mule, a silver 
mounted family carriage loaded with hams and bacon 
drawn by a jackass and a cow in rope harness, and an 
ox-cart loaded with animals dead and alive, drawn by a 



December, 186*. THE MARCH TO THE SEA. 259 

cow and mule hitched tandem. Oxen and cows, as well 
as horses and mules, were used by the foragers as pack 
animals, and these would appear loaded down with tur- 
keys, chickens, corn meal, sweet potatoes and other 
vegetables. 

The extravagant militia uniforms of past genera- 
tions were occasionally found, and foragers dressed in 
them added to the comical side of the fantastic proces- 
sion, as they escorted their improvised trains of booty to 
the camp. Even the regimentals of the revolutionary 
period would sometimes appear in the forager's mas- 
querade. At one time a forager dressed in a continen- 
tal uniform indicating high rank, with chapeau and wav- 
ing plume, mounted on a fine horse with a strip of car- 
pet for a saddle, appeared at the roadside and with mock 
gravity reviewed the column at it passed. 

In a country of dense population, where the distance 
between towns and cities is not great, a requisition for 
food and forage is practical and far preferable to seizure. 
But in a region so sparsely settled as that through which 
our army marched, where towns were few and small, 
and where supplies were generally found on scattered 
farms and plantations, there was no way by which pro- 
visions could be obtained except by direct seizure. For- 
aging, therefore, became a vital necessity and the for- 
agers, commonly known as "Sherman's Bummers," per- 
formed a service without which the march to the sea 
would have been an impossibility. But the aptitude of 
the forager for his task, and the originality of his meth- 
ods, was a revelation alike to all, from the commanding 
general down to the rank and file. 

At first the foragers went on foot, but first one and 



260 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. November, 1864. 

then another secured a horse and very soon all were 
mounted. Moving in advance or on the flanks, they 
formed a body of ideal rangers. Their long range rifles 
gave them a decided advantage over the carbines of the 
enemy's cavalry, and none of his troopers were ever able 
to break through the foragers' line far enough to feel 
the marching column. In seeking out hidden stock and 
stores, and in finding their way about the country, they 
seemed to be guided by an unerring instinct. In many 
instances, fearing the rapacity of the "vandal Yankees," 
the inhabitants had fled, taking with them what they 
could. Where the premises were abandoned, the for- 
agers made a clean sweep, but where the citizens were 
found at home they made a fair divide, leaving enough 
to support the family. In other cases it was found that 
the planters had buried their provisions in the ground, 
and driven their horses, mules and cattle into the 
swamps for safety, for the Federal and Confederate 
armies were alike dependent upon foraging for their 
subsistence. But the men soon became skillful experts 
in discovering stores that had been buried. From the 
general appearance of the barns and smoke-houses on 
the plantation, they quickly decided whether provisions 
had been buried or stock sent to the swamp. By indi- 
cations they would probably have found hard to describe 
they would determine the vicinity in which the stores 
would likely be found. Then they would advance in 
line, in open order, driving their ramrods into the 
ground, and very soon the hidden treasure, whether of 
bacon and hams or sweet potatoes, would be discovered. 
Usually a hint from some darkey would indicate the par- 
ticular swamp where the animals had been concealed, 



December, 1864. TUB MARCH TO THE SEA. 261 

when the horses, mules and beeves would speedily 
change owners. 

Gathering- subsistence was not the only service ren- 
dered by the bold and dashing foragers. They not only 
had an abiding faith in their own invincibility, but they 
held the cavalry of the enemy in utter contempt. So 
when attacked by the enemy, no matter what the num- 
bers were, they gave fight. Others hearing the firing 
would hasten to take part, and if forced to retire they 
fell back fighting, and sooner or later the sound of battle 
would gather numbers sufficient to rout any cavalry 
force they ever encountered. In some instances they 
drove the enemy away, seized bridges before they could 
be destroyed, and held them until the main column 
appeared. Their duties called them to endure great 
hardships, and placed them in grave peril, but their 
love of fun caused them to give a rollicking turn to 
the most gloomy situation. When we reached Savan- 
nah the function of the forager ceased, they surrendered 
their horses to the provost marshals and returned to 
their duties in the ranks. No greater compliment can 
be paid to the so-called "Bummer," and no better proof 
of the high discipline maintained in our army, can be 
asked or given than the statement that this fact affords. 

The march to the sea afforded the troops a rare 
opportunity to look upon the homes of the south, and to 
learn how the war affected them. The picture in some 
instances was sad, in others it was simply ludicrous. In 
the midst of plenty there was apparent decay. The 
country was full of what were luxuries to us and no 
army ever lived better than we did. That an army of 
sixty-five thousand men could live sumptuously while it 



262 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. December, 1864. 

marched leisurely through a state in which thousands of 
Union soldiers had died of starvation in prison pens, was 
a demonstration of the utter untruthfulness of the claim 
of the rebel authorities, that they were unable to feed 
the famishing prisoners. In addition to the sheep, 
swine, fowls, corn meal, and sweet potatoes consumed 
by the troops while on the march, 13,000 beeves, 5,000 
horses, and 4,000 mules were found suitable for army 
use and were pressed into the service. 

When the first mail reached the army in front of 
Savannah, the papers were eagerly searched for news 
from our comrades in war-wasted Tennessee. It will 
be remembered that we left General Hood in Northern 
Alabama, apparently intent upon invading the North. 
At the same time General Thomas was organizing an 
army at Nashville to repel the threatened invasion. By 
the newspaper reports it appeared that after crossing 
the Tennessee, Hood had been delayed at Pulaski and 
Columbia, by the defensive tactics resorted to by Gen- 
eral Thomas, who was manoeuvering to gain time for 
the concentration of his army. Already impatient at 
what seemed to him uncalled for delay, when he found 
the Fourth and Twenty-third army corps entrenched 
across his path at Franklin, the fiery chief of the rebel 
army attacked them with rather more than his usual 
recklessness. The assault was made with the dash and 
impetuosity so characteristic of the southern soldier, 
and although the enemy met a bloody repulse, his 
attacks were continued until far in the night. But it 
also appeared that after repulsing the enemy with heavy 
loss at all points, our army had retired during the night 



December, 1864. THE MARCH TO THE SEA. 263 

to Nashville, leaving our dead on the field and followed 
by the Confederates. 

While we had no doubt the enemy had been roughly 
handled in his rash attempt to carry the entrenched lines 
at Franklin, defended as they were by such veteran 
soldiers as those of the Fourth and Twenty-third army 
corps, yet the fact that the retreat of our army had been 
continued to Nashville, where a great :md decisive battle 
must soon be fought, caused much solicitude over the 
situation in Tennessee. But all anxiety was soon re- 
moved. Almost at the moment of our triumphant entry 
into Savannah came the news of a glorious victory at 
Nashville. Our comrades had stormed and carried the 
enemy's entrenched lines, captured fifteen thousand 
prisoners, seventy-two pieces of artillery, seventy stand 
of colors, a large quantity of small arms and other spoils 
of the battlefield, while the scattered fragments of the 
rebel army, impelled by the instinct of self-preservation, 
were flying in dismay and disorder, never to appear 
again as an organized force. 

Savannah was an old place, considered of such im- 
portance at the time of the War of the Revolution that 
it was besieged in turn by both the American and Brit- 
ish armies. It was successfully defended against an 
attack of the British in 1776, but two years later it fell 
into their possession. In 1779 the American army, 
commanded by General Lincoln, with our French allies, 
attempted to recapture it, but was defeated. A monu- 
ment erected to the memory of Count Pulaski stands on 
the spot where he fell while gallantly leading his men in 
the assault. Near the camp of the Eighty-fifth was a sec- 
tion of grass grown earthworks, but their outlines were 



264 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. January, 1865. 

well preserved, said to have been erected by General 
Lincoln. During our stay at that point this old em- 
bankment was much frequented by the players of 
"chuck-a-luck." In the city were many quaint old 
buildings, and its streets were lined with shade trees of 
rare beauty. At many of the street crossings were small 
parks adorned with the willow-leaf oak, a handsome 
evergreen, while in the large yards surrounding the 
homes of the well-to-do, were found magnolias, tropical 
shrubs and flowers that bloomed the year round. Bay 
street, the principal thoroughfare, was made beautiful 
by the rows of trees which divided its ample width into 
driveways. 

The plantations just beyond the city limits had been 
the homes of a wealthy and cultivated society. Gen- 
erally the homes had been left in charge of colored ser- 
vants, and were filled with rare books, pictures and other 
evidences of refined life. Around these plantation 
houses were giant live-oaks, whose great branches, as 
large as the trunks of trees in our own northland, spread 
out wide enough for a regiment to hold dress parade 
beneath them. From their boughs hung in graceful fes- 
toons the drooping tillandsia, the long moss of the 
south, and when glorified by the morning sun these trees 
presented a never-to-be-forgotten picture. The coast 
with its numerous bays, estuaries and inlets, was one 
continuous bed of oysters, furnishing food for the hun- 
gry and delicacies for the epicure. The mild climate, 
in which we saw neither ice nor snow, was a luxury not 
before enjoyed by our army. Moreover, it was obvious 
that the end of the war was near. 

The past year had been an eventful one, in which war 



January, 1865. THE MARCH TO THE SEA. 265 

had been waged upon a gigantic scale. At times the 
nemy, with the energy of despair, had carried the in- 
vader's banner far northward, to meet in every instance 
irretrievable defeat. In the east, General Early led his 
troops almost to the defenses around the National Cap- 
ital, to be defeated, and later his army destroyed by Gen- 
eral Sheridan. In the west we have seen the army under 
Hood ruined at Nashville by General Thomas, and be- 
yond the Mississippi, when General Sterling Price 
assayed the role of invader, General Rosecrans captured 
his cannon, destroyed his wagon train and dispersed his 
followers. There was, therefore, but one army left for 
the defense of the Confederacy, and that was held at 
Petersburg in Grant's relentless, vice-like grip. Soldiers 
of all grades felt well assured that when our army moved 
from Savannah our colors would point toward the rebel 
capital. 

At Savannah one soldier was heard to say to another, 
""I hope our regiment will be among the first mustered 
out at the close of the war, before all the good jobs are 
taken." It is, perhaps, needless to add, this was said by 
an Irishman. This raised the question for the first time, 
what will become of the vast army of young men soon to 
be thrown upon their own resources, what can they do 
for a living when the United States ceases to provide for 
the "government people"? Previous to this, the uncer- 
tain duration of the war, and the chances for living 
through it, had held that question in abeyance. But 
now the spectre had been raised, "a ghost that would not 
down," and from that time to the end, it traveled with us 
by night as well as by day. 

During our stay in Atlanta the Ninety-second Ohio 



266 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. January, 1865, 

infantry occupied a camp near that of the Eighty-fifth, 
and as this period was devoted to almost unbroken rest 
throughout the army, the unusual activity observed in 
that regiment could not pass unnoticed. Each morn- 
ing the camp was policed, after which there was guard 
mount and squad and company drill. In the afternoon 
there was batallion drill and in the evening dress parade. 
Indeed, the requirements of army regulations were 
strictly observed, as fully as if the regiment had then for 
the first time entered a camp of instruction. These 
things were recalled when just before leaving Savannah, 
Benjamin D. Fearing, colonel of that regiment, was pro- 
moted to the rank of brigadier general, and assigned to 
the command of the Third brigade. General Fearing 
was a lineal descendant of General Israel Putnam, 
famous in the War of the Revolution, of whom it was 
said, "He dared to lead where any dared to follow." 

The troops enjoyed their short stay in Savannah to 
the utmost. Their duties were light; they were allowed 
the fullest liberty consistent with good order, and there 
was a continual round of sight-seeing and merry-mak- 
ing. But the soldiers soon tired of the monotony of the 
camp; they missed the pungent smell of the piney 
woods, and they longed for the excitement of the march. 
An active campaign promised a change of scenery, of 
duty and of diet. True this involved much marching 
perhaps hard fighting, but it meant business, and they 
were not journeying through the South for their health. 
.All knew that Savannah was but one stage in their jour- 
ney to Richmond, and all were eager to pay their re- 
spects to the original secessionists the people of South 
Carolina. They remembered that her people had been 



January, 1S65. THE MARCH TO THE SEA. 267 

rebellious subjects for more than thirty years, and so far 
they had escaped the scourge of war. The birth-place 
of nullification and secession, her people had rocked the 
cradle of rebellion, and fanned the sparks of insurrection 
into the flames of civil war. And now, that the state 
was to be ravaged through its utmost length, and over 
an average breadth of forty miles, it appeared to them 
to be but a fair measure of justice. 

When the plan for the march north was conceived 
the rebel garrison at Charleston, to which place General 
Hardee and his command had fled when he evacuated 
Savannah, was capable of making a respectable defense, 
while the broken fragments of Hood's army, which had 
escaped from Tennessee, were being hurried across 
Georgia to assist in the defense of Augusta. But unless 
these widely scattered forces could 'be united, the enemy 
would be utterly unable to meet our veteran army in the 
open field. It was, therefore, the purpose of General 
Sherman to threaten both Augusta and Charleston, and 
when the widely diverging movement of the two wings 
of his army should leave the enemy divided and in doubt 
as to his real destination, he would march rapidly on 
Columbia; then with his army united proceed to 
Goldsboro, North Carolina, four hundred and twenty- 
five miles distant, thoroughly destroying the railway 
system of South Carolina on his way, as he had that of 
Georgia in the march to the sea. 

To accomplish his feint against Charleston, General 
Sherman transported the most of the right wing, under 
General Howard, by sea to Beaufort, where it arrived on 
the loth. At the same time a part of one corps marched 
in that direction by the Union causeway. On Sunday, 



268 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. January, 1865. 

the 1 5th, General Howard moved his troops forward, 
through mud and rain, and seized the Savannah and 
Charleston railroad at Pocotaligo, twenty-five miles in- 
land. General Slocum crossed two divisions of the 
Twentieth corps over the Savannah river, above the city, 
and occupied Hardeeville, a station on the same line of 
railway. So by the middle of January our army had 
secured firm footing in South Carolina, and was ready to 
begin the march northward as soon as sufficient food and 
forage could be accumulated. 



CHAPTER XXII. 



Preparations for the coming campaign called forth 
every energy, and the utmost activity prevailed through- 
out the army. But a rise in the river swept away our 
pontoon bridge at Savannah, and General Slocum was 
ordered to move with the remaining divisions of the left 
wing, including General Kilpatrick's division of cavalry, 
up the Georgia side of the river to Sister's ferry, where 
he was to cross over and seize the Augusta and Charles- 
ton railroad near Blackville. This railway he was to 
destroy effectually, while making a well-sustained men- 
ace on Augusta. At the same time the right wing was 
expected to strike the same line of railroad at Midway, 
still maintaining the feint against Charleston. 

The army numbered sixty thousand men, and car- 
ried with it sixty-eight pieces of artillery. The trains 
were made up of some twenty-five hundred wagons, with 
six mules to each wagon, and about six hundred ambu- 



January, 1865. CAMPAIGN OF THE CAROLINAS. 269 

lances, with two horses each. The wagons contained 
an ample supply of ammunition for a great battle, for 
from that time to the end, the possibility of our having 
to fight a battle with the united armies of the Confeder- 
acy, should General Lee escape from General Grant, 
was a contingency to be provided for. The wagons also 
contained forage for seven days, and provisions for 
twenty days, mostly of bread, coffee, sugar and salt. 
The supply of the small rations was generous, but the 
troops were to depend largely for breadstuff and meat, 
on flour, meal, cattle, hogs, and poultry likely to be 
found along the line of march. 

The country was considered so difficult that the 
Confederate authorities believed the swamps and 
streams would prove an impassable barrier to Sherman's 
army. It was like all the southern sea board, low and 
sandy, with numerous swamps and rivers. The streams 
are usually bordered with wide swamps and approached 
by long, narrow causeways leading to bridge or ferry. 
These causeways could be defended indefinitely by small 
bodies of troops, who, when dispersed, could destroy the 
bridges and ferry boats, and obstruct the roads by felling 
trees. The rivers of South Carolina generally flow par- 
allel with the Savannah, and many of them are both 
broad and deep. So it would be found necessary to 
march far into the interior of the state, on the ridges be- 
tween the streams, until near their headwaters, before 
crossings would be found and the heads of column 
turned in the desired direction. 

On January 2Oth the left wing, to which the Eighty- 
fifth belonged, moved out of Savannah in a pouring rain 
and marched ten miles on the Augusta road. At this 



270 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. January, 1865. 

point we were mud-bound and water-bound until the 
24th, when we abandoned the road, and by struggling 
through field and forest, the command reached Sister's 
ferry on the 28th, having marched but forty-two miles 
in eight days. To add to the difficulties of the situation 
the river had been raised by the continued rains until it 
overflowed its banks, and at that time was about three 
miles wide. A pontoon bridge had been laid at this 
point, and was guarded by the gunboat Pontiac. The 
weather cleared on the next day and the river ran down, 
so that a part of the command crossed over on the 5th 
of February. Previous to crossing we had to build tres- 
tles for considerable distance and then corduroy the road 
for tw;o miles and a half, the men working in water from 
ankle to waist deep. 

While marching through Georgia it was not unusual 
to hear the citizens say, "Why don't you all go over into 
South Carolina, and take, burn and destroy; her people 
began the war." Sometimes this was said with a sneer- 
ing', taunting manner, implying that there we would find 
a people less submissive, who would fight to the bitter 
end and die in the last ditch. But generally we thought 
we could see that the people of Georgia would look upon 
a raid through their sister state with at least a degree of 
complacency. To this chaffing our men invariably re- 
plied that we were going to South Carolina as fast as we 
could march, and if they would possess their souls with 
patience, they would soon see a just recompense of 
reward meted out to those who first set up the flag of 

rebellion. 

General Kilpatrick's cavalry division moved 
throughout this campaign on the front or flank of the 



February, 1865. CAMPAIGN OF THE CAROLINAS. 271 

left wing. These troopers crossed on the pontoon 
bridge on the evening of the 7th, and many of the Third 
brigade were at the bridge when they passed into South 
Carolina, and never were troops in higher spirits. They 
said that "Wherever we followed their trail we would 
find chimneys but no houses; that their route would be 
marked by blazing ruins, and that a crow in passing over 
their line of march would need to carry a haversack." 
That this was no idle boast was fully established by the 
ravaged country found whenever we had the misfortune 
to fall in the rear of Kilpatrick's rough riders. 

The Fourteenth corps had left Savannah without 
being supplied with hard bread, sugar, coffee and salt, 
but while waiting for the flood in the Savannah river to 
subside, steamers brought an abundance of these rations. 
Mails were received and north-bound mail was taken by 
the out-going transports until the last moment. 

The Third brigade left Sister's ferry on Wednesday, 
the 8th, in charge of the corps train, marched fifty miles 
in the next three days, and reached the Charleston and 
Augusta railway at Williston on the I2th. At a cross 
road near this place the guide boards pointed north to 
Barnwell C. H., south to Burton's ferry, east to Fiddle 
pond, and west to Augusta, Ga. This railroad was 
destroyed for some thirty miles or more, while the cav- 
alry drove the enemy to within twenty miles of Augusta. 
At the same time our working parties met those of the 
right wing, it having reached the railway at or near Mid- 
way. When the destruction of the road had been com- 
pleted, and the feints against both Augusta and Char- 
leston had attracted sufficient attention both wings took 
direct roads to Columbia. We crossed both branches 



272 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. February, 1865. 

of the Edisto river, meeting no opposition other than 
swamps, until the I5th, when a slight skirmish was had 
with Wheeler's cavalry, which did not delay the march- 
ing column a moment. On the morning of the i6th we 
arrived in front of Columbia, within an hour after the 
arrival of General Howard and the right wing. The 
union of the two wings of the army before the first ob- 
jective in the campaign was a fine tribute to the skill with 
which the widely divergent wings had been led and 
manoeuvred. It was now so evident that the enemy 
could offer no serious defense at Columbia that the city 
was left to the tender mercies of the right wing, while we 
moved up the Saluda river to Mount Zion church, 
where we laid a pontoon bridge during the night and 
crossed that stream the next morning. On the I7th we 
marched to Broad river, camping for the night at the 
mouth of Wateree creek, where we learned that the 
right wing had entered Columbia at ten o'clock that 
morning. 

As the command marched across the high land be- 
tween the Saluda and Broad rivers, a very extended view 
of the country was afforded. The day was clear, but a 
perfect tempest of wind was raging. In every direction 
as far as eye could see fire was burning, the wind spread- 
ing the devouring flames far and wide. None had ever 
seen such widespread and almost universal destruction. 
That evening the ammunition train was parked near the 
camp of the Third brigade. While the preparation of 
supper was in progress fire, which had been communi- 
cated to the tall dry grass which surrounded both camp 
and train, was observed approaching the wagons. In- 
stantly a\\ realized the presence of a new enemy, and for 




^f ATEN, 

COMPANY G. 



273 



THE 



February, 1865. CAMPAIGN OF THE CAROUNAS. 275 

a lime it seemed no possible effort could arrest the 
progress of the eager flames, and that our ammunition 
train was doomed. But by heroic righting the flames 
were finally subdued, our ammunition saved and a ter- 
rible disaster averted. 

That night, while the tempest was still raging with 
unabated fury, Columbia was burned. General Sher- 
man always claimed that the retreating rebels, by burn- 
ing cotton in the streets, from which the fire was carried 
to the buildings by the high wind, caused the burning of 
the city. The writer has never been able to adopt that 
theory. There had been many Union prisoners of war 
held in Columbia until the appearance of our army in 
front of the city caused their removal. Many of them, 
by concealing themselves in the city until our troops 
entered, had been rescued. These men claimed to have 
been badly treated by their captors and by the citizens as 
well, and they would have been more than human if they 
had not embraced the opportunity to get even. More- 
over, some of them, after escaping from prison, where 
they had been almost starved, had been hunted down 
and recaptured by citizens with bloodhounds. Then, 
too, there was a feeling among the rank and file that the 
capital of the state first to adopt the ordinance of seces- 
sion, and first to insult the flag, should feel more than a 
passing touch of war. For these reasons it would seem 
probable that if our men did not burn Columbia it was 
because the fire was accidentally started before they got 
round to that which they considered a duty. 

At Freshley's ferry, the point selected for crossing 
Broad river, that stream was found to be fullv two hun- 
dred yards wide. On account of the tardy arrival of the 

17 



276 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. February, 1865. 

pontoon train the Third brigade crossed in flat boats and 
took position on the opposite hills to protect the cross- 
ing in the event of an attack from that direction. When 
the pontoon train arrived and all the boats had been 
placed in position, the bridge fell short by ten boats of 
reaching the farther shore, and we had to await the ar- 
rival of additional pontoons. Meanwhile General Cheat- 
ham, with a part of the remains of Hood's army, was 
crossing the same stream a few miles above in haste to 
unite with other forces in our front. 

The man after whom the ferry was named owned a 
flouring mill a short distance below and a large planta- 
tion half a mile or more beyond the crossing. Well 
supplied with wordly goods he had become prominent 
as a citizen before the war and during its progress he 
acquired notoriety as a rebel. One of our men of an 
inquiring turn of mind, "on investigation bent," learned 
this and much more from the books and letters found in 
the Freshley mansion before it accidentally caught fire. 
These papers and books of account showed that this 
man held a commission as receiver of the tax levied in 
kind on the people of his district by the Confederate 
authorities for the subsistence of the rebel armies. Our 
men also learned through the colored people that this 
miller, planter and ferryman had kept a pack of blood- 
hounds with which he hunted escaping Union prisoners 
and ran down the fleeing slaves. Whether Freshley fell 
into the hands of our advance or not the writer never 
knew, but if he did the awful score that stood against him 
may have been most unfortunate for him. 

Early on Sunday, the iQth, we moved toward Alston, 
breaking up the railroad to near that place. On the 



February, 1865. CAMPAIGN OF THE CAROLINAS. 277 

2 ist we crossed Little river at Winnsboro, where both 
wings of the army were again united, the right wing 
having destroyed the railway the entire distance from 
Columbia to Winnsboro, where the army was now 
massed. 

Winnsboro is situated on the South Carolina and 
Charlotte railway, thirty-nine miles north of Columbia 
and seventy miles south of Charlotte, N. C. The move- 
ment of the entire army so far north served to support 
the theory that it was Sherman's purpose to march to 
Virginia by the way of Charlotte. To maintain this de- 
lusion the cavalry were boldly pushed up to within five 
miles of Chester, while the infantry broke up the rail- 
road almost to that point. 

At Winnsboro there was a rigid inspection of the 
wagon trains, and all surplus baggage was thrown out 
and burned. This was rendered necessary because every 
wagon would be needed in the conveyance of grain and 
forage for the animals while marching through the very 
difficult and barren country the army was now about to 
enter. "Soldiers," says the cynic, "may live on enthusi- 
asm, but horses and mules must have oats." Here, too, 
many broken-down horses and mules were shot, rather 
than abandon them to fall into the hands of the enemy. 
This was a sad duty, for the men had long since learned 
to admire the patient endurance of those much abused 
partners of adversity. 

Next in importance in the army, after the health and 
efficiency of the men, is the condition of the mules. At 
this period of the war the Federal government was the 
largest mule owner in the world, and in a campaign like 
the present their endurance was tested to the utmost 



278 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. February, 1865. 

limit. Without ancestry or hope of posterity this curi- 
ous animal is the puzzle of the brute creation. A past- 
master in devilment, he abounds in cunning while his 
solemn visage tends to disarm suspicion. He appears 
to have been born old in iniquity ; an appearance which 
the dexterity of his heels and roguish tricks seem to con- 
firm. Always longing for something to eat, he prefers 
forbidden or stolen food, but on occasion can go for days 
without food or water. The most disreputable in ap- 
pearance, he is the most useful of all the dumb toilers 
whom man holds in unending slavery. Steady, method- 
ical work suits the mule, and he seems to know the na- 
ture of the emergency as well as his driver does. His 
great sad eyes may have a distressed look; his gaunt 
flanks throb, but there is no lagging. Driven by whip 
and spur on half or quarter feed until they drop from 
exhaustion, thousands of mules were left to die in the 
mud holes in which they fell. A man can give vent to 
his sufferings; he can ask for help; he can find some re- 
lief in crying, praying or swearing, but for the poor 
abandoned mule there was no help no hope. 

On the 22nd the Second division moved in charge of 
the corps train, and for the next few days the rain fell 
almost constantly, the road seemed bottomless and 
wherever a wagon moved the road had to be corduroyed. 
We reached the Catawba river at Rocky Mount Post- 
office, on the evening of the 23rd. and on the completion 
of the pontoon bridge the Second division crossed over. 
Then the bridge parted, leaving the other divisions and 
the corps train on the other bank. At this point were 
encountered the greatest difficulties. A broad, turbu- 
lent and rapidly rising river separated the command, 



Feb nary, 1865. CAMPAIGN OF THE CAROLINAS. 279 

which was the left and exposed flank of the army, while 
the other corps, more fortunate in their crossing, were 
pushing for Cheraw, on the Great Pedee river. When 
the general commanding learned the awkward situation 
confronting the Fourteenth corps he authorized General 
Davis to destroy his trains. But no one in the command 
would sanction this except as a last resort. Again and 
again the bridge was swept away by the rising stream 
and the flooring lost, but fortunately all the boats save 
two were recovered, and material to replace the lost 
flooring was obtained by tearing down the buildings 
near the crossing. Finally, about midnight of the 27th, 
the bridge was reconstructed and the trains, without the 
loss of a single wagon, crossed over, followed by the 
other divisions belonging to the corps. The unfortu- 
nate, but wholly unavoidable delay of the Fourteenth 
corps, had checked the progress of the whole army at a 
time when an effort was being made for a rapid concen- 
tration of the army at Cheraw. 

Between the Catawba, the Wateree, and the Great 
Pedee rivers, our line of march led us through a country 
rich in memories of the War of the Revolution. We 
were told that Lord Cornwallis with his command 
crossed the Catawba at the place the Fourteenth corps 
found such a difficult crossing. But a short distance to 
our right was the battlefield of Camden, where the brave 
Baron DeKalb fell fighting in the patriot's cause. On 
the first day of March we took dinner on the field where 
troops under General Gates had an engagement with the 
British under Colonel Tarleton, and the swamps bor- 
dering the streams were made forever famous by the ad- 
ventures of General Marion and his dashing rangers. 



280 HISTORY OF THE S5TH ILLINOIS. March, 1865, 

By a forced march we made seventy-two miles in the 
four days next after leaving the Catawba river, over 
roads that had to be corduroyed almost the entire dis- 
tance. One night the Third brigade marched all night 
long, arriving in camp just as the head of column moved 
out on the new day's march. The command, of which 
the Eighty-fifth was a part, reached the Great Peclee 
river, eight miles north of Cheraw, on the 3rd of March, 
the same day that the right wing entered that city. At 
Cheraw General Howard captured twenty-eight pieces 
of artillery, three thousand stand of small arms, and an 
immense quantity of ammunition and stores. Many of 
the captured stores belonged to private parties who had 
moved them to Cheraw for safe keeping when General 
Hardee evacuated Charleston. The left wing of the 
army remained quietly in camp in the vicinity of Sneeds- 
boro, while a bridge was thrown across the river, and 
until the right wing moved north from Cheraw. 

Stung into activity by the overwhelming disaster 
threatening the Confederacy the rebel authorities put 
forth every effort to concentrate a force capable of meet- 
ing Sherman's army in the field. General Hampton 
with his cavalry division hastened to join Hardee in his 
retreat from Cheraw to Fayetteville, while Joseph E. 
Johnston was called from retirement and placed in 
supreme command of all the troops supposed to be avail- 
able to stay the triumphant march. General Johnston 
was at this time at Charlotte trying to form an army out 
of the remnants of Hood's army, local garrisons and the 
militia of North Carolina, with which to meet and turn 
the invader back. Energetic, skillful and courageous, 
he only lacked an army to make him a foe to be dreaded. 



March, 1865. CAMPAIGN OF THE CAROLINAS. 281 

The news of Johnston's assignment to command was 
received by our army as notice to be prepared for well- 
planned, stubborn resistance. Officers and men agreed 
that the Confederate government had at last taken a wise 
step, although they felt equally sure that it was too late 
for even Johnston to stop the progress of Sherman's 
army. 

The Great Pedee is three hundred yards wide where 
we crossed just below Sneedsboro, and required for a 
bridge forty-two canvas boats. The crossing was com- 
pleted and the pontoons lifted and loaded on the evening 
of the /th, and the next day we crossed the line into the 
state of North Carolina, fourteen miles south of Rock- 
ingham. On the 9th we crossed Lumber river (Little 
Pedee) at Graham's bridge in a very heavy rain. A 
resin factory was burning just above the bridge, and as 
our column passed over the surface of the water was 
ablaze with burning resin and turpentine, presenting in 
the pouring rain a weird, uncanny sight. The command 
reached the plank road leading to Fayetteville at Thirty- 
five Mile Post. 

About the beginning of the present campaign Gen- 
eral Wade Hampton had been sent from Virginia to take 
command of the Confederate cavalry in South Carolina 
in the hope that his great personal influence would 
arouse the people of that state to energetic action in de- 
fense of their homes, and thus do what the most fervent 
appeals had so signally failed to accomplish in Georgia. 
But the people, almost frantic from fear, refused to rally 
to his standard, and so far the magic of his great name 
had not checked the advance of Sherman's army. Com- 
ing as the especial champion of South Carolina, Hamp- 



282 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. March, 1865. 

ton had been driven from her capital, the city of his 
home, and expelled from his native state, without fight- 
ing a single battle. In the retreat from Cheraw to Fay- 
etteville he had been deceived into moving too far north, 
and on the evening of the Qth, in his effort to rejoin Har- 
clee, he unexpectedly found Kilpatrick's cavalry division 
interposed between his command and the infantry col- 
umn he was seeking to overtake. Thinking he saw an 
opportunity to surprise Kilpatrick by a night attack, and 
hoping in the sudden onset to disperse or capture his 
clashing troopers, Hampton made his plan to attack be- 
fore daylight on the morning of the loth. The plan was 
well conceived, the movement up to the moment of 
attack skilfully concealed, and the resulting surprise 
complete. But Kilpatrick and his men were apt to de- 
velop unexpected resources in the rough-and-tumble 
fight, and it required but a short time for them to rally, 
when they routed the enemy by a return charge. 

The Second division was moving on the extreme left 
of the infantry column, and the evening of the gth, 
camped about four miles south of Kilpatrick. Between 
two and three o'clock on the next morning, the noise of 
a furious battle broke out in the direction of the cavalry 
camp. The artillery firing was heavy and continued, 
giving notice of more than the ordinary affair between 
outposts, and the Second brigade was hurried off in the 
direction of the conflict, while the other brigades of the 
division resumed the march with the utmost unconcern. 
That night when the Second brigade rejoined the divis- 
ion we learned that Kilpatrick had been surprised, his 
headquarters, his artillery and many of his men captured 
in the first onset. But while the exulting enemy was en- 



March, 1865. CAMPAIGN OF THE CAROUNAS. 283 

gaged in plundering headquarters, and trying to harness 
the horses to the batteries, Kilpatrick rallied his men and 
charged the foe, recovering his headquarters, recaptur- 
ing his artillery and driving the enemy from his camp 
with heavy loss, before the arrival of the infantry brigade 
sent to his relief. 

Meeting General Kilpatrick many years ago he told 
the writer some interesting details omitted from the 
official report of that rough-and-tumble fight. The 
general said, "On the evening before the fight we ran 
into the rear of General Hardee's column, and from pris- 
oners captured learned that Hardee was rapidly retreat- 
ing to Fayetteville, and that Hampton with the cavalry 
was a few miles in the rear, but rapidly moving on the 
same point. Upon receiving this information, I deter- 
mined to intercept him, and prevent his force from unit- 
ing with that of Hardee. I posted one brigade at a ham- 
let called Solemn Grove, on the Morgantown road, 
another brigade on a road some three miles north, and 
the third brigade some three miles southeast, at the point 
where the last mentioned road intersects the road to 
Morgantown. That night I slept in a house at the inter- 
section of the roads. Toward morning I became rest- 
less, got up and stepped out on the porch, where I was 
standing in my nightshirt, when several men dressed in 
our uniform rode up and inquired for General Kilpat- 
rick's headquarters. Something in the tone of voice, 
perhaps, aroused my suspicion, and I promptly replied, 
"Down the road about half a mile," and away they went. 
Just then I saw the enemy in force coming on the charge, 
and I ran around the corner of the house and in the direc- 
tion of a swamp. Soon I was fortunate enough to catch a 



284 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. March, 1865, 

horse and mounting bareback rallied a few men and 
began to fight. The sound of our firing made a rallying 
point for our men, and very soon I had a charging col- 
umn formed. The rebels struck our artillery park in 
their charge, which broke them up rather badly and ob- 
serving that they were intent on plunder, and widely 
scattered, the charge was sounded and after a sharp 
fight, we drove the enemy from the field." 

On the loth, the Third brigade had charge of the 
division train, and soon after leaving camp the rain be- 
gan to fall in torrents, the earth seemed to melt under 
our feet, and that day and night we corduroyed the road 
for the greater part of twelve miles. Layer after layer 
of corduroy disappeared in the ooze, and it required the 
best efforts of both men and officers to move the train 
of one hundred and fifty wagons over the weary miles of 
quicksand. Officers and men were compelled to work 
through the whole night in pouring rain, and in mud and 
water from one to three feet deep, but the hardy Union 
warriors lifted the wagons out of the mire, and landed 
the train in the division camp at eight o'clock on the 
morning of the nth. Here we rested an hour for 
breakfast, and then pushed on to Fayetteville, arriving 
there at two o'clock that afternoon. 

On approaching Fayetteville, the Fourteenth corps 
was designated to enter first and the Third division hav- 
ing the advance on that day, with but a slight skirmish, 
took possession of the city about noon, the enemy under 
Hardee retreating in the direction of Raleigh. Seventeen 
pieces of artillery and many small arms were captured 
and the U. S. arsenal, basely surrendered by a treacher- 
ous officer at the beginning of the war, was recaptured. 



March, 1865. CAMPAIGN OF THE CAROLINAS. 285 

CHAPTER XXIII. 



Fayetteville is situated on the right bank of the Cape 
Fear river and at the head of navigation. It is one hun- 
dred and thirty miles from the sea, and ninety-five miles 
from Wilmington. In addition to the arms and ammu- 
nition captured with the arsenal, there were cotton mills 
and iron foundries engaged in manufacturing supplies 
for the Confederate army. On Sunday, the day follow- 
ing our occupation of the city, a steamer arrived from 
Wilmington with the news that General Terry had cap- 
tured that place, and that a force under General Scho- 
field was moving from New Berne to join General Sher- 
man at Goldsboro. Other steamers and gunboats ar- 
rived during our stay, which served to put us in touch 
with the United States once more. 

While at Fayetteville, General Sherman caused the 
total destruction of the arsenal and the extensive 
machinery which had been removed to that place from 
the old United States armory at Harper's Ferry, and 
since used in the manufacture and repair of arms for the 
Confederate government. The iron foundries and cot- 
ton mills were also effectually destroyed, but little or no 
damage was done to private property. While marching 
through South Carolina, the troops seemed to feel that 
upon them devolved the duty of punishing the inhabi- 
tants for their life-long hostility to the Federal Union, 
and they plundered and destroyed practically without 
let or hindrance. But from the moment of entering 
North Carolina, the indiscriminate destruction of private 
property ceased, the demeanor of the whole army 



286 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. March, 1865. 

changed, and the men willingly yielded to the custom- 
ary restraints of discipline. 

Up to this time Sherman had been successful in inter- 
posing his army between the widely scattered forces of 
the enemy. But the garrison at Augusta, reinforced 
by fragments of Hood's army under General Cheatham, 
had been given ample time to join the rebel force being 
organized in the vicinity of Raleigh. Hardee had also 
retreated in that direction and General Bragg was fall- 
ing back across our front, with an army of uncertain 
numbers, before the advance of Generals Terry and 
Schofield. These forces, when once united under a 
leader so skillful as General Joseph E. Johnston, would 
constitute an army strong enough in numbers to justify 
extreme caution in the last stage of the campaign. In 
order, therefore, to be prepared for anv emergency, two 
divisions of each corps were stripped of their trains, ex- 
cept the wagons necessary to carry an ample supply of 
ammunition, and the trains, guarded by the remaining 
divisions were sent on the most direct route to Golds- 
boro. This gave to each wing four unencumbered divi- 
sions ready for instant battle. 

The trains of the Fourteenth corps were placed in 
charge of General Baird, commanding the Third divi- 
sion, and the Eighty-fifth was detailed as train guard, to 
accompany his command. The entire army moved on 
the 1 5th except the train guard, which was delayed in 
taking up the pontoons until the next morning. The 
cavalry in advance of the left wing soon encountered 
more than the usual opposition, and before night on the 
first day out had to call up the infantry supports. By 
noon on the i6th, Hardee was found with cavalry, infan- 



March, 1865. CAMPAIGN OF THE CAROLINAS. 287 

try and artillery in position, and strongly entrenched 
near Averysboro. His position covered the road to 
Goldsboro, and it was necessary to drive him from this 
road in order to secure it, as well as to maintain the 
threat against Raleigh. In the stubborn action which 
ensued tHat afternoon Rhett's brigade of South Carolina 
troops was unceremoniously overthrown, his battery of 
three pieces of artillery and most of his men captured. 
During the night Hardee retreated toward Raleigh, and 
the next day the left wing turned toward Goldsboro, in- 
tending to make a rapid march direct to that point, with- 
out paying further attention to the enemy, who still men- 
aced the left flank. In the battle of Averysboro, our 
wounded numbered four hundred and seventy-seven, a 
very serious loss, when it is remembered that every man 
had to be carried in the ambulance train. 

Believing that the feint against Raleigh had led Har- 
dee to make his stubborn fight at Averysboro for the 
purpose of gaining time for General Johnston to con- 
centrate his forces in front of the state capital, General 
Sherman directed the entire army to march as rapidly as 
possible to Goldsboro. After burying the dead at 
Averysboro, the left wing marched on a single road in 
that direction, while the right wing and trains moved on 
the same place, but on roads some distance south and 
east. No opposition was encountered on the I7th, and 
after marching eight miles over horrible roads, the Four- 
teenth corps camped two miles east of Mingo creek. 

Saturday, the i8th, the Second division had the ad- 
vance of the corps, arid the foragers under command of 
Major J. T. Holmes, of the Fifty-second Ohio, drove the 
enemy to Bushy swamp, where he was found in position 



288 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. March, 1865. 

from which he opened with artillery. The division was 
quickly deployed and drove the enemy from his position, 
and went into camp at four o'clock in the afternoon by 
the direct order of General Sherman. During the day 
mounted men were almost constantly seen near the line 
of march, sometimes in groups at the openings in the 
woods, at other times single horsemen watching the 
troops on the road ; all passing toward the head of the 
column, or working their way through the woods to 
gain by close view the number of our men. In the 
evening reconnoitering parties were sent out who found 
nothing but cavalry videttes, who fled beyond Mill 
creek, burning the bridge behind them. 

Sunday morning, the iQth, gave promise of a beauti- 
ful day. For almost the first time in weeks the sun was 
shining, and, in that southern latitude, it was the recur- 
ring season of foliage and flowers, and fruit trees were in 
full bloom around the infrequent farm houses. But the 
morning so clear and calm, like many a Sunday in the 
army, was destined to be a day of deadly conflict. 

For several days General Sherman had been march- 
ing with the left wing, and his headquarters had been 
with the Fourteenth corps. But he was so confident that 
his threat against Raleigh had forced General Johnston 
to concentrate his forces for battle at that place, that he 
started to ride over to the right wing, as soon as the ad- 
vance began on Sunday morning. The dense timber 
through which he rode shut out the sound of battle, and 
he did not learn of the struggle in which the left wing 
was engaged until overtaken by a courier that night. 

The foragers found the enemy within five hundred 
yards of camp that morning, and soon these renowned 



March, 1865. CAMPAIGN OF THE CAROUNAS. 289 

warriors, who usually made short work of dispersing a 
line of rebel cavalry, became discouraged, and sullenly 
fell back behind our skirmishers. One brigade after an- 
other was brought up and deployed, until the whole of 
the First division was in line of battle, yet everywhere it 
found the enemy strong, and his resistance as determined 
as it was unexpected. In front of the left of the line was a 
swamp of a depth then unknown, while on the right front 
the ground was covered with a thick growth of black- 
jack and pine trees. General Slocum, commanding the 
left wing, was present with the advance, and under his 
orders General Carlin advanced his line to ascertain the 
enemy's intention and develop his position. After a sharp 
fight, a line of the enemy's infantry was routed, when sud- 
denly the whole line dashed against a line of earthworks, 
manned with infantry and abundantly supplied with artil- 
lery. From this line the enemy opened such a destruc- 
tive fire that our whole line was repulsed with heavy loss. 
By this time, the Second division arrived, and the 
First and Second brigades were placed on the right, with 
the Third brigade massed in reserve. No sooner had 
these dispositions been made than the entire line was 
assailed with the utmost impetuosity, and at once the 
engagement became general. The advancing lines of 
the eager enemy far outreached the left of General Car- 
lin's line, and the first division, already much weakened 
by the stubborn work of the morning, began to retire, 
the men fighting desperately as they retreated slowly. 
This was the critical period of the battle. The Twen- 
tieth corps was hurrying to the front, but yet too far in 
the rear to render any assistance in the present crisis. 
The First and Second brigades were holding their own, 



290 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. March, 1865. 

which made the Third brigade available for the desper- 
ate task of turning back the victorious foe on the left. 

The Third brigade was standing in columns of regi- 
ments faced to the front, and when the left began to give 
way, our corps commander, General Davis, ordered Gen- 
eral Fearing to swing the brigade to the left and to 
charge the enemy in flank. The scene was dramatic; 
the general's orders were given with confidence and en- 
ergy, and officers and men were alike inspired by the en- 
thusiasm of their commander, and they struck the enemy 
a stunning blow. In a moment the brigade was in the 
vortex of battle and engaged in a fierce and deadly con- 
flict. As it advanced its right became exposed, but for- 
tunately Cogswell's brigade of the Twentieth corps, ar- 
rived after marching the whole of the previous night and 
moved in on Fearing's right. The men of these two 
brigades Fearing's and Cogswell's seemed to feel 
that upon them devolved the desperate honor of stem- 
ming the tide of defeat and turning it into victory, and 
after a fierce and bloody contest, the enemy gave way 
and fell back in confusion. So resistless had been the 
unexpected attack of these two brigades, that the 
enemy's whole line gave up the ground it had gained, 
and the battle ceased along the entire front. 

But none doubted that the enemy would return to 
the assault, and the entire line rapidly threw up a line of 
defenses. General Morgan, with the two brigades on 
the right, had not only held his ground, but had also 
punished the enemy severely. Carlin's troops, veterans 
all of them, were easily rallied on a new line, with their 
left sharply refused, and artillery was brought up and 
placed in position on commanding ground. While en- 




DK. P. L. DIKFFKNnACHKR. 



291 



Of 

UNIVERSITY 



March, 1865. CAMPAIGN OF THE CAROLINAS. 293 

gaged in building rude works during the lull in battle, 
the men expressed a lively satisfaction at the prospect of 
righting behind field-works a thing that had rarely 
fallen to their lot, and they seemed to thoroughly enjoy 
the prospect. Ammunition was brought up, and piled 
in convenient places along the line, and every prepara- 
tion made for the most stubborn defense. 

It was about five o'clock when the long line of the 
enemy emerged from the pine woods beyond the fields. 
It was a magnificent spectacle; every company present- 
ing a parade front ; every foot keeping time, while not a 
skulker left that splendid line. It was a sight that even 
veteran soldiers seldom see. But when the enemy came 
within short range, he met a deadly fire which checked ; 
then drove him back. Again and again, he rallied and 
surged forward; but he could not pass a certain point. 
Each assault was more hopeless than the one preceding, 
and finally the rebel line rolled back into the woods, leav- 
ing his killed and wounded piled thick upon the bloody 
field. 

In the desperate conflict following the charge of the 
Third brigade, General Fearing was severely wounded, 
and, from loss of blood, was compelled to leave the field. 
When retiring, he left the brigade in command of Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Langley, of the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fifth Illinois. This was the second time this gal- 
lant and meritorious officer had been called to assume 
command of the brigade in the indescribable turmoil of 
battle, and well and faithfully did he perform his duty. 
General Fearing was the fourth commander to fall while 
leading the Third brigade in action within less than a 
year. 

18 



294 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. March, 1865. 

Along the line of the First and Second brigades the 
fighting was no less severe. The First brigade, after 
repulsing the first attack, leaped over their works, pur- 
sued the retreating rebels into their own works, and cap- 
tured the colors of the Fortieth North Carolina regi- 
ment. Then followed an incident rarely found in the 
annals of war. A column of the enemy had passed 
through the interval between the left of the First and 
Second brigades and the right of Cogswell and Fearing. 
Then swinging to the left, this column assailed the line 
of Mitchell and Vandever from the rear. But the men 
quickly passed over to the reverse side of their works, 
and after a sharp and bloody struggle, repulsed this rear 
attack. As the enemy began to retreat our men again 
leaped their works and charged to the rear ; captured the 
colors of the Fifty-fourth Virginia ; took a large number 
of prisoners, and dispersed the intruding force. 

The struggle was unequal throughout the day, and 
at times it seemed the enemy would overwhelm our small 
force, by sheer force of numbers. In the last engage- 
ment every man was placed in the firing line even the 
headquarter's guard and the small detachment guarding 
the ammunition train filled a gap in the extended line. 
No further reinforcements could be hoped for that day, 
and there was nothing left but for the men to fight it out. 
But when night came, the enemy had been decisively re- 
pulsed at all points, and the weary troops lay down to 
rest upon their arms, ready to renew the contest at a 
moment's warning, and well assured that Sherman and 
the right wing would be with them by daylight the next 
morning. 

With the repulse of his last assault, General John- 



March, 1865. CAMPAIGN OF THE CAROLINAS. 295 

ston's declared purpose of destroying 1 Sherman's army, 
by crushing one corps after another in its isolation, 
failed. On the iQth he outnumbered our available force 
at least three to one, but by daylight on the morning of 
the 2Oth, the forces were equalized by the arrival of Gen- 
eral Hazen's division of the right wing, and four brig- 
ades called up from the wagon-train guard. And before 
night General Sherman with his whole army was closing 
down on the enemy's entrenched lines. There was 
some sharp skirmishing on the 2ist, as the enemy's line 
was developed, but that night General Johnston quit a 
position no longer tenable, and retreated to Smithfield. 
In this instance, as in all others during the war, this skill- 
ful Confederate commander made a safe retreat, leaving 
nothing behind except his unburied dead and the 
wounded in his field hospitals. 

The Union losses in the battle of Bentonville fell 
largely on the Fourteenth corps, and were mostly in- 
curred in the fighting of the first day. The aggregate 
loss to the left wing was 1247, of which the Twentieth 
corps lost 314, and the Fourteenth corps 933, the Second 
division bearing more than one-half of the last men- 
tioned loss. As usual, the rebel commander made no 
report of his losses, but we buried 267 of his dead, and 
captured 1,625 prisoners. 

The official reports all speak in the highest praise of 
the conduct of our officers and men. General Davis 
especially requested the promotion of Brigadier General 
Morgan,* which request was heartily endorsed by Gen- 
eral Sherman, and within a few days after the battle of 
Bentonville the commander of the Second division re- 



* Rebellion Records, Serial No. 98, page 437. 



296 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. March, 1865. 

ceived the brevet rank of major general. General Fearing 
was unstinted in his commendation of the men of the 
Third brigade, giving them great credit for their accu- 
rate aim and low firing.* * 

On the 22nd the whole army resumed the march to 
Goldsboro, where it arrived and went into camp on the 
following evening. Since leaving Savannah the left 
wing, of which the Eighty-fifth was a part, had marched 
five hundred miles, through a country noted for its broad 
rivers, bad roads and almost impassable swamps. The 
almost daily rains had swelled the streams, and the 
heavy wagon-trains churned the soft dirt into sloughs 
of bottomless mud. But in all that long march we 
found no mud deep enough, no hills steep enough, and 
no quicksands treacherous enough, to prevent the tak- 
ing of our trains wherever the column was ordered to 
move. It was not unusual to be compelled to corduroy 
four or five miles of road covered in a day's march, and 
in the construction of corduroy roads, the men soon be- 
came very proficient. Fortunately the material was 
usually found in abundance and near by. Pine saplings, 
eight to ten inches through the cut, split in two, and laid 
face down closely touching each other, made the best 
road, but smaller saplings, unsplit poles, and even fence 
rails were freely used. In some places the rising water 
would float the corduroy away, at other times it would 
disappear in the mud and quicksand under the heavy 
trains, when another course would be laid, and generally 
this had to be done in ceaseless, pitiless rain. But 
through it all the men were cheerful and ever ready for 
a joke. At the crossing of South river, we had more 
** Rebellion Records, Serial No. 98, page 535. 



March, 1865. CAMPAIGN OF THE CAROLINAS. 297 

than the usual difficulty, and the men had to wade a 
long- distance in water up to their waists. After much 
patient wading in this seemingly shoreless stream, one 
soldier was heard to remark to his comrade: "I guess 
Uncle Billy has struck this stream endwise." 

As we approached Goldsboro, General Sherman or- 
dered the wagons out of the road, and the columns to 
close up and pass in review before himself and Generals 
Schofield, Cox, and Terry. Wading streams, building 
corduroy roads and bridges, and lifting wagons out of 
the mire, had played havoc with the men's apparel. 
Shoes and hats had been worn out and lost, uniforms 
were torn and faded, and the whole army was in motley 
garb bare feet, bare legs, torn coats, felt hats in fact, 
almost every conceivable kind of headwear was to be 
seen, while many a valiant warrior went without shoes 
or hat. "The pride and pomp and circumstance of 
glorious war" had disappeared. But the bands played; 
the files closed up, and the ragged men began to step to 
music for the first time in months, as they marched with 
precise ranks and elastic tread, past their great leader. 
Some one of the officers in the distinguished group said : 
"See those poor fellows with bare legs !" To this Gen- 
eral Sherman replied : "Splendid legs ! splendid legs ! I 
would give both of mine for any one of them !" 

Goldsboro is situated on the railroad from New 
Berne to Raleigh, about midway between the two cities, 
and at the point where the railroad from Wilmington to 
Petersburgh crosses the first named road. Here we 
were reinforced by General Schofield with the Army of 
the Ohio, and the Tenth army corps under General 
Terry. After assisting in the destruction of Hood's 



298 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. March, 186S. 

army at Nashville, the Twenty-third army corps had 
been transferred by river and rail to Washington, thence 
down the Potomac and by sea to New Berne. From 
New Berne, General Schofield's column had fought its 
way inland, arriving at Goldsboro one day ahead of our 
army, while General Terry, after capturing Fort Fisher 
by storm, had moved up the Neuse river and joined 
Sherman's army about the same time. With the troops 
from Tennessee came many officers and men belonging 
to our army, who had been in northern hospitals on 
account of wounds or disease, but, now recovered, were 
returning to duty. Among those returning was Lieu- 
tenant Musselman, who now resumed command of Com- 
pany G. He had been on leave of absence and returning 
was caught with others at Chattanooga, when communi- 
cations between the north and Sherman's army were sev- 
ered in November. Unable to rejoin the command, 
they reported to General Thomas, who assigned them to 
duty in Tennessee, where they remained in the discharge 
of various duties until relieved to join the army at Golds- 
boro. 

Two days after the arrival of Sherman's army, the 
railroad from New Berne to Goldsboro was repaired and 
the first train of cars came in, and the ample supplies 
provided at New Berne, by the foresight of General 
Grant, began to come forward to the army. This was 
to be a point for general refitting, for which but a brief 
stop was to be made. Clothing was brought up and 
issued, and every effort was put forth to equip the army, 
in the shortest possible time, for its last campaign. 

In the campaign from Savannah to Goldsboro, the 
Fourteenth corps destroyed 30 miles of railroad; cap- 



March, 1865. CAMPAIGN OF THE CAE.OLINAS. 299 

tured 581 prisoners; 697 horses and 1,300 mules. The 
corps lost in killed, wounded, and missing, 1,244 men.* 

The following deaths from disease occurred in the 
Eighty-fifth since the regiment moved south from At- 
lanta: Enoch Mustard, of Company B, died at Savan- 
nah, Ga., January 6th, 1865; Louis Ishmael, of Com- 
pany C, died at Annapolis, Md., December 15th, 1864. 
Captain Samuel Young, of Company D, died November 
23rd, 1864, and William Boyd, of Company G, died at 
Lexington, Ky., February I2th, 1865. 

Daniel Koozer, of Company A, died of wounds at 
Goldsboro, on the 27th. He had been detached as a 
scout at division headquarters, and was wounded by 
guerrillas while in the discharge of his duty. 



Rebellion Records, Serial No. 98, pages 437, 438 and 439. 



300 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. April, 1865. 

CHAPTER XXIV. 



At this time the military situation was interesting and 
exciting. General Lee, at Richmond and Petersburgh, 
less than two hundred miles distant, was besieged by 
General Grant, who was watching his adversary with 
sleepless eyes. General Johnston, with the only other 
respectable Confederate army, was at Smithfield, about 
midway between Goldsboro and Raleigh. If Lee should 
remain behind his entrenchments, in the attitude of de- 
fense which he had maintained for months, his defeat 
and destruction would be almost certain the moment 
our army should drive Johnston beyond the Roanoke ; 
and this General Sherman would be abundantly able to 
do, as soon as supplies arrived in sufficient quantities 
to warrant an aggressive movement. Lee might call 
Johnston to his aid by forced marches, while Sherman 
was refitting and getting ready to move, and with the 
united armies attempt to raise the siege and ovenvhelm 
Grant. But the two Confederate armies united would 
not be strong enough to beat Grant in his securely en- 
trenched position, and before a siege could be under- 
taken, Sherman would arrive and close the last avenue 
of escape. In this situation, the best thing General Lee 
could do would be to quietly slip away from Grant ; 
unite his army with that of Johnston near Roanoke, and 
try to destroy Sherman's army before Grant could fol- 
low. The question was, would Lee make the attempt 
to escape from Grant, and try to fight a great battle with 
the combined armies of the Confederacy against Sher- 
man's army? We now know that is just what he tried 



April, 1865. THE FINAL CAMPAIGN. 301 

to do, and the first move he made in that direction was 
the signal for Grant to strike. Accordingly on the last 
day of March, thinking he saw symptoms of such a 
movement, Grant struck, and, after a series of sanguin- 
ary battles, the Confederate lines were broken and Lee, 
with his shattered army, was put to flight. The Confed- 
erate capital was evacuated, and the officers of the rebel 
government became individual fugitives, each seeking 
to expatriate himself. 

With the reinforcements received at Goldsboro, the 
army numbered eighty-eight thousand men, with ninety- 
one pieces of artillery. It was, perhaps, as nearly per- 
fect in instruction, equipment, and general efficiency as 
volunteer troops can be made while in the field. Then, 
too, in the coming campaign it was to be led by the bold- 
est and best fighting generals, as corps commanders, to 
be found in the field, either east or west. The Army of 
Georgia, under command of General Slocum, with his 
two corps commanded by Generals Jeff C. Davis and 
Joseph A. Mower; the Army of the Ohio, commanded 
by General Schofield, and his two corps, commanded by 
Generals J. D. Cox and A. H. Terry, and the Army of 
the Tennessee, commanded by General O. O. Howard, 
and his two corps, commanded by Generals John A. 
Logan and Frank P. Blair. Thus equipped and com- 
manded, the army was prepared to fight a desperate, final 
battle with the combined armies of the Confederacy, in 
case Lee and Johnston should effect a junction before 
General Grant could follow Lee to the Roanoke. 

On April 5th, preparations for an advance had been 
so far completed that orders were issued for the move- 
ment to begin on the loth, and on the 6th, news was 



302 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. April, K6S. 

received of the fall uf Richmond and Petersburg!!, and 
the flight of Lee's army, glorious news which was des- 
tined to get better and better, with one sad exception, to 
the end. 

At daylight on the morning of the loth of April, the 
whole army moved directly against the enemy at Smith- 
field, the Fourteenth corps in advance, on the main road, 
and the second division the advance of the corps. With- 
in three miles the enemy was found behind the usual bar- 
ricades of fence rails, but his outposts were swept aside 
without a moment's hesitation. A dispatch received 
that morning from Virginia stated that Grant, in pur- 
suit of Lee, had already made large captures of prisoners 
and artillery, and this animated the eager troops to in- 
crease their efforts to bring Johnston's army to battle. 
There was now no delay in attacking the enemy or wait- 
ing for others to turn a flank, but wherever found, the 
enemy's position was promptly charged and his troops 
dispersed. Early on the next morning our corps en- 
tered Smithfield, to find that Johnston had retreated 
after destroying the bridges over Neuse river. Here a 
brief delay was encountered until the pontoons could 
be brought up and a bridge laid, when the headlong pur- 
suit of the enemy was resumed. 

