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PREFACE. 



Human character is the product of all time. It is the 
growth, not of a single life, but of ages. Its form and 
shape, in the individual and in the community, are de- 
rived, not more from the present, than the past. What 
we are, body, soul, and spirit, is owing, in a great degree, 
to agencies that have been at work from the beginning. 

The cast of a man's immediate progenitors determines, 
to a great extent, his own. The rank and standing of the 
domestic circle, in which his early days glide on so noise- 
lessly and yet so swiftly, affect, for all time, his whole be- 
ing. The social community in which the child is led up 
to man ; the humble school-house in which his mind is 
brought into form and symmetry ; the sanctuary, whither 
his youthful steps are bent on the Sabbath-day, with its 
songs of praise, its humble prayers, and its solemn exhor- 
tations ; the long-estabhshed customs of the place and 
age ; the pecuhar traits of the population, sparse or dense, 
rural or urban ; the prevalent handicrafts, trades and piu:- 
suits of the locahty ; every passing event, and every 
occurrence and influence by which individual sentiment 
and public opinion are affected ; all these serve, more or 
less powerfully, to shape the character and determine the 
destiny of the child, the boy, the man. 



PREFACE. 



To know a people, to understand tlieir peculiarities, 
we must know tlieir history, their parentage, their origin ; 
must learn from what race, nationahty, tribe and family, 
they are descended ; when and by whom their settlement, 
town, or city, was founded ; the aims and plans of the 
founders ; through what changes, social, industrial, po- 
litical and religious, they prosecuted their design ; what 
relations they sustained to other communities, near or re- 
mote ; what were the special characteristics, aspects and 
tendencies of the times ; whatever, in short, may have 
served, in the course of their history, to affect, more or less 
directly, their fortunes and their destiny. 

To promote, in some humble measure, this laudable 
design, in respect to one of the thriving communities in the 
older parts of this land, this volume was written. It was 
undertaken, at the soUcitation of the author's townsmen, 
to whose generous consideration, with all its imperfections, 
it is now commended. A native of Elizabeth, and a de- 
scendant of several of its worthy founders, it has been to 
him a labor of love, to gather up these memorials of its 
past, and give them a permanent form. These materials 
he has been gathering, some of them, for more than a 
score of years ; not without a vague thought, that the day 
would come, when he might give them form and order. 
Laid aside, at length, by serious disease, from the exhaust- 
ing activities of a laborious profession, the requisite leisure 
was found by the author, for the accomplishment of his 
long-cherished desue, of which he gladly availed himself. 

In entering upon his work, he found that but little 
was known, even by the people themselves, of their history. 
What had been previously pubHshed was exceedingly 
meagre, and much of it quite erroneous. The " Notes, 
Historical and Biographical, concerning Ehzabeth-Town, 



PREFACE. 5 

its eminent Men, Chm-ches and Ministers," was prepared 
by the Rev. Dr. Miuray, during the earher years of his 
ministry, nearly a fourth of a century since. It could 
scarcely be expected, that a stranger from a far country 
would be able, fully to enter into the sympathies, and 
clearly to apprehend the history, of the people among 
whom he had so recently found ^ a home. His " Notes " 
furnish but little information respecting the founders of the 
town, and that little is far from correct. The writer of 
the present volume has found it necessary to consult the 
original records for himself, and has, therefore, rehed but 
little on the labors of his predecessor. 

The only other published works pertaining to the liis- 
tory of the town, are the excellent and authentic " His- 
tory of St. John's Church, Ehzabeth-ToAvn, New Jersey," 
by the present rector, the Rev. Samuel A. Clark, and the 
Memoirs of the Rev. Drs. McDowell and Murray, by the 
Rev. Drs. Sprague and Prime, respectively j all very good 
in their place, but partial only in then' object. 

It will be seen that the history, now given to the pub- 
lic, endeavors to rescue the planters of the town from ob- 
livion, and to give them something more than " a local 
habitation and a name." To this end, the archives of the 
County and State, at Newark, at Amboy, and at Trenton, 
have been diligently and patiently investigated. Local 
and general histories, noted in the margin of the pages, 
have been extensively consulted. Access has been had 
to the libraries of the Historical Societies of New York, 
Long Island, and New Jersey. Neither time nor expense 
has been spared in obtaining all possible information 
bearing on the fortunes of the to^vTi. Much assistance 
has been derived, in respect to the general history of the 
locality, from Mr. Whitehead's " East Jersey under the 



6 PREFACE. 

Proprietary Governments/' though the author has been 
constrained to differ from him in respect to the merits of 
the conflict between the " Proprietors " and the people. 

Great care has, also, been taken to present a full 
and connected view of the militaiy transactions in and 
about the town, during the Revolutionary War. The 
files of the newspapers of that period have been carefully 
searched, and every local event of interest recorded. This 
portion of the history, it will be seen, is full of incident, 
and possesses a value by itself, as a contribution to the 
general history of the country, in that eventful period. 

Considerable material has been gathered for a genealo- 
gical history of the town. Should the present volume 
be favorably received, it may be followed, at no distant 
time, Providence permitting, by a supplemental volume, 
tracing the old families of the toAvn, generation by genera- 
tion, from the days of the founders to the present day. 

New York, May 11, 1868. 



OOKTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

A. D. 1609-16&4. 



Natives of the Soil - Discovery by Europeans _ Eax^y Trad-s - Werckhoven s 
Manorial Purchase - Failure to perfect a Title - Restoration of Char les I _ 
Alarm of the New Haven Colony - Attempts to Colonize m New Netherland 
_ Petition of John Strickland and others - Dutch Proposals— Negotiations 
of Fennand his Associates-Failure thereof - Long Islanders ft-ustrated in 
planting a Colony on the Raritan, 



CHAPTER II. 
A.D. 1664-1666. 



.Charter of Connecticut - Royal African Company -^ Grant to the Duke of 
York-Expedition against New Netherland - Surrender of New Amster- 
dam -Gov. Nicolls- Petition of Bailey, Denton, and others, for leave to 
plant a Colony - Indian Purchase and Deed-Nicolls' G-nt- Proposals for 
Settlers -Early Descriptions of the Country - Extent of NicoUs Patent - 
Date of the Settlement - Tradition of four Families - Associate Purchasers- 
Rev. Thomas James, 



CHAPTER III. 
A.D. 1665-1666. 



Arrival of the ship Philip, with Gov. Carteret -Explanations -Lord John 
Berkeley -Sir Geo. Carteret -Adherents of Royalty m the Civil War - 
Their Services to the Crown - Rewarded with Offices and Land Grants - 
Purchase of N. Jersey from the Duke of York -Letters of Hutchinson- 
Capt. Carteret arrives at New York with laborers - Acquiesces m Nicolb 
Grant -Purchases rights in the new Town -Origin of its ^amc, . 4rf 



8 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IV. 

A. D. 1666. 

The " Coucessions " — New Immigrants — Loss of Town Book — Extracts from 
it — Oath of Allegiance — By whom taken — Names of the Associate Found- 
ers — Also of Carteret's Servants — Notices of Strickland and the six Peti- 
tioners — Bailey, Daniel and Nathaniel Denton, Benedict, Foster and Watson 

— Also of the Patentees, Baker and Ogden, 53 

CHAPTER V. 

A. D. 1666. 

The eighty Associates, their Origin, their Location — Of Puritan Principles 

— No Congeniality with Carteret and his Company, .... 68 

CHAPTER VI. 

A. D. 1666-1609. 

Government of the Town — Forms of Marriage Licenses — Indentures, and the 
Hue and Cry for Kunaways — Sale of the S. half of the Town — Settlement 
of Woodbridge and Newark — Traffic in Pipe Staves — Cold Winter — Rev. 
Abm. Pierson at Newark — Brackett appointed Ass. Surveyor — NewarE 
Boundary prayerfully settled — Great Mortality — "Duke's Laws" — First 
Legislature of N. Jersey at E. T. — Laws — Second Session — Collision with 
the Governor — Abrupt Adjournment — Whaling Company — Disputes about 
Staten Island — Berkeley and Carteret in Trouble — Mortality, . .115 

CHAPTER VII. 

A.D. 1670-1673. 

Quit Rent Controversy — Gov. Carteret's Usurpations — Claude Vallot — Arbi- 
trary Edicts — Watson not to drill the Militia — First Jury Trial in the Town 

— Case of Capt. Hacket — Court illegally held — Case of Richard Michgl — 
His House destroyed. — Carteret overawed by the People — Capt. James Car- 
teret arrives from England — Legislature convenes at E. T. — A lawful Court 

— Trial of Meeker and others — Newark people take the Alarm — Other Ses- 
sions of the Legislature — Capt. James Carteret chosen President — Arrest 
and Escape of Wm. Pardon — Gov. Carteret removes to Bergen — Re-arrest 
of Pardon, and Seizure of his Goods — Memorial of the Council to the Lords 
Proprietaries — Gov. Carteret and Officials return to England — Capt. Berry, 
Dep. Governor — Marriage of Capt. Carteret — The Officials return — Conflict 
renewed — Patents to be taken out — Appeal to the Lords Proprietors — Gov . 
Winthrop's Endorsement of the People 131 



CONTENTS. 9 

CHAPTER VIII. 

A. D. 1673-1674. 

Departure of James Carteret and Hopkins — Vessel captured by the Dutch — 
Hopkins discloses the weakness of N. Y. — Capture of the City by the Dutch 
— Deputation from E. Town at N. Y. — N. Jersey yields to the Dutch — Land 
Claims confirmed — New Officials — Recusancy of Vauquellin — Census of 
E. T. Men — Notices of the new Comers — MiUtia Officers — Edicts — Indian 
Depredations — Monthly Day of Prayer appointed — Legislative Assembly — 
Redress of Injuries — Termination of Dutch Rule, . . . .154 

CHAPTER IX. 

A. D. 167J^1GS1. ^ 

Restoration of English Rule — Berkeley sells West Jersey — Sir G. Carteret 
sole Proprietor of E. Jersey — Return of Gov. Carteret — Stringent meas- 
ures to subdue the People — Requires them to take Patents for their Lands — 
Old Conflict renewed — Compromise proposed, but rejected by Carteret — 
Schedule of Surveys — Militia System — Legislature at E. T. — Enactments — 
Prices — Act of Oblivion — Thanksgiving Day — Meeker indemnified — Inns 
regulated — Marking of Cattle — Troubles with Gov. Andros of N. Y. — Car- 
teret seized, and imprisoned at N. Y. — Tried and acquitted — Legislature at 
E, T. again — They decline the jurisdiction of Andros — Marriage of Car- 
teret — Andros recalled — Carteret reinstated — Legislature meet again — 
Collision with Carteret — He dissolves them — Death of John Ogden, . 178 

CHAPTER X. 

A.D. 16C4-1C82. 

Ecclesiastical — Church early organized, of Puritan type — First Meeting-House 
and Grounds — Ministry — Rev. Thomas James — Rev. Jeremiah Peck — 
Rev. Seth Fletcher, 198 

CHAPTER XI. 

A.D. 1682-1686. 

Death of Sir George Carteret — Sale of the Province — Quaker Rule — Robert 
Barclay, Governor — Thomas Rudyard, Dep. Governor — Death of Gov. Car- 
teret — His Character — His Will — New Era — Quaker Settlers — Descrip- 
tions of the Town and Country in 1684-5 — Rudyard's Administration — 
Legislature — Enactments — Gawcn Laurie, Dep. Governor — Land Troubles 
revived — Militia — Scotch Immigration — Lawric's Account of the Town and 
Country — Scot's Model — Other Accounts — Lawrle's Land Investments — 



10 CONTENTS. 

"Western Bounds — Baker's Trial — Perth Amboy made the Capital — Acces- 
sion of the Duke of York to the Throne — Trouble about the Newark Bounds — 
Lawrie Superseded 210 

CHAPTER XII. 

A.D. 1680-1702. 

Lord Campbell, Dep. Gov. — And. Hamilton, Dep. Gov. — French War — Rates — 
Annexation to New York and New England, under Gov. Andros — Revolu- 
tion of 1688 — Political Agitations — Leisler in power at N. Y. — Jacobite 
Party at E. T. — Interregnum — Death of Rob. Barclay — Col. Hamilton, 
Gov, — Legislature — Appointments — Bounds of the Town — Lawsuit of 
Fullerton vs. Jones — Nicolls' Grant sustained — Notice of Wm. NicoU, Esq. 
— Associates in 1695 and 1699 — Administration of Basse, Bowne and 
Hamilton — Tumults at Newark and E. T. — New Allotment of Lands — 
List of Surveys — Notices of New Settlers — End of the Proprietary Gov- 
ernment, 232 

CHAPTER XIII. 

A. D. 16S2-1707. 

Ecclesiastical — Pastorate of Rev. John Harriman — Introduction of Episcopacy 
by Rev. Geo. Keith — Pastorate of Rev. Samuel Melyen — First Episcopal 
Missionary, Rev. John Brooke — Erection of St. John's Church, . . 280 

CHAPTER XIV. 

A-. D. 1702-1740. 

Land Titles — Political Parties — Lord Cornbury, Gov. — Corruption of the 
Court — Act of Indemnity — Lord Lovelace, Gov. — His Death — Robert 
Hunter, Gov. — Death of Col. Townlcy — Officials of the Town — Card-Playing 
not tolerated — Newark Bounds — Suit of Vaughan vs. Woodruff — Early 
Town Books lost — Town Committee of Seven — List of Freeholders in 1729 — 
Lithgow vs. Robison, &c. — Measures of Defence against the Proprietors 

— Sale of Town Lands — Fcnn vs. Chambers & Alcorn — Sale of more Land — 
Distribution of Land in 1'73'7 — Cooper vs. Moss, &c. — Logan vs. Manning 

— Newark Bounds — Lewis Morris, Gov. — Borough Charter — Officials — 
Newspaper Notices, 802 

CHAPTER XV. 

A. D. 1708-1747. 

Ecclesiastical — Rev. Jona. Dickinson — Parentage, Education, Marriage, and 
Ordination — His Parish and Salary — Joins the Presbytery — Episcopal Con- 



CONTENTS. 11 

troversy— Westfield Chh. — " Adopting Act" of 1Y29 — Practises Medicine 

— His " Reasonableness of Claristianity " — Presbytery of E. Jersey — Elders 

— Case of Hemphill — Another Episcopal Controversy — New Providence Chh. 

— Presbytery of N. Yorlc — Whitefield at E. T. — Dicliinson's "Witness of 
the Spirit." — Revival of 1*740 — Dicliinson's "Five Points"— His "Display 
of Special Grace" — Controversy on Regeneration — His "Familiar Letters." 

— Old Side and New Side Controversy — Division of the Synod — Efforts to 
Christianize the Indians — David Brainerd — Death of Mrs. Dickinson — His 
Second Marriage — Another Episcopal Controversy — College of New Jersey 

— Dickinson, its first President — His Death and Character — His Family, 826 



■ CHAPTER XVI. 

A. D. 1708-1747. 

Ecclesiastical — Rev. Edward Vaughan, Episcopal Missionary, arrives from 
England — Call to Jamaica, L. I., declined — Poverty of his People — 
Preaches at Rahway, Woodbridge, and P. Amboy — Marries Mrs. Emott 

— Removes to Amboy — Returns — Church Edifice not finished for years — 
Annual Reports to the " Society " — Chh. Glebe ~ Opposes Mr. Whitefield 

— His Death and Character — Increase of Religious Congregations in 40 
years, 355 

CHAPTER XVII. 

A.D. 1740-1764. 

Negro Plot — Land Conflicts — Appeal to the Crown — Tumults — Secret Meet- 
ings — E. T. Bill in Chancery — Answer — Death of Gov. Morris — Jonathan 
Belcher, Gov. — Issue of the long Conflict with the Proprietors — Death of 
Mayor Bonnel — Lottery Mania — Two Lottery Schemes — Prof. Kalm's 
Notices of the Town — Col. Ricketts' Affiiir in N. Y. Harbor — Notices of Gov. 
Belcher — Removes to E. T. — His Hospitality and Piety — Befriends the Col- 
lege — Gives it a new Charter — Incorporates the Presbyterian Chh. — Makes 
E. T. the Seat of Government — His Death and Character — Judge Ross — 
Addresses of the Corporation — Town Officers — Newspaper Notices — The 
Barracks — First Centenary Celebration, 363 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

A.D. 1747-1 7C0. 

Ecclesiastical— Rev. Elihu ^Spencer — Early Life — Ordination and Installa- 
tion — His Marriage — Public Services — Removal — Subsequent History — 
His Death — His Family — Rev. Abraham Keteltas — Early Life — Licensure, 
Call and Ordination — Chh. Clock — Removal to Jamaica, L. I. — Subse- 
quent History — Death — Children, 393 



12 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

A.D. 17C4-1776. 

Retrenchment at Funerals — Death of Alderman Thos. Clark — Non-Importation 
Leagues — Patriotism of the Town — Stamp Act — Gen. Congress — Robert 
Ogdcn, Speaker of N. J. Congress, resigns his seat — Stephen Crane succeeds 
him — Opposition to Stamp Act — Its Repeal — Non-Importation League 
revived — County Meeting at E. T. — Patriotic Action — British Regulars 
quartered here — " Boston Tea Party " — Boston Port Bill — Great Indigna- 
tion everywhere — Principal Patriots of the Town — Lines drawn — County 
Meeting at Newark — Town Meeting — Congress sustained — Committee of 
Safety — Non -Intercourse with Staten Island — Exciting Affair — Case of the 
Beulah — Sheriff Bamet implicated — Battle of Lexington — Uprising of the 
People — Aaron Burr and Matf. Ogden — General Congress — Gen. "Washing- 
ton, Com. in Chief — Battle of Bunker-Hill — Powder sent from E. T. to the 
Am. Army — Mrs. Washington at E. T. — Earl of Stirling in command here — 
Capture of the ship Blue Mountain Valley — Names of the Captors — • Military 
Officers — Mihtary Preparations — Fortifications at the Point — Washington 
and the Am. Army at N. Y. — Appearance of the Town in I'TTC, . . 403 

CHAPTER XX. 

A.D. 1776-1777. 

Independence — Lines drawn — Sentiments of Abraham Clark, the Signer — Brit- 
ish Fleet — Staten Island taken by the British Troops — The War at the 
Door — Defence of the Town — Arrest of Traitors — Female Patriot — Forays 
— Changes in the Town — Error of Mr. W. Irving — Disaffection of Pa. 
Troops — Battle of Flatbush — Wm. Livingston, First Gov. of the State — 
Gen. Matt. Williamson, in command here — John DeHart declines and Robert 
Morris appointed Chief-Justice of N. J, — Depot for Prisoners here — Am. 
Army evacuate N. York — Letter of Rob. Ogden — Disasters — Retreat 
through N. Jersey — People flee — Town occupied by the British — William- 
son resigns — Defections — Protection Papers — Am. Troops at Short Ilills — 
Rev. J. Caldwell — Skirmish — Death of Col. Ford — Capture of Hessians at 
Trenton — Capture of Princeton — Retreat of British Army — Washington at 
Morristown — Enemy driven out of Newark and E. T. — Capt. E. Littell — 
Barbarity of the Enemy — Tories and Neutrals driven out — Frequent Skir- 
mishes — British Army evacuate the State 432 

CHAPTER XXI. 

A. D. 1777-1730. 

Forays from S. Island — N. J. Volunteers — Sullivan invades S. Island — British 
Incursion — Dickinson invades S. Island — Exchange of Prisoners — Confis- 
cation — London Trading — Great Privations — Spies — Forays — Battle of 



CONTENTS. 13 

Monmouth — Maxwell ia command here — Sale of Confiscated Estates — Ex- 
pedition of Sir Chas. Grey — Lord Stirling stationed here — Flags of Truce 

— Washington at E. T. — Plots against Gov. Livingston — Invasion of the 
Town — Burning of the Barracks, Parsonage and Academy — Livingston's 
Correspondence with Sir Henry Clinton — Continental currency — Trouble 
in the Camp — Case of Mrs. Chandler — Troops pacified — Forays of S. 
Islanders — Negro Panic — Col. Dayton in command here — Severe Winter 

— Great Snow Storm — Sufferings of Troops — N. T. Harbor closed with solid 
Ice — Lord Stirling invades S. Island — Refugees invade E. T., and burn the 
Court House and Presb. Chh. — The Incendiary — Old "Red Store House" 

— Gen. St. Clair, and then Baron De Kalb, in command here — Forays from 
S. Island, 461* 

CHAPTER XXII. 

A.D. 1780-1783. 

Knyphausen invades E. T. in force — Passage of the Brit, Army through the 
town — Uprising of the Militia — Skirmishes — Severe Fight near Spring- 
field — Wife of Rev. J. Caldwell murdered — Village of Ct. Farms burned 
down — Retreat of the British to the Point — Thunder-Storm — Skirmishes 
at the Point — Second Advance of the British Army — Battle of Springfield 

— Village burned — Retreat of the Foe to S. Island — Bravery of the Militia 

— Partisan Warfare — Capture of Col. Ogden and Capt. Dayton*— Raids of 
Refugees — Cowboys — Night Patrols — Marauding Parties — Surrender of 
Cornwallis — Exchange of Prisoners — Desperadoes — Forays — Predatory 
Raids — Maj. Crane's Exploits — Peace, 486 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

A.D. 1T60-1TS0. 

Ecclesiastical — Rev. Jas. Caldwell — Birth — Education — Ordination — 
Settlement here — Visit of Whitefield — Revival — Elders and Deacons — 
Rules for the Sexton — Chh. enlarged — Grammar School — Taught by Pem- 
berton, Reeve, Periam, Barber, and Baldwin — Am. Episcopate ^-Annual 
Conventions — Another Revival — Increase of Salary — Mr. C. arraigned be- 
fore the Presbytery and cleared — His Patriotism — Chaplain of the N.J. 
Brigade in the Northern Army — Return — Refuge from the British at Tur- 
key — Assistant Commissary General — Parsonage and Chh. burned — Retires 
to Ct. Farms — Mrs. C. murdered — His Papers carried off — Retires to 
Turkey — Chosen one of the State Council — Murdered — Epitaph of Mr. C. 
and his Wife — Their children, 513 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

A. D. 1T4T-1700. 

Ecclesiastical — Rev. T. B. Chandler, D.D. — Birth — Education — Cutechistof 
St. John's Chh. — Parsonage — Wardens and Vestrymen — Mr. Chandler goes 



14 CONTENTS. 

to Eng., and obtains Orders — Rector of St. John's — Marriage — Has the 
Small-Pox — Long Illness — Zeal for Episcopacy — Obtains a Charter for 
St. John's — Wardens and Vestrymen — Visit of Mr. Whitcfield — Troubles 
in the Parish — Enlargement of the Parsonage — Political Troubles — Hon- 
orary Doctorate — Ep. Controversy — Pension — Flies to England — Worship 
suspended for Years — Resumed again — Rev. Uzal Ogden, Ass. Minister — 
Birth — Popularity — Settles at Newark — Rev. S. Spraggs, Ass. Minister — 
Dr. Chandler ten Years in England — Returns home — Obtains the Offer of 
an Episcopate — Too ill to accept — Death — His Family, . . . 537 

CHAPTER XXV. 

" A.D. 1783-1 T95. 

Return of Gov. Livingston — Sad Changes — Visit of Washington — Refugees 
remove to N. Scotia and N. Brunswick — "New Jersey Journal" established 

— U. S. Constitutional Convention — Fourth of July Celebrations — New 
Charter — Death of Gov. Livingston — Death of Gen. M. Ogden — Rage for 
Speculation — Lotteries — Schools — Circulating Library — Congressmen — 
Death of Mayor De Hart, 652 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

A.D. 1725-1795. 

Subdivisions of the Township — Springfield set off, and Turkey annexed to it — 
New Providence set off from Springfield — Settlement of Springfield — Rev. 
Timothy Symmes — Rev. Nathan Ker — Rev. J. Van Artsdalen — Settlement 
of Nevp Providence — Rev. John Cleverly — Rev. A. Horton — Rev. Jos. 
Lamb — Rev. Timothy Allen — Rev, Jonathan Elmer — Westfield set off — 
Its Settlement — Rev. N. Hubbcll — Rev. John Grant — Rev. Ben. Woodruff 

— Scotch Plains — Rev. Ben. Miller — Rev. Wm. Van Horn — Death of 
Hon. Abraham Clark — Removal of Hon. Elias Bouuinot, LL. D. . . 564 

CHAPTER XXVII. • 

A.D. 17S2-1S04. 

EccLESjASTiCAL — Rcv. J. F. Armstrong — Rebuilding of Presb. Chh. — Revival 

— Rev. Wui. A. Linn — Lottery for finishing the Chh. — Rev. David Austin — 
Birth — Education — Settlement — Chh. completed — Monthly Magazine — 
American Preacher — Prophetic Investigations — Sermon on the DownfiiU of 
Babylon — Great Excitement — Day set for Christ's Coming — Mr. Austin dis- 
missed — Anti Sabbath-Profanation Meeting — Rev. John Giles — Mr. Aus- 
tin returns — Rev. Henry Kollock — Mr. Austin's Second Return — Stated 
Supply — Separate Worship — Returns to Connecticut — Subsequent History 

— His Death and Character, ... .... 591 



CONTENTS. 15 

CHAPTEE XXVIII. 

A.D. 1790-1888. 

Ecclesiastical — Rev. Samuel Spraggs — Rev. Menzies Rayner — Rev. Frede- 
rick Beasley, D. D. — Rev. Samuel Lilly — Introduction of Methodism — 
Lists of Methodist Ministers — Rev. Thomas Morrell, .... 614 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

A.D. 1730-1S56. 

Ecclesiastical — Township of Rautvat — Presb. Chh. — Rev. Messrs. Cleverly, 
Grant, Strong, and Watkins — First Pastor — Rev. A. Richards — Rev. R. H. 
Chapman, D. D. — Rev. B. Carll — Township of Union — Presb. Chh. — Rev. 
S. Horton — Rev. J. Davenport — Rev. D. Thane — Rev, J, Darby, M. D. — 
Rev. B. Halt — Rev. P. Fish — Rev. S. Smith — Rev. S. 0. Thoriipson, 627 

CHAPTER XXX. 

A.D. 1801-1844. 

Political Parties — Flag Presentation — County House Agitation — Female Vo- 
ters — Political Corruption — Trial of CorneUus Hatfield — Gen. Elias Day- 
ton — Town House burned and rebuilt — Streets regulated — Anti-Sabbath- 
Profanation — Thomas' Ferry — Casualty — Steam Navigation — Monopoly — 
Gov. Ogden and the Livingstons — Thomas Gibbons — Opposition Line — 
Lawsuit — Decision of U. S. Supreme Court — Monopoly brought to an end 

— Daniel Dod — War of 1812-15 — Paper Currency — Peace Celebration — 
Gen. Wm. Crane — Lt.-Gen. Winfield Scott — Mayor Jeremiah Ballard — 
Gen. Jona. Dayton — Gov. Williamson, 64*7 

CHAPTER XXXI. 

A.D. 1804-1868. 

Ecclesiastical — First Presb. Chh. — Rev. John McDowell, D.D. — Rev. Nicho- 
las Murray, D.D. — Rev. E. Kempshall — Second Presb. Chh. — Rev. David 
Magie, D.D. — Rev. Wm. C. Roberts — Third Presb. Chh. — Rev. Robert 
Aikman — Fourth Pres. Chh., Elizabethport — Rev. Abm. Brown — Rev. 
Oliver S. St. John — Rev. Edwin H. Reinhart — Westminster Presb. Chh. — 
Siloam Presb. Chh. — Rev. John C. Rudd, D.D. — Rev. Smith Pyne — Rev. 
Birdseye G. Noble — Rev. Richd. C. Moore — Rev. Samuel A. Clark — New 
St. John's — Chapel — Grace Chh. — Rev. David Clarkson — Rev. Clarkson 
Dunn — Christ Chh. — Rev. Eugene A. Hoffman, D.D. — Rev. Stevens Parker 

— Trinity Chh. — Rev. Daniel F. Warren, D.D. — First Baptist Chh. — Rev. 
George W. Clark — Broad St. Baptist Chh. — Rev. D. Henry Miller, D.D.— 
Congregational Chh. — Rev. John M. Wolcott. — Rom. Cath. Chhs. — Mora- 
vian Chh. — Rev. Christian Ncu — Lutheran Chh. — Swedenborgians, . 666 



IQ CONTENTS. 

OHAPTER XXXII. 

A.D. 1S55-1868. 

City Charter — Town of Linden set off — Eail Koads — Elizabethport — Old 
Farms sold for City Lots — Street Improvements — New Market House — 
County House — Population — The Great Rebellion — Finances of the City — 
Prospectivo Growth — Conclusion, ....... 685 



THE 



HISTORY OF ELIZABETH, 

NEW JERSEY. 



CHAPTEE I, 

A. D. 1609-16G4. 



Natives of the Soil — Discovery by Europeans — Early Traders — "Werckboren s 
Manorial Purchase — Failure to perfect a Title — Restoration of Charles II — 
Alarm of the New Haven Colony — Attempts to Colonize in New Netherland 
—i Petition of John Strickland and others— Dutch Proposals — Negotiations 
of Fenn and his Associates — Failure thereof — Long Islanders frustrated in 
planting a Colony on the Raritan. 

The territory now occupied by Elizabeth, in ISTew Jevse}', 
was formerly the abode of savage tribes, unknown to fame. 
Whence they came, and how long they had dwelt on these 
shores, are questions that neither authentic history nor plau- 
sible tradition pretends to answer. They have long since 
passed away, without memorial. Another, and a very differ- 
ent, population have taken their place, possessed their lands, 
and made the wilderness, in which they dwelt and roamed, a, 
fruitful field. The history of the town dates back to the 
coming of these new settlers — the era of its occupation by 
civilized and cultivated humanity. 

It was on Sunday, the sixth day of September, 1609, that 
tlie eye of the sti-anger from the old world first rested on 
this goodly site. Three days before, the two-masted " vlie- 
Iwat^'' called the "Half Moon," of eighty tons' burden, under 
the command of the renowned Henry Hudson, had cast 
2 



18 THE UISTORY OF 

anclior in- Sandy Hook Bay. The adventurous craft was 
manned by twenty men, Dutch and English, in the service 
of the East India Company of the United Provinces. Their 
design was to explore a passage to China and the Indies, by 
the northwest. The day after their arrival, they were visited 
by the natives, who seemed, as the journalist describes it. 

Very glad of our comming, and brought greene Tobacco, and gaue vs 
of it for Kniues and Beads. They go in Deere skins loose, well dressed. 
They haue yellow Copper. They desire Cloathes, and are very ciuill. 
They haue great store of Maiz or Indian "Wheate, whereof they make 
good Bread. The Oountery is full of great and tall Oakcs. 

The day following, some of the crew landed, who 

Saw great store of Men, Women and Children, who gaue them Tabacco 
at their comming on Land. So they went vp into the Woods, and saw 
great store of very goodly Oakes, and some Currants. One of them came 
aboord, and brought some dryed. Many others, also, came aboord, 
some in Mantles of Feathers, and some in Skinnes of divers sorts of good 
Furres. Some women also came with Hempe. They had red Copper 
Tabacco pipes, and other things of Copper they did weare about their 
neckcs. 

. On Sunday, the 6th, John Coleman and four other men 
were sent out in a boat to explore the harbor. Sailing 
through the Narrows, they found 

Very good riding for Ships; and a narrow Eiuer to the Westward 
betweene two Hands. The Lands were as pleasant with Grasse and 
Floweres, and goodly Trees, as euer they had scene, and very sweet smells 
came from them. So they went in two leagues and saw an open Sea, and 
returned.* 

The " narrow river," through which they sailed, was The 
Kills, between Bergen Point and Staten Island ; and. the 
" open sea " was Newark Bay. That part of the town that 
borders on the Bay was, of course, in full sight. These five 
men, therefore, of whom John Coleman f was one, were the 
first discoverers of this particular tract. The name by which 
the land was known among the natives, was Scheyichbi. 
The account of the natives, as given by Juet, applies to those 

* Juel's Nanative, in N. T. Hist. Soc. Col., 1. 136. 

t Coloman was slain, the same day, on bis return, by Uic treacherous arrow of one of the 
natives; an augury of no pleasant import. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 19 

tlieii occupying this locality, as well as those further clown 
the coast. 

Public attention was soon called to this inviting region, 
and a profitable trade in peltries was presently opened with 
Holland. The Dutch merchants established a post at Man- 
hattan, as early as 1613, and thence dispatched, from time 
to time, small boats or shallops into the creeks and bays of 
this vicinity, to traffic with the natives for skins and furs, — 
the country then abounding with game and herds of wild 
beasts. These traders were thus made acquainted, at an 
early day, with this particular locality, its beauties, its capa 
bilities, and its desirableness. But no attempt, for various 
reasons, was made to occupy and cultivate the soil. At that 
period the natives were too numerous, and too treacherous, 
for a mere handful of foreigners to undertake any thing like 
permanent settlements. It was not until 1623, that, stimu- 
lated, probably, by what the English had accomplished at 
'New Plymouth, the Dutch undertook to plant colonies of 
agriculturists in what they called New Netherland. But 
these enterprises were few and feeble — confined mainly to 
the neighborhood of their military posts. Their relations to 
the natives were not always very amicable, and sometimes 
decidedl}'- hostile. It was not deemed safe, therefore, to ven- 
ture as far into the wilderness as the western shores of Achter 
Kol,"^ as ISTewark Bay was called by the Dutch. The difficulty 
was still further increased by the cruel and unprovoked mas- 
sacre of the unsuspecting natives, fourscore in number, at 
Pavonia, or Paulus Hook, by the Dutch of New Amsterdam, 
on the night of February 25, 1643. An end v/as thereb}^ 
put, for several years at least, to all thoughts of extending 
the settlements into the interior. 

But the land was too attractive not to provoke the greed 
of the Dutch Colonists. An attempt, and, so far as can now 
be discovered, the first attempt, was made to plant a colony 
in this locality, at the close of the year 1651. The policy of 
the Dutch government had been to encourage the settlement 

* Behind the Bay, \. o., the second bay ; since corrupted .to "Arthur Cull," a perversion 
that ought to be at once corrected. 



20 THE HISTORY OF 

of colonics or manors, similar to the lordships and seigniories 
of the old world, by men of large fortunes, known as patroons, 
to whom peculiar privileges, both of trade and government, 
were accorded. These manors were of great extent, and 
their proprietors were looked upon as an order of nobility — 
much like the old barons of the feudal ])eriod. The most 
desirable tracts, both on the ISTorth and South Rivers, had thus 
been colonized, principally by several shrewd and enterprising 
directors of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Com- 
pany. The whole of the neck opposite New Amsterdam, as 
far as the Kills and ISTewark Bay, together'with Statcn Island, 
had been appropriated for years. 

Directly west of these colonics stretched, for miles, along 
the waters of Achter Kol, and tlie estuary to the west of 
Staten Island, one of the most inviting regions in all IS^Qvr 
Netherland. To this fair land was now directed the eager 
attention of the Honorable Cornells Yan Werckhoven, one 
of the Schepens of Utrecht in Holland. He duly notified 
the Amsterdam Chamber of his intention to plant two 
colonies, or manors, in .New Nctherland. A commission was 
thereupon given to Augustine Heermans, of Bohemia, — who 
had made New Amsterdam his home since the 3'ear 1633, 
and had become an influential and wealthy citizen, — to pur- 
chase these lands from the natives. Accordingly Heermans 
negotiated with the resident proprietors, and purchased, for 
Van Werckhoven, the whole of the tract extending from 

Tlie moutli of the Raritan Creek westerly up unto a creek, ManlMclc- 
Icewachhj^ which runs Northwest up into the country, and then from the 
Kariton Cfcck aforesaid northerly up along the River behind State3 Isle, 
unto the Creek, namely, from the Raritan Point, called Orapoge, unto 
Pechciesse, the aforesaid creek, and so tho said creek Pechciesso up to 
the very head of it, and from thence direct westerly thorowe the Land 
untill it meets with the aforesaid Creek and Meadow Ground called Man- 
kackkewachky aforesaid.* 

Possession was given, and the trees in each hook of the 
tract were marked with the initials of "Werckhoven. The 
land thus described included -the region west of Staten 

* East Jersey Eecords, Lib. I. 9. 



ELIZABETH, XEW JERSEY. 21 

Island, from the Raritan to the Passaic Rivers, and extended 
back into the country indefinitely.* 

Three other tracts, one to the south of the Raritan, and 
two on Long Island, were purchased for the same good old 
Dutchman, with the hope of large gains from each. But, 
objection having been made on the part of other as greedy 
speculators against the accumulation of so much territory in 
the hands of one owner, the case was referred to the Amster- 
dam Chamber, who decided that Van "Werckhoven could re- 
tain but one of the tracts in question. He chose to locate 
himself on Long Island, and so commenced there the colon}^ 
of New Utrecht, so named from his native city in Holland, 
The title to the land above described reverted, therefore, to 
the original owners. 

It was a happy providence that defeated the attempt to 
plant a Dutch manorial colony, under a lordly patroon, on 
these fair shores ; and reserved the land for settlement by a 
very different class of colonists, under happier auspices. It 
remained unoccupied, save by the natives, for another con- 
siderable term of years. The slaughter of the Dutch colonists, 
in September, 1G55, at Pavonia, Iloboken, and Staten Island, 
in retaliation for the massacre of their kindred by the Dutch 
in 1643, struck terror into the hearts of the new settlers every- 
where, and filled New Amsterdam with panic-stricken 
refugees ; thus putting an end to all schemes for occupying 
the country round about.f 

The Restoration of Charles II. to the throne of his 
ancestors, May 29, 16G0, very naturally turned the attention 
of the disaffected in Great Britain to the fertile fields of the 
Kew World of the "West, and gave a new impulse to Ameri- 
can emigration. It awakened, too, Avell-foundcd fears among 
the hitherto-peaceful Colonists of New England in respect to 
their dear-bought liberties. Under the Protectorate, they 
had enjoyed the utmost freedom in the administration of 
their civil affairs, exercising, without the slightest interference 
from the Home Government, the right of choosing and 
appointing their own magistracy, of making their own laws, 

♦ O'Callaghan's New Nctberlaud, II. 1S6, + Brodhcart's New York, I. S52-3, COT 

Note. 



22 THE HISTORY OF 

and of regulating their own taxation. In all these respects, 
they had reason to apprehend a serious conflict with the new 
government. Jealous of the prerogative of self-government, 
so happily enjoyed from their earliest organization as English 
Colonies in America, it was with extreme reluctance that 
these stern old Puritans consented to proclaim the new mon- 
arch, and to congratulate him on his accession to the throne. 
More especially was this the case in the Colony of ISTew 
Haven, where the republican sentiment had been most fully 
developed, and none but members of the church were en- 
trusted with the rights of freemen. The project of an in- 
corporation by charter with the Colony of Connecticut, where 
these restrictions were unknown, greatly alarmed the leaders 
of the New Haven Colou}^, and led a portion of them to think 
of securing a home under the Dutch government in New 
Netherland, where they might perpetuate their peculiar 
principles w'ithout molestation. 

Special attention was now directed to the unoccupied and 
attractive region lying between the North and South E.ivers, 
and especially its eastern portion. Among the first to make 
application to the Dutch authorities for the settlement of a 
plantation at Acliter Kol, was John Sticklan [Strickland], a 
resident of Huntingdon on Long Island, in behalf of himself 
and a number of other New England people. The most of 
the settlers in that part of Long Island, including Strickland 
himself, were from the New Haven jurisdiction, and, in all 
probability, partook of the prevalent feelings of the people of 
that colon}'. The application was in the words following : 

"Worthy Sir : after my due respects p'^sentcd vnto you these few lines 
ar to request a keiadness of you. taking you to be my spetiall frend, and 
know no otlicr like your scltf to intrust in such a Case as this : the thing 
I dezier and som others with rae is this : that you vvoulde be pleased to 
take the first and mostc sutablc oppertunity to speake with the honered 
gouernor, deziring him to resolue you in these particulars first, whither 
or no. tliat place vpon the mayne land which is called Arther Cull be 
free from any ingagements : secondly if free : then whither or no he will 
be i)lesed to grant it to a Company of honest men that may dezier to sit 
douno ther to make a plantasion vnder his gouerment and that you would 
be pleased hauing so done to return an answer by the first, which we 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 23 

shall waight for, and hauing incoragement we shall forthwith adres our 
selues to treate further with him aboute the matter thus not doubting of 
your faitlifullness heriu I take leaue and rest yours to Comande 

John Sticklin 
from Huntington february 15"' 16G0. 

letfc me intreate you to send the answer to Samuwell Mathies at Rus- 
dorpe, that it maye be conveied to me in safety : and that you woulde be 
pleased that it may be kept secret houeuer it goe. 

S'' if you can w"' convenience I would intreate you to send me an an- 
swer by y^ bearer of this, all convenient speede being requisite. 

The second letter follows : 

"Worthy Sir: after my due respects p"'sented vnto you, these few 
lines ar to intreate a Courtesi of you, that you woulde be plesed to speake 
with the honered gouerner, and lorde Steuenson. to know of him if that 
place which is called Arther Coll be free to be disposed of and whither 
or no he will giue incoragement to a Company of the inglish nasion there 
to settle themselues, if vpon a vew made they shall take satisfaction, and 
when you know his minde herin. that you woulde be pleased to return me a 
few wordes in answer by this bearer samwell mathews, and accordingly 
my selff with sum other frends, whoe haue an y that waye will adress our 
selues : I shall trubble you no furder at p''sant, but to intreate you to 
pardon my bowldnes and so rest your louing frend to coraand 

John Stikland from huntington Aprill 29 : 16G1. 

These letters were addressed to Capt. Bryan Newton, one 
of Gov. Stuyvesant's council, by whom tliey were duly pre- 
sented, and an answer, of which the following is a transla- 
tion, was given : 

The preceding requests being delivered to Capt" Lieutenant Brian 
Nuton, and being by him communicated to the Hon'''" Director Gen- 
eral and by his Exc">' delivered to the Council, it is after question put, 
resolved to give said Capt" Lieutenant for Answer, that he may let the 
Petitioners know that they may freely come to look at the indicated 
parcel of land, and if they like it, that farther disposition would then be 
had on their application and proposal. This 2 June 16G1.* 

Their High Miglitincsses, the Dutch rulers, sent over, in 
the spring of 1601, a general invitation to '' all Christian peo- 
ple of tender conscience, in England or elsewhere oppressed,, 
to erect colonics anywhere witliin tiie jurisdiction of Petrus 
Stuyvesant, in tlie West Indies, between New Enghmd 

♦Albany Records, IX. 639, 641-3. OTallaglian's New Netlurland, II. 446. 



24- THE HISTORY OF 

and Virginia, in America." A charter of Conditions and 
Privileges, of exceedingly liberal import, had been drawn up 
by the West India Company, and approved, February j\, 
1G6-;-, by the States General.* 

In June following, the General Court of Connecticut in- 
structed their Governor, John Winthrop, to proceed to Eng- 
land, and procure from the king a charter for the colony, to 
include the whole territory " eastward to Plymouth line, 
northward to the limits of the Massachusetts colony, and 
westward to the bay of Delaware, if it may be," f and, also, 
the islands contiguous. . These lines included, of course, the 
colony of New Haven, and the proposition excited there, as 
might have been expected, no little discontent and indigna- 
tion. Several of the newly-chosen magistrates declined to 
serve and take the prescribed oaths, and the disaffection was 
widespread. 

It is not strange, therefore, that the liberal proposals of the 
Dutch government, just then made public, should have met 
with a warm reception in New Haven and the adjacent 
towns. A deputation was sent to New Amsterdam to make 
furtlier inquiry, and to ascertain the character of the lands 
to be settled. The deputation was so " courteously enter- 
tained," and made so favorable a report of the country, as to 
induce Messrs. Benjamin Fenn and Robert Treat, magistrates 
of Milford, Dr. Jaspar Gunn, one of the deacons of the church 
of Milford, and Mr. Richard Law, one of the magistrates of 
Stamford, — all of them being of the New Haven jurisdiction, 
and originally from Wethersiicld, on the Connecticut, — to 
come down, in November, 16G1, with full powers, to nego- 
tiate with Governor Stuyvesant for the settlement of a plan- 
tation in these parts, — " within the limits of the [West India] 
Company's jurisdiction behind Staten Island, about the Rari- 
tan River." 

Among the conditions insisted upon by the New Haven 
])Cople, were, liberty to gatlier a church " in the Congrega- 
tional way, such as they had enjoyed in New England 

* O'Callnghnn's N. Ncth., II. 444-G. N. Y t Brodlioad's New York, I. 695. 

Colonial Documents, HI. 37-9. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY 25 

about twenty years past ; " the right of calling a synod by 
the English churches that might be gatliered in New ISTeth- 
erland, for the regulation of their ecclesiastical affairs ; " the 
right to administer justice in all civil matters within them- 
selves, b}^ magistrates of their own selection," without ap- 
peal to other authorities ; the purchase of the lands by the 
Dutch government from the natives, and a full conveyance 
thereof to the associates forever ; none to " be allowed to 
settle among them except by their own consent ; the right 
to collect debts;" and a written charter stipulating these 
rights in full.* 

To all these the Governor readily consented, except the con- 
cession of full powers of self-government without appeal ; 
Stuyvesant being unwilling to grant them, in this respect, 
greater liberties than were enjoyed by the other towns and 
colonies of Kew Netherland. But the depntation was stren- 
uous in securing a full concession of popular rights, inasmuch 
as a controversy betw^een Stuyvesant and his people liad for 
years been carried on, and with some considerable asperity, 
on this very point ; the people demanding that no laws 
should be enacted, and no magistrates appointed, but with 
their consent ^nd approbation ; and the governor stoutly re- 
sisting the demand. The conference, thus broken off, was 
renewed in March, 1662, wdtli the same result. Tlie whole 
matter was then referred to the Directors at Amsterdam. 
They would have been pleased, they say, in their reply, 
March 26, 1663, with the arrangement, as the " settlement 
might serve as a bulwark to our nation against the savages 
on the Earitan and Minisink." They instruct Stuyvesant to 
insist on retaining appellate jurisdiction in certain criminal 
cases, "as long as it is tenable ; " but, "if the object in view 
is not obtainable without this sacrifice," then the Governor 
was " authorized to treat with the English on such terms as 
in his opinion arc best adapted to promote the welfare 
of the State and its subjects." The negotiations were re- 
newed in June, 1663, but with what result the record does 
not state. As no settlement was attempted during the con- 

* O'Callaghan's N. Ncth., II. 447-8. Albany Records, IX. S97, 809, 007 ; X. 73, 77. 



26 THE HISTORY OF 

tiniuincG of the Dutch dominion, it is altogether probable 
that the disagreement remained."" 

Later in the year, the English towns on Long Island had 
succeeded in throwing oiF the authority of the Dutch Govern- 
ment, and had put themselves nnder the jurisdiction of Con- 
necticut. Early in December, a part}^ of twenty Englishmen, 
from Jamaica, Flusliing, and Gravcsend, proceeded, in Stof- 
fel Elsworth's sloop, to the Raritan River, with the intention 
of purchasing a plantation from the Indians. But the design 
was arrested by an armed party under command of Captain 
Kregicr, sent out for the purpose by Governor Stuyvesant, 
in the Company's yacht.f 

These were the only attempts, so far as we can learn, by 
any parties previous to the year 1664, to occupy this part of 
the country. Denton, in 1670, says : 

"Wliilst it was under tlie Dutch Govenimeiit, which hath been till 
witliin these six years, there was little encouragement for any English, 
botli in respect to their safety from the Indians, the Dutch being almost 
always in danger of them; and their Bever-trade not admitting of a War, 
which would have been destructive to their trade which was the main 
thing prosecuted by the Dutch. And secondly, the Dutch gave such bad 
Titles to Lands, together with tlieir exacting of the Tenths of all which 
men producel off their Land, that did much hinder the populating of it ; 
together Avith that general dislike the English have of living under an- 
other Government.^ 

* O'Callaghfin's N. Netb., II. 44S-0. t Whiiehoad's E. Jersey, p. UT. 

"Whitehead's E. Jersey, pp. 133-4. I5rod- J Denton's Now York, Ed. of 1S45, pp. 

head's New York, I. 70T-S IG, IT. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY 27 



CHAPTER II. 

A. D. 1664-1665. 

Charter of Connecticut — Royal African Company — Grant to the Duke of 
York — Expedition against New Netherland — Surrender of New Amster- 
dam— Gov. Nicolls — Petition of Bailey, Denton, and others for leave to 
plant a Colony — Indian Purchase and Deed — Nicolls' Grant — Proposals for 
Settlers — Early Descriptions of the Country — Extent of Nicolls' Patent — 
Date of the Settlement — Tradition of four Families — Associate Purchasers — 
Rev. Thomas James. 

For several years previous to the Restoration of Charles 
IL, serious difFerences had existed between the Dutch and 
English Colonies in North America. The latter were far the 
more numerous and powerful. Having settled on the sea- 
coast of New England, and their patents for land giving 
them an indefinite extent of territory w^estward, they found 
themselves brought into collision with the Dutch who 
claimed on both sides of the North River to its source. Re- 
peated conferences resulted more and more unfavorably for 
peace. The new charter of Connecticut, obtained from the 
king, and bearing date April 23. 1662, expressly granted 
them all the territory between the Massachusetts line and the 
sea, extending from Narragansett Bay to the Pacific Ocean. 
The Dutch were, accordingly, told, by the Hartford people, 
that " they knew of no New Netherland province, but of a 
Dutch governor over the Dutcli plantation on the Man- 
hattans." Representations were, also, made to the Court, 
designed to further these claims, and to lead to the extinguish- 
ment of the Dutcli government in America.* 

Charles had, for some time, meditated the reduction of the 
American Colonies to a state of immediate dependence on 

* Brodhoad's New York, I. 721. 



28 THE HISTORY OF 

tlic crown, .ind the extension of liis power along the whole 
coast of America. He was ready to embrace the first 
opportunity, therefore, that might offer for extending his 
jurisdiction over the coveted terrltor3^ "The Company of 
Royal Adventurers of England trading w^ith Africa," more 
commonly known as " the JRoyal African Company," had 
just (January 10, 166f) been chartered, with the Duke of 
York as their President. They w^ere nothing m.ore nor less 
than slave-traders. In the prosecution of their nefiirious 
traffic, they had been greatly annoyed, and very seriously 
damaged, by the powerful and monopolizing West India 
Company of the United Provinces. Early in the following 
3'ear, therefore, an expedition was secretly sent out, by the 
Royal African Company, against the African possessions of 
the Dutch Company ; the two countries being at peace. ''^ 

The more successfully to compete w'ith the Dutch, and to 
crip])le them in their rivalry, the Duke sought, and readily 
obtained, from his royal brother, the king, March |-|, IGGf, a 
grant of Long Island, and all the land from the west side of 
Connecticut River to the east side of Delaware Bay, together 
\vith what is now the State of Maine, and the Islands along 
the coast of ISTew England, together with the right of 
government, or sovereignty ; including thus, not only the 
Dutch province of Kew Netherland, but, also, a large part 
of the territory given by royal patent, less than two years 
previously, to the Connecticut Colony. A very cool proceed- 
ing, and a clear case of usurpation. f 

The Duke, as Lord High Admiral, had control of the 
Royal Navy. An expedition was immediately fitted out, of 
four ships-of-war, under the command of Col. Richard 
Nicolls, a faithful adherent of the Royal Family, to whom 
the Duke granted, April -^^^ a commission to serve as his 
deputy-governor within the whole grant. With him were 
associated, also, April 26, [May 5,] 1664, Sir Robert Carr, 
Knight, George Cartwright, Esq., and Samuel Maverick, 
Esq., as Royal Commissioners to visit the American Colonies, 

* Broilheacrs New York, I. 735. 

t Ibid. Lcamins and Ppicer's Grants and Concessions, pp. 8-S. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY 29 

witli plenary powers to adjust disputes, appeals, and com- 
plaints of every description, and provide for the public wel- 
ware, looking well, of course, to the rights of the crown. :|: 

The fleet cast anchor in the outer bay of New Amsterdam, 
on Friday, August -|-|- • The surrender of the town of 
Manhattoes was demanded, the next day- After various ne- 
gotiations, protracted through the following week, the terms 
of capitulation ^vere arranged on Saturday, August 27 [Sep- 
tember 6]. On the Monday following, the Dutch authorities 
surrendered the town and fort, and the English took posses- 
sion. ]^ew Amsterdam became New York ; and Fort 
Amsterdam, Fort James. ISTicolls was proclaimed deputy- 
governor for the Duke of York, and the people, not a few of 
them gladly, very quietly submitted to the SAvay of the Eng- 
lish conquerors. A few weeks -sufficed to bring the whole 
province of New Netherland into subjection, and to give the 
control of the whole coast, from Maine to Carolina, to the 
crown of Great Britain. 

To the English inhabitants of the west end of Long Island, 
the change of government was peculiarly acceptable. They 
had met with so many obstructions from the Dutch, and had 
been so stoutly denied a voice in the government, that they 
could not but regard the advent of the English fleet with 
favor, and rejoice in their success. Immediately the atten- 
tion of those settlers who had, several years before, sought a 
removal to Achter Kol, west of the North River, was directed 
again to these inviting regions. An Association was at once 
formed, and several of tlieir number deputed to go down to 
New York, and secure of the Governor the liberty to pur- 
chase and settle a plantation, which they had sought in vain 
from his predecessor under the Dutch Government. Four 
weeks had scarcely elapsed since the surrender, when we find 
them presenting the following petition : 

To tlic Ri^ht lionour""''" Col. Richard Nicbolls Esff Govemour of 
New-York &c. The Humble peticon of i;s subscribed shewcth : 

• That several of us Yo' Peticoners being Intended formerly to have pur- 
chased and sctled a plantation upon y" River called after-ciiU River be- 

t Brodheairs New York, I. 735-6. 



30 THE HISTORY OF 

fore Yo"" arival into tlieso parts: our Intentions, uotwitLstanding our 
making some way with the Indians & Charges & Expences about the prem- 
isses, was obstructed by the then Kuling Dutch. And some of us by Eea- 
son of not having any Accommadations hero ■were j^ut upon thoughts of 
Removing into some other of his Majes''" Dominions : but now upon this 
Yo'' happy arival and the Decease of the Duch Interest, we would Gladly 
proceed in the Design affores"*. Iq order whereunto, we make bold w"" 
all humility to petition to Yo' Ilono'' that you would Grant us liberty to 
purchas and setle a parcel of land to Improve our labour upon on the 
River before mentioned, and some of us being Destitute of habitations 
where we are, we crave Your Answer with as much Expedition as may 
be. we humbly Take our leaves at Present and subscribe Yo'' llono" 
to command. ' John Bailies 

Daniel Denton 
from Jemaico commonly Tliomas Benydiek 

so called Sept' 26, IGGi. Xathan-^' Denton 

John Foster 
Luke "Watson 

The .application received the prompt attention of the new 
Governor, and the paper was presently retnrned with the fol- 
lowing endorsement : 

Upon Perusal of this Peticon, I Do Consent unto the proposals and 
Shall Give the undertakers all Due Encouragement in so Good a work. 
Given under my hand in fort James, this 30"^ of Septem'' 16G-4. 

Richard Nicholls* 

Having thus secured the Governor's warrant for their en- 
terprise, "the undertakers" made speedy arrangements for a 
conference with the native owners of the soil. Capt. John 
Baker, of the City of New York, it is said, was employed as 
the English and Dutch Interpreter, and one of the natives as 
the Indian and Dutch Interpreter. Tlie conference was held 
at Staten Island, where the chief sagamores of the Indians 
then lived, and resulted satisfactorily to all the parties. A 
tract of land was purchased, for which the following deed 
was given : 

Tfits Jndcntttrc made The 28"' Day of October In the Sixteenth 
Year of the Reign of our Soveraign Lord Charles By The Grace of God 
of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, King Defender of the faith &c. 
Between Mattano Manamowaouc and. Cowcscomen of Staten Island of the 
one part and John Bayly, Daniel Denton, and Luke "Watson of Jamaica 

* E. Town Book, B., otii. end, 14. E. Town Bill in Clianccry, 25. Learning and Spicer's 
Grapts, Conct!ssions, &c., pp. CCS-9. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 31 

In Long Island Husband Men on the other part JW*itne8S€th That 
the said Mattano Manamowaouc and Coescomen hath clearly Bargained 
and Sold to the said John Bayly, Daniel Denton and Luke Watson, Their 
Associates their heirs and Esecn" One parcel of Land hounded on the 
South By a Eiver commonly called The Earitans Kiver And on the East 
by the Eiver w'^'' Parts Staten Island and The Main, and To Eun North- 
ward up after cull Bay. Till we come att the first Eiver ■v!"'^ setts westward 
out of the said Bay aforesaid And To Eun west Into the Countery Twice 
the Length as it Is Broad from the North to The South of the aforemen- 
tioned Bounds, Togethetf with the Lands, Meadows, woods, waters, 
feilds, fenns, fishings, fowlings, w"' all and Singular the Appurtenances, 
w"' All Gaines, Profitts and advantages arising upon the said Lands and 
all other the premisses and appurtenances To the Said John Bayly, Daniel 
Denton, and Luke Watson w"" Their Associates, w''' their and Every of 
their Heirs Executors Admin" or Assignes for Ever To have and To 
hold The said Lands with the Appurtenances To the said John Bayly, 
Daniel Denton and Luke Watson with their Associates their Execu" 
Assignes, *^nd The said Mattanno Manomowaouc covenant promise 
Grant and Agree To and w"' the said John Bayly, Daniel Denton and 
Luke Watson and their Associates their heirs and Execu" To Keep them 
Safe in the Enjoyment of the Said Lands from all Expulsion and Incum- 
brances whatsoever may arise of the Said Land By Any person or per- 
sons By Eeason of Any Title had or Growing before the Date of these 
presents, for which Bargain, Sale, Covenants, Grants & Agreements on 
the behalf of the sd Matteno manamowouc and Conescomen to be per- 
formed, Observed and Done the fores'^ parties Are at their Enttery upon 
the Said Land To pay To the s"^ Matteno Mauamow^ouc and Couescoman, 
Twenty fathom of Trading Oloath, Two made Coats, Two Guns Two 
Kettles Ten Bars of Lead Twenty Handfuls of powder, And further the 
s* John Baily Daniel Denton and Luke watson Do Covenant Promise 
Grant and Agree to and with the s"^ Mattano Manamowoauc and Couesco- 
man the fores'^ Indians four hundred fathom of white wampom after a 
Years Expiration from the Day of the said John Bayly Daniel Denton 
and Luke watson Entery upon y® said Lands. In witness whereof we 
have hereunto put our hands and seals, the Day and Year aforesaid. 

The Mark of Mattano —— — 

The Mark of Sewak herones N 

The Mark of Warinanco •>.~>'w^.'w%,/x/^/w~ 

» 

Signed Sealed and Delivered in the p'soncc of us witnesses 

Charles Ilorsley 
The Mark of 
Eandal E Ilewett.* 

*E. Town Book, B., oth. end, 10-11. E. Town Bill in Chancery, pp. 25-C. Ans. to do., 
p. 7. Grants, Concessions, &c., pp. C69-C71. The whole cost and charges were estimated by 
Secretary BoUen at more than £154. ^ 



32 THE HISTORY OF 

Having thus made, in good faith, of the native proprietors, 
a fair and equitable purchase of the desired territory, and 
procured a carefully-worded deed of the said purchase, the 
Associates proceeded to submit the transaction to Gov. 
l^icolls, from wliom, presently afterwards, they obtained an 
official confirmation of their title, by grant, in due form, as 
follows : 

To all To ■whom These p''sents shall come, I Richard Nicolls Esq'' 
Governour under his .Royal Highness j" Duke of York of all his Territo- 
ries III america send Greeting ff^/i crews there is a parcel of Land w"' 
in my Government which hath Been purchased of Mattano Manamowaouc 
and Couesccoman of Staten Island By John Bayly Daniel Denton & Luke 
watson of Jemaico In Long Island for a Consideration Expressed In a 
Certain Deed of Indenture Bearing Date the 28th Day of October Last, 
wherein the said parcel of Land was made over unto tlie said John 
Bayly Daniel Denton and Luke watson and their Associates, their and 
Every of their heirs Execu" admin" or Assigns for Ever as In the said 
Deed, Relacon being thereunto had more fully and at Large Doth and 
may appear, JVoiv To the End the said Lands may the sooner be planted 
Inhabited and manured I have thought fit to Give Confirme and Grant and 
by these p''sents Do Give Confirme and Grant unto Cap' John Baker of 
new Yorke, John Ogden of North-hampton, John Baily and Luke wat- 
son of Jemaico on Long Island and their Associates their heirs Execu" ad- 
min" and assigns the said parcell of Land Bounded on the South By a 
River commonly called the Raritans River — On the East by y* sea yf"^ 
partes Staten Island and the main, to Run Northwards up after cull Bay 
Till you come to the first River w'='' sets westwards out of the s'' bay, And 
To Run Avest Into the Countcry Twice the Length of the Breadth thereof 
from the North To the South of the aforementioned Bounds Together 
with all Lands, Meadows Pastures woods waters feilds fenns fishings 
fowling with all and singular the appurtenances, with all Gaines Profits 
and advantages arising or that shall arise upon the s"' Lands and premises 
To have and To hold the s^" Lands and appurtenances To the s* 
Cap*^ John Baker, John Ogden John Bayly and Luke watson and their As- 
sociates their heirs Exec" admin" and assigns forever, Rendering and pay- 
ing Yearly unto his Royal Highness The Duke of Yorke or his assigns a cer- 
tain Rent according To the customary Rate of y*' Countcry for New Planta- 
tions and Doing and p''forming such Acts & Things as shall be appointed 
by his s^aid Royal highness or his Deputy, and The s'' Cap*^ John Baker 
John Ogden John Bayly &, Luke watson and Their Associates their heirs 
Execu" admin" and assigns are To Take Care and Charge of y" s'' Lands 
and p''misses That People be carried thither with all convenient speed for 
the Betting; of plantacons thereon and that none have Libertio so To Do 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 33 

"without the Consent and Approbation of y* s"" Cap' John Balcer John 
Ogden John Bayly and Luke wats.m and Their Associates Except they 
shall neglect their Planting thereof according To The true Intent and 
meaning of These p''sents. and I Do Lil^ewise promise and Grant that the 
persons so Inhabiting and planting the Lauds and premises afores'' shall 
have Equal freedom Immunities and privileges with any of his Ma''" sub- 
jects In any of his Oolonys of America. And the s"* Cap' John Baker John 
Ogden John Baily and Luke watson and Their Associates have Libertie to 
purchase of the Natives (or Others who have the proprietie thereof ) as 
farre as Snake hill to the End and purposes afores' — In tvitness 
whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this first Day of December 
In the sixteenth Year of the Reign of our Soveraign Lord Charles The 
Second By the Grace of God King of England Scotland France and Irre- 
land Defender of the faith »fec. at fort James In New York on the Island 

of manhatans. 

Richard ISTicolls.* 

At or about the same time, Gov. Nicolls drew up aud pub- 
lished certain Proposals by which property in lands might be 
acquired in any of the unoccupied territories of the Duke of 
York in America, as follows : 

The Conditions for New Planters, in the Territories of his Royal High- 
ness the Duke of York. 

The Purchases are to bo made from the Indian Sachems, and to be 
Recorded before the Governour. 

The Purchasers are not to pay for their Liberty of Purchasing to the 
Governour. 

The Purchasers are to Set out a Town and Inhabit together. 

No Purchaser shall at any Time Contract for himself with any Sachem, 
without Consent of his Associates : or Special warrant from the Gov- 
ernour. 

The Purchasers are free from all manner of Assessments or Rates five 
Years after their Town Piatt is Set out, and when the five years are 
Expired, they shall only be Liable to the Publick Rates and payments, ac- 
cording to the Custome of other Inhabitants both English and Dutch. 

All Lands thus Purchased and Posses'd, shall Remain to the Pur 
chasers and their Heirs as free- lands to Dispose of as they Please. 

In all Territories of his Royal Highness, liberty of conscience is allowed ; . 
Provided such liberty is not Converted to licentiousness or the Disturbance 
of Others in tlie exercise of the Protestant Religion. 

The several Town-ships have liberty to make their Particular Laws, and 
deciding all Small Causes within themselves. 

* E. Town Book B.,otb. end, pp. 11, 12. E.Town Bill in Chancery, p. 20. Grants, Gonccs- 
Bions, &c., pp. C71-3. i 

3 



34 THEHISTORYOF 

The Lands wliich I intend shall be first Planted, are those upon the 
west side of Iludsons Eiver, at or adjoining to the Sopcs. but if any Num- 
ber of men sufficient for Two or Three or more Towns, shall desu'e to 
Plant upon any other Lands, they shall have all Due Encouragement Pro- 
portionable to their Quality and undertakings. 

Every Town-ship is Obliged to pay their Minister, according to such 
Agreement as they shall make with them and No man to refuse his Pro- 
portion, the minister being Elected by the Major Part of the house-hold'"' 
Inhabitants of the Town. 

Every Town-ship hath the free Choice of all their Officers both Oivill 
and military, and all men who shall take the oath of allegiance to his 
Majostie and are not Servants or Day-labourers, but are admitted to Enjoy 
a Town-Iott, are Esteemed- freo-men of the Jurisdiction, and cannot for- 
feit the same without Due Process in law.* 

These Proposals were all that could be expected, ema- 
nating as they did from a Court, that was bitterly opposed 
to every thing like democracy, exceedingly jealous of the 
power and privileges of the people, and so hostile to the 
Puritan party in the Church of England, as to have driven 
more than two thousand non-conforming ministers into pri- 
vate life. They were regarded with peculiar favor by the 
new settlers in the Duke's territories, and accepted as a lib- 
eral constitution for the planting of new towns, and the 
organizing of new municipalities. 

Encouraged by the Governor's concessions, and furnished 
with every requisite document to establish their right and 
title, beyond all doubt and controversy, to the absolute pro- 
prietorship of their lands, the four purchasers from Long 
Island, with their Associates, took measures for a speedy and 
effective occupation of the fair domain thus lawfully and 
honorably acquired. It was, indeed, a fair domain, scarcel}'' 
to be equalled, and certainl}'^ not excelled, on the whole At- 
lantic coast of the new world. Its advantages were extolled 
in glowing terms, by eye-witnesses of its virgin beauty. The 
Dutch governmeut, in 16G1, spoke of it as follows : 

It is under the best clymate in the whole world ; seed may bee 
thrown into the ground, except six weekcs, all the yere long; there are 

* E. Town Book, B. 1. Ana. to E. T. Bill, p. 6. Grnnts nnd Concessions, p. 667. Smith's 
History of N. York, I. 85-6. Mulford's New Jersey, p. ISO. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 35 

five sorts of grapes w"''" are very good and grow lieere naturally, with 
diverse other excellent fruits extraordinary good, and y° fruits trans- 
planted from Europe far surpasseth any there ; as apples, pears, peaches, 
melons, &c. the land very fertile, produceth a great increase of wheat 
and all other grane whatsoever : heere groweth tohacco very good, it 
naturally abounds, with severall sorts of dyes, furrs of all sorts may bee 
had of the natives very reasonable; store of saltpeter; marvelous plenty 
in all kinds of food, excellent veneson, elkes very great and large ; all 
kind of land and sea foule that are naturally in Europe are heere in great 
plenty, with severall other sorte, y' Europe doth not enjoy; the sea and 
rivers abounding with excellent fat and wholesome fish w''' are heere in 
great plenty ; the mountenouse part of the country stored with severall 
sorts of mineralls ; great profit to bee derived from traffique with the 
natives (who are naturally a mild people, very capable (and by the Grace 
of God) to be drawne out of their blind ignorance to the saving light by 
Jesus Christ. Heere may likewise bee great profitt made by fishing, 
whereby abundance of people may bee imployed with great and notable 
advantages.* 

This description, though' designed to cover the whole ter- 
ritory between the Hudson and Delaw'^re rivers, was pecu- 
liarly applicable to the region bordering on Achter Kol, or 
Newark Bay and its southern estuary. Daniel Denton, one 
of the original " undertakers " of this settlement, is no less 
enthusiastic in its praise. Writing in 1670, he describes it 
as follows : 

I may say, and say truly, that if there be any terrestrial happiness to 
be had by people of all ranks, especially of an inferior rank, it must 
certainly be here : here any one may furnish himself with Land, and live 
rent-free, yea, with such a quantity of Land, that he may weary himself 
with walking over his fields of Corn, and all sorts of Grain ; and let his 
stock of Cattel amount to some hundreds, he needs not fear their want 
of pasture in the Summer or Fodder in tine "Winter, the Woods affording 
sufficient supply. For the Summer-season, where you have grass as high 
as a mans knees, nay, as high as his waste, interlaced with Pea- vines and 
other weeds that Cattel much delight in, as much as a man can press 
through ; and these woods also every mile or half-mile are furnished with 
fresh ponds, brooks or rivers, where all sorts of Cattel, during the heat 
of the day, do quench their thirst and cool themselves ; these brooks and 
rivers being inviroued of each side with several sorts of trees and Grape- 
vines, the vines, Arbor-like, interchanging places and crossing these riv- 
ers, doos sha'le and shelter them from the scorching beams of Sol's fiery 

* N. York Col. Documents, III. SS-9. 



36 THE HISTORY OF 

influence. And how prodigal, If I may so say, liatli Xature been to fur- 
nish theCountrey witli all sorts of wildo Beasts and Fowle, -which every 
one hath an interest in, and may hunt at his pleasure : where besides the 
pleasure in hunting, ho may furnish his house with excellent fat Venison, 
Turkeys, Geese, Heath Hens, Cranes, Swans, Ducks, Pidgeons, and the 
like ; and wearied with that, he may go a Fishing, where the Elvers are 
so furnished, that he may supply himself with Fish before he can leave 
off the Recreation ; where besides the sweetness of the Air^. the Countrey 
itself sends forth such a fragrant smell, that it may be perceived at Sea 
before they can make the Land ; where, no evil fog or vapour doth no 
sooner appear but a North-west or Westerly winde doth immediately 
dissolve it, and drive it away. I must needs say, that if there be any 
terrestrial Canaan, 'tis surely here, where the Land floweth with milk 
and honey.* 

Yan Tienlioven, Secretary of New Netlierland, writing in 

1650, says. 

The district inhabited by a nation called Raritangs, is situate on a 
fresh water river, that flows through the centre of the low land which the 
Indians cultivated. This vacant territory lies between two high moun- 
tains, far distant the one from the other. This is the handsomest and 
pleasantest country that man can behold, it furnished the Indians with 
abundance of maize, beans, pumpkins, and other fruits.t 

The land covered by Gov. Nicolls' patent was of large 
dimensions. It extended from the mouth of the Earitaii on 
the South, to the month of the Passaic on the North, a dis- 
tance, in a straight line, of not less than seventeen miles ; 
and running back into the country twice tliis distance, or 
thirty-four miles ; embracing the towns of Woodbridge and 
Piscataway, the whole of the present Union County, part of 
the towns of Kewark and Clinton ; a small part of Morris 
County, and a considerable portion of Somerset County — 
containing about 500,000 acres, upland and meadow, in fair 
proportions, well watered by the liaritan, the Passaic, the 
Eahway, and Elizabeth Kivers, Thompson's [Morse's] Creek, 
and Bound Bropk ; diversified with level plains and ranges 
of hills, of considerable elevation, ordinarily classified as 
mountains ; the soil of the uplands mostly red shale and clay 

* Dcnton'8 Description of N.Toik, Ed. of 1S45, pp. 19, 20, 21. 
t N. T. Col. Documents, I. 3G6-7. N. Y. Doc. His., IV. C9. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 37 

loam, and a large part of it susceptible of a high state of 
cultivation. 

The precise date of the first occupation of this tract by the 
new proprietors is not on record. 'No memorial of the event 
has come down to the present day. It was, doubtless, an 
humble beginning in the first instance, and not deemed of 
sufficient moment to attract attention. The j)urchase was 
made, October 28th, 166^, and the Governor's patent or 
grant obtained, on the Isfe of December following. It is 
probable, that something like a formal entry was made, and 
possession taken, between these two dates. From a receipt, 
endorsed on the Deed from the Indians, it appears that the 
final payment of " four hundred fathom of white wampom " 
was acknowledged by the Grantors, November 24, 1665. 
This became due only " after a years expiration from the 
day of entery upon y' said lands." It is not probable, 
that the time of payment was anticipated ; and hence it may 
be concluded, that the settlement was actually commenced, 
ground, at least, broken, and something of a habitation 
attempted, as early as November 24, 1664.* 

The purchasers, in their application to Gov. Nicolls, 
September 30, 1664, had craved his "answer with as much 
expedition as may be ; because some of them, by reason of 
not having any accommodations where they then resided, 
were put upon thoughts of removing into some other of his 

* Appended to the Indian Deed is the following receipt : Received of John Ogden in 
part of the above specified foure hundred feet of wampum I say lleceived one hundred 
fathom of wampum by mee the IS of August 1605 The mark of Mattano 

■Witnesses, Samuel Edsall, James Bollen 
Eiidor.-ed on the Deed is the following : The 24 November 1665 paid to the Indians in 
full payment of this obligation 

In Wampum one hundred and ninty fathom - - - 190 

In a fowling peice and Lead - . . . . 40 

for ISO Gilders that was behind for the payment of Luke - 1 

"Watson's oxen that were killed by the Indians seaventy fothom of f ' 

wampum 

the sum of three hundred fathom .... 800 I say in all 

(Witnesses) The mark of Mattano 

Henry Creyk "Wareham 

John Dickcson Sewab Ilerones 

Jeremiah Osbono Manamawaouc 

James Bollen Kawameeh 

E. J. Eocords, B. 181, 2, and 1. 1, 2; II. 12. Lutonewach 



38 THE HISTORY OF 

Majesty's (.loniinions." The grant from Nicolls, also, was 
obtained on the condition " that people be carried thither 
with all convenient speed for the setting of plantations 
thereon.-' All this renders it highly probable, that the 
settlement was undertaken without loss of time. Possibly 
the winter-season, then at hand, may not have been the most 
propitious for active and energetic operations. But, cer- 
tainly, with the passing away of the frosts, in February or 
March following, they would be *on the move to clear the 
ground of the '^goodly oaks" on either side of the Creek, 
where they had determined to locate their town r.nd lay out 
their home lots, to prepare the soil for the summer and 
autumnal crops, and to erect their humble dwellings. 

The people of L. Island (says Gov. Nicolls, in 1665), are very poor 
and labour onely to get bread aud clothing, without hopes of ever seeing 
a penny of monies.* 

An exaggerated statement, doubtless, and to be taken 
with considerable abatement ; and yet indicative of tlie gen- 
eral opinion in respect to the poverty of the soil of Long 
Island, in comparison with the fertile tract west of Staten 
Island ; rendering it quite unlikely, that the purchasers of 
this tract would suffer many months to pass away, before be- 
ginning their settlement. Early in July, 1665, Gov. Nicolls 
writes to the Duke, in respect to the " lands to the west of the 
liudsons Eiver," — " Upon this tract of land several new pur- 
chases are made from the Indians since my coming, and 
three Townes beginning ; " f showing that at that time a town 
had at least been begun here, indicative of a considerable 
immigration ; something more than three or four huts or 
cabins, as a somewhat vague tradition represented, some 
seventy years afterwards. ISTo reliance, in the absence of 
documentary evidence, can be placed on the statement, made 
in 1747, that, as late as the first of August, 1665, 

No other Christian person •whatsoever was settled upon any part of 
the laods in question, than John Ogden and Luke "Watson aforesaid ; and 
certainly no more than four families settled (if so many) by virtue or on 
pretence of the said Indian purchase, or grant from Gov. Xicolls, nor at 

• N. T. Col. Documents, III. IOC. ' lb., III. 105. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 39 

any other place within the bounds of the lands in question. To suppose 
that none of the Associates, who were interested in the said purchase and 
grant, and had contributed their proportions to the consideration-money, 
should, during all that time, have settled on the said land,, with the said 
four grantees, is conceived to be a very unlikely and strange supposition.* 

It was not an unoccupied land. A savage tribe had made 
it their home, long years previously, and still dwelt in the 
immediate neighborhood of the plot selected for a town. 
The Minisink path, leading from the sea at Shrewsbury Inlet, 
and crossing the Raritan River two or three miles above its 
mouth, the principal track of the Indians in the northern and 
eastern portion of New Jersey, leading to Minisink Island in 
the Delaware River, passed up the country just back of the 
Rahway River, directly through the new purchase, and 
within four or five miles of this locality. The Dutch had 
pursued a policy which served to irritate and exasperate 
these natives of the forest. So late as October, 1655, Pen- 
nekek, one of the Sachems in Achter Kol, brought in to 
Pavonia [Paulus Hook] not less than 28 Dutch captives, 
men and women, and delivered them to the agents of Stiiy- 
vesant, informing them that more than 20 others remained 
to be redeemed. It was not safe, and had not been to the 
time of the conquest by the English in 1664, to venture far 
into the interior. It would have been exceedingly hazardous 
for three or four families to plant themselves on these out- 
skirts of civilization, as residents and occupants of the land, 
unprotected. f 

It was well said, more than a century since, that 

As the country, at their first coming, was inhabited by no other than 
the native Indians, who were then in great numbers ; the said purchasers 
and associates agreed, at first, to make small divisions of their lands, 
according to the usage and custom then in New England ; to the end that 
they might settle and plant near together ; so that, in case any attempt 
was made by the Indians, they might mutually aid and assist each other 
The circumstances of the inhabitants at that day, being so dangerous 
and troublesome, that we, at this time, can have no adequate ideas- 
of the hardships of.| 

* E. T. Bill in Chancery, pp. 28-66. Ans. to E. T. Bill, p. 29. 

t Valentine's N. Y. Manuiil for 1S63, pp. 557, 8. J Ans. to E. T. Bill, p. 22. 



40 THEHISTORYOF 

On this account it was expressly provided that other " peo- 
ple be carried thither," besides the four purcliasers, " to set 
out a town, and inhabit together." The tradition, that but 
four families were found in occupancy of the town, so late as 
August, 1GG5, grew out of the fact, most probably, that but 
four names are recorded as purchasers in Gov. Nicolls' Grant. 
It seems to have been erroneousl}'" supposed, that these four 
were the sole proprietors of the purchase ; whereas the 
Indian Deed expressly conveys the land, as also does JSTicolls' 
Grant, to the Associates of these grantees as well. The 
whole transaction was a concerted enterprise ; thought of, 
and talked over, and agreed upon, by a considerable number 
of persons, like-minded, and of like origin, residents of the 
same neighborhood on Long Island. Denton, one of the 
projectors of the undertaking, writes, four or five j^ears 
afterwards. 

That tlio usual way, is for a Company of people to joya together, 
either enough to make a Town, or a lesser number ; these go with the 
consent of the Governor, and view a Tract of Land, there being choice 
enough, and finding a place convenient for a Town, they return to the 
Governor, who upon their desire admits them into the Colony, and gives 
them a Grant or Patent for the said Land, for themselves and Associates. 
These persons being thus qualified, settle the place, and take in what 
inhabitants to themselves they shall see cause to admit of, till their Town 
be full.* 

This is, doubtless, just what occurred in this instance — a 
number of persons combining and contributing to the acqui- 
sition, as is expressly stated in their behalf in a legal docu- 
ment of a later date : 

True it is, that, on the first settlement of the said first purchases and 
associates, it was agreed and understood, that the lands so purchased, 
should be divided, in proportion to the money paid for the purchase, to 
wit, into first-lot, second-lot, and third-lot rights, the second-lot to bo 
double, and the third lot treble what was divided to those called first 
rights.t * 

♦ Donton's Description of N. T.. &c., Ed. of ISiS, p. 17. 

t Ans. to E. T. Bill, p. 22. The following attestations, given about 20 years after the set- 
tlement, fully establish these conjectures: "The testimony off Timothy Holstcail, off 
Hjimstoftil, in Queens County who declareth y' y« purchasers off Affter Kull (viz.) Daniell 
Denton, Jnhn Baylies &, Luke Watson did admit off my selff & my brother alsoe vpon y 
disbursement off ffour pounds a peece in bever pay to bee Associates w' y™ in y purchass 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 41 

That the movement was thus undertaken in concert by a 
considerable number of persons, who were interested in it 
from the beginning, and not several distinct, disconnected, 
and individual undertakings, appears still more fully from a 
letter, which has happily been preserved among the " Win- 
tlirop Papers," written by the Rev. Thomas James, pastor of 
the church of East Hampton, L. I. It is dated, Nov. 25, 
1G67, and is addressed to Gov. Winthrop, at New London, 
Ct., as follows : 

I can say lesse then formerly, in respect of my vnsetlednesse : for I was 
intended to liaue remoued, with severall of my brethren -who are gone, as 
Mr. Bond and others, who are remoued beyond F. Yorke ; who were ex- 
ceeding desirous to haue me gone with them, and settled a plantation in 
those parts ; and my resolution was once so to haue done, but God, who 
hath the hearts and ways of all in his own hands, hath ordered it other- 
wise, so that I am still here. "When it came too, the people here by no 
meanes could be perswaded to be willing to part with me vpon that ac- 

in case wea liked which mony wee disbursed ffor Indean trade which sayd indean goods went 
to the pnrchass of y^ s'' land at Afftcr Kull at y"^ request off y= affores'' purchasers wee dis- 
liking y' place vpon a view off it. And they ingaging wee should bee payd ffor our goods 
& wee acknowledge y' wee have Eeceived satisffaction off Dau" Denton affores'' one off 
y<^ purchasers the whole sum payd by selff and brother was four pounds a pecco and two & 
Fix pence. Sworn beffore vs, y« IT"' off Novem'' 16S5, Elias Doughty, Eichavd CornwoU, Jus- 
tices in Quorum." 

"Samuel Denton off Hemstead doth alsoe testiffy y' y'= above written purchasers did 
agree alsoe w' him vpon j' disbursment off four pounds to bee an equal Associate w' them 
ill case hee liked which four pounds hee pay" in bever for goods y' went to y' purchass off 
y'= s* land at Affter Kull att y"= desire off y^ purchasers they promising to Repay mee. And 
I acknowledge y' I have deceived satisffaction off Daniell Denton one off y^ s'' purchasers ffor 
y^ s"' ffour pounds; 

" Ffor y= ffirar pounds above mentioned Sam" doth te.stlffy y' exactly to y" sum hee can- 
not so well remember. But is positive in this that hee pay* cquall w' y'= purchasers Timothy 
llolstead & Sam" Denton on the other side mentioned doe ffurther testify that y« mony on 
y« other side mentioned was payd to y'' indeans ffor all such lands contained in y^ purchass 
made by y' purchasers on j" otherside mentioned, as well ffor Elizabethtown as y"= Eest 
& ffurther y' wee layd doun our mony for y'= purchas at Daniel Dcntous, commending off y' 
place to vs as severall others did vpon incouragement ffrom y'^ other purchasers. And never 
Eeceived a ffartliin but ffrom Daniel Denton. And y' Ambross Sutten also was one off our 
Company. December y" S* 16S5. Attested before mee Eicliard Cornwell, Justice in 
Quorum." 

" Josiah Settin off Oisterbay in Queens County tcstifieth that when Dan" Denton, John 
Baylies &"Luke Watson did purchase Affter Kull so called off y« indeans that I went w' 
Dan" Denton when hee carried y« goods to pay y« purchass off y« land And y' Samuel 
Denton & Timothy llolstead &• Ambross Sutton was off y" Company & payd mony 
towards y purchass & I payd my mony alsoe towards y"= purchass to Luke Watson 
wee being all off vs to have land iff wee likd ffor our mony y' wee disbured. But never 
received any satisffaction of Luke Watson nor any other off y"^ purchasers ffor my e'' mony 
that I layd out ffer y" s'' purcliass nor ever had any consideration in land or any other, 
way taken vpon oath y^ last day off ifarch Annoq. Domini 16SC. Before Mee John 
Townsend, Sen'' Justice off y" peaca." Alb. Eecords, XXXIL 118. 



42 THE HISTORY OF 

count, eo tbit I am here still, but by reason tbcreof, lesse hatb beene done 
then otherwise might haue been.* 

Mr. Bond, and his neighbors from East Hampton, were 
here, (and probably had been for some time previous) as early 
as Februarj^ 166|-, nearly two years before the writing of this 
letter. 

In the absence, then, of every thing like documentary evi- 
dence to the contrary, it is safe to conclude, that ground was 
broken, for the settlement of the town, as early as in ISTovem- 
ber, 1664, and that, in the spring of the year 1665, a consid- 
erable number of the Associates, for whom the land had 
been purchased, arrived, with their wives and children, and 
took possession of tlieir new homes in Achter Kol. 

*4 Mass. His. Soc. Coll., VII. 485. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 43 



CHAPTER III. 

A. D. 1665— 16G6. 

Arrival of the ship Philip, with Gov. Carteret — Explanations — Lord John 
Berkeley — Sir Geo. Carteret — Adherents of Royalty in the Civil War — 
Their Services to the Crown — Rewarded with Offices and Land Grants — 
Purchase of N. Jersey from the Duke of York — Letters of Hutchinson — 
Capt. Carteret arrives at New York with laborers — Acquiesces in Nicolls' 
Grant — Purchases rights in the new Town — Origin of its Name. 

ScAKCELY lias the new settlement got fairly under way, the 
ground about the Creek been cleared, and the soil made ready 
for the sowing of the winter grain, when tidings reach them 
from ISTew York of a serious change in their prospects. Word 
is brought, that the Duke of York has sold the territory west 
of Hudson's Kiver to two of the Lords of the Council, who 
have sent over a Deputy to arrange the matter with Gov. 
Nicolls, and take possession, in their name, of the newly- 
created province. As a matter of course the coming of the 
new Governor is awaited with no little anxiety. 

Early in the month of August, 1665, the town is stirred by 
the first exciting event in its history. The ship " Philip," 
having arrived at New York, July 29th, now makes her ap- 
pearance at the Point, or entrance of the Creek on which 
the town is laid out. She brings Capt. Philip Carteret, a 
sprightly youth of six and twenty, with a company of emi- 
grants from the old world. Among them, is a French gen- 
tleman, JRobert Yauquellin, — a surveyor by profession, — with 
his wife. Capt. James Pollen, of New York, also, is of the 
number. With these come, also, eighteen men of menial 
character, of the laboring class ; possibly a few others, fe 



44 THE HISTORY OF 

males, probably, of whom no special mention is made, — some 
thirty in all.* 

The settlers gather about the landing, to receive the new 
comers, to learn who they are, and why their steps are di- 
rected hither. Capt Carteret presently submits his creden- 
tials to Ogden and his townsmen. He comes accredited with 
papers from Gov. Nicolls, and a Governor's commission from 
Lord John Berkeley, Baron of Stratton, Somerset Co., Eng., 
and Sir George. Carteret, Knight and Baronet, of Saltrum in 
Devon (both of the Privy Council), to whom the Duke of 
York had granted the Territory lying to the west of Hudson's 
River, and east of the JDelaware, to be known, henceforward, 
as Nova Cajsarea, or 'New Jerse}^ Mutual explanations fol- 
low. The Indian Deed is produced and well considered. 
Gov. Nicolls' Grant is brought forward and explained. 

The settlers appear to have had a fair understanding with 
Carteret and his company, and to have procured a concession 
of their rights and titles as proprietors of the territory de- 
scribed in their deed. Tradition tells us,— not a very relia- 
ble authority when not supported by collateral evidence as 
it is in the present case, — that Carteret, being informed of 
their right to the lands, " approved of the same, and readily 
and willingly consented to become an Associate with them ; 
and went up from the place of his landing, w-itli them, 
carrying a hoe on his shoulder, thereby intimating his inten- 
tion of becoming a planter with them ; " glad, no doubt, to 
find so promising a beginning in the settlement of the unoc- 
cupied and unexplored territory over which he was to exer- 
cise authorit3\f 

Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret were of the court 
of Charles H., a monarch, of wliom Bancroft truly says, that 
his reign " was not less remarkable for the rapacity of the 
courtiers, than for the debauchery of the monarch." :}: In the 
conflict with the Parliamentarians, they had both, being then 
in the full vigor of their faculties, adhered to the fortunes of 
their king, Charles I., and laid their royal master and his 

♦E.T.Bill, p. 2S. 

t Learning and Spicer, pp. 8-11, 2G-7. Ans. to E. T. Bill, p. 20. 

t Bancroft's U. States, II. 129. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 45 

profligate sons, Charles and James, under no small obligations 
to them. 

Bekkeley was the youngest son of Sir Maurice Berkeley. 
He was born in 1607, joined the army in the operations 
against the Scots in 1638, and was knighted (June 27) the 
same year. In the Parliamentary war he served as Commis- 
sary General for the king, as Governor of Exeter, and Gen- 
eral of tiie royal forces in Devon. After the king's death he 
went abroad with the royal family, and, in 1652, was made 
Governor of the Duke of York's household. May 19, 1658, 
he was created, by royal favor. Baron Berkeley, of Stratton ; 
and, at the Restoration in 1660, he was sworn of the Privy 
Council.'^ 

Cakteeet was the eldest son of Holier Carteret, Deputy 
Governor of the Isle of Jersey, a descendent of the Lords of 
Carteret in the Ducliy of Normandy, a family of great re- 
spectability, dating back to the time of William, the Con- 
queror. Philip, eldest son of Helier Carteret, married Pachel 
Paulet, and had six children : Philip, Helier, Amice, Gideon, 
Kachel and Judith. He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth, 
and lived to a great age. Sir Philip, the eldest son of Sir 
Philip, married Ann Dowse, and had eleven children : Philip, 
Peyton, Zouch, Gideon, Francis, Thomas, Edward, Marga- 
ret, Anne, Elizabeth, Dowse. Philip, the first-born, died in 
1662. Elizabeth (for whom this town was named) married 
her cousin, George Carteret. Her father, Philip, had (as 
above) three brothers. Helier, the second son of the first Sir 
Philip, married Elizabeth Dumaresque, and had two chil- 
dren, George and Philip. The latter was born in 1610, and 
died in 1665. 

George Carteret was born in 1599, married (as above) his 
cousin, Elizabeth, and had three sons and five daughters. His 
sons were Philip, James and George. The latter died un- 
married in 1656. Philip, his eldest son, was knighted, June 
4, 1670, and killed in a naval battle, May 28, 1672. George, 
the father, entered the navy at an early age. In 1626, he 
was appointed joint governor of Jersey, and, in 1640, comp- 

* N. T. Colonial Doc, II. 099. Collins' reernge, (Ed. of 1735,) III. 270-2S1. 



46 TUEIIISTORYOF 

troller of the royal navy. In 1642, the post of Vice Admiral 
was offered liini by Parliament, but declined in obedience to 
his royal master. He was knighted May 9, 1646, having 
rendered the king great service in the supply of ammunition. 
Witlidrawing to his home in Jersey, his liouse, which he 
bravely defended as the last stronghold of the monarchy, be- 
came an asylum to the Prince of Wales and others of 
the part3^ He followed his sovereign to France in 1652, was 
imprisoned, in the Bastile, at the instance of Cromwell, in 
1657, and subsequently banished the kingdom. He repaired 
to Charles at Brussels in 1659, and was one of his escort when 
received by the city of London in 1660. He was appointed 
Vice Chamberlain, and Treasurer of the Navy ; was sworn of 
the Privy Council, and in 1661 elected to Parliament for 
Portsmouth. As early as 1650, when the royal cause ap- 
peared quite hopeless, he is said to have obtained the grant 
of an island in Virginia, and to have fitted out a ship with 
all sorts of goods and tools, with many passengers, for the 
settlement of a plantation in the new world. It is thought, 
that the project was abandoned on account of the vigilance 
of the Cromwellian party.* 

The trials, through which the two Lords had passed during 
the civil wars, in which circumstances had brought them 
into great familiarity with the royal brothers, Charles and 
James, gave them great influence at court, after the lles- 
toration. Lucrative offices were awarded them in and about 
the royal household, and frequent opportunities given of pro- 
moting their purposes of wealth and aggrandizement. The 
new world beyond the flood was attracting numerous adven- 
turers, and offering large inducements to colonists. The 
gifted Winthrop, on the occasion of his visit to England 
in 1661-2, to procure a new Charter for" Connecticut, had 
been received with great consideration at court, and, by his 
representations of what had already been accomplished in 
New England, had unwittingly excited the greed of many of 
the corrupt and wily parasites of the crown. Clarendon, 
Albemarle, Ashley, Colleton, Carteret, Craven, and the two 

• N. Y. Colonial Doc, II. 410. Collins' Peerage (Ed. of 1735), IV. S21-S. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 47 

Berkeleys, Lord John and Sir William, banded togetlier, and 
readily obtained, in 1663, from the pleasnre-loving monarch, 
a grant of the vast territory in America, extending from the 
36th degree of north latitude, to the river Saint Matheo, and 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, as proprietors and lords, 
with almost absolute authority, and the right of assignment 
or sale, — a most extraordinary grant of power ; and all this, 
on the plea of " being excited with a laudable and pious zeal 
for the propagation of the gospel " among a " barbarous peo- 
ple, who have no knowledge of God " — hypocrites that they 
were ! " Avarice," says Bancroft, " is the vice of declining 
years ; most of the proprietaries were past middle life. They 
begged the country under pretence of a 'pious zeal for the 
propagation of the gospel,' and their sole object was the in- 
crease of their own wealth and dignity." * 

ISTot satisfied with their share in the lordship of such a vast 
domain, Berkeley and Carteret were eager to secure for 
themselves an investment in western lands still more prom- 
ising, if possible. The notorious Capt. Scott, who had 
created so much disturbance on Long Island and the Main, 
and of whom Gov. Nicolls wrote, that he " was borne to 
work mischeife as farre as hee is credited or his parts serve 
him," had sought of the crown a patent for Long Island ; but, 
not succeeding in his design, and conceiving that he had been 
wronged by the Duke of York, is reported to have induced 
Berkeley and Carteret to secure !N"ew Jersey for themselves, 
knowing, as Nicolls, also, declared, that it was the most valu- 
able portion of the Duke's territory, f 

The two Lords readily caught the bait, and the Duke, "for 
a competent sum of money," having, by his patent from the 
king, the right of sale, as w^ell as possession and rule, con- 
veyed, June 24, 1664, the territorj-, now known as New 
Jersey, to Berkeley and Carteret, " in as full and ample 
manner " as it had been conveyed to himself, — transferring 
to these court favorites all his rights, titles, and authority to 
and over the land in question. 

* BaBcroffa U. States, II. 130. t N. Y. Colonial Do?., III. 105. Thompson's Long 
Island, II. 320-3. 



48 THE HISTORY OF 

In the course of the summer, as has been seen, the Dutch 
were dispossessed, and the country brought under the sway 
of the English crown. As soon as tidings came, in the latter 
part of October, that the conquest was comj)lete, the two 
Lords began their preparations for colonizing their new ac- 
quisitions. Guided, probably, by the terms of Winthrop's 
Charter, and the Concessions subsequently drawn wp for the 
Carolinas, they j)repared a Plan for tlie government of the 
territory (that Carteret had honored with the nanje of his 
island home), which was completed and signed, February 10, 
166|-, and M'hich they denominated, " The Concessions and 
agreement of the Lords Proprietors of New-Csesarea, or New- 
Jersey, to and with all and every of'the adventurers, and all 
such as shall settle or plant there ; " a document, of which it 
must be admitted, that, while much may be said against it 
and properl}'-, it, nevertheless, contained principles and con- 
veyed privileges far in advance of the age, and much more 
accordant with democrac}^ than Avith the imperialism of the 
Stuarts.* 

Capt. Philip Carteret, a distant relative of Sir George, was 
more than content to emigrate to the new world, and become 
the Governor of the new territory for the Proprietors. His 
commission and letters of instruction bear the same date as 
the Concessions. Mr. Eobert Vauquellin, Sieur des Prairie, 
of the city of Caen, in France, receives the same day an ap- 
pointment as Surveyor General ot the Province. The ship 
Philip is, also, put in commission, and furnished with men 
and supplies for the new colony. 

Some allusions to the ship and the undertaking of the two 
Cartercts, that serve to shed light on the character and pur- 
poses of the enterprise, are found in the t' Winthrop Papers." 
Samuel Hutchinson, Merchant of London, writes, February 
14, 1064, "to John A\^introp Esq"" att New Lond° In New 
England : " 

Sir — Ilaving this oportunyty by way of New Yorke, in a ship of S. 
Goorgo Cartrcts bound for New Jersy liow carys dipt. Cartret the 

* See Smith's N. Jerscj', pp. 51'2-521. Grants, Concessions, <tc,, pp. 12-25. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 49 

Governor. I know yor wonted costom to all strangers, not to let 
them lacke any Asistance or Advice you cane give tliem, Yor expery- 
ance in those parts being much, may doe him servis and yor selfe noe 
predgedis. Butt as you will heare, thar will be a greater obligatyon 
then ordinary, to the Honorab" Sir Georg Oartrett and Oapt Phillip Car- 
tret now Governor of New Jersy 

Some particulars about the shipping of machinerj for cer- 
tain salt-works follow, and then he adds, — • 

The ffrenes of S'^ Georg and the Capt. in the same is worth taking 
notes of. If Capt. Cartrett mislickes after he corns into the contry I 
will tacke them of at the same rate. 

He writes again, February 20, — 

Capt. Oartret hath brought over sondry ftVench men that know the 
making of salt in ffrance.* If you goe yo'' self to New Jersy, I desier 
you to view the plantatyons and if you pich upon a good track of Land 
send me word how it leyes, for Sir George promasis me what in reson I 
can desier thare, and advise the salt worke to be set up in that place if 
convenyant, if you provide wht ocke pip staves I doe conseve thay may 
be a comodety in New England sondry ships will com to Lode stave for 
Canarys and other Ilands.t 

The Philip is detained (probably on account of the war 
with the Dutch that rendered navigation hazardous), until 
the last of April ; and then sets sail, just as " the Great 
Plague " is beginning to gather up its more than threescore 
thousand victims in London. TJie next we hear from the 
ship is on her arrival in Yirginia, whence Carteret writes to 
Gov. Winthrop as follows : 

Newportes newes, Yirginia, 13° Juuii 1665. Honor'' Sir — Findeing 
the opportunity by this vessell bound for New Yorke, to send you some 
letters which I brought out of England, I thought it convenient to send 
them to you knoweing the sooner they come to your hands the better. I 
suppose that by them you will understand that Mr. Hutchinson hath sould 
unto Sir George Carteret and myselfe §ds of a salt worke and potto sh 
worke which was formerly contrived by you. Also it is agreed by Mr. 
Hutchinson and us that for the care you tooke then and the advice you 
will please to lend us for the future, that yon shall [have] the -^g parte of 
the proffitt, for I hope they are arrived ere this time being shipt aboard of 

* '' We take notice that you tlesiro to have French men sent yon that might be experienced 
in making of salt." InBtructions of Maes. Bay Co. to Gov. Endicott Young's Chroni- 
cles of Mass. Bay, p. 102. t Sllass. Hie. Soc. Coil., X. 49, 51. 

4 



50 THE HISTORY OF 

a shipp that was to come to Pescacloe for raasts for the King. This heing 
all at present hopeing (winde and weather permitting) to be at New 
Yorke in 5 or six days hence, I am Sir, your humble servant 

Ph Carteret 

Sir — If you please to doe me the favour to let mee heare from you 
direct your Letter to Cap" James Bullaigne in New Yorke. 

This letter reached Winthrop, July 4, and "svas answered, 
July 18. Ill his reiil}', he says, 

I knew nothing of any intention of Mr. IIutcLinsou to set up such 
■works [salt works] in these parts of the world. He mentions now New 
Jarsy, which is a place I know not nor have ever heard where it is — it 
■would be good to consider the convenience of the place for that commo- 
dity and for the vending of it before expenses be laid out. (He adds,) 
Salt is brought in by ships for ballast, &c. — from Turtngas.* 

Tliat last sentence, probably, put an end to the scheme for 
erecting salt-works in the new plantation, and to the Gov- 
ernor's dream of large profits. Whether the ship that bore 
the freight ever arrived at Piscataway, or not, is not known. 
Carteret himself did not reach New York nntil July 29.t 

Some few days, probably, are occupied in arranging with 
Gov. Nicolls the question of jurisdiction ; the latter being 
not at all pleased with the partition of the territory. Car- 
teret now learns, for the first time, that Nicolls, by virtue of 
his unrepealed commission from the Duke of York, has given 
land patents already for two extensive plantations, — one be- 
tween the Raritan and the Passaic Pivers, and the other 
below Sandy Hook and the Paritan, afterwards Middletown 
and Shrewsbury. Carteret seems not to have entered any 
protest against these grants, nor to have objected to them at 
all, but rather to have been gratified at the speedy prospect 
of peopling his new colony. He determines to locate him- 
self w'ith the Ogden company", and to make their plantation 
the scat of his government. 

At that time, the thought had not, apparently, entered his 
mind, that the Indian purchase and Nicolls' Grant were of 

* 3 Mass. His. Soc. Coll.. X. 52-3. 

t " Y' Lf" of tho 20"' of Jan. c.ime to my hands the 22d of June ; 'twos sent from Capt. 
Carteret then at Virginia, but is hero arrived tho 20lh of July." Gov. Nicolls, in N. T. 
Col. Doc, III. 103. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 51 

no validity. It does not occur to him, that he can locate 
himself where he pleases, and appropriate to himself and 
the Lords whatever lands he chooses. He enters not into 
conflict with the planters, but sets himself to acquire, by 
purchase, an interest in their lands. Learning that Bally, 
of Jamaica, is willing to part with his rights in the town, he 
enters into a negotiation with hira, soon after his arrival, and 
buys him out. The deed given him by Baily bears date, 
September 8, 1665. Its connection with subsequent events 
makes it important to place much of it on record in these 
pages. It is as follows : 

Indenture between John Bayles of Jamaica ia Yorkshire 
upon Long Island of tlie one part and Philip Carteret^ Esq', Gov- 
ernor of the Province of New Jersey upon the main land of America of 
the otlier part. For and in consideration of a valuable sum to him in hand 
paid by the said Philip Carteret, the said Bayles hath sold to Philip Car- 
teret, all and every my Lott or Lotts part or parts of a certaine peice of 
land scituate lying and being on the Maine Continent of America common- 
ly called or known by the Name of Arthur Cull or Emboyle, or what 
other Name or Names soever It hath been or now is Called by which said 
Parcell of Land he the said John Bayles with severall others did Lawfully 
purchase from the Natives or Indians as by his said Bill of Sayle from the 
Indians bearing date the 28th day of October 1664 will more at large 
appear which was confirmed by The Eight Hon. Col. Pvichard Nicholl 
Governor of His Koyal Highness Territoryes in America his Grant bear- 
ing date the first day of December, 1664. To have and to hold, &c.* 

"What Baily sold to Gov. Carteret was not one fourth part of 
the patent, but simply his lot, or lots, part or parts, of the land, 
his rights as one of the Associates, — a third lot right ; — sold, 
February 10, 166-^-, by Carteret, to a new comer, William 
Pyles, of Piscataway in New England ; " lying and being 
on the South side of the Creek." So, also, in Nov. 1668, he 
purchases the third lot right of Capt. Kobert Sealey, de- 
ceased, for £15. By these, and several other similar trans- 
actions on record, Carteret becomes a party to the Indian 
purchase; admits that the land is "lawfully purchased from 
the natives ; " and confesses that the Grant by Gov. Nicolls 
conveys a valid title. The settlers, therefore, had every 

* E. J. Book of Surreys A. 1, 2 II. 2, 182. , 



52 THE HISTORY OF 

reason to be satisfied with their titles, confirmed, as they had 
so fully been, by tlie two Governors, Nicolls and Carteret. 

The name of the town had evidently not been determined 
at the date of Baily's deed, or it would have been specified. 
It is, therefore, quite probable, that, in this case, tradition re- 
ports truly, when it afiirms, that the town took its name from 
the Lady Elizabeth, the wife of Sir George Carteret. Of 
this lady, Samuel Pepys, one of her familiar friends, bears 
this testimony, during the following year, Oct. 15, 1C66 : 
" She cries out of the vices of the Court, and how they are 
going to set up plays already. She do much cry out upon 
these things, and that which she believes will undo the whole 
nation." It is well to know something of her, from whom is 
derived the honored name of ELIZABETH-TOWN."^ 

* E. T. Dill, p. 28. Per contra, see Ans. to E. T. Bill, p. 20. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 53 



CHAPTER lY. 

A. D. 1666. 

The " Concessions " — New Immigrants — Loss of Town Book — Extracts from 
it — Oath of Allegiance — By whom taken — Names of the Associate Found- 
ers — Also of Carteret's Servants — Notices of Strickland and the six Peti- 
tioners — Bailey, Daniel and Nathaniel Denton, Benedict, Foster and Watson 
— Also of the Patentees, Baker and Ogden. 

The town has now entered upon its work of subduing the 
wilderness, and planting the institutions of religion and civ- 
ilization. The people are, at least, reconciled to the change 
in their government, believing that their rights will be as 
carefully guarded by Berkeley and Carteret, as they would 
have been by the Duke of York. " The Concessions," with 
which they now, for the first time, become acquainted, were 
well fitted to attract a large immigration from the puritan 
towns of IsTew England, and the neighboring colony of Kew 
York. This instrument accorded the utmost freedom of con- 
science, consistent with the preservation of the public peace 
and order, in matters pertaining to religion ; provided every 
practicable safeguard for political freedom ; and offered the 
most liberal terms to immigrants. It committed the work 
of legislation and taxation to a Legislature, of which the 
popular branch were to be chosen directly by the people; 
and thus early established, in this favored colony, the doc- 
trine, for which, a century later, the colonies so strenuously 
and succcssfull}'' contended, that representation is not to be- 
separated from taxation — that the people must have a voice 
in determining the expenses of government.* 

* Learning and Spicer, pp. 12-26. Smith's History of N. J., pp. 512-21. E. T. Bill, pp. 
12-16. £. J. Records, III. 60-74. 



54 THE HISTORY OF 

Care was taken to give publicity to these Concessions. 
The Associates, with whom Carteret had wisely identified 
himself, found the document, doubtless, of considerable use, 
in overcoming the hesitancy of some of their former friends 
and neighbors to embark in the new enterprise. Some few 
others, who had not, probably, thought previously of re- 
moving, but were somewhat unsettled, were thereby led 
to take up their abode in this new "El Dorado," the 
"Great West" of 16G5. But the settlers of the first two 
or three years were mainly of one class, and of the same 
general origin — almost wholly New Englanders from Long 
Island and Connecticut. Yery few of the planters, for the 
first five years, came over directly from the mother coun- 
try. This will appear from an examination of the names 
of these pioneers, recorded as early as February 166|-, and 
to be found on subsequent pages. 

Very soon after the commencement of their undertaking, 
various meetings for consultation and agreement, in rela- 
tion to the division or allotment of the lands, and other 
regulations for the orderly transaction of the business of 
the town, were held, a record of which was made in a 
book provided for the purpose, by one of their number, 
appointed to this service, and known as the Town Clerk. 
The character of this Town Book, and the nature of the 
record, may be seen by reference to the Town Book of New- 
ark, published in 1864 by the N. Jersey Historical Society. 
This book, so necessary for a proper understanding of the • 
early history of the town, was safely kept, and records con- 
tinued to be made in it, until the year 1718, when, during 
the troubles of that period, the book disappeared, having 
been purloined or dectroyed, or both, and has not since been 
forthcoming. The 'loss is irreparable. Extracts from this 
book have been preserved, the particularity of v\-hich deep- 
ens the regret felt at the loss of so much invaluable material. 
The earliest record, of which we have now any knowledge, 
is the following : 

At a Meeting Court held at Elizabeth Town in the Province of Xevr 
Jersey, tlie 10th of February 166|, by the Freeholders and Inhabitants 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 55 

thereof, James Bollen, Esq., President, by the approbation of the Gov- 
ernor Philip Carteret, Esq. ; it was concluded and agreed, that the afore- 
said town shall consist of fourscore families for the present, and that if 
hereafter more shall present, they may make an addition of twenty more, 
according to their discretion for the good and benefit of the town [as to 
them] shall seem fit. 

A true copy from Elizabeth Town Book of Records, No. A, fol. 14, per 

Samuel Whitehead, Town Clerk.* 

Anotlier record of the same date has, in like manner, been 
rescued from oblivion : 

It is farther ordered and agreed, by the consent as aforesaid, that all 
persons that have taken, or shall take lots, shall come and settle and in- 
habit the same, by the fifteenth day of April next ; otherwise that the said 
lots shall be disposed of to any other persons that will come and settle 
thereon : and that every person that shall take up a home-lot, shall be 
obliged to continue upon the same, or in the town, for the space of three 
years, either by himself in person, or by his servants, or some other per- 
son that he shall bring into the town, that shall be approved of; and not 
to imploy any for that purpose, that are already belonging to the town ; 
and that he shall not make any sale of the said lot, for any time during 
the space of three years to come ; but first shall make proffer to the in- 
habitants thereof, October 28th, 1667 ; and it's further ordered That who- 
soever shall break this order, shall pay four pounds a month, and propor- 
tionably during the time of their so Entertainraent.t 

A similar regulation was adopted by the Newark people, 
in the year following,:}: Some division of the town plot into 
lots convenient for the settlers must have been made on their 
first coming. At this same meeting, or possibly at an earlier 
date, 

It was agreed. That small parcels of land should be laid out to every 
inhabitant who came, in part of what he was intitled to. To wit. To 
every inhabitant in the Town Plat of Elizabeth Town, a home lot con- 
taining about four acres, and a pittle or addition to it containing about 
two acres.§ 

Every settler, whatever proportion he may have con- 
tributed to the general expense, was put upon the same foot- 
ing as regarded his homestead, the only difference being in 

* E. Town Bill, p. 32. Ans. todo., p. 23. t Newark Town Kecords, p. 6. 

t E. Town Bill, p. 32. Ans. to E. T. B., § E. Town Bill, p. 83. 

p. 24. 



56 THE HISTORY OF 

tliG choice of a location ; and tins, probably, M'as determined, 
as at Xewark, by lot. 

They agreed amongst themselves to go over and fix the LoLts, which 
was before by the whole Committee agreed upon to be Six acres ; and 
after the Lotts prepared, and how they shonkl begin and Succeed, the 
matter was solemnly submitted to the Lord for his Guidance.* 

The lots were laid out on both sides of the Creek, begin- 
ning with the first npland above the salt meadows, and ex- 
tending np the Creek some two miles. The ordinary dimen- 
sions of these lots were 4 chains in breadth, and 10 chains in 
length ; making a front, on the street, of 2G4 feet, and ex- 
tending back 660 feet. In some cases, owing to the irregular 
course of the River and highways, the shape of the lots, which 
was ordinarily a parallelogram, varied from the regular form 
and size ; but, as well as might be, equal privileges were se- 
cured. Owing to the indefiniteness of the surveys as recorded, 
and for w\ant of every thing like a map or diagram of the 
town platt, it is quite impossible to determine the locality of 
each settler. 

At the town meeting just mentioned, the male inhabitants 
of the town were required to take the oath of allegiance, of 
which and the names subscribed, a record has been pre- 
served as follows : 

The Oath of A Leagance and Fidelity taken by the Inl:abitants of Ehza- 
beth Town and the Jurisdiction thereof beginning the 19th February 
16G5. 

You doe sware upon the Iloly Evangelist contained in this book to bare 
true faitli and Alegiance to our Soveraing Lord King Charles the Second 
and his Successors and to be true and faithfull to the Lords propryetors 
their Successors and the Government of tliis Province of New Jarsey as 
long as you shall Continue an lohabitant imder the same without any 
Equivocation or Mentall Reservation whatsoever and so help you God. 

Mr John Ogden sen' -Thomas Leonards Joakim Andris 

Capt Thomas Young Jonas Wood John "Waynes "Waynes 

Michaell Simpkiu Jacob Clais Jacob Moullains 

Abraliam Shotwell Eodriok Powell "William Johnson 

Thomas Skillman Luke "Watson John Gray 

John "V^'oodrofe Stephen Crane Nicolas Carter 

• Newark Town Kccords. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 



57 



Thomas Pope 
William Cramer 
Barnabas Wines 
Tiiomas Tomson 
Nathaniel Tuttle 
Eobert Mosse 
Peter Mosse 
William Trotter 
Euan Salsbury 
George Packe 
Thomas More 
Samuel Marsh 
Moses Peterson 
-Tohn Ilaynes 
Caleb Carwithy 
William Oliuer 



Humphry Spinage 
Joseph phrasie 
Zackery Graues 
Peter Wooluerson 
Charles Tucker 
Benjamin Homan 
Jeffry Joanes 
Christopher Young 
Jerremy Osbourne 
John Dickenson 
Dennis denis White 
John Ogden Juu'' 
Dauid Ogdden 
Robert Vauquellin 
Benjamin Price 
Ben. Concklin 



Eobert Bond 
Joseph Bond 
Moses Tomson 
Joseph Osburne 
John Brackett sen^ 
William Meacker 
Isaack Whitehead 
Nathaniel Bunnell 
Mathias Ileathfield 
Jonathan Ogden 
Leonard Headley 
John Parker 
Daniel Harris 
Richard Paynter 
Francis Barber * 



The whole number is sixty-five. Capt. John Baker's name 
is wanting, on account of his absence in the service of Gov. 
Nicolls, at Alban3\ Some names are found in this list, not 
included in the list of Associates. Thej were the names, 
probably, of temporary residents, employed as laborers or 
helpers. Baily and Denton had sold out ; the former to 
Carteret, and the latter to Ogden. 

The most reliable statement of the names of the original 
Associates is found in Elizabeth Town Book, B, some fifty 
years after the settlement of the town, and is thus expressed : 

Richard Nicolls, by virtue of the Power and Authority vested in him 

by James (then) Duke of York &o Did thereby Grant Bargain 

Sell and Confirm unto Cap' John Baker (then) of New York, John Ogden 

(then) of North-Hampton, and John Baily and Luke Watson, and 

their Associates the Premises afores'' — In ffee-simple, which same Associates 
(together with them the s"" Baker, Ogden, Baily, and Watson (equally 
seised each to a Tliird Lot-Right in the, pmisses) were, the said John 
Baker, John Ogden, Jn" Baily, and Luke Watson, and with them Thomas 
Young, Benjamin Price, John Woodruff, Philip Carteret, Two Third 
lotts, Robert Bond, Sealy Champain (Transfer'd to Benjamin Parkhurst,) 
William Meeker, Thomas Thompson, Samuel Marsh, Town Lott for the 
Minister, Will"* Piles, Peter Couenhoven, Jolm Brocket (Transfer'd to 
Sam" Hopkins) James Bollen, Jacob Melyen, Nicholas Carter, and 
Jeremiah Peck, •^rad, To each a Second Lot-Right in the same 
Premisses, Isaac Whitehead, Joseph Meeker, Humphry Spinning, Jeoflry 

* E. J. Records, III. other end, 7. 



58 THE HISTORY OF 

Jones, George Ross, Joseph Bond, Matthias Iletfieltl, Barnabas "Winds, 
Robert White, Peter Moras, John Winans, Joseph Sayre, Richard Beach, 
Moses Thompson, John Gray, William Johnson, John Brocket Ju', Simon 
Rouse, William Trotter, John Ogden Jun', Jonas Wood, Robert Morss, 

W Lcprary, Caleb Oarwithe, William Pardon, and Stephen Osborne. 

t/lnd to each a first lot Right in the same Premises, Jonathan Ogdeu, 
Abraham Shotwell, David Ogden, "NTathanael Tuttell, Benjamin Price Ju', 
Roger Lambert, Abraham Lawrence, John Hindes, Thomas Moor, Joseph 
ffrazey, Yokam Andross, Denis White, Nathanael Norton, (since Trans- 
fer'd to Henry Norris,) Great John Willson, Hur Thompson, Benjamin 
Oman, Evan Salsburry, Little John Willson, Stephen Crane, Ilenry Lyon, 
John Parker, John Ogden for John Dickinson, Leonard Headley, 
aSTathanael Bonnel, George Morris, Joseph Osborn, Pardey, (Transfer'd to 
Henry ISTorris,) George Pack, John Pope, ffrancis Barber, William Oliver, 
Richard Painter, and Charles Tooker.* 

The number is eighty ; of whom twenty one had third lot- 
rights, twenty six had second lot-rights, and thirty three had 
first lot-rights. Carteret had, in addition to his own third 
lot-right, tlie third lot-right of Baily, of whom he had pur- 
chased it. Twenty six had been admitted subsequently to 
the taking of the oath of allegiance in February, 166|- : of 
whom some were sons of the first settlers. 

Carteret brought over with him, in the ship Philip, eighteen 
male servants, belonging to Sir George and himself, a portion 
of whom were Frenchmen, probably from the Island of 
Jersey : — • 

John Dejardin Wm Hill Claude Barhour 

Doct' Rowland Henry Hill Chas Seggin 

Claude Vallot Erasmus House Dan Perrin 

Ricli'' Pewtingor John Tayler John Mittins 

Richard Michel! John Clarck Robert Wallis 

Richard Skinner Wm John alias Peter 

besides severall others the same time imported, and many others siuce.f 

In the first importation must have been included some 
female servants, — Mariah Thorcll, Susannah Poulain, and 
Ellen Prou (all French) being of the number. Of the male 
servants, two were subscquentl}'' admitted as Associates : 
Claude Yallot and William Hill. Eichard Michell had land 
given him by the Governor, but was not admitted as an 

* E. Town Book, B, pp. 2-3. t E. J. Records, III. o. e. 30. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 69 

Associate. Carteret's immigrants were a distinct class, in an 
inferior station, with whom the original planters had hut little 
congeniality and familiarity. 

Whence came these Associates, and what were they ? It 
is not to be supposed, that men of such plain habits, and of 
such humble stations, so unpretending, and so unknown to 
fame, should have left, on the historic page, any thing like 
full and distinct memorials of their origin and migrations. 
Their records have mostly perished. Of many of them almost 
nothing of their previous history can be learned. Of none of 
them can any thing very remarkable be related. 

" Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife, 
Their sober wishes never learned to stray ; 

Along the cool sequestered vale of life 
They kept the noiseless tenor of their way." 

It is proper to inquire, first, into the antecedents of the men 
who were prominent in procuring, from Gov. Nicolls and the 
Indians, ■oermission to found the settlement. 