On the morning of the I2th, while passing through 
one of the pine forests peculiar to that region, where the 
taper columns rose a hundred feet before spreading their 
branches into arches like those of some vast cathedral, 
the command was halted at the end of the first hour's 
march for the usual five minutes' rest. The day was 
bright and warm, the scene restful and beautiful, and 
while the men were enjoying their brief rest the com- 



April, 1865. THE FINAL CAMPAIGN. 303 

mand was electrified by the announcement that Lee, 
with his entire army, had surrendered at Appomattox. 
The announcement came through corps headquarters, 
and General Davis, with pardonable pride, recalled the 
fact that just four years before, while a lieutenant in Fort 
Sumter, he had heard the first gun fired in the War of 
the Rebellion. This was a happy prelude to the glori- 
ous news and reminded one and all that it was the fourth 
anniversary of the firing on the devoted band of heroes 
in Charleston harbor. While the announcement of the 
surrender of Lee and his army came to us so unexpect- 
edly by the roadside, its full significance was at once 
understood. All realized that the war was virtually over. 
The message meant home, and wife, and children, and 
happy reunions with friends throughout the land. It 
carried indescribable joy to brave men, whose patience 
had been sorely tried, and whose strength had been well- 
night exhausted by weary marches and indecisive bat- 
tles. Then after hearty cheers that rang through the 
piney woods and seemed to fill the blue dome above us, 
the command fell in, faced to the front, and eagerly re- 
sumed the march against the only remaining army of the 
Confederacy. 

Two incidents, said to have occurred upon the an- 
nouncement of Lee's surrender, illustrate the humor and 
the pathos of the scene. As the bearer of the glad tid- 
ings dashed along the line, a soldier, quick as the mes- 
sage fell upon his ears, answered : "Be dad ! You're 
the man we've been looking for for the last four years." 
At the roadside a woman and several small children 
stood at the gate, watching the antics of the shouting 
soldiers. As she realized the import of the news, she 



304 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. April, 1865. 

turned to the children and said, "Now papa can come 
home." 

The brigade passed through Raleigh on the evening 
of the next day and camped for the night west of the city 
limits. The capital city of North Carolina had escaped 
the ravages of war, and was one of the most beautiful 
cities we had seen in the South. From Raleigh the 
Fourteenth corps marched thirty-six miles southwest to 
Aven's ferry on the Cape Fear river, where it arrived on 
the evening of the I5th. While in camp at this point, 
General Johnston set up the white flag, an armistice was 
proclaimed, and negotiations began for the surrender of 
his army. 

On the 1 7th, while the men were almost delirious 
with joy over the assurance of returning peace, the 
startling intelligence was received that President Lin- 
coln had been assassinated. At first the men were so 
stunned and dazed by this wanton and cruel murder that 
they wandered about the camps aimless and speechless, 
their sorrow too deep for utterance. The President had 
endeared himself to the Union soldiers to an extent that 
it is nearly, if not quite impossible, for those outside the 
army to wholly understand. In the darkest hours of the 
terrible struggle his firmness of purpose and his faith in 
ultimate success had been an unfailing source of inspira- 
tion. To the rank and file "Father Abraham" was no 
unmeaning term. It was not a sentiment, it was a fact. 
It was the precise term that described the love and vene- 
ration they felt for him, whose courage rose in the dark- 
est hours to the majesty of grandest heroism. They 
had followed him with the confidence of children, while 
he led the people with almost more than mortal wisdom. 



April, 1865. THE FINAIv CAMPAIGN. 305 

It was his serene confidence that restored their failing 
faith his never relaxing hope that cheered them on to 
victory. The question of the ages had come to be set- 
tled on the battlefield, "Can a nation endure the test that 
is founded upon the declaration that all men are free and 
equal?" In such a contest a general might fail, many of 
them did fail, but in the President there must be neither 
variableness nor shadow of turning. He had com- 
manded through a four-years' battle. His wisdom had 
guided the people through four years of tempest and 
storm with singular tact and matchless skill. Then, too, 
there was a sense of personal bereavement to many who 
had followed him as a trusted political leader in Illinois, 
with the zeal and enthusiasm known only to youth. 

Up to this hour the only desire of the men had been 
to end the war and go home. To that end they had been 
willing to undertake any hardship, endure every priva- 
tion, and brave any danger. But now that one so gentle, 
so kind and forgiving, should be so causelessly murdered 
seemed incomprehensible, and they began instinctively 
to lay this monstrous crime to the brutalizing influence 
of a system that had debauched the people of the South 
and to regard it as a legitimate consequence of rebellion 
against lawful authority. Then a desire for vengeance 
took possession of them, and they rejoiced in the 
thought that negotiations for surrender might fail, that 
hostilities might be resumed in order that they should 
have an opportunity to avenge the foul crime committed 
at Washington. But this terrible desire for vengeance 
passed away ; the avenging hand was stayed, and neither 
shot nor shell was sent on its deadly mission. 

On the 1 8th an agreement was signed between Gen- 



306 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. April, 1865. 

eral Sherman and General Johnston for the surrender of 
all of the Confederate forces then remaining in the field. 
But, as this agreement was conditional, it had to be sub- 
mitted to the President before becoming final, and the 
existing truce was continued until the agreement could 
be sent to Washington for approval or rejection by the 
President. As the agreement contained political ques- 
tions not properly subject to the decision of a military 
convention the whole agreement was unceremoniously 
rejected by the President, and General Grant was 
ordered to Raleigh to take command of the army in per- 
son and to resume hositilities at once. 

In the generous terms accorded to General Lee at 
Appomattox General Grant had gone to the limit of 
liberality and the authorities were not willing to grant 
further concessions to those in rebellion against the Fed- 
eral Union. In the exercise of generous sentiment and 
sound judgment he had established a precedent which all 
of his subordinates were expected to follow in their 
negotiations with the enemy. So when General Sher- 
man, for the moment, laid aside the character of a soldier 
and assumed that of a diplomat, he permitted himself to 
entertain and submit for approval terms of surrender 
which the government could not sanction. 

General Grant upon his arrival at Raleigh, with 
graceful tact, turned his presence into an apparent visit 
of consultation with Sherman, and but very few, even in 
the army, knew of his visit until he had come and gone. 
Without a moment's delay, General Sherman advised the 
Confederate commander of the rejection of the agree- 
ment, proclaimed an end to the truce, and demanded the 
surrender of the rebel army upon the same terms given 



April, 1865. THE FINAL CAMPAIGN. 307 

to General Lee. At the same time, orders were issued 
to the army to be ready to resume hostilities at the end of 
the forty-eight hours' notice required by the terms of the 
armistice. But there was to be no more war, the prof- 
fered terms were promptly accepted, and, on the 26th, 
General Johnston surrendered all of the Confederate 
forces east of the Chattahoochee river ; and the next day 
General Grant returned to Washington without having 
announced his presence to the army, and without his 
presence being known in the camp of the enemy. 

Now. according to immemorial custom, Sherman's 
victorious legions should have been drawn up in line 
with sounding trumpet and waving plume, while the 
captives should in that imposing presence, furl their flags 
and ground their arms. But instead of this triumphant 
pageant, the rebel army was permitted to furl its ill- 
starred banners and lay down its arms in the seclusion of 
its own camp, and there was neither blare of band nor 
peal of cannon heard in the quarters of the Federal army. 
But as soon as the result became known, the gray and 
the blue were seen drinking from the same canteen and 
eating from the same haversack. 

The duty of receiving the arms and munitions of war, 
and of issuing paroles to the officers and men of the Con- 
federate army, was assigned to General Schofield, and 
the Twenty-third army corps, commanded by General 
Cox, was advanced to the vicinity of Greensboro, then 
the county-seat of Guilford county, where that duty was 
performed. It therefore came to pass, that the final 
scenes of surrender took place in close proximity to the 
battlefield of Guilford Court House, where, in the War 
of the Revolution, the American army commanded by 



308 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. April, 1865. 

General Greene fought a memorable battle with the Brit- 
ish under Lord Cornwallis. The engagement marked 
the turning point in the British campaign, as on that 
hotly contested field the Continental forces checked the 
advance of the British army of invasion and a few days 
after the battle, Cornwallis was compelled to retire into 
Virginia, where he shut himself up in Yorktown. 

At the time of the surrender, the "Old Court House" 
had almost entirely disappeared, a few dilapidated build- 
ings being all that remained to mark the site of that his- 
toric town. But the topography of a country which 
dominates military movements does not change mater- 
iall /,. and hill and valley and stream remain the same 
through ages. The fact that our line of march led our 
army to cross the streams where Cornwallis crossed, 
passing on the way the fields where he fought, and end- 
ing our campaign at a point where his invasion was 
checked eighty years before, would seem to place the art 
of war among the exact sciences. 

The final agreement for the surrender was signe:l on 
the 26lh, ?nd on the next morning orders were issued, 
directing the right and left wings of the army 10 m.ircl? 
by easy stages to Richmond. So Sherman' army that 
had fought its way to Atlanta, marched to Savannah and 
thence to Raleigh, did not see the surrender of John- 
ston's army, although the men shared the curiosl:y com- 
mon to victorious soldiers respecting that event. The 
divisions composing the two wings were drawn in, the 
ammunition trains were relieved of their now useless 
contents, and the wagons were loaded with provisions 
and forage, and by the evening of the 3Oth, preparations 
for a peaceful homeward march had been completed. 




HENKY C. SWISH KK. 

COMPANT H. 



309 



UbRARY 

Of- M 
UNIVtfiSlfY 



May, 1865. THE) FINAL CAMPAIGN. 311 

On the morning of May ist, the Second division 
moved out of Morrisville; crossed the Neuse river that 
afternoon, and passed through Oxford, the shire town of 
Granville county, the next day. On the 3rd, we crossed 
Tar river, and later in the day the North Carolina and 
Virginia state line, camping for the night near Taylor's 
Ferry, on the Roanoke river. The next day we crossed 
the Roanoke on a pontoon bridge, eight hundred feet in 
lenth, passed through Boydton Court House, and 
camped on the Meherrin river. Thence our route led 
through Nottoway Court House, and across the famous 
Appomattox river at Good's bridge, to Manchester, op- 
posite Richmond, where we arrived on Sunday evening, 
May 7th. 

It was an odd experience" for the first few days to 
march steadily on without here and there forming a line 
of battle, and to go to sleep at night undisturbed by the 
prospect of a midnight call to arms. Then, too, the citi- 
zens no longer fled or hid at the approach of our army, 
but one and all, men, women and children, flocked to the 
road to see it pass. Frequently in the family groups at 
the roadside, men clad in the faded gray uniform of the 
Confederate soldier could be seen, good-naturedly jok- 
ing with their former foes as the column passed by. And 
"Say, Yank ! ain't you 'uns all a long ways from home?" 
and "Johnny! Why don't you fix up that fence?" are ex- 
amples of the innocent chaffing that took place between 
the blue and the gray. 

We never knew whether all the petty annoyances to 
which Sherman's army was subjected while it camped in 
the vicinity of Richmond were caused by General Hal- 
leek's direct orders or not. But soon after the fall of 

19 



312 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. May, 1865. 

the Confederate capital that distinguished non-comba- 
tant was assigned to command the Department of the 
James, with headquarters in Richmond. His martial 
zeal had been restrained to such an extent while serving 
as chief of staff at Washington, that when he was ap- 
pointed to the command of the armies in the field, he 
was bubbling over with fight, and ready to display the 
most bloodthirsty zeal. Among the first orders issued 
after his arrival at Richmond was one directing his 
troops to disregard the armistice then pending between 
Generals Sherman and Johnston while negotiations were 
in progress for the surrender of all of the Confederate 
armies remaining in the field. This was a most flagrant 
violation of the laws of war, and a direct insult to Sher- 
man and his army. Yet, notwithstanding this base out- 
rage, Halleck issued orders directing Sherman's army to 
pass in review before him, as it marched through Rich- 
mond. Sherman promptly forbade the proposed review 
and advised Halleck to keep out of sight while the army 
passed through the city, if he desired to avoid an expres- 
sion of the just indignation felt alike by the officers and 
men of his army. Then Halleck, whose capacity for 
blundering seemed without limit, refused to permit any 
of Sherman's men to enter the city. 

Among the officers and men in Sherman's army, 
there were many who had marched from the Mississippi 
to the James, and never before in all their weary marches 
had been refused permission to enter a captured town 
or city. They could see ex-Conederate soldiers and citi- 
zens going to and coming from the city at will, but when 
they attempted to visit the city, they were met at the 
pontoon bridge by a provost guard, who informed them 



May, 1865. THE FINAL CAMPAIGN. 313 

that Sherman's men could not pass the bridge. But the 
men had come too far to see the rebel capital to be de- 
nied the sight without a protest. So a little time was 
spent in quiet organization in the seclusion of the camps, 
and then the men proceeded to resent this new indignity 
and to show in their own way their contempt for a dun- 
derpated martinet. A large crowd assembled at the 
south end of the bridge, entirely unarmed and without 
officers or orders, when upon the agreed signal the men 
rushed upon the guards, many of whom were jostled into 
the river, and by sheer weight of numbers seized the 
bridge. The affair was entirely irregular, but there is 
little doubt that General Sherman appreciated the grim 
humor displayed by his unarmed men in wresting the 
Richmond bridge from Halleck's guards. But so far as 
we could learn, and strange as it may appear, Halleck 
never resented the conduct of the men in overthrowing 
his guards, nor was any one arrested for defying his or- 
ders and invading the city against his mandate. 

On the morning of the nth. the army crossed the 
James river and passed through Richmond. The troops 
moved at the usual marching pace, making no parade of 
ceremony and there was no review. The sidewalks were 
crowded with citizens and ex-Confederate soldiers, 
whose curiosity to see Sherman's army insured their 
presence, while the memory of the recent death of their 
most cherished hopes, rendered impossible any demon- 
stration of approval or greeting of welcome. This nat- 
ural feeling so evident among the spectators, was re- 
spected by the passing troops and no song of victory was 
heard while Sherman and his army marched through the 
graveyard of southern hopes and Confederate ambition. 



314 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. May, 1865. 

It was expected that the earthworks erected for the 
defense of the rebel capital would be found to be monu- 
ments of engineering skill, massive in their proportions 
and impregnable in their strength. But the fortifica- 
tions proved disappointing, and officers and men agreed 
that they were in no way so strong, nor were they so 
elaborate in construction as the works encountered near 
Atlanta. After taking dinner in the rebel works, at the 
point where the road to Hanover Court House leaves 
the city, we crossed the Chickahominy river and camped 
for the night within a few miles of the battlefields of Me- 
chanicsville, Gaines Mills and Fair Oaks. 

From Richmond to Washington Sherman's army 
marched on holy ground. Over this narrow field the 
tide of battle ebbed and flowed throughout the war, and 
from hill and valley and plain the smoke of sacrifice had 
risen, and the atoning blood had been poured out. Al- 
most one continuous battlefield, the familiar scenes along 
the line of march constantly reminded us "of the night in 
the trench and the pale faces of the dead." Insignificant 
towns and hamlets had been immortalized by the valor- 
ous deeds performed in their thriftless streets, and the 
crossings of the almost numberless streams had been re- 
peatedly taken and retaken by cunning stratagem or 
dashing courage. The two armies operating between 
the Union and Confederate capitals had been the largest 
snd the best equipped in the service, and the conflicts be- 
tween them had been very frequent and deadly. But 
the battles, while bravely fought and bloody enough to 
satisfy the most sanguinary, had been so indecisive and 
fruitless that it may well be doubted if the campaigns in 
Virginia previous to that of 1864-5 contributed in the 



May, 1865. THE FINAL CAMPAIGN. 315 

least degree to the final triumph of the National cause. 

Sherman's army reached the heights overlooking 
Washington City, on the ipth of May, 1865, and went 
into camps just below those already in possession of Gen- 
eral Meade's Army of the Potomac. To the vast major- 
ity of Sherman's army this was their first sight of the 
national capital. From our camp we could see the dome 
of the capital, as it stood in simple grandeur against the 
sky, and it was difficult to realize that within less than a 
year the enemy had looked upon it with covetous eye, 
while the roar of his guns could be distinctly heard in the 
White House. Yet in the preceding July, while the 
Army of the Potomac was engaged in the siege of 
Petersburg, and Sherman's army was on the Chattta- 
hoochee river, the rebels under the command of General 
Early were thundering at the gates of the capital city of 
the Union. But then, the stupendous operations of the 
last year of the struggle had been conducted upon a field 
of such magnitude, that the common mind could scarcely 
keep pace with the rapid march of events. 

The Army of the East and the Army of the West 
occupied the south bank of the Potomac river from a 
point opposite Georgetown to Alexandria, and the next 
few days were spent in preparing for a great military 
display, which was to take place in the national capital 
in honor of the final victory for the Union. To the men 
of the Western army this would be a new experience; 
they had never witnessed a formal parade of ceremony, 
and in all their long service they had observed no holi- 
day. 



316 HISTORY OF THE 85'f H ILLINOIS. May, 1865. 

CHAPTER XXV. 



It is said to have been at the suggestion of Secretary 
Stanton, that the armies of the east and west were as- 
sembled in the national capital to be reviewed by the 
commander-in-chief. Coming from distant fields, these 
armies had different histories, but the men were bound 
together by a common cause the preservation of 
national integrity. Their love of country had the force 
of a religious passion, and during all the long period, 
when the fate of the Union was at stake, their efforts 
never relaxed, their vigilance never ceased, and there 
was no abatement of their purpose to capture or utterly 
destroy the enemies of the republic. They had vindi- 
cated national authority, they had set the bond man free, 
and now they brought home peace. These priceless 
trophies made it proper for the President, attended by 
the chief officers of the government, to welcome them 
in the name of the republic. They had earned the right 
to receive the laurel wreath from the steps of the capitol. 

General Grant had commanded the Western army in 
all its early victories and had been at all times the prime 
favorite of the men. He never made speeches to them 
and never solicited applause, but the most humble sol- 
dier could approach him, and he had a quiet way of over- 
coming difficulties that was as simple and as easily un- 
derstood as it was effectual. If his means or supplies 
were imperfect, he found the best available substitute, 
and if he could not accomplish the full requirement, he 
performed as much as was possible. He had the faculty 
of imparting to his troops the determination to win with 



May, 1865. THE GRAND REVIEW. 317 

which he was himself inspired, and their feelings toward 
him soon came to be that of implicit trust. Constantly 
ready to fight, he lost no opportunity that prompt action 
could turn to advantage, and throughout an unbroken 
career of victory he never declined the offer of battle. 
Grant would drive his chariot through passes others 
would not venture to approach. He would hold the 
enemy in his relentless, vice-like grasp until he had ac- 
complished his full purpose, and leave upon the mind of 
his observer the impression that he had a reserve of 
power, other resources not yet called into action. 

After leading the Western army to a series of splen- 
did victories, beginning at Belmont and ending in the 
crushing defeat of Bragg at Chattanooga, his men were 
not surprised to see him called to a larger field of useful- 
ness. Grant's merit had won for him the command of 
all armies of the Union, and at once the vast military 
power of the north began to move in harmony, respon- 
sive to the clear purpose of his comprehensive mind. 
Proud of their old commander, the men watched the ter- 
rific struggle in the east with ever increasing admiration 
for his courage and his skill. Grant would win, they 
knew that, but the question was, Would the end come 
before the west could lend a helping hand to the east? 
So they marched on to Atlanta; to the sea, and were 
almost ready to join hands with their comrades of the 
east, when the final consummation came which insured 
union and liberty throughout the land. And now, the 
proposed review would afford an opportunity for the 
veterans of Donelson, Shiloh, Vicksburg and Chatta- 
nooga to unite with the heroes of the Wilderness, Spott- 
sylvania, Petersburgh and Appomattox in paying a trib- 



318 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. May, 1865. 

ute of respect to the soldier hero of the struggle, before 
they should return to civil life. 

Promptly on Wednesday morning, May 23rd, the 
head of the column of the Army of the Potomac wheeled 
round the capitol and the grand review began. There 
is no more beautiful weather than that of Washington in 
the early summer, when the warmer air comes with the 
lengthening days, and on this memorable occasion the 
weather was all that could be desired. Pennsylvania 
avenue, with its great length and ample width, was ad- 
mirably adapted for a review of the grand armies. Tens 
of thousands of people from the northern states had 
come to witness the imposing spectacle, and to welcome 
the returning heroes. The most ample preparations 
had been made for the occasion. Seats had been erected 
in the parks bordering the broad avenue for the accom- 
modation of the vast crowd of visitors. The President 
and General Grant were seated on an elevated stand in 
front of the White House, surrounded by members of 
the cabinet, foreign ministers, and distinguished visitors. 
The whole city was in holiday attire, the noble avenue 
was lined, on both sides and from end to end, with ad- 
miring people, and every window was filled with eager 
spectators. It was the annual recurring season of foli- 
age and flowers, and there were flowers on every hand 
in seemingly endless variety and profusion, while many 
of the visitors carried wreaths for their favorite regi- 
ments. The national flag, was flying from the public 
buildings, and from almost every house and store, and 
to see the stars and stripes in other places than at head- 
quarters, or above the heads of the color-guard, was 
as novel as it was pleasing. 



May, 1865. THE GRAND REVIEW. 319 

Nearly all day for two successive days, from the cap- 
itol to the White House, could be seen a mass of vet- 
eran soldiers in columns of companies, marching with 
steady tread to the inspiring strains of martial music. 
To the multitude of spectators it was a revelation of the 
greatness and power of the republic ; while to the actors 
in that royal pageant of joy and gladness it was the event 
of a lifetime. Indeed, more than one enthusiastic sol- 
dier was heard to declare that it was worth ten years of 
any man's life to be able to say, "I was there." Only 
a part of the vast forces of the Union marched through 
Washington on the grand review, but the number was 
large beyond any but the skilled mind to reckon. If we 
say that sixty-five thousand men passed in review each 
day, or one hundred and thirty thousand in the two days, 
it is still difficult to comprehend the magnitude of the 
display. Perhaps a better idea may be conveyed by 
stating- that for six hours and a half each day of the re- 
view Pennsylvania avenue was filled with marching 
troops, whose columns if connected would be over thirty 
miles in length. 

The first day of the review was given to General 
Meade's army, and this afforded an opportunity for 
many of the officers and men belonging to General Sher- 
man's army to attend and witness the parade of the 
Army of the Potomac. There was very naturally more or 
less generous rivalry between the soldiers from the east 
and west, and as comparison was made of their respec- 
tive qualities and characteristics, the memory was busy 
with the histories of the grand armies. From the first 
the rank and 'file of the Eastern army followed their lead- 
ers with courage that never wavered and with enterprise 



320 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. May, 1865. 

that never wearied. But they had been unfortunate in 
the generals appointed to command them, and the long 
list of sickening disasters which befel that devoted army 
in the first three years of the war should be charged to 
their commanders' gross incompetency. But under the 
direction of General Grant's unconquerable genius, the 
battles of the Army of the Potomac, from the Wilder- 
ness to the crowing victory at Appomattox, have no par- 
allels on the continent of America. , 

Operating in a field easy of access from the national 
capital, the Army of the East was frequently visited by 
distinguished persons in whose honor reviews were held. 
On such occasions the evil custom had grown up of rec- 
ognizing the presence of the visitor, be he soldier or 
statesman, by a hearty greeting of applause. Now 
when troops marching by company front, cheer and 
swing their hats, the step is invariably lost, the align- 
ment is broken, and it is impossible to maintain uniform 
intervals between the companies. On the first day's re- 
view, it was observed that a very large proportion of the 
regiments destroyed their military bearing in this way, 
as they passed the reviewing stand. The Army of the 
Potomac had a very much larger number of recruits, 
substitutes, and drafted men in its ranks, than appeared 
in the Western army. This was not surprising when it 
is remembered that Sherman's army while marching 
through the Confederacy, had been far beyond the reach 
of recruiting stations, and that few recruits and fewer 
conscripts found their way into its ranks. At all times, 
accustomed to receive full supplies directly from the 
north, through a secure base on the sea coast, the east- 
ern troops had never been compelled to wrest supplies 



May, 1865. THE GRAND REVIEW. 321 

from the enemy, nor to gather food and forage from a 
hostile country. Consequently the Army of the Poto- 
mac appeared well-dressed and handsomely equipped on 
the grand review. 

Punctually at nine o'clock on the next morning, May 
24th, the signal gun was fired and the steel crowned 
ranks of Sherman's army wheeled into the broad avenue 
at the capital, its brilliant and successful leader riding 
proudly at its head. The army was uniformed and 
equipped as on the march, officers taking pride in pre- 
senting their respective commands as they had served 
in the field. Each division was preceded by its corps of 
pioneers, composed wholly of colored men, carrying 
axes, spades, and picks. These marched in double 
ranks, keeping perfect dress and step. Long practice 
in marching, which is in one sense a drill, and the almost 
entire absence of recruits, conscripts and substitutes, 
told greatly in favor of the western troops, and the sense 
of military propriety and exactness was not offended by 
demonstrations of applause. 

The cadence was perfect and the hearty robustness 
of the men was very striking, while the mounts of the 
officers were magnificent, owing to the frequent oppor- 
tunities for capture. All day long Pennsylvania avenue 
resounded with the firm and steady tread of well-drilled, 
thoroughly disciplined soldiers, who with careful dress 
on the guides, uniform intervals between the companies, 
and all eyes to the front, marched toward the White 
House. 

Around the joints of glittering muskets carried in 
that compact column, the pungent smell of battle smoke 
still lingered, and above the troops were borne the bul- 



322 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. May, 1865. 

let-riddled flags, many of whose ragged folds were stained 
with the life blood of him who carried it in the fore front 
of battle. In that majestic column, moving with the pre- 
cision and regularity of a pendulum, were regiments 
that had entered the service of their country in April, 
1 86 1, and that had served in every state that engaged in 
rebellion, except Florida, Louisiana, and Texas; that 
had followed Grant at Belmont, Donelson, Shiloh, 
Vicksburg, and Chattanooga, and that had never left a 
battlefield in possession of the foe brigades and divi- 
sions that had never learned to retreat, and had never 
experienced the sickening woe of defeat. An unbroken 
career of victory made the men conscious of their prow- 
ess, their step was elastic and buoyant, and the marching 
column was the poetry of motion. Not so well dressed 
as their comrades of the Eastern army, their campaigns 
had led them over broader fields, and their experience 
had been more varied and extended. The whole army 
had marched more than a thousand miles within the last 
six months, and the men had passed the entire winter 
without the shelter of either roof or tent. It had been 
their good fortune to be commanded throughout the 
war by officers who were enterprising, skillful and above 
all, thoroughly in earnest, there had been no occasion for 
issuing daily bulletins announcing that "All is quiet on 
the Mississippi or the Tennessee." No army in either 
ancient or modern times had traversed such a vast ex- 
tent of territory, and the prisoners it had captured largely 
outnumbered the men in the Western army, now cele- 
brating the final victory of peace. 

From the nature of the conflict the Union soldiers 
were invaders, and from first to last they were the ag- 



May, 1865. THE GRAND REVIEW. 323 

gressors. They found the enemy behind defensible 
rivers and entrenched in mountain passes. The road to 
victory led them over mountains of difficulties and 
through valleys of tribulation ; and as the sanguine tide 
ebbed and flowed in the stupendous struggle, how often 
Freedom's friends sat pale with fear at Freedom's peril ! 
But at last the mighty balance settled on the side of 
those whose banners, torn with shot and shell, still bore 
the stars and stripes. In that supreme moment, while 
many wounds still stung and bled, the Union soldiers 
put aside the desire for vengeance that comes to man in 
battle and with victory; forgave their enemies on the 
battlefield, and sent them to their homes to enjoy in 
peace the protection of the government they had so un- 
justly and wickedly tried to destroy. And now, as the 
victorious Union armies celebrate the return of peace, 
"With malice towards none, with charity for all," they 
parade no captives, and display none of the spoil of bat- 
tlefield. 

Many who set out with us, indulging the same fond 
hopes of safe return, now filled soldiers' graves, and the 
applause so heartily given to the soldiers present was 
mingled with tears for the loved and the lost ; those who 
came not back. Moreover, the great emancipator, the 
beloved of the people, had been most foully slain, and 
but few days had passed since countless multitudes of 
people had bowed with uncovered heads, reverent and 
silent, before his bier. The remembrance of these 
national bereavements could but tinge with sadness all 
the splendid and inspiring scenes of the grand review. 



324 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. M ay, 1865. 

After the review the Eighty-fifth returned to camp 
on the south bank of the Potomac, but on the next day 
the entire brigade marched through the city and went 
into camp near the Soldiers' Home, two and one-half 
miles north of the capitol. Our camp, which was pleas- 
antly situated, overlooked the city, and there came a 
delightful sense of perfect rest after a long and toilsome 
task had been accomplished ; a relief from the tension 
of nerve and brain, no language can adequately express. 
The men were permitted to roam at will over the city, 
and every opportunity was given them, by the officers 
and employes in the various departments, to visit the 
public buildings and to observe the methods employed 
in the transaction of the business of the government. 
The treasury, patent office, and navy yards, all were 
thrown open to the soldiers, and so far as the writer has 
learned, there was no abuse of the courtesy extended. 
But while they treated the civil officers of the govern- 
ment with marked consideration, at least one of the city 
officials fell a victim to their mischievous pranks. They 
seized the horse and buggy used by the captain of police, 
and drove until tired of sight-seeing, when they returned 
the outfit to that worthy with profuse thanks for the 
pleasure the drive had afforded them. 

Men belonging to the Fifteenth corps "captured," as 
they facetiously termed it, the Fourteenth street rail- 
road, and ran it for their own convenience. They al- 
lowed a citizen to ride, but were careful to exact the full 
fare or more. If the usual five cent fare was tendered, 
it was accepted. If a passenger handed up a quarter or 
more, the soldier acting as conductor took it, but re- 
turned no change, nor did he turn any fares in to the 



May, 1865. IN CAMP AT WASHINGTON. 325 

company. The line was far from being popular with the 
citizens, as the soldiers ran it regardless of any time 
table, and while all were taken on, it was uncertain where 
or when the car would stop to let them off. 

At Fort Slemmer, near the camp of the Eighty-fifth, 
a soldier was seen one morning walking up and down in 
front of an officer's tent, carrying a log on his shoulder. 
The soldier looked lonely and weary, and the case was 
promptly investigated by a man sent over for that pur- 
pose, whose report showed that the soldier at the fort 
was undergoing punishment for some trivial breach of 
discipline. Then a number of unarmed men went over 
to the fort; dismissed the man to his quarters; warned 
the officer in command that they did not approve of that 
method of punishment, and brought the log back with 
them. These are examples of their daily mischief; 
pranks that were more ludicrous than evil, and all per- 
formed in the most jovial, good-natured manner. 

Colonel Dihvorth was promoted to be brigadier gen- 
eral on March I3th, and Captain James R. Griffith, of 
Company B, who had been commanding the Eighty- 
fifth since the resignation of Major Robert G. Rider 
was accepted at Savannah, Georgia, was promoted 
to be lieutenant colonel. On the nineteenth day of 
May, Captain Pleasant S. Scott, of Company E, was 
commissioned, major, vice Major Rider, who had re- 
signed on account of wounds; First Lieutenant Hugh 
A. Trent was dismissed from the service, and First Ser- 
geant Charles Borchert, of Company E, was commis- 
sioned first lieutenant; First Lieutenant Andrew J. 
Mason, of Company F, was commissioned captain, and 
Sergeant Francis M. McColgan, of same company, was 



326 HISTORY OF THE) 85TH ILLINOIS. June, 1865. 

commissioned first lieutenant. But on account of the 
regiment and companies being below the minimum, 
Lieutenant Colonel Griffith was the only one that could 
be mustered. 

On Saturday, June 3rd, our old and loved com- 
mander. George H. Thomas, arrived from the west, and 
that evening reviewed the Fourteenth corps. The 
troops in the Department of the Cumberland had been 
designated the "Fourteenth corps" very early in the war, 
and it became the nucleus of the army which he led with 
such consummate skill in later years. He had com- 
manded the corps until his merit won for him the com- 
mand of the Army of the Cumberland, and the men had 
become greatly attached to him. They believed then, 
and they still think, that George H. Thomas, "pure as 
crystal and firm as rock," was the greatest soldier Vir- 
ginia, the mother of presidents, gave to either side in the 
Civil War. 

The last muster rolls were made out, and on Mon- 
day, the 5th, the regiment was mustered out of the ser- 
vice of the United States by Lieutenant George 
Scroggs, of the One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Illinois, 
acting commissary of musters, and the next morning 
the Eighty-fifth was ordered to Springfield, 111., for final 
payment and discharge. The four regiments and bat- 
tery that formed Dan McCook's brigade at Louisville, 
Ky., in the early days of September, 1862, had come to 
the parting of the ways. Brought together by a com- 
mon peril and for a common purpose, they had marched 
and camped and fought side by side for almost three 
years. Their long, hard service inspired perfect confi- 
dence and trust in each other, and while the organization 




DR. JOSEPH 13. SHA.WGO, 

COMPANY O. 



327 



HbRARY 

Of ' 
UNIVWSIT.Y 






June, 1865. THE HOMEWARD JOURNEY. 329 

ended here, the comradeship formed in camp and field 
will last as long as life remains.* 

About noon the regiment marched to the Baltimore 
and Ohio railroad, where a delay occurred in securing 
transportation, and the freight cars provided for our 
accommodation did not arrive until the afternoon of the 
7th. At Piedmont that night the men seized enough 
lumber from a convenient lumberyard to comfortably 
seat the dirty freight cars, and with the use of their 
hatchets they not only secured ventilation, but made 
openings through which they could admire the pictur- 
esque scenery afforded by the Allegheny mountains. 
At Parkersburgh, W. Va., the regiment was transferred 
to a stern-wheel steamer, which landed it at Lawrence- 
burgh, Ind., on the forenoon of the loth. 

Between Cincinnati and Lawrenceburgh an accident 
happened which lent a tinge of sorrow to the home- 
coming of the regiment. Hugh Gehagan, of Company 
F, while standing on the lower deck of the steamer en- 
gaged in conversation with a group of comrades 
thoughtlessly leaned against a fender, fastened at the 
upper end, but hanging loose at the lower guard, and he 
fell into the river. At the cry of "A man overboard" 
the boat was quickly stopped and every effort possible 
was made to rescue the drowning man. But he sunk to 
rise no more with the life-boat almost within his reach. 



* Tne number mustered in and the number present at the 
muster out of the four original regiments did not greatly differ, 
as appears by the following: 52nd Ohio mustered first and last, 
1,089, of whom 331 were present at muster out; 85th Illinois mus- 
tered first and last, 944, of whom 349 were present at muster out; 
86th Illinois mustered first and last, 993, of whom 468 were pres- 
ent at muster out; 125th Illinois mustered first and last, 933, of 
whom 424 were present at muster out. 

20 



330 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILUNOIS. June, 1865. 

It seemed hard that this faithful soldier who had dared 
and suft'ered so much should meet such a tragic death 
when almost within sight of home, while his co^'-ades 
could only stand idly by and watch a life go out that thev 
were powerless to save. 

After breaking bread with the loyal and hospitable 
people of Lawrenceburg, who had generously provided 
a substantial dinner for the soldiers, the homeward jour- 
ney was resumed on board a train of freight cars. Such 
trains ran slowly in those days, but on Sunday, June 
nth, 1865, the regiment reached Springfield and disem- 
barked at Camp Butler, where the men were to receive 
-final payment and be discharged. 

A safe trip has brought the soldiers almost home, 
and as they enter the camp in which their service is to 
end, strange memories come trooping past. Eventful 
years have passed since they proudly marched from 
Peoria for the front. Then the long line with faces mainly 
young and fair, numbered almost one thousand men; 
now some are missing from every file; all are bronzed, 
and many are prematurely old, while the total mustered 
for discharge is less than four hundred. With sadness 
they recall the forms and faces of the slain; mostly 
young, unmarried men, whose native virtues fill no liv- 
ing veins, and will not shine again on any field. The 
contrast between the going and returning braves is no 
more striking than the changed conditions they must 
prepare to meet. Many of them were school boys when 
they enlisted, but they are now too old to begin again at 
the turned-down page of the books they left unfinished. 
Others had positions three years ago, now filled by per- 
sons too prudent to serve their country. But unselfish 
devotion to duty has broadened their manhood ; the 
hardships endured and the difficulties overcome have 
given the soldiers confidence in themselves, and they are 



June, 1865. THE HOMEWARD JOURNEY. 331 

determined to cultivate the arts of peace with a soldier's 
fortitude and patriotism a citizen's industry and integ- 
rity. 

The next few days found the officers busy with their 
reports, turning' in ordnance stores and camp equipage, 
and making settlement with the government. All arti- 
cles not otherwise accounted for were reported under 
the head of "Lost in action." This account was alike 
the refuge of the "just and the unjust," and furnished a 
safe retreat for many a quartermaster, ordnance officer 
and company commander, whose accounts had got 
tangled. When the reports were completed the pay- 
master announced his readiness to pay off the men, and 
on Monday, the iQth, the first sergeants called the roll 
for the last time ; each soldier received his arrears of pay 
and an honorable discharge, and the Eighty-fifth regi- 
ment, Illinois volunteer infantry, passed into history. 

Of the 944 officers and men that entered the service 
in the Eighty-fifth, 95 were killed or died of wounds, 148 
were wounded whose wounds did not prove fatal, 137 
died of disease, 208 were discharged for disease or 
wounds, 46 were transferred to other organizations, and 
349 were mustered out to await the hero's final detail : 

An aged soldier, with his hair 

snow white, 
Sat looking at the night. 

A busy, shining angel came 

with things 
Like chevrons on his wings. 

He said, "The evening detail has 

been made 
Report to your brigade." 

The soldier heard the message that 

was sent, 
Then rose and died and went. 

EUGENE F. WARE, 

Private, Company E, First Iowa Vol. Infantry. 



332 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 



In the following pages the military history of all who 
had a part in making the regiment illustrious is given, 
together with some account of the subsequent career of 
those with whom the writer has been able to communi- 
cate. This is a record of deeds done and duty per- 
formed, which, although brief, and in many instances in- 
complete, is their best eulogy. 

As originally made up, the roster of the field and staff 
of the Eighty-fifth will be found in Chapter II, together 
with the manner in which the regiment was recruited 
and organized. In subsequent chapters all changes 
among the commissioned officers are recorded at tfie 
time and place they occurred. It is therefore only nec- 
essary, in this connection, to give a personal sketch of 

THE FIELD AND STAFF. 

COLONEL ROBERT S. MOORE was born in Green county ,. 
Kentucky, March 19, 1827. When he was ten years of age his par- 
ents removed to Illinois and settled on a farm in Sangamon (now 
Menard) county, where he worked on the farm until the breaking 
out of the Mexican war. He enlisted as a private in Company F, 
Fourth regiment, Illinois infantry, and participated in the battle 
of Cerro Gtordo and in the siege of Vera Cruz. At the peace with 
Mexico he returned to Illinois, located his land warrant in Mason 
county and engaged in farming. While thus engaged he founded 
the town of Spring Lake. In 1854 he married Miss Isabella Trent, 
removed to Havana and engaged in buying and shipping grain, 
while still paying attention to his farm. 

At the beginning of the War of the Rebellion he promptly 
offered his service to his country, recruited a company and en- 
tered the service as captain of Company E, Twenty-seventh regi- 
ment, Illinois infantry. He was engaged at the battles of Bel- 
mont and Farmington, and at the siege of Corinth he was 
wounded. While at home on leave of absence on account of his 



THE FIELD AND STAFF. 333 

wound he was authorized by Governor Yates to raise a regiment 
under the first call for troops in 1862, and upon its organization he 
was commissioned colonel of the Eighty-fifth. 

Of commanding appearance, he possessed an admirable voice, 
while his soldierly instinct and military experience enabled him 
to fit the regiment for effective service in a remarka'bly short 
time. With his regiment he opened the battle of Perryville, Ky., 
and at the close of the fighting he was complimented for his skill 
and courage by his superior officers. At the battle of Stone River 
he was injured in the hip by a vicious horse, an injury from which 
he never wholly recovered. He remained in command of the regi- 
ment until the following June, when he resigned for disability. 
No officer ever enjoyed more fully the confidence of his men, and 
few so fully merited it. He returned to Havana and resumed the 
grain business until 1879, when he removed to Colorado and en- 
gaged in farming and mining. His address is Littleton, Colo. 

COLONEL CALEB J. DILWORTH was born near Mount Pleas- 
ant, Jefferson county, Ohio, April 8, 1827. His parents, Abram 
Rankin Dilworth and Martha Stanton Judkins, were of old Quaker 
stock. They removed to Indiana, and soon after to Illinois. 
They were living near Canton, in Fulton county, at the time of the 
Black Hawk war, and took refuge with friends in Canton when 
there was an Indian alarm. An elder brother, Rankin, gradu- 
ated from the military academy at West Point in the class of 1844, 
and died from wounds received at the battle of Monterey in the 
war with Mexico. A half-brother, William H. Evans, was quar- 
termaster of the Eighty-fifth during the last year of its service. 

Colonel Dilworth read law with General Leonard F. Ross, of 
Lewistown, and was admitted to the bar in 1848. In the fall of 
1853 he married Miss Emily Phelps, daughter of William and 
Caroline Phelps, of Lewistown, 111., the only issue of such mar- 
riage being a son, William A., now practicing law in Omaha, Neb. 

In 1862 the subject of this sketch was practicing law in Ha- 
vana, 111., and assisted in recruiting the Eighty-fifth, and at the 
organization of the regiment was commissioned lieutenant col- 
onel. He served in that capacity until Colonel Moore resigned, 
when he was promoted to be colonel. He commanded the regi- 
ment from June 14, 1863, until June 27, 1864, when, in the midst of 
the indescribable turmoil of battle at Kennesaw mountain, Geor- 
gia, the command of the brigade devolved upon him through the 
death of his seniors. It was his plucky decision that held the 



334 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

ground wrested from the enemy, although his corps and army 
commanders doubted its possibility. At Peach Tree creek his 
brigade forced a crossing of that stream, although defended by 
largely superior numbers, fighting the battle out alone with the 
Third brigade, and winning for himself and his command the 
highest commendations of his superiors. He continued in com- 
mand of the brigade until wounded by a gun shot at the battle of 
Jonesboro, Ga., the ball passing entirely through his neck. Re- 
covering from his wound, he was hastening to the front to rejoin 
his command when, upon his arrival at Chattanooga, he found 
that communication with Sherman's army had been severed. He 
reported to General Thomas for duty and was appointed to the 
command of the post at Cleveland, Tenn., a position which he held 
with credit to himself until the post was discontinued. He was 
then assigned to command at Covington, Ky., where he remained 
until the close of the war. He was commissioned brevet brigadier 
general March 13, and was mustered out of the service June 5, 
1865. 

After returning to Illinois he practiced law at Lewistown until 
the autumn of 1870, when he removed to Lincoln, Neb., where he 
resumed the practice of his profession. He was elected state's 
attorney in 1874 and served two terms. In 1878 he was elected 
attorney general, holding the office for two terms, and in 1892 he 
was elected department commander of the Grand Army of the 
Republic of Nebraska and served one term. 

As a soldier he was enterprising and fearless; he won merited 
distinction at the bar. He had retired from active professional 
life and was residing in Omaha, where he died on Saturday, Feb- 
ruary 3, 1900. His remains were taken to Lincoln and buried in 
Wyuka cemetery on the Monday following, past department com- 
manders acting as pall-bearers, while department officers con- 
ducted the services. 

LIEUTENANT COLONEL JAMES P. WALKER, son of Joseph 
Walker, was born in Adair county, Kentucky, April 6, 1826. His 
father, Joseph Walker, removed to Illinois and settled on a farm 
in Sangamon (now Logan) county in 1830. Seven years later 
found the Walker family at Irish Grove, in Menard county, where 
his father died in 1841, leaving a crippled wife and younger son to 
the care of James P. He took his mother to his mother's father 
in Kentucky, where he remained for three years, working on a 
farm to get money to return to Illinois. He was fortunate in that 



THE FIELD AND STAFF. 335 

his father was an educated mail, as all his schooling was obtained 
from his father before his death. On his return to Illinois in 1844 
he began the study of medicine and by working on the farm and 
teaching school he earned the money which enabled him to prose- 
cute his studies. 

When the war with Mexico broke out he enlisted in Company 
F, Fourth regiment, Illinois infantry, commanded by Colonel 
Edward D. Baker, was a messmate of Colonel R. S. Moore and 
participated in the battle of Cerro Gordo and the siege of Vera 
Cruz. After the war he resumed the study of medicine and gradu- 
ated from Rush Medical College in 1850. In 1857 he located at 
Mason City and was practicing his profession when the War of 
the Rebellion began. Under the first call for troops in 1861 he 
recruited a company and entered the service as captain of Com- 
pany K, Seventeenth regiment, Illinois infantry. He participated 
in the battles of Fredericktown, Fort Donelson and Shiloh. After 
the battle of Shiloh he resigned, returned home, helped to raise 
the Eighty-fifth, and at the organization of the regiment he was 
commissioned surgeon. He was promoted to be lieutenant colonel 
on June 14, 1863, and was dismissed from the service on October 
6, 3863. 

Just prior to the battle of Chickamauga he was arrested for 
permitting his hungry men to forage, that being at that period of 
the war about the worst thing an officer could be accused of. Un- 
fortunately for Colonel Walker he did not violate his order of 
arrest when the battle came on. If he had no doubt he would 
have escaped punishment. But his remaining under arrest 
afforded an opportunity for those whom his kindness to his men 
had offended, and he was summarily dismissed without a hearing. 

He returned to his former home and resumed the practice of 
medicine, which he continued to his death, which occurred on 
January 14, 1892. He was buried by his comrades of the Grand 
Army of the Republic, a special train carrying the post from 
Havana to Mason City to attend his funeral. 

LIEUTENANT COLONEL JAMES R. GRIFFITH was born in 
Chester county, Pennsylvania, February 2, 1834. He served for 
some time as a member of the Chester and Delaware Dragoons, 
and removed to Illinois in the fall of 1856, locating at Havana, in 
Mason county, where he was engaged as a general merchant at the 
beginning of the War of the Rebellion. He enrolled Company B, 
of the Eighty-fifth, and was chosen captain at the organization of 



336 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

the company. He participated in all the campaigns and battles in 
which the Eighty-fifth was engaged, was wounded at the assault 
on Kennesaw mountain, but speedily recovered and returned to 
duty. At the assault on the enemy's works at Jonesboro the com- 
mand of the regiment devolved upon him when Major Rider was 
wounded and disabled, and again he succeeded to the command of 
the regiment when Major Rider resigned, and led it through the 
Carolina campaign, on the grand review at Washington, and on 
its return to the state for final discharge. 

He was promoted to be lieutenant colonel on April 7, 18G5, and 
was mustered out with the regiment. After the close of the war 
he located in Kenosha, Wis., where he engaged in business. His 
present address is No. 812 Pomeroy street, Kenosha, Wis. 

MAJOR SAMUEL P. CUMMINGS had long been prominent as 
a merchant in Astoria when the War of the Rebellion began. He 
had also been prominent in affairs political in the county and fre- 
quently served as a member of the county board. Early in the 
war he had been commissioned a mustering officer with the rank 
of major, and had assisted in recruiting several of the early regi- 
ments. He enrolled two companies for the Eighty-fifth and at the 
organization of the regiment he was chosen major. He was favor- 
ably mentioned for gallant conduct at the battle of Perry ville by 
his colonel and brigade commander, served through the Kentucky 
campaign, and participated with the regiment in the battle of 
Stone River or Murfreesboro. Failing health, however, compelled 
him to resign at Nashville, and his resignation was approved for 
disability on April 6, 1863. 

He returned to Astoria, where he continued in business until 
within the last few years, and where he still resides. He has 
served his constituents as supervisor, judge of the county court, 
and has represented his county in both branches of the legislature. 
Possessed of an ample fortune he is now enjoying a ripe old age 
among the people he served so long. 

MAJOR ROBERT G. RIDER was born in Ravenna, Portage 
county, Ohio, March 14, 1831, attended Jefferson college at Can- 
nonsburg, and studied medicine at Washington college, Washing- 
ton, Pa. He removed to Illinois in 1855 and the following winter 
attended a course of lectures at a medical college, Dubuque, Iowa. 
He began the practice of his profession at Mobile, Ala., but re- 
turned to Illinois some three years later, and at the beginning of 



THE FIELD AND STAFF. 337 

the War of the Rebellion was practicing medicine at Havana, in 
Mason county. 

He enrolled Company K and was elected captain of that com- 
pany at its organization, commanded the company at the battle of 
Perryville, through the Kentucky and Murfreesboro campaigns, 
and was promoted to be major of the regiment April 6, 1863. He 
was appointed provost marshal when the brigade was assigned 
to garrison duty at Murfreesboro, Tenn., but returned to duty 
with the regiment when the brigade was ordered to Nashville to 
prepare for an active campaign at the front. When In the assault 
on Kennesaw mountain .Colonel Dilworth was called to command 
the brigade, the command of the Eighty-fifth devolved upon 
Major Rider. He retained command of the regiment until dis- 
abled by a gun shot wound in the head at the assault upon the 
enemy's lines at Jonesboro, Ga. Recovering, at least partially, 
from his wound he resumed command of the regiment, which he 
led in the march to the sea. He resigned at Savannah, Ga., De- 
cember 19, 1864. 

Returning to Havana he resumed the practice of medicine, 
which he continued until 1880, when he removed to Mount Ayr, 
Iowa. In 1884 he retired from the active practice of his profes- 
sion, but resided in Mount Ayr to the time of his death, which 
occurred on November 14, 1899. 

ADJUTANT JOHN B. WRIGHT was commissioned adjutant 
from Havana at the organization of the regiment, served through 
tho Kentucky and Murfreesboro campaigns, participating in the 
battles of Perryville, Ky., and Stone River, Tenn. He resigned 
February 23, 1863, and returned to Havana, where he died many 
years since. 

ADJUTANT CLARK N. ANDRUS, son of Cyrenus W. Andrus 
and Lucy Rockwell, was born in Havana, 111., February 21, 1843. 
His parents removed from Watertown, N. Y.. to Havana in 1836, 
and Clark N. was the only living child when he enlisted in Com- 
pany K. At the organization of the regiment he was appointed 
sergeant major and participated in the battles of Perryville, Ky., 
and Stone River, Tenn. He was promoted to be second lieutenant 
of Company E, January 20, 1863, and to be adjutant on the 23rd 
of the following February. He participated in all the battles and 
campaigns in which the regiment was engaged until severely 
wounded in the assault on Kennesaw mountain, Georgia. His 



338 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

arm was amputated in the field hospital, after which he was taken 
to Hospital No. 3 at Nashville, where gangrene set in and his arm 
was reamputated. But medical and surgical skill was of no avail, 
and this promising young officer died on July 23, 1864. His father 
was with him when the final summons came, and brought his 
remains back to Havana, where they were buried by the side of 
his devoted mother. 

ADJUTANT PRESTON C. HUDSON was born at Milton, Pike 
county, Illinois, August 20, 1844, and while yet a child removed 
with his parents to Havana, in Mason county. He was attending 
school when the War of the Rebellion began, and enlisted as a 
private in Company I. He was promoted to be first lieutenant of 
his company, October 27, 1863, and to be adjutant of the regiment 
on July 23, 1864, and served in that position until mustered out 
with the regiment. By saving money earned in the army he was 
enabled to take a course in the University of Michigan, and after 
graduating from that institution he located at Fort Dodge, Iowa, 
where he read law and was admitted to the bar in 1871. Always 
studious, he took high rank at the bar, and was twice the nominee 
of his party for judge of the court of common pleas, but was 
defeated by a narrow margin. He removed to Toledo, Ohio, in 
1884, where he continued the practice of his profession until over- 
taken by a stroke of apoplexy in August, 1897. His death came as 
sudden as it might have come on the battlefield, he being found 
dead in his office, the opinion of the doctors being that his death 
was from apoplexy, induced by the heat. 

QUARTERMASTER SAMUEL F. WRIGHT was commissioned 
quartermaster with the rank of first lieutenant at the organiza- 
tion of the regiment, served through the Kentucky campaign, and 
was dismissed from the service at Nashville, Tenn., November 21, 
1862. He appears to have regarded his office as a private snap, 
the charges under which he was dismissed stating that he had 
issued vouchers on the government for a carriage for private use. 
He returned to Havana, where he died many years since. 

QUARTERMASTER HOLOWAY W. LIGHTCAP was born at 
Milford, Hunterdon county, N. J., October 2, 1826, and removed to 
Illinois in 1856. He was a merchant tailor, residing in Havana, 
when he was commissioned quartermaster to succeed Samuel F. 
Wright, December 1, 1862. He was wounded by his horse falling 
on him, and resigned for disability July 20, 1863. He returned to 



THE FIELD AND STAFF. 339 

Havana, and has been engaged as a commercial traveler most of 
the time since. His address is Havana, 111. 

QUARTERMASTER WILLIAM H. EVANS was a half-brother 
of Colonel Dilworth, and when he entered the service was twenty- 
five years of age. He had been a clerk in the county offices at 
Havana, and had become very accurate in his methods of con- 
ducting business, but was residing at Vermont, in Fulton county, 
when he was appointed quartermaster of the regiment on Janu- 
ary 14, 1864. He served in that position until the war closed, and 
was mustered out with the regiment. Soon after his return to 
Illinois he removed to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he died on Feb- 
ruary 4, 1872. 

SURGEON JAMES P. WALKER (promoted lieutenant col- 
onel). 

SURGEON PHILIP L. DIEFFENBACHER was born in Colum- 
bia county, Pennsylvania, February 6, 1830. His father, Daniel 
Dieffenbacher, descended from German ancestors, who settled in 
eastern Pennsylvania. His mother was Catherine (Long) Dieffen- 
bacher, whose parental ancestors were German, and settled in 
Virginia. Her maternal ancestors, named Springer, came from 
Stockholm, Sweden, and settled in Wilmington, Del., at an early 
date. 

He removed with his parents to Illinois in 1837 and settled on 
a farm in Tazewell (now Mason) county, and while helping his 
father improve and cultivate the farm, the subject of this sketch 
availed himself of every opportunity to gain an education. In the 
fall of 1849 he returned to Pennsylvania and entered the academy 
at Newville, in Columbia county, where he pursued his studies 
until the summer of 1851, when he returned to Illinois. He taught 
the first school ever held in the Dieffenbacher school house, six 
miles east of Havana, during the winter of 1851-2. Returning to 
Pennsylvania in the autumn of 1852, he entered the office of his 
maternal uncle, Dr. Philip H. Long, at Mechanicsburg, where he 
read medicine until September, 1853, when he entered Jefferson 
Medical College at Philadelphia, Pa., and graduated in the degree 
of doctor in medicine in March, 1855. After taking a course of 
one year in Blockley hospital, West Philadelphia, Pa., he opened 
his first office for practice in Mount Joy, Lancaster County, Penn- 
sylvania. In the spring of 1856 he returned to Illinois and located 



340 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

in Havana, where he has since resided and practiced his profes- 
sion, except three years' service in the army. 

In July, 1862, he was appointed assistant post surgeon to the 
military camp at Peoria, 111., and at the organization of the 
Eighty-fifth he was commissioned first assistant surgeon of the 
regiment. He was promoted to be surgeon with the rank of major 
at Nashville, Tenn., June 14, 1863, and served in that capacity to 
the close of the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. 
Returning to Havana at the close of his service, he resumed the 
practice of his profession, and soon after his return was appointed 
United States examining surgeon of pensions, holding the office 
until 1893, when he resigned. 

He is a member of the following societies: The American 
Medical Association, the International Association of Railway 
Surgeons, the Illinois State Medical Society, the Illinois State 
Historical Society, the Army and Navy Surgeons' Association (a 
charter member), the Brainard District Medical Association (one 
of the organizers and president in 1880-1), the Dan McCook Bri- 
gade Association, the Regimental Association (one of the organ- 
izers and president until 1889), and was president of the board of 
education for nine years. 

On May 17, 1874, he married Miss Martha M. Mitchell, whose 
parental and maternal ancestors served in the War of the Revolu- 
tion. Their living children are: Martha M., Edith L. and Philip 
D. Three others died in infancy, namely, Robert, Morton and 
Mable. 

FIRST ASSISTANT SURGEON GILBERT W. SOUTHWICK 
was born in Troy, Rensselaer county, New York, July 26, 1810; 
removed to Illinois in 1836, and at the beginning of the War of 
the Rebellion was practicing medicine at Arcadia, in Morgan 
county. He was commissioned first assistant surgeon in the 
Eighty-fifth August 6, 1864, and served as such until May 15th, 
1865, when he was honorably discharged. He removed to Califor- 
nia in 1881, where he now lives retired from active practice, the 
oldest surviving member of the regiment. His address is No. 1213 
Bath street, Santa Barbara, Cal. 

SECOND ASSISTANT SURGEON JAMES C. PATTERSON 
was born in Adair county, Kentucky, in 1824, and removed with 
his father, John Patterson, to Illinois in 1828, locating in Sanga- 
mon (now Menard) county. In 1845 James began the study of 



THE FIELD AND STAFF. 341 

medicine with Dr. Grinstead at Middletown, attended lectures at 
Jacksonville, paying his tuition by serving as janitor of the col- 
lege during the terms of 1846-7-8. He then entered Rush Medical 
college at Chicago and was graduated in 1849. He began the prac- 
tice of his profession on Prairie creek in Logan county, where he 
remained until 1859, when he removed to Mason City, in Mason 
county. He enlisted as a private in Company C, and was pro- 
moted hospital steward at the organization of the regiment, and 
on September 1, 1862, he was commissioned second assistant sur- 
geon. He served with the regiment until April 16, 1864, when he 
resigned for disability. He returned to Mason City, resumed the 
practice of medicine, and died in 1871. During the latter years of 
his life he was greatly afflicted with what he and other doctors 
who saw him thought was rheumatism, but which finally resulted 
in ataxia. 

CHAPLAIN JOSEPH S. BARWICK was born in Maryland, 
September 22, 1815, and removed with his parents to Indiana 
when about seven years of age, locating on a farm near Brook- 
ville, in Franklin county. He graduated from Asbury (now De 
Pauw) University, and was ordained a minister in the Methodist 
Episcopal church in 1837. After filling pastorates in Evansville 
and Indianapolis, he received the degree of doctor of divinity from 
the university from which he graduated. In the fall of 1850 he 
removed to Jacksonville, 111., to accept the professorship of Latin 
in the Illinois Conference Female College. He continued teach- 
ing some six years, but was preaching at Havana when he was 
commissioned chaplain at the organization of the Eighty-fifth. 
This was an office so often filled by clerical adventurers that the 
men watched and waited before placing their confidence in the 
chaplain. The position was as difficult as it was thankless, and 
he who would fill it worthily must be pure in heart, chaste in act 
and clean in speech. Chaplain Barwick was thus equipped, and 
his presence put the men upon their honor. His care of the sick, 
kindly aid to the wounded and hearty sympathy for those in 
trouble, sealed the bond between him and the men which will hold 
good to the end of their lives. 

He served through the war and was mustered out with the reg- 
iment. In 1866 he removed to Missouri and became principal of a 
college at Glasgow, and later was in charge of a church at Saint 
Joseph. Returning to Illinois, he preached some three years at 
Griggs' Chapel, near Beardstown, and in 1877 he was transferred 



342 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

to the Missouri conference, and in 1878 was the presiding elder of 
the Linneus circuit. He was residing in Linneus, Mo., and had 
been superanuated a year or more at the time of his death, which 
occurred on October 5, 1890. 

SERGEANT MAJOR CLARK N. ANDRUS (promoted adju- 
tant) . 

SERGEANT MAJOR WILLIAM S. ALLEN was born in La 
Porte, La Porte county, Indiana, January 27, 1840, and removed 
with his parents to Illinois in 1854. He enlisted as a private from 
Havana, and -was chosen first sergeant at the organization of Com- 
pany B and promoted to be sergeant major in 1863. He served 
with the regiment until wounded in the battle of Kennesaw Moun- 
tain, Georgia, June 27, 1864, and was honorably discharged June 
21, 1865. After his return to Illinois he served as deputy circuit 
clerk, removed to Oregon, where he spent some years and was 
postmaster at Hood River. Returning again to Illinois, he is now 
a railway postal clerk, and resides at No. 333 South Clay avenue, 
Jacksonville, 111. 

QUARTERMASTER SERGEANT JAMES T. PIERCE enlisted 
as a private in Company B from Havana, and was appointed quar- 
termaster sergeant at the organization of the regiment. He served 
through the Kentucky campaign, and was discharged at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., in 1863. He was elected commissary of the regi- 
mental association at its organization in 1885. He was a printer, 
and removed to Waverly, Neb., where he died on June 7, 1897. 

QUARTERMASTER SERGEANT EDWIN M. DURHAM was 
born in Greenville, Mercer county, Pennsylvania, December 19, 
1844, and removed to Illinois in 1859. He enlisted as a private 
from Bath, in Mason county, and served through the Kentucky 
campaign in Company D. He was promoted to be quartermaster 
sergeant in 1863, served in that capacity to the close of the war, 
and was mustered out with the regiment. He first settled at 
Vickstmrg, Miss., where he was a salesman, but removed to Mis- 
souri in 1869, and is at present a breeder of fine poultry at La 
Plata, Macon county, Missouri. 

COMMISSARY SERGEANT THOMAS J. AVERT was born in 
Lexington, Fayette county, Kentucky, in 1836, and enlisted from 
Bath, in Mason county, Illinois, as a private in Company D. He 
was appointed commissary sergeant at the organization of the 



THE; FIELD AND STAFF. 343 

regiment, served to the close of the war, and was mustered out 
with the regiment. 

HOSPITAL STEWARD JAMBS L. HASTINGS was born in 
DeKalb, St. Lawrence county, New York, in 1834, removed to Illi- 
nois, and enlisted from Mason City. He was chosen sergeant of 
Company C at the organization of the company, and at the forma- 
tion of the regiment he was appointed hospital steward, serving 
in that capacity until the close of the war, and was mustered out 
with the regiment. He returned to Mason City at the close of his 
service, and was engaged in farming for many years. He served 
as postmaster under the Harrison administration, but soon after 
the close of his term, removed to Chicago, where he was engaged 
in real estate and insurance until his death, which occurred in 
1899. 

PRINCIPAL MUSICIAN JOHN HAZELRIGG was born in Ken- 
tucky in 1828, removed to Illinois, was married, and a carpenter 
when he enlisted from Bath as a private in Company D. At the 
organization of the regiment he was appointed principal musician. 
He served to the close of the war, and was mustered out with the 
regiment. The pension office reports his death, but without giving 
date or place. 

PRINCIPAL MUSICIAN JAMES B. DURDY was born in 
Hagerstown, Washington county, Maryland, in 1838, removed to 
Illinois, was single, and a printer when he enlisted in Company K 
from Bath. He was promoted principal musician, served to the 
close of the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. At the 
peace he returned to Illinois and followed his trade in Havana, 
but finally died an inmate of the Mason county poor house. 

PRINCIPAL MUSICIAN ROBERT L DURDY was born in 
Hagerstown, Washington county, Maryland, in 1827, removed to 
Illinois, was a printer, and enlisted from Bath. He was promoted 
principal musician from Company K, but his health failed in the 
Kentucky campaign, and he was discharged for disability at New 
Market, Ky., December 27, 1862. He returned to Illinois, and 
worked at his trade in Havana, where he died many years ago. 



344 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 



Company A was enrolled by Matthew Langston 
under dates running from July 18 to August 15, 1862. 
A majority of the men enlisted from Mason county, 
although Morgan, Peoria and Tazewell counties were 
represented in its ranks. At the organization of the 
company the following commissioned officers were 
elected : Matthew Langston, captain ; Thomas R. Rob- 
erts, first lieutenant, and Dr. John W. Neal, second lieu- 
tenant. 

Of the 93 officers and men composing the company 
1 8 were hit with shot or shell, 10 of whom were killed or 
died of wounds. Four officers resigned, 19 men died of 
disease, 25 were discharged, 2 were transferred, and I 
officer and 31 enlisted men were mustered out with the 
regiment. 

It is due to the company to say that it maintained a 
high standard of discipline throughout, and bore its full 
share in making the history of the regiment illustrious. 
The following is 

THE COMPANY ROSTER. 

CAPTAIN MATHBW LANGSTON was born in Rutherford 
county, Tennessee, in 1824, and was married and a farmer when 
he enlisted from Manito. He was elected captain at the organiza- 
tion of the company, and served through the Kentucky campaign, 
but resigned at Nashville, Tenn., January 11, 1863. He returned 
home, resumed farming, and died March 24, 1896. His widow, 
Mrs. Susan Langston, resides at Forest City, 111. 

CAPTAIN THOMAS R. ROBERTS was born in Howard 
County, Missouri, in 1820, and had been a soldier in the war with 
Mexico. He enlisted from Tazewell county, and was elected first 
lieutenant at the organization of the company. He was promoted 



ROSTER OF COMPANY A. 345 

captain January 11, 1863, and served with the regiment until April 
15, 1864, when he resigned and returned home. He resumed farm- 
ing, but has been dead for a number of years, the date of his death 
being unknown to the writer. His widow, Mrs. Lucy Roberts, 
resides at Manito, 111. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT DANIEL WESTPALL was born in 
Allegany county, New York, in 1828, and was married and a 
farmer when he enlisted as a private from Manito. He was pro- 
moted to be first lieutenant January 11, 1863, and resigned his 
commission and returned home on March 25 of the same year. Is 
reported to be living in Iowa. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT DANIEL HAVENS was born near Win- 
chester, Scott county, Illinois, December 13, 1837, and enlisted from 
Spring Lake. He was chosen second sergeant at the organization 
of the company, was twice wounded at the battle of Perryville, 
Ky., and was promoted to be second lieutenant January 11, 1863. 
On the 25th of the following March he was promoted to first lieu- 
tenant, and commanded the company from the date of the resig- 
nation of Captain Roberts until the battle of Peach Tree creek, 
Georgia, where he was captured and held in rebel prisons for over 
seven months. When exchanged he resumed command of the com- 
pany and was mustered out with the regiment. He is a promi- 
nent merchant at Manito, in Mason county, where he is now serv- 
ing his second term as postmaster. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JOHN W. NEAL was born in Warren 
county, Kentucky, in 1833, and was a practicing physician when 
he enlisted from Manito. He was elected second lieutenant at the 
organization of the company, and served through the Kentucky 
campaign. Upon the arrival of the regiment at Nashville, Tenn., 
he tendered his resignation, which was accepted on November 12, 
1862. Of his subsequent career the writer has been unable to learn 
anything, except that he died December 20, 1894. 

FIRST SERGEANT ALBERT G. BEEBE was born in Canan- 
daigua, Ontario county, New York, and enlisted from Manito, in 
Mason county, Illinois. He was chosen first sergeant at the organ- 
ization of the company, was severely wounded at the battle of 
Perryville, Ky., October 8, 1862, and was discharged for disability 
arising from his wounds on February 11, 1863. He was twenty- 
nine years of age when he enlisted, and now, advanced in years, is 

residing at Manito, 111. 
21 



346 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

FIRST SERGEANT JOHN K. MILNER was born in Highland 
county, Ohio, in 1837, and was unmarried and a clerk when he 
enlisted from Manito, in Mason county. At the organization of 
the company he was chosen third sergeant and later he was pro- 
moted to first sergeant. He was commissioned second lieutenant 
on March 25, 1863, but the company was below the minimum and 
he was never mustered. He continued as first sergeant, partici- 
pating in all the battles in which the regiment had a part until 
the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, where he received a gun 
shot wound, fell into the hands of the enemy, and died a few days 
later at Macon, Ga. 

FIRST SERGEANT JAMES GASH was born in Carlisle, Cum- 
berland county, England, in 1835, was married and a farmer when 
he enlisted from Mason county. He was chosen corporal at the 
organization of the company, promoted to first sergeant, served to 
the close of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. He 
is supposed to have died at Cairo, 111. 

SERGEANT WILLIAM M. LANDWITH was born in Tazewell 
county, Illinois, in 1835, and was married and a farmer when he 
enlisted from Spring Lake. He was chosen fourth sergeant at the 
organization of the company, served through the Kentucky cam- 
paign, when his health failed and he was discharged for disability 
March 23, 1863. He died near Forest City, 111., where his widow, 
Susan Landwith, now resides. 

SERGEANT JOSIAH STOUT was born in Lambertville, Som- 
erset county, New Jersey, July 8, 1836, and was unmarried and a 
farmer when he enlisted from Spring Lake. He was chosen fifth 
sergeant at the organization of the company, participated in all 
the campaigns of the regiment until captured at the battle of 
Peach Tree creek, Georgia. After several months spent in various 
rebel prisons he was exchanged and returned to duty, was pro- 
moted color bearer, carried the flag at the grand review, and was 
mustered out with the regiment. He is a carpenter by trade, and 
now resides at Centralia, 111. 

SERGEANT NEWTON KING was born in Somerville, Somer- 
set county, New Jersey, May 2, 1839, and removed with his parents 
to Illinois in 1841. He enlisted from Mason county, and was 
chosen corporal at the organization of the company. He was pro- 
moted to be sergeant March 25, 1863, and participated in all the 



ROSTER OF COMPANY A. 347 

campaigns in which the regiment was engaged. He was captured 
at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864, but was 
included in the exchange of September 20, 1864, when he returned 
to duty, served to the close of the war, and was mustered out with 
the regiment. A farmer before the war, he has been a farmer and 
merchant since. He removed to Nebraska, and is now a real 
estate dealer in Lincoln. 

SERGEANT WILLIAM McLAUGHLIN was born in New York 
City, January 11, 1842, and removed with his parents to Illinois 
in 1857. He enlisted as a private from Mason county, and was 
promoted sergeant in September, 1863. He served in all the cam- 
paigns in which the regiment had a part, and was captured at the 
battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864, but was ex- 
changed and returned to duty some two months later. He was 
mustered out with the regiment and returned to Mason county,, 
where he located on a farm near Manito, where he still resides. 
He has served his community both as school director and trustee^ 

SERGEANT WILLIAM MALONEY was born in Loudoun 
county, Virginia, in 1832, and was a married farmer when he en- 
listed as a private from Manito, 111. He was promoted to be ser- 
geant and served through the war, being honorably discharged 
May 22, 1865. A report from the pension office states that he died 
September 17, 1890. His widow, Martha A. Maloney, resides at 
Manito, 111. 

CORPORAL BENJAMIN WHITE was born in Westmoreland 
county, Pennsylvania, in 1837, and was unmarried and a farmer 
when he enlisted from Spring Lake, 111. He was chosen corporal 
at the organization of the company, and served until killed at the 
battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8, 1862. His remains are buried 
in the national cemetery at Camp Nelson, Kentucky, in No. 251. 

CORPORAL JOSEPH F. RODGERS was born in Scott county, 
Illinois, in 1841, and was a farmer when he enlisted as a private 
from Spring Lake. He was chosen corporal at the organization of 
the company, was present at the battle of Perryville, but his 
health failed, and he died in the hospital at Bowling Green, Ky., 
November 13, 1862. . 

CORPORAL ALONZO McCAIN was born in Peoria county, 
Illinois, in 1841, and was a farmer when he enlisted from Spring 
Lake. He was chosen corporal at the organization of the com- 



348 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

pany, and served with the company until captured at the battle of 
Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. He was held in various 
rebel prisons until the close of the war, and was honorably dis- 
charged July 22, 1865. He died near Havana, 111., June 24, 1890. 

CORPORAL PLEASANT S. TRENT was born in Tennessee in 
1819, and was married and a farmer when he enlisted from Mason 
county. He was chosen corporal at the organization of the com- 
pany, served through all the campaigns in which the command 
was engaged, and was mustered out with the regiment. He re- 
turned to Mason county, and died near Havana, February 15, 1892. 

CORPORAL GEORGE W. SMITH was born in Scott county, 
Illinois, in 1836, and was married and a farmer when he enlisted 
from Mason county. He was chosen corporal at the organization 
of the company, served to the close of the war, but was absent 
(sick) at the muster out of the regiment. 

CORPORAL GEORGE M. WELCH was born in Cumberland 
county, Pennsylvania, in 1837, and was married and a farmer when 
he enlisted from Mason county. He was chosen corporal at the 
organization of the company, served through the Kentucky cam- 
paign, and died at Nashville, Tenn., December 26, 1862. His re- 
mains are buried at No. 6156 in the national cemetery near that 
city. 

CORPORAL LEVI S. ANNO was born in Petersburg, Menard 
county, Illinois, January I, 1837, and was married and a mechanic 
when he enlisted as a private from Mason county. He was pro- 
moted to be corporal, served to the close of the war, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. He is a wagonmaker, and has served 
as school director. He had four brothers in the Union army, one 
of whom was a member of the Eighty-fifth, and was mortally 
wounded at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia. Levi S. re- 
moved to Texas in 1878, and now resides at Kingston, in Hunt 
county. 

CORPORAL CALVIN W. BOON was born in Union county, 
Pennsylvania, in 1841, and was married and a farmer when he 
enlisted as a private from Tazewell county. He was promoted 
corporal and served with his company until severely wounded at 
the assault on Kennesaw mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. He 
was removed to the hospital at Chattanooga, Tenn., where he died 
July 14, 1864. His remains are buried in No. 11,809 in the national 
cemetery on Orchard Knob near Chattanooga. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY A. 349 

CORPORAL WILSON CLINE, aged eighteen, farmer, born in 
Morgan county, Illinois, and enlisted from his native county. 
Served through the Kentucky campaign, and was discharged at 
Nashville, Tenn., for disability, August 19, 1863. He returned to 
Illinois, and is said to be farming near Waverly, in Morgan 
county. 

MUSICIAN GEORGE W. S. BOBBITT was born in Mason coun- 
ty in 1843, and was a musician when he enlisted from his native 
county. He served to the close of the war and was mustered out 
with the regiment. He is supposed to be living at Geneva, Neb. 

MUSICIAN DAVID P. BLACK was born in Blair county, Penn- 
sylvania, March 6, 1842, and with his parents removed to Illinois 
in 1857. He enlisted from Mason county, served to the close of the 
war, and was mustered out with the regiment. Returning to 
Mason county he engaged in farming, has served as school direc- 
tor, and was treasurer of the school board for ten years. He now 
resides at Manito, 111., where he has served as trustee and presi- 
dent of the town board. 

WAGONER JOEL C. SUMMERS was born in Union county, 
Illinois, in 1826, and was married and a farmer when he enlisted 
from Mason county. He served to the close of the war, and was 
mustered out with the regiment, but no one seems to know about 
his subsequent career. 

JOHN F. ANNO was born in Chillicothe, Ross county, Ohio, in 
1830, and was married and a farmer when he enlisted from Mason 
county. He served in all the campaigns in which the regiment 
participated, was wounded at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Geor- 
gia, July 19, 1864, in the right arm, side and back, and died of 
wounds July 25, 1864. 

JAMES P. ARNETT was born in Menard county, Illinois, in 
1841, and was a farmer when he enlisted from Mason county. He 
served through the Kentucky campaign, and died at Nashville, 
Tenn., February 17, 1863. His remains are buried in No. 50 in the 
national cemetery near that city. 

FRANCIS M. A LYE A was born in Porter county, Indiana, in 
1839, and was a married farmer when he enlisted from Mason 
county, Illinois. He served with his company in all the campaigns 
in which the regiment was engaged, and was mustered out with 
the regiment. He removed to Oklahoma in 1889, and engaged in 



350 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

farming until his death, which occurred at Kingfisher, February 
26, 1900. 

JOHN W. ALYEA was born in Porter county, Indiana, April 
15, 1842, and removed with his parents to Illinois in 1851, and was 
a farmer when he enlisted from Spring Lake. He served through 
the Kentucky campaign, and while at Nashville, Tenn., was de- 
tailed as gunner in Fort Negley some three months. He partici- 
pated in the battles of Kennesaw Mountain, Peach Tree creek and 
Jonesiboro, and was a mounted forager on the march to the sea 
and through the Carolinas. He was captured in North Carolina, 
and held in Salsbury, Danville and Libby prisons until the close 
of the war. He was honorably discharged June 17, 1865. He re- 
moved to Oklahoma in 1889 ,where he is engaged in farming, his 
address being Kingfisher, Oklahoma. 

JOHN M. ALBIN was born in Carroll county, Indiana, in 1839, 
and was a married farmer when he enlisted from Spring Lake. 
He served with his company to the close of the war and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. 

REUBEN W. BARTRAM was born in Jersey county, Illinois, 
in 1843, and was a farmer when he enlisted from Spring Lake. He 
served to the close of the war, but was absent (sick) at muster out 
of the regiment. He was honorably discharged ,and now resides 
at Manito, Mason county, Illinois. 

JOHN A. BOON was born in New Berlin, Union county, Penn- 
sylvania, November 17, 1839, and removed with his parents to 
Illinois in 1849. He was a married farmer when he enlisted from 
Mason county, served with his company through all the cam- 
paigns in which the regiment had a part, and was mustered out 
with the regiment. He removed to Nebraska in 1872, and was 
residing at Utica, in Seward county, where he died on November 
24, 1899, and was buried by his comrades of the Grand Army of the 
Republic. 

JAMES M. BRADBURN was born in Perryville, Vermillion 
county, Indiana, February 18, 1842, removed with his parents to 
Illinois in 1844, and enlisted from Tazewell county. He served to 
the close of the war, for a year or more being mounted as a scout 
at brigade headquarters, and was mustered out with the regiment. 
He removed to Missouri in 1872, where he has served as school 
director, and is now residing on a farm near Metz, in Vernon 
county, Missouri. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY A. 351 

JOHN W. BRADBURN was born in Vermillion county, Indi- 
ana, in 1836, and was an unmarried farmer when he enlisted from 
Tazewell county. His health failed while in the Kentucky cam- 
paign, and he died at Bowling Green, Ky., November 1, 1862. 

JAMES M. BRADBURN, JR., was born in Vermillion county, 
Indiana, in 1844, and enlisted from Tazewell county, Illinois, 
served to the'close of the war and was mustered out with the regi- 
ment. He was wounded in the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, 
Georgia, but soon returned to his company. He settled on a farm 
near Perryville, Ind., where he died soon after the close of the war. 

JACOB BORTZFIELD was born in Wayne county, Indiana, 
December 9, 1839, and enlisted from Tazewell county, Illinois. He 
served with his company to the close of the war and was mustered 
out with the regiment. Since the war he has served as postmaster 
twelve years, justice of the peace thirteen years, and as constable 
eight years. He is now a grain dealer and resides in Parkland, 
Tazewell county, Illinois. 

JOHN BORTZFIELD, JR., was born in Wayne county, Indi- 
ana, in 1842, and enlisted from Mason county. He had been a 
farmer, served through all the campaigns to Resaca, Ga., where he 
was slightly wounded. At Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 
1864, he was wounded in the right leg and was discharged for 
wounds, February 7, 1865. 

WILLIAM BORTZFIELD was born in Wayne county, Indiana, 
in 1838, and was a married farmer when he dnlisted from Taze- 
well county. He served with his company until severely wounded 
at the battle of Peach Tree creek, July 19, 1864. His left leg was 
amputated, and he was shot in the left shoulder. He died in the 
hospital at Chattanooga, Tenn., August 14, 1864, and was buried 
in grave No. 2045 in the national cemetery on Orchard Knob. 

GIBSON BASS was born in Tazewell county, Illinois, in 1832, 
and was married and a farmer when he enlisted from his native 
county. He was wounded in the battle of Perryville, Ky., Octo- 
ber 8, 1862, recovered and returned to duty with his company, but 
died in the hospital July 3, 1863. His remains are buried at No. 
3417 in the national cemetery at Nashville, Tenn. 

JOHN W. BOOTH was born in Sangamon county, Illinois, in 
1844, and enlisted as a farmer from Tazewell county. He served 
with his company until his health failed in the Chattanooga cam- 



352 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

paign, when he was sent to the hospital, where he died November 
21, 1863. His remains are buried at No. 6398 in the national cem- 
etery at Chattanooga, Tenn. 

WILLIAM D. BLIZZARD was born in Sangamon county, Illi- 
nois, in 1844, and enlisted as a farmer from Tazewell county. He 
served to the close of the war and was mustered out with the regi- 
ment. He is supposed to be living at Topeka, in Mason county, 
Illinois. 

HEZEKIAH BARNES was born in Mason county, Illinois, in 
1844, and enlisted as a farmer from his native county. He served 
to the close of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. 

JOHN F. COX was born in Morgan county, Illinois, in 1830, and 
was unmarried and a farmer when he enlisted from Mason county. 
He was discharged for disability October 23, 1862. 

JOHN COX was born in Morgan county, Illinois, and was mar- 
ried and a farmer when he enlisted from Manito, in Mason county. 
He was discharged for disability at the age of thirty-four years, 
October 23, 1862. His widow, Mary E. Cox, is proprietor of the 
Cottage House, Manito, 111. 

ISAAC COGDALL was born in Menard county, Illinois, in 1844, 
and enlisted from Manito, in Mason county, as a farmer. He 
served with his company to the close of the war, and was mustered 
out with the regiment. He is supposed to be living at Effingham, 
Effingham county, Illinois. 

ELI M. COGDALL was born in Petersburg, Menard county, Illi- 
nois, June 10, 1836, and was a married mechanic when he enlisted 
from Manito, in Mason county. He served through the Kentucky 
and Murfreesboro campaigns, and was discharged at Nashville, 
Tenn., for disability March 8, 1863. He is a carpenter and builder 
and resides at Manito, 111. 

EDMUND CRATTY was born in Trenton, N. J., in 1832, and 
was married and a farmer when he enlisted from Manito, in Mason 
county. His health failed in the Kentucky campaign, and he was 
left in the hospital at Danville. He is erroneously marked absent 
(sick) at the muster out of the regiment, when in fact he died 
December 26, 1862, and his remains were buried at No. 193 in the 
national cemetery at Danville, Ky. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY A. 353 

ANDREW CONLEY was born in Indiana in 1841, removed to 
Illinois and enlisted as a farmer from Tazewell county. He served 
through the Kentucky campaign, and died in the hospital at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., February 12, 1863. He was buried in the national 
cemetery at No. 6671. 

WILLIAM P. CHARLTON was born in Pike county, Illinois, 
in 1841, and was a farmer when he enlisted from Tazewell county. 
He served with his company to the close of the war, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. 

PHILLIP CLINE was 'born in Exeter, Scott county, Illinois, 
January 3, 1839, and enlisted as a farmer from Morgan county. 
He participated in all the campaigns and battles in which the regi- 
ment was engaged, was a mounted scout at brigade headquarters 
part of the term of service, and was mustered out with the regi- 
ment. He is farming near Harrisonville, Cass county, Missouri, 
having removed to that state in 1886. 

JOHN R. DANIELS was born in Tazewell county, Illinois, in 
1841, and was a farmer when he enlisted from his native county. 
He served with his company until his health failed, and he was 
transferred to the invalid corps on February 15, 1864. 

JOHN FURGUSON was born in Menard county, Illinois, in 
1841, and was a farmer when he enlisted from Manito, in Mason 
county. He served to the close of the war and was mustered out 
with the regiment. He returned to Illinois, and is reported to 
have died near Forest City, where his widow now resides. 

ALEXANDER FURGUSON was born in Menard county, Illi- 
nois, in 1839, and was a married farmer when he enlisted from 
Mason county. He served to the close of the war, but was absent 
(sick) when the regiment was mustered out. He was honorably 
discharged from the hospital at New Albany, Ind., but the date is 
not known. A letter has been returned to the writer from his last 
known address, Neosho Falls, Kan., unclaimed. 

FRANKLIN GILLMORE was born in Menard county, Illinois, 
in 1841, and was a farmer when he enlisted from Mason county. 
His health soon failed, and he died in the hospital at Harrods- 
burg, Ky., November 8, 1862. His remains are interred in the 
national cemetery at Camp Nelson, Ky., in grave No. 361. 

JAMES F. GILLMORE was born in Mason county, Illinois, in 
1840, and was married and a farmer when he enlisted from his na- 



354 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

tive county. He served with his company through the Kentucky 
campaign, and was discharged for disability January 30, 1863, at 
Nashville, Tenn. 

DAVID A. GORDON was born in Cumberland county, Pennsyl- 
vania, removed to Illinois, and was married and a farmer when he 
enlisted from Mason county. He was left at the hospital in Dan- 
ville, Ky., a few days after the battle of Perryville, where he died 
October 27, 1862, at the age of thirty-eight years. His remains are 
buried at No. 91 in the national cemetery at Danville, Ky. 

JOHN S. GARDNER was born in Franklin county, Vermont, in 
1828, and was married and a farmer when he enlisted from Mason 
county. He served through the Kentucky campaign, and died at 
Nashville, Tenn., April 26, 1863. Is buried at No. 1285 in the na- 
tional cemetery at Nashville. 

GEORGE HOWELL was born in Union county, Pennsylvania, 
in 1842, and was a married farmer when he enlisted from Taze- 
well county, Illinois. He served with his company through the 
Kentucky campaign, but fell sick and died at Nashville, Tenn., 
April 5, 1863, and is buried at No. 7262 in the hallowed ground of 
the national cemetery near that city. 

HENRY HOWELL, aged thirty-five, was born in Union county, 
Pennsylvania, and was a married farmer when he enlisted from 
Tazewell county, Illinois. He died at Louisville, Ky., in 1862, but 
the exact date is unknown. He is buried in No. 1662 in the na- 
tional cemetery at Cave Hill. 

WILLIAM C. HARRISON was born in Montreal, Lower Can- 
ada, in 1836. He enlisted from Peoria, 111., as a farmer, and served 
with the company until November 12, 1863, when he was trans- 
ferred to the invalid corps. When last heard from he was resid- 
ing at Pekin, 111. 

SAMUEL JACKSON was born in Tazewell county, Illinois, In 
1841, and was a farmer when he enlisted from Manito. He served 
to the close of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. 
He returned to Illinois and died at Havana, June 20, 1895. 

BENJAMIN E. JORDAN was born in Ireland in 1841, and was 
a farmer when he enlisted from Tazewell county. He served with 
his company until the battle of Peach Tree creek, July 19, 1864, 
when he was captured and held by the enemy until the close of 



ROSTER OF COMPANY A. 355 

the war. He was honorably discharged at Camp Chase, Ohio, 
April 28, 1865. 

SAMUEL JONES was bora in Cumberland county, Pennsyl- 
vania, March 5, 1839, and was a married farmer when he enlisted 
from Mason county. He served with his company throughout the 
war, and was mustered out with the regiment. He returned to 
Illinois and resumed farming near Bryant station, in Fulton 
county, but a year or so later he removed to Mason county, where 
he has since been engaged as a painter and farmer. He resides at 
Mason City. 

DANIEL KOOZER was born in Peoria, 111., in 1841, and was a 
farmer when he enlisted from Tazewell county. He served with, 
his company until mounted as a scout at brigade headquarters, 
and was wounded while scouting near the close of the campaign in 
the Carolinas. He died from the effects of this wound at Golds- 
boro, N. C., March 27, 1S65, his remains being buried at No. 106 
in the national cemetery at Raleigh, N. C. 

DAVID KRATZER was born in Union county, Pennsylvania, 
1839, and was an unmarried farmer when he enlisted from Taze- 
well county, Illinois. He served with his company until wounded 
in the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864, and 
died from the effects of wounds at Big Shanty, Ga., June 29, 1864. 

WILLIAM T. LANGSTON was born near Winchester, Scott 
county, Illinois, January 10, 1844, and enlisted from Manito, in 
Mason county. He served with his company to the close of the 
war and was mustered out with the regiment. He removed to 
Kansas in 1877, and engaged in farming in Dickinson county until 
1890, when he removed to Abilene, where he is engaged in shoe- 
making. 

ARELIUS LAYTON was born in Scott county, Illinois, in 1831, 
and was married and a farmer when he enlisted from Tazewell 
county. He served with his company through the Kentucky cam- 
paign, but fell sick at Nashville and died December 1, 1862. His 
remains are buried in grave No. 6457 in the national cemetery at 
Nashville, Tenn. 

HIRAM MASON was born in McLean county, Illinois, in 1841, 
and enlisted as a farmer from Tazewell county. His health failed 
in the Kentucky campaign, and he died at Louisville, Ky., Decem- 
ber 23, 1862. Is buried at No. 1222 in the national cemetery at 
Cave Hill, near Louisville, Ky. 



356 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

JOSEPH A. MAYES was born in Logan county, Kentucky, in 
1834, was married and enlisted as a farmer from Pekin, 111. He 
served with his company to the close of the war, but was absent 
(sick in the hospital at Alexandria, Va.) when the regiment was 
mustered out. He was honorably discharged later, and now re- 
sides at Naron, Pratt county, Kansas. 

LEMUEL Y. NASH was born in Slaterville, Tompkins county, 
New York, in 1833, and was unmarried when he enlisted from 
Mason county, Illinois, as a wagonmaker. He was killed at the 
battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8, 1862, and his remains are bur- 
ied in grave No. 253 in the national cemetery at Camp Nelson, Ky. 

JACOB PARKS was born in Madison county, Kentucky, in 
1837, and was single and a farmer when he enlisted from Tazewell 
county, Illinois. He served to the close of the war and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment, but the writer has been unable to 
learn anything about his subsequent career. 

IDEA F. PETERS was born in Germany in 1841, emigrated to 
America and enlisted as a single farmer from Mason county, Illi- 
nois. He served through the Kentucky campaign, but fell sick at 
Nashville, and died on May 2, 1863. His remains are buried in No. 
957 in the national cemetery near Nashville, Tenn. 

ROBERT PRINGLE was born in Newcastle, on the River 
Tyne, England, in 1845. In 1849 he emigrated with his parents 
and settled in Illinois, enlisting from Mason county. He served 
with his company in all the campaigns in which the command 
was engaged, and was mustered out with the regiment. He re- 
moved to Nebraska in 1874, and served as school director and as- 
sessor in Box Butte county. He also served as first sergeant in 
the National Guard of Nebraska for eight years. He is a plasterer 
and resides since 1894 at Hot Springs, S. D. 

BEAUROP PEMBERTON, aged nineteen, born in Menard 
county, Illinois, and enlisted from Spring Lake. His health failed 
in the Kentucky campaign, and he was lefc in the hospital at 
Bowling Green, from which he was discharged January 10, 1863. 

WILLIAM J. PEMBERTON was born in Menard county, Illi- 
nois, in 1841, and enlisted as a farmer from Tazewell county. He 
was discharged for disability from the hospital at Bowling Green, 
Ky., January 24, 1863. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY A. 357 

LEWIS POSTER was born in Tazewell county, Illinois, in 1839, 
and enlisted as an unmarried farmer from Manito. He was dis- 
charged for disability from the hospital at Bowling Green, Ky., 
January 19, 1863. 

JOHN W. PRICE was born in Ross county, Ohio, in 1844, and 
was a farmer when he enlisted from Mason county, Illinois. He 
served with his company to the close of the war, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. He is supposed to be living at Wy- 
oming, Stark county, Illinois. 

CHARLES W. REAGAN was born in Vigo county, Indiana, in 
1841, and enlisted as a farmer from Manito, 111. He served with 
his company until killed at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Geor- 
gia, July 19, 1864. His remains are buried in No. 1909 in the hal- 
lowed ground of the national cemetery at Marietta, Ga. 

HIRAM D. REAGAN was born in Nelson county, Kentucky, in 
1819, was married and a wagonmaker when he enlisted from Man- 
ito, 111. He served to the close of the war, and was honorably dis- 
charged from the hospital at Quincy, 111., June 22, 1865. He re- 
sides at Mason City, 111. 

ROSS SHAW was born in Somerset county, New Jersey, Sep- 
tember 13, 1838, and removed to Illinois in 1858. He enlisted from 
Tazewell county as a farmer, and served through the Kentucky 
campaign with his company, but was afterward transferred to 
the One Hundred and Fifty-fifth company of the Veteran Reserve 
corps, and served in that organization to the close of the war. He 
was honorably discharged from Nashville, Tenn., where he had 
been stationed for a year or more. He removed to Minnesota in 
1872 and engaged in farming. He has served his fellow-citizens 
as clerk of the school board, justice of the peace and county treas- 
urer. His address is Westport, Pope county, Minnesota. 

PHILLIP SANIT was born in Germany in 1844, emigrated to 
America and enlisted from Tazewell county, Illinois. He served 
with his company until killed at the battle of Peach Tree creek, 
Georgia, July 19, 1864. His remains are buried in grave No. 1908 
in the national cemetery at Marietta, Ga. 

HENRY R. STREETER was born in Iras-burg, Orleans county, 
Vermont, in 1836, and removed to Pekin, 111., where he enlisted as 
a married farmer. He served with his company until wounded in 
the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. His 



358 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

wound caused the amputation of a leg, and he was honorably dis- 
charged from the hospital at New Albany, Ind., at the close of the 
war. He died December 3, 1875. 

WILLIAM S. SMICK was born in Menard county, Illinois, in 
1831, and was unmarried and a farmer when he enlisted from 
Tazewell county. He served with the company until near the 
close of the war, but was absent (sick) at the muster out of the 
regiment. 

DALLAS A. TRENT was born in Springfield, 111., in 1844, and 
enlisted as a farmer from Mason county. He served with his 
company until captured at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, 
July 19, 1864. He was exchanged, returned to duty, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. He resides at Manito, Mason county, 
Illinois. 

WILLIAM M. THOMPSON was born in Overton county, Ten- 
nessee, February 4, 1844, removed to Illinois in 1861, and enlisted 
as a farmer from Morgan county. He was slightly wounded at 
the battle of Perryville, Ky., but recovered and served with the 
company until taken sick at Mitchellville, Tenn., and was sent to 
the hospital at Bowling Green, Ky. He was discharged for disa- 
bility on January 10, 1863, and returned to his home in Illinois. 
He removed to Norman, Cleveland county, Oklahoma, in October, 
1898, where he is now engaged in farming and railroading. 

JOHN B. TALBOT was born in Shelby county, Kentucky, in 
1819, and was married and a merchant when he enlisted from 
Mason county, Illinois. He served with the company to the close 
of the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. He is re- 
ported to have died on July 29, 1898. 

THOMAS TRENT was born in Menard county, Illinois, in 1833, 
and was married and a farmer when he enlisted from Tazewell 
county. He served with the company until the war closed, and 
was mustered out with the regiment. He returned to Illinois and 
now resides in Havana. 

JOHN P. VANDEUSEN was born in Columbia county, New 
York, in 1844, and enlisted as a farmer from Tazewell county, Illi- 
nois. He served through the Kentucky campaign, but was taken 
sick at Nashville, Tenn., and was sent to the hospital, where he 
died March 3, 1863. His remains are buried at No. 673 in the na- 
tional cemetery near Nashville, Tenn. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY A. 359 

DAVID WOOD was born in Scotland in 1841, emigrated to Illi- 
nois, and enlisted as a farmer from Mason county. He served 
with the company until captured in the battle of Peach Tree creek, 
Georgia, July 19, 1864. He was exchanged and returned to duty 
and was mustered out with the regiment. 

JOHN A. WOOD, aged twenty-three years, enlisted as an un- 
married farmer from Tazewell county, but the place of his birth 
is not given. He served with the company through the Kentucky 
campaign, but was discharged for disability at Nashville, Tenn., 
February 10, 1863. He is supposed to be living in Blackhawk 
county, Iowa. 

WESLEY J. WHITTAKER was born in Preble county, Ohio, 
in 1844, and enlisted as a farmer from Tazewell county, Illinois. 
He served with his company through the Kentucky campaign, and 
died in the hospital at Nashville, Tenn., December 20, 1862. His 
remains are buried at No. 5097 in the national cemetery near that 
city. 

MARTIN L. WHITE was born at Sellins Grove, Union county, 
Tennessee, in 1842, and enlisted as a farmer from Tazewell county, 
Illinois. He served with the company through the Kentucky cam- 
paign, and died in the hospital in the capital of his native state, 
December 13, 1862. Is buried in grave No. 6890 in the national 
cemetery at Nashville, Tenn. 

WILLIAM McLAFFLIN deserted at Peoria, 111. 



360 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 



Company B was enrolled at Havana by James R. 
Griffith between July 18 and August 22, 1862. This 
company was credited to Mason, but in fact very many 
of the men enlisted from Fulton county. Unfortu- 
nately the muster-in roll of this company is defective, 
seldom if ever giving the residence at enlistment, and 
not often the occupation or birth-place of the men. 

At the organization of the company the following 
commissioned officers were elected : James R. Griffith, 
captain; Charles W. Pierce, first lieutenant, and John A. 
Mallory. second lieutenant. 

The company was mustered in with 96 officers and 
men, of whom 1 1 were killed in battle or died of wounds 
received in action, and 19 were wounded who lived to be 
discharged or mustered out, 12 died of disease, 22 were 
discharged, 6 were transferred, and but 33 were present 
at the final muster out. 

During the three years' service Company B was 
never found wanting, and now at the end of thirty-five 
years its survivors look with pride upon its record. 
Three of its members lost an arm and seven were killed 
within thirty minutes at the battle of Peach Tree creek. 
The following is 

THE COMPANY ROSTER. 

CAPTAIN JAMES R. GRIFFITH (promoted lieutenant col- 
onel, see field and staff). 

FIRST LIEUTENANT CHARLES W. PIERCE was born in 
Benton, Yates county, New York, October 7, 1823, removed to 
Illinois in 1855, and was a mechanic when he enlisted from Ha- 
vana. He was elected first lieutenant at the organization of the 



ROSTER OF COMPANY B. 361 

company, served through the Kentucky campaign and until No- 
vember 2, 1863, when he was transferred to the Veteran Reserve 
corps, was slightly wounded at the battle of Perry ville, Ky,, Oc- 
tober 8, 1862. He acted as sub-commissioner of refugees, freed- 
men, and abandoned lands for a district composed of fifteen coun- 
ties in western Alabama, under General Swain, was promoted 
major, and was mustered out with that rank at Demopolis, Ala., 
January 1, 1868. He was assessor of internal revenue for the First 
district of Alabama and a member of the fortieth congress from 
the Fourth district of that state. He removed to Nebraska in 
1872, was a member of the constitutional convention in 1875, was 
twice a member of the state senate, and served a term as register 
of the United States land office. He is engaged in farming and 
stock raising, and resides at Waverly, Lancaster county, Nebraska. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT ALBERT D. CADWALLADER waa 
born in Harveysburgh, Warren county, Ohio, July 25, 1846, re- 
moved with his parents to Illinois in 1855, and was attending 
school when he enlisted from Havana, 111. He was chosen cor- 
poral at the organization of the company, promoted first sergeant 
in 1863 and to first lieutenant November 2, 1863. He was slightly 
wounded at Buzzard Roost, Ga., February 25, 1864, and received a 
wound at the battle of Peach Tree creek July 19, 1864, which 
caused the loss of his right arm and disabled him for further ser- 
vice. He was honorably discharged April 4, 1865, returned home, 
studied telegraphy and became quite an expert in that line, was 
connected with the Chicago and Alton railroad for several years, 
was afterwards postmaster at Lincoln, 111., where he now resides, 
for seventeen years, read law and was admitted to the bar in 1883, 
and is now clerk of the supreme court, central grand division of 
Illinois, with headquarters at Springfield. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN W. PATTON was born in Ha- 
vana, Mason county, Illinois, August 9, 1844, and was attending 
school when he enlisted as a private from his native town. He 
served with his company to the close of the war, was promoted 
sergeant, and on May 19, 1865, to be first lieutenant. He was mus- 
tered out with the regiment, and returned to Havana, 111., where 
he learned and worked at the trade of a carpenter. Between the 
years 1872 and 1879 he served as marshal and deputy sheriff of 
Mason county, removed to Colorado in 1879. Is a carpenter and 

builder and now resides at Canon City, Fremont county, Colorado. 
22 



362 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JOHN A. MALLORY enlisted as a 
private from Havana at the age of thirty-two years, and was 
elected second lieutenant at the organization of the company. He 
served in that capacity through the Kentucky campaign, and re- 
signed his commission at Nashville, Tenn., January 24, 1863, and 
returned home. He died November 25, 1893. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT GEORGE MYERS enlisted from Ha- 
vana at the age of thirty-six years, and was chosen sergeant at the 
organization of the company. He was promoted second lieutenant 
January 24, 1863, and served with his company until January 24, 
1864, when he resigned and returned home. When last heard 
from he was living in Florida. 

FIRST SERGEANT WILLIAM S. ALLEN (promoted sergeant 
major, see field and staff). 

FIRST SERGEANT GEORGE D. PRIOR enlisted at the age of 
twenty-six, and was chosen second sergeant at the organization 
of the company. He was promoted to be first sergeant, and served 
with his company until killed at the battle of Peach Tree creek, 
Georgia, July 19, 1864. His remains are buried at No. 1910 in the 
national cemetery at Marietta, Ga. 

FIRST SERGEANT CHARLES T. KISLER was born in Wash- 
ington county, Pennsylvania, February 15, 1842, and removed with 
his parents to Illinois in 1855. He was a farmer when he enlisted 
as a private from Mason county. While the regiment was at 
Louisville, Ky., he was detached and placed in charge of confis- 
cated property. He was slightly wounded at the battle of Peach 
Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864, and was promoted to be first 
sergeant. He was commissioned captain on May 19, 1865, but the 
company was then too small to permit his muster, and he was 
mustered out with the regiment as first sergeant. He returned to 
Mason county, where he is engaged in farming, and now resides in 
Havana, 111. 

SERGEANT JOHN G. AKERSON enlisted as a private from 
Fulton county at the age of thirty-three, and was chosen sergeant 
at the organization of the company. He served with his com- 
pany through the Kentucky campaign, and was discharged for dis- 
ability at Nashville, Tenn., February 8, 1863. He returned to 
Fulton county, and now resides at Lewistown, 111. 

SERGEANT ISRAEL J. ALDEN enlisted as a private at the 
age of thirty-three years, and was honored by his comrades by 



ROSTER OF COMPANY B. 363 

being chosen sergeant at the organization of the company. But 
their confidence in his loyalty was misplaced, and he appears to 
have made a business of "leaping of the bounty." He deserted 
anil enlisted in the Eighth Missouri, deserted and joined the Six- 
tieth Illinois, was arrested and returned to Company B, and finally 
deserted again May 13, 1865. His subsequent career is unknown 
to the writer, but it has doubtless been downward, if he ever found 
lower depths for his peculiar genius to explore. 

SERGEANT JOHN H. CLEVELAND enlisted from Mason 
county at the age of twenty-five years, was chosen corporal at the 
organization of the company, and was promoted sergeant. He 
served with his company through all the campaigns and battles in 
which the regiment was engaged until wounded at the battle of 
Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. As a result of this wound 
his right arm was amputated, and he was confined in the hospital 
to the close of the war. He was absent on account of wounds 
when the regiment was mustered out, and was honorably dis- 
charged from the hospital soon after. A piece of a percussion cap 
from his gun struck him in the face in one of the battles he was 
engaged in, making what was thought at the time an insignificant 
scratch. But that slight wound never healed, and now he is sup- 
posed to be dying at his home in Easton, 111., from the effects of 
a wound from the poisonous cap. 

SERGEANT THORNTON S. PIERCE was twenty-two years of 
age when he enlisted from Mason county as a private. He was 
promoted sergeant and served with his company through all the 
campaigns the command was engaged in until he was wounded in 
the wrist and right arm at the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, 
Georgia. He died from the shock of his wounds during the night 
of June 27, 1864. 

SERGEANT THOMAS CLUNEY, aged nineteen years, enlisted 
as a private and served with his company to the close of the war. 
He was slightly wounded at the battle of Peach Tree creek, was 
promoted sergeant, and was mustered out with the regiment. He 
returned to Fulton county, and now resides at Bernadotte, 111. 

CORPORAL ISAAC MANN, aged thirty years, enlisted from 
Fulton county, and was chosen corporal at the organization of the 
company. He served with his company to the close of the war 
and was mustered out with the regiment. He returned to Fulton 



364 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

county and was a farmer near Sepo, 111., when he died about Sep- 
tember 1, 1900. 

CORPORAL WARREN TIPPBY, aged twenty-one, enlisted 
from Fulton county, and was chosen corporal at the organization 
of the company. He served with the command until killed at the 
battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. Is buried at 
No. 1913, in the national cemetery at Marietta., Ga. 

CORPORAL ABNER EVELAND, aged forty-one, enlisted as a 
farmer from Fulton county, and was chosen corporal at the organ- 
ization of the company. He served through the Kentucky cam- 
paign, and was discharged for disability, April 22, 1863. He re- 
turned to Fulton county and engaged in farming, and died near 
Sepo, 111., in about 1875. 

CORPORAL JOSEPH K. BISHOP, aged thirty-three, enlisted 
from Mason county, and was chosen corporal at the organization 
of the company. He served to the close of the war and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. He returned to Mason county, and 
was living in Havana when he was killed by lightning November, 
1888. 

CORPORAL ELLIS BOWMAN, aged thirty-eight, enlisted as a 
farmer from Fulton county, and was chosen corporal at the organ- 
ization of the company. He served through the Kentucky cam- 
paign, and was discharged for disability, February 8, 1863. He 
returned to Illinois, resumed farming and died near Sepo, in Ful- 
ton county, in a"bout 1875. 

CORPORAL THOMAS C. EATON was born in the County of 
Kent, England, September 29, 1838, and emigrated with his par- 
ents to Illinois in October, 1850. He enlisted as a farmer from 
Mason county, and was chosen corporal at the organization of the 
company. He drove team occasionally on the Kentucky campaign 
and while at Nashville, Tenn., he was detailed to drive the bri- 
gade headquarters team, and drove the team through all the cam- 
paigns the command was engaged in, and was mustered out with 
the regiment. He returned to Mason county and engaged in farm- 
ing and grain dealing, has seven children and thirteen grand-chil- 
dren, owns a thousand acres of land, has served on the drainage 
commission, and has long been the treasurer of the regimental 
association. He resides in Havana, 111. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY B. 365 

CORPORAL LEWIS BOARMASTER, aged forty-one, enlisted 
as a private, was promoted to be corporal and served with his 
company until killed at the battle of Jonesboro, Ga., September 
1, 1864. His remains are buried at No. 3284 in the national ceme- 
tery at Marietta, Ga. 

CORPORAL JAMES GREATHOUSE, aged thirty-three, en- 
listed as a private from Mason county, and served through all the 
campaigns in which his company was engaged, was promoted cor- 
poral, and mustered out with the regiment. He returned to Illi- 
nois, and now resides in Bath, Mason county, Illinois. 

CORPORAL THOMAS HUTTON, aged forty-three, enlisted as 
a private : was promoted to corporal, served to the close of the 
war, and was mustered out with the regiment. He returned to 
Illinois, and died in the Mason county poor house in 1868. 

CORPORAL JOHN JOHNSTON, aged eighteen, enlisted as a 
private, was promoted corporal, and served with his company 
until killed at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 
1864. His remains are buried in the national cemetery at Mari- 
etta, Ga., at No. 1911. 

CORPORAL MASSENA B. NOTT was born in Morgan county, 
Ohio, July 19, 1839, and removed with his parents to Illinois in 
1855. He enlisted from Fulton county as a private, served through 
the Kentucky campaign with his company, and at Nashville, 
Tenn., he was detailed to man the guns in Company I, Second Illi- 
nois, Light artillery, serving fourteen months, when he returned 
to his company. He was promoted corporal, served to the close of 
the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. He returned 
to Fulton county, resumed farming, and now resides at Lewis- 
town, 111. 

CORPORAL ALEX C. RATLIFF, aged twenty-three, enlisted 
from Fulton county as a private, was promoted corporal and 
served with the company to the close of the war, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. He returned to Fulton county and 
died in about 1880. 

CORPORAL DAVID SIGLEY, son of Daniel Sigley and Eliza 
Atkins, was born in Hanging Rock, Lawrence county, Ohio, Janu- 
ary 13, 1S39, and removed with his parents to Kentucky in 1843. 
From there he removed to Illinois in 1851, and enlisted as a farmer 
from Havana, in Mason county. He was promoted corporal, and 



366 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

served through all the campaigns in which the regiment was en- 
gaged until disabled by wounds. He was twice slightly wounded 
at Kennesaw Mountain, and at the battle of Peach Tree creek, 
Georgia, July 19, 1864, he was severely wounded in both arms and 
fell into the hands of the enemy. One wound caused the amputa- 
tion of his right arm near the shoulder, but it was a busy time 
with the rebel surgeons, and his wounds were not dressed until 
they arrived at Macon, Ga., on the 27th. He was confined in 
prison at Andersonville and Milan, and exchanged at Savannah, 
Ga., November 21, 1864. He was honorably discharged from the 
general hospital at Camp Chase, Ohio, August 2, 1865, after recov- 
ering from a second amputation. He resides at Havana, 111. 

CORPORAL ISAAC G. BASH, aged twenty-one, enlisted as a 
private, was promoted corporal and transferred to the invalid 
corps. This transfer must have been made after he served through 
the Kentucky campaign, and probably while the regiment was on 
garrison duty at Nashville, Tenn. But the writer has been unable 
to find ttie date of transfer or anytt'ng relating to his subsequent 
career. 

MUSICIAN ALONZO F. KREBAUM was born in Lewis town, 
Fulton county, Illinois, May 15, 1844, enlisted from that county, 
and was appointed musician at the organization of the company. 
He was slightly wounded at the battle of Chickamauga, Ga., Sep- 
tember 20, 1863, but served to the close of the war, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. He returned to his native county at 
the return of peace, is an engineer, and resides at Duncan's Mills, 
Fulton county, Illinois. 

MUSICIAN JASPER N. WILCOX, aged eighteen, was ap- 
pointed musician at the organization of the company, and served 
with his company until the command reached Bowling Green, Ky., 
where he was sent to the hospital. He died December 18, 1862, and 
his remains are buried at No. 10858 in the national cemetery at 
Nashville, Tenn. 

WAGONER WILLIAM R. STULL, aged forty-four years at 
enlistment, and was appointed wagoner at the organization of the 
company. He served to the close of the war, but was absent (sick) 
at the muster out of the regiment. He was honorably discharged 
from the hospital at New Albany, Ind., June 10, 1865. He is re- 
ported to have died soon after the close of the war, in the southern 
part of Illinois. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY B. 367 

ABRAM W. ACKERSON, aged thirty, enlisted from Fulton 
county, and deserted January 15, 1863. 

JOHN B. ACKERSON, aged thirty-one, enlisted from Fulton 
county, and deserted September 22, 1862. 

JOHN W. BRECKENRIDGE was born in the province of Can- 
ada West, July 18, 1837, emigrated to Lockport, Will county, Illi- 
nois, in the spring of 1850, and settled in Fulton county in 1857. 
He enlisted from Fulton county and served through the Kentucky 
and Murfreesborough campaigns and to Franklin, Tenn. In the 
winter of 1862-3 he was taken prisoner and held for a short time, 
being stripped of nearly all of his clothing, pockets rifled, and 
nearly every thing taken except a small pocket testament. In the 
summer of 1863 he was transferred to Company C, Eighth Veteran 
reserve corps, and was discharged therefrom October 2, 1863. Was 
a farmer before and since the war, and has held the following 
offices in Waterford township: School director and township clerk 
ten years, supervisor (member of county board) four years. His 
postoffice address is Lewistown, 111. 

JESSE BAILOR was born in Columtnana county, Ohio, Decem- 
ber 26, 1829, and removed with his parents to Illinois in 1845. He 
enlisted July 29, 1862, served with his company to the close of the 
war, and was mustered out with the regiment. He was captured 
at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864, but was 
exchanged and returned to duty about two months later. After 
the close of the war he removed to Iowa, and now resides at Bard, 
in Louisa county. 

SIMON BURKHOLDER was born in Lewistown, Mifflin county, 
Pennsylvania, August 18, 1835, and removed to Illinois in 1858. He 
enlisted from Fulton county, served to the close of the war and 
was mustered out with the regiment. He was slightly wounded 
at the battle of Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864, but 
soon recovered and returned to duty. He enlisted in the Veteran 
Reserve corps in 1867, and served three years. He then enlisted 
in the First Regular infantry, and served until the army was re- 
duced in 1873, when he resumed his trade at Smithfield, in Fulton 
county, where he now resides. 

MARTIN BEEKMAN, aged twenty-two, served through the 
Kentucky campaign, and was transferred to the invalid corps. 
Date not found. He returned to Fulton county at the close of the 
war, and now resides at Enion, 111. 



368 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

THOMAS M. BELL, aged twenty-three, enlisted August 4, 1862, 
was wounded at the battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8, 1862. 
Some time after returning to duty, probably at Nashville, Tenn., 
he was transferred to the marine corps. He is supposed to have 
died, but whether in the service or since, the writer has been 
unable to learn. 

WILLIAM H. BECHSTEAD, aged eighteen, deserted December 
25, 1862. 

WILLIAM BUPFALOW, aged thirty, enlisted August 10, 1862, 
and served with the company until the battle of Peach Tree creek, 
July 19, 1864, where he was mortally wounded and fell into the 
hands of the enemy. He was taken to Atlanta, where he died 
July 21. 

OLIVER P. BEHYMER, aged twenty, enlisted August 18, 1862, 
served with the company to the battle of Peach Tree creek, July 
19, 1864, where he was wounded by gunshot in left leg. He recov- 
ered, returned to duty, and served to the close of the war, and was 
mustered out with the regiment. He returned to Illinois, where 
he died about 1885. 

BENJAMIN F. BLAIR, aged twenty-one, enlisted August 13, 
and deserted November 9, 1862. 

MAURICE CURRAN, aged twenty-two, enlisted July 25, 1862, 
served with the company throughout the war, and was mustered 
out with the regiment. He removed to Kansas, where he was 
killed by the kick of a horse in about 1898. 

BAZIL COZAD, aged twenty-five, enlisted August 20, 1862, and 
served with the company until killed at the battle of Peach Tree 
creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. His remains are interred at No. 
7928 in the national cemetery at Marietta, Georgia. 

HENRY CONNOR, aged twenty-three, enlisted August 20, 1862, 
served in the Kentucky campaign until after the battle of Perry- 
ville, when he was taken sick and sent to the hospital at Danville, 
Ky., where he died November 6, 1862. His remains are buried at 
No. 62 in the national cemetery at Danville, Ky. 

DAVID CORNHAM, aged twenty-one, enlisted August 13, 1862, 
served with the company until killed in the battle of Peach Tree 
creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY B. 369 

SAMUEL DANA WAIN, aged twenty-one, enlisted August 20, 
1862, and died at Louisville, Ky., November 28, 1862. 

CHARLES D. DARE was born in Highland county, Ohio, May 
3, 1839, removed with his parents to Illinois in 1844, and enlisted 
August 4, 1862. He served with the company until knocked down 
and captured at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 
1864, and was exchanged in October following. Returning to duty 
he was mounted as a scout in the campaign through the Carolinas 
and was again captured near Goldsboro, N. C. He was held in 
Saulsbury, Danville and Libby prisons until the close of the war, 
and was honorably discharged July 18, 1865. He resides at Dun- 
can's Mills, Fulton county, Illinois. 

AMOS EVELAND, aged twenty-three, enlisted July 20, 1862, 
and served with the company until killed at the battle of Peach 
Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. Is buried at No. 1915 in the 
national cemetery at Marietta, Ga. 

JOSEPH H. FITCH, aged twenty-six, enlisted July 26, 1862, 
served with the company until wounded at the battle of Kennesaw 
Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864, and as he was absent (sick of 
wounds) when the regiment was mustered out, it is probable that 
his wound disabled him for active service. He was mustered out 
from the hospital at Milwaukee, Wis., July 3, 1865, and is reported 
to have died some years later, probably in 1896. He resided near 
Lewistown, 111. 

DAVID FOX enlisted at the age of forty-three, and served with 
the company until near the close of the war, when he was sent to 
the hospital, and was honorably discharged for disability from the 
hospital at Quincy, 111., April 3, 1865. He died soon after return- 
ing home. 

JOHN GRAY enlisted at the age of twenty-five, served through 
the Kentucky campaign, and was discharged for disability August 
10, 1863. He returned to his home in Fulton county, resumed 
farming, and died near Waterford in about 1872. 

WILLIAM GREATHOUSE enlisted at the age of twenty-four, 
served with the company through the Kentucky campaign, and 
was discharged for disability at Nashville, Tenn., April 22, 1863. 
He died July 29, 1893. 

JAMES GREATHOUSE, JR., aged twenty-two, enlisted from 
Bath, in Mason county. He is reported on the muster out roll as 
having died, but neither time nor place is given. 



370 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

JOHNSTON GALBRAITH enlisted at the age of twenty-nine 
years, served through the Kentucky campaign, and died at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., Jan. 3, 1863. 

JAMES F. GOODMAN, aged twenty-two, deserted at Mitchell- 
ville, Tenn., November 8, 1862. 

CHARLES HURLEY enlisted at the age of twenty-two, served 
with his company to the close of the war, and was mustered out 
with the regiment. He returned to Mason county, resumed farm- 
ing, and died near Teheran, 111., January 16, 1890. 

JOHN W. HEALD, aged twenty-one at enlistment. He served 
with his company until captured, probably on the Atlanta cam- 
paign, and was honorably discharged from Springfield, 111., May 
24, 1865. His last known address was Parsons, Labette county, 
Kansas. 

JOHN HAMILTON, aged twenty-five, deserted at Peoria, 111. 

BARTHOLOMEW HURLEY enlisted at the age of twenty years 
and served through the Kentucky campaign, was sent to the hos- 
pital soon after reaching Nashville, and died January 23, 1863. Is 
buried at No. 6016 in the national cemetery at Nashville, Tenn. 

WILLIAM D. HOLMES enlisted at the age of twenty-one years, 
served with his company until wounded at the battle of Peach 
Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. He was honorably discharged 
from the hospital at Quincy, 111., April 3, 1865. Is supposed to be 
living at Vermont, Fulton county, Illinois. 

DAVID HOLTY enlisted at the age of forty-three, and deserted 
at Peoria, 111. 

RICHARD JONES, aged eighteen, deserted at Peoria, 111. 

BENJAMIN JONES, aged twenty-four, served with his com- 
pany to the close of the war, and was mustered out with the regi- 
ment. He died June 9, 1898, at Connersville, Ind. 

BENJAMIN F. KRATZER was born in Warren county, Indi- 
ana, November 9, 1835, and removed to Illinois in 1855. He was 
wounded at the battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8, 1862, and was 
transferred to the marine brigade at Nashville, Tenn., in March, 
1863. He served with that organization on the Mississippi river 
until discharged at Vicksburg, Miss., January 17, 1865. He re- 
moved to California in 1888, and served as a. justice of the peace in 
San Diego county. He is now an inmate of the Soldiers' Home in 
Los Angeles, Cal. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY B. 371 

THOMAS G. LINDERMAN, aged thirty-four, enlisted from 
Fulton county, served with his company to the close of the war, 
and was mustered out with the regiment. He returned to Fulton 
county, resumed farming, and resides near Ipava, 111. 

DAVID MORRIS was born in Manchester, Adams county, Ohio, 
August 15, 1836, and removed to Illinois in 1854. He served with 
his company to the close of the war, and was mustered out with 
the regiment. He now resides at No. 203 Lower Hamilton street, 
Peoria, 111. 

ALVERO C. MINTONYE was born in Dearborn, Wayne county, 
Michigan, October 25, 1836, and removed with his parents to Illi- 
nois in 1850. He served with his company to the close of the war 
and was mustered out with the regiment. He was slightly 
wounded at the battle of Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 
1864, but not disabled for duty. He removed to Iowa after he was 
mustered out; is tinner by trade, and resides at Garden Grove, 
Decatur county. 