John Steickland's name occupies the first place among 
those who sought here a home. He was, as already seen, a 
resident of Huntington, L. I. His application was in behalf 
of " a Company of the inglish nasion." He was simply 
their agent. The names of the " Company " have not been 
preserved. Strickland was an Englishman. He came over, 
in 1630, with Winthrop's company, and was admitted a 
freeman, in the Bay Colon}^, May, 1631. He was a member 
of the church of Watertown, Mass., from which he, Jonas 
Wood, and others, were dismissed. May 20, 1635, to form a 
new church on the borders of the Connecticut river. Soon 
after he removed to Wethersfield, Ct. His son, Thwait, 
settled there ; but the father, after a short sojourn, removed 
to Uncowah [Fairfield], Ct. Subsequently he took part in a 
bloody fight, at Greenwich, between the Dutch and Indians 
at a spot, since known as " Strickland's Plain." In 1614, he 
sold his estate at Uncowah to William Frost, and united with 
the Rev. Robert Fordham, John Ogden, John Karman, John 
Lawrence, and Jonas Wood, in settling on " the Great Plains 



60 THE niSTORY OF 

on Long Island," to which they gave the name of Ilcemstede. 
In the patent, obtained, Kov. 16, IGU, he is called, "Stick- 
Ian." In 1661, it appears, that he resided at Huntington, 
whence he souglit to remove to this place. He was induced, 
however, to settle at Jamaica, L. I., and, in 1663, was one of 
the freeholders of that town. Yet he was a patentee of 
Huntington, in 1666, and still later a resident of Hempstead. 
The names of at least four of his associates at Fairfield and 
Hempstead are found among the E. Town Associates. It is 
quite likely that they were interested in the petition of 1661. 
The petitioners of 1664 were all of them his neighbors at 
Jamaica, as some of them had been at Watertown, Wethers- 
field, Fairfield, and Hempstead.'^ 

John Bailies [Baylie, Baily], the first signer of the peti- 
tion of 1664, was, probably, the same who resided at Guil- 
ford, Ct., in 1612. A John Baily was admitted a freeman 
of Ct., May 21, 1657, and was chosen constable at Hartford 
]\Iarcli 16, 166|. This may have been his son. Previous to 
1662, he had removed to Jamaica, L. I., where he was forai- 
liarly called " Goodman Baylie," and was licensed to keep an 
Ordinary for the town. He was one of tlie four patentees of 
this town, but, probably, did not become a resident, as he dis- 
posed of his interest here, Sep. 8, 1665, to Gov. Carteret, 
for " a valuable sum." He was still living at Jamaica, in 
i683.t 

Daniel Denton, the next in order of the petitioners of 
1664, and his brother IJ^atuaniel, the fourth in order, were 
sons of the Eev. Richard Denton, " a Yorkshire man," first 
settled at Halifax in England, who came to Watertown, Mass., 
in 1634, then to Wetherstield, Ct., in 1635, whence he re- 
moved to Stamford, in 1641, and thence to Hempstead, L. I,, 
in 1644, having been the first minister of each of the last 
three towns. He returned to England, in 1658, and died, in 
1662, at Essex. His two sons, Daniel and Nathaniel-, were 
among the first patentees of Jamaica, L. I., in 1656. Daniel 

* Trumliuirs Connecticut, 1. 163, 4. Brodhead's N. York, 1. 391, note. Ct. Col. Eecords, 
I. 2, 4G5-6. Thompson's L. Isld., II. i-5. ■ Macdonald's Jamaica, p. SS. 

t lb. p. 33. Ct. Col. Eccords, I. 297, 32G. Thompson's L. I., I. 4CS. N. Y. Doe. Ilistorj-, II. 521 . 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 61 

was the first Clerk of the town, taught school, practised medi- 
cine, and served as Justice of the Peace. He wrote "A Briet 
Description of New York," which was published at London, 
in 1670, ar^^d was the first printed work on the subject in the 
Englisli language. In 1673, he was a resident of Piscataway, 
and a magistrate. Nathaniel continued at Jamaica, and was 
living in 16S3. The two brothers sold their rights in the E. 
Town purchase, in 1665, to Capt. John Baker and John Og- 
den. Another brother, Samuel, as appears from the depo- 
sitions on a previous page, was also interested in the pur- 
chase."'^ 

Thomas Benedict [Benydick], the third of the petitioners 
of 1664, was a native of Nottingham, Eng., where he was 
born, in the year 1617. lie was bred a weaver, and mi- 
grated to New England, in 1638, witli his step-sister, Mary 
Bridgum, whom, shortly after, he married. She was the 
mother of the numerous Amei'ican family of Benedicts. Not 
long afterwards, they removed to Southold, L. I., where their 
five sons and four daughters were born. In June, 1656, they 
were residents of Huntington, L. I., and were neighbors of 
the Stricklands. In 1662, " Goodman Benedick " was one 
of the leading men of Jamaica. With Daniel Denton, his 
townsman, he represented Jamaica in the Hempstead Con- 
vention, March 1, 166f . The same year, instead of carrying 
out his original design of removing with his neighbors to 
Achter Kol, he became a resident of Norwalk, Ct., wliich 
henceforth became the home of the family.f 

JoHN FosTEK, the fifth of the petitioners of 1664, was a 
resident of Jamaica. His father, Thomas, was of the Hemp- 
stead company, whither he came from Fairfield, Ct., as early 
as 1644. The family were dwelling at Jamaica in 1663. 
Foster was still a citizen of Jamaica in 1688. His interest 
in the new purchase was disposed of to another, but to 
whom, and for what cause, docs not appear.:}: 

* Jilacdonald's Jamaica, p. 4G. N. T. Col. Docmts., II. 587. Chapiu's Glaslciibun-, p. 31. 
Mallicr's Magualia, B. III. c. 9. vol. I. SCO. N. Y. Doc. His. II. 521. 

t IlaU's Norwalk, pp. 309-11. 

t Macdonald's Jamaica, pp. 33, 38, 41, 42, 212. Ct. Col. Records, I. 465. E. J. Records, 
11. IT, 95, and 10, o.e. 



62 THE HISTORY OF 

Luke Watson, the last-named of the petitioners of 1664, 
was the only one of them all that retained an interest in the 
Jersey enterprise, and became one of the founders of this 
town. His father married Elizabeth, the daughter of Wil- 
liam Frost, of Fairfield, Ct., and had died before 1645, His 
widow was then married to John Gray, and with her hus- 
band, and son, Luke Watson, removed first to Newtown, and 
then to Jamaica, L. I., whence they came hither. Watson 
was a man of some consideration at Jamaica, being one of 
the " four men " chosen, August 6, 1659, " to be presented for 
magistrates to y'' Governor." He was among the first emi- 
grants to this place. ' He was located next north of Capt. 
Baker. He had an allotment of 170 acres of upland on the 
W. side of Rahway river, and N. of its W. branch; also, 130 
acres of npland on the E. N. E. of Italiway river, and W. 
of William Johnson and Jeifry Jones ; also, 100 acres on the 
S. side of the Creek ; also, 24 acres of meadow on Rahway 
river, and 6 acres elsewhere. His wife's name was Sarah. 
He sold, July 22, 1673, to " William Case of Road Island," 
for " 2000 Pounds of good and Merclian table Sheep Wool," 
all his " Neck of Upland and Meadow laying and being on 
the East End of Elizabeth Towue River and known by the 
Name of Luke Watson's point within the bounds of Elizabeth 
Towne," computed to be 100 acres. He obtained, Jan. 21, 
1675, a warrant for the survey of 400 acres. The next year, 
he removed to the Hoar-kill settlement [Lewes] in Delaware, 
renting his house and lot to Benjamin Wade, to whom he sold 
them, March 16, 167|, for £24. The remainder of his in- 
terest here, he sold, in 167S, to William Broadwell and Joseph 
Frazey. He was an active and useful citizen while here, and 
in 1683, 1687, 1689, and 1690, he was a member of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of Pennsylvania, of which his son Luke, Jr., 
was a member in 1697.'" 

Such were the original petitioners — all of them originally 
from New England, and in full sympathy with the prevailing 
sentiments of that region. Two of them only — Bailey and 

♦ ct. Col. Kecordfl, I. 405. Macdonald's Jamaica, pp. 32, 37. 46. Proud's Pa., I. 236, 835, 
S40 852, 417. 



ELIZABETH, NEW J^ERSEY. 63 

"Watson — became Patentees ; and, of these, only one a set- 
tler, and he but for ten or eleven years. The other Patentees 
were Capt, John Baker and John Ogden. 

Captain Johh Bakek heads the list. He had been, for 
some time, a resident of l^ew Amsterdam, though an English- 
man by birth, and had acquired a familiarity with the Dutch 
language, that made him, on several occasions, useful as an 
interpreter in dealing with the Indians. It is probable, as 
previously intimated, that he was thus employed, by Denton 
and his Associates, in the Staten Island negotiations for this 
town, and so became interested in the enterprise. The earli- 
est definite information of him is found in the Records 
[Dutch] of a Court, held at the City Hall, N. Orange [IS". 
York], Nov. 14, 1673, in an action against Captain John 
Backer : — 

Jan Smedes and Jan Myndersen, Carters declare that about nine years 
ago shortly after the surrender of this place [1664], they rode 300 p's of 
firewood out of the bush for Olaes Dietlofsen, and afterwards bronght the 
same firewood to Capt. Backer's house within this city, and the bill for 
carting has not yet been paid them by said Backer as they are prepared 
to declare on oath. ,Capt. Backer resided in Broadway in the house now 
occupied by Wiilem Van der Scheure [Schuyren]. 

As Capt. Baker belonged, in 1673, to another jurisdiction, 
Claes, probably, gained nothing by the suit. The house that 
he occupied in Broadway, was on the East side, a short dis- 
tance below Wall st. After the conquest of the city. Gov. 
Nicolls appointed him, Sep. 25, 1665, Chief Military Ofiicer 
at Albany. On this account, his name is not included among 
those who took the oath of allegiance here in February fol- 
lowing. In August, 1669, he was subjected to a court mar- 
tial, at Fort James, IST. York, for an assault on William 
Paterson, a merchant of Albany, and judgment was rendered 
against him, Oct. 6, 1669. He continued in command at 
Albany, until May 14, 1670, from which time he became per- 
manently a resident of this town. His house-lot was of the 
ordinary size, bounded S., E., and W., by highways, and 
]^., by Luke Watson. Afterwards, it came into the posses- 
sion of Matthias Hatfield, Esq., the grandson of the planter 



64 THE HISTORY OF 

of that name. He obtained, Mar. 14, 1675, a warrant for 
the survey, of 12C0 acres, for " himself and his Wife, and 
eight other Persons " of his family. He was appointed Coro- 
ner, March 28, 1683, and Judge of Small Causes. He was a 
leading man in the community, and ever among the foremost 
in resisting the Proprietary assumptions, of which such fre- 
quent mention is made in the subsequent part of this history. 
He died in 1702.* 

John Ooden, the other Patentee who became a permanent 
resident, was one of the most influential founders of the town. 
He w\as at Stamford, Ct., in 1641, within a year after its set- 
tlement. He had previously married Jane, who, as tradition 
reports, was a sister of Robert Bond. In May, 1642, he 
and his brother, Pichard, both of them, at the time, of Stam- 
ford, entered into a contract with Gov. Wm. Kieft, Gisbert 
op Dyck, and Thomas "Willet, of 'New Amsterdam, Church- 
wardens, to build a stone church in the fort, 72 by 50 leet, 
for the sum of 2500 guilders ($1000), to bo paid in beaver, 
cash, or merchandise; one hundred guilders to be add d if 
the work ])rovcd satisfactory ; and the use of the company's 
boat to be given the builders, for carrying stone, a month, or 
six weeks if necessary. The work was duly and satisfacto- 
rily completed. f 

It was, probably, in this way that the two brothers became 
acquainted with the West end of Long Island. Early in 1614, 
in company with the Pev. Pobert Fordham, Pev. Pichard 
Denton and a few others, they removed from Stamford and 
settled Hempstead, L. I., of which John Ogden was one of 
the Patentees. At the expiration of live or six years, not 
liking the control of the Dutch, v/ith whom he had consid- 
erable dealings at ISTew Amsterdam, and disgusted with the 
cruelties practised upon the natives, of whom scores, soon 
after his settlement at Hempstead, had there, by order of the 
government, been put to death, he removed to the East end 

*Munseirs Albany, VII. 9S, 101, 257, 9, 263. Alb. Kocords. XXII. 7S-04. N. Y. Col. 
Docmts., III. 117, 9,143,8. E. J. Kecords, I. 76; II. IS ; B. 280; C. 13,19; L. 3 ; O. SS. 
E. T. Book, B. 163. E. T. Bill, p. 110. 

t Ilinman's First Purit.in Settlers of Ct., I. 232. Alb. Col. Eccords, II. IS, 1C9 ; IV. 240. 
O'Callagb.in's New Nctherland, I. 162. Thoniiison's L. Isld., II. 4, !>. The uame appears, at 
times, as "Odgden," •' Ocbden." 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 65 

of the Island, to dwell among his own countrymen. In 1647, 
he had obtained permission, of the town of Soutliampton, to 
plant a colony of six families, at " North Sea," a tract of land 
bordering on the Great Peconic Bay, opposite Eobbin Island, 
and about three miles north of the village of Southampton.^ 
Some two or three years elapsed before his removal, and the 
planting of the settlement at the North Sea, called, in the 
Colonial Records of Connecticut and New Haven, as well 
as in Nicolls' Grant, '• Northampton." 

He was made a freeman of Southampton, March 31, 1650, 
and was chosen by the General Court, at Hartford, Ct., May 
16, 1656, and again in 1657 and 1658, one of the magistrates 
for the colony. He sat in the General Court, as a Represent- 
ative from Southampton, ill May, 1659; and in the upper 
house. May, 1661, and afterwards. His name appears re- 
peatedly in the new Charter of Connecticut (obtained, Ap. 
23, 1662, by Gov. Winthrop, from Charles II.), as one of the 
magistrates and patentees of the colony ; also, quite fre- 
quently, in the Records, both of Connecticut and New Ha- 
ven. He was held in high honor at home, being one of their 
first men. 

During his residence at Northampton, Ogden, by frequent 
visits as a trader to New Amsterdam, had kept up his ac- 
quaintance with his old friends and neighbors on the West 
End of the Island. When, therefore, after the conquest, it 
was proposed to him to commence a fourtli settlement, in the 
new and inviting region of Achter Ivol, under English rule, 
he readily entered into the measure, and, in company with 
his old friend, Capt. Baker, purchased the interests of the 
Dentons and Goodman Benedict, and thus became, being a 
man of substance and distinction, the leading man of the new 
colony. He was among the very first, with his five full- 
grown boys, John, Jonathan, David, Joseph and Benjamin, 
to remove to the new purchase and erect a dwelling on the 
town-plot. He located his house, it is thought, on the Point 
road, now Elizabeth Avenue, near where Robert Ogden, his 
great-grandson, and Col. Barber, afterwards lived. The 
bounds of his home-lot are not recorded. 
5 



QQ THE HISTORY OF 

He was appointed, Oct. 26, 1665, a Justice of the Peace, 
and, Nov. 1, one of the Governor's Council. In the Legisha- 
ture of 1G68, he was one of the Burgesses, from this town. 
To carry forward his improvements, or to meet previous ob- 
ligations, he borrowed, Oct. 9, 1668, of Cornelius Steeiiwick 
(the Mayor of the City of JSTew York, a wealthy merchant), 
£191. 5. 0, " one fourth part thereof to be paid in good Wheat 
at 416 p"" BushcU one fourth part in good drie Ox hides at 6 
stivers p"" pound dutch weight One fourth part in good mer- 
chantable Tobacco at 4 stivers p' pound like weight and one 
fourth part in Good Corn fed fat Pork well packt in casks and 
delivered at New Yorke at Tiiree Pounds ten Shillings p' 
Barrell." As security, he mortgaged, Ap. 29, 1669, "a Cer- 
tain Water Mill now in my Tenure or Occuj)ation," as the 
mortgage expresses it, " near unto the Mansion or Dwelling 
House of Gov. Ciirterett in Elizabeth Towne." 

This mill was located immediately west of the Broad-st. 
Stone bridge, and, with the dam across the Creek just above, 
was, doubtless, constructed by Mr. Ogden ; whence the Creek 
was frequently called, " Mill Creek," or " ^[ill Kiver." The 
Governor's house was located east of the bridge, and north of 
the Creek, on the ground, latterly occupied by the Thomas 
house. 

Three of his sons, John, Jonathan, and David, took the 
oath of allegiance, Feb. 166f, and were numbered among the 
original Associates. The house-lot of John, Jr., contained 
four acres, and was 12 by 4 chains in length and breadth ; 
bounded, S, E., by John AVoodrufF, and Leonard Headlej^; 
]Sr. E., by a highway ; N. W., by Mrs. Hopkins, Sen' ; and, 
S. W., by the Creek ; a highway between him and Mrs. Hop- 
kins. He had, also, twelve acres of '' upland Lying upon the 
way that goes to the Governor's j^oint; " also, sixty acres of 
" upland Lying in the plaines " between Henry Norris and 
Leonard Headley ; also, nine acres of " meadow Lying at the 
East end of y^ great Island." Jonathan had a houscJot of 
six acres, 15 b}"^ 4 chains ; bounded, S. E,, by his younger 
brother, Joseph; and, on the other sides, by highways. He 
had twenty two acres of upland in a triangle, bounded by the 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 67 

Governor and Benjamin Parkis ; also eiglity four acres of up- 
land " Lying in a plaine," bounded by Benjamin Parkis, 
Leonard Headley, Isaac Whitehead, Jr., and the Mill brook ; 
also, fourteen acres of meadow in two plots, on the Creek, 
and on the Great IsLand. David's house-lot contained five 
acres, and was bounded, E., by the Mill Creek ; N., by Jef- 
fry Jones ; and, "W". and S., by highways. He had, in addi- 
tion, sixty acres of upland, bounded by Joseph Frazee, Wil- 
liam Letts, Samuel Marsh, Jr., and Capt. Baker ; also eight 
acres of meadow on Thompson's Creek.* 

* Alb. Records, II. 169 ; IV. 240. Hoadly's New Haven^Eecords, 1. 178 ; II. 69, 191, 8,293, 
393. Trumbull's Ct. Records, I. 280, 1,2, 295, T, 314, 6; 113-11. Doc. Hist, of N. T., I. 684. 
E. T. Bill, pp. 80, 106,8, 110. E. J. Eecords, I. 8; o. e. 2; II. 19,22, o. e., 21,4, 5, 86, 42,91, 2, 
7; III. 3, 4; L. 18. 21. Uinman, I. 2S9, 729. Howell's Southampton, pp. 26, 7, 90. 



68 THE HISTORY OF 



CHAPTER V. 

A. D., 1666. 

The eighty Associates, their Origin, their Location — Of Puritan Principles 
— No Congeniahty with Carteret and his Company. 

Such, as just narrated, were the original Petitioners and 
Patentees. Wlio were tlie other Founders of the town ? 
What was their origin — what were tlieir principles, and 
where did they locate ? In answering these inquiries, those, 
who took the oath of allegiance, including all who were on 
the ground during the first year of the settlement, will be 
considered, in alphabetical order. 

JoAKiM Andkis [Yokam Andross, Andrews] was, proba- 
bly, from New Haven, Ct., and a son of Wm. Andrews, 
who came, to Kew Haven, previous to 1643, with a family 
of eight persons. His house-lot contained 4 acres, and was 
bounded, IST. and E., b}^ a highway ; S., by Matthias Hat- 
field ; and, AV., by Dennis TTliite. He had died, in 1675, 
and his widow. Amy, sold, June 22, 1675, to Thomas Moore, 
" the house Orchard Garden Home Lott Pasture for Calves," 
and all that might be claimed by the Concessions — a first 
lot-right — except 20 acres sold by her husband to Peter 
Moss, " and one pcare tree and some Gousbcrry bushes," 
reserved for lier own use.* 

Francis Barber has left no memorial of his origin. He 
sold. Mar. 20, 1677]-, to Vincent Konyon, carpenter, a house- 
lot (bought of Wm. Pyles, who had bought it of Thomas 
Moore), 40 rods by 16 ; bounded, N., by George Pack ; and 
fronting on the highway. He was still here in the following 

* Barber's Hie. Coll. of Ct., p. ICO. E. J. Records, I. 46, 7. E. T. Bill, p. lOS. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 69 

year, but must have removed, soon after, to Staten Island, 
where, on the W. side of the IsLand, on Smokhig Point, Dec. 
21, 1680, 88 acres of woodland and meadow were surveyed 
for him ; and where, in 1686, he served as Commissioner of 
Excise. The Barber family, of a later date, had another 
origin and a more illustrious record.* 

HoBERT Bla-Ckwell was one of the early settlers of this 
town, though his name is not found in any town docu- 
ment now extant. In a deed, on record in Kew York, 
Robert Blackwell is spoken of as "late of Elizabeth-town 
in N'ew Jersey, merchant." He married, Ap. 26, 1676, 
Mary Manningham, stepdaughter of Capt. John Maiming 
(by whom the city was surrendered, in 1673, to the Dutch) ; 
and so became the owner of Manning's Island, since known 
by his own name.f 

Robert Bond was the father of Joseph, and a resident of 
Southampton, L. I., as early as 1643. He was appointed, 
Oct., 1644, by the General Court of Connecticut, in company 
with Mr. Moore, " to demand of each family of Southamp- 
ton, the amount they would give for the maintenance of 
scholars at Cambridge College." He was one of the com- 
pany that settled East Hampton, in 1648. He came, origi- 
nally, from Lynn, Mass., and was, doubtless, of the same 
stock with the Watertown family. He had a principal part 
in securing the land of East Hampton from the natives, and 
in transacting the business of the town. He was one 'of the 
first magistrates of the place, and repeatedly represented the 
town in the General Court of the Colony. John Ogden and 
Capt. John Scott having had some difierences with the town 
about Meantaquit [Montauk] in 1662, Robert Bond was 
chosen one of the Commissioners to settle it. His intimacy 
with Ogden [tradition says that each married the other's sis- 
ter], and others of his neighbors, who were about to remove 
to these parts, led him to cast in his lot with them, and lend 
his valuable counsels to the settlement of this town, where 
his influence was second only to John Ogden's. Carteret, at 

♦ E. J. Records, J. 24. N. T. Col. Docmt5., III. 409, 494 Albany Land Papers, I. 190 
t N. York Deeds, 1. 130. Alb. Records, XXXIII. 309. N. York Marriages, p. 31. 



70 THE HISTORY OF 

his coming, ^vas glad to avail himself of his mature experi- 
ence, and appointed him, Jan. 2, 106J, one of his Comicil, 
and an Assistant to tlie Justices. Gov. Winthrop, of Con- 
necticut, highly commended him. lie was appointed, Mar. 
13, 167^, Justice of the Eeace. His first wife was Hannah, 
a sister of John Ogden. After her death he married, at 
Newark, in 1672, Mary, the widow of Hugh Eoberts. She 
was the daughter of Hugh Calkins, an emigrant from AYales, 
in 1640, and a resident, first of Gloucester, Mass., and then 
of New London, Ct. He thus became interested in the 
Newark colony, and was elected, the same year, their Repre- 
sentative. He continued still to reside in this town, where 
he died, April, 1677. His wife survived him 24 years. 
Stephen Bond, of Newark, was one of his sons. The fiither 
received a Warrant for 360 acres of land at E. Town, June 
30, 1675, but a caveat was entered against it, Jan. 16, 1677, 
by Benjamin Price, Sen'. Joseph, at the same date, received 
a "Warrant for 160 acres.* 

John Brackett, Sen"", was from New Haven, Ct., of which 
he was one of the first settlers. He assented to tlie Cove- 
nant there, June 4, 1639, and, as late as 1643, was unmarried. 
At the seating of the congregation, in 1646, places were 
provided for him and " Sister Brockett," showing that, pre- 
vious to this time, he had taken to himself a wife. He was 
frequently employed in laying out lands about the town, 
and his name is of frequent occurrence in the Colonial Rec- 
ords, until 1660. When troops were raised to resist the 
encroaching Dutch, he was appointed, June 23, 1654, one of 
the " surgions." He was probably induced to accompany 
his neighbors to this colony, in order to aid them in laying 
out their lands. Near the close of 1667, several of the plant- 
ers having urged the Governor to define the exact bounds of 

♦ ct. Col. Records, I. SOS, 400, 428. Howcn's Soufbampton, pp. 28, ISO. N. Y. Doct. 
Ilis., I. 67T, 6S0, 4. Ilinuian's V. S. of Ct.i I. 2S9, 290, 729. Newark Bicentenary, pp. Ill, 181. 
Newark Town Records, pp. 10, 23, 49,85. Mi.s8 Calkins' Norwicb, p. 171. Stearns' Newark, 
p. 79. 3 Mass. Uis. Soc. Coll., X. 84. E. T. Bill, p. 104 E. J. Records, II. 8, III. 25, 131,133. 

In the Inventory of his estate, Ap. IS, 1677, his house and all his land were valued at 
£70; two oxen, £12. 10. 0; two cows, and calves, £9 ; ono " farrow cow," £3. 15. ; two two- 
year old heifers, £5 ; a canon, £1. 5. 0. The whole amounted to £101. 11. 5. 



^ ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 71 

theii- several possessions, he deputed Bracket!, Dec. 19, 1G67, 
in the absence of Vauquellin, the Surveyor-General, " to lay 
out, survey, and bound the said bounds of Elizabeth Towne 
the planting feilds towne lotts and to lay out every particu- 
lars man's proportion accordini^ to his allotments and the 
directions" of the Grovernor ; "for the avoidin<^ of all con- 
troversies and disputes hereafter concerning the same, hav- 
ing had certain notice of the good experience, knowledge, 
skill and faithfulness of John Brackett in the surveying and 
laying out of land," In the controversies of a later day, it 
was affirmed by the town's party, that they had " not seen, 
known, or heard of any one Survey made in pursuance of that 
commission." The surveys were probably made, but were 
superseded by later and more accurate surveys, and hence 
were not preserved. Brackett sold out his rights, as early as 
1670, to Samuel Hopkins, and returned to Now Haven, both 
he and his son, who, also, had been admitted as an Associate, 
John, Jr., died at ]^ew Haven, Nov. 29, 1676. " Brackett's 
Brook," a branch of the E. Town Creek, in the north part of 
the town, indicates, probably, the locality of their allotment.* 

■ Nathaniel Bunnell [Bonnel] was, undoubtedly, also, from 
New Haven, Ct., and of the same family with William and 
Benjamin, of that town. "William was there previous to 1650. 
Nathaniel had a house-lot of six acres, 15 by 4 chains, 
bounded, E,, by Thomas Price; W., and N., by Isaac White- 
head, Sen'' ; and S., by a highway. He had, also, an allot- 
ment of 120 acres, "• Lying upon the South Branch of Eliz'*^ 
Town Creek, and y" plaine which said above mentioned Creek 
passeth through ; " also, " 12 acres of meadow Lying in the 
great meadows u[)on John WoodrufFe's Creek."f 

N1COLA.S Carter came from Newtown, -L. I, Ilis name 
appears, Ap. 12, 1656, among the purchasers of that place 
from the natives. His allotment' there was 20 acres. He 
came there, in 1652, from Stamford, Ct. He is repeatedly 
spoken of, in the Newtown Records, among the leading men 

♦ N. Haven Col. Records, Index of Vol. I. E. J. Kccords, III. 12. E. T. Book, B., 20, 7. 
Ans. to E. T. Bill, p. 23. Ilinman, I. 240. 

t Savage's Gcneal. Die, I. 800. E. 3. Uecords, II. 130. E. T. Bill, p. 103. 



Y2 THEHISTORYOF * 

of the town, iintil 1665, the date of his removal to tliis place. 
His son, Nicholas, born, 165S, was apprenticed. Mar. 25, 
1669, to " Richard Painter, Tayler," of Elizabeth Town. 
The Indenture says, — " UnlawfuU Sports and Games he shall 
not use. Taverns or Tipling houses hee shall not haunt or 
frequent, his Masters Goods he shall not Imbezle purloin or 
by any unlawfull means diminish or Impair, his Masters 
Secrets he shall not disclose." His house-lot contained five 
acres, 10 by 5 chains, bounded, E., and S.,by highways; N., 
by the Creek ; and S., by William Hill. He had, also, twenty 
acres of upland on Luke Watson's Point, adjacent to Edward 
Case and Jacob Melyen ; also forty acres of upland " in a 
swamp lying at the E. side of the blind Ridge," bounded 
partly by Aaron Thompson and Jacob Melyen. This tract 
and his house-lot he sold, Mar. 16, 167f, to Benjamin Wade, 
for £30, payable in Pipe staves. He had, also, seventy acres 
of upland, bounded by Roger Lambert, George Pack, and 
the swamp ; also, 193 acres of upland, on the Mill Creek, 
bounded by Barnabas Wines, tlie plain, a small brook, and 
the Creek ; also 22 acres of meadow, in the Great Meadow, 
and 18 acres on Thompson's Creek. His allotments con- 
tained 368 acres. He bought, also, Mar. 9, 167^, of Jacob 
Melyen, then of the city of N. York, 101 acres of land on the 
South Neck. The most of his lands he sold. May 18, 1681, 
to Samuel Wilson, and shortly after died.* 

Caleb Carwithy [Cartvithe, Corwith] was the son of 
David, a resident of Southold, L. I., Avhere he died, Novem- 
ber, 1665. Caleb was a mariner, and quite a rover. At 
Hartford, Ct., he "\vas arraigned, Oct., 1646, for pursuing an 
absconding debtor on the Sabbath-day. Previous to 1654, 
he made trading voyages between New Haven and Boston. 
In 1661, he resided at Southampton, L. I. He was admitted, 
in 1664, a freeman at Huntington, L. I. The following year 
he came to this place. In the winter of 166f, he entered 
into an Association with John Ogden, Sen*", Jacob Melyen, 
William Johnson, Jeffry Jones and others of this town, for 

• E. J. Records, I. 7, T3, 101 ; II. 92, 3 ; III. 21 ; IV. 34 E. T. Bill, p. 104. Eiker'.s Nt w- 
town, pp. 48, 6, 50, C2, 41S. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. ^3 

whaling purposes. His house-lot adjoined Charles Tucker 
on tlie West, and George Hoss on the IST. West. He sold 
thirty acres of land, Feb. 8, 167f, for £11, to William Piles. 
A year or two after, he removed to Southampton, L. I., where 
he was living in 1G83, and where his descendants have been 
(juite numerous and respectable,* 

William Cramer was a carpenter, from Southold, L. I., 
where he married Elizabeth, the sister of Caleb Carwithy. 
He attached himself to the Governor's party, and seems not 
to have been numbered with the Town, Associates. He was 
appointed, Ap. 27, 1G70, Constable of the town, in place of 
William Pilles. His house-lot contained six acres, of irregu- 
lar form, bounded, on the IST. W., by Evan Salisbury, and on 
cver}^ other side by highwaj^s. He had, also, 5 acres of up- 
land, adjoining John'Little; also, 10 acres of upland, lying 
in the swamp, bounded by Barnabas Wines, Richard Beach, 
and John Little ; also, 20 acres of upland, bounded by Stephen 
Crane, Roger Lambert, and the great swamp ; also, 60 acres, 
adjoining the last plot and Crane's brook, bounded, also, as be- 
fore, by Crane, and Lambert ; also 80 acres, " at the two mile 
brook," bound by unsurveyed land and the brook; also, 8 acres 
of upland " in the Neck," bounded b}'^ Caleb Carwithy, Luke 
Watson, and the Creek meadow ; also, 6 acres of meadow on 
the Creek, and 14: acres of meadow, " at Rahawack :" — in all 
209 acres. He sold out, Sept. 1, 1677, to John Toe, weaver, 
and soon after removed with Luke Watson to the Hoar-Kill 
[Lewes], Delaware. He had died in 1695. f 

Stephen Crane was from Connecticut, and was, probably, 
nearly related to Jasper Crane, of Newark, who was one of 
the first settlers of New Haven, Ct., in 1639, was at Branford 
in 1652, and at Newark, in 1667. The family is quite ancient 
and honorable. Ralph Crane accompanied Sir Francis Drake 
to America in 1577, and Robert Crane was of the first com- 
pany that came to Mass. Bay, in 1630. Sir Robert Crane 
was of Essex Co., Eng., in 1630; and Sir Richard, in 1643, 

♦ ct. Col. Records, 1.143, 428; II. 120. E. J. Records, I. CR; IL 22, 34; III. 22. Uowoll, 
pp. 48, 217. Bacon's N. Haven, p. 366. N. Y. Doc. History, II. 638. 

t E. J. Records, I. 109, 160 ; II. 19, 33; IIL 35. E. T. Book, B. 56. E. T. Bill, p. 106, 



74 TUE niSTORY OF 

of Wood Rising, Norfolk, Eng. Henrj and Benjamin Crane 
were of Wcthcrsiield, Ct,, at an early day, and the former 
removed thence to Guilford. Steplien was born, not later 
than 16J:0, and was married as early as 1G63. Tlis honse-lot 
contained six acres, and was bounded, S. E. by Samuel Trot- 
ter ; N. W. by Crane's brook ; E., by^the Mill Creek ; and, W., 
by the lu'glnvay. He had, also, 60 acres between two swamps, 
and adjoining William Cramer; also, 72 acres, on Crane's 
brook, bounded by the brook, William Cramer, Richard 
Beach, Nathaniel Tuttle, and AVilliam Pardon ; also, IS acres 
of meadow, " towards Rawack point ; " — in all 156 acres. 
He died about 1700.* 

John Dickinson was from Southold, L. I., and a son, or 
brother, of Philemon, who came over, in the Mary Ann, 1637, 
to Salem, Mass., was admitted to the church, in 1641, married 
Mary, daughter of Thomas Payne, of Salem, removed to 
Southold, about 1649, was Capt. of a sloop, in those parts, 
and resided at Oyster Bay, in 1653. John was one of the 
witnesses, Aug. IS, 1665, to the payment, to the Indians, of a 
part of the purchase money for the town lands, and took the 
oath of allegiance, in Feb. following. He died soon after, and 
his rights were transferred to John Ogden.f 

Joseph Ffrazey [Frazee] came with the first settlers, but 
whence does not appear. His house-lot contained 6 acres, of 
the usual form, 15 hj 4 chains ; and was bounded, S. W., by 
David Ogden ; N. E., by William Letts ; S. E., by a highway ; 
and, N. W,, by a SM'amp. He received, May 9, 1676, a war- 
rant for 120 acres. Feb. 1, 1685, he received a warrant for 
50 acres adjoining his own land " beiwixt Raway River 
and the branch, in Compensation for two highways made 
through his Land one leading to Yincents and the other to 
Woodbridge." His son, Joseph, had, also, 135 acres on 
" Raway*' River adjoining Dr. Robinson's land ; and 15 acres 
of meadow between Rah way River and " Emet's Creek." 
The house-lot he sold, to William Looker, then of Wood- 
bridge. Frazee bought, Sep. 21, 1678, of Luke Watson, 182 

• E. J. Records, II. 20, 35. E. T. Bill, p. 104. Hinman, I. 742-51. 

t Savage, II. 49. Thompson's L. I., I. 4S6. 4 Mass. His. See. Coll., I. 99. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 75 

acres; and, July 4, 16S2, William Broadwell's town lands. 
His possessions were mostly along the Kaliway river ; and 
the family settled eventually in AVestfield and New Provi- 
dence. A tract of land on the Passaic river has, in conse- 
quence of their locating upon it, been called, "Frazeys Mead- 
ows." Mr. Frazey sold, Sept. 7, 1C9S, 39 acres, E. of the 
Rahway, to Samuel Pack. He died in January, 171f .* 

John Gray was, as elsewhere said, the step-father of Luke 
Watson, having married, as early as 1644, Elizabeth, AVat- 
son's mother, and daughter of William Erost, of Uncowah 
[Fairfield], Ct. He was one of the patentees of Newtown, 
L. I., being, with three exceptions, the largest contributor, 
among many, to the expense of the purchase. He incurred, 
in 1653, the wrath of the Dutch Government (for what does 
not appear), and sentence of banishment was pronounced 
against him, March 24. Again, Aug. 10, 1654, he was on 
trial "accused of divers crimes," of which "abusing the 
magistrates " of the town alone is specified. He confessed, 
was indicted, and sentenced. Jan. 26, 1656, he is spoken of 
as "a fugitive from justice." Yet, in 1658, he was still re- 
siding at Newtown. His offence was, probably, political. 
He must have been well advanced in life, when he accom- 
panied Watson to this town, and, having lost his first wife, 

had married Hannah , to whom, by deed, Sep. 10, 1675, 

he gave his estate. In April, 1673, when he sold his meadow 
land to William Pilles, he had removed to New Piscataway. 
He probably died soon after the gift to his wife. No record 
is found of his allotments.f 

Daniel Harris was from Northampton, L. I., and a son 
of George, who was one of the neighbors of John Ogden. 
He came on with the first emigration (probably unmarried), 
induced, it may be, by his early companions, Ogden's boys. 
He has left no memorial. Henry Harris, who was one of 
Mr. Harriman's parishioners in 1696, may have been his son, 
and George Harris, in 1725, a grandson.:}: 

» E. J; Records, I., 87,115,137; 11.10,22; IV. 19 ; G. 137. E. T. Bill, p. 107. WiIls,No.l- 
t E. J. Records, I. 51. Rikcr, p. 48. N. Haveu Col. Records, 1. 465. Calendar of Dutch 
MSS., pp. 46, 131, 139, 159, 105, 19S. 

t Howell's Southampton, pp. 234-5. narriman's Ledger, p. 104. 



76 THE UISTORY OF 

Leonard IIeadley has left no memorial of his origin. Ho 
had surveyed, Oct. 14, 1678, " in right of himself and his 
wife," 150 acres. His house-lot contained 4 acres, 10 by 4 
chains, bounded, 'N. W., by John Ogdcn, Jr., and, on the 
other sides, by highways. He had 8 acres of upland " at 
Bracket's Spring," and along tlie brook, adjoining Hur 
Thompson, and a swamp; also, 6 acres of upland, "lying in 
the way going to the point," bounded in part by John Ogden, 
Jr., and John Woodruff; also 20 acres on the Creek, bounded 
by Daniel DeHart and Robert Yauquellin ; also, 33 acres, 
" in the plainc," bounded by George Morris and Jolm Ogden, 
Jr. ; also, 65 acres of upland " at the North end of the plaine," 
" by the Mill brooke," and bounded by Margaret Baker, Jona- 
than Ogden, and Benjamin Parkis; also 14 acres in the Great 
Meadow. He died, Feb., 1683, and Sarah Smith administered 
on his estate, which was valued at £99. 3. 6.* 

MATTniAs Heathfield [Hetfield, Hatfield] was a weaver, 
and came hither from New Haven, Ct., where he took the 
oath of fidelity, May 1, 1660. In the Record of Surveys, 
Aug. 29, 1676, he is called " Hatfeild," and, in his will, 
" Hattfield." He is supposed to have been a son of Thomas 
Hatfield, of Leyden, a member of John Robinson's church, 
and a native of Yorkshire, Eng. Mr. Thomas Hatfield, 
who settled about the same time at Mamaroneck, N. Y., was, 
probably, his brother. His house-lot contained 5 acres, 10 by 
5 chains, bounded, E., by the highway and Thomas Moore ; 
N., and S., by unsurveyed land ; and, W., by Denis White. 
He had, also, 22 acres of upland, " in a triangle," bounded 
by William Letts, John Winans, Samuel Marsh, and a 
swamp ; also, 12 acres of upland, bounded by Nathaniel Bon- 
nel, Robert Vauqnellin, and a way that parted him from 
Gov. Carteret ; also, 112 acres of upland on " tlie two mile 
brook ; " also, 40 acres of upland, " towards the west branch 
of Elizabeth Town River," bounded by John Winans and an 
Indian path ; also, 14 acres of meadow " at Rawack," and 3 
acres of meadow on the N. side of E. Town Creek ; in all 

• E. J. Records, II. 8, 9S, A. ISI. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 77 

208 acres. He was a boatman, as well as a weaver, and 
seems to have been a man of considerable means. " For 
twelve hundred gilders secured to him by bill " (a large 
sum in those days), he purchased, Dec. 5, 1673, of " Abraham 
LuBBERSON of Ncw Orania in the New Netherlands, his 
dwelling-house and home-lott, with all other accommodations 
belonging to s" first Lott, within the bounds of Elizabeth both 
upland and meadow." 

It thus appears, that Mr. Lubberson was among the early 
settlers of the town. He had been a citizen of New Amster- 
dam, before the conquest, and resided, in 1665, in De Iloogli 
Straat [High st.], now Pearl, east of Broad sts., having pre. 
viously lived, for several years, on the west side of the Prince 
Graft [Broad st.]. This latter residence he sold, Sep. 5, 1671, 
and is spoken of, in the deed, as " Abram Lubberse of Eliza- 
beth towne in New Jearsie." He was one of the Skippers 
of the Port, having command of a Hudson river sloop. He 
came here in 1666, or 7, and built the stone house, on the 
lower part of Pearl st., at its junction with Hatfield st., now 
in the possession of Abel S. Hatfield. It is, undoubtedly, the 
oldest house in town, is in good repair, and has never been 
alienated from the fiimily since its purchase in 1673. Mr, 
Lubbersen had three children born here : Abraham, Josias, 
and Atidries. On the reconquest of New York, by the Dutch, 
in 1673, he returned to his old home in New Orange, as the 
city was then called. 

Mr. Hatfield was the original owner of the land on which 
the First Presbyterian Church stands, and is entitled to the 
credit of having given it to the town for a church and burial 
place. "When the church-property was surveyed in 1766, 
the Trustees afiirmed " that the first Purchasers and Asso- 
ciates did give the af"" Tract of land for the use of the Pres- 
byterian Church, the Record of which on or about the year 
1719 was either lost or destroyed." This statement was ad- 
mitted by the Town Committee, and they allowed, Aug. 27, 
1766, the above "Lot of Land to the s' Trustees their Heirs 
and Successors on the right of Matthias Hatfield, one of the 
s Associates." A grandson of Mr. Hatfield had then been a 



78 THEHISTORYOF 

Trustee of tlic Cluircli for 12 years, and was tlie first Presi- 
dent of the Board. lie must have known the exact state of 
the case. Mr. Hatfield died in December, 1687. his wife, 
Maria (of Dutch nativit_y), and three sons, Isaac, Abraham, 
and Cornelius, surviving him. It is not known, though it is 
quite probable, that he left daughters also.* 

John IIinds [Heykes, Haynes, Haines], and his brother, 
James, were " East Enders" from Long Island. They were 
sons of James Hinds, who came over from England to Salem, 
Mass., as early as 163T, when he was admitted a freeman. 
He married in 1638, and, at an early day, removed to South- 
old, L. I., where he died, March, 165f , his estate being valued 
at £123. 5. 4. He had eight children: John, James, Ben- 
jamin, Mary, James 2d, Jonathan, Sarah, and Thomas. His 
widow was married, in June 1656, to Ralph Dayton, of South- 
old. John was the oldest son, and was baptized, Aug. 28, 
1639. James was baptized, Feb. 27, 164|^. Benjamin Haines, 
who was at Southampton, in 1639, and a resident of North 
Sea [Northampton] in 1657, was, probably, a brother of 
James Sen^ He was the grandfather of StejDhen, who re- 
moved to this town as early as 1725, and was the ancestor of 
Gov. Daniel Haines. 

John Hinds, the son of James, Sen', of Southold, was bred 
a cooper. No record remains of his allotments of land. He 
married Mary, a daughtei* of Goodman Thompson, and their 
daughter had been married, as early as 1700, to Isaac White- 
head, Jr. He was a constable of the town in 1710 and 1711. 
A curious record of him occurs in the Ledger of Rev. John 
Ilarriman : " 1694, ffeb. 28, pr acco* of teaching my son 
Samuel the mistery of a cooper, tho*" not pformed accord- 
ing to bargain— £4. 00. 00." 

James was, also, a cooper, and came here, about ten years 
later than his brother, John. He received, July 11, 1677, a 
warrant " in Right of himself & his wife," for 120 acres of 
land ; on account of which he had a survey of 108 acres of 

* N. Ilftven Col. Keconls, I. 141. E. J. Eeconls, 11. 24. lOG-T ; 26, o. e. ; B. 306. Valen- 
tine's N. Y. Manual for 1850, p. 452; 1851, p. 440; 1S53, pp. 475, 8, 4S0; 1SG3, p. T92 ; 1SC5, 
pp. CCl, CT2, 706, 710. E. T. Book, B. 47, 170. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 79 

upland bounded -by Richard Chirk, James Eniot, and the 
West brook ; also, 12 acres of " meadow in the great Meadows." 
He purchased, Sep. 4r, 1G76, of William Looker, then of Jamai- 
ca, L. I., his house, garden, orchard and house-lot, probably 
in the way of trade, as he continued still to reside in this 
town, and was living in 1703.* 

Benjamin IIoman [Oman] was from the East End of Long 
Island. John IIoman was at Setauket [Brookhaven], a few 
years later, and was, it may be, either his father, or his son. 
He was one of the Associates of the Town, and had the usual 
allotments of land, but no mention is made of them in the 
records. He lived a bachelor until his death, Ap. 1, 1684. 
He gave, by will, six acres to Benjamin Meeker, and the re- 
mainder of his estate, valued at £63. 5. 6, to Martha Parkis 
[Parkhurst] of E. Town, widow. She may have been his 
sister.f 

William Johnson was at New Haven, Ct., as early as the 
year 1618. Thomas and John, who came to I^ewark, in 1666-7, 
the one from Milford, and the other from Branford, the sons 
of Kobert, an emigrant to ISTew Haven, from Hull, Eng., were, 
probably, his cousins. They had a brother, William, but he 
continued at Guilford, Ct,, was a deacon of the church, and 
grandfather of Pev. Dr. Samuel Johnson, of K. York. Wil- 
liam Johnson, of this town, had a house-lot of four acres, 10 
by 4 chains, bounded, W., by Humphry Spinage ; S., by Ja- 
cob Melyen ; and IST., and E., by highways ; also, 12 acres of 
upland, on "the little Neck," bounded by George Ross, 
Humphry Spinage, and his own meadow ; also 60 acres of 
upland on " Eawack " river, bounded by Symon Pons, the 
swamp, the river, and his meadow — " a highway to pass 
through the said Land ; " also, 60 acres of upland, on " Pawack 
plaine," bounded by Luke Watson, Symon Rous, a swamp, 
and unsurveyed land ; also, 100 acres of upland, on "the W. 
branch of Pawack River; " also, 6 acres of meadow on Pa- 
wack river; also, 6 acres of meadow on E. T. Creek, joining 

* N. Haven Col. Records, 11. 158, 9. Savngc's Gen. Die, II. 3SS-9. IIowcll, pp. 31, 230 
t. J. Records, IL 6S; O. SO. Macdonald's Jamaica, p. 61. E. T. Bill, p. 105. 
t Thompson's L. I., II. 899. E. J. Records, B. E. T. Bill, p. 103. 



80 THE HISTORY OF 

liis 12 acre lot ; also 13 acres of meadow, on the Rawack 
river; in all, 2G2 acres. He mortgaged, Nov. 11, 167S, his 
whole estate in the town to Koger Lambert, to secure the 
payment of £100, and subsequently Lambert became the 
owner.* 

Jeffky Jones was from Southold, L. I., Avhere he was 
made a freeman. Ma}', 1664. He and Edward Jones, who was 
at Southampton, as early as 1644, it is thought Avere sons of 
the Rev. John Jones, who came with tlie Rev. Mr. Shepard, 
of Cambridge, and the Rev. John Wilson, of Boston, Mass., 
from England, arriving Oct. 2, 1635 ; was a colleague of Rev. 
Peter Bulkley, of Concord, Mass., from 1636 to 1644, when 
he came to Fairfield, Ct., and resided there until his death, 
1664, being over 70 years of age. One of the sons, Rev. 
Eliphalet (born, Jan. 9, 1640), was the first minister of Hunt- 
ington, L. I. Jeffry Jones had a house-lot on the "West side 
of Mill Creek, between David Ogden on the S., and William 
Cramer, on the N. He had a warrant for 1 80 acres, but no 
return of the survey is on record. His house-lot he sold, 
Aug. 24, 1686, to Jonas Wood. He was associated. May 20, 
1668, witli Ogden, Bond, and Watson, in running the bound- 
ary line between this town and Newark. He was, also, one 
of the Whaling Company, incorporated, Feb. 15, 166^. An 
action of Trespass and Ejectment was brought against him 
by " the Proprietors," in the name of James Fullerton, in 
1693, because of his refusal to take out a Patent from them 
for his lands, and to pay them " Quit Rents." Judgment 
having been rendered against him, he appealed to the King 
in Council, by whom, Feb. 25, 1696, it was set aside. He 
outlived the most of the founders of the town, his death oc- 
curring in Dec. 1717.f 

Thomas Leonards was, doubtless of the Southampton stock. 
He M-as admitted a freeman of Connecticut, in 1658. He 
probably died soon after his coming, as no subsequent trace 
of him has been found. :{: 

• E. J. r.ccord.-, I. 108. 107; II. 20, 130. Ct Ci.l. Records, I. 94. E. T. Bill, p. 105. 
tlb.,rp- 44, IOC, 120,2. E.J. Records, I. 69; II. 21; III. &S, 119; Wills, A. 8'J. Savage, II. 
602. Newark Records, p. 10. Ct. Col. Rocords, I. 427. Shattuck's Concord, pp. 143-164. 
t Savoge, III. 80. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 81 

Samuel Maksii was from New Haven, Ct., where he took 
the oath of fidelity, May 2, 1647. He came here, among the 
first settlers from Ct., with his wife and seven children. His 
house-lot contained seven acres, of irregular form, 6 chains 
broad, and in length, 15 chains on the W. side, and 10 chains 
on the E. side, bounded, on the W., by Jonas Wood, and on 
the other sides by highways. He had, also, IS acres of up- 
land " in the Neck," bounded by John Winans, Matthias 
Hatfield, and William Letts; also, 100 acres of upland, "at 
Rawack," called by the Name of Ragged Neck, bounded by 
Jeffry Jones, Simon Rouse, and his own meadow ; also, 60 
acres of upland, adjoining the 100 acre lot, bounded by JefiTry 
Jones, a great swamp, and his own land ; also, 14 acres of 
meadow, on the N. side of his upland, and 6 acres of meadow 
at Luke Watson's Neck, on the N. side of Thompson's Creek : 
in all 205 acres. His eldest son, Samuel, Je., was admitted 
among the 80 Associates, and had an allotment of 80 acres 
of upland, at " Rahawack," bounded by Robert Vauquellin, 
Simon Rouse, Thomas Moore, Benjamin Wade, and a great 
swamp ; also, 10 acres of upland on the two-mile brook, ad- 
joining Matthias Hatfield, and David Oliver ; also, 10 acres 
of meadow, "lying at Rahawack in the Meadow of Samuel 
Marsh, Sen^ : " in all, 100 acres. " Old Mash," as the father 
was familiarly called, died in September, 1683.* 

William Meeker was, also, from New Haven, Ct., where 
he took the oath of fidelity, July 1, 1644. He was pro- 
pounded, Oct. 7, 1646, to "be loader to mill," "for a 12 
month," " to goe in all seasons except vnreasonable weathei'." 
Frequently he appears in the records as "Meaker," and 
" Mecar." His house-lot contained six acres, bounded, N., 
by Henry Norris ; W., by the highway; S., by his son, Jo- 
seph ; and, E., by the swamp. He had, also, 13 acres of 
upland, bounded by his son, Benjamin, Robert Bond, and 
Joseph Osborne ; also, 45 acres of upland " by Henry Lyon," 
bounded by his son, Benjamin, and Robert Bond ; also, 75 
acres of upland, bounded by Hur Thompson, a small brook, 

* N. Haven Col. Records, I. 140, 229, 233, 270, 1, 378, 474. E. J. Eccords, I. 169 ; II 20, 31 , 
85 ; A. 192. E. T. Bill, p. lOD, S. Savflgo, III. 155. 

6 



82 THE HISTORY OF 

and a swamp ; also, 12 acres of meadow, on the S. side of 
Bound Creek, and 2^ acres on E. Town Creek : in all, 152 
acres. He was appointed, Oct. 13, 1671, constabl® of the 
town, and, in performance of the duties of his office, became 
obnoxious to the Governor and his party, and the property 
just described was forfeited in favor of William Pardon, as 
related on a subsequent page. Ilis sons, Joseph and Ben- 
jamin, were, also, numbered among tlie 80 Associates. Jo- 
seph had a house-lot, containing six acres, bounded, N., by 
his father; S., by his brother, Benjamin; E., by Kobert 
Vauquellin ; and, W., by a highway. He had, also, 35 acres, 
bounded by Joseph Sayre, a small brook, a fresh meadow, 
and a highway that goes into the Meadows ; also, 45 acres, 
" adjoining to Master Bond," bounded by Henry Lyon, Bob- 
ert Bond, Henry I^orris, and John Woodruff; also, 12 acres 
" on the West Side cf the plaine," bounded by Moses Thomp- 
son, Isaac Whitehead, Sen"", Moses Hopkins, and the Mill 
Creek : in all, 98 acres. Benjamin had a house-lot, contain- 
ing five acres, 9 by 5^ chains, bounded, W., by a highway ; 
E., by George Morris and Henry Lyon ; N., by his brother, 
Joseph ; and, S., by unsurveycd land. He had, also, 21 acres 
of upland, bounded by Joseph Osborne, Ilobert Bond, and 
" a run ; " also, 60 acres of upland, bounded by Robert 
Bond, Henry Lyon, and Isaac AVhitehead, Sen' ; also, GQ 
acres of upland, bounded by Ilur Thompson, two small 
brooks, and a swamp ; in all, 155 acres. He was one of the 
town constables in 1711. Joseph kept a country store, and 
Benjamin was a carpenter ; while both were planters. The 
fiither died in December, 1690.* 

Jacob Mklyen [Moullains, Murline, Melleyns, Melyn, 
Meleins] came here from Kew Haven, Ct., but was previ- 
ously of New Amsterdam. He was the son of the patroon, 
Cornells Melyn, whose name is familiar to every student of 
Dutch American history. The fiither was born, 1602, at 
Antwerp, Holland, and emigrated, in 1639, to New Nether- 
laud. He returned, in 1610, for his M'ife (Janneken) and 

* N. Haven Col. Keconls, I. 122, 139, 273. E, J. Eccords, II. 1, 18, 24, CO, 1-16; III. 47, SD; 
0.70,1. E. T. Bill, r- 103. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 83 

children, and obtained a grant of Staten Island. There he 
planted a colony, in IG-il, wliich was broken up by the Indian 
war of 1643. Removing to New Amsterdam, he took np his 
residence in Broad, between Stone and Pearl, sts., on the E. 
side. Pie espoused the popular side in politics, for wliich he 
was heavily fined by Gov. Stuyvesant, and banished for 
seven years. He returned to Holland for redress, was 
wrecked, Sep. 27, 16-i7, and lost one of his sons, barely 
escaping with his own life. The Home Government sus- 
tained his appeal, but Stuyvesant still persisted in his oppo- 
sition. After another voyage to Holland, he re-established 
himself, in 1650, on Staten Island, continuing there nntil the 
colony was again dispersed by the Indians, in the massacre 
of 1655. He removed to New Haven, Ct., where he and his 
son, Jacob, took the oath of fidelity, Ap. 7, 1657. In 1659, 
he repaired again to Holland, effected a settlement of his 
difficulties, reliiiquished Staten Island to the AVest India 
Company, and soon after returned to New Netherland. He 
had died in 1674, leaving his wife, three sons, — Jacob, Cor- 
nells, and Isaac, — and three daughters, Marian (married and 
residing at N. Haven), Susanna and Magdaleen, who were 
married subsequently to Jacob Schellinger and Jacob Soper, 
merchants of N. York. 

Jacob, the eldest son, was born at Antwerp, Holland, about 
1610, and came an infant to America. His boyhood was 
passed in the midst of the exciting scones just rel'erred to, 
by wliich he was educated in the love of liberty and hatred 
of oppression. He accompanied his father to Holland and 
back, in 1659, returning to N. Haven. He was reprimanded. 
May 1, 1660, by Gov. Newman, as related in the "Blue 
Laws " of Ct., for kissing and taking o.ther improper liberties 
with Miss Sarah Tattle. He married, in 1662, Hannah, 
the daughter of George Hubbard, of Guilford, Ct. Her 
sister, Abigail, in 1657, had become the wife of Humphrey 
Spinning. He and Spinning attached themselves to the band 
of pilgrims, who, in 1665, emigrated from New Haven to 
this town. He had been familiar, doubtless, witli this par- 
ticular locality from his childhood, by reason of his residence 



84 THE HISTORY OF 

on Staten Island. His knowledge of the Dutch language, 
and possibly of the Indian tongue also, made him a valuable 
acquisition to the new colony of Achter Kol. 

His house-lot contained four acres, 10 by 4 chains, and 
was bounded, W., by his brother-in-law, Humphrey Spinning ; 
S., by John Winans ; N., by "William Johnson ; and, E., by 
a higliway. This lot, with his house, barn, orchard, &c., he 
sold, Feb. 8, 167J, to John Winans. He had 100 acres on 
the South Neck of E. T., which he sold, Mar. 9, 167f, to 
Nicholas Carter. For himself, wife, and two servants, lie 
was allowed, 360 acres. His patent gave him 450 acres. He 
was a partner in the whaling company of 1669. During the 
Dutch rule, 1673-4, he' was in high favor, being appointed 
one of the Schepens of the town, and Captain of the militia 
company. He removed to New Yoi'k in 1674, and resided 
in the Mill st. Lane [S. William st.]. Two of his children, 
Susanna and Jacob, were baptized in the DuJ:ch chh., N. Y., 
Oct. 3, 1674; and three others, Daniel, Samuel, and Abigail, 
Aug. 7, 1677. Subsequently to 1683, he removed to Boston, 
probably for the convenience of educating his son, Samuel 
(afterwards a minister of this town), who graduated, in 1696, 
at Harvard College. At Boston, he traded in leather, and 
served, several years, as constable. His decease occurred in 
December, 1706, his wife surviving until 1717. His daugh- 
ter, Abigail, married (1.) William Tilley, and (2.) Chief Justice 
Samuel Sew^all. His daughter, Joanna, born in 1683, about 
the time that he removed to Boston, became the wife of the 
Rev. Jonathan Dickinson of this town. In liis Mill, he 
affirms that he had spent £300. on Samuel's education. In 
the Boston News Letter, Oct. 1, 1705, is an Advertisement 
in these words : " A House and Land in the High-Fore-Street 
at the Sign of the Buck, in the South End of Boston, now in 
the Occupancy of Mr. Jacob Melyen, to be Sold."* 

TnoMAs Moke [Moor, Moork] was from Southold, L. I. 
He was the son of Thomas, who came over, in 1630, in the 

* E. T. Bill, p. lOS. E. J. Records. 1. 101, 8, 103; II. 46; III. 25. N. Y. Col. Docmts., II. 
871, 5S2, 608, 706. Calendar of N. Y. His. Mss., 23, 40, 46, 124, ISl. Savage, III. 195. V.nlcn- 
tlne'8 N. T., 1863, p. 795. Boston News Letter, Ko. 76. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 85 

Mary and John, to Dorchester, Mass. ; joined the Church, at 
Salem ; "was admitted a freeman, May 18, 1031 ; and removed, 
with ills brother, Deacon John Moore, first to Windsor, Ct., 
then to Southampton, and then toSouthold, L. I. The father 
was a man of influence, and represented Southokl in the 
General Court at New Haven, in 1658, and at ' Hartford in 
1664. Thomas, Jr., was at jSTewtown in 1661:, whence, the 
following year, he came to this town. His house-lot, " for- 
merly belonging to Joachin Andrissen," he sold to William 
Pyles, previous to 16Y2, and purchased, June 22, 1675, the 
house-lot, containing four acres, bounded, N., and E., by a 
highway ; S., by Matthias Hatfield-; and W., by Denis Wliite. 
He had, also, 60 acres of upland, "towards Rahawack," ad- 
joining Benjamin Wade ; also, 42 acres " on the South side of 
Elizabeth River," bounded by Benjamin AVade, Humphry 
Spinage, the liiver, and the plain ; also, 60 acres of upland, 
" on the North side of the said River," bounded by Hum- 
phry Spinage, Stephen Osborne, and " the branch of tlie said 
Elizabeth River ; " also 20 acres of meadow, adjoining William 
Pilles upland ; in all, 187 acres. Thomas Moore, in 1676, had 
80 acres surveyed for him on the S. side of Staten Island. 
He survived until June, 1708.* 

Robert Mosse [Morss, Moese], and his son Peter, were 
from Massachusetts. They were at Boston, in 1644, at New- 
bury in 1654, and still later at Rowley, whence, in 1665, they 
came hither. The father was a tailor, and had a large family. 
His house-lot contained six acres, bounded, N., by his son, 
Peter; S., by William Pardon; W., by the highway; and, 
E., by Elizth. river and a highway. He had, also, 12 acres 
of upland, bounded b}- William Trotter, his son, Peter, and 
Crane's brook; also, 44 acres of u])land, bounded by the 
river, William Pardon, William Trotter, Daniel Tuttle, his. 
son, Peter, and the Common ; also, "a Neck of Land Lying 
between two brooks," GQ acres, bounded by West brook, 
Peach Garden brook, and Thompson's Creek ; also, another 

* N. 11. Col. Records, II. 52, 6G, 159, 230, C, 35S, 81)2, iOG. Ct. Col. Record?, I. 28, 112, S86, 
8. Alb. Records, III. IIC. Savnge, III. 227-231. E. J. Records, I. 24, 4G, 15T ; II. 21, 31. E. 
T. BiU, p. 108. 



86 TIIEHISTORYOF 

plot of GG acres, adjoining on the West, lying on Peacli Gar- 
den brook ; also, 6 acres of meadow on Thompson's Creek, 9 
acres on the Sound, and 7 acres on Peacli Garden and West 
brooks : in all, 203 acres. The tract on the E. T. Creek he 
disposed of, Sep. 26, 16S1, to his son-in-law, William Broad- 
well ; and several other tracts, June 24, 1686, to Jonas Wood. 
The next day he obtained a warrant for 150 acres more. 

Peter's house-lot contained six acres, bounded, W., by a 
highway ; K., by William Trotter ; S., by his father ; and, E., 
by E. T. Creek. He had, also, 12 acres of upland, adjoining 
his father; also, 40 acres of uphiud, "near the Ash Swamp 
upon a hill," bounded by William Pardon, Stephen Crane, 
John Little, and the Common ; also, " a Neck of Land at 
Rawack," 140 acres, along West brook, Pawack Swamp, and 
the Common ; also, IS acres of meadow on Thompson's Creek, 
and 6 acres on Luke AVatson's Point : in all 224 acres ; of 
which 20 acres were " in Piglit of Joachim Andrissen." The 
homestead was on " Thompson's Creek," hence more gener- 
ally known of late as " Morse's Creek," long the boundary 
between Rahway and Elizabeth. Peter died in May, 
1702.* 

ISTatiianael IsToRTON was from the E. end of Long Island, 
but, though admitted one of the 80 Associates, was induced, 
after a short sojourn, to return to tlie Island. He took up 
his abode at Brookhaven, where he was living in 1675, and 
in 1683. His E. Town rights wore transferred to Henry 
Norris.f 

William Oliver cannot no\v be traced with any certainty. 
He was, probably, the son of John, who died in 1646, or 
of Thomas, who died in 1652, at Boston or its vicinity, each 
of them leaving a large family. Thomas was of Bristol, and 
came over, in 1632, from London. William had a house-lot 
containing eight acres, 20 by 4 chains, bounded, W., by 
Charles Tucker; S., by Jonas Wood; and, IST., and E., by 
highways. He had, also, 12 acres of upland, " at Luke 

* Savage, III. 241. E. J. Eccords, I. US, 9, 150 ; IL 19, 23; TIL 153, 9; B. 121. 132 ; L. 
90. E.T. Bill. p. 104. 

t N. York Doc. His , II. 463, 533. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 87 

"Watson's point," hounded by JcfFry Jones, Caleb Carvvithy, 
the meadows, and a highway ; also, 84 acres of upland " at 
Rawack," bounded by Peter Morse, Samuel Marsh, Sen"", 
David Oliver, and William Pilles. He died about 1694.* 

Joseph Osborn [Osbourne, Osburne], and Jeremy Os- 
BORN were from East Hampton, L. I. They were the sons of 
Goodman Thomas Osborne, one of the founders of that town, 
in 1649, or 1650, He had been, also, one of the founders of 
'New Haven, Ct., in 1639, where, in 1643, he was rated at 
£300, and had a family of six. Richard, then of New Haven, 
and afterwards of Fairfield, was his brother. Thomas was at 
Hingham, Mass., in 1635, and removed to Connecticut before 
the Pequot war of 1637, in which he served. Thomas, John, 
Jeremiah, Joseph, and Stephen w' ere his sons. The first two 
settled in East Hampton ; the others joined the company of 
emigrants to Acliter Kol, and were founders of this town. 
Jeremiah was a witness, Aug. 18, 1665, to the payment of 
the money, to the Indians, for the purchase of the town. He, 
probably, died soon after, as his name does not appear among 
the original Associates. His brother, Stephen, had taken his 
place before 1673. Jeremiah Osborn, w-ho was one of Mr. 
Harriman's parishipners from 1687 to 1705, and afterwards 
became a Quaker, was a son of Stephen, was born in 1661, 
removed to Morris Co., and lived to an extreme old age. 
He made a long deposition. Mar. 23, 1741, in the celebrated 
case of Daniel Cooper vs. John Crain and others, printed at 
length in the E. T. Bill in Chancery, Schedule X. 

Joseph Osborn received a warrant for 150 acres of land, 
but the returns of the survey are not on record ; consequently 
his several parcels of land cannot now be located. Stephen 
had two house-lots " Eying and being in Eh'zabeth Towne 
Upon the Mill Creek," containing 12 acres, 12 by 10 chains, 
bounded, W., by the Creek ; S., and E., by highways ; and 
]Sr., by an unsurveyed house-lot. One of these two lots, prob- 
ably, was Jeremiah's. He sold them both, Oct. 13, 1689, to 
Joseph Wilson. ■Ho had, also, 12 acres of u[»hind on " tlie 

* N. E. His. &Gon. Register, XII. 53. E. J. Racor.Is, II. 13, 103 ; 25, o. e. ; III. 159. E. T. 
Bill, p. lOS. Sav:ige, IV. 101. 



88 THE HISTORY OF 

little Neck," bounded by Jeremiah Peck, Joseph Sayre, 
John Woodruft', Aloses Thompson, and a swamp ; also, 121 
acres of upland on " the South branch of Elizabeth Towne 
Creek," bounded by Nathaniel Bonnel, Thomas Moore, 
George Ross, and the branch; also, three acres of meadow 
on the E. T. Creek, and 12 acres " in the great Meadows at 
the upper end of Forkey Creek : " in all 160 acres. He died, 
July, 1698. Joseph was living in 1707.* 

George Pack came with the first colonists, but whence can- 
not now be learned. He liad a house-lot containinfjsix acres, 
bounded, IST. W., by John Little, and on the other sides by 
highways. He had, also, 30 acres of npland, bounded by 
Barnabas Wines, John Little, Nicholas Carter, and unsur- 
veycd land ; also, 40 acres of npland, bounded by Joseph 
Sayre, Nicholas Carter, two small brooks, and unsurveyed 
land ; also 4 acres of swamp, and 12 acres of meadow on 
" the great River" [the Sound] : in all, 118 acres. He died, 
Feb. i704.t 

Richard Patnter [Painter] was a tailor, who came hither 
from New York, but originally from Southampton. Carter's 
son was apprenticed to him, Mar. 25, 1669. His house-lot 
contained three acres, 10 by 3 chains, bonnded, S., by Capt. 
Philip Carteret — formerly Abraham Shotwell ; and, N., E., and 
W., by highways. He had, also, 20 acres of npland, bounded, 
by a round hill, the Mill Creek, and Mrs. Baker; also, 96 
acres of upland, bonnded by Isaac Wliitehead, Jr., Leonard 
Hcadley, Joseph Sayre, and the Mill brook ; also, 15^ acres 
of meadow : in all, 134^ acres. His residence here was of 
short dumtion. In the winter of 1070-1, he removed to New 
York, and sold, Ap. 3, 1671, his "Plantation with the Dwell- 
ing House, &c." to Balthazar De Hart of New York, Mer- 
chant. De Hart died in January, 1672, and liis Executors 
sold, July 4, 1672, to Richard Skinner, of E. T., " Joyner," the 
house and propert}' bought of Richard Painter, (" wherein 
the above-named Richard Skinner now Liveth and was ser- 



• Savago, III. 319. Barber's Ct., p. IGO. Thompson's L I., I. 295. E. J. Records, II. 21, 
24, 129. K. T. Bill, pp. 106, lOS, 118-6. 

t E. T. Bill, p. lOS. E.J. Records, 11.19, 21,98. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 89 

vimt unto the said Richard Painter and also to the said Bal- 
thazar De Hart,") for £48 ; "£16 in Porke at Three Pounds 
the Barrell, Wheat at four Shillings the Bushell, Pease at three 
shillings the Bushell Beef in Life at three Pence the Pound." 
Skinner must have forfeited the property for want of fulfil- 
ment of the conditions of payment, and it was again sold, 
March 21, 168f, by Daniel De Hart, to George Jewell, then 
a recent comer from Piscataway. Painter was living, in 
1679, at Southampton " on the west street running by the 
swamp." * 

John Paekek, it is thought, was from the East End of Long 
Island, probably of the Bridgehampton family. His house- 
lot contained six acres, bounded, E., and N., by Gov. Car- 
teret; S., by the highway ; and,"W., by Joseph Ogden. He 
had, also, six acres of upland on " the North Neck," bounded 
by Leonard Headley, John Ogden, Jr., and " the Common 
pasture ; " also, 60 acres of upland, bounded by John Wood- 
ruff, the Meadow, and the " Common Land ; " also, 12 acres 
of upland on the W. side of Mr. Woodruff, and between two 
swamps ; also, 12^ acres of meadow in the same vicinity : in 
all, 96 acres. His house-lot he sold to Carteret, Aug. 15, 
1675, for £8, probably without improvements. He died in 
Dec. 1702, leaving his property to Robert Smith of Egg Har- 
bor, Widow SarahBrowne, Thomas Headley, and "the Church ' 
of Christ in Elizabeth Town ; " to the latter £3.t 

Thomas Pope was an associate, in 1614-, of Strickland, Og- 
den, the Dentons and Jonas Wood, in settling Hempstead, 
L. I. He seems to have either accompanied or followed 
John Ogden to the East End of the Island, as, in 1652, he 
had a house-lot of 3 acres, "next to Mr. Stanbrough," granted 
hini at Southampton. His son, John, also, is named among 
the early settlers of that town. His house-lot here was on 
the S. side of the Creek, adjoining the Governor, He sold 
it, Feb., 166|, to William Pilles. He died previous to 1677. 
Mary, his widow, and her son, John, sold, Feb. 25, 167-f-, 
their dwelling house and lot, with 60 acres of upland, for 

* E. J. Rt-cords, I. 7, 25, 30; II. 15, 73; A. 118. E. T. Bill, pp. 102, 7. Howell, p. 158. 
t Ilawell, p. 2G0. E. T. Bill, p. 103. E. J. Records, I. 149 ; II. 8, 26. 



90 THE HISTORY OF 

£39, to Benjamin Wade. John was one of the 80 As- 
sociates. He received, Mar. 28, IGTG, a warrant for 100 
acres; and, July 9, 1686, another for 150 acres. Of this 
last, 120 acrea M'cre located " on Raway Eiver," bonnded by 
the river, " Pope's brook" [in the township of Springfield, near 
Milltown], and unoccupied land. Tlie other 30 acres were 
bounded by JefFry Jones, "William Johnstone, and " Common 
Land." Of the first grant, a plot of 80 acres was bounded by 
John Miles, Joseph Frazee, and unsurveyed land. lie had 
died in 171|. He gave the name to " Pope's Corners."* 

Benjamin Price was from East Hampton. He came to 
the Island, it is thought, with Lion Gardiner, in 1639. He 
subscribed, as a witness, the deed, given, March 10, 16|-f, 
by James Farret, Lord Stirling's Agent, to Gardiner, for the 
island that has ever since borne his name. Pie settled first 
at Southampton ; but, in 1649, united with several of his 
neighbors in settling East Hampton. He resided on the E. 
side of the main street, not far from Gardiner, and the Rev. 
Mr. James, and next to " the Parsonage-lot, in the hart 
of the Towne." He took a leading part in town afl'airs ; was 
appointed, Oct. T, 1651, Recorder, or Town Clerk ; and, 
Aug. 1, 1660, was one of the Patentees of Montauk Point. 
He took an active part in furthering the emigration of so 
many East Enders to this locality, and was held in honor by 
his townsmen liere. In 1675, he represented the town in the 
House of Burgesses ; and was appointed, Dec. 13, 16S2, one 
of Gov. Rudyard's Council ; Feb. 4, 168f , Justice of the 
Peace ; Mar. 28, 1683, one of Gov. Lawrie's Council ; and, 
Jan. 29, 169|-, one of the Judges of Small Causes. He out- 
lived the most of the founders, his death occurring after Aug. 
30, 1705, when his will was made, and not later than Oct. 7, 
1712, when it was admitted to probate. 

The locality of his house-lot is not on record. He had 24 
acres of upland, " along the Road Leading to the Point," 
adjoining his son, Daniel ; also, 50 acres of upland, adjoining 
"Henry Lyon's House," the Town Creek, " a Little Creeke 

*E. J. Records, II. 20; B. 3T0; L. 99, 197. E. T. Bill, p. 109. Thompson's L. I., II. C. 
Howell, pp. 306, 7. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 91 

on wliicli Henry Bakers Tiinnfatt stands," Margaret Baker, 
John "Woodruff, Leonard Headley, Ephraim Price, and Peter 
"Woolverton ; also, 20 acres of upland, on the Pohit road, ad- 
joining Margaret Baker; also, 120 acres of upland near the 
Great Meadow ; also, 9 acres of upland in the Great Meadow, 
North of Capt. Young ; also, 8 acres of upland " on the Long 
Meadow Island," on this side Kahway Piver ; also 25 acres 
of upland, on the Point road, adjoining Margaret Baker; 
also, 14 ^cres of meadow : in all 270 acres. 

Benjamin, Jr., his son, was also one of the 80 Associates. 
He was appointed, Aug. 22, 1695, one of the Justices of the 
Peace. His house-lot contained six acres, bounded, S., and 
E., by the highway ; W., by his brother, Thomas, and N., 
by Isaac Whitehead, Sen'. He had, also, 41 acres of upland, 
bounded by Robert Bond, Joseph Bond, and unsurveyed 
land ; also, 19 acres of upland, adjoining his father and un- 
surveyed land ; also, 14 acres of upland, adjoining his father 
and Joseph Ogden ; also, 88 acres of upland " near the Gov- 
ernors point," bounded by his father and Daniel Dellart ; 
also, ten acres of upland, bounded by his father and Col. 
Richard Townley ; also, two acres on " y° way to y* meadows," 
adjoining his fiither ; also, ten acres " of Salt Marsh in the 
great Meadow ; " also 8 acres of meadow, " by the Long pond 
& the forked Creek ; " also, six acres of meadow " on a creek, 
called tlie Long Creek or fforked creek : " in all 200 acres.* 

Evan Salsbuky, of whoso origin nothing certain can now 
be ascertained, was, probably, Carwithy's friend and asso- 
ciate, coming with him from the East End of Long Island. 
His house-lot adjoined William Cramer, on the S. E. He 
bought Cramer's house-lot, and his second lot-right; but sold 
the two, Dec. 26, 1670, to John Little, for £65. He is called 
a "brickmaker," but was bred a carpenter, and had previ- 
ously, it is thought, followed the seas. Capt. John Young, 
of Sonthold, L. L, sold him, Oct. 4, 1671, his shallop of 8 
tons burden, " or there about," with all its appurtenances, the 

*E. J. Kccords, II. 21; A. IGO; C. 5,75, 171,233; E. 119; L. 1,19; 0.40,105, C, 7. E. T. 
Bill, pp. 102, 9. Doc. His. (if N. Y., I. CSO, 6. Thompson's L. I., 295, 9. Hedges' E. Unmpton, 
pp. 6, Si-i. 



93 THE HISTORY OF 

mast, sails, rigging, cable, anchor, &c., for " 18000 good Mer- 
chantable White Oak pipe Staves," a bond being given for 
the payment, signed by Salsbnry, Carwithy, and Cramer. 
The witnesses were Benjamin Price and Joseph Sayre. It 
is quite likely that he and Carwithy, who disappears from the 
records about this time, became " coasters," and of uncertain 
residence. Salsbury was here when the Dutch enrolment 
was made in 1673, but no further mention of him is made.* 

Abraham Shotwell, whose original is not known, was cer- 
tainly in sympathy with the popular party of the town. In 
the contentions between the people and Carteret, described 
in succeeding pages, Shotwell was bold and outspoken 
aga'nst the Governor's usurpations. He became the victim 
of Carteret's wrath, his house and grounds were confiscated, 
and he himself driven into exile. His house-lot was "next 
E, of the mill." In July, 1683, it was thus described : 
" Bounded on the North by the Land now in possession of 
Geoi'go Jewell and runs along by his Fence three Cliains and 
one third of a Chaine from thence running upon a South and 
by West Lino twelve Chains to the highway which Leads to- 
wards the Mill or meeting house from thence it runs by the 
said highway westward three chains and one'third part of a 
chain and from thence it runs along by the highway that 
leads from the Mill towards Newark upon a North and by 
East Line Twelve chains Containing in all four acres. Also, 
a small peece more Containing One Acre English measure 
running by the highway which Leads from the Mill or meet- 
ing house Eastward three Chains and one third part of a 
Chain from thence it runs downward to the Creek upon a 
South and by West Line Three Ciiains & from thence it runs 
away Westward as the Creek or highwa}'^ runs, three Chains 
and one third part of a Chaine and from thence it runs by the 
highway which Leads from the Mill towards Newark upon a 
North and by East Line three Chains." It is easy to iden- 
tify this property, as including the whole East Side of Broad 
St. from the stone bridge to a point 793 feet north of Eliztli. 

• E. J. Eecor.ls, I. 25-6, 59. E. T Bill, p. lOT. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 93 

Avenue. A most valuable piece of property. Shotwell re- 
tired to N. York, and appealed to the Lords Proprietors. 
In the mean time, he returned to his liome, sustained by liis 
townsmen. His appeal was not sustained, and he was in- 
formed, by orders from the Proprietary Government, that he 
must depart the town, and, should he return, that he would 
be subjected to severe indignities. His property was sold at 
public auction, Aug. 25, 1675, for £12, to Thomas Blumfield, 
carpenter, of Woodbridge, who resold it, a fortnight later, 
for £14:. to Gov. Carteret. It was on Shotwell's one acre lot 
that the Governor is thought to have built his new house, 
where he resided at the time of his decease. Shotwell ob- 
tained a grant of land from the 'N. York government, and 
died in exile. Daniel, who settled on Staten Island, was, 
probabl}^, his son. John, another son, married, at N. York, 
Oct. 1679, Elizabeth Burton. After Carteret's removal and 
death, John appealed to Gov. Pudyard, who restored him, 
by order. May 29, 1683, the property that had been arbitra- 
rily wrested from his father. The Shotwell famil}'- settled 
mostly in the S. and S. W. parts of the town.* 

Michael Simpkik was from Stamford, Ct. Nicholas Sim- 
kins, in 1634, was Capt. of the Castle at Boston. Vincent 
Simkins [Sraiking], a son or brother, probably, of the Capt., 
accompanied the early colonists to Wetliersfield, and was one 
of the Company that bought, Oct. 30, 1640, Rippowams 
[Stamford] from the New Haven people, where he married, 
1641, Mar}^, a daughter of Henry Ackerly. He had, at least, 
two sons, Daniel and John ; most likely, Michael, also. He 
had died in 1656. Daniel settled in Bedford, N. Y., and 
John,' with his widowed mother, removed to this town, where 
the mother, soon after, became the wife of William Oliver. 
He had an allotment of 80 acres of upland, on the W. brook, 
bounded by William Cramer and AVilliam Oliver, a swamp 
and the two mile brook ; also, 4 acres of meadow adjoining 
Aaron Thompson ; also 3 acres of meadow on " Rawack 
Eiver;" also 2 acres of meadow adjoining Jacob Melyen 

• E. J. Kecords, II. 19 ; III. W ; A. 41 ; L. 1, 4. E. T. Bill, p. 110. N. Y. Land Calendar, 
p. 809. N. Y. Marriages, p. 349. 



94 THE HISTORY OF 

and George Pack : in all 89 acres. John died unmarried 
before Sep., 1679, and his mother administered on his estate. 
Michael must have died soon after his coming, as no farther 
mention of him is found.* 

riuMPHKY Spinage [Spinningj was from I^ew Haven, 
Ct. lie was a nephew of Goodman Humphrey Spinage, one 
of the original settlers of iSTew Haven, and one of the party 
that attempted to plant a colony on the Delaware, in 1651. 
The nephew took the oath of fidelity at New Haven, April 7, 
1657 ; and, Oct. 14, 1657, married Abigail, the 3d daughter 
of George and Mary Hubbard of Guilford, and sister of Han- 
nah, the wife of Jacob Melyen. George Hubbard came from 
England about 1635, and was one of the early settlers of 
"Wethersfield, Ct. He removed, in 1644, to Milford, and, in 
1648, to Guilford. The house-lot of Humphrey Spinning 
contained four acres, 12 by 4 chains, and was bounded, N. E., 
and E., by the rear of the house-lots of his brother-in-law, 
Jacob Melyen, William Johnson, and John Winans; and, on 
every other side, by a highway. He had, also, 12 acres of 
upland " on the Neck," bounded by Jeffry Jones, William 
Johnson, the meadows, and a highway ; also, 80 acres of up- 
land, " by Peach Garden Hill," bounded by Jacob Melyen, 
Charles Tucker, Peach Garden brook, and his own meadow ; 
also, 40 acres of upland, on the S. side of the bi'ancii of Elizth. 
Kiver, bounded by Thomas Mooro, John Winans, the plain 
and Elizabeth Creek ; also 60 acres on the N. side of the 
branch, bounded by Benjamin Wade, Thomas Moore, the 
plain, and " the said River into Cranberry meadow ; " also, 
7 acres of meadow on Peach Garden brook ; also 6 acres of 
meadow on Elizth. Creek ; also, 9 acres on " the Point of 
Rawack Neck : " in all, 218 acres. He died, Sept., 1689, 
leaving an estate, valued at £223. 8. O.f 

TiioikiAS ToMsoN [Thompson] was one of the founders of 
East Hampton, L. I., in 1649, having come from Lynn, Mass., 
by way of New London, Ct. At E. Hampton, he resided on 

♦ Illnman's P. S. Ct., I. 233. Savage, IV. 101. E. J. Records, 11. 41, 102 ; 24, o. c; III. 
159. E. T. Bill, p. 109. 

t N. H. Col. r.ecords, I. 2G, 140, 202, 411. Savago ,IV. 150. Chapin's Glastcnbury, p. 1T2. 
E. J. Pvecords, II. 19, 86. E. T. Bill, pp. 105, 118. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 95 

the W. side of the street, near Robert Bond and the two Mul- 
fords. Goodman Thompson was one of the 'Deputies of 
Elizabeth-Town in the Legish^tnre of 1672. He was active in 
opposing the arbitrary measures of Gov. Carteret, and was 
mulcted for his patriotism. His house-lot contained six acres, 
bounded, N., and S., by Barnabas Wines ; W., by a highway ; 
and E., by the Mill Creek. He had, also, 18 acres of uj)land, 

"" on Luke Watson's ISTeck," bounded by Jacob Melyen, David 
Ogden, and a highway ; also, 52 acres of upland, bounded by 
Stephen Crane, Dennis White, George Pack, and his own 

. land ; also, 20 acres of n^^land adjoining the last, bounded 
by his son Hur, Joseph Sayre, George Pack, and unsnrveyed 
land ; also, 4 acres " in Rawack Meadow ; " also 18 acres of 
meadow on a creek, which was named for him, "Thompson's 
Creek," and since, " Moris Creek : " in all 118 acres. His 
three sons, also, were among the original Associates. Moses, 
who took the oath in Feb. 16Gf , had a warrant for 180 acres, 
but the survey is not on record. Aaron, came into posses- 
sion of the homestead, at his father's death, Sept. 1C7G, and 
had a warrant for 60 acres, in his own right, of which no 
return was made. Hue had a' house-lot, containing four acres, 
bounded, S., and E., by a highway ; JST., by Thomas Osborn ; 
and E., by unsurveyed land. He had, also, 12 acres of np- 
land, bounded by Leonard Headlcy, Joseph Osborn, John 
Wilson, and a highway ; also 45 acres of upland, bounded 
by Joseph Sayre, 2 small brooks, and unsurvej^ed land; also, 
40 acres of upland, bounded by Benjamin Meeker, a small 
brook, and the Common ; also 45 acres of upland, bounded 
by William Pardon, a small brook, the West brook, and un- 
surveyed land ; also 6 acres of ineadow on the Bay, 4 acres 
on Woodruff's Creek, and 10 acres more ; in all 161 acres. 
The father's estate, at his death, was valued at £152. 15. G.* 
William Trottek came from Newbury, Mass. It may 
have been at his suggestion, that so many of his former towns- 
men came on, in the course of 1666-7, and settled the town 
of Woodbridge. His house-lot contained four acres, bounded, 

♦ Hedges' E. llaiiipton, pp. 4, 44. E. J. Records, II. 21, 24, 23, 104; 26, o. e. E. T. Bill, 
pp. 104, 5. 



96 THE HISTORY OF 

E., and "W., by a higlnvaj ; S., hy Peter Morse ; and N., b}'- 
Stephen Crane ; also, an addition of twf) acres, bounded, E., 
by the river, and on the other sides, as the house-lot ; also, 
13 acres of upland, bounded, N., and "W., by Kobert Morse ; 
S., and E., by " Elizabeth Town brook ; " also, 138 acres of 
upland, bounded by William Broadwell, a swamp, and un- 
surveyed land; also, 23 acres of meadow in "the Common 
Meadow:" in all, 180 acres. In 167G, he had died. His 
name was given to a bridge in the northern part of the town 
plot* 

Charles Tucker [Tooker] was, also, a New Englander, 
coming hither, with the East Enders of Long Island. His 
parentage has not been determined. He was, probably, the 
son (or may have been the brother) of John Tooker of South- 
old, residing, as early as 1655, in that part of the town that 
was called Kiverhead, originally from the vicinity of Boston, 
Mass., and made a freeman at Southold, Oct. 9, 1662. Charles 
had a house-lot, containing eight acres, bounded, 'N., by the 
highway ; E., by "William Oliver ; W., by Caleb Carwithy ; 
and, S., by " the Swamp in Common ; " also, 21 acres of 
meadow on Thompson's Creek, and adjoining " the great 
Island." He had, at first, a plot of upland containing 86 
acres ; but, as this was found, by survey, to be included in 
Jacob Melyen's allotment, he obtained, in lieu, 69 acres of 
upland on the two mile brook ; he had, also, a parcel of land, 
called " Peach Garden Hill," containing 86 acres, bounded 
by Capt. John Baker, Humphrey Spinagc, Peach Garden 
brook and the Common : in all, 184 acres.f 

^Nathaniel Tuttle [Tutuill] was from Southold, L, I. 
His father, John Tuthill, and uncle, William, were from 
Korfolkshire, Eng. The latter came over, in 1635, in the 
"Planter," landing at Boston. The two brothers settled at 
New Haven, in 1639-10. John came to Southold, in 1641, 
with the Rev. John Youngs. In 164Y, he was one of the 
four patentees of Oj^ster Ponds, L. I. Nathaniel came horc 
with the first emigration, probably a young and unmarried 

* Savage, IV. 332. Coffin's Newbury, pp. 62, 116. E. J. Records, 11. 50 ; L. S5. 
t E. J. Eccord?, 1. 177 ; II. 3. 22. 88. E. T. Bill, p. 105. Thompson's L. I., I. 40». 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 97 

man. His liouso-lot contained six acres, bounded, IST., by 
William Pardon; E., by the Mill Creek; S. E., by Aaron 
Thompson, and Barnabas Wines, a small hollow and a high- 
way lying between ; W., and S., another highway. He had, 
also, 12 acres of upland, on the S. side of Crane's brook, 
adjoining Richard Beach ; also, 34 acres of upland, adjoin- 
ing George Pack and William Pardon ; also, 75 acres, bound- 
ed by Richard Beach, William Pardon, Stephen Crane, Rob- 
ert Morse, and the Mill Creek ; also, 6 acres on " the great 
River" [the Sound], near "the Points of Rawack ; " also, 
20 acres of meadow on the W. of Thompson's Creek ; in 
all 153 acres. At his death, Feb., 169|, his estate was valued 
at £107. 3. 0.-=^ 

Robert Yauquellin, and his wife, came over with Gov. 
Carteret, in the ship Philip, landing, July 29, 1665, at New 
York. Re was a native of the city of Caen, Lower Nor- 
mandy, France ; and a grandson, doubtless, of Jean Yau- 
quelin de la Fresnaye, Lieut. General of the Bailiwick of 
Caen, and Chief Justice of that country, wliose decease oc- 
curred, 1606, in his 71st year. Robert is styled, in the E. 
Jersey Records, " Sieur des Prairies [de la Prairie] of the 
city of Caen, France; " whence he is commonly called, in 
the Records and other documents of the day, " Laprairie."i- 
In modern histories, he is more frcquentl}^, but erroneously 
called Yan Quellin, as if he had been a Dutchman and not 
a Frenchman. Jersey, the home of the Carteret family, was 
inhabited principally by Frenchmen, and there, most prob- 
ably, Yauquellin resided before his emigration. lie accom- 
panied Capt. Philip Carteret, Jan., 166f, to England, and, 
Feb. 10, 166|, was appointed, by Berkeley and Carteret, 
Surveyor General of their new domain in America. The 
surveys, recorded in the E. J. Records, from 1675 to 1681, all 
bear his signature, generally — " Ro Yauquellin," and some- 

*E. J. Eeconls, I. ICO; ir. 19, 21. E. T. Bill, p 105. Savage, IV. 350. Thompson's L. 
I., I. .574, SS6. 

t The varieties of ortho2;raphy at this period aro shown by the fact, that tliis name was 
written in at least 22 different ways : Vauquelin, Vanqiiellin, Vaiigucliin, Van Quellin, Van- 
qiiillen, Voclin (as pronounced), Voclan, Vorklain, La Prairie, La prairy. La prarij, Laparary, 
La prciio, La Trie, La priere, Loprary, Liprary, Dclaprary, Deleprny, Dclepriorre, Dclapairs, 
and Delapierre. 



98 THE HISTORY OP 

times, "La Prairie." lie was appointed, Feb. 2, 166|, one 
of Carteret's Council, and adhered faithfully to the Gover- 
nor's party and interests. Though admitted by the town as 
one of the 80 Associates, he had scarcely any interest in 
common with these sturdy Puritans. 

He had a warrant for 300 acres of land " in Eight of him 
and his wife that came with the Governor." He had a 
house-lot, containing 12 acres, 30 by 4 chains, bounded, E,, 
by Philip Carteret, Esq., and Richard Pewtinger ; W., by 
William Pardon, Joseph Meeker, Benjamin Meeker and 
George Morris ; S., by a highway ; and, N., by his own 
land ; also, 8 acres of upland or swamp, bounded by George 
Morris, Richard Pewtinger, Henry Norris, and a highway ; 
also 4 acres of upland " near the Gov"" point, on the S. Side 
of Math. Hatfeilds Line ;" also, 40 acres of upland, bounded 
by John Woodruff, Benjamin Parkhurst, Samuel Moore, 
George Morris, and a highwa}'^ ; also, 40 acres of upland " at 
Rawack," bounded by Simon Rouse, Samuel Marsh, Jr., un- 
surveyed land, a small brook, and "Rawack river;" also, 
40 acres of upland, " at the two mile brook ; " also, 27 acres 
of upland, bounded by Leonard Headley, Joseph Sayre, Isaac 
Whitehead, Joseph Meeker, unsurveyed land, and the Mill 
Creek ; also, 4 acres of meadow, on E. T. Creek, 4 acres on 
"Rawack River," and 12 acres "on a small branch in 
Rawack River : " in all, 191 acres. A caveat, or protest, 
was entered by Benjamin Price, against the four acres ad- 
joining Matthias Hatfield. He was naturalized. Mar. 8, 
1669-70. Finding, at length, that the puritanic townsmen, 
with whom he was compelled to associate, were any thing 
but congenial companj^, he concluded to change his res- 
idence. In 1678, he had removed to Woodbridge. He 
obtained, Feb. 4, 1681, a warrant for 200 acres of Land 
and Meadow on the Raritan, for himself, " in Right of 
two men Servants and one AVoman viz. Elizabeth Hallard, 
Edward fox & Francis the Spaniard ; " also, shortly after, 
another warrant for 500 acres on the Raritan. lie had 
obtained a Patent for 175 acres in Woodbridge, as early 
as Dec. 20, 1669. He received a warrant, Mar. 10, 168f , 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 99 

for 200 more acres adjoining his own land in Wood- 
bridge. After this no further mention is made of him 
in the Kecords. In 1681, he was succeeded by John Eeid, 
as Surveyor Generah* 

Dennis "White was from Southampton, L. I. John White, 
the first settler of this name there, was at Lynn, Mass., in 
1630, and at Southampton in 164:7. Dennis was either his 
son, or his brother. He had a house-lot, containing nine 
acres, bounded, E., by Thomas Moore, Matthias Hatfield, 
and unsurveyed land ; S. S. E., by Jonas Wood ; W., and 
N. W., by highways. He had, also, 90 acres of upland, ad- 
joining Aaron Thompson ; also, 12 acres of meadow : in all, 
101 acres. In 1675, this property had come into the pos- 
session of Gov. Carteret. It is likely, therefore, that Dennis 
White had removed from the town previous to that date, as 
nothing more is heard of him. Egbert White (his brother, 
it is thought), was also numbered among the 80 Associates, 
and had come in at an early date. His house-lot contained 
8 acres, bounded S. W., by Roger Lambert ; ^N". E., by John 
Little ; S. E., by William Letts ; and N. W., by a highway. 
He had, also, 50 acres of upland, bounded "by a little brook 
& a highway that goes to Woodbridge," John Winans, his 
own land, unsurveyed land, and the mile brook ; also, 34 
acres of upland adjoining Jonas Wood; also, 4 acres of 
swamp, and 12 acres of meadow : in all, 108 acres, granted 
him, "in Right of himself his wife & Daughter." The- 
latter, whose name was Ann, was old enough in March, 167|- 
to be married. His wife Agatha had become a widow in. 
1688.t 

Isaac Whitehead was, of the j^ew Haven Company of im- 
migrants. He was the son of John, one of the founders of 
]Sr. Haven. Isaac was a planter there, as early as 1643, and- 
took the oath of fidelity Mar. 7, 164^. He resided on the E.. 
side, next the sea, beyond the Cove River. He came hither 
with a wife and 7 children. He was chosen the first Town 

* Moreri's llis. Die. of 1T40, VIII. torn. ii. 49. E. J. Kecords, 1. 15, 107, 189, 239 ; II. 3, 91, 
132, 143 ; o. e. 22 ; HI. 7, 167 ; L. 139. E. T. Bill, p. 109. 

t Sav.-ige, IV. 310. Thompson's L. I., I. 327. IIowoll, pp. 15, 89, 96 286, 7. E. J. Eccords, I. 
165; 0.0. 1; II. 8, 19, 51, 73; o. c. 4; B. 333, 4; C. C. 64. E. T. B.ll, pp. 106, 110. 



100 THE HISTORY OF 

Clerk, and served as such until his death. He was ai)pointed, 
Mar. 22, 1G| •), Captain of the Military Comi)any ; also. Mar. 
28, 1683, one of the Judges of Small Causes ; also, in 1GS6 ; 
also, Dec. 3, 1GS3, Coroner of the County. He had a house- 
lot, containing six acres, bounded, S. E., by Nathaniel Bon- 
nell ; N. W., by his son, Isaac ; N. E., by his own land ; and, 
S. W., by a highway. He had, also, 18 acres of upland, 
bounded by his son, Isaac, Benjamin Price, Jr., Nathaniel 
Bonnell, and his own house-lot ; also, 12 acres of upland, "at 
the W. side of the plain," bounded by Kobert Vauquellin, 
Samuel Hopkins, and Joseph Meeker ; also, 20 acres of up- 
land, on " the Long Neck," bounded by liobert Bond, Benja- 
min Price, Jr., Nicholas Carter, and Henry Lyon ; also, 45 
acres of upland, adjoining Benjamin Meeker and Henry 
Lyon ; also, 55 acres of upland, " at the great pond," bounded 
by Rev. Jeremiah Peck, Henry Lyon, and " the Sinking 
Marsh ; " also, 8 acres of meadow on Woodruff's creek ; also, 
10 acres of meadow on " Arthur Cull's bay ; " also, 3} acres 
of meadow, on E. T. Creek : in all 177|^ acres. His decease 
occurred in Feb. 169^. 

His eldest son, Isaac, born at New Haven, Nov. 20, 1652, 
was bred a cordwainer, and early became one of the Asso- 
ciates. He, too, was held in much consideration ; he became, 
Nov. 4, 1693, captain of the militia ; was appointed, Sep. 
16, 1692, Sheriff of the town ; also, Jan. 29, 169f , one of the 
Judges of Small Causes ; also, April 1, 1693, Coroner for the 
County ; and, Aug. 22, 1695, a Justice of the Peace for Essex. 
He had a house-lot containing four acres, bounded, E., by his 
father, and on the other sides by highways ; also another 
house-lot, of- six acres, bounded, N., and W., by his father; 
E., by Thomas Price ; and, S., by a liighway ; also, 64 acres 
of upland, "on the East Side of the Mill Creek of Elizabeth 
Town," bounded by Jonathan Ogden, John Ogden, Jr., and 
Baltus Dellart ; also, 65 acres of upland, " to the North- 
ward of the Spring hill," bounded by Henry Lyon, and Mar- 
garet Baker ; also, 35 acres of upland, " on the North side of 
the Country road to AVoodbridge," bounded by John Toe, 
James Hinds, Bobcrt White, and Roger Lambert ; also, 6 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. IQl 

acres of fresh meadow, adjoining John "Woodruff; also 20 
acres of meadow, a part " on Sloping Creek," and another 
part on •' Oyster Creek : " in all 200 acres. lie died, July 1, 
1724.* 

John Winans [Wtnes, "Waynes, Winons, Winnons, "VVy- 
NONS, Wynens, Wynans, Wynnings] was, doubtless, of the 
company that came from the East End of Long Island. It is 
quite likely, that he was of the same family with Barnabas 
"Wines, their names being frequently spelt alike. He was 
bred a weaver — a handicraft, in great request at that early 
day. He had a house-lot, containing 5 acres, 10 by 5 chains, 
bounded, N., by Jacob Melyen ; "W., by Humphrey Spinage; 
and, S., and E., by highways. He had, also, 16 acres of up- 
land, "on the Neck," between Matthias Hatfield and Samuel 
Marsh, Sen' ; also, 120 acres of upland, " on Peach Garden 
brook," bounded by Robert Morse, Matthias Hatfield, Robert 
"White, and unsurveyed land ; also, 40 acres of land, on " tlie 
S. branch of Elizabeth Creek or River," bounded by Hum- 
phrey Spinage, Matthias Hatfield, and the plain ; also, 4 
acres of meadow, " at Rawack," and 6 acres on Elizabeth 
Creek : in all 200 acres. "When his next neighbor, Jacob 
Melyen, had removed to New York, "Winans bought, Feb. S, 
167f, his house-lot, house, barn, orchard, &c. He died at 
the close of 1694. His estate was valued at £271. 15. 8. f 

Barnabas "Wines ["Wynes, Winds] was from Soathold, L. I. 
He was the son of Goodman Barnabas, who was made. May 6, 
1635, a freeman of Watertown, Mass., sold out in 1642, and 
removed to Southold, where Barnabas, Jr., was made a free- 
man in 1664. His brother, Samuel, remained with his father, 
but he himself joined the Acliter Kol band of emigrants and 
came iiere in 1665. His house-lot contained six acres, 
bounded, N., by Aaron Thompson ; S., by William Cramer; 
E., by the Mill River ; and, W., by a highway ; also, two 
acres of upland, adjoining Aaron Thompson ; also, four acres 
of upland, " at Luke Watson's point ; " also, 30 acres of up- 

* N. it. Col. Records, I. 94, 122, 125, 139, 434, 446, 4.'59. Savage, IV. 516. E. J. Records, 
II. IS, 94; o. 0. 24; C. 1-3, 106, 150, 171, 233; E. 46, IIT; L. 76; O. 104, 8, 117. E. T. Hill, pp. 
83, 4, 103. 

t E. J. Eoponls, I. 108, 161 ; II. 22, 87 ; D. 197. E. T. Bill, p. 105. 



102 THE HISTORY OF 

land "in a Swamp between Richard Beach and "William 
Cramer ; " also, 86 acres of upland, bounded by Nicholas 
Carter, George Pack, Francis Barber, and unsurveyed land ; 
also, 12 acres of upland, " Jojning to the Calf pasture," and 
George Ross ; also, six acres of meadow at Thompson's 
Creek ; also six acres of meadow at the S. side of E. T. Creek, 
and 12 acres by " the boggish meadow ; " in all, 161: acres.* 

Peter "Wolverson [Wolferzen, Wolphertsen] Van Cou- 
WENHOVEN was a genuine Hollander, from New Amsterdam. 
He was born at Amersfoort in Utrecht, Holland ; and was 
a step-son of Wolfert Gerritsen, who emigrated to New 
Netherland, in 1630, as overseer of Kilian Van Rensselaer's 
colon}'-, at Rensselaerwyck, near Fort Orange. Gerritsen, 
in 1633, entered the Company's service, and removed to 
New Amsterdam. Three years afterwards he took up his 
abode at New Amersfoort, or Flatlands, L. I., of which he 
was one of the founders. Yonng Wolferzen, in 1639, or earlier, 
came to New Amsterdam, where, at that time, he contracted 
to build a house for Thomas Hall. The next year, Dec. 2, 
16-10, he married Hester Symons, a native of Amsterdam, 
but then of New York. His brother, Jacob, also a resident 
of New Amsterdam, erected, in 1645, a brewery in Stone st. 
Peter, too, became a brewer, and a general trader, first in 
company with his brother, and then by himself, at the N. "W. 
corner of Whitehall and Pearl sts. He served one term of 
two years, and four terms of a year each, as one of the "Wor- 
shipful Schcpens " of the city. In March, 1655, he was ap- 
pointed City Surveyor; also, Juno 30, 1663, a lieutenant of 
the military company, of which Martin Kregier was Captain. 
As such lie did good service in the Esopus War, in the latter 
part of 1663, of which Kregier published a detailed narra- 
tive. 

After the English conquest, Wolferzen had some difficulty 
■with the Court of Assizes, and concluded to unite with his 
friends, John Ogden and Capt. Baker, in founding their new 
colony. In Nov. 1665, liis wife having died, lie married 

♦ N. n. Col. Records, I. OT, 293, 400. Savage, IV. 693. Ilinm.in's P. S. Ct., I. 198. E. J. 
Records, II. 22. 90; o. c. 11. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 103 

Alice Sj'brants, of French extraction, with whom he removed 
at once to his new home. She died, the following year, in 
giving birth to her son, Peter, and was buried at JSTew York. 
Her child was baptized, in the Dutch Church, Feb. 27, 1669. 
In the list of Associates, he is called, " Peter Couenhoven." 
Having built a brewery, he obtained, from Gov. Carteret, a 
license " for the keeping of an Ordinary in Elizabeth Towne 
and for the selling and retailing of all sorts of drink and 
strong Liquors," for one year from Sep. 29, 1666. To meet 
his expenditures, he borrowed, July 12, 1667, of the Gov- 
ernor, " 2727 gilders 17 stivers ; " mortgaging, as he says — 
" all my Land dwelling hows and out-houses, Brewhows, 
Copper and all other appurtenances thereunto belonging, to- 
gether "With all my goods and cattle moveable and unmovea- 
ble that I now have or may hereafter have in Elizabeth 
Towne." When the Dutch reconquered New York, Wolfer- 
zen returned to the City, and Carteret came, by foreclosure, 
into possession of the property. He is said to have been 
" well-versed in the Indian language." 

He was entitled to 480 acres, for which the Governor is- 
sued a warrant, Mar, 14, 1675, to himself. Of this amount, 
200 acres were surveyed, April 14, 1677, as follows: The 
liouse-lot, " formerly belonging to Peter Woolverson," con- 
tained eight acres, " being a Triangle peice," near John 
"Woodruff's landing, by a small creek ; also, 40 acres of up- 
land, on the Neck, bounded, S. W., " by the highway that 
goes to the point, and all round by Governo' Philip Carteret's 
Land ; " also, 152 acres of upland " towards the plaine " 
bounded by Daniel DeHart, Elizabeth Creek, Leonard Head- 
ley, and unsurveyed land ; also, 3 acres of meadow, adjoining 
the house-lot, on Elizabeth Creek ; also, 6 acres of meadow 
on " the bay of Kill van Kull," and 15 acres of meadow on 
Oyster Creek and the great pond : in all, 224 acres."' 

Jonas Wood, and his wife Elizabeth, were neighbors of 
John Ogden, in 1652, at North Sea, or Northampton, in the 

• Valentino's N. T., pp. 89, 90. O'Callaghan's N. Ncth., II. 47C, 9, 500. Brodhcad's N. Y., 
I. 353, 54S, 571, 712-1 Doc. His. of N. Y., IV. 47-39. Valentine's Man. fur 1962, pp. 393-5. 
Alb. Uocords, 1. 150,223; II. 4; IV. 193; X. 170, 393 ; XXIII. 277. E.J. Records, I. 1C7; II. 
19, &0, 5; III. 10, 11. £. T. Bill, p. 109. liikcr's Newtown, pp. 55, 360, 1. 



104 THE HISTORY OF 

town of Southampton, L. I. Jonas and Edward Wood were 
members of the church at Watertown, Mass., in 1635; and, 
witli John StrickLind and others, were dismissed, May 29, 
1635, to plant a colony on the Connecticut river, to which 
they gave the name of " Wethersfield." In 164:0, Jonas, Ed- 
ward, Jeremiah, and Jonas, Jr. removed from Wethers- 
field, and, with others, settled Rippowams [Stamford], Ct. 
Jonas and Edward are thought to have been brothers, and 
the other two their sons. In the spring of 1644, they joined 
the colony that crossed over to Long Island, and settled 
Hempstead, Jonas being one of the patentees. Jonas, and 
Jonas, Jr., subsequently settled at Huntington, L. I., and 
were both living there in 1675. The Jonas, therefore, who 
accompanied John Ogden to l^orthampton, and, in 1665, to 
this town, must have been a son of Edward, and a cousin of 
Jonas, Jr., supposing the latter, as is most natural, to have 
been the son of Jonas, Sen' — there being three persons, con- 
temporaneous, bearing the same name, and thus occasioning 
confusion in tracing their genealogy. He appears to have 
been much respected by his townsmen here. He received 
license, July 10, 1679, to keep an ordinary, and was chosen, 
Nov. 3, 1693, and again in 1694, a Deputy to represent the 
town in the Legislature. 

He had a house-lot, containing six acres, bounded, N. W., 
by Richard Mitchell; S. W., by William Letts; S. E., by 
the highway ; and, IST. E,, by Samuel Marsh, Sen . He had, 
also, 9 acres of upland, bounded by William Oliver, Charles 
Tucker, Richard Clarke, and George Ross ; also, 3 acres of 
upland, adjoining Dennis AVhite and the Common ; also, 150 
acres of upland " at Rahawack," adjoining Jeffry Jones and 
Capt. John Raker ; also, 50 acres of upland, " a Ridge of 
Land between two Swamps," adjoining Robert AVhite and 
the Common ; also six acres of meadow, on Elizabeth Creek, 
bounded by William Johnson, William Cramer, and Richard 
Clark ; also, 14 acres of meadow adjoining his upland at 
" Rahawack ; " and 10 acres of meadow on " Rahawack 
River : " in all, 228 acres. Several of these parcels he ex- 
changed. May 29, 1678, with Simon Rouse. In company with 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 105 

liis son, Samuel, be purchased, June 24, 1686, several parcels 
of Robert Morse ; and sold, Aug. 25, 1686, a part of his patent ; 
also, June 29, 1687, 100 acres to " And rise Price Gaer of 
E. T. ;" and, Oct. 17,1688, the half of liis house-lot to James 
Emott Esq., a new comer in 1683.* 

John Woodeuff [Woodrofe] was of the Southampton 
colony. He was the son of John Woodruff, who was living, 
1657, on the E. side of the street, between Thomas Burnett" 
and John Foster. The father died, at Southampton, in May, 
1670. In his Will, May 4, 1670, is this bequest : " I give 
unto my Eldest son John Woodruff of Elizabeth Town one 
halfe Crowne piece of Money in full of all portions & Pat- 
rimony whatsoever, to be expected from mee, or out of any 
part of my Estate." At the close of the Will, he says — " I 
by this make my Wife Anne Woodruff and my youngest son 
John Woodruff joynt Executors of this my Last Will and 
Testament." Here are two sons of the same father named 
^'- JohnP Were they children of the same mother, also? Or 
was one of them an adopted son ? f His daughter, Elizabeth, 
was married to a son of Ralph Dayton (probably, Robert) of 
East Hampton. His daughter, Anne, was married to a son 
of Robert Wooley. The emigrant son brought with him, to 
this town, his wife, Mary, with " two men and a maid ser- 
vant," His children were born after liis arrival. He was 
appointed Constable of the town, Dec. 11, 1674, Ensign, 
July 15, 1675, and Sheriff of the County, Kov. 28, 1684. 

His house-lot contained but \\ acres, bounded, W., by 
John Ogden, and, on the other sides, by highways. He had, 
also. " a Farme cont» Two Hundred Ninety two Acres," 
since known as " Woodruff's Farms," bounded, N., and W., 
by a great Swamp ; E., by the Common Meadow ; and, S., 
by a small brook and John Parker ; also, 14 acres on the 
ISTorth Neck ; also, 5 acres bounded by the Common Pasture, 

* Ct. Col. Eecords, I. 2, 172, 4, 190, 2, 276, 2S1. 8, 379, 8S0, 401. Chnpin's Glnstenbury. 
pp. 27, 47. ninman's P. 8. of Ct., I. IS, 2-32, 405. Thompson's L. I., L 330, 4C7 ; II. 5, G, 105. 
Howell, p. 805. E. J. Eecords, I. 70, 109, 154; II. 21, SO; III. 15H; B. 40, 121, 132; D. 4S. 
E. T. Bill, p. 105. 

t A Kimilar case is related in the Shottuck family of Saybrook, Ct., at this same period. 
Shattuck Mi'morial, p. 72. 



106 THE HISTORY OF 

his own land, a small brook, and Leonard Headley ; also, 8 
acres of upland, bounded by the Governor, and Jonathan 
and Joseph Ogden's house-lots; also, 6 acres of upland join- 
ing John Parker's house-lot " at the Farmes," bounded by 
John Parker, the Common Swamp, John AVilson, and his 
own land, " through which a way must be Left for John 
Parker to pass through to his Plantation ; " also, 30 acres of 
meadow, joining the great Island and his own land ; also, 
4 acres of meadow adjoining the above ; and 5|- acres of 
meadow on E. Town Creek : in all, 320 acres. Still later 
he obtained 120 acres more : an island or hammock in the 
great Meadow, containing 3G acres ; also, 22 acres by the 
brook in the swamp ; also, 30 acres of hassocks adjoining 
George Morris ; also, 14 acres of hassocks adjoining John 
Parker ; also, 9 acres of meadow on Oyster Creek ; also, 
five acres of meadow on the Bay ; and four acres on Forked 
Creek.* 

CapV^ Thomas Young and Christopher Young were from 
Southold, L. I. They w'ere sons of the Rev. John Youngs, 
the first pastor of the Southold Church. The father was born 
in 1602, and Joan, his wife, in 1G03. They married early, 
and had six children in 1637 : — John, Thomas, Anne, Rachell, 
Mary, and Joseph. Christopher was born at a later date. 
John Young, in 1637, was the minister of " St. Margretts, 
Sufi"." in England. Tiiey sought, May 11, " to passe fo 
Salam in New England to inhabitt; " but leave was refused. 
Three years later the}' succeeded, and, with some of their 
church, came to New Haven, whence they crossed to Long 
Island, and founded Southold. John and Thomas were both 
mariners, in command of coasters. Thomas was born, 1627, 
in England, and married, at Southold, Rebecca, a daughter 
of Thomas Mapes. In 1654, he removed to Oyster Bay. 
His wife died, and he married, 1658, Sarah, a dauglitcr of 
John Frost. 

It is quite probable, that it was in Capt. Thomas Young's 
vessel, that the first colonists from the towns on the East 

•N.T. Book of Wills, 1.131. Howell, p. 803. E. J. Records, 1. 150 ; 11.14,25; HI. 20. 
23, 105- A. 400 ; C. 87 ; L. 103, 4. E. T. Bill, p. 102. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 107 

End of Long Island removed to this place ; and, in the 
same way, others afterwards came, encouraged by the good 
reports brought them, by Capt. Young, of the new home so 
happily found by their old neighbors. 

His name heads the list of those who took the oath of 
allegiance, Feb., 166f. On the 12th of the same month, he 
was appointed one of the Governor's Council. Two days 
afterwards, John Day,. Cooper of E, Town, binds himself as 
a servant to Capt. Philip Carteret, and Capt. Thomas Young, 
of E. Town, for two years, in the craft or trade of a Cooper, 
to receive " competent meat Drink and house-room," and 
" the halfe p*^ of "Wliat Coopers Work he shall doe and 
earne." By Indenture, Mar. 25, 1672, Sewanam, a Long 
Island Indian, binds himself to " Thomas Young of Elizabeth 
Town, mariner," as his servant, for four years, " about the 
House or Family or abroad w^hether by Land or Water," 
on condition of being supplied " with sufficient Meat Drink 
and Clothes Washing and Lodging according to his Rank 
and Quality," to receive for his services a Mare, and, "after 
the first voyage to Europe or Barbados, one suit of apparel." 
It thus appears that Capt. Young was in the European and 
West India trade, and quite a venturesome navigator for 
the times. 

He had a warrant for 240 acres of land, of which only 
112 acres are described : 100 acres, at Young's point, bound- 
ed on three sides by Sir George and Philip Carteret, a 
great pond, and unsurveyed land ; and on the other side by 
meadow; one line running " along the meadow till it comes 
to a point of land Near the Indian wigwam ; " also, 12 acres 
of meadow contiguous to the above, the great pond, and 
the swampy meadows. The locality was chosen, doubtless, 
because of his sea-faring pursuits. It was at the junction of 
Achter Kol Sound, and Newark Bay, a point of land then call- 
ed " Thomas Young's Point," but, in later years " De Hart's 
Point," about a mile N. from the Governor's or " Old Point," 
where the Carterets had most of the land. A lot of land 
was laid out for him, in 1676, on the S. side of Staten Island, 
N. E. of "Seedar Poynte." His brother, Christopuer, sold 



108 THE HISTORY OF 

Nov. 20, 1667, all his accommodations, at E. Town, being a 
first lot-right, and a house-lot of four acres (bounded, S,, by 
George Pack ; N., by the Common ; AV., " by the highway 
that goeth to Woodbridge ; " and E. by another highway), 
to Dennis White, for £10. On the 8th of June following, 
White assigned it to Young again, by whom, not long after- 
wards, it was sold to John Little. Neither of the brothers 
became permanent residents here. Capt. Thomas returned 
to Oyster Bay, where he rested from his earthly pilgrimage, 
in 1689. Christopher returned to the Island, and settled at 
Southold, his former home, where he was living in 1675, and 
1683.* 

Benjamin Concklin came with his East-Hampton neigh- 
bors, but, for some unexplained cause, soon after returned 
to his former home. Joseph and Joshua Conklin, of the 
same lineage, came here some forty years later, and found- 
ed the Conklin family of this town. They were probably 
children or grandchildren of the Benjamin here noticed." f 

Roderick Powell was a servant, and, in the May fol- 
lowing, having run away from his master, is described as 
" a pittiful fellow." A Rlcliard Powell of another lineage, 
doubtless, was here, only a few years later, to whom the 
Governor sold, Jan. 167^, his Woodbridge lands, taking 
Powell's E. T. house and lands in exchange, and selling the 
latter, soon after, to Henry Lyon. % 

Jacob Clais, Zackert Graves, Mosks Peterson, and 
Thomas Skillman, who all took the oath, were either tran- 
sient persons, or were mere labo7*ors, and not freeholders. 

Three other names, at least, are to be added to the list 
of those who were settlers during the first year — James 
Bollcn, Robert Sealey, and, Philip Carteret. 

James Bollen came over, it is tliought, with the English 
fleet in 166i. As he was styled " Capt.," he may have 

♦ 4 Mass. His. Soc. Coll., L 101; IT. ."ISS. Thompson's L. I., I. 395; II. SSl-3. E.J. 
Records, I. 1, 25, 6; II. 18, 105 ; o. e. 26; III. 7, 8. K. T. Bill, pp. 61, 109, 110. N. York 
Doc. History, IL 451, 5, 536. 

t Hedges' E. Hampton, pp. 4, 63. Thompson's L. I., I. 295, 310. Littcll's Passaic VaUey, 
pp. 88-90, 500-1. , J E. J. Records, I- 93, 131 ; III. 8. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JEKSEY. 109 

been ill coninumd of one of the vessels. Col. Nicolls ap- 
pointed liim " Comuiissaiy of the Ammunition," at J^ew 
York. He was one of those who were deputed by Nicolls, 
to receive the surrender of the fort at iN'ew Amsterdam, 
Sep. 8, 16G4. He remained at New York until Aug. 1665. 
In the Court Records for that year, it appears, that he fre- 
quently served as Foj-eman of the Jury, his name being 
written—" Bullaine," and " Balline." When Capt. Carteret, 
on his first voyage to America, arrived at " Newportes newes, 
Virginia," he sent his dispatches, June 13, 1665, " to Capt. 
James Bullaigne in New York;" indicating previous ac- 
quaintanceship, probably in the Island of Jersey, and, quite 
likely, a French extniction for BoUen. He attached himself 
to Gov. Carteret on his arrival at New York, and, as Secre- 
tary of the new Province, accompanied him, in August, to 
this town. He adhered, most rigidly, to" the Governor 
through his troublesome administration, and was rewarded 
with the entire confidence of his superior. He was appoint- 
ed Justice of the Peace, Jan. 20, 166f, and, as such, ofHciated 
in almost every instance in the marriage-services of the 
period. He presided at the town meeting when the oath 
of allegiance was administered in February. He kept the 
Records of the Proprietary Government, and several of the 
etirly volumes are the work of his fingers. Becoming ex- 
ceedingly obnoxious to the town, by his readiness to do all 
the Governor's bidding in. opposition to the people, he ex- 
changed properties, Sep. 30, 1673, with John Martin, of 
Woodbridge, and thenceforward ceased to reside here. His 
house-lot adjoined Abraham Shotwell's on the East. Martin 
sold the property, Nov. 6, 1674, to Henry Lyon, who resold 
it. May 1, 1675, " together with the Cow Yard Orchard or 
Garden," to Carteret, for £30. He died, intestate, in March, 
168|, having survived his friend, Carteret, but a few weeks.* 
Robert Sealey [Seeley] came over, probably, with "VVin- 
tlirop. He was at Watertown, Mass., in 1630 ; was employ- 
ed as Surveyor, in 163-1 ; came to Wethersficld, Ct., in 1636 ; 

♦ N. Y. Col. Docints., 11. 470; III. '203-300, 752. Valentino's Manual for 1852, pp. 4S3, 
492, 6. 3 Mass. Uis. Soc. Coll., X. 52. E. J. Records, I. 89; III. G; A. 1. 



110 THE HISTORY OF 

was a Lieutenant in the Pequot War of 1637 ; was one of 
tlie first settlers of New Haven, in 1G39 ; returned to Eng- 
land, about 1646 ; came back, and joined the Delaware 
Colony, that was driven off by the Dutch, in 1651 ; had 
command of the troops raised by New Haven to resist the 
Dutch, in 1654 ; was at Saybroolc, in 1662 ; was at Hunt- 
ington, L. I., and in charge of the militia, in 1663 ; and 
was at New York, in 1664. The next year he united with 
Ogden and others in settling this town. His house-lot con- 
tained six acres, bounded, N., by Rev. Jeremiah Peck ; 
W., by the Mill Creek ; E., by the highway ; and, S., by 
" the Parson's house Lott." John and Nathaniel Seeley, of 
Fairfield (1657), and Obadiah, of Stamford, Ct,, it is thought, 
were his sons, by his first wife. In Dece<nber, 1666, he 
married Nancy Walker, at New York. He died, intestate, 
in Oct., 1668, and his widow sold, Nov. 2, 1668, his lands 
and rights here, for £45, to Gov. Carteret. The latter re- 
sold it, Feb. 22, 1669-70, to one of his Old Jersey friends. 
Claude Vallot, " of Champagne in the kingdom of France," 
who had come over with the Governor, and, having lived 
here five years as one of Carteret's "menial servants," had, 
12 days before been naturalized. In the list of Associates, 
" Sealy Champain " is mentioned ; it should be, " Robert 
Sealy, transferred to Claude Yallot of Champagne." Yallot 
exchanged the property, Aug. 8, 1672, with Benjamin Park- 
hurst of Woodbridge, and thenceforward made the latter 
place his home.* 

Ccvpt. Philip Carteret, the governor, is usually styled 
" the brother " of Sir George Carteret. Philip, the brother 
of Sir George, as stated on a previous page, died in 1665. 
Consequently, the E. Town Philip could not be the Pro- 
prietor's brother. Nor could he be a brother-in-law. Lady 
Elizabeth Carteret, the wife of Sir George, had also a brother, 
Philip, but he died in 1662. The mother of Sir George 
was Elizabeth Dumaresque ; and the mother of the Lady 

♦ 3 Jilass. His. Soc. Coll., III. 143, 153. Bacon's New Haven, p. 315. Chnpin's Glastenburj-, 
p. 46. N. Y. Mfirriageg, p. 345. Savage, IV. 49. E. T. Bill, p. 108. E. J. Records, I. 6, 7 ; 
II. 96. N. Y. Wills, I. 64. : 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. HI 

Elizabetli was Ann Dowse ; but Capt. Philip, the governor, 
in his Will, speaks of his mother as " Rachel." Samuel 
Maverick, one of the Kojal Commissioners, who knew Gov. 
Carteret intimately, says, June 29, 1669, " As Sir George 
Carterett writes to his cosen, the present Gouernor." The 
confusion may have been owing, in part, to the fact, that 
each of them was the son of a llelier Carteret. But the 
father of Sir George was the great-grandson of Edward, 
and the father of Philip was the great-grandson of Edward's 
brother, Pichard ; so that Sir George was but the fourth 
cousin of the governor. 

Philip Carteret was the son of Holier De Carteret, At- 
torney General of Jersey, and of Rachel . He was 

the first born of his mother, his birth having occurred in 
1639, the year after her marriage. As such, he became 
Seigneur of the Manor of La Houque, Parish of St. Peter, 
Jersey. He was the grandson of Peter De Carteret, Jurat 
of the Royal Court of Jersey, whose father, Francis, was 
the second son of Richard, Seigneur of the Manor of Yin- 
cheles, and brother of Edward, the ancestor of Sir George. 
Philip was forty years the junior of Sir George, being only 
in his 26th year, full of the vigor and elasticity of early man- 
hood, when he embarked to seek his fortune in the New 
World. His subsequent history is, elsewhere in this narra- 
tive, related at length. 

The family, and their friends in Jersey, were originally 
French ; and the language, manners and customs of France 
prevailed on the island. Most of those who came with Car- 
teret, in the ship " Philip," were, probably, from the Carteret 
estates in Jersey, and of French origin. The family, as has 
been seen, had been ardently devoted, throughout the Civil 
War, to the fortunes of the house of Stuart, and were high in 
the favor of the King, and the Duke of York.* 

It appears, from this review, therefore, that the number of 
planters, found here in February 166|, or, if not on the 
ground, yet identified with the settlement, was about seventy. 

• Collins' Peerage, (Ed. of 1735), IV. 821-8. 



112 THE HISTORY OF 

A large proportion, nearly all, had brought their wives with 
them. Some of them had several children, also. A small 
number were considerably in years. Tlie most of them, 
however, were young, vigorous, robust men, between the 
ao-es of twenty-five and forty, — just the men to la}' the foun- 
dations of many generations. 

It further appears, that the town was actually settled be- 
fore the arrival of Gov. Carteret ; and that he, and the peo- 
ple whom he brought with him, had but a small share in 
founding it. Tiie current histories have generally left the 
impression, that the first planters, with the exception of four 
families, came over in the ship " Philip." Gordon says, that 
Carteret " arrived with a company of thirty settlers, from 
England, and established themselves at Elizabethtown." Dr. 
Murray repeats the same story. Smith says, " With him 
came about thirty people, some of them servants." So says 
"Whitehead ; both of them drawing their information from 
the Bill in Chancery ; which says, that he came " with above 
thirty people, whereof some were servants and others free." 
Mulford says, that, " in company with a number of persons 
who were disposed to adventure as planters, he started from 
England." Graham says, that he " arrived with a company 
of thirty emigrants from England." Stearns calls them — 
" thirty men, gentlemen and their servants." * 

These thirty "?^^c?^" were, part of them, 'Z6'o;««i-servants. 
Tlie only gentlemen were Carteret and Yauquellin, the latter 
of whom brought only his wife. The men-servants, as already 
related were eighteen in number, belonging to Sir George 
Carteret — " menial servants," as the Governor calls one of 
them. The town was founded, not by Carteret, but by Ogden, 
Watson, Baker, and their personal friends. The men, who 
met here in town-meeting at the close of the winter of 16(35-6, 
were nearly all Kew England people, the most of whom had 
come hither by the wa}' of Long Island. The larger part had 
been, for a while, residents of the three English towns on 

* Gordon's N. J., p. 23. Murray's Notes on E. T., p. IS. Smith's N. J., p. 67. White- 
head's E. J., p. 36. E. T. Bill, p. 2S. Mulford'sN. J.,p. 133. Graham'a U. States (Atn. Eil.), 
I. 465. Stftarn*' Newark, p. 9. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 113 

the east end of the Island, Southold, Southampton, and East 
Hampton. Some of them had resided a short time, at Hemp- 
stead, Huntington, and Jamaica. Either then, or at a pre- 
vious day, they had come from the other side of Long Island 
Sound, from Stamford, Fairfield, Milford, ISTew Haven and 
Guilford. Quite a number had come from Massachusetts 
Bay by way of Wethersiield. In their various pilgrimages, 
they had been, nearly all of them, associated together in the 
settling of other plantations. They were neighbors and 
friends, who had intermarried, and in other ways become 
familiar one with another. When they met here, they met 
as old acquaintances, — as one people.* 

As truly, therefore, as in the case of Newark, Southold, 
Southampton, East Hampton, Huntington, and Hempstead, 
this town was of !New England origin. Its founders were of 
the old Puritan Stock, and brought with them, to these fer- 
tile shores, their Puritan religion, habits, manners, and cus- 
toms. They were of one mind and one heart. The only dis- 
turbing element among them came from abroad. With 
Carteret and his company they had no congeniality, and al- 
most no sympathy. Though it has be'en charitably conjec- 
tured, " that the settlers brought here by Carteret were 
mainly of Puritan faith," not a doubt can be entertained of 
the erroneousness of the conjecture. Carteret's men were 
not properly immigrants. They were colonial agents, gov- 
ernmental officials, house-servants, and farm-laborers. A 
large part of them were, probably, Homan Catholics ; and 
the remainder, of the Church of England — the religion of the 
Court, if such a Court could be said to have any religion. 
These were not the men that gave character to the town, that 
laid its foundations, and gave form to the social, moral and 
religious character of the people.f 

The planters of this town had, the most of them, matured 
under the Commonwealth. They had learned, almost from 
their earliest days, to abjure the divine right of kings ; and 
to regard the House of Stuart with holy aversion, as invaders 

♦ E. T. Bill, pp. 107, 9. E. J. Records, III. 80. 
t Manual of 1st P. Chh. E. T., 1S58, p. 8. 



114 THE HISTORY OF 

of the vested ri^lits of the people, and as essentially imperi- 
ous despots. They had been trained to the largest liberty 
in government. The towns, which they and their fathers 
had founded, had been constituted, and their government ad- 
ministered, according to their own conceptions of truth and 
right. No praetorian governor, from a far country, presided, 
either in person or by proxy, in their town-meetings, or med- 
dled with their affairs in the least. Their governors, and all 
their rulers, were of themselves, freely and periodically 
chosen and inducted. The Deputies to their General Court 
were annually chosen. They met and deliberated, made and 
administered the laws, and took measures for the welfare of 
the people, witli none to molest, or " make them afraid." 
The Constitution of government, nnder which most of them 
had lived, was thoroughly democratic, making " no mention 
whatever, either of king or parliament or the least inti- 
mation, of allegiance to the mother country ; " in which 
" an oath of allegiance " was " required directly to the State," 
and the " General Court " was declared to be " the Supreme 
Power of the Commonwealth." * 

Carteret and his company, on the other hand, were mon- 
archists; diligently and saci'edly taught to believe in the di- 
vine right of kings ; to be jealous for the royal prerogative ; 
to hate and abjure both Cromwell and the Commonwealth ; 
(the Isle of Jersey having been the very last to hold out 
against the Parliamentary forces) ; to look with contempt 
upon the " round-heads ; " to make sport of Puritan strict- 
ness in religion and morals, and to live in the unrestrained 
indulgence that so commonly and shamefully characterized 
the Court of Charles. These were not, it will be seen, very 
congenial elements for the organization of- social, political 
and religious institutions. In the very nature of tlie case, 
occasional collisions between the Court party and the people 
were to be expected ; they could not be wholly avoided. 

* Dr. BufhncU's Speech for Ct., p. 12. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 115 



CHAPTER YI. 

A. D. 1666-1669. 

Government of the Town — Forms of Marriage Licenses- — Indentures, and the 
Hue and Cry for Runaways — Sale of the S. half of the Town — Settlement 
of Woodbridge and Newark — Traffic in Pipe Staves — Cold Winter — Rev. 
Abm. Pierson at Newark — Brackett appointed Ass. Surveyor — Newark 
Boundary prayerfully settled — Great Mortality — "Duke's Laws" — First 
Legislature of N. Jersey at E. T. — Laws — Second Session — Collision with 
the Governor — Abrupt Adjournment — Whaling Company — Disputes about 
Staten Island — Berkeley and Carteret in Trouble — Mortality. 

Governor Carteret appears to have entered upon liis ad- 
ministration with a desire to ingratiate himself with the peo- 
ple of the town, which he had chosen as the seat of govern- 
ment. John Ogden was commissioned, Oct. 26, 1665, as 
Justice of the Peace, and, Nov. 1, appointed one of the gov- 
ernor's Council. Capt. Thomas Young was, also, Feb. 12, 
166|-, appointed of the Council. A military company was 
organized, somewhat later, for the defence of the town against 
the Indians ; of which Luke Watson was made Lieutenant, 
and John Woodruff, Ensign. Watson was, also, made the 
constable of the town.* 

The work of planting and building went on rapidly. Car- 
teret had brought over, not only a large company of laborers 
to aid in subduing the wilderness, but also " several goods of 
great value, proper for the first planting and settling of New 
Jersey." Doubtless, it was regarded by the Associates, in 
their simplicity, as a special providence, that a man of such 
cultivation, and of resources so ample, with apparently such 
kind intentions, and so v/ell-disposed to cast in his lot. with 

• E. J. Eecorde, III. 3, 4, 7, 20, 21. 



IIG THE HISTORY OF 

them, should have been sent over, at this very time, to tliis 
very spot. Not apprehending any difficulty from the conflict 
of opinions and claims, which might grow out of their pecu- 
liar relations to each other, the town's people were rather flat- 
tered, it may well be thought, at the idea of the distinction to 
be given to their humble plantation, by having the Governor 
of the Province as one of their number, and their town made 
the seat of government."^ 

It is affirmed, and not denied, so far as appears, that the 
" ship Philip," that brought over the Governor, 

Having remained about six months in New-Jersey, returned for Eng- 
land ; and the year afterwards made another voyage to New-Jersey ; and 
sundry other ships and vessels from time to time, were sent by the Lords 
Proprietors to New Jersey with people and goods, to encourage the plant- 
ing and peopling thereof ; and, that upon the said Governor Carteret's 
arrival aforesaid, at Elizabeth Town, he paid to the Indians, with whom 
the said Bailey, Watson and Denton had bargained for the said lands as 
aforesaid, the greatest part of the consideration that had been agreed to 
be paid them. 

The means of verifying, or of disproving, these statements 
are not at hand. If the former be true, it accounts, in part 
for the rapidity with which the town advanced in substantial 
prosperity. If the latter, also, be true, it furnishes another 
confirmation of the conjecture, that, at his first coming, the 
Governor did not presume to call in question the validity of 
the Indian purchase and of the grant by his predecessor, 
Gov. Nicolls.f 

Owing to the loss of the early Records of the town, as al- 
ready noticed, very few of the incidents of the every-day life 
of the planters have been preserved. Here and there the 
pages of the Proprietary Records shed some light on what 
was passing among them. As an illustration of their mode 
of contracting marriages, the following may serve as a speci- 
men. It is the first entry of the kind on the Records, and 
probably the first that occurred in the town. The parties 
were servants, who had come over with the Governor, and 
afterwards settled on Staten Island : — 

♦ E. T. Bill, p. 28. t E. T. Bill, p. 28. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. llT 

License of Marringe. 

Whereas I have rec"^ Information of a mutual Interest and agreement 
betwene Hanicl Perrin of Elizabeth Towne in the province of New 
Jarsey and Jflaria Thorel of the same Towne Spinster \o solemnize 
ITariage together for which they liave Eequested my Lycense and there 
appearing no Lawfull Impediment for y^ Obstruction thereof These are to 
Eequlre You or Eyther of you to Joyne the said Daniel Perrin and Marie 
Thorel in Matrimony and them to pronounce man and Wife, and to make 
record thereof according to the Lawes in that behalfe provided, for the do- 
ing Whereof this shall be to you or Eyther of you a sufBcient Warrant. 
Given under my hand and scale the Twelft day of february An" 1G65 and 
in the 18th Yeare of his Ma"**^ Raign King Charles the Second. 

To any of the Justices of the Peace 

or Ministers W'hin the Government Ph Carteiett 

of the province of New Jarsey 

These Couple Where Joyned together in 
Matrimony the 18 feb. 16f| by me J BoUen* 

An Indenture is on record, of the 7tli of April, 1666, 
wlierein Robert Gray binds himself as a servant for three 
years to Luke "Watson ; the latter to give him, at the end of 
the term, " a good cowe," This is followed, on the 7th of the 
next month. May, with " a Hue and Cry " for a servant be- 
longing to Mr. Luke Watson, who has " lately absented hira- 
sclfe and runn away from his Master's service." A descrip- 
tion of the fugitive is given in these words : 

His name Robert graij an Englishman bornd, about 20 yeares of age, a 
lustij bodied portely fellow, light brownish haire, very little haire on his 
face, a little demij Castor, a gray broad cloth sute, the breeches tyed att the 
knees, and a red coate, besides a light graij coulored Serge breeches, and a 
Snap hansminskell that hee hath stoUen awaije w'^ many other things. 
It is Supposed that hee is in Company w"' one Ruderic Powell, a pittiful 
fellow, who hath also absented himselfe and runn awaij.f 

The territory purchased by the Associates of the Indians, 
and patented by Gov. Nicolls, was evidently ample enough 
for several towns, — vastly too large to be soon occupied by 
the original purchasers. The fame of the newly-opened 
country had reached the most distant parts of ISTew England, 
and colonists were attracted hither. Some of the people of 
Newbury, Mass., finding themselves uncomfortably straiten- 

* E. J. Records, III. 6. t lb., p. S. 



118 THE HISTORY OF 

ed for farming lands, sent a deputation to visit these parts, 
and, if pleased with what they saw and heard, to secure an 
eligible location for a town. Hospitably entertained on their 
arrival, and made acquainted, by personal inspection, with 
that part of the Elizabeth Town patent that lay between the 
Raritan and Rahway rivers, that had been ofiered .them, on 
fair terms, by the town, they concluded to purchase it. Ac- 
cording to the custom of the times, they applied to Gov. Car- 
teret and received, May 21, 1666, the necessary permit — John 
Pike, Daniel Pierce, and Abraham Tapping, [Tappan, or 
Tappin], in behalf of themselves and their Associates — to set- 
tle two townships within the bounds specified : for which a 
deed, duly executed, was given them, December 11, 1666, by 
Carteret, Ogden, and Watson, representing the Associates of 
the Town.* 

It has been affirmed, that, " at the date tliereof, no other 
persons were intitled to what right the said Indian purchase 
gave, than the said Philip Carteret, John Ogden and Luke 
Watson." It seems to have been forgotten that both the In- 
dian deed, or " bill of sale," of Oct. 28, 1664, and the Nicolls' 
patent of Dec. 1, 166'i, expressly conveyed the territory to 
the Grantees and Patentees respectively, " and their Asso- 
ciates,^^ whoever they might be, who thus, severally, became 
entitled to a right of property in the purchase, as truly as any 
one of the men described by name. If the Town-Book, in 
which their early transactions were duly recorded, were now 
accessible, it would, doubtless, show, that the matter had been 
submitted to the people in town-meeting, and a vote taken, 
giving to Carteret, Ogden and Watson, authority to alienate 
" the one moiety or half part " of their purchased possession. 
It was sold as such "half part of the said tract of land which 
was purchased of the Indians." By becoming a party to this 
transaction, therefore, Carteret again acknowledged the va- 
lidity of the original purchase and patent.f 

The consideration, for which this moiety was sold, as ex- 

* E. T. Bill. p. 29. E. J. Records, B. 182. Whitehead's E. Jersey, pp. 41,2, 1S3, 4. White- 
head's Perth Ambiiy, pp. 855. Albany Eecords, XXII. 85. 

t E. T. Bill, p. 30. Leamins and Spiccr'a Grinta, Concessions, &c., pp. CiO, 1. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 119 

pressed in the deed, was £80 sterling ; a sum more than suf- 
ficient, it has been said, to reimburse the people for the origi- 
nal outlay ; so much of it as had been advanced by Carteret 
being returned to him, and the remainder being paid into the 
common treasury.* 

The town was originally regarded as extending on the 
North, to the mouth of the Passaic river ; but arrangements 
were in progress, at this very time, to reduce these limits. 
Eobert Treat, of Milford, who, in 'Nov. 1661, had, with 
others, endeavored to come to an agreement with Gov, Stuy- 
Yesant, for the settlement of a plantation in these parts, and 
had failed to secure satisfactory conditions from the Dutch 
Government, had, some time in the winter of 166|-, or in the 
early spring, been again deputed, with others of his towns- 
men, to visit this section, and secure land sufficient for a town. 
On their arrival, they found themselves, at once, among old 
and valued friends and neighbors — men and women, with 
whom, at Wethersfield, Milford, New Haven, and Guilford, 
they had taken sweet counsel together. The Branford peo- 
ple, who were meditating a union with the others in the new 
jDlantation, were manj^of them emigrants from Southampton, 
from which place and its neighborhood, a large portion of 
the people of this town had come. This was, evidently, a 
principal attraction to the mew settlers from Connecticut.f 

It was not difficult, in such a case, to agree upon terms. 
The town's people welcomed their old friends, and cheerfully 
consented to part with that portion of their purchase, which 
lay on the other side of what has, from that day, and on that 
account, been called " Bound Brook ; " and Carteret agreed 
to extinguish the Indian title* to the land beyond the town 
line to the northern bend of the Passaic river. Treat and 
his associates returned, and made so favorable a report, that 
about thirty families determined, at once, to remove to New 
Jersey ; and, on the very day. May 21, 16G6, that Pierce and 
his company had arranged for the settlement of Woodbridge 

*E. T. Bill, p. 29. 

t E. T. Bill, p. US. Whitehead's E. Jersey, pp. 42-6. New.irk Town Records, pp. vl 
vli., 1-3. Stearns' First Clili., Newark, pp. 10-14. 



120 THE HISTORY OF 

and Piscatawaj, the Milford people arrived in boats, and 
held their first town-meeting on the "Western bank of the 
Passaic river, and tlms laid the fonndations of another town- 
ship — since the flourishing City of Newark. The limits of 
Elizabeth Town, North and Sonth, were, in this manner, con- 
siderably reduced, the town thus extending only to Eahway 
river on the South, and to Bound Brook on the North. '^ 

The follownng document, one of the very few now accessi- 
ble of this period, serves to bring before us, in some particu- 
lars, the circumstances of the people, (the early distribution 
of land, and the traffic in white oak pipe staves), during the 
second year of the plantation : 

Whereas I am informed by way of complaint, fi-om divers of the In- 
habitants of this Town, that there are several persons that do presume to 
fell and cut down the best of timber-trees in and about this Town, with- 
out any license or leave from thosa that are or may come to be the true 
owners thereof, converting them to their own private- advantage and 
profit, to the great destruction of timber for building, and the Lords Pro- 
prietors woods, and to the great discouragement of all those tliat are al- 
ready and that are to come to inhabit this Town : For the preventing 
thereof, and to avoid so great an inconveniency and destruction of this 
plantation, as may ensue by permitting such disorderly proceedings, I 
have thought fit, and do by these presents, together with the advice of 
my Council, will and command, that no person or persons whatsoever, 
shall presume to cut down or fell any timber trees that are useful either 
for building, fencing, or the making of pipe staves, in any home lots not 
properly belonging to themselves, nor within the compass of three miles 
of any home lot belonging to this Town, without license first obtained 
from the Governor, or leave from the owners of the land ; upon the pen- 
alty of foifeiting the sum of Five Pounds sterl. for every such tree so 
fallen or cut down ; provided^ that it may and shall be lawful for any of 
the inhabitants of this Town to clear their own lots, and other lands to 
plant upon, according to the Act made the 30th day of April last past, 
and in so doing it shall and may be lawful for any of them, to convert the 
wood and timber growing upon the same to their best use and advantage, 
and not otherwise. Given under my hand at Elizabeth Town, the 13th 
ofJune, 1GC6. Ph Carterett 
James Bollen, John Ogden.t 

+ E. J. Records, III. 9, 10. E. T. Bill, p. 34. The act of Ap. -30 is not to be found. It w.-.s 
prob.ibly an Act passed at a town-meeting, respecting the first and second divisions of land' 
and other such matters, and so was recorded in the Town Book, A., unhappily lost, or destroyed' 

♦ Stearns' Newark, pp. 10, 11. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 121 

The second winter of the settlement appears to have l3een 
attended with excessive cold, and heavy snows. Col. Nicolls 
writes, from New York, Jan. 11, 166f , to Yan Curler, then 
at Albany, as follows : — 

Mons' fountaine hath kept his Christmas with Cap' Oarterett in Nev?- 
Jersey and cannot stir thence tliis moaeth but if he could 'tis impossible 
for him to march from hence to Canada through the snow a foot. 

"Writing to Capt. Baker, of this town, also then at Albany, 
he says, — " Wee have no late liewes from any Parts being 
shut up with a hard winter." 

Mons. Fountaine, or " La Fountaine," was a young French- 
man of Quebec " who unfortunately fell into the barbarous 
hands of his enemies, and by the meanes of Mons"" Curler ob- 
taind his liberty," and in the following summer was restored 
to his home.* 

This incident confirms the supposition, that Carteret and 
his employees were quite as much French as English, 
probably more so, as was the case with his kinsmen and 
the other inhabitants of the Isle of Jersey. Young Foun- 
taine could, doubtless, understand nothing of the English 
language, and so, he is sent hj Gov. Nicolls to sojourn with 
Gov. Carteret, at whose house he could converse in his 
native tongue. 

The affairs of the town, so far as can be discovered, moved 
on very quietly and harmoniously during the first two years 
after Carteret's arrival. Large accessions were made to the 
sister town of Newark, from Branford and Guilford, Ct., in 
the course of the summer and autumn of 1667, and the vene- 
rable Abm. Pierson, the old pastor of some of the people of 
this town, had now, Oct. 1, 1667, taken up his residence, 
with many of their kinsmen, also, within six miles of their 
new home in the wilderness. This, doubtless, served, to 
reconcile them still more to the hardships incident to the 
settlement of a new plantation, in the midst of savage tribes, 
on whose friendship but little reliance could be placed. It 
made their position vastly more secure, as well as pleasant. 

*N. Y. Col. Docmts., III. 14T, 8, 156. 



122 THE HISTORY OF 

It is not unreasonable to suppose, that, until tbeyhad secured 
a minister for their own town, some of them occasionally 
were found, wending their way through the wilderness to 
Newark, on the morning of the Lord's Day, to enjoy the 
privilege of hearing the gospel preached once more by the- 
pastor of their earlier days. They were sturdy men, and not. 
unaccustomed to such journeys.* 

The work of surveying the house-lots and planting lands, 
had been performed very imperfectly ; possibly by Wol- 
phertsen, who had been the City Surveyor of New Amster- 
dam. The description of these lots is so imperfect, as re- 
corded in the books of the province, that their location and 
the bearing of their boundary lines cannot now be deter- 
mined. This would indicate that the lots had been laid out 
before the arrival of the Surveyor General, Yauquellin, with 
the Governor. Circumstances had occurred that made it 
necessary that Vauquellin should be "sent on business to 
England by the Governor ; " and no one else was authorized 
to act in the matter of laying out lands. A few of the in- 
habitants, in consequence, were put to some inconvenience, 
and drew up the following paper : — 

"We, whoso names are nnder-written, do humbly petition unto tlio Gov- 
ernor and his Council, that we may have our lands laid out unto us, ac- 
cording to the Agreements made by the inhabitants and consent of the 
Governor with them, as may more fully appear in the Town Records ; 
which if it cannot be granted, we do not see how we can possibly subsist 
in the Town, but shall be forced to look out somewhere else for a liveli- 
hood. Nathaniel Bonnell, Joseph Bond, Leonard lleadley, Ben- 
jamin Iloman, Joseph Meeker, Benjamin Meeker, Jonathan Ogden, Joseph 
Ogden, Joseph Osborn, Stephen Osborn, Benjamin Price, Benjamin 
Price, Jr., Joseph Seers, Thomas Tomson, IIuit Tomson, Moses Tomson, 
and Isaac TVhiteliead.t 

The signers were seventeen in number, and most of them, 
either of the second generation, or new-comers. The others 
were, probably, in difiiculty about tlieir boundary lines. The 
petition is without date, but as the commission, given to John 
Brackett, noticed on a previous page, is thought to have been 

• Stearns' Newark, p. 2C. Newark Town t E. T. Bill, pp. S3, 103-9. 

Eccorde, p. 10. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 123 

issued in response to this petition, it must have been presented 
in the early part of December, 1667. The services of Brachett 
■were only temporary, and confined, most likely, to the few 
cases of difficulty which gave rise to the petition. It is not 
to be concluded, from this occurrence, that no surveys had 
thus far been made, nor that the difficulty was at all general, 
or extensive. The earliest records of surveys were made in 
the lost town book, a^ was frequently attested in subsequent 
years, and as was provided for by the people of Newark in 
their own casC^" 

The boundary line between this town and Newark needed 
adjustment; and John Ogden, sen., Luke Watson, Robert 
Bond, and Jeifry Jones were deputed to arrange the matter 
with the commissioners from ISTewark. They met together 
for this purpose. May 20, 1668. It appears from an affidavit 
of Joseph Woodruff of this town, made, July 26, 1743, be- 
fore Judge Joseph Bonnel, also of this town, that, being at 
Milford, Ct., about the year 1699, ho heard Gov. Treat say,— 

That the inhabitants of Newark did first settle under the Elizabeth 
Town Purchase ; and did allow the Newark river to be the bounds of the 
said Purchase ; and said, that the Elizabeth Town people was so kind to 
the Newark people, that they could never reward them enough. And 
further this deponent snith, That he, at that time, heard the said Gov- 
ernor tell after what manner the Line was settled between the two towns ; 
and that it was done in so loving and solemn a manner that he thought it 
ought never to be removed; for he (the said Governor) himself being 
among them at that time, prayed with them on Dividend-Hill, (so called) 
that there might be a good agreement between them ; and that it was 
agreed upon, by the settlers of each town, that the Line between them 
should stand and remain from Dividend-Hill, to run a north-west course ; 
and the Governor said, that, after the agreement, Mr. John Ogden (being 
one of the first purchasers) prayed among the people, and returned thanks 
for their loving agreement. 

It was thus, that the founders of these two towns sought 
the blessing of the Almighty, and his guidance, in all their 
transactions. They were, the most of them, men of faith and 
prayer.f 

• E. J. Rpcords, III. 12. 

t An«. to E. T. Bill, p. 47. Newark To^yn Records, p. 10. Stearns' Newark, pp. 40, 1. ■ 



124 THE HISTORY OF 

In the autumn of tlie same year, tliere was " great sicknesa 
in New York and over the land in generah Some persons 
were daily swept away, and many more lying on their lan- 
guishing beds, expecting each hour their dissolution." In 
view of it, Gov. Lovelace, of New York, proclaimed a day 
of humiliation, and called attention to the " swearing, the in- 
temperate way of drinking, and all manner of impieties, as 
being prevalent in the Province." * 

The Concessions of the Lords Proprietors made provision 
for a General Assembly, to meet annually ; — the members of 
the popular branch, the " Body of Representatives," to be 
chosen on the first day of every January, by "writ from the 
Governor ; " to appoint their own time of meeting and to 
adjourn their sessions, from time to time, to such times and 
places as they shall think convenient." In accordance 
with this provision. Gov. Carteret concluding, that, " by 
the infinite goodness, providence, and blessing of Al- 
mighty God, the province of New Jersey was in a probable 
way of being populated," issued a Proclamation, April 7, 
166S, requiring the freeholders in each of the several towns 
of the province, to make choice of two of their number, to 
meet in a General Assembly, at Elizabeth Town, May 25, 
1668, 

For the making and constituting sucli wholesome laws as shall he most 
needful and necessary for the good govei'nment of the said province, and 
the maintaining of a religious communion, and civil society, one with the 
other, as becometh Christians, without which it is impossible for any 
Body Politic to prosper or subsist.t 

Three years had passed since the pioneers of the settlement 
had planted themselves on this soil, during which they had 
lived under an orderly administration of law, with Justices 
of the Peace to adjudicate in all litigated cases. It is not 
possible, now, to determine positively, in the absence of all 
documentary information, under what code of laws they had 
hitherto lived. But it is almost certain, that the Laws of his 

* Valentine's N. Y. Manual for 1656, p. 514. 

t Learning and Spicor's Grants, &c., p. 15. E. J. Records, II. Lib. S. Whltohcad's E. 
Jersey, pp. 61, 2, 1S8, 9. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 125 

Eoyal Highness, the Dake of York, or " the Duke's Laws," as 
they were commonly called, were in force here, as well as in 
the neighboring province, so far as they were applicable. 
This code had been enacted by an Assembly, convened, Feb. 
28, 166f , at Hempstead, L. I., by warrant from Gov. Nicolls, 
and had been " collected out of the several laws then in force 
in his Majesties American Colonyes and Plantations." They 
were mainly such as were of authorit}^ in Connecticut, some 
of them being in the very words of the Connecticut Code of 
1650.* 

The first General Assembly of New Jersey, convened, in 
accordance with the Governor's warrant, at Elizabeth Town, 
and was constituted, May 26th, 1668. Three of the six mem- 
bers of the Council were residents of this town : Robert Bond, 
Kobert Yauquellin, and William Pardon ; Bond and Pardon 
having been appointed, Jan. 2, 166|-; and James BoUen, 
also, of this town, being the Secretary. Tlie town had chosen 
John Ogden, sen., and John Brackett, to represent them in 
the House of Burgesses. The Legislature remained in ses- 
sion five days, and passed several Acts, or Laws, by some 
denominated " the Elizabeth Town Code of Laws ; " of which 
it has been said, that " Puritan austerity was so tempered by 
Dutch inditference, that mercy itself could not have dictated 
a milder system." The laws were few and simple, scarcely 
worthy the name of a " Code," and were taken, in almost 
every instance, and nearly verbatim, from the Hempstead 
Code, or the Connecticut Code of 1650. The Puritan laws, 
as well as the Puritan manners and customs, prevailed in the 
new settlement. Every possible precaution was taken to 
preserve the rights of projjerty ; to secure the orderly ad- 
ministration of justice ; to regulate the intercourse of the 
sexes ; to restrain the vicious within proper bounds ; to make 
human life as sacred as possible ; to prevent disrespect to pa- 
rents, drunkenness, and profanity ; and to enforce obedience 
to the constituted authorities.f 

* 1 N. York nis. Soc. Coll., I. 307-128. Thompson's L. I., I. 131-5. Hildreth's U. States, 
II. 44-51. 

t Learning and Spicor's Grants, iScc, pp. 7T-S1. Bancroft's U. States, II. 819. 



126 THE HISTORY OF 

As an illustration of the strictness, -with which, at that 
early day, they watclied over the morals of the rising genera- 
tion, the following enactment is cited at length : 

For tlie better preventing disorders and misdemeanors in young persons ^ 
and others, Be it also enacted by this present General Assembly, that if 
any person or persons shall be abroad from the usual place of their abode, 
and found in night-Avalking, Drinking in any tapp-house, or any other 
house or place at unreasonable times, after nine of the clock at night, and 
not about their lawful occasions, or cannot give a good account of their 
being absent from their own place of abode at that time of the night, if 
required of them, shall be secured by the Constable or some other ofScer, 
till the morning to be brought before a Justice of the Peace, or Magistrate, 
to be examined, and if they cannot give them a satisfactory account of 
their being out, at such unreasonable times, he or they shall bo bound 
over to the next Court, and receive such punishment as the Justices upon 
the Bench sliall see cause to inflict upon them.* 

Provision was made for an annual meeting of the General 
Assembly on the first Tuesday'" in November, and for the 
election of Deputies on the first of January. The rates for the 
support of government were to be five pounds for each of the 
towns, to be paid, into the hands of Jacob Mollins [Melyen] 
of E. Town, in country-produce at the following prices: 

"Winter wheat at five shillings a bushell, summer wheat at four shil- 
lings and six-pence ; pease at three sliillings and six-pence; Indian corn at 
three shillings ; rye at four shillings ; barley at four shillings ; beef at 
two pence half-penny ; pork at thi-ee pence half-penny a pound. 

Capt. Bollen was to receive twenty pounds for his services 
as Secretar3^ Little time, however, could be given, especially 
in the planting season, to matters of legislation. The full 
consideration of these enactments w'as referred by the Gov- 
ernor to the November sessions, " by reason of the week so 
near spent, and the resolution of some of the company to de- 
part." The Assembly met here again, b}^ adjournment, on 
Tuesday, Nov. 3, 1668. Jacob Mollins [Melyen] appeared 
among the Burgesses, in place of John Brackett, who had, 
probably, returned to New Haven. Mr. Ogden was ap- 
pointed " to take cognizance of the country's charge and 

• Leaming and Spicer's Grant?, &c., p. 80. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JER'SEY. 127 

rates;" and Mr. "Watson, of this town, was appointed, with 
Mr. Samuel Moore of Woodbridge, to go to Middletown and 
Shrewsbury to collect their proportion of the rates levied on 
the towns. Mr. M^ljen was to be one of a committee to 
treat with the Indians, " for the preventing of future dama- 
ges and wrongs that otherwise may acci'ue to the towns or in- 
habitants, in reference to horses or cattle that may range up 
into the country, to the indangering the peace in respect to 
the Indians." Two men, also, were appointed, " and sent to 
the Sachem of the Indians that killed the Indian boy at 
Elizabeth Town, to demand the murtheier to be surrendered 
to the Governor." A few other acts, of not much import- 
ance, were passed, and the Assembly was brought, abruptly, 
to an end.* 

A radical difference of opinion, which must have been fore- 
seen, between the Governor and the people, in respect to the 
rights of the people, and the power of the legislature, was 
very soon, in the course of the session, developed. The Dep- 
uties were disposed to exercise the right of originating meas- 
ures for the good of the people, without previous consultation 
with the Governor. The latter was jealous of his own pre- 
rogative, and sought to prescribe the course to be pursued by 
the Deputies, as he was accustomed to do with the Council, 
who were creatures of his own will. On the fourth day of 
the sessions, the Deputies, therefore, sent a message " to the 
Governor alid his Council," to this eiFect : 

Honored Gentlemen, Wo finding so mftny and great inconveniences by 
our not setting together, and your apprehensions so diflerent to ours, and 
your expectations that things must go according to your opinions, though 
we see no reason for, much less warrant from the Concessions, wherefore 
we think it vain to spend much time of returning answers by writings that 
are so exceeding dilatory, if not fruitless and endless, and therefore we 
think our way rather to break up our meeting, seeing tlie order of the 
concessions cannot be attended uuto.t 

Carteret received the message on Friday evening, and, on 
the plea that it was " too late to night to entertain so long a 
debate," asked them to send two of their number, to discuss 

* Learning and Splcct'a Grants, Ac, pp. 81, SS-O. t Ibid. p. 90. 



128 THE HISTORY OF 

their differences on Saturday morning; "if not," he added, 
" you may do what you please, only we advise you to con- 
sider well of your resolutions before you break up." They 
did consider well, and so broke up, on Saturday, the fifth 
day of their sessions.* 

These matters properly belong to the history of the Prov- 
ince. But they are so intimately connected with the particu- 
lar annals of the town, and have so much to do with the 
subsequent difficulties into which the town was brought by 
the exactions of the Governor, that they could not well be 
omitted. Carteret disregarded the express provisions of the 
Concessions, and refused to call an Assembly for the next two 
years, preferring to rule the province, at his own pleasure, by 
means of his comj)laisant Council. 

In the course of the following winter, a company was 
organized among the people of this town, for whaling pur- 
poses. The}'- obtained a charter from the Governor, Feb. 15, 
166|, granting to " John Ogden, sen\, Caleb Carwithy, Jacob 
Moleing [Melyen], Wm. Johnson, and Jeffry Jones, all of 
Elizabeth Town and their companie consisting of 21 persons," 
the exclusive right, for three years, of taking whales, &c., 
along the coast from Barnegat to the Eastern part of the 
province, one twentieth part of the oil in casks to be given 
to the Lords Proprietors. The charter also granted them. 

In case Statten Island falls within this Government, some convenient 
place or Tract of land upon the said Island, near unto the water side for 
the Settlement of a Town or Society to consist of 24 Famelies, and that 
they shall hava a competent proportion of Land allotted to each Family 
or Lott with Meadow Ground as well as planting Land and free com- 
monage upon the Island.t 

Whales were then abundant on all the coast. Maverick 
writes, July 5, 16G9, to Col. Nicolls, from New York, " On 
y* East end of Long Island there were 12 or 13 whales taken 

* Learning and Spicer's Grants, &c., pp. 90-1. 

t E. J. Hccords, III. 22. ■Whitehead's E. Jersey, p. 173. Staten Island was claimed by 
Carteret, as included in the Duke's grant to the two Lords. Nino days after the date of this 
ch.irter, Maverick, at New York, wrote to Gov. "Winthrop, of Connecticut, that Gov. Love- 
lace h.id just received a letter from Col. Nicolls at London, announcing that "Staten Island 
is adjudged to belong to N. Yorke." By whom or how '• adjudged " is not stated. 4 Mass. 
His. Soc. Coll., X. 815. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 129 

before y* end of March, and what since wee heare not; here 
are dayly some seen in the very harbour, sometimes within 
Nutt [Governor's] Island, It is not possible to describe 
[1670] how this bay swarms with fish, both large and small, 
whales, tunnies and porpoises," &c. The E. Town Whaling 
Co., it is likely, having most of them followed the business 
on Long Island, found the fishery a lucrative business.* 

Much uncertainty attended the matter of jurisdiction during 
the year 1669. Both Berkeley and Carteret were in trouble 
at home. The former had " been detected in the basest cor- 
ruption," and had been deprived of office. Carteret had 
long been under accusation, by Parliament, of being a de- 
faulter, as Treasurer of the i^avy, to a large amount ; and his 
accounts were subjected to a rigid investigation by a Parlia- 
mentary Committee, of which the result was his expulsion, in 
the autumn of 1669, from the House of Commons. Gov. 
Nicolls had, in 1665, early remonstrated with the Duke ot 
York against the grant of New Jersey to Berkeley and Car- 
teret. He had now returned to England, and renewed, with 
still greater earnestness, his remonstrance. Measures were 
accordingly taken, by the Duke, for the recovery of the lost 
territory. Late in the year 1668, Col. Nicolls wrote from 
London to Gov. Lovelace at New York, (as we learn by a let- 
ter from the Royal Commissioner, Samuel Maverick to Gov. 
Winthrop, dated Feb. 24, 166|), that 

The Lord Barkley is vnder a cloud, and out of all Lis ofBces, and offers 
to surrender vp the Patent for IST. Jarsey. Sir G. Oarterett, his partner, 
is in Ireland, but it is thought he will likewise surrender, and then 
N. Yorke will be inlarged. 

In a subsequent letter, Maverick writes, June 29, 1G69, to 
Gov. Winthrop, that 

New Jarsey is returned to his Royall Highnes, by exchange for Delawar, 
as Sir George Carterett writs to his cosen, the present Gouernor: some 
tract of land, on this side of the river & on the other side, to reach to 
Maryland bounds.t 

* N. Y. Col. Docmts., III. 1S3, 197. Bankers and Sluyter's Jonmsl p. 100. 
t Pepys' Diary, IV. 97, 11-1, 115. N. Y. Col. Docmts., II. 410. III. 105, 113, 114, 174. Whito 
head's E. Jersey, pp. 30-1. 4 Mass. His. See. Coll., VII. 815, 319. 

9 



130 THE HISTORY OF 

Gov. Carteret, of course, having received sucli an announce- 
ment, from so liigh a source, — one of tlie Lords Proprietors 
himself, — must have regarded his tenure of office as soon to 
be terminated, and have been, in consequence, not at all dis- 
posed to prolong his controversy with the people. While 
the latter, expecting shortly to come under the jurisdiction 
of Gov. Lovelace, of JSTew York, must have been quite will- 
ing to let the matter pass without further trouble. So the 
matter rested for a season. 

The Newark people were evidently in perplexity on the 
same account. 

At a Town Meeting, 28th July 16G9— the Town made choice of Mr. 
Crane and Mr. Treat, to take the first opportunity to Goe over to York, to 
advise with Col. Lovelace Concerning our Standing, "Whether we are de- 
signed to be Part of the Duke's Colony, or Not.* 

The autumn of this year was made memorable, as well as 
that of the previous year, for the prevalence of fatal dis- 
orders. Maverick, writing from " N. Yorke, 15th Octo' 69, 
to Col. Nicolls, in London," says : 

The flux, agues, and fevers, have much rained, both in cittie and conn- 
try, & many dead, but not yett soo many as last yeare. The like is all 
N. Engl' over, espetially about Boston. t 

* Newark Town Records, p. 21. t N. Y. Col. Docmts., III. 1S5, 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 131 



CHAPTER VII. 

A. D. IGTO-ICZS. 

Quit Eent Controversy — Gov. Carteret's Usurpations — Claude Vallot — Arbi- 
trary Edicts — Watson not to drill the Militia — First Jury Trial in the Town 

— Case of Capt. Hacket — Court illegally held — Case of Richard Michel — 
His House destroyed. — Carteret overawed by the People — Capt. James Car- 
teret arrives from England — Legislature convenes at E. T. — A lawful Court 

— Trial of Meeker and others — Newark people take the Alarm — Other Ses- 
sions of the Legislature — Capt. James Carteret chosen President — Arrest 
and Escape of Wm. Pardon — Gov. Carteret removes to Bergen — Re-arrest 
of Pardon, and Seizure of his Goods — Memorial of the Council to the Lords 
Proprietaries — Gov. Carteret and OfiScials return to England — Capt. Berry, 
Dep. Governor — Marriage of Capt. Carteret — The OCScials return — Conflict 
renewed — Patents to be taken out — Appeal to the Lords Proprietors — Gov. 
Winthrop's Endorsement of the People. 

TiiE negotiations for tho transfer of Ifew Jersey to the ju- 
risdiction of tho Duke of York, though so nearly completed, 
failed of the expected result. Berkeley was made Lord Lieu- 
tenant of Ireland, of which Carteret was already Deputy 
Treasurer. Strengthened by the favor of the king, and cer- 
tain political occurrences of the day, the two lords retained 
possession of their charter, and Elizabeth Town remained the 
seat of government for the province, and the residence of the 
Governor and his oflBcials.-" 

''The Concession and Agreement of the Lords Proprietors" 
made provision for the Survey and Patenting of all lands 
taken up in the Province by new settlers, and required of all 
such the payment of one half-penny per acre yearly rent, be- 
ginning with March 25, 1G70. As the people of this town 
claimed to hold their lands, not by gift or lease from the 

» Collins' reerago, (Ed. oflTSC), III. 2S0, 1. N. T. Col. Docmts., III. 599. Tcpya' Diary 
III. 275, 7. 



133 THE HISTORY OF 

Lords Proprietors, but by purcbase from tbe native proprie- 
tors of tbe soil, and tbe warrant and patent of Gov. Nicolls, 
previous to Carteret's arrival, tbey bad paid no attention to 
tbese provisions. No patents had been issued, or applied 
for, witbin tbe bounds of tbe town. Tbis was true of tbe offi- 
cials as. well as tbe people. Carteret, Bollen, Vauquellin, 
and Pardon, all bad become Associates, and as sucb bad 
sbared in tbe assignment; of bouse-lots, and in tbe first and 
second divisions of planting land and meadow, all wbicb 
were duly entered, at tbe time, in tbe lost Town-Book. None 
of tbem, bowever, bad taken out patents from tbe Lords Pro- 
prietors. Tbe original purchasers and their American asso- 
ciates were utterly opposed to a proceeding, wbicb might be 
construed into an acknowledgment of the invalidity of the 
titles, b}' which they had acquired, and hitherto held, their 
" purchased and paid-f or lands." They would neither, there- 
fore, take out patents from the Governor, nor pay the yearly 
rent to be exacted in all other cases.* 

As tbe time for the payment of this rent approached, let- 
ters were sent to tbe several towns, reminding them of tbese 
conditions. We have not the means of knowing whether the 
demand was formally made of the freeholders of tbis town, 
or,-if made, what was their response. In tbe latter case, they 
must have made a response, not less firm and decided than 
that of tbe Newark people ; who, at a town-meeting, held 
Feb. 3, 1669-70, after " tbe Goyernors Writing " had been 
read and debated, voted to make return as follows : 

That they do Hold and Possess their Lands and Eights in the said 
Town, Both by Civil and Divine Right, as by their Legall purchase and 
Articles doth and May Shew. And as for the payment of the Half Penny 
per Acre for all our Allotted Lands, According to our Articles and Inter- 
pretations of them, You assuring them to us, "We are ready when the Time 
Comes, to perform our Duty to the Lords or thoir Assigns. 

Whether they received the assurance, or not, at the ap- 
pointed time they made a tender of the rent, in wheat, but 
not "in lawful money of England," as the Concessions re- 
quired. f 

* Learning •& Spiccr, pp. 23-5. 

t Newark Town Kecoras, pp. 29, 30. Stearns" Newark, pp. 43-6. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. I33 

Nothing of the kind, probably, was attempted or done 
here. It is not intimated, in any of the records or documents 
of the day, on either side, that the people of this town re- 
garded themselves as under any obligation whatever to pay 
rent for their lands to the English Lords. So many of the 
people as were of the Governor's party, doubtless, complied 
with the demand. The others disregarded it. The breach 
between the two parties, occasioned by the occurrences of 
November, 1668, was thus considerably widened. The rela- 
tions of the people to their townsman, the Governor, from 
this time forth, were any thing but pleasant — scarcely ami- 
cable.* 

One occasion of this unpleasantness was the unwarranted 
interference of Carteret in the local affairs of the town — 
claiming, as he did, the prerogative of presiding, in person, 
or by proxy, in their town-meetings ; of admitting whom 
he pleased as freeholders ; and of allotting the town-lands as 
rewards to his servants. The people could not but regard 
all such proceedings as unwarranted acts of usurpation. 

Claude Yallot was one of the 18 servants whom Carteret 
had brought over with him in the " Philip." Having 
found him faithful and true, the Governor, without obtain- 
ing, or even asking, so far as appears, the consent of the 
town, determined to bestow on him the rights and privileges 
of a freeholder : 

Glaude Valot of Charapagne in the Kingdom of France having 
Lived in this Country for the Space of five Years time as one of my 
Menial Servants, and now being desirous to settle himself an Inhabitant 
within the said Province, (says the Record, Feb. 10, 1009-70), I doe 
hery Declare the said Glaude Valot to be a true Denizen of the aforesaid 
Province of New Jersey. 

Twelve daj's after he puts him in possession, by deed of 
sale, of the property that, in Nov. 1668, he himself had 
acquired by purchase, for £45, from the widow of Capt. 
Robert Sceley — viz., a " house and home-lot, with all such 
lots and allotments of upland and meadow, as is and shall 
be thereunto belonging, according to the rate of a third 

• "Whitehead's E. J., p. 54. Mulford's N. J., p. 151. 



134 THE HISTORY OF 

lot ; '■ tlius giving him a place, as an Associate, among the 
third-lot right men.* 

A military compan}^, in accordance with an Act of the 
General Assembly, had been organized in 166S ; of which, 
Ang. 24, 1668, Luke Watson had been commissioned Lieu- 
tenant and Commander, and John Woodruff, Ensign. Wat- 
son and Woodruff were among the leading men of the town, 
and devoted to its interests. In some way not specilied, 
but, probably, because of their zeal in opposing the arbitrary 
course of the Governor, these worthies liad j^rovoked his 
displeasure. On the last day of October, 1670, (possibly, 
one of the autumnal training days), he revoked the com- 
mission of Watson, and declared Woodruff's null and void. 
Such a proceeding did not tend in the least to conciliate 
the people, whose patience had already so repeatedly been 
tried. Tliey understood the movement as designed to break 
np the military company, and so to deprive them of the 
power of self-defence. Against these imputations, he put 
forth, July 1, 1672, the following plea : It is reported, he 
says, 

That I liave, to the great disconrngoraent of tho Inhabitants, for- 
bidden, nay required them upon piine of death, not to trayne. In 
answer whereunto the officers of each Respective Town in this Province, 
being commissionated for that end and required thereunto, will suffi- 
ciently Cleer me ; only for reasons which I am willing to give To my 
Masters, I did issue out my Summons to Luke Watson in Elizabeth 
Town, being before by me Commissioned Lieutenant under my Self, 
Calling in ray Commission, requiring him upon pain of death at that 
time not to Call tho Company into Field Nor Exercise them, the wliich 
notwithstanding he did Continue and Exercise them twice after, t 

Language like this could not but exasperate. The people 
had never known, in this country, what it was to have a 
master. They had never been " in bondage to any man." 
This young stranger from a far land, whose unexpected com- 
ing among them, \vith such pretensions to dominion over 
them, they had barely tolerated, who had already set him- 
self above the Representatives of the people, and had exacted 

* E. J. Uccords, I. 6, T, 15. t E. J. Kecords, III. 55. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. I35 

of ihem a galling tribute, as the price of lands fully and lawful- 
ly purchased before he came, now threatens one of their num- 
ber with the " pain of death," for simply giving a few lessons 
in the art and science of war. Who gave him this kingly 
power ? How did he propose to carry it into effect ? By 
whom was the penalty to be inflicted ? The refusal, too, to 
give the reasons for his course, save to his " masters," was not 
fitted to inspire his townsmen with confidence or esteem, but 
just the reverse. It was not the way to secure the hearts of 
the people and perpetuate his power. 

The more thoroughly the matter is investigated, tlie more 
fully it appears, that the difficulties, with which the founders 
of the town had to contend, in respect to the Proprietary 
government, were of vastly greater moment than the pay- 
ment of the jDaltry sums that were demanded as " Quit- 
Kents." The grievances were of the most serious character. 
They had respect to the very foundations of government. 
The great question of popular rights was involved — the same 
question, that was continually coming up between the Amer- 
can people and their foreign rulers, and that issued in the 
conflict of 1776. This town and this province were not sin- 
gular in their disaffection. It pervaded the neighboring 
provinces. The people of Long Island, at this very time, 
were deeply agitated with similar grievances. All 'New 
England was filled with excitement and alarm, by reason of 
the efforts made by the Eoyal Commissioners to bring them 
under subjection. The Stuart dynasty had no sympathy with 
the democracy of the American people. The Colonies stood 
in dread of the imperialism of the two sons of Charles L, whose 
" taking off," by the people, these sons could never forgive.* 

"All Causes are tried by Juries," said Gov. Lovelace, 
1670, in respect to the Province of JSTew York. The same 
rule, doubtless, prevailed in New Jersey. The first Jury 
trial in the town, of which any record has been preserved, 
took place in May, 1671. A special Court, consisting of 
Capt. Wm. Sandford, President, Robert Vauquellin, Eobert 

» Thompson's L. I., I. 145-150 ; II. 32C-S. Palfrey's N. Eng., II. 578-G34. 



136 THE HISTORY OF 

Treat, and Wm. Pardon, was convened here, on thelGtli, by 
order of the Governor, for the trial of Wm. Hacket, Capt. 
of the sloop " Indeavor of Salsburj in the County of Nor- 
folk in New England," for illegal trading in the province, 
mostly at Woodbridge. Gov. Lovelace claimed, that all ves- 
sels coming in and going out of Sandy Hook entrance should 
enter and clear at New York. Gov. Carteret opposed the 
claim so far as concerned the waters of New Jersey ; de- 
manding, that, in order to trade in these parts, entrances and 
clearances should be made at the custom-house in Elizabeth 
Town. Capt. Hacket had entered his vessel, and paid duties, 
at New York, but not here. A jury was empanelled, con- 
sisting of Benjamin Price, foreman ; Nicholas Carter, "Wm. 
Pyles, George Boss, Barnabas Wines, Nathaniel Bonnel, 
Matthias Hatfield, John Wynings, William Oliver, Stephen 
Osburn, Wm. Meeker, John Woodruff; all freeholders of 
this town, and the most of them leading men. Gov. Car- 
teret testified for the prosecution. Capt. Hacket argued his 
own cause, with much ability, presenting not less than four- 
teen points as grounds of defence. The case went to the 
jury, who 

"Went forth and, upon a second and third going forth, declared to the 
Court that the matter Committed to them is of too great waight for them 
and desires the Court to make Choice of other Jurymen. 

On the 18th, the case came before another jury, two only 
of whom, Samuel Hopkins, and Capt. Thomas Young, were 
of this town, none of them from Newark, and the remainder 
from Bergen and Woodbridge. The prosecution succeeded, 
and the vessel was forfeited.* 

It is quite probable, that the true reason for the failure of 
the first jury to pronounce a verdict, was the fact, that the 
Governor had acted without warrant, in constituting the Court ; 
according to " the Concessions " — the fundamental Bill of 
Eights — it being the prerogative of the General Assembly, 
and not the Governor, " to constitute all courts." f The 
Assembly had not authorized the Governor to call and com- 

• E. J. Records, III. 75-T. t Learning and Splcer, p. 16. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. I37 

mission this tribunal. Jealous, as the town had become, of 
the Governor, they could not but look upon this proceeding, 
as an additional act of usurpation ; and so the Governor 
must go out of town for a jury sufficiently compliant. 
Another serious grievance was thus added to the calendar. 

A few weeks later, the two parties came into direct collision. 
Among the " menial servants " brought over by Capt. Car- 
teret in the " Philip," in 1665, was Kichard Michell. He was 
" the son of Symon Michell, of Munden parva in the County 
of Hereford," Eng. Eichard had married, Ap. 23, 1668, Ellen 
Prou, " the daughter of Charles Prou of Paris in the parish 
of St. Eutache, In France." She, too, had come over, doubt- 
less, in the " Philip," and was, also, a " menial servant," 
possibly a housekeeper, in the Government house. Michell, 
as well as Yallot, aspires to be a planter. Carteret, well- 
pleased with Kichard's course, and willing to reward his 
faithful services, takes it upon himself, without consulting 
the town, or any other than his own pleasure, to make him 
a grant of land for a house-lot, bordering on " the swamp 
in common," and lying at the rear of the house-lots of Francis 
Barber and George Pack, S. of Charles Tucker, S. E. of Jonas 
"Wood, and ]S^. E. of Wm. Letts. This was in the spring of 
1671. Michell fences it in, and leases a part of the ground 
to George Pack for a tobacco-crop. On the other part, he 
builds a house covered with clapboards, and lays out a gar- 
den. Pack sub-lets one half of his field to Wm. Letts, the 
weaver.* 

All this was contrary to the fundamental agreements of 
166f, made in town-meeting, and consented to by the Gov- 
ernor. None but the people, in town-meeting, could deter- 
mine who should be admitted as associates and freeholders. 
It was a clear case of usurpation on the part of Carteret. If 
tolerated in this instance, it might be followed by many 
others, and presently the town would be overrun by French- 
men, and other foreigners, claiming an equal share with 
themselves in the plantation. If not resisted, they might as 
well give up all thought of self-government. 

♦ E. J. Records, IIL 78-80. 



138 THE HISTORY OF 

The town was deeply moved by the occurrence. It was 
the common talk. The neighbors had occasion to meet at 
Goodman Carter's on the south side of the Creek. The mat- 
ter was warmly discussed. They agreed to give Pack warn- 
ing not to put a plow into the ground. He and Letts were 
greatly grieved at their prospective loss, but deemed it best 
to regard the timely warning. A town meeting was called, 
at which the whole subject was gravely debated. Here is 
the record : 

June 19tL, 1C71, it was agreed by tlie Major Yote that Richard Michel 
should not enjoy his lott -given him by the Governor. Upon information 
June 19Lh 1671 It was agreed that there should some goe the next morn- 
ing and pull up the said Michel's fence. 

The Governor must be taught, that it is not his to give away 
town-lots ; it belongs to the people. Michel had " never 
asked the town for it," and, therefore, could not have the 
" lott given him by the Governor." It was " concluded to 
take the piece of land from him again, because it was not 
after vote of the town that he had it." What followed is thus 
related by George Pack : 

The next morning after the said town-meeting, the said Richard Michel 
came to my house, and I went with him up to the said lot, and going we 
came to the said Wm. Letts house, and lighted our pipes, and, when we 
had lighted, people came upon the said ground. Goodman Meaker, the 
young John Ogden, Jeffry Jones and Nicholas Carter, and we running 
down to them at the corner of said lot, the said Richard Michel fore- 
warned them of pulling down the said fence, and spake to them of a riot, 
upon that goodman Meaker put to it and began to pluck down the fence 
and then all the rest did the like and left not oif till they had plucked 
down one side and one end. 

Among those who aided in the woi-k, as Letts, Mich ell, and 
Konyon testified, were Joseph Meeker (the "eldest son" of 
Goodman M.,) Ilur Tomson, (son of Goodman T.,) " old 
Mash," (Samuel Marsh, sen.), and Luke "Watson, the Lieu- 
tenant. When Michel forewarned them, 

Goodman Meeker answered, Do you forewarn me? and with that 
went to pull it down. "Wliile they were so doing Mr Pardon came in, 
then they nskcd him whither he was come to help pull down tlie fence 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. I39 

and Mr Pardon answered that he did not come to help pull down the fence 
but to take notice what you do, the said John Ogden said we do not care 
if a hundred such fellows as you are do take notice of what we do, and 
Mr Pardon answered you speak very sansily. Luke "Watson did not put 
his hand to pull down the fence but said if I am in [the] place it's as good 
but after Mr Pardon came then he heaved one log off from the fence and 
said you shall not say but I will put my hands to it. 

Awhile after, (says Letts,) being at my own house there came in Robert 
Moss and Mr Crayne of this town who asked for drink and I having none 
they went away presently, and presently after they were gone I heard 
n noise and looked out and saw the said Robert Moss and Mr Crayne beat- 
ing down the claboards of Richard Michel's house and plucked up the 
pallasades of the garden and before I came the hoggs within an hours 
time had rooted up and spoiled all that was in the garden which was full 
of necessary garden herbs. 

Pai'don was one of the Governor's Council, and had been 
appointed, June 5, 167f, a Justice of the Peace. He was 
known to be the Governor's obsequious parasite. Morse and 
Crane were next door neighbors, residing on the West side 
of the Creek. It is probable, that not a few others, drawn 
thither by curiosity, especially of the boys of the neighbor 
hood, witnessed the transaction, and spoke of it in later 
years, as one of the memorable incidents of their pioneer life. 

Warm work it was for a midsummer's day, (June 20) ; but 
needful work, unless they are prepared to succumb to the 
whims and dictates of the cavalier lordling, sent over the 
seas, by a brace of corrupt speculators, to exercise arbitrary 
rule over these honest and sturdy planters. It was a day to 
be remembered in the annals of Elizabeth ; a day for the 
inauguration of an open and determined resistance to all 
usurpation, and a manly defence of their vested riglits. 
They acted as one man, and were not to be trifled with. 
Carteret and his adherents are powerless to withstand the 
tide ; and, however chagrined and vexed at the result, are 
compelled, for the present, to let the matter drop. Wm. 
Meeker, the chief actor in the drama, is chosen Constable of 
the town, to succeed Wm. Cramer, and receives, Oct. 13, 
1671, a commission from the Governor.* 

Another actor of some importance now appears on the 

♦ E. J. KccorJs, III. 4T. 



140 THE HISTORY OF 

scene. Sir George Carteret has two sons, Sir Philip, and 
James. George, a third son, had died in 1656. James, the 
second son, had followed the seas from his youth, having 
been advanced to the command of a merchantman in the 
India trade, previous to the Restoration, and, subsequently, to 
the Captaincy of a British man-of-war. " Capt. Carteret " had 
acquired considerable distinction in his profession, and was 
thought deserving of promotion. " He was administrator or 
captain general, of the English forces which went, in 16G6, to 
retake St. Kitts, which the French had entirely conquered, 
and were repulsed. - He had also filled some high office, 
during the war, in the ship of the Duke of York, with two 
hundred infantry under his command." 

His father, Sir George, was one of the eight proprietaries of 
Carolina. Ashley Cooper, the distinguished Earl of Shaftes- 
bury, was also a proprietor; and to him had been committed 
the task of preparing a Constitution of government for the 
province. Shaftesbury entrusted the work to his greatly- 
admired friend, John Locke, the well-known author, twenty 
years later, of the " Essay concerning Human Understand- 
ing." A most impracticable, but greatly lauded Model of 
Government, called the "Fundamental Constitutions of Caro- 
lina," was the result of his political lucubrations. It was 
therein provided, that each county should be governed by a 
landgrave and two caciques, the former ranking as Earls, and 
the latter as Barons, — hereditary nobles, — to have possessions 
corresponding to their dignities, for ever inalienable. Locke, 
in compliment to Shaftesbury, and as a recompense for his 
literary services, was appointed one of the Landgraves ; Sir 
John Yeamans, afterwards Governor, was honored with the 
same title ; and, in compliment to Sir George Carteret, the 
Landgraviate of the remaining County, was assigned to his 
second son, Capt. James Carteret. The Constitution was 
signed, March 1, 1669-70, and the appointments made in April 
of the following year.* 

♦ CoUins' Peerage, IV. 821-8. (Ed. of 1735.) Dankera' Journal of a Voyage to N. York, in 
16T9-80, p. 137. Graham's U. States, I. 848, 851-7. Bancroft's U. States, II. 129, 144-151. 
nildreth's U. States, II. 30-4. " You are to take notice yl wee have made Mr James Carteret, 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 141 

Early in 1671, Capt. Carteret made ready to embark for 
America, to take possession of his newly-acquired domain 
and dignity. He was, probably, instructed by bis father to 
take New Jersey in his way, and confer with Gov. Philip 
Carteret in respect to the affairs of this province, then getting 
to be quite complicated. He arrived here in the summer of 
1671, and was graciously received as became his rank and 
relationship. He was the son of one of the Lords Proprie- 
tors, and might become heir to his father's estate and dig- 
nities. It was well to receive him with marked consideration. 

Shortly after his arrival. Gov. Lovelace convened an ex- 
traordinary council at New York, Sept. 1671, in reference to 
the Indians on the Delaware. Gov. Carteret, and Capt. 
James Carteret, with the mayor (Capt. Thomas Delavall) and 
secretary of New York, and Maj. Steenwyck, (a previous 
mayor), constituted the council. As one of the results of the 
conference, it was concluded, 

That the Governor of Few Jersey, and Capt. Janaes Carteret, (then 
present), should expeditiously order a General Assembly to be called in 
that government, (according to their custom upon all emergent occa- 
sions) to know the people's strength and readiness ; and how far they 
were willing to contribute towards the prosecution of a "war against the 
Indians. 

These gentlemen must have regarded Capt. James Carte- 
ret as having, at least for the time being, something like co- 
ordinate, if not supervisory, authority with the Governor, 
either by commission, or as the representative of his father.* 

Sr Jno Teamans and Mr Jno Locke, Landgraves. "White Hall, 1st May, 1671. Eivers' His . 
Sketches of S. C, p. 3G8. His. Coll. of S. C, I. 45-7, 52 ; II. 292-6. 

* Smith's N. J., pp. 69, 70. Great injustice has been done to the memory of Capt. James 
Carteret. The£iUin C/iancfry (p. 35) calls him "a weak and dissolute youth." He could 
scarcely have been less than 40 years old. Gov. Philip was but 32. Wynne calls him "a dis- 
solute son of Sir George," (I. 205.) Chalmers speaks of him as '' a natural son of the Propri- 
etor," (p. 616). Orahame uses the same language, (I. 466). Gordon describes him as " a 
weak and dissolute natural son of Sir George," (p. 29). Whitehead makes him "an illegiti- 
mate son of Sir George," " a weak and dissipated young man," (p. 55). Mu!ford uses the same 
epithets, (p. 152). That he was the totr/ui son of Sir George and his wife Elizabeth, cannot 
be questioned. Cankers, the Labadist Journalist, who knew and met with him, at N. York , 
in 1679, calls him "a person of quality," and gives not the least intimation of his being other 
than the lawful son of Sir George, but much to the contrary. Bankers' Journal, p. 139. See 
this History, postea. Collins' Peerage (1735), III. 829 ; IV 827-8. His morals at the time 
could not have been much worse than those which generally prevailed at court ; they may 
have been bettor 



14:2 THE HISTORY OF 

No Assembly had been held since Nov. 1668, greatly to 
the dissatisfaction of the people. An occasion had now oc- 
curred that called for such a convention. In accordance with 
the agreement at New York, the Governor issued his war- 
rant, and an Assembly convened here, Oct. 3, 1671. Newark 
was represented by Jasper Crane and Robert Treat ; but 
who were the representatives of the other towns, and what 
were their proceedings is not known, as the records of the 
meeting were destroyed. It is very certain that Gov. Car- 
teret found but little encouragement in relation to the con- 
templated enterprise- against the Indians. It is known, as 
stated by the Governor, in a document, dated Feb. 10, 1674-, 
that the Assembly were in session in this town, on the 14:th 
of December preceding, when an Act was passed constituting 
a Court of Oyer and Terminer, and another for the appoint- 
ment of a Marshal for the province. This must have been 
an adjourned meeting of the Assembly that met in October, 
1671. 

A court had now been lawfully constituted. A writ was 
issued, Feb. 10, 167|-, authorizing and appointing " Capt. 
John Berry, President, Robert Vauquellin, Samuel Edsal, 
Eobert Bond, Capt. John Pyke, Capt. Robert Treat, AVilliara 
Pardon, or any three of them to be a Court to meet together 
and sit upon Tuesday morning 27 Feb. at 9 o'clock at the 
town house in Elizabeth Town," &c. The object of conven- 
ing this court was the punishment of the so-called rioters of 
the previous June. All of the members, with the exception 
of Bond and Treat, were of the Governor's Council. Nei- 
ther Treat nor Yaiiquellin were present at the trial. Of the 
Jury, seven were from Woodbridge, and five from Bergen ; 
none from this town, or from Newark. 

An indictment was found against "Wm. Meaker, Jeffery 
Jones, Luke "Watson, Nicholas Carter, Samuel Mash, sen', 
John Ogden, J', Joseph Meaker, and Hurr Thompson," for 
pulling down Michell's fence on the 20th of June previous. 
They all appeared in court, on the Sth of March, — when the 
trial came on, — heard the indictment, were asked, — " Guilty, 
or not guilty ? " — and made no response ; but, though ordered 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. I43 

to remain, left the house without putting in any plea at all. 
The complexion of the court and jury was such as to satisfy 
them, that the issue was a foregone conclusion ; that Carteret 
was determined to sustain Michell, and to secure a judgment 
agaiust the town in the persons of Meeker and his associates. 
A trial, in such circumstances, was a mere mockery. The 
persons indicted would have nothing to do with such a tri- 
bunal, and the people sustained them in their contumacy. 
The case proceeded. Evidence was given for the prosecu- 
tion, by George Pack, Wm. Letts, Vincent Ronyon, Wm. 
Cramer, Richard Michell, and Wm. Pardon. Ko evidence 
was given for the defence. The accused were severally 
found guilty of a riot ; and, the next day, appearing in court, 
received sentence ; Wm. Meeker to pay £5, and each of the 
others, £3 ; the fines to be collected by distraint. The fines 
were not payed ; yet no distraint followed. The marshal, 
Samuel Moore, of Woodbridge, was powerless in the presence 
of an outraged and indignant people, whose oj)position to the 
Governor and his party had now become more than ever de- 
termined."^" 

The Newark settlers appear to have been in full sympathy 
with their brethren here. They were evidently quite as little 
pleased with the Governor's policy. At a 

Town Meeting 22d Jan'y, 1671, Mr. Treat and Lieut Swain are de- 
puted, to Take the first opportunity to Advise with Mr. Ogden, or any- 
other they see Cause, what may be the Safest and Best Course to he 
taken for the Town, about our Lands and Settlements here. 

If Carteret may give away, land in E. Town, he may in 
Newark ; if one lot, lie may dozens. There is ground for 
alarm, f 

The General Assembly met again in this town, March 
26th, following, and held an adjourned meeting, on the Idth 
of May. As in the case of the meetings of the previous year, 
the record of these two meetings, also, has been destroyed. 
The proceedings evidently were not to the Governor's mind, 
and he takes the responsibility, through Mr. Pardon, the 
Secretary, utterly to suppress them — a fearful responsibilit}' 

* E. J. Eecords, III. 78-SO. t Ncwnrk Town Eccords, p. 43. 



144 THE HISTORY OF 

in a free government ! He might just as well suppress the 
Legislature itself. It is the policy of the Stuarts, transferred 
to America, where it is less likely to prevail than in Great 
Britain. The people, neither there nor here, will be trifled 
with. They will not submit to despotism.* 

The character of the deliberations of the popular branch 
of the Legislature may be readily conjectm-ed by the foUow- 
iug extract from the Newark Records : 

Town Meeting, 13th May, 1672. Mr. Crane and Lieut Swain that 
■were Chosen representatives for the Town, are desir'd by the Town to 
consult with the rest of Jthe representatives of the Country, to order Mat- 
ters for the safety of the Country, 

This was the day before the adjourned meeting. Of 
course " the safety of the Country," as put in jeopardy by 
Gov. Carteret, was the all-engrossing topic.f 

As the Governor refused both to preside over the Assem- 
bly, either in person or by deputy, and to recognize the law- 
fulness of the convocation, the Representatives, as authorized 
by the Concessions, called Capt. James Carteret, who still 
continued to reside in the town, to preside over the House of 
Burgesses, as they were called. By virtue of this appoint- 
ment, he issued a warrant, " to the constable of E'^ Towne 
or his deputy," May 25, 1672, as follows : 

These are in his Ma"" Name to Will and require You to apprehend the 
body of William Pardon and him to keepe in Safe Custody untill further 
order, or untill he deliver up the Acts of Laues made by the General As- 
sembly at their Setting the 26th of March Last the Which Laues the said 
Wm Pardon now refuseth to deliver." | 

Constable Meeker does not hesitate to acknowledge the 
authority of Capt. James, and proceeds to make the arrest of 
the Governor's partisan and fellow-conspirator. Finding the 
atmosphere of the town somewhat dangerous. Gov. Carteret 
flies to Bergen, and, on the 28th of May, convenes his coun- 
cil, Vauquellin, Edsall, Bishop, Berry, Andrus, Pyke and 
Pardon, the latter having escaped the custody of Meeker. 
Treat has returned to Connecticut, and Bond favors his 

* E. J. Records, III. C4. t Newark Town Records, p. 44. 

i E. J. Records, III. 64. Learning and Splcer, p. 15. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 145 

townsmen. A Proclamation is issued, in which the following 
language is used : 

"Whereas, we are certainly informed of several Eregular and Illegal 
proceedings and Actions of several Persons styling themselves The Depu- 
ties or Representatives for the Country, in Attempting the making an Alter- 
ation in this Government by Assembling together at Elizabeth Towne, 
the fourteenth day of May Last under the Denomination aforesaid, with- 
out wrltts from the Governor, or without the knowledge, approbation or 
consent of the Governor and Oouncill abovesaid, and by Electing a Pres- 
ident for the Country and making Proclamation publickly of these their 
Illegal Actions, All which tends only to Mutiny and Rebellion, &c. 

From this document it appears, that the Assembly was 
composed of " Deputies for Elizabeth Town, ISTewark, 
Woodbridge, ISTew PiscataAvay and one from Bergen." The 
Governor expresses his determination, unless they " declare 
their submission within ten days," to proceed against them 
" as Muteeneers and as Enemies to the Government ; " adding, 
" and if by this means there should be any blood shed We 
do hereby Cleer our Selves before God and Man from the 
Guilt thereof," A plain declaration of war, truly, and of 
evil portent. The breach is irreparable. The people have 
taken their stand deliberately, and are not to be driven from 
it. They know their rights, and how to maintain them."^ 

How it was, that Capt. James Carteret, the son of one of 
the Lords Proprietors, was led to take sides with the town 
against the Governor, is not clear. He may have come into 
collision with his kinsman on the question of authority, or of 
deference to his position ; or he may have been playing the 
game of Absalom, hoping soon to supersede the present in- 
cumbent. Or, with the liberal impulses of a sea-captain, he 
may have heartily espoused the cause of the people, in the 
interests of truth and right. At all events, he was quite 
willing to take the leadership of the popular part}'- in tlic 
province. 

Armed with the Proclamation of the refugee Governor, 
the fugitive Secretary returns, June 3, to overawe his old 
neighbors, and to read the document in town-meeting, as 

•E. J. Records, III. 53. 

10 



146 THE HISTORY OF 

was required of each of the towns. But, to his utter confu- 
sion, he is once more arrested by Goodman Meeker, and 
brouglit before Capt. Carteret, at 10 o'clock at night, by 
wlioni he is consigned to the custody of the constable, and 
kept a close prisoner for three weeks. 

" Denyed libertr," as be testified, " toliave private discourse with any, 
or to write, hurried before the Capt., by whom, as also by the said Meaker, 
I was frequently taunted at, and menaced, and also treated with scurrilous 
and vile language." On Monday, the 24th, "having received a letter 
from the Governor that I should repair to him to confer about [the mat- 
ter] and hands being sent for me att night I slipped out of that town and 
came to the Goveriior, at Bergen."* 

The next day, 25th, a warrant is issued by Justice Ogden, 
requiring Meeker " forthwith to assemble four men of good 
report and with them to repair to the said William Pardon's 
house and to attach what moveables of his can be found." 
His oifence is thus recited in the warrant : 

"Whereas "\Yilli:mi Pardon of Elizabeth Town in the Province aforesaid 
was arrested upon the Province account for unjustly and obstinately de- 
taining the Lanes of the Province made by the General Assembly at their 
sitting March 26, 1672, which Lawes weare committed to the said Wil- 
liam Pardon to take a Copy of them by order of the said Assembly, which 
he hath neglected and refused and also to deliver up the said Lawes unto 
the Assembly at their nest Sitting by whom they were demanded, &c. 

Calling to his aid " Goodman Tomson " (one of the Deputies) 
and his son Hurr, Stephen Osborn, Robert and Peter Morse, 
Nathaniel Tuttlo, and John Wilson, the wheelwright. Meeker 
proceeded to Pardon's house on the west side of the Creek, 
between Tuttle's and Robert Morse's, and broke open a boarded 
window in the side of the house, at which Peter Morse en- 
tered, and so opened the door, M'hen they all entered and 
carried away the moveables to Goodman Tomson's house, ex- 
cept his writing desk and papers, which were carried to 
Capt. Carteret. Besides these, they seized his " crops on 
the ground, 5 acres of pease," his "stock of hoggs," his 
" mares and coults," &c. " James the Governor's man, 
Nicholas Mundy, Cramer and his wife, and many others," 

* rilc8, at Trenton, N. J., Off. of Sec. of State. 



• ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. I47 

were standing by. The testimony of Cramer and bis wife, 
taken sbortly after, is on file, as also the copy of a letter from 
Elizabeth Cramer, dated, July 1, 1G72, addressed to " M' 
Pardon w'^ my love nnto yon," both at the beginning and the 
ending.^' 

These were serious times for the infant settlement, calling 
into exercise their Christian graces, and developing the 
strength of their political principles. They had experienced 
no such trials in their former homes, and had anticipated no 
such collisions here. But they had taken their stand and 
were not to be driven from it. The excitement, of course, 
was intense. 

Ten days before this transaction, the Council met and ad- 
vised Governor Carteret to " repair to England to Sir George 
Carteret to acquaint his Honour fully of the state of the aflairs 
and grievances of this Province." A fortnight later, July 1, 
they drew up a Memorial to "the absolute Lords Proprietors," 
in which they use this language. They complain of " several 
persons," 

"Who have a Long time been discontentecl and Oposit unto the Gov- 
ernor and Government who have of Late by their phittings and Combi- 
nations so carried matters that they have had such Influence into the 
■Election of Deputies for the Assemblys as that there are such persons 
chosen as Deputies who having avoided taking the Oath of Assemblymen 
according to the Concessions, and have taken Liberty to differ from the 
Governor and Councill in Establishing matters for the Peace and Settle- 
ment of the People, and have now at last disorderly Assembled and pro- 
cured Cap* James Carterett as their President, who Joyned with them in 
making disturbance in this Province, he taking upon him to head the said 
persons endeavoring not only to disingage the people in subjection unto, 
but also opposing and abusing the Governor and Council), commanding 
their Obedience to himself by virtue of his Warrants which he puts forth 
in the King's name for that end, as also Prohibiting such Officer as act by 
the Governor's Commission, and commanding them wholy to cease act- 
ing their offices untill they receive orders from himself, &c. 

They affirm that " all these proceedings he carried on 
with pretence that he hath Power sufficient, he being Sir 
George Carterctt's sonn, and that he himself is Proprietor and 

• E. J. records, III. C4, 82. Files In Scc's Off., Trenton. 



148 THE HISTORY OF 

can put out the Governor cas lie pleases, and that his Father 
hath given him his part of the Province." They add, 
" Although hee he Sir George Carterett's sonn, and for his 
Father's sake we Honnour him accordingly, j^et our oune 
reason doth persuade us to believe that his Hon'''* Father 
will never Countenance his son in such dishonorable unjust 
and violent proceedings." * 

These simple-hearted planters had dared to think for them- 
selves, and to have a policy of their own in relation to the 
making and the adrninistering of the laws by which they 
were to be governed. They had even " taken liberty to dif- 
fer from the Governor and Councill," in these matters, — a 
liberty not to be tolerated under the Stuart dynasty. Such 
was their offence, as set forth by the opposing party — noth- 
ing more. It must be borne in mind, that the documents 
now accessible present only one side of this controversy. 
The Representatives of this town, Newark and Piscataway, 
prepared and forwarded a Memorial to the Lords Proprie- 
tors, setting forth their grievances and complaints, which 
drew forth a brief response from Berkeley and Carteret. 
But neither this memorial, nor any other paper or records 
emanating from the people at this juncture, from which the 
precise nature of the difficulties can be learned, is known to 
have survived the conflict. They have probably all per- 
ished. 

On the first of July, Gov. Carteret issued a Declaration, 
denying the truth of certain " Reports raised and bruited 
abroad that tends to Render the Governor unjust in his Ac- 
tion and unfaithful to the Lords Proprietors and country." 
Shortly after, he and his officials, Bollen, Yanqnellin and 
Pardon, with Samuel Moore, the Marshal, left the country 
and returned to England, Capt. Berry, of the Council, hav- 
ing been appointed by Carteret, " Deputy to officiate in his 
Absence." On the 9th of July, Capt. James Carteret issued 
a writ of attachment against the house and lands and all the 
estate of Wm. Pardon, " escaping away for England." And 
thus the matter rested for a season. Berry kept himself 

* E. J. Eecordi, III., 6&-€. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 149 

mostly on his own plantation at Bergen, Capt. James Car- 
teret occupying the government house in this town, and 
making occasional visits to the house of Mayor Delavall, at 
New York. These trips to the neighboring city resulted in 
his marriage, April 15, 1673, to Frances, daughter of Capt. 
Thomas Delavall, Merchant and Mayor of New York.* 

Bollen, Pardon and Moore returned from England, early 
m May, 1673, having arranged every thing to their satisfac- 
tion, and obtained the requisite papers and all necessary au- 
thority, from the Duke and the two Lords, to reduce the 
people to subjection. One of these papers, bearing date, 
Nov. 25, 1672, was addressed, by the Duke of York, to his 
Deputy at New York, Col, Lovelace ; instructing him to 
take notice, that the grant of his predecessor. Col. Nicolls, 
to John Baker and his Associates, of Dec. 1, 1664, was void 
in law, and directing him to make it known to the persons 
concerned: void, "as I am informed," says the Duke; re- 
ferring to " an extra-judicial opinion " of certain counselors 
in England, to whom the case had been referred for advice ; 
an opinion in which " the facts are untruly stated and the 
law mistaken ; " so much so, that, when the Duke's letter 
was read to Gov. Lovelace's Council in New York, May 25, 
1673, a previous " letter from the Lords Proprietors to Col. 
Nicolls, confirming his Patents before Capt. Philip Carteret's 
arrival " in 1665, was produced ; whereupon it was ordered 
that " the State of the Case be returned to his Royal High- 
ness." At a later date, as, in the course of events, will ap- 
jiear, a regular judicial opinion was obtained, and Nicolls' 
patents declared to be in accordance with law and of full 
force and obligation.f 

They brought, also, a letter, dated, Dec. 9, 1672, from the 
King, to Berry and his Council, confirming their authority, 
and requiring them to exact from the settlers all due obedi- 
ence ; thus making, for the first time, the Governor and 
Council oflicers of the Crown. " Instructions " were, also, 

♦ E. J. Records, III. 55. New York Marriages, pp. 63, 105. Valentine's Manual of N. Y. 
for 1855, p. 493. Stearns' Newark, pp. 52-7. 

t Learning and Bpicer, pp. 31-32. E. Town Bill, pp. 40-1. Ans. to do., pp. 25-6, 80-1. 



150 THE HISTORY OF 

sent, from Berkeley and Carteret, to the Governor and Coun- 
cil, — a Paper explanatory of the Concessions ; — and a 
Declaration to the People of the Province ; both papers de- 
signed and adapted to sustain Gov. Philip Carteret in his 
pretensions. In their Response to the Petition of the Rep- 
resentatives, they give them no encouragement of redress, 
but promise to consider their case, if they should send over 
any person to make good their Allegations. Pardon had se- 
cured an order of indemnity "for the several Indignities, 
Losses, and Injuries done unto hira by Wm. Meeker, Con- 
stable of Elizabeth Town, his Assistants and all others con- 
cerned." * 

The first recorded proceeding of Dep. Gov. Berry and his 
Council, after the reception of these papers, was the issuing 
of a proclamation, May 21, 1G73, forbidding all persons to 
buy the estates of Meeker and his associates, if offered for 
sale, of which the constable of the town was to notify the 
people. An order was published, the next da^^, requiring 
all malcontents — " those persons who were the chief actors in 
attempting the making an alteration in the government," to 
make " their submission at the town of Bergen," on " the 
10th day of June next ensuing," " when such as are con- 
scious of their offences may repair to crave remission, 
and after that time to expect no favour but what the Law 
affords." f 

Not content with this exhibition of power, they issued on 
the same day a Proclamation, in which they reminded the 
people, that, according to the Declaration of the L. Propri- 
etors,' 

No person or persons whatever shall be accounted a freeholder of the 
province, nor have any vote in electinfr, nor be capable of being elected 
for any office of trust, either civil or military, until he doth actually hold 
his or their lands by patent from them. 

Therefore, they required all who desired to be regarded as 
freeholders to repair to the Secretary of the Province, to ob- 
tain warrants for surveys ; or if already furnished with such 

♦ Leamins nnd Spicor, rP- 82^1. E. J. t E. J. Records, III. 82. 

Eecords, HI. 64, 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 151 

warrants, then to obtain patents in due form, within a limited 
time ; ten weeks being allowed the people of this town : 

And whosoever shall neglect so to do within the time limited as afore- 
said sliall lose the benefit of the L. Proprietors' .favour in the premises 
and forfeit such lands as they are settled upon and pretend unto. 

With so high a hand, did Berry, 

"Armed with a little brief authority," 

proceed to carry out his instructions. Such measures, so far 
from conciliating the disaifected, and uniting the discordant 
elements of the population, tended directly to kindle anew, 
and with redoubled fury, the flames of strife and bitterness. 
So slow were the Stuarts and their creatures in learning the 
very first rudiments of social and political economy ! '^ 

Meeker and his associates were -brought to trial, June 24, 
1673, for the damage done to Pardon the year before ; and, 
of course, they were cast ; Meeker being condemned to for- 
feit his estate to Pardon, and the others to pay each £10. 
Meeker was afterwards remunerated by the people, at least in 
part, for his losses in this atfiiir. 

To counteract and nullify the designs and measures of their 
now exultant adversaries, it was determined to send a mes- 
senger, with a suitable petition, to the authorities in England. 
At the " Town Meeting, July 1st, 1673," of the Newark 
people. 

It was Voted and agreed by the General and universal Consent and 
Vote of all our People, that there should be an Address by way of Peti- 
tion, sent to the Lords Proprietors of this Province, for the removing of 
the Greviances incumbent, and obtaining of what may be necessary for 
the Good of the Province. t 

A committee of five men were chosen " to consider with 
the messengers from the other Towns about sending a Petition 
to England." Also " to agree with Mr. Delevall [of New 
York], the father-in-law of Capt. Carteret, about Money to 
send a Messenger to England." The same course, doubtless, 
was taken by this town. 

* E. J Record.', III. t Newark Town Records, p. 50 



152 THE HISTORY OF 

Many of the first settlers, here and at Newark, were per- 
sonally known to Mr. John Winthrop, Governor of Connec- 
ticut, " the most accomplished scholar and gentleman of New 
England," an humble and devout Christian, and of influence 
second to none in America. He was personally known to 
Berkeley and Carteret, having spent a considerable time at 
court in 1662, in negotiating the Charter of Connecticut. A 
full representation of the case is made to him ; and in con- 
nection with Mr. Samuel Willis, one of the Magistrates at 
Hartford, he wrote, July 2, 1673, to Sir George Carteret, at 
London, as follows : 

Eight Honourable : There having divers persons of good repute and 
approved integrity who were formerly improved in publicke offises in this 
Colony, viz : M' Jaspar Crane, M"" John Odgden, M'' Robert Bond, M' 
Abraham Peirson, M' Brewen with many of their Lovinge Neighbours and 
friends wel disposed men, of sober and peaceable conversation did Trans- 
plant themselves And famalys into your Honours Province, who beinge 
persons well known to us. But strangers to your Honour desired us to 
give you our Carracter of them that soe they might not bee misrepresent- 
ed, whose presence in this Colony was both acceptable, and usefull ; and 
theire return To us would bee very gratfull. But that wee would promote 
in your Honour's Colony that good worke of subduing the Earth and re- 
plenishinge of it, which in this remote, desert part of the world never 
Formerly inhabited nor Cultivated is A very difficulte worke, and requires 
much hard Labour, to subdue so Ruff and woody A wildernesse. In this 
Cold Clymet where clothinge is very Deare, beinge so far distant From 
the Market. Soe that the people will need the more encouragement which 
we doubt not upon all occasions will be afforded them. Upon which the 
progresse and prosperity of your province doth depend. In order to which 
we would further make bould to suggest unto your Honours Wisdome 
and prudence, As very expedient, that your Colony be Branched out into 
Convenient Townshipps, wliich wo findeBest Conducingo to Safty and the 
advansinge of Civill Societays. Tlius wishinge your Honour all pros- 
perity in the well settlement of this your American Province — wee 
are, &c. 

Of this letter, so complimentary to the early settlers of this 
neighborhood, and so complete a vindication of those worthy 
men from the aspersions then and now cast upon them, Capt. 
Berry presently received knowledge, and, supposing that it 
was designed to induce the New England people to return to 
Connecticut, he wrote in remonstrance, and received, by 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 153 

Capt. Nicolls, a reply from Winthrop, dated July 29, 1673, 
in which, after correcting Berry's misapprehensions, he 
says : 

It hath heene very farr from my acting or intentions to incourage or 
invite any one to a removall thence. I have often at their first beginning 
there and since, as I had occasion, incouraged that good publicke designe 
of planting that place, and am alwaies desirous to promote the prosperous 
increase of those plantations, and therein, and all other good respects to 
be ever Your very reall servant.* 

It is not known whether the messenger, with the people's 
petition and Gov. Winthrop's introductory letter, was sent or 
not. Circumstances occurred soon after, that suddenly put 
an end to these negotiations, and brought the town into en- 
tirely new and unexpected relations. 

* 3 Mass. His, Soc. Coll., X. 85, 6. 



154: THE HISTORY OF 



CHAPTER VIII. 

A. D. U13-U1i. 

Departure of James Carteret and Hopkins — Vessel captured by tbe Dutch — 
Hopkins discloses the weakness of N. Y. — Capture of the City by the Dutch 
— Deputation from E. Town at N. Y. — N. Jersey yields to the Dutch — Land 
Claims confirmed — New Officials — Recusancy of Vauquellin — Census of 
E. T. Men — Notices of the new Comers — Militia Officers — Edicts — Indian 
Depredations — Monthly Day of Prayer appointed — Legislative Assembly — 
Redress of Injuries — Termination of Dutch Rule. 

Capt. James Carteret had scarcely completed l)is honey- 
moon, before he received, by Capt. Bollen, dispatches and 
instructions from his aged father, requiring him to retire from 
the scene of conflict in New Jersej'-, and look after his patri- 
mony in Carolina. He was now the only surviving son of 
his father, — his elder brother. Sir Philip, having been slain 
in battle, almost a year before, — May 28, 1672. Bidding 
farewell, therefore, to the kind people of the town, he took 
passage, with his wife, early in July, 1673, (after nearly two 
years' sojourn in the town), on board of a sloop, Samuel Da- 
vis, captain, bound for a southern port. Samuel Hopkins, 
one of the planters of the town, accompanied them. Eng- 
land had now been at war with the United Provinces of Hol- 
land since March of the previous year. The fleets of the 
contending parties were traversing the seas in search of mer- 
chantmen, rendering navigation peculiarly hazardous. 

As Davis's sloop was entering between the Capes of Vir- 
ginia, a Dutch fleet was seen coming out of James Kivcr, 
where, July 11th, they had captured, " near Point Comfort," 
several English vessels. The sloop was speedily overhauled 
and added to the list of prizes. Capt. Carteret and his wife 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 155 

were set ashore in Yirginia, to pursue their course further 
south, as best they could. Hopkins, because, probably, of his 
interest in the cargo, was retained ; possibly, by choice. 
How it fared with Carteret, afterwards, in Carolina, and at 
what time he returned, if at all, to the Isle of Jersey, history 
docs not inform us.* 

Anxious to get possession once more of their old American 
colony, New Netherland, the Dutch commanders eagerly 
sought, of Capt. Davis, information of the defences of New 
York. Davis " told them," 

That New Yorlce was in a very good condicon, & in all respects able 
to defend itselfe liauing receiued a good supply of armes & aminunic6n 
from his Eoyall Highness the Duke of Yorke w"> aduice of their designe 
on that place w"^ made them resolue to steere another course, & not goe 
to New Yorke, when one Sarauell Hopkins a passenger in y° said sloope, 
& Inhabitant at Arthur Call in New England, & a professor there did vol- 
untarily declare to y^ Dutch that what the said Dauis had informed was 

* N. T. Col. Docmts., III. SOO. The last that is known of him is very deplorable. Jasper 
Bankers and Peter Sluyter, the Labadist travelers, being at Harlem, N. Y., Oct. 6, 1679, were 
under the necessity of spending the night, at a house " constantly filled with people, all the 
time drinkin?, for the most part, execrable mm." Bankers says, 

" Among the crowd we found a person of quality, an Englishman, named Capt. Carteret, 
■whose father is in great favor with the king [James II.], and ho himself had assisted in sev- 
eral exploits ill the king's service. The king has given to bis father Sir (George) Carteret, 
the entire government of the lands west of the North Eiver, in New Netherland, with power 
to appoint as governor whom he pleases; and at this present time there is a governor over It, 
by his appointment, another Carteret, his nephew, I believe, who resides at Ellzabothtown, 
in New, Jersey. This son is a very profligate person. He married a merchant's daughter 
here, and has so lived with his wife that her father has been compelled to take her home again. 
He runs about among the farmers, and stays where he can find most to drink, and sleeps in 
barns on the straw. If he conducted himself properly, he could be not only governor here, 
but hold higher po.sitions, for he has studied the moralities, and seoms to have been of a good 
understanding; but that is all now drowned. Hia father, who will not acknowledge him as 
his son, as before, allows him yearly as much only as is necessary for him to live." 

From the fact that his father disowned him on account of his profligacy in his later yeare, 
grew, most probably, the report of his having been an illegitimate son— utterly inconsistent, 
as it is, with the above statement, and other well- ascertained facts previously adduced in 
these pages. James Carteret, it is probable, did not long survive his father, who died Jan 

14, 1G79-S0. His daughter, Elizabeth, was married, in Jersey, (1.) to Carteret; and, (2.) 

Nov. 11, 1699, to Philip Pipon, Esq., of Jersey. She was buried, on the anniversary of her 
marriage-day, in 1720. Their children were, 1. James, baptized, Oct. 1, 1700 ; 2. Ellas, bap., 
Nov. 22, 1702; 3. Ddavall, (a daughter), bap.. May U, 1704; 4. Louise, bap.. Mar. 2G, 1707; 5 
Jeane, bap.. Mar. 10, 1709 ; 6. Philip, bap , July 22, 1711 ; and, 7. John, bap., Aug 5, 1716. Ran 
dell's Island, adj.icent to New Tork, purcha.icd by her father, (with Great IJarn Island), for $200 
came, on the division of the estate, to Mrs. Jnines Carteret; and after the death of herself and 
husband, to this daugliter, Elizabeth. Her son, Elias, relinquishing the estate in Jersey to his 
brother James, came to this country in 1732, and took possession of the Island, calling itBello- 
Isle. In 1739, it was sold for the benefit of his creditors, after which, ho is thought to have 
returned to England. Historical Magazine, I. 297-9 S. 157-S. Valentine's Manual for 1S55 
pp. 493-4. 



156 THE HISTORY OF 

alltogether false, that New Yorke was in no condicioa to defend itselfe 
ag* the Dutch. &c. ; all w'*" encourased the Diitcli to visitt that place ; all 
theyr crj was for New Yorke, to which place they came ; w'^'' was pres- 
ently taken by them [July 30] : "Where the said Hopkins encouraged the 
Dutch to proceede to the takeing of Arthur Cull haueing discovered to 
them allso the weakenes of that place : The said Hopkins had formerly 
made his aboade w"" Cap' James Carterett.* 

Sucli was the testimony given, by eye-witnesses, on the oc- 
casion of investigating the circumstances of the surrender of 
New York to the Dutch. Hopkins had been identified with 
the popuhir party in. the town, and, doubtless, welcomed the 
advent of the Dutch forces, and the change of government, 
as likely to put an end to the vexatious exactions, to which 
he and his neighbors had so long been subjected. It seemed, 
moreover, like a special providence for their relief — an answer 
to their fervent prayers. The term set by Berry and his 
Council for their submission, was just then expiring, and 
they were preparing for another contest, in which the domi- 
nant party would be supported by Gov. Lovelace of New 
York, and thus enabled to enforce the Proprietary exactions 
to the utmost. Berry and Lovelace are now, by a remarka- 
ble interposition, summarily deposed, and deprived of all 
power to harm them. 

It is not strange, therefore, that the sturdy pioneers of the 
town, wearied out with the vexations of the previous five 
years, should readily give in their adhesion to the new gov- 
ernment. Nine daj's after the surrender of New York, Nathan 
Gould of Stamford writes to Gov. Winthrop, — " Its informed 
that Authur Cull M"" Cartwright's party hath all ready com- 
plyed & the other party is sumoned to appeare next Tues- 
day," the 12th of September. It must have been with pe- 
culiar satisfiiction, " that when Cap* Berry came to the ifort 
uppon the Account of surrender M"" Hopkins tould him that 
his business was done " — his occupation gone.f 

Three days after the surrender, Saturday, Sept. yV, the 
following record is entered on the Minutes of the Council of 
War, at "New Orange," as New York was now called : 

• N. Y. Co'. Docmts , III. 200, 1, 13, 14. t N. Y. Col. Docmta.,.III. 201. 



ELIZABETH, N|W JERSEY. 157 

John Baker, Jacob Melyn, John Ogtlen, cum sociis, Deputies from 
the village of Elizabethtown, Nevv-worke, Woodbridge and Piscatteuay, 
situate in the Province heretofore called New Yarsey, praying by peti- 
tion, that they may be allowed to send some Delegates from their said 
villages to treat with the Admirals and associate Council of war respect- 
ing the surrender of their towns under the obedience of their High 
Mightinesses, the Lords States of the United Netherlands, and his Serene 
Highness, the Prince of Orange, and that no audience be granted to their 
late Governor, Capt. John Berry, before and until the same be granted 
to the said Delegates, «&c. 

Ordered — The Petitioners, namely the inhabitants of the villages of 
Elizabets Towne, Nieworke, "Woodbridge and Piscattawa}^, are hereby 
allowed to send their Delegates hither on next Tuesday morning, to treat 
with us. 

The three remaining villages were ordered to send their Deputies 
at the same time, or be subdued " by force of arms." * 

On the following Friday, yV^> ^^ "^^s ordered, " that all 
the inhabitants of those towns shall be granted the same 
Privileges and Freedoms as will be accorded to native born 
subjects and Dntch towns; also the Petitioners and their 
heirs shall unmolested enjoy and possess their lawfully pur- 
chased and paid for lands, which shall afterwards be con- 
firmed to them by the Governor in due form ; " and " the 
Petitioners are granted and accorded Freedom of conscience 
as the same is permitted in the Netherlands."f 

Again, it is recorded, Saturday, Aug. -jV^h, that 

The Deputies from the Towns of Elizabets Towne, Neu uorke "Wood- 
bridge, Piscattaway, Middeltowne and Schrousbury appearing, are or- 
dered to call together the inhabitants of their respective Towns and to 
have them nominate by plurality of vote?, a double number for Schepens 
or Magistrates of said Towns ; also fi'om each Town to elect two Depu- 
ties, who shall meet together as one Board, and then nominate, by the 
greater number of votes, three persons for Schout and three for Secretary, 
over the said six Towns. 

Bergen had been already provided for.:j: 

Four days afterwards the nominations for Schepens were 
presented to the Council, and on the following day, H 
" John Ogden, Senior, Samuel Hopkins, and Jacob Melyn," 



• N. Y. Col. Docmts., II. 571, «. t N. T. Col. Docmta., II. 57C. } lb. II. 679. 



158 THE HISTORY OF 

were elected " Schepens of Elizabets Towne," and ordered 
to " come hither ou the first opportunity to be sworn in." * 

The several towns chose their Deputies, and these met to- 
gether and made their nominations for Schout and Secretary ; 
from which nominations, tlie Generals and Council of War 
made choice, Sept. 1, 1673, of "Mr. John Ogden to be 
Schout and Mr. Samuell Hopkins to be Secretary " of the six 
towns, 

Giveing & by these presents granting unto the s'^ John Ogden & Sam- 
uel Hopkins & each of them, full pouwer strenght & authority in their 
said offices. The said Schout together w"' y'' Schepens or magistrates of 
y« respective Townes to Eule & governc as well their Inhabitants as Stran- 
gers and y° s'' Samuel Hopkins to administer the office of Secretarij la y" 
s* Townes.t 

The Schout and Secretary were, also, directed " to take an 
Inventory of the Estate of the late Governor Carteret." 
Captain Knyf and Captain Snell, with Abram Yarlet as 
Clerk, were ai)pointed, Sept. G, to repair to the several towns 
"at Achter Coll, and to adiniuister the oath of allegiance to 
all the inhabitants." :{: 

•Sept. 7th, 1673, 

Schout John Ogden and Secretary Samuel Eopkins appearing, com- 
plain that Eobert Lapriere hath removed divers goods from the house of 
Philip Carteret Avhich he refuses to restore ; also that one John Single- 
tary refuses to obey their commands; whereupon 'tis ordered to arrest 
said persons and bring them hither, to which end some soldiers arc fur- 
nished. They are furthermore ordered to summon James Bollen, lato 
Seci-etary of the Province of New Yersey, to deliver up, agreeably to 
former order the Governor's papers within the space of 10 days after 
this date, or in default thereof, his property shall be at the disposal of the 
lion''''' Council of War. § 

This order sheds light upon some of the troubles of the 
town. '"' Lapriere," or Laprairie, was the familiar name by 
which the Surveyor General, Vau{|uellin, was known. Both 
he and Singletary (of whom no other record is known), 
were arrested by Schout Ogden, sent to ISTew York, and, on 

* N.T. Col. Docmts., II. 682. t lb., II. 595. I lb., II. 595, 8. 

§ lb., II. GOO. Singletary is afterwards eallcd "Jonathan;" the eamo, probably, with 
him \rho was at Haverhill, Mass., in 1668. Savage, IT. 102. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 



169 



the 9th, examined by the Council, the charges against them 
being denied. Four days after, Mr. Ogden being present, 
the charges were sustained ; Singletary was fined £5, and 
put on his good behavior : Vauquellin, was found guilty, not 
only of contumacy, but of sedition, and was condemned " to 
be banished as an example to others." * 

The same day, the commission returned to the city, and 
reported that, on the 11th of September, they had adminis- 
tered the oath of allegiance to the inhabitants of the several 
towns. They rated " Elizabethtown " at "80 men, 76 of 
whom have taken the oath ; the remainder absent." The 
names are recorded as follows : 



-John Ogdon senior 
Samuell Hopkins 
Jacob Moleyn 
John Baacker 
Mathyas hettffield 
Jonathan Ogdon 
John "Woodrooff 
Lennard hendlj 
Benjamin Price senior 
Benjamin Price junior 
Thomas price 
Nathaniel buniell 
Isacq Whithead sen'' 
Isacq Whithead jun' 
James Bullin 
John Ogdon jun'' 
Joseph Ogdon 
David Ogdon 
Benj.imin Ogdon 
Benjamin Parkis 
Eichard skinner 
George Moris 
Steven Ozburn 
Benjamin homes 
Joseph Seers 
Joseph bond 
Moses Tomson 



Joseph Ozburn 
Tho' Willson 

Truax (Dutch) 
Tompson 
Henry Moris 
William Meecker 
Joseph Meecker 
Benjftmin Meecker 
Henry homes 
Garret Egberts (Dutch) 
John . . ttle 
Hendr Jans (Dutch) 

Simonson (Item) 

Simpkins 

Johnson 
Humphry Spinidge 
WilHam oliver 
David Oliver 
Charles Tucker 
-George Koss 
Nickles Carter 
Jolm Carter 
Samuell Mash senior 

uell Mash jun'' 
Joseph fFrasey 
George Packer 



Thomas Tomson 

henry Thomson 

Nathaniell Tutle 

John Pope 

Eobbert Moss 

Pieter Moss 

William Hall 

Samuel Trotter 

Stephen Crane 

William Cramer 

Francis barber 

Henry Lyon 

Thomas Lyon 

Dirck Teunisen (Dutch) 

Jacob Cornelis (Item) 

Tyss Servaes (Item) 

William Pills 

Jonas Wood 

Simon Rows 

Thomas Jongo 

Jeffrey Jones out of 

the government 
Eoger Lambath 
Stevens Salsberry 
Luke Wattson 
Ephraim Price t 



' N. T. Col. Docmts., II. 603, C, T. t Alb. Kccords, XXIII. 277. 



160 THE HISTORY OF , 

The manuscript being torn and defaced, some of the names 
are not fully recorded. Others are manifestly incorrect: 
« Heudly " should be Headley ; " Buniell," Bunnell ; " Bul- 
lin," Bollen ; " Henry Moris," Henry Norris ; " Packer," 
Pack ; " Jonge," Young ; " Lambath," Lambert ; " Stevens 
Salsberry," Evans Salsbury ; " Tlioinas AVillson," John Wil- 
son ; "John . . ttle," is John Little; "Benjamin Homes" is 
probably Benjamin Homan; "Hall" should be Hill, and 
"Henry Tomson," Hurr Tomson. 

Of those who took the oath in Feb. 166f, Andris, Dicken- 
son, Thomas Pope, Trotter, and " the greater John "Wilson," 
had died : three were represented, each of them, by a son. 
Shotwell had been exiled by Carteret. Robert Bond may 
Lave been enrolled at Newark ; Wolverson had returned to 
New Orange [York] ; Brackett had sold out to Samuel Hop- 
kins, and returned to New Haven; Richard Painter had 
sold out to Daniel De Hart, and left the town ; Carwithy had 
returned to Long Island ; Christopher Young and Dennis 
White had sold out and removed ; John Haines may have 
been absent ; and Jeremiah Osborn had either removed or 
"had deceased; John Winans, Barnabas Wynes, Thomas 
Moore, John Gray, and John Parker were residents but not 
enumerated. 

Two more sons of John Ogden, Joseph and Benjamin, had 
come to years; three sons, also, of Benjamin Price, viz., Ben- 
jamin, Thomas, and Ephraim ; Isaac Whitehead's sou, Isaac, 
also ; Goodman Thompson's two sons, Aaron and Hurr ; Wil- 
liam Meeker's two boys, Joseph and Benjamin ; William 
Oliver's son, David ; Nicholas Carter's son, John ; and 
Samuel Marsh's son, Samuel ; these all had grown to men's 
estate, since 16G5. Stephen Osborn, too, has followed his 
brother, Joseph, to this new country. 

Several new planters had come in, and some, who had 
come before, had become land-owners. They are worthy of 
being numbered with the Founders of the town, as they came 
when every thing \vas new, and were valuable accessions to 
tjie Colony. 

William Hill [not Hall] was a cordwainer, and had come 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 161 

over with Carteret. He obtained an allotment of 60 acres, 
of which the survey is not recorded. He sold, Jan. 1, 167-|, 
his house and lot to Benjamin Wade. He, or his son, of the 
same name, was numbered among Mr. Harriman's parishion- 
ers from 1694 (perhaps earlier) to 1703. He was admitted 
among the later Associates, and drew No. 70 of the 100-acre 
lots, next to Eobert Woolley.* 

Samuel Hopkins was at Milford, Ct., in 1658, and possibly 
much earlier. Thence he removed to New Haven, where, 
Dec. 5, 1667, he married Hannah, daughter of Capt. Nathan- 
iel Turner, of New Haven. Her father was lost, Jan. 1646, 
in the celebrated merchantman sent out by tlie people of 
that town. The daughter was baptized at New Haven, Nov. 
17, 1639, and occupies the first place in the baptismal rec- 
ord. Her son, Samuel, was born at New Haven, Aug. 30, 
1668, and her daughter, Hannah, May 2, 1670. In the latter 
part of the same year, Mr. Hopkins, with his wife and two 
babes, removed to this town, induced thereto, most probably, 
by John Brackett, Sen"", wliose third lot-right he had pur- 
chased. Mention has already been made of him in connec- 
tion witli Capt. James Carteret, from which it appears that 
Hopkins was an active and influential member of the church, 
and a zealous advocate of the peoi3le's rights. Under the 
Dutch rule, he was chosen one of the Schepens of the 
town, and appointed Secretary of the Province. His house- 
lot contained four acres, bounded, N., by a highway ; 
W., by Samuel Sturrige ; S., by Elizabeth Creek ; and, 
E., by John Ogden, Jr., a way passing between them to 
the landing-place. He had, also, 12 acres of upland, 
" within the Common Fence at the W". side of the plaine," 
bounded by Joseph Sayre, Isaac Whitehead, Sen"", and 
t,wo highways. His " great accomraodatio;i," as the larger 
division of land was called, is not on record. He had a 
warrant for 120 acres. He was, doubtless, a trader, and 
accustomed to travel into distant parts, as when he ac- 
companied Capt. James Carteret to Virginia in 1673. His 

» E. T. Book, B. 23. E. J. Eocords, B. 60. 
11 



1(52 THE UISTORY OF 

decatli occurred not later than Oct. 1GT8. His "wife survived 
him.* 

Roger Lambert \vas a blacksmitli, from Wiltshire, Eng., 
and was descended from an ancient Norman family — Ro 
dolph de Lambert's, and from a collateral branch of the fam- 
ily of Oliver Lambert, Earl of Lavan, 1617. Jesse Lambert, 
of Milford, Ct., was his cousin. Roger, who had never seen 
him since coming over, wrote to him from this town, Sep. 
25, 1684, a loving epistle of fraternal greeting: 

After my loue to you with my Avife's, these are to lett you understand 
that I haue been informed by seuerall of your being att Milforde, in New 
Englande, the which caused me to write seuerall letters to you before this, 
but ncuer could haue one line from you. I haue written very often home 
to England — to my father, but neuer could heare from him, and soe y* 
last letter that I did send it was to your father ; 

and much more of like im])ort, written in a Christian spirit, 
signed — " Roger Lambard." He was, evidently, a man of 
substance and consideration. 

He had a house-lot containing 16 acres, 16 by 10 chains, 
bounded, N., by the highway; E., by Robert "White ; S., by 
Daniel Ogden "in y*' S^'aijip ;" and, W., by his own land. 
He had, also, six acres of upland, adjoining Capt. John 
Baker, and the Common Swamp ; also 8 acres of the swamp ; 
also, 30 acres of upland, on the N. W. side of the Swamp, 
adjoining Richard Beach, "William Cramer, and Nicholas 
Carter ; and 8^ acres of meadow, on " the Great River Called 
the Sound, between two Small Creeks." He had, also, 60 
acres "in a Swamp at the Mile brook," adjoining Nicholas 
Carter, John Little, and George Pack ; and six acres of 
meadow " in the Rawack Meadows : " in all 131^ acres. His 
son John, also, had an allotment, consisting of 100 acres on 
" the Bay," adjoining Gov. Carteret, and "William Letts.f 
For some reason, the father had made himself obnoxious to 
the ruling powers, possibly during the land controversies of 
the day ; and, in consequence, execution was issued, by Jus- 

* Savn^re, II. 4G2. N. T. Col. I)oc., II., 582, 595, 600, 2, 5, G, 033; III. 200-1 213-4. E. J.» 
Eccords, II. 9T, 105; o. e. 25. E. T. Bill, p. 102. 

t Lambert's New Haven, PP- 205-9. E. J. Kccords, 1. 154; II. 19, 29, 89; o, c, 7. E. T. 
Bill, pp.107, 118. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 163 

tice Sandford of Bergen, to Samuel Moore, Provost Marshal, 
against the goods and chattels of Roger Lambert, of Eliza- 
bethtown, IST. J. 

John Little was from IN'ewbury, Mass. He was near of 
kin, probably a brother, *to George Little, who, in March, 
1669-70, became a planter at "Woodbridge, but afterwards 
returned to IS[ewbury. The family were from London. John 
.Little was a carpenter. lie came here, not later than 1670. 
He purchased, Dec. 16, 1670, for £65, of Evan Salisbury, 
William Cramer's landed estate. He had two house-lots ; 
one, containing 10 acres, bounded, S., by George Pack ; IST., 
by William Cramer; E., by a highway ; and W., by "the 
highway that goeth to Woodbridge ;" the other, containing 
9 acres, bounded, S. W., by Robert White ; IST. E., by Rich- 
ard Mitchell; S. E., by William Letts; and N. W., by the 
Woodbridge road. He had, also, 30 acres of upland, adjoin- 
ing Capt. John Baker and Roger Lambert ; also, 20 acres of 
upland, adjoining Peter Morse and Stephen Crane ; also, 30 
acres of upland, "in the plain," adjoining George Pack and 
George Ross ; also, 6 acres of swamp, N. W. of the Wood- 
bridge Road, adjoining Robert White and Richard Mitchell ; 
also, 6 acres more of the same swamp, adjoining William 
Cramer and George Pack ; also, 7 acres of meadow, a triangle, 
" between the great River and Tomson's Creek ; " also, 16 
acres of meadow " in Rahauack meadows being between two 
Creeks"— in all, 131 acres. He married, April 26, 1680, 
Mary, a daughter of his neighbor, Robert White, who, at 
his death in April, 1713, survived him. He left, also, four 
sons — John, Jonathan, Robert, and Anthony, and three 
daughters, Martha, Comfort, Constance. His widow died in 
1715.* 

Henry Lyon was one of the founders of Milford, Ct., in 
1639. He married, in 1652, Elizabeth, the only daughter of 
William Bateman, of Fairfield, Ct, whither he removed in 
1661. In 1667, he joined the Milford people, and came to 
Newark, of which he was one of the founcters. lie was ap- 

• Coffin's Nowbury, p. 303. Littcirs Passaic Valley, p. 213. E. J. Kecord^, 1. 154 ; o. e. 
69; 11.19,42. E. T. Bill, p. 107. 



164: THE HISTORY OF 

pointed. Jan. IGG5, to keep the ordinary at Newark. For 
several years, he was Treasurer of the town. He had an al- 
lotment of 130|- acres within the bounds of Newark. Shortly 
before the Dutcli conquest, he became one of the Associates 
of tills town, where he ranked amoilg the leading men of the 
place. His was the largest annual subscription to the sup- 
j^ort of the Rev. John Harriman, of whose church he was a 
member. He was appointed Justice of the Peace, Aug. 
1681 ; also, Feb. 28, one of the Council ; also, Feb. 4, one of 
the Judges of Small Causes, the commission being renewed. 
May 1, 168G. He was a merchant, and of quite extensive 
business. 

He purchased, Nov. 1674, of John Martin, Sem, of Wood- 
bridge, Capt. Bollen's property, and sold it, the following 
year, to Carteret. He purchased, also, March 13, 167-^, Yau- 
quellin's house and grounds, for £60. He received a war- 
rant for 36 acres, " due to him by Rights and purchase from 
others." His house-lot contained 7 acres, bounded E., by 
Henry Norris ; S., by Hurr Thompson ; W., by a highway ; 
and N., by a by-way. He had, also, 16 acres of upland, ad- 
joining the N. side of the above, with Henry Norris on the 
E., and Benjamin Parkhurst on the N. ; also, 24 acres " in 
the plaines," adjoining Joseph Bond ; also, 20 acres of upland 
on " the Long Neck," a triangle between Benjamin Price, 
Sen"-, and Isaac "Whitehead, Sen-^ ; also, 90 acres of upland, 
adjoining the plain, Benjamin Meeker, Joseph Meeker, 
Robert Bond, Henry Norris, and Isaac Whitehead, Sen' ; also 
100 acres of upland, " Lying by the Lyne of Elizabeth Townc 
and Newark," having " the boggy meadow " on the E., and 
unsurveyed land on the W., the highway to Newark to go 
through it, [since known as " Lyon's Farms "] ; also, 4 acres 
of meadow on E. T. Creek, 7 acres of boggy meadow " at the 
Cove," 18 acres on the Bay, and 20 acres on the Creek, 
formerly old John Ogden's : in all 306 acres. He died in 
1703, leaving a second wife, Mary.* Thomas Lyon, who, 

* Lambcrfs N. llavon, pp. 90, 1, 8. Barber's Uis. Coll. of Ct., p. 231. Newark Town 
Records. Index. New.irk Bicentenary, p. 125. E. J. Records, I. o. e. 89 ; II. 17, 13, 93, 129, 
141 ; o. 0. 28; C. 1.?, 75, 106; E. 531. E. T. Bill, p. 107. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 165 

also, took the oath in 1673, was his son, and, at that time, 
was about 20 years old. 

George Morkis was, doubtless, from New Haven, Ct., a 
near kinsman of Thomas Morris, one of the founders of 
I^ewark, in 1667. He came here, probably, a single man, as 
his allotment was only 90 acres. He is known on the records 
as a " Cordwainer." He hud a house-lot, containing six 
acres, bounded, E., by Robert Vauquellin ; S. by a highway ; 
W., by unsurveyed land ; and, 'N., by Benjamin Meeker, and 
Vauquellin. He had, also, 6 acres of upland, bounded by 
Benjamin Parkhurst, Henry Norris, John Wilson, and Henry 
Lyon; also, 20 acres of upland "on the Plaine," adjoining 
Leonard Headley ; also, 20 acres of upland on " the highway 
that goes to Woodroffes Farme," adjoining Henry Norris, 
Robert Vauquellin and John Wilson ; also, 40 acres of up- 
land on the E. side of the Plain, adjoining Henry Norris, 
John Woodruff, and Henry Lyon ; also 8 acres of meadow on 
''the bound Creek," and 4 acres on the W. side of "Wood- 
roffes Creek : " in all, 104 acres. He died, Jan. 1689-90.* 

Henry Norris was, probably, from Salem, Mass. The 
Rev. Edward Norris [1589-1659] came from England to 
Salem, in 1639, and became the colleague of the celebrated 
Hugh Peters there. He left one son, Edward, born, 1614, 
who may have been the father of Henry. The latter came 
here before 1670, and proved to be a valuable settler. Li 
October, 1672, he came into possession of the allotment of 
"Little John Wilson," first as Executor, and then, Dec. 11, 
1675, as purchaser. Nov. 2, 1692, he was appointed one of 
tlie Town Deputies to the Legislature. He had two house- 
lots, containing 14 acres, bounded, S. W., by William 
Meeker ; S. E., by Robert Vauquellin ; K E., and K W., 
by highways. He had, also, 16 acres of upland, " on the E. 
side of the Plaine," adjoining Joseph Bond, Henry Lyon, 
and George Morris ; also, 24 acres of upland, bounded by 
George Morris, Benjamin Parkhurst, Ilurr Thompson, Henry 
Lyon, and John Wilson ; also, 50 acres of upland, adjoining , 

* Newark Town Records. Index. Newark Bicentenary, p. 120. E. J. Records, II. 10, 
lOi; 0.0. 25. E. T. Bill, p. 103. 