ENOCH MUSTARD, aged twenty-one at enlistment, served 
with his company until he died on the march to the sea, near 
Ebenezer creek, Georgia, December 8, 1864. 

LUCIUS MUSTARD, aged twenty-one at enlistment, served 
with his company to the close of the war, and was mustered out 
with the regiment. He returned to Fulton county, Illinois, where 
he died in about 1875. 

GEORGE F. MARANVILLE, aged thirty-one when he enlisted 
August 4, 1862, served to the close of the war, and was mustered 
out with the regiment. Returning to his former home he resumed 
farming, and was drowned in the river near Havana, 111., in about 
1876. 

JOHN M. McCONNAHAY, aged twenty-two when he enlisted 
August 12, 1862, served with his company to the close of the war, 
and was mustered out with the regiment. He was an inmate of 
the Soldiers' Home at Quincy, 111., when killed by the street cars 
on January 28, 1892. 

MICHAEL E. MILLER enlisted at the age of thirty-two on 
August 15, 1862, served with his company to the close of the war 
and was mustered out with the regiment. He died in Springfield, 
111., August 24, 1897. 



372 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

DAVID NOYES enlisted at the age of twenty-eight and prob- 
ably died at Nashville, Tenn., but there is nothing on the record 
by which the date and place can be given. 

STEPHEN H. NOTT was born in Eugene, Vermillion county, 
Indiana, May 10, 1840, and with his parents removed to Illinois in 
the autumn of that year. He was a farmer when he enlisted from 
Fulton county. He served with his company through all the cam- 
paigns in which the command was engaged until captured at the 
battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia. He was held a prisoner in 
Andersonville to the close of the war, and was honorably dis- 
charged July 22, 1865. He returned to Fulton county, resumed 
farming, has been school director, and now resides at Lewis- 
town, 111. 

JAMES E. NICHOLS enlisted at the age of twenty-nine on 
August 20, 1862. He served with his company until near the close 
of the war, but was absent (sick) at the muster out of the regi- 
ment. His subsequent career is unknown. 

JOHN H. O'LEARY enlisted from Mason county at the age of 
twenty-two, served with his company until captured at the battle 
of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. He was held a pris- 
oner of war until the war closed, and was honorably discharged 
at Springfield, 111., July 22, 1865. He resides in Bath, 111. 

EBENEZER PAUL, aged forty-three when he enlisted on July 
26, 1862, served with his company through the Kentucky campaign 
and was discharged for disability on February 8, 1863. He is re- 
ported to have died in Nebraska about 1876. 

SAMUEL PAUL, aged forty-one, enlisted August 20, 1862, 
served through the Kentucky campaign, and was discharged for 
disability February 8, 1863. He died soon after the close of the 
war. 

ROBERT PORTER was born in County Down, Ireland, in 1831, 
and emigrated with his parents to Illinois in 1851. He enlisted as 
a farmer from Fulton county, and served with his company 
through all the campaigns in which the regiment had a part. He 
was wounded while guarding a train to Murfreesborough, Tenn., 
but not severely. He was mustered out with the regiment, re- 
turned to Fulton county, and resumed farming. He now resides 
at Lewistown, 111. 

THOMAS J. RATCLIFF enlisted at the age of twenty-two, 
served through the Kentucky campaign, and was discharged for 



ROSTER OF COMPANY B. 373 

disability October 18, 1863. He died at Lincoln, 111., before the 
close of the war. 

FRANKLIN RICHARDSON enlisted from Fulton county at the 
age of thirty-five, and served to the close of the war, but was ab- 
sent (sick) at the muster out of the regiment. He was honorably 
discharged August 30, 1865, and returned to Fulton county, where 
he died soon after the close of the war. 

WILLIAM H. SKILES enlisted at the age of twenty-one, and 
served with the company through all the campaigns in which the 
regiment was engaged until his health failed on the Atlanta cam- 
paign. He was sent to the hospital at Tullahoma, Tenn., where he 
died on July 25, 1864. 

JOHN F. M. SINGLETON, aged nineteen when he enlisted 
August 20, 1862, and served to the. close of the war. He was hon- 
orably discharged May 27, 1865, and is supposed to be living in 
Missouri. 

JOSHUA T. SINGLETON enlisted at the age of twenty-one and 
served with his company until severely wounded at the battle of 
Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. His thigh was broken 
by a gun shot, and he fell into the hands of the enemy and died at 
Atlanta, Ga., July 21. 

WILLIAM SOUTHWOOD enlisted from Fulton county at the 
age of twenty-five, served to the close of the war, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. He returned to Fulton county, and 
now resides at Lewistown, 111. 

ELLIS SOUTHWOOD was born in Waterford, Fulton county, 
Illinois, in 1845, enlisted August 14, 1862, and served to the close 
of the war. He was slightly wounded at the battle of Perryville, 
Ky., October 8, 1862. He was mustered out with the regiment, 
returned to Fulton county, resumed farming, and now resides 
near Lewistown, 111. 

CHARLES SPINK enlisted at the age of twenty-one, served 
with his company until the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, 
July 19, 1864, where he was instantly killed. His remains are 
buried in the national cemetery at Marietta, Ga., at No. 1914. 

DAVID or JACOB SHOCK, aged thirty-five, deserted at Peoria, 
Illinois. 

JAMES B. THOMAS, aged twenty-one, enlisted July 26, 1862, 
and served in the Kentucky campaign until the regiment reached 
Bowling Green, Ky., where he was sent to the hospital. He died 



374 HISTORY OF THE 8STH ILLINOIS. 

January 29, 1863, and his remains are buried at No. 10539 in the 
national cemetery at Nashville, Tenn. 

JAMES W. TIPPEY was born in Yilliamson county, Illinois, 
in 3839, and enlisted from Fulton county. Served through the 
Kentucky campaign, and was transferred to the invalid corps at 
Nashville, Tenn. He was honorably discharged, returned to Ful- 
ton county, resumed farming, and now resides at Enion, 111. 

JAMES W. TIPPEY was born in Williamson county, Illinois, 
vember 27, 1836, and enlisted from Fulton county. He was de- 
tached as blacksmith and served in that capacity to the close of 
the war ,and was mustered out with the regiment. He returned 
to Fulton county, where he resumed his trade that of a black- 
smith. His address is Duncan's Mills, 111. 

WILLIAM B. WINCHELL was born in Ohio, July 8, 1838, re- 
moved to Illinois, and enlisted from Fulton county. He served 
with the company until captured at the battle of Peach Tree creek, 
Georgia, July 19, 1864, was a prisoner some two months, when he 
was exchanged, and served to the close of the war. He was mus- 
tered out with the regiment, returned to Fulton county, and re- 
sumed farming. He resides at Lewistown, 111. 

GEORGE WINCHELL, aged twenty-one, enlisted from Ful- 
ton county, and served with his company until captured at the 
battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. He was ex- 
changed some two months later, returned to his company, and 
was mustered out with the regiment. He removed to Iowa some 
years ago, where he now resides. 

JAMES H. WESTERFIELD was born in 1838, and enlisted 
from Fulton county. He served to the close of the war and was 
mustered out with the regiment. He returned to Fulton county, 
but died soon after. 

JAMES McKALlP Muster out roll gives nothing about this 
soldier, except that he was discharged for disability February 8, 
1863. This is an error. He died at Nashville, Tenn., and his remains 
are buried at No. 295 in the national cemetery near that city. 

THOMAS E. PAUL Date of enlistment not given on the roll. 
Died December 7, 1862, and is buried at No. 5666 in the national 
cemetery at Nashville, Tenn. 

SILAS STRODE Date of enlistment not given. Discharged 
lor disability April 22, 1863. Is said to reside in Cuba, 111. 

JAMES T. PIERCE (Quartermaster sergeant. See field and 
staff). 



ROSTER OF COMPANY C. 375 



CHAPTER XXIX. 



Company C was enrolled by Samuel Black, a farmer 
residing near Mason City, between July 23 and August 
15, 1862, the entire company, except two one from 
Logan and one from Peoria enlisting from Mason 
county. At the organization of the company the fol- 
lowing commissioned officers were elected: Samuel 
Black, captain; George A. Blanchard, first lieutenant, 
and Dr. William W. Walker, second lieutenant. 

Of the 102 officers and men originally mustered in 8 
were killed in action, 7 died of wounds, and 14 were hit 
whose wounds did not prove fatal while in the service, 22 
died of disease, 24 were discharged for disability, 7 were 
transferred, 2 officers resigned and 31 officers and men 
were mustered out with the regiment. 

The company bore well its part, and did its full share 
in making the history of the regiment one of which its 
members may be justly proud. 

THE COMPANY ROSTER. 

CAPTAIN SAMUEL BLACK was born in Sangamon county, 
Illinois, July 4, 1827, and was married and a farmer when he en- 
tered the service from Mason county. He commanded the com- 
pany through the Kentucky campaign, resigned at Nashville, 
Tenn., February 7, 1863, and returned home. He removed to Wis- 
consin in July, 1863, and engaged in farming in Dunn county. Has 
served as county clerk six years, and as justice of peace, chairman 
of the town board, and member of the legislature. He has also 
been engaged in merchandising and in the livery business. He is 
retired now, and resides at Menomonie, Dunn county, Wisconsin. 

CAPTAIN GEORGE A. BLANCHARD was born in Henderson, 
Jefferson county, New York, May 14, 1833, and with his parents, 
Aaron and Anna Blanchard, removed to Illinois and settled in St. 



376 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

Charles in Kane county, in 1838. He served for a time as deputy 
sheriff and circuit clerk of Kane county, married Amanda Walker, 
March 17, 1857, and removed to Havana, in Mason county, where 
he engaged in general merchandise. He assisted in recruiting 
Company C, and at the organization of the company was elected 
first lieutenant. He was promoted to be captain February 7, 1863, 
and commanded the company until captured at the battle of Peach 
Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. He was held in various rebel 
prisons until the close of the war, and was honorably discharged 
May 15, 1865. Upon his return to Havana he was appointed master 
in chancery for Mason county, holding the position until 1868, 
when he was elected circuit clerk. At the close of a four-years' 
term he became the secretary of the Springfield and Northwestern 
railway, and was serving in that capacity when he died May 4, 
1875. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT WILLIAM W. WALKER was born in 
Adair county, Kentucky, July 8, 1822, removed to Illinois and was 
engaged in the practice of medicine in Mason county when he 
enlisted in August, 1862. He was elected second lieutenant at the 
organization of the company, served with his company through the 
Kentucky and Murfreesborough campaigns and was promoted 
first lieutenant February 7, 1863. He took part in the Tennessee 
campaign and the battle of Chickamauga, Ga., but soon after his 
health failed and he resigned for disability incurred in the service. 
He returned to Mason county, resumed the practice of his profes- 
sion, which he continued until a short time previous to his death. 
He died at Easton, 111., March 20, 1890. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JAMES M. HAMILTON was born in 
Morgan county, Illinois, in 1834, and was an unmarried farmer 
when he enlisted from Mason City, in Mason county. He was 
chosen fifth sergeant at the organization of the company, served 
through Kentucky and Tennessee campaigns, and was promoted 
second lieutenant October 7, 1863. He participated in all the 
campaigns in which the regiment was engaged until captured in 
the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864, was ex- 
changed before the close of the war. He was mustered out with 
the regiment and returned to Mason City, 111., where he died in 
about 1874. 

FIRST SERGEANT WILLIAM M. HAMILTON was born in 
Morgan county, Illinois, in 1834, and was farming in Mason county 



ROSTER OF COMPANY C. 377 

when he enlisted from Mason City. He was chosen first sergeant 
at the organization of the company, served through the Kentucky 
campaign, and was discharged for disability January 27, 1863. 
When last heard from he resided at Reno, Cass county, Iowa. 

FIRST SERGEANT JOHN H. DUVALL was born in Fleming 
county, Kentucky, in 1838, removed to Illinois and was married 
and a school teacher when he enlisted from Mason City. He was 
chosen third sergeant at the organization of the company, served 
through the Kentucky campaign, receiving a slight wound at the 
battle of Perry ville, Ky. He was promoted first sergeant and 
served with his company in all the campaigns and actions in which 
the regiment was engaged until killed at the assault on Kennesaw 
Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. His remains are buried at No. 
8726 in the national cemetery at Marietta, Ga. 

FIRST SERGEANT JOHN HOUSEWORTH was born in Selin's 
Grove, Suyder county, Pennsylvania, in 1841, and was a black- 
smith residing at Mason City, 111., when he enlisted. He was 
chosen fourth sergeant at the organization of the company and 
was promoted first sergeant when Sergeant Duvall was killed at 
the battle of Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. He 
served with his company until captured at the battle of Peach 
Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864, was held prisoner to the close 
of the war, and was honorably discharged June 17, 1865. He re- 
turned to Mason City, 111., where he died in about 1875. 

SERGEANT ANDREW RICHEY was born in Donegal, Ireland, 
in 1824; emigrated to Illinois, and was a harness maker when he 
enlisted from Mason City. He was chosen sergeant at the organi- 
zation of the company, served through the Kentucky and Mur- 
freesboro campaigns, and was discharged for disability August 
18, 1863. He returned to his family at Mason City, 111., where he 
died soon after. 

SERGEANT HENRY H. BUCK was the son of Captain Fred- 
erick Buck, a native of Denmark, and Esther Lawson, a native of 
Massachusetts, and was born in Havana, Mason county, Illinois, 
August 21, 1835. He attended the Illinois college at Jacksonville 
from 1854 to 1858, when failing health compelled him to quit his 
studies. He taught school at Bath and Mason City and enlisted 
from the latter place. He was promoted sergeant and participated 
in all the campaigns and battles in which the regiment had a part 
until instantly killed by a shell that shattered his skull at the as- 



378 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

sault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. He was bur- 
ied with so many others where he fell, but in 1866 his remains 
were brought to his former home, and interred in the cemetery at 
Havana, 111. 

SERGEANT GEORGE BLACK was born in Dalrymple, Ayr- 
shire county, Scotland, in 1828, emigrated to Illinois and enlisted 
as a farmer from Mason county. He served through the Ken- 
tucky campaign, was promoted sergeant at Nashville, Tenn., and 
had a part in all the campaigns in which the regiment was en- 
gaged until captured at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, 
July 19, 1864. He was held in various rebel prisons until the close 
of the war, when he was honorably discharged under date of June 
17, 1865. He returned to Mason county, but soon after went west, 
and is supposed to have died. 

SERGEANT JAMES S. CHESTER was born at Leesburgh, 
'Cumberland county, New Jersey, April 9, 1843, and with his par- 
ents removed to Illinois in 1857. He enlisted as a farmer from 
Mason county, was slightly wounded at the battle of Perryville, 
Ky., October 8, 1862, and served with his company through all the 
campaigns in which the regiment was engaged. He was promoted 
sergeant in December, 1864, served to the close of the war and 
was mustered out with the regiment. Upon his return he resumed 
farming in Mason county, and resides at Easton, 111. 

SERGEANT WILLIAM H. MITCHELL was born in Salem, 
Washington county, Indiana, September 18, 1838, removed to Illi- 
nois in 1859, and was married and a farmer when he enlisted from 
Mason county. He was promoted sergeant, served with his com- 
pany to the close of the war, and was mustered out with the regi- 
ment. Returning to Mason county he engaged in farming until 
1890, when he removed to Chicago and engaged in the real estate 
and insurance business. He resides at No. 5941 Princeton avenue, 
Chicago, 111. 

SERGEANT ROBERT LOFTON was born in Washington 
county, Indiana, in 1835, and was a married farmer when he en- 
listed from Mason City. He was promoted sergeant, served with 
his company to the close of the war, and was mustered out with 
the regiment. After his return to his former home he removed to 
Ford county, and died near Paxton, 111., in 1875. 

SERGEANT JAMES LEEPER, aged thirty-six, was married 
an-1 a farmer when he enlisted from Mason county. He was pro- 



ROSTER OF COMPANY C 379 

moted sergeant, served with his company until killed by a shell at 
Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 25, 1864. He was lying in his 
shelter tent when a shot from the battery on the mountain cut 
him in twain. His remains are buried at No. 555 in the national 
cemetery at Marietta, Ga. 

CORPORAL JACOB B. LOGNE, aged twenty-three, born in 
Cass county, Illinois, farmer, enlisted from Mason county, was 
chosen corporal at the organization of the company, served to the 
close of the war, was mustered out with the regiment, and now 
resides at Rockport, Atchison county, Missouri. 

CORPORAL HARVEY H. HUTCHENS, aged thirty-five, born 
in Montgomery county, Ohio, married, farmer, enlisted from 
Mason county, chosen corporal at the organization of the com- 
pany, served with his company through the Kentucky campaign; 
his health failing he was discharged January 22, 1863. Returning 
home he never entirely recovered and died at Mason City. 111., in 
about 1869. 

CORPORAL JAMES O. LOGNE, aged thirty, born in Cass 
county, Illinois, was unmarried and a farmer when he enlisted 
from Mason county, chosen corporal at the organization of the 
company, served through the Kentucky campaign; his health fail- 
ing he was discharged January 7, 1863, and died at Lincoln, 111., 
on his way home. 

CORPORAL JAMES L. HASTINGS (promoted hospital stew- 
ard. See field and staff). 

CORPORAL JAMES J. PELHAM was born in Sangamon 
county, Illinois, June 20, 1831, was a farmer and enlisted from 
Mason county. He was chosen corporal at the organization of the 
company; served through the Kentucky campaign, but his health 
failed and he was discharged from Nashville, Tenn., for disability 
under date of February 13, 1863. He is a veterinary surgeon, and 
resides at Thermopolis, Fremont county, Wyoming. 

CORPORAL CYRUS R. QUIGLEY was born in Napoleon, Jack- 
son county, Michigan, March 21, 1841; removed to Illinois and was 
a farmer when he enlisted from Mason county. He served through 
the Kentucky campaign, was a member of Captain Powell's 
mounted scouts some two months at Nashville, Tenn., orderly at 
General Granger's headquarters one month, then sent to convales- 
cent camp. He served in Company K, Eighth Veteran reserve 



380 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

corps until March, 1865, -when he was returned to his company and 
was mustered out with the regiment. He is engaged in farming 
near Decatur, Decatur county, Iowa, that town being his postofflce 
address. 

CORPORAL ANDREW J. OPDYKE was born in Fort Wayne, 
Allen county, Indiana, December 26, 1836; removed with his par- 
ents to Illinois in 1854, and was married and a farmer when he 
enlisted from Mason county. He served with his company through 
all the campaigns in which the regiment was engaged until 
wounded at the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 
1864. His wound disabled him for further service and he was 
honorably discharged from the hospital at Camp Butler, 111., Feb- 
ruary 18, 1865. He removed to California in December, 1870, and 
is engaged in farming. He was postmaster at Cayton from 1884 
to 1893. His address is Cayton, Shasta county, California. 

CORPORAL PLEASANT ARMSTRONG, aged thirty-three, 
born in Menard county, Illinois, was married and a farmer when 
he enlisted from Mason county. He was chosen corporal at the 
organization of the company, served through the Kentucky cam- 
paign, was transferred to the marine brigade at Nashville, Tenn., 
and died in the service. Date and place unknown. 

CORPORAL THOMAS H. B. HOLLINGSWORTH, aged twenty- 
seven, born in Windham county, Connecticut, was married and a 
farmer when he enlisted from Mason county. He was appointed 
wagoner at the organization of the company, was promoted cor- 
poral, served through all the campaigns in which the regiment 
was engaged, and was mustered out with the regiment. He re- 
moved to Minnesota after the war closed, but his address is not 
known to the writer. 

CORPORAL WILLIAM D. ALKIRE was born in Menard 
county, Illinois, August 23, 1838, and was a married farmer when 
he enlisted from Mason county. He served with his company 
through all the campaigns in which the regiment was engaged 
until captured at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 
1864; was held prisoner until April 28, 1865, when he was ex- 
changed. He was slightly wounded in the assault on Kennesaw 
Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864, was promoted corporal and hon- 
orably discharged June 17, 1865. He removed to Iowa in August, 
1865, has been justice of the peace in Cass county; is farming, and 
resides at Thurman, Fremont county, Iowa. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY C. 381 

CORPORAL ALMON BROOKS, aged twenty-seven, born in 
Union county, Ohio, was married and a farmer when he enlisted 
from Mason county, Illinois. He was promoted corporal, served 
through the Kentucky campaign, and died at Nashville, Tenn., 
April 7, 1863. Is buried at No. 3257 in the national cemetery near 
that city. 

CORPORAL CHANNING CLARK, aged twenty-four, born in 
Williamantic, Windham county, Connecticut, removed to Illinois, 
and enlisted as unmarried and a farmer from Mason county. He 
was severely wounded at the battle of Perry ville, Ky., October 8, 
1862, served to the close of the war, but was absent (sick) at the 
muster out of the regiment. Returning, he resumed farming near 
Easton, 111., where he died. 

CORPORAL FRANCIS A. CHESTER was born near Lees- 
burgh, Cumberland county, New Jersey, March 15, 1841, removed 
with his parents to Illinois in 1857, and enlisted as a farmer from 
Mason county. He served with his company in all the campaigns 
and battles in which the regiment was engaged; was promoted 
corporal, and was mustered out with the regiment. Returning to 
Mason county at the close of the war he resumed farming, has 
served as school trustee from 1878 to 1887, and resides at Teheran, 
111. 

CORPORAL JEREMIAH HOLLEY, aged thirty-seven, born in 
Lawrence county, Ohio, farmer and married when he enlisted from 
Mason county. He served with his company until captured at 
the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864; was held in 
rebel prisons until the close of the war; was promoted corporal, 
and honorably discharged June 17, 1865. His last known address 
is Chillicothe, Mo. 

CORPORAL JESSE C. MONTGOMERY, aged thirty-two, born 
in Gibson county, Indiana, married and a bricklayer when he en- 
listed from Mason City, 111. He served through the Kentucky 
campaign, was promoted corporal, and transferred to the marine 
brigade at Nashville, Tenn., January 13, 1863. Is reported to be 
living at Petersburg, 111. 

CORPORAL ANDREW McCLARIN, aged twenty-eight, born in 
Plainfield, Union county, New Jersey, removed to Illinois, was 
single and a farmer when he enlisted from Mason City. He was 
promoted corporal and served with his company until severely 



382 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

wounded at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. 
He fell into the hands of the enemy and died in rebel prison 
August 4, 1864. 

CORPORAL WILLIAM C. PELHAM, aged thirty-two, was mar- 
ried and a farmer when he enlisted from Mason county. Was pro- 
moted corporal; his health failing on the Kentucky campaign he 
was left in the hospital at Bowling Green, Ky., where he died No- 
vember 11, 1862. 

CORPORAL THOMAS STAGG, aged twenty-five, born in Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, was married and a farmer when he enlisted from 
Mason county, Illinois. He was promoted corporal, served with 
his company until severely wounded and captured at the battle of 
Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. He died at Atlanta, Ga., 
July 28, 1864. 

MUSICIAN GEORGE W. DEITRICH, aged twenty, born in 
Selin's Grove, Snyder county, Pennsylvania, removed with his 
parents to Illinois, and was a shoemaker when he enlisted from 
Mason City. He served through the Kentucky campaign and was 
discharged for disability February 19, 1863. Is supposed to be liv- 
ing in St. Joseph, Mo. 

MUSICIAN BENJAMIN F. SCOVIL was born in Waterford, 
Fulton county, Illinois, January 1, 1846, and enlisted from his na- 
tive county. He served with his company until captured at the 
battle of Peach Tree Creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864, and was held 
in rebel prisons until the close of the war, and was honorably dis- 
charged June 17, 1865. He removed to North Dakota, where he 
engaged in farming, and has been postmaster at McKinzie, Bur- 
leigh county, since 1888. 

JOHN H. ATCHINSON, aged twenty-three, born in St. 
Clair county, Illinois; was single and a farmer when he enlisted 
from Mason county. He served through the Kentucky campaign, 
and was discharged for disability January 17, 1863. Last heard 
from at Shawneetown, 111. 

MICHAEL ATCHINSON, aged twenty-two, married and a 
farmer when he enlisted from Mason county. He served with his 
company until captured at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Geor- 
gia, July 19, 1864; was held in retel prisons until the close of the 
war, and was honorably discharged June 17, 1865.. He returned 
to Illinois; resumed farming, and died near Shawneetown, April 6, 
1898. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY C. 383 

WILLIAM ARMSTRONG, aged twenty-nine, born in Menard 
county, Illinois, was single and a farmer when he enlisted from 
Mason county. He was discharged at Louisville, Ky., for disabil- 
ity, but no date appears upon the record. He returned to Mason 
county, resumed farming, and died near Easton, 111., May 5, 1899. 

Note A few years before the war this soldier was tried 
for murder; defended by Abraham Lincoln, and acquitted 
by the jury without leaving their seats. Armstrong had 
been present at an evening meeting where a man was 
killed, and although entirely innocent, a conspiracy was 
formed to convict him of the crime. At the trial, each of 
the prosecuting witnesses testified to seeing the knife glit- 
ter in Armstrong's hand when he struck the fatal blow, by 
the light of the moon. Whereupon Mr. Lincoln introduced 
an almanac in evidence, which showed that the murder 
was committed in the dark of the moon. 

DAVID BRADFORD, aged twenty-one, born in Madison 
county, Ohio; was a farmer when he enlisted from Mason county, 
Illinois; served with his company until captured at the battle of 
Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. He was thought to have 
died in prison, but the record shows that he was honorably dis- 
charged from Springfield, 111., June 7, 1865. 

JOHN L. BURNETT, aged thirty-two, born in Clay county, 
Indiana; married, and a farmer when he enlisted from Mason 
county, Illinois; served with his company until killed at the bat- 
tle of Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. His remains 
are buried at No. 9313, in the national cemetery at Marietta, Ga. 

WILLIAM CLARK, aged twenty-one, born and raised in 
Mason county, from whence he enlisted; served in the Kentucky 
campaign until his health failed; was sent to the hospital at Bowl- 
ing Green, Ky., where he died November 16, 1862. 

NELSON D. CUE, aged eighteen, born in Menard county, Illi- 
nois, and enlisted as a farmer from Mason county. He served with 
his company to the close of the war and was mustered out with the 
regiment. He returned to Illinois; resumed farming, and resides 
at Greenview, Menard county. 

JOSEPH W. CARTER, born in Mercer county, New Jersey, 
removed to Illinois; was married and a farmer when he enlisted 
from Mason county, Illinois, at the age of twenty-three. He 
served with his company through the Kentucky campaign and was 
sent to the hospital at Nashville, Tenn., from which he was dis- 



384 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

charged for disability November 7, 1862. He resides at Scotts- 
ville, Mitchell county, Kansas. 

SAMUEL DERWENT, aged thirty-five, born in Yorkshire 
county, England; emigrated to Illinois; was single and a farmer 
when he enlisted from Mason county. He served with his com- 
pany through the Kentucky campaign; was sent to the hospital 
at Nashville, Tenn., where he died December 19, 1862. Is buried 
at No. 4451, in the national cemetery near that city. 

JEREMIAH DEITRICH, aged thirty-one, born at Selin's 
Grove, Snyder county, Pennsylvania; removed to Illinois, and was 
a married shoemaker when he enlisted from Mason county. He 
served with his company until severely wounded at the assault on 
Kennesaw mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864; was removed to the 
hospital at Nashville, Tenn., where he died on July 13, following. 
Is buried at No. 9709, in the national cemetery near that city. 

SAMUEL A. DRAY, aged twenty-three, born in Steubenville, 
Jefferson county, Ohio, removed to Illinois and was single and a 
farmer when he enlisted from Mason county. He served with his 
company to the close of the war and was mustered out with the 
regiment. Resides at Canton, Fulton county, Illinois. 

PETER DOLCATER, aged twenty-five, born in Dornburg, Ger- 
many, emigrated to Illinois, was married and a farmer when he 
enlisted from Mason county. He served with his company until 
near the close of the war, when he was sent to the hospital. He 
was honorably discharged from the general hospital at Spring- 
field, 111., January 26, 1865. 

DANIEL DAUGHERTY, aged twenty-five, born in Adams 
county, Ohio, was single and a farmer when he enlisted from 
Mason county, Illinois. He served with his company until severe- 
ly wounded in the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 
27, 1864; was sent to the hospital at Chattanooga, Tenn., where 
he died on August 24, following. Is buried at No. 2090, in the 
national cemetery on Orchard Knob. 

EPHRAIM GATES, aged twenty-two, born in Jefferson county, 
Illinois, was single and a farmer when he enlisted from Mason 
county. He served with his company until failing health sent 
him to the hospital at Bowling Green, Ky., where he died Novem- 
ber 18, 1862. His remains are buried at No. 10685, in the national 
cemetery at Nashville, Tenn. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY C. 385 

ELBERT L. GARDNER wac Torn in Morgan, Ashtabula coun- 
ty, Ohio, November 27, 1844, removed to Illinois in 1857, and was a 
farmer when he enlisted from Mason county. He served with his 
company through the Kentucky campaign, but failing health sent 
him to the hospital at Nashville, Tenn. Later he was removed to 
the general hospital at Harrodsburg, Ky., where he was discharged 
for disability March 16, 1863. He is a carpenter by trade and 
resides at Dun Station, Wilson county, Kansas. 

JAMES M. GARDNER, aged nineteen, born in Ashtabula coun- 
ty, Ohio, removed to Illinois and enlisted from Mason county as a 
farmer. He served with his company until captured at the battle 
of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864, but was exchanged and 
served to the close of the war, and was mustered out with the 
regiment. 

JOHN R. GARDNER, aged thirty, born in New York, removed 
to Illinois, and was a farmer when he enlisted from Mason county. 
He served with his company until captured near Dallas, Ga., May 
28, 1864; was held in rebel prisons until the close of the war, and 
was honorably discharged July 15, 1865. He removed to Kansas 
and is reported to have died somewhere in that state. 

JOHN A. GARDNER, aged eighteen, born in Ashtabula county, 
Ohio, and enlisted as a farmer from Mason county. His health 
failed while on the Kentucky campaign and he was left in the 
hospital at Harrodsburg, Ky., where he died November 25, 1862. 
His remains are buried at No. 360, in the national cemetery at 
Camp Nelson, Ky . 

THOMAS W. GREEN, aged 33, born in Clark county, Ohio, 
married, and enlisted as a farmer from Mason county, 111. He 
served to the close of the war and was mustered out with the regi- 
ment. Is supposed to be living at Conway, Laclede county, Mis- 
souri. 

GEORGE GREGORY, aged twenty-three, was single and a 
farmer when he enlisted from Mason county. His health failed 
on the Kentucky campaign, and he was left in the hospital at 

Danville, Ky., where he died . Is buried at No. 320, in the 

national cemetery near that city. 

DANIEL W. HASTINGS, aged nineteen, born in St. Lawrence 
county, New York, was a farmer residing at Mason City, 111., when 
he enlisted; served in the Kentucky campaign until the command 



386 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

reached Bowling Green, Ky., when he was sent to the hospital, and 
died November 23, 1862. Is buried at No. 10691, in the national 
cemetery at Nashville, Tenn. 

JOHN HARKNESS, aged twenty-one, born in Philadelphia, 
Pa., enlisted from Mason county, Illinois, and deserted October 20, 
1862. 

EDWIN M. HADSALL was born in Tunkhannock, Wyoming 
county, Pennsylvania, October 16, 1837, removed to Illinois in 1860, 
was single and a farmer when he enlisted from Mason county. 
He served with his company through the Kentucky campaign, was 
detailed in Battery I, Second Illinois light artillery at Nashville, 
Tenn., and served one year, returned to his company and served 
until wounded at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 
1864; recovered, returned to duty and was mustered out with the 
regiment. He removed to Kansas in 1881, is a saddler by trade, 
and now resides at Trading Post, in Linn county, Kansas. 

SOLOMON HONS, aged thirty-two, born in Luzerne county, 
Pennsylvania, was married and a farmer when he enlisted from 
Mason county, Illinois. He served through the Kentucky cam- 
paign, and was transferred to the Veteran Reserve corps, but the 
date is unknown. He returned to Illinois after the close of the 
war, resumed farming, and died near Mason City. 

WESLEY HONS, aged twenty-eight, born in Luzerne county, 
Pennsylvania, was single and a farmer when he enlisted from 
Mason county, Illinois. He served through the Kentucky cam- 
paign and was discharged for disability March 1, 1863. 

LOUIS ISHMAEL, aged twenty-four, born in the state of Ken- 
tucky, married, farmer, enlisted from Mason county, Illinois. He 
served with his company until captured at the battle of Peach 
Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864; was held in rebel prisons until 
the close of the war, and died in the hospital at Annapolis, Md. 
Is buried at No. 1175, in the national cemetery at Annapolis, Md. 

RICHARD A. LANE, born in Warren county, Tennessee, was 
married and a farmer when he enlisted from Mason county, Illi- 
nois, at the age of thirty-nine. He served through the Kentucky 
campaign, and the adjutant general's report says, "He was dis- 
charged for disability January 15, 1863." In fact, he died, and his 
remains are buried at No. 6686, in the national cemetery at Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY C. 387 

TIDENSE W. LANE, aged twenty-three, born in Pike county, 
Illinois, was married and a farmer when he enlisted from Mason 
county. He served to the close of the war, and was mustered out 
with the regiment. Is reported to be living in Iowa. 

ABRAHAM L. LANE, aged eighteen, born in and enlisted from 
Mason county, Illinois, served with his company until health 
failed, and was discharged for disability April 18, 1864. He re- 
moved to Iowa after his return to Illinois, and died April , 1887, 
at Atlantic, la. 

GREEN B. LANE was born in McDonough county, Illinois, 
June 9, 1842, and enlisted as a farmer from Mason county. He 
served with his company until wounded at the assault on Ken- 
nesaw mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864; recovered from his 
wound, served to the close of the war and was mustered out with 
the regiment. He removed to Woodston, Rooks county, Kansas, 
where he is engaged in farming. He was justice of the peace from 
1891 to 1899. 

GEORGE A. MOORE, aged thirty-three, born in White county, 
Illinois, was single and a farmer when he enlisted from Mason 
county. He probably served with his company through the Ken- 
tucky campaign, but was discharged for disability January 18, 
1863. 

ROBERT S. MOORE, aged twenty-one, born in Bond county, 
Illinois, farmer, enlisted from Mason county, served with his com- 
pany until sent to the hospital at Bowling Green, Ky., where he 
died November 18, 1862. 

GEORGE W. MOSLANDER was born in Sangamon county, Illi- 
nois, May 15, 1844; farmer, enlisted from Mason county, served 
through the Kentucky and Tennessee campaigns, and was slightly 
wounded at Kennesaw mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. He was 
captured at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19. 1864, 
and was held in rebel prisons until the close of the war. He was 
honorably discharged June 17, 1865, and is engaged in farming at 
Teheran, 111. 

JOSEPH McCARTY, aged thirty-two, was single and a fanner 
when he enlisted from Mason county, served with his company 
through the Kentucky campaign, and was discharged for disability 
at Nashville, Tenn., but the date is unknown. 



388 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS, 

JEREMIAH MARSHALL, aged twenty-one, blacksmith, born 
at Cape May, N. J., and was enlisted from Mason county, Illinois. 
He served through the Kentucky campaign and was transferred to 
the Fourth regular cavalry at Nashville, Tenn., December 4, 1862. 

JOHN W. MOSIER, aged twenty-seven, born in Miami county, 
Ohio, married and a farmer when he enlisted from Mason county, 
Illinois, served with his company until captured at the battle of 
Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864; was held in rebel prisons 
until the close of the war, and was honorably discharged June 17, 
1865. Returning to his former home, he lived at Easton, 111., for 
several years ,then moved to Carleton, Neb., and later to Chicago, 
111., where he now resides. 

JOSEPH MOSLANDER, aged thirty, born in Davidson county, 
Tennessee, single, plasterer, enlisted from Mason county, Illinois, 
served with his company until his health failed on the Atlanta 
campaign, when he was sent to the hospital on Lookout mountain, 
Tennessee, where he died July 22, 1864. Is buried at No. 1662, in 
the national cemetery at Chattanooga, Tenn. 

WILLIAM H. NEELY, aged thirty-five, married, farmer, en- 
listed from Mason county, served with his company until severely 
wounded in the assault on Kennesaw mountain, Georgia, June 27, 
1864. He was sent to the hospital at Nashville, Tenn., thence to 
Jeffersonville, Ind., where he died on July 28, following. Is buried 
at No. 507, in the national cemetery at New Albany, Ind. 

SAMUEL NEELY, JR., aged twenty-four, born in Menard 
county, married, farmer, enlisted from Mason county, served to 
close of the war, but is marked, "Absent sick at muster out," of 
the regiment. Probably honorably discharged from the hospital, 
but the writer has been unable to get any further information con- 
cerning him. 

WILLIAM NEWBERRY, aged twenty-nine, married, black- 
smith, enlisted from Mason county, was severely wounded at the 
battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8, 1862, and was discharged for 
disability at Harrodsburg, Ky., February 8, 1863. Last known 
address, Glasgow, Mo. 

RICHARD A. OSBORN was born at Danville, Steuben county, 
New York, in 1838, removed to Illinois in 1854, and was a farmer 
when he enlisted from Mason county. He served through the 
Kentucky campaign, and was discharged for disability from the 



ROSTER OF COMPANY C. 389 

regimental hospital at Nashville, Term., March 2, 1863. He re- 
turned to Mason county, resumed farming, and is now a lumber 
and coal dealer at Mason City, 111. 

JOSEPH O'DONNELL, aged eighteen, born in Fulton county, 
Illinois, farmer, enlisted from Mason county. His health failing, 
he was sent to the hospital at Bowling Green, Ky., where he died 
November 23, 1862. Is buried at No. 10684, in the national ceme- 
tery at Nashville, Tenn. 

JAMES H. PEARCY, aged twenty-eight, born in Putnam coun- 
ty, Indiana, married, carpenter, enlisted from Mason City, 111. His 
health failed on the Kentucky campaign and he was discharged for 
disability February 2, 1863. Is now living in Burlington, Coffey 
county, Kansas. 

STERLING PELHAM, aged thirty-five, married, farmer, en- 
listed from Mason county, and served with his company until cap- 
tured at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864, was 
held in rebel prisons until the close of the war, and was honorably 
discharged June 17, 1865. Reported dead by pension office. 

EBENEZER PAUL, aged thirty-five, born in Brown county, 
Ohio, married, shoemaker, enlisted from Mason county, Illinois, 
was left in the hospital at Bowling Green, Ky., where he died 
November 14, 1862. 

JAMES C. PATTERSON (promoted assistant surgeon. See 
field and staff). 

CHARLES E. QUANCE, aged twenty-one, born in Pennsyl- 
vania, and enlisted as a farmer from Mason county, Illinois. He 
served through the Kentucky campaign, and was discharged for 
disability at Nashville, Tenn., in January, 1863. Is supposed to 
be living at Angola, Steuben county, Indiana. 

GEORGE W. REYNOLDS, aged eighteen, born in Bedford 
county, Pennsylvania, farmer, enlisted from Mason county, Illi- 
nois, served on the Kentucky campaign until sent to the hospital 
at Bowling Green, Ky., where he died November 14, 1862. 

HIRAM RAMSEY, aged eighteen, farmer, born in Green 
county, Ohio, enlisted from Mason City, 111., served with his com- 
pany until failing health sent him to the hospital at Bowling 
Green, Ky., where he died in December, 1862. His remains are 
buried at No. 10859 in the national cemetery at Nashville, Tenn. 



390 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

AARON RITTER was born in Lewisburg, Union county, Penn- 
sylvania, June 21, 1842, removed to Illinois in 1861, and enlisted as 
a farmer from Mason county. He served with his company until 
wounded and captured at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, 
July 19, 1864. He was held in rebel prisons until April 26, 1865, 
when he made his escape, rejoined his company, and was mustered 
out with the regiment. He resides at 428 West Harrison street, 
Chicago, 111. 

WILLIAM B. SHORT, aged eighteen, born in and enlisted from 
Mason county, Illinois, served through the Kentucky campaign, 
and was transferred to the Veteran Reserve corps at Nashville, 
Tenn., September 16, 1863. Report says he died in the service. 

ORLANDO STEWART, aged eighteen, born in Greene county, 
Illinois, farmer, enlisted from Mason county, served with his com- 
pany until killed at the battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8, 1862. 
His remains are buried at No. 252, in the national cemetery at 
Camp Nelson, Ky. 

JOHN STUBBLEFIELD, aged twenty-two, born in Bond coun- 
ty, Illinois, farmer, enlisted from Mason county, served with his 
company until captured at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, 
July 19, 1864, was held in rebel prisons until the close of the war, 
and honorably discharged June 17, 1865. He returned to Illinois, 
resumed farming and died in Menard county, in about 1880. 

HENRY SHAY, aged thirty, born in Dublin, Ireland, emigrated 
to Illinois, and was single and a farmer when he enlisted from 
Mason county. He served with his company until killed at the 
battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8, 1862. His remains are buried 
at No. 255, in the national cemetery at Camp Nelson, Ky. 

WILLIAM SMITH, aged twenty-one, born in England, was a 
farmer when he enlisted from Mason county, Illinois. His health 
failed and he was sent to the hospital at Bowling Green, Ky., 
where he died December 19, 1862. 

ARCHIBALD J. STUBBLEFIELD, aged twenty-two, born in 
Bond county, Illinois, single, farmer, enlisted from Logan county. 
His health failed on the Kentucky campaign and he was sent to 
the hospital at Bowling Green, Ky., where he died November 30, 
1862. Is buried at No. 10634, in the national cemetery at Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY C. 391 

WILLIAM A. TYRRELL was born in Litchfield, Litchfield 
county, Connecticut, February 5, 1844, removed with his parents 
to Illinois in 1856, and enlisted from Mason county. He served 
with his company until captured at the battle of Peach Tree creek, 
Georgia, July 19, 1864, and was held in Andersonville and other 
rebel prisons until the close of the war. He was honorably dis- 
charged June 17, 1865, and returned to Mason City, 111., where he 
now resides. 

JONATHAN P. TEMPLE, aged twenty-four, 'born in St. Law- 
rence county, New York, removed to Illinois, married, farmer, ar.d 
enlisted from Mason county. He was wounded at the battle of 
Perry ville, Ky., October 8, 1862, and transferred to the Veteran 
Reserve corps, August 10, 1864, returned to Illinois at the close of 
the war, but is supposed to be living in Minnesota. 

JOHN H. TOMLIN, aged thirty-one, born in New Jersey, re- 
moved to Illinois, was married and a farmer when he enlisted from 
Mason county. He served with his company until killed at the 
assault on Kennesaw mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. 

MARCELLUS A. WHIP, aged twenty-five, born in Tazewell 
county, Illinois, married, farmer, enlisted from Mason county, 
served to the close of the war, but was absent (sick) at the muster 
out of the regiment. He was honorably discharged from the hos- 
pital at Camp Butler, 111., May 26, 1865. 

JEREMIAH WAGONER was born in Sangamon county, 111., in 
1839, and was a married farmer when he enlisted from Mason 
county. He was slightly wounded at the battle of Peach Tree 
creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864, but served to the close of the war 
and was mustered out with the regiment. He returned to Illinois, 
resumed farming, and resides at Mason City, 111. 

THOMAS M. YOUNG, aged forty-four, born in Brown county, 
Ohio, single, farmer, enlisted from Mason county, Illinois. He 
served with his company until severely wounded at the battle of 
Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. His left leg was broken 
and a part of his left hand was shot away. He fell into the hands 
of the enemy and died at Macon, Ga., August 2, 1864. 

THOMAS P. YOUNG, aged eighteen, single, fanner, born in 
Bedford county, Virginia, and enlisted from Mason City, 111. He 
was transferred to the Veteran Reserve corps, returned to Illinois 
at the close of the war, and died at Mason City, in about 1870. 



392 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

JAMBS K. YOUNG, aged twenty-seven, born in Brown county, 
Ohio, married, farmer, enlisted from Mason county, Illinois, and 
served with his company until severely wounded in the assault on 
Kennesaw mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. He was removed to 
the hospital at Nashville, Tenn., where he died July 17, 1864. Is 
buried at No. 13657, in the national cemetery near that city. 

HENRY G. YARDLBY, aged twenty-two, born and enlisted in 
Mason county, farmer, served to the close of the war and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. He returned to his former home, 
resumed farming, and died near Kilbourne, 111., in March, 1900. 

JOSEPH DUNN was born in New York City, in 1844, removed 
to Illinois, was a farmer and enlisted from Peoria county. He 
served with his company until killed at the battle of Buzzard 
Roost, Georgia, February 25, 1864. His remains are buried at 
No. 10155. in the national cemetery at Chattanooga, Tenn. 



SKETCH OF COMPANY D. 393 



CHAPTER XXX. 



Company D was enrolled 'by Dr. Charles W. Hough- 
ton, residing at Bath, in Mason county, and was re- 
cruited between July 18 and August 8, 1862. At the 
organization of the company the following commis- 
sioned officers were elected: Charles W. Houghton, 
captain; Comfort H. Ramon, first lieutenant, and 
Charles H. Chatfield, second lieutenant. 

This company was mustered in with 95 officers and 
men, of whom 5 were killed in action, 3 died of wounds, 
i was accidentally killed and 15 received wounds in bat- 
tle which did not prove fatal while in the service, 13 died 
of disease, 22 were discharged for disability, i was trans- 
ferred, and 40 officers and men were mustered out with 
the regiment. 

Under the careful training of Lieutenant Chatfield 
this company became very proficient in the skirmish 
drill, and upon all occasions performed its duty with zeal 
and energy. The following is 

THE COMPANY ROSTER. 

CAPTAIN CHARLES W. HOUGHTON, aged twenty-six, born 
in Menard county, Illinois, physician, enlisted from Bath, was 
elected captain at the reorganization of the company, served 
through the Kentucky and Tennessee campaigns, but at Chatta- 
nooga his health failed and he resigned December 27, 1863. Re- 
turning home, he resumed the practice of his profession at Easton, 
111., where he died in about 1890. 

CAPTAIN CHARLES H. CHATFIELD was born in Middlefield,. 
Geauga county, Ohio, October 3, 1840, removed with his parents to 
Illinois in 1843, and settled on a farm in Mason county. After 
making a trip to Pike's Peak, in 1859, he settled near Fort Scott* 

24 



394 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

Kansas, and served six months in the Border War. He returned 
to Illinois in 1860, and was a clerk in Bath when he enlisted as a 
private May 25, 1861, in Company K, Seventeenth Illinois Volunteer 
Infantry, and was severely wounded at the battle of Fort Donel- 
son, February 13, 1862. He was discharged on account of wounds 
June 15, 1862, returned to Bath, and assisted in recruiting Com- 
pany D, and was elected second lieutenant at the organization of 
the company. He was a splendid drillmaster and was filled with 
soldierly pride. General Sheridan once said to Colonel Moore, 
"You must hold that young lieutenant back he is too anxious for 
a fight." He was promoted first lieutenant December 21, 1862, 
and to be captain December 27, 1863. He commanded his company 
from the latter date, until killed in the assault on Kennesaw 
mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. His remains are buried at No. 
2331, in the national cemetery at Marietta, Ga. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT COMFORT H. RAMON, aged thirty- 
three, born in Mason county, Illinois, married, farmer, when he 
enlisted from Bath. He was elected first lieutenant at the organ- 
ization of the company, served through the Kentucky campaign, 
and resigned December 27, 1862. He returned to Illinois, resumed 
farming near Kilbourne, in Mason county, where he died soon 
after the close of the war. 

CAPTAIN SAMUEL YOUNG, aged forty, born in Miami 
county, Ohio, removed to Illinois, and settled on a farm in Mason 
county, enlisted from Bath, and was chosen first sergeant at the 
organization of the company. He was promoted first lieutenant 
December 27, 1863, and captain June 27, 1864. He commanded 
the company on the Atlanta campaign after the death of Captain 
Chatfield, and on the march to the sea, until his health failed. He 
died near Milledgeville, Ga., November 23, 1864. 

CAPTAIN THOMAS F. PATTERSON, aged twenty, born in 
Jacksonville, 111., farmer, enlisted from Bath as a private, was pro- 
moted first lieutenant June 27, 1864, and to be captain November 
23, 1864. He commanded the company to the close of the war and 
was mustered out with the regiment. Is supposed to be living at 
Jacksonville, 111. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT FRANCIS S. COGESHALL was born in 
Cass county, Illinois, December 21, 1840, and was a farmer when 
he enlisted from Bath. He was chosen corporal at the organiza- 
tion of the company, and was promoted first lieutenant November 



ROSTER OF COMPANY D. 395 

23, 1864, served to the close of the war, and was mustered out with 
the regiment. He removed to South Dakota in 1885, and served 
two terms as county treasurer of Jerauld county, removed to Min- 
nesota in 1899, and is now farming near Fulda, Murray county, 
Minnesota. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT WILLIAM W. TURNER, aged twen- 
ty-eight, born in Miami county, Ohio, removed to Illinois, was 
married and a farmer when he enlisted from Bath. He was 
chosen sergeant at the organization of the company, and was pro- 
moted second lieutenant December 21, 1862, served with the com- 
pany until March 30, 1864, when he resigned and returned home. 

SERGEANT FREMAN BROUGHT, aged twenty-three, born in 
Ohio, single, farmer, enlisted from Bath, 111., was chosen sergeant 
at the organization of the company, and was killed at the battle 
of Perryville, Ky., October 8, 1862. Is buried at No. 272, in the 
national cemetery at Camp Nelson, Ky. 

SERGEANT URIAH B. LINDSEY, aged thirty-three, born in 
Cass county, Illinois, married, carpenter, enlisted from Bath, was 
chosen sergeant at the organization of the company, and was 
transferred to the Veteran Reserve corps September 1, 1863. At 
the close of his service he returned to Bath, 111., where he died 
February 28, 1898. 

SERGEANT MILES McCABE, aged thirty-one, born in Musk- 
ingum county, Ohio, married, carpenter, enlisted from Bath, 111., 
was chosen sergeant at the organization of the company, served 
until wounded at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 
1864. He was taken from the field to the third division hospital, 
thence sent to hospitals from which he was discharged for disa- 
bility arising from his wounds, February 21, 1865. 

SERGEANT JOHN R. NEVILL was born in Hart county, Ken- 
tucky, January 28, 1828, removed to Illinois in 1855, married, far- 
mer, enlisted from Bath, was chosen corporal at the organization 
of the company, promoted sergeant in May, 1863, served to the 
close of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. He 
removed to Kansas in 1S83, and settled in Anderson county. He 
is a carpenter and resides at Kincaid, Anderson county, Kansas. 

SERGEANT JOHN C. WILSON was born in Trumbull county, 
Ohio, May 3, 1832, removed with his parents to Illinois in 1849 and 



396 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

settled on a farm in Mason county; enlisted from Bath and was 
chosen corporal at the organization of the company, promoted 
sergeant March 25, 1863, served to the close of the war and was 
mustered out with the regiment. He removed to Nebraska and 
engaged in farming in Johnson county. His address is Elk Creek, 
Johnson county, Nebraska. 

SERGEANT GEORGE O. CARLOCK was born in Fulton coun- 
ty, Illinois, November 14, 1839, and was single and a farmer when 
he enlisted from Bath. Was promoted sergeant and served to the 
close of the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. He 
returned to Mason county at the close of the war; is a farmer and 
carpenter, and resides at Bath, 111. 

SERGEANT WILLIAM YOUNG, aged thirty, born in Miami 
county, Ohio, removed to Illinois, was married and a farmer when 
he enlisted from Bath. He was promoted sergeant, served to the 
close of the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. Re- 
sides at Rantoul, Champaign county, Illinois. 

SERGEANT JAMES H. SEAY, aged thirty, was born in Ten- 
nessee, and was a married farmer when he enlisted from Bath, 
111. He was promoted sergeant; served to the close of the war, 
and was mustered out with the regiment. He returned to Illinois 
and died at Petersburg in Menard county, May 6, 1886. 

CORPORAL THOMAS J. MOSELY, aged twenty-three, born in 
Cass county, Illinois, single and a farmer when he enlisted from 
Bath. He served to the close of the war and was mustered out 
with the regiment. Is residing in Chicago, 111. 

CORPORAL JAMES FERRELL, aged thirty-two, born in Erie 
county, New York, removed to Illinois, was married and a farmer 
when he enlisted from Bath. He served to the close of the war 
and was mustered out with the regiment. Upon his return home 
he resumed farming, and died near Bath, 111., in about 1880. 

CORPORAL HENRY O. REEDER, aged thirty, born in Ten- 
nessee, removed to Illinois, and was married and a farmer when 
he enlisted from Bath. He was discharged for disability, January 
15, 1863; returned to Illinois, and died near Mason City April 15, 
1877. 

CORPORAL JOHN O'BRIEN, aged twenty-five, born in Can- 
ada East, removed to Illinois and was a married farmer when he 



ROSTER OF COMPANY D. 397 

enlisted from Bath. He served to the close of the war and was 
mustered out with the regiment. Is reported dead. 

CORPORAL JOSEPH B. CONOVER, the youngest son of Major 
William H. Conover and Rebecca Hopkins, was born in Mason 
county, Illinois, September 28, 1844. His parents both died while 
he was quite young, but his father left a legacy of loyalty to his 
country. A few days before his death he said to an elder brother, 
"The fire-eaters of the South will force the North to war over the 
question of slavery, and I hope in the event of war that my sons 
will stand by our country and its flag." This Joseph never forgot, 
and as soon as old enough he enlisted from Bath. He was pro- 
moted corporal, served with his company until severely wounded 
in the right arm at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 
19, 1864. He fell into the hands of the enemy, had his right arm 
amputated, was parolled November 20, 1864, and honorably dis- 
charged in February, 1865. He returned to Illinois and was elected 
county treasurer of Mason county in 1869, serving one term of four 
years. He is a grain dealer and resides at Kilbourne, 111. 

CORPORAL WILLIAM H. CASTLEBERRY was born in Cen- 
tralia, Marion county, Illinois, July 18, 1841, and was married and 
a farmer when he enlisted from Havana. He was promoted cor- 
poral, served with his company to the close of the war and was 
mustered out with the regiment. He removed to the Indian Ter- 
ritory in 1894, and is engaged in farming in the Chickasaw Nation. 
His postoffice address is Rush Springs, I. T. 

CORPORAL JAMES GOBON, aged twenty-one, born near 
Chandlerville, in Cass county, Illinois, and was a farmer when he 
enlisted from Bath. He was promoted corporal, served with his 
company to the close of the war, and was mustered out with the 
regiment. He is farming near Kilbourne, Mason county, Illinois. 

CORPORAL JOHN L. PHELPS was born in Virginia, Cass 
county, Illinois, May 26, 1840, and was a farmer when he enlisted 
from Bath. He served with his company to the close of the war 
and was mustered out with the regiment. He removed to Ne- 
braska in 1870, and is engaged in farming near Cadam in Nuck- 
olls county. 

CORPORAL JAMES S. ROCHESTER, aged nineteen, born in 
Mason county, Illinois, and was a farmer when he enlisted from 



398 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

Bath. He was promoted corporal, served with his company to 
the close of the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. 

CORPORAL WILLIAM P. STITH was born in Adair county, 
Kentucky, August 13, 1838, and was brought by his parents to Illi- 
nois in 1839. He was a farmer when he enlisted from Petersburg, 
served with his company until transferred to the Veteran Reserve 
corps September 1, 1863, and in this organization he served at 
Elmira, N. Y., Chicago and Rock Island, 111., until the close of the 
war. He was honorably discharged at Chicago July 1, 1865. He 
has been postmaster at Oakford, 111., and at present is keeping a 
restaurant and confectionary at Peoria, 111. 

CORPORAL VAN TURNER, aged twenty-two, born in Morgan 
county, Illinois, and enlisted as a farmer from Bath. He was pro- 
moted corporal, served with his company to the close of the war, 
and was mustered out with the regiment. He became a physician 
after the war, and is supposed to have died in Indiana. 

MUSICIAN CHARLES L. HAMILTON, aged twenty, born in 
Virginia, Cass county, Illinois, and was a clerk when he enlisted 
from Bath. Was appointed musician at the organization of the 
company, served to the close of the war, and was honorably dis- 
charged May 18, 1865. 

MUSICIAN FRANCIS M. BERRY, aged twenty-four, born in 
Jacksonville, Morgan county, Illinois, and was a clerk when he 
enlisted from Bath. He served with his company to the close of 
the war and was mustered out with the regiment. He is a brick 
layer and is living in Peoria, 111. 

WAGONER ANDREW J. ALLEN, aged thirty-four, born in 
Tennessee, enlisted from Bath, Illinois, and was appointed wag- 
oner at the organization of the company. He served to the close 
of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. He removed 
to Iowa and for a time lived in Council Bluffs, but removed to 
Grove, Shelby county, where he died May 1, 1895. 

THOMAS J. AVERY (promoted commissiary sergeant. See 
field and staff). 

HENRY BEAL, aged twenty, born in Schuylkill, Schuylkill 
county, Pennsylvania, removed to Illinois, and enlisted from Bath. 
He served to the close of the war and was mustered out with the 
regiment. He returned to Illinois and resumed farming in McLean 
county, where he died in about 1880. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY D. 399 

CLINTON BLACK, aged twenty-two, married, farmer, born in 
Illinois, and enlisted from Bath. Served with his company 
through all the campaigns in which the regiment was engaged 
until severely wounded in the fight at Buzzard Roost, Georgia, 
February 25, 1864. He was sent to the hospital, where he was dis- 
charged for disability November 1, 1864. He is farming near 
Turon, Reno county, Kansas. 

NORMAN A. BULLARD, aged thirty-five, born in Yates, Or- 
leans county, New York, farmer, removed to Illinois, and was 
single when he enlisted from Bath, in Mason county. He served 
to the close of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. 
He returned to Illinois, but later removed to Kansas, where the 
writer met him some twenty years ago. Pension office reports 
him dead since March 22, 1899. 

HENRY W. CASTLEBERRY, aged twenty-four, born in Cass 
county, Illinois, married, farmer, enlisted from Havana, was dis- 
charged for disability October 15, 1862. Moved to Texas. 

JOSEPH CADY, aged twenty-three, born in Washington coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania, removed to Illinois, single, farmer, enlisted from 
Bath, and died at Louisville, Ky., January 4, 1863. Is buried at 
No. 1584 in the national cemetery at Cave Hill near that city. 

ASERIA CAPPER, aged twenty-three, born in Cass county, 
Illinois, was single and a farmer when he enlisted from Bath. He 
served to the close of the war, but was sick in the hospital at 
Quincy, 111., when the regiment was mustered out. No further 
record has been found. 

WILLIAM D. CLOSE was born in Mason county, Illinois, Sep- 
tember 11, 1845, and enlisted from Bath. Served with his company 
through all the campaigns in which the regiment was engaged 
until the battle of Jonesboro, Ga., September 1, 1864, in which he 
was twice wounded; was honorably discharged May 16, 1865. He 
returned to Illinois and engaged in farming until 1868, when he 
removed to Carroll county, Missouri, where he resided until 1880. 
He then removed to Washington territory, was justice of the 
peace, deputy sheriff for eight years, and treasurer of Cowlitz 
county for one term. He removed to Oklahoma in 1893, and en- 
gaged in farming and stock raising; has been justice of the peace, 
and was elected county treasurer of Woods county at the general 
election in 1900. He resides at Forest, Woods county, Oklahoma. 