IGG THE HISTORY OF 

Rev. Jeremiali Peck, and Joseph Bond ; also, 85 acres of 
upland, " on the N. of the Plaine," and on the W. side of the 
Newark lload, bounded by John Ogden, J', Benjamin Park- 
hurst, and Joseph Meeker ; also, 20 acres of meadow "' at 
M"- Woodroffe's Creek," having " Geese Creek " on the E. ; 
also 4 acres on the Bay, 2 acres on the E. T. Creek, and an- 
other plot of 4 acres on the Creek : in all, 249 acres. He 
died in May, 1706.* 

Benjamin Parkis [Pakkuurst] came here from TVood- 
bridge, of wdiich he was one of the first settlers. He proba- 
bly came thither with the IS^ewbury Colony, and was of the 
family of George Parkis, who settled at "Watertown, Mass., 
as early as 1643. He exchanged, Aug. 8, 1672, as already 
related, his properties at Woodbridge, with Claude Yallot, of 
this town, and became a permanent resident of this place, being 
regarded with much consideration. He was a joiner, and 
was appointed, Mar. 22, 1679-80, Lieutenant of the Company 
of Foot; also. Justice of the Peace, Feb. 4, 168f ; also, Judge 
of Small Causes, Mar. 28, 1683, and Captain, Dec. 3, 1683. 
His house-lot, formerly Seeley's, has been described. He 
had, also, 30 aeres of upland, "on the E. side of the 
Plaine," adjoining Henrj^Lyon, John Wilson, George Morris, 
and Henry Norris ; also, 60 acres of upland, adjoining Jona- 
than Ogden and John Wilson ; also, 6Q acres of upland in 
the Plain, bounded by Leonard Headley, Jonathan Ogden, 
Henry Norris, and Margaret Baker; also, 12 acres of meadow 
on Woodruff's Creek, next the Great Island, 6 acres on 
" Arthur Cull Bay," and 3 acres on E. T. Creek: in all, 183 
acres. He died, Feb. 168-|-, and his estate was yalued at 
£118. 16. O.f 

William Pilles [Piles, Pile, Pyles] was from Piscat- 
away, N. H. He was at Salisbury, on the N. side of the 
Merrimac river, opposite Newbury, in 1659 ; afterwards, at 
Nantucket, and then at Dover, on the Piscataquay. As 
several of his neighbors had migrated hither, and settled the 

♦ Savage, III. 28S-9. E. J. Records, I. 5S ; IL IS, 100 : o. e. 23. E. T. Bill, p. 103. 
t Savage, IIL 85& E. J. Records, L 184 ; II. iS, 06 ; o. c. 22 ; III. 1C6 ; C. 13, 20, 5T. E. T. 
Bill, p. 108. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. IQl 

town of Piscataway, jST. J., lie was induced to follow them, 
bringing with him two servants. He purchased of Gov. 
Carteret, Feb. 10, 166|-, ^' all his third Lott and hows" on 
the S. sidt) of E. T. Creek. The same year, he succeeded 
Luke Watson as Town Constable. He purchased, June 2, 
1669, of John Ogden, Sen', for £40, 60 acres of upland and 
20 acres of meadow on Rahway Neck ; also, I^eb. 8, 167f-, 
Caleb Carwithy's second division of land, 30 acres, for £11. 
His house-lot adjoined Nicholas Carter, on theE., and Thomas 
Pope on the W. He had 106 acres of upland, " called Eaha- 
wack Neck," on " Pahawack- River," adjoining Humphrey 
Spinage and Luke Watson ; also, 230 acres of upland, " on 
the W. branch of Rawack River, beo-innino; at a wio-wam 
called Peters Wigwam," &c., adjoining a great swamp ; 
also, 44 acres of meadow, " on the N. side of Rawack Neck," 
and on " Pilles Creek ; " and 14 acres of meadow, on the S. 
and S.W. side of the Neck : in all 394 acres.* 

George Ross was a carpenter from New Haven, Ct., where, 
in 1658, he married Constance Little, and, the same year, was 
admitted a freeman. He came here about 1670. He was 
appointed, Dec. 3, 1683, Lieutenant ; and May 1, 1686, one 
of the Judges of Small Causes. He was, also, one of the two 
deacons of the church in Mr. Harriman's time. He had .an 
allotment of 120 acres "in Right of himself & his wife." 
His house-lot contained six acres, bounded, N.E., and N.W., 
by highways ; S.W., by Jonas Wood ; and S.E., by Caleb 
Carwithy. He had, also, 18 acres of upland, " in the Neck," 
adjoining Barnabas Wines, William Johnson, and John 
Gray ; also, 40 acres of upland, " on the plaines," adjoining 
John Little and the fresh meadows ; also, 50 acres of upland, 
" at Rahawack, upon the two mile brook," adjoining Peter 
Morse ; also, in a triangle, 6 acres of meadow " at the Outer- 
most point of Elizabeth Town Creek," and on " the great 
River ; " and 12 acres at Rahway : in all, 132 acres. His 
death occurred in 1702. f 

Joseph Sayee [Saykes, Seaks, Seers] was from South- 

* Savage, III. 43T. E. J. Records, I. 21, 24, 46, 66, 156 ; II. 20, 88 ; III. 24. E. T. Bil), 
p. 108. t Savage, III. 577. E. J. Records, I. 160 ; II. 19, 34; C. 106. E. T. Bill, p. 105. 



168 THE HISTORY OF 

ampton, L. I. Thomas Sayre, of Bedfordshire, Eng., with a 
family of several children, emigrated, in 1635, to Lynn, Mass., 
and thence, in 1041, to Long Island. His son. Job, was one 
of the six adventurers arrested by the Dutch authorities, in 
May, 1640, for trespassing on their territory. Joseph, the 
brother of Job, came here in 1667. In December of that 
year, he united with others in a petition to the Governor to 
have his lands surveyed. His house-lot contained 5 acres, 
bounded, IT., by Eobert Bond ; W., by the Mill Creek; E., 
by the highway ; and, S., by Benjamin Homan. He had, 
also, 9 acres of upland, " in the plaine," adjoining Daniel 
DeHart ; also, 12 acres of upland, adjoining Rev. Jeremiah 
Peck, and Stephen Osborne ; also, 22 acres of upland, " on 
the small Neck," adjoining Rev. Jeremiah Peck, and Joseph 
Meeker ; also, 9 acres of upland, on " the mill brook," adjoin- 
ing Robert Bond, and Robert Vauquellin ; also, 36 acres of 
upland, near a swamp, and adjoining George Pack ; also, 3.5 
acres of upland, adjoining Hurr Thompson ; also, 10 acres of 
meadow, at Woodruff's Creek, and 4 acres on E. T. Creek : 
in all, 142 acres. He died, Dec, 1695.* 

Rtciiard Skinner was a joiner, and came over wuth Gov. 
Carteret as one of his servants. He married. May 1, 1666, 
Susannah Poulain, one of the French girls that came at the 
same time, from the Isle of Jersey. He became, subse- 
quently, the servant of Balthazar DeHart, of N. York, and 
then of Richard Painter, of this town, whose house he occu- 
pied first, after its purchase by DeHart, and then bought, 
July 4, 1672, of DeHart's executors. He was not admitted 
as an Associate.f 

According to the Dutch census, 80 men were residing 
here in 1673, of whom four were absent. Their list includes 
78 names. At least six more, of those who took the oath in 
Feb. 106|, continued to reside here. To these are to be 
added the names of as many as six residents not included 
in either list : Richard Beach, William Letts, William 
Pardon, Jeremiah Peck, Richard Powell, Vincent Ronyon, 

* Howell, pp. IS, 2T, 96, 276. Brodhcad's N. T., I. 29S-300. Savapo, IV. 32-3. E. J. 
KccorUs, II. 21, 99 ; o. e. 24.1E. T. Bill, p. 101. t E. J. Kecords, I. SC. HI. 8. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 169 

and John Wilson. The whole number exceeded 90 men. 
Three others, also, came abont tliis time : Simon Rouse, 
Benjamin Wade, and William Looker. 

EicHAKD Beach was from New Haven, Ct., of which he 
was one of the founders, his name being attached to the 
original compact, June 4, 1639. Zophar, of Newark, 1685,' 
was the son of his brother, Thomas. In 1640, Richard 
married, at New Haven, the widow of Andrew Hull. He 
took the oath of fidelity, July 1, 1614. His name is of fre- 
quent occurrence in the Colonial Records. His house-lot 
contained 13 acres, 13 by 14 chains, bounded, E., and W., 
by highways; N., by Crane's brook; and, S., by Evan 
Sahsbury. He had, also, 30 acres of upland, on Crane's 
brook, adjoining Barnabas Wines, and William Cramer ; 
also, 50 acres of upland, on "Beaches brook," adjoining 
John Little, William Pardon, Nathaniel Tuthill, and Stephen 
Crane ; also, 10 acres of meadow on the S. side of Thomp- 
son's Creek ; in all, 102 acres. His house-lot he sold, 
Mar. 31, 1684, to Mary, the widow of James Mitchell ; and 
Mar. 31, 1688, he sold all his lands in E. Town, to the 
widow Agatha White, who, 16 days later, resold them to 
William Darbie of E. Town. He removed, it is thought, to 
Morris Co., where many families, supposed to be his descend- 
ants, are now to be found.* 

William Letts was a weaver, and came with some of 
the first settlers, most probably as a laborer. He married, 
Sep. 2, 1667, (Justice Bollen officiating,) Elizabeth Laud, 
who, also, was, most likely, at service, no family of that 
name being residents here. His name is not to be found 
among the Associates in the Town's Book, although he ob- 
tained an allotment of land. The printed lists of Asso- 
ciates in tlie E. T. Bill are not reliable. His house-lot con- 
tained seven acres, 13 by 5 chains, bounded, W. S. W., by 
Joseph Frazee ; S. S. E., by Uie highway ; N. N. E., by. 
Richard Mitchell and the swamp ; and E. S. E., by Simon 
Rouse. He had, also, 40 acres of upland on " Ripe Stave 

* Savage, I. 144. N. II. Col. Records, I. Index. E. J. Eecoids, 1. 15" ; II. 19, ST. B. 15S, 
883, 4. 0. C. 64. E. T. Bill, p. lOT. 



170 THE HISTORY OF 

ridge," adjoining Capt. John Baker ; also, 20 acres of up- 
land, adjoining the above, and the great swamp, next to 
David Ogden and Samuel Marsh ; also, 70 acres of upland 
at "Kawack," adjoining Eobert Vauquellin, and William 
Cramer ; also, 18 acres of meadow on the S. side of Thomp- 
son's Creek : in all, 155 acres. He sold, May 2, 1G85, 12 
acres on the S. side of the Creek to Matthias Ilatlield. 
Letts, it has been seen, was a witness for the prosecution 
in the Mitchell case, and found the grudge of the people 
not the pleasantest thing to bear. Soon after the founding 
of Perth Amboy imder government auspices, therefore, he 
removed thither, where he died in March, 170^.* 

William Looker, a brewer, came hither from Jamaica, 
L. L His property there he sold, Sep. 4, 1676, to James 
" Heynes," Cooper, of tliis town. How much earlier than 
this he came here does not appear. He was, probably, of 
the lineage of Henry Looker, who settled, in 1640, at S ad- 
bury, Mass. His house-lot he bought of Joseph Frazce, as 
already noticed. He had, also, 172 acres of upland and 
boggy meadow, " at the head of the South branch of the 
Mill brook, or Eiver belonging to Elizabeth ToM-ne," ad- 
joining Jacob Melyen, Benjamin AVade, and the Governor ; 
also, 100 acres adjoining ; and 10 acres of meadow on the 
E. side of Woodruff's creek. He resided awhile at Wood- 
bridge, but eventually became a permanent resident here. 
His Woodbridge property he sold, Nov. 8, 1686, to Myles 
Forstcr, of Perth Amboy. He was appointed, Dec. 2, 1695, 
a Deputy to the Legislature. In Mr. LLirriman's Ledger, 
he is credited by " 3 Jorneys to Amboy on Alice Eouse 
her business £1. 7. 00." f 

William Pardon has figured largely in the previous 
history. He was an abject sycophant of the Governor, and, 
doubtless, came here, with Carteret, or shortly after under 
his auspices. He was appointed, Jan. 2, 166|, one of the 
Governor's Council, and soon after an Assistant to the 

* E. J. Kecords, 1. 147 ; II. IS, 23, 72 ; o. e. 4 ; III. 11, 201. E. T. Bill, p. 106. 
t E. J. Kocord.s L 87, 137 ; 11.89; o.e.5; A.40S; B.155; L. 52, 101, 104, 111. E. T. BlU^ 
p. 107. Savage, III. 111. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. lYl 

Justices ; also, Jan. 5, 167f , a Justice of the Peace ; and. 
July 31, 1674, Keceiver General. He was, also, employed, 
for a time, as the Governor's Secretary. His house-lot con- 
tained six acres, bounded, N., by Eobert Morse ; E., by 
Elizabeth Kiver ; S., by Nathaniel Tuthill ; and W., by the 
common highway. He had, also, 20 acres of upland on 
Crane's brook, adjoining Peter Morse ; also, 175 acres of 
upland on Elizabeth River, S. of the " Ash Swamp," ad- 
joining JSTathaniel Tuthill and Peter Morse ; also a triangle 
of 16 acres, adjoining the above, on the River; also, 8 acres 
of upland, " in the name of an Island," in the meadow 
below Luke Watson's point ; also, 27 acres of meadow on 
'' the great River or the Sound : " in all, 252 acres. In 
addition, William Meeker's lands were awarded him for the 
injuries that he sustained, as related on a previous page. 
His wife, who came here with him, having died, he married, 
Sep. 1675, Anna Bostoe, having, on the 16th, settled on 
her for her dowry his house and house-lot in E. T. He 
was then, " of the City of New York," having found it too 
uncomfortable to reside here, bated as he was by his old 
neighbors. In 1679, at his own request, he was discharged 
from the Council, and his connection with the town was 
finally severed.* 

Jeremiah Peck is fully noticed on a subsequent page. 

Richard Powell has been noticed in connection with 
Roderick Powell. No record is made of his allotments. He 
resided, for a time, in Yauquellin's house. Gov. Carteret 
sold him, Jan. 5, 167|-, his Woodbridge lands, in the deed 
for which he is styled " Richard Powell, Planter, of Eliza- 
beth Town." He removed to Woodbridge, where his wife, 
Katharine Hughes, whom he had married in 1676, died. May 
16, 1689. On the 4tli of December following, he married 
Elizabeth, the widow of Thoinas Thorpe, of Woodbridge. He 
died in January, 170|.f 

Simon Rouse was from Duxbury, Marslifield District, Mass. 
He was the son of John. Rouse and Annie, a daughter of 

• E. J. Records, L 50, 146 ; II. 14, 18, 22, C9 ; o. e. 1 ; III. 18, 23, 38, 64, 78-80, 82, 114, 128, 168. 
E. T. Bill, p. 103. t E. J. Records; I. 98, 107, 131 ; III. 128. Woodbridge Town Records. 



172 THE HISTORY OF 

Jolrn Peabodj. lie was born in 1645. An elder sister, 
Maiy, was married to a Mr. Price, possibly one of the E. T. 
family, and thus Simon may have been led hither. He was 
here in 1676, and probably some years earlier. No record 
is made of the survey (though ordered) of his house-lot. He 
had 58 acres of upland on " Kaliawack Kiver," adjoining 
William Johnson ; also, 98 acres of upland, adjoining the 
above on the K E., and having Eobert Vauquellin on theN. 
W. ; also, 100 acres on the E. side of the same river opposite 
Pope's brook; also, 24 acres of meadow on the same river, 6 
acres on E. T. Creek,' and 10 acres in the great meadow: in 
all, with the house-lot, 300 acres. He resided at Rahway. 
His lands here lie exchanged with Jonas "Wood, May 20, 
1678, and bought, Nov. 27, 1679, Yauquellin's land adjoining 
his own. He died in 1690, and his wife, Alice, soon after, 
without issue. She was a kinswoman of Sarah Manning, of 
Boston. Frances, a daughter of Samuel Moore, of Wood- 
bridge, inherited the estate, behig, probably, an adopted 
daughter, as she lived with them.* 

YiNCENT RuNTON [RoGNiON, Ronyon] was a carpenter, and, 
tradition says, of French origin. He, probably, came over 
from Jersc}^, in a second or third importation of laborers by 
the Governor. He bought. Mar. 20, 167^, of Francis Bar- 
ber, Thomas Moore's original house-lot, S. of George Pack. 
He was a witness for the prosecution in the Mitchell case, 
and so lost caste in the town; on which account he removed, 
not later than 1677, to Piscataway, where he had 151|- acres 
allotted to him. Mar. 167|, on the Raritan River. He died 
in November, 1713, his wife, Martha, surviving him.f 

Benjamin Wade was a clothier. He was, doubtless, of the 
family (probably a son) of Robert Wade, who was at Dor- 
chester, Mass., in 1635, at Hartford, Ct, in 1640, afterwards 
at Saybrook (where, Aug. 1657, he was divorced) and finally 
at Norwich, in 1659, where he died, in 1682 ; his first wife 
remained in England, and Benjamin may have been her son. 
He came here not later than 1Q75, probably much earlier. 

♦ E.J. Records, I. 108, 9,139,159; 11.1,82; B. 44, 372; D. 59; L.6S,196. Savage, III. 6T9. 
+ E, J. Records, I. 20 ; II. C9, 74 ; III. 78-80. E. T. Bill, pp. 90, 7. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 173 

At liis first coming, he rented Luke "Watson's house and 
grounds, which he purchased. Mar. 16, 16Yf, for £24:. The 
same day, he bought of Nicholas Carter, for £30, payable in 
Pipe staves, his house-lot and 40 acres. Twenty days before, 
he had bought, for £39, Thomas Pope's house, house-lot, and 
60 acres of upland. Less than two years after, he bought, 
Jan. 1, 167f, of William Hill, his house and lot. Previous 
to all this, he had received an allotment of 144 acres : — 48 
acres " in Rahawack Swamp," adjoining Thomas Moore. 
and Samuel Marsh, Jr. ; also, 40 acres of upland ^'in the 
Plaines of Cramberries Meadow," on the S. side of the branch 
of E. T. River ; also, 40 acres of upland on the north side of 
the branch, and of the said Meadow ; one acre, formerly John 
Gray's, on the S. side of E. T. Creek ; 12 acres of meadow at 
Rah way, and 3 acres out of Thomas Moore's meadow. He 
died about 1698.* 

John Wilson, Carpenter, and John Wilson, Wheelwright, 
were both here at an early day, and were distinguished as 
" Great John," and " Little John." The former died un- 
married, at New York, Oct. 12, 1672, leaving his land here 
to Antony Jausen of N. Y. The other John had a house- 
lot, containing 6 acres, bounded, N., by Hurr Thompson ; E., 
by the highway ; S., by Joseph Osborn ; and W., by the 
Mill brook. He had, also, 60 acres of upland, bounded by 
Benjamin and John Parker, Henry Norris, John Woodruff 
and Robert Yauquellin ; also, 23 acres on the S. side of the 
Woodruff's Farm road, adjoining John Woodruff, John 
Parker, and Benjamin Parkhurst ; and 12 acres in the great 
meadow : in all, 101 acres. Wilson was concerned, as al- 
ready related, in the Pardon disturbance, for which he was 
fined, the next year, £10. To secure the payment of the fine, 
he mortgaged, Ap. 19, 1675, his house and lot at E. Town, to 
the Marshal, Samuel Moore, of Woodbridge. Wilson died 
a few months afterwards, and Samuel Moore administered on 
his estate.f 

* Savage, IV. 378. Miss Cnlkins' Norwich (Ed. of 18GG), p. 205. £. J. Records, I. 71, 2, 3, 
159 ; II. ]9, 32 ; A 407 ; L. 03, 102. E. T. Bill, p. 109. 

t N. Y. Wills. E. J. Records, I. 42; IL IS, 90, 100; o. e, 23; IIL 82, 121. E. T. Bill, 
p. 104. 



174 THE HISTORY OF 

Ot' the seven Dntclimen mentioned in the Census of 1GT3, 
only two have left any memorial by which they can be iden- 
tified. Tlie names of Jacob Tryax [Trnax] and Dirck Teunis- 
sen, are found among the settlers of Middletown, N. J. The 
others were, doubtless, adventurers, who disappeared with 
the termination of the Dutch rule.'"-' 

Capt. Knyff and Lieut. Snel, liaving administered the oath 
of allegiance to the settlers, swore in, also, Jacob "Molyn," 
as Captain ; Isaac Whitehead, as Lieutenant ; and John 
Woodruff, as Ensign.f 

Instructions were sent, Oct. 1, 1673, by the Council of 
War, to Sellout Ogden and the Schepens of the town, for 
the preservation of the public peace, and the administration 
of justice. Among other things, it was carefully provided, 
that 

" The Sheriff and Magistrates shall, each in his quality, take care that 
the Reformed Christian Eeligion be maintained in conformity to the Synod 
of Dordrecht without permitting any other sects attempting any thing 
contrary thereto." Power was given them for " laying out highways, 
setting off lands and gardens and in like manner what appertains to agri- 
culture, observance of the Sabbath, erecting churches, school-houses, or 
similar public works." The Sheriff was to " take good care that the places 
under liis charge shall be cleansed of all mobs, gamblers, whore-houses 
and such like impurities ; to receive the half of all civil fines accruing 
during his term of ofiice together with one-thii'd part of what belongs to 
the respective villages from criminal cases." In the nomination of Schep- 
ens, " a double number of the best qualified, the honestest, most intel- 
ligent and wealthiest inhabitants, exclusively of the Eeformed Christian 
Religion or at least well affected thereto, were to be presented to tho 
Governor for his election." I 

Some of the Indians having committed depredations in 
the neighborhood, Mr. Ogden writes to Gov. Colve, Sept. 
29th, [O. S.], for instructions, and receives in reply a letter, 
dated at " ffort Willem Ilcndrick 14th Octob' 1673, [N. S.], 
as follows : 

Mr, John Ogden. Yesterday I sent you y" Instructions bij ije waij of 
New "Worke since that time I Received y" of y" 29"' of Septemb'' last and 
Vnderstood out of y" same y" proceedings of ijour people w"" y* Indians 

• t. J. Records, II. 128, 130 ; L. 173. J N. Y. Col. Docmts., II. 620-2. 

t N. Y. Col. Docmts., II. 60a 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 1Y5 

of W^ I do wel approve and according to your desire I wil alsoo Endeav- 
our that Satisfaction maij be given by y" Indians to y" owners to vs"^ End 
I liave once more thought fit that y" Indian Sachem be summoned to ap- 
peare before me to give me satisfaction about it, and that y" Messenger 
doth signify to liim that I do much wonder that all y^ Chiefe Sachems 
hereabouts as also those of y'' Mohacks have bene here to present them- 
selves unto me and that he onlij Eemains Defective therein wherefore I 
would willingly Speake w"' him to know y" Reason ; and that I promise him 
& his Company freely to Passe & Repas without any Molestation you may 
alsoo give Order vrhat goods he hath Tendred or yett shall tender to Re- 
store y® people maij Receive from him and lett an ace* be sent me what 
y® losse maij be of y" goods w'^'' still are wanting. You are also Required 
to send hether bij j" first opportunity the armes & other goods according 
to Inventorij formerlij belonging to y' Late Gouvern" Oartrett and to 
Cause this Inclosed order of arrest to be published in your Several! 
Townes and to order y« severall Clarkes to return an ace* thereof unto 
you for to be presented unto me. And lett M"' Hopkins Examin uppon 
■what Conditions y*" Tennants are Seated uppon the plantations of Capt° 
Carterett and ace' thereof Returned unto me ; not Else at Present but that 
I am, Your Loving firiend A: Colve.* 

It would thus appear, that the Indians, with their Sachem, 
still continued in the neighborhood, and, at times, were not a 
little troublesome — having, just before this date, carried off a 
considerable amount of property, and refused to restore it. 
What the result was is not recorded. 

As an illustration of the Dutch Rule at tliis period, the 
following Proclamation of Nov. 15, 1673, applicable to this 
town as well as every other part of New Netherland, is 
worthy of attention : 

Trusty & "Welbeloved, Concidering the Manifold Blessings & fii- 
vours w'='' the BountifuU & Merciful god hath bene pleazed graciously to 
Bestow uppon this Province and the Inhabitants thereof amongst w'^'' is 
to be Esteemed beyond all others the free & pure worshipp of god w"^ 
Blessing together w"' all others ought Not only to drawe & oblidge us to 
dutifull thanckfulnesse but also to meeknesse & Rependance because of our 
Manifold sins & Transgressions to the End the s'' Blessings & fjxvours of 
our god may be Continued towards us & this People & Country be free 
from this weldeserved "Wroth and Indignation, Know Yee therefore that 
wee have thought it IsTecossary & do by these Presents order & Proclaime 
an universall day of fast humiliation & thancksgiveing w'^'' shall be held 
■W"'ia this Province on the first Wednesday on every mounth & begunn 

• N. Y. Col. Docmts., II. 633. 



176 THE HISTORY OF 

on the first "wesnesday of the next ensuing month of DecemV being Sec- 
ond day of the s'' Month, & soo Alsoo uppon Every first Wednesday of y"" 
month tliercunto Ensuing ; And to the End the s'' day of humiliation & 
thankxgiveing may bee the better put in practice & due Execution, "Wee 
do hereby strictly prohibite & forbid on the s'' day of humiliation Thaukx- 
giving all manner of Labour & exercizings of hunting fiishing gaming 
Excesse in drincking and the Lyke & all Inkeepers and ordinaris not to 
Eetayle any Licquors or drinke uppon Penalty of Corporall Punishment, 
To the true p''formance of w"^ wee do hereby stricktly order & Co- 
mand all Magistrates oflicers & Justices of this Province & prolecute 
against the Transgressions according to the Tenn"" : thereof and to Cause 
this Proclamation to bee published in due time and place, Soo we Eec- 
ommand you to the protextion of the Almighty godt ; Antony Colve.* 

An Assembly, composed of " the Schoiit and Magistrates 
of Acliter Kol, to make laws and orders," was held here, 
commencing on the 18th of November, 1673. The ordi- 
nances enacted were few and simple, pertaining mostly to 
questions of morality and religion. They were submitted to 
the Dutch authorities for ratification. At the same time, 
Sellout Ogden requested, that the bail-bonds of Meeker and 
Tomson, in the hands of the late Marshal, Sam. Moore, be 
put into the hands of Ogden, and the records of the late 
government, deposited with Secretary Hopkins. The records 
were put in charge of Hopkins, and Meeker and Tomson 
were told to bring the matter into court. Moore was ordered, 
by the court of " deputed councillors," " to deliver up the 
bail-bond executed by " Meeker and Tomson, " on the 26th 
June, 1673, to Capt° John Berry then Deputy GoVernor," 
in the case of Wm. Pardon ; on his refusal, Mr. Ogden was 
required to demand the said bail-bond of Sam. Moore ; and, 
in case of default, to arrest him, and send him to the fort at 
'New York.f 

For more than a year, the land was at rest. The peoj^le 
lived on good terms with the authorities at Fort Orange, 
and were secured in the enjoyment of their lands and privi- 
leges. Ogden was virtually Governor of the English towns 
in N. Jersey, and the government was administered very 

♦ K. Y. Col. Docmts., II. C58. ( 

t Alb. Rocord.s, XXII. 8T5 ; XXIII. 19. "Whitehoad's E. Jersey, pp. 61, 2. N. T. Col. 
Docmts., 11. CS2,S, 728. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. I77 

much after the fiishion of 'Hew England. Their okl troublers 
had either left the town, or were kept in quiet, shorn of all 
authority. The people had it tlieir own way. 

But the Dutch rule was soon terminated. A treaty of 
peace was signed, at Westminster, Eng., Feb. 9, 16Tf, pro- 
viding for tlie mutual restoration of all captured territory. 
Possession of these provinces was retained by the Dutch, 
until tliey were superseded by the English, in November 
folio wins;. 

12 



178 THE HISTORY OF 



CHAPTER IX. 

A. D. 1C74-1C8]. 

Restoration of English Rule — Berkeley sells West Jersey — Sir G. Carteret 
sole Proprietor of E.Jersey — Return of Gov. Carteret — Stringent meas- 
ures to subdue the People — Requires them to take Patents for their Lands — 
Old Conflict renewed — Coniproniiise proposed, but rejected by Carteret — 
Schedule of Surveys — Militia System — Legislature at E. T. — Enactments — 
Prices — Act of Oblivion — Thanksgiving Day — ; Meeker indemnified — Inns 
regulated — Marking of Cattle — Troubles with Gov. Andros of N. Y. — Car- 
teret seized, and imprisoned at N. Y. — Tried and acquitted — Legislature at 
E. T., again — They decline the jurisdiction of Andros — Marriage of Car- 
teret — Andros recalled — Carteret reinstated — Legislature meet again — 
Collision with Carteret — He dissolves them — Death of John Ogden. 

Capt. FniLip Carteret, after an absence of more than two 
years, returned to his old home, in November, IGTi. He 
came over from England, in the same vessel with his kins- 
man, Col. Edmund Andros, Governor of New York, arriving 
Oct. 31, 1674:. Berkeley had sold, March 18, 1671, his half 
of the province for £1000, to John Fenwick, in trust for Ed- 
ward Byllinge, of the Society of Friends. Sir George Car- 
teret had thus become the sole proprietor of the eastern 
moiety of the province, which was confirmed to him, June 
13, by royal mandate, requiring obedience, from the people 
of the territory, " to the laws and government " of Sir George, 
as having "the sole power under" the king, '-to settle and 
dispose of the cpuntr}'-, upon such terms and conditions as 
he shall think fit ; " as broad a basis for despotic power as 
could be desired, A new patent for the whole territory was 
given, June 29, to the Duke of York ; by whom East Jersey 
was rcconveyed, July 29, to Sir George Carteret, " in as full 
and ample manner as the same " had been granted himself. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 1Y9 

Tlie " Concessions," so remodeled as to give, to the Governor, 
the control of the Legislature, and deprive the people of all 
original jurisdiction, were re-issued, July 31, and the same 
day, Capt. Philip Carteret was newly commissioned as Gov- 
ernor.* 

Immediately after his arrival, Carteret proceeded to Ber- 
gen and called about him his old Council , by whom, of 
course, he was heartily welcomed. A summons was issued 
at once, Nov. 6, calling upon " the inhabitants, by their Dep- 
uties, to meet for to hear his Majesty's Letter, the Governor's 
Commission, and those Instructions and Orders read that the 
Governor brought over with him." Deputies were " sent by 
all the towns except Shrewsbury ; " before whom the papers 
were read and the Governor's policy set forth,. The spirit of 
that policy may be gathered by what the Council wrote to 
Sir George Carteret on the Tth of November : 

"We are very sensible of the disorders and troubles that have happened 
amongst us, occasioned by some turbulent spirits, which hath cost us 
much time, labour and pains to redress, and brought your Honour's Or- 
ders, Desires and Instructions to Perfection, had not the Dutch unhappily 
come in and nipt us in the bud, to whom these old, turbulent people were 
more willing to submit, than to their lawful King and Lord.t 

In a Proclamation issued by the Governor and Council, 
dated at Elizabeth Town, Dec. 11, they speak of " the late 
past distractions of times," as 

Occasioned first by the meeting of several male-content inhabitants, 
and then by the arrival of the Dutch forces in our neighbor Colony, giv- 
ing opportunity to those seditious spirits, to cover their former guilt with 
the mantle of treason. 

They further say : 

"We find ourselves not obliged to countenance the commis?ionating any 
person or persons, to any office military or civil, who have not patented 
tlieir lands, &c., nor to yield tlic privileges of a Corporation to any other- 
wise qualified, than the said Orders of our said Proprietor doth allow. 

Notice is thereupon given, "that the Survej'or General, or 
his substitute shall attend and remain at Elizabeth Town from 

* AVhitehcft'l's E. Jersey, pp. 63-5. Mulford's N. J., pp. 159-1C2. Learning and Spicer, pp 
46-9. t E. T. Bill, pp. 40, 1. E. J. Kocords, III. OS, 9. 



180 THE HISTORY OF 

the first day of April, until the 15tli day of May following, 
for riming out and surveying land there, in order for pat- 
enting the same."* 

The " Instructions and Orders " of Sir George Carteret, to 
which they thus allude, of date, July 31, 1674, were to this 
effect : 

For such as pretend to a right of propriety to land and government 
■within our Province, by virtue of any patents from Governor Colonel 
Richard Mcolls. as they ignorantly assert, we utterly disown any such 
thing. But if such persons as have not already received patents of their 
land from us, sliall not within one year after notice to them given of this 
our pleasure therein, desire and accept patents of the said land, we do 
liereby order our Governor and Council to dispose of such lands and ten- 
ements, in whole or in part for our best advantage to any other persons. 

All other grants were declared " to be null and void in 
law." It was further ordered, by the same authority : 

That those persons who were the chief actors in attempting the mak- 
ing an alteration in our government be proceeded against, except they 
shall immediately upon publication hereof, make their addresses to our 
Governor and Council, for remission of tlieir offences; (further) that all 
persons that have sustained loss or damage, by maintaining our just 
rights and interest since the 26th of March, 1G72, may have reparation 
in law.t 

These were the orders that the Governor and Council 
deemed themselves bound to put in execution among the 
people of this town, who had been among the principal of- 
fenders in the province. Carteret's residence abroad for the 
space of two years, and his attendance during this period 
upon a court so aristocratic and con-upt, had, evidently, not 
induced him to be a whit more tolerant of the principles and 
spirit of the Puritan settlers of the town than before. Nor 
were the people any more disposed to yield their own con- 
victions of truth, of right, of duty ; nor, as has been afiirmed, 
" to regard with satisfaction the return of their governor." 
The only " demonstrations of good-will " to the Governor 
were on tiie part of those who had sided with him in the pre- 
vious conflicts.:}: 

•E. T. Bill, pp. 41,2. J Whitche.id"s E. Jersey, p. 66. Graham's 

t Loaming and Spicer, pp. 51-2. U. States, I. 443. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 181 

By the same proclamation of Dec. 11, a General Court, to 
be composed of the Governor's Council, was ordered to be 
held in this town, on the second Tuesday (9th) of March fol- 
lowing ; and the Marshal, Samuel Moore, was ordered to 
collect the fines that had been imposed on the two compa- 
nies that tore down Michell's house and fence, and broke 
open Pardon's house. So little occasion had the people of 
the town to hail the return of their old townsman, the Gov- 
ernor. They had openly espoused the cause of those so-called 
rioters, and were not to be driven from it. The Governor's 
coming was the renewing of the old troubles. 

Wearied with these conflicts, the town at length sought to 
make some kind of a compromise with tlie Governor and 
Council. A town-meeting was held on Thursday, the lltli 
of March, 167|, when it was resolved to offer the following 
Petition to those dignitaries : 

We, the inhabitants of Elizabeth Town, are willing to pay the Lord 
Proprietor the sum of Twenty Pounds per annum, current pay of this 
country, in consideration of a Township of eight miles square, to be di- 
vided according to our Agreement, of first, second and third lots, to be 
confirmed by Charter to us and our heirs for ever, with all such privileges 
as any other towns in the Province have or shall have; which we do ap- 
prehend may be sufiicient, in regard of the badness of the soil, which has 
deceived us all, and the half or more being but waste land. This was 
voted by all present, on the 11th of March, 167|. Voted, Isaac White- 
head and George Ross to present this vrriting to the Governor and his 
Council. Isaac Whitehead, Clerk. 

But these gentlemen were determined to abate not one jot 
of their exactions. Accordingly, the following answer was 
indorsed upon the back of the petition, March loth : 

There cannot be granted any variation or alteration from the Procla- 
mation dated 11th December, 1074, but accordingly the Surveyor is re- 
quired to attend at the time appointed, and its expected that suitable per- 
sons be provided for his assistance, according to the said Proclamation. 
By order of the Governor and Council, 

James Pollen, Secretary,* 

Finding no present prospect of securing their rights, witli 
no means of redress at hand, and threatened by their imperi- 

* E. Town Bill, pp. 43, 3. 



182 THEHISTORYOF 

ous rulers with a, snininary confiscation of all their lands and 
improvements, laboring, too, under grievous embarrassments 
for want of definite survej's and a recognized title, the people, 
with great reluctance, yielded to the compulsion put upon 
them, and, without prejudice to their previous titles, con- 
sented to receive such as the Governor chose to give them. 
One after another they applied for surveys, and warrants 
were given them by the Governor ; but so distasteful was it, 
that only one of their number, with the exception of Vau- 
quellin, the Surveyor, applied within the time assigned — 
April 1st to May loth, 1G75 ; and only ten more, including 
Pardon, in the latter half of the year. The Schedule in the 
margin shows the date of the Governor's warrant ; the per- 
son in whose favor the warrant was given ; and the number 
of acres to be surveyed for him. The warrant was ordinarily 
in the words following : 

To. the Surveyor General, or Lis Deputy. These are to require you to 

lay out butt ancl bound for A. B , acres of upland and meadow 

in proportion within tlie bounds of Elizabeth Towne in right of A. B , 

and his wife [&;c.] and to return a certificate tliereof into the Secretary's 
Office, and for your so doing this shall be your Warrant. Date — — .* 

" Good old Jolm Ogden " was the ver}^ last to make ap- 
])lication for a survey ; and, when he did, it was, doubtless, 

* Warrants for Surveys. 

Ap. 8, 1675, Symon Rows ISO acres. 

May 3, " Eobcrt VauqucUin, and wife 300 " 

June SO, " Charles Tucker 140 " 

" " " llobert Bond 860 " 

" " " Joseph Bond 160 " 

" " " Jacob Mellins 300 " 

■ Sept. 12, " Kobert White, wife and daughter 180 " 

Oct. 6, " Leonard lleadlcy, and wife 120 " 

" " » John Parker 90 " 

" 22, " Nicholas Carter 860 " 

" 23, " William Pardon, and wife 200 " 

Nov. 5, " John Woodruff, wife, and three servants 450 " 

Jan. 21, 16TS, Luke Watson 400 " 

Jfar. 8, " Ilcnry Lyon, rights and purchase 360 " 

"14, " William Letts 180 " 

" " " Charles Tucker, (a 2d warrant) 180 " 

" " *' Benjamin Parkis ISO " 

" " " Ilcnry Norris, self and John Wilson, Carpcnr 210 " 

" " " Daniel De Haert, right of Eichard Painter 120 " 

" " " Wm. Pardon, right of Wm. Mcaker 120 " 

" " " Isaac Whitehead, sen'' 180 " 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 1S3 

under protest, as in the case of the most of his associates. 

The surveys were made .in due form, and patents obtained; 

Mar. 14, 1C7|, Samuel Moore, right of John Wilson, the Less 00 acres. 

" " " Capt. Thomas Young 240 " 

" " " Capt John Baker, wife and 8 others 1200 '■ 

" " " Sir George and Philip Carteret, anil 18 servants 2T00 " 

" " •' Philip Carteret, right of Abraham Shotwell 150 " 

" " " Do. Do. Do. " Peter Wolverson 480 " 

" " " Do. Do. Do. " Dennis White 120 " 

" 1, " Benjamin Wado 120 " 

"20, " Kichard Beach 90 " 

" " " Robert Moss, and wife ISO " 

"22, " William Cramer ISO " 

" " " Nathaniel Tutlhill 90 " 

" " " Peter Moss, and wife 180 " 

" 27, 1676, George Eoss, and wife 120 " 

" " " Humphry Spinings 180 " 

" " " George Morris 90 " 

'' " " Koger Lambert 120 " 

•" " " StephenCrane 120 " 

" " " William Hill 60 " 

" 2S, " William Johnson 240 " 

" " " John Little, right of self and Stephen Salsbury 180 " 

" " " George Pack 120 " 

" " " William Olliver 180 " 

" " " Samuel Marsh, Sen' 180 " 

" " " Samuel Marsh, Jun"' 100 " 

" " " John Pope 100 " 

" " « John Carter 60 " 

" " " David Olliver 60 " 

Aprils, " William Pills 320 " 

" " " Benjamin Price, Sen' 270 " 

" " " Benjamin Price, Jun'' 90 " 

" 10, " Stephen Osborne 180 " 

" " " Nathaniel Bonnel 180 " 

" 11 " Jeseph Ssars ISO " 

" 14, " Jonas Wood 300 " 

" " " ThomasMoore ISO " 

" 25, " Jeffery Jones 180 " 

" 27, " David Ogdon 120 " 

May 2, ■ " Hur Tompson 120 " 

" 9, *' Jeremiah Peck 180 " 

" " " Joseph Fraizo 120 " 

" " " John Winons 120 " 

" " " Barnaby Wines 240 " 

" " " Richard Michell 120 " 

" 80, " Math:Hetfleld 120 " 

" 81, " Joseph Osborne 150 " 

" " " Moses Tompson .• 180 " 

" " " Joseph Meaker 120 " 

June 12, " Benjamin Meaker 120 " 

" 14, " Benjamin Wuido 144 " 

" " " John Ogden, Jun' 150 " 

" " " Isaac Whitehead, Jun' 120 " 

" " " Jonathan Ogdon 120 " 

Sept. 12, " Aaron Tomson, right of his father, Thomas 120 " 



184 THE HISTORY OF 

but, iu many cases, the number of acres differed very con- 
siderably from the number specified, in the warrant ; several 
of the people having added to their estates by large purchases. 
Hurr Thompson's survey was for 160 acres; Stephen Crane's, 
156; N'athaniel.Tuttle's, 153; Humphrey Spinage's, 218; 
John Winans', 200 ; Matthias Hatfield's, 208 ; John Pope's, 
150 ; and Jeremiah Peck's, 223.* 

A season of comparative quiet ensues. Cartei'et applies 
himself to the erection of a new and more substantial house ; 
for which purpose he leased from Henry Lyon, Dec. 8, 1674, 
two acres of Lyon's liouse-lot, adjoining his own, for brick- 
making, at a yearly rent of " one thousand of good and Mer- 
chantable Bricks." Yauqucllin takes up his abode in Wood- 
bridge. Bollen finds it expedient to sell out to Lyon, and go 
down to Woodbridge to live. Pardon, evidently, discovers 
that the atmosphere of Elizabeth Town does not agree with 
him, and he retires to ISTew York to engage in merchandise. 
His former wife having proved a disloyal partner, and ab- 
sconded, he procures a release from the bonds of wedlock, 
only to bind himself at once to Anna Bostoe, on whom he 
bestows, Sept. 16th, 1675, for her dowry, his house and home- 
lot of six acres. Being still regarded as an Associate, how- 
ever, by reason of his considerable estate in the town, and 
continued a member of the Council, he makes request, April 
12, 1679, " to be discharged from all further service as mem- 
ber of council, justice, or any thing more to do on public 
concerns, but to remain in the condition of any other private 
gentleman. f 

Some apprehension of famine existed, at the close of the 
winter of 167|^, on account of the failure of the crops the pre- 
vious season ; and an order was published, Feb. 24, 167-i, 

Sept. 12, 1C76, Aaron Tomson, right of self 60 acres. 

" " " John Latnbird... 100 '• 

Oct. 27, " Joseph Ogdon 90 " 

Nov. 23, " John Siinkins 80 " 

Dec. 27, " Samuel Trotter, right of his father, Wm 90 " 

Feb. 1, 167?, MargaretBaker,right of Peter Wolverson 200 " 

July 11, 1677, James Uaynes, and wife 120 " 

Oct. 26, 1678, Mrs. Hannah Hopkins, wife of Samuel Hopkins 120 " 

" 29, " John Ogden, Sen' 800 " 

♦ E. J. Records, II. t E. J. Kecords, I. 50; III. 158. Btearns' Newark, p. 54. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 185 

prohibiting tlie export of corn and grain. In the sunnncr of 
the same year, the eastern provinces were surprised into a 
bloody war with the native tribes, and fears were entertained 
of hostilities with the tribes in New Jersey and beyond the 
Delaware. A militia system was, therefore, inaugurated, 
July 15, lG7o, by which all able-bodied males, from 16 to 60 
years of age, were to be enrolled, to supply themselves with 
arms and ammunition, and to train four days every year.* 

The first General Assembly, after the restoration of British 
rule, was held here, in jSTovember, 1675, beginning on Friday, 
the 5th, and continuing until the 13th. Henrj'- Lyon and 
Benjamin Price represented the town. Provision was order- 
ed to be made to guard against surprise by the Indians, to 
such an extent as to show, that the alarm was very general. 
Jacob Mollins [Melj-n] the Province Treasurer, was to have 
twenty shillings salary. Newark and E. Town were consti- 
tuted a County. 

An adjourned session was held from Nov. 29th to the 9th 
of December, when the code of 1668 was revised, enlarged, 
and enacted. The following statute shows at least an out- 
ward regard for the ordinances of religion : 

"Whosoever shall prophane the Lords Day, otherwise called Sunday, 
hy any kind of servile work, unlawful recreations, or unnecessary travels 
on that day, not falling within the compass of works of mercy or neces- 
sity, either wilfully or through careless neglect, shall be punished by 
fine, imprisonment, or corporally, according to the nature of the offence, 
at the judgment of the Court Justice or Justices where the offence is 
committed. 

The following rates were established for country produce : 
Winter Wheat, 5 shillings; Summer Wheat, four shillings 
and sixpence ; Rye and Barley, four shillings ; Indian Corn 
and Pease, three shillings, a bushel ; Beef, two-pence ; Pork, 
three pence ; Bacon, six pence ; Try'd Tallow, six pence ; 
Green Hides, three pence; Dry Hides, six pence; "Hogs 
fat good and try'd," six pence ; and Tobacco, four pence, a 
pound ; Beef, fifty shillings, and Pork, seventy shillings, a. 
barrel.f 

* N. Y. Col. Docmts., III. 254. K. J. Records, III. 110, 117. 
t Learning and Spicer, pp. 93-103. 



186 THE HISTORY OF 

At the close of the session, an act of oblivion was passed 
by the Assembly in respect to the troubles of the preceding 
five 3'ears, providing: 

That there shall be an utter abolishing of all actions, tending to re- 
cover damages, costs and charges, for any action committed or done 
against any one within this Province, tliat hath been a party or any way 
concerned in the endeavoring and making an alteration in the govern- 
ment here settled by the Lords, anytime from the year 1670 until June 
1673.* 

All previous judgments of Court, however, were to stand. 
No abatement was made of the tines and penalties in the 
Michell and Pardon cases. The peace intended to be se- 
cured by this measure, was, after all, a compulsory peace, 
designed, apparently, on the part of of the government, the 
more effectually to establish their arbitrary claims ; of which 
they had abated "not one jot or tittle." 

Something of the temper of the popular branch of the 
Legislature may be gathered from the fact, that Isaac White- 
head, the town-clerk, and always of the town party, was, and 
continued to be for years. Clerk of the House of Deputies. 

Two sessions of the Assembly were held in 1676, the tirst, ' 
beginning, April 6th, in this town, and the second, from the 
5th to the 8th of October, at "Woodbridge. On the latter 
occasion, the custom of an autumnal Tranksgiving-Day, so 
common in New England, was introduced here, by Act of 
Assembly .f 

As William Meeker had been adjudged to lose his estate, 
because of what he had done, as the town's agent, in the cases 
of Michell and Pardon, a petition for indemnity was sent by 
him to the Governor, Council, and Deputies, of which no no- 
tice is taken in the proceedings of the Legislature, but which 
resulted, November, 1676, in a voluntary contribution in his 
behalf on the part of this town and Newark, and probably of 
other towns, also.:}: 

During the years 1677-9, the Assembly met annually in 
October, at this place ; but in 1677 and 1678, nothing of 

♦ Loamins and Spiccr, p. 110. t Newark Town liocords, p. C5. 

t Learning and Spiccr, pp. 121, 2. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 187 

special interest in respect to the town aifairs was transacted. 
No collision, apparently, occurred between the people and 
the court. Both parties evidently were seeking to " follow 
after the things which make for peace." A regulation re- 
specting Inns, passed, Oct. 10, 1677, is of interest, as showing 
the cost of living at that day : 

No Ordinary-keeper shall by the Gill exceed ten shillings and eight 
pence the gallon strong liquors ; if by the quart two shillings and six 
pence ; good wine after the rate of seven shillings the gallon ; cyder four 
pence the quart ; eight pence a meal for victuals ; six pence a day natu- 
ral for pasture for horse in the summer, and the like for winter ; and nine 
pence a peck for oats, the ordinary keeper be left at liberty for such as 
will bespeak their own provision.* 

Stringent laws were made against selling strong drink to 
the Indians, and in private houses, as well as against disor- 
derly conduct on the Sabbath-day. Much trouble grew out 
of the custom of having a common pasturage for cattle and 
swine ; leading to numerous regulations for the branding and 
marking of animals, the making of fences and keeping them 
in repair, as well as providing a pound for estrays.f 

The first travelers, of whose visit to this place we have any 
printed record, were Jaspar Dankers and Peter Sluyter, of 
Friesland. They visited the town, on Friday, Oct. 13th, 
1679, coming here from Staten Island, of which they had just 
made the circuit. "Pierre Jardinier," at whose house they 
had lodged the night before, brought them. 

In his canoe over to the Point of Mill Creek in New Jersey achter Icol. 
"We learned immediately, (they say), that there was a boat up this creek 
loading with brick, and would leave that night for the city. After we 
had thanked and parted with Pierre le Gardinier, w^e determined to walk 
to Elizabethtown, a good half hour's distance inland, where the boat was. 
From the Point to this village there is a fine wagon road, but nowhere 
in the country had we been so pestered with mosquitos {muggen) as we 
were on this road. The land about here is very poor, and is not well 
peopled. We found the boat, and spoke to the' captain who left about 
two hours afterwards ; but as the wind was against going out of the creek, 
he lay by and waited for the tide. W^o returned by evening to the Point 

♦ Learning and Spicer, p. 12S. 

t A register of the various ear-mnrks of cattle within the town has boon preserved to tlio 
present day, which is not without interest to the antiquarian. 



188 THE HISTORY OF 

where we were to stay until morning. There was a tavern on it, kept 
by French papists. We slept there this night, and at three o'clock in the 
morning we set sail. 

At the end of a month, they were again at "the Point of 
Elizabeth's kil : " 

We all went asbore, and lodged for the night in the house of tbe 
French people. We all slept on the floor, and supped upon Avhat we bad 
brought witb us. 

Again, Jan. 1, 1680, they say, — 

We made good speed past Smoker's book, and by evening arrived at 
the Point of Elizabetbtown Creek, in the tavern before mentioned, where 
we lodged for tbe night ; but there was notbing to be bad there except to 
warm us. We had sometbing left in our traveling sack, upon which we 
made our supper, and then laid ourselves down to sleep in our old fasbion 
upon a little bay, before the fire.* 

Gov. Carteret found it, doubtless, a desirable thing to be 
on good terms with his townsmen, because of his apprehen- 
sion of difficulties with Gov. Andros, of ITew York. The 
Duke of York, out of regard to his brother, or in obedience 
to his order, and because of the services of Berkeley and Car- 
teret to the royal family in the days of their exile, had waived 
his claim to jurisdiction, in his Grant to the two lords. But 
Berkeley had retired from the concern, and Sir George Car- 
teret was then getting old and infirm. The opportunity 
might soon occur of reclaiming East Jersey. The commis- 
sion, given to Andros, gave him jurisdiction over all the ter- 
ritory from the Connecticut to the Delaware rivers. Andros 
wanted but an occasion to assert and maintain his claims. f 

The question had been under discussion from the time that 
the two Governors came over in 1674. But Andros had 
been told to exercise caution in the matter, as long as Sir 
George retained the proprietorshij). The interests of the lat- 
ter were safe in the hands of Gov. Philip Carteret. From 
the very first, he had been determined on developing the 
commerce of his colony. Many of the planters had been ad- 

* Journal of a Voyago to Now York and a Tour in Several of tho American Colonics in 
1679-SO. By Jaspar Bankers and Tetor Sluytcr of Wiewerd in Friesland : Brooklyn, 1867 
pp. 147-8, 1C8, 252-3. t N. Y. Col. Docmts , III. 229, 240. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 189 

dieted to sea-faring pursuits. Their position on tide-water 
gave them great facilities for navigation, and they readily 
embraced them. Several of them, as has been seen, engaged 
in the whale fishery. They were in constant communication 
by water with New Yorlc. Vessels were fitted out for the 
coasting trade as far east as Piscataqua, and South to the 
Carolinas, Barbados, and St. Christopher's. These vessels 
cleared and entered at Elizabeth Town, greatly to the an- 
noyance of Andros, though, as yet, he could not openly re- 
sist it. In November, 1677, he returned home for further 
instructions. Previous to his departure, he paid Carteret the 
compliment of a short visit : 

November y« 16th the Governo' parted from New Yorke, and went to 
take liis leave of Governo'' Carterett in New Jersey, & lay there all night ; 
the 17th went aboard neare Staten Island, weyed & went down in y* Bay 
neare Sandy point, whence hee sayled.* 

Andros returned in August, 1678, having been thoroughly 
posted, in the meantime, as to the policy of the Duke. The 
colonists of West Jersey wpre speedily apprized of liis pur- 
pose to press his claims of jurisdiction to the very letter of 
his commission. An opportunity soon presented itself for a 
similar interposition in East Jersey : 

In the year 1079, Governour Carteret declares that all vessels that will 
come and trade to East New Jersey shall be free. One M^ Hooper orders 
a Ketch from Barbadoes to goe thitlier upon that proclamation ; tlie 
Ketch was brought up to New Yorke and made to enter here & pay the 
dutys before she could carry her rumra to New Jersey. 

So says Graham, Lord Bellamont's Attorney General, at 
New York, in 1698, giving reasons against a free port in 
East Jersey.f 

A meeting of the Assembly was held here, April 3, 1679, 
probably, on account of the above transaction, at which it 
was resolved, to raise " the sum of one hundred and fifty 
pounds for the security and encouragement of a ship or ves- 
sel to come into this Province for trade, by way of Sandy 
Hook, to enter and clear in his Majesty's Custom-IIouse 

* N. Y. Col. Docmts., III. 257. t N. Y. Col Docrats., IV. 882. 



190 THE HISTORY OF 

wliicli is at the Governor's House in Elizabeth Town, -where 
is the King's Customer and Collector of New Jersey ; " the 
money to be used to repair any damage accruing in case of 
any trouble from the authorities at Nev/ York.* 

To be fully prepared for this conflict of jurisdiction, An- 
dres, having, possibly, heard, that Sir George Carteret is no 
longer among the living, writes, on Monday, March 8 [18, 
N. S.] 1679-80, to Gov. Philip, reminding him of his claim, 
and informing him, that he [Andros] had determined to take 
possession of Sandy Point and proceed to erect there a fort. 
Five days afterwards, 13tli, he sent another message to Car- 
teret, commanding him to desist from all further exercise of 
authority, forbidding all persons exercising an}'- authority 
under Carteret, and requiring all constables, whom he at the 
same time coniirmed in office, to act under his commission. 

To all this Carteret replied, on the 20th, as follows : 

If you intend to set a fort at Sandy Hook, I shall be constrained to en- 
deavor to prevent the same ; and shall be necessitated, if any force be 
used, to defend ourselves and families the best "sve can, which if any blood 
be shed it will be contrary to our desires, and the just and righteous God 
require it at your hands who are the causes thereof. And therefore we 
intreat you to forbear your threats or any other acts of hostility towards 
us, until his Miijesty decides this controversy, which wo shall endeavor 
to have effected as soon as possible may be.-^ The occasion that hinders 
this from being sent you sooner, is the foulness of the weather hindering 
the Councils meeting, as also an alarm wo had yesterday of your being 
come with your sloops and a considerable number of soldiers Avhich con- 
strained us to put ourselves in a posture of defence. 

A few days after, 29tli, Carteret sent Andros another mes- 
sage, commanding tliat no more of his " Emissaries be sent 
or appear here, under penalty of being proceeded against by 
imprisonment, trial, condemnation and penalty, as his Majes- 
ty's laws direct to spies or disturbers of the peace, unless with 
particular message to " the Governor " and so return." The 
people appear to have been quite as much opposed to a 
change of rulers as Carteret himself, if his word is to be be- 
lieved : — " the people resolving to live and dye with the name 
of true subjects and not traytors."t 

♦ Learning and Splcor, pp. 131, 9. t Loaming and Spicer, pp. 673-7. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 191 

The case had now assumed a serious aspect. Resolute as 
Carteret was, he had to do with a most determined and un- 
scrupulous autocrat. It was well that, at the sessions of the 
Assembly in November, they had made more stringent regu- 
lations for the calling out and exercising the militia, to guard 
against the evil designs of their savage neighbors. 

They have more to fear from the wily Andros, than from 
the savage Sachem of Piscataqua, to whom, six months be- 
fore they had sent an embassy of peace, of which " old John 
Ogden," at that time a member of the Assembly, was one. 
Andros had sent his writs to all the towns, demanding their 
subjection to his authority as the representative of the Duke 
of York. Tlie answer sent by this town was, undoubtedly, 
similar to that sent by the people of Newark : 

The town being met together the 29th of March, 1679-80, and give 
their positive Answer to the Governor of York's "Writ, (viz) : That they 
have taken the Oath of Allegiance to the King and Fidelity to the pres- 
ent Government, and untillthey have sufficient Order from his Majesty we 
will stand by the same.* 

The next scene in the drama is well described by Gov. 
Carteret himself, in a letter to Sir George, of whose decease, 
Jan. 14th, 1679-80, he had not yet heard : 

Sir Edmund Andross, came hither on Wednesday the 7t]i instant, ac- 
companied with several of his officers, councellors and merchants, to de- 
mand the government of this your Honour's Province, supposing to have 
gained it either by threats or flattery, — and having notice of it beforehand 
I had gotten together a matter of 150 men in arm^ to receive him, doubt- 
ing he would have brought some offensive forces along with him but did 
not, and having leave with his train to come a shore, he came up to my 
house where after the civilities past, he began to show by what authority 
he had to lay claim to the government. 

Both parties presented their documents and pleas ; ending 
of course as they began : 

Ilis last answer was, that he had showed what authority he had and 
according to his duty did require it in behalf of his Master, and if we would 
not obey him, let it rest at our perils, for that we answered him we had 
sent away our Appeal to his Majesty, and should be ready to submit to 

* Newark Town Eccords, p. 78. 



1S2 THEHISTORYOF 

"what liis Mfijestj should determine, and then we went to dinner, that 
done we accompanied him to his sloop and so parted.* 

What Aiidros saw and heard, that Wednesday, was enough 
to convince him, that neither the court nor the people of this 
metropolis were at all disposed to favor his pretensions ; that, 
however much the two parties differed from each other, they 
were entirely of one accord in looking upon Andres as an im- 
pertinent usurper, to be resisted, if need be, by force of arms. 

Dankers, who was in the country at this very time, and 
cognizant of the whole affair, says, — 

He sent boats several times to Achter Kol to demand the submis- 
sion of the place to his authority, which the people of Achter Kol jeered 
at and disregarded, being ready to uphold the king and their own gov- 
ernor, whom they boimd themselves to maintain. At night, and un- 
seasonable hours, and by surprise, he took from New Jersey all the staves 
of the constables out of their houses, which was as much as to deprive 
them of the power to act. Seeing he could accomplish nothing by force, 
he declared the inhabitants released from their oaths to the Heer Carteret ; 
they answered they could not acknowledge any release from their oaths, 
unless by the same authority which had required it of them or the exhibi- 
tion of a higher one, that of the king. 

The sequel is thus related by Carteret. lie says of Andros, — 

After many debates and disputes, we concluded to decide it rather by 
arguments than arms, but the rancor and malice of his heart Avas such 
that on the 31st pOth] day of April last he sent a party of soldiers to 
fetch me away dead or alive, so that in the dead time of the night broke 
open my doors and most barbarously and inhumanly and violently hailed 
me ont of my bed, that I have not words enough sufficiently to express 
the cruelty of it ; and indeed I am so disabled by the bruises and hurts I 
then received, that I i'oar I shall hardly bo a perfect man again. 

The testimony of Dankers is more full and explicit : 

At length he corrupted one of Carteret's domestics, for Carteret had no 
soldiers or fortifications, but resided in a country house only. He then 
equipped some yachts and a ketch with soldiers, arms, and ammunition, 
and despatched them to Achter kol in order to abduct Carteret in any 
manner it could be done. They entered his house, I know not how, at 
.midnight, seized him naked, dragged him through the window, struck and 
kicked him terribly, and even injured him internally. They threw him, 

* Lpfttning and Spiccr, pp. 6T7-S. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. I93 

all naked as lie was, into a canoe, without any cap or hat on his head, and 
carried him in that condition to New York, where they furnished him 
clothes and shoes and stockings, and then conducted him to the fort and 
put him immediately in prison. When they seized him at Achter kol 
the armed boats had gone home, and the seizure was accomplished through 
treachery. Two of the head men of Carteret [Bollen and Vauquellin] 
immediately took possession of his papers, such as were of importance 
to him and travelled, one to Maryland, and the other, crossing the upper 
part of the North river, to Boston over land, and both to England, in 
order to remonstrate. The governor [Andros] sent immediately to 
Achter kol, took possession of the place, posted up orders, and caused 
inquiries to be made for the man who had set Carteret['s man, Bollen] 
over the river, but without success. While Carteret was in prison he 
was sick, very sick, they said, in regard to which there were various 
surmises.* 

Carteret was kept a prisoner at New York, under tlie 
charge of Capt. John Collyer, until the 2Yth of May, when 
he was arraigned before a special Court of Assizes, and tried 
for presuming " to exercise jurisdiction and government over 
his Majesty's subjects within the bounds of his Majesty's 
Letters Patents granted to his Royal Highness," the Duke of 
York. Carteret presented his " Commission with other In- 
structions," in justification. The jury brought in a verdict 
of '' Not Guilty." 

"Upon which," says Carteret in a letter to Bollen,. "he 
asked them questions and demanded their reasons, which I 
pleaded was contrary to law for a jury to give reasons after 
their verdict given in, nevertheless he sent them twice or 
thrice out, giving them new charges, which I pleaded as at first 
to be contrary to law, notwithstanding the last verdict of the 
jury being according to the first brought in by them, — ' the 
prisoner at the bar not guilty,' upon which I was acquitted 
accordingly." 

A singular order, however, was annexed to the record : 

But the Court declare their opinion and give judgment, that if he the 
said Capt. Carteret shall go to New Jersey, he should give security or 
engagement not to assume any authority or jurisdiction there, civil or 
military. 

* Learning and Spicer, p. C78. Bankers' Journal, pp. S47-352. 

13 



194: THE HISTORY OF 

The eflect of this order was to give him his liberty on 
parole, but to deprive him of that very autliority of which, 
by tlie verdict of the jury, he had been declared to be law- 
fully possessed. 

The trial took place on Thursday ; and, on Tuesday of the 
following week, June 1st [lltli N. S.], 

The governor [Andross] attended by his whole retinue of ladies and 
gentlemen, escorted Carteret, the governor of New Jersey, in great pomp, 
home to Achter kol ; with all the magnificence he could. 

Carteret drew up the necessary papers, and sent them, as 
he tells BoUen, July 9, 1680, by the hands of " Mr. George 
Ileathcott for England," to be laid before the Home Govern- 
ment.* 

In the mean time Andros had called a General Assembly 
to meet in this town, on the 2d of June, five days only after 
« the conclusion of Carteret's trial, and the day after his return 
to the town ;_ at which time he presented himself before 
the Deputies with " the King's Letters Patents," under the 
Great Seal of England, and claimed, contrary to the jury 
verdict, to be their right and lawful Governor. He brought 
with him, also, a copy of the Hempstead Code of Laws to be 
adopted and enacted by the Assembly. 

True, however, to their oaths of fidelity, the Deputies re- 
turned for answer, that 

As wc are the Representatives of the Freeholders of this Province, we 
daro not grant his Majesty's Letters Patents, though under the Great Seal 
of England, to be our rule or joint safety for the Great Charter of England, 
alias Magna Charta, as [is] the only rule, privilege and joint safety of 
every freeborn Englishman. 

At the same time, they presented Andros with a copy of 
their own Laws, as enacted by previous General Assemblies, 
declining to exchange them for the " Duke's Laws." Andros 
gained nothing by his visit here, but a tacit acquiescence, on 
the part of the people, in the existing stat® of things, until 
the authorities in England could be heard from.f 

Carteret returned to his residence here, and devoted liim- 

• Learning and Spicer, pp. 6S3, 4. lb., p. 6T9. Dankfirs' Journal, pp. 346, S, 
t Learning and Spicer, pp. 680-3. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 195 

self to the improvement of his estate, and the construction of 
his new house, for which he had been making preparation. 
He improved his leisure, also, in making some friendly visits, 
either to the cit}^, or to Long Island, resulting in his marriage, 
April, 1681, to Elizabeth, the widow of Capt. William Law- 
rence, of Tew's ]Sreck, L. L, who had died in 1680, in the 58th 
year of his age. Mrs. Carteret was the daughter of Kichard 
Smith, patentee of Smithtown, L. L, and brought with her, to 
this town, seven children : Mar}^, Thomas, Joseph, Richard, 
Samuel, Sarah, and James. Samuel died Aug. 16, 1687, 
aged 15 years, and Thomas, Oct. 26, 1687, aged 19 years ; and 
both were buried in the rear of the meeting-house. Their 
graves are now covered by the First Presbyterian Church, 
and their monuments adorn the rear wall of the building, 
being the most ancient stones in the Cemetery. This was, 
in all probability, the Governor's first marriage, no allusion 
to any other having been discovered. He resumed office by 
proclamation, March 2, 16Sf.* 

The controversy with Andros had brought into prominence 
the fundamental constitutions of the government. Carteret, 
in his triumph over Andros, was disposed to stretch his pre- 
rogative to the utmost, as if in compensation for his recent 
expulsion from power. The town, as well as the other parts 
of the Province, was now agitated very considerably by this 
question. The Assembly met here, Oct. 19, 1681. At the 
very opening of their sessions, the Deputies determined to 
re-assert and establish their fundamental rights, according to 
the terms of the Concessions, as originally published in 1665. 

A conflict ensued, which resulted in the dissolution of the 
Assembly by the Governor, a few days after they met. 

Carteret had learned nothing by his troubles, and his long- 
continued association with the people. The breach between 
them must have been greatly widened by this transaction. 
It was the. first time he had ventured to exercise this doubt- 
ful and dangerous prerogative. f 

* Scot's Model of E. Jersey, p. 135. Thompson's L. I., II. 864-5. Eiker's Newtown, pp. 
282, 3. N. York Marriages, pp. 08, 225. Whitehead's E. J., p. 85. Learning and Spicer, pp. 
685-7. t N. Y. Col. Docmta., HI. 293-800. Whitehead's E. Jersey, pp. 80, t92-5. 



19G THE HISTORY OF 

An unquiet time these liumble pioneers had, it must be 
admitted. Seventeen years had passed since Baker and 
Bailey, Ogden and Watson had acquired, lawfully and hon- 
orably, a title to the soil, and entered into jjossession. Yet, 
year after year, almost from the beginning, they were coming 
into collision with the ruling powers of the territory, and 
compelled to resist what they could not but regard, as en- 
croachments on their vested and sacred rights. Some few of 
them, wearied with conflict, had parted with their interest to 
others, and removed. But by far the most of them remained, 
and manfully maintained the principles so dear to them. 

Nor were these troubles without their use. They served 
to strengthen and develop character ; fostering and bringing 
into active exercise, in a remarkable degree, an intelligent 
love for freedom, for independence, for well-regulated self- 
rule, for constitutional principles, for popular rights ; pre- 
paring them, all the better, for the work of laying the foun- 
dations of the town, the state, the church. Their children, 
too, who were just coming to years, were thereby subjected 
to an admirable training, fitting them to occupy the place and 
do the work of the founders, when these sturdy yeomen 
should cease from their care and toil. 

One by one, they were dropping into the grave. Seeley, 
Andris, Dickinson, Pope, Simpkin, Trotter, Hopkins, Parker, 
Wilson, Goodman Tomson, Bond, and possibly others, had 
gone the way of all the earth. And now " good old John 
Ogden," whose wanderings for forty years had justly entitled 
him to rank with the " Pilgrim Fathers," — the acknowledged 
pioneer of the town, in whose house the first white child of 
the settlement Avas born, the accepted leader of the people, 
a pillar in the church and in the state, honored and trusted by 
all, — just as the year 1681 is expiring, lies down and dies ; 
leaving the impress of his political and religious principles, 
not only upon his children, but upon the community that 'he 
has so largely aided in founding. A man he was of more 
than ordinary mark — a man of sterling worth ; of whom the 
town, as well as his numerous posterity, should be gratefully 
mindful. lie was called a " malcontent," and regarded as 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. I97 

" the leading malcontent of Elizabeth Town ; " but surely 
the man that was held in such high esteem by the accom- 
plished, sagacious and pious Winthrop, — the man who, both 
at Southampton and here, had been an honored magis- 
trate, loved and trusted by the people, and, during the Dutch 
rule, the virtual Governor of the English portion of the 
Province, is not to be ranked with restless agitators because 
of his persistent opposition to an arbitrary government. A 
true patriot, and a genuine Christian, he devoted himself 
while living to the best interests of the town, and dying be- 
queathed to his sons the work of completing what he had so 
fairly and effectually inaugurated — the establishment of a 
vigorous plantation founded on the principles of civil and 
religious liberty. 



198 THE HISTORY OF 



CHAPTER X. 

A. D. 1664-1C82. 

Ecclesiastical — Church early organized, of Puritan type — First Jfeetiug-House 
and Grounds — Ministry — Rev, Thomas James — Rev. Jeremiah Peck — 
Rev. Seth Fletcher. 

The early religious history of the town is involved in great 
uncertainty. But few memorials remain, from "svhicli any 
thing, respecting the ecclesiastical affairs of the town, during 
the first score of years, can be learned. It is known, that 
the greater part of the settlers, and especially the leading 
men, were professing Christians, God-fearing men, of Puri- 
tan principles, and religiously observant of the ordinances of 
Christianity ; that they were early oi'ganized as a Christian 
Church ; that this was the only church-organization in the 
town for forty years ; that, soon after their arrival, they 
erected a " meeting house," in which they were wont to 
worship on the Lord's Day, and hold their town-meetings. 
But, of the date of these events, and of the circumstances 
connected with the founding of the church, and the erection 
of the meeting-house, nothing is known. 

Mention is made of " the town house," as early as June, 
16T1. Pardon, in his testimony relative to the Michell case, 
says, " that on the 19th of June, 1671, he was at a meeting of 
several inhabitants of this town who were met together at 
the town house." It was, in all probability, in this " town 
house," that the first General Assembly of the Province met, 
May 2G, 1668, and subsequent Assemblies, also, met. In the 
Act of 1682 for the erection of County Courts, it is provided, 
that " the County of Essex Sessions " shall be held " in the 
publick Meeting House of Elizabeth Town," twice in the 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. I99 

year. The " town-house " and the " meeting-honse " were 
one. The Puritans did not believe in consecrated places, 
and so had no scruples in respect to the transaction of secu- 
lar business in their meeting-houses. As John Ogden had, 
more than a score of years before his coming here, erected 
the stone church in the fort at New Amsterdam, and had, 
soon after his coming, put up and operated a saw-mill at the 
bridge ; and as several of the original Associates were car- 
penters and joiners ; it is more than probable, that one of 
their first public concerns was the building of their meeting- 
house. As early as Feb. 19, 166f , they held " a meeting 
court," at which the whole town was present, and sixty-five 
men took the oath of allegiance and fidelity. The house had, 
most likely, been built before this date.* 

IsTothing can now be determined as to its size, cost, arrange- 
ments, or general appearance. Something may be conjec- 
tured, by reference to the town house at Newark, built in 
1G69, which was to be erected "with a Lenter to it all the 
Length which will make it Thirty Six foot Square, with the 
doors, and Windows, and Flue Boards at the Gable Ends ; " to 
cost seventeen pounds, and the Town to furnish the timber. 
It was a frame building, and, probably, somewhat larger and 
more sightly than the one at Newark.f 

The lot, on which the house was built, included the present 
burying-ground of the First Presbyterian Church, extended 
on the west to the river, and contained about eight acres. 
The earliest survey of the lot, now to be found, bears date, 
June 5, 1732, and was made by Joseph Man, Surveyor. It 
is recorded by Jefferys, the Town Clerk, in these words : 

Surveyed for tlie Committee of the Freeholders of Elizabeth town the 
meeting house Lot heLonging to y" s'' Eliz*'' town Begining at y" : n: E : 
Corner of m"" -will'" Williamsons house Lot thence Euning North 50 : 
deg' : 7 : m : & a y west 13 : Chanes : 75 : Links to y** mill Eiver. thence 
Runing a3 y" s"* River Runs : 2 : Chanes & a J- to m^ Jewels Line, 
thence Runing South. 88 : degr'. East fifteen Chanes «&. 15 : Links to a 
highway thence Runing South 15 deg". <& a ^ west. 9 : Chanes : &. 70 
Links to y*' first mentioned place Bounded on y* South by Cap: williara- 

* Lcamingand Spicer, pp. 7T, 231. E. T Bill, p. 32. E. J. RecorJs, III. 73. 
t Newark Town Kecords, pp. 10, 11. 



200 THE HISTORY OF 

sons and west by y" mill Kiver and north by mr. Jewels and East by y" 
highway, the Contents of: y" aboue. s''. peace of Land is Seuen acres and 
foure hundred i)arts of one aero which is but a Narey small mater a bout 
6 Rod & all most a |. 

Another survey was made by Joseph Morss, May 22, 1766, 
including more ground on the South, and estimating the whole 
as containing about eight acres. The Trustees claimed " that 
the first Purchasers & Associates did give the af'^^ Tract of 
Land, for the Use of a Presbyterian Church, the Record of 
which on or about, the year 1719 was either lost or destroyed." 
Whereupon the Committee of the Freeholders allowed " the 
above Lot of Land to the s'^ Trustees their Heirs & Succes- 
sors on the Eight of Matthias Hatfield, one of the b"^ Asso- 
ciates." * 

The meeting-house occupied the site of the present church ; 
but, as it was much smaller, it did not cover much, if any, 
more than the front half — the other half containing the graves 
of most of the first settlers. Graves were sometimes dug " in 
the church," as will appear on a subsequent page ; so that 
nearly the whole area of the First Church, probably, is occu- 
pied with the remains of the first two or three generations of 
the people of the town.f 

Provision was made, by the Associates, ibr a " Town Lott 
for the Minister ; " who was to have " a third Lot Right in 
the p''misses ; " and reference is occasionally made, in the 
Records of Surveys, to " the parsonage lot ; " but the survey 
of the lot itself, and of the first and second divisions of the 
third-lot right, is not on record. :[; 

The Rev. Thomas James, pastor of the Church of East 
Hampton, L. L, as already stated, had been chosen the first 
minister of the town, and had consented to cast in his lot 
with them ; but was persuaded, by those of his people who 
remained, to abandon the enterprise. Great must have 
been the disappointment, especially to the godly men and 
women who composed so large a part of the community, as, 
from the scarcit}^ of worthy ministers of the gos])el, it was 

* E. Town Book, B., pp. 47, 170-1. J E. Town Book, B. p. 2. 

t Trustees' Book, Mar. 24, 1766. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 201 

no easy matter to supply his place. That it was supplied, 
to some extent, can scarcely be questioned. 

But whence their pulpit was supplied for the first two 
years is not known. Possibly some one of the ministers of 
Long Island, or Connecticut, may have made them an occa- 
sional visit. The venerable Pierson may have made them 
a visit, before he removed to JSTewark, Oct. 1, 1667. Daven- 
port, or Street, may have come on from ISTew Haven, to look 
after the scattered sheep of their flock. ]Newton, from Mil- 
ford, or Eliot, from Guilford, or Bishop, from Stamford, 
may, for a like reason, liave made them an occasional visit. 
The venerable John Young, of Southold, had two sons in the 
colony and several of his flock, whom he may have visited 
now and then. The same may have been true of James, 
of East Hampton, Fordham, of Southampton, Leverich, ot 
Huntington, and Walker of Jamaica ; or some recent graduate 
of Harvard, or some probationer of more humble pretensions, 
may have here made trial of his gifts ; or they may have had 
to rely only on " deacon's meetings," as they were called. 

REV. JEREMIAH PECK. 

The Rev. Jeremiah Peck became a freeholder of this 
town, as early as 1668. The home-lot of Capt. Robert 
Seeley, deceased, is described, Nov. 2, 1668, as lying " be- 
tween the Personage Lott and Jeremiah Peck's." The 
precise date of liis coming is not stated.* 

He was the eldest son of Dea. Wm. Peck, of New Haven, 
Ct. ; was born near London, Eng., in 1622, or 1623 ; and, 
at the age of fifteen, accompanied his father, in the ship 
Hector, to this country, arriving at Boston, June 26, 1637. 
Thence Dea. Peck, with his family, proceeded to New 
Haven, in 1639, and became one of the founders of that 
town. According to Cottoh Mather's statement, Jeremiah 
studied at Harvard College, graduating in 1654. But his 
name is not included in the Harvard Catalogues. He was, 
at this time, in his 32d year ; and must, therefore, have 
commenced his studies late in life.f 

* E. J. Kecords, I. 6, 7. t Savage's Gon. Diet., III. 3S1. Mother's Hccatompolis. 



202 THE HISTORY OF 

Devoting liimsclf to the work of teacliing, lie "svas employ- 
ed at Guilford, Ct., where, Nov. 12, 1656, he married 
Johannah, daughter of Robert Ivitchel], of that town ; and 
where, Jan. IS, 1659-60, his eldest son, Samuel, was born. 
In the Records of the Colony of New Haven, under date of 
June 28, 1660, appears the following entry : — 

It was agreed that M"" Pecke, now at Guilford, should he schoole- 
mastcr, and that it should hcgin in October next, when his half yeare 
expires there ; he is to keepe y" schoole, to teach the schollers Lattine, 
Greek and Hebrew, and fitt them for the Colledge ; and for the salary, 
he knowes the alowance fro the colony is 40" a yeare and for further 
treaties they must leave it to New haven, where the schoole is ; and for 
further orders concerning the schoole and well carrying it on, the elders 
will consider of some against the court of magistrates in October next, 
when things as there is cause may be further considered. 

Mr. Peck accepted the appointment, and returned to his 
old home, in Oct. 1660, a house and a plot of land being 
also allowed him. Under date of May 29, 1661, the follow- 
ing record is made : — 

There was sundry propositions presented by Mr. Pecke, schoolemastcr, 
to this Court as followeth : (in all fifteen, relative to the school ; closing, 
as follows) : these things being suitably considered and confirmed, if it 
please the honoured court further to iraproue him who at present is 
schoole master, although nnworthy of any such respect, and weake for 
such a worke, yet his reaH intention is to giue vp himselfe to the work 
of a gramer schoole, as it shall please God to giue opportunity and 
assistance. 

His propositions, with some considerable modifications, 
were accepted, Avitli which " M'' Pecke seemed to be very 
well satisfied." 

Nov. 5, 1GG2. M'' Pecke ppounded about some difFerance betwixt 
the treasurer & himselfe in making vp their accounts, but the Court left 
it to them to issue it between themselves. 

It was alsoe ppounded about 4" abated of M"" Pecke's sallary, for some 
time that ha left y" schoole, whether it should not return to y" jurisdic- 
tion. Owing to the distraction of the time the school was laid down.* 

This settlement of accounts Avas owing to his removal, a 
year previous, to the town of Saybrook, having entered into 

* N. Haven Colonial Kecords, II. 877, 407, 6; 471, 2. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 203 

an agreement with the people, Sept, 25, 106 1, to labor 
among them in the work of the ministry, and to receive, as 
a settlement, £100, in lands in fee, and £55, in a house and 
lot to revert to the town if he removed within five years ; 
his salary to be £60, a year, to be paid in two Hrkins of 
butter, and the rest in corn and flesh at current prices ; his 
maintenance to be, if necessary', increased. His ordination 
must have taken place in the latter part of 1661, or early 
part of 1662.* 

The people of Saybrook were either a little fastidious, or 
reasonably convinced that Mr. Peck was not just the 
preacher that they needed, as appears from the following 
letter : 

Anno Domini 63 feb. 2 Respected and loving ftViends tlie Inhabitants 
and planters of Seabroke I understand and that from divers that there is 
much Dissatisfaction with Reference to myselfe iu respect to my proceed- 
ing in the Ministry at least to a settlement and that there are desires in 
many to provide themselves with a more able Help: I do freely leave my- 
self to the providence of God and the Thots of his people : and so far as I 
am any wayes concerned herein I doe leave the Towne wholly to their 
own Liberty to provide for themselves as God shall direct: and with re- 
spect to laying aside the future Term of years expressed in the Covenant 
as also of laying me aside from an Employment of so great a concernment 
I do desire that these Things may be duly considered and dealt tenderly 
in that I may not be rendered useless in future service for God : altho I 
am unworthy to be improved so I am yours iu what I may as God shall 
please to direct and enable.t 

Notwithstanding tliese difficulties, he continued at Say- 
brook nearly two years longer, closing his engagement, Jan. 
30, 166;!, the town " giving him full possession of his accom- 
modation," and purchasing it of him for his successor. He 
returned to Guilford, where he found his father-in-law, many 
of the Guilford people, and the greater part of Branford with 
Mr. Pierson, their aged minister, talking about a removal to 
New Jersey. Casting in his lot with them, he came to 
Newark, either in the autumn of 1666, or the spring of 1667, 
and became one of the founders of the town. His house-lot 
was on the E. corner of Market and Mulberry sts., adjoining 

♦ Bronson's Waterbury, pp. 201-12. t Stiles' Itineraiy, in Tnlo Coll. Lib., III. 122. 



204 THE HISTORY or 

his father-in-law's, on Mulberry st., and Obadiah Bruen's on 
Market st. It is probable, that he served the town in the 
ministry until Mr. Pierson's arrival, Oct. 1, 1667."^ 

The close relations, that subsisted between the people of 
this town and Newark, may have led them to seek a supply 
for their vacant pulpit at Newark. Mr. Peck was not 
needed there, after Mr, Pierson came, and, in all probability, 
soon after removed to this town, and entered on the work of 
the ministry here, occupying himself, also, as a teacher of 
the rising generation. As stated before, he was a townsman 
in November, 106S, and may have been such for a year 
previous. In July, 1670, the people of Woodbridge instruct- 
ted their committee for the sujjply of the pulpit, to apply to 
"Mr. Peck of Elizabethtown," or "Mr. Samuel Treat, to 
preach six or seven months." A subsequent application. May, 
1675, was made to Mr. " Jeremiah Peck," but with no better 
success. t 

It is evident that Mr. Peck was known extensively as a 
minister of the gospel. An application for his ministerial 
services was made in March, 167f , by the people of Jamaica, 
L. I. At a town meeting, March 6, 167f , they made " choise 
of Jonas holsteade & John Foster to goe to Mr""^ Pek or any 
other minister that may be procured to come and live 
amongst us as our minister." In the Records of the Prov- 
ince of E. Jersey, he is designated as " Clarke," or Clergy- 
man.:}: 

In the absence, therefore, of all evidence to the contrary, 
it is safe to conclude, that Mr. Jeremiah Peck came to this 
town as early as 1668, on invitation of the people, to serve 
them in the ministry of the gospel ; and that he is to be re- 
garded as the first pastor of the church in this place. His 
house-lot is described as containing 5 acres, 13 by 4 chains, 
bounded, N. & E., by highways ; S., by Ben. Parkis (for- 
merly Capt. Seeley's) ; and ^Y., by the Mill Creek. He had 
an allotment of 180 acres, with a third-lot right.§ 

In 1672, he became, with others, a purchaser from the In- 

* Newark Town Records, pp. 3, 5, 10. E. J. Kccords, II. 9S. 

t Whitohcad'a Amboy, p. 3S1. t Macdonald'a Jamaica, p. 59. § E. J. Records, II. 9S. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 205 

dians, of a tract of land, in the western part of tlie present 
town of Greenwich, Ct. In the autumn of 1678, he accepted 
an invitation to settle with them in the ministry, where he 
continued until 1690 ; when, having made himself obnoxious 
to some of the Greenwich people, by his opposition to " the 
half-way covenant," and having been invited to settle at 
Waterbury, Ct., he entered upon the pastoral work at the 
latter place, and continued there until his death, June 7, 
1699, in the 78tli year of his age. His eldest son, Samuel, 
remained at Greenwich, and became the father of the numer- 
ous family of that name in that vicinity.'^ 

REV. SETH FLETCHER. 

The second minister of the town was the Rev. Seth 
Fletcher. After the removal of Mr. Peck at the close of 
1678, there is nothing on record to show, that any minister 
of the gospel had become a permanent resident until the 
summer of 1680, when Mr. Fletcher was employed to 
preach. 

He was the son of Robert Fletcher, of Concord, Mass., who 
died, April 3, 1677, aged 85. His sister, Hope, was married . 
to the Rev. Samuel Stow, son of Thomas Stow, of Concord, a 
graduate of Harvard in 1615, the first minister of Middletown, 
Ct., from 1646 to 1655, and thenceforward a citizen of Mid- 
dletown till his death, in 1704. Mr. Fletcher made a profes- 
sion of religion, at Hampton, K. H., in early life, under the 
ministry of the Rev. Timothy Dalton, with whom he studied for 
the ministry. He married, previous to 1655, at Portsmouth, 
]Sr. H., Mary, the only daughter of Maj. Bryan Pendleton, 
a man of considerable property and distinction. Their only 
child inherited, at his grandfather's death, in 1681, the home- 
stead at Winter Harbor, Me. As early as 1655, Mr. Fletcher 
became the minister of Wells, Me. ; but, owing mainly to the 
laxness of his views on the sanctification of the Sabbath, he 
was dismissed, in Oct., 1660. From this time until the 
breaking out of the Indian War, in 1675, he resided at Saco, 
Me., supplying the pulpit, except for short intervals, from 

* Bronson's Watorbury, pp. 201-12. Mead's Hist, of Greenwich, pp. C", 8, 72, 3, 295-306. 



206 THE HISTORY OF 

year to year. Ketiring with his father-in-law from the ex- 
posed frontiers, he tarried awhile at Salem. Mass., where he 
preached occasionally for the Rev. John Higginson, at whose 
instance, in 1676, he visited the towns on the east end of Long 
Island. Fordham, of Southampton, had died in 167-i:, and 
had been succeeded, until Jul}'-, 1676, by John Harriman. 
He had now returned to New Haven, and Mr. Fletcher was 
employed as his successor.* 

Mr. Fletcher remained at Southampton about four years, 
(1676-80) ; at the expiration of which time he was induced 
to remove, and become the minister of this town, in the sum- 
mer or autumn of 1680. Of his ministry here, the only me- 
morial is a letter to Mr. Increase Mather of Boston, dated 
" Elizabeth Towne, March 25, 1681." It is a document of 
great interest, and the earliest ecclesiastical memorial of the 
town. It presents some facts not otherwise known : — 

Eev. Sir : You may please to call to mind that since I saw y6u in March 
(or Aprell) the year past, I wrott a Letter to you bearing date May 28 ; 
1680, and another before that, May 10, 1680. That upon May 10 (espe- 
cially) being about Mr. Gcrshom Ilobart's 16?. 6d. which he is indebted 
to mee, and Mr. Trapp's Exposition from Romans to the end of the Bible 
(in quarto.) I never heard from you since what hath been done with it. 
I am now more remote and so the moi-e to secke of cash. New York not 
being such a place for the production of money as Boston is. Be pleased 
therefore to acquaint Mr. Bateman at the draw bridge foote what you 
have done, or like to doe, or are inclined to doe about it. I have been 
much molested with Quakers here since I came. New ones comeing in 
one oftor another. Upon February last past upon the motion of two of 
the sect, one of which two is a schoolemr to some children in the towne 
(by nation a Scott, by name John Usquehart,) by former profession (as 
fame makes known to mee) a Popish Priest. A scholler he doth professe 
hiraselfe to bo, and I find that he hath the Latine tongue. The businesse 
of that day was for mee to maintain an Assertion viz. That a Quaker liv- 
ing and dyeing as a Quaker (without repentance) must find out a new 
gospoll, which might aford them hope of salvation, for what God hath 
revealed in his holy word there was no salvation for them in their impen- 
itent condition. I opened the terms Explicated by way of distinction of 
sedusers and seduced and so their sinnes, and likewise what God expected 
from the one and the other sort, which being done (although there were 

•Savage's Gon. Diet., II. 173-4. Allen's Am. Biog. 'Diet., Art., Stow. Greenleafs 
Sketches, p. 53. Folsom's Saco ami Biddeford, pp. 130-6. Felt's New England, II. 173, 
249, 392. Mas6. Records, IV. 426, 434. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 207 

four or fire more Quakers in the throng, yet none appearing in the cause 
but tlie scholler aforesaid and a Chirurgeon) I demanded of them what 
they had to say against my Exphmation. Instead of speaking pertinently 
the scholler (whom I understand had been at the University four or five 
years) begins to tell the people a story of Moses, Ezra, Habaccuk their 
being Quakers. Whereupon having the people on account of the business 
of the day I proceeded to six severall Arguments by which to make good 
my Assertion, viz. That a Quaker living and dyeing as a Quaker (without 
repentance) according to what God hatli revealed in his word, he could 
not be saved. I in every argument demanded what part of the Argu- 
ments they would deny but instead of answer there was railing and 
threatening mee that my destruction was nigh at hand. To prove the 
Minor I continually produced their owne authors and several things out 
of their Rabble's books, which so exceedingly gauled them that then they 
set themselves to Humming, singing, reeling their heads and bodies (An- 
tique like) whereby both to disturb mee and to take off the people from 
attending to what I had to say for the maintaining the Assertion. Since 
that (I heare) I must ere long be proved to be no minister of Christ, and 
they have attempted to raise as great a party at Eoad Island and Delle- 
way Bay against mee as they can. Nay more they say England and their 
friends there shall heai'e of it and in speciall Will. Penn, whom I men- 
tioned once and but once and then but in my 4tli argument. Namely his 
denyall of Christ being a distinct person without us from his book en- 
titled Counterfeit Christian p. 77. As for news about Commonwealth 
affairs I saw a Proclamation of the old Governor forbideing upon Perill 
the graunting any obedience to those in present power, promiseing open 
courts shortly. The proclamation was put up here at our meeting house 
upon Sabbath morn March 1680-1, but before morning exercise taken 
down, and the day after sent to York. What the issue will be God (in 
time) will discover. Sir no further to inlarge I take leave committing 
you, to the keeper of Israel, remaineing yours to serve you in the Lord. 

I saw Mr. Abraham Person in health upon Thursday morning March 
9 at his own house and the next day Mr. Allen (in health also) at my 
house.* 

During Mr. Fletcher's residence at Southampton, he had 
become somewhat intimately acquainted with the family of 
Mr. Henry Pierson, the ancestor of the Pierson family. Mr. 
Fletcher, whose wife had died some years previously, may 
have been an inmate of his house. Mr. Pierson died, Oct., 
1680, leaving his wife, Mary, and their children, Joseph, 
Henry, (b. 1G52), Benjamin, Theodore, and Sarah (b. Jan. 

* Mather Papers. Folsom's Saco, pp. 130-6. 



208 THE HISTORY OF 

20, IGGO). His estate Avas valued at £1256, 1, 2,— a large 
sum. In clue time Mr. Fletcher made proposals of iiTarriage 
to the widow, which were accepted ; and. May 30, 1G81, or 
shortly after, they were united in the bonds of wedlock. A 
written contract was drawn up, and entered on the Records 
of the Province, as follows : — 

This writing witnesseth A Covenant Contract and Agreement by and 
between M"" Setb Fletcher of Elizabeth Town in the Province of New 
Jersey of the one i^art and M''* Mary Pearson of Southampton in the East 
riding of Yorkshire on Long Island of the other part and is as foUoweth 

Imp" the said W Seth Fletcber by and upon tlie said M" Peirson's 
and his soUom Contract of Marriage doth hereby bind himself his heirs 
Executors and Administrators tirmly by these presents, that he will not 
at any time vase or dispose or in the Least ever Concern himself or desire 
any of tlie Estate of her the said M" Peirson notwithstanding their Mar- 
riage togeath Onely one hundred pounds which the said M" Peirson doth 
Engage to Deliver into his hands for the Mutual Comfort of each other 
and doth Engage himself that if it should please God to call him out of 
this Life before the said M''* Peai'sou to Leave unto her the said hundred 
pounds again and also to give unto her one hundred pounds more of his 
own proper Estate and to take three of her children with her as Long as 
she shall see cause to have them so to be with her and she the said M"" 
Mary Pearson doth hereby Engage herself and her Executors that if she 
shall depart this her Natural Life before him the said M"' Seth Fletcher 
that then he the said M"" Seth Fletcher shall Quietly have and forever as 
his own proper and free Estate Enjoy the aforesaid One Hundred Pounds, 
without the Least demand of any by from or under her the said M" Peir- 
son Clayming or Laying any manner of title or Claime to any part or 
parcell thereof and this our mutual solloran Covenant and agreement, wee 
Joyntly and Severally before the sollomn Tye of ilatrlmony have here- 
unto for the Conformation of this our Covenant both of us set our hands 
and scales in Southampton this thirtieth day of May in the thirty third 
yeare of the Reigne of our Sovereign Lord Charles the Second Ey the 
Grace of God King of England France and Ireland Annoq, Dom 1681. 

Seth Fletcher 

In the presence of us Josuah Barnes Mary Peirson 

Henry Peirson Thomas Harris/- 

Benjamin Pierson, and, probably, two others of her chil- 
dren, accompanied Mrs. Fletcher to her new home, and thus 
the Pierson lamily were introduced here — distinct from the 

* E. J. Records, IV. 14. N. Y. Book of Wills, II. 02-4. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 209 

Newark family, wlio sprang from the Rev. Abraham Pierson ; 
though the latter was probably an uncle, or elder brother of 
Henry Pierson, Sen"", of Southampton.* 

Mr. Fletcher's death occurred in August of the following 
year (1682), and his widow took, Sept. 18, Letters of Admin- 
istration from Governor Carteret. His estate was valued at 
£559, 5, 8, of which the books were rated at £175, 4, 4. 
His library must have been quite large for the times. He 
appears to have been a man of vigorous thought, of scholarly 
attainments, and of much zeal for the truth, — though, at one 
time, somewhat lax on the doctrine of the Sabbath. Possibly, 
his controversies with the Quakers in these parts may have 
led him to entertain more orthodox views on that subject. 
He was, probably, nearly sixty years old at the time of his 
decease. The children of his son, Pendleton, (who died a 
captive among the Indians in 1698), settled in the vicinity of 
Wells and Saco, Me.f 

* Howell's Southampton, pp. 293, 4. 

+ E. J. Recoras, IV. 14. Folsoni's Saco, pp, 130-6. 

14 



210 THE HISTORY OF 



CHAPTEE XI. 

A. D. 1682-1688. 

Death of Sir George Carteret — Sale of the Province — Quaker Rule — Robert 
Barclay, Governor — Thomas Rudyard, Dep. Governor — Death of Gov. Car- 
teret — His Character — His Will — New Era — Quaker Settlers — Descrip- 
tions of the Town and Country in 1684-5 — Rudyard's Administration — 
Legislature — Enactments — Gawen Laurie, Dep. Governor — Land Troubles 
revived — Militia — Scotch Immigration — Lawrie's Account of the Town and 
Country — Scot's Model — Other Accounts — Lawrie's Land Investments — 
Western Bounds — Baker's Trial — Perth Amboy made the Capital — Acces- 
sion of the Duke of York to the Throne — Trouble about the Newark Bounds — 
Lawric Superseded. 

With tlie decease of Sir George Carteret, Jan, 14, 16|^, a 
new administration of the government of East Jersey became 
a necessity. In his will, dated Dec. 5, 1678, all his property 
in E. Jersey was devised to Trustees for the benefit of his 
creditors. Fruitless attempts were made, for two or three 
years, to obtain a purchaser, though the whole territory with 
the right of jurisdiction was offered to Lord Norreys and 
others for less than £6000. The government of the Province, 
in the mean time, was administered in the name of" The Right 
IIon'^'° The Lady Elizabeth Carteret, Baroness, Widow, The 
Kelict and Sole Executrix of the Eight Hon^'« Sir George 
Carteret, Knight and Baronet Deceased Late Lord Proprietor 
of the said Province, and Grandmother and Guardian to Sir 
George Carteret Baronet Grandson and Heir of the said 
Sir George Carteret Deceased, the Present Lady Proprietrix 
of the Province aforesaid."" - 

The Province, with the Jurisdiction of the People, was at 
length disposed of to the highest bidder in January, 168f, 

* K. J. Records, 11. ST. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 211 

together with all arrearages of rent and sums of money due 
to the late Proprietor, for which, Deeds of Lease and Kelease 
were executed, Feb. 1 & 2, 168^. The sum paid for the 
property and privileges was £3400. The purchasers were 
an Association of twelve persons, residents of London and its 
vicinity, the most of them connected with the Society of 
Friends, Wm. Penn, Thomas Kudyard and Samuel Groome 
being of the number. Presently after, the number of the 
Associates was doubled, six being added from Scotland, and 
the remainder mostly from London. Among the Scotch 
were James Drummond, the Earl of Perth, Lord High Chan- 
cellor of Scotland, a thorough monarchist of the Stuart type, 
and subsequently a Papist aiid an exiled Jacobite ; his brother, 
David Drummond ; and Kobert Barclay, of Urie, the Quaker 
Apologist, Gawn Lawrie, the Quaker merchant, was one of 
the new Proprietors, from London. One Proprietor was thus 
exchanged for twenty-four ; and the Cavalier for the Quaker 
rule.^- 

Robert Bakclat, originally a Presbytej-ian, then a Papist, 
and now a Quaker, being in favor not only with William 
Penn, the leading Quaker, but with the royal family, was 
chosen Governor of the Province, with the privilege of non- 
residence and of acting by Deputy. He made choice of 
Thomas Rudyakd, one of the Proprietors, and a London bar- 
rister, as his Deputy. Samuel Groome, another Proprietor, 
and a sea-captain, of Stepney, near London, who had visited 
America in 1676, was appointed Receiver and Surveyor 
General. f 

Kudyard and Groome arrived, and took up their residence 
in the town, ISTovember 13, 1682 ; thus superseding Carteret 
and Vauquellin, and putting an end to Carteret's long con- 
test with the people. Rudyard brought with him his two 
adult daughters, Margaret and Anne, and, possibly, his two 
sons, Benjamin and John, also. Groome, whose family re- 
mained in England, became the Governor's host. Carteret 

* Learning and Spicer, pp. 141-150. Whitehead's E. Jersey, pp. 82, 3, 8, 90, 196-203. E. T. 
Bill, pp. 8, 9, 82. 

t Giahame'B United States, I. 482, 8; 5SS. Whitehead's E. Jersey, pp. 89-01, 123-5, 200, 
1. 3. Whitehead's Amboy, p. 13. 



212 THE HISTORY OF 

continued to occupy the government-house, which he chiimed 
as his own property. -Groome's house was on the north side 
of the Creek, below the bridge, on tide water,* 

Carteret survived his retirement from office only some four 
weeks, his will, made just before his death, bearing date, 
Dec. 10, 1682. Of the cause, occasion and circumstances of 
his death, no record remains. It may have resulted from the 
injuries received at the time of his capture by Andros. 
However well-qualified, by gifts and attainments, he may 
have been, for the administration of the government of a 
newly-founded Colony, he failed to secure the confidence and 
respect of the town and province. Living among, and asso- 
ciating daily with, a community in full sympathy with the 
men and manners and principles of the Commonwealth, he 
was ever exemplifying, asserting, and upholding the social 
and political (if not the ecclesiastical) principles of the 
Stuarts, and exacting a deference, as the representative of 
that aristocratic and vicious court, which the Puritan colo- 
nists of the town and Province were among the very last to 
concede. Instead of identifying himself as much as possible 
with his townsmen, and seeking to conciliate them, he seems 
to have pursued a course, almost from the first, that, he must 
have known, would excite their prejudices, and thwart their 
plans and purposes in founding a settlement in the wilderness. 
From the time of the first collision with the people in 1668, 
he persisted in excluding, from his council and confidence, 
the very best men in the community — men of sterling integ- 
rity and of great moral worth, putting in office, and persist- 

* Scot's Model of E. N. J., pp. 149, 150. Tlio government house, built by Carteret, Just 
before his death, w:is subsequently known as the " White House ; " sometimes as " t'chuy- 
ler's House," it having passed into the hands of Col. Peter Schuyler. It was converted into 
a public house, and was kept by Mrs. Margaret Jolmston, formerly the widow of Wm. Wil- 
liamson, and then of Mr. ('hetwood, a daughter of Capt. Matthias Be Hart, and sister of Mrs. 
Samuel Mann. It was then called, "the Nag's Head Tavern." In 1766, it was otfored for 
sale, by Jonathan Hampton. In 17S4, it was again advertised (by Col. Edward Thomas) for 
sale, as " that large, commodious, and famous Brick House, known by the name of the White 
House, built in the strongest and best manner, by a former Governor of New Jersey, for the 
peat of government, beautifully situated on the river running through the town, on which is 
a very good wharf." It is thus fully identified as Carteret's house. In 1T49, St. John's Par- 
sonage is described in the deed of sale, as -'on the South side of the said Elizabeth Town Creek 
opposite to a large white house now or late belonging to Mr. Peter Schuyler." This deter- 
mines the locality. AVeyman's N. Y. Gazette, No. 249. Holt's N. Y. Journal, No. 1214. 
Clark's St. John's Church, p. 186. ., 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 213 

ently retaining, Avlien notoriously rejected and despised 
for their sycophancy, such parasites as Bollen, Yauquellin, 
and Pardon. His administration must be regarded as a com- 
plete failure, opposed, as it was, aliftost from the beginning, 
by the worthiest men of the Colony. He seems to have had 
no party in the town, outside of tlie clique that came with 
him and lived on his favor and patronage. 

His position enabled him to acquire some of the very best 
properties in the settlement ; not less than 4,000 acres having 
been surveyed for him and Sir George. He died in his 44th 
year. His widow survived liim, and continued to reside in 
the town, occupying for a considerable time, and claiming 
as her own, in her husband's right, the government house 
and property. She became, in 1685, the wife of Col. Kichard 
Townley, who had become a resident of the town very shortly 
after her husband's death. Her eldest son, Joseph, married 
in 1690 Mary Townley, who was undoubtedly. Col. Eichard's 
daughter, by his first wife.'- 

With the change of proprietorship came a new era in the 
history of the town. Rudyard was furnished with a kind 
and conciliatory letter from the Proprietors to the planters. 
Everything connected with the new order of affairs gave 
promise of peace and prosperity. Rudyard was a man of 
amiable instincts, and courteous demeanor, though not want- 
ing in firmness. He represented, not the lordly cavalier of 
an aristocratic court, but a trading association, of which the 

* E. J. Records, A. 17-18; II. 2„ p. 34S. "Whitehead's E. Jersey, p. 85. Extracts from 
the Will of Philip Carteret. " I give & bequeath my Soul to Almighty God that Gave It 
me Id full Assurance that I shall be made Partaker of Eternal Life by & through the Merrits 
of my most Dear and blessed Redeemer Jesus Christ my Saviour, and my Body to be buryed 
in such decent manner as my Executrix shall think meet in the Vault at Govern'' Stephen- 
son's Bowry, if Liberty may be obtain'd, other ways Liberty to be purchas'd in the Church att 
New York." All his Estate in New Jersey he gives to his " most deare "Wife Elizabeth Car- 
teret" and her heirs; ho then adds: "And all my Negroes and other Servants, excepting 
Black Jack who Ja. sett free from servitude from and after the Day of my Burial." " Unto 
my Mother Mrs. Eachell Carteret if sho bo yett living All that my Manner House, Edifice and 
Buildings wilh all my Lands, Tenements & Hereditaments within the Island of Jersey : " 
in case of her death, to be " equally conveyed to my Brother's and Sister's children of my said 
Mother." lie appoints his " dearo Wife solo Executrix;" and desires his "well-beloved 
friends Thomas Eudyard and Robert Vicars of Elizabeth Town afores"" to be assistant to my 
Bald E.xecutrlx appointing them to bo my Trustees and Supervisors." Tho witnesses to the 
Will are Robert Vicars, Isaac Swinton, James Emott, George Jewell and Martha Symes. 
It was proved Dec. 80, 1682. See, also, Genealogy of the Lawrence Family, pp. 189, 149-50. 
Learning and Spicer, p. 177. 



214 THE HISTORY OF 

members were, most of them, plain and unassuming men, 
attached to a sect everywhere spoken against, familiar with 
adversity, and who, in person and estate, had suffered not a 
little from the intolerance of the crown. 

Some few of this sect, but not the most favorable speci- 
mens, had, as appears from Mr. Fletcher's statement, already 
found their way into -the settlement. ■ Shrewsbury, one of the 
seven associated towns that constituted the Province, had 
been settled in 1667, almost exclusively by Quakers, the first 
religious meetings of .the Society in N, Jersey having been 
held there in 1670. The territory of West Jersey had, since 

1674, been in the possession of members of the Society, and 
the lower part of the Delaware had been peopled, on either 
side, by numerous arrivals of Quakers, year by year, since 

1675. This town had now become the seat of a Quaker gov- 
ernment, and so gradually began to receive accessions to the 
number of its planters from the better class of the Society. 
These mostly took up or bought lands on the Rahway river, 
where their successors in lineage and doctrine are found at 
the present day.* 

An " Account of the settled towns " " in the Province of 
East New Jersey," in 1680, " given under the hand of Cap- 
tain Nicholls, Secretary of the Duke in New York," contains 
the following statements respecting this town : — 

It lies up 3 miles within a Creek, the entrance whereof is opposite to 
the Northwest end of Staten Island. There are several Out-plantations 
on the Nortli end of tlie River which divides the bounds between this 
Town and Woodbridge, particularly where the roads pass over, to which 
place is about 7 or 8 miles. Tlierc are other plantations at the point or 
entrance of the Creek, on the North side of it, commonly called Gov- 
ernor Carteret's point, where there is another fariue, between the pro- 
prietor and him. Its but a narrow passage there over to the.meadows of 
Staten Island, then 'on Northward there are other Plantations fronting 
to the Bay that lies to the North part of Staten Island, besides some other 
within Land, from the Town to New York bounds. There is in this 
Town a house, orchards and farm, within the Town in partnership be- 
tween the Proprietor and Governour, Philip Carteret, it being one of the 
first houses built there, and hath all along been the resident of the Gov- 
ernour, untill of late he hath finished his New house. The Town is built 

* Proud'9 Hist, of Pa., I. 161. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 215 

on both sides of the Creek, and consists of 150 Families and of 700 In- 
habitants. The Acres taken up by the Town are computed to be 10,000, 
and for the Out-Plantations 30,000.*, 

Several interesting statements respecting the Town are, 
also, preserved in a letter written by Gov. Endjard, May 30, 
1683, about six months after his arrival. He speaks of the 

Fresh and salt meadows, which now are very valuable, and no man 
here will take up a Tract of Land without them, being the support of their 
flocks in Winter, which other parts must supplie by store, and taking 
more care for English grass. But know, where salt marshes are not there 
is no muskettos and that manner of Land the more health. 

We have one thing more, — which is vast Oyster banks, which is Con- 
stant fresh victuals during the winter, to English, as well as Indians ; so 
we are supplied with salt fish at our doors, or within half a tyde's pas- 
sage, and fresh Fish in abundance in every little brook, as Pearch, Trout, 
Eels, &c. which we catch at our doors. Provisions here are very plenti- 
ful, and people generally well stockt with cattle. Few York and Bur- 
lingtown have hitherto been their market ; Few or no Trading Men being 
here in this Province. I believe it hath been very unhappy heretofore 
under an ill managed Government, and most of the people who are such, 
have been invited from the adjacent Colonies by the goodness of its soil, 
and convenient Scituation. 

There is 5 or 6 Saw mills going up here this Spring, two at work al- 
ready, which abates the price of boards half in half, and all other timber 
for building: for although timber cost nothing, yet workmanship by 
hand was London price, or near upon, or sometimes more, which these 
mills abate. 

My habitation with Samuel Groorae is at Elizabeth Town, and here 
we came first ; it lyes on a fresli small river, with the tyde, ships of 30 or 
40 Tuns, come before our doors, throughout this town is good English 
grass, and very good burthen , we cannot call our habitation solitarie for 
what with the public employ I have little less company at my house 
dayly, than I had in George Yard, although not so many pass by my 
doors. The people are generally a sober professing people. Wise in their 
Generation, Courteous la t6elr Behaviour, and Respectful to us in office 
among them. 

As for the Temperature of the Aii-, it is wonderfully scituatcd to the 
Humours of Mankind, the wind and weather rarely holding in one point 
or one kind for ten dayes together. It is a rare thing for a vessel to be 
wind bound for a week together, the wind seldom holding in a point more 
than 48 hours ; and in a short time we have wet and dry, warm and cold 
weather. Yet this variation creates not cold, nor have we the tenth part 

* Scot's Model of E. J., pp. 134, 5. 



216 THE HISTORY OF 

of the cold as we bavo in England : for generally I go Avith the same 
Cloaths I use to wear in Summer with you ; but warm Cloaths hurt not. 
I bless the Lord, I never had better health, nor my family, my Daughters 
are very well improved in that respect, and tell me they would not change 
their place for George Yard, nor would I. People here are generally set- 
tled, where the tyde reaches ; and although this is a good Land, and well 
Timbered, and plentifully supplied with salt Marsh, yet there is much bet- 
ter Land up higher on the Eiver, where they may go up with small boats, 
where many now are settling. There's extrordinary Land, fresh Meadows 
overflowed in the "Winter time, that produces multitudes of Winter Corns : 
and it is believed will endure 20, 30, or 50 years overflowing without in- 
termission, and not decay. 'William Penn took a view of the Land, this 
last month when here, and said he had never seen such before in his 
life : All the English Merchants, and many of the Dutch have taken, 
and are desirous to take up Plantations with us. At a town called New- 
ark, 7 or 8 miles hence, is made great quantities of Syder, exceeding any 
we can have from New England or Rhod Island or Long Island. I hope 
to make 20 or 30 Barrels out of our Orchard next year, as they have done 
who had it before me, for that, it must be as Providence orders. 

We have store of Clams esteemed much better than Oysters ; on Fes- 
tivals the Indians feast Avith them ; there are shallops, but in no great 
plentie. Fish we have great store, as our relation sets forth, but they arc 
very good when catcht (as the proverb is). I have several barrels by me 
now, which are good for our Table and for Sale. In probability, there is 
not an industrious man, but by God's blessing may not only have a com- 
fortable, but plentiful supplie of all things necessary for this life. 

Samuel Groomc, the Surveyor General, observes, Aug. 11, 
1863,— 

"Well here is a brave Countrey, the ground very fruitfull, and wonder- 
fully inclinable to English grass, as Glower, &c. It Predominates over the 
more wild grasse : very little barren, much dry upland, and good meadow, 
some phenny, swampy land and small running brooks and rivers through- 
out all the parts of the Countrey I have been, and this phenny and swampy 
Laud bears great burdens of grass ; in short, the land is four times better 
than I expected.* 

Gov. Rudjard subsequently obtained a Grant of 3000 
acres, mostly on the llahway and Raritan rivers ; and became 
a Planter on a large scale, thus confirming his declaration of 
preference for these new settlements over the crowded thor- 
oughfares of London.f 

♦ Scott's Model of E. Jersey, pp. 147-164, 8. t E. Jersey Becords, L., IC, 17. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 217 

Among the Council, whom Rudyard appointed, December 
13, 1682, was Benjamin Price, Sen*", of this town. On the 
20th of December, the Governor took the oath of office, and 
shortly after called a General Assembly to meet in this town 
on the 1st of March next ensuing. Henry Lyon, Isaac 
Whitehead, Benjamin Price, and Benjamin Parkis, all of 
them men of character and influence, and true representa- 
tives of the people, were appointed, February 4, 168|, Jus- 
tices of the Peace. Capt. John Baker and Benjamin Parkis 
were appointed, March 28, Justices of the Court of Common 
Right ; Capt. John Baker, Coroner ; George Jewell, Clerk 
and Messenger ; and James Emott, Clerk of the new County 
of Essex. These appointments indicate, on the part of Pud- 
yard and the Council, a disposition to conciliate, and be on 
good terms with, the populate, whose preferences were, 
evidently, consulted in these nominations ; with the excep- 
tion, possibly, of the last, — Emott, who was a new comer, 
and not in full sympathy with the town. It was, at all 
events, a great change from the old regime under Carteret, 
when an entirely different class of men were put in power.* 

The General Assembly met here the first day of March, 
and continued in session until the 28th. An adjourned meet- 
ing was held in May, and another in December following ; 
both in this town. At their first sessions, the Province was 
divided into four counties, Bergen, Essex, Middlesex and 
Monmouth ; " Essex and the County thereof, to contain all 
the settlements between the West side of Hackinsack River, 
and the parting line between Woodbridge and Elizabeth- 
Town, and so to extend westward and northward, to the ut- 
most bounds of the Province." Provision was made for the 
appointment of Sheriffs, Coroners, Justices, Clerks and other 
officers, and for the erection of County Courts, a Court of 
Small Causes for every town, and a Superior Court to be 
called the Court of Common Right, to be held quarterly in 
this town. Numerous laws, mostly such as were passed in 
Carteret's time, for the preservation of good morals, the 
rights of property, and the welfare of the coramunity, were 

♦ E. J. Eecorda, C, 9-20. 



218 THE HISTORY OF 

enacted. The same strictness in regard to profanity, intem- 
perance, licentiousness, and Sabbath-breaking, was retained. 
Evidently, a healthful tone of morals prevailed, in the sev- 
eral settlements, notwithstanding the recent disturbances.'^' 

At the adjourned meeting in May, the existence of domes- 
tic slavery is distinctly recognized. They say, that 

It is found by daily experience, that negro and Indian slaves or servants 
under pretence of trade, or liberty to trafRck, do frequently steal from 
their masters and others, what they expose to sale at distance from 
their habitations ; (and, therefore, they forbade all) barter, trade or traf- 
fique with any negro slave, or Indian slave, or servant, for any rum, 
brandy, wine, or strong drink, or any other goods, wares, or commodi- 
ties, living or dead. 

At tlie sessions in December, Benjamin Price, Henry 
Lyon, and Benjamin Barkis were appointed on the Commis- 
sion to layout and appoint " all necessary highways, bridges, 
passages, landings, and ferries, for the County of Essex." As 
the country was every where, at this early day, infested with 
wolves, a bounty of 15s. was offered for every wolf's head. 
Of the six assessors for the county of Essex, three, Benjamin 
Price, Benjamin Barkis, and George Ross, were of this 
town.f 

Budyard's administration was brief. In July, 1683, Bar- 
clay appointed Gawen Lawrie, also one of the Broprietors, 
his Deputy for East Jersey. Lawrie had been, for several 
years, associated with AVm. Benn, in the Trusteeship of "West 
Jersey, but had not yet come to America. He was a London 
merchant, and of the Society of Friends. He arrived, in 
January, IGS-l, at the new town of Berth Amboy, bringing 
with him his wife, Mary, his son, James, and his two daugh- 
ters, Mary and Rebecca. The latter became the wife of 
Miles Forster, of Berth Amboy, and her sister, Mary, married 
William Haige of this town. Isabel, the daughter of James, 
married Wm. Davis of New York.:}: 

It has been said, that Lawrie's appointment was occasioned 
by a variance between Governor Rudyard and Surveyor 

♦ Learning and Spicer, pp. 227-251. t lb., pp. 252-27S. 

t lb., pp. 163-170. Wliitehead's E. J., pp. 99-100. 126, 7. Scot's Model, pp. 160-3. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 219 

Groome, in relation to the proper conrse to be pursued in the 
allotment of lands. But this variance did not occur until 
after Lawrie's appointment. Groome was not suspended 
from his office until after July 24, 1683, at which time he 
was serving as Survej^or ; and Lawrie was appointed Dep. 
Governor not later than July 20. Groome's death occurred 
here soon after, as his will was admitted to probate, March 
1, 168|.* 

It has, also, been affirmed, that the Associates of this town, 
" in the year 1675, or soon after, laid aside the pretension by 
Indian j)urchase and Nicholls's grant ; and continued peace- 
able and quiet inhabitants until the death of Carteret, and 
until the year 1699, except that in the year 1684, John Baker 
and some others of the Associates, endeavour'd to impose 
upon Governor Lowry, at his first Arrival in the country." 
It would seem that Rudyard had to do with some " tumultu- 
ous spirits," who still adhered to their old claims. So, also, 
it appears, from the first instructions given to Lawrie, who 
was directed to examine and determine the character of "the 
Patents and Grants of land given by Governor Nicholls 
which several seems to stand upon." 

The same thing appears from the Address of Barclay and 
the other Proprietors, Feb. 29, 168|-, to the Planters of the 
Province, in which they say : — 

We must be plain to acquaint you, that we were not a little troubled, 
to find that there are too many dissatisfied and self-ended persons, among 
you whose indirect designs did quickly appear in seeking to subvert our 
just interest, that they might advance their own unwarrantable pretences, 
who we hope are in some measure rebuked by the disappointment of their 
vain expectations of the invalidity of our right and title to the govern- 
ment. 

We have seen and considered yo"" Addresses, made to some of Our Num- 
ber upon their Arrival], and hope that in a great Measure yo"^ Desires 
therein are Answered, as to what Relates to the former Oppression yo" 
have been under, either from yo' Neighbours, or those who have hereto- 
fore Govern'd yo". But we find yo" lay that Stress upon your Purchase 
from tlie Indians w*""* it will never bcare, for wee would have yo" informed 
that thereby yo" have acquired noo Right but what is duly Confirmed by 
us or Our Legal P''decessors. 

• E. J. Records, 1. 122-5. 



220 THE HISTORY OF 

Again, Nov. 13, 1G84, they give Lawrie power, 

To end all controversies and diiferences with the men of Neversinks, 
and Elizaheth-Town, or any other planters or persons whatsoever, con- 
cerning any pretended titles, or claim to land in the said Province : And 
we do hereby declare that we will not enter into any treaty on this 
side, with any of those people who claims by Colonel Nicholls Patent, 
nor with any others that challenge land by Patents from the late Gov- 
ernor Carteret, as being both an affront to the government there and of 
evil consequence to make things to be put off by delays, and thereby hin- 
der the settlement of our affairs in the Province.* 

It is perfectly evident, therefore, tliat the same claims 
were put forth by the town in respect to their rights of 
property, as in Carteret's time, and the same resistance was 
made to these claims by their Quaker rulers. The old 
planters never wavered in their conviction of the lawfulness 
and equity of their title, and never shrank from avowing and 
maintaining it. A second generation were now coming 
forward, in whom this conviction had " grown with their 
growth and strengthed with their strength." If possible, 
they were even more resolute than their fathers. 

The General Assembly, at their sessions in December, 
1683, had passed a stringent militia law, and an act for the 
appointment of a Chief Ranger in every County, to look after 
the estra^'s of the flocks and herds. Benjamin Parkis was, 
thereupon, appointed Captain ; George Ross, Lieutenant ; 
and John Woodruff, Ensign, of the E. Town Foot Company ; 
James Emott was made Chief Ranger ; and Isaac White- 
head, Sen', Coroner of Essex Co. In their commissions, 
dated Dec. 3, 1083, they are all, with the exception of Emott, 
styled, " Gent." This law relative to the militia troubled 
the Quaker Proprietors not a little, especially " wherein 
power is given to the military oflicers to take distress upon 
defaulters ; which clause, (they say,) so far as it extends to 
the people called Quakers, who for conscience sake cannot 
bear arms, or contribute to the same, we do not confirm, 
but that the same is void to all intents and purposes, so far 
as it concerns thera."t 

* E. T. Bill, pp. 43, 4. Lcamiug and Spicer, pp. 174, 18S-190. E. J. Records, 1. 140-50. 
t Learning and Spicer, pp. 262, 2T7, 281. E. J. Records, C, ST, 8, 65, 6. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 221 

The law against Sabbath-breaking, also, came into con- 
flict with their religious prejudices, and so they recommend- 
ed " a further consideration thereof, least it prove a burthen 
to some tender consciences who may find it their duty not 
only to testify against the Jewish superstitions, but also 
against some others in that point." * 

Governor Lawrie, on his arrival in January 168|, occupied 
himself, for five weeks, in laying out the town lots of the 
new city of Perth, at the mouth of the Raritan ; " then 
came in a Boat, privately, to Elizabeth Town the 12th of 
February ; the next morning went to New York to visit the 
governour [Dongan] ; staid there two or three days, and 
found him very kind." He then returned, about the 18th, 
to E. Town, and found the people " kind and courteous." 
On the 28th he published his commission before the Council 
and took the oath of ofiice. Rudyard gracefully retired to 
the more humble station of Secretary of the Province ; but 
soon after, Aug. 1684, became Attorney General of the Prov- 
ince of New York. Groome had died a few weeks pre- 
viously, Phillip Welles having, since Aug. 1683, occupied 
his place as Dep. Surveyor. Wm. llaige, who with eight 
servants had accompanied Lawrie to this country, had re- 
ceived the appointment, July 22, 1683, of Receiver General. 
Lawrie also brought eight servants. Other servants, 22 in 
number, with two overseers, were sent over by the Pro- 
prietors. Wm. Dockwra brought over 24 servants ; Stephen 
and Thomas Warne, 11 ; and John Barclay, brother of the 
Governor, 5 servants.f 

These servants were Scotch laborers, of the poorer classes. 
The most of them were under the necessity of leaving home, 
because of the terrible persecutions, to which, as Presby- 
terians, they had been subjected at the hands of the cruel 
Mackenzie and the bloody Claverhouse, minions of the 
crown. A large number came over in 1684, — " the killing 
time," as the Scotch called it. Tlie most of these immi- 

* Learning and Spicer, p. 199. 

t Scot's Model, pp. 162, .3. E. J. Records, A. 154, 171 ; C. 81 ; L. 9. N. Y. Col. Docmts., 
III. 851, 2, 



222 THE HISTORY OF 

grants were employed in and about Perth Araboy. Some of 
tbem found a liome in E. Town — liow many is not known. 
Tliey were diffused through the Province, and proved a 
valuable acquisition, both as laborers, and as men of sterling 
principle. Many of them became planters and most respect- 
able members of society. 