400 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

ROBERT CASSENS was born in Friedburg, Hanover, Ger- 
many, March 24, 1831, and emigrated to Illinois in 1856; was mar- 
ried and a blacksmith when he enlisted from Bath, in Mason 
county. He served with his company until detailed as blacksmith 
at brigade headquarters in October, 1863, and served in that capac- 
ity until the close of the war, when he was mustered out with ihs 
regiment. He removed to Nebraska in 1869 and to Colorado in 
1893. He resides at Bolton, Arapahoe county, Colorado. 

JACOB S. DEW was born in Bath, Mason county, Illinois, No- 
vember 10, 1841, and was a farmer when he enlisted from his 
native town. He was slightly wounded at the battle of Jonesboro, 
Ga., September 1, 1864; served with his company to the close of the 
war and was mustered out with the regiment. He removed to 
Nebraska and settled on a farm in Johnson county in 1866; has 
been a merchant, county clerk, clerk of the district court and has 
represented his county in the legislature three terms. He resides 
at Tecumseh, Johnson county, Nebraska. 

EDWIN M. DURHAM (promoted quartermaster sergeant. See 
field and staff). 

NOAH DAVIS was born in Highland county, Ohio, in 1831, and 
enlisted as a farmer from Bath, Mason county, Illinois. He 
served with his company until wounded at the battle of Peach 
Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864, and when able to travel he was 
given a furlough, but was killed in a railroad accident at LaFay- 
ette. Ind., in November, 1864, while on his way home. His re- 
mains were brought home and interred in Fairview cemetery. 

WILLIAM DAVIS was born in Highland county, Ohio, Novem- 
ber 12, 1835, and enlisted as a farmer from Bath, 111. He was 
wounded at the battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8, 1862, but 
served to the close of the war and was honorably discharged from 
Springfield, 111., in June, 1865. He removed to Missouri in 1872 
and improved two farms. In 1889 he removed to Kansas and was 
engaged in farming some five years, and in 1894 he settled on a 
claim near Medferd, Grant county, Oklahoma, where he now re- 
sides. He married Mary E. Bales in January, 1860; has a family 
of seven children, four of whom are married. 

CADMUS FLORO was born in Ballard county, Kentucky, and 
was a farmer in Mason county, Illinois, when he enlisted from 
Bath. He served with his company until killed at the battle of 



ROSTER OF COMPANY D. 401 

Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. Is buried at No. 7923 
in the national cemetery at Marietta, Ga. 

ALLEN GOBON, aged twenty-four, born in Ohio, married, far- 
mer, enlisted from Bath, 111.; served to the close of the war and 
was mustered out with the regiment. Supposed to be living at 
Durand, Pepin county, Wisconsin. 

SAMUEL B. GRISSOM, aged twenty-three, born at Columbia, 
Adair county, Kentucky, removed to Illinois in 1857, enlisted from 
Bath, 111., single, farmer. Served to the close of the war and was 
mustered out with the regiment. Is a farmer and resides near 
Kilbourne, Mason county, Illinois. 

WILLARD HICKS, aged forty-five, born in New York, was sin- 
gle and a farmer in Mason county when he enlisted from Bath, 111. 
He served with his company until captured at the battle of Chick- 
amauga, Ga., September 19, 1863. Died in Andersonville prison 
May 15, 1864. Is buried at No. 1102 in the national cemetery at 
that place. 

JOHN HAZELRIGG (promoted principal musician. See field 
and staff). 

JOHN L. HARBERT, aged twenty-two, born in Green county, 
Kentucky, married, farmer, enlisted from Bath, 111. He served to 
the close of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. He 
returned to Mason county, resumed farming and now resides near 
Kilbourne, 111. 

ALBERT J. HAMILTON, aged twenty-one, born in Nicholas 
county, Kentucky, farmer, enlisted from Bath, 111. Served with 
his company until failing health sent him to the hospital at Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn., 'where he died October 11, 1863. Is buried at No. 
522 in the national cemetery at Chattanooga. 

HENRY HOWARTH was born in Blackburn, Lancaster county, 
England, in 1844, emigrated to Illinois, and enlisted as a farmer 
from Bath. He served with his company until severely wounded 
at the battle of Jonesboro, Ga., September 1, 1864, and was honor- 
ably discharged May 20, 1865. He was accidentally killed by a 
train in the tunnel at St. Louis, Mo., October 9, 1890. 

ELIJAH HOUGHTON was born in Cass county, Illinois, in 
1842, farmer, enlisted from Havana, 111. He served with his com- 
pany until failing health sent him to the hospital at or near the 



402 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

close of the Atlanta campaign. He died in Atlanta, Ga., October 
2, 1864, and his remains are buried at No. 7732 in the national cem- 
etery at Marietta, Ga. 

HENRY P. JONES, aged eighteen, farmer, born in Warren, 
county, Ohio, and enlisted as a farmer from Havana, 111. He 
served with his company until his health failed at or near the end 
of the Atlanta campaign, and he died in the hospital at Atlanta, 
Octo'ber 2, 1864. His remains are buried at No. 7732 in the na- 
tional cemetery at Marietta, Ga. 

DANIEL JONES deserted November 8, 1862. 

DANIEL KICER, aged forty-five, born in Union county, Penn- 
sylvania, single, farmer, enlisted from Bath, 111. He died at Louis- 
ville, Ky.. December 4, 1862, and his remains are buried at No. 
1217 in Cave Hill national cemetery near that city. 

WILLIAM KELLEY was born in Ripley, Brown county, Illi- 
nois, in 1840, and was a farmer when he enlisted from Ripley. He 
served to the close of the war and was mustered out with the regi- 
ment. Resides at Eagletown, Hamilton county, Indiana. 

ARMSTEAD KIRK was born in Anderson county, Tennessee, 
in 1844, removed to Illinois and enlisted from Bath. He served to 
the close of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. He 
died at Saidora, Mason county, Illinois, in about 1870. 

JAMES A. LARANCE was born in Jacksonville, Morgan coun- 
ty, Illinois, in 1838; was married and a farmer when he enlisted 
from Bath; served through the Kentucky campaign, and was 
discharged for disability June 3, 1863. Is reported dead. 

ISAAC LAYMAN was born in Union county, Ohio, August 13, 
1840, removed with parents to Illinois in 1845, and enlisted from 
Bath. He served with his company until wounded in the assault 
on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864, and was honorably 
discharged from Springfield, 111., July 18, 1865. He resides at 
Dewey, Champaign county, Illinois, where he settled in 1869. 

JOSEPH LARANCE, aged twenty-six, was born in Morgan 
county, Illinois, was single and a farmer when he enlisted from 
Bath. He served until captured at the battle of Peach Tree creek, 
July 19, 1864, and was absent (sick in the hospital at Kingston, 
N. C.) at the muster out of the regiment. He was honorably dis- 
charged (date unknown), and is reported dead. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY D. 40S 

GRANVILLE MADISON was born in Burksville, Cumberland 
county, Kentucky, July 16, 1836, removed to Illinois in 1854, and 
enlisted as a farmer from Bath. Served to the close of the war 
and was mustered out with the regiment. He removed to Ne- 
braska in 1871, and engaged in farming in Gage county. Now re- 
sides at Blue Springs, Neb. 

MILTON M. McDONALD, aged twenty-two, born in McDon- 
ough county, Illinois, single, farmer; enlisted from Macomb. He 
served to the close of the war and was mustered out with the regi- 
ment. Is supposed to be living at Macomb, 111. 

HENRY MEADS deserted October 6, 1862. 

HUGH MORGAN was born in Liverpool, England, in 1844, and 
enlisted as a farmer from Havana, 111. He served with his com- 
pany until severely wounded at the battle of Kennesaw Mountain, 
Georgia, June 27, 1864; was sent to the hospital at Chattanooga, 
Tenn., where he died July 2, 1864. Is buried at No. 11847 in the 
national cemetery on Orchard Knob. 

JAMES S. MYERS was born in Guernsey county, Ohio, Febru- 
ary 26, 1839, removed to Illinois in 1857, married and a farmer 
when he enlisted from Bath; served with his company to the close 
of the "war, and was mustered out with the regiment. He removed 
to Kansas in 1869; is farming and resides at Pittsburg, Crawford 
county. 

JOHN J. MURPHY was born in Ireland in 1817, emigrated to 
Illinois; was married and a farmer when he enlisted from Bath. 
He served with his company until severely wounded in the assault 
on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. He died of 
wounds, proba'bly at Chattanooga, Tenn., July 7, 1864. 

WILLIAM H. MORGAN was born in Port Madoc, North Wales, 
December 4, 1840, removed to Illinois in 1859, and enlisted as a 
farmer from Havana. He served with his company to the close of 
the war; was slightly wounded in the assault on Kennesaw Moun- 
tain, Georgia, and was mustered out with the regiment. He re- 
moved to Texas in 1869, and engaged in farming. Is now a mer- 
chant and resides at Sweet Home, Lavaca county, Texas. 

HAROLD MATTISON deserted November 28, 1862. 

ROBERT NEIDER was born in Germany in 1840, emigrated to 
Illinois, and enlisted as a farmer from Bath. He served with his 



404 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

company until wounded and captured at the battle of Chicka- 
mauga, Ga., September 19, 1863. Was reported absent (sick) at 
muster out of the regiment, but he probably died in some of the 
rebel prisons. 

PATRICK O'ROURK was born in Ireland in 1841; enlisted as a 
farmer from Bath, 111. Served to the close of the war and was 
mustered out with the regiment. Last known address, Deming. 
Grant county, New Mexico. 

OLIVER W. PARKS, aged nineteen, born in Pike county, Illi- 
nois, farmer; enlisted from Bath. Served with his company until 
wounded in the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 
1864. He was discharged on account of wounds, April 4, 1865. 
Two years after his return home irritation, caused by a piece of his 
blouse which had been carried into the wound, caused it to break 
out anew, causing his death within a short time. 

JOHN PLASTERS, aged twenty-four, born in Cass county, Illi- 
nois, married, farmer, enlisted from Bath; served to the close of 
the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. Died Novem- 
ber 4, 1899. 

JOHN W. PRICE, aged eighteen, born in Pike county, Illinois, 
farmer, enlisted from Bath. Died at Louisville, Ky., December 
11, 1862. Is buried in the national cemetery at Cave Hill, near 
that city. 

NEWTON C. PATTERSON was born in Bellville, Belmont 
county, Ohio, February 11, 1843, and with his parents removed to 
Illinois in 1857. He enlisted as a farmer from Bath; served with 
his company until April, 1864, when he was detailed to drive the 
brigade ambulance, which duty he performed until May, 1865. He 
was wounded in the battle of Jonesljoro, Ga., September 1, 1864, 
but continued on duty to the close of the war and was mustered 
out with the regiment. Upon his return resumed farming; has 
been school director, and resides at Mason City, 111. 

DAVID B. PHELPS, aged twenty-eight, born in Princeton, 
Bureau county, Illinois, married, farmer; enlisted from Bath. 
Served through the Kentucky campaign, and was discharged for 
disability May 23, 1863. Is a real estate dealer and resides in St. 
Louis. Mo. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY D. 405 

WILLIAM H. RANSOM, aged twenty-one, "born in Lynnville, 
Morgan county, Illinois, farmer; enlisted from Bath. Served 
through the Kentucky campaign, and died January 4, 1863. 

NATHANIEL S. ROCHESTER, aged twenty-three, born in 
Greene county, Illinois, farmer, enlisted from Bath; served with 
his company until severely wounded in left arm in the assault on 
Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864, and was discharged 
on account of wounds, June 2, 1865. 

ALANSON ROBBINS, aged twenty-eight, born in Wyandot 
county, Ohio, farmer, enlisted from Bath; served to the close of 
the war and was mustered out with the regiment. He returned to 
Illinois and located at Lincoln, where he died February 8, 1897. 

WILLIAM RHEINDERS was born near Ovid, Cayuga county, 
New York, February 13, 1839, removed to Illinois in 1857, single 
and a millwright and mechanical engineer when he enlisted from 
Mason county. He was wounded in the assault on Kennesaw 
Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864, but served to the close of the 
war and was mustered out with the regiment. After the war he 
removed to Texas, where he continued his occupation until com- 
pelled to retire from active business by failing eyesight. His ad- 
dress is Texarkana, Texas. 

ELIAS REEDER, aged twenty-five, born in Chicago, 111., mar- 
ried and a farmer when he enlisted from Bath. He served through 
the Kentucky campaign and was discharged for disability, March 
5, 1863. He resides at Teheran, Mason county, Illinois. 

ROLLIE RAY, aged thirty, born in Mason county, Illinois, 
married, farmer; enlisted from Bath. Served through the Ken- 
tucky campaign, was discharged for disability February 4, 1863, 
and died in Indiana on his way home. 

ISAAC STILTS, aged nineteen, born in Pike county, Illinois, 
farmer; enlisted from Bath. Served through the Kentucky cam- 
paign, and died May 11, 1863. Is buried at No. 266 in the national 
cemetery at Nashville, Tenn. 

JOHN SIZELOVE was born in Franklin county, Indiana, 
March 18, 1845, removed to Illinois in 1856 with his parents and 
enlisted as a farmer from Bath. He served with his company 
until captured at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 
1864, and was held in rebel prisons until the close of the war, 



406 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

when he was honorably discharged from Springfield, 111., July 22, 
1865. He removed to Washington Territory in 1881, and engaged 
in farming in Stevens county; was appointed postmaster at Calis- 
pell in 1890 and again in May, 1900. His address is Calispell, 
Stevens county, Washington. 

JOHN SCHOLES was born in Chandlerville, Cass county, Illi- 
nois, January 9, 1844, farmer, enlisted from Bath. At the battle 
of Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, he received a gun shot wound 
through the left shoulder; recovered, returned to duty, served to 
the close of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. He 
settled on a farm in Christian county in 1870, and now resides 
near Mt. Auburn, 111. 

JACOB SMITH, aged twenty-one, farmer, born in Lawrence 
county, Indiana, enlisted from Chandlerville, 111. On the roll he 
is marked absent (sick) at the muster out of the regiment, but in 
fact he was discharged for disability December 2, 1864. 

FRANCES M. SMITH was born in Hillsborough, Highland 
county, Ohio, September 13, 1831, removed with his parents to Illi- 
nois in 1852; served to the close of the war and was mustered out 
with the regiment. Is a laborer and resides in Bloomington, 111. 

MERTON STELEY, aged twenty-one, farmer, born in Horace, 
Pa., enlisted from Bath, 111., died at Harrodsburg, Ky., December 

, 1862. Is buried at No. 367 in the national cemetery at Camp 

Nelson, Ky. 

MARTIN L. TREADWAY, aged eighteen, born in Cass county, 
Illinois, clerk, enlisted from Bath; served through the Kentucky 
campaign, and died February 6, 1863. Is buried at No. 6461 in the 
national cemetery at Nashville, Tenn. 

MARTIN TROY, aged twenty-two, born in Ireland, emigrated 
to Illinois, laborer; enlisted from Bath. Died at Mound City, 111., 
October 2, 1864. Is buried at No. 3405, national cemetery, near 
that city. 

CHARLES W. TOLEY, aged twenty-one, born in Mason coun- 
ty, Illinois, farmer, enlisted from Bath; served through the Ken- 
tucky campaign and was discharged for disability February 4, 
1863. Is reported dead. 

WILLIAM THOMPSON deserted August 28, 1862. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY D. 407 

GEORGE VENLANINGHEM deserted December 23, 1862. 

JAMES H. WELCH, aged nineteen, born in Coshocton county, 
Ohio, farmer, enlisted from Bath, 111.; served with his company 
until killed at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 
1884. Is buried at No. 1917 in the national cemetery at Marietta, 

Georgia. 



IRA WELCH, aged eighteen, born in Coshocton county, Ohio, 
farmer, enlisted from Bath, 111. Served through the Kentucky 
campaign and died at Nashville, Tenn., December 29, 1862. 

CHRISTOPHER WHEELER deserted September, 1863. 

JAMES WALLACE, aged forty-five, born in Muskingum coun- 
ty, Ohio, married, farmer, enlisted from Bath, 111. Served to the 
close of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. Died 
near Easton, 111. 

JACOB YARDLEY, born at Crane Creek, Mason county, Illi- 
nois, August 6, 1835, single, farmer; enlisted from Havana. Served 
to the close of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. 
Is a farmer near Mason City, 111. 

GREEN P. BATTERTON, recruit; no record of when enlisted, 
but was mustered out with the regiment. 

GEORGE W. PULLING, recruit, deserted February 14, 1863. 



408 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 



CHAPTER XXXI. 



Company E was the Menard county company and 
was enrolled by Pleasant S. Scott, of Petersburg, under 
date of July 17, 1862. In this county w r ere many people 
who had emigrated from Virginia, Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee. These people were hardy, patriotic and brave, 
and most of them were strongly opposed to slavery. 
And these pioneers and their sons were prompt to re- 
spond to the call of the President for additional troops. 

At the organization of the company the following 
commissioned officers were elected : Pleasant S. Scott, 
captain ; Joseph M. Plunkett, first lieutenant, and Abra- 
ham Clary, second lieutenant. At the organization of 
the regiment this company became the color company. 

The record shows that the company had 3 killed in 
battle, 5 died of wounds, 2 were accidentally killed, 12 
died of disease, 18 were discharged for disability, 13 were 
wounded who lived to be discharged from the service. 
Of the 81 officers and men who formed the original com- 
pany but 21 went home together at the close of the war. 
Not so strong in numbers as some of the others, never- 
theless this company made a record of which all its mem- 
bers should be proud. 

THE COMPANY ROSTER. 

CAPTAIN PLEASANT S. SCOTT was born in Washington 
county, Virginia, July 29, 1822, removed to Illinois in June, 1857, 
anl settled at Petersburg, in Menard county. At the breaking out 
of the War of the Rebellion he was carrying the United States 
mail, and began recruiting a company on July 17, 1862. At the 
organization of the company he was elected captain, served to the 
close of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. At 



ROSTER OF COMPANY E. 409 

North Chickamauga, in the fall of 1863, he was captured and sent 
to Libby prison at Richmond, Va., from which he escaped after 
some four months' confinement. After much suffering and many 
narrow escapes from recapture, he reached the Union lines, and 
rejoined bis company in the spring of 1864. He was wounded at 
the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, but soon recovered 
and resumed command of his company. He was promoted to be 
major of the regiment May 19, 1865, but the regiment was below 
the number which would permit his muster, and he was mustered 
out as captain. He returned to his old home in Illinois, and for 
the last fifteen years he has held the office of justice of the peace, 
and is holding that office at the present time. His address is 
Petersburg, Menard county, Illinois. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOSEPH M. PLUNKETT, aged forty- 
five, born in Concord, Cabarrus county, North Carolina, and en- 
listed from Petersburg, 111., where he was at the time city mar- 
shal. He was elected first lieutenant at the organization of the 
company; served through the Kentucky campaign, and resigned 
December 21, 1862. He returned to Petersburg, where he died 
in about 1870. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT HUGH A. TRENT, aged thirty-one, 
born in Petersburg, Menard county, Illinois. He was chosen ser- 
geant at the organization of the company; served through the 
Kentucky campaign, was promoted first lieutenant December 21, 
1862, and served with his company until severely wounded at the 
battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. When he re- 
covered so as to be able to travel he secured a leave of absence 
and returned home. He was dismissed from the service on May 
2, 1865, for absence without leave, and, as the writer is informed, 
died from the effects of his wounds soon after the close of the war. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT ABRAHAM L. CLARY was born in 
Petersburg, Menard county, Illinois, April 20, 1839, and was a 
farmer when he enlisted from his native town. He was elected 
second lieutenant at the organization of the company; served 
through the Kentucky campaign, and resigned at Nashville, Tenn., 
January 20, 1863. He returned to his former home; was a clerk 
in a dry goods store for some sixteen years, and is at present cor- 
oner of Menard county. His address is Petersburg, 111. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT CLARK N. ANDRUS (promoted adju- 
tant. See field and staff). 



410 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT ANDREW F. J. SHACKEY, aged 
thirty-five, born in Holmesville, Pike county, Mississippi, married, 
farmer, enlisted from Mason City, 111. He was chosen sergeant 
at the organization of the company, was promoted to be second 
lieutenant February 23, 1863, and served with his company until 
October 27, 1863, when he resigned for disability. Is reported to 
have died at Petersburg, 111., in about 1896. 

FIRST SERGEANT JACOB FAITH was born in Princeton, 
Indiana, July 8, 1834, removed to Illinois, and was a bricklayer 
when he enlisted from Petersburg. He was chosen first sergeant 
at the organization of the company; served through the Kentucky 
and Murfreesboro campaigns, and was discharged for disability at 
Nashville, Tenn., in 1863. Returning to Petersburg he resumed 
his trade, but later removed to Iowa, and located at Lenox, in 
Taylor county, where he died November 5, 1891. 

FIRST SERGEANT A. J. TAYLOR, aged thirty, born in 
Springfield, 111., was single and a clerk when he enlisted from 
Petersburg. He was promoted first sergeant, and served with 
his company until severely wounded in the battle of Peach Tree 
creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. He was removed to Vining's Sta- 
tion, where he died of his wounds, July 24, 1864. 

FIRST SERGEANT CHARLES BOCHERT, aged thirty-four, 
born in Mecklenburg, Germany, emigrated to Illinois, was single 
and a farmer when he enlisted from Petersburg. He was pro- 
moted sergeant, then first sergeant, and commissioned first lieu- 
tenant, but the company was below the number required to per- 
mit his muster with that rank. He served to the close of the war 
and was mustered out with the regiment as first sergeant. He 
returned to Petersburg, 111., where' he died November 17, 1893. 

SERGEANT A. P. ARMSTRONG deserted October 7, 1862. 

SERGEANT LEANDER VEILEIT, aged twenty-eight, born in 
Delaware, Delaware county, Ohio, removed to Illinois, married, 
farmer, enlisted from Petersburg. He served through the Ken- 
tucky campaign, and died at Nashville, Tenn., February 26, 1863. 
Is buried at No. 3S3 in the national cemetery near that city. 

SERGEANT WILLIAM F. CLARY was born at Petersburg, 
Menard county, Illinois, March 25, 1828, was married and a farmer 
when he enlisted from his native town. He was chosen corporal 
at the organization of the company, promoted sergeant, and served 



ROSTER OF COMPANY E. 411 

with his company until captured at the battle of Peach Tree creek, 
Georgia, July 19, 1864. He was held in rebel prisons to the close 
of the war, and was honorably discharged at Springfield, 111., June 
17, 1865. He returned to his former home and engaged in farming 
for several years, but removed to Kansas in 1899. He now resides 
at Empire City, Cherokee county, Kansas. 

SERGEANT WILLIAM LEONARD, aged twenty-three, born 
at Staunton, Augusta county, Virginia, removed to Illinois, was 
single and a farmer when he enlisted from Petersburg. He was 
promoted sergeant, served to the close of the war and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. He died some time after his return 
to Petersburg, 111. 

SERGEANT ENOS BYERS was born in Vinton county, Ohio, 
in 1844, removed to Illinois, and enlisted from Rushville, Schuyler 
county, January 19, 1864. He was promoted sergeant; served to 
the close of the war and was transferred to Company B, Sixteenth 
Illinois. He was mustered out with that regiment July 8, 1865. 

SERGEANT WILLIAM F. HOHAMER, aged thirty-three, born 
in Petersburg, Menard county, Illinois, married, farmer, enlisted 
as a private from his native town; was promoted sergeant, and 
carried the colors until severely wounded at the battle of Peach 
Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. A gun shot through the hips 
rendered him perfectly helpless, and he fell into the hands of the 
enemy and died in prison, but the date of his death is unknown. 

CORPORAL JAMES POTTER, aged twenty-three, born in 
Menard county, Illinois, was single and a farmer when he enlisted 
from Petersburg. He was discharged for disability, but the record 
does not reveal the date or place. He died March 24, 1897. 

CORPORAL EZEKIEL SAMPLE, aged thirty-one, born in 
Marion, Crittenden county, Kentucky, was married and a farmer 
when he enlisted from Petersburg, 111. He was chosen corporal at 
the organization of the company; was wounded at the battle of 
Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864, but served until the close 
of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. He returned 
to his home at Petersburg, where he died February 9, 1898. 

CORPORAL JAMES N. SHEETS, aged forty-two, born in Lex- 
ington, Fayette county, Kentucky, removed to Illinois, was mar- 
ried and a mechanic when he enlisted from Petersburg. He was 
chosen corporal at the organization of the company; was severely 



412 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

wounded at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, fell into the 
hands of the enemy July 19, 1864, and died a few days later in 
Atlanta, Ga. 

CORPORAL BOWLING GREEN, aged twenty-seven, born in 
Petersburg, Menard county, Illinois, was single and a farmer when 
he enlisted from his native town; was chosen corporal at the or- 
ganization of his company, served with his company until severely 
wounded at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864, 
and died in the hospital at Kingston Ga., August 17, 1864. Is bur- 
ied at No. 477 in the national cemetery at Marietta, Ga. 

CORPORAL JOHN GRIFFIN, aged forty-one, born in Shaker, 
Logan county, Kentucky; married, farmer; enlisted from Peters- 
burg, 111.: was chosen corporal at the organization of the com- 
pany and was discharged for disability, but the date of his dis- 
charge does not appear upon the record. He returned to Peters- 
burg, where he died May 23, 1897. 

CORPORAL JOHN BARTHOLOMEW was reduced to the ranks 
and deserted December 28, 1862. 

CORPORAL JAMES S. LYNN was born in Chandlerville, Cass 
county, Illinois, September 6, 1839, was married and a farmer 
when he enlisted from Petersburg, was chosen corporal at the 
organization of the company and was severely wounded at the 
battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8, 1862. He was discharged for 
disability on account of wounds December 27, 1862, returned to 
Illinois, and resumed farming near Mason City, where he now 
resides. 

CORPORAL GEORGE TAYLOR, aged nineteen, born in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., removed to Illinois and enlisted as a farmer from 
Petersburg. He was promoted to corporal; served until the close 
of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. 

CORPORAL WILLIAM H. YOUNG was born in Louisville, Ky., 
September 25, 1824, removed with his parents to Illinois in 1832, 
and was out in the Mormon war. He was married and a farmer 
when he enlisted from Petersburg; was promoted to corporal; 
served with his company until the close of the war, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. He returned to Illinois, and engaged 
in farming near Petersburg, where he now resides. 

MUSICIAN WILLIAM McNEELY, aged eighteen, born at 
Petersburg, Menard county, Illinois, and enlisted from his native 



ROSTER OF COMPANY E. 413 

town; was appointed musician and discharged for disability, but 
the date of discharge nowhere appears upon the record. Is re- 
ported dead. 

MUSICIAN SAMUEL HAVENS, aged nineteen, born at Wav- 
erly, Pike county, Ohio, enlisted from Petersburg, 111., as musi- 
cian; served through the Kentucky campaign, and died at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., January 22, 1863. Is buried at No. 6617 in the national 
cemetery near that city. 

WAGONER WALTER RANDALL, aged thirty-nine, born in 
Lexington, Ky., married and was an engineer when he enlisted 
from Petersburg, 111.; was appointed wagoner. Served until the 
close of the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. 

WILLIAM F. ALLEN, aged twenty-seven, born in Nashville, 
Tenn., removed to Illinois, and was a married farmer when he en- 
listed from Petersburg. He was wounded at the battle of Perry- 
ville, Ky., and discharged for disability on account of wounds, but 
date of discharge is unknown. He resides at Petersburg, 111. 

DAVID ARMSTRONG, aged twenty-one, born in Petersburg, 
Menard county, Illinois, and was a farmer when he enlisted from 
his native town. He was sent to the hospital at Bowling Green, 
Ky., where he died December 5, 1862. Is buried at No. 10931 in the 
national cemetery at Nashville, Tenn. 

DOLING ARMSTRONG, aged thirty-eight, married, farmer, 
was born in Petersburg, Menard county, Illinois, and enlisted from 
his native town. He served through the Kentucky campaign, and 
at Nashville, Tenn., was transferred to the Veteran Reserve corps. 
The pension office reports him dead, without date. 

WILLIAM ATTERBERRY, aged thirty-six. No further record. 

HORACE ARMSTRONG, aged twenty-three. No record after 
muster in. 

JOHN H. ARNOLD was born in Philadelphia, Pa., was single 
and a farmer when he enlisted from Peoria, 111. He served with 
his company until wounded at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Ga., 
July 19, 1864, and was discharged on account of wounds January 
25, 1865. He returned to Illinois, and died at Springfield in Octo- 
ber, 1890. 

JOHN BARNETT, aged twenty-two, born in Marion, Critten- 
den county, Kentucky; married farmer when he enlisted from 



414 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

Petersburg, 111. He served with his company until his health 
failed, and died at McAffee Church, Ga., April 20, 1864. Is buried 
at No. 11141 in the national cemetery at Chattanooga, Tenn. 

CLAYBURN BARNETT, aged eighteen, born at Marion, Crit- 
tenden county, Kentucky, was a farmer and enlisted from Peters- 
burg, 111. Served with his company until the close of the war; 
returned to Illinois, resumed farming, and died at Petersburg, 
January 3, 1890. 

JOHN BECK, aged twenty-eight; deserted December 28, 1862. 
PICKETT CLARY, aged ; deserted December 28, 1862. 

MARTIN S. CLARY, aged twenty-one, born at Petersburg, 
Menard county, Illinois, farmer; enlisted from his native town. 
Served until the close of the war and was mustered out with the 
regiment. Is said to reside at Anthony, Harper county, Kansas. 

THOMAS S. CLARY deserted December 28, 1862. 

ROYAL A. CLARY, aged , born in Sparta, White county, 

Tennessee, married, farmer; enlisted from Petersburg, 111., was 
wounded at the battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8, 1862, and was 
discharged for disability, but no date appears on the record. Died 
at Petersburg, 111., in about 1896. 

WILLIAM W. CARTER enlisted from Petersburg, 111. Served 
with his company until the close of the war and was mustered out 
with the regiment. Is said to reside at Petersburg, 111. 

WILLIAM G. CARTER was born near Petersburg, Menard 
county, Illinois, April 24, 1836, and enlisted from his native town. 
He served with his company until the close of the war, and was 
mustered out with the regiment. He returned to Illinois and re- 
sumed farming when mustered out, and now resides at Peters- 
burg, 111. 

JOHN COX, aged twenty-three, born at Greensburg, Green 
county, Kentucky, single, farmer, enlisted from Petersburg, 111.; 
died, but the record fails to reveal the date of his death. 

GEORGE COLE, aged twenty-nine, born in Stevensburg, Cul- 
peper county, Virginia, single, farmer; enlisted from Petersburg, 
111., was discharged for disability, but the record does not reveal 
the date. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY E. 415 

EDWIN CHAMBERS deserted; no date given. 

DENNIS DENVER Record furnishes nothing beyond the 
muster-in. 

MICHAEL EKIS, aged eighteen, farmer, born in Barbour coun- 
ty, Virginia, enlisted from Petersburg, 111.; died at Bowling Green, 
Ky., November 7, 1862. Is buried at No. 542 in the national ceme- 
tery at Nashville, Tenn. 

WESLEY FROST, aged twenty-six, married farmer, born in 
Hillsboro. Montgomery county, Illinois; enlisted from Petersburg. 
He died, but neither place nor date appears upon the record. Is 
buried at No. 313 in the national cemetery at Nashville, Tenn. 

JAMES FERGUSON was born in Clinton, Henry county, Mis- 
souri, May 11, 1843, removed with his parents to Illinois in 1845, 
was farmer when he enlisted from Petersburg as a recruit March 
10, 1864. He served with his company until the regiment was 
mustered out, when he was transferred to Company B, Sixteenth 
Illinois infantry. He was mustered out with that regiment July 8, 
1865. He returned to Menard county and is engaged in farming 
near Petersburg, 111. 

RICHARD GRIFFIN, aged twenty-one, born in Petersburg, 
Menard county, Illinois, enlisted from his native town. Served 
with his company until severely wounded in the battle of Peach 
Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. He was removed to the hos- 
pital at Chattanooga, Tenn., where he died September 17, 1864. Is 
buried at No. 2083, in the national cemetery on Orchard Knob, 
near Chattanooga, Tenn. 

JAMES HINESLEY, deserted October 7, 1862. 

STEPHEN HANKINS, aged twenty-one, born in Madison, Jef- 
ferson county, Indiana, farmer, enlisted from Petersburg, 111. 
Served with his company until the close of the war, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. Is supposed to be living in Jackson- 
ville, 111. 

WILLIAM JONES, aged twenty-four, born in Petersburg, Men- 
ard county, Illinois, farmer, enlisted from his native town. Served 
through the Kentucky campaign, and was transferred to the Vet- 
eran Reserve corps, at Nashville, Tenn., September 7, 1863. His 
subsequent career is unknown to the writer. 



416 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

WILLIAM J. JONES appears to have enlisted from Petersburg, 
and to have been mustered in and discharged, but no date is given 
of his discharge. 

WILLIAM LEITSON, aged twenty-three, bom in Rodenberg, 
Germany, single, brickmason; enlisted from Greenview, Menard 
county, Illinois. Served until the close of the war and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. He resides at Petersburg, 111. 

GEORGE MYERS, aged twenty-five. Nothing relating to this 
soldier can be found of record, except that he enlisted and was 
mustered in. 

JOHN C. MILLER, aged twenty-one, farmer, born in Menard 
county, Illinois, and enlisted from Petersburg. He served with his 
company until killed in the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Geor- 
gia, June 27, 1864. Is buried at No. 9314 in the national cemetery 
at Marietta, Ga. 

RICHARD McGUIRE was born in the city of Dublin, Ireland, 
in March, 1820, was a sailor in early life, emigrated to Illinois in 
1844 and settled in Springfield, where he resided at enlistment. 
He was slightly wounded at the battle of Rome, Ga., but served 
until the close of the war and was mustered out with the regi- 
ment. He returned to Springfield, 111., where he now resides. 

WILLIAM A. MENCE, aged 21, born in Boonville, Warwick 
county, Indiana, farmer; enlisted from Petersburg, 111. Died Oc- 
tober 23, 1862, probably at Harrodsburgh, Ky., as he is buried at 
No. 307 in the national cemetery at Danville, Ky. 

WILLIAM E. MATHEWS appears to have enlisted at Louis- 
ville, Ky., and was discharged for disability, October 7, 1864. That 
is all the record discloses in his case. 

ISAAC MARLIN, native of Tennessee, enlisted at Nashville, 
August 5, 1863. Served until the close of the war, and when the 
regiment was mustered out he was transferred to Company B, Six- 
teenth Illinois Infantry. He was mustered out with that regiment 
July 8, 1865, and when last heard from resided at Murfreesboro, 
Tenn. 

THOMAS OSTERMAN, aged twenty-three, born in Germany, 
farmer, enlisted from Petersburg, 111. Record says died, but does 
not say when or where. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY E. 417 

THOMAS OWENS, aged twenty-one, born in Springfield, San- 
gamon county, Illinois, farmer; enlisted from Petersburg and 
served with his company until killed in the assault on the enemy 
at Jonesboro, Ga., September 1, 1864. 

WILLIAM S. POTTER, aged twenty-one, born in Bloomington, 
McLean county, Illinois, farmer; enlisted from Petersburg. Served 
through the Kentucky campaign and was accidentally killed by a 
falling tree at White's bend on the Cumberland river, November 
19, 1862. (See Chapter V.) 

JOHN O. PAIN, aged thirty-three, born in Washington, Orange 
county, Vermont, farmer; enlisted from Petersburg, 111. Served 
through the Kentucky campaign, and was transferred to the Vet- 
eran Reserve corps at Nashville, Tenn. No date given. 

JAMES PEARSON, aged sixteen, born in Menard county, Illi- 
nois; enlisted from Petersburg. Record says discharged, without 
giving time or place. 

ANDREW ROBINSON, aged eighteen, born in Rushville, 
Schuyler county, Illinois; enlisted from Petersburg. Served with 
his company until severely wounded in the assault on Kennesaw 
Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. He was discharged for disabil- 
ity arising from his wounds, February 26, 1865. He is reported to 
be in the Soldiers' Home at Quincy, 111. 

JOHN L. ROBINSON enlisted as a recruit from Petersburg, 
January 19, 1864, and the record says discharged, but neither time 
nor place is given. Is said to be in the Soldiers' Home at Quincy, 
Illinois. 

WILLIAM RAY, aged twenty-two, married, farmer, born in 
Chandlerville, Cass county, Illinois; enlisted from Petersburg. 
Served through the Kentucky campaign, and was accidentally 
killed by a falling tree at White's bend on the Cumberland river, 
November 19, 1862. (See Chapter V.) 

CHRISTOPHER SHUTT, aged twenty-two, farmer, born in 
Germany; enlisted from Petersburg, 111. Died at Louisville, Ky., 
October 7, 1863, and is buried at No. 2062 in the national cemetery 
at Cave Hill, Ky. 

JAMES T. SEAY was born in Campbellville, Taylor county, 
Kentucky, March 29, 1842, and removed with his parents to Illinois 



418 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

in 1855. He was a farmer when he enlisted from Petersburg. 
Served with his company until the close of the war, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. He was postmaster at Loyd, Men- 
ard county, and while residing in Fulton county served as consta- 
ble and school director. He has been elected adjutant of the Regi- 
mental Association for eight successive years; is a carpenter, and 
resides in Havana, 111. 

HENRY SUTTON, aged twenty-one, born in Petersburg, Men- 
ard county, Illinois, farmer; enlisted from his native town. Served 
until discharged for disability at Louisville, Ky., December 1, 1863. 
He resides in Havana, 111. 

FRANK F. SCOTT, aged twenty-one, born in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
farmer; enlisted from Petersburg, 111.; was wounded at the battle 
of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864, but served with his 
company to the close of the war, and was mustered out with the 
regiment. He returned to Petersburg, where he died in . 

L. SPROUSE deserted. No date given. 

JOHN W. SHROEDER, aged twenty-eight, born in London, 
England, single, farmer; enlisted from Petersburg, 111. Beyond 
this the record contains but the one word "Discharged." 

EPHRAIM STOUT, aged twenty-four, married, farmer, born in 
Farmington, Saint Francois county, Missouri; enlisted from 
Petersburg, 111. Record says, "Died," but no date or place is men- 
tioned. 

JAMES T. SENTER, aged twenty-one, born in Springfield, Illi- 
nois, farmer, enlisted from Petersburg, and served with his com- 
pany until severely wounded at the battle of Peach Tree creek, 
Georgia, July 19, 1864. He was discharged for disability resulting 
from wounds, November 23, 1864, and returned to Petersburg, 111., 
where he now resides. 

MORRIS SEAMAN deserted. 

LEONIDAS TRAYLOR, aged twenty-five, single, farmer, born 
in Menard county, Illinois; enlisted from Petersburg. Served with 
his company to the close of the war, and was mustered out with 
the regiment. Resides at Ransom, Ness county, Kansas. 

JAMES E. THOMAS, aged forty-four, born in Bowling Green, 
Warren county, Kentucky, married, farmer; enlisted from Peters- 



ROSTER OF COMPANY E. 419 

burg, 111. Was slightly wounded at the assault on Kennesaw 
Mountain, Georgia, June 27, and received wounds from which he 
died in the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. 

GEORGE WATTERMAN, aged twenty-three, born in Freder- 
ick, Frederick county, Maryland, married, farmer; enlisted from 
Petersburg, 111. Served with his company until killed in the as- 
sault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. His remains 
are buried at No. 9248 in the national cemetery at Marietta, Ga. 

GEORGE M. WEBSTER deserted, but time and place not men- 
tioned. 

EDWARD WELSH appears to have enlisted, and to have been 
mustered in. But there the record stops. 



420 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 



CHAPTER XXXII. 



Company F was enrolled by John Kennedy at Pekin, 
Tazewell county, between June I5th and 2ist, 1862, in 
anticipation of a call for additional troops. This was 
almost a month earlier than the enrollment of any other 
company in the Eighty-fifth. Unfortunately the enlist- 
ment roll of this company does not always definitely fix 
the birth-place of the men. At the organization of the 
company the following commissioned officers were 
elected : John Kennedy, captain ; Robert A. Bowman, 
first lieutenant, and Richard W. Tenney, second lieuten- 
ant. 

During the three years' service 25 of the company 
were struck by bullets or shell in battle, 9 of whom were 
killed, 7 died of wounds and 9 recovered, 4 were acci- 
dentally killed, 10 died of disease, 23 were discharged, 4 
were transferred and at the final muster out there were 
but 30 present. 

The company was always bravely commanded, and 
never failed to do its full duty toward the preservation of 
the nation's integrity. The following is 

THE COMPANY ROSTER. 

CAPTAIN JOHN KENNEDY was born in Tipperary, County 
Limerick, Ireland, emigrated to Illinois, and was a boatman on the 
Illinois river, residing at Pekin, in Tazewell county, when he re- 
cruited the company. None questioned his ability to command, 
and at the organization of the company he was elected captain. 
As an officer he was brave and enterprising, and led his company 
with more than usual skill. He was slightly wounded in the as- 
sault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, but refused to leave his 
command. A few days later, at the battle of Peach Tree creek, 



ROSTER OF COMPANY F. 421 

Georgia, July 19, 1864, he was instantly killed by a shot which 
passed through his head. And so he died, with his face to the foe, 
defending the flag of his adopted country, beloved and regretted 
by his associates of whatever rank. His remains are buried at 
No. 8332, in the hallowed ground of the national cemetery at Mari- 
etta, Ga. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT ROBERT A. BOWMAN, aged forty-two, 
born in Genesee county, New York, was married and a boatman 
when he enlisted from Pekin, 111. He was elected first lieutenant 
at the organization of the company and served with the command 
until during the siege of Chattanooga, when he resigned under 
date of October 17, 1863, and went home. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT ANDREW J. MASON, aged thirty- 
seven, married, farmer; enlisted from Pekin, was chosen sergeant 
at the organization of the company, and was promoted first lieu- 
tenant October 17, 1863. He was commissioned captain May 27, 
1865, but the company was then too small to allow his muster. He 
commanded the company from the death of Captain Kennedy until 
the close of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT RICHARD W. TENNEY, aged 
twenty-one, single, clerk; enlisted from Pekin, was elected second 
lieutenant at the organization of the company. Served with his 
company until January 13, 1863, when he resigned and returned 
to Pekin, 111., where he now resides. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT EDWIN D. LAMPITT, aged twenty- 
one, single; enlisted from Pekin, was chosen first sergeant at the 
organization of the company, and promoted to be second lieuten- 
ant January 13, 1863. He resigned October 10, 1863, during the 
siege of Chattanooga, Tenn. 

FIRST SERGEANT WILLIAM KELLEY, aged thirty-four, 
single, boatman; enlisted from Pekin, was chosen sergeant at the 
organization of the company, promoted first sergeant, served with 
his company until the close of the war and was mustered out with 
the regiment. 

SERGEANT FRANCIS M. McCOLGAN enlisted from Pekin, 
single, farmer, was chosen sergeant at the organization of the 
company and was commissioned first lieutenant, but the company 
was below the minimum and he was never mustered. He was cap- 



422 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

tured, shot and left for dead by his inhuman captors at Louisville, 
Ga., November 30, 1864, but recovered, served to the close of the 
war and was honorably discharged. He resides at East Las Vegas, 
New Mexico. 

SERGEANT WILLIAM JOHNSON, aged twenty-six, single, 
farmer; enlisted from Pekin, was chosen sergeant at the organi- 
zation of the company, served to the close of the war, and was 
mustered out with the regiment as a private. 

SERGEANT WILLIAM BELONG, aged twenty-four, single, 
farmer, enlisted from Spring Bay, was chosen corporal at the or- 
ganization of the company, promoted sergeant, served until the 
close of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. 

SERGEANT JOHN O'BRIEN was born in Peoria, 111., in 1845, 
and was a farmer when he enlisted from Princeville, in Stark 
county. He was chosen corporal at the organization of the com- 
pany, promoted sergeant, served with his company until the close 
of the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. He re- 
moved to Colorado in 1872 and engaged in the livery business in 
Boulder. He served as county assessor, constable and as a mem- 
ber of the city council. He died January 13, 1892, leaving a widow 
who resides at No. 1479 Pine street, Boulder, Colo. 

SERGEANT WILLIAM EARP, aged thirty-four, single, farmer, 
enlisted from Pekin, was promoted sergeant, served with his com- 
pany until captured at Louisville, Ga., November 30, 1864, and 
shot down in cold blood by his inhuman captors. He died during 
the night. 

SERGEANT HENRY AMSLER was born in Spring Bay, Wood- 
ford county, Illinois, December 5, 1838, was single and a farmer 
when he enlisted from his native town. He was promoted ser- 
geant November 30, 1864, served with his company until the close 
of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. He returned 
to his former home and resumed farming, but in 1881 he removed 
to Pontiac, Livingston county, Illinois, where he now resides. 

SERGEANT DAVID HAMILTON, son of Jonathan Hamilton 
and Harriet Ro, was born in Piqua county, Ohio, October 14, 1838, 
and with his parents removed to Iowa and settled on a farm in 
Louisa county in 1842. David and his brother, Reuben, were work- 
ing at Brimfield, Peoria county, Illinois, when they enlisted. David 



ROSTER OF COMPANY F. 423 

was promoted to be sergeant, and served with his company until 
killed in the battle of Jonesboro, Ga., September 1, 1864. 

CORPORAL EDWARD SCATTERGOOD, aged nineteen, en- 
listed from Pekin and was chosen corporal at the organization of 
the company, was color corporal and was carrying the battle flag 
when severely wounded at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, 
July 19, 1864; fell into, the hands of the enemy and died in prison 
at Blackshear, Ga., about December 1, 1864. He was erroneously 
marked mustered out with the regiment, and so appears in the 
adjutant general's report. 

CORPORAL NATHAN KELLOGG, aged eighteen, farmer; en- 
listed from Pekin, was chosen corporal at the organization of the 
company and served until severely wounded at the battle of Peach 
Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. He fell into the hands of the 
enemy and died at Griffin, Ga. His remains are buried at No. 4249 
in the national cemetery at Marietta, Ga. He, too, was erron- 
eously reported as mustered out with the regiment. 

CORPORAL DAVID STRADFORD, aged thirty-five, single, 
farmer; enlisted from Spring Bay, was chosen corporal at the or- 
ganization of the company. Served until the close of the war and 
was mustered out with the regiment. Is reported dead by the pen- 
sion office. 

CORPORAL GEORGE DEFORD, aged eighteen, farmer; en- 
listed from Princeville, in Stark county, was chosen corporal at the 
organization of the company and served until drowned in the Ten- 
nessee river, October 19, 1863. (See Chapter XI.) 

CORPORAL R. S. SCRIVENS, aged twenty-six, married, farm- 
er; enlisted from Spring Bay, in Woodford county, was chosen 
corporal at the organization of the company and was discharged 
for disability, December 4, 1862. 

CORPORAL PHILIP BECK, aged nineteen, farmer; enlisted 
from Pekin, was chosen corporal at the organization of the com- 
pany and served until killed at the battle of Peach Tree creek, 
Georgia, July 19, 1864. 

CORPORAL LEVI CLIFTON was born in Vermillion county, 
Indiana, March 8, 1845, and with his parents removed to Illinois in 
1849. He enlisted from Spring Bay, in Woodford county, was pro- 
moted corporal and was slightly wounded at the battle of Mission 
Ridge. Served to the close of the war and was mustered out with 



424 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

the regiment. He removed to Nebraska in 1878 and settled in 
Knox county, where he served two terms as county commissioner. 
He is now farming near Franklin, Franklin county, Nebraska. 

CORPORAL WILLIAM DEAN was born in Mercer, Mercer 
county, Pennsylvania, in April, 1844, and removed with his parents 
to Illinois in 1858. He was promoted to be corporal, was slightly 
wounded in the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864, 
and was mustered out with the regiment. He returned to Illinois 
and engaged in farming, and resides at M'anito, Mason county. 

CORPORAL JOHN HODGE was born in Spring Bay, Woodford 
county, Illinois, January 2, 1844; enlisted from his native town, 
was promoted corporal, served to the close of the war and was 
mustered out with the regiment. After final discharge he returned 
to his former home, where he has been engaged in farming to the 
present time. He is at present alderman of Spring Bay, 111. 

CORPORAL GEORGE PILLSBURY, aged twenty-four, single, 
merchant; enlisted from Pekin, and was born in Tazewell county. 
He was promoted corporal, served to the close of the war and was 
mustered out with the regiment. He is an inmate of the Soldiers' 
Home at Quincy, 111. 

CORPORAL B. F. VARNUM, aged eighteen, farmer; enlisted 
from Pekin, was promoted corporal and was wounded in right 
hand at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864, but 
continued to serve with his company to the close of the war and 
was mustered out with the regiment. 

DRUMMER ABRAHAM BURT enlisted from Spring Bay, Taze- 
well county, Illinois, and was made drummer. Served through the 
Kentucky campaign, and was discharged for disability at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., January 15, 1863. When last heard from he was re- 
siding in Peoria, 111. 

WAGONER JOHN WOLF, aged thirty-three, single, mechanic; 
enlisted from Pekin as wagoner and served in that capacity until 
his health failed. He was discharged at Jefferson barracks, Mis- 
souri, March 6, 1864, for disability. 

WILLIAM BIRD, aged nineteen, miner; enlisted from Pekin. 
Served until the close of the war and was mustered out with the 
regiment. Is said to be living at Scales Mound, Jo Davies county, 
Illinois. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY F. 425 

JAMES F. BURT was born in Ripley, Brown county, Ohio, De- 
cember 3, 1845, and was a farmer residing at Spring Bay, Wood- 
ford county, Illinois, when he enlisted. He was wounded in the 
assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864, but recov- 
ered and served to the close of the war, and was mustered out with 
the regiment. Is a farmer and resides since 1889 at Litchfleld, 
Montgomery county, Illinois. 

DAVID BOYER, aged twenty-two, single, farmer; enlisted from 
Pekin, served through the Kentucky campaign and was discharged 
for disability January 19, 1863. Is said to reside near Delavan, 
Tazewell county, Illinois. 

JOHN BAGGS, aged nineteen, farmer; enlisted from Spring 
Bay, Woodford county, Illinois. Served until the close of the war 
and was mustered out with the regiment. He is supposed to be 
living at Sparland, Marshall county, Illinois. 

D. A. BRANDON, aged thirty-five, single, farmer; enlisted from 
Spring Bay, Woodford county, Illinois, and served with his com- 
pany until killed in the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, 
June 27, 1864. Is buried at No. 8759 in the national cemetery at 
Marietta, Ga. 

P. D. CLEVELAND, aged thirty-five, single, farmer; enlisted 
from Pekin. Served through the Kentucky campaign, but his 
health failed and he died February 4, 1863. 

DAVID CRAIG, aged forty-one, single, boatman; enlisted from 
Pekin. Served until the close of the war and was mustered out 
with the regiment. His death is reported by the pension office 
under date of July 20, 1894. 

JAMES CAREY, aged thirty-eight, single; enlisted from Pekin. 
Served with his company until severely wounded at Buzzard Roost, 
Georgia, February 25, 1864, was sent to the hospital at Nashville, 
Tenn., where he died March 11, 1864. Is buried at No. 1490 in the 
national cemetery near that city. 

JAMES J. CHEAL, aged ; enlisted from Pekin. Served 

with his company through the Kentucky campaign, and w"as trans- 
ferred to the invalid corps at Nashville, Tenn., September 7, 1863, 

JOHN J. CLARK, aged twenty-five, farmer; enlisted from 
Pekin. Served with his company until captured at the battle 
of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864; was held in various 

26 



426 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

rebel prisons until the close of the war and was honorably dis- 
charged at Springfield, 111., June 17, 1865. 

JAMES COMBS, aged twenty-one, single, farmer; enlisted from 
Pekin. Served until the close of the war and was mustered out 
with the regiment. Is an inmate of the Soldier's Home at Quincy, 
Illinois. 

ROBERT DRIVER, aged thirty, married, farmer; enlisted from 
Spring Bay, and died at Louisville, Ky., September 29, 1862. 

JOHN DUBOIS, aged nineteen; enlisted from Spring Bay. 
Served through the Kentucky campaign and was transferred to the 
invalid corps at Nashville, Tenn., September 7, 1863. 

WILLIAM DEFORD, aged twenty-one, farmer; enlisted from 
Spring Bay. Served through the Kentucky campaign, and died at 
Nashville, Tenn., April 18, 1863. 

LEANDER DEVALL deserted October 20, 1862. 

JAMES FRANK, aged twenty-one, farmer; enlisted from 
Pekin. No record after muster-in. 

JOSEPH FORNER, aged thirty, single, boatman; enlisted from 
Pekin. Served with his company until killed at Buzzard Roost, 
Georgia, February 25, 1864. He was born in France. 

NICHOLAS FULTZ, born in Germany. Deserted October 11, 
1862. 

PHILIP GABRIEL, aged eighteen, farmer; enlisted from 
Spring Bay. Served with his company until the close of the war 
and was mustered out with the regiment. 

ANDREW GABRIEL, aged twenty-one, single, farmer; enlisted 
from Spring Bay. Served through the Kentucky campaign, and 
was discharged at Nashville, Tenn., for disability, January 20, 
1863. 

HUGH GEHAGAN, aged twenty-nine, single, farmer; enlisted 
from Spring Bay; served with his company until the close of the 
war and was mustered out with the regiment. He fell overboard 
just below Cincinnati and was drowned in the Ohio river. (See 
Chapter XXV.) 

ROBERT GRIG or GREGG, aged thirty-six, married, farmer; 
enlisted from Spring Bay. Served through the Kentucky cam- 



ROSTER OF COMPANY F. 427 

paign and was discharged for disability at Nashville, Tenn., March 
31, 1863. Reported dead by the pension office. 

JAMES HANKS, aged twenty-five, single, farmer; enlisted from 
Pekin. Served through the Kentucky campaign, and was killed 
by guerrillas near Nashville, Tenn., February 9, 1863. 

HASARD HODGE, aged eighteen, farmer; enlisted from Spring 
Bay. Served through the Kentucky campaign, and was discharged 
at Nashville, Tenn., for disability, January 17, 1863. 

GEORGE HODGE, aged eighteen, farmer; enlisted from Spring 
Bay. Served through the Kentucky campaign, and died at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., June 17, 1863. Is buried at No. 3546 in the national 
cemetery near that city. 

ALEXANDER HODGE, aged eighteen, farmer; enlisted from 
Spring Bay and served with his company until killed in the assault 
on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. 

REUBEN HAMILTON was born in Piqua county, Ohio, April 
11, 1834, and removed with his parents, Jonathan Hamilton and 
Harriet Ro, to Iowa in 1842 and settled on a farm in Louisa 
county. He enlisted from Brimfield in Peoria county, Illinois, and 
served with his company to the close of the war and was mustered 
out with the regiment. He was wounded in the right leg and left 
thigh at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, but returned to 
duty in time for the battle of Jonesboro, Ga., where his brother, 
Sergeant David Hamilton, was killed. He is a blacksmith, but 
unable to work at his trade, and for several years has been an in- 
mate of the Soldiers' Home at Quincy, 111. 

HENRY HENFLING, aged twenty, farmer; enlisted from 
Spring Bay. His health failed early in the Kentucky campaign, 
and he died at Harrodsburg, Ky., October 24, 1862. 

F. S. HENFLING, aged twenty- two, married, farmer; enlisted 
from Spring Bay. Served in the Kentucky campaign until acci- 
dentally wounded near Crab Orchard. How the accident occurred 
none ever knew. A gun was discharged, Henfling was shot through 
the leg and sent to the hospital at Danville, where he died Novem- 
ber 1, 1862. Is buried at No. 80 in the national cemetery at Dan- 
ville, Ky. 

AMERICUS HINSEY, aged twenty-two, single, farmer; enlisted 
from Groveland. Served with his company until severely 



428 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

wounded in the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. 
His left leg was broken by a gun shot and amputated and he was 
discharged for wounds from the hospital at Chicago, 111., soon after 
the close of the war. When last heard from he was an inmate of 
the Soldiers' Home at Dayton, Ohio. 

LEVI HORTON appears to have enlisted June 21 and to have 
been mustered in August 27, 1862, and there the record ends in his 
case. 

EDWARD JONES deserted December 13, 1862. 

MAURICE LANDERER, aged thirty, single, farmer, born in 
Germany and enlisted from Peoria. Served with his company 
until killed at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 
1864. 

CLINTON LOGAN, aged twenty-eight, single, farmer; enlisted 
from Spring Bay, and served with his company until accidentally 
killed by a guard at Atlanta, Ga., September 9, 1864. His remains 
are buried at No. 1162 in the national cemetery at Marietta, Ga. 

JAMES McCABE, aged twenty-nine, single, boatman; enlisted 
from Pekin. Served with his company until the close of the war, 
and was discharged with the regiment. He was a native of Ire- 
land, and is reported to have died December 19, 1888. 

PHILLIP McCABE was born in Ireland October 31, 1845, emi- 
grated to Illinois with his parents in May, 1857, and was a farmer 
when he enlisted from Pekin. He served with his company until 
the close of the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. He 
is an optician and resides at Delavan, Tazewell county, Illinois. 

JOHN MALONEY, aged twenty-one, single, farmer; enlisted 
from Pekin. Served through the Kentucky campaign, and died at 
Nashville, Tenn., January 9, 1863. Is buried at No. 5957 in the 
national cemetery near that city. 

JOHN McQUIN, aged twenty-six, single, farmer; enlisted from 
Pekin. Served until the close of the war and was honorably dis- 
charged May 17, 1865. 

BARNHART NOBLACK, aged twenty, farmer; enlisted from 
Spring Bay and served with his company until severely wounded 
in the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. He 
was removed to the hospital at Nashville, Tenn., where he died 



ROSTER OF COMPANY F. 429 

September 9, 1864. Is buried at No. 14175 in the national cemetery 
near that city. 

FRED W. NEWMAN, aged twenty-five, single, shoemaker, born 
in Germany; enlisted from Spring Bay, 111., and was discharged 
for disability, November 21, 1862. He is reported to have died 
April 2, 1896. 

JOSEPH ORANGE, aged twenty-three, single, farmer, born ,in 
Germany and enlisted from Spring Bay, 111. He served with his 
company until his health failed and died at McAffee Church, Ga., 
March 28, 1864. Is buried at No. 11140 in the national cemetery 
at Chattanooga, Tenn. 

OUR MIKE, aged thirty-eight, single, farmer, born in Ger- 
many; enlisted from Spring Bay, 111. Served through the Ken- 
tucky campaign, and died at Nashville, Tenn., February 8, 1863. 
His remains are buried at No. 6557 in the national cemetery at 
Nashville, Tenn. 

WILLIAM PHILLIPS, aged twenty-seven, single, farmer; en- 
listed from Spring Bay. Served with his company until the close 
of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. He was re- 
ported living at Newport, Jackson county, Arkansas, but a letter 
directed to that address was returned unclaimed. 

ISAAC PHILLIPS, aged twenty-nine, married, farmer; enlisted 
from Spring Bay and was discharged for disability January 30, 
1863. 

THOMAS PHILLIPS, aged twenty-nine, married, farmer; en- 
listed from Spring Bay. Served with his company until the close 
of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. 

H. B. PARKS, aged thirty, single, farmer; enlisted from Spring 
Bay and was discharged for disability, January 16, 1863. 

WILLIAM QUINLIN, aged twenty-nine, single, farmer; en- 
listed from Peoria. Served in the Kentucky campaign until the 
command reached Bowling Green, when he was sent to the hos- 
pital. He was discharged for disability from that place, May 21, 
1863. After the close of the war he returned to Ireland, the land 
of his birth, and died there October 1, 1894. 