No sooner had Lawrie assumed the reins of government, 
than he wrote home a glowing account of the new country. 
Under date of March 2, 168f, he wrote to the proprietors 
from this town, as follows : — 

Now is the time to send over people for settling Here. The Scots, and 
William Dockwra's people coming now and settling, advance the Province 
more than it hath been advanced these ten years. Here wants nothing 
but people ; There is not a poor body in all the province, nor that wants ; 
Here is abundance of provision, Pork and Beef, at 2d per pound. Fish 
and Fowl plenty. Oysters I think would serve all England ; Sider good 
and plenty, for Id per Quart. Good Venison, pl^ity brought us in at 
18d the quarter, Eggs at 3d per dozen, all things very plenty. Land very 
good as ever I saw : Wines, Walnuts. Peaches, Strawberries, and many 
other things plenty in the woods. 

I have put two houses in repair upon the River, called the Point 2 
miles from Elizabethtown ; have let one of them, with 10 acres of Pasture 
ground, and 10 acres of Woody ground, for 7 years at 26 lib per annum : 
the man to cleare the ten acres of Woody ground and make it fit for 
Ploughing or Pasture. I intend to let the other also with some land. 
All the houses were like to drop down, all the land lying without fence, 
and a barn quite fallen down and destroyed ; another without any cover, 
and that other next to the house where I dwell, all to pieces, and all the 
fences and out houses were down, hut repaired before I canie.* 

A few days later, March 26, he gives a friend at London a 
more particular account of the country : 

It is beyond what I expected. It is scituate in a good Aire, which makes 
it healthy, and there is great conveniency for travelling from place to 
place throw the Province in Boats, from a small canoe to vessels of 30, 
40, or 50 Tuns, and in some places 100. 

The soil is generally black, and in some places a foot deep, beareth great' 
burthens of Corn, and Naturally bringeth forth English grass 2 years 
ploughing: the ground is tender, and the ploughing is very easie, the 
trees grow generally not thick, but some places 10, in some 15, in some 25 

♦ Scot's Model, pp. lCO-5. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 223 

or 30 upon an Acre. This I find generally, but in some particular 
places there are 100 upon an Acre, but that is very rare : The trees are 
very tall and straight, the generall are Oak, Beech, Walnut : Chesnuts 
and Acorns lie thick upon the ground for want of eating, Peaclie?, Vines, 
Strawberries and many other sorts of Fruit grow commonly in the 
Woods. There is likewayes Gum tree. Cedar, White Wood, like our Fir 
tree ; Walnuts, Chesnuts and others lye thick upon the ground. 

We have good brick earth, and stone for building at Amboy and else- 
where, the countrie Farme houses are built very cheap, a carpenter, with 
a man's own servants, builds the house, they have all materials for nothing 
except Nails; their Chimnies are of stones; they make their own Ploughs 
and Carts for the most part, only the Iron work is very dear. The poorer 
sort set up a house of two or three Eooras themselves after this manner. 
The walls are of cloven Timber, about 8 or 10 inches broad, like planks 
set on end to the ground, and the other nailed ,to the raising, which they 
plaister within ; they build a Barn after the same manner, and these cost 
not above 5 lib a piece; and then to work they go, 2 or 3 men in one 
year will clear 50 acres, in some places 60, "and in some more. They sow 
Corn the first year, and afterwards maintain themselves ; and the encrease 
of Corn, Cows, Horses, Hogs and Sheep comes to the Landlord. Several 
Merchants of New York have left their several Plantations there, to come 
to East Jersey; 2 or 3 join together, bring 12, 15 or 20 servants and one 
Overseer, which cost them nothing for the first year, except some shoes. 
Stockings, and shirts ; I have been to see these Plantations ; and find they 
make a great encrease by them, maintain their Families at New York with 
all provisions, sell a great deal yearly, and for Servants our English peo- 
ple are far better Husbandmen than the New England men ; the Servants 
work not so much by a third as they do in England, and I think feed 
much better, for they have Beef, Pork, Bacon, Pudding, Milk, Butter 
and good Beer ; and Cyder for drink. When they are out of their time, 
they have land for themselves, and generally turn Farmers for themselve?. 
Servants wages are not under 2 shil. a day beside victuals. There is one 
man since I came here sold his Plantation for £1500 lib. the whole was 
1600 or 1800 acres, whereof only 120 acres were cleared, upon which he 
had a house, Garden and Orchard, and Barn planted ; I know several men 
who lett cleared Land at 6 shil 8 pennies to 10 shil. the acre yearlie rent, 
which is a good encouragement for sending over servants to plant. 

He urges tlie Proprietors to send over more people, which 
would " encourage others to take up Land, and bring all the 
division that hath been here to an end, for these men seeing 
that they shall be ballanced are already more complyant than 
they were." "" 

♦ Scot's Model, pp. 166-171. 



224 THE HISTORY OF 

The confident calculations of Lawrie, in respect to the 
people of this town, were far from being fulfilled. The land 
about the town was in the possession of the old families and 
held by the old Indian purchase. The new comers, in order 
to obtain a freehold in the town, were under the necessity of 
buying land thus held and transferred. They, too, therefore, 
became interested in upholding these titles and defending 
these claims. 

Still another letter is extant; evidently from the pen of 
Lawrie, but signed conjointly by David Barclay, (a brother 
of the Governor,) and Arthur Forbes, (brother to a Scotch 
Lord,) and himself, dated March 29, 1684. It repeats much 
of what is said above, and adds other particulars : 

Many of those who have settled here upwards of sixteen years, have 
lived upon the product of the Land They cleared the first two years after 
they came, (and cleared none since), wliich produced not only Corn to 
maintain their own Families, hut to sell every year, and the increase of 
their Bestial, whereof they have good store of several sorts, Cows, Oxen, 
Horses, Slieep and Swine, yields them other provisions and to sell besides ; 
yet there be some more Industrious among them who have continued 
clearing and Improving Land, and these have got Estates, and would not 
sell their Plantations for several hundred pounds. 

They build not only of Wood, but also of Stone and Brick, yet most of 
Countrey Houses are built of Wood, only Trees split and set up an end on 
the ground, and coverings to their Houses are mostly shingles made of Oak, 
Chesnnt and Cedar wood, which makes a very neat Covering, yet there 
are some houses covered after the Dutch manner with pantikles. The 
Towns are all settled upon Rivers, where Vessels of 30 or 40 Tuns may 
come up to their doors, and the out plantations generally upon some 
Brooks or Rivulets Avhich are as plenty here as in our own Countrey, and 
curious clear water, and in many places are good spring wells ; but in the 
Towns every man for the most part has a well digged by his own hand. 

There be People of several sorts of Religion, but few very Zealous. The 
People being mostly New England men, doe mostly incline to their way, 
and in every Town there is a meeting house where they worship publickly 
every Week : They have no publick Law in the Countrey for maintaining 
public Teachers, but the Towns that have them make way within them- 
selves to maintain them. We knoAV none that hath a settled Preacher 
that follows no other Imployment, save one Town Newark. 

The richest Planters have not above 8 or 10 Servants ; they will have 
some of them, 1 Dozen of Cows, yea some 20 or 30 ; 8 or 10 Oxen, horses 
more than they know themselves, for they keep breading Mares, and keep 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 225 

no more horses at home than they have occasion to work ; The rest they 
let run in the wood both Winter and Summer, and take them as they have 
occasion to use them. Swine they have in great flocks in the wood, and 
Sheep in flocks also, but they let them not run in the woods for fear of 
being destroyed by wolves. Their profit arises from the Improvement of 
their Land, and Increase of their Bestial. 

Every house in the Town hath a Lott of 4 Acres lying to it: so that 
every one building upon his own Lott makes the town Irregular and scat- 
tering. Their streets are laid out too large, and the Sheep in the Towns 
are mostly maintained in them : They are so large that they need not 
trouble to pave them. 

There is no Ships belonging to this Province particularly, or built here, 
save one which Samuel Groome built here the last summer, which stands 
yet in the Stocks (a stop being put to it by his death). There is conveniency 
enougli to build ships. The Ships in this part trade mostly to the West 
Indian Islands, and some to Newfound Land, where the Provisions of 
this Countrey vends. 

There are but few Indian Natives in this countrey. Their strength is 
inconsiderable, they live in the Woods, and have small towns in some 
places fur up in the Countrey. They plant a little Indian Corn, shoot 
Deer, and other wild Beasts and Fowls for their food.* 

These letters are invaluable for their details of the early 
state of the town and neighboring country, and of the man- 
ners and customs of that period, particularly in the matter of 
livelihood. They are preserved in a work published at 
Edinburgh, in 1685, entitled, "The Model of the Govern- 
ment of the Province of East- ISTew- Jersey in America ; " 
written by George Scot, of Pitlochie ; who, having suffered 
greatly for his religion, embarked, with his wife, two chil- 
dren, and a large company of emigrants, at Leith, Sept. 5,, 
1685, for America ; but both he and his family died on the 
passage.f 

From other letters contained in the same volume, several 
other particulars, illustrative of the state of the town and 
neighborhood may be learned. Peter Watson, one of David 
Barclay's servants, but withal an intelligent man, writes, 
Aug. 20, 1684,— 

There are here very good Keligious People, they go under the name of 

• Scot's Model, pp. 178-183. 

+ Whitehead's P. Ainboy, pp. 24-31. Reprinted in the Appendix to Whitehead's E. Jer- 
sey, pp. 23!)-333. A copy of the original is in the Library of the N. J. His. 8oc., at Newark. ; 

15 



226 THE HISTORY OF 

Independants but are most like to the Presbyterians, only they will not 
receive every one to their Society ; we have great need of good and 
Faitliful Ministers ; we have none within all the Province of East-Jersey, 
except one who is Preacher in Newark ; there were one or two Preach- 
ers more in the Province, but they are dead, and now the people they 
meet together every Sabbath day and Read and Pray, and sing Psalms 
in their Meeting houses. This Oountrey is very well settled with People, 
most part of the first Settlers came out of New England, very kind and 
loving people, kinder than, in Scotland or England ; And for the Indian 
Natives, they are not troublesome any way to any of us, if we do them 
no harm, but are a very kind and loving people ; the men do nothing but 
hunt, and the women they plant corn, and work at home ; they come 
and trade among the Christians with skins or Venison, or Corn, or Pork. 
And in the summer time, they and their "Wives come down the Rivers in 
their Canoes, which they make themselves of a great tree, like a little 
Boat, and there they Fish and take Oysters. 

Charles Gordon, writing from Anil)Oj, March 5, 168|-, 
says, 

The highest designe of the old Buckskin Planters is to acquire a piece 
of monie to drink in the change house. I am just now drinking to one 
one of them', our Countreyman, who was sent away by Cromwell to New 
England ; a slave from Dunbar, Living now in "Woodbridge Like a Scots 
Laird, wishes his Coimtreymen and Native Soyle very well, though he 
never intends to see it. 

David Mudie wrote, March 9, 16 8f, — 

This "Winter hath been exceeding hard and sharpo, the like not seen by 
those who have lived 20 or 30 years in it. 

Robert Fullerton, one of the Proprietors, Jan. 7, IGSf, 
says,— 

As to the number and nature of these Quit-renters, they are about 2 
or 800 Families, some civill and Discreet, others rude and Malcontent 
with the late Purchassers, and need something of austerity to make them 
complaisant. "We have at present sharp frosts, and a good deall of Snow, 
three dayes of vitrifying frosts this winter, had not its match for cold 
these 16 years by gone, as the Inhabitants do inform us. 

Charles Gordon, Ltarch 7, 168|-, also says, — 

This hath been the hardest "Winter that was almost since ever there 
were English here ; The sound betwixt Jersey and Staten Island was 
frozen in January that carts and horses went upon it; betwixt Martenmas 
and Christmas flying showers of snow with clear moderate frosts ; in 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 227' 

January deep snow and most bitter frosts which ever I found ; about the 
20 of January, the snow went off insensibly, and about 3 weeks in Feb- 
ruary it was ahnost like Summer in Scotland ; the end of February and 
beginning of March for the most part rain and wind. 

James Johnstone, March 9, 168|-, says, — 

Quakers are not numerous : "Wolves are so far from troubling men, that 
if a man should lay a Glove upon a Carcass or their prey, they will yell, but 
not come nigh it. You cannot come nigh a rattle-Snake, but they will 
rattle with their taile, whereby a man is advertised either to kill them or 
go by them ; they frequently charm the Squirrels, or other little Beasts 
off the tops of the Trees unto their mouth, and that without touching 
them with their teeth ; which if they did, they would poison themselves. 
There is a Flee by the Salt Marshes most troublesome in Summer, but is 
not in the up-lands.* 

The publication of these letters, together with a detailed 
statement of the capacities and prospects of East-Jersey, was 
not without effect. " A great many inhabitants of Scotland 
emigrated to East Jei*sey, and enriched American society 
with a valuable accession of virtue refined by adversity, and 
of piety invigorated b}^ persecution." " Is it strange," says 
Bancroft, after a recital of their cruel wrongs, " that many 
Scottish Presbyterians of virtue, education, and courage, 
blending a love of popular liberty with religious enthusiasm, 
came to East New Jersey in such numbers as to give to the 
rising commonwealth a character which a century and a 
half has not efiaced ? " A portion of this increase found their 
way into this tow^n, especially into the interior section. The 
settlement known as " Scotch Plains," then included in the 
territory of this town, derived its name from these settlers. f 

It had been recommended, by the Proprietors, to Lawrie, 
" to use all means of gentleness and tenderness with the peo- 
ple," "not standing much with them upon small matters." 
So far as can be gathered from existing documents, the Gov- 
ernor fully complied with the recommendation. lie seems 
to have cultivated a good understanding with his fellow- 
townsmen, and was so well pleased with liis residence here, 
that, notwithstanding the desire expressed by the Proprietors 

* Scot's Model, pp. 189-200, 224-5, 233, 248, 253, 262-3. 

t Grabamc'fl U. States, I. 4S4. Bancroft's U. States, II. 414. 



228 THE HISTORY OF 

tliat lie slioiild make the new town of Perth his capital, 
he continued to reside here until his death, respected and 
honored of all."' 

It is even afHrmed of him, that, so far from troubling the 
settlers about their Indian title, on his coming into the coun- 
try, " he asked old Isaac Whitehead and Capt. John Baker 
(divers others of the principal men of Eliz. Town being 
present), how they held their Lands; who answered him by 
Nicholl's Grant and an Indian Purchase ; " and that then he 
asked them to shew him the Bounds of their Lands so pur- 
chased and granted, " saying he had a Mind to make a Pur- 
chase of some Lands lying Westward of their Purchase." It 
is further said, that Stephen Osborn was sent by the town 
to call the Indian Sagamores together to mark out the bounds, 
•with whom Lawrie and others had a conference at the house 
of Capt. John Baker; also, that a few days afterwards, Rich- 
ard Clarke, Jr., Capt. John Baker, Jonas Wood, Stephen 
Osborn, Joseph Meeker, and Joseph Wilson, with two lads, 
Pichard Baker and John Cromwell (who went to see the 
woods), set out with the Indian AVewanapo (cousin of one of 
the Sagamores that sold the land originally), to mark the 
western bounds of the town. 

Instructed by the old Indian Chief, they went, "on or 
about the 16tli day of July, 1684, to a Plain back of Piscata- 
way, to a marked tree with some stones about it and a stake 
by the tree," and thence " forward towards the G-reen Piver, 
near where it comes out of the mountain, and lodged by the 
river-side that night ; and the next day they made a circle or 
compass along the foot of the mountain, by the directions of 
the Indian, till they came to the Minisink Path, and then 
came down to Eliz. Town." It was affirmed, however, that 
it was confessed by the Indian chief, that this compass in- 
cluded only a part of the town lands. 

In this conference, it is said, that " Capt. Baker was the 
Dutch interpreter, and an Indian interpreted the Indian lan- 
guage into Dutch to said Capt. Baker, who again interpreted 
into English." It is also said, that an Indian who had been 

• Leamtng and Splcer, pp. 171, 4. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 229 

at sea, and knew the use of the compass, was of the explor- 
ing party. 

This transaction, however, became the source of a serious 
litigation. Baker was charged with having prevailed on 
the Indians to include a much larger tract within the 
bounds than the town had originally purchased ; and so 
with having contravened the Act of. Feb. 168|, forbidding 
private purchases from the Indians ; on which charge he 
was indicted, Aug. 12, 1684, and, on the 28th, was tried, 
found guilty, fined £10, and bound to good behaviour for 
a year. 

Lawrie is also said to have bought, Oct. 30, 1684, of the 
Indians Seweckroneck, Mindowaskein, Canundus and "We- 
wonapee, a large tract about Green Brook and the Blue Hills, 
supposed to be to the "West of the E. Town Purchase ; on 
which several of the most considerable Scotch immigrants 
presently were located with their imported Presbyterian 
servants of humbler condition. This purchase served greatly 
to complicate, in after days, the question of land titles ; a 
portion of the territory thus acquired, if not the whole of it, 
lying within what were subsequently claimed as the bounds 
of the original purchase of 1661, and therefore distributed by 
allotment to the Associates, their heirs, or assigns.* 

Lawrie, before leaving London, had been instructed "to 
take possession of the house belonging to the Proprietors, 
with the orchards and grounds belonging thereto ; " an order 
being at the same time sent to Thomas Kudyard to put Law- 
rie " in possession thereof; and we desire tliee," said the In- 
structions, " to clear all the frivolous pretences of Widow 
Cartright thereto." Wliat was the issue of this* demand does 
not fully appear. Her marriage to Col. Townley occurred . 
shortly after, f 

On the enlargement of the Council, Nov. 26, 1684, Henry 
Lyon was associated with Benjamin Price, as a proper repre- 
sentative of this town. On the 28th, John "Woodruff*, Sen'", 
was appointed High Sheriff* of Essex Co. :}: 

In the course of the winter, or spring, following, Lawrie 

♦ E. T. Bill, pp. 54-T, 113-0. t Learning and Spicer, p. 1T7. t E. J. Kecorda, C. 8G, 7. 



230 ''^^^ HISTORY OF 

received instnictions from the Propi'ietors, dated Nov. 13, 
168-i, requiring tluit the new town of Perth Araboy be hence- 
forth regarded as tlie capital of the Province ; that the Court 
of Common Right, if possible, be always held there ; " and 
that all other necessary Courts, as also the Assembly (when 
called) do sit there ; and particularly the Deputy Governor, 
for the time being, do inhabit there, and convene his Council 
in the said town of Perth." * 

Notwithstanding this order, Lawrie continued to reside in 
this town during his continuance in office and until his death. 
So that no Assembly having been convened during 1684 and 
5, this town remained the virtual capital almost to the close 
of his administration. 

In May, 1685, tidings were received of the death, Feb. 6, 
16S-|, of Charles II., and of the peaceful accession of the 
Duke of York, James II., to the throne. The news created 
a profound sensation here, as well as elsewhere throughout 
the Colonics. James was an avowed Papist. The Puritan 
population liated Popery with perfect hatred, and dreaded 
greatly the influence of a Papal Sovereign, especially one so 
unscrupulous as James ; — " a libertine without love, a devotee 
without spiritualit}^, an advocate of toleration without a sense 
of the natural right to freedom of conscience, — in him the 
muscular force prevailed over the intellectual ; " so that " he 
floated between the sensuality of indulgence and the sensual- 
ity of superstition." f 

Dongan, the Governor of New York, a Papist also, had 
kept up the agitation, begun b}' Andros, respecting the union 
of the two Colonies under one head, — a project that now was 
likely to be effectively prosecuted. This state of alarm con- 
tinued to the end of Lawrie's rule, and tended to promote 
peace between him and the people. 

A difficulty sprang up about this time between this town 
and Newark, as appears from a vote of the latter town, March 
9, 168f, M'hen certain persons were " chosen as a Committee 
to treat with Elizabeth Town about the Bounds, and to issue 

• Learning and Spiccr, p. 199, t Bancroft's U. States, II. 403. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 231 

it with them if they can ; " — a vote renewed, April 5th, 
1686, and Jan. 24, 168f .* 

A General Assembly being needed, it was called, obedient 
to instructions, to meet at " Amboy Perth," Ap. 6, 16S6 ; 
and from this time Amboy became the seat of government 
for the Province. The Court of Common Pight, the Supreme 
Court of the Province, was ordered, by Act of Assembly, to 
be held semi-annually at Amboy, on the pretence that it was 
" more conveniently situated, and near the centre of the 
Province, and the most encouraging place for trade and 
traffick by sea and land, which will occasion great concourse 
of people : " an expectation yet remaining to be fulfilled.f 

The Quaker Rule had now continued about four jj^ears, 
long enough to give it a fair trial. The Proprietors had been 
at great expense in sending over colonists and all manner of 
necessary material for the planting of towns and the culti- 
vation of the soil, but had been greatly disappointed in the 
results. The Indian titles had not been surrendered, the 
rents came in slowly, and the prospect of regular dividends 
was quite unpromising. It was intimated that Lawrie, as 
well as Pudyard, was more intent on securing the best lands 
for himself, than on promoting the interests of the Proprie- 
tors. A change is agreed upon. A new Deputy must be 
appointed — not, however, a Quaker. A large proportion of 
the present Proprietors are Presbyterians — and these had 
sent over a considerable number of Colonists of like faith. 
Tlie old Puritan settlers would greatly prefer a Presbyterian 
to an Episcopalian like Carteret, or a Quaker, as Lawrie was 
— as Rudyard had been. Lord Neill Campbell receives the 
appointment.:}: 

* Newark Town Records, pp. 97, 9, 100. t Learning and Spicer, pp. 283, 293. 

t Learning and Spicer, pp. 211, 2. 



232 THE HISTORY OF 



CHAPTER XII. 

A. D. 168G— n02. 

Lord Campbell, Dep. Gov. — And. Hamilton, Dcp. Gov. — French War — Rates — 
Annexation to New York and New England, under Gov. Andros — Revolu- 
tion of 1688 — Political Agitations — Leisler in power at N. Y. — Jacobite 
Party at E. T. — Interregnum — Death of Rob. Barclay — Col. Hamilton, 
Gov. — Legislature — Appointments — Bounds of the Town — Lawsuit of 
Fullerton vs. Jones — Nicolls' Grant sustained — Notice of Wm. Nicoll, 
Esq. — Associates in 1695, and 1699 — Administration of Basse, Bowne and 
• Hamilton — Tumults at Newark and E. T. — New Allotment of Lands — 
List of Surveys — Notices of New Settlers — End of the Proprietary Gov- 
ernment. 

The history of the town has thus far been, to a considerable 
extent, identified with the history of the province. As the 
place of the Governor's residence, and of the meetings of the 
General Assembly, it exerted a powerful influence over pub- 
lic affairs. Gradually, however, as it ceased to be the pro- 
vincial metropolis, and tlie patronage of the Proprietary gov- 
ernment was withdrawn, and expended on their favorite 
project, the establishment of a great commercial mart at the 
mouth of the Paritan, it lost, in part, its paramount influ- 
ence, and its prominence in the provincial liistory. Some years, 
however, elapsed before Amboy became a desirable place of 
residence, and the comfortable government-house in this 
town, erected by Carteret, held out superior attractions, and 
was at least occasionally occupied by the representatives of 
the Proprietors. 

Lord Neill Campbell was the brotlier of that " excellent 
and truly great and good man," Archibald Campbell, Earl of 
Argyle, who, in defence of the Cliurch of Scotland, and in 
-dread of the restoration of Popery by the cruel and intolerant 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 233 

James II., had adhered to the Duke of Monmouth, taken up 
arms against the government, and, having been taken 
prisoner, was beheaded, June 30, 1685, at the Market-cross 
of Edinburgh. "So high did the tide run at this time against 
this noble and excellent family, that the Earl's brother, that 
excellent person, Lord Neill Campbell, could have no liberty 
to live at his own house, but was forced to go in the hazard 
of his life to America, and leave his lady and family behind 
him." His son, Archibald, however, who had been, Aug. 1, 
1685, condemned to death for treason — which sentence was 
commuted, Aug.l 8th, to banishment, — accompanied his father, 
and a large company of servants, to this Province, of which 
he became an influential resident. 

Lord Neill, like his noble brother, was " heartily averse from 
prelacy and popery," and thoroughly a Presbyterian in his 
principles. He found a refuge and hearty welcome here, 
among his countrymen and i'ellow Proprietors. He arrived 
in the autumn of 1686, and, for a season, at least, became a 
resident of this town, and, probably, a guest of Gov. Lawrie. 
His commission, as Deputy Governor, was received about the 
1st of Oct., 1686, and published on the 5th, at which time he 
took the oath of ofiice. The town was represented in the 
Council, appointed on the 18th, by Gov. Lawrie, andKichard 
Townley. The latter had come over in 1683, with Francis 
Howard, Lord Effingham, Governor of Virginia, whence, in 
1684, he found his way to this Province, and became a resi- 
dent, and soon, by his marriage with Mrs. Carteret, and other' 
wise, an influential citizen of this town, where his posterity 
still continue to reside. Mr. Townley was made Captain of 
the Train bands of this town, Dec. 10, 1686." 

James II., having tried to the fullest extent the policy of 
persecution, was now gravitating towards toleration, in order 
to the restoration of Popery. Lord Neill must have become 
aware of it, many months before the Declaration of Indulg- 
ence, Ap. 4, 1687. He had not sought the post to which he 
had been appointed, and so relinquished it as soon as it was 

• Woodrow's Chh. of Scotland, IV. 48, 311, 820. Wijitchcnd's E J., p. lU, and Auiboy, 
pp. 21-8. K. J. Records, C, 115. 



234 THE HISTORY OF 

possible for him in safety to rejoin liis loved ones at home. 
Capt. Andrew Hamilton, of Amboy, who had come over in 
the autumn of 168-i (having previously been a merchant in 
Edinburgh), and had been one of Lord Neill's Council, was 
left in charge of the government, in March, 1687, and Gov. 
Campbell returned from exile to his home and estates in 
Scotland.* 

The invasion of the country of the Five Nations by the 
French from Canada, about this time, was tilling the land with 
alarm. It gave occasion to a call of the General Assembly, 
to meet May 14, 1688, at Amboy, and for an assessment of a 
penny on the pound, for the service of his Majesty against 
the French ; to be paid in Wheat, at 4s, and Indian Corn, 2s. 
a bushel ; Butter, 6d, ; Pork, 2i-d. ; Beef, 2d., and Tobacco, 2^d. 
a pound ; Land to be rated at £10. a hundred acres ; Oxen of 
4 year old or more, £4 ; Cows of 3 years old or more, £3 ; 
Cattle of 3 years old £3, of two years old, £2, and yearlings, 
£1 ; Horses, of 3 years old or more, £3, two years old, £2, 
of one year, £1 ; and swine of one year old or more, 10s. a 
head. Benjamin Brice, who, after the decease of John Og- 
den, seems to have been the leading man of the town, was 
appointed Assessor for this place.f 

Dongan, the Governor of New York, in almost every dis- 
patch to the authorities at home, was insisting on the neces- 
sity of including the Jerseys under the jurisdiction of New 
York : " There is an absolute necessity," he said, Feb. 22, 
1687, " those Provinces and that of Connecticutt bee annexed." 
The Mayor and Council of New York, also, in an Address to 
the King, March 2, 1687, insisted on " the absolute necessity 
there is that those adjacent parts of Connecticut, East and 
"West Jersey, Pensilvania, should be united to the Province 
of New York." James required no urging. He was de- 
termined to reduce his American Provinces to his sovereign 
will, and to consolidate them under one rule. Sir Edmund . 
Andros had already been commifsioned, and sent over, as 
Capt. General of all New England, and was eagerly prose- 
cuting the work of subverting the liberties of the elder com- 

* Wbitehead's E. J., pp. IIS, 9, 120. t Learning and Spicer, pp. 306-T. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 235 

monwealtlis in tlie land of the Puritans— filling those orderly 
communities with apprehension and terror. 

At length, the decree went forth, Ap. 7, 1688, and the 
two Jerseys and New York were united with New England, 
under the rule of Andros, to be governed by the same royal 
j)leasure, that for three years had been grinding the liberties 
of Britain to powder, the whole to be henceforth known as 
"New England." Writing from N. York, Oct. 4, 1688, 
Andros says, " I arrived here the eleventh of August past, 
when. His iflajesties Letters Pattents being published, received 
this place, as alsoe East New Jersey the fifteenth, and West 
New Jersey the eighteenth following." "I have since settled 
all oflicers Civill and Military ; — to their great satisfaction," 
says Capt. Francis Nicholson, whom he had appointed 
Lieut. Governor. The E. Jersey Proprietors in Great 
Britain had been compelled, immediately after the decree 
of consolidation, in April, 1683, to surrender their right of 
jurisdiction.* 

Secretary Eandolph writes from New York, Oct. 8, 1688, 
(after giving an account of the transactions there), as follows : 

From thence His Excellence with severall of the Conncill set forward 
for East Jarsey and arriving at Elizabeth Town belonging to tbat Province, 
on Wednesday following [15th] His Ma"'^' Commission was ther published 
and also the proclamation for continuing the revennue and civill and mili- 
tary officers till further order. They all shewed their great satisfaction 
in being under His Ma"^' immediate Gov'. 

It appears, therefore, that this town was still regarded as 
the capital of the Province. The " satisfaction," to which 
both Nicholson and Randolph allude, so different from what 
was witnessed at Boston, Hartford, and elsewhere, and from 
the manifestations here in 1680, when Andros arrested Car- 
teret, and usurped the government of the town, may have 
been entirely superficial, and limited to the few recent comers, 
who gloried in the measures of James II. But it is quite 
probable, that it was a real and general satisfaction, to be rid, 
at length, of the Proprietary government, of which they had 
had such an unhappy experience ; hoping, as they did, that 

* N. Y. Col. Docmts., HI. 392, 425, 63G-19, 53, 4. Grahame's U, States, I. 256-Gl. 



236 THE HISTORY OF 

their rights would be much better maintained " under his 
Ma"^" immediate Gov*." * 

Coh Hamilton, as well as the other officers, was retained 
in power as the deputy of Andros, administering the gov- 
ernment as before, but without respect to the instructions of 
Barclay or the Council of Proprietors. Personally he seems 
not to have been objectionable to the people, but quite other- 
wise. He was intelligent, judicious, resolute, and courteous, 
possessing qualities both of mind and heart that had secured 
for him the confidence of all classes. 

Early in the following year, Feb. 168f, information was 
received of the lan'ding of William, the Prince of Orange, on 
the British Coast ; and, in rapid succession, of the fl'glit and 
dethronement of James, the triumphant progress of William, 
and the grant of the crown to him and the Lady Mary, his 
wife. The agitation here, as well as everywhere in the Colo- 
nies, was intense and profound. Andros, it was soon learned, 
had been degraded and imprisoned by the outraged Puritans- 
of Massachusetts Bay. Capt. Leisler, backed by the rougher 
elements of the populace, had seized the fort, and ousted the 
authorities, at New York. So closely was this town, even then, 
connected, socially and commercially with the neighboring 
city, that these events deeply afifected the peace of the com- 
munity. Some few openly sided with Leisler. Of the Com- 
mittee of Safety, to whom, June 28, 1680, was intrusted the 
sole jurisdiction of the Province of N. York, two were of the 
County of Essex, IST. J. The utmost efiforts were put forth, 
by the faction in power, to obtain the support of the towns in 
E. Jersey — to overthrow the old governments, and set up 
their own, but without success ; the people here resolving to 
maintain the existing government, until they received orders 
from the new authorities at home. A messenger was sent, 
by the Leisler party, to proclaim William and Mary at Am- 
boy, who was drowned on his return at Statcn Island, and 
was buried at N. York, in great state. Col. Hamilton, whose 
wife was extremely sick of a fever, M'as prevented from 
taking her to N. York, for fear of violence to his person, be 

• N. Y. Col. Docmts., III. 567. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 237 

cause lie had arrested some of Leisler's agents. Armed men 
were sent hither, from N. York, to hunt for so-called popish 
refugees. For many months the town was thus kept in a 
state of much disturbance and anxiety.* 

Some of the inhabitants adhered' tenaciously to the fallen 
dynast}'-, and resisted all innovation. Many, also, of the same 
party fled hither from New York, where their lives were no 
longer safe. They were mostly men of high social standing, 
and great personal influence. A Jacobite party was thus 
formed in the town, which served, of course, greatly to in- 
crease the ferment. The Quakers, in sympathy with William 
Penn (between whom and James II. a j)eculiar intimacy had 
grown up), were classed with this party. Leisler and his 
Council, writing, Jan. 7, 1689-90, to Burnet, the Bishop of 
Salisbury, use this language : — 

Many resort to our Neighbours of East Jersey and Pensilvania being 
many Quakers in these parts, who (: without abusing them :) encourage 
if not outdo the Eoinan Catholiques and most of our Calamities and divi- 
sions are truly indebted to them, covering their pernicious practices by 
their blind scruples, and impudent interpretations, depending still upon 
and asserting Mr. Pen to be a person of undoubted sincerity : in the mean 
time they advance the Interest of K. James and say that all commissions 
are good to this day Colonel Townly with others committing riot upon 
our Justices bordering next to them, owning none save King James, 
openly drinking his health ettc which we hope in due time to subdue. 
Most of the suspected are fled into the next colony amongst the Quakers. 

Leisler writes again, Mar. 31, 1690, to tlKi Bishop, as fol- 
lows : — 

The raging spirit of malice obstructs us much in the neighboring Colony 
of East Jersey, whither our Chief adversarys fly for sanctuary and are 
embraced — Coll : Townly one M' Emott an Attorney and some more of 
their principall members asserting that the Throne of England is not 
vacant, for that whilst King James was in France he remained in his owne 
dominions being annexed to the Crowne, with many other wicked, petu- 
lant and rebellious Notions and Assertions. 

Mayor Yan Cortlandt, writing. May 19, 1690, to Sir Ed- 
mund Andros, says : — 

Coll : Hamilton, Townly, Capt" Bourne, Pinhorne and others off New 

* N. T. Col. Docmt*., III. 507, 609, 13, IT, 48, 8, 60. 



238 THEHISTORYOF 

Jarsay Genllemen, dare not come in town ; Gov' Dongan was confined in 
his house att Hcjustcde, but is gone to New Yersay. Mr. Plowman 
[Collector of N. York, and a papist] liad about sixty barrels of porke and 
beefe in Elizabeth towne for which Capt" Leidler sent about 100 men and 
tooke it by force.* 

Among the depositions respecting the Eiots, sworn before 
"Peter D. Lanoy" [Delancy], Mayor, Feb. 27, 16-||, was 
one by Thomas Masters, bricklayer, aged about 50 years, 
who declared, — 

That he was in East Jersey at the house of James Emott coming from 
New York was saluted by his wife and asked him from whence he came : 
whereupon the said Emott replyed, he came from New Yorke, had been 
on board the ship the Beaver, and had taken before Father Smith the 
oath of Allegiance to be true to the King ; his wife asked what King ; 
he the said Emott answered King James, vf"^ the Depon' declared was 
past in March last.t 

Gov. Hamilton left the country for England, late in May, 
1690. lie presided over the Council of Proprietors at Am- 
boy, May 20th, and signed a warrant for a survej'', May 22. 
« I understand," says Cortlandt, May 19, 1690, " Coll : Hamil- 
ton intends to goe for England." It would seem that he left 
no substitute ; and no other dignitary ventured to assume the 
direction of provincial affairs. An interregnum, consequently 
ensued, during which the people of the respective towns were 
left to manage their own affairs by their local officers. In a 
memorial of a subsequent date, complaint is made to the 
king, by those holding under the Nicolls' Grants, that "from 
the latter end of June, 1689, till about the latter end of Au- 
gust, 1692," they were left " without any government." This 
would indicate that, from the transpiring of the accession of 
William and Mary to the throne. Col. Hamilton had ceased 
to be regarded, except b}-- the Jacobite party, as the Governor 
of the Province. He was really nothing more than Presi- 
dent of the Proprietary Board, his authority as Deputy Gov- 
ernor having lapsed with the fall of Andros and his royal 
master.:}: 

* N. Y. Col. Bocmts., III. 656, 7, 701. 16, 17. t'N. T. Col. Docmts., III. 747. 

t E. J. liecords, O., 34-40. N. T. Col. Docmts., III. 718. Smith's Ilistory of N. Jersey, 
p. 65S. E. T. Bill, p. 124. Bancroft's U. Stotes, III. 47. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 239 

Robert Barclay, for the last eight years of his life the 
nominal Governor of East Jersey, died, October 3, 1690. 
Hamilton, having fallen into the hands of the French, (with 
whom the English were then at war), and been detained a 
captive, had now arrived out, and laid before his fellow-Pro- 
prietors abroad the state of affairs in East Jersey. Taking 
advantage of the anarchy abroad and the confusion at home, 
they determined to re-assume the jurisdiction, wrested from 
them, and yielded by nominal cession, in April, 1688; and, 
therefore, proceeded to elect a governor in Barclay's place. 
They chose John Tatham [Tatem], a West Jerseyman, who, 
about the same time, was appointed by Gov. Coxe, of West 
Jersey, his deputy ; but, " being a Jacobite, and as such by 
principle disqualified, him the Assembly rejected." For the 
same reason, doubtless, the people of East Jersey " scrupled 
to obey " him. They then requested Col. Joseph Dudley to 
take the place.* 

He had been sent a prisoner to England in February, 1690, 
and returned to N. York, at the close of the year, having 
previousl}'" received a provisional appointment mentioned 
by Gov. Sloughter of N. York. It is possible, that Slough- 
ter took some oversight of the Province of East Jej'sey, 
inasmuch as among the " persons of approved Loyalty and 
Integrity," whom he recommended, March 27, 1691, as mem- 
bers of his Council, was Pichard Townley of this place, an 
adherent, as has been seen, of the Stuart dynasty. Sloughter 
died, July 23, 1691.t 

At length, the governorship was given, March 25, 1692, to 
Col. Hamilton, then at London, who arrived with Gov. 
Fletcher, of N. York, August 30, and was peaceably received 
by the people. They acquiesced in his government, by send- 
ing deputies to an Assembly that convened, by warrant from 
Hamilton, at Amboy, Sept. 28, 1692, to take measures to aid 
the Province of New York against invasion by the French.:}: 

• Whitehoad's E. J., pp. 120, ISO. Smith's N. J., pp. 291, 2. E. T. Bill, p. 124. N. T. Col. 
Docmts., III. 701. 

t Moore's Governors of N. Plym. and Mass. Bay, pp. 390^02. N. T. Col. Docmts., III. 
864, 54.3, 768. Whitehead's E. J., p. 131. Smith's N. York, 1. 105. 

t Whitehead's E. J., pp. 133, 4. N. T. Col. Docmts., III. 83S-40, T. Learning and vSpicer 

812. 



24:0 THE HISTORY OF 

Isaac "Wliitehead, of this town, was appointed, Sept. 16, 
1692, High Sheriif of tlie County of Essex ; Isaac Whitehead 
and Benjamin Price, Jr., Oct. 10, Justices of the Peace for 
E. Town ; Henry Norris and John Lyon, Nov. 2, Deputies 
to the Assembly ; Georgj Jewell, Dec. 3, County Clerk ; 
Isaac "Whitehead, Benjamin Price, Jr., and Jolm Lyon, Jr., 
Jan. 29, Judges of Small Causes ; and, Feb. 21, Isaac White- 
head, Lieutenant, and Daniel Price, Ensign, of the E. Town 
Company of Foot. Isaac Whitehead, who seems to have 
been in high favor with Hamilton, was, also, appointed, Ap. 
1, 1693, Coroner for Essex Co. ; and, Nov. 4, 1693, Captain 
of the Foot Company, Daniel Price being appointed, at the 
same time, Lieutenant, and John Lyon, Ensign. Kichard 
Townley, also, had been appointed, March 7, 169|-, a mem- 
ber of Gov. Fletcher's Council, of the Province of New 
York. Mrs. Townley had a large estate on Long Island.* 

At the meeting of the Assembly, in October, 1693, an Act 
was passed defining the bounds of the respective townships 
of the Province, in which, for the first time, the territory of 
this town is described by legislative authority : 

The Township of Elizabeth-Town, shall include all the Land from the 
mouth of Raway River West to "Woodbridge-Stake, and from thence 
"Westerly along the Line of the County to the Partition Line of the Prov- 
ince, and from the mouth of the said Raway River, up the Sound to the 
mouth of the Bound-Creek, and from thence to the Bound-IIil], from 
thence North-west to the Partition Line of the Province.! 

The territory thus defined embraced the whole of the 
present Union County, and considerable portions of Somerset, 
Hunterdon, Morris, Warren and Sussex Counties, including 
Morristown, Stanhope, Schooley's Mountain, and Newton, — 
according to Keith's Partition Line, then understood to be 
the true dividing line between East and West Jersey. The 
townsliip was thus extended beyond the western bounds of 
the Indian Purchase, which at no point was more than 34 
miles from Newark Bay, or double tlie distance from the 
mouth of the Karitan to the mouth of the Passaic river8.:j: 

• E. J. Records, C. 151-207. N. Y.; Col. t Learning and Spicer, p. 329. 

Docmte., III., 818. i Gordon's N. J. 71-5. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 24:1 

John Harriman [Rev.] and Jonas Wood were appointed, 
'Nov. 3, 1693, Deputies, and again in 1694. Benjamin Og- 
den received, Oct. 10, 1694, the appointment of Sheriff; 
Ephraim Price, Jan. 15, 169f, Ensign ; and John Woodruff, 
Jan. 29, Judge of Small Causes.* 

A period of great suspense and anxiety commenced soon 
after the return of Gov. Hamilton. During the long con- 
troversy respecting the land titles of the town, no regular 
judicial investigation of the points at issue had been under- 
taken — no decision reached. But now that the Proprietors 
have resumed their jurisdiction, and seem to be quietly seat- 
ed in the government of the Province, they determine to 
bring the matter into the courts ; confident that, as the 
courts are mostly under their control, judges and juries both, 
the case will be decided in their favor, and the planters be 
compelled to pay the arrearages of Quit Rents from 1670, or 
be dispossessed of their plantations with all the improve- 
ments put upon them. The Fullerton brothers, Thomas, 
Robert and James, came to the Province in 1681, and settled 
on Cedar Brook, on the plot, bought by Gov. Lawrie of the 
T^ndians, but previously claimed by the E. Town people un- 
der the ISTicolls Gra::t. Jeffry Jones, one of the E. T. Asso- 
ciates, had, by conveyance from Lawrie, come into possession 
of land there, on which James Fullerton (schoolmaster at 
Woodbridge, in 1689) had settled ; " upon which the said 
Jeoffrey Jones did enter and oust him." This was in 1693. 
Fullerton, in Sept. of that year, brought an action of trespass 
and ejectment against Jones, and issue was joined. The 
case came to trial in the Court of Common Pleas at Perth 
Amboy, in May 1695. The whole merits of the case were 
brought out before the Judges and Jurj^, on both sides. The 
events were then recent ; the documentary evidence was 
ample, and well preserved ; the first E. Town Book was in 
the hands of Samuel Whitehead, the Town Clerk, and was 
perfectly accessible. So that the facts were fully before the 
Court, or within their reach. 

A special verdict was agreed upon, but the jury gave a 

• E. J. Records, C. 212, 225, 231. 

16 



242 THEniSTORYOF 

general verdict for Jones. The Court, however, pronounced 
judgment, May 14, on the special verdict against Jones; 
•who thereupon appealed the case to the King in Council. 
In the Court at Kensington, both parties again were fully- 
heard, Wm. Nicoll, Esq., being Attorney for Jones. Tlie 
Committee of the Privy Council, Lord Chief Justice Holt, 
Sir Philip AVilliamson, and Sir Henry Goodricli, offered their 
Opinion to his Majesty in Council, that the judgment be re- 
versed ; and his Majesty in Council, February 25, 169|, re- 
versed and repealed the said judgment, and, also, declared 
all issues thereupon null and void, NicoU afterwards de- 
clared on oath, that, in the Council, 

The sole dispute was, "Whether Col. Kichard Nicliolls, as Governor un- 
der the King of England, in those parts, might not grant Licence to any 
of the Subjects of England, to purchase Lands from the native Pagans? 
and if, upon such Licence and Purchase, the English Subjects should gain 
a Property iu the Lands so bought ? all which was resolved in tlie Af- 
firmative, and the Judgment given to the Contrary, accordingly reversed.* 

"William Nicoll, Jones' Attorney, was a lawyer of great 
prom-inence at New York, the son of Matthias, lirst Secretary 
under Gov. NicoUs. In 1GS7, he received the appointment 
of Attorney General of N. York. He opposed Leisler in 
1689, and was severely treated as a Jacobite. He was a 
member of the Council under Govs. Sloughter and Fletcher, 
whose policy he sustained. Early in November, 1695, he 
was appointed an Agent of the Province to proceed to Eng- 
land, to present an Address and a Memorial to the King. 
On the voyage, he was captured, in January 169|, near the 
Scilly Islands, and kept a prisoner at Brest, in France, till 
the month of April. Jones, it seems, took advr.ntage of this 
mission, to employ him to manage the ap])eal before the 
King in Council. As Nicoll was shortly after admitted an 
Associate of E. Town, with a third-lot right, and as he never 
became a resident, but retained his domicile, first in Queens, 
and then in Suffolk, Counties on Long Island, it is thought 
that this third-lot right was given him by the town for his 
services, and the Associates made common cause with Jones 

• E. T. Bill, pp. 120, 2. Ana. to do., pp. 30, 1. Lciming and Splcer, p. 690. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 243 

in the defence of his title, involving, as it did, the title of 
every one of thein to their purchased possessions.* 

These judicial proceedings served to kindle anew the old 
animosity between the town and the Proprietors, and neces- 
sitated a more complete organization of the planters. A large 
proportion of the original settlers had either died or left the 
town. A new generation had taken their place, heirs or 
assigns of the old pioneers, and fully prepared to maintain 
their inherited rights. It was determined to make from 
these a considerable addition to the number of the Asso- 
ciates. Of this transaction, the only extant record is found 
in the Town Book, under date of June 7, 1735, in the hand- 
writing of Caleb Jefferys, Town Clerk, at that time, as 
follows : — 

Be it always Kemembered that Those whose Names are iinderwritten 
were admitted associates according to thire Lot Rights anexed to Eacli of 
there names and ought to have Been Enteared la page the third of This 
Book all which is menifastlj known By Living Testamony amongst us 
and Doth allso appear By an Instrument made In the year one Thousand 
six hundred Ninety and five 

The Associates admitted as aboues"^ were as followeth (viz) Joseph 
willson fi e Lott Right henry Norris foure Lott Right and to Each a 
third Lott Right peter Nue Henry Lyon and to Each a second Lott 
Right in the same premisses Jeffery Jones John Miles Samuel Barnet 
John Littel Samuel Winance Joseph meeker Joseph Sayers Robert 
Morss and Moses Thompson and to Each a first Lott Right in the same 
pei-misses- Nathaniel Bonell, Sen'' Stephen Crane John arskin Joshua 
Clark Thomas Moore Daniel Debar fc John meeker : a Loott & a half 
Roger Lambert George pack, John Ogdeu Stephen osborne Joseph 
oshorn George Ros3 Nathaniel Tuttel Isaac hetfeild Jonas wood a 
Lot Right and a half and to a first Lot Right Samuel Sayes peter 
mor?3 Benjamin Bond a Lot Right and a half, and to a first Lot Right 
marry Johnson, John Woodruft', william miller, John parker, Josiah 
Stanbrongh, Oenry martain, John pope Benjamin meeker a half Lot 
Right one Lot Right was Entered in page y' 3 of this Book, and to a 
first Lot Right Joseph ffrazey Richard mattuk and Jonathan Ogden a 
first Lot Right and one Entered In page the 3 of This Book which maks 
two in the Second Taken in of the associates Richard Clarke Senor 
Deceased a s2cond Lott Right william Cramer Scnor-a Second Lott 
Right. 

• N. T. Col. Docmts., HI. 7C9 ; IV. 159, 171, 509. 



244 THE HISTORY OF 

On pages 2(i and 3d of the same Book is the following 
entry : — 

"In the Yeare of our Lord one thousand Six Hundred and Ninty-Nine, 
At a Town-Meeting (in Eiizabetli Town) of the s"^ Associates and those 
Holding under them or Some of them Avere admitted as Associates with 
them in the affores'' Premisses, all those Persons whose Names are here- 
inafter next mentioned (viz.) William Looker, a Second Lott-Right, 
Benjamin Wade Ditto. John Harriman Ditto, William Xicholla, a third 
Lot-Right, and to first Lot-Rights, William Brown, Ephraim Clarke, 
Obediah Sale, Jonathan Ogden, Samuel Carter, Jeremiah Crane, Joseph 
Whitehead, Samuel Whitehead, David Woodruff, Benjamin Meeker, 
Mordecai Burnet, Nathanael Whitehead, William Miller, Joseph Lyon, 
John Thompson, John Harriman, Ju', Ebenezer Lyon, John Wo(jdruflt', 
Abraham Iletfield, Robert Woolley, William Hill, William Cramer, 
Denis Morris, John Megie, Benjamin Lyon, J«hn Osborne, Joseph Wood- 
luff, Thomas Darling, William Stray hearne, Andrew Craig, John Johnson, 
Nathaniel Lyon, Joseph Hallsy, Benjamin Ogden, Jno. Ailing, Jacob 
Mitchell, Samuel Willis, Andrew Ilamton, George Thorp, John Pearce, 
Samuel Oliver, Samuel Clarke, John Gould, Richard Clarke, John Clarke, 
and Cornelias Hetfield. And since Cap* Ebenezer Willson, a second Lot- 
Right, 

In these lists, several of the original Associates are named 
as having obtained an addition to their lot-rights. The 
children of the old planters are largely represented ; in some 
cases, two, three, fonr, or five sons taking the place of the 
father. Ten new-comers arc found in the list of 1G95, 
and twenty, in that of 1G99 ; the most of whom became per- 
manent residents and founders of families. In addition to 
these, were found among the residents a considerable number 
of persons, who had attached themselves to the Proprietary 
party or were themselves Proprietors, wdiose lands were 
located chiefly on the lower Rahway river and its branches, 
that section being then included within the territory of the 
town. 

Daniel Price was appointed, May 3, 1697, Captain of the 
Train-Bands : William Brown and Epliraim Price, Lieu- 
tenants ; and Pichard Baker and Samuel Oliver, Ensigns. 
John "Woodruff (son of the old planter) received, May 30, the 
appointment of High-Sheriff of Essex Co. ; John Harriman 
[Rev.] and Andrew Hampton, Dec. 1, 1698, were chosen 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 245 

Deputies ; Kobert Smith (the first of the name in the town) 
became, Dec. 26, 1699, High-Sheriff; and, Feb. 15, 1699- 
1700, George Jewell, County Clerk.* 

The period, immediately subsequent to the decision of the 
Jones' case in 1695, was one of much confusion and excite- 
ment. Great indignation, of course, was manifested by the 
town party against the Proprietors and their anomalous 
government. Restive as they had been under it from the 
first, they could no longer restrain the expression of their 
dissatisfaction. The reversal by the King and his Council, in 
1697, of the adverse judgment of 1695, confirming, as it did, 
unquestionably, the validity of their titles, emboldened them 
still more in their opposition to Proprietary rule, and in 
the determination to be rid of it, and come under the 
immediate government of the King, whom they had learned 
to trust. 

In these purposes they were greatly strengthened by the 
state of public affairs in the Province. The Proprietors, as 
has been said, relinquished their claim of jurisdiction in 
April, 1688, but reasserted it in 1690. Owing to the perils 
by which the Orange dynasty was then surrounded at home, 
but little notice was taken, by the ministr}'^, of this colonial 
incident. As the government, however, gained strength and 
a firm, foothold on British soil, the colonies were regarded 
with more interest. The pleadings in the Jones' case had 
turned attention more particularly to the Jerseys. The 
authorities at New York, also, were perpetually pleading for 
the annexation of this inviting territory to their own. 

The issue must have been clearly foreseen. It could not 
be averted. The Proprietary government was doomed. The 
ministry wisely withheld their assent from the appointments 
of the Board at London. Acceptable, personally, as their ap- 
pointee. Gov. Hamilton, was, his authority was questioned,, 
and the jurisdiction of the courts denied. When he was su- 
perseded in April, 1698, by Jeremiah Basse, in conformity 
to a law that required the Colonial Governors to be natives 
of England, the opposition party were greatly strengthened. 

♦ E. J. Eecordo, C. 204- 7, 313,323. 



246 THE HISTORY OF 

The American Proprietors took ground against the Enghsh 
Proprietors, and opposed Passe ; while he, on the other hand, 
sided with the opposition, and so lent his influence to the 
subversion of the power to which he owed his advancement. 
The people soon learned to hold the government in contempt. 
Revolt ensued. The leaders were imprisoned, but speedily 
rescued by the populace. 

In May, 1699, Passe left the government in the hands of 
Andrew Powne, (President of the Council, and in sympathy 
with the opposition), and sailed for England. Powne's exer- 
cise of authority was respected no more than his predeces- 
sor's ; but it stirred up less resistance, as he sided mainly 
with the people. The return of Gov. Hamilton, at the close 
of 1699, with a new Commission, served still more to com- 
plicate matters. In the course of the following spring and 
summer (1700), the opposition openly revolted; the Assem- 
bly, called to meet in May, 1700, demanded of Hamilton 
credentials from the King, and were dissolved the same day. 
A period of strife and violence followed ; courts were broken 
up ; sherilfs and others were obstructed in serving processes ; 
and, as during Passe's rule, there were " mutual breaking of 
Goals, rescuing of Prisoners, and beating and abusing of 
officers."* 

In this culmination of events, towards which they had 
long been rushing, the people of this town took a deeply- 
interested part. The Newark people openly refused, at a 
town meeting, April 11, 1699, to be taxed for the raising of 
money, ordered by the Assembly, for redressing a force of 
the Province of N. York ; and in this they were fully sec- 
onded by this town, at their meeting, on the 21st. At a meet- 
ing of the County Court in this town, March 12, 1699-1700, 
the Sheriff having been ordered to arrest Samuel Carter for 
contempt of Court, the " noise and howling of the people," 
were such that the Court was obliged to adjourn. A similar 
scene took place at the County Court in Sept. at Newark, 

♦ K. J. Eecords.C, 273, 81 1,828,331, 4. E. T. Bill, pp. 45, 124. App. to Do., p. 33. Ars. to 
Do., p. 82. Smith's N. J., pp. 209-11, 558-CO, 568-9. Learning and Spiccr, pp. 092, 3, 605. 
Gordon's N. J., p. 53. Wliitehead'e E. J., pp. 13S-41, 147-60, 219-20,223-7. MuLTord's N. J. 
pp. 267-64. ADftlyticRl Index of N. J. Col. Docmtj. pp. 19-81. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 



247 



several of the inhabitants of this town taking part in the dis- 
turbance.* 

In this terrible confusion of public affairs, it was deter- 
mined to make an appeal directly to the King. A Petition 
was prepared, purporting to be from '' the Freeholders, In- 
habitants, and owners of the Land, of and belonging to 
Elizabeth-Town, or Township, and other Lands thereto adja- 
cent, in the Province of East New Jersey in America, 
in behalf of themselves and many others.." After reciting 
their title, they say, — 

The said Purchasers, and those claiming under them, still continue in 
the possession of the Lands by them Purchased, and peaceably enjoyed the 
same, until about September, 1693, being near Thiity Years, and during 
that Time, great Labour and Expence, built, planted, and improved the 
same; and they humbly conceive they ought according to Law, Reason 
and Justice, still to enjoy the same. 

They then rehearse the troubles to which they had been 
put in defending their title, and ^leir need of an impartial 
tribunal. 

Tliey ask, therefore, either to be placed under the civil 
government of IsTew York, or to have indifferent Judges ap- 
pointed to whom all these matters might be referred ; and 
that the usurpers be admonished no more to usurp the royal 
authority in "constituting courts" and " commissionating 
Judges." The paper was signed as follows : 



John Lamb, 


John Megie, 


Joseph Woodroof, 


John Osborn, 


Daniel Dehart, 


And. Hampton, 


Abraham Hill, 


Robert Marsh, 


John Thomas, 


Joseph Hallsy, _ 


William Strayhearn, 


Ephram Clarke, 


John Woodroof, 


Nathaniel Boinel, 


Josepli Williams, 


Robert Wooley, 


Samuel Clark, 


William Miller, 


Joshuah Clarke, 


John Willis, 


Samuel Whitehead, 


Henry Lyon, 


Daniel Crane, 


Roger Lambert, 


William Looker, 


David Woodruff, 


Benjamin Lyon, 


Jeremiah Osborn, 


Ebenezer Lyon, 


Joseph Meeker, 


Cornelius Hatfield, 


Jonathan Ogden, jun., 


Ei)hraim Price, 


Henry Norris, 


Obadiah Sale, 


Samuel Carter, 


John Cory, 


Jolm Little, 


/Jonathan Ogden, 


• Anal. Index, pp. 24, 5, 


9, 31. Newark Town Eecorcls 


, pp. 113,4. Whitehead's E.J 


p. 145 







248 THE HISTORY OF, 

Isaac Boinell, Thomas Thompson. Isaac "Whitehead, 

Benjamin Ogtlin, Joseph Lyon, John Earsken, 

' Benjamin Wade, sen., "William Brown, Thomas Price, 

Benjamin Price, jun., John Meeker, Benjamin Hatter, 

Benjamin Meeker, John Thomson, John Chirke, 

John Looker, Daniel Price, John Miles, 

Jeremiah Crane, John Ilarriman, jun., Jacob Mitchel, 

Daniel Sayre, - John Ross, Samuel Williams.* 

George Ross, jun., Abraham Hatfield, 

A small proportion only of the large territory belonging to 
tlie town had hitherto been occupied. The new generation 
and the new comers were eager for more land. It was deter- 
mined, therefore, in town-meeting, in the autumn of 1699, to 
proceed to an orderly distribution of the back country lands, 
and the remaining meadows on the Town Creek, among the 
Associates, now 120 in number. For this purpose, John 
Harriman, J^, the eldest son of the minister, was chosen Sur- 
vej^or, and Messrs. Jonathan Ogden, Benjamin Lyon, John 
Clarke, Samuel Carter, an(^Cornelius Ilatlield, his assistants, 
" to Lay out. Divide, and Equally assise all the Lands and 
meadows within the whole Bounds and purchase of Elizabeth 
Town, to every one Interested therein by Right of purchase 
under the honourable General Richard Nicholls, their Several 
and Respective parts and shares of the whole.f 

They entered upon their work, Dec. 26, 1699, and com- 
pleted it, March 5, ^f f^-. The ground surveyed was watered 
by the Rahway river in its southerly course, and extended 
from the Newark line on the North, to the Woodbridge line 
on the South, reaching to the foot of " the mountain" on the 
West. It included a considerable part of the present towns 
of Union, Westtield, and Blainlield, and a small part of the 
town of Railway. It comprised about 17,000 acres, and was 
divided into 171 one-hundred acre lots^ mostly 40 by 26 
chains, the general direction of the length being from East 
to West, and of the breadth, from North to South. The lirst 
lot, assigned to Isaac Whitehead, Sen', deceased, bordered 
on " the North-west line between Eliz'** Town and Newark ; " 
the 107th, 111th, 112th, and 119th, bordered South on the 

• Learning and Splcor, pp. 6SS-92. t E. Town Book, B., p. ST. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 249 

AVoodbridge Line ; the intervening lots, in the order of their 
enumeration filling up the interval ; and the remaining lots 
lying to the West of the others. The settlement of Connecti- 
cut Farms and Westfield dates from this allotment ; the 
staple of the population of these townships being the descend- 
ants of the old planters among whom these lands were ap- 
portioned.* 

In these lists, and other documents of the period, several 
new names occur, not noticed in the schedule of 1666, and 
the Dutch Census of 1673. Of some of them but little is 
known ; the origin of a few cannot now be discovered ; and 
of the remainder a brief account only can be given. 

John Alling [Allen] was in humble circumstances, labor- 
ing by the day, employed by Mr. Plarriman in " bottoming 
chairs." The day after Mr. Harriman's death, his daughter, 
says the old Ledger, " Abigail Ailing came to our service." 
His father, John, died, intestate, April, 1685. He himself 
was admitted an Associate in 1699-1700. What relation, if 
any, he bore to Samuel Ailing, the founder of the Newark 
family, from New Haven, Ct. is not known, — probably 
none.f 

Andrew Alexander was one of Mr. Harriman's parishion- 
ers. He resided here as early as Jan., 169|. He was, 
doubtless, of the same family with George and John Alex- 
ander, who came over witli the Scotch emigration about 
1685, and had large allotments of land on the Kahway river, 
and at the Scotch Plains, on Green Brook. Andrew was a 
schoolmaster, and had among his pupils, in 1697-8, three of 
Mr. Harriman's children, who credits him, in his Ledger 
thus: "for schooling my 3 children at 5^ 3*^ — 15 9." He was 
living here in 1705. :]: 

Margaret Baker was here as early as 1676. She obtained, 
Feb. 1, 167^-, a warrant for 200 acres, "in right of Peter 
AYolverson," who had returned to New York. She is recorded 
as Mrs. Margaret Baker, but her deceased husband's name is 
not given. 

* E. Town Book, B., 12-37. Harriman's Ledger, pp. 14S-150. 
t Newark Town Records, p. IKi. Mr. Harriman's Ledger, p. 127. 
t lb., p. 108. E. J. Uccords, L., 50, 101, 170, 206. 



250 THE HISTORY OF 

She was a sister of Gov. Peter Stnyvesant, and quite a 
noted character. Jacob Backer, her husband, was a pros- 
perous merchant in JSTew York. He resided on the E. side 
of Broad st. near Beaver st., and adjoining liis store. He 
was Schepen for several years, and liekl in high esteem. He 
went over to Holland, in 1660, and left his business here in 
charge of his wife, Margaret, returning only occasionally. 
Their eldest cliild, Nicholas, was baptized in the Dutch 
Church, N. Y., Mar. 25, 1657 ; their 2d child, Hillegond, 
Sep. 7, 1759 ; Henrieus, Sep. 26, 1660 ; and Abraham, Nov. 
23, 1661. After the English conquest he returned once or 
twice more to Holland, and seems, after 1669, not to have 
come back. It was reported that he died in the East Indies. 
His property was heavily mortgaged, to Jean Cousseau, who 
foreclosed in 1670. Balthazar de Haert, a wealthy merchant, 
living in Pearl st. between Broad and William streets, pur- 
chased the property, in Oct. 1670, at public sale. As the 
sequel shows, he had become quite intimate with widow 
Baker. He died the next year but one, 1672, and, having 
never married, left the most of his estate to his tliree brothers, 
Daniel, Matthias and Jacob, having first made provision for 
his natural son, Matthias ; and bequeathed to his " Naturall 
son Daniel Dc Haert, procreated by Margarett Stuyvesant," 
the house and lot then occupied by him and Elias Provost 
Smith, and " two greate stilling kettles ; " also 600 guilders 
wampnm annually ; of all which the mother was to have the 
use until tlieir son, Daniel (who had been baptized, Sep. 1, 
1671), should come of age. 

Among the Albany Records is a Petition, dated Ap. 29, 
1676, of Margaret Stuyvesant " for an examination of her 
account against the estate of the late Balthazar de Ilaart, 
with whom she was enijajred to be married, and who in his 
lifetime made use of her estate." Oct. 2, 1676, Daniel de 
Ilaart asks for a subpoena to be served " in the suit between 
Daniel de Ilaart, administrator, &c., and Margaret Stuy- 
vesant alias Bakers." In the following winter, Mrs. Margaret 
Baker has taken up her residence here, induced thereto, 
probably, by a settlement with Daniel de Ilaart, his brother 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 251 

Balthazar having acquired considerable land here before his 
death. ISTot many years after, she found it convenient to 
change her condition once more. A very singular covenant 
of marriage is on record, dated March 11, IGT-J, between 
HeiKlrick Droogestradt and Mrs. Margarita Stuyvesant, both 
of Elizabeth Town, in which, Hendricus, Nicholas and Abra- 
ham Backer are mentioned as her children. The witnesses to 
the covenant are John Woodruff, George Jew^ell, and Rich- 
ard Pettinger. The identification is complete. (Mr. Drooge- 
stradt had been a resident of New York, and, Feb. 26, 1671, 
had obtained license to marry Mary Jansen. They were 
still living, in Jan., 1674, at New York, tenants of Rev. 
Jacob Fabritius.) According to the Dutch custom, Mrs. 
Baker retained her maiden name, Stuyvesant, after her 
marriage. The three children named above were born in 
wedlock. Mrs. Baker, having been a resident of New York, 
was doubtless well acquainted with Wolverson, and so be- 
came a purchaser of his rights here. The amount surveyed 
for her was 22-4 acres, already described in connection with 
the notice of Wolverson. The larger part of it adjoined 
Daniel de Hart's land on the West, which Daniel was, 
doubtless, her own son.* 

Shamgar Barnes was one of Mr. Ilarriman's parishioners, 
in humble condition. He may have been a son of Thomas 
Barnes, of Shrewsbury, N. J. ; but, more probably, he was 
from Soutliampton, L. I., the home of so many of the early 
settlers of this town. William Barnes was there as soon as 
1644, and Joshua Barnes, in 1653 and onwards. Thomas 
Barnes was at New Haven, Ct., in 1643. f 

Samuel Barnet was the founder of a large faniil}^, but his 
origin is not known. The Rev. Thomas Barnard, of New 
London, Ct., is called "Barnet," by Cotton Mather. Such a 
conversion of names is very common in the old records. He 
was admitted an Associate in 1695.:}; 

John Blanchard is called, by Mr. Harriman, " galliciis^'' 
i. e. a Frenchman. In one place, he writes the name, 

! * Alb. Records, XXV. 105, 1S6. N. T. Wills, I.3S5-392. E. J. Records, II. 50, 56 ; III. 140 
N. T. Marriages, p. 117. 

t Howoll, pp. 90, 151, 179, 206. % Savogo, I. 123. Mathar's Maguali*. E. T. Book, B. 43. 



252 THE HISTORY OF 

" Blankshard ; " in another " Blanksbaw," in accordance 
with the French pronunciation. T]ie name first occurs in 
1700. Several Frencli families became residents of the town 
during the first few years of the 18th century. He opened, 
as early as 1700, a country store here, which was kept by 
him, or some member of his .family, a great many years. 
The following debit appears against him in Mr. Harriman's 
Ledger : " 1703. May 17th, p a house &c sold you this day at 
80'^ is £80, 00, 00." In 1711, he was one of the Justices of 
the Peace, and, in 1720, one of the Town Committee. He 
was a man of much distinction and influence, and the founder 
of a numerous and respectable family.* 

John Boardman first appears at the Town Meeting, Jan. 18, 
169-^-, when he subscribed 6s. per annum to Mr. Harriman's 
support. He seems to have been a day-laborer, and may 
have been the sexton of the church, an entry made in Mr. 
Harriman's Ledger, by his son, John, being in these words : 
" 1705 August 21 by Diging fathers grave — 0, 4, 0." Mr. 
H. died on the 20th. Boardman died in 1707, his will 
bearing date, March 4, 170|. His wife, Sarali, to whom he 
left all his property, survived him.f 

William Boyell [should, })robably, be Boyle] and Jane 
Jansen, both of E. Town, were married, Sep. 27, 1675, at E. 
Town, by Justice Bollen. Nothing further is known of them. 
He may have been the ancestor of Solomon Boyle, who 
owned 600 acres on the Upper Passaic, adjoining the Berk- 
ley tract, and was the father of a numerous family. Charles 
Boyle was at Oyster Ba}'^, L. I., a few years later.:}: 

William Broadwell was a cordwainer, who married, Aug. 
25, 1677, Mary, a daughter of Robert Morse, tailor, all of 
this town. She was his second wife. He purchased, Oct. 30, 
1678, 148 acres of land in E. Town, of Luke Watson, who 
had removed to Delaware ; also, Sep. 26, 1681, 35 acres, a 
part of his father-in-law's lands, bordering East on Eliz. 
Iliver. He obtained, Feb. 26, 1679-80, a warrant, " in Right 
of him tfe his wife." He sold a part of his lands, July 4, 

♦ Old Ledger, pp. 12S, 131, 145. Records Quarter Sessions, Ull, 12. E. T. Book, B. 1. 
t Old Ledger, p. 114. X E. J. Records, III. 118. Alb. Land Papers, X. 101. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 253 

1682, to Joseph Frazee ; he bought, Oct. 20, 1684. of Joseph 
Kerr, another tract, and on the 21th, sold to Capt. Andrew 
Bown, of Middletown, N. J., (Depnty Gov., in 1699), 27 acres 
adjoining Leonard Headley. He applied, June 11, 1685, for 
500 acres in E. T., and obtained " 250 at 2d. per Acre." He 
had surveyed, Nov. 6, 1685, a tract of 267 acres, at E. side 
of Ash Swamp, adjoining Wm. Pardon, Kobert Morse, Wm. 
Trotter, and George Pack ; also 16 acres more on the E. 
of the above ; and 38 acres of meadow on the S. side of 
Bound Creek : in all, 320 acres. His saw-mill was one of 
the landmarks of the day. He died early in April, 1689. 
His estate was valued at £67, 9, 1.* 

William Browne was a wheelwright and carpenter. He 
was one of the early settlers of Southampton, L. I., and Oct. 
7, 1618, was chosen one of the freemen of. the town. He 
came to E. Town, probabl}", about 1680. He was commis- 
sioned Lieutenant of Capt. Daniel Price's Company of Foot, 
May 3, 1697. In March, 1699-1700, he was chosen one of 
the Associates of the Town. He was a brother-in-law of 
Capt. Isaac Whitehead. Joseph and Isaac Ogden were his 
sons-in-law. He died in Dec, I702.f 

MoRDECAi Burnet was, also, from Southampton, L. I. His 
father, Thomas, came thither from Lynn, Mass., as early as 
16-43. He had 7 sons : John, Aaron, Lot, Joel, Dan, Mor- 
. decai, and Matthias. Mordecai was the son of his second 
wife, Mary Pierson, whom he married in 1663, at Lynn. 
He was admitted one of the Associates in March 1699-1700. 
'No record of his residence here at an earlier date has been 
found. He was born, probably, about 1670, and may have 
come here about 1690. Dr. Ichabod Burnet, who came here 
later, and was one of the Associates in 1729, was, the son of 
his brother Dan, and the father of the Burnet family of this 
town.:}: 

iliciiARD Clarke, shipwright, also, was from the East End 
of Long Island. In a deposition made, March 22, 1741, his 
son, Kichard, then " aged about fourscore Years," states 

• E. J. Records, 114 ; o. e. 150 ; II. 12S ; o. e. 330 ; IV. 19, 20 ; A. 1S2, 3, 335 ; L, S4. 
t Ilowell, pp. 29, 90. E. J. Records, C. 2G4, Old Ledger, p. 7. 
t Uowell, pp. 92, 203, 9. E. T. Book, B., p. 3. 



254 THE HISTORY OF 

" that lie was born, as lie hatli heard, at South-IIampton on 
Long Island ; and that he was brought to Eliz. Town by his 
Father, named Kichard Clarke, when he was between six- 
teen and seventeen years of Age." The father's name is not 
found among the early inhabitants of Southampton. lie was 
living at Southold in 1675. Mr. Clarke, with his wife, Eliza- 
beth, daughter, Elizabeth, and five sons, Eichard, John, 
Joshua, Samuel and Ephraim, came here, about 1678. Two 
sons, Thomas and Benjamin, were born to him after his arri- 
val. The first five were all admitted as Associates in 1699- 
1700. He obtained, Feb. 25, 1679-80, a warrant for 300 
acres "in Right of himself his Wife his Sons Richard, John 
and his Daughter Elizabeth Clarke." These three were of 
suflicient age [14 years] at the time to have an allotment of 
land granted their father for them. The survey of this land, 
located near Railway, is not on record. He had purchased, 
in 1678, Caleb Carwithy's land, at Luke Watson's Point, 
lie was admitted an Associate, in 1695. His Will is dated, 
New York, April 1, 1697, where he may have been taken 
ill, and where, probably, he died, a day or two later. His 
son, Thomas, was the grandfather of Abraham Clark, the 
"Signer." His estate was valued at £159, 5, 1|-.* 

Jonathan Clement was one of Mr. Harriman's parishion- 
ers from 1694 (and probably earlier) to 1705. But little is 
known of hini. The Clement family were numerous at Hav- 
erhill, Mass., and Jonathan may have originated there. One 
of the entries in the old Ledger, against Mr. Clement, is in 
these words : " 1705 May 26 your negro came to board." f 

John Corey first appears here as one of the Memorialists 
of 1700. He came from Southold, L. I. Abraham was a 
resident of that town, as early as 1662, where he married 
Margaret, a daughter of Jeffry Christophers. John Cory, in 
1675, was assessed, at Southold, for £44 ; and Jacob Cory, 
for £93, It is likely that tlie three were brothers. He died, 
in Dec. 1722, and his widow, Priscilla, in Dec. 1723. "^ 

Andrew Craig [Craige, Cragk, Crag, Cragg], it is 

• E. T. Bill, p. 115. E. J. Records, 11. 103, 127. t Ledger, p. C7. Savage, I. 407, 8. 

t Savage, I. 459, 60. N. Y. Doc. Uis., IL 419-52. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 255 

thought, came with the Scotch emigration, in Gov. Lawrie's 
time. John and James Craige came with Lord Campbell in 
1685. As related, on a subsequent page, the Rev. George 
Keith, Episcopal Missionary, was entertained at his house, in 
Nov. 1703, preaclied there the first Episcopal sermon ever 
delivered in the town, and baptized Mr. Craig's four children. 
He was admitted an Associate in March, 1699-1700, and 
drew No. 162 of the 100-acre lots, on the S. W. side of the 
Rah way river, and on the lower side of the "Noramahegon 
branch," in the bounds of the present township of Westfield, 
being its easternmost point. A part of the family became at- 
tached, subsequently, to the Westfield Church. His auto- 
graph appears among the Associates, Nov. 28, 1729, in the 
Town Book. He died, about Oct. 1, 1738.* 

James Ckigiiton is known only as one of Mr. Harriman's 
parishioners. A John Crichton was one of the banished 
Scots who arrived in Dec. 1685.f 

William Daebie was a resident of the town in IGSS. Ap. 
16, of that year, the widow Agatha White sells all the lands 
of Richard Beach in E. Town, bought of him, March 31, 
1688, to William Darbie of E. Town. Nothing further is 
known of him. A William Darby was one of the respond- 
ents in 1752, to the E. Town Bill in Cllallcer3^:j: 

Thomas Darling was admitted one of the Associates in 
1699-1700, and drew No. 150 of the 100-acre lots, near the 
Railway river and N. E. of it, between Joseph Woodrufi" 
and Hurr Thompson. A Thomas Darling was at Salem 
Mass., in 1690 ; George, at Lynn, 1650 ; and Jolm Darling, 
who married Eliza, daughter of James Beers, M'as one of the 
early settlers of Fairfield, Ct. § 

Daniel De Hart was erroneously numbered by Jeremiah 
Osborn, in his afiidavit, as one of the original 80 associates. 
He is not included in the Town list, as recorded in their 
book. He was a physician and a resident of New York. 
Four brothers, Balthazar, Daniel, Matthias, and Jacobus, 

• p. Ep. His. Soc. Coll., p. 44. Clark's St. John's Chh. of E. T., p. 15. E. T. Book, B. 3, 85. 
"WhltoheBil's P. Amboy, p. 22. t Ledger, p. 77. Whitehead's P. Aniboy, p. 23. 

t E. J. Record.^, B. 38?, 4. E. T. Bill, pp. lOG, 7. Ans. to do. 
§ Savage, II. 10. E. T. Book, B. 3, 88. 



256 THE HISTORY OF 

De Ilaerdt ^vere early citizens of New Amsterdam, the 
former having engaged in the shipping business, about 1058, 
and having been greatly prospered. Balthazar resided, at the 
English Conquest, on the S. side of Wall st. He purchased, 
Ap. 3, 1671, of Hichard Painter, one of the original Asso- 
ciates of this town, who had removed to N. York, his house 
and plantation here. At his death, early the next year, his 
executors sold, for £48, July 4, 1672, the property to Richard 
Skinner, " Joyner" of this town, who had been a servant 
both to Painter and to De Hart. Skinner, however, being 
unable, probably, to "comply with the terms of purchase, relin- 
quished the possession. Whereupon Daniel De Haert, as 
" Executor of Baltaz Do Haert," obtained, March 30, 1675, a 
warrant for 120 acres, " in Right of Richard Painter," and, 
Ap,. 1, 1678, obtained a survey of 134:|- acres, including a 
house-lot of 3 acres, already described in the notice of Painter 
on a previous page. Two years later, Mar. 28, 1680, he sold, 
in behalf of the heirs of his brother, all their estate in the 
town, to George Jewell of Piscataway. 

After his brother's death, Daniel succeeded to his business, 
and died without issue, late in 1689, or early in 1690. His 
brother, Jacob, married Cornelia Beeck, and resided on the 
W. side of Pearl, below Wall st. Their children were — Wil- 
liam, Peter, Elizabeth, and Balthus, 1673-80, and another, 
168-1, not named. Matthias married, in 1670, Jannetie, the 
widow of Joannes De Witt, a wealthy flour-merchant of New 
York, and had a daughter, Catalina, bap. Jan. 21, 1673. He 
had died in 1675. Since Dr. Daniel De Hart died as early 
as 1690, he could not have been the Daniel, who was admit- 
ted one of the Associates in 1695, and who signed the memo- 
rial to the King in 1700. This Daniel was, undoubtedly, the 
son of Mrs. Margaret Baker and Balthazar De Hart — the 
first one of the name who took up his residence here. Capt. 
Matthias De Hart, born 1667, must have been the son, Mat- 
thias, mentioned in the will of Balthazar. He was the an- 
cestor of the E. Town family.* 

♦E..T. Kecords, I. 25; 11.18. 73; A. 113. Valentino's N. York, pp. 84, 7. N. Y.Willj, I. 
385-302; V. 123. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 257 

Anthony Elcock appears to have been one of the early 
Associates of tlie town, as a meadow-lot, in 1699-1 TOO, was 
drawn in his right. His name occurs nowhere else in the 
town records. Pie was at New Haven, Ct., in 1657 ; had 
four children, Marj, John, Thomas, and Sarah born to him, 
1661-9, and had died in 1672. His early death, probably, 
prevented his intended removal.* 

James Emott came from England to this town, as earl}?- as 
1682. As a lawyer, he attached himself to Gov. Carteret, 
and was one of the witnesses to his will, Dec. 10, 1682. He 
was appointed County Clerk, March 28, 1683, and Chief 
Eanger of the town, Dec. 3, 1683. Soon after, he removed 
to Perth Amboy, the new capital of the Province, and, in 
1685, kept the ordinary there. The next year, he was ap- 
pointed Provincial Secretary. ITone, who have occasion to 
consult tlie original Records at Trenton, pertaining to this 
period, will soon forget his peculiar chirography, so difficult 
to decipher. He had married, 1682, or 3, Mary Lawrence, 
of this town, tlie step-daughter of Governor Carteret, who was 
born 1665, and was about 16 years old, when, at her mother's 
marriage, in 1681, she came with her six brothers and sisters 
to reside here. He removed from Amboy to New York, and 
resided on the E. side of Broadway, just above Wall st. He 
received, Feb. 5, 168f, a warrant for 300 acres in E. Town,, 
bordering on Railway river, and "Emott's Creek." He was 
a zealous Jacobite, and, in 1698, was charged with being one 
of the brokers for the pirate Every. He was one of the first 
vestrymen of Trinity Church, N. Y., and contributed liber- 
ally to its funds. In 1699, he visited Boston to intercede 
with the Earl of Bellemont (the Governor) for the pirate 
Capt. Kidd. In 1701, he was recommended to be one of the- 
Gov.'s Council. He died, April, 1713, at New York, leaving 
four sons, George, William, James and Jolin.f 

John Ekskine [Eakskens, Akskin, Akskins] M-as a Scotch- 

* Led<rer, p. 1-19. Savngrc, II. 107. The name is identical, doubtless, with " Alcock." 

t N. y. AVills, VIII. 227-9. E. J. Records, A. 17; C. IS, 76; O. 61, 70. Whitehead'a P. 

Amboy, pp. 22, 41, 261. Valentine's N. Y., pp. 234, 359. N. Y. Col. Docmts., III. 701, 747; . 

IV. 30S, 52S, 5S3, 709, 849. Beirian's Trinity Chh., pp. 15, 17, 20. Uis widow, soon after, 

became the wife of the Ilev. Edward Vaughan, of this town. 

17 



258 THE HISTORY OF 

man, as his name imports. lie was admitted an Associate in 
1695, and drew No. 143 of the 100- acre lots, in the town of 
"Westfield, recently owned by the late Gideon Ross. His sub- 
scription in town-meeting, Jan. 18, lC9f, to Mr. Harriman's 
support, was 5s. per annum, who credits him with making a 
pair of leather breeches for each of two of his sons, Richard 
and Joseph, 3s. and 6d. each ; also with " 3 dayes work of his 
negro Robbin in threshing wheat at 3 bits^ p day — Gs. 9d." 
He was, therefore, a tailor, and, in common with his pastor 
and most of the planters, a slaveholder. He was one of 
the Memorialists of 1699. St. John's Church, in 1738, 
or 9, received a glebe of 9 acres, " by the Piety and favor 
of a very worthy widow, Mrs. Anne Arskins of Elizabeth 
Town." * 

Nathaniel FokIbes was a shoemaker, and is known only as 
a subscriber, in 1694, of 6s. a year to Mr, Harriman's support, 
and the maker of a pair of shoes for the pastor, in full of the 
subscription. t 

William Gartuwaite, the father of a numerous family, was 
born, 1677, in England ; married, as early as 1702, Ann, the 
daughter of Maximilian Laulon, of France. He came here 
as early as 1703, his son, Henrj^, having then been born in 
this town. The family tradition brings him here as early as 
1695. The earliest date, at which his name appears in any 
town document, is 1706. He, or his son, located on what has 
since been known as the Roberts' property, on the West side 
of the town. He died, Dec. 11, 1738, leaving, at least, two 
sons, Henry and James.:{: 

Edward Gay was a physician. Letters of Administration 
were granted, Aug. 3, 1687, to "Edward Gay, of Elizabeth 
Town, Docf of Physick," for the Estate of John Wren, of E. 
Town, dec^. This is the first mention of hinu No hint is 
given of his jDrevious history. He frequently ai)pears as a 
witness to the Wills of the earlj' settlers, — his patients, most 
likely. He obtained a -warrant, Aug. 15, 1693, for 50 acres 
of unappropriated land in E. Town. No other trace of him 

* E. T. Book, B., 82, 43. Lodger, p. 109. Clark's St. John's, p. 55. 
t Ledger, p. SS. t lb. p. 3. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 259 

remains. Jolin Gay was at "Watertown, in 1635, and Ded- 
ham, Mass., 1639.* 

John Gould [Gold] was admitted one of the Associates in 
1699-lTOO, In June, 1694:, lie subscribed 123. a year to Mr. 
Harriman's support. A John Gould was at Southampton, 
L. I., in 1683, and was, doubtless, the same man. John 
Gould, who was at Charlestown, Mass., in 1636, had a son, 
John, born, Aug. 5, 1648. The latter may have been the 
E. Town Gould. A Daniel Goulde \vas at Shrewsbury, ]N^. J,, 
i^revious to 167'7.t 

Joseph Halsky came from Southampton where, and in its 
vicinity, the family is largely represented at the present day. 
Joseph was the son of Isaac, and the grandson of Thomas, 
who was at Lynn, Mass., in 1637, and was the wealthiest 
founder of Southampton, in 1640. Joseph was born about 
1668, and bred a weaver. He was here in 1694. He lived 
in the neighborhood of the Wheatsheaf tavern on the Wood- 
bridge road. He purchased of Derick, the son of Capt. John 
Baker, " all the Divisions accruing to a second Lot Right in 
Elizabeth Town." He was one of the Memorialists, and one 
of the Associates, in 1700. He died, April, 1725.:}: 

Andrew Hampton [Hamton] was here Ap. 12, 1688, when 
he administered on an estate ; perhaps earlier. Tradition 
(not very good authority) says, that he was a tailor, and 
eloped, from Scotland, with Lady Margaret Cummin. Ko- 
where in the Records has she this honorable prefix. It is 
much more probable, that he came here from the old hive — 
Southampton, L. I. James Hampton, of Salem, Mass., re- 
moved to Southampton, as early as 1652, living at the l!^. 
end of Main st., near the Bridgeharapton road, next to Robert 
Wbolley (afterwards of E. Town), and near Thomas Sayre, in 
a house bought of Wm. Barnes. Andrew was, probably, his 
son, and, therefore, named one of his own sons, James. The 
Rev^ George Keith, being here in 1703, says: "JSTovember 
4. I Baptized the Children of Andrew Ilemton, eight in 

♦ E. J. Kcconls, B. 133 ; 0. 103. Savnge, IL 23T. 
+ E. T. Book, B. 3. Ledger, p. 70. Savage, II. 285. 

t Howell, pp. 15, 227-33. Littell's Passaic Valley, p. ICc. N. T. Wills, L 38">. E. T. Bill, 
p. 49. 



260 



TEE HISTORY OF 



Number ; lie and liis Wife are come over from Quakerism 
to the Church." His tenets would not allow him to aid in 
the support of a "hireling" minister; yet, as he had cout 
siderable dealings with Mr. Ilarriman, he allowed the latter 
to charge him in the old Ledger, " 169^ 8'"' 1. p gift in 
ord' to my maintenance 26 ^ [£] 1. 6. 0." In 1696, he is 
charged with " mending glass for y^ brick house ... 3. 4|^." 
In that year he built his "brick house" on the site of 
the present parsonage .of St. John's Church, 
of the old house still, rem.ains, in which is still 
seen the old corner-stone with this inscription : 
A smaller stone is inscribed n_ 



A portion 



A 1696 M 



1697 
ANDEEW 
UAMTON 

and 
MAKGRET 



as follows : 
He was appointed, Dec. 1, 1698, 
with Mr. Harriman, a Deputy to the Legisla- 
ture. His name is found among the Memorialists of ITOO, 
and among the Associates of that year, but not among those 
of 1729. He died, Jan. 173f .* 

John Harriman, 1687, is noticed at lengtli on a subsequent 
page. 

Henry Harris was one of Mr. Ilarriman's parishioners, 
employed by him, at times, in " fetching shells, mowing salt- 
grass, killing liogs, pitching hay," and the like. His sub- 
scription was 6s. George Harris was at Northampton, L. L, 
in 1657, and this Henry may have been of his family. 
George, of the next generation, in this town, was, probabh', 
Henry's son. A George Harris was at Salem, Mass., with a 
family, in 1636. Daniel and Arthur were in 1610 at Dux- 
bury.f 

Capt. Joun Harrison was a merchant here, as early as 
June 6, 1701, at which date he obtained license from Gov. 
Hamilton to " purchase of the Indians or Natives a tract of 
land at or Near Milton River," in W. Jersey. No connec- 
tion has been traced between him and the Harrison family of 
Newark. His father, John, M-as an early settler in Monmouth 
Co., N. J. (liaving four sons, John, William, Henry, Ed- 



* Howell, pp. 151, C, 805, T. E. J. Records, C. 26T. T. Ep. His. Soc. Coll., I. 44 Ledger, 
p. 102. Clark's St. John's, p. CI. t Savnge, II, 800, 1. Uo'ncll, 234. Ledger, p. 101. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 261 

ward), and was, probably, that son of Edward Planison, who 
was baptized at Boston, May 21, 164:8. Or he may have 
been the son of John, of Boston, whose son, John, was born 
there, Ap. 2, 1652. John Harrison, in 1695, was the Sheriff 
of Queens County, L. I., and, July 22, 1697, applied for a 
patent for a tract of land at Oyster Bay. Soon after, he re- 
moved to this town, and engaged in trade. He purchased, 
Jan. 23, 170f, one-fifth of Robert Barclay's Propriety in the 
E. Jersey lands, which was If^^^s of -^th, and consequently 
became an advocate of the Proprietary Claims. In 1709 he 
served as Captain on the frontiers, at Albany, N. Y., acting, 
also, as Commissary. He purchased, Sept. 19, 1713, of 
Thomas Barker's widow, I of -jV^^^ of liis propriety. In 1718, 
he was employed, occasionally, as a surveyor, having pre- 
viously removed to Amboy, where, the same year, he served 
as Sheriff. He died in 1724.* 

Benjamin Hatter was one of the Memorialists of 1700, 
but has left no otlier record. 

John Heeon died, July, 1687, and Jonathan Ogden, with 
Roger Lambert administered on "his estate, valued at £26. 
13. l.f 

John Heerick is known first as an 8s subscriber to Mr. 
Harriman's support, in 1691. He was, probably, a mem])er 
of the Southampton family. He was a witness, May 28, 
1695, to the Will of Thomas Lee.:}: 

Zerah Higgins was from Piscatawaj. Mrs. Mary Higgins 
of Piscataway obtained, Ap. 2, 1677, a warrant for ISO acres, 
in right of herself, her deceased husband, Richard, and her son 
Eliakim, "& another Right for Zera Higgins." Richard 
was at Plymouth, Mass., in 1633, married, Nov. 23, 1631, 
Lydia Chandler, and had Jonathan and Benjamin ; removed, 
1611, to Eastham, Mass., and was Representative of the town, 
1617-51 ; married, Oct. 1651, Mary Yates, and had Mary 
(b. Sep. 27, 1652), Eliakim (b. Oct. 20, 1654), William (b. 
Dec. 15, 1655), Judah (b. Mar. 5, 1657), Zeruiah (b. June, 

* Savftse, ir. 366. Alb. Records, XXXIII. 02, 303, 812 ; XL. 80. E. J. Records. II. 149-51, 
153-5. S, ISO, 209. 23() ; O. 227. E. Towu Hill, pp. 84, 0, 7. Howell, pp. 47, 202. Whitehead's 
P. Amboy, pp. 53, SO-!). 

t Inventories. « Ledger, p. S7. IIowill, p. 239. E. J. Kocords. 



262 THEHISTORYOr 

1G58), Thomas (b. Jan. 1661), and Ljdia (b. July, 1664). 
They emigrated to N. Jersey, about 1670. Zeruiali [Zerah], 
after liis lather's death, came to this town, where he died, 
intestate, Dec., 1695, in his SStli year. Kichard Bater and 
Andrew Hampton administered on liis estate, valued at 
£134. 15. lOf * 

John Hume was a mason, and came over witli the Scotch 
immigration in 1685, and soon after had a tract of 150 acres 
surveyed for him, for which he obtained a patent, Ap. 28, 
1686. The land adjoined Jolm Pearce, on the S. side of E. 
Town Brook. At his death, the property passed to his three 
daughters : Catharine, the wife of John Matthies, of Perth 
Amboy ; Jane, the Avife of Jolm Brown ; and Hannah, the 
wife of Andrew Eedford. The title was contested, at a later 
date, by claimants under the Town Associates.f 

JouN Indes was a poor parishioner of Mr. Harriman, sub- 
scribing 3s. per annum only to his support, from 1694 to 
1699. He was living in 1717, near Winans' Landing, on 
the Creek, and just beyond Isaac Hatfield, dec''.:): 

George Jewell was one of the early settlers of Piseatawaj^, 
N. J., having previously resided at NcM-town, L. I., of which 
he was, in 1665, one of the Overseers. He was, probably, of 
the lineage of Thomas Jewell, who was at Braintree, Mass., 
in 1639. "^ He purchased. Mar, 21, 168f , of Daniel Be Hart, 
acting for the heirs of Balthazar, all their estate in E. Town. 
Four pieces of land, in all, 200 acres, were surveyed for 
him ; one, adjoining land of Ilendrick Baker and Nathaniel 
Bonhell ; another, on the N. side of the Woodbridge road, 
adjoining Bobcrt White, Pogcr Lambert, and John Toe ; 
and two, of meadow, one of them on the S. side of E. Town 
Creek. He was appointed, Mar. 28, 1683, Clerk and Mes- 
senger of the Court ; also, Dec. 3, 1692, County Clerk, and 
again, Feb. 15, 1699-1700. His death occurred, Aug. 1734.§ 

Alexander Keenee [Kinney] was a parishioner of Mr. 
Harriman as early as 1694, and was still here in 1709. 

* E. J. Upcorils, IL 53. Stivnge, IL 412. Inventories. 

t E. J. Rec, A. 83li. E. T. Bill, p. 44, 5. t Ledtrer, p. 91. 

§ Savngo. U. 545. Eiker, p. 41S. E. T. Bill, pp. 102, 7. E. J. KccorJe, II. C9, 73 ; A. 113 ; 
C. 1-3, 176,323; E. 108; O. SS. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 263 

At a town meeting, March 11, lYOf , Thomas Keenee, also, 
subscribed 5s. aj'ear. They were sons of Alexander Keeney, 
of Wethersfield, Ct., of which he was a freeman in 1667, and 
died there in 1680, leaving his wife, Alice (who died, in 
1683), and seven children. Alexander was born in 1662, 
and Thomas in 1664. They were neither of them admitted 
as Associates.* 

John Lamb was one of the Memorialists of 1700, and Sam- 
uel Lamb was here in 1708. They were, probably, of the 
lineage of Thomas Lamb, who came in the Winthrop fleet, 
1630, and settled at Roxbury, Mass. The names of John 
and Samuel occur frequently among the children and grand- 
child ren.f 

Petek Laueensen was licensed, Ang. 30, 1676, to marry 
Sophia Mannard, both of this town. He must have been a 
Dutchman, and has left no other memorial. The name was 
a familiar one at New York.;}: 

Abraham Lawrence was numbered among the 80 Asso- 
ciates ; bnt no mention is made of him as a settler at that 
early day. He was, doubtless, from Newtown, L. I., and, it 
may be, a cousin of Mr. Carteret's children, with whom he 
may have come here. In the drawing of the 100-acre lots, 
No. 42 fell to his share — the same that was afterwards owned 
and occupied by Elder Andrew Hatfield, of Westfield.§ 

William Leagry, of E. ToM'n, carpenter, made his will (to 
which Benjamin Wade and George Jewell were the wit- 
nesses), November 3, 1683, appointing Thomas Johnson, of 
Newark, his Executor, and giving all that he had to Benja- 
min AVade. The name was, probablj^, Legare, found at Bos- 
ton as early as 1641, and sometimes written, Leager, and 
Leger. | 

Thomas Lee married, March 14, 167|, Ann, a daughter of 
Robert White, Justice Bollcn officiating. Of which of the- 
numerous families of the name, found at the time in N. Eng- 
land, he sprang, cannot be told. He was one of Mr. Harri- 
man's subscribers from the beginning, and died, June, 1695.^ 

♦ Savnge, III. 3. Ledger, pp.27, 14L t lb., p 10. Savage, III. 4T. 

J E. J. E., III. 126. § E. T. Book, B.% 17. 

1 Savage, IIL 6S. E. J. Records. H lb. IIL 124. 



264 THE HISTORY OF 

Samuf:l LEVEKroGE was owner of land here at an earl)' day. 
TVm. Broadwell sold, Oct. 24, 1684, to Capt. Andrew Bowne, 
a tract of land, joinin<^ Leonard Ilcadley's, formerly Samuel 
Leveridge's. If he ever lived here, it was but for a short 
time ; as appears from tlie above record. In 1703 he was 
living, with a considerable familj' in New York City. Though 
not mentioned by Riker, he was, doubtless a son of Rev. 
William Leverich, of Newtown, L. I.* 

Henry Martain was admitted an Associate in 1695, but 
his name nowhere else occurs. He may have been a son of 
John Martin, previously of Dover, N. H., one of the founders 
of Piscatawa3% N. J. James Martin, in 1726, \vas, probably, 
his son, of whom the following record is made by John Har- 
riman, Jr. : " 1726 May the 3 Day James Martin came To 
Bord at my House. 1727 August the 19 Leaft my House 
and wee never made no agreement how much a AVeek I 
promist him to be Low In price will take vp with 4' p weeke 
which acount makes 67 weeks and 4 Dayes makes £13. 10. 
Since I concluded to Take but 3" 6' £11. 16. 6.'.'t 

Samuel Mattup^vs, of this town, died in 1695, leaving a 
small property, which was appraised, Dec. 17, 1695, at £15. 
4. 3, by Richard Baker and Andrew Hampton. He niay 
have been the son of that Samuel Matthews, who was one of 
tlie founders of Jamaica, L. I., and was living there in 1694.:}: 

Richard Mattock [Mattuck, Mattake, Mattucks] was 
admitted an Associate in 1695. Jn 1669, Richard Mattocks, 
of New Haven, married Grace, a daughter of Christopher 
and Grace Todd, but soon deserted her. This was, doubtless, 
the same man. He was here in 1677, and purchased, Dec. 
9, 40 acres of John Winans, on the S. side of E. Town Creek ; 
also, Mar. 21, 1689-90, of Mary, the widow of Matthias Hat- 
field, and Cornelius, her son, the 40 acre lot on the W. branch 
of the creek. North of the Plain. Nothing further is known 
of him. June 21, 1680, Edmund Loftis of Chester river, 
Md., assigns 3 years' services of William Madox to John Lit- 
^tle of this town. Sept. 14, 1680, John Little, of E. Town, so- 

* E. T. Bill, p. 102. Riker. pp. 850-4. Talentine's N, Y., p 354. 
t Savage, III. 162. E. T. Book, B.4S. Ledger, p. 20. 
% E. J. Records. Macdonald's Jamaica, pp. 2T, 86. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. £65 

licits a " hue and ciy " for tlie recovering of William Mat- 
take, a runaway servant. A John Mattocks was living, at 
the time, in Salem, N. J., and a Lewis Mattix, at Middle- 
town, N. J.* 

John Megie [Mc Gie, Magie, Maggee] was a blacksmith, 
and came over from Scotland, during the period of persecu- 
tion, 16S5-7. He became a parishioner of Mr. Ilarriman, in 
1700, subscribing 10s. a year towards his support. He pur- 
chased land just W. of the town-plot, which, in great part, 
his descendants have occupied until now. He was admitted 
an Associate in 1699-1700, and drew a hundred-acre lot, be- 
tween Joseph Sayre and Benjamin Lyon, near the foot of the 
mountain. His autograph is found among those of the Asso- 
ciates in 1729. He died in 1736.t 

John Miles was a blacksmith, and came from ISTew Ha- 
ven, Ct. His grandfather, Eichard, was at Milford in 1639, 
and settled at JSTew Haven in 1612, where he died, Jan. 7, 
1667; his son, Capt. John, born, Oct., 1641, married, Ap. 
11, 1665, Elizabeth, a daughter of John Harriman, Senr., and 
a sister of the Rev. John Harriman, afterwards of this town. 
Their eldest son, John, was born, Jan. 9, 1668. The mother 
died, Dec. 3, 1671, and the father, N"ov. 7, 1701. The son 
followed his uncle Harriman to this town, either in 1687, or 
soon after. He was admitted an Associate in 1695. His 
uncle credits him, Jan. 28, 169|, with " |- the purchase of 
John Brockets right in Elizabeth TownelS'." He charges 
him, in 1691, with " ^- an acre land yo'' house stands on. 
005. 00. 00 ; " and credits him. May 21, 1703, with " his 
dwelling house &c sould to me at 65". 00'. 00*." Either this 
or his own " house, &c.," he had sold, for £80, just one week 
before, to Mr. John Blanchard, through whom the payments 
were made to Miles. The latter was one of the Memorialists 
of 1700. His will was made. Mar. 22, 170 J ; and was proved, 
June 15, 1708. His wife, Elizabeth, his sons Leonard and 
John, and his daughters, Sarah, Elizabeth and Mary, out- 
lived him. His son, Leonard (a common name in the Har- • 
riman family), was one of the Associates of 1729. :(: 

* Savflge, III. 177 ; IV. S09. E. J. Records, T). 107. Alb. Records, XXIX. 135, 215. 
t Ledger, p 139. E. T. Book, B. 5, 24. } Ledger, pp. 64. lOS. Savage, III. 206. 



266 TIIEHISTORYOF 

William Millek [Millar] was a weavei*, and is thought to 
have been from East Hampton, L. I. John Miller was one of 
the founders of that town, and William Miller was residing 
there in 1675 and 1683. He was here in 1687, and his annual 
subscription to Mr. Harriman's support, in 1694, was 30*, — 
more than the average. He was admitted an Associate liere 
in 1699-1700, and was one of the Memorialists of 1700. He 
drew No. 62 of the 100-acre lots, at " the Edg or foot of y** 
mountain," adjoining Joseph Lyon, at Scotch Plains. It is 
reported, that when he went to reside on this lot, so far away 
from the town-plot, " the parting was rendered very solemn by 
the expectation, that they should seldom if ever see him again, 
the difficulty of passing and repassing seemed so great. But 
to their surprise, as they went to the church on the next 
Sabbath morning, they found him standing on the steps." 
His will bears date, Sep. 22, 1711, and was proved, Oct. 4, 
1712. His wife, Hannah, his five sons, Samuel, Richard, 
Jonathan, William, and Andrew, and his two daughters, 
Sarah (the wife of Peter Elstone, of Woodbridge), and 
Hannah (the wife of Daniel Cjane), outlived him. The 
family have been mostly connected with the Westfield 
people." 

James Mitchell was an early resident of the town, but 
was soon removed by death. His wife, Mary, had become 
a widow, previous to Mar. 31, 1684, when she purchased of 
Richard Beach, his house-lot and improvements. She re- 
ceived, Ap. 12, 1686, an allotment of 125 acres, which tract 
was located on Westbrook near Raway River, and a swamp 
or brook head. She died in the early part of 1688, and 
Andrew Hampton administered on her estate. Her son, 
Jacob, was admitted an Associate in 1699-1700, and drew 
No. 107 of the 100-acre lots, on the Woodbridge line, adjoin- 
ing Erancis Barber and Benjamin Price. He was a tailor, 
and married Mary a daughter of Robert Morse, Jr. The 
father was, j)robably, the son of IMatthew Mitchell, who came 
over in 1635, was successively at Charlestown, Concord, and 

* E. T. nook, B. 60. Hedge's E. Hampton, pp. 4, 6. N. Y. Doc. Hist., II. 441, Ml. Uiint- 
tlng's WcstfleUl, pp. 8-11. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 267 

Springfield, Mass., Saybrook, and Stamford, of Ct, and at 
Hempstead ; dying at Stamford, in 1645.* 

William Nicholls [Nicoll] was admitted an Associate in 
1699, but never became a resident. He had a third lot-right. 
As elsewhere stated, he was the well-known lawyer of that 
name in New York. 

Pkter Noe [Nuk] was aHnguenot refugee. The name was" 
originally, it is thought, " Neau." Elias Neau was one of 
the founders of the French Church in New York, and em- 
ployed as a catechist by the Propagation Society, " that e^ood 
man." Peter Noe was admitted an Associate in 1695, witli 
a third lot-right. His son, John, in 1694, was a subscriber 
to Mr. Harri man's support, but resided in Middlesex. His 
daughter, Mary, became the wife of Jean Tranbles [John 
Trembly], of this town, also a Huguenot. The father died in 
Dec. 1709. In his Will dated, Dec. 16, 1709, he conveys to 
his daughter, a dwelling house, on the corner of New and 
Broad streets, New York. He may have been a son of Elias 
Neau, and obtained this property by inheritance.f 

Parde [Pardey] is the name of one of the original As- 
sociates, and of one of those for whom a meadow lot was 
drawn ; but not the slightest clue has been found to his 
identity. His rights were transferred to Henry Norris. It 
may be that George Pardee, of New Haven, who married, 
in 1650, Martha Miles (the sister of that John Miles who 
married the Rev. John Ilarriman's sister), designed coming 
to this place among the New Haven Colonists, and purchased 
a first lot-right, but afterwards concluded to remain at New 
Haven.:}: 

William Parent subscribed, at the town meeting, Jan. 
18, 169f, 6* annually for Mr. Ilarriman. His name appears 
in no other connection. John Parent was at Iladdnm, Ct., 
1662-86.§ 

John Pearce had land hero as early as 1685. He had 
surveyed for him, Ap. 14, 1686, a tract of 50 acres on the S. 

♦ E. J. Kecords, B. 158, 355, L. Tl, 3. E. T. Book, B. 26. Savngo, III. 221. 

t Savage, III. 200, 7, 344. E. Town Book, B. 2. Lodger, p. 149, 

I Ledger, p. 92. N. Y. Doc. His.. IIL US, 125, 9, 42S. Borrian's Trinity Chli,. pn 34-S. 

$ Ledger, p. 118. Bavago, III. 8i5. 



268 THE HISTORY OF 

side of E. Town brook, and adjoining John Hume and Wil- 
liam Redford. He was admitted an Associate in 1699, and 
drew No. 130 of the 100-acre lots. He is styled, May 4, 
1686, "a planter of E. Town," and yet the same name is con- 
nected with a survey at Middletown in 1685, and in 1689, a 
warrant for 60 acres is given to " John Pearce of Middle- 
town." He settled, doubtless, at the latter place.'"'" 

Benjamin Pierson was the son of Henry Pierson, of South- 
ampton, L. I. Henry must liave been of the lineage of Rev. 
Abraham Pierson, the first minister, both of Southampton 
and Newark. He came to S., either with or a few months 
after the pastor. He was town clerk for many years, and a 
devout Christian. He died in the autumn of 1680, and his 
widow, Mary, administered on his estate (Nov. 8), which was 
appraised at £1256. 1. 2. The next summer she became, as 
previously stated, the wife of the Rev. Seth Fletcher, of this 
town. Her son, Benjamin, accompanied his mother ; possibly, 
other children, also. He was then about 26 years old, and 
lived until 1731.+ 

Samukl Potter was a grandson of John Potter, one of the 
first settlers of New Haven, Ct., 1639, who had two sons 
John and Samuel. Ihe latter was baptized, Oct. IT, 1611, 
and became one of the early settlers of Newark, N. J. John 
remained at New Haven, married, 1661, Hannah, a daughter 
of John Cooper, and had a son Samuel, born, Jan. 2, 1675. 
This may have been the Samuel Potter of this town. But, 
more probably, it was the son of Samuel of Newark, that 
settled here, locating at Connecticut Farms. He appears to 
have been born in 1672 or 3, being in his 81th year when he 
died, Feb. 6, 1756. He became a subscriber to Mr. Harri- 
man's support in 1700. A tract of 60 acres was " laid out " 
for him. May 8, 1701, by John Harriman, Jr., Town Sur- 
veyor, adjoining John Littell, Jeremiah Osborn, Thomas 
Keeney, Robert Woolley and Samuel Clarke. In 1720 he was • 
chosen one of the Town Committee. His autograph appears 
in the List of Associates in 1729. A tract of 414^ acres, at 
the foot of the second mountain, by the side of an old mine, 

• E. J. RccordB, L. T2, IIC. O. 25. t Howell, p. 203. N. York ■Wills, II. Cl-i. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 269 

and on tlie E. side of Green River, between the two moun- 
tains, was laid out for liim, Feb. 26, 173f . He was a Justice 
of tlie Peace, and one of the first Elders of the Presbyterian 
Church at Connecticut Farms.* 

Andkise Pkicegaek bought, June 29, 1687, of Jonas Wood, 
a tract of 100 acres. The name nowhere else occurs, either 
in the Records of this town, or in any other American docu- 
ments as far as known. f 

John Radley was a 6s subscriber to Mr. Harriman in 1694. 
John Ratliffe was married, Aug. 6, 1681, to Elizabeth, 
daugliter of Nicholas Carter; probably the same person, and 
possibly the son of William, of Stamford, Ct. Among the 
soldiers in the Fort at Albany, who took the oath, 'Nov. 10, 
1689, to William and Mary, was John Radecliffe. In the 
Borough Charter, Feb. 8, ITff, John Radley, Sen""., was 
named as one of the Overseers of the Poor, and John Radley, 
Jr., one of the Assessors of the Town.;}: 

Nathaniel Raulins, was residing here, Oct. 10, 1691, 
when he made his Will (witnessed by Thomas Mulliner and 
his son-in-law, William Chamberlain), in which mention is 
made of his eldest son, wife, and daughter, but their names 
are not given. The Will was entered, June 11, 1707. He 
w^as, probably, of the lineage of Nathaniel, of Roxburj-, 
Mass.§ 

William Redford obtained a patent, Jan. 14, 169f , for 150 
acres of land on E. Town brook, adjoining Benjamin Wade, 
John Hume and John Pearce, " in Right of Head Land, for 
himself, his Wife, and seven Children." They, probably, 
came over directly from England to this pL^ce. The i)lot was 
occupied by himself and his son Andrew ; but tlie title was 
contested, as against the grandson John, claiming by Proprie- 
tary grant, on the part of John Maxfield and Joseph AVillis, 
claiming under the Indian Title. | 

William Riciiaedson was a man in humble condition, 
who had died before Aug. 6, 1696, when his goods were ap- 

• Savago, III. 4Gf). Newark Bicentenary, p. 140. Ledger, p. 123. t. T. Book, B. 88, 40, 

t E. J. Records, B. 132. 

t E. J. Records, III. 170. Murray's Notes, p. 32. Ledger, p. 85. Savago, III. 509. 

§ lb., III. 309. E. J. Kecords. | E. T. Bill, p. 44. 



270 THE HISTORY OF 

praised by Isaac Whitehead and John Hinds, at £5. 18. 9. 
His annual subscription in 1694, to Mr. Ilarriman, was 3s.* 

William Robinson was a physician, residing in the Rah- 
way neighborhood. He came here as early as 16S5, pur- 
chased land of John Toe, and had surveyed for him, Ap. 1, 
168G, a tract of 700 acres, on the N. side of the Woodbridge 
line, and " on the Branch of Raway River called Robinson's 
Branch," adjoining Joseph Frazee, Richard and John Clarke, 
George and John Alexander, William Piles, Simon Rouse 
and Thomas Rudyard. He bought of John Toe, Sep. 12, 
1688, another plot of 40 acres on the W. branch of Rahway 
River. In 1692, he obtained a survey of 550 acres in Mon- 
mouth Co., "in full of his Share of the first Division." He. 
had purchased, Feb. 7, 168|, of Robert Burnet, one of the 
so called Proprietors, one-fourth of one forty-eighth of a Pro- 
priety. He was one of the witnesses to the Will of Mrs. 
Rouse, Jan. 17, 169^, when his name appears as " William 
Rob<?rfeon, Doctor of Medicine." But his own Will, dated 
May 18, 1693, has it " William Robmson, Doctor of Physick." 
His death occurred soon after. His estate was appraised, 
June 2, 1693, by Andrew Hampton and John Winans (whose 
son married his daughter, Ann), at £250. 15. 3. He was, 
doubtless, of the Scotch immigration. f 

Robert Rogers and the widow Anna Ailward, both of E. 
Town, were married, Nov. 26, 1675, by Justice Bollen. He 
was the son of Robert, of Newbury, Mass., was born there, 
Ap. 20, 1650, came, at 20 years of age, or before, to Wood- 
bridge, N. J., and obtained, Dec. 30, 1670, a patent for 91 
acres of land there. He had died, probably, in 1682, and his 
widow was married, Aug. 1685, to Peter Dessigny, " Chirur- 
geon " of Woodbridge, who had, a few months before, Feb. 
11, 168|-, purchased of Samuel Marsh, his saw-mill at Rah- 
way. It is quite likely that both Rogers and Dessigny lived 
along the line between the two towns.:}: 

Obadiaii Sale was a cooper, and resided at Southampton, 

* Ledger, p. 89. E. J. Records. 
• t E. J. Records, B. ; L. 68, 82 ; O. 93, 96. E. Town Bill, p. 85. 

Jib., p. 101. E. J. Records, IIL 120; A. 413. Savage, III. 563. Whltohcad's P. Amboy, 
pp. 356, T, 367. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 271 

L, I., in 1678, at which time he bought, of William Russell, 
the lot now used as a burying-ground at the N. end of the 
town. He sold it soon afterwards and removed to Boston, 
his former home, of which he became a freeman in 1681, and 
where (1681-4), he had four children born. He was, doubt- 
less, the son of Edward (born 1611), who came from London 
in 1635, and resided at Salem. Ephraim, of Boston, for 
whom his own son was named, was his brother. He was 
admitted an Associate in 1699-1700, and drew No. 6, of the 
100-acre lots, between Deacon George Ross and Ephraim 
Clarke. He was one of the Memorialists of 1700. His an- 
nual subscription to Mr. Harriman was 15s., commencing 
about 1690, or before. He j)robably removed from Boston, 
soon after his 4th child was born, 1684.* 

Alexander Scott, of this town, made his Will, Jul}^ 8, 
1700, to which Thomas Akin and Samuel Whitehead were 
witnesses. He had died before Sep. 17, when the Will was 
entered for Probate. He was, probably, the son of John 
Scott, who came from Hartford, Ct., about 1660, to North- 
ampton, L. I. ; and spoke so disrespectfully of Chas. II., in 
Ap. or May, 1664, that he was carried a prisoner to Hart- 
ford, Ct., heavily fined and disfranchised. f 

Robert SMrrn was the first of that common name among 
the early settlers of the town. He, too, was probably from 
Northampton, the old home of John Ogden. Richard Smith 
was chosen a freeman of Southampton in 1648. Robert was 
a resident, in 1675, of Brookhaven, L. I. He was here as 
early as 1687, and subscribed, at that time, £1. 0. 0. to 
Mr. Harriman's support. He was a merchant and planter. 
Dec. 26, 1699, he was appointed High Sheriff of the County. 
Mention is made of his " negro man." Mr. Harriman credits 
him, Nov. 7, 1695, with "killing a hogge & cutting it out. Is.," 
and, "Ap. 23, 1699 p plowing my garden him self & horse, 
Is. 6." He died intestate, and his widow, Sarah, was quali- 
fied. May 10, 1705, as Administratrix.;!: 

♦ Savage, IV. 5. Howell, jtp. 158, 9, 190, 307. E. T. Book, B. 13. " M' Daniel Sale, 
Mrch'," a eon of Obadlah, is charged, by Mr. Harriman, in Oct. 1701, with "my foe alowcdby 
Uim for marrying him ; 0. 6. 9." Lodger, pp. 53. 106. 

t E. J. Records. Howell, pp. 279-SOO. Savage, IV. 33. 

t Howell, pp.32, 90. N. Y. Doc. History, II. 409. 



272 THE HISTORY OF 

JosiAii Stanbokougii [Stansbrocgii, Stanbeery, Stanbdky] 
was from Southampton, L. I. His father, Josiah, was at Lynn, 
Mass., ill 1637, and soon removed to Southampton, of the 
founding of which he was one of the original " undertakers." 
He died in 1659. His son, Josiah, married, July 21, 1670, 
Admah, a daughter of Thomas Chatfield, of E. Hampton, had 
7 children born at Southampton (1670-87), and soon after 
removed to ^his town. He was admitted anAssociate in 1695, 
but his name is not found in Mr. Harriman's Ledger, begin- 
ning with 1694, His death must, therefore, have occurred 
soon after this date. Mention is made, in 1711, of the " widow 
Sarah Stanbrow." The family located at Railway.'" 

William Strayheaen [StRxVhern] as his name indicates, 
came with the Scotch immigrants. He was here in 1694, 
and was admitted an Associate in 1699-1700, and was one of 
the Memorialists of 1700. He drew Ko. 152 of the 100-acre 
lots, in 1700, near the Railway river, and adjoining Henry 
iN^orris. He was appointed a Constable, Feb. 12, 171f ; and 
again, the next two years. He died in 1733. His house was 
near Morse's Landing.f 

Saaiuel Sturkidge [Sterridge] was here before 1678, and 
had a house-lot E. of Mrs. Hopkins, not particularly described. 
He resided at the time of making his Will, Ap. 10, 1683, at 
Railway, but had land on the Mill river. The witnesses to 
his AV^ill were James Eniott and J. Thwinton. He was 
probably unmarried, as he gave all his property to Joseph 
Hart of Railway. William Sterridge, who died intestate, 
Dec, 1705, was, probably, his brother.:]: 

Thomas Terrill was a blacksmith, and came here from 
Southold, L. I., where, in 1675, he had a considerable estate. 
He was, probably, the son of Roger Terrill [Tjn-rel], one of 
the founders of Milford, Ct., in 1639. He bought of William 
Cramer, Aug. 19, 1696, a plot of land iu this town, to which 
he tlien, or soon after, removed. His name is not found' 
among Mr. Harriman's parishioners. He died in 1725.§ 

* Lewis' Lynn, rp- 64, 6, 103. Howell, pp. 15, 27, 89, 2S0. Ct. Col Kec, I. 363. 
+ E. T. Bonk, B. 34. Ledger, p. 93. E. J. Records. t Ih., H- 105. 

§ N. Y. Doc. His., II. 4bi. Savage, IV. 268. B.irber'a Ct., p. 231. Lnmberfs N. Haven, 
p. 90. E. T. Book, B. 57. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 273 

John Thomas, a tailor, was one of the Memorialists of 
1700. It was he, probably, who, in 1675, and 1683, was 
living at Brookhaven, L, L, and may have been the son of 
John of New Haven, Ct. His name occurs among those of 
the K. Y. people who accompanied Capt. Milburn's expedi- 
tion to Albany, April, 1690. His land adjoined William 
Brown, near Samuel Scott. He died in December, 1712, 
leaving his wife, "Fiftie," and live children, Elias, Edward, 
Margaret, David, and Esther.*. 

Geokge Thorp was a son-in-law of George Pack of this 
town, having married his daughter, Elizabeth, who had died 
in 1704. He was a parishioner of Mr. Harriman from 1694 
to 1697, subscribing 5s. yearly. He was. doubtless, a son of 
Thomas Thorpe, Senr., of Woodbridge, whither, probably, 
after his wife's death, he returned.f 

John Toe was a weaver, and came here from Newtown, 
L. I., as early" as 1677. Samuel Toe was one of the founders 
and principal men of that town. The name (erroneously 
thought, by Savage, to be a mistake for Coe) appears origi- 
nally to have been "Tew," — Lawrence's Neck having for- 
merly been called " Tew's Neck," where Mrs. Gov. Carteret 
resided with her first husband. It is likely, therefore, that 
John Toe, of this town, was the grandson of Richard Tew, of 
Newport, R. I., who came over from Warwick Co., Eng., in 
1640. lie married, Oct. 9, 1 679, Lydia, a daughter of Robert 
Morse. He purchased, Sep. 1, 1677, of Wm. Cramer, 115 
acres including his house-lot ; also, Feb. 6, 168f, of Joseph 
Frazee, 40 acres ; Aug. 25, 1686, other lands of Jonas Wood. 
He sold, Ap. 27, 1683, a plot of ground to Samuel Groome; 
also, Jan. 27, 168|, two house-lots in the town to Dennis 
Morris ; also, Sep. 12, 1688, to Dr. Wm. Robinson, the 40 
acres bought of Jonas Wood. He died, in 1689, and his 
widow, the following year, her estate having been appraised, 
Jan. 25, 16 1|-, by Deacon George Ross and John Littell, at 
£84. 10. 04 

* N. Y. Doe. His, II. 21c, 4CS, 533. Savage, IV. 2S0. 
t Ledger, p. 83. Wliitehoaa's P. Ainboy, p. 357. 

t Savage, IV. 270, 309. Kiker, pp. 33, 43, 2S2. E.J. Eccords, I. 109; III. 159; A. 27; 
B. 22, 46, 182, 390. 