MATTHEW RILEY, aged forty, single, farmer; enlisted from 
Pekin, and served with his company until killed in the assault on 



430 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. He was born In Ire- 
land; was of fine appearance, and made a splendid soldier. 

MARTIN RYAN, aged twenty-five, married, farmer; enlisted 
from Pekin. He deserted September 8, 1862. 

MICHAEL RHOADES, aged twenty-eight, married, farmer; en- 
listed from Pekin. Served with his company until drowned in the 
Tennessee river, October 19, 1863. (See Chapter XI.) His re- 
mains were recovered and are buried at No. 11830, in the national 
cemetery at Chattanooga, Tenn. 

WILLIAM SPILLMAN was born in Switzerland, May 14, 1836, 
emigrated to Illinois, and was a farmer in Woodford county when 
he enlisted from Spring Bay. He served with his company through 
all the campaigns in which the regiment was engaged, and was 
mustered out with the regiment. He returned to his former home 
at Spring Bay and resumed farming. Has been president of the 
school board for nine years, and also served as tax collector. His 
address is Spring Bay, Woodford county, Illinois. 

HENRY STALDER, aged twenty, farmer, born in Germany, and 
enlisted from Spring Bay, 111. He died in Louisville, Ky., October 
12, 1862. 

JOHN THOMPSON, aged forty-one, married, farmer, born in 
England, and enlisted from Pekin, 111. He was discharged for dis- 
ability at Louisville, Ky., March 7, 1863. 

JOEL F. TERRY, aged eighteen, farmer; enlisted from Spring 
Bay. Served with his company until captured at the battle of 
Peach Tree creek, Georgia. He was held in various rebel prisons 
until the close of the war, and was honorably discharged June 17, 
1865. Is supposed to be living at Oronoque, Norton county, 
Kansas. 

ANTOINE TONEY, aged forty, single, farmer; enlisted from 
Spring Bay, and after muster-in, the record is silent concerning 
him. 

BENJAMIN TANGARD, aged twenty-four, married, farmer; 
enlisted from Groveland. Served with his company until the close 
of the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. Is supposed 
to be living at Western, Saline county, Nebraska. 

MATTHEW L. WRIGLEY was born in Saybrook, Middlesex 
county, Connecticut, August 9, 1842; removed to Illinois, and was 



ROSTER OF COMPANY F. 431 

a farmer when he enlisted from Pekin, 111. He served with his 
company until captured in the battle of Chickamauga, Ga., Septem- 
ber 20, 1863; was held in various rebel prisons until the close of 
the war, and was honorably discharged July 22, 1865. He returned 
to Illinois, but removed to Missouri in 1867, and to Oklahoma at 
the opening. He has been postmaster at Alvaretta, and is at pres- 
ent a merchant of that place. His address is Alvaretta, Woods 
county, Oklahoma. 

FITZHUGH WESTNOUR, aged twenty-one, farmer; enlisted 
from Peoria, and served with his company until April 1, 1865, when 
he was transferred to the invalid corps. He was honorably dis- 
charged from that organization, at Washington, D. C., June 28, 
1865. 

EDWARD WARNER, aged eighteen, farmer; enlisted from 
Spring Bay. Served with his company until near the close of the 
war, but was sick in the hospital at Chicago, 111., when the regi- 
ment was mustered out. He was honorably discharged a few days 
later. 

W. WARNER, aged thirty- three; appears on the roll, but no 
further record has been found. 

WILLIAM WHITNEY, aged twenty-four; enlisted June 16, and 
was mustered in August 27, 1862, but beyond these facts no record 
can be found. 

ALEXANDER WOODCOCK, aged thirty-three, married, farm- 
er; enlisted from Spring Bay, and died at New Albany, Ind., Octo- 
ber 11, 1862. Is buried at No. 1096, in the national cemetery near 
that city. 

G. H. WILSON, aged twenty-nine; enlisted June 21, and was 
mustered in with the regiment, and here the record stops. 

JACOB WHITTAKER, aged eighteen, farmer; enlisted from 
Pekin, 111. Served with his company until wounded at Peach 
Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. He recovered so as to return 
to duty and was mustered out with the regiment. He removed to 
California and settled at Clear Creek, Butte county, where he died 
several years since, from the effects of his wound. His remains 
are buried in the cemetery at Clear Creek, Cal. 

JOHN BASS, recruit supposed to have belonged to the com- 
pany, but the record is silent beyond the statement that he en- 
listed from Pekin. 



432 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

PHILLIP BRICKEL, recruit that seems to have belonged to 
the company, and who was transferred by order of the secretary 
of war, May 18, 1865, to Company C, Sixteenth Illinois infantry, 
and mustered out with that regiment July 8, 1865. He is supposed 
to be living at Alexandria, Thayer county, Nebraska. 

WILLIAM EHART, deserted on the day he was mustered into 
the service. 

JAMES ROSS, recruit; no date of enlistment or muster. Killed 
by guerrillas near Nashville, Tenn., February 8, 1863. 

JOHN TURNER, died at Louisville, Ky., October 12, 1862. 



SKETCH OF COMPANY G. 433 



CHAPTER XXXIIJ. 



So many of the young men from the south part of 
Fulton county had entered the army in 1861 that few 
were so sanguine as to expect that more than one com- 
pany could be raised in and around Astoria when recruit- 
ing began in the summer of 1862. But by the middle of 
August enough had enlisted to form two full companies. 

Company G was enrolled by the Hon. S. P. Cum- 
mings between the nth and i6th of August, the nucleus 
of the company being the overflow from Company H, it 
having been the first organized. At the organization of 
the company the following commissioned officers were 
elected: William McClelland, captain; Lafayette Cur- 
less, first lieutenant, and John M. Robertson, second 
lieutenant. 

The record shows that 20 of the officers and men be- 
longing to this company were hit with shot or shell in 
battle, 8 of whom were killed, i died of wounds, while 1 1 
received wounds which did not prove fatal while in the 
service, 9 died of disease, 1 1 were discharged for disabil- 
ity, 1 6 were transferred and 36 went home together 
when the regiment was disbanded. 

The company was commanded by officers who were 
brave and enterprising, and, for genuine loyalty and de- 
votion to duty, Company G was the peer of any organi- 
zation in the service. While the writer feels that his 
heart is big enough to take in the whole of the Eighty- 
fifth, there will always be a warm corner reserved for the 
"boys of Company G." The following is 



434 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

THE COMPANY ROSTER. 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM McCLELLAND, aged thirty-eight, born 
in Jefferson county. Ohio, but for many years had been residing on 
a farm near Astoria, 111. He was active in recruiting the com- 
pany, and at its organization was elected captain. He commanded 
the company through the Kentucky campaign, and at the battle of 
Perryville, Ky., his actions proved that he was not lacking in 
courage. But the hardships of the campaign which ended at 
Nashville, Tenn., undermined his health, and he resigned his com- 
mission on December 21, 1862. He returned to his farm near As- 
toria, 111., where he died November 24, 1889, his death resulting 
from injuries received from falling down stairs. 

CAPTAIN HENRY S. LA TOURRETTE was born in Somerset 
county, New Jersey, January 24, 1824; removed with his parents 
to Ohio in 1831, and to Illinois in 1841, and settled on a farm near 
Canton, in Fulton county. He crossed the plains to Denver, Col., 
in 1859, and later made a trip to California. In 1860, he estab- 
lished a cattle ranch near Fort Union, N. M., which was becoming 
profitable at the breaking out of the rebellion. He then sold his 
claim and stock, taking notes for the proceeds of sale, which were 
never paid, and returned to Illinois for the purpose of entering 
the army. He enlisted from Astoria as a private, and was pro- 
moted to be captain December 21, 1862. He commanded the com- 
pany until severely wounded in the assault on Kennesaw Moun- 
tain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. This wound made necessary the am- 
putation of his right arm near the shoulder, and ended his career 
with the company. He was honorably discharged July 1, 1865, 
and went to New Orleans, La., where he was keeper of bonded 
stores for ten years. He was in the internal revenue service at 
St. Louis, Mo., for six years, but is now residing at Winchester, 
Scott county, Illinois. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT LAFAYETTE CURLESS was born in 
Brown County, Ohio, and enlisted from Bluff City, Schuyler 
county, Illinois, at the age of twenty-six. He was married, and a 
farmer, was elected first lieutenant at the organization of the com- 
pany, participated in the battle of Perryville, Ky., and served with 
the company until the army arrived at Bowling Green, Ky., where 
he resigned his commission and returned home. He was mur- 
dered in Bluff City, 111.. May 7, 1886. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN M. ROBERTSON was born in 




r>. L, MUSSKLMAN, 

QUINCV. II. I.., 18OO. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY G. 435 

Woodland, Fulton county, Illinois, in 1839, was married, and enlist- 
ed from his native township. He was elected second lieutenant at 
the organization of the company, and promoted to be first lienten- 
ant November 12, 1862. He participated in all the campaigns and 
battles in which the regiment was engaged, until severely wounded 
by a gunshot through the thigh, in the assault on Kennesaw 
Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. This ended his service with the 
company, as upon recovery he was assigned to duty in the com- 
missary department, where he remained until the close of the war. 
He was mustered out June 5, 1865, and returned to his former 
home in Illinois. His health began to fail a few years later, and 
he made a trip over the old battlefields, going as far south as 
Florida, in 1880. But his search for health availed not, and he 
died near Astoria, 111., February 20, 1881. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT DE LAFAYETTE MUSSELMAN, son 
of George Musselman and Sarah A. Saffer, was born in a log 
cabin, in Fulton county, 111., April 21, 1842. He can justly claim 
to come from patriotic stock, as his father enlisted in Company E, 
Twenty-seventh Illinois Volunteer Infantry at the breaking out of 
the rebellion, and served his full term of three years. The sub- 
ject of this sketch attended the Fulton Seminary at Lewistown, 
111., during the winters of 1859 and 1860, enlisted from Woodland, 
and was chosen first sergeant at the organization of the com- 
pany. He was promoted second lieutenant November 12, 1862, and 
served under that commission to the end of the war. 

He was slightly wounded in the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, 
Georgia, June 27, 1864, but remained on duty, assumed command 
of the company, and continued in command until after the fall of 
Atlanta, when he received a twenty days' furlough to visit home. 
He left the company at Athens, Ala., and on the day he arrived at 
Chattanooga on his return, communications between that point 
and Sherman's army were destroyed. He was then assigned to 
duty as assistant adjutant general on the staff of Colonel Dilworth, 
who was assigned to command the post at Cleveland, Tenn. 
He served in that position until the following spring, when he 
rejoined the company at Goldsboro, N. C., and resumed command. 
He participated in all the battles in which the regiment was en- 
gaged, commanded the company from Goldsboro to Washington, 
and was mustered out with the regiment. 

He returned to Illinois at the close of his service, attended 
business college at Chicago, and taught one year in that city. In 



436 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

1867, he went to Quincy, 111., where he taught in the Bryant & 
Stratton Business College and the Quincy English and German 
College. In 1870, he purchased an interest in the Gem City Busi- 
ness College of Quincy, and a few years later became the sole 
owner. Under his careful, energetic management, this has be- 
come one of the most successful business colleges in America, 
numbering 800 to 900 students annually, thirty-four states and ter- 
ritories being represented among its students. 

FIRST SERGEANT LEWIS S. POST, aged thirty-eight, born 
in Elizabethtown, Essex county, New York, single, millwright; 
enlisted from Hickory, 111. Was chosen sergeant at the organiza- 
tion of the company. Served throifgh the Kentucky and Murfrees- 
boro campaigns, but his health failed and he was transferred to 
the Veteran Reserve corps, at Nashville, Tenn., August 27, 1863. 
He was honorably discharged from that organization at the close 
of the war. When last heard from was residing at 235 Oneida 
street, Pueblo, Col. 

FIRST SERGEANT HENRY J. ATEN was born October 12, 
1841, on a farm near Astoria, Fulton county, Illinois, on which his 
parents, Richard Aten and Ann Peterson, of Brook county, Vir- 
ginia, had settled in the spring of 1840. His paternal and maternal 
ancestors were from Holland; both his great grandfathers served 
the colonies in the War of the Revolution, and his maternal grand- 
father was a soldier in the war of 1812. He first enlisted August 8, 
1861, in Company H, Twenty-eight Illinois Infantry, and served 
until discharged at Grand Junction, Miss., June 19, 1862, for dis- 
ability resulting from an attack of typhoid pneumonia. He again 
enlisted August 12, 1862, and was chosen corporal at the organiza- 
tion of Company G, was promoted sergeant at Bowling Green, 
Ky., December 12, 1862, and first sergeant February 17, 1863, at 
Nashville, Tenn. He participated in all the battles and campaigns 
in which the command was engaged; commanded the com- 
pany from Atlanta to the sea, and was mustered out with 
the regiment. Returning to Illinois at the end of his service, he 
worked on the old homestead until the autumn of 1866, attended 
business college at Chicago, and began teaching bookkeeping in 
the business college at Quincy, 111., the following spring. He 
taught and kept books until the spring of 1870, when he went to 
Kansas and engaged in the real estate and loan business at Hia- 
watha, in Brown county. He married Miss Maria L. Burbige, of 
Quincy, 111., September 15, 1870, and has two daughters the issue 



ROSTER OF COMPANY G. 437 

of this marriage. Has served as clerk of the district court, mayor 
of Hiawatha, and was appointed by President Harrison to nego- 
tiate with the Pottawatomie and Kickapoo Indians for the allot- 
ments of their lands in severalty. Later he was appointed special 
agent and allotted lands to the members of both tribes. For ten 
years past he has been vice-president of the Society of the Army 
of the Cumberland for Kansas. Is the writer of the history in 
which this sketch appears, and resides at Hiawatha, Kan. 

SERGEANT W. IRVING SHANNON was born in Coshocton 
county, Ohio, in 1842, and removed with his parents to Illinois in 
1850, where they settled on a farm near Astoria, in Fulton county. 
He first enlisted October 12, 1861, in Company G, Fifty-fifth Illi- 
nois Infantry, and was severely wounded at the battle of Shiloh, 
Tenn., and was discharged for disability resulting from wounds, 
June 10, 1862. He again enlisted August 12, 1862, and was chosen 
sergeant at the organization of Company G; served with the com- 
pany until mortally wounded in the assault on Kennesaw Moun- 
tain, Georgia, June 27, 1864, and died before assistance could reach 
him. The remains of this brave veteran soldier are buried at 
No. 8739 in the national cemetery at Marietta, Ga. 

SERGEANT THOMAS HORTON was born in Coshocton coun- 
ty, Ohio, June 27, 1827, removed to Illinois in 1845, and settled on 
a farm near Bluff City, Schuyler county, Illinois. He enlisted 
from Bluff City, was chosen corporal at the organization of the 
company; was promoted to be sergeant; served until the close of 
the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. At the close of 
his service he resumed farming, and died at Bluff City, 111., March 
19, 1869. 

SERGEANT LEWIS P. WRIGHT was born in Harrison county, 
Indiana, March 28, 1844, removed with his parents to Illinois in 
1856, and was a farmer when he enlisted from Kerton, in Fulton 
county. He participated in all the battles and campaigns in which 
the regiment was engaged, was slightly wounded in the assault on 
Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864, was promoted ser- 
geant, and was mustered out with the regiment. At the end of 
the war he returned to Illinois, resumed farming and now resides 
at Enion, Fulton county. 

SERGEANT DANIEL, G. LONGFELLOW, aged twenty-three, 
born in Aroostook county, Maine, was married and a farmer when 
he enlisted from Hickory, Fulton county, Illinois. He was pro- 



438 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

moted sergeant; served with his company through all the cam- 
paigns in which the regiment was engaged, until killed in the 
assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. 

SERGEANT WILLIAM SMITH enlisted from Fulton county, 
Illinois, as a private, was married, and a farmer. Served through 
all the campaigns in which the regiment was engaged, was pro- 
moted sergeant, and mustered out with the regiment. He returned 
to Illinois, and resumed farming, but, if living, his present address 
is unknown. 

SERGEANT WILLIAM R. ROE, aged thirty-five, born in Ken- 
tucky, was married, and a farmer when he enlisted from Wood- 
land, 111. He was chosen corporal at the organization of the com- 
pany, promoted sergeant at Nashville, Tenn., served until the 
close of the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. At the 
end of his service he returned to Illinois, and died at Bluff City, 
June 16, 1885. 

SERGEANT LORENZO D. GOULD was born in Brown county, 
Ohio, and enlisted from Woodland, Fulton county, Illinois, at the 
age of thirty-seven, married, farmer, and was chosen sergeant at 
the organization of the company. He was a very faithful soldier, 
and served with his company until the close of the Atlanta cam- 
paign, when failing health sent him to the hospital. He died at 
Atlanta, Ga., November 1, 1864, and his remains are buried at No. 
7739 in the national cemetery at Marietta, Ga. 

CORPORAL WILLIAM P. BRYANT, deserted at Nashville, 
Tenn., January 10, 1863. 

CORPORAL JOHN F. KENNEDY, aged thirty-four, born in 
Indiana, was married, and a farmer when he enlisted from Ful- 
ton county, Illinois. He was chosen corporal at the organization 
of the company; served with the company until his health failed, 
and he was transferred to the Veteran Reserve corps, September 
21, 1864. He was honorably discharged from that organization at 
Springfield, 111., September 11, 1865. He resides at Astoria, 111. 

CORPORAL ELIAS WHEELER, aged thirty-nine, born in 
Brook county, Virginia, was married, and a farmer when he en- 
listed from Astoria, 111. He was chosen corporal at the organiza- 
tion of the company, but his health soon failed, and he was dis- 
charged for disability August 31, 1863. He returned to Illinois, 
and died April 15, 1889. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY G. 439 

CORPORAL PERRY ADKINSON, deserted January 10, 1863. 
CORPORAL JACKSON SMITH, deserted February 1, 1863. 

CORPORAL JOSEPH CURLESS, aged twenty-seven, born in 
Brown county, Ohio, married, farmer; enlisted from Woodland, 
Fulton county, Illinois. He was promoted corporal, served with 
his company until the close of the war, and was mustered out with 
the regiment. 

CORPORAL PERRY W. CLUPPER was born in Unity, Colum- 
biana county, Ohio, March 11, 1842, and removed with his parents 
to Illinois in 1857. He was a farmer, and enlisted from Schuyler 
county, Illinois. Was promoted corporal; served with the com- 
pany until wounded near Louisville, Ga., November 30, 1864. He 
was captured, shot through the neck, and left for dead by the 
enemy, but recovered, and was mustered out with the regiment. 
He removed to Kansas a few years after the war and engaged in 
farming near Salem, Jewell county, where he still resides. 

CORPORAL PETER W. REVER, aged twenty-eight, was a car- 
penter, born in Manheim, York county, Pennsylvania, and enlisted 
from Woodland, in Fulton county, Illinois. He was promoted cor- 
poral, and served with his company until the assault on Kenne- 
saw Mountain, Georgia, when he was undoubtedly killed or cap- 
tured and died in the hands of the enemy. It seems proba'ble that 
he leaped the enemy's works, and in so doing received wounds 
from which he died. Others saw him almost up to the works, but 
the only report that could ever be made in his case, was that most 
unsatisfactory one, "Missing in action June 27, 1864." 

CORPORAL DANIEL SANDIDGE was born in McDonough 
county, Illinois, January 27, 1840, was married, and a farmer when 
he enlisted from Oakland, in Schuyler county. He participated in 
all the battles and campaigns in which the regiment was engaged, 
and was mustered out with the regiment. He was promoted cor- 
poral and mustered out as such. Upon his return to Illinois, he 
engaged in farming, and for many years has resided near Mt. Ster- 
ling, in Brown county. 

CORPORAL JOHN SHORES, aged twenty-seven, was born in 
Coshocton county, Ohio, married, and a farmer, when he enlisted 
from Woodland, Fulton county, Illinois. He was promoted cor- 
poral, and served with his company until killed in the assault on 



440 HISTORY OF THE 8STH ILLINOIS. 

Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. Is buried at No. 928R 
in the national cemetery at Marietta, Ga. 

CORPORAL ALEXANDER R. TIDRICK was born in Birming- 
ham, Guernsey county, Ohio, March 12, 1839, and enlisted as a 
farmer from McDonough county, Illinois. He was promoted cor- 
poral; served with his company in all the battles in which the reg- 
iment was engaged, was promoted corporal, and was mustered out 
with the regiment. He was slightly wounded in the assault on 
Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. He is a carpenter 
and builder, and resides at Astoria, 111. 

MUSICIAN SAMUEL SIMMERS, deserted October 5, 1862. 
MUSICIAN RALPH E. LINE, deserted November 8, 1862. 

WAGONER GEORGE COOPER was born at Millersburg, 
Holmes county, Ohio, November 22, 1839, removed with his parents 
to Illinois, and settled on a farm near Astoria, in 1846. He en- 
listed as a farmer from Astoria and was appointed wagoner, serv- 
ing in that capacity until the close of the war. He was wounded in 
a fight at or near Lavergne, Tenn., and was mustered out with the 
regiment. Upon his return to Illinois, he resumed farming near 
Summum, in Fulton county, where he still resides. 

MILES L. ATWATER was born in Sheffield, Ashtabula county, 
Ohio, married, cooper, and enlisted from Woodland, Fulton county, 
Illinois. He served until the close of the war, but under much 
embarrassment at times. He was what was commonly termed 
moon-eyed, a disease of the retina which prevented him from see- 
ing at night, and the writer remembers that his brother, John 
Aten, led him on night" marches. But he served faithfully to the 
end and was mustered out with the regiment. After the war he 
lived near Hamilton, in Hancock county, Illinois, but became 
totally blind. He died April 20, 1898. 

WILLIAM ATWATER, aged twenty, farmer, born in Fulton 
county, Illinois, and enlisted from Woodland. Served through 
the Kentucky campaign until the command arrived at Bowling 
Green, where he was sent to the hospital, and was discharged for 
disability March 1, 1863. Is supposed to reside at Oakwood, Linn 
county, Kansas. 

JOHN ATEN, the second son of Richard Aten and Ann Peter- 
son, and brother of Henry J., was born near Astoria, Fulton 



ROSTER OF COMPANY G. 441 

county, Illinois, August 13, 1843, and enlisted from his native town. 
His paternal and maternal ancestors were from Holland. Both 
his great grandfathers served the colonies in the War of the Revo- 
lution, and his maternal grandfather was a soldier in the War of 
1812. He was wounded early in the battle of Perryville, Ky., 
October S, 1862, but refused to leave the company until the fight 
ended, and then went to the hospital under protest, saying, "It is 
only a scratch!" At the hospital in Louisville, while convales- 
cing, he showed such aptitude for caring for the sick and wounded, 
that he was retained some six months as nurse. At his own 
request he was returned to the company early in the summer of 
1863, and thereafter never missed duty for a single day until the 
close of the war, when he was mustered out with the regiment. 
After his return, he engaged in farming in McDonough county sev- 
eral years, returned to Fulton county, and bought the farm near 
Astoria, 111., on which he now resides. 

PERRY BROWN was born in Pleasantview, Schuyler county, 
Illinois, August 2, 1838, and enlisted from Hickory. He was mar- 
ried, and a farmer. Served until the close of the war, participat- 
ing in all the campaigns in which the command was engaged, and 
was mustered out with the regiment. Is a farmer, and resides at 
Frederick, Schuyler county, Illinois. 

THOMAS BROWN, aged twenty-three, married, farmer, born 
and enlisted from Schuyler county, Illinois. Served until the close 
of the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. Was mounted 
as a scout during part of his service, and was in the party that 
captured the prisoners at Chickamauga, as related in Chapter X. 
He returned to Illinois, resumed farming, but has been dead sev- 
eral years. 

SIMPSON BROWN, aged twenty-six, born and raised in Schuy- 
ler county, Illinois, and enlisted from Browning; farmer. Served 
through the Kentucky campaign, but at Nashville, Tenn., his 
health failed, and he was discharged for disability August 31, 1863. 
He resumed farming upon his return home, but died at Butlerville, 
111., a few years after the close of the war. 

AARON F. BREWER, aged nineteen, born at Taylor, Harrison 
county, Indiana, and enlisted from Woodland, Fulton county, Illi- 
nois. He served with his company until failing health sent him 

to the hospital at McAffee church, Georgia, where he died January 
27 



442 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

22, 1864. Is buried at No. 10397 in the national cemetery at Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn. 

WILLIAM BOYD, aged fifty, born in Franklin county, Pennsyl- 
vania, was married, and enlisted from Astoria, 111. The reports 
show that he died at Lexington, Ky., February 12, 1865, but it 
seems more probable to the writer that his death occurred in 1863. 

JOHN E. BOLIN, aged nineteen, carpenter, born in Fayette 
county, Pennsylvania, and enlisted from Astoria, 111. He served 
through the Kentucky campaign, and died at Nashville, Tenn., 
December 15, 1862. 

STEPHEN L. CASTOR, aged thirty-three, married, farmer, 
born in Campbell county, Kentucky, and enlisted from Kerton, in 
Fulton county, Illinois. He participated in all the battles and 
campaigns in which his company was engaged, and was mustered 
out with the regiment. He returned to farming at his old home, 
but afterward removed to Missouri, where he is supposed to be liv- 
ing, but his address is unknown. 

LORENZO D. CURLESS, aged twenty-four, single, farmer, born 
in Brown county, Ohio, and enlisted from Woodland, in Fulton 
county, Illinois. He served to the close of the war, participating 
in all the campaigns in which the command was engaged, and was 
mustered out with the regiment. He resides near Astoria, 111. 

ALEXANDER CUNNINGHAM, aged twenty-three, single, 
farmer, born in Hancock county, Virginia, and enlisted from 
Browning, 111. He served to the close of the war, taking part in 
all campaigns in which the command was engaged, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. He returned to Browning, 111., mar- 
ried, and removed to Missouri, where he engaged in farming. He 
died at Warsaw, Mo., December 24, 1899. 

JOHN W. DODGE, aged twenty-three, farmer, born in Schuy- 
ler county, Illinois, and enlisted from Astoria. He served to the 
close of the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. He 
returned to Illinois, but his present address is unknown. 

SILAS DODGE, aged twenty-two, single, farmer, born in and 
enlisted from Fulton county, Illinois. He served with his com- 
pany until severely wounded in the assault on Kennesaw Moun- 
tain, Georgia, June 27, 1864, his wound causing the amputation of 
his right arm. He was transferred to the hospital at Chattanooga, 
Tenn., where he died July 9, 1864. 




.T. ATIO*. 



OF THF 

UNIVEHS! T Y of ILLINOIS 



ROSTER OF COMPANY G. 443 

JOHN W. DOUGLAS was born at Leesville, Lawrence county, 
Indiana, December 23, 1841, removed to Illinois and enlisted from 
Woodland, in Fulton county. He served with the company 
through all the battles in which the regiment was engaged, until 
near Atlanta, Ga., when failing health caused his transfer to the 
Veteran Reserve corps. He served in the reserve corps until the 
close of the war, and was honorably discharged in the summer of 
1865. He returned to Illinois and was engaged in farming until 
1880, when he removed to Nebraska. He is a prosperous farmer 
near Tecumseh, Johnson county, Nebraska. 

BENJAMIN F. EDMONDS, deserted October 8, 1862. 

MICHAEL FAWCETT, aged twenty-three, married, farmer, 
born in Knox county, Ohio, and enlisted from Leesburg, 111. Served 
through the Kentucky campaign, and died at Nashville, Tenn., 
April 5, 1863. Is buried at No. 7003, in the national cemetery near 
that city. 

LEVI FAWCETT, aged thirty-five, single, farmer, born in Bel- 
mont county, Ohio, and enlisted from Woodland, 111. Served 
through the Kentucky campaign, and was discharged for disability 
at Nashville, Tenn., June 1, 1863. 

SOLOMON HOLT was born at Rochester, Coshocton county, 
Ohio, January 19, 1839, removed to Illinois in 1860, and enlisted 
from Kerton, in Fulton county. He served to the close of the war, 
participating in all the battles and campaigns in which the com- 
mand was engaged, and was mustered out with the regiment. He 
removed to Missouri soon after the war closed, and engaged in 
farming in Andrew county. He located near Savannah, where he 
still resides. 

DANIEL HAYES, aged thirty-one, married, farmer, born in 
Richland county, Ohio, and enlisted from Hickory, Schuyler 
county, Illinois. His health failed on the Kentucky campaign, 
and he died at Louisville, Ky., December 1, 1862. 

JAMES M. JONES, aged thirty-two, married, farmer, born in 
Drake county, Ohio, and enlisted from Woodland, Fulton county, 
Illinois. He served to the close of the war, taking part in all the 
battles in which the command was engaged, and was mustered out 
with the regiment. He returned to Astoria, 111., and resumed 
farming, and died there October 3, 1898. 



444 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

WILLIAM KELLY, aged thirty, married, farmer, born in Rich- 
land county, Ohio, and enlisted from Schuyler county, Illinois. 
His health failed and he was early sent to the hospital, and was 
discharged for disability, at Indianapolis, Ind., July 18, 1863. He 
died January 15, 1891. 

FRANKLIN KERNS, aged twenty-five, married, farmer, born 
near Astoria, Fulton county, Illinois. Served through the Ken- 
tucky campaign, and died at Nashville, Tenn., April 1, 1863. Is 
buried at No. 3250 in the national cemetery near that city. 

DAVID M. KING was 'born at Milford, Union county, Ohio, 
April 10, 1820, and was married and a farmer when he enlisted 
from Woodland, Fulton county, Illinois. He served through the 
Kentucky campaign, and was discharged for disability at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., April 1, 1863. He returned to Illinois, resumed farm- 
ing, but is now living retired at Bushnell, McDonough county, 111. 

DAVID T. LINE, deserted October 8, 1862. 

CHARLES LAMPERELL, aged eighteen, blacksmith, born in 
Kent county, England, and enlisted from Astoria, 111. He served 
with his company until the close of the war, and was mustered 
out with the regiment. He returned to Astoria and engaged in 
farming, but has been dead for several years. 

HENRY LAFARY, married, farmer, born in Brown county, 
Ohio, April 15, 1833, and enlisted from Woodland, Fulton county, 
Illinois. He served with his company to the close of the war, par- 
ticipated in all the campaigns in which the command was engaged, 
and was mustered out with the regiment. He returned to Illinois, 
resumed farming, and now resides at Smithfield, Fulton county, 
Illinois. 

JOHN LIVINGSTON was born at Astoria, Fulton county, Illi- 
nois, January 28, 1840, and enlisted from his native town. He 
served until the close of the war, taking part in all the engage- 
ments in which the command was engaged, and was mustered out 
with the regiment. He was wounded in a railroad accident at 
Manchester, Tenn., while on duty as train guard. He is a carpen- 
ter and builder, and resides at Bushnell, McDonough county, Illi- 
nois. 

JAMES S. LEWIS, enlisted from Astoria, was a farmer. Served 
until the close of the war, and was mustered out with the regi- 



ROSTER OF COMPANY G. 445 

ment. He returned to Astoria at the close of the war, and re- 
sumed farming, but for many years he has been in poor health, 
the result of his hard service. He resides at St. Marys, Hancock 
county, Illinois. 

STEPHEN LEVINGSTON, aged twenty-five, deserted October 
5, 1862. 

THOMAS J. LEVINGSTON, aged nineteen, enlisted from 
Astoria, and was discharged for disability at Louisville, Ky., Octo- 
ber 1, 1862. 

ANDERSON McCOMB, aged thirty-seven, married, butcher, 
born in Hickman county, Kentucky, and enlisted from Schuyler 
county, Illinois. He served until the close of the war, and was 
mustered out with the regiment. 

JOHN McKAY, aged twenty-eight, married, farmer, born in 
New York, deserted April 1, 1863. 

THOMAS O'DONNELL deserted at the battle of Perryville, Ky. 
He was killed by being run over by a railway train at Beardstown, 
111., in about 1889. 

WILLIAM PRENTICE, aged thirty-four, married, farmer, born 
in Adair county, Kentucky, and enlisted from Woodland, in Ful- 
ton county, Illinois. He served with his company until the close 
of the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. He was a 
brother of Berry Prentice, killed at Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia. 
He returned to Illinois and resumed farming in Fulton county, and 
died there February 19, 1891. 

BERRY PRENTICE, aged twenty-five, married, farmer, born 
in Adair county, Kentucky, and enlisted from Woodland, Fulton 
county, Illinois. He served with his company through all the 
battles in which it was engaged, until killed in the assault on 
Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. Is buried at No. 8671 
in the national cemetery at Marietta, Ga. 

JOHN N. PARR was born at Heidelburgh, York county, Penn- 
sylvania, February 19, 1838, and was a brickmaker when he en- 
listed from Pleasant, Fulton county, Illinois. He served with his 
company through all the battles and campaigns in which the com- 
mand was engaged, and was mustered out at the close of the war 
with the regiment. He returned to Illinois and engaged in farm- 
ing in Pleasant township, where he has served as member of the 



446 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

county board, and commissioner of highways. His address is 
Summum, Fulton county, Illinois. 

FRANCIS MARION PLANK was born near Astoria, Fulton 
county, Illinois, October 28, 1844, and enlisted from his native 
town. He served with his company until severely wounded at the 
battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia. He received a gun sno* 
through the neck and left leg, which confined him to the hospital 
until the close of the war. He was honorably discharged from the 
hospital at Nashville, Tenn., and returned to his former home in 
Illinois. He removed some years later to Iowa, and engaged in 
farming in Allamokee county, where he resides on a farm of his 
own, free from debt, and contented. His address is Ion, Alla- 
mokee county, Iowa. 

WILLIAM R. PARKER, aged eighteen, born in and enlisted 
from Woodland, Fulton county, Illinois. Served to the close of 
the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. At the close 
of the war he returned to his former home, killed a comrade, and 
left for parts unknown. 

GEORGE POWELL, aged twenty-five, single, farmer, born in 
Adair county, Kentucky, and enlisted from Astoria, Illinois. He 
served with the company until transferred to the Veteran Reserve 
corps March 1, 1864, but his subsequent career is unknown to the 
writer. 

GEORGE W. REED was born at Keen, Coshocton county, Ohio, 
May 31, 1844, and with his parents removed to Illinois in 1859; 
enlisted from Woodland, Fulton county. Served to the close of 
the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. At Nashville, 
Tenn., he was detailed in Battery I, Second Illinois Light Artillery 
and served with the brigade battery until the winter of 1864. He 
returned to Illinois and engaged in farming until August, 1899, 
when he removed to Wood River, Hall county, Nebraska, where 
he now resides. 

LEWIS C. SMITH, aged forty-one, single, farmer.born in Ohio, 
and enlisted from Hickory, Schuyler county, Illinois. Discharged 
for disability at Nashville, Tenn., April 1, 1863. 

HORACE J. SNODGRASS, aged twenty-one, farmer, born in 
Harrison county, Indiana, and enlisted from Kerton, Fulton coun- 
ty, Illinois. He served with his company until instantly killed 
at Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, July 1, 1864. Tired out with 



ROSTER OF COMPANY G. 447 

crouching behind the works, he exposed his head while changing 
position, and a ball passed through his brain. 

JOSEPH B. SHAWGO was born in Zanesville, Ohio, in 1843, 
and with his parents removed to Illinois in 1855; enlisted from 
Browning, 111., and served with his company until mounted at 
brigade headquarters in the summer of 1863. He was one of the 
party of scouts that captured the rebel prisoners on the eve of 
the battle of Chickamauga, Ga., as related in Chapter X. He was 
near Colonel Dan McCook when that officer was mortally wounded 
and carried him from the field. He was still serving as a scout 
when selected to carry a dispatch from General Sherman, then 
at Milledgeville, Ga., to General Thomas, then supposed to be at 
Chattanooga, Tenn. This very difficult and dangerous duty he 
performed, finding and delivering the dispatch to General Thomas 
at Nashville. He then served as orderly on the staff of General 
A. J. Smith, until the close of the war, and was honorably dis- 
charged at Nashville, Tenn. He graduated from Abingdon Col- 
lege, at Abingdon, 111., in 1869, studied medicine, and graduated 
from a medical college, Chicago, 111., in 1877. He began the prac- 
tice of his profession at Quincy, 111., the same year. He has filled 
various positions of trust under city, state and U. S. government, 
and is still practicing his chosen profession at Quincy, 111. 

GEORGE W. SHAWGO, brother of the doctor, born in Zanes- 
ville, Ohio, in 1839, and enlisted from Woodland, Fulton county, 
Illinois. He was discharged at Louisville, Ky., October 1, 1862, 
returned to Illinois, and now resides on a farm near Fandon, 
McDonough county, Illinois. 

ALFRED SMITH, aged twenty-nine, married, farmer, born in 
Smithfield, Jefferson county, Ohio, and enlisted from Rushville, 
111. He served through the Kentucky campaign, but his health 
failed, and he died at Nashville, Tenn., February 16, 1863. Is 
buried at No. 5134, in the national cemetery near that city. 

JAMES N. STEPHENSON, aged twenty, farmer; enlisted from 
Woodland. Served with his company until the close of the war, 
and was mustered out with the regiment. He returned to Fulton 
county, resumed farming, but died soon after his return, near 
Summum, 111. 

MARION SEVERNS enlisted from Woodland, Fulton county, 
Illinois. Served with his company until killed in the assault on 



448 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. He was a cousin of 
William, of Company H, wounded in the same action. 

SOLOMON STILL, aged thirty-one, single, farmer, born in 
Coshocton county, Ohio, and enlisted from Woodland, Fulton 
county, Illinois. He served through the Kentucky campaign, and 
was transferred to the Veteran Reserve corps at Nashville, Tenn. 

SAMUEL STILL, aged twenty-six, single, farmer, born in 
Coshocton county, Ohio, and enlisted from Woodland, Fulton 
county, Illinois. His health failing on the Kentucky campaign, 
he was sent to the hospital at Danville, where he died December o, 
1862. Is buried at No. 49, in the national cemetery at Danville, 
Kentucky. 

ROBERT STILL, aged twenty-eight, married, farmer, born in 
Coshocton county, Ohio, and enlisted from Woodland, Fulton 
county, Illinois. Served through the Kentucky campaign, and was 
discharged for disability, at Nashville, Tenn., April 1, 1863. 
Reported dead. 

JAMES SHIELDS, aged eighteen, born in Fulton county, Illi- 
nois, and enlisted from Woodland. Served with his company 
through all the campaigns in which the regiment was engaged 
until killed in the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 
27, 1864. 

LEWIS SEYMOUR was born in Montreal, Canada, February 20, 
1825, removed to Illinois in 1856, and was a farmer when he en- 
listed from Hickory, Schuyler county. He served with his com- 
pany until transferred to the engineer corps, July 31, 1864, and in 
that organization to the close of the war. He was honorably dis- 
charged at Chattanooga, Tenn., June 24, 1865. He returned to 
Illinois, resumed farming, and resides near Summum, 111. 

AARON THOMAS was born in Clermont county, Ohio, Febru- 
ary 22, 1828, removed to Illinois in 1850, and settled on a farm in 
Fulton county. He enlisted from Woodland. Served with his 
company until June 1, 1863, when he was transferred to the Vet- 
eran Reserve corps at Nashville, Tenn. He was discharged from 
that organization, June 28, 1865, and returned to his former home 
in Illinois. He is now retired and resides at Astoria, 111. 

DAVID THOMAS, aged twenty-five, married, farmer, born in 
Boone, Harrison county, Indiana, and enlisted from Woodland, 



ROSTER OF COMPANY G. 449 

Fulton county, Illinois. Served until the close of the war and was 
mustered out with the regiment. He returned to Illinois and was 
a teamster at Lewistown when he died. His widow resides at 
Lewistown, 111. 

DAVID TAYLOR, aged twenty-two, married, farmer, born in 
Kentucky, and enlisted from Woodland, Fulton county, Illinois. 
He served with his company until the close of the war, and was 
mustered out with the regiment. He was wounded by a gun shot 
in the face at Pumpkin Vine creek, Georgia, but recovered and re- 
turned to duty. His address is unknown to the writer. 

THOMAS J. TATE deserted September 1, 1863. 

JOHN THOMPSON was born in Butlersville, Schuyler county, 
Illinois, February 5, 1845, and enlisted from his native town. In 
the Kentucky campaign a wagon ran over and broke his left foot, 
which disabled him for marching, and he was detailed as an or- 
derly at brigade headquarters, where he served to the close of the 
war and was mustered out with the regiment. He was wounded 
in the battle at Buzzard Roost, Ga., February 25, 1864, by a gun 
shot through the left arm. He was in one more battle than the 
regiment Bentonville, N. C., where he received a shot through his 
pants. He was the first man to reach Cape Fear river, where he 
captured a rebel sergeant, some negroes and a flat boat. He re- 
moved to Missouri in 1871 and began farming in Harrison county. 
Has served as justice of the peace and now resides at Gilman City, 
Harrison county, Missouri. 

BENTON TURNER deserted January 21, 1863. 

GEORGE WORKMAN, aged twenty, born in Schuyler county, 
Illinois, and enlisted from Butlerville. Served with his company 
through the Kentucky campaign, and at Nashville, Tenn., was 
detailed in the scouts at brigade headquarters, where he served to 
the close of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. At 
the end of his service he returned to his former home, where he 
was murdered by one whom he was trying to befriend. 

JOSEPH H. WOODRUFF deserted at Perryville, Ky., October 

8, 1862. 



450 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 



Recruiting for Company H was commenced on July 
3ist, and by the 6th of August, 1862, the first of the two 
companies enlisted at Astoria had been enrolled. As 
with Company G, this company stands on the record as 
having been enrolled by the Hon. S. P. Cummings. At 
the organization of the company the following commis- 
sioned officers were elected : Nathaniel McClelland, 
captain ; Luke Elliott, first lieutenant, and William 
Cohren, second lieutenant. 

During the three years' service 29 of this company 
were hit with shot or shell, 4 of whom were killed in 
action, i died of wounds, 24 received wounds from 
which they recovered or were discharged, 6 officers re- 
signed, ii men died of disease, 24 were discharged, 6 
were transferred, and 45 were present at the final mus- 
ter out. 

Of Company H it may be fairly said that it per- 
formed its full measure of duty, bore its full share of 
hardships and suffered its full proportion of loss. The 
record of the regiment was made brighter by its har- 
monious action in camp and field, by its steady, soldierly 
bearing in battle, and its prompt and intelligent response 
to every call for duty. The following is 

THE COMPANY ROSTER. 

CAPTAIN NATHANIEL McCLELLAND was born in Jefferson 
county, Ohio, January 25, 1826, and with his parents removed to 
Illinois in 1830 and settled on a farm near Astoria, in Fulton 
county. He was a farmer, a ready speaker and frequently occu- 
pied the pulpit of the Methodist church in Astoria and vicinity. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY H. 451 

He assisted in recruiting the company and at its organization was 
elected captain. An elder brother, William, was chosen captain of 
Company G, and a younger brother, Captain Thomas G., had but 
recently lost his life while in command of Company H, Third Illi- 
nois cavalry. Captain McClelland served through the Kentucky 
campaign, participating in the battle of Perryville, October 8, 
1862, but failing health forced him to resign his commission, which 
was accepted November 12, 1862, and he returned home. He en- 
gaged in farming for several years near Astoria, but afterward re- 
moved to Plymouth, in Hancock county, where he died January 14, 
1878. His widow and at least one son now reside at Plymouth, 111. 

CAPTAIN DAVID MAXWELL was born in Jackson county, 
Ohio, March 22, 1822, and removed to Illinois in April, 1844. He 
crossed the plains to California in 1850, returned to Illinois some 
two years later, and was married and a cooper when he enlisted 
as a private from Astoria. He served through the Kentucky cam- 
paign, participated in the battle of Perryville, was promoted to be 
captain November 12, 1862, and commanded the company until 
failing health compelled him to resign at Nashville, Tenn., May 
14, 1863. He returned to Illinois, and has since been engaged in 
farming and fruit growing. He resides near Astoria, Pulton 
county, Illinois. 

CAPTAIN JAMES T. McNEIL was born in Fulton county, Illi- 
nois, January 29, 1838, his parents, David McNeil and Mary Cole, 
natives of New York, having settled in that county in 1828. He 
went to Kansas in 1855, remaining there through the early border 
troubles, and at the breaking out of the War of the Rebellion he 
went to Iowa and enlisted as a private in the regiment commanded 
by Colonel D. S. Moore. He was promoted captain and commanded 
his company at the battle of Athens, Mo. At the expiration of his 
term of service he returned to Illinois and enlisted as a private 
from Astoria. He participated in the battle of Perryville, Ky., 
and was promoted first lieutenant November 12, 1862. He was de- 
tailed as military conductor, and ran the railway trains from 
Nashville to Murfreesboro until relieved at his own request. He 
was promoted captain May 14, 1863, and commanded his company 
until captured, as related in chapter XII. He resumed command 
of the company at McAffee Church, Georgia, and served until the 
close of the Atlanta campaign, when his health, which had not 
been good since his prison experience, forced him to resign. Re- 



452 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

turning to Astoria, 111., he served in the revenue department at 
Peoria, one or more terms, but has never recovered his health. He 
was married to Mary A. Ruble, of Knoxville, Tenn., in 1856, and 
they now reside at Table Grove, Fulton county, Illinois. 

CAPTAIN IRA A. MARDIS was born in Tuscarawas county, 
Ohio, December 25, 1839, attended Granville college at Granville, 
Ohio, removed to Illinois in 1861 and was teaching in Fulton 
county when he enlisted from Woodland. He was chosen first ser- 
geant at the organization of the company, was promoted first lieu- 
tenant May 14, 1862, and to be captain August 29, 1864. He served 
with his company through all the campaigns in which the regi- 
ment was engaged, commanded the company from the time he was 
commissioned captain until the close of the war and was mustered 
out with the regiment. He returned to Illinois and engaged in 
teaching, but some years later removed to Denver, Colo., where he 
died April 21, 1897. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT LUKE ELLIOTT was born in the state 
of New York, June 15, 1815, spent his boyhood in Ohio and re- 
moved to Illinois in 1836. He enlisted from Summum, and at the 
organization of the company was elected first lieutenant. He 
served through the Kentucky campaign, participated in the battle 
of Perryville, October 8, 1862, and resigned at Nashville, Tenn., 
November 21, 1863, for disability. Returning to Summum he was 
appointed enrolling officer and continued in that position until the 
close of the war. He served as mem'ber of the county board from 
Woodland and was justice of the peace for many years. He was a 
shoemaker by trade and continued his occupation at Summum 
until his death, which occurred October 11, 1892. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT ANDREW J. HORTON was born at 
New Castle, Coshocton county, Ohio, October 28, 1835, and removed 
with his parents to Illinois in 1853, locating on a farm in Fulton 
county. He enlisted from Woodland and was chosen sergeant at 
the organization of the company. Was promoted second lieuten- 
ant March 26, 1863, and to be first lieutenant August 29, 1864. He 
was captured in December, 1862, at Lavergne, Tenn., and held pris- 
oner four months. He commanded Company B for a time toward 
the close of the war and was in command of that company when 
it was mustered out. He was mustered out with the regiment and 
returned to his farm, where he still resides. Has served as mem- 



ROSTER OF COMPANY H. 453 

ber of the county board twelve years and filled township offices for 
thirty years. His address is Astoria, 111. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT WILLIAM COHREN, aged thirty-one, 
married, farmer, born in Knox county, Ohio, removed to Illinois, 
and was engaged in farming when he enlisted from Astoria. He 
was elected second lieutenant at the organization of the company, 
participated in the battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8, 1862, and 
upon the arrival of the command at Nashville, Tenn., he resigned 
on account of failing health. He returned to Illinois and resumed 
farming near Astoria. But some years since he removed to Kan- 
sas, and is understood to be farming near Wetmore, Nemaha 
county. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT WASHINGTON M. SHIELDS was 
born in Harrison county, Indiana, May 18, 1830, removed to Illi- 
nois, and was a merchant when he enlisted from Woodland. He 
served through the Kentucky campaign as a private and was pro- 
moted second lieutenant at Nashville, Tenn., November 12, 1862. 
He resigned his commission February 16, 1863, and returned to 
Illinois, where he engaged in dealing in live stock. He served as 
city marshal at Lewistown, and now resides at No. 221 North Glen- 
dale avenue, Peoria, 111. 

FIRST SERGEANT WILLIAM H. McLAREN was born near 
Astoria, Fulton county, Illinois, December 16, 1839, and was a 
farmer when he enlisted from his native town. He served as a 
private through the Kentucky campaign, and was promoted first 
sergeant at Nashville, Tenn., in the summer of 1863, served with 
his company to the close of the war, participated in all the cam- 
paigns in which the command had a part and was mustered out 
with the regiment. On returning to Illinois he resumed farming; 
has served as school trustee, tax collector and member of the 
county board for Astoria township. He now resides in Canton, 
Fulton county, Illinois. 

SERGEANT JOHN B. PALMER was born at Freeman's Land- 
ing, Brook county, Virginia, June 16, 1837, and removed with his 
parents to Illinois in 1852, was teaching when he enlisted from 
Astoria. He was chosen sergeant at the organization of the com- 
pany, served with his company through the Kentucky campaign, 
and in February, 1863, he was detached and became a member of 
Captain Powell's scouts. He served until the close of the war, and 
was mustered out with the regiment. For more than a year of his 



454 HISTORY OF THE 8STH ILLINOIS. 

term of .service he was of the mounted escort to the commander of 
the Fourteenth army corps. He returned to Illinois and resumed 
teaching, but later removed to Kansas, was probate judge of Grant 
county from 1892 to 1896, served a term as vice-commander of the 
Grand Army of the Republic, Department of Kansas, and now re- 
sides at Orondo, Douglas county, Washington. 

SERGEANT ELI SHIELDS, aged twenty-five, married, wheel- 
wright, born in Fulton county, Illinois, and enlisted from Wood- 
land. He served with his company through the Kentucky cam- 
paign, was mounted as a scout at Nashville, Tenn., and was of the 
party that captured the prisoners on the eve of the battle of Chick- 
amauga, returned to duty with his company, and was killed in the 
assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. 

SERGEANT AMOS KINZER was born in Lancaster county, 
Pennsylvania, June 21, 1835, removed to Illinois, and was a farmer 
when he enlisted from Kerton, in Fulton county. He served with 
his company to the close of the war, taking part in all the cam- 
paigns and battles in which the command was engaged, and was 
mustered out with the regiment. He returned to Illinois, where he 
remained until October, 1876, when he removed with his family to 
Kansas and engaged in farming in Sedgwick county. He reared 
a family of boys and girls, who are all grown and doing for them- 
selves. He died February 21, 1893, leaving his wife, Margaret E. 
(Wilson) Kinzer, who still resides at Sedgwick, Kan. 

SERGEANT ANDERSON JENNINGS was born in Williams 
county, Ohio, December 4, 1842, removed to Illinois in 1854, and 
was a farmer when he enlisted from Astoria. He was chosen cor- 
poral at the organization of the company, was promoted sergeant, 
participated in all the campaigns in which the command was en- 
gaged, and was mustered out with the regiment. Returning to 
Illinois, he attended Abingdon college and began teaching. He 
has mined in Mexico, been postmaster and president of the board 
of registration in Arkansas, was elected representative from 
Woodruff county, but was counted out; was justice of the peace, 
and now resides at Wister, Indian Territory. 

SERGEANT ABRAHAM COOPER, aged eighteen, born in Co- 
shocton county, Ohio, removed with his parents to Illinois in 1846, 
and settled on a farm near Astoria, where he enlisted as a tinner. 
He served to,the close of the war, was promoted sergeant and was 
mustered out with the regiment. He returned to Illinois at the 



ROSTER OF COMPANY H. 455 

close of the war, and was working at his trade in Bath, when he 
fell ill with a fever. While recovering, but perhaps not conscious 
of what he did, he was drowned in the Illinois river in about 1866. 

SERGEANT SILAS D. HENDERSON, aged thirty-three, mar- 
ried, farmer, born in Smith county, Tennessee, and enlisted from 
Astoria, 111. He served with his company until the close of the 
war and was mustered out with the regiment. The report of the 
commissioner of pensions states that he died March 30, 1891. 

CORPORAL JOHN T. ZIMMERMAN was born at New Castle, 
Coshocton county, Ohio, December 17, 1841, removed to Illinois in 
1856, was married and a farmer when he enlisted from Astoria, 111. 
He served until the close of the war, was slightly wounded at the 
battle of Chickamauga, Ga., and captured near Columbia, S. C., in 
February, 1865. He was confined in the rebel prison at Salisbury, 
N. C., some thirty-three days, was exchanged and honorably dis- 
charged June 17, 1865. He is a veterinary surgeon and resides at 
Macomb, McDonough county, Illinois. 

CORPORAL GEORGE H. WETZEL was born on a farm near 
Astoria, Fulton county, Illinois, November 24, 1840, and enlisted 
from his native town. He was chosen corporal at the organization 
of the company, served with his company and participated in all 
the battles in which the regiment was engaged until severely 
wounded in the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 
18C4. His wound, a gun shot through the thigh, detained him in 
the hospital until the close of the war and he was honorably dis- 
charged at Springfield, 111., June 7, 1865. He settled on a farm in 
Schuyler county and engaged in stock raising, was collector, com- 
missioner and trustee of his township in Schuyler county and trus- 
tee in Fulton county. He is a prosperous and progressive farmer, 
now residing at Lewistown, Fulton county, Illinois. 

CORPORAL HENRY SHIELDS was born on a farm near As- 
toria, Fulton county, Illinois, May 18, 1841, and enlisted from 
Woodland. Was chosen corporal at the organization of the com- 
pany, served until the close of the war, taking part in all the cam- 
paigns in which the command was engaged and was mustered out 
with the regiment. Sinca the close of his service he has served as 
county commissioner and city marshal. He removed to Washing- 
ton and engaged in merchandising at Centralia, in Lewis county, 
where he now resides. 



456 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

CORPORAL FRANKLIN SHELLY was born at Jennings Gap, 
Augusta county, Virginia, February 11, 1835, removed to Illinois 
in October, 1856, was single and a farmer when he enlisted from 
Astoria, 111. He was chosen corporal at the organization of his 
company, participated in all the campaigns in which the regiment 
was engaged until severely wounded near Atlanta, Ga., in the 
action on the Sandtown road. His was a gun shot wound through 
the shoulder, which disabled him from further service, and he was 
discharged on account of wounds from the United States hospital 
at Camp Butler, 111., March 9, 1865. He resumed farming upon 
his return from the army and now resides at Sheldon's Grove, 
Schuyler county, Illinois. 

CORPORAL DAVID S. SHANK deserted January 3, 1863. 

CORPORAL JOHN W. SWAN, aged twenty-six, blacksmith, 
born in Loudoun county, Virginia, and enlisted from Woodland, 
Fulton county, Illinois. Served until the close of the war and was 
mustered out with the regiment. When last heard from he was 
living at Liberty, Montgomery county, Kansas. 

CORPORAL ELISHA J. ELLIOT, aged nineteen, farmer, born 
in Fulton county, Illinois, and enlisted from Woodland; was 
chosen corporal at the organization of the company and served 
through all the campaigns in which the regiment was engaged 
until killed in the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 
27, 1864. Is buried at No. 9266 in the national cemetery at Mari- 
etta, Ga. 

CORPORAL CHARLES DUNCAN was born at Duncan's Mills, 
Fulton county, Illinois, November 29, 1842, was a farmer and en- 
listed from Woodland. He was promoted corporal; served with 
his company until the close of the war and was mustered out with 
the regiment. At the end of his service he returned to his former 
home, resumed farming and resides at Duncan's Mills, 111. 

CORPORAL THOMAS B. ENGLE was born on a farm near 
Astoria, Fulton county, Illinois, April 7, 1844, and enlisted from his 
native town. He was promoted corporal; served with his com- 
pany through all the campaigns in which the command was en- 
gaged, was wounded at the battle of Jonesboro, Ga., September 1, 
1864, and was mustered out with the regiment. He removed to 
Iowa in 1872, is a prosperous farmer and resides at Coburg, Mont- 
gomery county, Iowa. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY H. 457 

CORPORAL WILLIAM SHIELDS, aged twenty-one, farmer, 
'born in Woodland, Fulton county, Illinois, and enlisted from 
Pleasant. Was promoted corporal, served until the close of the 
war and was mustered out with the regiment. 

CORPORAL SAMUEL THOMPSON was born on a farm near 
Astoria, Fulton county, Illinois, March 6, 1843, and enlisted from 
his native town. He was promoted corporal; served with his com- 
pany to the close of the war, participated in all the battles in 
which the command had a part, and was mustered out with the 
regiment. He removed to Nebraska in 1878, and to Missouri in 
1894. He is engaged in farming, and resides at Lamar, Barton 
county, Missouri. 

MUSICIAN HENRY H.WILSON was born in Langdon, Sullivan 
county, New Hampshire, June 3, 1846, removed with his parents to 
Illinois in April, 1856, and was attending school when he enlisted 
from Astoria. He was appointed musician at the organization of 
the company; served until the close of the war, and was mustered 
out with the regiment. Returning to Astoria he studied medicine, 
graduated from the medical department of the Iowa University at 
Keokuk in 1867 and began the practice of his chosen profession at 
Lindley, Grundy county, Missouri, in 1868. He removed to Mon- 
tana in May, 1899, and is now engaged in the practice of medicine 
at Lewistown, Fergus county, Montana. 

MUSICIAN MARTIN K. DOBSON was born at Summum, Ful- 
ton county, Illinois, March 23, 1843, and enlisted from his native 
town. At the organization of the company he was appointed 
musician; served to the close of the war and was mustered out 
with the regiment. He captured his man on the skirmish line in 
the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia. He resides at Lew- 
istown, 111., where he is engaged as a blacksmith and wagonmaker. 

WAGONER BENJAMIN BOLEN, married, farmer, born in 
Maryland, and enlisted from Astoria, 111. He was detailed wag- 
oner at the outfitting of the company; served through the Ken- 
tucky campaign and was discharged at Nashville, Tenn., for disa- 
bility, January 29, 1863. Supposed to be living at Carrollton, Pick- 
ens county, Alabama. 

JOHN BUSHNELL, aged twenty-four, single, farmer, born in 
Pike county, Illinois, and enlisted from Browning. He served with 
his company until the close of the war, but was sent to the hos- 

28 



458 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

pital at Alexandria, Va., a few days before the regiment was mus- 
tered out, where he died June 15, 1865. His remains are buried at 
No. 3033, in the national cemetery near that city. 

ANANIAS P. BUSHNELL, aged twenty-six, married, farmer, 
born in Indiana; enlisted from Browning, 111. Served to the close 
of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. 

GEORGE W. BARNES, aged thirty-one, married, farmer, born 
in Harrison county, Indiana, and enlisted from Woodland, Fulton 
county, Illinois. He served through the Kentucky campaign, was 
discharged for disability at Nashville, Tenn., January 29, 1863. 
But aboiu the time his discharge arrived he died in the general 
hospital in that city. 

JOEL A. BARNES was born near Astoria, Fulton county, Illi- 
nois, January 6, 1844, spent the early years of his life on a farm, 
and enlisted from Woodland. He participated in all the battles 
in which the command was engaged; served to the close of the 
war, and was mustered out with the regiment. He attended the 
English and German college and the business college at Quincy, 
111.; after the close of his service taught school, read law and was 
admitted to the bar. Has been justice of the peace and served as 
deputy circuit clerk. He resides on his farm at Summum, Fulton 
county, Illinois, deals in stock and serves his clients when they 
are inclined to indulge in the luxuries of the law. 

CHARLES R. BRANSON was born at Mount Pleasant, Jeffer- 
son county, Ohio, January 13, 1836, removed with his parents to 
Illinois in 1839, settled on a farm in Fulton county and enlisted 
from Woodland. He was detached with the ordnance train in the 
Kentucky campaign, but soon returned to duty with his company, 
was slightly wounded at the battle of Mission Ridge, served to the 
close of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. At the 
close of his service he returned to Illinois; has been school trustee 
and is a merchant, residing at Ipava, Fulton county, Illinois. 

HENRY BLOOMFIELD, aged twenty-five, married, farmer, 
born in Butler county, Ohio, and enlisted from Woodland, Fulton 
county, Illinois. He served through the Kentucky campaign, was 
wounded at the battle of Perryville, October 8, 1862, and died in 
general hospital No. 14 at Nashville, Tenn., February 11, 1863. 

JOHN CUNNINGHAM, aged twenty-six, single, farmer, born in 
Hancock county, Virginia, removed to Illinois, and enlisted from 



ROSTER OF COMPANY H. 459 

Vermont. He served in the Kentucky campaign until the army 
reached Bowling Green, where he died in the hospital November 
21, 1862. His brother, William, died at Louisville in October, but 
another brother, Alexander, served in Company G to the close of 
the war. 

WILLIAM CUNNINGHAM, aged nineteen, farmer, born in 
Hancock county, Virginia, removed with his parents to Illinois, 
and enlisted from Astoria. He died at Louisville, Ky., October 17, 
1862, and is buried at No. 186 in the national cemetery at Cave 
Hill, near Louisville, Ky. 

JOSEPH CRABLE was born in Fayette county, Pennsylvania, 
January 21, 1831, removed to Illinois in 1852, and settled on a farm 
in Fulton county. He enlisted from Woodland; served through 
the Kentucky campaign, and was discharged at Nashville, Tenn., 
February 3, 1863, for disability. He returned to Illinois, resumed 
farming and now resides at Astoria. 

WILLIAM COLLINS, aged twenty-four, married, carpenter, 
born in Farmington, Fulton county, Illinois, and enlisted from 
Woodland. He served with his company until severely wounded 
on the firing line on Pumpkin Vine creek, Georgia. The shot that 
wounded him also wounded John W. McLaren. He was discharged 
for disability resulting from wounds, December 20, 1864. Is sup- 
posed to be living at Shoo Fly, Johnson county, Iowa. 

JOSEPH DAVIS deserted January 21, 1863. 

DANIEL DUTTON was born at Hamersville, Brown county, 
Ohio, October 3, 1837, removed to Illinois in 1850 and was single 
and a farmer when he enlisted from Woodland. He served with 
his company until the close of the war and was mustered out with 
the regiment. He resumed farming at the close of the war, and 
resides at Bluff City, Schuyler county, Illinois. 

LEWIS DIAL was born in Knox county, Ohio, May 30, 1844, and 
with his parents, Edward R. Dial and Delilah Cramer, removed to 
Illinois and settled on a farm in Fulton county. He enlisted from 
Astoria; served with his company until severely wounded, August 
5, 1864, in action near the Sandtown road and not far from Atlanta. 
His wound disabled him for further service, and he was discharged 
at Jefferson barracks, Missouri, February 20, 1865. Returning to 
Astoria he taught school four years, when suffering from his 



460 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

wound forced him to abandon teaching and for most of the time 
since he has lived in the national military homes. At present he 
is an inmate of the National Military Home at Marion, Ind. 

WILLIAM F. ELGIN, aged twenty-one, farmer, born in As- 
toria, Fulton county, Illinois, and enlisted from his native town. 
He served with his company until the close of the war, and was 
mustered out with the regiment. He is supposed to be living at 
Catlin, 111. 

JOHN D. FENTON was born in Augusta county, Virginia, in 
1835, and removed to Illinois with his parents in 1837. He en- 
listed from Astoria; served with his company to the close of the 
war and was mustered out with the regiment. He returned to 
Astoria, where he has served the public as drayman ever since. He 
was slightly wounded at the battle of Chickamauga, Ga,, and again 
in the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. His 
address is Astoria, 111. 

WILLIAM H. FRIETLEY was born in Harrison county, Indi- 
ana, October 3, 1841, and removed with his parents to Illinois in 
1849. He enlisted from Woodland; served with his company to the 
close of the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. He 
was wounded at the battle of Jonesboro, Ga., September 1, 1864. 
He returned to Illinois, but removed to Missouri in 1878, and en- 
gaged in farming in Schuyler county. His address is Jimtown, 
Schuyler county, Missouri. 

JEREMIAH GORSAGE, aged , married, farmer, born in 

Montgomery county, Illinois, and enlisted from Browning. He 
served with his company to the close of the war, and was mustered 
out with the regiment. He returned to Browning, 111., resumed 
farming, and died May 19, 1892. 

WILLIAM C. HUDNALL was born in Russellville, Logan 
county, Kentucky, November 25, 1843, removed with his parents to 
Illinois in 1849, and settled in Astoria, where he was a clerk when 
he enlisted. He served with his company until the spring of 1864, 
when he was mounted and served at brigade headquarters until 
the close of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. Re- 
turning to Astoria he became a harnessmaker, and was tax col- 
lector in 1892. He resides in Astoria, 111., but is sadly afflicted 
with catarrh of the head, which baffles medical skill. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY H. 461 

JONATHAN B. HORTON was born in New Castle, Coshocton 
county, Ohio, removed to Illinois at an early day and was a farmer 
when he enlisted from Woodland, in Fulton county. He was forty- 
four years of age; served through the Kentucky campaign, ana 
was discharged at Nashville, Tenn., January 19, 1863, for disability. 

MARION HORTON, aged twenty-six, farmer; enlisted from 
Woodland; was slightly wounded at Perry ville, Ky., but recovered 
and served with his company until severely wounded at the battle 
of Buzzard Roost, Georgia, February 25, 1864. A shell which did 
not explode struck him on the shoulder, causing a wound from 
which he never entirely recovered. He was honorably discharged 
from the hospital at Quincy, 111., soon after the regiment was mus- 
tered out, and returned to his former home, where he died a short 
time after the close of the war. 

WILLIAM H. HARRIS was born on a farm near Browning, 
Schuyler county, Illinois, June 5, 1841, passed his early years on a 
farm, and enlisted from Browning. He served with his company 
through all the campaigns in which the regiment was engaged 
until captured near the boundary line between North and South 
Carolina, March 3, 1865. He was held in rebel prisons until the 
close of the war, and honorably discharged June 17, 1865. He is a 
merchant and farmer, and resides at Browning, 111. 

CHARLES A. HUGHES, aged twenty, farmer, born in Wood- 
land, Fulton county, Illinois, and enlisted from his native town. 
He served with his company until failing health sent him to the 
hospital while on the Atlanta campaign, and he died at Ackworth, 
Ga., June 20, 1864. 

JULIUS T. HUGHE Y, aged twenty-six, farmer; enlisted from 
Astoria, Fulton county, Illinois. He served with his company 
until transferred to the Veteran Reserve corps, probably at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., but the record does not give the date of transfer. He 
was honorably discharged at the close of the war, and died June 
18, 1883. 

SIMON HEATON, aged twenty-seven, married, farmer, born in 
Pennsylvania, and enlisted from Astoria, 111. He served with his 
company until captured at Louisville, Ga., November 30, 1864. 
After he surrendered he was shot down in cold blood by his inhu- 
man captors. His remains are buried at No. 13681 in the national 
cemetery at Andersonville, Ga. 



462 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

JACOB HORN, aged twenty-six, married, farmer, born in Knox 
county, Ohio, and enlisted from Woodland, Fulton county, Illinois; 
served with his company until transferred to the Veteran Reserve 
corps, probably at Nashville, Tenn. Date not given, but he was 
honorably discharged from that organization, and resides at As- 
toria, 111. 

JAMES WALTER HUDNALL was born in Logan county, Ken- 
tucky, March 30, 1846, removed to Illinois with his parents, and 
enlisted from Astoria. He served until the close of the war, and 
was mustered out with the regiment. During the night march 
from Buzzard Roost, Georgia, to McAffee Church, he fell through a 
defective bridge, sustaining injuries which finally disabled him 
for service in the ranks, but he declined to apply for a discharge 
from the service, and in July, 1864, he was detached from his com- 
pany and assigned to duty as an orderly at brigade headquarters, 
where he remained to the close of the war. In 1874 he turned his 
attention to newspaper work, was connected with papers at 
Peoria, Chicago and St. Louis, and in 1883 went to work as city 
editor of the Evening Journal at Quincy, 111. In 1885 he was ap- 
pointed to a position in the United States treasury department, 
and has since been continuously in that branch of the service. He 
is at present a special inspector of customs, serving on the Mexi- 
can frontier with headquarters at San Antonio, Texas. 

WILLIAM H. HULBURT was born in Philadelphia, Pa., re- 
moved to Illinois in December, 1855, and enlisted from Browning 
as a farmer. He served until the close of the war, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. Is in poor health and resides at 
Havana, 111. 

HENRY N. HOWARD was born at Summum, Fulton county, 
Illinois, April 12, 1844, farmer, and enlisted from his native town. 
He served with his company to the close of the war and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. Since his return to Illinois he has 
been engaged in farming, and is now buying poultry, and resides 
at Astoria, 111. 

JOHN B. HAGAN enlisted from Astoria, 111.; served through 
the Kentucky campaign, and died at Nashville, Tenn., January 28, 
1863. Is buried at No. 6717 in the national cemetery near that city. 

ALANSUS P. HULBURT, born in Philadelphia, Penn., enlisted 
from Astoria, III.; was transferred to Company C, Sixteenth Illi- 



ROSTER OF COMPANY H. 463 

nois Infantry, but the date of his transfer is unknown. He was 
mustered out with his regiment at Louisville, Ky., July 8, 1865. 
Supposed to be living at Westerville, Custer county, Nebraska. 

JAMBS JAMESON, aged thirty-nine, married, farmer; enlisted 
from Pleasant, 111. He served through the Kentucky campaign 
and was discharged at Nashville, Tenn., February 3, 1863, for dis- 
ability. 

HENRY J. JOHNSON, aged thirty, married, farmer, born in 
Centerville, Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, removed to Illinois, 
and enlisted from Astoria. He served with his company until cap- 
tured near the close of the war; was exchanged, and honorably 
discharged June 17, 1865. 

BENJAMIN JELLISON, aged twenty-four, married, farmer, 
born in Mahoning, Mercer county, Pennsylvania, removed to Illi- 
nois, and enlisted from Astoria; served with his company until the 
close of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. Is a 
farmer and resides near Astoria, 111. 

JOHN F. KINGERY, aged twenty-five, married, farmer, born 
in Woodland, Fulton county, Illinois, and enlisted from his native 
town. He served with his company until near the close of the 
war. but was sick in the hospital at Chicago, 111., at the muster out 
of the regiment. He was honorably discharged soon after; is a 
farmer and now resides near Summum, 111. 

JOSIAH H. KELLEY enlisted from Astoria, 111.; served 
through the Kentucky campaign; was discharged from the hos- 
pital at Nashville, Tenn., January 29, 1863, for disability, but was 
unable to travel and died a few days later, and is buried at No. 
742 in the national cemetery there. 

RICHARD LANE, aged thirty-nine, married, cabinet-maker, 
born at Putnam, Muskingum county, Ohio, removed to Illinois, and 
enlisted from Astoria. He served until near the close of the war, 
but was sick at Nashville, Tenn., when the regiment was mustered 
out. He was honorably discharged and returned to Illinois, where 
he died in September, 1894. 

HENRY LOVEL, aged twenty-five, married, miller, born in 
Hamilton, Ohio; served through the Kentucky campaign, and was 
discharged at Nashville, Tenn., February 3, 1863, for disability. 

FRANCIS M. McKEE was born at Hamersville, Clermont coun- 
ty, Ohio, December 17, 1835, removed to Illinois in 1854, and was a 



464 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

farmer when he enlisted from Astoria; served with his company 
through the Kentucky campaign; was detailed in Captain Pow- 
ell's scouts in March, 1863, and served with that command, and at 
division and corps headquarters until the close of the war, and 
was mustered out with the regiment. After returning to Illinois 
he removed to Iowa and engaged in farming. Now resides at 
Troy, Davis county, Iowa. 

SOLOMON MEYERS was born in York county, Pennsylvania, 
in 1842, removed to Illinois in 1855, and was a farmer when he en- 
listed from Astoria. Was wounded in the battle of Perryville, 
October 8, 1862. Upon his recovery and his return to his company 
he was detailed as ambulance driver; served to the close of the war 
and was mustered out with the regiment. Upon his return to Illi- 
nois he resumed farming, but since 1894 has been retired and re- 
sides at Astoria, 111. 

JOHN W. McLAREN, aged twenty-one, farmer, born in Wood- 
land, Fulton county, Illinois, and enlisted from his native town. 
He served with his company until the close of the war, and was 
mustered out with the regiment. He was twice wounded once at 
Pumpkin Vine creek, near Dallas, Ga., and soon afterwards re- 
turned to duty at Florence, Ala. He returned to Illinois and re- 
sumed farming near Summum, where he died not many years after 
the close of the war. 

GEORGE W. MEEK enlisted from Kerton, 111.; served with his 
company through the Kentucky campaign, and was discharged at 
Nashville, Tenn., January 15, 1863, for disability. He resides at 
Colchester, McDonough county, Illinois. 

GEORGE W. NEWBERRY was born in Astoria, Fulton county, 
Illinois, April 16, 1844, and enlisted from Woodland. He served 
with his company until the close of the war, and was mustered 
out with the regiment. He was hit three times with spent balls. 
Upon his return to Illinois he studied medicine and began to prac- 
tice at Smithfield in 1884. He has been president of the village 
board for eight consecutive terms. His address is Smithfield, Ful- 
ton county, Illinois. 

WILLIAM OSBORN, aged forty, married, farmer, born in Co- 
shocton county, Ohio; sorved until the close of the war, and was 
mustered out with the regiment. He returned to Illinois, aud^-e- 
sumed farming hear Astoria, where he died in 1882. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY H. 465 

JOEL PALMER, aged nineteen, farmer, born at Oxford, Tus- 
carawas county, Ohio; removed with his parents to Illinois in 
1852, and enlisted from Astoria. He served with his company 
until the command reached Bowling Green, Ky., where his health 
failed, and he was discharged January 10, 1863, for disability. He 
is reported to be living at Fair Play, Polk county, Missouri. 

JOHN R. POWELL, plasterer, married, born in Adams county, 
Ohio, March 5, 1833, removed to Illinois in 1835 and enlisted from 
Astoria. He was slightly wounded at the battle of Chickamauga, 
but served with his company until severely wounded in the as- 
sault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. He was hon- 
orably discharged August 12, 1865. He has long been a minister 
in the United Brethren church, and resides at Sheldon's Grove, 
Schuyler county, Illinois. 

MARTIN V. PLANK was born on a farm near Astoria, Fulton 
county, Illinois, December 10, 1841, and enlisted from his native 
town. He served with his company to the close of the war, and 
was mustered out with the regiment. His brother, Francis M., 
served through the war in Company G. Is farming near Astoria, 
Illinois. 

MARTIN V. PARKER, aged twenty-five, married, carpenter, 
born at Jefferson, Coshocton county, Ohio, and enlisted from As- 
toria, 111. Served with his company until the close of the war, and 
was mustered out with the regiment. Is reported to be living at 
Murray ville, Morgan county, Illinois. 

JOHN H. PERKINS was born at Fort Madison, Iowa, Novem- 
ber 27, 1832, and with his parents removed to Illinois in 1836. He 
enlisted from Browning; served with his company until 1864, when 
he was transferred to the engineer corps and was honorably dis- 
charged at Nashville, Tenn., June 30, 1865. Has been constable of 
Oakland township, and resides at Ray, Schuyler county, Illinois. 

MICHAEL ROGERS, aged thirty-three, married, farmer, born 
in Hardin county, Kentucky, and enlisted from Woodland, 111. He 
served with his company until the close of the war, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. Upon his return to Illinois, resumed 
farming, and died near Baders in about 1895. 

LEMUEL J. SAYRES was born in Harrison county, Ohio, in 
1840, removed with his parents to Illinois in 1844, and was living 
on a farm near Astoria when he enlisted. Was slightly wounded 



466 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

at the battle of Perryville, Ky., but served with his company to 
the close of the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. Is 
a farmer, and resides at Browning, Schuyler county, Illinois. 

HENRY C. SWISHER was born at Staunton, Augusta county, 
Virginia, September 16, 1843, and removed to Illinois with his 
parents in 1856; enlisted from Astoria, and served with his com- 
pany through the Kentucky campaign. At Nashville, Tenn., he 
was detailed, mounted and served at brigade and division head- 
quarters until the close of the war, and was mustered out with the 
regiment. He was in the party of scouts who captured the rebel 
prisoners at the battle of Chickamauga, as related in Chapter X, 
and also the hero of the rescue as narrated in Chapter XVII. He 
was tax collector in Astoria township in 1886, was sheriff of Osage 
county, Kansas, from 1891 to 1895. Is a merchant, and resides at 
Lyndon, Osage county, Kansas. 

JOHN B. SHIELDS, aged twenty-six, married, farmer, born in 
Harrison county, Indiana, removed to Illinois, and enlisted from 
Lewistown. He served with his company until near the close of 
the war, but was absent (sick) at the muster out of the regiment. 
He was honorably discharged from the hospital at Chicago, 111., 
and is supposed to be living at Massena, Cass county, Iowa, 

FRANCIS M. SHRIER deserted September 14, 1862. 

WILLIAM SEVERNS was born in Brown county, Ohio, Octo- 
ber 8, 1845, removed with his parents to Illinois in 1856, and en- 
listed as a farmer from Astoria, 111. He served with his company 
until the close of the war and was mustered out with the regiment. 
He was wounded at the battle of Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, 
June 27, 1864, but soon returned to duty. His two sons, Charles 
W. and Edward H., aged respectively sixteen and twenty, served 
through the war with Spain. A cousin, Marion, of Company G, 
was killed at Kennesaw Mountain, and Eli, a brother or cousin, 
was severely wounded at the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia. 
He is a carpenter and builder, residing at Clayton, St. Louis coun- 
ty, Missouri. 

ELI SEVERNS, aged thirty, married, farmer, born in Jefferson, 
Coshocton county, Ohio, removed to Illinois, and enlisted from 
Astoria. He served with his company until severely wounded at 
the battle of Peach Tree creek, Georgia, July 19, 1864. He was dis- 
charged on account of wounds at Nashville, Tenn., May 19, 1865. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY H. 467 

He returned to Illinois, but later removed to Missouri, where he 
finally died from the effects of his wounds, at Mound City, Mis- 
souri, August 9, 1896. 

ROBERT SNODGRASS, aged twenty-six, married, farmer, born 
in Harrison county, Indiana, and enlisted from Brooklyn, Schuyler 
county, Illinois. He served with his company to the close of the 
war and was mustered out with the regiment. Some years after 
his return to Illinois he removed to Kansas, where he died August 
4, . 

JAMES SALSBURY, aged forty-three, married, farmer, born 
in Vanderburg county, Indiana, removed to Illinois, and enlisted 
from Woodland. He served through the Kentucky campaign and 
at Nashville, Tenn., was transferred to the engineer corps. He 
was honorably discharged from that organization at the close of 
the war. He returned to Illinois, resumed farming, and died in 
Fulton county in about 1895. 

GEORGE W. SHAW, aged thirty-four, married, farmer, born in 
Baltimore, Md., and enlisted from Woodland, 111. He served with 
his company through the Kentucky campaign, and died at Nash- 
ville, Tenn. Is buried at No. 169 in the national cemetery near 
that city. 

JOHN M. SAPPER, aged twenty-three, married, farmer, born 
at Boon, Harrison county, Indiana. He served with his company 
until killed in the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 
27, 1864. He enlisted from Woodland, Fulton county, Illinois. 

BENJAMIN F. SHIELDS was born in Woodland, Fulton coun- 
ty, Illinois, in March, 1843, and enlisted from his native town. He 
served with his company to the close of the war, and was mustered 
out with the regiment. Returning to Illinois he engaged in farm- 
ing in Knox county, where he served as constable from 1873 to 
1881. Since 1889 he has resided at Bushnell, McDonough county, 
Illinois. 

NATHAN SHANNON was born in Tuscarawas county, Ohio, in 
1833, and with his parents removed to Illinois and settled on a 
farm in Fulton county; was married and a farmer when he en- 
listed from Astoria. He served with his company through the 
Kentucky campaign, and was discharged at Nashville, Tenn., May 
19, 1863. Returning to his former home he resumed farming near 



468 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

Astoria, but later removed to Schuyler county. Is residing at 
Ray, 111. 

JOHN A. THOMPSON, aged twenty-one, farmer, born at Keen, 
Coshocton county, Ohio, and enlisted from Woodland, 111. He 
served with his company until severely wounded in the assault on 
Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, and died of wounds at Chattanooga, 
Tenn., July 7, 1864. His remains are buried at No. 11830 in the 
national cemetery on Orchard Knob near that city. 

CHARLES C. TURNER deserted November 14, 1862. 

JOHN THARIO, aged nineteen, farmer; enlisted from Astoria, 
and was born in Vermont, 111. He served until near the close of 
the war, when he was captured and held in rebel prisons until 
after the regiment was mustered out. He was honorably dis- 
charged July 22, 1865, returned to Illinois, and is said to be living 
in Tazewell county. 

WILLIAM TIERY, aged twenty-five, single, farmer, born in 
Adair county, Kentucky, and enlisted from Butlerville, Schuyler 
county, Illinois. He served through the Kentucky campaign, and 
died at Nashville, Tenn., August 13, 1863. Is buried at No. 713 
in the national cemetery near that place. 

JAMES P. ADDIS was born at Tecumseh, Lenawee county, 
Michigan, February 25, 1845, and enlisted from Astoria, 111., under 
the name of James T. Toler. When a child too young to know 
his own name his father died and he was left with a neighbor's 
family. This family removed to Indiana, and from there the boy 
was taken by another family to Illinois, and for several years lived 
with Dr. W. T. Toler, of Astoria. Here he was known as Toler, 
and here he enlisted under that name. He served with his com- 
pany to the close of the war, and was mustered out with the regi- 
ment. While the command was at North Chickamauga, during 
the siege of Chattanooga, he learned his real name, and that his 
mother was still living. He obtained a furlough and visited her 
during that winter. He was wounded in the fight at Buzzard 
Roost, Georgia, February 25, 1864, receiving a gun shot wound 
which carried away the index finger of his left hand. Since the 
close of the war he has been engaged in farming in Illinois, Colo- 
rado and Oklahoma. Now resides at Lindon, Cleveland county, 
Oklahoma. 

ARDEN WHEELER was born in Coshocton county, Ohio, May 
8, 1839, removed with his parents to Illinois in 1852, and settled on 



ROSTER OF COMPANY H. 469 

a farm in Fulton county. He enlisted as a farmer from Astoria; 
served until the close of the war and was mustered out with the 
regiment. Returning to Illinois at the close of his service, he re- 
sumed farming, and resides near Astoria, 111. 

THOMAS WHEELER, aged forty-one, born in Brooke county, 
Virginia, and enlisted as a farmer from Astoria, 111. His health 
soon failed, and he was discharged for disability, October 30, 1862. 
He returned to Astoria, 111., and died April 15, 1889. 

DANIEL WORLEY was born at Athens, Harrison county, 
Ohio, August 7, 1832, removed to Illinois in 1851, and settled on a 
farm near Astoria, where he enlisted. He served until the close 
of the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. He was 
wounded at the battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8, 1862, by the 
concussion of a cannon; was teamster for some considerable time, 
and returned to farming in Illinois at the close of his service. He 
now resides at Macomb, McDonough county, Illinois. 

FREDERICK F. ZELLERS was born at Myerstown, Bucks 
county, Pennsylvania, November 30, 1832, removed to Illinois in 
1X50, and settled on a farm in Fulton county. He enlisted from 
Woodland, was slightly wounded at the battle of Chickamauga, 
Ga., but served with his company until severely wounded and cap- 
tured in the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. 
In the charge he leaped the enemy's works and, badly wounded, 
fell into their hands. He was confined in Andersonville prison 
until the close of the war and was honorably discharged June 27, 
1865. He settled in North Dakota in 1881, has been coroner of 
Stark county for four terms, and now resides at Taylor, in that 
county and state. 

JOHN W. SNODGRASS enlisted from Woodland, Fulton coun- 
ty, Illinois, and served with his company until failing health sent 
him to the hospital at Chattanooga, Tenn., where he died October 
8, 1863. 

JAMES W. SAFFER enlisted from Woodland, Fulton county, 
Illinois, January 27, 1864; served with the company until the regi- 
ment was mustered out, when he was transferred to Company C, 
Sixteenth Illinois Infantry. He was mustered out with that regi- 
ment July 8, 1865, at Louisville, Ky . 



470 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 



CHAPTER XXXV. 



Company I was enrolled by William H. Marble 
under date of August i, 1862, in that part of Fulton 
county bordering on the Illinois river. The records of 
the company show that they were carelessly kept, and 
are very defective in many respects. 

The company was organized at Marble's mills by the 
election of the following commissioned officers: Wil- 
liam H. Marble, captain; David M. Holstead, first lieu- 
tenant, and Hugh McHugh, second lieutenant. 

One man was killed in action, and 12 were wounded 
who lived beyond the close of the war, 4 officers re- 
signed, 2 were mustered out with the regiment and one 
was promoted, 18 men were discharged, n died of dis- 
ease, 5 were transferred and 21 returned home at the 
close of the war. 

In the individual sketches which follow an attempt is 
made to give a concise statement of the history of each 
member of the company, each of whom may look back 
with pride upon the results of the war, and rejoice in the 
fact that it was his privilege to bear an honorable part in 
the great struggle for freedom. 

THE COMPANY ROSTER. 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM H. MARBLE was born at Albion, Kenne- 
beck county, Maine, in 1837, and was married and residing at 
Marbletown, Fulton county, Illinois, when he recruited the com- 
pany which became Company I of the Eighty-fifth. At the organi- 
zation of the company he was elected captain, and commanded it 
through the Kentucky and Murfreesboro campaigns. He resigned 
his commission at Nashville, Tenn., April 9, 1863 for disability, 



ROSTER OF COMPANY I. 471 

and went home. The writer has been unable to learn anything 
concerning him since he left the regiment. 

CAPTAIN DAVID M. HOLSTBAD was born at Vienna, Oneida 
county, New York, July 10, 1837, removed to Illinois in 1856, was 
married, and a brickmaker at Havana when he enlisted. He was 
elected first lieutenant at the organization of the company; served 
through the Kentucky campaign, and was promoted captain April 
9, 1863. He commanded the company through the Tennessee cam- 
paign, which ended in the battle of Chickamauga, Ga., September 
19-20, 1863, where he was slightly wounded. He resigned for dis- 
ability on October 7, 1863, and returned to Illinois. He resided at 
Keithsburg, 111., from 1873 to 1892, when he removed to Clayton, 
Adams county, Illinois, where he now resides. 

CAPTAIN ALBERT O. COLLINS was born in Knox county, 
Ohio, July 16, 1836, removed to Illinois in 1856, was married and a 
farmer when he enlisted from Sheldon's Grove. At the organiza- 
tion of the company he was chosen first sergeant, and promoted 
second lieutenant at Nashville, Tenn., April 9, 1863. He was pro- 
moted to be captain October 7, 1863; commanded the company 
until the close of the war, and was mustered out with the regi- 
ment. After the close of the war he removed to Missouri, where 
he was engaged in farming until 1873, when he removed to Cali- 
fornia. Since 1873 he has been engaged in farming and stock 
raising near Laws, Inyo county, California. He was married in 
Illinois in 1861; has five children, three sons and two daughters, all 
grown and doing for themselves. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT ALBERT P. BRITT enlisted from 
Mason City, 111., in Company E, Twenty-seventh Illinois Infantry, 
August 12, 1861, and at the organization of that company was 
chosen sergeant. He served with his company until promoted 
second lieutenant of Company I, February 9, 1863, and on June 2, 
1863, he was promoted to be first lieutenant. He served with his 
company until October 27, 1863, when he resigned his commission 
and retired to private life. He died March 7, 1877. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT PRESTON C. HUDSON promoted adju- 
tant. (See field and staff.) 

FIRST LIEUTENANT EDMUND CURLESS, aged thirty-one, 
married, farmer, born in Fulton county, Illinois, and enlisted from 
Kerton. He was appointed wagoner at the organization of the 



472 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

company; served until the close of the war, and was mustered out 
with the regiment. He was promoted to be first lieutenant July 
23, 1864, and was mustered out with that rank. At the close of 
his service he returned to Illinois, resumed farming, and died near 
Bluff City, 111., September 3, 1894. 

SE5COND LIEUTENANT HUGH McHUGH was born in Chester 
county, Pennsylvania, but had removed to Illinois, and was a mar- 
ried farmer when he enlisted from Kerton, in Fulton county, at 
the age of forty-five. He was elected second lieutenant at the 
organization of the company; served through the Kentucky and 
Mnrfreesboro campaigns, and resigned on account of failing health 
at Nashville, Tenn., February 9, 1863. Returning to Illinois, he 
engaged in farming until 1884, when he removed to Kansas. He 
died at Independence, in Montgomery county, March 20, 1896, the 
Grand Army post officiating at his funeral. He left two sons 
Robert and Stephen, but their address is unknown to the writer. 

FIRST SERGEANT ROBERT MULLICA, aged twenty-four, 
married, farmer, born in Coles county, Missouri, and enlisted from 
Duncan's Mills, Fulton county, Illinois. He served with his com- 
pany through all the campaigns in which the regiment was en- 
gaged; was promoted from fifth sergeant, to which position he was 
chosen at the organization of the company, to be first sergeant, 
and was mustered out with the regiment. He is a merchant and 
resides at Duncan's Mills, Fulton county, Illinois. 

SERGEANT ABRAHAM A. CAMERON, aged forty-one, mar- 
ried, stonecutter, born in Pennsylvania, and enlisted from Sum- 
mum, Fulton county, Illinois. He served with his company until 
July 31, 1864, when he was transferred to the engineer corps. 
Nothing is known of his subsequent career. 

SERGEANT LABAN V. TARTER, aged twenty-four, single, 
farmer, born in Clay county, Illinois, and enlisted from Berna- 
dotte, Fulton county. He was wounded at the battle of Perryville, 
Ky., October 8, 1862, by a gun shot through the thigh and was 
discharged for disability July 21, 1864. Returned to Illinois; was 
married three times, and went to California, where he died in 
about 1893. 

SERGEANT JOHN E. RENO was born at Fredericksburg, 
Harrison county, Indiana, October 28, 1837, and with his parents 
removed to Illinois in 1844. He enlisted from Marietta, Fulton 



ROSTER OF COMPANY I. 473 

county, Illinois, as a farmer; was chosen sergeant at the organi- 
zation of the company, and was slightly wounded at the battle of 
Chickamauga, Ga. He served to the close of the war, and was 
mustered out with the regiment. He was promoted first sergeant 
August 15, 1864, but the muster out roll failed to give him this 
rank. He is a farmer; has been school director for eighteen years, 
and resides at Table Grove, 111. 

SERGEANT LEONIDAS COLLINS was born in Coshocton 
county, Ohio, July 3, 1841, removed to Illinois in 1861, settled on a 
farm in Fulton county, and enlisted from Kerton. He was chosen 
corporal at the organization of the company; promoted sergeant, 
and served with his company until August 28, 1864, when he was 
transferred to the engineer corps. He served in that organization 
to the close of the war, and was mustered out at Nashville, Tenn., 
July 1, 1865. He removed to Missouri in 1868, and is a prosperous 
farmer in Putnam county. His address is St. John, Mo. 

SERGEANT JAMES MOSLANDER, aged twenty-three, single, 
farmer, born in Virginia, and enlisted from Summum, 111. He was 
chosen corporal at the organization of the company; was wounded 
at the battle of Perry ville, Ky., October 8, 1862; promoted ser- 
geant; served with his company to the close of the war, and was 
mustered out with the regiment. He resides at Havana, 111. 

SERGEANT NEAL P. HUGHES, aged twenty-five, married, 
farmer, born in Holmes county, Ohio, removed to Illinois and en- 
listed from Summum, 111. He served with his company until the 
close of the war; was promoted to sergeant; wounded at the battle 
of Jonesboro, Ga., September 1, 1864, and was mustered out with 
the regiment. He resumed farming upon his return from the war, 
and died near Summum, 111., October 3, 1879. 

SERGEANT LEMUEL WELKER was born in Knox county, 
Ohio, August 20, 1835, removed to Illinois in 1857, and enlisted as a 
farmer from Summum. He served with his company until the 
close of the war; was promoted sergeant; was wounded at the 
battle of Chickamauga, Ga., and was mustered out with the regi- 
ment. He resumed farming upon his return and died near As- 
toria, 111., April 2, 1899. 

CORPORAL JEREMIAH COKLEY, aged twenty-three, single, 
farmer, born in Hocking county. Ohio, removed to Illinois, and en- 
listed from Bernadotte; was chosen corporal at the organization of 

29 



474 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

the company; served through the Kentucky campaign, and was 
discharged for disability at Nashville, Tenn. Date unknown. 

CORPORAL WILLIAM LANDON was born in Fulton county, 
Illinois, April 27, 1841, farmer, and enlisted from Duncan's Mills. 
He was chosen corporal at the organization of the company; 
served to the close of the war, and was mustered out with the regi- 
ment. He is farming near Ponca City, Kay county, Oklahoma. 

CORPORAL JOHN W. BELLES, aged twenty-one, farmer, born 
in Arkansas, and enlisted from Duncan's Mills, 111. He served 
until the close of the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. 
Is said to be living at Cedarvale, Chautauqua county, Kansas. 

CORPORAL AZARIAH THOMAS, aged thirty-one, farmer, 
born in Fayette county, Ohio, and enlisted from Duncan's Mills, 
111. He was chosen corporal at the organization of the company, 
and was transferred to Company K, Sixtieth Illinois Infantry, but 
no date of transfer is given. He was mustered out July 13, 1865. 
He is said to be living near Havana, 111. 

CORPORAL CHARLES G. MATTHEWS was born in Fulton 
county, Illinois, May 2, 1843, was a farmer, and enlisted from 
Duncan's Mills, 111. He was chosen corporal at the organization 
of the company, was slightly wounded in the assault on Kennesaw 
Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864, served to the close of the war, 
Mountain, June 27, 1864, served to the close of the war and was 
mustered out with the regiment. Removed to Kansas in 1892, and 
to Oklahoma in 1898. Is farming at Renfrew, in Grant county. 

CORPORAL MILO BUTLER, aged twenty-nine, single, farmer, 
born in Coshocton county, Ohio; removed to Illinois, and enlisted 
from Kerton. He was chosen corporal at the organization of the 
company; served to the close of the war, and was mustered out 
with the regiment. 

CORPORAL WILLIAM A. GRAHAM, aged twenty-three, sin- 
gle, farmer, born in Washington, Fayette county, Ohio, and en- 
listed from Duncan's Mills, 111. He was promoted to be corporal; 
served with his company to the close of the war, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. 

CORPORAL SOLOMON MARKEL, aged thirty-two, married, 
farmer, born in York county, Pennsylvania; removed to Illinois 
and enlisted at Duncan's Mills. He was promoted corporal; 
served with his company to the close of the war, and was mus- 



ROSTER OF COMPANY I. 475 

teed out with the regiment. A few years since he was living at 
Goodland, Sherman county, Kansas, but his present address is 
unknown. 

CORPORAL ISAAC RICHARDSON was born at Warsaw, Cos- 
hocton, county, Ohio, May 6, 1831; removed to Illinois in 1858, was 
married and a farmer when he enlisted from Summum. He was 
promoted corporal; served to the close of the war, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. Since the war he has been engaged 
in farming and resides near Bluff City, Schuyler county, Illinois. 

CORPORAL JOHN TRAYER, aged forty-three, married, 
farmer; enlisted from Summum, 111. Was promoted corporal! 
served with his company to the close of the war, and was mustered 
out with the regiment. He died near Lewistown, 111., April 24, 
1897. 

CORPORAL JOHN WATSON was born near Frankfort, Frank- 
lin county, Kentucky, December 15, 1837; removed to Indiana in 
1838, and to Illinois in 1845. He was a boatman when he enlisted 
from Havana. He was promoted corporal; served with his com- 
pany to the close of the war, was slightly wounded at the battle 
of Perryville, Kentucky, October 8, 1862, and at Kennesaw Moun- 
tain, Georgia, June 27, 1864, and was mustered out with the regi- 
ment. He is a carpenter and builder, and resides at 807 Millman 
street, Peoria, 111. 

MUSICIAN THOMAS BURBIGE, aged eighteen, farmer, born 
in Illinois, and enlisted from Manito, in Mason county. He was 
appointed musician; served through the Kentucky campaign, and 
died at Nashville, Tenn., January 1, 1863. Is buried at No. 5754, 
in the national cemetery near that city. 

MUSICIAN WILLIAM McCAUSLAND, aged eighteen, black- 
smith, born in Fulton county, Illinois, and enlisted from Kerton. 
He served through the Kentucky campaign, and was discharged 
for disability at Nashville, Tenn., in February, 1863. Resides in 
Havana, 111. 

LINCOLN AMSDEN, aged forty-three, single, farmer, born in 
Framingham, Middlesex, county, Massachusetts; removed to Illi- 
nois, and enlisted from Kerton. He was discharged at Louisville, 
Ky., for disability, but the date of his discharge does not appear 
on the records. 



476 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

WILLIAM BELLES, aged twenty-three, married, farmer, born 
in Missouri, and enlisted from Otto, Fulton county, Illinois. He 
served until the close of the war, and was mustered out with the 
regiment. 

ZEBULON BRANSON, aged forty; enlisted from Otto, 111. 
Deserted. So says the report of the adjutant general of Illinois, 
but it does not show that he was ever mustered into the service. 
The fact is that he enlisted as a private August 15, 1862, in Com- 
pany I, One Hundred and Third Illinois Infantry, and was mus- 
tered into the service October 2, 1862. He was promoted second 
lieutenant of his company February 4, 1863, and was killed in the 
assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. When 
the writer learned of this record, he wrote to the adjutant general 
of Illinois, asking if something could not be done to render jus- 
tice to the memory of this soldier who died fighting valiantly for 
his country, but that officer did not appear willing to do anything. 

JACOB H. BETHMAN, deserted; time and place not given. 

JOHN COKLEY, aged twenty-one, farmer, born in Hocking 
county, Ohio, and enlisted from Bernadotte, 111. He served 
through the Kentucky campaign, and died at Nashville, Tenn., 
January 18, 1863. 

CHARLES CAIN, aged twenty-eight, single, farmer, born in 
Edinburgh, Scotland; emigrated to America, settled in Mason 
county, and enlisted from Havana, 111. He served through the 
Kentucky campaign, and died at Nashville, Tenn. The adjutant 
general's report says, "Discharged July 31, 1864." But the super- 
intendent of the national cemetery at Nashville claims that he is 
buried at No. 11140, in the cemetery under his charge. 

FILROY CODMER, deserted, but neither time nor place is 
given. 

GEORGE DINGLES, aged forty-three, married, blacksmith, 
born in Schuylkill county, Pennsylvania, and enlisted from Bath, 
Mason county, Illinois. He served until the close of the war, and 
the fact that he was mustered out June 22, 1865, seems to indicate 
that he had been sick, detached or a prisoner, when the regiment 
was mustered out. 

THOMAS FRAZEE, aged twenty-three, married, farmer; en- 
listed from Kerton, 111., and served through the Kentucky cam- 
paign. He died in the general hospital at Nashville, Tenn., Janu- 



ROSTER OF COMPANY I. 477 

ary 1, 1863, and is buried at No. 5092, in the national cemetery 
near that city. 

HENRY FATCHCRAFT, aged twenty-one, farmer, born in 
St. Louis county, Missouri, and enlisted from Otto, 111. He served 
until the close of the war, and was mustered out with the regi- 
ment. 

JOHN D. FANTIN appears to have been mustered in, but no 
further record. 

SANFORD GILSON, aged twenty-one, farmer, born in Fulton 
county, Illinois, and enlisted from Otto. He served through the 
Kentucky campaign, and was discharged from the general hos- 
pital at Nashville, Tenn., in March, 1863. He returned to Illinois, 
and is said to be living at Ipava. 

JOSEPH E. GRAFF, aged nineteen, farmer, born in Lancas- 
ter county Pennsylvania, and enlisted from Washington, 111. He 
served until the close of the war, and was mustered out with the 
regiment. 

VINSON GRAY, aged thirty-two, married, farmer; enlisted 
from Duncan's Mills. Served through the Kentucky campaign, 
and was discharged at Nashville, Tenn., but the date of his dis- 
charge nowhere appears. 

ISAAC HORTON, aged twenty-eight, married, farmer, born in 
Coshocton county, Ohio, and enlisted from Summum, 111. Was 
discharged for disability at Louisville, Ky., in October, 1862. 

WILSON HUGHES, aged thirty-six* married, farmer, born in 
Virginia, and enlisted from Otto, 111. Served through the Ken- 
tucky campaign until the command arrived at Bowling Green, 
where he was sent to the hospital, and died in November, 1862. 

JOSIAH HALE, aged twenty-one, farmer, born in Madison 
county, Ohio, and enlisted from Otto, 111. Served with his com- 
pany until captured near the close of the war, was exchanged, and 
honorably discharged June 19, 1865. He resides near Summum, 
Fulton county, Illinois. 

JOHN Q. HOLMES was born in Lawrence county, Indiana, 
November 14, 1825; removed to Illinois in 1848, was married, and a 
farmer when he enlisted from Otto, 111. He served through the 
Kentucky campaign, and was transferred to the Veteran Reserve 
corps at Nashville, Tenn., in 1863, and served in that organization 



478 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

at Rock Island and Chicago, 111., until the close of the war. He 
was mustered out at Chicago, 111., July 1, 1865. He was justice of 
the peace, tax collector, and served as assessor three terms, after 
his return to Illinois. He removed to Kansas in 1891, and engaged 
in farming in Sumner county, and resides at South Haven, in that 
county. 

THOMAS HASKEY, born in England; deserted at Louisville, 
Kentucky. 

BENJAMIN JONES, deserted. 

SYLVESTER KELLER, aged twenty-one, farmer, born in 
Cuba, Fulton county, Illinois, and enlisted from Bernadotte. He 
served with his company until the close of the war, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. He died in July, 1893. 

JOHN KYRO, deserted. 

JOHN LAPOOL was born in Strongstown, Indiana county, 
Pennsylvania, December 24, 1839; removed to Illinois in 1859, and 
was farming in Fulton county when he enlisted from Kerton. He 
served with his company until the close of the war, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. He settled on a farm in West Vir- 
ginia at the close of his service, and now resides at Laclede, Cab- 
ell county, West Virginia. 

WILLIAM LOVELL, deserted. 
SAMUEL LOW, deserted. 

WILLIAM MINNER was born at Walhonding, Coshocton 
county, Ohio, September 5, 1840; removed with his parents to Illi- 
nois in 1846, and was farming near Summum when he enlisted. 
He was wounded at the battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8, 1862, 
and was honorably discharged in March, 1864. Soon after his dis- 
charge he removed to Montana, and engaged in farming near 
Big Timber, in Short Grass county, but was living at Sheridan, 
Wyo., when he died in 1898. 

JOHN MINNER was born in Walhonding, Coshocton county, 
Ohio, June 4, 1842; removed with his parents to Illinois in 1846, 
and was farming in Fulton county when he enlisted as a recruit 
from Summum, February 8, 1864. He was slightly wounded in the 
fighting near the Sandtown road, in the campaign against Atlanta, 
Ga., and is marked absent without leave at the muster out of the 



ROSTER OF COMPANY I. 479 

regiment. He removed to Montana in 1886, is engaged in farming 
and stock raising near Rockvale, in Carbon county, Montana. 

ELLIS MOORE was born in Green county, Illinois, April 12, 
1845, and was farming near Havana, in Mason county, when lie 
enlisted as a recruit, January 5, 1864. He served with his com- 
pany until wounded in the assault on the enemy's works at Jones- 
boro, Ga., September 1, 1864, and was absent (sick) at the muster 
out of the regiment. He was honorably discharged at Camp But- 
ler, 111., June 8, 1865, and returned to Illinois. In 1886 he removed 
to Kansas and engaged in farming in Chautauqua county, his 
address being Sedan, Chautauqua county, Kansas. 

JOSEPH E. MOORE, aged twenty-one, farmer, born in Mis- 
souri, and enlisted from Kerton, 111. He served with his company 
until the close of the war, and was mustered out with the regi- 
ment. He is reported to have died April 4, 1895. 

EDWARD McCROSKEY, aged twenty-one, farmer, born on 
Salt creek, Decatur county, Indiana, and enlisted from Duncan's 
Mills, 111. He served in the Kentucky campaign until the com- 
mand reached Bowling Green, where he fell sick and died in 
December, 1862. 

WILLIAM H. PHILLIPS, aged twenty-one, farmer, born in 
Coles county, Illinois, and enlisted from Summum, in Fulton 
county. Served with his company until February 11, 1864, when 
he was transferred to the engineer corps. He is reported to be 
living at Vermont, in Fulton county, Illinois. 

JAMES H. PIERCY, deserted. 

EBEN PAUL, aged 'twenty-two; enlisted from Summum. 
Served with his company until February 3, 1863, when he was 
discharged for disability. 

SAMUEL PAUL, aged twenty-five; enlisted from Summum. 
Served with his company until February 3, 1863, when he was dis- 
charged for disability. 

THOMAS J. ROYES, aged twenty-three, single, farmer, born in 
Adams county, Ohio; enlisted from Summum, in Fulton county, 
Illinois, and the record says, "Discharged in October, 1862." In 
fact, he died October 18, 1862, and is buried at No. 835, in the 
national cemetery at Cave Hill, near Louisville, Ky. 



480 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

GEORGE W. RITSWOLD, deserted. 
THOMAS RAMSEY, deserted. 
THOMAS J. STATTS, deserted. 
GEORGE SANDERS, deserted. 

MILTON STODDARD, aged thirty-four, married, farmer; en- 
listed from Bernadotte, 111. Served through the Kentucky cam- 
paign, and died at Nashville, Tenn., March 25, 1863. Is buried at 
No. 265, in the national cemetery near that city. 

WILLIAM H. SMITH, deserted. 

CHARLES G. SWIFT, aged thirty-seven; place of enlistment 
not stated. Served with his company until July 31, 1864, when, 
according to the adjutant general's report, he was discharged. 
But as a matter of fact, he died at Louisville, Ky., January 19, 
1864, and is buried at No. 1863, in the national cemetery at Cave 
Hill, near that city. 

COLAND STEWART, deserted. 
WILLIAM D. SPENT, deserted. 

GEORGE TYRA, aged twenty-eight, married, blacksmith, born 
in Kentucky, and enlisted from Duncan's Mills, 111. Served until 
the close of the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. 

OLIVER TRAPP, aged thirty-one, married, cooper; enlisted 
from Otto, 111. Served through the Kentucky campaign, and died 
at Nashville, Tenn., February 9, 1863. . Is buried at No. 6443, in 
the national cemetery near that place. 

AUSTIN WALKER, aged thirty-one, single, farmer, born in 
Fulton county, Illinois, and enlisted from Duncan's Mills. Served 
with his company until killed in the assault on Kennesaw Moun- 
tain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. His remains are buried at No. 8758, 
in the national cemetery at Marietta, Ga. 

ALBERT WINCHELL, aged twenty-one, farmer, born in Ful- 
ton county, Illinois, and enlisted from Duncan's Mills. Served 
with his company through the Kentucky campaign, and was dis- 
charged for disability at Nashville, Tenn., in August, 1863. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY I. 481 

JASPER WILCOX, opposite his name on the muster-out roll 
is written the word died. Date of birth, place of residence at 
enlistment, and date and place of death are omitted. 

WILLIAM MARKLEY, enlisted from Summum, and was dis- 
charged in October, 1862. That is all the record discloses relating 
to this soldier. 

JOHN H. MOORE, enlisted from Vermont, Fulton county, Illi- 
nois, January 5, 1864, and was discharged May 13, 1865. That 
appears to be all they had time to write about him. 

WILLIAM OSBORN; this name stands upon the muster-out 
roll without any comment whatever. 



482 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 



Company K was enrolled by Dr. Robert G. Rider at 
Topeka, in Mason county, between July 18 and August 
17, 1862. The men were mostly farmers from Mason 
county, although Iroquois, McDonough, Peoria, Ste- 
phenson, Tazewell and Will counties were represented 
in its ranks. At the organization of the company the 
following commissioned officers were elected : Dr. 
Robert G. Rider, captain ; Samuel Yates, first lieutenant, 
and Isaac C. Short, second lieutenant. 

Of the 89 officers and men of which this company 
was composed, 22 were hit with shot or shell, 4 of whom 
were killed in action, while 18 lived to be discharged or 
mustered out, i officer resigned, 29 men died of disease, 
14 were discharged for disability incident to their hard 
service, 5 were transferred to other organizations, and 45 
were present at the final muster out. 

From first to last the company was ably commanded, 
and being one of the skirmish companies was well drilled 
in that special drill in addition to the usual drill of the 
others. The men were above the average in intelli- 
gence, and the surviving members of the company may 
justly feel proud of the part it bore in its three years' ser- 
vice, and all may rejoice in the fact that they did their 
full share in the overthrow of the slave-holders' rebel- 
lion. 

THE COMPANY ROSTER. 

CAPTAIN ROBERT G. RIDER (promoted major. See field 
and staff). 

CAPTAIN SAMUEL YATES was born in Fletcher, Miami 
county, Ohio, in 1831, removed to Illinois, was married and a 



ROSTER OF COMPANY K. 483 

wheelwright when he enlisted from Topeka, in Mason county. He 
had been active in recruiting, and at the organization of the com- 
pany was elected first lieutenant. He served in that capacity 
through the Kentucky campaign and was promoted captain at 
Nashville, Tenn., April 6, 1863. From this time until the close of 
the war he commanded the company, and was mustered out with 
the regiment. At the close of his service he returned to Topeka 
and resumed work at his trade, but was killed by a boiler explo- 
sion within a few years of the close of the war. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT ISAAC C. SHORT was born in Page 
county, Virginia, November 21, 1831, removed to Illinois in 1860, 
and settled on a farm in Mason county. He enlisted from Topeka 
and probably recruited more men for Company K than any other 
one man. He was elected second lieutenant at the organization 
of the company; served through the Kentucky campaign, and was 
promoted first lieutenant April 6, 1863, at Nashville, Tenn. He 
served with his company until the close of the war and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. He removed to Missouri in October, 
1865, where he engaged in farming and engineering. He served as 
marshal of Montgomery City for seven years, and now resides at 
Old Orchard, Saint Louis county, Missouri. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT ELI F. NEIKIRK enlisted as a pri- 
vate; served through the Kentucky campaign, and at Nashville, 
Tenn., he was promoted second lieutenant under date of April 6, 
1863. He served in that position until November 4, 1864, when he 
resigned on account of failing health. Returning to Illinois he 
engaged in business as a merchant at Forest City, where he died 
in about 1880. 

FIRST SERGEANT ROBERT F. REASON, aged twenty-three, 
single, farmer, born in Waynesville, Warren county, Ohio, and 
enlisted from Havana, 111.; was chosen first sergeant at the organ- 
ization of the company, but fell sick at Louisville, Ky., and died 
October 22, 1862. His remains are buried at No. 863 in the hal- 
lowed ground of the national cemetery at Cave Hill near Louis- 
ville, Ky. 

FIRST SERGEANT JOHN N. HOLE, aged thirty-two, single, 
clerk, born at Salem, Washington county, Indiana, and enlisted 
from Havana, 111. He was chosen second sergeant at the organi- 
zation of the company; promoted first sergeant; served through 
the Kentucky campaign, and was discharged for disability at 



484 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

Nashville, Tenn., February 3, 1863. Returning to Illinois he be- 
came a merchant in Bath; removed to Belvidere, Neb., where he 
sold goods for several years, and then removed to Norton, Norton 
county, Kansas, where he was a merchant when he died a few 
years since. 

FIRST SERGEANT SMITH B. HORSEY, aged twenty-seven, 
single, minister, born in Circleville, Pickaway county, Ohio, re- 
moved to Illinois, and enlisted from Forest City as a private. He 
served through the Kentucky campaign, and at Nashville, Tenn., 
was promoted first sergeant. In this position he served with his 
company until killed in the battle of Jonesboro, Ga., September 1, 
1864. Is buried at No. 3285 in the national cemetery at Marietta, 
Georgia. 

FIRST SERGEANT WILLIAM H. HOLE was born in Salem, 
Washington county, Indiana, April 13, 1836, removed to Illinois 
in 1856, and settled on a farm in Mason county. He enlisted from 
Havana, and was chosen sergeant at the organization of the com- 
pany; served through all the campaigns in which the regiment 
was engaged; was promoted first sergeant at Jonesboro, Ga., and 
was mustered out with the regiment. At the close of his service 
he returned to Illinois, and is among the prosperous farmers of 
Mason county. He resides at Mason City, 111. 

SERGEANT JOHN S. WALKER, aged twenty-one, single, 
farmer, born in Shelby ville, Shelby county, Indiana; removed to 
Illinois, and enlisted from Havana. He served with his company 
until discharged at Chattanooga, Tenn., May 20, 1864, for disabil- 
ity. Upon returning to Illinois he read medicine and began to 
practice at Forest City, where he died, but the date of his death is 
unknown to the writer. 

SERGEANT A. A. CARRINGTON was born in Mount Carmel, 
Fleming county, Kentucky, in 1836; removed to Illinois, and was 
farming in Mason county when he enlisted from Topeka. He was 
chosen sergeant at the organization of the company; served with 
his company through all the campaigns in which the regiment was 
engaged, and was mustered out with the regiment. Upon his re- 
turn to Illinois he resumed farming, and now resides at Manito, 
Illinois. 

SERGEANT WILLIAM MASTERSON, aged twenty-two, sin- 
gle, farmer, born in Hagerstown, Wayne county, Indiana, and en- 



ROSTER OF COMPANY K. 485 

listed from Forest City, 111. He was transferred to the Fourth 
United States Cavalry at Nashville, Tenn., December 1, 1862. His 
subsequent career is unknown. 

SERGEANT CHARLES POND was born in Menard county, 
Illinois, Novem'ber 9, 1841, and enlisted from Pekin, in Tazewell 
county. He was appointed wagoner, but was mounted and served 
two years of his term at brigade and division headquarters. He 
was wounded at the battle of Jonesboro, Ga., but soon returned to 
duty; was promoted sergeant, and at the close of the war was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. He returned to Illinois, married 
Rebecca A. Shu'bert at Havana in 1866, and in 1869 removed to 
Nebraska. He is a prosperous farmer in Richardson county, and 
resides near Shu'bert, Neb. 

SERGEANT CHARLES ERICK was born in the Kingdom of 
Sweden, October 10, 1834, emigrated to Illinois in 1854, and was a . 
farmer when he enlisted from Havana. He was promoted ser- 
geant August 1, 1864; served through all the campaigns in which 
the command was engaged, and was mustered out with the regi- 
ment. He removed to Iowa and engaged in farming in Henry 
county, where he owns his land. He now writes his name Charles 
E. Hult, and his address is Swedesburgh, Henry county, Iowa. 

SERGEANT ADAM J. HIMMILL, aged twenty-one, farmer, 
born in Baden, Germany, emigrated to Illinois, and enlisted from 
Topeka. He was promoted sergeant; served until the close of the 
war, and was mustered out with the regiment. Upon returning to 
Illinois he engaged in farming near Topeka, where he committed 
suicide in a*bout 1867. 

CORPORAL THOMAS JEMMISON, aged nineteen, farmer, 
born in Jefferson City, Mo., and enlisted from Havana, 111. Was 
chosen corporal at the organization of the company; served 
through the Kentucky campaign, and died at Nashville, Tenn., 
December 20, 1862. Is buried at No. 6069 in the national cemetery 
near that city. 

CORPORAL JOSEPH BODLE, aged thirty, farmer, enlisted 
from Havana, 111.; was chosen corporal at the organization of the 
company; served to the close of the war, and was mustered out 
with the regiment. He removed to Nebraska in 1875, and engaged 
in farming near Pawnee City, and died there in 1892. 



486 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

CORPORAL WILLIAM K. ROSE, aged thirty-two, was chosen 
corporal at the organization of the company; served until sent to 
the hospital at Danville, Ky., where he died November 8, 1862. Is 
buried at No. 47 in the national cemetery at that place. 

CORPORAL JOHN M. DURHAM, aged thirty-two, was chosen 
corporal at the organization of the company, and served until the 
command reached Bowling Green, Ky., when he was sent to the 
hospital, and died there January 22, 1863. His remains are buried 
at No. 10526 in the national cemetery at Nashville, Tenn. 

CORPORAL ROMEO MAGILL, aged twenty-one, farmer, born 
in Springfield, 111., and enlisted from Topeka. Was chosen cor- 
poral at the organization of the company, and served until sent to 
the hospital at Danville, Ky., where he died December 8, 1862. Is 
buried at No. 302 in the national cemetery at that place. 

CORPORAL JAMES JIMMISON, aged twenty-one, farmer, born 
in Boundbrook, Somerset county, New Jersey, and enlisted from 
Havana, 111. Was chosen corporal at the organization of the com- 
pany, and served until killed in the assault on Kennesaw Moun- 
tain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. 

CORPORAL ORPHEUS AMES was born in Canton, Fulton 
county, Illinois, March 5, 1840, and was farming when he enlisted 
from Topeka, in Mason county. He was wounded at Buzzard 
Roost, Georgia, February 25, 1864, and again near Atlanta. Was 
promoted corporal, served to the close of the war, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. His arm is yet stiffened from the 
first wound. He is engaged in farming in Oklahoma, his address 
being Alba, Woods county, Oklahoma. 

CORPORAL GEORGE N. HOPPING was born in Aurora, Dear- 
born county, Indiana, December 19, 1843; removed with his par- 
ents to Illinois in 1851, and was a farmer when he enlisted from 
Topeka. He served with his company through all the campaigns 
in which the command was engaged; was promoted corporal, and 
was mustered out with the regiment. Returning to Illinois at the 
close of the war, he engaged in farming until 1890, when he re- 
moved to Nebraska. He is a prosperous and progressive farmer, 
and resides at Beaver City, Furnas county, Nebraska. 

CORPORAL GEORGE HETZELER was born in Germantowu, 
Montgomery county, Ohio, November 12, 1829, removed to Illinois 
in 1850, and settled at Bunker Hill, where he was farming when he 



ROSTER OF COMPANY K. 487 

enlisted. He served with his company to the close of the war; 
was wounded at the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 
27, 1864; promoted to be corporal, and was mustered out with the 
regiment. He returned to his home at Bunker Hill, 111.; has been 
alderman of his town, and constable at Mason City, 111. He re- 
sides at Bunker Hill, Macoupin county, Illinois. 

CORPORAL WILLIAM H. MASSEY, aged twenty, farmer, was 
born in Hagerstown, Washington county, Maryland, removed to 
Illinois, and enlisted from Topeka. He served with his company 
until the close of the war, having in the meantime been promoted 
corporal, and was mustered out with the regiment. After the close 
of the war he removed to Missouri, and i* supposed to be living at 
or near Long Branch, Monroe county. 

CORPORAL CONRAD NUHN, aged twenty-four, single, farm- 
er, born in Germany, emigrated to Illinois, and enlisted from Gil- 
man, in Iroquois county. He served with his company until killed 
in the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864. Is 
buried at No. 9309 in the national cemetery at Marietta, Ga. 