18 



„^, THE HISTORY OF 

RicuiRD TowNLEY took Up liis abode Ijevc as early as 168i. 
He^vas 2 8th son of Nieholas Townley, of Littleton, Eng 
and of Joanna White, of Northain, Sussex Co., Eng. He 
wat one the very few whose lineage can be traced back m 
Zir old-world home. He was descended, thrpngh Nicholas, 
Sard, Nicholas, Francis, and Nicholas from John To^^ 
ley A. D. UOO. The pedigree extends back to he daj s ot 
William the Conqueror. No other family in the town had a 
Wherleial position. Col. Richard, of this town came over 
^te suite ot- Francis Howard Lord Effi"S;-".«~,^ 
Virginia, in 1683, and, soon afteis coming '^Jf^J "''':';" 
concluded to try his fortunes in this town. H.s ff^^l'^*' '^ 
ajhad squandered his estate. But the son had no been 
ong here, before he had made himself so agreeable to Mrs^ 
Gov Car eret, as to receive herself and fortune >n 1685 by 
mar ia<^e. He had, probably, been mamed rn early l.fe, 
and mry Townley who married Mrs. Carteret's eldest son, 
Joseph Lawrence, is thought to have been h.s ^augbter. 1* 
is not certain, but quite likely, that }>- daughter M.S. 
Shackmaple, was also, by a former marriage. As M.S. Oa. 
tereS fi t Carriage t;ok place in 1661, she must have been 
Ibout 10 years of Ige, at the time of her third ~^^ 

Col Townley received his military title after comin 
hither havin. been appointed " Captain of the Tram Bands, 
D 10, 1686rand Cohbefore 1601. He was made o.ie o Loj^ 
NeiU cUpbell's Council in Oct. 1686. He adl.c cd to the 
Stut dynasty in the Ecvolution of 1688- , and beca.ne o 
obnoxious to the ruling powers, that Le.sler of New ^ o k, 
Feb 2 16-1-5, ordered his arrest. When the change of adm n- 
istration took place, Townley was requested, March 11,160^, 
oTrch his "company to the city, for '"o -V^f^^^^/J 
Leisler and his forces. In 1692, though a ^'^.f Jl,°"^J 
Jersey he was appointed one of the Co.me.l of Fletcher, 
Governo of New York ; and, in 1697, one of the Earl of Bel- 
fomo" Council. The next year, however, 1- -s suspen^ 
cd Sen OS, 1698, for non-vcsidence; for, says the Earl, he 
for'mc^y'refused to be of the Councill, and never has come 
near the Councill in Colonel Fletcher's time or mine, besides 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. £75 

lus constant residence in East Jersey." Almost wholly bj 
liis means, St. John's Church was gathered soon after the 
beginning of the 18th century; his own house having been 
the home of the first Episcopal missionaries, and the place 
for their Sabbath services. The Church-lot was his gift, and 
his was the principal contribution towards the building of 
the house of worship. He was one of the Justices of the 
Peace, and, at the time of his decease, April, 1711, he was 
Presiding Judge of the Quarter Sessions.* 

Heney Walvin subscribed 3s. a year, in 1694, for Mr. 
Harriman, and was here in July, 1696. Nothing more is 
known of him.f 

John Wakken, of this town, married, Jan. 21, 16|4, by the 
help of Justice Pollen, Miss Grace Whitehead, daughter of 
Isaac Whitehead, Sen--. He died childless, between March 
12, 169^, and March 2Sth following. Geoege Wakken, of 
whom nothing further is known, probably a brother of 
John, died here in Sept. 1697, and his property was apprais- 
ed, Oct. 1, 1697, by PichardTownley and Andrew Hampton, 
at £143. 10. 0.:}: 

Samuel Williams was one of the Memorialists of 1700 
together with his son, Joseph. He was then a new comer, 
as his name is found in no earlier document. He was the 
son of Matthew Williams, of Wethersfield, Ct., and the 
brother of Matthew, who settled at l^ewark, N". J. He was 
born in 1653, and married Esther, a daughter of Nathaniel 
Wheeler, of Newark. He died in 1706, leaving five sons, 
Joseph, Sanmel, Nathaniel, David, and Josiah ; and three 
daughters Susannah, Sarah, and Hester. His wife is not 

c,c* Ji"!i'' ^- ^^'^- ^' ^- °'"=- "''•• "• '^' 33^- N. Y. Col. Docmt... in. C58, TOl, 16, 56, 
818; IV. 284, 298, 399, C20; V 204, 3.35, 8, 355. Clark's St.John's Chb., pp. 16, 19 26 35, 8^ 
E. J Hecords, H. 2, p. 348. Lawrence Genealogy, pp. 139, 149. Depositions are on file, 
dated Oct. 5. 1691, in one ofwLich, Serjeant Isaac Whitehead testifies, " that he saw, in April 
1690, John Tunison and Segar Garrison rol! several barrels of beef and pork out of the -ooso 
house belonging to Mr. Townley, and sell some of it to old Mr. Whitehead for drink " In 
another, Joseph Whitehead testifies, " that he saw John Tunison, Jaques Pullion, John Geoa- 
dlck, Lawrence Jansen, Derlck Cruise, Thomas Morgan, and Segar Garrison roll out of the 
goose house of Mr. Townley several barrels of beef and pork as above." Three other deposi- 
tions, by Benjamin Meeker, Richard Townley, and IJenjamin Wade, in relation to the same 
transaction, follow. Tlieso men were either servants or soldiers. Alb. Records XXXVIII 
^'^^^- ^ I-edgor, p. 90. 5 E. j. Records,'!!!. 157. 



276 THEniSTORYOF 

named in his Will, and had, probably, died before. The 
family located on the "Westfield road, and gave the name of 
" Williams' Farms," to the locality, several of the name still 
occupying portions of the old plantation.* 

Samuel Willis came here from Newark, where he was 
living as early as Feb. 1684, when he obtained a warrant for 
land. At the time of his decease, in 1696, he was residing 
in this town. Ilis estate was appraised, July 21, 1696, by 
William Looker, Jr., and Samuel Carter, at £96. 17. 0. His 
son, John, was one of the Memorialists of 1700. The father's 
name appears among the Associates of 1699-1700, and No. 
114 of the 100-acre lots was drawn in his right, " at the 
Edg of the ash Swamp," latterly the property of Jonathan 
Littell.f 

Joseph Wilson was the son of Samuel, a wealthy merchant 
of New York. The father came to New York, soon after the 
English conquest in 1661. He resided on the S. side of Wall, 
near Pearl sts., where he owned considerable property. He 
may have been at New Haven, Ct., in 1611, and removed in 
1619 to Fairfield, where a Samuel Wilson is found in 1651. 
The Rev. Mr. Peck, of this town, formerly of New Haven, 
was, probabl}^, an old acquaintance of Mr. Wilson, the latter 
having purchased, for £30., of Mr. Peck, June 17, 1675, his 
property and rights in Newark, and receiving, in his right, 
the next day, a warrant for 180 acres. The mother of his 
children having been removed by death, he married Eliza- 
beth North, of N. York, the ceremony having been per- 
formed, Ap. 29, 1679, by Justice Pollen, at the Governor's 
house in this town. 

Mr. Peck having, in the autumn of 1678, removed to 
Greenwich, Ct., induced Mr. Wilson to purchase, Oct. 23, 
1679, his property here also. Thus it was, that his son, Jo- 
seph, became a resident of this town, Mr. Peck's house 
having come into his father's possession. Joseph appears to 
have established here a branch of the N. York house, as may 
readily be gathered from the Ledger of his pastor, Mr. Ilar- 

* Savage, IV. 409, 564. Newark Bicentenary, pp. 133, 152. Newark Records, pp. 60,6. 
t E. J. liecords, L. 71, 1S7. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 27Y 

riman. He is tliere particularized as Mr. Joseph Wilson, 
and, next to Mr. Henry Lyon's, his is the honor shared with 
John and Jonathan Ogden, of the largest annual contribu- 
tion (£3), to the minister's support. The father, Samuel, 
made large purchases, May 18, 1681, also, of Nicholas Car- 
ter, in this town. Having served, as Alderman of the City, 
1679, '80, '82, and, as Assistant, 1684, '86, he died in 1689, 
leaving his property mostly to his two sons, Joseph and Eb- 
enezer. 

Joseph continued to add to his possessions here, purchas- 
ing, Oct. 13, 1689, (soon after his father's death), of Stephen 
Osborn, two house-lots, 12 acres, in the town plat. He was 
admitted an Associate in 1695, with tijive right lot, the only 
one of whom as much is recorded. He disappears from the 
Records after 1699, either by death, or removal to l^ew 
York. Capt. Ebenezer, his brother, came into possession, as 
early as 1693, of John Ogden's Mill, already noticed, possi- 
bly by foreclosure of Ogden's mortgage to Mr. Steenwyck, 
of which Mr. Ogden's son Benjamin and Rev. Mr. Harriman 
became Joint Lessees, at the annual rate of about £24, for 
seven years. Capt. Ebenezer succeeded to his father's busi- 
ness in ]Sr. York, was Assistant Alderman from 1690 to 1694, 
was one ot' the first Vestrymen, in 1697, of Trinity Church, 
and Mayor of the City, in Cornbury's time, from 1707 to 1709. 
Sometime subsequent to the allotment of 1700, he was ad- 
mitted an Associate of this town with a second-lot rio-ht.* 

Robert Woolley was from Southampton, L. I. He was 
at Fairfield, Ct., in 1649 ; but in 1653 removed to Southamp- 
ton, where, from 1657 to 1683, he was living on Main st., 
next to Mr. James Hampton. Possibly it may have been a 
son of this Robert, that removed to this town, where his name 
first appears as an Associate in 1699, and a Memorialist in 
1700. He drew No. 69 of the 100-acre lots, between Wil- 
liam Hill and Abraham Hatfield, not far from the foot of the 
mountain. John, William, and Edward Woolley, the sons, 
doubtless, of Emanuel of Newport, R. I., were at Shrews- 

* Savage, IV. 5SS. E. J. Records, I. 4T; II. 3, 114; III. 157; IV. 84. D. 178, 195. E. T. 
Hook, 1$. 43. Ledger, pp. 47, 120. Valentine's N. Y. Manual for 1S53, p. 402. Berrian'a 
TrinityChh., pp. 15, 17,22. 



278 THE HISTORY OF 

bmy, N. J., as earlj as 1685. It is not known how, if at all, 
the two families were related to each other.* 

John AVren is known only by his death. Letters of Ad- 
ministration were granted, Aug. 3, 1687, to "Edward Gay, 
Doct' of Physick," on tlie Estate of " John Wren of Eliza- 
beth Town, Deceased." f 

These were all the new comers since the period of the 
Dutch rule, of which any mention has been found. Many 
of these would have escaped detection, but for the old Ledger 
of the worthy pastor, Mr. Harriman ; whence, also, many 
particulars have been gleaned touching individual pursuits, 
and domestic relations, together with a variety of minor mat- 
ters, such as prices current, shedding much light on that re- 
mote period of the town's history. Doubtless a complete 
record of the inhabitants of the town during its first forty 
years would include some, who came hither and remained 
for a season, but soon passed away, leaving no memorial of 
their residence. Others were day-laborers, aiding in the cul- 
tivation of the soil ; or craftsmen serving as apprentices or 
journeymen ; or boatmen, occupied in navigating the numer- 
ous small craft, which even at that early day were found in 
these waters. Of negroes there were not a few — some in al- 
most every family ; while here and there, a " poor Indian " 
also, was held in bondage and served as a menial. 

The following Record, from the lost Town Book, appears 
in Book B. : 

At a Meeting of the freeholders of Elizabeth Town, October y* 20tli 
Anno 1699. The following Conclusions were Made (viz.) 

Imp" By a Unaniinons Vote of the freeholders afores'* it was and is 
Agreed and Concluded that if any have been at Charges in the Clearing 
and fencing of Land which no Particular Purchases in the whole of this 
Township Can Justly Claim a Mile or More out of the Town plott Shall 
have So much there where he has So fenced and Cleared as is Sufficient to 
make a plantation (Provided always that the Possor, or Setler of all Such 
Lands have a Real Right in the whole of this Township by Purchase and 
also that Such have not Taken up more then there proportion of the 
whole or if nearer shall have a Sufficient field." 

* SRvage. IV. 6i3. E. J. Pwocords, L. 26, 1S6; O. 96, 147. Howell, pp. 80, 801. N. Y. Doa 
His., II. 6.37. . t E. J. llccords, B. 133. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 279 

This minute was recorded in the original Elizabeth Town 
book of Kecords, pp. 14, 15, out of which it was copied, 
Aug. 24, 1711, and ordered to be entered in the Kew Book, 
June 2, 1747.* 

The conflict between the Basse and Hamilton factions, and 
the anarchy consequent, were terminated, at length, by the 
final and unconditional surrender, Ap. 15, 1702, on the part 
of the so-called Proprietors, of all claim and right to the 
jurisdiction of the Province. Then, in reality, Kew Jersey, 
for the first time, became a Royal Province, governed no 
longer by a Company of Land Speculators, but directly by 
the Crown. King William died, Mar. 8, 170|^, and Anne, 
Princess of Denmark, ascended the throne. A royal Gover- 
nor of the combined Provinces, ISTew York and 'New Jersey, 
was appointed, Dec. 5, 1702, in the person of Edward Hyde, 
Lord Viscount Cornbury, cousin to her Majesty. In May, 
1703, on the arrival of the royal commission, the Proprietary 
Government of East Jersey was brought to a perpetual end. 

• E. Town Book, B., 24, o. e. 



280 THE HISTORY OF 



CHAPTEE XIII. 

A. D. 1682-1'707. 

Ecclesiastical — Pastorate of Rev. John Harriman — Introduction of Episcopacy 
by Rev. Geo. Keith — Pastorate of Rev. Samuel Melyen — First Episcopal 
Missionary, Rev. John Brooke — Erection of St. John's Church. 

At the decease of the Rev. Seth Fletcher, in August, 16S2, 
the people of this town were left without the stated ministra- 
tions of the sanctuary. Kor was it easy to obtain a com- 
petent person to fill the vacancy. The Quaker administra- 
tion came into power, three months after Mr. Fletcher's 
decease, and the tide of immigration from Scotland began to 
set in. In the letters written home by the exiles, as has been 
seen, one of the chief, and almost the only one of the, com- 
plaints made, is the dearth of ministers. It became necessary 
to resort to " Deacon Meetings," as referred to in 1084 by 
Watson : " And now the people they meet together every 
Sabbath day, and Kead and Pray, and sing Psalms in their 
Meeting-houses." At that time, there was no settled preacher 
" within all the Province of East Jersey, except one who " 
was " Preacher in Newark," Abraham Pierson. John Allen 
was at Woodbridge, but had ceased to sujjply the pulpit.* 

Possibly Mr. Allen, of whose "good abilities," after more 
" experience," the Woodbridge people were not as confident 
as at first, may have been occasionally employed here. But 
nowhere, in any accessible document, has any intimation 
been found, by which it can be determined, how or b}'^ whom 
the pulpit was supplied during the five years next succeed- 
ing Mr. Fletcher's death. At length, in 1687, they united 
in a call to the 

* Scot's Model of E. J., pp. 199, 200. Whitehead's P. Amboy, pp. 883, 4. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 281 

REV. JOHN HARRIMAN. 

This worthy minister of the gospel was a native of New 
Haven, Ct, the associate, in his boyhood, of many of the 
more youthful of the early settlers of this town. His father, 
John, was at 'New Haven, in 1646, and soon after was mar- 
ried to Elizabeth , and had two children : — John, bap- 
tized, January 24, 164} ; and Elizabeth, baptized, July 23, 
1648. He was put in charge of the town-ordinary, of whicli 
he was the keeper many years. He was, also, a respected 
member of the Church, 

His only son, John, was trained from childhood under the 
eye of that rigid old Puritan, the Kev. John Davenport, by 
whom he had been baptized. The old pastor, finding him 
aj)t to learn, encouraged him to seek, and his father to give 
him, a liberal education. In his 13th year, he came under 
the instruction of his townsman, Mr. Jeremiah Peck, at that 
time, principal of the grammar-school at New Haven, and 
afterwards the first pastor of this town. At the age of fifteen, 
he was sent to the college at Cambridge, Ms., to be educated 
under the supervision of the Rev. Charles Chauncy^ He 
graduated in 1667, in the same class with Gershom Hobart, 
and one year in advance of Abraham Pierson, Jr., and John 
Prudden. 

After his graduation, he returned to New Haven, and 
taught the Hopkins grammar school, several years, being 
occasionally employed as a preacher at New Haven, East 
Haven, and Wallingford, Ct. During the life-time of the 
Rev. Mr. Street, he had probably preached for him occasion- 
ally at New Haven ; and at his death, Ap. 22, 1674, he was 
.frequently called upon to supply the vacant pulpit. In the 
latter part of that year, or the early part of the next, he went 
over to Southampton to preach as a candidate for the pulpit, 
made vacant by the decease, in 1674, of the Rev. Robert 
Fordham. He accepted their call, and was put in possession 
of the i)arsonage, " upon termes y^ towne and he hath agreed 
on," April 12, 1675. Early in 1676, lie returned to New 
Haven, and, in July of that year, became the stated supply 



282 THE HISTORY OF 

of the pulpit in Lis native town. He continued there until 
1682, preaching most of the time ; but the people were 
divided between him and Mr. Joseph Taylor, who preached 
a part of the time, from 1676 to 1679, and was then settled 
at Southampton. 

In 1682, the East Haven people appointed a Committee to 
"goe to Mr. Ilarriman, and treat with liim, and desire his 
help in the Ministry amongst" them, " and farther, to give 
him an invitation to a settlement in the work of the ministry." 
They agreed to give him £50, for his support — " current 
money with the merchant." In November 1683, they gave 
him a formal call, and resolved to build at once a house for 
the minister, 36 ft. long, of 2 stories; for which they sub- 
scribed £104. 10. 0. Tlie house, however, was not built, and 
Mr. Harriman remained with them but a short time longer. 

In October 1684, he was associated with Eobert Yauquel- 
lin, [" Yorklain "], in running the boundary line between 
New York and Connecticut, having been appointed Surveyor, 
for this purpose, by the General Court, at Hartford, May 8th, 
1684. It is probable, therefore, that'he had been previously 
employed, and perhaps, for years, occasionally, as a Practical 
Surveyor. Yauquellin had long been so employed in East 
Jersey, and it is not likely, that in an affair of so much im- 
portance, any but the most skillful surveyor would be ap- 
pointed on the part of Connecticut. In occupations of this 
kind, he was, probably, employed for a year or two, when 
his steps were directed hither — possibly by Yauquellin him- 
self. He had many old friends here, as also had the South- 
ampton people. It is not strange, therefore, that his name 
should have been suggested, and a desire expressed to hear 
him. He was installed the pastor of this Church, most 
probably, September 30th, 1687, as appears from the follow- 
ing memorandum in liis Ledger, under date of Nov. 1, 1694: 
" we Eeckoned & my 7*^ year payd w'='' ended 7 b"" SO'** last 
pceeding this date." All his reckonings with his parishioners 
are from the same date. Gov. Lawrie lived a few days only 
after his coming. The Quaker rule had ceased a year before, 
and the Scotch were now in power. ^ Lord Campbell had 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 283 

returned home, but Hamilton, his deputy, was also Scotch, 
and, doubtless, a Presbyterian. 

Mr. Harriman married, as early as 1673, Hannah, a 
daughter of Kichard Bryan, of Milford, Ct. She was born 
in 1654, and her twin sister, Mary, was married (1.) to John 
Maltby, of New Haven, and (2.) to a Mr. Howell, of Long - 
Island, probably Edward of Southampton. Another sister, 
Trances, was married to Joseph Treat of Milford ; and yet 
another, Sarah, married (1.) Samuel Fitch, and (2.) Mungo 
Nisbett, whose name appears in his old Ledger. Mr. Bryan, 
as his father had been before him, was the richest man in 
Milford. Six children had been born to Mr. Harriman, when 
he came, in his 40th year, to this town. John was his eldest 
son, (born 1674), and, like his father, became eminent as a 
land surveyor. Samuel was born, June 25, 1676 ; Ann, 
July 5, 1678 ; Mary, in 1680 ; Leonard, in 1683 ; and Kichard, 
in 1685. Three sons were born to him here. His family 
having increased since his settlement, and his salary being 
only £60 a year, he applied, in 1692, to the Proprietors, for 
a grant of land, in consideration, also, of his having " ex- 
pended large sums in purchasing and improving." He re- 
ceived a grant of one hundred acres.* 

He was evidently a man of great exactness, a trait of char- 
acter greatly promoted by his occasional practice of the art 
of surveying. Soon after his entering on the pastoral work 
here, he opened an account with every one of the subscri- 
bers to his support ; noting carefully the amount of the sub- 
scription, and the times of payment ; specifying by whom 
and to whom (in many cases) the sum was paid ; whether in 
cash, or otherwise ; whether in merchandise or services ren- 
dered. These accounts were kept in two books ; the first 
covering the period from 1687 to 1693 ; the second, from 
1694 to 1705. The first of these books is lost ; the second is 
preserved, having been presented to Hev. John McDowell, 
some sixty years since, by Mr. William Harriman, the grand- 
son of the old pastor. Several particulars of much interest, 

* Savajre, I. 2Sl-'i ; 11.358. Bacon's Now Havon, pp. 1.58-60, 810. HoweU's Southampton, 
pp. 104-5, 132. Whitehead's E. J., p. 108. E. J. Records. Dodd's E. Haven Register, pp. 
CO-1. N. Y. Col. Docmts., IV. C30-2. 



284 



THE HISTORY OF 



illustrative of the town-history, have been gathered from 
this venerable and well-preserved folio. A list of subscri- 
bers to his support in the year 1694, is given in the margin, 
in the order in which tlieir accounts are entered.* 



♦ 


£. 8. d. 




£. 8. d. 


Mr. Henry Lyon, 


8. 10. 


Nicholas Baker, 


0. 10. 


Deacon George Eoss, 


1. 10. 


Abraham Baker, 


0. 5. 


Daniel Ross, 


0. 10. 


Obadiah Sales, 


0. 15. 


James Hinds, 


0. 15. 


John Ross, 


0. 10. 


David Woodruflf, 


0. 10. 


Capt. John Baker, 


0. 15. 


John Parker, 


1. 0. 


John Meaker, 


0. 12. 


"William Browne, 


1. 10. 


Richard Clarke, Jr., 


0. 6. 


Deacon Jonathan Ogden, 


3. 0. 


Ebenezer Lyon, 


0. 10. 


Mr. John Ogden, 


3. 0. 


John Clarke, 


0. 6. 


Widow Hannah Lyon, 


1. 10. 


John Hinds. 


0. 12. 


Joseph Lyon, 


0. 18. 


Nathaniel Tuttle, 


1. 


Benjamin Lyon, 


0. 15. 


Thomas Thompson, 


0. 6. 


Mr. Isaac Whitehead, 


0. 10. 


George Pack, 


0. 10. 


Joseph Osborne, 


1. 0. 


John Miles, 


0. 15. 


Nathaniel Bunnell, 


1. 10. 


John Pope, 


0. 8. 


Nathaniel Bunnell, Jr., 


0. 6. 


Jonas Wood, 


0. 12. 


Nathaniel Lyon, 


0. 15. 


Jonathan Clement, 


0. 10. 


Moses Thompson, 


1. 0. 


John Looker, 


0. 1. 6 


Mr. John Woodruff, 


2. 0. 


Jeremiah Crane, 


0. 6. 


Henry Norris, 


2. 0. 


Stephen Crane, 


0. 15. 


Mr. Benjamin Ogden, 


1. 10. 


William Hill, 


0. 10. 


Benjamin Meeker, 


1. 10. 


Roger Lambert, 


0. 6. 


Mr. Benjamin Price, Jr., 


1. 10. 


Ebenezer Spinning, 


0. 6. 


Robert Smith, 


1. 0. 


Joseph Halsey, 


0. 6. 


Robert Moss, 


1. 0. 


John Lambert, 


0. 6. 


Benjamin Pierson, 


0. IS. 


John Gold, 


0. 12. 


Alexander Keenee, 


0. 10. 


James Crighton, 





Joseph Woodruff, 


0. 12. 


George Jewell, 


1. 0. 


Benjamin Trotter, 


0. 6. 


Jeremiah Osborn, 


0. 6. 


Joseph Sayer, 


1. 0. 


Edward Frazee, 


0. 8. 


Thomas Price, 


0. 15. 


William Looker, Jr., 


0. 4. 


Ephraim Price, 


0. 10. 


Joseph Ffrazee, 


1. 0. 


Capt. Daniel Price, 


0. 15. 


George Thorp, 


0. 5. 


John Price, 


0. 6. 


Charles Tooker, Jr., 


0. 1. 


Mr. Bcnjnmin Price, 


1. 0. 


John Radley, 


0. 6. 


Aaron Thompson, 


0. 15. 


Shamgar Barnes, 


0. 8. 


Mary & John Thompson, 


1. 5. 


John Uerrick, 


0. 8. 


Johu Winans, 


1. 10. 


William Richardson, 


0. 8. 


Widow Mary Bond, 


0. 5. 


Henry Walvin, 


0. 8. 


Joseph Whitehead, 


0. 10. 


John Indes, 


0. 8. 


Richard Clarke, 


1. 0. 


John Nuee, 


0. 8. 


Cornelius &, Mary Hatfield, 


1. 10. 


William Strahern, 


0. 6. 


Nathaniel Whitehead, 


0. 6. 


William Oliver, 


0. 5. 


Thomas Loe, 


0. 6. 


Samuel Oliver, 


0. 6. 


William MilLir, 


1. 10. 


William Oliver, Jr., 


0. 6. 


Jeoffrey Jones, 


0. 10. 


Joshua Clarke, 


0. 6, 


Mr. Joseph Wilson, 


8. 0.0 


John Osborne, 


0. 6. 


Samuel Trotter, 


0. 5. 


Richard Baker, 


0. -6. 


Joseph Meaker, 


2. 0. 


Derrick Baker, 


0. 0. 9 


Hendrick Baker, 


0. 15. 


Henry Harriss, 


0. 6. 


The number of the names Is 


ninety-nine. 


not including Widow Mary Hatfield, 


mentioned 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 285 

The whole number of actual subscribers was one hundred 
and twenty-four ; and the subscriptions amount to £83. 11. 0. 
The names of several prominent inhabitants are wanting in 
these lists. Mr. Harriman had large dealings with the Qua- 
ker, Andrew Hampton, whose principles would not allow 
him to subscribe. Mr. Hampton is credited, however, Oc- 
tober 1st, 1698, with "gift in order to my maintenance 26s." 
The names of Col. Richard Townley, Thomas Terrill, Andrew 
Craig, afterwards identified with St. John's Church, do not 
appear ; nor of any who came over with Gov. Carteret, ex- 
cept "William Hill, who had early been admitted as one of 
the Associates of the town. The Governor's party had al- 
most wholly died out. 

A very small part only of the subscriptions were paid in 
cash. The most of them are credited with produce, meat, 
grain, and vegetables. Many of them, with labor by the 
day, on the farm, at the mill, in the garden, in building his 
house or barn, in repairing ; in shoemaking, tailoring, weav- 
ing ; in dry goods and groceries. A list of the prices current 
from 1694 to 1705 is subjoined for the entertainment of the 
curious."'^ 

with her son Cornelius, and Widow Mary Thompson, with her son John. Of the three sons 
of Mrs. Uatfluld, Cornelius subscribed 10s. Abraham, 10s., and Isaac, ISs, 

At the town meeting, held January 18, 169^, the following additional subscribers were en 
rolled : 





£ 


s. d. 






£ 


8. d. 


Samuel Sayer, 


0. 


6. 


Francis Sayer, 




0. 


S. 


John Erskin, 


0. 


6. 


William I'urent, 




0. 


6. 


Samuel Whitehead, 


0. 


9. 


John Boardman, 




0. 


6. 


Benjamin Bond, 


0. 


6. 


Samuel Millar, 




0. 


6. 


The following were added 


(all but the last two) at the town meeting, 


March 11, 


170J 




John Ailing, 


0. 


6. 


Samuel Clarke, 




0. 


6. 


Isaac Bunnell, 


0. 


15. 


Benjamin Woodruff, 




0. 


6. 


Thomas Clarke, 


0. 


6. 


John Magie, 




0. 


6. 


Jonathan Hinds, 


0. 


6. 


Thomas Sayer, 




0. 


6. 


Samuel Little, 


0. 


G. 


Thomas Keenee, 




0. 


5. 


Joseph Ogden, 


0. 


C. 9 


Goorgo Ros.', Jr., 




0. 


10. 


Samuel Wood, 


0. 


9. 


Thomas Moore, 




. 0- 


10. 


Ephraim Clarke, 


0. 


C. 










* Veal, li to 2d. lb. 






Hens, nd. ca 








Beef, do. do. do. 






Oxen, £4. 10. " 








Pork, 2i to 3d. " 






Colts, 14s. ♦' 








Venison, Id. « 






Ewe Sheep, lOs. t 


lis. ca. 






Turkeys, 15d. ca. 






Heifers, £3. 


" 






Capcns, Is. Cd. oa. 






Beef, £1. 15. 0., barrel. 






Ducks, 13id. " 






Salt shad, 3d. ea. 









286 



THE HISTORY OF 



Mr. Harriman was a man of large business. His 100 acre 
lot " in the plains" lie cleared and cultivated. He charges 
" my lot in y" plaines," June 6, 1701, with cost of "beer, cake 
& rum to y*' volunteers at y® clearing b^ lott — £1. 7. 1|-." 
He rented ot Capt. Ebenezer Wilson, of New York, the mill 
on the creek, (the same that " old John Ogden " built at the 
bridge, and mortgaged Oct. 9, 1668, to Cornelius Steenwyck 
of I^ew York), for which he and Capt. Benjamin Ogden, his 
partner, paid £25, per year. Nathaniel Whitehead had 
charge of the mill. In 1698, he built a new house in Meadow 
St., north of Jersey st., finishing it, however, in 1701, and 
moving into it in the fall of that year. AVliere he lived pre- 
viously does not appear ; probably, on the parsonage ground, 
south of the creek, near the present Rail Road crossing. His 



Oysters, 9d. to 14d., hun. ; 23. Od. g.il. 
Wheat, 4b. to 6s. bush. 
Buckwheat, 2s. •' 
Rye, 3s. 4id. " 

Meelin, Ss. 9d. " 

Indian corn, Is. 6d. to Ss. bush. 
Turnips, Is. " 

Cats, 22id. " 

FeaB, 4b. " 

Apples, 29. to 38. " 

Salt, 4s. 4d. to 5s. " 

Cider, 13s. bbL 
Butter, 6d. lb. 
Cheese, 4Jd. lb. 
Sugar, 6d. " 
Flax, 9d. to IB. 6d. lb. 
Hops, Is. " 

Pepper, 68. " 

Tobacco, 4id. to lOd. lb. 
Hides, 2d. " 

Allum, 9d. " 

Indigo, 45d. to 8d.' oz. 
Eggs, 3d. to 4d. doz. 
Hay, 10s. to 208. load. 
Stones, 38. " 

Wool, 13id. lb. 
Rum, Is. 6d. qt. 
Cider, 3d. " 
Molasses, 2s. 9d. gal. 
Whale Oil, 2s. lOd. jar. 
Raccoon skins, Is. Od. ca. 
Making cider, 4id. l)bl. 
Killing a cow, 2s. 3d 
• " " calf. Is. 6d. 

" " hog. Is. 

" " pig, 8d. 



Killing a sheep, 9d. 
Shearing " 2d. 
"Weaving, 8d. yd. 
Day's work, 2b. 3d. man. 

" " Is. woman. 

" " Is. boy. 

" " 39. man and oxen. 

" " OS. man and team. 
Pasturing ox. Is. week. 
Fanning, 2d. bush. 
Shingles, 3s. 6d. hun. 
Rails, 6b. to 149. «' 
Clapboards, 5s. *' 
Shoes for chil., 38. pr. 

" " women, 58. pr. 

<< «' men. 6s. 9d. pr. 
Barrels, 3s. ea. 
Pails, 2s. 3d." 
Buckets, 2s. " 

Hats for men, 22s. to 3Cs. ea. 
Paper, Is. 6d. to Is. lOd. qu. 
Powder, 3s. 6d. lb. 
Shot, 4Jd. " 

Brooms, 4Jd. ea. 
Pins, 13Jd. paper. 
Ozenbriggs, Is. Sd. yd. 
Kersey, 5s. 6d. to "s. yd. 
Holland, 38. 6d to 4s. 3d. yd. 
Fustian, 2s. 3d. " 

Linscy wolsey, 4s. " 

Linen (blue). Is. 4d. to 2s. yd. 
Sergo, 48. 6d. to 6s. " 

Buttons, 6d. to 9d. doz. 
Stockings, 4b. 6d. pr. 
Gloves, 48. 6d. " 
Silk (black), 4s. 6d. oz. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 287 

"new barne" he built in 1T02 " length 24 feet : breadth 22, 
height 11 feet." It was built " by Benj" Meaker & Benj° 
Trottar." Benjamin Pierson, Joseph Woodruff, Alexander 
Keene}-, Joseph Osborn, Daniel Ross, and Richard Harri- 
mau have each the credit of carting for it one load. The 
builders received £T. In addition, lie says, " the cost of my 
barne, built this summer, £7. 14. 0." — the " timber getting 
& framing given me except 18s To y® carpenters." 

!N^ot content with preaching, pastoral visitation, farming, 
and carrying on a flour mill, he had, also, a cider press ; he 
had an agency for furnishing glass to his neighbors ; he sur- 
veyed lands now and then ; he attended the Legislature, as 
a Deputy, having been thus elected, in 1693, 1694, 1695, and 
1698. Like the most of his profession, he kept a boarding 
school, also. His Ledger shows, that, from 1695 to 1702, he 
had the following pupils under his care, most if not all of 
whom boarded with him : David Selleck, Richard Lawrence, 
John Potter, John Thelwell, John Wessels, John Ranselere, 
Wm. Cooley, Andrew Wandler, (his son) Richard, Jeremiah 
Floyd, "VVm., son of John Crooke, of New York, John Man- 
verte, Joshua Swaine, James Robeson, Joseph Tapping, 
Joseph Meaker, Jonathan Sayer, John Harrison, John 
Le Roax, Edward Taylor, and Peter Jewey. His price for 
board was 5s. a week ; and for teaching " the art of Naviga- 
tion," £3. 

He dealt considerably in real estate, also. In 1694, he sold 
to John Miles, his nephcAv, half an acre of land, on which to 
build his house, for £5. In 1703, he bought of Miles " his 
dwelling-house, &c." for £65. The date of this transaction is 
May 24. But under date of May 17, 1703, " John Blanchard, 
gallicus," [Frenchman], is charged with " a house &c sold you 
to day at £80." Could this be the same, or was it his own 
new house ? Still earlier, March 25, 1703, Aaron Thompson 
is credited with " his 4 acre home lott at £20," the payment 
of which was completed. May 12, 1704. 

He dealt, also, in slaves, at least, for his own use : " We 
bought the Negro Toney Aug* 14"' 1697 of Charles Tooker 
jun' for 48^^" It is probable that Capt. Ben. Ogden was one 



288 THEHISTORYOF 

of the " we " and tliat Toney was principally employed at 
the mill. Or the " we " may include his son John. Again, 
Oct. 28, 1701, he bought of " Mr. James Emot, an indian 
girle named Ilagar," for £19. 10. 0. 

Occasionally he records the hire of a horse, or of a man 
and horse, for a journey to New England. On one occasion, 
Jan., 169^-, Joseph Woodruff accompanied him to Milford, Ct., 
where they had a conference with Gov. Treat, as appears from 
Mr. "Woodruff's affidavit in the answer to the E. T. Bill in 
Chancery, p. 47. 

It ap])ears, also, that it was customary to take a contribu- 
tion in the church every Lord's Day, of the proceeds of which 
an account is preserved, only for a part of 1699. A speci- 
men of these entries is here given : " Feb^ 19 — cash 19s. lO^d. 
wampom lid.— £1. 00. 9^." 

Feb. 1st, 169|, John Woodruff", carpenter, is credited with 
" making a coffin for my dear Leonard ; " and in September, 
" w*^*" a coffin for my son Alexander." Two sons taken from 
him in one year ! Leonard was 13 years old ; Alexander 
was at least 5 or six years younger, having been born in this 
town. 

Of the preaching of Mr. Ilarriman no written memorials 
remain, and scarcely any thing traditional. It is greatly to 
his credit, that, in the midst of the excitements of 1688, of the 
anarchy of 1690-2, and of the revolutionary period from 
1699 to 1702, he should have succeeded in retaining not only 
his place, but also the affection and confidence of his people. 
His sympathies were altogether on the side of popular rights. 
His manly words of cheer on the Sabbath greatly encouraged 
the town in their long protracted struggle against oppression. 
Like his predecessor, he, doubtless, had to contend with 
opposers. The Quakers, under the influence of Rudyard and 
Lawrie,had increased in number and influence, and probably 
had formed themselves, as in other settlements, into a reli- 
gious society, in the southern part of the town. The Scotch, 
of course, with their national preference for Presbyterian 
doctrine and worship, adhered to him and his Puritan 
Church. Col. Morris wrote, in 1700, as follows : 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 289 

Elizabeth Town and Newark were peopled from New England ; are 
generally Independents ; they have a meeting-house in each town for 
their public worship. There are some few Churchmen, PreshiteriaDs, 
Anabaptists, and Quakers, settled among them.* 

" Some few Churchmen," there had been from the begin- 
ning. Gov. Carteret, of course, was a Churchman ; and 
such were, doubtless, the most of those who sided with him 
in his conflicts with the people. Emott and Townlej, and 
the men that associated with them in adhering to the fortunes 
of the Jacobite government, were either Churchmen or 
Papists. It seems somewhat strange, that, in these circum- 
stances, no attempts should have been made, for a whole 
generation and more, to introduce Episcopacy into the town ; 
that tlie Episcopal portion of the community should, so long, 
have been content to worship with their Puritan neighbors. 
That so long a period should have elapsed, before any at- 
tempt was made to gather a separate Society, argues the 
fewness of their number, and the vast preponderance of the 
Puritan element. 

The first efforts, so far as known, to perform Episcopal 
services in the town, were made shortly after the commence- 
ment of the royal rule, under Lord Cornbury, in 1T03. Corn- 
bury had been charged with a special mission in behalf of 
the Church of England : — 

You shall take especial care, tliat God Almighty be devoutly and 
duly served throughout your Government, the Book of Common Prayer 
as by Law established, read each Sunday, and Holy-day, and the 
Blessed Sacrament administered according to the Rites of the Church 
of England." t 

Opportunely for the fulfillment of these Instructions, "the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts " 
had just been chartered, and their first missionaries to Amer- 
ica, George Keith and John Talbot, appointed. Keith had 
been a Quaker, though a native of Aberdeen, Scotland, (born 
in 1G3S), and a Presbyterian. He had emigrated to Amer- 
ica in 1682, and had been Surveyor General of East Jersey 

* Proceedings ofTST. J. His. Soc, IV. 118. 

t Lenmiiig and Spicer, p. 683. Bmilh's N. J., p. 252. 

19 



290 THE HISTORY OF 

from 1G85 to 1G88, when he became a preaclier. His com- 
manding abilities and scientific attainments (bred as he was 
at the University of Aberdeen) gave him great influence 
among the Quakers, and made him the leader of the ortho- 
dox party among them. In 1700, he left them, and was or- 
dained a priest by the Bishop of London. He returned to 
America in June 1702, and traveled extensively for nearly 
two years, principally among his old friends. Here, in this 
town, and its vicinity, he had numerous acquaintances, and, 
of course, it was not difficult to gather for him an audience 
among his old neighbors and friends. At the house of An- 
drew Craig, a fellow-Scotchman (with whom, probably, he 
had been acquainted at home before they came to America 
in 1682), he was hospitably entertained ; and there, Friday, 
Xov. 3, 1703, he preached, from 2 Pet. 1 : 5, on the Christian 
Graces. On the same occasion, he baptized the four children 
of Mr. Craig. The next day, he says, " I Baptized the 
children of Andrew Hemton, [Hampton], eight in Number ; 
He and his Wife are come over from Quakerism to the 
Church. And November 3 I Baptized Seven children of a 
Widow Woman there." At the end of six weeks, he re- 
turned, and, at the invitation of Col. Townley, performed di- 
vine service at his house, twice on the Lord's Day, December 
19; of which the following record is preserved : 

December 19, Sunday. — I preached at tlie House of Col. Townlj, in 
Elizabeth-Town, both Forenoon and Afternoon, on 1 Pet. 2 : 9. Many 
of that Town having been formerly a sort of Independents, are become 
well affected to the Church of England, and desire to have a Minister of 
the Church of England sent to them. There I baptized a Child of Mr. 
Shakmaple, — (the son-in-law of Col. Townley). 

This was the first occasion, doubtless, of a separate service 
of public M'orship on the Sabbath, since the settlement of the 
town, a period of 39 years. (Gov. Carteret, as Dankcrs in- 
forms UP, M'cnt " often to New York and generally to ' 
Church." Others may have done the same.) It must have 
been quite a trial to Mr. Harriman and his people to have a 
rival interest in the town. But the establishment of an Epis- 
copal Church in the town was a foregone conclusion. The 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 291 

Governor, Lord Cornburj, had just been holding his first 
General Assembly, for four weeks, at Amboy, and liad cer- 
tainly prepared the way for such a movement in the several 
towns of the Province. On the previous Sunday, 12th, and 
on Christmas day following, Keith preached at Amboy ; on 
the l'2th, " at my Lord Cornbury's lodgings, where he was 
present." * 

Mr. Harriraan was removed by death, Aug. 20, 1705, in 
the 58th year of his age. The only particular notice of this 
event is found in the " Boston Xews Letter," of Sept. 10, 

1705, as follows : 

Elizabeth Town in Jersey, Aug. 30. On Monday the 20 Currant, Dyed 
here in the Afternoon the Keverend Mr. John Harriman, Pastor of the 
Church in this place, Aged about 60 Years: Who the same day at a 
Church Meeting told his people, that his time of dej^arture drew near, 
and exhorted them to Peace and Unity one with another, and to stand 
fast in the Covenant that tliey had engaged themselves to. 

Some light may be cast on this sad event, and on the state 
of the people consequent upon it, by reference to a commu- 
nication from the pen of the Rev. John Brooke, the first 
Minister of St. John's Church in this town, dated Oct. 11, 

1706, in which he says : 

Col. Townley's house (wherein I preacht at first), in half a year's time 
grew too little for my congregation, and the best place Ave could get to 
meet in was a barn, which, in Harvest, we were obliged to relinquish, 
whereupon the Dissenters, who, presently after I came, were destitute of 
their old Teachers (one of them being struck with death, in their meet- 
ing-house, as he was railing against the Church, and the other being at 
Boston), would not suffer mc upon my request to officiate in their meet- 
ing-house unless I would promise not to read any of the prayers of the 
Church, which I complied with upon condition I might read the Psalms, 
Lessons, Epistle, and Gospel, appointed for the day, which I did and said 
all tlie rest of the service by heart, the doing of which brought a great 
many to hear me who otherwise, probably, would never have heard the 
service of tlie Church, and (through God's blessing) hath taken away 
their prejudice to sucli a degree as that they have invited mo to preach 
in their meeting-house till our church be built. Their Teacher begins at 

• Ilumphroy's S. P. G. F., pp. 4-15, 24, 34, 75. Whitehead's P. Aiaboy, pp. lC-21. 211-1;?. 
Pprague's Annals, V. 25-30. Clark's St. John's, pp. 15-16. N. Y. Col. Docmts., IV. 1021. 
Keith's Journal, in P. Ep. His. 6oc. Coll., I. 44, 5. Dankors' Journal, p. 84C. 



292 THE HISTORY OF 

eight in the morning, and ends at ten, and then our service begins, and in 
the afternoon we begin at two. The greatest part of the Dissenters gen 
erally stay to hear all our service.* 

This letter sheds not a little light on the obscurity in which 
the early Church Annals of the town are involved. The 
early hour at which public worship was held, 8 o'clock A. M., 
deserves notice. This must have been an established custom. 
It is not probable, that they would give up their ordinary 
hours of service to accommodate a rival interest. Mr. 
Brooke was a missionary of tJie Propagation Society already 
named, and "arrived in East ISTcw Jersey, July 15," 1705. 
Lord Cornbury, to whom he applied at New York for counsel, 
" advised " him to " settle at Elizabeth Town and Perth 
Amboy." On the 20th of August, the very day of Mr. 
Harriman's decease, he wrote from Elizabeth Town to the 
Secretary of the Society. The coming of Mr. Brooke, as a 
local missionary to settle in the town, had probably occa-. 
sioned Mr. Ilarriman to preach on the distinctive doctrines 
of his faith, and to contrast them with the doctrines of Epis- 
copacy. And, on the very day of his death, he may have 
been urging them, in this respect, to stand fast in the faith. 

He must have died of apoplexy. His son, John, was a mer- 
chant, as well as a Surveyor. He exerted a wide influence 
over his townsmen. After his father's death, his accounts 
appear in the old Ledger, and some of them are very curious ; 
a specimen has been given in connection with the notice of 
the Martin family. David Ilarriman is mentioned in the 
Ledger, as follows : '* 1711. John Ivirtland In Say brook In 
New England C". by Bording David Ilarriman from the 17 
of October to the 12 of June next at 4^ G^ pr weke is £7. 8. 
6 ; by candles 3. 4 ; by fire wood 8. 8. D'. June 10, 1712. 
To Cash Delivered your wife In Saybrook, £8. 0. 6." David 
Avas, doubtless, his son, and pursuing his studies as a member 
of Yale College then located at Saybrook. Mr. Ivirtland was ' 
the father of Eev. Daniel, of Norwich, Ct., the grandfather 
o'f the Ilev. Samuel, " the Oneida missionary," and the 
great-grandfather of the Rev. John Thornton Kirkland, D. D., 

♦ Clark's St. John's Church, p- lO' 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 293 

LL. D,, of Harvard University. David, probably, died soon 
after.* Mr. Ilarrinian's successor was 

REV. SAMUEL MELYEN. 

Mr. Brooke refers to the fact, that " the Dissenters," or 
Independents, had two ministers, at the time of his arrival, 
one of them "being at Boston," at that time. It appears 
from Mr. Ilarrinian's Ledger, that Mr. Melyen was ordained 
and installed Pastor " of the Church of this town, about the 
twentieth of May, 1704, the expenses of the occasion being 
£1. 5. 10. Mr. Melyen was ordained the colleague of Mr. 
Harriraan, as may be most properly inferred from the letter 
of Mr. Brooke.f 

The Rev. Samuel Melyen [Melyn] was the son of Jacob 
Melj^en, one of the founders of the town, ot whom a particular 
account has been given on a previous page. Samnel, with his 
brother, Daniel, and sister, Abigail, was baptized in the 
•Dutch Church at Xew York, where the fcimily then resided, 
Aug. 7, 1677. His brother, Jacob, and sister, Susanna, had 
been baptized, Oct. 3, 1674, at which time, it is quite certain 
Samuel had not been born. His birth took place, most like- 
ly, in 1675, at New Y^ork, where his earlier years were spent. 
As early as 1G90, probably, the family had removed to 
Boston, and soon after Samuel entered Harvard College, and 
enjoyed the instructions of that eminent divine, Bev. 
Increase Mather, D.D. He graduated in 1696, one year 
after Jedediah Andrews of Philadelphia, and one year before 
Jabcz Wakeman of Newark, N. J. In a class of nine his 

♦Clark's History of St. John's, pp.16, 19. In the old account book, John Boanlinan is 
credited, by John narriinan, Jr., Aug. 21, 1705, " by Diging fathers grave 4." 

t " The exact account of w' we spen upon y occasion is as follows 

p money layd out in sweet spice at N. Y 3.6 

1) I of a bush" of wheat at 4s is 3.00 

p a bush" of barley mault 3.9 

p Oft of butter 3.0 

p 1 q' of rum 15'' 1.3 

p 3 III shugf at e"" is 1.6 

p pepper O"" is 0.9 

p 4 lb. of cheese 2.0 

p a q"" lamb, w' 8n>J- at 4'' is 2.11 

p 2 q' veal 4.2 

1.510 
This provision was, doubtless, for tho ordination dinner, of which "toddy" seems to 
have been a necessary clement, Ilarriman's Ledger, p. 146. 



294 THE HISTORY OF 

was the lowest rank. A letter is extant among the Mather 
Mss. at Boston, addressed to Cotton Mather, in which he 
begs his aid, though nnsucccssfull}', in restoring him to a 
higher rank.* 

In 1700-1, he taught the grammar-school at Iladley, Mass., 
one year, for £38. In December, 1702, lie was either a resi- 
dent or a visitor in this town, his name appearing, on the 
14th, as a witness to the will of John Clark, His nncle, 
Humphrey Spinning, 13 years before, and his cousin Daniel 
Spinning, the following year, had departed this life ; but 
Mrs. Spinning, his mother's sister, may yet have been living. 

♦ Valentine's Manual for 1863, p. 795. Savage's Gen. Diet., III. 19S. 
As the only written memorial of the man, save the inscription on the next page, it is 
here given entire ; as found in the Proceedings of the Mass. His. Soc. for 1SG4-5, p. 34 : 

May 19th Ano 1698 
Reverend S^ — After my Respects are paid to yo'solf and the Lady yo' ■worthy 
consort, this is come to inform you that I have not as yet finished yo' book, but intend that 
by y= Last day of this week, (God willing) to put a conclusion thereunto. S^ I Lope you 
■will not impute my tardyness to any thing of unwillingness, — but partly to y^ license you sent 
me, when you last sent y original, & partly to my intervening business. Pray S' be assured 
by this that I am not only willing & ready to serve you as far as in me lies, but esteem 
it an honour to be in your service, wherefore S', I hope you will not decline yo' Impos'ing 
it upon me, at any time when yo' occasions call for it. 

One favo', Woktht Sr. I I should be exceedingly re.joyced to obt.ain at yo' benign hands, 
if it may not engage yo'solf in a too groat a trouble, which I will manifest after I have 
p'miscd, y' towards y« End of o' Sophymorcship by my audaciously calling freshmen at 
y"^ doo' of y« worthy M' IJrattlc in a way of contempt, y'' Venerable and Reverend Presi- 
dent with my Tutor, y well deserving M' Levorett saw it convenient to place me y« Lowest 
in y« class, whereas before I was placed between S' Remington and S' Whitman. 

Now, S' my humble request is (seeing y' Catalogue hass not since been printed, & is 
before y« Ensuing Commencomen' to be printed) that you would be pleas'd to motion to y 
Reverend President, that I may be reduced into my former station — Nothing S' can bo 
more grateful! to my Father & Mother, nor any thing more encouraging to me — I am very 
Sorry (<k desire to be very penitent) that in that as well as in many other things I have dis- 
pleased so worthy a Gentleman as y^ President, and so kind a Tutor as M' Leverctt w"" y 
Revi M' Brattle, hoping thaty' remainder of my days may be so manidg'd that glory may 
redo'wn to God, & thereby some satisfaction may be made for y* wrong I offer'd them — 
I lye at their feet & humbly beg their Pardon (praying y"^ Lord to forgive mo in &; thro 
his son Jes: Christ) hoping they will henceforth pretermitt y' ofl'ences of mj' former life 
and grant me this favour, which will much encourage mo in my labour & lay me und' 
fresh obligations to servo them & yo' noble self in any thing y' I may or can— Had I S' 
been placed at first Inferio' to y rest, I should have been contented & thought it my place, 
(wherefore S' I hope you will not conjecture that pride is y Impulsive cause of this my 
Petition) but it being after such a nature as it was, makes me very desirous of reducem' — 
S' All our class y' were placed at first beneath me, have voluntarily manifested unto mo 
y« they were veiy willing I should enjoy my Antient standing. Thus S' hoping you will 
do yo' Endeavor & pardon my boldness, I shall at p'sent beg leave to conclude mysolf 
yo' humble petitioner & hearty Serv> 

These Samuel Meltk^j.* 

To y Rever"" M' Cotton Mather 
with my hearty Respects 
pr Bishop Elliott P'sent 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 295 

Possibly, tliroiigli the influence of his cousins, he may have 
beeii sent for to aid Mr. Harriman in his ministerial work ; 
or he may have studied theology with him. At the decease 
of the latter, he %yas left in charge of the congregation. It 
is he, to whom Mr. Brooke refers, in speaking of " the Dis- 
seaters," as " their Teacher." At this time he was about 30 
years old. The memorials of his ministry here are few and 
unsatisfactory. One of his books — "The Cambridge Con- 
cordance," published in 1698, — is now in the possession of 
Mr. Thomas O. Crane, of Rahway, whose father, Isaac Crane, 
of this town, bought it of Elizabeth Crane. It is a rare old 
book, and in good preservation. It contains the following 
beautiful autograph inscription : 

Vita sine literis est Mortis Imago ; at 
Vita sine Christo est Morte pejor. 
Si CHRISTUM discis, nihil est si caetera nescis. 
Si CHRISTUM nescis, nihil est si caetera discis. 
Samuelia Melyen 
Liber, 
Martii, 1° 
Anno Domini, 1702. 

His ministr}'" was short, his sun going down behind a very 
dark cloud. Ho was preaching regularly at the time Mr. 
Brooke wrote of him, Oct., 1706, and may have continued a 
year longer. The pulpit was vacant in 1708. Tradition, 
with some show of probability, accuses him of some immoral- 
ities unfitting him for the pulpit, and destroying the confi- 
dence of the people. The story reported by Dr. Murray is 
not very plausible, viz : That, " being strongly suspected of 
intemperance, the choir, on a certain Sabbath morning, sung 
a hymn as a voluntary, which he considered as designed to 
reprove and expose him. Whilst being sung, he descended 
from the pulpit, and taking his wife he walked out of the 
church, and never again entered it." The days of choirs and 
voluntaries, it should be remembered, had not yet come. 
Music in churches was but rudely performed ; " in the latter 
part of the seventeenth, and at the commencement of the 
eighteenth century, the congregations throughout New Eng- 



29G THEHISTORYOF 

laud were rarely able to sing more than three or four tuues." 
No mention is made of choirs in churches before 1720, and 
none "of any regular choir having separate seats, in any 
church for thirty or forty years" after that date. "There 
were few country churches with a choir before 1765 or 70 ; 
and they certainly did not become common until near the 
time of the American Revolution." At the time of Mr. 
Melyen's ministr}^, anthems, or voluntaries, as a part of the 
Sabbath service, were unknown. Note books were not to be 
found. All singing in the Churches was congregational, led 
by a precentor. 

It is quite certain that Mr. Melyen was never married ; his 
sister, Joanna, about seven or eight years younger than him- 
self, may have kept house for him. That he was intemperate, 
however, is quite likely. The temptations to this vice were, 
at that period, very great. The Kev. John Miller, of New 
York, in 1695, gives an appalling representation of the preva- 
lence of dissipation, there and then, among all classes of 
society. 

Mr. Melyen, in retiring fromtlie pulpit, continued to reside 
in the town until his death. In Feb., 170j^y, lie was ap- 
pointed, with Thomas Price, Overseer of High- Ways. At 
the Court of Quarter Sessions, sitting at this town, in No- 
vember of the same year, a complaint was brought against 
him by Matthias De Hart, of the nature of which no record 
remains. A true bill was found against him by the Grand 
Jury, and he was ordered into the custody of the Sheriff, 
until he should give special bail. At the sessions of the 
Court, in Newark, Aug. 21, 1711, he is reported as having 
deceased since the sessions in May. He died nearly at the 
same time witli Col. Kichard Townley, who was President of 
the Court by which he was indicted. 

His Will bears date, May 10, 1711, and expresses a high 
degree of faith in the gospel of the Redeemer. He gives £35. 
to Mrs. Ann Gardener ; £5. to his Executor, George Jewell ; 
his pewter tumbler and silver fpoon, to Mrs. Sarah Jewell ; 
his looking-glass and three " Turkey worked chears," to 
Sarah Jewell; his saddle, pillion, books, bow and arroAvs, 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 297 

and " portmantle," to Cornelius Jewell ; and the remainder 
of his possessions to his sister Abigail Tillev, at Boston. His 
Will was proved, July 26, 1711. No mention is made of wife 
or children. He appears to Iiave boarded with George 
Jewell, and was, doubtless, a single man." * 

It was during the ministry of Mr. Melyen, that the first 
Episcopal congregation of this town was gathered, and the 
foundations of St. John's Church were laid. This work was 
principally effected by their first minister, the 

REV. JOHN BROOKE. 

Of his birth and parentage nothing is on record, so far as is 
known. He was an Englishman, and, probably of Emanuel 
College, Cambridge, where one of his name took the Bache- 
or's degree in lYOO, and the Master's degree in 1704. Hav- 
ing been admitted to orders in the Church of England, he was 
appointed, by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
in Foreign Parts, one of their Missionaries to America. His 
first report, Aug. 20, 1705, says — 

I arrived safe ia East New Jersey July 15, and thence went to my Lord 
Cornbury — our Governor — who, after he had perused your letter, advised 
me to settle at Elizabeth Town and Perth Araboy. There are five Inde- 
pendent Ministers in and about the places I preach at, and the greatest 
part of the people are followers of them. But I question not (thro: God's 
blessing), but if you please to permit me to have only Elizabeth Town, 
Amboy, and the adjacent Towns under my care and to allow me enough 
to subsist upon without depending upon the People, that I shall gain a 
considerable Congregation in a very few years. As for those that are of 
the Churcli of England already, their Number is very inconsiderable, and 
I expect notliing from them for some years, seeing they are like to be 
at an extraordinary charge in building of a Church at each placet 

The " five Independent Ministers " were Messrs. Ilarriman 
and Melyen of this town, John Prudden of Newark, Samuel 
Shepard of AVoodbridge, and the Minister of Piscataway, 
who left soon after, and whose name has not been preserved. 

Tlie circumstances connected witli the early ministrations 

♦ Valentine's N. T. Manual for 1SC3. p. 795. Savaso, III. lOG. Clark's St. John's, p. 19. 
Dr. McPowell's Ms. Sermon, Jan. 1, ISll. Murray's Notes on E. T., p. 5-3. -Hood's Music in 
N. Eng., pp. 5G-9; 180. Uildrcth's U. States, II. 1S9-92. Kccords of Court, at Newark, N.J. 
"Wills at Trenton, No. 1. t Cat. of Univ. of Cambridge, Eng. Clark's St. John's, pp. 16, 17 



298 THE HISTORY OF 

of Mr. Brooke have already been detailed (p. 291), in bis own 
language. During the fall and winter of 1705-6, Col. Town- 
ley's house accotnniodated the congregation on the Sabbath, 
and, it is thonght, furnished a home for the missionary. In 
the spring of 1706, they began to worship in a barn, fitted 
for the purpose. After the harvest season, the barn being 
occupied with tlie summer crops, the missionary was per- 
mitted to officiate twice every Sabbath in the Independent 
Church, on terms, which, though literally observed, were not 
fulfilled in fact. lie. was " not to read any of the prayers of 
the Church." The obvious understanding was, that the ser- 
vice of the Common Prayer-Book was not to be used. lie 
evaded these conditions by committing the prayers to mem- 
ory, and saying them " hy Jieart^ It certainly is very much 
to the credit of the old church, that they allowed the rival 
congregation the stated use of their " meeting house," twice 
every Sabbath, on any terms, and continued this permission, 
when they saw that, in effect, the contract was habitually 
broken by Mr. Brooke. 

In his report of Oct, 11, ITOG, Mr. Brooke says : — 

The people, in general, in all the places where I oflBciate, were either 
Dissenters or of no religion at all, when I came ; but now (through the 
blessing of God) many are come into the Fold. There are about ten 
communicants added since I wrote last. I laid the Foundation of a Brick 
church, at Elizabeth Town, on St. John the Baptist's day, whosename it 
bears. It is fifty foot long, thirty wide, and twenty-one high,— it hath 
nine windows— one in the East end, ten foot wide and fifteen high, two 
in feach side, six foot wide and ten high, and four ovals — one of the East 
window, one in the West end, and one over each door, Avhich are near the 
west end. The church is now covering, and I hope to preach in it in six 
weeks or two months. Wee shall only gett the outside of our church up 
this year, and I'me afraid t'will bo a year or two more before wo can 
finish the inside, for I find those hard times a great many are very back- 
ward to pay their subscriptions.* 

Secretary Basse said of the Church, that it was " erected 
chiefly by the care and diligence of Colonel Richard Town- 
ly, who has given the ground it stands on, and a place for a 
Burying Ground. "f 

• Clark's St. John's, pp. 18-20. ' lb., 2C. Trot. Ep. His. Coll., I. 70. 




ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, ELIZABETH, IN 1850.. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 299 

He seems to have labored very conscientiously and dili- 
gently in his vocation. He performed no small amount of 
missionary work : — 

Upon my arrival here (he says), insted of a body of church people to 
maintain me, I only met with a small handfnll, the most of which could 
hardly maintain tliemselves, much less build churches or maintain me. 
Upon which, being almost discouraged to find the Church had got so little 
footing in these parts, I resolved heartily and sincerely to endeavor to 
promote her, so much as in my power, in order to wliich I began to 
preach, catechize, and expound, twelve, fourteen, sometimes fifteen days 
per month (which I still do), and on other days to visit the people, 
through which means, by the blessing of God, my congregations increased 
every where so that I found very great necessity for churches. 

Towards the building of five churches, and printing a 
tract, he contributed £50 ; and, besides, he says, — 

It hath cost me above £10 in riding about the Provinces of New York 
find Pennsylvania, and this to get subscriptions. I could not have given 
near so much out of your £100 per annum, had not I been very well 
stocked with cloaths I brought from England, and had had some money 
of my own. For I ride so much, Pm obliged to keep two horses, which 
cost me £20, and one horse cannot be kept well under £10 or £11 per 
annum. 'Twill cost a man near £30 per annum to board here, and sure 
'twill cost me much more who, Pilgrim-like, can scarce ever be three 
days together at a place. All cloathing here is twice as dear, at least, as 
'tis in England, and riding so much makes me wear out many more than 
I ever did before. The Ferries which I've frequently to cross, and every 
thing else I've occasion for here, are very chargeable, and I've nothing 
to defray all my charges but what I receive from your Society ; neither 
can I expect any thing from my people before their churches be finished. 
To ask any tiling [from them] yet, would be a means to deter people from 
joyning with me, and would be looked upon as offensive. I've so many 
places to take care of, that I've scarce any time to study ; neither can I 
supply any of them so well as they should be. I humbly beg, therefore, 
you'll be pleased to send a minister to take the charge of Elizabeth Town 
and Eawway upon him, and I'll take all the care I can of the rest.* 

The Secretary of the Society, Rev. Dr. Humphreys, said 
of him, — 

Mr. Brook used exceeding diligence in his cure, and was pleased to 
find the best of all sorts of people coming over to the Church c>f Eng- 
land. He exerted himself and at times used to perform Divine service at 

♦ Clark's St. John's, pp. 20-2. 



300 THE HISTORY OF 

seven places, fifty miles in extent ; namely, at Elizabethtown, Rahway, 
Perth Amboy, Cheesequakcs, Piscataway, liock Hill, and in a congrega- 
tion at Pago's. This duty was very difficult and laborious.* 

The niinistry of Mr. Brooke came to an abrupt termina- 
tion, in November, 1707. The Rev. Thorowgoocl Moore, of 
Burlington, had, by his faithful rebuke of Lord Cornbury's 
disgusting immoralities, drawn upon himself the wrath of 
the Governor, by whom he was arrested and imprisoned 
at N. York. Mr. Brooke deeply sympathized with his afflict- 
ed brother, and, when in prison, visited him. Mr. Moore 
escaping, and Mr. Brooke being sought for b}'- the en- 
raged Governor, they resolved to proceed to London, and lay 
their grievances before the proper authorities at home. 
They embarked at Marblehead, Mass., in ISTovember, 1707, 
for England, but the vessel was lost at sea, and all on board 
perished. f 

Mr. Brooke seems to have been greatly esteemed and much 
lamented. The Rev. Mr. Talbot says of him and Mr. Moore, 
they arc " the most pious and industrious Missionaries that 
ever the Honorable Society sent over." " Honest Elias 
ISTeau," as Col. Morris called him, said of them, — they 

"Were assuredly an honor to the mission, and labored Avitb much vigor 
for tlie enlargement of the Kingdom of our glorious Redeemer, and we 
may say, without prejudice to the rest, that they were the Glory of all 
the Missionaries the Illustrious Society has sent over hither. The purity 
and candor of their manners preached as efficaciously as their mouths, in- 
somuch that wo cannot sufficiently lament the loss of these two good 
servants of God, — whose crime was for opposing and condemning boldly 
vice and inmiorality. 

His people, years afterwards, spoke of him as their " worthy, 
and never to be forgotten Pastor, whose labors afforded them 
universal satisfaction." :{: 

He left a widow, the younger of the two daughters of Capt. 
Christopher Billop, whose residence and large plantation at 
the southern extremity of Staten Island, gave to it the name 
of Billop's Point, which it still retains. Subsequently she 

* Humphreys' Ilis. of S. P. G. F. P., pp. 18S-90. 

t Clark'a St. John's, pp. 24-32. N. Y. Col. Docints., IV. 1077. 

J Clark's St. John's, p. 25. Humphreys' S. P. G. F. P., p. 190. N. T. Col. Docmts., V. 81S 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 301 

became the wife of the Rev. Wm. Skinner, of Amboy, but 
died without issue.* 

Bj the death of Mr. Brooke, and the retirement of Mr. 
Melyen, both of the churches of the town became vacant at 
the same time, and the people were once more left without a 
preacher. 

* Whitehead's P. Amboy, p. 94. 



302 THE HISTORY OF 



CHAPTER XIV. 

A. D. 1 702-1740. 

Land Titles — Political Parties — Lord Cornbury, Gov. — Corruption of the 
Court — Act of Indemnity — Lord Lovelace, Gov. — His Death — Robert 
Hunter, Gov. — Death of Col. Townley — Officials of the Town — Card-Playing 
not tolerated — Newark Bounds — Suit of Vaughan vs. Woodruff — Early 
Town Books lost — Town Committee of Seven — List of Freeholders in 1729 — 
Lithgow vs. Robison, &c. — Measures of Defence against the Proprietors 

— Sale of Town Lands — Fenn vs. Chambers & Alcorn — Sale of more Land — 
Distribution of Land in 1737 — Cooper vs. Moss, &c. — Logan vs. Manning 

— Newark Bounds — Lewis Morris, Gov. — Borough Charter — Officials — 
Newspaper Notices. 

The BuiTendcr of the right of Jurisdiction to the Crown, 
on the part of the Proprietors, while it greatly simplified the 
matter of government, made no change whatever, in respect 
to the contest growing out of the conflicting titles to the lands 
of this town and vicinity. It rather served to intensify the 
excitement and the hostility of parties ; inasmuch as, by an 
implied compromise, it was understood, that the royal gov- 
ernment would confirm the Proprietors in their claims to the 
possession of the soil, as a compensation for their surrender 
of sovereignty. 

In the political agitations that followed the change of gov- 
ernment, this question of titles exerted a powerful influence, 
es])ecially in and about this town. The people were divided 
into parties or factions, the lines of which were mostly deter- 
mined by. this issue, — to them of all-absorbing interest. 
Tiic character of the party-strife that ensued may, to some 
extent, be gathered from a communication written by Col. 
Lewis Morris, Feb. 9, 170}, to the Secretary of State. Re- 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 303 

ferring to the period of Lord Cornburj's accession to the gov- 
ernment of New Jersey, he observes, of the Province, that 

He found it divided into two parties, the one called Hamiltons and the 
other Basses partie ; Hamilton's partie in East New- Jersey, consisted of 
the gentlemen of the best figure and fortune and majority of the people. 
Basse being formerly an Anabaptist Minister, those of that religion, some 
Quakers, and a miselanious mob, where of his partie.* 

Coh Richard Townley, of the Hamilton party, and a noted 
enemy to democrac}'', was chosen to the Assembly of 1703 ; 
and, when there, became so warm a partisan of Lord Corn- 
bury, as, ]N'ov. 29, 1705, to be appointed one of his Council, — 
a position which he retained until his death in 1711. f 

In the Assembly, that met in November, 1704, this town 
had no representative, the county members being from New- 
ark. By questioning the qualifications of three of the mem- 
bers, Cornbury obtained a majority, and carried his measures. 
A militia law was passed, that proved a terrible grievance to 
the Quakers who constituted so large a portion of the popu- 
lation. The laying out of the highways was entrusted to the 
most inveterate party men, of whose proceedings Col. Morris 
gives the following damaging account: 

They pull'd down their enemies inclosures, laid waies through their 
orchards, gardens & improvem'' ; there was one gentleman at whom they 
had an extraordinary pique, and they laid a way over a mill pond, to ne- 
cessitate him to pull down dam & mills that could not bo erected for 1000 
pounds, or to pull it down themselves, though the gentleman offered to 
build a bridge over the streame, at his own charge, | of a mile distant 
w''' would have been a nearer and better way. To be short they never 
omitted an ill turn they could do, and ahvaies went out of their way to 
do it. 

The country was impoverished by excessive taxation to 
support the government : — 

The whole Province was filled with murmurs and complaints ; but 
neither that nor y" hearty curses they liberaly bestow'd upon the vilains 
that were y" authors of their sufferings, avail'd any thing; they were 
forced to get money, some by takeing it up at 10, 20, 30, & more p"' Cout 
interest, those wlioso credit would not go, even on y" most desperate 

• N. Y. Col. Docmts., V. 34. 

t Smith's N. J., p. 270. Analytical Index of N. J. Docmts., pp. 49, 53, 4, 7, 64. 



304 * THE HISTORY OF 

terms, were forc't to sell \v' they had was Tendible, to raise the money, 
and very many thei'o was y' sold good milch cowes to raise six shillings.* 

This is tlie language of a partisan, Col. Morris, belonging 
to the Proprietary party ; yet, taken even with the needful 
abatement, it serves to show the state of parties, the corrup- 
tion of officials, and the distress of the people at that period ; 
in all of which this town bore its full share, and more. 

The Act of Indemnity, sought tlie previous year, was passed 
by the Assembly of 1704, and received the Governor's sanc- 
tion. 

The ignorance of Cornbury, in respect to the issues before 
the people, is well exemplified in a letter, June 14, 1704, to 
the Lords of Trade, in which he says: 

Col. Nichols coming into these parts found y* people of New York re- 
fractory and not inclinable to submit to him, but found y" people of Eliz- 
abethtown ready to obey his orders in all things, by which means j' 
people of New York became tractable, and did submit. Col. Nichols 
thought himself obliged to doe something for y* people of Elizabethtown 
y* might be aS a reward for their fidelity upon y* consideration granted 
them y" lands they now hold.f 

This, in a State Paper, from the Head of a Colonial Gov- 
ernment ! Contemptible ! Ko such town existed before his 
coming. 

In the Assembly that met at Burlington, Ap. 5, 1707, this 
town was represented by Capt. Daniel Price. The Burgesses 
openly rebuked Cornbury for his outrages on the rights of 
the people, and stood up manfully for their own prerogatives. 
Nine members of the Council, of whom Col. Richard Town- 
ley was one, drew up and transmitted to the Queen an un- 
qualified defence of Cornbury, in which they expressed their 
"dislike and abhorrence" of the proceedings of the repre- 
sentative body. Counter statements were forwarded by the 
Assembly, which, in connection with the complaints from 
every quarter of the two Provinces, N. York and N. Jersey, 
resulted in Cornbury's displacement, and the appointment, 
April 22, 1708, of John, Lord Lovelace, to succeed him.:j: 

* N. Y. Col. Docmts., V. 3G. 7. t Analytical Index of N. J. Docmts., p. 47. 

i Smith's N. J., pp. 2SS-95, 845-S, 66. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 305 

The town made choice, in 1708, and in 1709, of Benjamin 
Lyon to rejDresent them in the Assembly. Lovelace was re- 
moved by death, May 6, 1709, less than six months after his 
arrival, and the government devolved on Lt. Gov. Richard 
Ligoldsby, until the arrival of Gov. Robert Hunter at New 
York, June 14-, 1710. Col. Townley was retained in the 
Council, and Joseph Marsh, of this town, was a representa- 
tive in the Assembly, that met in December of the same 
year. In a representation, made by the Representative body 
to the Governor, of the affairs of the Province, it was insisted 
upon, that, in order to reconcile the people to the govern- 
ment, it was indispensable that eight of the members of the 
Council, wdio had rendered themselves obnoxious, should be 
removed. Col. Townley was of this number. Similar repre- 
sentations were made by 18 of the Proprietors. Counter 
statements, in justification of their course, were made by the 
obnoxious gentlemen of the Council, in which they declared 
themselves " in conscience bound '' to preserve tbe royal pre- 
rogative from licentious encroachments. Gov. Hunter, writ- 
ing to the Board of Trade, May 7, 1711, says, — 

Unless Iler Majesty be pleased to remove from Her Councill in the 
Jersey's William Pinhorne, Daniel Cox, Peter Sonmans, and William 
Ilall there are no hopes of peace and quiet in that Province, Collonel 
Townley is since dead. 

These representations prevailed ; the removals were ef- 
fected, and peace was restored. Gov. Hunter proved an 
acceptable ruler, his administration contrasting with Corn- 
bury's to great advantage. 

In the absence of other material, something of the history 
of the town during the first ten years of the eighteenth cen- 
tury may be learned from these general statements respect- 
ing the Province. In all the agitations of the times, conse- 
quent on these provincial events, the people of this town, 
ever foremost in the warfare for popular rights, could not 
but have taken an active and decided part — the more so 
because of the persecution, by Cornbury, of the Rev. 
Mr. Brooke, their worthy townsman, and his untimely 
death. 

20 



306 THE HISTORY OF 

In 1710, Col. Richard Townley, Benjamin Price, Jr., Daniel 
Price, and Jonas Wood, were Justices of the Peace ; John 
Hainds, Constable ; and Samuel Mel^^en, auji Thomas Price, 
were Overseers of the highways, for this town. Andrew 
Hampton and Richard Baker were on the Committee for 
regulating the highways of the County. In 1711, Isaac 
Whitehead, Benjamin Price, Benjamin Lyon, John Wood- 
ruff, and John Blanchard were Justices ; John Hainds and 
Benjamin Meeker were Constables ; and Benjamin Ogden, 
Jr., and Samuel Ogden were Overseers of the highways. In 
1712, the Justices were the same ; James Seeres and Samuel 
Ogden were Constables ; and Samuel Winans and John 
Scudder were Overseers of the highways. In 1713 ; Con- 
stables — Ebenezer Lyon and Wm, Clarke ; Overseers of the 
highways — John Craine and Joseph Kellsey. In 1714 ; Con- 
stables — John Thomson and Benjamin Spinning ; Overseers 
— Daniel Gale and Robert Little; Assessors — Capt. Price 
and John Ilarriman. In 1715 and '16 ; Constables — Richard 
Ilarriman and Elijah Davis ; Overseers — James Hinds, Jr. 
and Jacob Mitchell. In 1717 ; Constables — Benjamin Bond, 
Nathaniel Whitehead, and Wm. Strayhearn ; Overseers — 
Joseph Bond, John Lambert, Jeremiah Peck, and Benjamin 
Parkhurst; on the County Committee of highways — Ben- 
jamin Lyon and Samuel Potter. In 1718 ; Constables — John 
Gould, Il^athaniel Whitehead, and Wm. Strayhearn ; Over- 
seers of the highwa^^s —Edward Frazey, Benjamin Spinning, 
Robert Wade, and Daniel Woodruff ; Surveyors of the high- 
ways — Capt, Daniel Price, and James Sayre. In 1719 ; Con- 
stables — Wm. Strayhearn, Samuel Oliver, Jr., and Thomas 
Cnrrcy ; Overseers — David Morehouse, Samuel Oliver, Jr., 
and Joseph Marsh, Jr. In 171G and 1721, Joseph Bonncl 
was chosen to the Legislature. ■"' 

These appointments, embracing a period of about ten 
years, may serve to show who they were of the second 
generation that were chosen to office^ and were looked upon 
as men of activity and influence, by their townsmen. In 
almost every instance they were the sons or grandsons of 

* Eecords of Court, at Ne'wark. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 307 

the old planters, Avliose names are still represented iu the 
town. 

A single incident will illustrate the manners of the day. 
At the Quarter Sessions, in this town, August 19, 1712, 
Richard Baker, Joshua Ilenlock, and George Jewell, were 
indicted " for suffering the Game of Cards to be played in 
their houses." At the next term, in November, the indict- 
ment was quashed on their payment of the fees. 

The old difficulty about the northern boundary line re- 
mained unadjusted, as appears from a Town-Meeting at 
Newark, Feb. 21, 171^ 

The Inhabitants of Newark were asketi, whether they were willing to 
come to an Agreement with the Inliabitants of Elizabeth Town about 
settling the Bounds between them and us, which was unanimously con- 
sented unto : And iu Order thereunto by vote chose a Committee to en- 
deavor for an agreement, (viz. :) Mr. John Treat, Mr. Jasper Crane, 
Capt. Johnson, Mr. Theophilas Pierson, Mr. Joseph Ilarrison, Sarj'. John 
Morris, and John Cooper — did lil^ewise put into their Hands the full 
Power of agreement, and did verbally by Words engage to rest satisfied 
with what the said Committee should do in that Affair.* 

Similar, doubtless, was the course pursued here. Confer 
ences must have been held, and probably some thing agreed 
upon; and yet more than 42 years afterwards the line be- 
tween the two towns had not been finally adjusted. 

A series of prosecutions was commenced, the first year of 
George I., in the interest of tlie Proprietors, to test once more 
the validity of the Nicolls' Grant, subjecting, for a long term- 
of years, the Associate settlers to vexatious annoyances, great 
disquietude, and no small expense. 

James Emott had obtained, April 6, 16S6, of the Propri- 
etors, a Patent for 300 acres of land on the West side of 
Rahway river, within the town bounds, and claimed by the 
Associates as part of their lands in common. In the division 
of 1699-1700, Lot No. 148, containing 100 acres, surveyed 
by John Ilarriman, Jr., and the Town Committee, was as- 
signed to Joseph Woodruff. It covered a part of the land 
that had been surveyed, March 20, 168|-, by John Eeid,. 

♦ Newark Town Kccords, pp. 123, 141. 



308 THE HISTORY OF 

(Surveyor lor the Proprietors), for James Emott. At the de- 
cease of Emott, this cLaira came into the possession of his 
widow, Mary Lawrence, the step-danghter, first of Gov. Car- 
teret, and then of Col. Townley ; and so, into the hands of 
the Rev. Edward Yanghan, the Episcopal Minister of this 
Town, by her marriage to him in 1714.* 

Whereupon, in the November Term of the Supreme Court 
of New Jersey, 1Y14, Mr. Vaughan brought an Action of 
Ejectment against Joseph Woodruff. The Cause came to 
trial, in May, 1716, the judges being, as was alleged, in the 
Proprietary interest. A special verdict was found ; and, for 
several Terms, the case was argued at length on both sides, 
resulting, May, 1718, in a judgment by the Court in favor of 
Yaughan. Thereupon, by "Writ of Error, Woodruff carried 
the Cause before the Governor and Council, intending, if 
judgment were given against him there, to appeal it to the 
King in Council ; but " the Governor and Council would 
never be prevailed upon to give a Judgment in the said 
Cause ; but after about Ten or Twelve Years Delay, and a 
vast Expense in the Cause, the said Case dropt without being 
decided."! 

About the time of this Judgment and Appeal, the old 
Town Books, in which the proceedings of the various Town- 
Meetings from the beginning of the settlement for more than 
fifty years, and the various surveys ordered by vote of the 
town, had been regularly recorded,— to the irreparable 
loss of the town-history, disappeared, and have never since 
been recovered. The earliest statement of the loss is found 
in the initial entry of Town-Book B. (which, happily, has 
been preserved), under date of Aug, 2, 1720, and which is as 
follows : 

ff^/if rc«s, The Books of Eecord, Belonging To The said Elizabeth 
Town, wherein The Important aifairs of The same Towne were Recorded 
from The Bcgining Thereof; have Been privately Taken Away from 
liim imto whose Care and Custody They were Committed ; And Are not 
Likely To be Again Obtained : It is now Therefore, By A free And 
unanimous Agreement of the freehold's afores** Concluded and Resolved ; 

♦ E. Town Book, B. 33. E. J. Records, L. 64, 70 ; A. 834. 
t E. T. Bill, pp. 46, 122. Ans. to Do., p. 32. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 309 

That This present Book Now Is And Shall Be Improved To be, A book 
of Records, for the use and behoof of the freeholders of Elizabeth Town 
Afores*, And for no Other use whatsoever.* 

. At a later date, July 30, 1734, 

Samuel Whitehead Being Duly Sworn and of full age Saith that accord- 
ing to y" Beest of his memory (he Being for more than Thirty years Clark 
of Eliz"' Town) and having the Charge and Care of y^ Town Books of 
Records that the Said Books of Record were priviately Stollin and taken 
away, AYherein was Contained a certain Grant and License to purchase, 
&c. 

In a document, prepared with much care, and signed, N^o- 
vember 18, 1729, by one hundred and eleven Associates, 
with their seals affixed, the story of the lost books is thus 
recited : 

But it so happened., that the b^ Books wherein the s"^ Surveys or 
the greater Number of them were Entred by Some One or more Design- 
ing Person or persons were Craftily and Maliciously Stole and (as there 
is no Small reason to believe) were Burnt or otherwise destroy'd. So 
that the benefit thereby intended to the parties affores*^ and their As-igns 
became Wholly ffrustrate and Void ; Yet not so but the like Good Effect 
may be hoped for, from something of a Like Nature since the Original 
Surveys aftores'^ are as Yet Existing as appears Not Only by the Oath 
of the OflBcer who was Surveyor, but by divers Other concurring Cir- 
cumstances to the Satisfaction of the Parties affores'^.t 

In the Chancery Bill, Thomas Clarke, &c., vs. James Alex- 
ander, &c., 1754, it is affirmed that the books were taken out 
of the house of Samuel Whitehead, by Henry Norris and 
Thomas Gould, iii 1718 or 1719, at the instance of those in 
the Proprietaries' interest.:j: 

On the other hand, the Proprietors affirmed, that the 
" Book pretended to be lost or destroyed," had been con- 
cealed, or destroyed by the Associates themselves. Against 
which, however, in reply, a strong argument is presented by 
the Associates, to show, for several specified reasons, that it 
is the height of absurdity to suppose that they would destroy 
a Book so essential to the proof of their several properties. 
They say: that they "hope to prove, that this Book was 
taken away from the Custody of Samuel Whitehead, to whom 

* E. TowQ Book, B. 1, 2, o. end. t E. T. Book, B. 6, o. end ; 8. t p. 16. 



310 THE HISTORY OF 

it was committed by the People of Elizabeth Town, to be 
safely kept, by tlie Means of one or more Persons, who 
claimed Shares of Propriety Rights." They say, " That, to 
their great Disappointment, the Town-Book is lost ; " but, 
that it was destroyed by " those who claimed nnder the first 
Purchasers and Associates, and by or with their consent and 
Approbation " they " believe to be utterly false." Reference 
is frequently made subsequently to these early books, in 
which the language almost uniformly used is, — " being, as is 
supposed, destroyed or conveyed away;" showing a lurking 
suspicion that the books were in a place of concealment, and 
intimating that possibly they might yet be recovered — a 
hope never fulfilled. There is no intimation anywhere to be 
found, that they have ever been seen since their disappear- 
ance in 1718 or 19, and not the least prospect now of their 
ever being recovered.* 

As it was quite likely that others, holding by Proprietary 
rights, would follow the example of Mr. Yaughan, the EjDis- 
copal Missionary, and prosecute their claims before the 
Courts, the Associates determined to make common cause 
with the sufterers, in defending them against all claimants, 
and legal procedures. Accordingly', at a town-meeting, 
purporting to be "a Meeting of the Inhabitants and freehold- 
ers of Elizabeth Town, August 2, 1720," the following record 
was made : 

Item. By a Unanimous Vote of The freeholders afores"' It Is Agreed 
and Concluded, That a Committee of seven men Be Chosen from Among 
Them, To Represent Them and Every of Them the s* freeholders, In all 
affairs. Touching the Settlement of Their, and Every of Their Just Rights 
«fe Properties. 

And Accordingly, by a Unanimous Vote of the freeholders afores"* the 
Day and Year Aboves"* there was Chosen A Committee of Seven men, all 
being of the freeholders Aforos'' whoso Names are As followeth (viz') M' 
John Blanchard, Cap' Joseph Bonnel, John Crane, Joseph Williams, Samuel 
Potter, Nathaniel Bonnel, And Daniel S:iyre ; To whom the freeholders 
afores** have Given and Granted, And by these Presents Do Give and 
Grant, all their full Power And Authority, To Act and Do for them And in 
their name and behalf, whatsoever to them (or the Major part of them the 

* E.T. Bill, p. 33. Ans. to Do., p. 22. Town Book, B., ubique. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 311 

said Committee, shall (by themselves or tlieir Councill Learned) seem 
Mete and proper In all things Touching the settlement of all, & Every of 
the said freeholders, In their Just Eights And properties. As they and 
Every of them Claim by force of Grant and Purchase, under Governour 
Richard Nicholls.* 

This seems to have been the first instance of the appoint- 
ment of Trustees, or "Committee Men," as they were more 
generally called, for the disposal of the common lands of the 
town, and for the systematic and organized defence of the 
people's title to their inheritance, of which they or their fa- 
thers had now been in possession more than fifty 3'ears. The 
measure was wise and salutary, as well as necessary. It 
served as an efi*ectual barrier to all encroachments from out- 
siders, and gave great annoyance to the wealthy and power- 
ful Board or Council of Proprietors, who found themselves 
continully checked and thwarted ever afterward, by this reso- 
lute and most efficient body of Committee Men, to whose 
energy and efficiency they could not but bear the most de- 
cided and positive testimony.f 

The members of this Committee appear to have served at 
the pleasure of the town, the term of their holding office not 
being specified. Changes were made, as circumstances 
required. 

More than nine years afterwards, at a numerous meeting of 
the Associates, full power was again given to the Town Com- 
mittee, to act in the premises, at which time, Kov. 18, 1729, 
Benjamin Bond, Joseph Woodrufi", and John Harriman were 
appointed on the Committee in the place of John Crane, 
Joseph "Williams, and Daniel Sayrc, the first and the last 
having deceased. 

The names of the Associates present are attached, with 
their seals, to a paper, previously recorded, of the same date, 
in which are recited briefly the Nature of their Title-Deeds, 
the Names of the Original Associates, and of those of 1699 
additional, together with a statement of the Loss of the Town 
Books, and an Agreement to allow the new Book to be re- 
garded as a Lawful Record of Surveys and Convej^ances. 

* Town Book, B., o. end. I. t E. T. Bill, 47-52. Ans. to Do., 33 



312 



THE HISTORY OF 



The several subscriptious are as follows 



Jonathan Ogdcn 
John Woodruff 
Jonathan Dickinson 
Samuel Whitehead 
John Lambert 
John Harriman 
Eichard Clarke 
John megie 
benj min Wade 
Eobert Wade 
Joseph X osboiirn 
Leonard milso 
Ephraim Price 
John Moriss 
John Blanchard Jun"" 
Jeremiah Grain 
Stephen Harriman 
Simon Searing 
Jhon royno 
Peter Blanchard 
John X Bryant 
Benjamin x Clarke 
Joseph Avoodroff 
John Wade 
Stephen Crane 
Joseph Ludlara 
Joseph wood ruffe 
Joseph X Morss 
Daniell Meakcr 
Joseph Ilalsy 
Henry Clarke 
John Willis 
W" Brant 
John meeker 
Matthew Connet 
W'" Broadwell 
Nath: Bonnel 
Richerd Miller 



Daniel Potter 
William Strayhearn 
Joseph willis 
Sam" miller 
Joseph Williams 
..George Ross Jun' 
Samuel Potter 
Samuel x Serin 
Joseph Tooker 
Benjamin Watkins 
Jona"' : Allen 
John Ross 
Ichabod Burnet 
Henry Connet 
Thomas x Baker 
John Megie Jn'' 
William Clarke 
John X Robeson 
Natli" Hubbel 
Matthias Hetfield 
Noadiah Potter 
Robert Wade 2'J 
Joseph Bonnel 
Benja Bond 
John Thompson 
Abraham Clark 
John X Baker 
Joshua X Marsh 
Ben Woodruff 
Joseph Megie 
John Peirson 
Timothy Woodruff 
Thomas Woodruff 
Caleb Woodruff 
Daniel Ross Jr 
Moses Thomson 
Robert Ogden 



John Clark 
John Osborne 
Isaac orsbon 
hope carpntr 
David Dunham 
Andrew Craigo 
John Crane 
Caleb Jefferrys 
John Denman 
Thomas Price 
Miles Williams 
Thomas x Akin 
Richard Lambert 
Joseph Clark 
John Atkinson 
Elnathan Cory 
Jonathan Crane 
Edward Gillman 
David Lambert 
richerd hall 
Richard Clark jn'' 
Josiah Terrill 
John lambert 3'^ 
Joseph Cory 
John Shotwcll 
Ephraim Terrill 
John Terrill 
Samuel Woodruf 
Daniel Williams 
David X Jennings 
Jonathan Dayton 
Jonathan Whitaker 
James Colio 
Ezekiel Sayro 
Benjamin x Acarlee 
Thomas Jefferrys 
Thomas Chapman * 



It is rather creditable to the humble yeomaurj whose 
names are here given, that all of them, save those that arc 
marked with x , were able to write their own names ; though 



* Town Book, B. 1-10. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 313 

it must be admitted that the chirography, in most cases, is 
capable of much improvement. The list is far from complete. 
Other lists, a few years later, show that very many, who were 
living in the town at this date, and in full sympathy with 
these subscribers, are not included in the list of signatures. 
It contains, probably, only those who were present at the 
town-meeting and voted. The subscribing witnesses were, 
Thomas Price and Thomas Hill. 

Several new names appear. Among them, and third in 
order, is the name of the two Presbyterian ministers, Jonathan 
Dickinson, of the town, and Nathaniel Hubbell, of Westfield, 
among the leaders of tlie party of popular rights, as Mr. 
Vaughan, the Episcopal minister, whose law-suit was still 
pending, was of the opposing party. So numerous, too, was 
the former party, it will be observed, that their business was 
transacted in the name of the town, — at a "^ town-meeting," 
and not a meeting of the party. 

An almost entire change was made in the membershij) of 
the Committee of Seven Select Men, at the town-meeting, 
April 4, 1732, Joseph Williams, Joseph Halsey, Jeremiah 
Crane, Samuel Miller, Caleb JefFerys, John Crane, and 
Joseph Bonnel, Esq', having been then appointed.* 

Another litigation was commenced in 1731. Patrick Lith- 
gow had become a claimant, by a Proj^rietary right, to a 
tract of land west of the Pahway river, within the bounds 
of the town, that originall}'-, Ap. 11, 1682, had been surveyed 
to Sir George and Philip Carteret, and conveyed subsequent- 
ly to Peter Schuyler. A portion of the same tract, by virtue 
of the Allotment of 1699-1700, and by right of the Indian 
purchase of 1664, had come into the possession of John 
Eobison, Henry Clarke, Andrew Craige, Joshua Marsh and 
others of the E. T. Associates. Actions of Ejectment were 
brought, in the Ma}'^ Term of the Supreme Court of ISTew 
Jersey, 1731, against these four occupants. These cases 
came to trial at the May Term of 1734, and a general verdict 
was found by a Middlesex jury, for the defendants : — 
thus, as understood by the latter and their friends, conlirm- 

• Town Book, B. 11. 



314 THE HISTORY OF 

ing the validity of the E. Town Purchase and the Nicolls 
Grant.* 

In order more firmly to bind themselves and those who 
purchased of them, to the defence of their Titles, bonds were 
given to [Rev.] Nathaniel Ilubbell, John Crane, and Joseph 
Shotwell, a Committee of Trustees chosen for this purpose, 
whereby they severally came under obligation, to pay (not 
exceeding the sum of £10, Proclamation Money,) such sums 
as should be duly assessed upon them by the said Trustees 
towards defraying tli« charges and expenses of maintaining 
and defending the E. Town Title, according to the judgment 
and discretion of the Committee of Seven.f 

Further to provide the means of defraying these charges, 
"it was agrea^ and voted by a Greait majorility of those In- 
terested" in the Nicolls Grant, at a town meeting, July 1, 
1731, to empower the seven select men, to dispose of 

All that Tract of Land or any part or parcel Thereof Begining at 
Ceder Brook Avliere Essex Line Groses the said Brook and from Thence 
Runing "west six miles and from Thence the Nearest Corse to tho moun- 
tain from Thence as the said mountain Runs to the hundred acres Lots 
formerly survea"* according to the Town order and agreement and from 
Thence to the first mentioned place to the said Ceder Brook. (Also) 
To Dispose of what money, shall arise from the Sale of The said Lands, 
or any part Thereof for the Genoral Intrust of the said Associates and 
freeholders. In Defending Them or any of Them In The possion of Their 
property or In dispossessing any That shall unjustly Intrude upon any 
part of the aforesaid purchase and Grant.J 

This tract was wholly in what is now Somerset Co., and 
included a considerable part of the township of Warren, 
with a small part of Bridgewater. In the subsequent pro- 
ceedings connected with these litigations, this measure 
was made a matter of complaint against the Associates. 
It was replied, that the Proprietors, " to defray and sup- 
port tlie Expense of their Proceedings and Law-Suits, 
have sold at public vendue, and among themselves, several 
Thousand Acres of Land," the one following the example 
of the other.§ 

* E. T. r,m, p., 47. Ans. to Do., p. S3. t E. T. Rill, pp., ll?-0. Ans. to Do., p. 3S. 

} Town Book, B. 8. § Aus. to E. T. Bill, p. 33. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 315 

This controvers}^, affecting, as it did, every man's interests, 
was, for long years, the all-engrossing topic of thought and 
conversation, in all circles, among all classes. It came up at 
every town-meeting, and was discussed in the Justices' 
Courts, and at the Quarter Sessions. It forms, therefore, the 
staple of the town-history for this period. 

At a town-meeting on the second Tuesday (11th) of 
March, ITSf, tlie seven Trustees were authorized to lay 
out the remainder of the common land of the town, back 
of the first mountain, into lots of 100 acres each, to be 
divided by lot among the Associates ; and to arrange with 
those who had already improved any portion of these lands ; 
the money thus received to be appropriated to the defence 
of the people against those claiming under proprietary 
titles.* 

It was charged by tlie other party, that the measure, then 
discussed and adopted, was fully and effectually carried out ; 
that a great number of the Proprietary tenants, fearing the 
loss of their improvements, were induced either to purchase, 
or take leases of, the land thus occupied, from the Town 
Trustees. Nor was the ftict at all denied or questioned. Con- 
sequent on this conversion of title, an Action of Ejectment 
was brought, in the August Term of the Supreme Court of 
New Jersey, by James Fenn, holding by Proprietary right 
derived from the three sons, (John, Thomas, and Richard), 
of AVilliam Penn, against John Chambers and a Mr. Alcorn ; 
thus opening anew the litigation which had been quieted by 
the decision in the Schuyler case, and requiring another con- 
siderable outlay to meet the charges necessary for defending 
their titles.f 

A town meeting, therefore, was held, Sept. IG, 1735, duly 
convened by Nvarrant from the Magistrates, Joseph Bonnel 
and Joseph Man, Esq""*, at which the seven Trustees were im- 
powered, to dispose of 

A Certain Tract or Parcell of Land Lying west from a place Known 
by the name of Baskino Ridge and between the west Jersey line not to 

♦ Town Book, B. 4, 5. t E. T. Bill, pp. 47, 8. Ans. to Do., pp. 33, 4. 



316 THE HISTORY OF 

exceed Eight Milles upon tho East and west line and to Extend to our 
utmost bounds upon the North and south Lines Provided always That 
the s"^ Tract of Land be not convey'd and sold for Less then two Thousand 
Pounds Current Money of New Jersey and so in Proportion for a Lesser 
Quantity of said Land and it is further agreed and Concluded That 
we tho said Associates and flfreeholders Do Reserve one Third part of 
said Tract of Land to ourselves if Required by said ffreeholders and 
then and In such case to Deduct one Third part of said Two Thousand 
Pounds all which money is to be Improv'd for the General Good of s"^ 
ffreeholders.* 

This tract, remote as it is from the locality of the original 
settlement, was clearly included in the township of Elizabeth- 
Town, as defined by the Act of 1693, and as clearly in the 
land conveyed by the Indian purchase and the Nicolls 
patent. It embraced the northern half of Somerset County, 
and a considerable part of what is now Morris County. "No 
wonder, that the Proprietors, astounded by this vigorous 
action of the irrepressible yeomanry of Elizabeth Town, sliould 
speak of " the Lines of their vast Pretensions ; " nor that 
James Alexander, tho father of " Lord Stirling," should write, 
Oct. 1, 1735, to Col. John Hamilton [son of Gov. Andrew], 
at Perth Ambov, " advisino; him to call a meeting of the 
Proprietors of East Jersey, to devise measures to stop the 
proceedings of the Elizabeth Town people in extending their 
bounds and granting lands."f 

A large body of land yet remained unappropriated, lying 
to the West of the surveys and allotments of 1699-1700, in- 
cluding what were familiarly known as the First and Second 
Mountains, as fixr as the Newark Line on the North, with the 
intervening Yalley drained by Blue Brook, the Eastern Branch 
of Cedar Brook, on either side of which the village of Feltville 
has since grown up ; and the whole region watered by the 
Passaic River above Chatham, embracing the whole of the 
present Township of New Providence, in Union County, and 
the Southern parts of Chatham and Morris Townships in 
Morris County. Portions of the tract v/ere exceedingly rug- 
ged, and others low and swampy ; but other portions, of large 
extent, were quite productive and desirable. Immigration 

* K. T. Book,B.8. + E. T.Bill, p. 49. AnBlytical Index, p. 164. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 317 

had already found its way thither, in search of fruitful soil, 
healthful residences, and vahiable mill-sites. 

It was, therefore, deemed best to repeat the measure of 
1699, and make a further distribution of the landed domain 
of tlie town. A new generation, the grandchildren of the old 
planters, had come to years, and needed room to plant and 
build for themselves. A town-meeting was held, according- 
ly, I^OY. 8, 1736, and measures were taken to effect the de- 
sired object. Joseph Morse (the son of Joseph, and the 
grandson of Peter Morse, both deceased) was chosen and 
duly qualified as the Town Surveyor ; and John Megie was 
chosen, Nov. 14, 1737, one of the Seven Men, in place ot 
Samuel Miller, whose growing infirmities of body unfitted 
him for service.* 

The work confided to the Seven Men and the Surveyor 
was duly and faithfully performed. The first 43 lots were 
surveyed Dec. 27-9, 1736 ; Lots, 44-164, Nov. 22 to Dec. 3, 
1737; the Additional Survey, 1-109, Jan. 17. to Feb. 22, 
173|; and Corson's Survey of 7 Lots, Jan. 6, 173f The 
whole of this large territory — the back country of the town 
— was regularly laid out, and divided into 280 one-lmndred- 
acre lots ; of all which due report was made at a town-meet- 
ing, held, March 28, 1738, for the distribution, by lot, of the 
respective shares to which each of the Associates, by their 
heirs and assigns, was entitled. The mode of allotment was 
determined by the following vote : 

All such persons as shall have a first, second or third Lott Eight within 
the s'^ Elizabeth Town purchase and in the first Division of the Lands to 
the Northward of the South mountain (Now to be drawn for) and have 
Disposed of or Conveyed any such Eight or Eights to any person or per- 
sons whatsoever that he or they to whom s"* Disposal or Conveyance of s'^ 
first, second or third Lot Eight has first been made or Conveyed as 
afores'' may and shall by virtue of this vote (as afores'' first made and 
conveyed) have the first Draugh of the alotment of the Lands Now to be 
Drawn for in the Division of the s'' Lands and those that have the second 
Conveyance shall have the second Lot and so on as aforesaid. t 

* E. Town Book, B. 16, 17. 

t This latter Survey included the greater part of tlio Passaic Valley, South of Chatham; 
occupied at the present day, to a great extent, by descendants of these first occupants; of whom 
oxtended notices arc given by John Littell, in his "QcnealogicB of the First Settlers of Pas- 



318 THE HISTORY OF 

Joseph Williams having died, and Jeremiah Crane by rea- 
son of age having become inlirm, Messrs. Jonathan Dayton 
and John Ogden were chosen, Mar. 13, 173 5, Committee 
men in their place. 

The new allotments gave occasion for renewed litigation 
with the Proprietors, and their Assigns. Daniel Cooper held 
a Proprietary claim to a portion of the lands thus surveyed 
and allotted. An action of Trespass was, therefore, brought, 
in his name, " against Joseph Moss, John Crane, John Den- 
nan, John Scudder, John Terril, Samuel Norris, sen. and 
Samuel ISTorris, jun., the then Committee or Managers for 
the said Clinker Lot Right Men." So they were styled in 
the bill; but erroneously, as only one of the number, John 
Crane, belonged to the Committee. The Cause came on for 
a hearing in the May Term of the Supreme Court, 173S, and 
the defendants pleading — "Not Guilty" — it was deferred 
for proof.* 

James Logan, also, about the same time, holding by a Pro- 
prietary claim, brought sundry actions of Trespass and Eject- 
ment against a number of his tenants, in the Western part of 
the Elizabeth Town purchase, who had, also, bought, or 
taken leases, of the Town Committee. Similar actions were 
brought in the August Term of 1738, against Benjamin Man- 
ning and Wright Skinner, in the name of Daniel Axtell, de- 
ceased. In respect to one of these actions, the following 
record was made, in the Town Book, of the proceedings of a* 
town-meeting, held, June 18, 1739 : — 

Agreed and Concluded, that m' John Blanchard mr Eduard Sale mr 
Jonathan alien mr william miller and mr thomas Clark are to cuUect 
money of the Inhabitants of the purcluise of Elizabeth town for Defray- 
ing the Charges in Kuning out the said purchase By a Jury of Revieue In 
an actiim Depending Between James Logan plantifl:' and Joseph manning 
Defendant and a rule of Court made for y* same. (Also), mr John Crain 
and m' Jonathan Dayton are Impowerod to Receiue the money collected 
By mr John Blanchard mr Eduard Sale mr Jonathan alien mr william 
miller or thomas Clark and Dispose of the same in Defraying the Charges 
of Buuiug out the s' purchase to the Jury of Rovieuo or any other Charges 

Bale Valley, (and Vicinity,) above Chatliam — with their Ancestors and Descendants, as far as 
can now be ascertained. 1S51." E. T. Book, B. 16, o. e. E. Town Book of Surreys, C. 1-60. 
♦ E. Town Bill, pp. 49, 50. Ans. to Do., pp. 81, 5. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 319 

which they the s'^ m'' John Grain or mr Jonathan Dayton shall think 
Necessary in tliat affair. 

As Logan's claim was in tlie extreme "West of tlie Pur- 
chase, and it was doubtful whether it was included therein, 
the Court had ordered the question of fact to be determined 
by a Jury of Review. 

At the same town-meeting, the question of the Newark 
boundary line, also, came up again for consideration, and it 
was agreed, 

That Justice andrew Joline mr John Blanchard and mr Daniel potter 
are Impowered. hy the associates and freeholders aboue said to aGree with 
the people of Newark to settle and ascertain a Division Liue Between the 
Town of Newark and Elizabeth town and to talvc such measures and 
means as to them the s'^ Justice andrew Joline mr John Blanchard and mr 
Daniel potter shall seem proper in order to obtnin the said Division Line 
to be Established and to have Reasonable Satisfaction for their service in 
that affair. 

The Newark people appointed, Oct. 24, 1Y39, " Jonathan 
Crane Esq'r, Col'l Josiali Ogden, and Samuel Farrand Esq'r. 
a Committee to treat with the People of Elizabeth Town 
about settling a Line between the two Towns." * 

Whatever was done in the matter, the result was the same 
as on former occasions ; inasmuch as the liue was still unad- 
justed, fifteen years later. It was a large and valuable in- 
heritance that the Town received from the original pur- 
chasers, but it cost them a vast deal of time, expense, and per- 
plexity, to determine its exact bounds, and to defend it against 
all trespassers.f 

It was, probably, the difficulty experienced in conducting 
these delicate and intricate affairs in town-meeting, and the 
doubtfulness of the autliority claimed, in some instances by 
the Committee men, or Trustees, that led the principal men 
of the town to seek an Incorporation — to obtain a Chai-ter 
by means of which they could more promptly and thoroughly 
transact the public business. 

The time was opportune. New Jersey, after having been 
for thirty-five years an appendage of the Province of New 

* E. Town Book, B. 20, o. e. Newark Town Records, p. 104. 
t Newark Town Records, p. 141. 



320 THE HISTORY OF 

York, under a succession of Royal Governors residing in the 
City of New York, had at length, after repeated remonstran- 
ces and entreaties, obtained a position independent of the 
other Provinces, with one of her own citizens, Lewis Morris, 
as Governor. His long familiarity with the Territory and 
with the people, as a private citizen and in public office, had 
made him acquainted with the towns and their need. Joseph 
Bonncl, a man of commanding influence at home, had repre- 
sented the town in Gov. Morris' first Legislature (1738-39), 
of which he had been chosen Speaker, from which position 
he had been transferred by the Governor to the Bench of the 
Supreme Court, having been appointed, May, 1739, Second 
Judge, Robert Hunter Morris being Chief Justice.* 

A petition, therefore, was prepared, and circulated, praying 
Gov. Morris to procure from his Majesty, the King, a Cliarter 
of Incorporation for the town, as a free town or borough. It 
was extensively signed, the first names being in order as 
follows: "Joseph Bonnel, Andrew Joline, Thomas Price, 
-John Ross, John Blanchard, John Crane, Thomas Clark, 
Matthias Iletfield, Noadiah Potter, John Ilalstead, IS^athaniel 
Bonnel, Samuel Woodruflf, Samuel Marsh, Jonathan Hamp- 
ton, William Chetwood, Edward Thomas, and Cornelius Het- 
field." These were the leading men of the town, representing 
both of the parties into which it was divided, and both of the 
religious denominations. As Judge Bonnel's name leads the 
petition, it is quite likely that he himself had prepared it, and 
presented it. 

The petition was favorably received, and a Charter granted 
by his Majesty, George IL, bearing date Feb. 8, 17f |. It 
constituted the Passaic River, from the mouth of Dead River 
to the Minisink Crossing, the Western boundary of the 
Borough. The territory was nearly co-terminous with the 
present Union County. On the South-west, however, it in- 
cluded nearly the whole of the town of Warren in Somerset 
County. It was to be known " by the name of tlie Free 
Borough and town of Elizabeth." It appointed Joseph Bon- 
nell. Esq"", "Mayor and Clark of the Market," and Coroner, 

• Anal. Index of N. J. Docmts., p. 175. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY 321 

also; John Blan chard, Esq'', liecorder ; "Andrew Joline, 
Matthias Hatfield, Thomas Price, John Ross, John Crane, & 
Thomas Clark Esq'""," Aldermen; "lifoadiah Potter, John 
Halstead, 'Nathaniel Bonnel, Samuel Woodruff, Samuel Marsh 
& Jonathan Hampton Gent.," "Assistants and Common 
Councill;" "William Chetwood Esq'"," Sheriff; Jonathan 
Dayton, Chamberlain; Thomas Hill, Marshall; "John Pad- 
ley, George Eoss, Junior, Daniel Marsh & John Scudder, 
Assessors ; Robert Ogden, John Odle, John Terrill & Wil- 
liam Clark, Collectors ; James Townley, High Constable ; 
and Robert Little, ^Nathaniel Price, Richard Harriman, John 
Looker, John Craige, Daniel Dunham to be petit Constables ; 
Henry Garthwait, Cornelius Hetfield, John Radley Sen^ 
John Allen, Ephraim Marsh & Daniel Day," " Overseers for 
the Poor;" and "Michael Kearny, Esq'"," Common Clerk. 

It accorded to the Mayor, Aldermen and Common Coun- 
cil all the Rights, Immunities and Privileges usually granted 
to bodies corporate ; as will be seen by reference to the ex- 
ceedingly voluminous Document itself.* 

Of the above-named officers of the new Corporation, An- 
drew Joline had been Collector for this town from 1734 to 
173S, and Justice, as early as 1735. His death occurred not 
later than 1742. William Chetwood had been Sheriff of the 
County, as early as 1735, succeeding Benjamin Bonnell. 
Joseph Bonnell, Thomas Price, and Matthias Hatfield had 
been Justices. 

The town had, from the first, been the leading town in East 
Jersey. In 1734, the Rateg foi- Essex Co. were as follows : 
for Elizabeth Town, £56. 0. : for Newark, £44. 14. : for 
Acquackanong, £14. 7. 3. Agreeably to the action of the 
town, June 18, 1739, the Line was drawn separating Essex 
County from Middlesex and Somerset Counties, for which 
the following charges were paid : To Mr. Joseph Bonnell, 
"for procuring a Writ or Warrant for Runing the Division 
Line," £2. 14. 0. 

To Wm. Chetwood, Sheriff, for time and Expences, G. 0. 0. 
To John Blanchard, Surveyor, " " " 2. 2. 0. 

♦ Murray's Notes, pp. 2S-41. 

21 



322 THE HISTORY OF 

To Jonathan IIcini])ton, Surveyor, for time and 

Expences, 
To John Crane, for time and Expences, 
To Nathaniel Bonnel, " " 

To Daniel Potter, " " 



£2. 


0. 0. 


1. 


8. 0, 


1. 


19. 10, 


1. 


6. 0, 



£17. 9. 10. 



February 27, 17f|." 

During the first sixty years of the settlement the newspa- 
per was unknown. Information of current events at home 
and abroad was received by correspondence, or oral commu- 
nication. The gathering at the "meeting-house," on the 
Lord's Day, was the principal occasion for the diffusion of 
intelligence, whether of domestic occurrences, or of provin- 
cial and foreign events. Advertisements were posted at the 
doors of the meeting-house, where all could read them. The 
Boston " News-Letter," a half-sheet of paper, 12 by 8 inches, 
was started, April 24, 1704 ; but it is scarcely probable, that 
it circulated here. Possibly a single copy may have found 
its way hither occasionally. The same may be said of the 
"Boston Gazette," commenced at the close of 1719, and of 
the " New England Courant," commenced at Boston, Aug. 
17, 1721.t 

" The New York Gazette " was introduced to the public 
by Wm. Bradford, Oct 10, 1725, being the first Weekly Pa- 
per established in the City of New York. Though a dimin- 
utive affair, tlie event was of no small importance. This 
humble periodical brought the people of the city and neigh- 
boring towns, into a familiar and accurate acquaintance with 
passing occurrences of greatest interest, and was made, also, 
the vehicle of communicating one with another. The Ad- 
vertisements were few and brief, and the News-items excced- 
inMy meagre. But occasionally a paragra|)h appears shed- 
ding light on the social and commercial interests and history 
of this town. The earliest notices of the kind, now to be 
found, are wortliy of a place in these pages. The very first 
is connected with the institution of Domestic Slavery, now, 
by the good providence of God, brought to a perpetual end : — 

* Eesex Co. Justices'' Account Book. 

t Buckinsham's Specimens of Newapripcr Literature, I. 4, 44, 9. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 323 

Eun away from Solomon Bates of Elizabetli Town, a Negroe Man, 
called Clause, aged about 27 years old, has got with him a Homspun 
Coat of Linen and Wool, with Brass Buttons, an Ozenbrig Yest with 
black Buttons and Button-holes, and an old striped Vest, Leather Breeches, 
new Homespun Wosted Stockings, black Shoes with Buckles ; he has a 
Hat and Cap, and he can play upon the Fiddle, and speaks English and 
Dutch. Whoever can take up the said Negro, and bring him to his said 
Master, or secure him and give Notice, so that his Master can have 
him again, shall have reasonable Satisfaction, besides all reasonable 
Charges.* 

Mr. Bates' name first occurs, 'Nov. 9, 1714, in the old 
" Record of Ear Marks for Elizabeth Town ; " but he seems 
to have had no connection with the Associates. His name 
occurs, also, in " the Morristown Bill of Mortality," p. 13, 
as having died of old age (100) November, 1771. His widow 
died, also of old age, March 18, 1787, 97 years old. They 
must have removed to Morristown at an early day. Claus, 
or Kicholas, formerly belonged to Daniel Badgley. He wa& 
arrested and restored to his master. But he had a persistent 
propensity to have his own way; and, less than two years 
afterwards, Mr. Bates complains that he had taken himself 
away again, and, this time, — 

He has taken with him a grey Homespun Drugget Coat trim'd with 
Black, a white linnen Vest trira'd with black, and a homespun Kearsay 
Vest, a Pair of Leather Breeches, with rod Puffs and Shoes and Stock- 
ings.t 

" Mr. Benjamin Price, Attorney at Law in New York,"- 
has for sale a House and Lot in New Brunswick. Mr. Price 
was a grandson of one of the Associates and bore his name.:}: 

The public are informed that 

there is good Entertainment for Men and Horses and Horses to be 
Let at all Times by William Donaldson at the Eose and Crown in Eliza- 
beth Town, New Jerscy.§ 

The House, Stable and Garden of Benjamin Hill in Elizabeth-Town in 
New Jersey, is to bo Let from year to year, or for a terra of years. It is 
a very convenient place for a Trades-man or a Shop-keeper. || 

At the Sign of the Ship in Elizabeth-Town lives Benjamin Hill, who 
keeps Horses to Let, and where all Travellers and others may be accora- 

♦ N. T. Gazette, Juno 1, 1730. t lb., May 8, 1732. { lb., July 20, 1730. 

S lb., Oct. IC, 1732. 1 lb., M:ir. 26, 1734. 



324- THE HISTORY OF 

modated -with good Entertainment for Man and Horse at all Times in the 
"White House which Mr. Schuyler bought of Mr. Townley.* 

This was the house built by Gov. Carteret shortly before 
his death, of which Col. Townley became possessed by marry- 
in«: the Governor's widow. 

On "Wednesday the 23 of April next at the Paper Mill in Elizabeth- 
Town, there will be Sold at Public Vendue to the highest Bidder, all 
sorts of Household Goods, Cattle, Horses, Hogs, Cart, Plows, Harrows 
with Iron Teeth, and other Utensils : The Plantation adjoyning to the 
said Mill will also be soldj which contains about Ninety Acres, &c.t 

It was at this Mill that the Paper was made, on which the 
Gazette was printed. It is not known by whom the Mill was 
built ; but, in 1728, it was purchased by William Bradford, 
of ISTew York, who, in 1730-1, was a resident of the town. 
His son, Andrew, was, at the same period, printing the 
" American Weekly Mercury," The father and son had 
quite a monopoly of government printing, and needed a mill 
independent of the foreign manufacturers. This was the 
first paper mill in Kew Jersey.:}: 

To be Sold at Publick Vendue, on Tuesday the 26th of August instant, 
at Elizabeth-Town in New Jersey, a Grist Mill and fulling Mill, also a 
Lot of Ground, adjoyning to the Dwelling House of Edward Thomas, in 
the Raid Town, very convenient for a dwelling house and Garden, and 
near the said Mill, as also sundry Household Good. All which were lately 
belonging to Wm "Williamson late of said Town, deceased, and power of 
Selling the same given by his last "Will to Margaret Williamson his "Wid- 
dow Now living at Elizabeth Town aforesaid. § 

This was the old Mill that was still standing, until within 
a few years, at the stone bridge in Broad street, — originally 
constructed by the pioneer John Ogden, — the last vestiges of 
which have now disappeared before the march of modern 
improvement. 

In the Month of December last an Apprentice Lad named Abraham 
Hendricks ran away from his Master John Ross of Elizabeth Town New- 
Jersey ; said Lad is about Years of Age, was of small Stature, had a 
brown great Coat and a Linsey "Wosley under a Beaver Hat half worn 

• N. T. Gazette, Mar. 81, 1735. t lb., Ap. 7, 1735. 

t Historical Magazine, I. 86, 123; III. 173; VII. 210. 
5 N. Y. Gazette, Aug. 25, 1735. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 325 

having light colored hair and took a set of Shoemakers Tools along with 
hina, being a Shoemaker by Trade. (A Reward of SOs. and charges of- 
fered.)* 

Mr. Eoss was named, iu the Borongli Charter, one of the 
Aldermen of the Corporation, and became, in 1748, Mayor 
of the Borough. Hendricks was, probably, the brother of 
Isaac, and the son of Jonn Hendricks, who came here as 
early as May, 1T21, from Piscataway, where Daniel and 
Jabez Hendricks, brothers, and Leonard Hendricks were 
numbered among the original settlers. Abraham returned, 
and his name is found among a large number of citizens, 
attached to a Memorial forwarded in 1743 to the King, 
George H. 

These are to desire all Persons not to Trade with nor Trust my Wife 
Hannah Tunis on my Account, for I will not pay any Debts that she shall 
contract. Peter Tunis.t 

This is the first occurrence of the name in the Records, or 
Chronicles of the Town. The family were early found among 
the Dutch in New York. 

We have an Account also that two Boys, the sons of Matthias Hat- 
field of Elizabeth Town in New Jersey, being in the Woods hunted a 
Rabbit into a hollow Tree, and in order to get it cut down the Tree, 
which fell upon the younger Brother and killed him dead on the Spot.J 

Mr. Hatfield was one of the magistrates of the town, be- 
came High Sheriff and Alderman, and, by his daughter 
Phebe, wife of Pobert Ogden, Esq., was the grandfather of 
Gen. Matthias and Gov. Aaron Ogden, and an ancestor of 
Gov. Daniel Haines. 

♦ N. T. Gazette, Ang. 25, 1735. t lb., Sep. 29, 1735. X lb., Jan. 13, 173f. 



326 THE HISTORY OF 



CHAPTEE XV. 

A.D. 1Y08-1747. 

Ecclesiastical — Rev. Jona. Dickinson — Parentage, Education, Marriage, and 
Ordination — His Parish and Salary — Joins the Presbytery, Episcopal Con- 
troversy, Westfield Chh. — "Adopting Act" of 1729 — Practices Medicine 

— His " Reasonableness of Christianity " — Presbytery of E. Jersey — Elders 

— Case of Hemphill — Another Episcopal Controversy — New Providence Chh. 

— Presbytery of N. York — Whitefield at E. T. — Dickinson's "Witness of 
the Spirit." — Revival of 1740 — Dickinson's "Five Points" — His "Display 
of Special Grace" — Controversy on Regeneration — His " Familiar Letters." 

— Old Side and New Side Controversy — Division of the Synod — ESbrts to 
Christianize the Indians — David Brainerd — Death of Mrs. Dickinson — His 
Second Marriage — Another Episcopal Controversy — College of New Jersey 
— Dickinson, its first President — His Death and Character — His Family. 

TuE vacancy occasioned by the retirement of the Rev. 
Samuel Melyen from the pulpit of tlie Independent Church, 
was filled, shortly after, by the Ordination and Installation 
of the 

REV. JONATHAN DICKINSON. 

lie was the son of Hezekiah, and grandson of Nathaniel 
Dickinson. His grandfather was among the early settlers 
of Wcthersfield, Ct., and emigrated thence, in 1650, to 
Hadley, Mass. His son, Hezekiah, was born at Wethers- 
field, Feb., 164|, became a merchant, and resided successive- 
ly in Stratford, Ct., and Hatfield, Hadley and Springfield, 
Mass. He married, at Stratford, December 4, 1679, 
Abigail, born Nov. 11, 1663, daughter of Samuel, and grand- 
daughter of Rev. Adam, Blackman, [Bhakeman], the first 
minister of Stratford, Ct., and a graduate of the University 
of Oxford.* 

* Savage's Gen. Diet., 1. 195. II. 47. Hinman's Pur. Settlors of Ct., 1. 244. Goodwin's 
Gcncalog. Notes, pp. 6, 7, 123. 