CORPORAL ZIMRI N. THOMAS, aged twenty-one, clerk, born 
in Columbus, Fayette county, Indiana, and enlisted from Havana, 
111. Was promoted corporal; slightly wounded in the fight at 
Buzzard Roost, Georgia, February 25, 1864; served to the close of 
the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. After the close 
of his service, he settled at Oxford, Benton county, Indiana, where 
he died within recent years. 

CORPORAL SOLOMON WEIDEMAN, aged twenty-one, farm- 
er, born in Switzerland, emigrated to Illinois, and enlisted from 
Topeka. He served with his company to the close of the war; was 
promoted corporal, and mustered out with the regiment. After 
the war he engaged in farming near Manito, 111., and was accident- 
ally killed in 1891 by his reaper running over him. 

CORPORAL WILLIAM H. WAGONER, aged twenty-one, farm- 
er, born in Fredericktown, Knox county, Ohio, removed to Illinois, 
and enlisted from Havana. He served with his company to the 
close of the war; was promoted corporal, and mustered out with 
the regiment. He is a farmer, and now resides at Olathe, Johnson 
county, Kansas. 

MUSICIAN JAMES B. DURDY (promoted principal musician. 
See field and staff). 



488 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

MUSICIAN GEORGE HOAGLAND, aged thirty-three; served 
through the Kentucky campaign, and was discharged for disability 
at Nashville, Tenn., February 3, 1863. He settled at Topeka, 111., 
where he died in about 1868. 

CLARK N. ANDRUS (promoted adjutant. See field and staff). 

GEORGE ANDREWS, aged twenty-five, carpenter, born in 
Hessia, Germany, emigrated to Illinois, and enlisted from Wood- 
ford county. He appears to have been wounded while in the ser- 
vice, but the writer has been unable to fix the time and place. He 
served to the close of the war, and was mustered out with the regi- 
ment. Is supposed to be dead. 

WILLIAM L. BECK was born in Piqua, Miami county, Ohio, 
April 23, 1844, removed with his parents to Illinois in 1855, and 
was farming near Mason City when he enlisted. He served with 
his company until the close of the war, and was mustered out with 
the regiment. He is now farming at Rogers, Benton county, Ar- 
kansas. 

WESLEY C. BLAKELEY, aged twenty-three, single, farmer, 
born in Havana, Mason county, Illinois, and enlisted from Topeka. 
He served through the Kentucky campaign, and died at Nashville, 
Tenn., March 7, 1863. Is buried at No. 887 in the national ceme- 
tery near that place. 

JOHN M. BARR, aged eighteen, farmer, born in Pekin, Taze- 
well county, Illinois, and enlisted from Havana. Served through 
the Kentucky campaign, and died at Nashville, Tenn., February 
26, 1863, and is buried at No. 928 in the national cemetery near 
that place. 

JEFFERSON BOWERS, aged eighteen, farmer, born in Indian- 
apolis, Ind., and enlisted from Havana, 111. He was severely 
wounded at the battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8, 1862, and was 
discharged for disability at Louisville, Ky., February 28, 1863. He 
died in about 1896. 

NELSON BURR, aged twenty-seven, married, farmer, born in 
Jefferson county, New York, and enlisted from Peoria, 111. He 
served through the Kentucky campaign, and was transferred to 
the invalid corps at Nashville, Tenn., September 1, 1863. He was 
honorably discharged at the close of the war, and when last heard 
from was living at Knoxville, Tenn. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY K. 489 

JOSEPH R. CHAPLAIN, aged twenty-one, farmer, born in 
Washington, Washington county, Pennsylvania, and enlisted from 
Havana, 111. He served until the close of the war, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. He was a brick layer, and resided 
until some two years ago at Parsons, Labette county, Kansas, but 
now resides at Everett, Snohomish county, Washington. 

DAVID B. COLGLAZIER, aged thirty-three, enlisted from 
Havana, 111.; served in the Kentucky campaign until the com- 
mand reached Danville, when he was sent to the hospital, and died 
December 9, 1862. His remains are buried at No. 337 in the na- 
tional cemetery at Danville, Ky. 

GEORGE H. COTTRELL, aged nineteen, farmer, born in 
Peoria, 111., and enlisted from Forest City. Adjutant general's re- 
port says: "Supposed dead. Last heard from at Harrodsburg, 

Ky., October , 1862." His surviving comrades say "That he 

fell sick just after the battle of Perryville, Ky., and was cared for 
at a farm house. While convalescing he over ate, and died in a 
relapse." 

ROBERT L. DURDY (promoted principal musician. See field 
and staff). 

GEORGE DRAKE was born in Plainfield, Union county, New 
Jersey, April 5, 1846, and removed with his parents to Illinois in 
1852. He enlisted from Topeka; served through the Kentucky 
campaign, and at Nashville, Tenn., was detailed for two months 
to man the heavy artillery in the defenses. Was for a time 
mounted at brigade headquarters, but returned to his company, 
and was twice wounded on the Atlanta campaign once at Kenne- 
saw Mountain, June 27, 1864, and again in the fight for the Sand- 
town road. He served until the close of the war, and was mustered 
out with the regiment. After the end of his service he learned the 
blacksmith's trade, and in 1874 removed to Iowa, where he has 
since conducted that business. He resides at Clinton, Clinton 
county, Iowa. 

WILLIAM H. EVANS, aged twenty-three, born in St. Clairs- 
ville, Belmont county, Ohio, and enlisted from Havana, 111. Served 
through the Kentucky campaign, and was discharged for disabil- 
ity at Edgefield, Tenn., November 25, 1862. 

JACOB ELLER, aged twenty-four, single, farmer, born in Ger- 
many, and enlisted from Groveland, Tazewell county, Illinois. He 



490 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

served until the close of the war, and was mustered out with the 
regiment. He is supposed to be dead. 

ISAAC FOUNTAIN was born in Spalding, Lincolnshire, Eng- 
land, March 26, 1838, emigrated to Illinois in 1859, was married 
and a farmer when he enlisted from Forest City. He served with 
his company until the close of the war; was twice wounded once 
in the battle of Perryville, Ky., October 8, 1862, and again in the 
fight at Buzzard Roost, Georgia, February 25, 1864. He was mus- 
tered out with the regiment, and in 1874 he removed to Nebraska 
and engaged in farming in Franklin county. Has been assessor, 
and for fourteen years a notary public. His address is Upland, 
Franklin county, Nebraska. 

JOHN FRANK, aged eighteen, farmer, born in Germany, emi- 
grated to Illinois, and enlisted from Mason City. He served to the 
close of the war, and was mustered out with the regiment. He 
resides at Chaflin, Barton county, Kansas. 

WILLIAM' GURNBELL, aged twenty-four, single, farmer, born 
in Germany, emigrated to Illinois, and enlisted from Forest City. 
He served to the close of the war, and was mustered out with the 
regiment. Was farming near Warsaw, 111., where he died Febru- 
ary 15, 1890. 

BENJAMIN H. GROVER, aged twenty-one, farmer, born in 
Stark county, Ohio, and enlisted from Topeka, 111. He served in 
the Kentucky campaign until the regiment reached Bowling 
Green, where he fell sick and died January 5, 1863. Is buried at 
No. 10909 in the national cemetery at Nashville, Tenn. 

ABNER D. GRIFFIN, aged twenty-six, single, farmer, born in 
Piqua, Miami county, Ohio, and enlisted from Mason City, 111. He 
served through the Kentucky campaign, and died at Nashville, 
Tenn., December 19, 1862. Is buried at No. 4322 in the national 
cemetery near that place. 

ISAAC N. GRIFFIN, aged eighteen, farmer, born at Way, 
Miami county, Ohio, and enlisted from Mason City, 111. He served 
until the close of the war, and was mustered out with the regi- 
ment. He died February 2, 1891. 

ROBERT C. GARRISON, aged eighteen, farmer, born at Cape 
May, N. J., and enlisted from Mason City, 111. He served with his 
company until killed in the fight at Buzzard Roost, Georgia, Feb- 
ruary 25, 1864. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY K. 491 

JAMES GRANT, aged twenty-three, single, farmer, born in 
Albany, N. Y., and enlisted from Secor, Woodford county, Illinois. 
He died at Peoria, 111., September 8, 1862, his being the first death 
in the regiment. 

BENJAMIN HIBBS, aged twenty-eight, single, farmer, born at 
Catawassa, Columbia county, Pennsylvania, and enlisted from 
Havana, 111. He served until the close of the war, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. Was a farmer near Poplar City, 111., 
where he died in about 1890. 

CHARLES E. HITCHCOCK, aged eighteen, farmer, born at 
Zanesville, Muskingum county, Ohio, and enlisted from Havana, 
111. He served through the Kentucky campaign and was dis- 
charged for disability at Nashville, Tenn., February 3, 1863. Was 
living in Los Angeles, Cal., until about a year ago. Is supposed 
to be in Arizona. 

EPHRAIM HOPPING was born near Aurora, Dearborn county, 
Indiana, April 29, 1846, removed with his parents to Illinois in 
1860, and enlisted from Topeka. He served until the close of the 
war, but was absent (sick) when the regiment was mustered out. 
He was honorably discharged from the hospital at Camp Butler, 
111., but never entirely regained his health. He spent some twenty 
years in the South, and was living at Little Rock, Ark., at the time 
of his death, which occurred in July, 1896. 

DANIEL T. JONESON, aged thirty, single, farmer, born in 
Berrytown, Kent county, Delaware, and enlisted from Havana, 
111. He served until captured, probably about Chattanooga, Tenn., 
but time and place are unknown, and died in Libby prison at Rich- 
mond, Va., February 4, 1864. He is supposed to be buried among 
the unknown dead in the national cemetery at Richmond, Va. 

WILLIAM H. JIMMISON, aged twenty-five, single, farmer, 
born in Rockport, Mo., and enlisted from Havana, 111. He served 
until the regiment reached Bowling Green, Ky., when he was sent 
to the hospital and was discharged for disability January 1, 1863. 
The pension office reports his death, but gives neither date nor 
place. 

JOSEPH E. JACKSON was born in St. Petersburg, Clarion 
county, Pennsylvania, October 30, 1844, removed with his parents 
to Illinois in 1852, and was farming when he enlisted from Topeka. 
He served to the close of the war, and was mustered out with the 



492 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

regiment. He was slightly wounded at the battle of Murfreesboro, 
Tenn. He is engaged in farming near Miami, in the Indian Ter- 
ritory. 

JAMBS A. KBLSOE, aged twenty-five, married, farmer, born 
in Canton, Fulton county, Illinois; enlisted from Peoria; served 
through the Kentucky campaign, and was transferred to the in- 
valid corps at Nashville, Tenn., September 1, 1863. Was honor- 
ably discharged, and was living near Hesston, Harvey county, 
Kansas, when last heard from. 

WILLIAM McKILLIP, aged eighteen, farmer, born at Liberty, 
Union county, Indiana, and enlisted from Havana, 111. He served 
through the Kentucky campaign, and was discharged at Benton 
barracks, Missouri, for disability, February 24, 1863. He is said to 
be living at Belvidere, Thayer county, Nebraska. 

HENRY F. MOHLENBRINK was born in Hanover, Germany, 
January 13, 1843, emigrated with his parents to Illinois in 1849, 
and was a clerk when he enlisted from Havana, 111. He served 
with his company to the close of the war; was twice wounded 
once at the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, June 27, 1864, 
and again near Atlanta, Ga., and was mustered out with the regi- 
ment. Since the war he has served as township trustee and as 
assessor. He removed to Kansas in 1879 and engaged in farming 
in Marshall county and in 1898 removed to Oklahoma, and is farm- 
ing near Cropper, Garfield county, Oklahoma. 

FRITZE MOHLENBRINK, cousin of above, was born in Han- 
over, Germany, in 1843, emigrated to Illinois, and enlisted from 
Havana. He served until the close of the war, and was mustered 
out with the regiment. 

JOSIAH McKNIGHT was born in Piqua, Miami county, Ohio, 
May 24, 1843, removed with his parents to Illinois in 1849, and was 
a farmer when he enlisted from Mason City. He served with his 
company to the close of the war, but was severely wounded at 
Buzzard Roost, Georgia, February 25, 1864, by a gun shot through 
both thighs. He returned to duty and was mustered out with the 
regiment. He returned to his former home, and is a prominent 
farmer at Mason City, 111. 

LESTER N. MORRIS was born near Saint Paris, Champaign 
county, Ohio, February 15, 1844, removed with his parents to Illi- 
nois in 1856, and was a farmer when he enlisted from Topeka. He 



ROSTER OF COMPANY K. 493 

served with his company until the close of the war; was slightly 
wounded at the battle of Stone River, and was mustered out with 
the regiment. Since the war ended he has engaged in farming 
and carpenter work, and is now janitor of the public school build- 
ing at Lincoln, Logan county, Illinois. 

ALFRED T. MORRIS, aged twenty-six, single, farmer, born in 
Carysville, Champaign county, Ohio, and enlisted from Peoria, 
111. He served until the close of the war, and was mustered out 
with the regiment. 

CHARLES MORRIS, aged twenty-two, single, farmer, born in 
Manchester, Adams county, Ohio, removed to Illinois, and enlisted 
from Topeka. He served to the close of the war, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. Is said to reside at Havana, 111. 

JACOB H. PRETTYMAN was born in Philadelphia, Pa., July 
30, 1845, removed with his parents to Illinois in 1845, and enlisted 
from Havana. He served with his company until the close of the 
war; was wounded in the assault on Kennesaw Mountain, Georgia, 
June 27, 1864, and was mustered out with the regiment. At the 
close of his service he returned to Illinois, and is an architect and 
builder residing at Peoria. 

ADONIRAM ROBINSON was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, October 
27, 1836, and removed with his parents to Illinois in 1851. He first 
enlisted from Havana, August 1, 1861, in Company A, Twenty- 
eighth Illinois Infantry, and was discharged for disability Novem- 
ber 9, 1861. He again enlisted from Havana, and served in Com- 
pany K until discharged for disability at Nashville, Tenn., Feb- 
ruary 3, 1863. He afterward enlisted and served in Company L, 
Twelfth Missouri Cavalry, until in 1866, when he was honorably 
discharged. He was a printer before the war and since has been 
a reporter on various papers. He settled in Elgin, 111., in 1885, and 
still regards that place as his home, but is now an inmate of the 
National Military Home at Leavenworth, Kan. 

JOHN RAKESTRAW, aged twenty-three, single, farmer, born 
in Warren county, Illinois, and enlisted from Havana. He died at 
Louisville, Ky., January 28, 1863. 

CHARLES P. RIDDLE, aged nineteen, farmer, born in Ger- 
many, emigrated to Illinois, and enlisted from Topeka. He fell 
sick on the Kentucky campaign; was sent to the hospital at Bowl- 



494 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

ing Green, where he died November 27, 1862. Is buried at No. 
10673 in the national cemetery at Nashville, Tenn. 

HORACE F. REASON was born in Waynesville, Warren coun- 
ty, Ohio, July 23, 1845, removed with his parents to Illinois in 1861, 
and enlisted from Havana. He served with his company until the 
last year of the war, when he was detached, and served as orderly 
at General Morgan's headquarters until mustered out with the 
regiment. Returning to Illinois he settled at Mason City, where 
he has been mayor, member of the county board for ten years, and 
is now a member of the county central committee. Address, 
Mason City, 111. 

WILLIAM RAMIGE was born in Mohawk, Herkimer county, 
New York, August 17, 1841, removed with his parents to Illinois 
in 1848, and was a farmer when he enlisted from Pekin. He served 
with his company until the close of the war, and was mustered out 
with the regiment. He removed to Iowa in 1875 and engaged in 
farming in Calhoun county. His address is Rockwell City, Cal- 
houn county, Iowa. 

ABRAM SHELABARGER was born in Lima, Allen county, 
Ohio, October 3, 1840, removed with his parents to Illinois in 1856, 
and enlisted as a farmer from Topeka. He served with his com- 
pany until the close of the war, and was mustered out with the 
regiment. He removed to Nebraska in 1877, and has been farm- 
ing in Furnas county ever since. His address is Beaver City, Neb. 

JOHN W. SHELABARGER, aged twenty, farmer, born in 
Lima, Allen county, Ohio, removed to Illinois with his parents, and 
enlisted from Topeka. He served with his company until cap- 
tured near Lee and Gordon's mills, Georgia, in the spring of 1864, 
was exchanged, returned to duty, and was mustered out with the 
regiment. He is farming near Pawnee City, Pawnee county, Ne- 
braska. 

JAMES A. STONE was born in Washington, Washington coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania, and was a farmer when he enlisted from Ha- 
vana, 111., at the age of twenty-one. He served with his company 
until captured near Leet's tanyard, Georgia, in the spring of 1864; 
was exchanged and honorably discharged May 12, 1865. He re- 
moved to Missouri soon after the close of the war, and is farming 
near Madison, in Monroe county. 



ROSTER OF COMPANY K. 495 

MOSES SHAW, aged twenty-seven, enlisted from Havana, and 
died at Louisville, Ky., November 17, 1862. His remains are bur- 
ied in the national cemetery at Cave Hill, Kentucky, at No. 1047. 

HENRY SPILLMAN, aged twenty-one, single, farmer, born in 
Danville, Pa., and was farming when he enlisted from Topeka, 111. 
He served with his company to the close of the war, and was mus- 
tered out with the regiment. At the close of the war he returned 
to Illinois and resumed farming, but was a resident of Cheyenne 
county, Kansas, when he died October 9, 1887. 

JOHN SEIBENBORN, aged twenty-two, single, farmer, born in 
Germany, and enlisted from Topeka, 111. He served with his com- 
pany until he fell sick on the Atlanta campaign, and died in the 
field hospital at Dallas, Ga., May 28, 1864. 

MICHAEL SPEIGHT, aged twenty-one, farmer, born in Taze- 
well county, Illinois, and enlisted from Groveland. While on the 
Kentucky campaign, he was sent to the hospital at Harrodsburg, 
where he died October 30, 1862. Is buried at No. 359 in the na- 
tional cemetery at Camp Nelson, Ky. 

EVERARD TEGARD, aged nineteen, farmer; enlisted from 
Starfield, 111., but was born in Jefferson, Green county, Pennsyl- 
vania. Of this soldier the muster out roll says, "Supposed to be 
dead. Last heard from at Danville, Ky., November , 1862." 

DAVID PATTERSON VAN HORN was born in Piqua, Miami 
county, Ohio, February 4, 1842, removed to Illinois with his par- 
ents in 1857, and enlisted as a farmer from Mason City. He served 
with his company until the close of the war, and was mustered out 
with the regiment. He removed to Iowa, where he has prospered 
as a farmer; owns four hundred acres of land, and resides near 
Cotter, in Louisa county. 

JAMES M. WHITTAKER was born in Canton, Fulton county, 
Illinois, August 28, 1844, and enlisted as a farmer from Topeka. 
He served with his company to the close of the war; was wounded 
in the battle at Buzzard Roost, Georgia, but recovered; returned 
to duty, and was mustered out with the regiment. Since the war 
he has been farming, and in 1891 he removed to Nebraska, and 
now resides at Beaver City, in Furnas county. 

HENRY WENT, aged twenty-five, single, farmer, enlisted from 
Topeka, 111., but was born in Hanover, Germany. He served with 
his company until the close of the war, and was mustered out with 



496 HISTORY OF THE 85TH ILLINOIS. 

the regiment. At the end of his service he settled in Chicago, 
where he died in about 1892. 

JOHN B. WRIGHT (was promoted adjutant. See field and 
staff). 

DAVID ZENTMIRE was born in Oregoiiia, Warren county, 
Ohio, September 27, 1840, removed to Illinois in 1861, and was 
farming when he enlisted from Mason City. He served with his 
company until the close of the war, and was mustered out with the 
regiment. He returned to Illinois at the close of the war, and re- 
sumed farming, but removed to Kansas some years later, and is a 
clerk and assistant postmaster at Cherokee, Crawford county, at 
present. 

JOHN ZANISE, aged twenty-one, farmer, born in Lancaster, 
Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, and enlisted from Manito, 111. 
He served through the Kentucky campaign, and died at Nashville, 
Tenn., December 6, 1862. 



RECRUITS. 

SEBASTIAN G. BLUMENSHINE was born in Washington, 
Tazewell county, Illinois, June 17, 1843, and was a farmer when he 
enlisted from his native town, December 12, 1863. He served until 
the close of the war, and when the Eighty-fifth was mustered out 
he was transferred to Company C, Sixteenth Illinois, where he 
served until July 8, 1865, when he was mustered out with that regi- 
ment. He is farming near Clearwater, in Sedgwick county, 
Kansas. 

AUSTIN CONNET enlisted from Jackson, 111., January 15, 1865; 
was transferred to Company C, Sixteenth Illinois, at the close of 
the war, and was mustered out with that regiment July 8, 1865. 

FRANKLIN EVANS enlisted from Wilmington, 111., January 
15, 1865, and was transferred to Company C, Sixteenth Illinois, at 
the close of the war. He was mustered out with that regiment 
July 8, 1865. 

N. J. KEMP The records do not disclose the date nor the place 
of his enlistment, but he was present and was wounded in the fight 
at Rome, Ga., May 17, 1864. A piece of shell struck him on the 
belt buckle, driving it under the skin, but not through the wall of 



ROSTER OF COMPANY K. 497 

the abdomen. It passed round to the back bone, where it was 
located and cut out by Surgeon Dieffenbacher. When the regi- 
ment was mustered out this soldier was absent (sick of his wound 
in the general hospital at Camp Butler, 111., and was honorably 
discharged therefrom.) After the close of the war he settled at 
Sparta, Wis., where he still resides, if living. 

OWEN McDONALD The date and place of enlistment does 
not appear on the records of the company, but he was mustered 
out with the regiment. He was born in Ireland, and after the 
close of his service located at Havana, 111., where he committed 
suicide by drowning in about 1870. 

JOHN CLIFTON No record; is a farmer and resides at Shu- 
bert, Neb. 

GEORGE EMIT enlisted from Reed, Henderson county, Illinois, 
January 10, 1865. 

DANIEL FLEMING enlisted April 10, 1865, from Buena Vista, 
111. ; mustered out May 11, 1865. 

PETER HELD enlisted from Chicago, 111., October 4, 1864. No 
further record. 

WASHINGTON SMITH enlisted from Blandinsville, 111., No- 
vember 18, 1863. Was born in Ohio county, Kentucky, and dis- 
charged without date. 

GEORGE THOMPSON enlisted from Chicago, 111., November 8, 
1864. No further record. 

RICHARD WILSON enlisted from Chicago, 111., October 8, 
1864. No further record. 

JOSEPH ZIMMERMAN enlisted from Buena Vista, 111., April 
19, 1865, and was mustered out May 11, 1865. 



On page 68, James A. Mallory should be John A. Mallory. 

On page 368, David Cornham should read David Cornman. 

On page 229, James Moslander should read Joseph Moslander. 

On page 374, the name of James W. Tippey appears twice. The 
first or upper name is correct, but the other should read Henry 
Tippey. 



INDEX. 



Addis, James P 152, 468 

Akerson, John G 362 

Albin, John M 350 

Alkire, William D 192, 203, 380 

Alger, Gen. R. A 8 

Allen, William S...68, 191, 342, 362 

Allen, Andrew J 398 

Allen, William F 38, 413 

Alyea, Francis M 349 

Alyea, John W 350 

Ames, Orpheus 153, 486 

Amsden, Lincoln 475 

Amsler, Henry . .422 

Anderson, Col. W. B 117 

Anderson, Capt. E. L 187 

Andrus, Adjt. Clark N. 

20, 68, 93, 191, 228, 229, 337, 409, 488 

Andrews, George 488 

Anno, John F 203, 229, 319 

Anno, Levi S 348 

Armstrong, David 60, 413 

Armstrong, Pleasan t 380 

Armstrong, William 383 

Armstrong, Boling 413 

Arnett, James P 71, 349 

Arnold, John H 192, 204, 413 

Aten, Henry J 1, 6, 8, 183, 436 

Aten, John 10, 38, 273, 440 

Atchinson, Michael 203, 382 

Atchinson, John H 382 

A very, Thomas J 20, 342, 398 

Atwater, Miles L 440 

Atwater, William 440 

Baggs, John 425 

Baird, Gen. Absalom... 73, 162, 286 

Bailor, Jesse 203, 367 

Barwick, Jos. S..5, 20, 201, 240, 341 

Barnett, Capt. Charles M 

11, 28, 53, 106, 117, 124 

Barnett, Cleghorn 414 

Barnett, John 160, 413 

Barnes, Joel A 10, 458 

Barnes, George W 68, 458 

Barnes, Hezekiah 352 

Bartram, Reuben W 350 

Barr, John M 72, 488 

Bash, Isaac C 366 

Bass, Gibson 38, 96, 351 

Bass, John 431 

Batterton, Green P 407 

Beal, Henry 398 

Beatty, Gen. John 117, 141 

Beck, William 488 

Beck, Phillip 204, 423 

Beebe, Albert G 38, 345 

Behymer, Oliver P 203, 368 

Beekman, Martin 367 

Belles, John W 474 

Belles, William 476 

Bell, Thomas M 38, 368 

Berry, Francis M 398 

Bird, William 424 

Bishop, Joseph K 364 



Black, Capt. Samuel.... 11, 73, 375 

Black, David P 349 

Black, George 203, 378 

Black, Clinton 152, 399 

Blakesley, Wesley C 83, 488 

Blair, Gen. Frank P 301 

Blanchard, Capt. George A... 

71, 129, 203, 375 

Blizzard, William D 38, 352 

Bloomfield, Henry 41, 72, 458 

Blumenshine, Sebastian G.ll, 496 

Boarmaster, Lewis 227, 365 

Bobbitt, George W. S 349 

Bodle, Joseph 485 

Bochert, Charles 325, 410 

Bolen, John B 60, 442 

Bolen, Benjamin 457 

Boon, Calvin W 192, 229, 348 

Boon, John A 350 

Booth, John W 143, 351 

Borchert, Charles 325, 410 

Bortzfield, William.... 203, 229, 351 

Bortzfield, John, Jr 203, 351 

Bortzfleld, Jacob 168, 351 

Bowers, Jefferson 41, 488 

Bowman, Robert A.... 122, 420, 421 

Bowman, Ellis 364 

Boyer, David 425 

Boyd, William 299, 442 

Bradburn, John W 51, 351 

Bradburn, James M 350 

Bradburn, James M., Jr.. 192, 351 

Brannan, Gen. James M 104 

Bragg, Gen. Braxton 

....27, 45, 62, 100, 127, 142, 286, 317 

Branson, Charles R 143, 458 

Branson, Zebulon 476 

Brandon, D. A 192, 425 

Bradford, David 203, 383 

Breckenridge, John W 367 

Brewer, Aaron 160, 441 

Brickel, Phillip 432 

Britt, Albert P 71, 91, 123, 471 

Brought, Freman 38, 395 

Brooks, Almon 92, 381 

Brown, Thomas 103, 441 

Brown, Perry 441 

Brown, Simpson 441 

Buck, Henry H 192, 377 

Buel, Gen. Don Carlos 

31 32 42 43 
Buffalow,' William.'.'.'.'. 203, 229, *368 

Bullard, Norman A 399 

Burbige, Thomas 68, 475 

Burnside, Gen. A. E 138 

Burnett, John L 192, 383 

Burkholder, Simon 192, 367 

Burkhalter, Capt. J. L....216, 217 

Burt. James F 192, 425 

Burt, Abraham 424 

Burr, Nelson 488 

Bushnell, John 457 

Bushnell, Ananias P 458 

Butler, Milo 474 



500 



INDEX. 



Cadwallader, Albert D 

6, 9, 143, 152, 203, 219, 361 

Cady, Joseph 68, 399 

Cain, Charles 229, 476 

Cameron, Abraham A 472 

Capper, Aseria 399 

Carter, Joseph W 383 

Carter, William W 414 

Carter, William G 414 

Carlin, Gen. W. P 36, 168, 289 

Carey, James 152, 160, 425 

Carrington, A. A 484 

Carlock, George 396 

Castleberry, Henry W 399 

Castleberry, William H 397 

Cassens, Robert 400 

Castor, Stephen L 442 

Cates, Ephraim 51, 384 

Chatfield, Charles H 

60, 143, 187, 192, 393 

Chaplain, Joseph R 489 

Charlton, William P 353 

Cheal, James J 425 

Chester, James S 9, 38, 378 

Chester, Francis N 9, 381 

Cheatham, Gen. B. F 276, 286 

Cist, Gen. Henry M 7 

Clark, Channing 38, 381 

Clark, William 51, 383 

Clark, John J 204, 425 

Clancy, Col. Charles W...117, 182 

Clary, Royal A 38, 414 

Clary, Abram 68, 408, 409 

Clary, William F 204, 410 

Clary, Martin S 414 

Cleveland, P. D 72, 425 

Cleveland, John H 203, 363 

Clifton, Lev! 143, 423 

Clifton, John 497 

Cline, Wilson 349 

Cline, Phillip 353 

Close, William D 227, 399 

Cluney, Thomas 203, 363 

Clupper, Perry W 248, 439 

Coburn, Col. John 94 

Coe, Lieut 252 

Cogdall, Isaac 352 

Cogdall, Eli M 352 

Cogeshall, Francis S 394 

Cohren, William 51, 450, 453 

Cokley, John 68, 476 

Cokley, Jeremiah 473 

Collins, Albert 91, 123, 471 

Collins, Leonidas 473 

Collins, William 174, 459 

Cole, George 414 

Colglazier, David B 60, 489 

Combs, James 426 

Conley, Andrew 71, 353 

Connett, Austin 496 

Connor, Henry 51, 368 

Conover, Joseph B.10, 203, 255, 397 

Cooper, George 59, 440 

Cooper, Abraham 454 

Gorman, David 203, 368 

Cottrell, George H 51, 489 

Cowen, Col. D. D. T 53 

Cox, Gen. Jacob D..7, 297, 301, 307 

Cox, John F 352 

Cox, John 352 



Cox, John 414 

Cozad, Bazil 203, 368 

Crable, Joseph 459 

Craig, David 425 

Cratty, Edmund 60, 352 

Crittenden, Gen. T. L 32 

Cue, Nelson D 383 

Cummings, Major S. P 

18, 20, 91, 336, 433, 450 

Cunningham, William 32, 459 

Cunningham, John 51, 458 

Cunningham, Alexander 442 

Curless, Edmund 471 

Curless, LaFayette 51, 433, 434 

Curless, Joseph 439 

Curless, Lorenzo D 442 

Curran, Maurice 368 

Daniels, John R 353 

Danawain, Samuel 51, 369 

Dare, Charles D 203, 369 

Daugherty, Daniel.... 192, 229, 384 

Davis, Gen. Jefferson C 

30, 31, 116, 133, 

136, 141, 162, 168, 186, 196, 199, 212, 
216, 218, 247, 279, 290, 295, 301, 303 

Davis, William 38, 400 

Davis, Noah 203, 400 

Dawley, Lieut. Richard L 117 

Dean, William 204, 424 

Deford, George 121, 423 

Deford, William 94, 426 

Deitrich, Jeremiah... .192, 229, 384 

Deitrich, George W 382 

Delong, William 422 

Derwent, Samuel 60, 384 

Destroying Railroad 245, 246 

Dew, Jacob S 227, 400 

Dial, Lewis 214, 459 

Dickerson, Col. C. J 53, 117 

Dieffenbacher, Philip L 

..5, 20, 38, 57, 92, 160, 291, 339, 496 

Dilworth, Col. Caleb J 

18, 21, 92, 117, 170, 174, 182, 

186, 188, 193, 199, 225, 227, 325,333 

Dingles, George 476 

Dobson, Martin K 457 

Dodge, Silas 192, 229, 442 

Dodge, John W 442 

Dolcater, Peter 384 

Douglass, John W 443 

Drake, George 11, 192, 489 

Dray, Samuel A 384 

Driver, Robert 32, 426 

Dubois, John 426 

Duncan, Charles 456 

Dunn, Joseph 152, 392 

Durham, John M 68, 486 

Durham, Edwin M 342, 400 

Durdy, James B 343, 487 

Durdy, Robert S 343, 489 

Dutton, Daniel 459 

Duvall, John H 38, 192, 377 

Eaton, Thomas C 6, 9, 364 

Earp, William 248, 422 

Early, Gen. Jubal 315 

Ekis, Michael 51, 415 

Elgin, William F 460 

Elliott, Luke 51, 450, 452 



INDEX. 



501 



Elliott, Elisha J 192, 456 

Eller, Jacob 489 

Emit, George 497 

Engle, Thomas B 227, 456 

Evans, H. Clay 8 

Evans, William H 339 

Evans, William H 489 

Evans, Franklin 496 

Eveland, Abner 364 

Eveland, Amos 203, 369 

Erick, Charles 485 

Fahnestock, Col. A. L 182 

Faith, Jacob , 410 

Fantin, John D 477 

Fatchcraft, Henry 477 

Fawcette, Michael 443 

Fawcett, Levi 443 

Fearing, Gen. Benjamin D 

266, 290, 293, 294, 296 

Fellows, Captain 185 

Fenton, John D 193, 460 

Ferguson, James 415 

Ferrell, James 396 

Fitch, Joseph H 192, 369 

Fleming, Daniel 497 

Floro, Cadmus 203, 400 

Forner, Joseph 152, 426 

Forrest, Gen. N. B 

69, 82, 232, 233, 234 

Fountain, Isaac 11, 41, 153, 490 

Frank, John 490 

Frank, James 426 

Frazee, Thomas 68, 476 

Frietley, H. William 227, 460 

Frost, Wesley 60, 415 

Fox, David 369 

Furguson, John 353 

Furguson, Alexander 353 

Gabriel, Phillip 426 

Gabriel, Andrew 426 

Galbraith, Johnston 68, 370 

Gardner, Albert L 385 

Gardner, James M 203, 385 

Gardner, John S 91, 354 

Gardner, John A 51, 385 

Gardner, Capt. George Q 117 

Gardner, John R 385 

Garrard, Gen. Kenner 161 

Garrison, Robert C 152, 490 

Gash, James 346 

Gehagan, Hugh 329, 426 

Gilson, Sanford 477 

Gilbert, Gen. Charles C 

32, 33, 44, 72 

Gillmore, Franklin 51, 353 

Gillmore, James F 353 

Gobon, James 397 

Gobon, Allen 401 

Gordon, David A 51, 354 

Good, Major Joseph 117 

Gorsage, Jeremiah 460 

Gould, Lorenzo D 242, 438 

Graff, Joseph E 477 

Graham, William A 474 

Grant, James 24, 490 

Grant, Gen. U. S....7, 48, 118, 121, 

125, 127, 138, 144, 150, 156, 161, 254, 

269, 298, 300, 301, 306, 316, 320, 322 

Gray, John 369 



Gray, Vinson 477 

Granger, Gen. Gordon 

72, 75, 101, 102 

Green, Thomas W 385 

Green, Boling 204, 229, 412 

Gregory, George 51, 385 

Greathouse, James 365 

Greathouse, William 369 

Greathouse, James, Jr 369 

Griffin, Abner D 60, 490 

Griffin, Isaac N 490 

Griflin, Richard 204, 242, 415 

Grifttn, John 412 

Griffith, Col. James R 

192, 225, 325, 326, 335, 360 

Grigg (or Gregg), Robert 426 

Grissom, Samuel B 401 

Grover, Benjamin H 68, 490 

Gurnbell, William 490 

Hadsall, Edwin M 203, 386 

Hagan, John B 68, 462 

Hale, Josiah 477 

Halleck, Gen. H. W...311, 312, 313 
Hamilton, Jas. M..71, 122, 203, 376 

Hamilton, Reuben 204, 427 

Hamilton, David 227, 422 

Hamilton, Albert J 122, 401 

Hamilton, William M 376 

Hamilton, Charles L, 398 

Hankins, Stephen 415 

Hanks, James 83, 427 

Harmon, Col. Oscar F 

53, 117, 182, 186 

Hardee, Gen. William J 

145, 267, 280, 284, 286, 287 

Harrison, William C 354 

Harker, Gen. Charles G 190 

Harbert, John L 401 

Harris, William H 461 

Hastings, James L 20, 343, 379 

Hastings, Daniel W 51, 385 

Havens, Daniel 38, 68, 203, 345 

Havens, Samuel 68, 413 

Hays, Daniel 60, 443 

Hazen, Gen. William B 

7, 121, 253, 295 

Hazleng, John 343, 401 

Heaton, Simon 248, 461 

Heald, John W 370 

Held, Peter 497 

Henfling, F. S 45, 51, 427 

Henfling, Henry 51, 427 

Henderson, Silas D 455 

Hetzeler, George 193, 486 

Hibbs, Benjamin 491 

Hicks, Willard 108, 229, 401 

Hitchcock, Charles E 491 

Himmill, Adam J 485 

Hinsey, Americus 204, 427 

Hoagland, George 488 

Hodge, Hasard 427 

Hodge, Alexander 192, 427 

Hodge, John 424 

Hodge, George 96, 427 

Hohamer, William F..204, 229, 411 
Holstead, Capt. David M 

91, 108, 122, 470, 471 

Holley, Jeremiah 203, 381 

Hollingsworth, Thomas H. B.380 



502 



INDEX. 



Hole, John N 483 

Hole, William H 5, 6, 11, 484 

Holt, Solomon 443 

Holmes, William D 203, 370 

Holmes, John Q 477 

Holmes, Maj. J. T 197, 199, 287 

Hons, Solomon 386 

Hons, Wesley 386 

Hood, Gen. J. B 7, 205, 209 

213, 231, 235, 239, 262, 276, 280, 297 
Hooker, Gen. Joseph 

132, 138, 173, 177 

Hopping, George N 486 

Hopping, Ephraim 491 

Horton, Marion... .41, 150, 152, 461 

Horton, Andrew J 71, 452 

Horton, Levi 428 

Horton, Jonathan B 461 

Horton, Isaac 477 

Horton, Thomas 437 

Horn, Jacob 462 

Horsey, Smith B 227, 484 

Houghton, Capt. Chas.W.143, 393 

Houghton, Eliza 401 

Houseworth, John 203, 377 

Howard, Gen. O. O 

131, 181, 243, 272, 280, 301 

Howard, Henry N 462 

Howarth, Henry 227, 401 

Howell, Henry 32, 354 

Howell, George 91, 354 

Hudson, Adjt. Preston C 

123, 228, 338, 471 

Hudnall, William C 460 

Hudnall, James Walter 462 

Hughes, Wilson 51, 477 

Hughes, Neal P 227, 473 

Hughes, Charles A 229, 461 

Hughey, Julius T 461 

Hulburt, William H 462 

Hulburt, Alansus P 462 

Hult, Charles E 485 

Hurley, Charles 370 

Hurley, Bartholomew 68, 370 

Hutton, Thomas 365 

Hutchins, Harvey H 379 

Ishmael, Louis 203, 299, 386 

Jackson, Joseph E 59, 491 

Jackson, John E 59, 491 

Jackson, Samuel 354 

James, Capt. F. B 7, 191 

Jameson, James 463 

Jellison, Benjamin 463 

Jemmison, Thomas 60, 485 

Jennings, Anderson 454 

Jimmison, William H 491 

Jimmison, James 193, 486 

Johnston, Gen. Jos. E..7, 161, 167, 
195, 206, 280, 286, 294, 300, 301, 312 

Johnson, Gen. Richard W 162 

Johnson, William 422 

Johnson, Henry J 463 

Johnston, John.. 203, 365 

Joneson, Daniel T 160, 491 

Jones, Henry P 242, 402 

Jones, Samuel 355 

Jones, William 415 

Jones, William J 416 



Jones, James M 443 

Jordan, Benjamin E 203, 354 

Keller, Sylvester 478 

Kellogg, Nathan 204, 423 

Kelley, Josiah H 68, 463 

Kelley, William 402 

Kelley, William 421 

Kelley, William 444 

Kelso, James N 492 

Kemp, N. J 172, 496 

Kennedy, Capt. John 

18, 128, 192, 204, 420 

Kennedy, John F 438 

Kerns, Franklin 92, 444 

Kicer, Daniel 60, 402 

Kilpatrick, Gen. Judson 

161, 243, 268, 282 

King, Newton 203, 346 

King, David M 444 

Kingery, John F 463 

Kinzer, Amos 454 

Kirk, Armstead 402 

Kisler, Charles T 203, 362 

Koozer, Daniel 299, 355 

Kratzer, David 192, 229, 355 

Kratzer, Benjamin F 38, 370 

Krebaum, Alonzo F 108, 366 

Laf ary, Henry 444 

Lamperell, Charles 444 

Lampit, Edwin E 122, 421 

Lane, Richard A 68, 386 

Lane, Green B 1S2, 387 

Lane, Tidense W 387 

Lane, Abraham L 387 

Lane, Richard 463 

Langston, Capt. Mathew..68, 344 

Langston, William T 355 

Landerer, Maurice 204, 428 

Langley, Col. J. W 225, 293 

Landwith, William M 346 

Landon, William 474 

Lapool, John 10, 478 

Larance, Joseph 402 

Larance, James A 402 

LaTourette, Henry S 

60, 12S, 147, 192, 434 

Layman, Isaac 192, 402 

Lay ton, Aurelius 60, 355 

Leeper, James 178, 192, 378 

Lee, Gen. Robert E 

145, 146, 161, 269, 301, 303, 306 

Leitson, William 416 

Leonard, William 411 

Lewis, James S 444 

Levingston, Thomas J 445 

Lightcap, Holo way W 

59, 96, 111, 338 

Lincoln, Abraham 15, 304, 383 

Linderman. Thomas G 371 

Lindsey, Uriah B 395 

Livingston, John 10, 444 

Lofton, Robert 378 

Logan, Clinton 242, 428 

Logan, Gen. John A 301 

Logne, Jacob B 379 

Logne, James 379 

Longfellow, Daniel G 192, 437 

Longstreet, Gen. James 

101, 127, 139 



INDEX. 



503 



Lovel, Henry 463 

Lyon, Gen. Nathaniel 13 

Lynn, James S 38, 412 

Madison, Granville 403 

MaGee, Col. David W 53, 117 

MaGill, Romeo 60, 486 

Mallory, John A 68, 362 

Maloney, John 68, 428 

Maloney, William 347 

Mann, Isaac 363 

Maney, Gen. George 13S, 188 

Marion, Gen. Francis 251 

Maranvllle, George F 371 

Marlln, Isaac 416 

Markell, Solomon 474 

Markley, William 481 

Marble, William H 91, 470 

Mardis, Ira A 91, 228, 452 

Marshall, Jeremiah 388 

Mason, Hiram 60, 355 

Mason, Andrew J 122, 325, 421 

Masterson, William 484 

Massey, William H 487 

Matthews, Charles G 193, 474 

Mathews, William E 416 

Maxwell, David 51, 91, 451 

Mayes, Joseph A 356 

McAdams, F. M 7 

McCook, Gen. Alexander Mc- 
Dowell 32, 35, 44 

McCook, Gen Edward M 161 

McCook, Col. Daniel 

28, 52, 53, 95, 98, 101, 103, 105, 

110, 117, 123, 140, 141, 162, ?81, 185 

McClelland, Nathaniel 51, 450 

McClelland, William... 60, 433, 434 

McCain, Alonzo 203, 347 

McCabe, Miles 203, 395 

McCabe, James 428 

McCabe, Phillip 428 

McCarty, Joseph 387 

McClaren, John W....174, 233, 464 

McClaren, William H 453 

McColgan, Frances M.248, 325, 421 

McConnahay, John M 371 

McComb, Anderson 445 

McCausland, William 475 

McDonald. Milton 403 

McDonald, Owen 497 

McCroskey, Edward 60, 479 

McGuire, Richard 172, 416 

McKalip, James 71, 374 

McKillip, William 492 

McKee, Francis M 463 

McKnight, Josiah 11, 153, 492 

McLaughlin, William 203, 347 

McLarin, Andrew 203, 381 

McHugh, Hugh 71, 470, 472 

McPherson, Gen. James B 

161, 167, 172, 207, 208 

McNeeley, William 412 

McNeil, Jas T...51, 91, 123, 228, 451 

McQuinn, John 428 

Meade, Gen. George G....315, 319 

Mence, William A 51, 416 

Meek, George W 464 

Meyers, Solomon 41, 464 

Meyers, George 68, 160, 362 

Mike, Our 72, 429 



Minner, William 41, 478 

Minner, John 478 

Mitchell, Gen. Robert B 36, 52 

Mitchell, Col. John G 

101, 105, 117, 162, 181 

Mitchell, William H 378 

Miller, Michael 371 

Miller, John C 192, 416 

Milner, John K 82, 203, 228, 346 

Mintonye, Alvero C 192, 371 

Mohlenbrink, Henry F 193, 492 

Mohlenbrink, Fritz 492 

Montgomery, Jesse C 381 

Moore, Col. Robert S 

2, 9, 17, 20, 53, 92, 332 

Moore, Robert S 51, 387 

Moore, Ellis 227, 479 

Moore, John H 481 

Moore, George A 387 

Moore, Joseph E 479 

Morgan, Gen. James D 

52, 53, 83, 92, 96, 98, 100, 117, 

141, 162, 179, 216, 218, 233, 290, 295 

Morgan, Hugh 192, 229, 403 

Morgan, William H 192, 403 

Mormon War 412 

Morris, Charles 11, 493 

Morris, Lester N 59, 492 

Morris, Alfred T 493 

Morris, David 371 

Moslander, George W.192, 203, 387 

Moslander, James 41, 229, 473 

Moslander, Joseph 229, 388 

Mosely, Thomas J 396 

Mosier, John W 203, 388 

Mower, Gen. Joseph A 301 

Murphy, John J 192, 229, 403 

Mullica, Robert G 472 

Musselman, D. L 

51, 165, 192, 199, 298, 435 

Mustard, Enoch 299, 371 

Mustard, Lucius 371 

Myers, James S 403 

Myers, George 416 

Nash, Lemuel Y 38, 356 

Neal, John W 51, 344, 345 

Neiklrk, Eli E 91, 242, 483 

Neider, Robert 108, 403 

Nelson, Gen. William 

27, 28, 29, 30, 31 

Neeley, William H....192, 229, 388 

Neeley, Samuel, Jr 388 

Nevill, John R 395 

Nicholas, James E 372 

Newberry, William 38, 388 

Newberry, George W 464 

Newman, Fred W 429 

Noblack, Barnhart....l92, 242, 428 

Nott, Massena B 365 

Nott, Stephen H 203, 372 

Noyes, David 372 

Nuhn, Conrad 193, 487 

O'Brien, John 422 

O'Brien, John 396 

O'Donnell, Joseph 51, 389 

O'Leary, John H 203, 372 

Opdyke, Andrew J 192, 380 

O'Rourk, Patrick 404 

Orange, Joseph 160, 429 



504 



INDEX. 



Osborn, Richard A 388 

Osborn, William 464 

Osborn, William 481 

Osterman, Thomas 416 

Owens, Thomas 227, 417 

Pain, John 417 

Palmer, Gen. John M 

138, 161, 179, 181, 196 

Palmer, John B 453 

Palmer, Joel 465 

Partridge, C. A 7 

Parks, Oliver W 192, 404 

Parks, Jacob 356 

Parks, H. B 429 

Parker, Martin V 465 

Parker, William R 446 

Parr, John N 445 

Pearcy, James H 389 

Pearson, James 417 

Pelham, William C 51, 382 

Pelham, James J 379 

Pelham, Sterling 389 

Patterson, Jas. C..20, 160, 340, 389 
Patterson, Newton C...10, 227, 404 

Patterson, Thomas F 394 

Patton, John W 361 

Paul, Samuel 479 

Paul, Ebenezer 51, 372, 389 

Paul, Thomas E 60, 374 

Paul, Samuel 372 

Paul, Eben 479 

Pemberton, Beaurop 356 

Pemberton, William J 356 

Perkins, John H 465 

Peters, Idea F 91, 356 

Phelps, John L 397 

Phelps, David B 404 

Phillips, William 429 

Phillips, Isaac 429 

Phillips, Thomas 429 

Phillips, William H 479 

Pierce, James T 5, 20, 342, 374 

Pierce, Charles W 38, 143, 360 

Pierce, Thornton S 192, 363 

Pillsbury, George 424 

Plank, Francis M 204, 446 

Plank, Martin V 465 

Plasters, John 404 

Plunkett, Joseph M....60, 408, 409 

Polk, Gen. Leonidas 62, 175 

Pond, Charles 227, 485 

Porter, Robert 59, 372 

Poster, Lewis 357 

Post, Lewis S 436 

Potter, James 411 

Potter, William S 49, 417 

Powell, John R 108, 193, 465 

Powell, George 446 

Prentis, Noble L 115, 116 

Prentice, Berry 192, 445 

Prentice, William 445 

Pretty man, Jacob H...11, 193, 493 

Price, John W 60, 357, 404 

Pringle, Robert 356 

Prior, George D 203, 362 

Quackenbush, Col. Myndert 

W 53 

Quigley, Cyrus R 379 

Quance, Charles E 389 



Quinlin, William 429 

Rakestraw, John 68, 493 

Ramige, William 494 

Ramon, Comfort H 60, 383 

Ramsey, Hiram 60, 389 

Ransom, William H 68, 405 

Randall, Walter 413 

Ratcliff, Thomas J 372 

Ratcliff, Alexander C 365 

Ray, Rollie 405 

Ray, William 49, 417 

Reagan, Hiram D 357 

Reagan, Charles W 203, 357 

Reason, Robert F 51, 483 

Reason, Horace F 494 

Reeder, Henry 396 

Reeder, Elias 405 

Reed, George W 446 

Reno, John E 108, 472 

Rever, Peter W 192, 439 

Reynolds, George W 51, 389 

Rheinders, William 192, 405 

Rhoads, Michael 121, 430 

Richey, Andrews 377 

Richardson, Isaac 475 

Richardson, Franklin 373 

Rider, Major Robert G 39, 91, 

95, 186, 197, 225, 227, 325, 336, 482 

Riddle, Charles P 52, 493 

Riley, Matt 192, 429 

Ritter, Aaron 203, 390 

Robinson, Andrew 192, 417 

Robinson, John L 417 

Robinson, Adoniram 493 

Robertson, John M 

51, 183, 192, 433, 434 

Robbins, Alanson 405 

Roberts, Thomas R. ..68, 160, 344 
Rochester, Nathaniel S....192, 405 

Rochester, James S 397 

Roe, William R 438 

Rogers, Joseph F 51, 347 

Rogers, Michael 465 

Rosecrans, Gen. William S 

46, 49, 52, 57, 60, 

62, 72, 81, 95, 97, 100, 101, 118, 265 

Rose, William K 51, 486 

Ross, James. 83, 432 

Royes, Thomas J 51, 479 

Saffer, John M 192, 467 

Saffer, James W 469 

Sample, Ezekiel 204, 411 

Sanit. Phillip 203, 357 

Sandidge, Daniel 439 

Salsbury, James 467 

Sayres, Lemuel J 41, 465 

Scattergood, Edward 204, 423 

Schofield, Gen. J. M 

161, 236, 285, 298, 301, 367 

Scholes, John 192, 406 

Scott, Pleasant S 

10, 18, 49, 123, 192, 325, 408 

Scott, Franklin F 204, 418 

Scoville, Benjamin F....9, 203, 382 

Scrivens, R. S 423 

Scroggs, George 326 

Seay, James H. T 396 

Seay, James 10, 417 

Seibenborn, John 229, 495 



INDEX. 



505 



Severns, William 193, 466 

Severns, Eli 204, 466 

Severns, Francis M 192, 447 

Senter, James T 204, 418 

Seymour, Lewis 448 

Shackey, Andrew J....71, 122, 410 

Shane, Col. James M 117 

Shannon, W. Irving... 183, 192, 437 

Shannon, Nathan 467 

Shawgo, Joseph B.6, 103, 327, 447 

Shawgo, George W 447 

Shaw, Ross 357 

Shaw, Moses 52, 495 

Shaw, George W 60, 467 

Shay, Henry 38, 390 

Shelabarger, John W 494 

Shelabarger, Abram 494 

Sherman, Gen. W. T...7, 125, 136, 
141, 157, 158, 161, 175, 177, 210, 212, 
218, 221, 228, 230, 231, 235, 243, 257, 
267, 275, 285, 287, 297, 306, 312, 321 

Sheridan, Gen. Philip H 

7, 32, 35, 44, 52, 265 

Sheets, James N 204, 229, 411 

Shelly, Frank 215, 456 

Shields, Washington M..51, 71, 453 

Shields, Henry 455 

Shields, Eli 103, 192, 454 

Shields, James 192, 448 

Shields, William 457 

Shields, John B 466 

Shields, Benjamin F 467 

Shores, John 192, 439 

Short, Isaac C 93, 482, 483 

Short, William B 390 

Shroeder, John W 418 

Shutt, Christopher 51, 417 

Sigley, David 

5, 6, 9, 192, 203, 237, 365 

Singleton, John F. IVi 373 

Singleton, Joshua T 203, 373 

Sizelove, John 10, 203, 405 

Skiles, William H 229, 373 

Slocum, Gen. Henry W 

243, 268, 289, 301 

Smick, William S 358 

Smith, Col. Robert F 53, 117 

Smith, William 60, 390 

Smith, George W 348 

Smith, Jacob 406 

Smith, Francis M 406 

Smith, William 438 

Smith, Lewis C 446 

Smith, Alfred 72, 447 

Smith, Washington 497 

Snodgrass, John W 122, 469 

Snodgrass, Horace J 192, 446 

Snodgrass, Robert 467 

Southwick, Gilbert W. 9, 75, 228, 340 

Southwood, William 373 

Southwood, Ellis 38, 373 

Spanish War 466 

Speicht, Michael 52, 495 

Spink, Charles 203, 373 

Spillman, William 430 

Spillman, Henry 495 

Stagg, Thomas 203, 229, 382 

Stalder, Henry 51, 430 

Steley, Merton 60, 406 

Steedman, Gen. James B.100, 105 



Stephenson, James N 447 

Stewart, Nixon B 7, 96, 125 

Stewart, Orlando 38, 390 

Still, Samuel 60, 448 

Still, Solomon 448 

Still, Robert 448 

Stilts, Isaac 92, 405 

Stith, William P 398 

Stoddard, Milton 83, 480 

Stone, James A 494 

Stout, Josiah 203, 346 

Stout, Ephraim 418 

Stradford, David 423 

Streeter, Henry R 192, 357 

Strode, Silas 374 

Stubblefleld, John 203, 390 

Stubblefleld, Archibald J..51, 390 

Stull, William R 366 

Summers, Joel E 349 

Sutton, Henry 418 

Swan, John W 456 

Swift, Charles G 480 

Swisher, Henry C 

103, 217, 218, 309, 466 

Talbot, John B 358 

Tangard, Benjamin 430 

Tarter, Laban V 41, 472 

Taylor, David 215, 449 

Taylor, George 412 

Taylor, A. J 204, 229, 410 

Tegard, Everard 52, 495 

Temple, Jonathan P 38, 391 

Tenney, Richard W....68, 420, 421 

Terry, Joel F 204, 430 

Terry, Gen. A. H 285, 297, 301 

Tidrick, Alexander R 192, 440 

Tiery, William 122, 468 

Tilson, Col. John 53, 117 

Tippey, James W 374 

Tippey, Warren 203, 364 

Tippey, Henry 374 

Thario, John 463 

Thomas, Gen. George H.43, 44, 77 
106, 116, 119, 120, 156, 161, 182, 187, 
196, 212, 216, 240, 262, 265, 298, 326 

Thomas, James E 192, 204, 418 

Thomas, Zimri N 153, 487 

Thomas. James E 192, 204 

Thomas, Aaron 448 

Thomas, David 448 

Thomas, Azariah 474 

Thompson, William M 38, 358 

Thompson, John A.... 193, 229, 468 

Thompson, John 152, 449 

Thompson, John 430 

Thompson, Samuel 457 

Thompson, George 497 

Toler, James T 152, 468 

Toler, Col. Silas C 53 

Toley, Charles W 406 

Tomlin, John H 192, 391 

Toney, Antoine 430 

Topping, Col. E. H 117, 207 

Trapp, Oliver 72, 480 

Traylor, Leonidas 418 

Trayer, John 475 

Treadway, Martin L 71, 406 

Trent, Hugh A 60, 204, 325, 409 

Trent, Dallas A 203, 358 



506 



INDEX. 



Trent, Pleasant 348 

Trent, Thomas 358 

Troy, Martin 242, 406 

Turner, John 51, 432 

Turner, William W.60, 82, 160, 395 

Turner, Van 398 

Tyrrell, William A 203, 391 

Tyra, George 480 

VanDorn, Gen. Earl 

14, 47, 74, 84, 90 

VanDeusen, John P 83, 358 

TanHorn, Thomas B 7 

VanHorn, David P 495 

VanTassel, Col. Oscar 117 

VanVleck, Col. Carter 117 

Varnum, B. P 204, 424 

Veileit, Leander 71, 410 

Wainwright, Capt. S. A 19, 28 

Wag-oner, Jeremiah 203, 391 

Wagoner, William H 487 

Walker, Col. James P 

20, 92, 122, 334 

Walker, William W....71, 122, 376 

Walker, Austin 193, 480 

Walker, John S 484 

Wallace, James 401 

Ware, Eugene F 331 

Warner, Edward 431 

Warner, W 431 

Waterman, George 192, 419 

Watkins, Col. Louis D 83, 89 

Watson, John 41, 193, 475 

Welch, James H 203, 407 

Welsh, Ira 60, 407 

Welsh, George M 60, 348 

Welsh, Edward 419 

Welker, Lemuel 108, 473 

Weideman, Solomon 487 

Went, Henry 495 

Westnour, Fitzhugh 431 

Westerfield, James H 374 

Westfall, Daniel 68, 82, 345 

Wetzel, George H 193, 455 

Wilder, D. W 191 

Wiles, Col. W. M 117 

Williams, William 85, 90 

Wilcox, Jasper 60, 366 

Wilcox, Jasper 481 



Wilson, John C 395 

Wilson, G. H 431 

Wilson, Henry H 457 

Wilson, Richard 497 

Winchell, Albert 480 

Winchell, William B 203, 374 

Winchell, George 203, 374 

Wiseman, Capt. Theodore 179 

Wood, John A 359 

Wood, David 203, 359 

Woodcock, Alex 51, 431 

Wolf, John 424 

Workman, George 103, 449 

Worley, Daniel 41, 469 

Wheeler, Gen. Joseph 

69, 82, 247, 251, 272 

Wheeler, Ellas 438 

Wheeler, Arden 468 

Wheeler, Thomas 469 

White, Benjamin 38, 347 

White, Martin L 60, 359 

Whitney, William 431 

Whip, Marcellus 391 

Whittaker, Wesley J 60, 359 

Whittaker, James M 153, 495 

Whittaker, Gen. Walter C....101 

Whittaker, Jacob 204, 431 

Wright, John B 20, 71, 337, 431 

Wright, Samuel F 20, 59, 338 

Wright, Lewis P 192, 437 

Wrigley, Matthew L 108, 430 

Tardley, Jacob 407 

Tardley, Henry G 392 

Yates, Samuel 93, 482 

Yates, Gov. Richard 17 

Yager, Major John 117 

Young, Samuel 143, 299, 394 

Young, James K 192, 229, 392 

Young, Thomas M 203, 229, 391 

Young, Thomas P 391 

Young, William 396 

Young, William H 412 

Zanise, John 60, 496 

Zellers, Frederick F...108, 193, 469 

Zentmire, David 4% 

Zimmerman, Joseph 497 

Zimmerman, John T 108, 455 



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