<; ofFruwetorv CoUeac'. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 327 

Jonathan was the second child of these worthy parents. 
He was born, April 22, 1688, at Hatfield, Mass., removed to 
Hadley, in 1G90, and to Springfield, in 1695, where he spent 
the most of his youth. Possibly, a portion of his younger 
days may have been passed at his grandfather Blackman's, 
in Stratford. The worthy minister of Stratford, Rev. Israel 
Chauncy, was one of the principal founders of Tale College, 
which went into operation in 1702. Through his influence 
it was, probably, that young Dickinson, entered the new 
college the same year, and was received into the family of 
the Rev. Abraham Pierson, of Killingworth, Ct., the first 
President, at whose house the students received instruction 
until his death in 1707. His tutor for three years, (1703- 
1706), was John Hart, subsequently the minister of East 
Guilford, Ct. He graduated in 1706. His classmates were 
Jared Eliot (Mr. Pierson's successor in the ministry'' at Kill- 
ingworth, and highly celebrated as a physician as well as a 
divine), and Timothy Woodbridge, minister of Simsbury, Ct., 
from 1712 to 1742.* 

Shortly after he left College, his father died, (June 14, 
1707), and his mother married, January 21, lYOf, Thomas 
Ingersoll, of Springfield, Mass. With whom young Dickin- 
son studied theology, and by whom he was licensed to preach, 
no record informs us. While in College, at Killingworth, he 
may frequently have extended his visits to Guilford, the next 
town on the West, and there, among the Hubbards and Fow- 
lers, have met and courted their cousin, Joanna Melyen, 
the daughter of Jacob, and the sister of the Rev. Samuel 
Melyen. He may thus have had his attention directed to 
the vacant pulpit in this town ; or the people here may have 
been thus directed to him. Mr. Pierson, too, who had, for 
more than 20 years, been the pastor of the Church of Newark, 
and familiar with this whole region, may, at or soon after his 
graduation, (for Mr. Pierson died, March 17, ITO-^-), have 
advised him to go to East Jersey .f 

He was in his twenty-first year, a mere stripling, when he 

♦ Trumbull's Conn., I. 501. Baldwin's Tale Coll., pp. lS-22. Tnle Co!. Triennial. 
t Cbapin's Glastenbury, p. 172. 



328 THE HISTORY OF 

caine hither in 170S. His marriage to Miss Melyen must 
have taken place as early as March, 1709, the birth of his 
first child being thus recorded in his Family Bible : " Our 
son Melyen was born December 7, 1709." Ilis wife was 
more than four years his senior, having been born in 1683. 
His ministry proved so acceptable, that measures were soon 
taken for his ordination as Pastor. The ministers of Fair- 
field Count}'-, who had just become consociated, according to 
the Saybrook Platform of Sept. 9, 1708, were invited to per- 
form the services on that occasion. These ministers were 
John Davenport of Stamford, Stephen Buckingham, of Nor- 
walk, Joseph Webb of Fairfield, and Israel Chauncy of 
Stratford. These, with " Messengers " from the several 
Churches, constituted the ordaining Council, together with, 
probably, the Rev. Kathaniel Wade with a Messenger from 
the Church of Woodbridge ; and the Kev, Kathaniel Bowers 
with a Messenger from the Church of Newark. The Rev. 
Joseph Morgan had just left Greenwich, Ct., and been in- 
stalled at Freehold, ]^. J. He, too, was invited, and it had 
been arranged that he should preach the sermon. The 
ordination took place, on Friday, Sept. 29, 1709. J\[r. 
Morgan preached, from Mark xvi : 16, — " Go ye into all the 
world," &c. The discourse was printed, by W. & A. Brad- 
ford, at New York, in 1712, and a copy of it is preserved in 
the Library of the Connecticut Historical Society at Hartford. 
The theme of the sermon was, " The Great Concernment of 
Gospel Ordinances, manifested from the great efifects of im- 
proving or neglecting them." It was probably abbreviated 
in the delivery, as " one of the ministers frequently'' desired 
him to be brief, on account of the shortness of the day and 
the greatness of tlie work in hand." He urges the duty of 
thorough preparation for the pulpit, by the adage " A tow 
lace ill beseems a silk garment." * 

It was an extensive field of labor, with the cultivation of 
which young Dickinson was thus entrusted. The town had 
been spreading itself in every direction. It included, in 

• Webster's His. of the Presb. Chh. in Am., pp. 858-61 ; Spraguo'a Annals, III. 14-18. 
Trumbull's Conn., I. 501, 2, 9, 15, 23. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 329 

addition to the main settlement along the Creek, the neigh- 
borhoods of Woodruff's Farms, Lyon's Farms, Connecticnt 
Farms, Williams' Farms, a considerable population on both 
sides* of the upper Railway river, and a large settlement on 
the North of the River, at the crossing of the Woodbridge 
road. A few scattered habitations were found in the present 
town of Westfield, and at the Scotch Plains. !N^either church 
nor minister was yet to be found in the regions beyond 
towards the setting sun. It was the extreme border of 
civilization. An Episcopal Church, as already related, had 
been organized within these bounds, but its numbers were 
yet inconsiderable, and its pulpit was not yet supplied. Mr. 
Vaughan had been appointed to the place, but had not 
arrived. It was a weighty charge to be laid on such youth- 
ful shoulders. And yet not too weighty, as the sequel 
proved. Quietly and diligently he applied himself to his 
work, and his profiting presently appeared to all. It was not 
long before he took rank among the first of his profession.* 

The only information thus far obtained in regard to his 
compensation is contained in a letter from the Rev. Thomas 
Halliday, Episcopal Missionary, dated, "Elizabeth Town, 
8th IS'ov., 1716 :— 

In tliis part of East-Jersey there are three large Townships, Newark, 
Elizabeth Town and "Woodbridge which consist of upwards of a thousand 
families the chief settlers of which were New England Independents, who 
are now old and confirmed in their erroneous way. In each of those 
towns there is a large Independent Congregation who support their 
preachers with the allowance of £80 per annum besides House, Glebe, 
and perquisites of Marriages.! 

Yery brief notices only remain of the first few years of his 
ministry. lie took part, as a corresponding member of the 
Presbytery of Philadelphia, Oct. 20, 1715, in the ordination 
of Robert Orr, at Maidenhead, now Lawrenceville, N. J. It 
was, doubtless, through his influence, principally, that John 
Pierson, one year younger than himself, with whom he had 
been intimately associated, at the house of his father. Rev. 
Abraham Pierson, at Killingworth, was introduced to tho 

• Clark's St. John's Cbh., p. 84. t Clark's St. John's Chh., p. 44. 



330 THE HISTORY OF 

people of Woodbridge, and scttlcsd there. -Dickinson took 
part with Prndden, Andrews, Morgan and Orr, April 29, 
1717, in 'this ordination, also.* 

Hitherto the church of Elizabeth Town had remained In- 
dependent, retaining the forms and usages of the New Eng- 
land churches. At the time of their organization, no Pres- 
bytery had been formed in America. It yvas not until forty 
years had passed, that the Presbytery of Philadelphia was 
constituted. One after another, the churches out of New 
England were becoming connected with it. The church of 
Freehold had joined the Presbytery as early as 1706 ; Wood- 
bridge, and their minister, Nathaniel Wade, in 1710 ; New- 
town, L, L, and their minister, Samuel Pumroy, (a fellow- 
student with Dickinson, at Yale, where, in 1705, he gradu- 
ated), in 1715 ; and Southampton (with whom the people of 
this town were so intimately connected), with tlieir minister, 
Joseph Whiting, and his colleague, Samuel Gelston, had been 
received in 1716. Dickinson, it may be presumed from the 
well-known preferences of President Pierson, was not averse 
to the change from Independency to Presbyterianism. But 
he was very young, and needed first to establish himself with 
his people before proposing any innovations. They were 
thorough Puritans, and, as has been abundantly exhibited in 
this narrative, men of spirit. They were slow to part with 
what they conceived to be their rights. Dickinson was not 
a member of the Presbytery previous to September, 1716, as 
appears from the roll. It is quite probable that he united 
with the Presbytery of Philadelphia, at their meeting in 
Woodbridge, April 29, 1717, for the ordination of Mr. John 
Pierson, on which occasion, he took part in the services. f 

At the meeting of the newly-constituted Synod of Phila- 
delphia, Sept, 17, 1717, his name is enrolled as the youngest 
member. His church, also, either then or very soon after, 
put themselves under the care of the Presbyter3\ The fol- 
lowing year, Sept. 19, 1718, it is noted in the Records, that 
" Mr. Dickinson delivered one pound twelve shillings from 

* Records of tbo Presb. Clih., U. S. A., pp. 41, 8. 
t Records, P. Cbh.,pp. T, 16, 39, 42, 6. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. ' 231 

his congregation of Elizabeth-town, for the fund, " for pious 
uses." This was, undoubtedly, the first contribution for 
Presbyterian purposes ever made by this congregation. 
From 1719 until after 172^1:, probably until 1733, he was the 
Stated Clerk of the Presbytery, as appears from the Record 
of the Synod : — " The book of the Presbytery of Philadelphia 
was not produced by reason of Mr. Dickinson's absence." 
He was " necessarily detained by his brother's sickness." 
His brother, Moses, had been settled, at Hopewell [Penning- 
ton], in 1717. He took part, Oct. 22, 1719, in the ordination 
of Joseph Webb, at Newark, by the Presbytery of Philadel- 
phia. So rapidly had he risen in the estimation of the Synod, 
that, when a Standing Commission was appointed in 1720, he 
was made one of the number.* 

For the first time, the church was represented in the Synod 
of 1721, by one of their elders, Robert Ogden, son of Deacon 
Jonathan, and grandson of " Old John Ogden." Mr. Dick- 
inson was chosen Moderator. Though he had, in good faith, 
adopted the Presbyterian system, he could not wholly forego 
that in which he had been trained. Against an overture, 
adopted by the Synod, which savored of the stricter and 
more rigid system of the old world, he, with five other breth- 
ren of like liberal views, — Webb, of ITewark, Pierson, of 
Woodbridge, Morgan, of Freehold, and two Welsh breth- 
ren, — protested. At the opening of the Synod, the following 
year, he preached the sermon, from 2 Tim. iii. 17 ; in which 
he took occasion to define his views of ecclesiastical jurisdic- 
tion, in justification of his Protest of the previous year : " an 
excellent Sermon," says Foxcroft of Boston, " where the true 
Boundaries of Church-Power are particularly considered and 
set in their proper Light." f 

At this meeting he succeeded, after the subject had been 
fully discussed, in so harmonizing the views of the Synod by 
the presentation of a paper on the subject, as to carry their 
unanimous assent, and lead them to a liearty giving of thanks 

♦ lb., pp. 46, 51, 4, 62, lf>, 80. Stearns' Newark, p. 122. 

+ Records, P. Chh., pp. 62, 6, 7, 72. Webster's P. Clih., p. 850. Prof, to "Pv-tisonableness 
of Chy." p. ix. 



332 THE HISTORY OF 

in prayer and praise, for the composure of tlieir difference." 
In this paper, the power of the keys is accorded to the church 
officers, and to them only ; care is taken to distinguish be- 
tween legislative acts binding on the conscience, and orderly 
regulations conformed to God's "Word ; and the right of 
appeal from the lower to the higher court is admitted. His 
sermon on this occasion was shortly after published, being 
his lirst appearance in print. The church was represented 
in the Synod, this year, by Elder Joseph "Woodruff, whose 
affidavit relative to the Newark Boundary Line is recorded 
in the Answer to the Elizabeth Town Bill in Chancery.* 

Mr. Dickinson was also fully alive to the zealous efforts of 
the Rev. Mr. Vaughan, his townsman, and others of the 
Episcopal ministry, to extend the influence of the Church of 
England in the Colonies. The defection of Timothy Cutler, 
President, and Daniel Browne, Tutor of Yale College, with 
Samuel Johnson, Minister of West Haven, Ct.,to Episcopacy, 
in the autumn of 1722, followed by Messrs. Hart, Eliot, 
"Whittlesey, and "Wetmore, shortly after, produced a profound 
impression throughout the country, turning the attention 
of the ministry and churches, both Congregational and Pres- 
byterian, to what the}^ regarded as " the assumptions " of 
Prelacy. Mr. Johnson, having received Episcopal ordina- 
tion, was appointed a missionary to Stratford and vicinity, in 
Connecticut, — the only Episcopal minister in the Colony, — 
commencing his work in November, 1723. One of his zealous 
parishioners, shortly after, published a pamphlet, entitled, 
" A modest Proof of the Order and Government settled by 
Christ and his Apostles in the Church." A copy of this 
pamphlet came into the hands of Mr. Dickinson, many of 
them, probably, being circulated in the town. He imme- 
diately prepared and published, in 1724, at Boston, a reply in 
" Defence of Presbyterian Ordination." f 

His antagonist, wholly unable to cope with him in argu- 
ment, called in the aid of his minister, Mr. Johnson, by 
whom he was furnished with " a sketch of the common argu- 

* Records, ut nntca. 

t SpragUL-'s Annals, V. 51. Cliandlef'a Life of Jobnson, pp. 26-22, 0, 69. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 333 

merits in favour of the doctrine of the Chnrcli " of England ; 
which the other sent in his own name to Mr. Dickinson. 
This drew forth another publication from the latter, in which 
he affirmed that " High Churchism is properly no more a 
part of the Church of England, than a wen is of the human 
body." To this, also, Mr. Johnson furnished his parishioner 
with a rejoinder. " Sometime after Mr. Dickinson enlarged 
and printed his own papers in this dispute ; upon which Mr. 
Johnson thought proper to publish what he had written on 
the other side." * 

The Records of the Synod, year by year, give abundant 
evidence of his interest and activity in ecclesiastical matters, 
as, also, of the confidence reposed in him by his brethren, — 
his name appearing on almost every commission, to which 
matters of moment were referred. He was appointed, Sept. 
20, 1723, to visit certain Memorialists in Virginia, and preach 
some Sabbaths to them, within the year following. It is not 
known, whether he went or not. His rare and commanding 
ability as a preacher subjected him to many invitations to 
go abroad and be helpful to other ministers and churches.-f- 

That portion of the congregation, who had removed back 
into the country, beyond the Rah way river, had, in 1727, 
become so numerous, and found it so inconvenient to attend 
public worship in the old meeting-house, that tliey began to 
hold public services among themselves, on the Lord's Day, 
and had secured the ministrations of the Rev. Nathaniel 
Hubbell, a portion of the time. The Westfield Church was 
organized, probably, at a somewhat later date. :j: 

At the meeting of the Synod in 1727, it was proposed to 
require of every minister and candidate a hearty assent to 
the Westminster Confession and Catechisms. No action was 
then taken. In 1728, it was taken up, but deferred until the 
following year. Mr, Dickinson, "the ablest and most influ- 
ential member of the Synod," as Dr. Hodge calls him, at once 
took ground against the proposition. His constitutional love of 

* Chandler's Lifo of Johnson, p. 70. 

t Kecords, P. Chh.. p. 74. 

: lb., pp. 83, 6. Webster's P. Chh., p. 3SC. Huntting's His. Sermon, pp. 10, 13. 



334 THE HISTORY OF 

liberty, and his fear of any infringement of tlie rights of the 
ministry', led him to oppose the measure, and present his 
reasons for rejecting it. The overtm-e had been printed. A 
response to it from the pen of Dickinson was also printed, by 
Zenger, at New York, a copy of which is found in the old 
South Church Library, Boston. It is dated, April 10, 1729, 
and shows, that, while he himself cordially accepted these 
Symbols of Faith, he was opposed to all imposition of creeds 
of human composure. Having been placed on the Commit- 
tee to whom the proposition was referred, he succeeded in 
modifying it to such an extent, as to unite the whole Synod, 
with thanksgiving to God, in the support and adoption of the 
measure, thenceforward known as, " the Adopting Act." * 

It will be remembered that only a few weeks later, Mr. 
Dickinson subscribed, at home, a paper designed to unite 
more closely and eifectively his townsmen in their oj^position 
to the pretensions of the East Jersey Proprietors. Having 
cast in his lot with his people in defence of their homesteads, 
he proved himself, in that controversy, as in the Synod, an 
invaluable counselor and organizer in defence of popular 
rights. In all the straits and trials, growing out of tlie liti- 
gations with which they were disturbed, he ever stood with 
them, and never shrank from any rcs])onsibilities thus de- 
volved upon him. He endeared himself to his congregation, 
not only by his admirable pastoral qualifications, lully ex- 
emplified in all his intercourse with them, but by attention 
to their bodily maladies. He gave himself to the study of 
medicine as well as of divinity, and acquired a high repu- 
tation as a physician. In Zenger's TVeeklj'- Journal, Feb. 16, 
173|, will be found a coinmunication from his pen, descrip- 
tive of " the Throat Distemper " (at that time prevailing 
fearfully and fatally in these parts), and proposing what he 
regarded as an cfifectual remedy.f 

The period in which he served the Cliurch was noted for 
the prevalence of scepticism. The writings of Ilobbes, 
Blount, Toland, Shaftesbury, Collins, Woolston, Wollaston, 

* Records, pp. 89, 91, 2, 3. Uodge's P. Chh., 1. 1C2-173. Webster's P. Chh., pp. 103-8. 
t E. Town Cook, B. 4, App. to Green's Discourses, p. 297. Chriatian Adyocate, X. £2. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 335 

Tindal, and Chubb, the modern apostles of Deism, had ob- 
tained a wide circulation, and were greedily devoured. It 
was fashionable to decry both Inspiration and Eevelation. 
Men gloried in " the Eeligion of Nature," and decried the 
Holy Scriptures, the Cluirch, and the Christian. Reason was 
deified and Christ dethroned. The tendencies of the pulpit 
were towards a low Arminianism — latitudinarianism in doc- 
trine and practice.* 

Mr. Dickinson set himself to breast and beat back the 
waves of error. He prepared and preached to his people, a 
short series of discourses, which, soon after, were printed in 
a convenient manual edition, with the following title : 

The Reasonableness of Christianity, in Four Sermons, "Wherein The 
Being and Attributes of God, the Apostacy of Man, and the Credibility 
of the Christian Religion, are demonstrated by rational Considerations. 
And the Divine Mission of cur blessed Saviour prov'd by Scripture-Ar- 
guments, both from the Old Testament and the New ; and vindicated 
against the most important Objections, whether of ancient or modern In- 
fidels. By Jonathan Dickinson, M. A. Minister of the Gospel at Elizabeth- 
Town, IST. Jersey. Cum dilectione fides Christiani : Sine dilectione fides 
daemonum : Qui autem non credunt, pejores sunt quam daemones. — 
Aug. de charit. "With a Preface by Mr. Foxcroft. Boston r N. E. 
Printed by S. Kneeland and T. Green, for Samuel Gerrish at the lower 
end of Oornhill. MDCCXXXII. 

The' author is thus introduced by the Rev. Thomas Fox- 
croft, of Boston : — 

The reverend and learned Author of the ensuing Discourses needs not 
any Epistles of Commendation to such as are acquainted with his Per- 
son and Character : "Whose Praise is in the Gospel thorowout all the 
Churches in those remote parts where Divine Providence has cast his 
Lot. Neither is he unknown to the Publick : which has been favour'd with 
several lesser "Writings of his, formerly publish'd on special occasions ; 
that must have left on the Minds of those who have read them, a grate- 
ful Relist), and such an Idea of Mr. Dickinson's peculiar Genius, Capacity 
and Judgment, as cannot but prepare them to come with raised Expecta- 
tions and a particular Gust, to the perusal of the following Tracts ; "Which 
it would therefore be as superfluous to recommend to such, as it would 
bo thought vain in me to attempt a profuse Encomium on them for the 

• Dickinson favored tho " IIaIf-"Way Covenant," but not tbo lax views of Doctrine grow- 
ing out of it. Chn. Advocate, X. 147. 



336 THE HISTORY OF 

sake of others ; nor indeed would the known Modesty of the Author in- 
dulge mo in taking this Liberty. 

They are truly admirable discourses, learned, discriminat- 
ing, and logical ; full of pith and power ; pointed and im- 
pressive. Happy the people favored with the ministry of 
such a teacher ! Happy the children whose early years v\'ere 
blessed with such instructions ! 

In 1733, was published, at Boston, New England, " Tlie 
Scripture-Bishop Vindicated. A Defence of the Dialogue 
Between Praelaticus and Eleutherius, upon The Scripture 
Bishop, or The Divine Right of Presbyterian Ordination and 
Government, Against The Exceptions of a Pamphlet Intitled 
The Scripture Bishop Examined. By Eleutherius, Y. D. M. 
In a Letter to a Friend." This book, now exceedingly rare 
(the only copy known to the author of this history being in 
his own library), was ascribed, a few years later, by Be v. 
George Beckwith, of Lyme, Ct., to Mr. Dickinson. It was 
undoubtedly the product of his pen. 

In the following year he was called to preach the funeral 
sermon of Rutli, the wife of his friend, Bev. John Pierson, of 
Woodbridge, and the daughter of the Rev. Timothy "Wood- 
bridge of Hartford, Ct. This sermon was printed at New 
York, the same year, by William Bradford.* 

In 1733, the Presbytery of East Jersey'' was formed out of 
the Presbytery of Philadelpliia, and Dickinson became, at 
once, the acknowledged head of the new Presbytery. In 
1734, his Elder, Matthias Hatfield, accompanied him to Synod. 
As the early Records of the Church are not extant, it is only 
by reference to the Records of the Synod, that the names of 
the Elders previous to 1765 can be ascertained. Robert 
Ogden had a seat in the Synod of 1721 ; and Joseph "Wood- 
ruff, in 1722. In 1730 WilHam Miller represented the Church 
in the Synod ; Joseph "Woodruff, again, in 1740, and 1745 ; 
David "Whitehead, in 1742; John Ogden in 1743; Ephraim 
Price, in 1748 ; Joseph Ogden, in 1755, 1756 and 1762 ; 
Joseph Lyon, in 1759 ; Thomas Tobin, in 1760 ; Robert 

* Webster, p. 858. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 337 

Ogden, in 17G3 ; and Samuel Woodruff, in 1764, and 
1765.* 

Dickinson's next publication appeared in September, 1735, 
anonymously. It was entitled, — 

Remarks on a Letter to a Friend in the Country ; containing the sub- 
stance of a sermon preached at Philadelphia in the congregation of the 
Rev. Mr. Hemphill, in which the terras of Christian and ministerial com- 
munion are so stated that human impositions are exploded, a proper en- 
closure proposed for every religious society, and the commission justified 
in their conduct towards Mr. Hemphill. t 

In the following year, 1736, Mr. Dickinson again became 
involved in a controversy about Episcopacy. An unhappy 
disturbance liad been created in the church at Newark, by a 
case of discipline. Col. Josiah Ogden, (a grandson of " Old 
John Ogden," of this town), residing at Kewark, and a mem- 
ber of the church, was censured for Sabbath-breaking, in 
laboring to save a crop of wheat, on the Lord's Day, after 
long-continued rains. Being a man of great influence, a 
party was created, absorbing the disaffected elements of the 
congregation. Though the censure, on appeal, was removed 
by the Presbytery, and the Synod endeavored, by kindly 
interposition, to heal the breach, the grievance proved incur- 
able. The dissentients gravitated towards Episcoj)acy, and 
sought, of Mr. Yaughan and others. Episcopal ministrations.:|: 

In these circumstances, Mr. Dickinson was invited and 
consented to preach at Newark, on "Wednesday, June 2, 1736. 
His text was Mark 7 : 15 ; " Ilowbeit in vain do they wor- 
ship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men." 
The sermon was given to the press shortly after, with the 
Title, — " The Vanity of human Institutions in the Worship of 

* Itecords, P. Chli., pp. 9^ 104, 5, 134, US, 160, 3, 232, 5, 201, 270, 291, 7, 313, 822, 333, 341. 
Webster, p. 192. 

t Samuel llompbill was an Irish adventurer, who had gained admission to the Synod in 
1734, and, by means of a fluent tongue, had been employed as assistant to Mr. Andrews in the 
Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia. His sermons savored so much of Deism and Armin- 
ianism, that complaint •was made to the Synodical Commission, by whom he was tried, 
found guilty, and suspended. Benjamin Franklin was ono of his hearers, and warmly es- 
poused his cause. It was found, after all, that his sermons were not his own, but were re- 
peated verbatim from tlio Rev. Drs. Sauuicl Clarke, Ibbots, and Foster, men noted for their 
Arianism. On this discovery ho sunk into obscurity. Webster, pp. 110, 2, 3,410-20. 

t Stearns' ^Newark, p. 143. MoWhorter's Century Sermon, p. 17, 

22 



338 THE HISTORY OF 

God." It was called " his famed sermon," and was read with 
great interest. " An answer was attempted by the Rev. John 
Beacli, of Newtown, Ct., who four years before had left the 
Church of his fathers, and connected himself with the Episco- 
pal Church. lie issued a pamphlet, entitled, — " A Vindica- 
tion of the Worship of God, according to the Church of Eng- 
land." " A Defence " of his sermon was published by Mr. 
Dickinson, in 1737 ; and a rejoinder was put forth, the same 
year, by Mr. Beach, under the Title, — " Appeal to the Un- 
prejudiced : In a Supplement to the Vindication of the Wor- 
ship of God, according to the Ciiurch of England." The 
Controversy was closed by Mi-. Dickinson, in 1738, by his 
publishing — 

Tho Eeasonableness of aSTonconformity to the Church of England, in 
Point of Worship. A Second Defence of A Sermon, preach'd at Newark, 
June 2, 1736, Intitled, The Vanity of human Institutions in the "Worship 
of God, Against the Exceptions of Mr. John Beach, in his Appeal to 
the Unprejudiced. Done in the Form of a Dialogue, wherein Mr. Beach's 
Arguments are all ex|iressed in his own Words.* 

In his Prefatory Letter, dated " EUzabeth-Town, Feb. 1, 
1737j 8," he apologizes for the delay of this replication : 

It is not from a Disregard to your Person, nor a Neglect of your tri- 
umphant Performance, that I have not before now acknowledged your 
Favour; but from bodily Indispositions, which rendered me incapable of 
writing. 

In the year, 1737, about the time of the Survey, by Joseph 
Morss, of the land back of the First Mountain, the popula- 
tion had become so considerable, as to make it desirable that 
a separate religious Society should be constituted. The 
Presbytery of East Jersey, to whom they applied, granted 
the request, and sent them Mr. John Cleverly, a graduate of 
Harvard in 1715, who preached in a log -house built for the 
purpose, of small dimensions.f 

At the ordination of Aaron Burr, by the Presbytery of 
East Jersey, at Newark, Jan. 25, 173^, Dickinson presided 

♦ Chandler'sLIfoof Johnson, pp. C2, 8. Spra^e's Annals, V. 82, 3, 5. App. to Green's 
Discourses, p. 29S. 

t Ms. Records of P. Cbh. of N. Providence, 1. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 339 

and gave the charge. In his account of the transaction, Mr. 
Burr says, — "Mr. Dickinson, who presided at this work, has 
been of great service to me by his advice and instruction, 
botli before and since my ordination." The same testimony 
might have been borne, by all the ministry of this section of 
country. He was the chosen counselor and ready adviser 
of ministers and churches in all their straits and emer- 
gencies.* 

In May, 173S, Mr. Dickinson and his church became con- 
nected with the Presbytery of New York, then newly formed 
by the union of the East Jersey and Long Island Presby- 
teries.f 

In the midst of the exciting controversies through which 
he had passed, Mr. Dickinson had not been inattentive to 
the spiritual wants of his people. Faithfully and earnestly 
he preached the word, and diligently he sought to lead his 
people to the Cross for salvation. But the results were not 
answerable to his expectations. Of the year 1739, he writes, 
" Religion was in a very low state ; Professors generally dead 
and lifeless ; and the Body of our People careless, carnal 
and secure ; there was but little of the Power of Godliness 
appearing among us." 

Some time in August 1739, the people of Newark became 
deeply interested in religious aifairs. The young, particu- 
larly, were remarkably exercised, and many of them were 
hopefully converted from the error of their ways. The con- 
cern at length became general, resulting in a marked reforma- 
tion among all classes, and large accessions to the Church. ;{: 

In November, 1739, while this revival was in progress at 
Newark, the Rev. George Whitefield, then a youth in his 
25th year, whose fame, as an eloquent divine, and an awaken- 
ing preacher, had preceded him, iirst visited these parts. On 
his way from Philadelphia to New York and again on his 
return to Philadelphia, he passed through this town : 

"Wednesday, Nov. 14, Sot out from Brnnswick, in Company ■with Mr. 
Tennent and my other Fellow-Travellers ; and as we passed along we 

* Davis's Life of A. Burr, I. IS. Stearns' Newark, p. 155. 

t Records of P. Chh., p. 134. X Prince's Chn. History, I. 252-1. 



34rO THE HISTORY OF 

spent our Time most agreeably in telling one another what God had 
done for our Souls. About Noon we got to Elizabeth Town, 22 
Miles from Brunswick. Ilere wo took Boat, and about Four reached 
New-York. 

Monday, Nov. 19. Took Boat about Five in the Morning, and reached 
Elizabeth-Town Point at Seven. — Dined with Mr. Dickenson a worthy 
Dissenting Minister, who had sent a Letter of Invitation to New York, 
and offered me the Use of his Meeting House. — About Twelve I preached 
in it, according to Appointment, to upwards of 700 People, many of whom 
seemed much affected, and God was pleased to open my Mouth against 
both Ministers and People among all denominations, who imprison the 
Truth in Unrighteousness.* 

lu reference to tliis discourse, Mr. Dickinson says, — 

I could observe no further Influence upon our People by that Address, 
than a general Thoughtfulness about Keiigion; and a Promptitude to 
make the Extraordinary Zeal and Diligence of that Gentleman, the com- 
mon and turning Topick of their Conversation. I don't know that there 
was any one Person brought under Conviction, or any new and special 
Concern about their Salvation, by that Sermon ; nor more than one by 
any Endeavours that were used with them that Fall, or the succeeding 
"Winter, 

Mr. Dickinson was evidently expecting much from the 
young Revivalist, and Avas disappointed with the results : — 

Tho' there was such a shaking among the dry Bones so near to us, as 
is above represented, and we had continual Accounts from Newark of the 
growing Distress among their People, (their young People especially) and 
of their awful solicitous Concern about their Salvation ; our congregation 
remained yet secure and careless ; and could not be awakened out of 
their Sleep. You will easily conceive, that this must needs be an afflict- 
ing and discouraging Consideration to me : that when from other Places, 
we had the joyful News of so many flying to Christ as a Cloud, and as 
Doves to their Windows, I had yet Cause to complain, that I labour'd in 
vain, and spent my Strength for nought. But notwithstanding all these 
discouraging Appearances, I could not but entertain an uncommon Con- 
cern, particularly for the young People of my Charge, duriug that Win- 
ter ; and the ensuing Spring ; which not ouly animated my Addresses to 
the Throne of Grace on their Behalf, but my Endeavours also, to excite 
in them if possible, some affecting Sense of their Misery, Danger, and 
Necessity of a Saviour. To that Eud, there Avere frequent Lectures ap- 
pointed for the young people in particular, but without any visible 
success.t 

♦.WhltefleWs Journals, I. 274, 7. t Prince's Christian History, I. 254, 5. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 341 

III the spring, they were favored with another sermon from 
the gifted Whitefield. On Monday, April 28, 1740, after 
preaching at 10 o'clock A. M., to a great congregation in 
Woodbridge, he says, — 

After Sermon, I and my Friends dined at the Dissenting Minister's 
[Rev John Pierson's] House, who invited me to preach ; and then we 
hasted to Elizabeth-Town, where the People had been waiting for me 
some Hours. — I preached in the Meeting-House, as when I was there last. 
It was full, and was supposed to contain 2000 People. Near ten dissent- 
ing and two Church Ministers were present. I used much Freedom of 
Speech. No doubt some were offended : But Events belong to God. — 
After Sermon I intended to ride six Miles : But being over-ruled by the 
Advice of Friends, I stopped, and lay at an Inn all Night, near the Water- 
side where People take Boat to go to New York [E. Town Point].* 

Mr. Dickinson took a deep interest in the progress of the 
work of grace at Newark, and frequently assisted his young 
brother Burr (then only 24 years old, and, at the best, of 
feeble health), in the services of the pulpit. On one oc- 
casion, he preached a sermon, from Kom. viii : 16, so ad- 
mirably adapted to the state of the congregation and of the 
times, that its publication was generally called for. It was 
printed and had a wide circulation. It was entitled, 

The "Witness of the Spirit. A Sermon preach'd at Newark, in New- 
Jersey, May Vth, 1740. "Wherein is distinctly shewn, in what "Way and 
Manner the Spirit himself beareth "Witness to the Adoption of the Children 
of God. On Occasion of a wonderful Progress of converting Grace in 
those Parts.t 

A second edition was published in 1743. It exposed so 
faithfully some of the delusions, that were cherished by the 
more violent promoters of revivals of religion at that day, that, 
when the Synod met at Philadelphia, three weeks later, and 
all the intervals of business were given to preaching, Dickin- 
son was excluded from participating in the work, because of 
this sermon — its doctrine being regarded by tlie Tennents 
and their friends as untenable, and detrimental to the cause; 
and yet the Revival had no truer friend, and no abler ad- 
vocate.:}: 

• Journals, I. 849. t Prince's Chn. Ilia., I. 21C. Stearns' Newark, p. 157. 

$ Webster'fl P. Chb. p. 14S 



34:2 THE HISTORY OF 

These services prepared him for a similar work of grace 
among his own people. Scarcely had he and his Elder, 
Joseph Woodruff, returned from the meeting of the Synod, 
" in June, 1740," when the people were favored with " a re- 
markable Manifestation of the Divine Presence." He thus 
describes it : — 

Having at that Time invited the young People to hear a Sermon, there 
was a numerous Congregation conveen'd, which consisted chiefly of our 
Youth, tho' there were many others with tliem. I preach'd to them a 
plain, practical Sermon ; "without any Pathos or Pungency, or any special 
Liveliness or Vigour ; for I was then in a remarkably dead and dull 
Frame, till enliven'd by a sudden and deep Impression which visibly 
appear d upon the Congregation in general. — There was no Crying 
out, or Falling down ; (as elsewhere has bappon'd) but the inward Dis- 
tress and Concern of the Audience discover'd itself, by their Tears, and 
by an audible Sobbing and Sighing in almost all Parts of the Assembly. 
There appeared such Tokens of a solemn and deep Concern, as I never 
before saw in any Congregation whatsoever. From this Time, we heard 
no more of our young People's meeting together for Frolicks and extrav- 
agant Diversions, as had been usual among them ; but instead thereof, 
private Meetings for religious Exercises were by them set up in several 
Parts of tho Town. All our Opportunities of publick Worship, were care- 
fully and constantly attended by our People in general; and a serious and 
solemn Attention to the Ministry of tho Word, was observable in their very 
Countenances. Numbers were almost daily repairing to me, for Direc- 
tion and Assistance in their eternal Concerns. There were then prob- 
ably more came to me in one Day on that Errand, than usually in half a 
Years space before. In a Word, the Face of tho Congregation was quite 
altered; and Religion became the common Subject of Conversation among 
a great Part of the People.* 

Tho' there are some of those who were then under special Convictions,' 
that have Avorn off their Impressions, and are become secure and care- 
less ; yet I don't know of any two Persons, who gave reasonable Hopes of 
a real Change at that Time, but what have hitherto by their Conversa- 
tion confirm'd our Hopes of their saving Conversion to God. 

I would be very cautious of any confident Determinations, with Re- 
spect to the Conversion of particular Persons ; but if we may judge tho 
Tree by the Fruits, which we have now had so long a Time to observe, wo 
have Reason to suppose, that near about sixty Persons have received a 
saving Chauge in this Congregation only, (and a Number in the PariA 

• Writing to Mr. Foxcroft, Sept. 4, 1740, ho snys,— "I have had more yonng People ad- 
dress mo for Direction in their spiritual Concerns within this three Months tban in thirty 
Years before," 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 34? 

next adjoining to us, tho' I dare not pretend to guess how many) since 
the Beginning of this Work.* 

The letter, from ■which these extrcacts are taken, was writ- 
ten Aug. 23, 1743, to the Eev. Mr. Foxcroft, of Boston, at 
his particular request. It describes scenes and events alto- 
gether unprecedented in the history of the town. The moral 
reformation, at that time wrought, was one of the most re- 
markable phenomena till then witnessed and experienced in 
the settlement. It gave to the town a peculiar character — a 
reputation for moralit}'' and religion that survived the stormy 
periods of war and political convulsions, an'd continues, to the 
present day — its defence and its glor3^ 

The Eevival of 1740, it is well known, was of wide extent, 
and of vast influence in the English Provinces of America. 
But, with all its manifest and marvelous benefits, it was not 
unattended with serious evils, aifecting, to no small extent, 
the peace and purity of the churches. Ever watchful for the 
interests of religion, and ready, at all times, both for aggres- 
sive, and for defensive, measures, Mr. Dickinson set himself 
to meet the demand of the times. In 1741, he sent forth 
" The True Scripture Doctrine Concerning some important 
Points of Christian Faith ; Particularly, Eternal Election, 
Original Sin, Grace in Conversion, Justification by Faith, 
And the Saint's Perseverance. Represented and Applied in 
Five Discourses : " an admirable book, replete with sound 
doctrine, logically and scripturally maintained and defended, 
suited to all classes and climes, and of standard value in all 
periods of the Church. It has repeatedly been reprinted, in 
Great Britain and America. Foxcroft, in his Preface to the 
original edition, gives it unqualified praise : — 

Tm of opinion, a book of this nature has long been wanting among 
us ; and I give unfeigned tlianks to God, which put this same earnest care 
for us into the heart of our brother ; whose praise is in tho gospel 
thronghout the churches, particularly by means of his elaborate writings 
in vindication both of the faith and order of the gospel, and other more 
practical publications. — I look upon his present work the supply of a real 
d-ficiency ; and more especially seasonable at this juncture. Now as 

* Prince's Christian Uistory, I. 255-S. Glllios' His. Coll. II. 1-12-0. 



344 THE HISTORY OF 

Paul said of Timotliy, I have no man like-minded, so I will presnrae 
to speak it, without any design of flattery or offence, I know no man 
better accomplished (in my opinion) for a work of this kind, than 
Mr. Dickinson. 

]^ot content with this masterly vindication of the Doctrines 
of Grace, and finding the current of prejudice and opposition 
to " the Great Awakening " running strong and deep in al- 
most every direction, he next prepared, and published at 
Boston in 1742, 

A Display of God's special Grace. In A familiar Dialogue Between A 
Minister & a Gentleman of his Congregation, About The Work of God, in 
the Conviction and Conversion of Sinners, so remarkably of late begun 
and going on in these American Parts. "Wherein The Objections pgainst 
some uncommon Appearances amongst us are distinctly considered. Mis- 
takes rectify'd, and the "Work itself particularly prov'd to be from the 
Holy Spirit. With An Addition, in a second Conference, relating to 
sundry Antinomian Principles, beginning to obtain in some Places. 

The first edition was anonymous, but sent forth with an 
Attestation, signed, Boston, Aug. 10, 1742, by the Rev. 
Messrs. Colman, Sewall, Prince, Webb, Cooper, Foxcroft, 
and Gee, all Ministers of Boston. A second edition Avas 
published, at Philadelphia, in 1743, with the author's name, 
and an additional Attestation by Messrs. Gilbert and Wm. 
Tennent, Samuel and John Blair, Treat and Finley. The 
book was of convenient form, plain and practical in style, 
and well-adapted to accomplish its end. " No contempora- 
neous publication," says President Green, " was probably as 
much read or had as much influence." * 

At the meeting of the Synod in 1742, Mr. Dickinson was 
again chosen Moderator ; and, in 1743, as such, preached the 
opening sermon, from 1 Cor. 1 : 10, — a text admirably 
adapted, as, no doubt, the sermon was, to the divided and 
convulsed state of the Synod. The same year, 1743, he pub- 
lished — 

The Nature and Necessity of Regeneration considered in a Sermon from 
John 3 : 3, preached at Newark, N. J. at a meeting of the Presbytery 
there. To which is added some Remarks on a Discourse of Dr. Water- 

• Green's Discourses, App., pp. 256-61. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 845 

land's, entitled " Regeneration stated and explained, according to Scrip- 
ture antiquity." * 

Dr. "Waterland's book had been imported and circulated 
by tbe Episcopal ministry, and circulated as an antidote to 
the revival doctrines of Whitefield and his sympathizers. 
Dickinson's Remarks drew forth, in 1744, from the Eev. 
James "Wetmore, Rector of the Parish Church of Rye, N. Y., 
" A Defence of Waterland's Discourse on Regeneration." 
This was answered promptly by Mr. Dickinson in 

Reflections upon Mr. "Wetmore's Letter in Defence of Dr. Waterland's 
Discourse of Regeneration. With a Vindication of the received Doctrine 
of Regeneration, and plain scriptural Evidence that the Notion of Bap- 
tismal Regeneration is of a dangerous and destructive Tendency.! 

In the same year, 1745, his prolific pen produced " Famil' 
iar Letters to a Gentleman, upon A Variety of Seasonable 
and Important Subjects in Religion : " a work of very great 
ability, in which he discusses colloquially and familiarly, with 
direct reference to prevailing prejudices, the evidences of 
Christianity, and the Doctrine of God's Sovereign Grace in 
the redemption of men. The way of salvation, by repentance 
and faith, is clearly exhibited, and the Dangers of Anti- 
nomianism are fully set forth. It has been frequently re- 
printed at home and abroad, and, with his book on " the Five 
Points," is on the Catalogue of the Presbyterian Board of 
Publication. 

In the agitations, (resulting mainly from tlie Revival), and 
in the exciting discussions, by which the Synod and the 
Churches were convulsed, extending through a period of five 
years, he not only took the deepest interest, but the conceded 
position of a leader in the maintenance and defence of wliat 
he believed to be tlie trutli and the right. When the Pres- 
bytery of New Brunswick and their party were virtually ex- 
cluded in 1741, he and his Presbytery being absent, it grieved 
him deeply. He sought, by every means in his power, to 
cast oil on the troubled waters, and bring about a reconcilia- 

* Records, P. Clih., pp. 160, 8. 

t Bolton's Ep. Chh. of W. Chester Co., N. Y., pp. 272, 8. 



346 THE HISTORY OF 

tion of the contending parties. In the spring of 1742, he had 
occasion to visit Boston to bring out his " Display of God's 
Special Grace," and took advantage of the opportunity, to 
consult the Boston ministers and others in relation to the 
matters in controvei'sy. Year by year, he sought to act, in 
the Synod, the part of a mediator and pacificator, in the 
embittered strife, of which the "Records" give painful illus- 
tration. But finding, at length, no hope of an honorable re- 
construction of the old Synod, he cast in his lot with the 
aggrieved brethren, and united with them and their friends 
in constituting the new Synod of New Yorjc ; the former 
comprising the " Old Side," and the latter the " New Side " 
brethren. For the details of this mournful controversy, 
reference must be had to the authorities in the margin.* 

The first meeting of the New Synod was held, September 
19, 1745, at the Presbyterian Church in this town, 22 Minis- 
ters, and 12 Elders being present. Elder Joseph Woodruff 
represented this Church — Mr. Dickinson was chosen Moder- 
ator. His opening sermon, the following year, at New 
York, was from Psalm 24 : 4.t 

In the midst of these troubles and anxieties, preaching, 
writing, publishing, and caring for his own flock and the 
churches of the Synod, his soul was stirred within him at the 
benighted condition of the savage tribes in N. Jersey and the 
adjacent Provinces. In connection with Peraberton of New 
York, and Burr of Newark, he addressed, in 1740, " the 
Honorable Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge," 
formed at Edinburgh in 1709, and urged them to send mis- 
sionaries to the Indians on Long- Island, in New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania. These three brethren were appointed Corre- 
spondents of the Society, and authorized to employ mis- 
sionaries to the Indians. They prevailed on Azariah Ilorton, 
a brother of Simon Horton, of Connecticut Farms, in this 
town, to undertake a mission to the* Indians at the east end 
of Long Island, for which purpose he was ordained by the 

♦ Records, P. Chh. pp. 158-182. Hodge's His. P. Chh., II. 124-252. Log College, pp. 57- 
78. Stenrns' Newark, pp. 166-178. GiUott's P. Chh., I. 76-91. 
t Records, P. Chh., pp. 232-4. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 347 

Presbytery of ISTew York in 1740. Two years later, they en- 
gaged David Brainerd for a similar service among the In- 
dians, near Nqw Lebanon, N, York, In 1744, (June 11,) 
Brainerd was ordained at Kewark, for a mission at the Forks 
of the Delaware.* 

From the time of his removal to N^. Jersey, Brainerd found, 
in Mr, Dickinson, a faithful counselor, and devoted friend ; 
and, in his house, an ever-welcome home. At the time of 
his ordination, he spent more than a fortnight here. In April 
following, 1745, he was here again. In August, he came on 
to consult with Mr, Dickinson. JSTov. 10th, he occupied the 
pulpit, preaching, in the morning, from 2 Cor, 5 : 20, and, 
in the afternoon, from Lu. 14 : 22 ; and took up a collection 
for the Indian mission amounting to £7. 5, 0, Of the morn- 
ing service he says : 

God was pleased to give me freedom and fervency in ray discourse, 
and the presence of God seemed to be in the assembly ; numbers were 
affected, and there were many tears among them. 

He spent the next Sabbath here also, and several days 
afterwards, being deeply exercised for the spiritual welfare 
of the town : 

Had some longings of soul for the dear people of Elizabeth Town, that 
God would pour out his Spirit upon them, and revive his work among 
them.t 

The first week in December he was here again, in attend- 
ance on the Presbytery at Connecticut Farms ; also, the 
third week in January, in consultation with the Correspond- 
ents, and supplied the pulpit at Connecticut Farms, on the 
26th, The second week of April found him liere again in 
attendance on the Presbytery ; again on the 29th, for three 
or four days ; and the first week of July : — 

Lord's Day, July 6. Enjoyed some composure and serenity of mind, 
in the morning: heard Mr. Dickinson preach, in the forenoon, and was 
refreshed with his discourse; was in a melting frame, some part of the 
time of sermon : partook of the Lord's supper, and enjoyed some sense of 
divine things in that ordinance. In the afternoon I preached from Ezek. 

♦ Webster's P. Chh., pp. 359, 51S. Edwards' Works, X. 141, 2. 
t Ibid, X. 187, 216,244,6. 



348 THE niSTORY OF 

33: 11, "As I live, saith the Lord God," &c. God favoured me with 
freedom and fervency, and helped me to plead his cause, beyond my own 
power. 

He met the Presb3'teiy here again on the 22(1, and remained 
three days. He had the fever and ague at Mr. Dickinson's 
house, for a fortnight in October. Nov. 5th brought him 
back again from his rnission, too enfeebled for work or travel. 
And here, at his " home " in the parsonage, he remained 
nearly six months — until April 20th, (with the exception of 
four or live days), — his last winter on earth, — in so low a 
state, much of the time, that his life was almost despaired of.* 

Mrs. Joanna Dickinson, the pastor's wife, had been taken 
from him by death, April 20, 1745, in the 63d year of her 
age. Brainerd's intimacy with the family was mostly of a 
later date, the daughters of the pastor ministering to him in 
his chronic infirmities. The missionary makes the following 
entrj^ in his Journal for 1747 : 

April 7, In the afternoon, rode to Newark, to marry the Eev. Mr, 
Dickinson : and in the evening performed that service. Afterwards rode 
home to Elizabethtown, in a pleasant frame, full of composure and sweet- 
ness, t 

In 1745, the Kev, John Beach of Newtown, Ct., and the 
Rev. Henry Caner, of Fairfield, Ct,, both preached for .the 
Rev. James Honyman, in Trinity Church, Newport, R, L, 
and printed their sermons, in which they reflected upon the 
revival doctrines of the day. The Rev, Dr, Samuel John- 
son, of Stratford, Ct,, also, published, about the same time, 
" A Letter from Aristocles to Anthadcs," designed to set the 
doctrine of the divine sovereignty and promises in its true 
light, as he, and the other Episcopal ministers of the day, 
understood them. These several publications were designed 
as antidotes mainly to Mr. Dickinson's works on the same 
subject. He was not slow, therefore, in issuing, 1746, his 
reply, entitled, 

A vindication of God's Sovereign Free Grace, In some Remarks 

• Edwards' Works, X. 247, 262, 283, 200, 353, 4, C, 871, 874-3S0, 444. 
t Edwards' Works, X 879. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 349 

on Mr. J, Beach's Sermon, with some brief Keflections upon IT. Caner's 
Sermon, and on a pamphlet entitled A Letter from Aristocles to Anthades. 

It called forth a reponse from Dr. Jolmson, to which Mr. 
Dickinson wrote a rejoinder, called "A Second Vindication 
of God's Sovereign Free Grace," which was published, after 
his death, by his brother, Moses Dickinson, of Norwalk.* 

Mr. Dickinson had lon^ felt the necessity of a Collegiate 
Institution, more accessible than Harvard or Yale, for the 
colonies this side of New England. The course pursued by 
the authorities of Yale College, in denying to his young 
friend, David Brainerd, his degree, on account of a slight 
irregularity, and for whom he and Burr had both interceded 
in vain, determined him to establish, if possible, a College 
in New Jersey. Something had been done, already, by the 
friends of the Log College at Nesharainy, Pa. Mr. Dickin- 
son, it is credibly reported, had for years taught a Classical 
School, or at least received young men into his house, to fit 
them for the ministry. The Eev. Jacob Green, of Hanover, 
and the Rev. Caleb Smith, of Orange, N. J., both of them 
were his students. Incipient steps were taken by the Synod 
as early as 1739, to obtain aid from Great Britain, for this 
object, Mr. Dickinson being on thd Committee for this pur- 
pose, "but the war breaking out" with Spain prevented it. 
At length, application was made, to John Hamilton Esq., 
President of his Majesty's Council, and (by reason of the 
death. May 14, 174G, of Gov. Lewis Morris) Commander in 
Chief of the Province of New Jersey, for " a Charter to in- 
corporate sundry persons to found a college." The applica- 
tion was successful, and it was granted, under the great seal 
of the Province, Oct. 22, 1746. Notice of the event and of 
the intentions of the Trustees was duly given, in the New 
York Weekly Post Boy, No. 211, dated February 2, 174f, 
as follows : — 

Whereas a Charter with fall and ample Privileges, has been granted 
by his Majesty, under the Seal of the Province of New Jersey, bearing 
date the 22d October, 1746, for erecting a College within the said Prov- 
ince, to Jonathan Dickinson, John Pierson, Ebenezer Pemberton and 

♦ Spraguc's Annals, III. IS, V. 55, 63, 85. Chandler's Life of Johnson, p. 71. 



350 THE HISTORY OF 

Aaron Burr, Ministers of tho Gospel and some other Gentlemen, as 
Tru.>itoc-s of the said College, by wliich Charter equal Liberties and 
Privileges are secured to every Denomination of Christians, any different 
religious Sentiments notwithstanding. 

The said Trustees have therefore thought proper to inform the Public, 
tliat they design to open the said College the next Spring ; and to notify 
to any Person or Persons who are qualified by preparatory Learning for 
Admission, that some time in May next at latest they may be there 
admitted to an Academic Education. 

Subsequently, in IS'o. 222, Ap. 20, 1747, notice is thus 
given : — 

This is to inform the Publick, That the Trustees of the Colledge of 
New-Jersey, have appointed the Rev. Mr. Jonathan Dickinson, President 
of the said Colledge : which will be opened the fourth "Week in May next, 
at Elizabeth-Town; At which Time and Place, all Persons suitably quali- 
fied, may be admitted to an Academic Education. 

At the time specified the first Term of " the College of 
New Jersey " was opened at Mr. Dickinson's house, on the 
south side of the Old Raliwa}' road, directly west of E.ace st. 
Mr. Caleb Smith, of Brookhaven, L. I., a graduate of Yale 
College, in 1743, and now in the 24:th year of his age, was 
employed as the first Tutor. Enos Ayres, (afterwards a 
Presbyterian minister at Blooming Grove, Orange Co., N. T.), 
Benjamin Chesnut, (an Englishman, and subsequently of the 
Presbytery of New Brunswick), Hugh Henry, (afterwards of 
the Presbytery of 'New Castle), Israel Keed, (shortly after 
the pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Bound Brook, N. J.), 
Pichard Stockton, (of Princeton, the well-known civilian), 
and Daniel Thane, (a Scotchman, and subsequently pastor of 
the Church of Connecticut Farms in this town), were the first 
graduates of the Institution, and were all of them, doubtless, 
under the instruction of Mr. Dickinson and his Tutor, Caleb 
Smith ; with others, perhaps, of the succeeding class.* 

In the midst of these useful and laborious employments, 
full of honors as of service, Mr. Dickinson's career on earth 
was brought to a close. He died, of pleurisy, Oct. 7, 1747, 
in the sixtieth year of his age. The Kev. Timothy Johnes, 
of Morristown, visited him in his last illness, and found him 

* Memoir of Bo7. C. Smith, p. 3. Triennial of C. of N. J. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 351 

fully prepared for the event : " Many days have passed be- 
tween God and my soul, in which 1 have solemnly dedicated 
myself to Him, and I trust what 1 have committed unto 
Him, He is able to keep until that day." Such was his testi- 
mony, in death, to the gospel in which he believed. On the 
occasion of his burial, a sermon was prea'ched by his old 
friend and neighbor, the Rev. John Pierson, of Woodbridge, 
which was afterwards published. The following notice of 
his death and burial appeared in the N. York Weekly Post 
Boy, of Oct. 12, 1747 :— 

Elizabethtown in New Jersey, Oct. 10. 
On "Wednesday Morning last, about 4 o'clock, died here of a pleuritic 
illness, that eminently learned, faithful and pious Minister of the Gospel, 
and President of the College of New Jersey, the Rev. Mr. Jonathan Dick- 
inson, in the 60th Year of his Age, who had been Pastor of the First 
Presbyterian Church in this Town for nearly forty Years, and was the 
Glory and Joy of it. In him conspicuously appeared those natural and 
acquired moral and spiritual Endowments which constitute a truly excel- 
lent and valuable Man, a good Scholar, an eminent Divine, and a serious 
devout Christian. He was greatly adorned with the Gifts and Graces of 
his Heavenly Master, in the Light whereof he appeared as a Star of supe- 
rior Brightness and Influence in the Orb of the Church, which has sus- 
tained a great and unspeakable Loss in his Death. He was of uncommon 
and very extensive Usefulness. He boldly appeared in the Defence of the 
great and important Truths of our most holy Religion and the Gospel 
Doctrines of the free and sovereign Grace of God. He was a zealons Pro- 
moter of godly Practice and godly Living, and a bright Ornament to his 
Profession. In Times and Cases of Difficulty he was a ready, wise and 
able Counsellor. By his Death our infant College is deprived of the 
Benefit and Advantage of his superior Accomplishments, which afforded 
a favorable Prospect of its future Flourishing and Prosperity under his 
Inspection. His Remains were decently interred here Yesterday, when 
the Rev. Mr. Pierson, of "Woodbridge, preached his funeral Sermon, and 
as he lived desired of all so never any Person in these Parts died more 
lamented. Our Fathers where are they and the Prophets, do they live 
forever? 

This notice was probably written by the Rev. Mr. Pem- 
berton, of New York, with whom Mr. Dickinson liad been 
intimately associated, for years, in the defence of the truth, 
and the promotion of the cause of Christ. The testimony 
thus borne to his great work was fully confirmed by all who 



352 THE HISTORY OF 

knew him. President Edwards called him " the hite learned 
and very excellent Mr. Jonathan Dickinson." The Hev. Dr. 
Bellamy called him " the great Mr. Dickinson." The Rev. 
Dr. John Erskine, of Edinburgli, said, "The British Isles have 
produced no such writers on divinity in the eighteenth cen- 
tury as Dickinson and Edwards." The Rev. David Austin, 
of this town, writing of him in 1793, gathers up the traditions 
of tjiat day concerning him as follows : — 

There are those alive, who testify that he was a most solemn, weighty 
and moving preacher — that he was a uniform advocate for the distin- 
guisliing doctrines of grace, as his writings prove — that he was industri- 
ous, indefatigable, and successful in his ministerial labors — as to his per- 
son, that it was manly — of full size : solemn and grave in his aspect, so 
that the wicked would seem to tremble in his presence.* 

His monument in the Presbyterian " Burying Ground " 
bears the following inscription : — 

Here lyes y" body of y^ Rev"* 
Mr Jonathan Dickinson, Pastor 
of the first Presbyterian Church 
In Elizabeth Town, who Died Oct"^ / 

y" 7th 1747. Aetatis Suae 60. 
Deep was the "Wound, O Death ! and Vastly wide, 
When he resign'd his Useful breath and dy'd : 
Ye Sacred Tribe with pious Sorrows mourn, 
And drop a tear at your great Patron's Urn ! 
ConceaPd a moment, from our longing Eyes, 
Beneath this Stone his mortal Body lies : 
Happy the Spirit lives, and will, we trust. 
In Bliss associate with his precious Dust. 

Another monument, by the side of his, has the following : — 

Here is interred the body of Mrs. Joanna Dickinson — Obiit. April 20, 
1745. Anno Aetatis 63. 

Rest, precious Dust, till Christ revive this Clay 
To Join the Triumphs of the Judgement Day. 

They had nine children. (1.) Melyen was born Dec. 7? 
1709. (2.) Abigail, married to Jonathan Sergeant, a widow- 
er, of Newark.f Her son, Jonathan Dickinson Sergeant, was 

* Edwards' Works, X. 879. Webster's P. Chli., p. 3G1. Preface to the Five Points, viii. 
t Uis first wife was Hannah, (born, 1709, and died, 174G), the daughter of the Kev. John 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 353 

born in 1746, and married Margaret, daugliter of Eev. Eliliu 
Spencer, D. D., Mr. Dickinson's successor in tlie ministry 
here. Their chiklren were Hon. John Sergeant, Hon. 
Thomas Sergeant, Hon. Elihu Spencer Sergeant, and Sarah, 
the wife of Rev. Samuel Miller, D. D. (3.) Jonathan, born, 
Sept. 19, 1713, graduated at Yale College in 1731, and died 
in 1735. (4.) Mary, married, (1.) to John Cooper, a tailor, 
of this town, and had a daughter, Martha, and two sons, 
William and Caleb Cooper. Mr. Cooper died in March, 1753, 

and she was married, (2.) to Plum, of Newark, and had 

Elizabeth, Mar}'-, and Martha Plum, the latter married to 
David Burnet. She died in 1763. (5.) Joanna, born, Feb. 
27, 1716, and died, May 9, 1732. (6.) Temperance, married to 
Jonathan Odell, of Cfc. Farms, and had four children : Jona- 
than, Joanna, Eunice, and Elizabeth. Mr. Odell died, June 
25, 1750. His son, Jonathan, was then a member of the 
Freshman Class of the College of 'New Jersey, at ISTewark, 
where he graduated in 1754 — afterwards, entering the gos- 
pel ministry. (7.) Eh'zabeth, born in 1721, married to Mr. 
Jonathan Miller, of Barnet's Mills, in this town, and died, 

:N"ov. 27, 1788. (8.) . (9.) Martha, married, Sept. 7, 

1749, to Rev. Caleb Smith, of Newark Mountains, [Orange], 
IST. J., and died, August 20, 1757, leaving three daughters, 
— Nancy, Elizabeth, and Jane. She is described as 

A Lady endowed with many amiable Qualities; she was superior to 
most of her Sex in Strength of Genius, her intellectual Qualities were quick 
and penetrating, she had a Thirst for Knowledge, and was greatly delighted 
in Reading : Kindness, Ease and Friendship composed her natural Tem- 
per; she was an agreeable Companion, very obliging in her Behaviour, 
and admired and loved by all who had the Happiness of her Acquaint- 
ance: As she was blessed with an early religious Education so the things 
of Eternity began betimes to exercise her : She had serious Impressions upon 
her Mind even from her Childhood, and began a Course of secret Prayer 
while Young. She was a most faithful Friend, an amiable and affection- 
ate Companion, and the Heart of her Husband safely trusted in her,* 

Nutmnn of Hanover, N. J. Her daughter, ITannah, was married, about 1759, to the Ker. John 
Ewing, [afterwards, D. D.], ofPhiladelphia. Mr. Sergeant removed at an early day to Prince- 
ton, N. J. 

* Murray's Notes, p. 60. Sprague's Annals, III. 17. llaU's Trenton, p. 2S9. Memoir of 
Eev. Caleb Smith, p. 43. 

23 



354 THE HISTORY OF 

Mrs. Mary Dickinson survived her husband, and died, 
August 30th, 1762, in the 68th year of her age. Her remains 
repose in the Cemetery of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Newark, N. J. She was the widow of Elihu Crane, and the 
mother of Lewis, Christopher, Charles, Elder Elihu, Isaac, 
Hannah (married to Dr. Moses Scott), and Phebe (the wife 
of Rev. John Carmichael, of Chester Co., Pa.). Her grand- 
daughter, Martha Crane (daughter of Elihu), was the wife of 
tlie Rt. Rev. John Croes, of N". Jersey.* 

Mr. Dickinson was, by common consent, the greatest man, 
whose name adorns the Annals of the town. Tracy, in his 
" Great Awakening," p. 404, calls him " one of the greatest 
and safest men of that age ; " and Dr. Sprague ventures the 
assertion, — 

It may be doubted wLetber, witb tbe single exception of tbe elder 
Edwards, Calvinism bas ever found an abler or more efEcient cbampion 
in tbis country, tban Jonatban Dickinson. 

This peculiar prominence is a sufficient apology for giving 
him so large a place in this history. His name, during the 
nearly forty years of his ministry, gave tlie town itself a 
prominence both in the province and in the country. 

• Bicentenary of Newark, p. 116 Sprngne's Annals, III. 231. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY 355 



CHAPTER XVI. 

A. D. 1708-1747. 

Ecclesiastical — Rev. Edward Vaughau, Episcopal Missionary, arrives from 
England — Call to Jamaica, L. I., declined — Poverty of his People — 
Preaches at Rahway, Woodbridge, and P. Amboy — Marries Mrs. Emott 
— Removes to Amboy — Returns — Church Edifice not finished for years — 
Annual Reports to the "Society " — Chh. Glebe — Opposes Mr. Whitefield — 
His Death and Character — Increase of Religious Congregations in 40 years. 

REV. EDWARD VAUGHAN. 

After the departure of tlie Rev. Mr. Brooke, 'Nov., 1T07, 
for England, the Episcopal Congregation were left without a 
preacher nearly two years. They were dependent entirely 
on missionary service from England. Urgent representa- 
tions were made to " the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts ;" and, in the summer of 1709, the 
Rev. Edward Vaughan was appointed their missionary for 
this region. Occasionally the Rev. John Talbot, of Burling- 
ton, extended his ministrations as far as this town, as maybe 
learned from a letter written by him to the Secretary of the 
Society, Sept. 27, 1709 : 

I hear Mr. Vauglian is arrived at Boston, but is not yet come into this 
province, he will have enough to do to supply Mr. Brook's charge at 
Elizabeth Town, Amboy, Piscataway, who have had none since he left 
them ; but I have done for thein, maybe once in a quarter, or so ; some- 
body occasionally passing by that way.* 

Mr. Vaughan arrived shortly after the date of this letter 
and commenced his ministry here and in the neighboring 

* Clark's St. John's Chh., p. S4. 



356 TUE HISTORY OF 

towns. He was from the West of England, and a brother of 
the Rev. Robert Vaughan, Rector of Llantewy and Vicar of 
Llantrissent, Monmouthshire, AYales, and of Jane, the wife 
of Thomas Godden, of Leather Lane, near Holborn, London. 
His prospects were by no means flattering. "Writing from 
Amboj, Dec. 4, 1709, he says : — 

I believe that the most inverate enemies of our mother church would 
recant their pernicious notions were there a faithful pastor in every town 
to instil better principles into their minds ; here are a vast number of 
Deists, Sabbatarians, andEutychians, a? also of Independants, Anabap- 
tists, and Quakers, from which absurdities Mr. Brooke brought a consid- 
erable number of them to embrace our most pure and holy Eeligion, and 
I hope that my labors also will be attended with no less success, and ob- 
serve that those late converts are much more zealous for promoting the 
interests of our church, and more constant in the public worship of God, 
than those who sucked their milk in their infancy. 

Referring to tlie decease, in August, 1709, of the Rev. Mr. 
Urquhart, of Jamaica, he adds, — 

"Whose cure I liavo been solicited to supply, but declined it in obedi- 
ence to the Society's instructions, whose leave and approbation for my 
removal to that cure I must humbly beg for these following reasons : 1st. 
That there is not one family in Elizabeth Town that can accommodate me 
with an ordinary lodging excepting Colonel Townly, who, upon the ac- 
count of some difference with Mr. Brooke (though a gentleman of an 
unblemished character), hath declared never to entertain any missionary 
after him. Secondly. That my salary of £50 per annum will not afford 
me a competent subsistence in this dear place Avhere no contributions arc 
given by the people towards my support, and where I am continually 
obliged to be itinerant and consequently at great expenses, especially in 
crossing Ferries.* 

Mr. Yaughan seems not to have obtained the desired leave, 
but proceeded to cultivate diligently the field assigned him. 
At the expiration of a year, Dec. 4, 1710, he informs the 
Secretary, that, — 

The people have not contributed any thing towards my subsistence 
since I came amongst them, and, indeed, to desire it from them, or to 
show an inclination for it, would very much tend to the dis-service of 
the Church, in causing our proselytes to start from us rather than bear 
the weight of such burthens, which to their weak shoulders and poverty, 

* Clark's St. John's Chh.,pp. 35, 6. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 357 

would seem intolerable. I frequently visit the Dissenters of all sorts in 
their houses, and I experimentally find that an affable even temper with 
the force of arguments is very prevalent to engage their affections and 
conformity to holy mother, the Church, which I do assure you is con- 
siderably increased by late converts from Quakerispi and Anabaptism.* 

It is mainly from liis periodical reports to the Society, that 
his life and labors are to be sketched. He writes, Sept. 12, 
1711, a few months after the decease of Col. Richard Town- 
ley, (the main pillar of St. John's, at that early period), as 
follows : — 

I preach to them in the fore and afternoon of every Lord's day and ad- 
minister the blessed Sacrament monthly to twenty eight or thirty com- 
municants. I have baptized since my arrival to this government seventy- 
two children, besides eleven adult persons, unfortunately brought up in 
dark Quakerism and Anabaptism, and are now so happy as to be mem- 
bers of the Church of Christ, whose worship they constantly frequent 
with great devotion and seeming delight, t 

In the summer of 1711, the Eev. Thomas Halliday was 
sent by the Society to take charge of Amboy and Piscata- 
way, and Mr. Yaughan divided his labors between the town 
proper and that part of it called Railway — a monthly lecture 
being given to the latter place. Shortly after the decease of 
Col. Townley, the Congregation obtained from his son, Charles, 
a clear title to the church lot, for want of which the interior 
of the Church had not been " fitted according to the rules of 
decency and order." 

Owing to a serious disaffection in the Presbyterian Church- 
of Woodbridge, a few families withdrew, and formed an 
Episcopal Society. Mr. Yaughan was requested to officiate 
there occasionally — in a house built for the purpose — " prob- 
ably the smallest you have ever seen, but amply sufficient 
for the congregation at this day." 

Though I reside, (he says, Feb. 28, I7l|), at Elizabeth Town, whose 
distance is ten miles from "Woodbridge, yet I promise through God's bless- 
ing to supply both cures by officiating on every Lord's day, in the fore- 
noon in the former and once a fortnight in the afternoon in the latter, 
Miiich I hope to perform in the summer time when the days are long, 

* Clark's St. John's Chli., p. 36. t Ibid, p. 8S. 



358 THE HISTORY OF 

but in the wiutcr season T sball, as I now do, divide my service between 
both congregations by preaching alternately.* 

Mr. Halliday proved to be utterly unworthy of his office, 
and, in 1Y13, was obliged to leave Amboy, when Mr. Vaughan 
was requested to include that place w^ithin his parochial dis- 
trict. Mrs. Mary Emott, the widow of James Eraott of New 
York, and the daughter of Mrs. Philip Carteret, had been, 
doubtless, a frequent visitor at the house of her step-father. 
Col. Townley. Her husband had died in April 1713, leaving 
her with four sons and a handsome "fortune of £2000." She 
was about 48 years old, and of high social standing, Mr, 
Yaughan was accepted as her second husband. They were 
married at the close of the first year of her widowhood, f^ 

By his marriage, he came into possession of the house and 
grounds, afterwards owned and occupied by Col. Wm, Rick- 
etts, on the Point Road ; which, thenceforth, became his 
home ; also, of lands held by Proprietary rights ; and, as 
already related, to secure a portion of this property, he 
brought, in 1714, the year of his marriage, an Action of 
Ejectment against Joseph Woodruff, one of the Elders of 
the Presbyterian Church at its reception into the Presbytery 
in 1717, and probably a Deacon previously. It is likely, that 
Mr. Yaughan bore much the same relation to the Proprietary 
party, that Mr. Dickinson did to 'the Associates; and that 
the two congregations were separated very nearly by the 
same lines. 

At or soon after his marriage, Mr. Yaughan removed to 
Amboy, for the benefit of his health, " which," he says, 
" was much impaired during my abode in Elizabeth Town 
where I still do and shall continue to officiate in the fore and 
afternoon three Lord's days successively in every month," 
the other being given to Amboy. The Society seem not to 
have favored this plan of non-residence, and to have inti- 
mated to him, that some one else would be sent to take his 
place here ; as he expresses, Sept. 28, 1716, a desire to be 
restored to his former charge at Elizabeth Town.:}: 

♦ Clark's St. John's Clih., pp. 38-41. "Whitehead's P. Amboy, pp. 216, 7, 887. "Webster's 
P, Cbh., pp. 883, 4. t Clark's St. John's Chh., p. 42. t Ibid., p. 43. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 359 

How the matter was finally arranged the correspondence 
does not show, nor how long he continued to reside at 
Amboy ; save the fact, that he returned to his former charge, 
and was residing here in 1721. He continued to divide his 
time between the several stations as before, giving the chief 
attention to this town. Writing, July 8, 1717, he says, — 

Elizabeth Town itself is a considerable village and equals if not exceeds 
any in the Province as well in bigness as in number of Inhabitants, custom 
and education has engaged them for the most part in the Congregational 
way, but notwithstanding they are not so very rigid in that persuasion as 
altogether to deny their attendance on my ministry.* 

The Church, which had been erected of brick, in 1706, 
had not yet been finished. Mr. Halliday, who seems to have 
resided here at the time, and to have been retained as a mis- 
sionary in the service of the Propagation Society, wrote to 
the Secretary, Aug. 1, 1717, of tlie building of St. John's 
Church, in these words : — 

There was £400 raised by subscription of Charitable People. Mr. 
Brooks received most of the money and as Mr. Townly informs me he 
went to England before he made up his accounts, several subscriptions 
remaining in his hands unpaid, but as his father [Col. Townley] being en- 
gaged for the payment of the workmen, he had made up the deficiencies 
and given bond for £20 to Elizabeth Town Church however this is, the 
Bond is now in Mr. Willock's hands but I think ought rather to be em- 
ployed for the use of the Church, there being only the shell of Brick, no 
pews, Pulpit, notwithstanding so much money has been raised for it.t 

In such circumstances, it is not strange, that the congrega- 
tion grew but slowly, and that the most they could raise for 
their minister was £30, without a glebe or parsonage. That 
they were pleased with his ministrations is testified by a let- 
ter sent in their name to the Society, in the course of the 
same year : — 

"We esteem ourselves happy under his pastoral care, and have a thor- 
ough persuasion of mind that the Church of Christ is now planted among 
us in its purity. Mr. Vaughan hath, to the great comfort and edification 
of our families, in these dark and distant regions of the world, prosecuted 
the duties of his holy calling with the utmost application and diligence ; 

* Clark's St. John's Chb., pp. 44, 5. t lb., pp. 45, 6. 



360 THE HISTORY OF 

■ 
adorned his character with an exemplary life aad conversation ; and so 
behaved himself with all due prudence and fidelity ; showing uncorrupt- 
ness, gravity, sincerity, and sound speech ; that they who are of the con- 
trary part have no evil thing to say of him.* 

In 1721, his audience liad increased to 200 souls, and the 
communicants were more than 40 in number. For ten years 
no memorial of him is found. But, Oct. 6, 1731, he" writes : 

My congregation encreaseth not only in this Town, but in the neigh- 
bouring Towns of Newark, Whippany and the Mountains [Orange] where 
I visit and preach to a numerous assembly occasionally and in the wilder- 
ness and dispensa the Sacrament to them. I have Baptized here and 
clsewbere within the compass of two years last past 556 children besides 
G4 adults, and find in the people a general disposition to receive the Gos- 
pel according to the way and manner taught and established in the 
Church of England.t 

At the close of 1733, he reports the baptism, for the year, 
of 88 children and five adults ; aad for 1734, " 13 Adults 6 
of which were negroes, and 162 children." The communi- 
cants were sevent}^ In the year, ending, May 29, 1739, 
he baptized 129 Infants and 3 adults, and the number of 
communicants was 84. A glebe " of nine'acres of good land, 
with a fine orchard thereon," liad been acquired " b}' the 
Piety and favor of a very worthy widow Mrs. Anne Arskins 
[Erskine] of Elizabeth Town.:]: 

" Mrs. Arskins " was the widow of John Ei'skine, who 
came over in the Scotch immigration of 1684-5, who was, in 
all probability, originally a Presbyterian. 

When Mr. AVhitefield visited the town in 1730 and 1740, 
Mr. Vaughan stood aloof from him, and wrote to the Secre- 
tary of the Society giving an account of his preaching with 
strictures on his doctrine. § 

Mr. Yaughan continued in the work of the ministry, as the 
Rector of St. John's Church, until his decease about the 12th 
of October, 1747, " far advanced in years." It has been 
said, on high authority, that Mr. Vaughan and Mr. Dickin- 
son " both lay corpses on the same day, the latter having 

• nnmphrey's Hist, of the S. P. G. F., p. T7. t Clark's St. John's Chh., pp. 4S, 9. 

: Ibid., pp. 50, 1, 0. § Clark'fi St. John's Chh., p. 55. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 361 

died a few hours the first." But in a letter, written less than 
three months after the event, in the name of the Church 
"Wardens and Yestry of St. John's Church, it is said, " A few 
days before the death of Mr. Vaughan, Mr. Dickinson late 
Dissenting Teacher in this place departed this life." As the 
latter died on the 7th, it is probable that Mr. Yaughan died 
on or about the 12th.* 

It is, also, reported, that when tidings reached Mr. Yaug- 
han, then old and feeble, and nigh unto death, that Mr. Dick- 
inson was dead, he exclaimed, " Oh that I had hold of the 
skirts of Brother Jonathan ! " As their " personal relations 
were always of the most pleasant character," the report is 
not improbable. It must have been a season of great desola- 
tion, when the town was thus deprived, at the same time, of 
both of its pastors — settled at the same period, continuing 
with them nearly forty years, and then stricken down the 
same week.f 

Mr. Yaughan's Will was dated, July 30, 174=7 : in which 
he speaks of his brother-in-law, Charles Townley, his niece, 
Mrs. Sarah Townley, and her sister, Mary Townley (subse- 
quently married to Stephen Burrows) ; also, his sister-in-law, 
Mrs. Shacknjaple. To Sarah Townley (afterwards the wife 
of John Harriman, 3d) he left his negro-man Jack, his plate, 
his carriage, and the use of his dwelling house. His books 
he gave to Walter Dongan, one of his Executors. To the 
Propagation Society for the use of a Church of England 
minister in Elizabeth Town, he gave his nine-acre lot. His 
wife was the half-sister of Charles Townley, but about 20 
years older. 

The memory of Mr. Yaughan, as in the case of Mr. Dick- 
inson was very precious to the people of his charge. From 
the information received by the Rev. Dr. Rudd, from Gen. 
Matthias Williamson, who died Nov. 8, 1807, at the age of 
91 years, and whose recollections of Mr. Yaughan were very 
distinct and grateful, 

♦ Clark's St. John's Chh., p. 66. Rev. Dr. Eudd'e nist.NoticcB of St. John's Clih., p. 
10. Dr. Chandler ftays, that they " died In the same monUi of tho year— 47." 
*t Rev. Dr. Murray's Notes, p. 129. 



363 THE HISTORY OF 

It would appear that ho was happily constituted for the times in 
which he lived, and the sphere of his labours. He was sprightly and 
engaging as a companion, as a friend and neighbour kind and liberal, and 
his public ministrations were marked by great solemnity and tenderness, 
especially the administration of the holy Supper. 

At tlie time of the settlement of tliese two patriarchs, their 
two congregations were the only ones in the town, and the 
Episcopal congregation had just been gathered, including 
but a very few families. At the time of their decease, 
Presbyterian congregations had been gathered and ministers 
settled over them, at Westfield, at Connecticut Farms, at 
Turkey or Kew Providence, at Eahway, at Basking Ridge, 
at Rocsiticus [Mendham], at West Hanover [Morristown], 
and at Springfield, — all of which were included within the 
original township of Elizabeth. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JEKSEY. 363 



CHAPTER XVII. 

A. D. 1740-1764. 

Negro Plot — Land Conflicts — Appeal to the Crown — Tumults — Secret Meet- 
ings — E. T. Bill in Chancery — Answer — Death of Gov. Morris — Jonathan 
Belcher, Gov. — Issue of the long Conflict with the Proprietors — Death of 
Mayor Bonuel — Lottery Mania — Two Lottery Schemes — Prof. Kalm's 
Notices of the Town — Col. Rickett's Affair in N. Y. Harbor — Notices of Gov. 
Belcher — Removes to E. T. — His Hospitality and Piety — Befriends the Col- 
lege — Gives it a new Charter — Incorporates the Presbyterian Chh. — Makes 
E. T. the Seat of Government — His Death and Character — Judge Ross — 
Addresses of the Corporation — Town Officers — Newspaper Notices — The 
Barracks — First Centenary Celebration. 

The Incorporation of the Borough, Feb. 8, 17||, Avas fol- 
lowed, the same year, by the scenes and excitements of " the 
Great Revival," absorbing the attention and interest of nearly 
the whole community. The year following, 1741, witnessed 
one of those remarkable panics to which a slaveholding com- 
munity are ever liable. The city of New York, in the 
spring and summer of that year, was terribly agitated by the 
report of a Negro Conspiracy to burn the city and murder 
the white population, the particulars of which, by Recorder 
Horsmanden, have been so minutely and faithfully described 
in his " History of the ''Negro Plot." To the disgrace of 
humanity, 

During the progress of this affair, one hundred and fifty four negroes 
were committed to prison ; of whom fourteen were burnt at the stake ; 
eighteen hanged ; seventy one transported, and the rest pardoned or dis- 
charged for want of proof. Twenty white persons were committed, of 
whom four were executed.* 

Two were burned on the 3d of May, and the remaining 

• Valentino's N. York, p. 2T5. 



364: THE HISTORY OF 

twelve in June following. Horrible as these transactions 
were, they were not confined to IS'ew York, The panic ex- 
tended to this neighborhood, whither some of the suspected 
blacks had fled for safety. Two at least of the poor creatures 
. were arrested, within the County of Essex, tried, found guilty, 
and condemned to the same inhuman fate. The Account 
Book of the Justices and Freeholders of the county contains 
the following records : 

June 4, 1741. Daniel Harrison Sent in his account of wood Carted for 
Burning two Negros allow"^ Cury. 0. 11. 0. 

February 25, 174|. Joseph Heden ace* for "Wood to Burn tlie Negros 
W Farrand paid allowed. . 0. 7. 0. Allowed to Isaac Lyon 4/ Curr>' for 
a load of "Wood to burn the first Negro . . 0. 4. 0. 

At the latter meeting were present, "Matthias Hatfield 
Justice for Eliz*^ town, John Halsted freeholder for Eliz*'' 
town." At the former, " John Ogden, Justice, John Halsted 
and John Stiles freeholders for Elizebethtown." Zophar 
Beech was allowed Ts. for "Irons for y® Kegro that was 
Burnt." The latter seems to have been allowed, Feb. 27, 
i7f|, and probably refers to a prior event. Possibly, there 
were three burned at the stake. The Sherifi" on whom it de- 
volved to to execute the judgments of the Court, at this pe- 
riod, was William Chetwood of this town. 

Whether these executions had any connection with the 
so-called " Negro Conspiracy " at New York, or not, they 
show a feature of the times not to be overlooked by the faith- 
ful historian. 

The troubles with the "Proprietors" were perpetuated, 
and soon after the occurrences just mentioned greatly in- 
creased. In 1740, the Town Committee consisted of John 
Crane, Jonathan Dayton, John Megie, Thomas Clarke, An- 
drew Joline, Joseph Man, and Andrew Craige. Kobert 
Ogden, (the second of the name) a young lawyer, 24 
years old, was chosen, Oct. 2, 1740, " Town Clark." Ho 
became, subsequently, one of the most influential men in 
the town.* 

The two Actions of Ejectment, brought by the Penn 

♦ E. Town. Book, B. 21, 2. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 365 

brothers, against Chambers and Alcorn, in 1735, (as already 
noticed), came on for trial, at Amboj, Aug. 14, 1741 ; result- 
ing, on the 16th, in a general verdict for the plaintiffs, on 
the ground that the lands in question were not included in 
the E. Town Purchase. To meet the expenses of this suit, it 
was resolved at a town meeting, Dec. 15, 1741, 

That the Committee of said Town should have full Power and Athor- 
ity Given To them By Us To Sell and Dispose of all that three Hundred 
Acres of Upland Lying near Ash Swamp which was Layed Out in the 
Year One thousand Six Hundred and Ninety Nine (Alias) Seven Hun- 
dred for the Town Aforesaid : in Order to Defray the Cost and Charge of 
the Sute Between William Pen Thomas Pen and Others : and the Said 
Town.* 

An Action of Ejectment had, also, been brought, August, 
1737, in the name of James Jackson, on the right of Joseph 
Halsey, one of the Associates, against John Vail, holding by 
a Propi-ietary right, which came to trial, March 17, 174^, 
resulting, on the 19th, in a general verdict for the plaintiff; 
which was carried, by appeal, before the Governor and 
Council.f 

The case of Cooper vs. Moss and others, also, came to trial 
in August 1742, resulting in a verdict, by a Morris County 
Jury, for the plaintiff. Other Actions were brought, of a 
similar character, some of which were, by compromise, with- 
drawn ; and others went to trial with like results. " To enume- 
rate all the Actions of Trespass, and Trespass and Ejectment, 
wliich have been occasioned by the different claims of the Peo- 
ple of Elizabeth-Town and the Proprietors," would occupy too 
much space in this Memoir. It was alleged, that the County 
of Morris had been so formed, March 15, 173f , and the County 
of Somerset had been so altered, Nov. 4, 1741, as to bring much 
of the land in question into those counties, so that these cases 
might be tried before Somerset or Morris Co. jurors, known 
to be inimical to the claims of the E. T. Associates. So, 
also, it was alleged, that the Judges were mostly in the in- 
terest of their persecutors.:}: 

* E. T. Bill, p. 48. Ans. to Do., p. 84. E. T. Book, B. 23. 

t E. T. Bill, pp. 4S, 9. Ans. to Do., p. 84. $ Ana. to E. T. Bill, pp. 85, 6. 



366 THE HISTORY OF 

In these circumstances, it was determined to carry the 
matter directly to the King's Most Excellent Majesty, Solo- 
mon Boyle, of Morris Co., writes, 'Nov. 16, 1743, to James 
Alexander, (both of them in the interest of the Proprietary 
party), that he 

Had been to Elizabethtown the week before, and been informed that 
the people of that place and the people of Newark had come to a written 
agreement relative to their boundary — the Newarkers to join in sending 
home against the Proprietors, but Col. Ogden said it was not finished, 
and that none of the Ogdens would agree to it. 

David Ogden, also, of JSTewark, one of the counsel of the 
Propi-ietors, writes, Dec. 12, 1743, to Jftmes Alexander, his 
fellow counselor, confirming what Boyle had written, with 
additional information about the proposed agreement between 
the two towns, and stating further, that 

Mr. Fitch, from Norwalk, had met the Elizabeth Town Committee, and 
left with them a petition to the King for relief against the Proprietors, 
with which they were much pleased ; that Matthias Iletfield and Stephen 
Crane had been chosen by them to go to England during the winter, and 
lay it before the King.* 

It is somewhat strange that the Associates should have em- 
ployed a lawyer of Norwalk, (afterwards Governor of Ct.) to 
draw their petition, as it is not known, that he had any in- 
terests or connections here. They had no reason, however, 
to regret it, as the work was well done. It recites very 
clearly and fully the matters in controversy ; narrates suc- 
cinctly the history of the Indian Purchase and of the opposing 
claims ; refers to the litigations determined, and others not 
yet issued ; shows the difficulty of obtaining an impartial 
hearing, as the courts and the country are constituted ; and 
appeals to his Majesty for relief and redress. f 

This Appeal was signed by 304 persons, purporting to be 
" the Proprietors, Freeholders and Inhabitants of a Tract of 
Land now called Elizabetli-Town, whose Names are hereunto 
subscribed, in Behalf of themselves and others their Asso- 
ciates, Proprietors, Freeholders, and Inhabitants of said 

• Analytical Index, pp. ISS, 9. t E. T. Bill, pp. 121, 2. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 367 

Tract." A large portion of the actual inhabitants, knowji to 
be of the same party, are not included in the list. No one 
of the ministers of the seven congregations signed the paper, 
except John Cleverly, at Morristown, and he had retired 
from active service. 

The Petition was forwarded to his Majesty, George II., 
probably by the hands of the persons appointed, Messrs. 
Hatfield and Crane, and read in Couucil, July 19, ITM ; 
when it was referred to the Lords of the Committee of Coun- 
cil for Plantation Affairs ; by whom, Aug. 21st, it was re- 
ferred to the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations. 
Its subsequent fate is not known.* 

The people of IN'ewark, especially those who lived at 
Newark Mountains [Orange], in 1744, began to have trouble 
with the Proprietary party, similar to that which the people 
of this town had experienced for three fourths of a century. 
Acts of violence were committed, arrests made, and offenders 
imprisoned. In 1745-6, the jails were broken open, and the 
prisoners released. Indictments were found against the 
rioters, and society was convulsed. The Government, under 
Hamilton, was " too weak to put a stop to " the riotous as- 
semblages of the opposition ; and, as Jas. Alexander and R. 
H. Morris wrote, Dec. 4, 1746, " the infection of insubordina- 
tion was daily spreading ; " — all " on account of the disputed 
title to the lands " purchased of the Indian owners of the soil. 
Party spirit ran high. The excitement spread far and wide. 
Deep sympathy was felt, of course, for the aggrieved settlers, 
by the popular party in this town, though they were only 
indirectly concerned in the issue. Gradually, however, the 
field of contention Avidened. Collisions ensued between the 
people of Turkey, who had drawn lots in 1736-7, near the 
Passaic river, and others occupying portions of the same 
ground by leases or purchase from the. Proprietary party. 

Secret meetings, or caucuses, were held by both parties to 
devise measures to carry into effect their purposes, and to 
gain advantages over their opponents. Secret communications 

♦ E. T. Bin, p. 128. 

t Uoyt's Orange, pp. 65-75. E. T. Bill, App., pp. 1-89. Aniil. Indei., pp. 193, 208. 



368 THE HISTORY OF 

wer.e passing back and forth, the intercepting of which at 
times created no little trouble. William Chetwood, of this 
town, and Sheriff of Essex County, finds an open letter on a 
table in one of his rooms, from one of the leaders of the pop- 
ular party, and forthwith transmits it, May 7, 174-7, to C. 
Justice Morris, one of the lawyers of the aristocratic party, 
with a note, in which he gives a little personal history as 
follows : — 

I intended to have waited on you myself, but have for some time past 
and am still so troubled with a swelled face, and cold I have got that I 
cant possibly do it.* 

A copy of an afiidavit by Solomon Boyle aforesaid, before 
C. Justice Morris, in relation to some of these meetings and 
plottings, is found, singularly enough among the Colonial 
Papers of K York. It bears the date of May 13, 1747. He 
lived on a part of the land claimed by Daniel Cooper, of 
whose suit against John Crane and others mention has been 
made. He testifies, that — 

About the end of October last being at the house of Samuel "WoodruflF 
Alderman in Elizabeth Town, he was there desired by several persons, 
particularly one they called Lawyer Daniel Clarke and one John Osborn 
both of Elizabeth Town, to acquaint Daniel Cooper that in a fortnights 
time the Mob intended to pay him a visit. He came to Dalrymple's place, 
[Boyle's tenant], just after the house was broke open and the said Dal- 
rymplo with his wife and children turned out of doors on the 8th of April 
last by a number of persons with Clubs, that he saw several of the persons 
concerned in that Riot, carrying the Man's goods out of the House, some 
in particular ho remembers to have been present and. active therein to 
witt: Nath" Davis (who was called their Capt") Abraham Hendricks, 
Daniel Little of Turkey, Nath" Rogers, Wm Johnston, W"" Breasted, and 
James Hampton of Morris Town. He heard on the last training day being 
the sixth day of April on Monday, the day appointed by Act of Assembly, 
the Company at Turkey gave out, that they had liberty to chuse new 
officers, and that they either chose or were about to chose the said Nath" 
Davis for their Capt° and one Badgely Lieutenant. 

Further, that 

He with the said Joseph Dalrymple on the second day of this instant, 
had occasion to go to Turkey, where they saw at Abraham Hendricks 

♦ N. T. Col. Docmts., VIII. 345. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 369 

lionss the said Abr : Hendricks Daniel Little and ho thinks Isaac Hen- 
dricks and some men that were present a turning Dalrymple out of posses- 
sion and as this informant has been told by Daniel Cooper and Moses 
Ayres, that since their turning Dalrymple out of possession, they said they 
were misled and were sorry for it. (When questioned, they said), if the 
thing was to do again and if we had the same information, which we now 
have, we would do it yet. 

The affidavit is drawn out to a great length, with much 
more to the same effect, showing that the peoj)le of Turkey, 
claiming by E. Town right, had taken the law into their own 
hands, and were determined to drive off all other claimants ; 
and that they " said the Land at Turkey and much further was 
theirs and they would have it as far as they claimed, and 
that there would be more such doings by the Mob than ever 
yet has been done in the Country. "^ 

It was an unhappy state of affairs, without much prospect 
of improvement. The trouble had been prolonged for eighty 
years, and become more aggravated from generation to 
generation. The law was powerless with a people who 
knew the justice of their claims and how to defend them.. 
It would have been far better for the Carteret party from the 
first had they acknowledged these claimsj and been content 
with the vast domain beyond the town. The course actually 
pursued was sure to end in rupture and revolution, f 

All this while, for at least three years, the so-called Pro- 
prietors had been preparing^ with great pains and expensCj.. 
a complete and labored argument in defence of their long 
litigated pretensions to the soil of this town, by the Duke of 
York's Grant to Carteret. It purports to have been filed,, 
April 13th, 174:5. It was written on about 1500 sheets. It 
bears the names of James Alexander and Joseph Murray, as 
" Of Counsel for the Complainants," eminent lawyers of N. 
York. Murray was one of the first lawyers of the land. 
Alexander, the father of " the Earl of Stirling," was at the 
head of his profession. The Bill was, undoubtedly, the 
product of his pen — " one of the very few literary remains 
of a man highly distinguished in his day, but who has left," 

♦ N. Y. Col. Docints., VIII. 84S-9. t Mulford'a N. Jersey, pp. 349-51. Gor- 

don's N. J., pp. 108-n. 

24 



370 THE HISTORY OF 

says Sedgwick, " but scanty testimonials of his character and 
ability behind hira/' This bill is any thing but "scanty."* 
It bears the following imposing Title : 

A Bill in the Chancery of New Jersey, at the Suit of John Earl of 
Stair, and others, Proprietors of the Eastern-Division of New-Jersey ; 
Against Benjamin Bond, and some other Persons of Elizabeth-Town, 
distinguished by the Name of the Clinker Lot Right Men. "With Three 
largo Maps, done from Copper-Plates. To which is added; The Publica- 
tions of the Council of Proprietors of East New-Jersey, and Mr. Nevill's 
Speeches to the General Assembly, concerning The Riots committed in 
New-Jersey, and The Pretences of the Rioters, and their Seducers. 
These Papers will give a better Light into the History and Constitution 
of New-Jersey, than anything hitherto publishecl, the Matters whereof 
have been chiefly collected from Records. Published by Subscription. 
Printed by James Parker, in New- York, 1747; and a few copies are to be 
sold by him and Benjamin Franklin, in Philadelphia ; Price bound, and 
Maps coloured, Three Pounds ; plain and sticht only. Fifty Shillings, 
Proclamation Money. 

The printing was finished, July 21, 1747. It is a folio, 
with double columns, and contains, besides the Maps, 121- 
pageSj with an Appendix of 40 pages. So plausible is the 
plea, that nearly all the historians of the State have relied 
almost implicitly on its statements, and, in many cases, have 
thus been led into error. It is a special and one-sided plea, 
and, as in all such cases, is to be received with caution, and 
'its statements of facts are to be subjected to a rigid scrutiny.f 

The preparation of an Answer to this formidable Bill was 
entrusted, by the Town Committee, to "William Livingston 
and AVilliam Smith, Jun., as their Counsel. Livingston was 
the pupil of Alexander, and, if employed, as is likely, in 
17o0, was only in the 27th year of his age ; but he- had al- 
ready acquired a high rci^utation at the bar in New York. 
The interest that he took in this case was, probably, one of 
the reasons that induced him, a few years later, to become a 
resident of this town. Smith was still younger, in his 23d 
year. Yet he was associated, that same year, Nov., 1750, 
with others, in ])reparing the first Digest of the Colonial 

* Sedgwick's Life of Wm. Livingston, pp. 49, 51. 

t Anal. Index, p. 205.—" 1500 seres of rights had been sold to hear the csrcnsc of Eliza 
Ijethtown euit." lb., p. 289. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 371 

Laws of ISTevv York. He wrote tlie History of the Province, 
and, after the Revolution, w^as made Chief Justice of Canada.* 
The " Answer" was read in town meeting, Aug. 2Y, 1751, 
and filed a few days afterwards. It was put in print the 
following year, 1752, in similar form with the Bill itself (but 
contains only 48 pages), with the following Title : 

An Answer to a Bill in the Chancery of ISTew Jersey. At the Suit of 
Jolin Earl of Stair, and others, commonly called Proprietors of the East- 
ern Division of Rew-Jersey, Against Benjamin Bond, and others claim- 
ing under the original Proprietors and Associates of Elizabeth-Town. To 
which is added ; Nothing either of The Publications of the Council of 
Proprietors of East New-Jersey, or of The Pretences of the Rioters, and 
their Seducers ; Except so far As the Persons meant by Rioters, pretend 
Title Against The Parties to tlie above Answer ; But A great Deal of the 
Controversy, Though much less Of the History and Constitution of 
New-Jersey, than the said Bill. Audi alteram partem. Published by 
Subscription. New York : Printed and Sold by James Parker, at the 
New Printing-office, in Beaver-Street. l7o2.t 

It professes to he " The joint and several Answer " of 449 
Freeholders and Inhabitants of Elizabeth Town, recorded in 
alphabetical order. 

The Town Committee, on whom was devolved the responsi-- 
bihty of conducting the Defense, were, for 1750, Messrs. 
John Crane, Andrew Craige, William Miller, John Halsted^ 
Stephen Crane, Thomas Clarke, and John Chandler. 

At the time of the preparation and the filing of the Bill 
in Chancery, Lewis Morris was Governor of the Province. 
He had long been conversant with the matters in litigation, 
and was deeply interested in the issue of this most imj)ortant 
case — holding a large part of his property in ]^, Jersey by 
Proprietary rights. Gov. Morris had presumed, without, as 
was alleged, due authority, to erect a Court of Chancery, and 
to exercise the prerogatives of Cliancellor. Could the Bill 
in question have been, with its Answer, submitted to his 
adjudication, the plaintifis would, undoubtedly, have obtained 
just such a decision as they desired. 

But this favorable prospect Avas blighted by the decease of 
the Governor in May, 1746. Unfortunately for the advocates 

* Sedgwick's Livingston, pp. 4S, CO, 8. Smith's N. York, pp. i., ij.-xvl. 
t Anal. Index, p. 277. 



3Y2 THE HISTORY OF 

and friends of the Bill, Jonathan Belcher, a famous old Pu- 
ritan, of Boston, Mass., was entrusted with the executive 
functions, and entered upon his office as Governor of New- 
Jersey, in August, 1747. Before the Answer to the Bill 
could be printed. Gov. Belcher became a resident of this 
town, and immediately identified himself with the First 
Presbyterian church and congregation, with which, and its 
branches in the back countrj'-, the defendants in the Bill were 
nearly all connected. The sympathies of Gov. Belcher, 
therefore, would, most naturally, be given to the Presbyterian 
party, for such, in fact, the defendants were. Owing to these 
or other similar reasons. Gov. Belcher seems not to have 
adjudicated the case; Alexander, who had the principal 
management of the Bill, died, April 2, 1756. Murray died, 
April 2, 1757, before the death of Gov. Belcher. The French 
War succeeded. Then came the Stamp Act Excitement, fol- 
lowed by the Revolution. ]!^o i:)lace was found for the E. 
Town Bill, and it fell by its own weight. Such was the end 
of this famous struggle, continued for a whole century, and 
resulting in the vindication of the original purchasers of the 
soil, and the defeat of their oppone :ts. 

Other matters, in the meantime, engaged the attention of 
the people, for the moment. Joseph Bonnel, Esq., the first 
Mayor of the Borough, at the close of the winter of 171-J, 
was removed by death, lie lived in the neighborhood of 
Connecticut Farms, where, in the graveyard of the Presby- 
terian Church, his remains were buried. A monument was 
erected over his grave with this Inscription : 

"Wlio knew him living must luincnt liim dead, 
Whose corpse heneath this Verdant Turf is laid. 
Bonnel, in Private Life, in Public Trust, 
Was Wise and Kind, was Generous and Just. 
In Virtue's rigid Path unmoved he trod, 
To Self Impartial, pious to his God. 
Religion's Patron, and a Patriot True, 
A general Good, and ])rivare blessing too. 
Wiiat Bonnel was, and what his Virtues were, 
The Resurrection day will best declare. 
Joseph Bonnel, Esq., deceased March y" 14, 1747-8, in y 63d year of 

his age. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 373 

He was repeatedly chosen, from 1716 to 1743, to represent 
tlie town in the General Assembly. In 1738, he was chosen 
Speaker, and the same year appointed Second Judge of the 
Supreme Court. 

Ill 1748, the Lottery mania infected all classes of the com- 
munity. I^ot less than eight different schemes, for raising 
money for public purposes in JSTew Jersey, were advertised 
in the papers of ISTew York and Philadelphia. Two of them 
related entirely to this town. Tlie first was called " the 
Elizabeth-Town Kaway Lottery." The object was " To raise 
a Sum of Money [£1050] for building a Parsonage-House," 
at Rahway. It consisted " of 1500 Tickets at 14s. each." 
The prizes were £60, and £40, one each ; 3, of £20 ; 4, of 
£17 ; 5, of £10 ; 10, of £7 ; 20, of £5 ; 60, of £2. 10. 0, and 
200, of £1. 8. 0. It was drawn at Ealiway, on Tuesday and 
Wednesday, Aug. 2 and 3, 1748, " under the Care and Man- 
agement of John Ross, Esq., Thomas Clark, Esq., Jonathan 
Freeman, Elifelet Frazee, Stephen Burrows and Josiah 
Terrill." '^ 

A similar " Scheme of a Lottery in Turkey, in Elizabeth 
Town," was advertised, Aug. 8, 1748, " to raise a sum of 
Money [£152. 5. 0.] for building a Parsonage-House, consist- 
ing of 1450 Tickets at 14s. each." The highest prizfe was 
£30: "The Drawing to commence on or before the first 
Tuesday in November next, at the House of Benjamin Pettit, 
Esq ; in Turkey, if filled by that Time, under the Care and 
Management of Messrs. Benjamin Pettit, David Day, Eluathan 
Cory, John Badgley, Nathaniel Davis and Josiah Broad- 
well." t 

To such an extent was society demoralized by this per- 
nicious custom, that the Legislature of the Province, near 
the close of the year, Dec. 16, 1748, passed a stringent act 
against Lotteries and all other kinds of gambling ; prefixing 
to the Act the following admirable Preamble : 

Whereas Lotteries, playing of Cards and Dice, and other Gaming for 
Lucre of Gain, are become of late frequent and common within this Colony, 

* N. T. "Weekly Post Boy, Nos. 273, 4, 8, 288, 290. 
t N. Y. "Weekly Post Boy, No. 290, 



374 THE HISTORY OF 

wliereby many Persons have unjustly gained to themselves great Sums of 
Money from unwary Persons, as well as Children and Servants, tending to 
the manifest Corrujition of Youth, and the Euin and Impoverishment of 
many poor Families: And whereas such pernicious Practices and Desire 
of unlawful Gain may not only give frequent Opportunities to evil-minded 
Persons to cheat and defraud divers of the honest Inliabitants of this 
Colony, but may in Time, if not prevented, ruin the Credit thereof, and 
be a Hindrance to Trade and Industry, and a great Temptation to Vice, 
Idleness aud Immorality, and consequently against the common Good, 
Welfare and Peace of his Majesty's Government : Wherefore, &c. * 

The law, however, was evaded by drawing the lotteries in 
a neighboring province, though the tickets were sold aud 
purchased in this province. 

The celebrated Swedish ITaturalist, Prof. Kalni, in liis 
Botanical Explorations of these provinces, visited this part of 
the country in 1748. On his way from Philadelphia to New 
York, he tarried here a night and was gone in the morning. 
He came to New Brunswick, at noon on Saturday, the 29th 
of October, and proceeded north the same afternoon. After 
passing the forks of the road, eight miles this side of New 
Brunswick, at "Fairfield," he says: — 

The country now made a charming appearance ; some parts being high, 
others forming vallies, and all of them well-cultivated. Prom the hills 
you had a prospect of houses, farms, gardens, cornfields, forests, lakes, 
islands, roads, and pastures. In most of the places where we traveled 
this day the colour of the ground was reddish. I make no doubt, but 
there were strata of the before-mentioned red limestone under it. Some- 
times the ground looked very like a cinnabar ore. 

WooD-BEiuGE is a small village in a plain, consisting of a few houses : 
we stopped here to rest our horses a little. The houses were most of 
them built of boards ; the walls had a covering of shingles on the outside ; 
these shingles were round at one end, and all of a length in each row : 
some of the houses had an Italian roof, but the greatest part had roofs 
with pediments; most of them were covered with shingles. Inmost 
places we met with wells, and buckets to draw up the Avater. 

Elizabeth-town is a small town about twenty English miles distant 
from New Brunswick: we arrived there immediately after sun-setting. 
Its houses are mostly scattered, but well-built, and generally of boards, 
■with a roof of shingles, and walls covered with the same. There were 
likewise some stone buildings. A little rivulet passes through the town 

* AUinson's Laws of N. J., p. 1S7. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 375 

from west to east; it is almost reduced to nothing when the water ebbs 
away, but with the full tide they can bring up small yachts. Here were 
two fine churches, each of which made a much better appearance than 
any one in Philadelphia. That belonging to the people of the church of 
England was built of bricks, had a steeple with bells, and a balustrade 
round it, from which there was a prospect of the country. The meeting- 
house of the presbyterians was built of wood, but had both a steeple and 
bells, and was, like the other houses, covered with shingles. The town 
house made likewise a good appearance, and had a spire with a bell. The 
banks of the river vrere red, from the reddish limestone ; both in and 
about the town were many gardens and orchards ; and it might truly be 
said, that Elizabeth-town was situated in a garden, the ground hereabouts 
being even and well-cultivated. 

At night we took up our lodgings at Elizabeth-town Point, an inn. 
about two English miles distant from the town, and the last house on this 
road belonging to New Jersey. The man who had taken the lease of it, 
together with that of the ferry near it, told us that he paid a hundred atid 
ten pounds of Pennsylvania currency to the owner. 

Oct. 30th. We were ready to proceed on our journey at sun-rising. 
Near the inn where we had passed the night, we were to cross a river, 
and we were brought over, together with our horses, in a wretched half- 
I'otten ferry. The country was low on botli sides of the river, and con- 
sisted of meadows. But there was no other hay to be got, than such as 
commonly grows in swampy grounds ; for as the tide comes up in this 
river, these low plains were sometimes overflowed when the water was 
high. The people hereabouts are said to be troubled in summer with 
immense swarms of gnats or musquetoes, which sting them and their 
cattle. This was ascribed to the low swampy meadows, on which the?e 
insects deposit their eggs, which are afterwards hatched by the heat.* 

An exciting incident occurred in 1750, wlucli deeply 
stirred the growing, tlioiigli yet latent, hostility to British 
domination. It is best related in the words of the weekly 
chronicler of that period : — 

N. York, June 11, 1750.— Thursday last [7th] as Col. William Rickets 
of Elizabeth Town, with his Wife and Family wore going home from this 
City in his own Boat, accompanied by some of his Friends, they unfor- 
tunately left the Burgee flying at their Mast Ilead ; and on their coming 
abreast of his Majesty's Ship Greyhound, then lying in the North River, a 
Gun was fired from on board her ; but they not apprehending it to be at 
them, took no Notice of it, on which a second directly follow'cd ; and the 
Shot passing through the Boat's Mainsail, struck a young Woman, Nurse 

» Peter Kalm'8 Travels in North .\m., I. lSl-3. 



376 THE HISTORY OF 

to one of Col. Eicket's Cliildren, in the Head, and killed her on the Spot ; 
she had the Child in her Arms, which happily received no Hurt. The 
Boat on this immediately put back to this City. And the Coroner's In- 
quest being sumraon'd, and Evidences on both Sides exaraiu'd, they 
brought it in "Wilful Murder. * 

The name of the nurse was Elizabeth Stibben ; it turned 
out, that " she expired a few hours afterwards." The Grey- 
hound was a Ship of War, under the command of Capt. 
Robert Roddam, a son-in-Law of George Clinton, Governor of 
the Province of New York. The Captain was on shore at 
the time, having left the vessel in charge of Lieut. John 
How, by whom the swivel gun was pointed. The gun was 
fired by James Park, the Gunner's Mate. Col. Wm. Pickets 
was the son of Capt. Wm. Pickets, dec^, of New York. Clin- 
ton speaks of him, as " a hot headed rash young man : " in 
other words, probably, a young man of spirit, little inclined 
to bow down to the British officials of the day, and, like a 
multitude of other such young Americans, exceedingly galled 
by the lordly exactions of their imported rulers. Clinton 
says, that he had passed the Greyhound the day before with- 
out lowering his pendant, and, before leaving the city wharf, 
on his return, had declared that he would do it again in spite 
of the man-of-war. The affair took place "between Nutten 
[Governor's] Island and the great Battery." 

The democratic party, of which Chief Justice Delancy was 
the head, took advantage of the sad event, to bring the ad- 
ministration into disrepute, and awaken popular indignation 
against the despotism by which the people were oppressed. 
Delancy imprisoned the Gunner's Mate for Murder ; and a 
Habeas Corpus, demanded by Capt. Poddam, was refused 
by Bradley, the Attorney General. Lieut. How was sent 
" home " for trial, while Parks was kept in prison at New 
York, as late as July 27th. How his case terminated does 
not appear. The indignation and excitement of Picketts' 
townsmen, of course, was intense. Much of it was smoth- 
ered, only to break forth, in due time, with greatly-increased 
power.f 

* N. T. Weekly Post Boy, No. SS6. 

T N. Y. Col. Docmts., VI. 571-G ; 5S3-6. N. J. Hist. Soc. Coll. IV. 64. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. S77 



GOV. JONATHAN BELCHER. 

At the close of the year 1751, Go7. Belcher became a resi- 
dent of this town. lie had been appointed Governor of 
New Jersey, in 1717, to succeed Gov. Morris. He arrived, 
in the Scarboro' man of war, at Kew York, Aug. 8, 1747, an 
old man, in the 66tli year of his age, having been born, at 
Cambridge, Mass., Jan. 8, 168^. He was the son of Andr.^w 
Belcher, (a Boston merchant, and a gentleman of great 
wealth), and graduated at Harvard College in 1699, second 
on the roll. He married, at Piscataway, !N". H,, Jan. 4, 
170|-, " Mrs. Mary Partridge, daughter of L. Gov. Wm. Part- 
ridge." He became, at an early day, an active member of 
the church, and ever, through life, honored his profession. 
He spent six years abroad, was admitted to court, and was 
treated with great respect by the best society. On his 
return, he engaged in merchandise. He visited England 
again, in 1729 ; and, Nov. 29, was appointed Governor of 
Mass. and New Hampshire. He returned in Aug. 1730, 
and continued in office until 1741, when he was su]3erseded. 
On the occasion of the visit of Whitefield to Boston in 1741, 
he openly and warmly espoused the cause of that eminent 
preacher, and became his personal friend and correspondent. 
He went abroad again, in 1744, to vindicate himself, at 
Court, from the aspersions of his opposers, reinstated him- 
self in the royal favor, and returned as Governor of K. 
Jersey.* 

He published his commission at Perth Amboy, Aug. 10, 
1747, met the Legislature, at Burlington, Aug. 20, and soon 
after became a resident of that place — living, at first, with 
Pichard Smith, the Quaker, and, after Dec. 4th, in his own 
house. While he was delighted with the air, soil, and situa- 
tion, he was much tried with the moral and religious state of 
tlie people. He described it, as " a land flowing with milk 
and honey," but the people had no relish for virtue and true 
religion ; " they pay little regard to the Sabbath," — according 

* Allen's Biog. Diet. 



378 THE HISTORY OF 

to the Quaker tenets — "the men journey — the women divert 
—the children phiy in the streets without reproof — these are 
the most uncouth and nnpleasant things of mj present con- 
dition," lie occasionally went to the Quaker meeting and 
Episcopal worship, " and at other times officiated as priest 
in his own house." Having a coach and four, he proposed 
to drive down (20 miles) to Philadelphia, and spend " the 
Lord's Day often there, with his friend Mr. Tennent ; " — Rev. 
Gilbert Tennent, with whom he became acquainted, in 1741, 
at Boston, and who, at this time, was pastor of a Presb. 
church in Philadelphia.* 

His wife had died before he went abroad, in 1744 ; and, 
while in England, he became acquainted with a lady to whom 
he offered himself in marriage. She came over to this coun- 
try, about Sept. 1, 1748, and was married to him on the Sth, 
at Philadelphia. While in attendance on the Commence- 
ment of the College of ISTew Jersey, at Newark, September 26, 
1750, he was afflicted with paralysis, from the effects of which 
lie suffered during the remainder of his life. He says, July 3, 
1752, that "for eighteen months he had not been able to hold 
a pen." f 

Finding that Burlington air did not agree with him, he 
made arrangements to remove to this town. A house was 
prepared for his residence, in Jersey st., (occupied in later 
years by Dr. Davis), and his wife, with her daughter, came 
on, March 19, 1751, to examine it. To Mayor Samuel Wood- 
ruff, who took a great interest in his removal, he wrote, April 
11, that Mrs. Belcher approved of the house, and desired to 
have it made as commodious as possible. His removal, how- 
ever, was delayed until the following autumn. :{: 

That the anticipated event excited a considerable sensation 
appears from a letter, written, Aug. 28, 1751, by Capt. Jona- 
than Hampton, of this town, to James Alexander, at New 
York :— 

Our Prime Minister has sent two boats to Burlington for Governor 
Belcher's Goods — when he Comes We Expect every thing will be Done 

* Anal. Index, pp. SOT, 11, 18, 2-1, 5. t IbiA. p. 294. 

t Ibid., rp.J26S,.9, 2S1, 3, 4.~MQrrayVNotC8, p. 71. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 379 

in our favour but I pray tlie Lord may Send his lieabus Corpus and Dis- 
cliarge our Borough of such a heavy Load of (Honour) (as our People Call 
it) to have a Numerous Train of Bostonians whineing, Praying, & Cant- 
ing, Continually about our Streets, from Such evils (Deliver us) 

I hope I shall not be caried by Sheriff Hetficld before Governor 
Belcher for not answering, «Sjc.* 

Gov. Belcher writes, Sept. 10, 1751, that "Mr. Hatfield 
is come hither by Mr. Woodruff's request, to assist in getting 
my House Furniture to Elizabeth Town, and wants a sloop 
of about 30 or 40 tuns to complete the matter." Again, 
Sept. 12, — that he " is engaged in putting his clothing and 
furniture on board of three small sloops to take them round 
to Elizabethtown." On the 19th, he writes to Mr. Samuel 
Woodruff, that the men, " with the coach and the cows, and 
the three sloops, with what they have on board," were " to 
leave to-day," and that his daughter (Mrs. Elizabeth Teale) 
" would soon be in Elizabethtown to assist in nnpacking." 
She left Burlington on the 23d. In a subsequent letter to 
Mr. Woodruff, Oct. 17th, he says, " I regret to learn that one 
of the vessels, laden with the effects, has carried the small 
pox to Elizabethtown," and expresses the hope that it may 
not spread.f 

In a letter of Oct. 7th, he says, that he would " be 70 
years old the next 8th January," and that he commonly 
drank "besides water and small beer, about half a bottle 
of old Madeira a day." And again, Nov. 4th, that he had 
arrived at Elizabethtown on the 1st instant, " heart whole, 
tho' money-less." At a later date, Ap. 11, 1752, he says, 
— " For you must know if I indulge my taste in any one 
thing more than another, it is in malt drink." Subse- 
quently, May 30th, he asks Mr. Samuel Woodruff, who 
had a vessel going to Madeira, " to import for his own 
use three pipes of the best Madeira wine, and a quarter 
cask of Malmsey." X 

The removal of the scat of government to this town was 
deemed an event of too much consequence not to be appro- 
priately noticed. A respectful Address was prepared by the 

• Eutherford Mss. t Anal. Indes, pp. 277, 8, 9, 81. J Ibid, pp. 279, 281, 290, 8. 



380 THE HISTORY OF 

Corporation, and presented to the Governor on his arrival, 
Nov. 1, 1751, signed by 

John Stites, Johu Chandler, Thomas Clark, 

John Eadley, Samuel "Woodruif, Johu Halsted.'''' 

Stephen Crane, Kobert Ogden, 

Previous to Lis being afflicted with paralysis, Gov. Belcher 
" possessed uncommon gracefulness of person and dignity of 
deportment." While Governor of Massachusetts and Kew 
Hampshire, " his style of living was elegant and splendid," 
and he was distinguished for hospitality. As his fortune had 
been impaired by his profuseness, it was not in his power to 
maintain as much style here as at Boston, and the growing 
infirmities of age made it still more impracticable. But the 
urbanity of his demeanor never forsook him ; and, while he 
lived, it was his delight to extend the benefits of his large- 
hearted hospitality as widely as possible. None, however, 
were so welcome to his home as the pious and godly. A 
sincere and devout Christian himself, he gathered about him, 
and welcomed to his board mostly such as were of like sym- 
pathies with himself. The passing missionary, the traveling 
preacher, the pious visitor, were sure of a hearty reception 
at liis comfortable home. The incomparable Whitefield 
writes, to Lady Huntington, from " Elizabeth-Town (New-Jer- 
sey), Sept. 30, 1751,"— 

I am now at Governor Belcher's, who sends your Ladyship the most 
cordial respects. His outward man decays, hut his inward man seems to 
bo renewed day by day. I think he ripens for heaven apace. (To another 
correspondent, he say^, — ) I write this from Governor Belcher's, who is 
indeed singularly good, and Avhose latter end greatly increases as to 
spirituals. Oh that this may be my happy lot ! t 

President Edwards, also, describing a journey that he took, 
in September, 1752, into New Jersey, says, — 

I had considerable opportunity to converse with Governour Belcher ; 
and was several times at his house at Elizabethtown. He labours under 
many of the infirmities of age, but savours much of a spirit of religion, 
and seems very desirous of doing all the good he can, while he lives.J 

• New York Weekly Post Boy, No. 462. 

t AUen'i Biog. Diet. Whitcncld'a Works, III. 103, 5. t Edwards' Works. I. 010. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY, 381 

': ' From liis first coming into tlie province, be proved Iiimself 
the staunch friend of education and religion. To the infant 
College of New Jersey, he not only gave a new Charter with 
enlarged privileges, but used the whole weight of bis personal 
and official influence in behalf of its endowment and perma- 
nent establishment. After his removal to this town, at the 
request "of a great number of" the members of the First 
Presbyterian Congregation, a Charter of Incorporation was 
granted them, by the Governor, August 22, 1753, appointing 
Stephen Crane, Cornelius Hatfield, Jonathan Dayton, Isaac 
Woodruff, Matthias Baldwin,* Moses Ogden, and Benjamin 
"Winans, the first Trustees of the Congregation, with power 
"to erect and repair Public Buildings for the Worship of 
God and the Use of the Ministry, and School-Houses & Aims- 
Houses, & Suitably to Support the Ministry & the Poor of 
tlieir Church : and to do & perform, other Acts of Piety & 
Charity;" a boon, which was so long and persistly denied, 
by the Poj'al Governors, to the First Presbyterian Congre- 
gation of the City of IsTew York, f 

Through the favor of Governor Belcher, also, on application 
of " divers of the Inhabitants and Freemen " of the Borough 
and Town, an Act was passed, June 21, 1754, by the General 
Assembly at Perth Amboy, "to enable the Major, Recorder, 
Aldermen and Common Council-men of the free Borough and 
Town of Elizabetlii^ to build a Poorhouse, Workhouse and 
House of Correction, within the said Borough ; and to make 
Rules, Orders and Ordinances for the governing of the same ; 
and to repair the Gaols of the said Borough ; ... to the Intent 
the Poor of the said Borough may be better employed and 
maintained ; poor Cliildrcn educated and brought up in an 

* Mr. Baldwin was the son of Jonathan, and the grandson of John Baldwin, of Newark. His 
father died, when ho was but seven years ofase. He was born in 1719, married Mary, a 
daughter of Alderman John lioss of this town, and thus became a resident here. Ilis only 
Bister, Joanna, married Isaac Nuttman, who, also, removed to this town, where he died, Nov., 
1749, leaving three children: John, Pliebe, and Sarah. His wife survived Lira. IIo died 
July 1, 17D9, leaving his wife, and several children. Tlie late Matthias W. Baldwin, of Phila- 
delphia, so memorable both for his wealth and munificence, was his grandson. The stone that 
marks the resting-place of his remains is inscribed with the following Epitaph : "He was a 
good Neighbour ; | a generous Friend; | an earnest promoter of the | PUBLIC GOOD; \ A 
■ Kind Father, a tender Husband, | In short he was i A CIIKISTIAN. | PASSENGER | 
Imitate him, &, be for ever | HAPPY. \ t Murray's Notes, pp. (i2-9 



382 THE HISTORY OF 

honest and industrious "Way ; as also for setting to work and 
punishing all Vagrants, Vagabonds, Pilferers, and all idle 
and disorderly Persons, Servants and Slaves within the said 
Borongh ; . . . for the Encouragement of Honesty and In- 
dustiy, and suppressing of Vice and Immorality, and better 
Government of said Borough.* 

During the excitement and alarm consequent on Braddock's 
defeat, July 9, 1755, and the consternation created by the 
Indian outrages on the western borders of New-Jersey, Gov. 
Belcher did all in his power to rouse the province in defence 
of their habitations. The Nineteenth General Assembly, on 
account of his growing infirmities, held their second session, 
Feb. 2i, 1Y55, and their six subsequent sessions, during the 
next two years, in this town, — giving the town peculiar 
prominence, at the time, in provincial affairs. The principal 
legislation of the period had respect to the arming of the 
militia, and making provision for their support while in 
active duty against the French and the savage tribes of the 
interior. Of the armed force, sent out of the j)rovince on 
this service, a full proportion went forth from this town.f 

A letter from this town, July 28, 1756, gives the following 
information : 

This Day was publislicd here, by Order of his Excellency the Governor, 
Ills Mnjesty's Declaration of "War against the French King ; at which was 
present his Excellency the Governor, attended by the Mayor and Corpora- 
tion of this Borough, together with five Companies of Foot, and two 
Troops of Horse, who on the Occasion fired three handsome Vollies. I 

Governor Belcher did not long survive these agitations. 
lie departed this life, at his home in this town, on "Wednes- 
day, Aug. 31, 1757, in tlie 76th year of his age. As Mr. 
Ivettletas, the youthful minister of the congregation had not 
yet been ordained, and doubtless felt incompetent for the 
service, President Burr was called upon to preach the 
Governor's funeral sermon. A vast congregation assembled 
in the Presbyterian Church, on Lord's Day, Sept. 4, when 
Mr. Burr (just 20 days before his own decease) preaclied 
from Dan. xii : 13, — " But go thou thy way till the end be, for 

• AUlion's Laws of N. J., pp. 193-201. t Ibid., L p. 203-14. 

N. T. Mercury, No. 209. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 383 

thou slialt rest, and stand iu thy lot at the end of the days." 
The discourse was published, with the Title, — " A Servant 
of God dismissed from Labor to Rest." He spake of him as 
having had, before he was deformed by paralysis, " a peculiar 
Beauty and Gracefulness of Person, in winch he was excelled 
by no Man in his Day." He adds : — 

The Scholar, the accomplished Gentleman, and the true Christian, were 
seldom ever more happily united, than iu liim. His unsliaken Integrity 
and Upriglitness, in all his Conduct, his Zeal for Justice, and Care to have 
it equally distributed, liave rendered him the Admiration of the present 
as they will of future Generations. The Prospect of worldly Interest, 
earnest Solicitations of Friends, or Fear of Loss, seem to have had no 
Influence to move him from what appeared to be his Duty. . . No Man 
was ever more thoroughly Proof against all Kinds of Corruption and 
Bribery. . . His distinguished and unaffected Piety, spread a Glory over all 
his other Endowments, and rendered him a peculiar Blessing to the 
World. . . By his sacred Regard to the Lord's Day, his steady and conscien- 
tious Attendance on all the publick Ordinances of his House ; he has left 
a noble Example, worthy of the Imitation of all Eulers in a Christian 
Land. . . This Practice he continued even when his great "Weakness of 
Body, and growing Infirmities would have been thought by every Body 
a sufficient Excuse for his Absence, '. . In his declining Days, he seemed to 
ripen fast for the heavenly State ; had his Conversation much in Heaven, 
and would frequently speak of the Things of another "World, as Things 
that were quite familiar to him. . . His approaching Dissolution he kept 
daily in view, lived in a continual Expectation of it, and would often ex- 
press his Desires, that it might be hastened.* 

His will was dated, July 14, 1755. It refers to the Mar- 
riage Articles between him and his wife Louisa, executed, 
Sep. 9, 1748 ; makes mention of his son Andrew (whom he 
appoints his Executor), his son, Jonathan (Chief Justice of 
ISTova Scotia), and his daugliter, Sarah, the wife of Byeiield 
Lyde, Esq. Elizabeth, the wife of his son, Andrew, is also 
remembered. Samuel "Woodruff and Eobert Ogden, Esqs., 
are appointed Executors in trust, until Andrew can come on 
from Mass. Mattliias Hatfield, Esq., Cornelius Hatfield, 
Esq., and John Kadley are witnesses. 

His decease created a great chasm in the town, followed 
as it was by the removal, also, of the seat of government. 

* Burr's Sermon, pp. 14—10. 



384 THE HISTORY OF 

He was universally lamented, as his administration bad been 
eminently successful, and bis personal character had com- 
manded unbounded respect. 

Of another distinguished citizen, who preceded him, about 
three years, to the world of spirits, the following notice was 
taken at the time : 

Elizabeth-Town, August 15, 1754. "Wednesclay morning last [7th] 
departed tliis Life, after a short but painful Illness, John Ross, Esq ; one 
of the Judges of Essex County Court, and a Master in ChaTicery : lie 
was a Gentleman of a ve-ry affable and obliging Disposition, of steady 
and unshaken Principles, a strict Observer of Law and Justice, and a 
truly honest Man. In his Death the Country have really a sensible Loss, 
and a worthy Family an irreparable Damage ; which nothing can so 
much alleviate, as the lively Hope and Assurance of his being translated 
into a State of blessed Immortality : — This Testimony is now given of 
him, by a Friend to his Person and a Lover of his Virtues.* 

Judge Ross was the son of George Eoss, who died in 
October, 1760'; and the grandson of Deacon George Ross, 
who came here" from New Haven, about 1670, having mar- 
ried there, in 1G5S, Constance Little. The grandson was one 
of the original Aldermen of the Borough, so named and ap- 
pointed in the Charrer of Feb. 8, 17| J. 

The concluding years of the first century of the town pre- 
sent but little of particular interest, save in respect to its 
religious history, yet to be related. On the death of Gov. 
Belcher, the government of the Province devolved on Lieut. 
Governor Pownall, ad interim. At the time, he was, also. 
Governor of Massachusetts, and was residing at Boston. 
Learning that the old Governor was dead, he came hither to 
look after the royal interests in the Province, and to prevail 
npon the Senior member of Council, Mr. John Reading, to 
act as Governor. On his arrival here, Sept. 21st, he was 
formally received and made welcome, by the Corporation, 
on which occasion, an Address, signed by Robert Ogden, 
Recorder, was presented him, in which they speak of the 
place, as " the oldest and largest town in the Government of 
New Jersey." f 

♦ N. T. Weekly Post Boy, No. 204. t N. T. Mercury, No. 2C9. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 385 

In like manner, when Francis Bernard, Esq., was pro- 
claimed, at Amboj, Governor of New- Jersey, a formal 
Address was presented, to his Excellency, June 17, 1758, by 
the Corporation of the Borough of Elizabeth. "When Chief 
Justice Nathaniel Jones came to reside in this town, he was 
made welcome by an Address from the Corporation, Samuel 
"Woodruff, Mayor, " a genteel Entertainment " having been 
provided on the occasion. Governor Thomas Boone was re- 
ceived, July 3, 1760, at E. Town Point by Capt. Terrill's 
troop of horse and escorted to the "Woodbridge line on his 
way to Amboy. On the 7th, the Corporation of E. Town 
presented their Address and were publicly entertained by 
the Governor. So, too, his successor, Josiah Hardy, Esq., 
on his landing at E. Town Point, Oct. 29, 1761, was received 
by the Council and some of the chief gentlemen and magis- 
trates of the Borough, and escorted by Capt, Terrill's troop. 
The presentation of the Address followed, as in the former 
cases.* 

From the County Account Book, it appears, that, during the 
last thirty years of the first century of the town, the follow- 
ing persons sat in the Justice's Court as Chosen Freeholders : 
Cornelius Hatfield, John Halstead, Samuel Woodruff, Daniel 
Potter, "Wm. "Winans, John Stiles, John Chandler, Joseph 
Morse, and Ephraim Terrill. 

The following were Justices : Andrew Joline, Joseph Bon- 
nell, Thomas Price, Matthias Hatfield, John Halstead, Jo- 
seph Mann, John Blanchard, John Stiles, Samuel "Woodruff, 
Thomas Clark, and Jacob DeHart. 

The office of High Sheriff was filled successively by "Wm. 
Chetwood, Matthias Hatfield, Stephen Crane, and Matthias 
Williamson, The following were Collectors for the county : 
Cornelius Hatfield, John Harriman, and Ephraim Terrill. 

The old Account Book shows, that. May 8, 1745, they 
" allowed to William Chetv/ood for hanging Negro John and 
Burning Harry Hartwel's Hand, £5. 0. 0, proc." — May 13, 
1752 : " Allowed to Samuel Meeker 4/proc° a day for y"^ 39 

* N. T. Mercury, Nos. 800, 382. "Whitahoad's Amboy, pp. 171, 7, 1S3, 

25 



386 THE HISTORY OF 

days wliicli lie spent in taking the list of y° Estates of Eliz"' 
town to be paid out of y" next County tax proc° £7. 16. 0." — 
Dee. 18, 1753 : "Allowed to W hatfield the high Sheriff for 
the Indightment & Whiping Jolm "Williams proc° £3. 6. 3. 
Allowed to the "Widow Conger 33/4 for Getting a 100 loads 
of Stone at /4p. on her land for Eliz*^ town brig," [bridge]. 
—Feb. 20, 1759 : " allowed Cap*, tcrrel for plank & Work 
on a brig over Raway River by John Morises Cur'' £10. 2. 0." 
—June 19, 1759 : " allowed Ezekiel Ball for Building a Pil- 
lory at Elizabeth Town, £2. 2." 0." 

The Provincial Tax for 1753 was for E.Town, £116. 16. 1. ; 
for E'ewark, £79. 2. 6. ; for Acquacknong, £35. 2. 10. Of 
the £200. County Tax, E. Town paid £99. 6. 11. Of 155 
" arms " to be furnished by the county, 78 were required of 
E. Town. 

Of the Advertisements and JN^otices in the New York 
"Weeklies, the following pertain to this town : — 

(Dec. 24, 1744.) An Indian "Wench named Sarah, absented some time 
ago from lier Master the Rev. Mr. Simon Ilorton, at Connecticut Farms : 
She formerly belonged to Mr. Samuel Bayard, Merchant in New York, 
and has been soon lately in this City : She is a short thick "Wencli, 
about 24 Years of Age, and has lost some of her Fore Teeth. Wlioever 
can take up the said Wench and commit her to the Workhouse, or other- 
wise secure her, shall be well rewarded by Simon Horton.* 

(April 27, 1747.) To be Sold, The Mill in Elizabeth Town, near the 
Bridge, with the bolting Cloths, and other Utensils thereto belonging ; 
and also a House and Lot, convenient for the same. Whoever has a Mind 
to purchase the aforesaid Mill and Lot, may enquire at the Ilouse of Wil- 
liam Chctwood near the Premises, and be informed of the Title and Con- 
ditions of Sale.t 

(Nov. 23, 1747.) Aaron Miller, Clock Maker, In Elizabeth Town, East 
New-Jersey, Makes and sells all Sorts of Clocks, after the best Manner, 
with Expedition: — He likewise makes Compasses and Chains for Survey- 
ors; as also Church Bells of any size, he having a Foundry for that Pur- 
pose, and has cast several who have been approved to be good ; And will 
supply any Persons on a timely Notice, with any of the above Articles, at 
very reasonable Rates. J 

(Jan. 25, 174J.) To bo Sold, a very good Ilouse and Lot, lying 
in Elizabeth Town, containing 7 Acres, and a good Orchard, in the 

♦ N. T. Weekly Post B07, No. 101. t Ibid, No. 223. 

t Ibid. No. 258. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSE.Y. 387 

Heart of the Town, near the Church, very well situated for a Store ; 
and also a one Horse Chaise, at a reasonahle Price. Enquire of Elias 
Grazeillier. * 

(Jan. 3, 17-i|.) Whereas about 6 or 7 Weeks ago one Samuel Smith, of 
the Borough of Elizabeth, in New-Jersey, came to this city, and bought 
sundry Goods ; but in his Way home was lost near Elizabeth-Town Point : 
The Persons who sold him the said Goods are desired to inform the 
Printer hereof, that his Friends may know their Contents and which of 
them remain unpaid for. t 

(June 26, 1749.) Through the excessive hot Weather of Sunday last, 
many fish died on Monday in Elizabeth Town Creek. J 

(Feb. 19, I7f^.) William Pool's plantation is to be sold, on Tuesday, 
the 27th inst. about a mile from town on the Woodbridge road. § 

(July 16, 1750.) We have an Account from Ash Swamp, near Elizabeth 
Town, that about ten Days ago, a Shower of Hail, incredibly large, fell in 
a Vein of some Miles in those Parts, which laid waste and entirely con- 
sumed every Field of Wheat and Corn that was within its Compass ; 
Limbs of Trees broke to Pieces, and Birds and Fowles, scarce one within 
its Reach escaped. 'Tis said some of the Hail Stones were as big as 
Hen's Eggs. || 

(Sept. 24, 1750.) Ran away the 10th of September, Inst., from John 
Cooper, of Elizabeth Town, in East New-Jersey, a young Negro Man^ 
named Cassar, between 20 and 25 years of Age ; is small of Stature, and 
speaks good English ; he is as black as most any in the Land. Had on 
when he went away, a grey Linsey Woolsey Waist-Coat, with one or two 
Buttons on the Sleeve, a Pair of Tow Trowsers, and a Leather Jockey 
Cap instead of a Hat. H 

Mr. Cooper, Caesar's master, was the son-in-law of Eev. 
Mr. Dickinson. 

(Aug. 12, 1751.) We hear from Elizabeth Town, that two Women have 
been killed within these few Weeks past, near that Place, by falling out of 
riding Chairs.** 

As specimens of the domestic Slave Trade, the following 
advertisements, by one of the most prominent citizens, an 
active member of the Presbyterian church. President of the 
Board of Trustees, and subsequently, an Elder, for many 
years, are worthy of notice : — 

(April 27, 1752.) A likely Parcel of Negro Boys and Girls from 12 to 
20 Years of Age, who have all had the Small Pox, To be sold by Cornelius 
Hatfield, in Elizabeth Town. 

* N. T. "Weekly Post Boy, No. 202. t Ibid. No. 811. J Ibid. No. 33G. 

§ Ibid, No. 870. || Ubid. No. 391. ^ Ibid. No. 401. *» Ibid. No. 447. 



388 THE HISTORY OF 

(June 4, 1753.) To bo sold very reasonable by Cornelius Ilatfield, at 
Elizabeth Town, East New Jersey, A Parcel of likely healthy Negro Men 
and "Women, from between 14 and 22 Years of Age.* 

(June 8, 1752.) Matthias Williamson offers for sale his Dwelling House 
and Kitchen, Garden, Yard, Barn, Stables and Chair House.t 

(Nov. 20, 1752.) Run away from Dr. Matthias Dehart of Elizabeth 
Town, an Irish Servant Man named "William Davis, but changes his name 
to Davison, a small Fellow, lanthorn jaw'd, his left shoulder out of joint, 
pretends to be an Englishman and a Sailor, red complexion, red Hair and 
Beard, about 24 Years old, had on an old Bever Hat cut across the Crown, 
a light Eatteen Jacket, a striped under- Jacket, new Shirt, Leather 
Breeches and new Shoes ; 'tis lika he has Tar-Spots on most of his Cloaths, 
as he workt on board a Vessel for some Time. 

Also run away with him, a Servant Irish "Woman, named Mary Kelley, 
belonging to Capt. Jonathan Hampton, of the same Town, a likely Girl, 
about 20 Years old ; 'tis supposed they will pass for Man and Wife ; She 
is short and well-set; had on an old short red Cloak, old brown Oalli- 
manco Gown, no Bonnet, and otherwise but very poorly cloathed. They 
w^ere lately advertised in the Pennsylvania Gazette, have ran away twice 
before this since last May, once from Newcastle, and once from Glouces- 
tsr County. They used to travel by Night and steal Fowl, &c. for 
Sustenance. Any Person that shall bring them back to their Masters, 
shall have Three Pounds Reward, and all reasonable Charges, paid by 

Matthias Dehart and Jonathan Hampton. | 

(Dec. 25, 1752.) Robert Milburn, Blacksmith, advertises a Runaway 
Servant, Samuel Cooper, & a journeyman, Daniel Eaton. 

(Oct. 1, 1753.) Cooper has run away again, and Richard Brown an 
Irishman, has also absconded from Milburn. § 

(.June 4, 1753.) Imported in the Samuel and Judith, Capt. Griffiths, 
from London, and the Grace, Capt. Ne^'lson from Bristol, and to be sold 
by Capt. Jacob Dehart, in Elizabeth Town, A large Assortment of 
European and East India Goods.|| 

(April 5, 1756). Last Monday morning [5th] about 8 o'clock, the House 
of Mr. Edward Sears of Elizabeth-Town, in New-Jersey, was burnt to 
Ashes, occasioned, 'tis Conjectured, by some Sparks of Fire getting through 
a Crack in the chimney, and falling on the Roof.lT 

(Aug. 27, 1757.) Three affidavits, before Robert Ogden, Esq., are pub- 
lished, from which it appears that Samuel Woodruff, of Elizabeth Town, 
was part owner of the Schooner " Charming Betsey," Wm. Luce, Capt., 
which was loaded at E. Town, in Feb., 1757, with provisions and lumber 
and sailed from the Point to St. Christophers, W. I. Joseph Jelf, at that 
time, was of full age, and had been Clerk and Book-keeper, upwards of 

* N. Y. WceWy Post Boy, Nos. 484, 540. t Ibid. Xo. 490. : Ibid. No. 513. 

§ Ibid. Ncs. 517, 557. I Ibid. No. 540. t N. Y. Mercury, No. 192. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 339 

tliree yeard, for Mr. Woodruff. Soon afterwards he became his partner 
in business.* 

(Oct. 24, 1757.) On Tuesday, the first Day of November, Will be sold 
at public auction, at Elizabeth Town, in New-Jersey, the househonld 
furniture, plate, cattle, &c., of his late excellency governor BELOHEE. 
Also, if not before disposed of at private sale, a good coach, and four very 
fine black coach-horses. t 

(June 24, 1758.) Captain Jonathan Hampton, of Elizth-Town, writes 
from Cole's Fort, on the Frontiers of New Jersey, giving an account of 
the progress of the war against the Indlans.J 

(Aug. 21, 1758.) Run away On the 13th of August, from William Per- 
tree Smith, Esq. ; of Elizabeth-Town, in New-Jersey, a Negro Man, called 
Prince, &c. 

The same dcate, is advertised a Horse Race to take place* 
at Elizabetli-Town, in East 'New Jersey, on Tuesday, Oct. 
30th ; three two mile heats ; for £20. Horses entered by 
William Euen.§ 

(Jan. 8, 1759.) To be Let, the noted Tavern, in Elizabeth-Town, kept 
by the late Widow Chetwood, known by the Sign of the Hogshead, being 
very convenient for a Tavern, Merchant, Shop-keeper, or Tradesman. 
Apply to Matthias Williamson in Elizabeth Town near the Premises. 
Mr. Williamson has, also, to sell a good House, Barn, Storehouse, Garden 
and six acres near the Bridge in Elizabeth Town.|| 

(Dec. 31, 1759.) A Lottery for making an Addition to, and repairing 
St. John's Church, in Elizabeth-Town : Erected and to be drawn near 
Schuter's Island, about two miles from Elizabeth-Town Point. 3834 
Tickets, at $4 each. One Prize of $1000; 2, of $500; 4, of $200; 8, of 
$100 ; 16, of $50 ; and 80, of $20. Drawing to begin, Feb. 5, 1760, under 
the Direction and Management of Jonathan Hampton and John De Hart, 
Esqs. 

(Feb. 4, 1760.) Tlie Drawing of the above Lottery postponed to March 
14. Tickets to be had of (among others) the Reverend Mr. Chandler, in 
Elizabeth-Town.H 

It was contrary to law to draw a lottery in the Province ; 
and to evade the law, it was common to have lotteries drawn 
at or near Schuter's Island. 

(Feb. 18, 1760.") Choice Deer Skins, of all Sorts to be sold by David 
Ball and Matthias Swain, at Springfield, in the Borough of Elizabetli' 
New-Jersey, for cash only. 

• N. T. Mercury, No. 265. + rad. No. 2T1. + Ibid. No. 308. 

§ Ibid. No. 314. D Ibid. No. 334. H Ibid. Nos. 385, 300. 



390 THE HISTORY OF 

(The same date). To be Sold, a likely Negro "Weuch, about 18 Years 
old ; enqixiro of William P. Smith, Esq., at Elizabeth Town, She has had 
the Small pox and Meazels.* 

(June 10, 1700.) Last "Wednesday evening [5th] the Son of Robert 
Ogden, Esq., of Elizabeth-Town, a Boy of about 10 Years old, was 
drowned in the Creek, in the Place, as he was bathing.t 

(Dec. 8, 1760.) Edward Arnold, near the Bridge in Elizabeth-Town, 
lias imported a general Assortment of Goods fitfor the Season, (&c.), all 
which he will sell wholesale and retail, as cheap as they are to be had in 
New York. J 

(Feb. 1, 1762). To be sold at piiblick Vendue, on Monday the 14th 
Instant, at Mr. Thomas Tobines in Elizabeth-Town, for the benefit of his 
Creditors, an Assortment of Goods fit for the Season.§ 

(Feb. 22, 1762.) To be let and entered upon the first day of May 
'next, at Elizabeth-Town in the province of New-Jersey, a large commo- 
dious Dwelling house in which Cornelius Hetfield, Esq : now lives : Said 
house is two story high, has six rooms on a floor, with seven fire-places, 
and a very good cellar under the whole house, with a large kitchen, and 
a good garden, about six acres of good land, a young orchard on the same, 
and an excellent good living spring near the house, and is very pleasantly 
situated in the Town. Said Hetfield has to dispose of a good assortment 
of Dry Goods, Ironmongery and Cutlery ware, which he will sell at prime 
cost, for Cash ; and all persons that are indebted to liiin, are desired to dis- 
charge their respective accounts in a short time. N. B. He has likewise 
to dispose of a quantity of choice seasoned two inch planks.|| 

(Sep. 13, 1762.) On Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, 5th Gth & 
7th of October, horse races are to bo run on the Course of Elizabeth 
Town, m the Field of Isaac Hatfield, about a mile from the Bridge.lT 

(Nov. 15, 1762.) Moses Ogden of Elizabeth Town advertises three 
Apprentice Lads, who had run away on Sunday evening, Oct. 31st. :— 
James Anderson, Tanner, 19 years old, 5 feet, 7 inches high ; Uzal Wood- 
ruff, shoemaker, 18 years old, 5 feet G inches high ; and Epenetus Beech, 
shoemaker, 5 feet, 5 inches high. Reward, £15.** 

(May 16, 1763.) Samuel Meeker's Negro, Sampson, has run away. 
(Sept. 19, 1763.) Margaret Johnston (Formerly the Widow Chet- 
wood), »Who, for many Years, kept the Nag's Head Tavern, near the 
Bridge in EUzabeth Town, begs leave to inform her old Customers and 
Friends that she now keeps a Public House near said Bridge, in Elizabeth- 
Town, in the largo and commodious House, lately belonging to the Estate 
of Col. Peter Schuyler, deceased, commonly called the White House, at 
the Sign of the Nag's Head, (&c.) tt 

* N. Y. Mercury, No. 092. t Ibid. No. 409. X Ibid. No. 434. 

§ Ibid. 49G. II Ibid. No. 499. ^ Ibid. No. 528. 

** N. Y. Mercury, No. 53T. n N. Y. Gazette, Nos. 231, 249. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. . 391 

Elizabetli Town (ia New Jersey) Jan. 23, 1764. Last Friday departed 
this life. Miss Mary Eldrington, an old virgin, in the 109th year of her age. 
She "was of an ancient family, born at Eldrington-Hall, in N'orthumberland, 
Old England, and on the next day she was decently interred in St. John's 
Church-yard, at Elizabeth- Town. — It is remarkable, that, notwithstand- 
ing her great age, she was very desirous of getting a husband before she 
died ; and not two years since, nothing could offend her so highly as to 
tell her that she was too old to be married.* 

(Jan. 30, 1764.) Last Friday, as Robert Ogden, Esq., of Elizabeth 
Town, with his wife, Son, and President Finley's wife, &c., were passing 
over on the ice at New Brunswick, it gave way with them, and it was 
with the greatest difficulty, their lives were saved. t 

(May 14, 1764.) John Graham, who formerly kept the sign of the 
Duke of York at Whitehall, in New York, now keeps the Sign of the 
Marquis of Grandby in Elizabeth Town, in the most publick part of said 
town, and the most noted tavern for many years past. It was formerly 
kept by Mrs. Ohetwood, but latterly by Mr. John Joline.J 

During the troubles consequent on the long war with the 
French, extending from 1754 to 1763, repeated calls were 
made on the town for recruits ; and these requisitions were 
answered by numerous enlistments. A military policy, also, 
was adopted, requiring that soldiers should be quartered in 
some of the principal towns of the province, ready for the 
emergencies of war. At first, the troops, while in winter 
quarters, were billeted upon private families ; but, it being 
" found by Experience," that this practice was " not only at- 
tended with a very heavy publick Expence, but many other 
pernicious Consequences to private Families," an Act was 
passed, by the Legislature, April 15, 1758, providing that 
substantial Barracks, each suflicient to accommodate three 
hundred men, should be constructed at Burlington, Perth- 
Amboy, Elizabeth-Town, New Brunswick and Trenton. The 
Act was carried into effect in the course of 1759. § 

The Barracks in this town were erected on the rising 
ground fronting on Cherry st., near Jersey st., and extended 
from the street east towards the Creek, fronting the South. 
They were constructed in a substantial manner, and M^ere 
probably not much unlike the Barracks at Perth Amboy, 

* Mass. Gazette and News Letter, of Feb. 16, 1764. 

t N. Y. Mercury, No. 641. t N. York Gazette, No. 2S4. 

§ Allinson's Laws of N. J., p. 21S. Whitehead's Amboy, pp. 256, T. 



392 THE HISTORY OF 

which survive to the present day. They were occupied, soon 
after their completion, by British soldiers, some of whom 
were almost constantly quartered here — the 44:th and 47th 
regiments in particular — until the War of the Revolution. 
The presence of the troops had, for the most part, a demoral- 
izing effect on the society of the town. The Barracks were 
destroyed by the British during the war.*" 

At the close of the first century of the town 's history, the 
event was celebrated, Oct. 28, 1764, by a centennial dinner, 
on which occasion an ox, roasted whole, in the centre of the 
town, opposite Barnaby Shute's house, was served to the 
guests.f 

♦ Murray's Notes, p. 99. \ Ibid. p. 104. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 393 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

A. D. 1747-1760. 

Ecclesiastical. — Rev. Ellhu Spencer — Early Life — Ordination and Listalla- 
tion — His Marriage — Public Services — Removal — Subsequent History — 
His Death — His Family — Rev. Abraham Keteltas — Early Life — Licensure, 
Call and Ordination — Chh. Clock — Removal to Jamaica, L. L — Subse- 
quent History — Death — Children. 

The death of the Rev. Jonathan Dickinson was a sad and 
deplorable event in the history of the First Presbyterian 
church. It was not to be expected, that a successor could 
be obtained of equal capacity. The church Wardens of St. 
John's wrote " home," Dec. 26, 1747, — " The Dissenters can 
with great ease be supplyed with a Teacher ; but alas ! our 
infelicity is such that we must have recourse to a distant aid." 
The facts were that St. John's was supplied, at least in part, 
almost without delay, — while the " Dissenters " were with- 
out a pastor, or stated supply, nearly two years.* 

No record remains, by which it can be learned, who sup- 
plied the Presbyterian church during the first of these two 
years. The eccentric James Davenport was settled over the 
church at Connecticut Farms at this period, and probably 
officiated here occasionally. The Rev. Elihu Spencer began 
to supply the pulpit in the spring of 1749. Pres. Edwards 
writes, May 20, 1749,— 

Mr. Spencer is now preaching at Elizabethtown in New Jersey, in Ihe 
pulpit of the late Mr. Dickinson, — and I believe is likely to settle there. 
He ia a person of very promising qualifications: and will hopefully in 
some measure make up the great loss, that people have sustained by the 
death of their former pastor.t 

* Clark's St. Jolm's, p. 53, f Edwards' Works, I. 274. 



394 THE HISTORY OF 



THE KEV. ELIHXJ SPENCER 

was a townsman and a beloved kinsman and friend of David 
Brainerd, He was the son of Isaac Spencer and Mary Selden, 
and was born at East Haddam, Ct., Feb. 12, 1721. He was 
the seventh child of his parents. His father was the grand- 
son of Jared Spencer, who came to Haddam as early as 1665. 
Samuel, the son of Jared, was his grandfather, and Hannah, 
the daughter of Jared, was the grandmother of David and 
John Brainerd, who consequently were his second cousins. 
Jerusha Brainerd, sister of David and John, was the wife of 
his eldest brother Samuel ; and Martha Brainerd, a third sis- 
ter, was the wife of his second brother, Joseph Spencer, after- 
wards Maj.-General of the Army of the Bevolution, and Mem- 
ber of Congress. A peculiarly close intimacy, therefore, 
existed between Elihu Spencer and the two Brainerds. It 
was at the house of Samuel Spencer, Jerusha's husband, that 
David Brainerd found a home, whenever, in his public life, he 
visited his native town. To this sister Brainerd was greatly 
attaclied, and the news of her death, brought him shortly be- 
fore his own departure, deeply affected him. John Brainerd 
was about one year, and David about three years, older than 
Elihu Spencer. They grew up, and fitted for College, to- 
gether. Spencer and John Brainerd entered Yale College at 
the same time, and graduated in 1746, in the same class with 
the Bev. Dr. Ezra Stiles, subsequently President of Yale Col- 
lege, and with Lewis Morris and John Morin Scott, after- 
wards members of Congress. The Rev. Dr. Thos, B. Chandler 
of this town, and the Hon. Wm. Smith, the historian, pre- 
ceded them one year.* 

Three or four weeks only before his decease, David Brai- 
nerd recommended, to the Commissioners at Boston, his be- 
loved kinsman, Elihu Spencer, as a missionary to the Six 

♦ Goodwin's Genoal. Notesi, p. 203. Hall's Trenton, pp. 203-9. Braincrd's Life of John 
Brainerd, pp. 25-35. Spraguc's Annals, III. 1G5. Jerusha Brainerd was the mother of Col. 
Oliver Spencer, at a later day a citizen of this town, of high social position, introduced here, 
doubtless, by his uncle, the Rev. Elihu Spencer. lie married Anna, the 2d d.iughtcr of 
Robert Ogdon and Thebo Hatfield, and the sister of the distinguished Robert, Matthias and 
Aaron Ogden. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 395 

Kations, together witli Mr. Job Strong, of JSTorthampton, 
Mass. They were accordingly appointed, and directed to 
spend the winter following, with John Brainerd, at Bethel, 
N. J,, among the Christian Indians, the better to become ac- 
quainted with the manners and customs of the Indians. They 
came to Brainerd's house, early in January, 1748, and re- 
mained until the spring, when they returned to Boston for 
further instructions. They were then directed to repair to 
JSTorthampton to pursue their studies with the Kev. Jonathan 
Edwards, during the summer ; and to be present at the Con- 
ference in Albany, IST. Y., July 23, 1748, between the Gov- 
ernors of N. York and Massachusetts and the Chiefs of the 
Six I^ations ; with which instructions they complied. Ar- 
rangements were made at this Conference for the reception 
of missionaries among the Oneidas. 

Mr. Spencer, who had probably been licensed by one of 
the Mass. Associations, returned to Boston, and was there 
ordained, Sept, 14, 1748, as a Missionary to the Oneidas. 
Shortly after, he entered upon his missionary work at Ono- 
hohguaga, [Unadilla], on the Susquehannah River, where he 
spent the winter. Meeting with many discouragements by 
reason of the incapacity and unfaithfulness of the interpreter, 
he returned to Boston, to obtain a better interpreter and a 
colleague. In the meantime, he was providentially directed 
to this town, soon after his return, and was employed, about 
the 1st of May, 1749, as a Stated Supply of the pulpit, and a 
candidate for settlement.* 

At the meeting of the Synod of New York, at Maidenhead, 
N. J., May 17, 1749, Mr. Spencer was present as a Corre- 
sponding member, and was appointed, with Messrs. Prime. 
Davenport and Youngs, to write to the Fairfield County 
Association, East, to induce them to send ministers to Vir- 
ginia, in response to an appeal by the Rev. Samuel Davies. 
This would indicate, that his connection with the Synod, as 
the prospective pastor of Elizabeth Town, was even then 
regarded as quite certain. lie was in attendance at the 

* Edwards' "Works, I. 26S-70, 274. Brainerd's John Brainerd, p. 148. Hall's Trenton, p. 
311. "Webster's Presb. Chh., p. 083. 



396 THE HISTORY OF 

College commencement in New Brunswick, Sept. 27, and 
had a pleasant time with his kinsman John Brainerd, with 
whom lie spent the evening. Brainerd visited him in this 
town, on Wednesday, November 8th, and found iiim enjoy- 
ing the hospitality of Mr. Samuel Woodruff. Two or 
three days they spent very lovingly togetlier, and on 
Saturday, Mr. Spencer went down to Bethel to spend the 
Sabbath with his old friends, the Christian Indians, and 
Mr. Brainerd remained here to supply the pulpit on the 
Sabbath, Nov. 12th.* 

As the prospect of returning to his work among the Oneida 
Indians was not hopeful, a call was extended to him to become 
the pastor of the Presbyterian church of this town, which he 
accepted. He was installed by the Presbytery of New York, 
February 7, 1749-50 ; of which he made the following record 
in his family Bible : — 

This clay was installed E. Spencer, and took the great charge (onus 
humeris angelorum formidandum) of the ministry in Elizal)etlito\rn, 
satatis suaj 28. The Lord help me.t 

In the Diary of tlie Pev. John Brainerd, occurs this pas- 
sage : 

Monday, Sept. 25. — Spent tlie forenoon at Mr. Eaton's (it being rainy), 
partly in reading and partly in conversation. t 

This was at Shrewsbury, at Eatontown, near the present 
Lonjr Branch, and about 25 miles East of Bethel near Cran- 
berry. The village took its name from Mr. Thomas Eaton, 
who was settled here as early as 1685. It was at the house 
of John Eaton, the son of Thomas most probably, that Brai- 
nerd was a welcome guest. And here, quite likely, during 
the winter that Spencer spent with Brainerd at Bethel, he 
too enjoyed the hospitality of Mr. Eaton, and first saw and 
loved his daughter, Joanna, then a blooming girl of 19 years. 
She became his wife, Oct. 15, 1750. § 

Scarcely any memorials remain of his pastoral work in 
this town. Tliat he was a fluent and attractive preacher is 

• Records of Prcsb. Clih., p. 237. Brainerd's Jolin Brainerd, pp. 1S7, 218, 9. 

t IIuU'3 Trenton, pp. 211, 2. t John Brainerd, p. 1S5. I Sprague's Aunals, III. 166. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 397 

well attested. That he lived in peace with his congregation 
is most probable. That he secured the respect of the Gov- 
ernor and the people generally cannot be questioned. But 
of the fruits of his ministry, in the absence of the Church- 
Records, nothing can now be learned. His ministry termi- 
nated in 1756, about seven years from the time of its com- 
mencement. It does not appear why he left. It could not 
have been, because of a call to Jamaica, L. I. ; for his work 
there seems not to have commenced until May 22, 1758, at 
whicli time, as appears from the Eecords of the Synod of 
ISTew York, he was expecting an appointment as Chaplain of 
the ]^ew York forces.* 

After leaving this town, he supplied the Presbyterian 
clmrcli of Jamaica, L. I., and Shrewsbury, JST. J. ; after 
which he became pastor, first, of St. George's, Delaware, and 
then of Trenton and Maidenhead, IST. J., where he continued 
until his death, Dec. 27, 1784. In 1782, he was honored, by 
the University of Pennsylvania, with the honorary degree of 
Doctor of Divinity. He was buried at Trenton, and a mon- 
umental stone was placed over his remains, with the follow- 
ing inscription, commemorating as well the virtues of his 
spouse : 

Beneath this stone lies the body of the Rev. Elihu Spencer, D. D., 
Pastor of the Presbyterian Church in Trenton, and one of the Trustees 
of the College of New Jersey, who departed this life on the twenty- 
seventh of December, 1784, in the sixty-fourth year of his age. 

Possessed of fine genius, of great vivacity, of eminent and active 
piety, his merits as a minister and as a man stand above the reach of 
flattery. 

Having long edified the Church by his talents and example, and finished 
his course with joy, he fell asleep full of faith, and waiting for the hope 
of all saints. 

Mrs. Joanna Spencer, 

Relict of the above, died November 1st, 1791, aged sixty-three years. 

From her many virtues she lived beloved, and died lamented. The 
cheerful patience with which she bore a painful and tedious disease threw 
a lustre on the last scenes of her life, and evinces that with true piety 
death loses its terrors.t 

* Eecords, P. Cbb., p. 2S3. McDonald's Jamaica, p. 176. 

t Uall's Trenton, pp. 215-223, 2TS, 287-S. Sprague's Annals, III. 167-8. 



398 THE HISTORY OF 

Their adult cliildren -svere one son and seven daughters ; 
one or two sons having died in infancy. 

1. John, graduated, 1784, at the College of JSTew Jersey, 
practised law, married, and died, leaving several children. 

2. A daughter, who died unmarried. 

3. Sarah, born, 1Y56, married Stephen Lowrey, a Mary- 
land merchant, and died, May 1780, at Trenton, ]^. J., leav- 
ing at least one daughter. 

4. Margaret, married, as early as 1778, Jonathan Dickin- 
son Sergeant (grandson of President Dickinson), an eminent 
jurist, and member of Congress, who was born at JSTewark, 
N". J., in 1716, graduated at the College of New Jersey, in 
1762, studied law with Richard Stockton, Princeton, N. J., 
and died at Philadelphia, in 1793. Of their children were, 
(1.) the lion. John Sergeant, born in 1779, graduated, CN. 
J., 1795, an eminent lawyer, and a distinguished statesman, 
who died at Philadelphia, Nov. 23, 1852 ; (2.) Hon. Thomas 
Sergeant, who graduated, C. N. J., 1798, became Chief Jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, and died in 
1860; (3.) Sarah, married, 1801, to Rev. Samuel Miller, 
D. D., of New York, and had ten children, of whom the 
eldest became the wife of the Rev. John Breckinridge, D.D., 
two of the sons became ministers of the gospel, one a surgeon 
in the Navy, and one a lawyer. 

5. Elizabeth married George Merchant, who graduated, 
C. N. J., 1779, became a distinguished classical teacher, and 
left several children. 

6. Valeria married Richard Fullerton, a broker of Phila- 
delphia, and left no children. 

7. Lydia married Wm. M. Piddle, broker, of Philadelphia, 
and had several children. She outlived all her father's 
family. 

8. A daughter, who died unmarried.* 

EEV. ABRAHAM KETELTAS. 

Shortly after the departure of Mr. Spencer, the pulpit of 
the First Presbyterian church was supplied by Mr. Abraham 

* Sprnguo's Annals, III. 169. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 399 

Keteltas. He was the son of Abraham Keteltas, a well- 
known merchant of New York City, who emigrated tliither 
from Holland at the close of the seventeenth centmy. The 
son was born at New York, December 26, 1732. In his 
youth he resided, a considerable time, among the Huguenots 
at New Rochelle, K. Y., and thus acquired a great familiarity 
with the French language. He was educated at Yale College, 
where he graduated in the class of 1752, with the Eev. Drs. 
Josiah Whitney and EHzur Goodrich. He received license 
to preach, Aug. 23, 1756, from the Fairfield East Association 
of Congregational Ministers, and, at the close of the winter, 
or early in the spring following, began to preach in the First 
Presbyterian church of this town. The Account Book of the 
Trustees shows that he was paid, on Monday, May 23, 1757, 
the sum of £19. 10. 0. for preaching; as he was to receive 
£1. 10. 0. per Sabbath, this would indicate that he had al- 
ready preached 13 Sabbaths, and that he must have come 
here as early as Feb. 22, 1757. Another entry in the same 
book tells where he lived: 

July 5, 1757, then paid to the widow Eoss for W Kettletas Board 
£4. 10. 0.* 

This was, doubtless, the widow of Judge John Ross, of 
wliose death, Aug, 7, 1751, notice has already been taken. 

Mr. Keteltas, having preached as a candidate for six 
months, to the acceptance of the people, received a call to 
the Pastorate, on a salary of £130 " Lite Money," per year, 
and was ordained Pastor of the congregation, on Wednesday, 
Sept. 14, 1757, by the Presbytery of New York— just a fort- 
night after the decease of Gov. Belcher. He was, at the time, 
in the 25th year of his age.f 

Previous to his licensure, he had been married, Oct. 22, 
1755, to Sarah, the third daughter of the Hon. William Smith, 
member of the Council, and Judge of the Court of King's 
Bench. She was born in 1732, four years after her brother 
William, the historian. Mr. Keteltas and his wife both occu- 

♦ Thompson's L. Isld., II. 111. Ecc. Con- t Trustees' Book of Pros. Chh. 

tributions to the Ecc. His. of Ct., p. SCO. 



400 THE HISTORY OF 

pied a high social position, consorting with the most dis- 
tinguished families of the two provinces.* 

The accounts of the Treasurer of the congregation, Samuel 
Woodruff, show, that the salary of Mr. Keteltas was paid by 
regular weekly contributions on the Sabbath, averaging, for 
the years 1758 and 9, about £2. 16. 0. each Sabbath. They, 
also, show, that, in the spring of 1759, the belfry of the 
church was provided with a public clock, probably for the 
first time, — the handiwork, doubtless, of Aaron Miller, who, 
as has been seen, had established himself in the town, as a 
clock-maker. At whose expense it was provided, is left to 
conjecture ; as no charge for it is found in the Treasurer's 
accounts. It had but one face, for the making and painting 
of which, were paid to Mr. Ball, carpenter, and Joseph 
Woodruff, painter, £10. 6. 9. Mr. Abraham Woodruff was 
paid, £1, 8. 9. for '' a clock rope." 

The same old Account Book tells other tales. Repeatedly 
the charge is made — " To 1 quart of rum 1/-1 ; " supplied to 
the men repairing the old church : " June 24, 1758 ; 2 quarts 
of rum @ 2/8 for y'^ people to pry up the sleepers : " from 
which it would appear, that the floor of the old edifice had be- 
gun very seriously to feel the effects of age. " June 18, 1759, 
paid David meeker Riding to Collect m"" Spencer Arrerejes, 
£0. 5. 0." Mr. Spencer's account was not settled until May 
21, 1760. Abraham Woodruff was paid 6s " for Rideing one 
Day to Collect yn the Scribtion." 

At a later date, Sept. 10, 1760, occurs the following : 

To Cash for highering a man Calling tlio Deakens and Elders a Bout 
m' Zetteltass, £0. 2. 0. 

Also, Sept. 17, the following : 

Paid Thomas "VToodniff for himself & Expences to Prince Town & 
shewing a hors for to cary Letter to y" prcssbetiry, £1. 0. 8. 

The ministry of Mr. Keteltas continued nearly three and a 
half years, terminating with the month of July, 1760. The 
meeting of the Elders and Deacons noticed above had respect 

* N. York Marriages, p. 212. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 401 

to the dissolution of the pastoral relation ; as, also, the re- 
quest to the Presbyterj, for their concurrence. 

Something had appeared in the conduct of Mr. Keteltas, 
that led the Presbytery, in dissolving the pastoral relation, to 
pass a vote of admonition very much like a censure ; of 
which Mr. K. complained to the Sjmod, at their next meet- 
ing, in Philadelphia, May 23, 1761. The action taken was 
so mild and so carefully expressed, that nothing can be 
learned of the nature of the offence. It could not have been 
regarded as very flagrant, or the Presbytery and Synod 
would not have passed it over so lightly. He soon after 
withdrew from the Presbytery.* 

Leaving this town, after a short stay in New York, he took 
up his abode, at the close of the year 1760, at Jamaica, L. I., 
where, for the most part, he continued to live, during the 
remainder of his life, preaching as occasion offered, but with- 
out a pastoral charge. His familiarity with both the Dutch 
and French languages, as well as the English, made him a 
welcome preacher among the Dutch and French in and 
about ]^ew York. Certificates, dated, April 14, 1769, and 
Oct. 6, 1775, are on record, in which he signs his name as 
" minister of the French Protestant church of New York." 
A Charity sermon, which he preached in the same church, 
Dec. 27, 1773, was published, by James Kivington, in 1774, 
the preface being dated at Jamaica, Feb. 25, 1774.f 

In the political contests of the day he took a deep interest, 
espousing heartily, and advocating warmly, his country's 
Cause, against the British Government. In March, 1768, he 
was an unsuccessful candidate for the Assembly of IST. York. 
He was appointed, by his townsmen, Dec. 6, 1774, Chairman 
of the Committee of Correspondence and Observation. He 
was, also, elected a member of the Constitutional Convention 
in 1777 ; and, by his political essays and patriotic efforts, 
made himself so obnoxious to the enemy, and the Tories of 
Long Island, that, after the battle of Flatbush, Aug. 27, 1776, 
he was obliged to seek refuge in New England, until the close 
of the contest, leaving his property to be occupied, and 

» Records, Presb. Chh., pp. Oil, 2, C. 333. t Cal. of N. Y. UU. Mss., Eng., pp. 110, 834, 

26 



402 THE HISTORY OF 

greatly injured, by the British. He supplied the pulpit of 
the First Presbyterian church of Newburyport, Mass. for a 
season ; also of the Congregational church of New Fairfield, 
Ct., in 1782, and, probably, was frequently called upon to 
preach among the Ct. churches, during the period of his 
exile.* 

His last days were passed in peace, in the midst of his 
family and friends at Jamaica. In the grave-yard of the 
First Presbyterian church there, a memorial tablet makes 
the following record : — 

Sacred to the memory of the Eev. Abraham Kettleta?. Obt. 30th Sept. 
1738, A. E. 65 years, 9 inos. and 4 days. He possessed unusual talents, 
that were improved by profovmd erudition, and a heart firmly attached 
to the interests of his country. His mind was early impressed with a 
sense of religion, which fully manifested itself in the choice of the sacred 
oflBce, in which he shone as the able and faithful divine. It may not 
perhaps be unworthy of record in this inscription, that he frequently offi- 
ciated in three difierent languages, having preached in the Dutch and 
French Churches in his native city of iTew York. 

Eest from thy labors now thy work is o'er : 
Since Death is vanquished, now free grace adore ; 
A crown of glory sure awaits the just, 
"Who served their God, and in their Saviour trust. 

His children were Jane (1st), Mary, Jane (2d), Sarah, 
Abraham, William, John, Elizabeth Scott, Ann, Philip Dod- 
dridge, and Clarissa. Sarah married John Fish, of Newtown, 
L. I., who was, subsequently, a merchant of New York, 
whence he removed to Tarrytown, N. Y., where he died in 
1807. Ann married, in 1799, Thomas Hackett, who had 
come, in 1794, from Holland. She was the mother of James 
Henry Hackett, the actor, who was born, INIarch ]5, 1800. 
William died suddenly, Nov. 19, 1812. Clarissa was never 
married. She died, greatly lamented, July 21, 1810. Jane, 
the first born, died in infauc}'^. On the occasion of her death, 
the father composed fifteen stanzas of elegiac poetry, which 
are still extant.f 

♦ Prime's L. Isld., pp. 318, 9. Onderdonk's Queens Co., pp. 33, 40. McDonald's Jamaica, 
pp. lai, 2, 8. Contrib. to the Eeo. His. of Ct., pp. 434, 521. 

+ Alden's Epit.^phs, IV. 180-5. Thompson's Long Island, II. 111-3. Eikcr'e XcTTtown, 
p. 308. . 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 403 



CHAPTEE XIX. 

A. D. 17C4-1'7'76. 

Retrenchments at Funerals — Death of Alderman Thos. Clark — !>on-Importation 
Leagues — Patriotism of the Town — Stamp Act — Gen. Congress — Robert 
Ogden, Speaker of N. J. Congress, resigns his seat — Stephen Crane succeeds 
him — Opposition to Stamp Act — Its Repeal — Non- Importation Leagues 
revived — County Meeting at E. T. — Patriotic Action — British Regulars 
quartered here — "Boston Tea Party" — Boston Port Bill — Great Indigna- 
tion everywhere — Principal Patriots of the Town — Lines drawn — County 
Meeting at Newark — Town Meeting — Congress sustained — Committee of 
Safety — Non -Intercourse with Staten Island — Exciting Affair — Case of the 
Beulah — Sheriff Barnet implicated — Battle of Lexington — Uprising of the 
• People — Aaron Burr and Matt. Ogden — General Congress — Gen. Washing- 
ton, Com. in Chief — Battle of Bunker-Hill — Powder sent from E. T. to the 
Am. Army — Mrs. Washington at E. T. — Earl of Stirling in command here — 
Capture of the ship Blue Mountain Valley — Names of the Captors — Military 
Officers — Military Preparations — Fortifications at the Point — Washington 
and the Am. Army at N. Y. — Appearance of the Town in 1776. 

The opening of tlic second century of the town's history 
found the people in a state of great agitation and apprehen- 
sion. The following incidents wnll serve to introduce the 
whole subject. They are taken from the current news of the 
day :— 

December 24, 1764: We liear from Elizabetli-Town, that upon the 29th 
of last Monti), near fifty Heads of the principal families, la and about that 
Place, entered into an Engagement to retrench the present usual and un- 
necessary Expenses of Funerals and Mourning, as the giving of Scarfs, 
Gloves, and Liquor at Funerals, and wearing black Apparel as Mourning, 
nothing but a black Crape round the Arm being allowed for the Future. 

Elizabeth-Town, September 14, 1705. On Wednesday evening last, 
[11th], died here after a severe illness, Thomas. Clark, Esq., one of the 
judges of the county court; who has been unanimously elected a 
magistrate in this Corporation, ever since v/e had a Charter ; and Friday 



404 THE HISTORY OF 

was decently buried, in the plain manner, by his own directions, accord- 
ing to the new mode — none of his rehitions or friends appearing in mourn- 
ing, though lie was universally lamented by all who knew him, as he left 
the character of an honest man. We flatter ourselves that this laudable 
example, so very seasonably set by people of fortune, will be imitated by 
all ; especially by those in slender circumstances, (no liquor was given at 
the funeral).* 

Mr. Clark was one of the first Aldermen of the Borough, 
father of the Signer, Abraham CLark, and a man of great 
personal worth. He was, also, an emhient patriot, and had 
entered heartily into the agreement of the previous Novem- 
ber. It was customary, in those days, at the funeral of 
respectable persons, to distribute gloves, scarfs and badges 
of crape, by the dozens, with liquors in great abundance for 
all comers. Mourning-rings were, also, given, in the case of 
wealthy persons. The expense was often so considerable, as 
to impose great burdens on the surviving members of the 
family. It was not everybody that could afford to die and 
be buried according to the prevailing custom. f 

The principle of taxation without representation, so per- 
sistently maintained at this period by the British ministry, 
and so resolutely opposed by the colonies, nowhere met 
with more determined opposition than in the English towns 
of East Jersey. Descended from an ancestry of Puritan 
origin and principles, they had cherished those principles, 
from generation to generation, with jealous care, and kept 
themselves in full sympathy with their New England breth- 
ren. The love of civil and religious liberty, and the hatred of 
despotism, they had inherited as almost their only birthright. 
Their fathers had fled from bitter persecution at home, and 
the story of their wrongs liad sunk deep into the hearts of 
the cliildren (jf the exiles. These wrongs were associated 
with the British monarchy ; and the only knowledge which 

* 3Sr. Y. Mercury, No. CS7. Barber's His. Coll. of N. J., p. 48. IIoU's N. Y. Journal. 
No. 1185. 

t Whitelicad'8 Amboy, pp. 89, 145. Watson's Annals of N. Y., pp. 308, 9. Ind. Re- 
flector, No. 29. The Old Merchants of N. Y. City, III. 263-1. At the funeral of Philip 
Livingston, Esq., of New York, jE500 were expended for the occasion of his burial. His 
Bon, Gov. Wm. Livingston, (afterwards, and for many years, a resident of this town), made 
an appeal to the public, as early as June, 1753, in favor of putting an end to this kind of 
extravasancp. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 405 

the second and tliird generations of these colonists had, of 
that monarchy, was of injurj'- and wrong. They were far 
removed from the pomp and circumstance of courts, sur- 
rounded everywhere by staunch republicans, and accustomed 
always to institutions, in church and state, thoroughly demo- 
cratic. The ties that bound them to,the throne were of the 
slenderest kind, and were constantly losing strength. These 
constituted the great majority of the people of these towns. 

But, in addition to all this, a fundamental principle of the 
Constitution, under which they and their fathers had been 
born and nurtured, was perfectly identical with that which 
the British government were now seeking to overthrow. It 
was provided, by the " Concessions " of Berkeley and Car- 
teret, in respect to the Governor and Council, that — 

They are not to impose, nor suffer to be imposed, any tax, custom, 
subsidy, tallage, assessment, or any otber duty whatsoever, upon any 
colour or pretence, upon the said province and inhabitants thereof, other 
than what shall bo imposed by the Authority and consent of the General 
Assembly, and then only in manner as aforesaid.* 

In all periods of their history, under the Proprietary Gov- 
ernment, and under the Crown, the people of Kew Jersey, 
both East and West, had resolutely and consistently guarded 
this natural and covenanted right, and refused all induce- 
ments to part with this corner-stone of their free institutions. 

Still further : the people of this town, as has been shown 
in this history, had, as early as 1670, or almost from the very 
first settlement of the place, been brought into conflict with 
the Proprietary government, in respect to the validity of 
the titles to their homesteads and plantations. In this con- 
flict, continued now for more than fourscore years, they had 
been thrown very much upon their own resources ; had been 
compelled to make common cause, one with another, as Asso- 
ciates, and in their municipal capacity, in defence of their 
vested and inalienable rights ; had been educated and thor- 
oughly disciplined, to resist everything like oppression, and 
to maintain their right to all the blessings of civil and re- 
ligious liberty. That portion, therefore, of the people of the 

* Smith's N, J., p. 517. Learning and Spioer, p. 20. 



406 THE HISTORY OF 

town, who held their lands by the Indian purchase, and were 
leagued together to defend themselves against the plaintiffs 
in the now celebrated " Bill in Chancer^'-," could be safely 
relied upon to embark, heart and soul, in the wider conflict 
that was now opening, for the defence of American liberties. 
For the same reason, itinight be anticipated, that not a few 
of those, to whom, in these land-conflicts, they had been op- 
posed, would bo disposed to take sides with the monarchical 
party, and cast in their lot with the defenders of the royal 
prerogative. It was -scarcely possible, after the experience 
of the previous twenty years, for the two parties in the town 
to act together on the broader field of American politics. 
Unanimity in regard to the question of resistance to the 
arbitrary measures of Parliament was not to be expected, and 
was not attained. It was not every one, moreover, however 
patriotic, that had the moral courage requisite, or the strength 
of nerve demanded, for times so fitted to try men's souls. 

The Stamp Act was passed, March 22, 1765. Tidings of 
its passage reached America in May following. The General 
Court of Massachusetts was in session, and, early in June, it 
was resolved by the Representatives of that Colony, to 
recommend to each of the other Representative Bodies " of 
the several British Colonies on this continent " to appoint 
Delegates to a General Congress to meet at New York " on 
the first Tuesday in October next," then and there " to con- 
sult together on the present circumstances of the Colonies." "•'" 

The Massachusetts Circular was laid before the ]S^ew Jersey 
Legislature, June 20, 1765, " the last day of the session," at 
Burlington, " some members gone, others uneasy to be at 
their homes," and on a hurried conference between the mem- 
bers, it was, on the whole, deemed best to take no action in 
the premises. The responsibility of this proceeding was, 
(whether justly or not, it is not easy to determine), thrown 
upon tlie Speaker, Robert Ogden, of this town. lie had 
been elected to the Legislature in 1751, and rechosen at each 
succeeding election. In 17C3, he was chosen Speaker of the 
House. He was the son of Robert Ogden, who was the 

♦ Pitkin's U. States, I. 442. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 407 

grandson of " old John Ogden," the phmter. He had for a 
long time been connected with the Presbyterian church, and, 
for several years, had been one of its Elders. His patriotism 
was unquestionable, as evinced in the course of the struggle 
with the mother country, and in the training of his sons, 
Matthias and Aaron, of revolutionary fame. He was the 
son-in-law of that incorruptible patriot, Matthias Hatfield, 
for whom his son Gen. Matthias Ogden was named.* 

Shortly subsequent to the adjournment, Speaker Ogden 
called a meeting of the Eepresentatives at Amboy, when he 
himself, Hendrick Fisher, of Somerset Co., and Joseph Bor- 
den, of Burlington Co., were appointed Delegates to the New 
York Congress. This first Continental Congress, emanating 
from the people, met as contemplated, and continued in ses- 
sion until Oct. 25th. " A Declaration of Eights and Griev- 
ances," in 14 particulars, was drawn up, with ■ an Address 
to the King, and a Petition to each House of Parliament, — 
admirable papers, skillfully drawn, full of patriotic principle, 
yet courteous and respectful, well-designed to procure the 
repeal of the obnoxious legislation of Parliament. The pro- 
ceedings were approved and signed by all the members, 
except Timothy Euggles, the presiding oflicer, and Mr. Ogden 
of New Jersey. These two gentlemen maintained, that the 
proceedings were to be submitted to the several provincial 
Assemblies, and, if sanctioned, forwarded by them, as their 
own acts. They were, doubtless, quite sincere and conscien- 
tious in maintaining this position ; Mr. Ogden certainly was. 
Mr. Euggles " was severely censured by the Massachusetts 
representatives," and subsequently became an avowed enemy 
to the patriot cause. " Mr. Ogden was burned in effigy by 
the people of New Jersey." It was a blunder, to say the 

* Gordon's N. J., p. 139. Mulford's N. J., p. 3G7. Eobert Ogdcn, the father of Speaker 
Ogden, died Nov. 20, 1733, aged 40 years. The following Epitapli is inscribed on his grave- 
BtoDO : 

'• Ono dear to God to Man most dear 
A Pillar in both Churcli & State 
Was he whoso precious Dust lies here 
Whose Soul doth with briglit Seraphs mate 
His Name immortal shall remain 
Till this cold Clay revive again," 



4^8 THE HISTORY OF 

least, on the part of Mr. Ogclen, who was so annoyed by it, 
as to request the Governor to convene the Assembly, when, 
Nov. 27, 1765, he resigned his position, and his membership. 

In the election that ensued to fill the vacancy, Stephen 
Crane, Esq., one of the most influential citizens of the town, 
and Mayor of the Borough in 1772, was chosen his successor. 
He, also, became Speaker of the House in 1771. Mr. Ogden, 
■however, continued still to be honored wnth the confidence 
and esteem of his townsmen. In 1776, he was the Chairman 
of the E. Town Committee of Safety.* 

The " Sons of Liberty " were here both numerous and 
thoroughly organized. Care was taken, that the Stamp Act 
should not be enforced in any part of the town. The Act 
was to take efi'ect, Nov. 1, 1765 ; but not a Stamp M^as to be 
found, nor was it safe either to vend or use one. A New 
York paper, of Feb. 27, 1766, says,— 

A large Gallows was erected ia Elizabeth Town, last "Week, with a 
Rope ready fixed thereto, and the Inhabitants there vow and declare that 
the first Person that either distributes or takes out a Stamped Paper shall 
be hung thereon without Judge or Jury, 

A very summary process, but, probably, never called into 
requisition. At the same date, the Editor says, — 

We have certain Intelligence from Elizabeth Town in New Jersey that 
the Magistrates and Lawyers carry on their Business in the Law as usual 
without Stamps.t 

With the repeal of the Stamp Act, March 18, 1766, much 
of the excitement and alarm of the people came to an end. 
A 'series of measures were subsequently adopted, however, 
well fitted to excite the fears, and provoke the resentment of 
the Colonists. 

The non-importation agreements were renewed, and all 
trade with the mother-country was brought to a stand. The 
people of this town and vicinity entered, with all their heart, 
into the measures of the day. At a meeting of the Free- 
holders, Merchants and Traders of the County of Essex, held 

* Gordon's N. J., pp. HO, 333. Pitkin's U. States, I. lSl-6. Hildreth's U. States, II. 531. 
Force's Am. Archives, IV. SIS. t Ilolfs N. T. Journal, No. 1208. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 409 

at Elizabeth Town, on Tuesday, June 5, 1770, it was, among 
other things, unanimously resolved. 

That we will not ourselves or by others, receive, purchase, sell, or 
otherwise use, any of the Manufactures or Merchandize imported from 
Great Britain, contrary to said Agreements ; and that we will not trade 
or have any Intercourse with such Persons, who shall import Goods, or 
Cause them to he imported, or with any Person who shall purchase Goods 
or other Merchandize so imported, — but that we will use every lawful 
Means in our Power, to hinder the Sale of such Goods, in any Way what- 
aofever.* 

When it became known, that some of the New York mer- 
chants were disposed to recede from their engagements, the 
Freeholders and Inhabitants of Essex Co. met in Elizabeth 
Town, July 16, 1770, when it was resolved. 

That we will strictly adhere to our Resolutions of the 5th of June last ; 
as far as they relate to purchasing Goods imported from Gi*eat Britain. 

At the same meeting, a Committee of Correspondence was 
appointed to look after matters of common interest to the 
country, f 

During the previous three years the Twenty-Sixth regiment 
of British Regulars had been quartered in the barracks at 
New Brunswick, Perth Amboy, and Elizabeth Town. (Their 
Colonel, the Hon. Sir John Sinclair, Bart., had married, 
while here, a Miss Morehead, and died Nov. 2G, 1767. His 
widow, the Lady Sinclair, was married, in this town, Mar. 
14, 1769, to his successor. Col. Templar.) They were trans- 
ferred to New York, and their place supplied, the last week 
in May, 1770, by the 29th Regiment from Boston, the same 
that was stationed there at the time of the " Boston Massacre," 
March 5, 1770. The presence of a portion of this regiment 
in the town was not adapted to pacificate the excited people. 
"When the 26th were about to leave town, an Address was 
presented by the Corporation of the Borough, to Col. Templar 
and Major Charles Preston, acknowledging the good behavior 
of the officers and soldiers while quartered in the town, and 
complimenting them on the harmony that subsisted between 

* Holt's N. T. Journal, No. 1431. Pitkin's U. States, I. 212. 
t Holt's N. Y. Journal, No. 143S. 



410 THE HISTORY OF 

them and the Inhabitants. The 29th were succeeded by the 
47th regiment under CoL England. '-^ 

The well known " Boston Tea-Party " took place, Dec. 10, 
1773. The measure was sustained by the whole population, 
with few exceptions. The Boston Port Bill, closing the port, 
and transferring the seat of government to Salem, was en- 
acted by Parliament, March 25, 1774, as a retaliatory meas- 
ure. When tidings of the passage of this vindictive Act 
reached this country. May 10, 1774, a furious flame of 
hitherto-suppressed wrath burst forth, all over the land. 
Town-meetings were called ; whole counties assembled ; the 
provinces met in Congress ; and, with one heart and voice, 
the American people determined to stand by the Bostouians 
in their conflict with British despotism. 

Ko where was this spirit more fully developed than here 
in this town. A noble body of patriots, headed by such men 
as William Livingston, William Peartree Smith, and Elias 
Boudinot, men of controling influence, were then citizens"of 
the borough, and in power. Stephen Crane, Esq., was the 
Mayor; Ephraira Terrill, Deputy Mayor ; John Blanchard, 
Elias Dayton, John Ross, Abraham Clark, Ephraim Marsh, 
and William Livingston, were of the Corporation. The great 
body of the people were outspoken patriots ; a few were in 
sympathy with the British officials ; and some endeavored to 
pursue a conservative course. Parties were formed here 
somewhat as in New York, with which this town had the 
most intimate connection ; although the trading interest here 
was subservient and not preponderant. 

Measures were taken by the patriots of this town and 
county, shortly M'tcr receiving tidings of the Boston troubles, 
to give expression to the indignant feelings of the people, 
and to extend sympathy to the Bostouians. At a formal 
meeting, held at the Court-IIouso, in Newark, on Saturday, 
the 11th of Ju)ie, an admirable paper, prepared, probably, 
by Wm. Livingston, was unanimousl}^ and heartily adopted, 
urging the country to stand united and firm in their opposi- 

* IIoU's N. T. Journal, No. U31. N. T. Mercury, Nos. 840, 90S. DoIIart's Passages iu tho 
His. of E. T., No. II. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 411 

tion to Parliament, and inviting a Provincial Convention to 
assemble speedily to appoint Delegates to a general Congress. 
The following gentlemen were appointed a Committee to 
cany into eflect the resolutions of the meeting, — viz : Ste- 
phen Crane, Henry Garritse, Joseph Riggs, "William Liv- 
ingston, "William P. Smith, John De Hart, John Chetwood, 
Isaac Ogden, and Elias Boudinot, Esquires.* 

Of this Committee, Mr. Garritse was of Aquackanock, 
Messrs. Riggs and Ogden were of I^ewark, and the re- 
mainder, two thirds, of this town. The movement un- 
doubtedly originated here, controling the County, and giving 
impulse to the whole Province. This place became, thence- 
forward, the headquarters of the patriot movement in 
]^ew Jersey.f 

The several County Committees, elected in accordance 
with these suggestions, and with a circular letter issued by 
the Essex Committee, met at J^ew Brunswick, July 21, 1Y74, 
and appointed Stephen Crane, of this town, to preside over 
their deliberations. They made choice of James Kiusey, 
William Livingston, John De Hart, Stephen Crane and 
Richard Smith, (three of the five being of this borough), 
delegates to a General Congress. A Standing Committee 
of Correspondence, ten in number, (of whom two, Wm. 
Peartree Smith, Chairman, and John Chetwood, were of this 
town), was appointed to look after the interests of the coun- 
try. The several County Committees, also, " agreed to pro- 
mote collections in their respective counties for the relief of 
such of the unhappy inhabitants of the town of Boston as 
may be now reduced to extremity and want," On the 2Sth 
of July, y^m. Peartree Smith, as Chairman of the Committee 
of Correspondence, addressed a letter of sympathy to the 

* N. Y. Mercury, No. 1183. Force's Am. Archives, 4th Ser., I, 299-300 ; 403-4. 

t In the midst of these agitations, one of the most venerable and distinguished citizens of 
the town, Dr. Ichabod Burnet, departed this life. lie was born at Southampton, L. I., about 
1C84, and removed with his father, Dan (son of Thomas), about 1700, to this town. His wife, 
Hannah, was born in 1702, and died, Feb. 19, 175S. They had two sons, Wm. nnd Ichabod, 
both of whom became physicians. The latter died, Mar. 12, 1756, in his 24th year. Dr. Wil- 
liam removed to Newark, and distinguished himself as a patriot in the revolutionary war. llo 
was the father of Judge Jacob Burnet, of Cincinnati. Dr. Ichabod died at E. Town, July 13, 
1774, aged 90 yeai-s. 



412 THE HISTORY OF 

Boston Committee of Correspondence — asking tliem, also, to 
advise in wliat way their necessities could best be answered.^ 
The results of the deliberations of the General Congress, 
that met at Philadelphia in September and October, being 
published, new energy was imparted to the people in their 
determination to resist the oppressive measures of the British 
ministry. The Essex County Committee of Correspondence 
issued a call for town meetings to organize the respective 
towns for the more vigorous prosecution of the measures 
recommended by Congress. In compliance with this call, 
the Freeholders of this town met at the Court House, on 
Tuesday, Dec. 6, 1774, Stephen Crane, Esq., in the chair, 
when a large Committee was chosen for the above-mentioned 
purpose, viz. 

Jonathan Hampton, Matthias Williamson, Elias Dayton, Isaac Wood- 
ruif, William Barnett, Wm Herriman, Oliver Spencer, George Eoss, Ed- 
ward Thomas, Cornelius Hetfield, John Blanchard, Ephraim Tyrrel, Abra- 
ham Clarke, Robert Ogden, Junior, Jeremiah Smith, Richard Townley, 
Junior, Samuel Shotwell, David Miller, Thomas Woodruff, John Clawson, 
Jonathan Dayton, Ephraim Marsh, Recompense Stanbury. Jedediah Swan, 
William Parsons, Samuel Potter, William Bott, Jonathan TVilliams, Chris- 
topher Marsh, Isaac Wynants, Daniel Halsey. 

Stephen Crane, John De Ilart, William Livingston, "Wil- 
liam P. Smith, Elias Boudinot, and John Chetwood, Esqrs., 
were unanimously reelected for the Borough of Elizabeth, on 
the Essex County Committee of Correspondence. It was, 
then. 

Voted, That two certain Pamphlets lately published, the one enti- 
tled " A Friendly Address," &c., and the other imder the signature of 
"A Farmer," as containing many notorious falsehoods, evidently calcu- 
lated to sow the seeds of disunion among the good people of America, 
grossly misrepresenting the principles of the present opposition to Par- 
liamentary Taxations; vilifying the late Congress ; and intended to facili- 
tate the scheme of the British Ministry for enslaving the Colonies, be 
publickly burnt, in detestation and abhorrence of such infamous publica- 
tions. 

And the same wore accordingly committed to the flames before the 

* Am. Archives, 4tb P., I. G24. Gordon's N. J., p. 156. Mulford's N. J., pp. 8SS, 0. Sedg- 
•wick's Livingston, pp. 1C8-172. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 413 

Coui't House, witli the universal approbation of a numerous concourse of 
people.* 

The Committee of Observation, thus appointed, were not 
idle. As the town had denounced the two pamphlets just 
mentioned, they called the attention of the people, Decem- 
ber 19, 1774, to the dangerous character of "Rivington's 
Royal Gazetteer," published at New York, declared their 
determination individually to patronize it no longer, and called 
upon all the people to follow their example, and banish it 
from their habitations. The article was signed by " Jonathan 
Hampton, Chairman." f 

This was followed, Feb. 13, 1775, by the following inter- 
dict : — 

Whereas the inhabitants of Staten Island have manifested an unfriendly 
disposition towards the liberties of America, and among other things have 
neglected to join in the General Association proposed by the Continental 
Congress, and entered into by most of the Townships in America, and in 
no instance have acceded thereto. The Committee of Observation for 
this Town, taking the same into consideration, are of opinion that the iu' 
habitants of their District ought, and by the aforesaid Association are 
bound, to break ofi" all trade, commerce, dealings, and intercourse whatso- 
ever with the inhabitants of said Island, until tliey shall join in the General 
Association aforesaid ; and do Resolve that all trade, commerce, dealings, 
and intercourse whatsoever be suspended accordingly, which suspension is 
hereby notified and recommended to the iuhabitants of this District to be 
by them universally observed and adopted. George Ross, Clerk.:]: 

A day or two afterwards, an oyster-boat, belonging to 
James Johnson, of Staten Island, came up the Creek to the 

* Am. Archives, 4th S., 1. 1009-10, 1012-3. The former of these pamphlets was entitled, 
" A Friendly Address to all Reasonable Americans, on tlie subject of our political confusions. 
In 'which the necessary consequences of violently opposing tlio Kind's troops and of a gen- 
er.ll non-importation, are fairly stated." Dr. Hawkins attributes it to the Kev. Dr. T. B. 
Chandler, of Elizabeth Town, N. J., but erroneously. It was the production of the Eev. 
Myles Cooper, D. D., President of King's College, N. Y. Such was the popular indignation 
against him, that his house was sacked. May 10, 1775, and he, barely escaping the hands of 
the mob, took refuge on board a ship of war, and fled to England. Ilis Majesty gave him a 
pension of j£200. per year. The latter pamphlet was entitled, " Free thoughts on the pro- 
ceedings of the Continental Congress held at Phila. 5 Sept. 1774, by A Farmer." It was 
written by Isaac Wilkins, subsequently the Eev. Dr. Wilkins, of Westchester Co., N. Y. He 
wrote, also, " The Congress Canvassed ; or an Examination into the Conduct of the Dele- 
gates." It may have been this last, to which the vote of censure refers. He too fled to 
England, in May 1775, but returned the nest year. N. Y. Col. Docmts., VIII. 297, 5G9, 5S1. 
Sabine's Loyalists, 1st Ed. pp. 692-705. 

t Am. Archives, 4th Scr., I. 1051, 2. X Am. Archives, 4th S., I. 1234, 6. 



414 THE HISTORY OF 

stone bridge, and the owner endeavored to make sale of liis 
freight. But a pair of horses were speedily attached, to the 
boat by the indignant people, and the poor craft was hauled 
up the street to the Court House. Johnson was advised by 
James Arnet to seek redress from Jonathan Hampton, Chair- 
man of the Committee of Observation, who was, also, a 
magistrate. Hampton was found, in conference with Joseph 
Tooker, at Samuel Smith's tavern, next to the Court House. 
Hampton gave him a protection, allowed him to sell his 
oysters, and in the evening, with his skiff, to return to the 
Island. 

• This incident, trivial enough, was reported to Elvington in 
ITew York, and an account of it appeared in his Royal 
Gazetteer of March 2d, in which the affair was magnified 
into a disgraceful and turbulent riot. Mr. Hampton was ac- 
cused of being " completely drunk," and Messrs. Blanchard 
and Dayton, two of the Aldermen, were represented as hav- 
ing " exerted themselves greatly to suppress those violences, 
but they were only able to check them." E-ivington's in- 
formant says of the mob, (Feb. 18), that " about four o'clock, 
they proceeded to abuse all llie people in the town who were 
known to be well affected to the Constitution [the Tories] ; 
the}'' erected a gallows, and fixed np a liberty pole in the 
middle of the town." Both, however, were soon taken down. 
A fortnight afterwards, (23d), affidavits were published in the 
Gazetteer, completely exonerating Mr. Hampton and the 
town from the calumnies of Rivington's informant.* 

The vigilance of the Committee was called into requisition 
a few days afterwards, in another direction. Tlic ship Beulah 
arrived, Feb. 1775, at Sandy Hook, with an assorted cargo 
from London, consigned to Robert and John Murray, the old 
Quaker merchants of New York, and men of great wealth. 
The vessel was named for one of Robert Murray's daughters. 
The Murrays were required by the N. York Committee of 
Correspondence, to send the vessel back without breaking 
bulk; with which they professed their willingness to comply. 
John Murray, however, came over to Elizabeth Town, and 

* Eivington's Royal Gazetteer, Nos. 99, 101. Moore's Diary of the Am. Kev. I. 23, 4. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 415 

conferred with Ichabod B. Barnet, Sheriff of the County, 
and the husband of his sister. By his aid, a sloop belonging 
to Isaac Woodruff, but leased to Capt. Samuel Lee, was hired, 
and sailed for E. Town, ("Barnet going as a hand with 
Lee"), on Sunday morning, March 5,1775. They reached 
!N". York, the same evening, and unloaded the next morning. 
The same day, they sailed to Sandy Hook, and came along 
side of the Beulah about dusk on Monday evening. Capt. 
Lee retired to his berth and went to sleep. At 12 o'clock he 
was called, and sailed, with John Murray and his clerk, 
Graham, (Barnet, also, continuing on board), for Elizabeth 
Town. They stopped some hours at Staten Island, and 
reached Barnet's Store House on Wednesday morning about 
one o'clock. Several bales, boxes, and other packages ot 
goods, about two tons in weight, taken from the Beulah, were 
then landed, one Marsh, passing by at the time, being em- 
ployed to aid them. 

In the meantime, or soon after, it began to be whisp ered 
about at New York, that something was wrong. Isaac Sears, 
the noted patriot, suspecting what had been done, wrote to 
Jonathan Hampton, Chairman of the E. Town Committee, 
who called the Committee together on Friday, the 10th, and 
soon the whole affair was ferreted out. Samuel Lee made a 
deposition, and the Committee exonerated him from all 
complicity in the matter. John Murray deposed as to the 
facts stated above, and endeavored to exonerate Barnett, as 
having acted in pure friendship for himself. He professed 
his penitence, and gave the Committee a check of £200, for 
the rebuilding of the City Hospital, recently destroyed by 
fire. Capt. Lee was fully cleared by the E. T. Committee, 
and declared to be " a person well known here to be of good 
character, and who by his honesty and industry, has justly 
acquired the esteem of all the inhabitants of this town." 
Murray sent in a petition to Congress with proper acknowl- 
edgments, and both he and Barnett sought forgiveness of the 
Provincial Congress of IST. Jersey, and were reinstated. The 
goods were delivered on tlic 15th, to the E. T. Committee to 
be kept until after the war. A year or two later, tents being 



416 THE HISTORY OP 

greatly needed, and there being no duck in the country, the 
New York Committee obtained, from the E. T. Committee, 
several bales of Osnaburghs from these stores, which were 
devoted to this laudable purpose. What became of the 
remainder of the goods does not appear. Tlie affair created . 
at the time no little excitement, and the vigilance of the 
Committees had a most happy influence in promoting the 
patriot cause.* 

The following extract from a communication that appeared 
March 25, 1775, shows what was then thought of this whole 
procedure : — 

Some would have lately attempted to land goods ia America contrary 
to the Association of the Congress ; but such is the vigilance of those 
excellent inspectors, the Committees of New York, and Elizabeth Town, 
and such the awful guilt of the delinquents, that they could not be hid. 
They have confessed their fault and laid a heavy fine upon themselves for 
their base conduct. Another person concerned in the same dark affair is 
also detected, and will, it is thought, be sufficiently punished. 

Blood flowed at Lexington, Mass., on Wednesday, April 
19, 1775. It was the blood of patriots, shed by minions of 
Great Britain. That blood made America free and independ- 
ent. It cried from the ground, and its voice was heard in 
every habitation of the United Provinces. It roused the 
sleepers ; it fired the populace ; it united the people as one 
man, to resist unto blood the tyranny of the Lords and Com- 
mons of Britain. Tidings of the event reached JSTew York 
on Sunday, the 23d, and the city rose in its strength to 
sustain the common cause. Loyalty was at a woful discount. 
The tory faction, till then exultant and defiant, were palsied 
with dismay. Sears and Lamb swayed the multitude at their 
will, and effectually closed the harbor against the export of 
all supplies for the British at Boston. 

The same day, or the next, it was known all over New 
Jersey. This ancient town was all ablaze. The sterling 
patriots, whose voice was all-powerful among the people, 
took up the cry that came to them from the bloody ground 
of Lexington, and bore it to every dwelling in the wide 

* N. Y. Mercury, No. 1223. Am. Archives, 4tli S., II. 144-S, SST-891. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 417 

borough. The die was cast. Neo^otiation was at an end. 

p , ° 

Nothing remained but the sword. And he that would not 

take up arms, in his country's need, was worse than Judas. 

The young men of the town were eager for the fray. 

Aaron Burr, in his childhood, was an E. Town boy. His 
mother's brother, Timothy, the eldest son of the Her. Jona- 
than Edwards, had married, Sep. 25, 1760, Khoda, daughter 
of Robert Ogden, Esq., and granddaughter of Matthias Hat- 
field, Esq., of this town, " and made a home in Elizabeth 
Town for the family." Mr. Edwards resided here, highly 
respected and influential, from 1760 to 1771. Burr and his 
sister, left orphans in 1758, were received into their uncle 
Edwards' family, the former in his 5th year. Here the lad 
grew up, and was fitted for Princeton College, under the 
instruction of Tapping Reeve, teacher of the grammar-school, 
who soon after married Burr's sister. Mrs. Edwards was the 
sister of Matthias and Aaron Ogden, the latter being of Burr's 
age, and the former nearly two years older. They grew up 
together as children of the same family, and Matthias became 
Burr's bosom companion. In 1772 young Burr graduated, 
and in 1774 began to study law with his brother-in-law, at 
Litchfield, Ct.* 

In his retirement among the hills of Connecticut, he heard 
the cry of Lexington, and immediately wrote to Ogden to 
come on and accompany him to the tented field. Ogden 
caught the infection, and rested not, until he obtained his 
father's leave to go. He was then in his twenty-first year, 
and Burr a little more than nineteen. They were boys in 
years, but men in spirit — types of numerous others — their 
townsmen and associates, who panted to join tlie patriot 
army, and fight their country's battles. ISTothing could ex- 
ceed the martial ardor that pervaded all classes of the com- 

* Davis' Life of Burr, I. 25-C, 4G-T. P.irton's Life of Burr, pp. 50-3. Miss Jones' Stock- 
bridge, pp. ICO, 263. 

Three of President Edwards' children married here ; Timothy, his eldest son, as noticed 
above; Eunice was married here, Jan. 17C4, to Thomas Pollock, and after his death, about 
1780 to Robert Uunt of this place; Picrpont married, May, 1709, Francos, the eldest daughter 
of Moses and Mary (Cozzens) Ogden, and sister of Nancy, the second and surviving wife of 
Col. Francis Barber, all of this town. 

27 



418 THE HISTORY OF 

munity. It was not safe to breathe a word against tlie patriot 
cause* 

The Continental Congress were to meet at Philadelphia, 
May 10, 1775. As the delegates from Massachusetts, joined 
on their way by their brethren from Connecticut, drew near 
to New York, on Saturday, May Gth, they were met, three 
miles from the city, by a vast concourse of military and 
citizens, and escorted to their lodgings with ringing of bells, 
and loud huzzas. On Monday, with a part of the Delegation 
from New York, they were escorted to Newark, where they 
dined ; thence they " were escorted to Elizabeth Town and 
on their way were met by the gentlemen and militia of that 
place." Such was the enthusiasm of the people.f 

The Provincial Congress of New Jersey met at Trenton, 
May 23d. This town was represented by William Peartree 
Smith, John Stites, John Chetwood, Abraham Clark and 
Elias Boudinot. Smith and Boudinot were sent to Philadel- 
phia, on the 25th, to confer with Congress, on some joint 
plan of action, and returned on the 30th. 

The combat thickened. British reinforcements arrived at 
Boston. The cry — " To Arms ! " — had brought together con- 
siderable numbers of patriot soldiers. Congress was loudly 
summoned to create an army. They assumed the charge of 
the New EngLind recruits, and chose George "Washington, 
June 15, as General in Chief of the Continental Army. The 
effect of these measures was electric. Hope was invigorated, 
confidence inspired. The battle of Bunker Hill followed 
two days after, June 17th. That Americans would fight 
was no longer doubtful. That British regulars were not in- 
vincible was certain. The yeomanry took heart at once. 
The people everywhere flew to arms. Even cowards were 
brave. 

Ammunition was greatly needed. But for this. Bunker 
Hill would have been a greater triumph. Powder was in 
demand, in the army and everywhere. The Committee of 
this town dce])ly interested themselves in procuring and fur- 

• Davis" Life of Burr, I. 58. t N. T. Mercury, No. 1231. Holt's N. T. Jour- 

nal, May 11. Moore's Diary, I. 76. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 419 

iiisliing the needed s^ppl3^ On the 17th of July, they for- 
warded, by way of Dobbs' Feny, fifty-two quarter casks 
just received from Philadelphia. On the same day, they 

Resolved, Tliat this Committee, for every hundred weight of Saltpetre 
made within this Town for the first three months after this daj, will pay 
the sum of twenty pounds, proclamation money of New Jersey, on the 
delivery thereof to this Committee, and fifteen pounds of same currency, 
for the like quantity of Saltpetre, made and delivered as aforesaid, within 
the next three months thereafter,* 

The whole stock of powder, at AVashington's command, 
August 13th, for the use of the army around Boston, was 
about ninety barrels only — " not more than nine rounds a 
rnan ; " they had "but thirty-two barrels in store." The 
destitution continued '• a fortnight or more, till the Jersey 
Committee of Elizabethtown, upon receiving the alarming 
news, sent on a few tons, which they were obliged to do with 
the greatest privacy, lest the fears of their own people, had 
it been known, should have stopt it for their own use, in case 
of an emergency." On the 20t]i of August, Washington 
acknowledges the receipt of " six tons and a half of powder 
from the southward." f 

At the same meeting of the Committee, July 17th, the 
following action was taken : 

The Chairman of this Committee having received a letter from Mr. 
Richard Lawrence, a Delegate of Richmond County for the Provincial 
Congress of the Colony of New York, informing that the inhabitants of 
said County had, in general, signed the Association recommended by the 
Committee of New York, tliis Committee are therefore of opinion that 
the inhabitants of said County be restored to their commercial privileges 
with the inhabitants of this Town.| 

The martial spirit that prevailed in the town may be seen 
from the following item : 

Elizabeth Town, October 4, 1775. Yesterday sixteen Companies of 
Foot, and one of Horse, belonging to this Borough, were reviewed on the 
Parade, went through their Military Exercises with Alertness and Reg- 
ularity, and made a very handsome Appearance.§ 

• N. T. Mercury, No. 1211. 

t Gordon's Am. Eevolution, I. 380. Sparks' WasbiDston, III. 65. Irvlug's 'Wasliiugtoii , 
II. 26. i N. Y. Mercury, No. 1241. § Ibid, No. 1252. 



4:20 THE HISTORY OF 

The following pleasant incident occurred nearly two 
months later : 

Dec. 4, 1775. "Wednesday evening last [Nov. 29,] arrived at JSTewark, 
in their Way to the Provincial Camp at Cambridge, the Lady of his 
Excellency General "Washington, the Lady of Adjutant General Gates, 
John Custis, Esq. and his Lady and Warren Lewis, Esq ; They were 
escorted from Elizabeth Town, by the Company of Light Horse, and 
most of the principal Gentlemen of that Borough. On Thursday morn- 
ing they departed for Dobbs Ferry, escorted by a Party of the Elizabeth 
Town Light Horse, and a . great Number of Gentlemen and Ladies from 
Newark. 

Mrs. "Washington accomplished the whole distance from 
Virginia to Cambridge, Mass., in her own conveyance, " a 
chariot and four, with black postillions in scarlet and white 
liveries," traveling by easy stages.* 

At the close of J^ovember, by order of Congress, a recruit- 
ing agency was established here, and the town was made 
the headquarters of the first K. J. regiment of regulars, 
under the command of "Wm. Alexander, [titular] Earl of 
Stirling. lie had been, for several years, a resident of 
Baskingridge, had recently been chosen Colonel of a Somer- 
set County militia regiment, and had carried many of 
them with him into the Continental service. lie took 
care, that all vessels coming from foreign countries to New 
York, should (on account of restrictions laid on the commerce 
of that port by Capt. Hyde Parker, of the Phenix man-of- 
war in the harbor), enter at Amboy or Elizabeth Town, and 
at the latter place if possible. Apprehensive, therefore, of a 
visit from some of the armed boats of the Phenix, he urged 
Congress, Dec. 19, 1775, to furnish the town with "an imme- 
diate supply of ammunition, and, if possible, half a dozen 
field-pieces, with some round, grape and cannister shot;" 
and soon after, Jan. 6, 1776, he wrote to the President of 
Congress, — 

I have the pleasure to inform you that several vessels with valuable 
cargoes from foreign ports, have arrived in this Province ; and, under the 
protection I have aftbrded them, have landed their cargoes. Among the 
rest, are some hundred barrels of gun powder.t 

♦ N. T. Mercury, No. 12C0. Irvlng's Wash., II. 120, 1. t Life of Stirling, pp. IIC, 118. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 421 

On the recommendation of Lord Stirling, William Barnet, 
Jr., was appointed, by Congress, Surgeon of the First Jersey 
Battalion, and Matthias Halstead, Quartermaster. Four 
companies of the Battalion were stationed here, such of them 
as could not be accommodated in the barracks, finding quar- 
ters among the people. Some weeks elapsed before they 
were fully equipped. ''^ 

An opportunity soon occurred for calling into requisition 
the martial ardor and energy of the town. The occurrence 
is related at length, by Eobert Ogden, Esq., (who had now 
succeeded Jonathan Hampton, as Chairman of the Town 
Committee), in a letter to John Hancock, President of Con- 
gress, dated, E. Town, Feb. 10, 17T6 :— 

Sir, I am ordered by the Committee of Elizabeth Town to acquaint the 
Congress of the Capture and state of the ship Blue-Mountain-Valley, now- 
lying at Elizabeth-Town Point, and to desire particular directions from 
the Congress what is to be done witli the said ship, cargo, officers, and 
seamen. 

On Monday, the 22d of January, between eleven and twelve o'clock, 
Lord Stirling, with about thirty men of his regiment, being near all that 
were then armed at this place, the rest being at Long Island,t set out for 
Amboy, on a serious enterprise. In the evening of the same day, an ex- 
press arrived in this town, with a letter directed to Lord Stirling, and, in 
his absence, to the Chairman of the Committee of this place, informing 
that an armed vessel, with a detachment of marines and seamen, was sent 
off from New York that day from the ships of war in New York, and to 
the transport ship. 

On the Chairman's receipt of this letter, he immediately called the Com- 
mittee, which met about six o'clock in the evening, and from the letter 
and express, collected and concluded, that Lord Stirling left this place 
with an intention to procure a vessel at Amboy, and go in quest of the 
transport-ship, which he then thought was in a defenceless condition, not 
knowing of the reinforcement sent from New York, and that if intelli- 
gence should reach him that night, he would not be able to procure ves- 
sels and assistance in season at Amboy to secure success, and might bo 
repulsed with loss. On which the Committee resolved to send a detach- 
ment of one hundred volunteers in three or four boats, by the way of the 
Nari-ows, to take, or assist Lord Stirling to take, the armed vessel or 
transport, of which they immediately notitied Lord Stirling by an express ; 

* Am. Archives, 4th Ser., IV. 165, 24T, 854. 

t Scouring the country to disarm the Tories, and arrest the most dangerous of the Loyal- 
ists N. T. Col. Docmts., VIII. 663, 7. Uildreth, III. 114-5 



422 THE HISTORY OF 

and to encourage volunteers to enter, assured tliem thej should share of 
the prize or prizes, according to the regulations that were or should he 
made hy the Continental Congress. Volunteers were soon procured, and 
furnished by the Committee with ammunition, provision and what arms 
were wanting; of the townsmen, about eighty, and of the Continental 
troops, about thirty. The Committee also procured three boat?, and 
fitted them in the best manner tlie night and hurry would admit of. Be- 
tween twelve and one o'clock at night, the armament was ready to sail, 
but on account of the tide and ice, * they could not proceed by the way of 
the Narrows ; they, therefore, set out with a fair wind by the way of Am- 
boy, where they stopped, and called upon Lord Stirling, who, witli a boat 
procured by him for the purpose, and about forty of his regiment, set 
out with them in quest of the ship and armed vessel. At sunrise, from 
the mast-head, they descried the ship at sea, stood for, met and boarded 
her, without opposition, at ten o'clock in the morning ; they found hor 
to be a transport from London, with coals, porter, potatoes, hogs, and 
horse-beans, designed for the Ministerial troops at Boston, commanded by 
John H. Dempster, brother to George Dempster, member of Parliament 
for Dundee, &c., in Scotland. But the armed vessel, by great good for- 
tune, saved herself by returning to New Yoi-k, not having discovered the 
ship, to the great disappointment of our people. Lord Stirling gave the 
command of the ship to Mr. Eogers, a sea captain, with orders to proceed 
for this place, but being detained by tide and contrary winds on Wednes- 
day near Amboy, the Committee being apprehensive of an attempt by 
the man of war to retake her, on Wednesday evening sent a reinforcement 
of about eighty men, to secure her against any such attempt, and on Fri- 
day she arrived in safety, at Elizabeth-Town Point, where she remained 
under the command of Lord Stirling, guarded by some of the troops un- 
der his command, until Tuesday last, when he and his troops were ordered 
to New York, since which time she hath been, and now is, under the care 
of the Committee. By order of Lord Stirling, and the Committee, the 
porter and beans are stored, the sails and rigging are taken on shore. 
The potatoes which are chiefly rotten, and coal, remain on board the 
ship. The Captain and seamen remain prisoners at large in this town. 
Tlie Committee expected Lord Stirling would have, before this time, pro- 
cured the particular directions of the Congress for the disposition of the 
sliip -and cargo, but in this they are disappointed, and every thing respect- 
ing tlie ship is in suspense. The hogs remaining, being only seven (out 
of eighty) and the remaining potatoes, they have concluded to sell. The 
coal is in great demand for making of arms, and is liable to be destroyed 
with the ship, by an armed force which may bo dispatched privately in 
the night from New York, which is but about fourteen miles distance. 

* The season had been very severe. Navigation about N. Y. had boon much obstructed. 
N. Y. Col. Docmts., VIII. 667, 674. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 423 

The seamen, who are boarded out by the Committee, are uneasy and 
soliciting the Committee for their wages which, they say, were promised 
by Lord Stirling. The Captain is anxious to know how long he is to be 
detained, and the Committee are desirous that he may be soon dismissed, 
and be at liberty to return home and inform his friends and countrymen 
of the usage he has received from the Americans. This, sir, is the state 
of affairs relating to the storeship called the Blue-Mountain- Valley and 
brought to this place. 

Appended to this statement, is a list of the officers and 
crew, — a Captain, 3 Mates, a Carpenter, a Boatswain, a 
Stewart, 7 Seamen, and 2 Apprentices. Their bill for wages 
was £123. 3. 7., of which £23. 6. 7. had been paid. 

The Manifest is also given, dated Sept. 30, 1775, showing 
107^ chaldrons of coal, 30 bundles of hoops, 100 butts of por- 
ter, branded — " Calvert," 225 bags of beans, 156 sacks of 
potatoes, 10 casks sour-krout, 80 live hogs, and 35 empt}^ 
puncheons, for water ; shipped by Mure, Son, and Atkinson, 
of London, by order of the Right Hon. the Lords Commis- 
sioners of his Majesty's Treasury. The vessel had sailed from 
London, Oct. 13, 1775. 

An accompanying paper gives 

A List of the Officers and Men, belonging to the Militia of Elizabeth- 
Town, who entered on board of the different shallops as Volunteers, in 
order to take the Ship Blue-Mountain- Valley, January 22, 1776, under 
the command of Elias Dayton, Colonel : 

Elias Dayton, Colonel, Samuel Smith, 

Edward Thomas, Lieut. Col., Lewis Blanchard, 

Oliver Spencer, Captain, Edmund Thomas, 

William Britton, Captain, Thomas Elstone, 

Francis Barber, First Lieut., Ephraim Marsh, 

Aaron Hatfield, First Lieut., Adam Lee, 

Thomas Morrel, Second Lieut., Thomas Quigley, 

George Everson, Quartermaster, Macarty, 

Smith Hetfield, Capt. of Boat, Henry M. Munagal, 

John Thomas, Capt. of Boat, Price Parcel, 

John Trail, Capt. of Boat, * Barney Ogden. 

William Barnet, Surgeon, Timothy B. Stout, 

William Higin?, Sergeant, Joseph Meeker, Jun., 

David Eoss, Sergeant, George Weeks, 



Henry Baker, Sergeant, Edward 



42i 



THE niSTORY OF 



Beaty, 

David Stewart, 
Daniel Craig, 
Thomas Lee, 
Stephen Wheeler, 
Farrington Price, 
Elijah Woodruff, 
Daniel Woodruff, 
Aaron Ogden, 
Edward Jones, 
William Clark, 
Jonathan Clark, 
Jonathan Nichols, 
Samuel Mann, 
Silas Freeman, 
William Meeker, 
Samuel Ogden, 
Gabriel Meeker, 
Jonathan Pierson, 
Elihu Parsons, 

Daniel , 

Eobert Spencer, 
William Eamsden, 
Samuel Sealey, 
The above is a true list, 
Elizabeth-Town, Feb. 



Samuel Lee, 
Thomas Iloyt, 
Lewis Woodruff 
Isaiah Gray, 
William Livingston, Jr., 
Brockholst Livingston, 
John Ilendrix, 
Samuel Morehouse, 
Jacob Carle, 
Benjamin Woodruff, 
Jonathan Woodruff, 
Benjamin Hinds, 
John Gray, 
James Clenchy, 
John Miller, 
John Runyon, 
Nicholas Deane, 
Moses Connel, 
Godfrey Blackney, 
Timothy Burns, 
Simon Simonson, 
Richard Miller, 
John Miller, 2d. 

to the best of my knowledge and belief. 
9, 1776. Edward Thomas. * 



Several of tlie men, whose names are included in this list, 
afterwards became decided loyalists, and some of them ma- 
lignant tories ; but the vast majority of tliem continued true 
to their country, and several of them became highly dis- 
tinguished for their military services. The names of a few 
are not familiar. These were of the Continentals, from the 
back country. 

In his " Life of Lord Sterling," Judge Duer gives the 
credit of this affair to Sterling, as having " planned and exe- 
cuted " the enterprise ; overlooking the lact, that the Town 
Committee undertook, of their own motion, without even a 
suggestion from Stirling, by far the lieaviest part of the work. 
Lord Stirling's letter to Congress, also, dated, Jan. 21th, 
17TG, is given incorrectly. It should read, — ■ 



Am. Archives, 4tb Ser., IV. 9S7-9. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 425 

I immediately set out for Amboy, and there seized a Pilot-boat, and, 
with forty men, was just pushing out about two yesterday morning, when 
I was joined by three other boats from Elizabeth Town, with about forty 
men each, many of them gentlemen from Elizabeth Town, who volun- 
tarily came on this service, under the command of Col. Dayton, and 
Lieut. Col. Thomas. 

He describes the vessel, as " a ship of about one hundred 
feet, from stem to stern, above, capable of making a ship of 
war of twenty six-pounders, and ten three-pounders." Of 
the captain, he says, Jan. 27, — " He is a sensible, genteel 
young man ; all his property (about one hundred pounds 
sterling) is on board." In bringing the vessel in, she 
grounded, on Thursday, in the Sound, near the Blazing Star ; 
but, being lightened, she was got off on Friday morning and 
brought to the Point. * 

On the Monday following, 29th, Lord Stirling's letters hav- 
ing been read in Congress, it was 

Kesolved, That the alertness, activity, and good conduct of Lord Stir- 
ling, and the forwardness and spirit of the gentlemen and others from 
Elizabeth-Town, who voluntarily assisted him in taking the ship Blue- 
Mountain- Valley, were laudable and exemplary ; and that his Lordship 
be directed to secure the capture until the further order of Congress ; and 
that, in the meantime, he cause such part of the lading as would other- 
wise perish, to be disposed of by sale, t 

Lord Stirling received orders from Gen. Lee, Feb. 4, 1776, 
to transfer his regiment to New York ; and, the next morn- 
ing, he marched, with the four companies, stationed here, 
to the North Eiver, and, having been detained by the ice, 
on the following day arrived at New York. On the 9th, he 
received and transmitted from Congress the vote of thanks, 
and sent orders to Mr. John Blanchard to take charge of the 
cargo of the transport, with a request to Brig. Gen, Living- 
ston, and John Deliart, Esq., to aid him in the management 
of the affair. At the same time, he took the opportunity of 
requesting Mr. Ogdcn to give his best thanks to the Com- 
mittee of Elizabeth Town, for their readiness, at all times to 
assist him in carrying on the service under his direction, and 

* Am. Archives, 4th Sep., IV. 837, 8G7-8, Puci's Life of Stirling, p. 125. 
t Journal of Congress, for 177C. Duer'a Stirling, p. 121 



426 THE HISTORY OF 

to the inliabitaiits in general for the many instances of confi- 
dence and friendship received from them.* 

Finally, the Provincial Congress of ISTew Jersey, ordered, 
March 2, 17T6, tlie vessel and cargo to be confiscated, a com- 
mission to be appointed for the sale of the ship and its con- 
tents, and the proceeds to be distributed among the captors. 
John Blanchard excused himself, March 2d, from serving on 
the Committee, because he was so much occupied in building 
a powder-mill, and, on his recommendation, his son Cornelius 
was, March 8th, appointed in his place, f 

Col. Stirling, having been appointed, March 1st, a Brigadier 
General, Robert Ogden wrote him, March 4:th, a letter of 
congratulation, and took occasion to add, — 

There are many fire-arms lost, or, at least, at present missing, that 
were lent (by the inhabitants of the town) to furnish Capt. Meeker and 
the parties under him, to assist your Lordship in taking the Ship Blue- 
Mountain- Valley. He has been applied to for the arms, but says he 
knows nothing about them, who had them, nor where to be found. Ilis 
ignorance and high temper makes it difficult to treat with him. J 

Sterling wrote, March 1st, to Blanchard, authorizing him 
to deliver 34 chaldrons of the coal to Moses Ogden, at the 
Market price, Ogden having a contract with the government 
for iron work. The remainder of the cargo, Avitli the ship 
and its appurtenances, was sold at auction, by order of the 
Committee of E. Town, March 18th. A gratuity was allowed 
the seamen, who, v;ith the ofiicers, were set at liberty, and 
the proceeds of the sale were divided among the captors. 

By order of the Provincial Congress, Feb. 2d, Edward 
Tliomas and Isaac "Woodruff, Barrack Masters, were author- 
ized to dispose of, at their estimated value, for the use of the 
Continental Troops, the blankets belonging to the E. Town 
barracks. On the 3d, Abraham Ogden was appointed Lieut. 
Col., and "William Barnet, Major of the Regiment of Light 
norse in the Eastern Division of the State. On the 23d, 
Edward Thomas was appointed Col., Jeremiah Smith, Lieut. 
Col., and Oliver Spencer, First Major of the First Regiment 

* Am. Archives, 4th Scr., IV. 1199-1200. 

t Ibid, p. 1C06. Stirling Mss., N. Y. Ills. Soc. t Am. Archives, 4th Ser., V. 56. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 427 

of Essex Militia. On the 6tli of March, Elias Dayton was 
appointed, by Congress, Col., and Francis Barber, Major, of 
the Third Battalion of K. Jersey Continentals. And, on the 
requisition of Lord Stirling at l^evj' York, six thousand 
cartridges were furnished him by the E. Town Committee. * 

Gen. Clinton arrived at New York, from Boston, Feb. 4:th, 
in the ship-of-war Mercury, in company with a transport 
brig, with 200 marines, on his way to the South. Shortly 
afterwards the vessels weighed anchor, and fell down to the 
watering place, near Staten Island. On the evening of Satur- 
day, 10th, word was brought to this town, that the marines 
were intending to make a raid on Staten Island and carry off 
the live stock. Gen. Livingston, who had been put in charge, 
on Stirling's transfer to New York, called out 300 of the 
militia, sent out a part to reconnoitre the south side of the 
Island, and marched with the troops at three in the morning. 
At "Ward's, in sight of the Light House, they were joined by 
Capt. Blanchard and his company of light horse. Learning 
here that the vessels had left Sandy Hook the day before, a 
squad, under the command of Col, Edward Thomas, were 
left to guard the coast, for fear of a feint, and the remainder 
were ordered home. The militia were highly commended 
for the alacrity with which they responded to the call of tlieir 
commander, on this occasion.f 

Owing to the commotions of the times, and the close con- 
nection of the town with New York, the place was visited by 
many strangers, some of whom rendered themselves liable to 
suspicion, as unfriendly to the cause of the country. The 
Committee of the Town, therefore, represented the case, Feb. 
12th, to the Provincial Congress, then in session, who passed 
an ordinance, requiring, among other things. 

That all suspected persons removing into the colony, should bo imme- 
diately returned to the place whence tliey came, unless their detention 
as delinquents should be proper ; or unless they produced certificates from 
the Committee of the precinct, from which they came, that they had 
signed the Association recommended by Congress, and had not subse- 
quently contravened it. J 

* Am. Archives, 4th Ser., IV. 1580, 2, 9, 93, IGOO. t N. York Packet, Feb. 22. 

J Am. Archives, 4th Ser., IV. 15S9. Gordon's N. J., 173, 4. 



428 THE HISTORY OF 

Thus gradually, but surely, tlie lines of demarcation be- 
tween tlie patriots and tlie loyalists were becoming more and 
more distinct, and the people were compelled to show their 
colors, as friends or foes, to Congress and the country. 

On the 14th, Wm. Livingston and John Dellart, of this 
town were re-elected, by the Provincial Congress of N. Jersey, 
members of the General Congress, which had continued in 
session till this time.* 

Fears were entertained, that the British Army at Boston 
were about to be transferred to New York, of which Lord 
Stirling received intimation, March 13th, from Gen. Wash- 
ington. Stirling immediately called upon each of several 
adjacent Counties in Xew Jersey to send forward imme- 
diately three or four hundred men to aid in fortifying the 
City and harbor. Lewis Ogden, Chairman of the Newark 
Committee replied, on the lith, that they would send 150 
men : " We also sent a Deputation from our Board to the 
Committee at Elizabeth Town to inform them what we had 
done and request that they would furnish 150 more, — they 
have agreed to do it." 

Stephen Crane, who had succeeded Robert Ogden, as 
Chairman of the E. Town Committee, wrote to Stirling, also, 
on the 14th, to the effect, that they had no right to send a 
Detachment out of the Province ; urged the desperate state 
of the Colony ; and said, — 

The Arming the two battalions in the Continental Service hath drained 
us of our best Arms, and in case a Decent should be made at New York, 
wo should be liable to continual excursions of the enemy. 

AVm. Burnet, Chairman of the Essex Co. Committee, wrote 
on the 15th, that a copy of Crane's letter had been sent to 
him, " from which we are afraid no men will come from 
Elizabeth Town ; . . . however we shall Endeavour to prevail 
with them to furnish their quota, and hope we shall succeed." 
The next day, he writes that " the confusion is owing to your 
writing to the Township and not the County Committee." 

Two days after, Stirling acknowledges the services of Bur- 

♦ Gordon's N. J., p. 201 . Mulford's N. J., p. 426. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 429 

net and tlie Newark people ; informs liim of his intention to 
fortify Ease Jersey, and says, — 

I shall send to explain my designs to you and to engage the people of 
Elizabeth Town to carry them into execution which according to my 
plan they will be able to do with two or Three hundred men in a few 
days. Some Intrenching tools will be necessary, and it will be proper to 
have them Collected as soon as possible at Newark or Elizabeth Town. 

And so tlie men were kept at home to work on their own 
fortifications. Stirling knew the people too well to believe, 
that they were wanting in patriotism. One of the stannchest 
patriots of the town, Abraham Clark, the Signer, wrote to 
tlie Committee of Safety, at this very time, March 15th, in 
reference to a resolution of the Provincial Congress, calling 
for arms to equip a battalion for Canada, — " If all the Con- 
gresses upon the Continent required us to disarm ourselves 
at present, unless we are deemed dangerous to liberty, I 
would not obey." The situation of the town was becoming 
exceedingly critical, and they needed to husband all their 
resources.* 

Col. Dayton, in command of the Third Continental Regi- 
ment stationed at E. Town, in the mean time, had received, 
March 10th, orders from Stirling to put his regiment in 
marching trim. On the 14:th, he writes, that " the companies 
of Captains Bloomfield, Dickinson and Potter have passed 
muster," and that the others are nearly full. He refers to 
the scarcity of Arms, and says, — " The Militia are now more 
than ever unwilling to part with their Arms ; " and adds, 
that he and Major Barber had been to Congress at Philadel- 
phia about it, but without success. On the 23d, he received 
orders to march forthwith to New York. f 

In accordance with the intimations in the letter to Burnet, 
Lord Stirling came over, on the 22d, to this town, to survey 
the ground, and lay out a line of fortifications at the Point. 
After conference with Gen. Livingston in relation to the plan, 
he returned to the city on the 2J:th, to procure engineers to 
be employed on these works under the direction of General 
"William Thompson. 

• Stirling Mas., N. T. His. Soc. Anal. Index, p. 451. t Stirling Mss. 



430 THE HISTORY OF 

Boston was evacuated hj the British Army, March 17th, 
and, as it was naturally inferred that they would make a 
vigorous effort to estahlish their headquarters at New York, 
the American army was, in the course of a few weeks, mostly 
transferred to this section of the country. General Washing- 
ton arrived and took command at ISTew York, on Saturday, 
April 13th, The work of erecting and strengthening fortifi- 
cations at exposed points w^as renewed, and carried on with 
great vigor. 

The Provincial Congress of New Jersey, chosen on tlie 
4th Monday in May, met at Burlington on the 10th of June ; 
and John De Hart having been permitted to resign his seat 
in Congress, Abraham Clark, also of this town, who had 
served for some time as Secretary of the N. Jersey Commit- 
tee of Safety, w^as chosen, June 22d, in his place. "Wm. 
Livingston, another member from this town, having been 
appointed Commander-in-Chief of the New Jersey Militia, 
resigned his membership, and established his headquarters 
at Elizabeth Town Point, while his own family, and others, 
retired into less exposed portions of the country, in anticipa- 
tion of the near approach of the British army and the full 
realities of war.* 

* " It may be interesting to some to know what was the appearance of the town at the 
beginning of the war in 1776. The writer,'' says Cupt William C. De Hart, " can describe 
a portion of it by which at least, may be seen the great change since that day. From tho 
Barracks, south as far as the corner of tho lot where stands [1S46] the present residence of 
Mr. Mayo it was entirely open. At this spot stood the ' Ked Store-house,' which will bo 
mentioned hereafter, and then came the stone house (Mr. Mayo's) and between that and Mr. 
Jelf 's now tho residence of Mr. Oliver Price, there were but two small wooden buildings. 
On the other side of tho rcid was the mansion of Mr. John De Hart, which appeared then 
much as at the present day, with the exception of a piazza and shed which extended entirely 
across the south front. To the south of this last stood a wooden building occupied by John 
Bl.inchard, and prob.ibly makes a part of it, as it occupies the same ground of the building 
now tenanted by Mr. Leavenworth. Proceeding from this on tho west side, and crossing the 
road which runs obliquely toward the Rahway turnpike, stood a small frame building ; and a 
little further on was tho Presbyterian Parson.age occupied by the Eev. James Caldwell. 
This last was a frame building, covered with shingles and painted red ; in form it was long, 
two low stories in front, and the roof declined to the rear in a long slope, terminating at the 
height of one story above the ground. Between tho Parsonage and tho road, south, there 
was no other building, and the glebe attached was a large square lot behind the dwelling, and 
bounded on one side by the road to the corner (Capt. Williamson's) and thence some distance 
on tho Philadelphia road towards Mr. Charles King's residence. The next house was that of 
Judge Chetwood now in the possession of Mr. Bryant, and opposite to this, e.ast, stood a small 
building on tho corner. 

From tho corner (Jelf 's Hill) cast, there was a building near what is now Mr. CIcaveland's 
Bakery. Tho nest building, well remembered, and a portion of which is still standing, was on 



ELIZABETH, NEW JEESEY. 43I 

the ' flats ' and occupied by a very worthy person for many years, Maam'selle Nancy Salnave 
(pronounced Snaw,) the popular dress-maker of the village, the Marchande dee Modes, and 
the arbitress of matters of fashion in those pristine times of taste and troubles. Proceeding 
eastward, on the corner stood a small building where now lives Mr. James Cree, and beyond 
a few yards was another small house. From this point to the bridge was vacant; and on the 
other side of the river was the old mill which yet stands ; — the peaceful clack of whose 
wheels with its rushing stream, had discoursed their music to the ears of a preceding genera- 
tion. 

The nest building was the ' Eed Lion ' inn, distinguished in its time, for having been for 
a brief space the quarters of General "Washington. Beyond this a few yards was a house 
known as 'the Lodge,' erected it is believed by an association of Free Masons — a portion of 
this still remains. The next in succession was the Court House, a small frame shingle-covered 
building which had never been adorned with paint, — and in the same condition, and style of 
architecture, was the adjacent building, the Presbyterian Meeting House, both of which re- 
spectively occupied the ground whereon now stand the structures devoted to the same ob-* 
iects : and where is now the Lecture-room of the ' First Congregation' stood a small wooden 
building familiar to all as ' The Academy,' where a Barber taught, not 'rebellion,' but gram- 
mar and 'old English undefiled.' From this last point up to Jersey street, there were but 
two houses, the first where Miss Crittenden now resides, and the second a little beyond the 
residence of Mrs. Wilson, and which was destroyed by flre a few years since. On the opposite 
side of the street from the corner house now occupied by Mrs. Barber, as far as St. John's 
Church, intervened but five houses : the first on the corner; one about whore now is Mr. 
Ludlow's shoe store ; a third on the site now covered by Mr. Earle's store ; a fourth, which is 
yet standing though carried up another story sinse that day, and at present in possession of 
Mr. M. Halsey; and the fifth adjoining the Church-yard, and then well known to the children 
of the town as the ' Cake Shop.' 

South of the Church stood the two small brick tenements which are still there, and now 
occupied by Squire "Winans and our worthy post-master ; and thence to the residence of 
General Williamson, now the ' Union Hotel,' was an open orchard. Crossing the street, on 
the corner stood a small shop, and next, towards the river, where since has been erected the 
' Thomas' House,' was a long low one and a half story building, kept as a tavern, and famous 
in its day, as the resort of the British officers of the garrison, and other gay young men about 
town. 

From this sketch may be seen the changes which have since taken place, and as the busy 
mart where men most did congregate for the business of the day, was then the corner known 
as ' Jelf's Hill,' the neighborhood just described maybe supposed to have been the most popu- 
lous part of the village. The old Eed Store House, which sometime afterwards was re- 
moved to the opposite side of tbo road, having been rebuilt, forms the house occupied by the 
late Edward Price."— [Do Hart's " Passages in the History of Elizabeth Town."] 



432 TUE HISTORY OF 



CHAPTER XX. 

« 

A. D. 111Q-1111. 

Independence — Lines drawn — Sentiments of Abraliam Clarli, tlieSigner — Brit- 
ish Fleet — Staten Island taken by the British Troops — The War at the 
Door — Defence of the Town — Arrest of Traitors — Female Patriot Forays 
— Changes in the Town — Error of Mr. W, Irving — Disaffection of Pa. 
Troops — Battle of Flatbush — Wm. Livingston, First Gov. of the State — 
Gen. Matt. Williamson, in command here — John DeHart declines & Robert 
Morris appointed Chief Justice of N. J. — Depot for Prisoners here — Am. 
Army evacuate N. York — Letter of Rob. Ogden — Disasters — Retreat 
through N. Jersey — People flee — Town occupied by the British — William- 
son resigns — Defections — Protection Papers — Am. Troops at Short Ilills — 
Rev, J. Caldwell — Skirmish — Death of Col. Ford — Capture of Hessians at 
Trenton — Capture of Princeton — Retreat of British Army — Washington at 
Morristown — Enemy driven out of Newark and E. T. — Capt. E. Littell — 
Barbarity of the Enemy — Tories and Neutrals driven out — Frequent Skir- 
mishes — British Array evacuate the State. 

A NEW Era now dawns on tlie Town, the State, tlie Na- 
tion. A resolution had been submitted, June 7th, to the 
General Congress, by Richard Henry Lee, of Virginia, to the 
effect, " That these United Colonies are, and of right ought 
to be. Free and Independent States ; that they are absolved 
from all allegiance to the British Crown ; and that all polit- 
ical connection betM'een them and the State of Great Britain 
is, and ought to be, totally dissolved." On the 10th, having 
been freely and earnestly discussed for three days, it was 
adopted in committee of the whole, by a bare majority of the 
several delegations. For the sake of greater unanimity, it 
was reconsidered and postponed until the first of July.* 

In the meantime, it was warmly debated among the peo- 

* ritkln'B U. State, I. 8G2. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 4,33 

pie, and in the several provincial congresses. The new Dele- 
gates from ISTew Jersey, chosen June 21st, were instructed, 
" in case they judged it necessary and expedient for support- 
ing the just rights of America, to join in declaring the United 
Colonies independent, and entering into a Confederation for 
union and defense." The consideration of the question was 
resumed in Congress on Monday, July 1st, in committee of 
the whole, and passed by the vote of nine colonies. Being 
reported to. the house, it was deferred until the next day, 
Tuesday, July 2d, when it was passed by the vote of twelve 
Colonies, the Delegates from New York, though personally 
favorable, being restricted by official instructions from voting. 
The Declaration of Independence, having been referred to a 
special committee, was reported on the 28tli of June, and, 
having been closely scrutinized for two days, on the evening 
of the fourth of July, was adopted by the same vote.* 

The die was now cast. The state of vassalage was termi- 
nated. The house of Hanover was dethroned. Royalty was 
abolished. All dependence .on Britain was abjured. A Re- 
public was inaugurated. A Kation was born. The struggle 
ceased to be a civil war. Rebels were now patriots. The 
British were foreign foes. The war was henceforth to be 
waged by rival nations. Loyalists were now traitors, and to 
be treated as foes to their country. !N"eutrality could no 
longer be tolerated. King or Congress must rule. Sides 
must be taken. Every man must be a friend or a foe — for 
or against his country. He could not be neither. 

Tidings of this event soon spread all over the land. Here 
in this town, as elsewhere, it was received with mingled joy 
and sorrow. The great majority of the people, including 
nearly the whole of the Presbyterian party, and some few of 
the Episcopalians, hailed the Declaration with the utmost 
satisfaction and exultation, and nerved themselves anew for 
the conflict. But " from that time," some who had hitherto 
consorted with the patriots, Jonathan Hampton among the 
number, " went back, and walked no more with " them. Of 
these some few subsided into a state of apparent quietude,. 

♦ Pitkin's U. States, 1. 864, 5. Baucroft's U. 8., VIII. 457, 9, C5, 7. 
28 



434: THE HISTORY OF 

and of constrained acquiescence witli tLe new order of things, 
taking little or no part in public affairs. Others took the 
first opportunity to connect themselves, openly and violently, 
with the cause of royalty. 

The "Declaration" was entered on the journal of Congress, 
on the fourth, and immediately published to the world. But 
no signatures were appended to it. On the 19th, it was or- 
dered to be engrossed on parchment, and signed by every 
member. Accordingly the engrossed copy was presented on 
Friday, Aug. 2d, and received the signatures of all the mem- 
bers then present, some of whom had not been present at its 
adoption. This town has the honor of having contributed 
one of her noble sons, Abraham Claek, to that immortal 
band. In a letter, written at Philadelphia, Aug. 6th (four 
days only after signing the Declaration), to his townsman, 
Col. Elias Dayton, then on service at German Flats, he gives 
utterance to the following appropriate sentiments : 

As to my title, I know not yet whether it will be honourable or dis- 
honourable ; the issue of the war must settle it. Perhaps our Congress 
will bo exalted on a high gallows. We were truly brought to the case of 
the three lepers : If we continued in the state we were in, it was evident 
we must perish ; if we declared Independence, we might be saved, — we 
could but perish. I assure you, sir, I see — I feel, the danger we are in. 
I am far from exulting in our imaginary happiness ; nothing short of the 
almighty power of God can save us. It is not in our numbers, our union, 
our valour, I dare trust. I think an interposing Providence hath been 
evident in all the events that necessarily led us to what wo are — I mean 
independent States; but for what purpose, whether to make us a great 
empire, or to make our ruin more complete, the issue only can determine.* 

Mr. Clark was a man of prayer, and was quartered, at 
Philadelphia, with his colleague, the Kev. Dr. Witherspoon. 
Both these worthy men had acted throughout on Christian 
principle, and with a deep sense of their responsibility to 
Almighty God. 

The transition from vassalage to independence, on the part 
of the people of Elizabeth Town, was made in the midst of the 
most serious alarms. "Washington wrote from N. lork, 
June 29th, to General Livingston, commanding at E. Town : 

* ntkin's U. S., 1. 869. Journnla of Cong. Am. Archlyes, 5th Scr. 1. 785. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 435 

I have received certain information from the Hook, that about forty of 
the enemy's fleet have arrived there, and others are now in sight, and 
that there cannot he a doubt, but the whole fleet will be in this day and 
to-morrow. I beg not a moment's time may be lost, in sending forward 
such parts of the militia, as Col. Eeed shall mention. "We are so very 
weak at this post, that I must beg you to order the three companie?, which 
I mentioned in my last for Staten Island, immediately to this city.* 

These ships were the British fleet from Halifax, under the 
command of Admiral Shuldhara, with the British Army un- 
der General Howe, recently driven out of Boston, with six 
transports filled with Highlanders just sent over. Orders 
were immediately issued for the removal of the live stock 
from Staten Island, and the people of this town were called 
upon to aid in this movement. Washington writes from ^NT. 
York, July 3d, to the President of Congress, — 

I am this minute informed by a gentleman that the Committee of Eliza- 
beth Town sent their Company of Light Horse on Monday to efi^ect it, 
and that some of their Militia was to give their aid yesterday [Tuesday], — 
he adds that he was credibly told last night by part of the Militia coming 
to this place, that yesterday they saw a good deal of stock driving oif the 
Island and crossing to the Jerseys.t 

The Staten Islanders had made profession of patriotism, it 
has been seen, and so were allowed to resume trade with this 
town. The value of their professions may be seen from the 
report of Gov. Tryon of New York to Lord George Germain, 
dated, " Datchess of Gordon, off Staten Island, 8th July, 
17T6 : "— 

General Howe disembarked the troops under his command on Staten 
Island the 2d Instant without opposition, on which occasion the inhabit- 
ants of the Island came down to welcome the arrival of their deliverers, 
& have since afibrded the army every supply & accommodation in their 
power. On Saturday last [6th] I received the Militia of the Island at 
Richmond Town, where near four hundred appeared, who chearfully, on 
my Recommendation, took the Oath of Allegiance & fidelity to his Majes- 
ty. To-morrow I am to have another muster for the enlistment of Volun- 
tiers to form a Provincial Corps for the defence of the Island. f 

By this defection and the occupation of the Island by the 
British, this town was brought into the very fore-front of the 

• Sparks' WaEhlngton, III. pp. 445, 6. + Am. Archives, 4th Ber., TL 1231 

X N. Y. Col.'Docmts., VHI.631. 



436 TKE HISTORY OF 

field of conflict, and so continued througlioiit the war. Staten 
Island became thenceforward not only a British post, but a 
nest of Tories, and the common resort of the " Loyalists," in 
their flight from East Jersey. 

The day after their landing, the enemy made their appear- 
ance on the western shore of the Island, opposite E. Town 
Point. 

As soon as the troops landed (says a correspondent), tlicy paraded the 
north shore, and on AVednesday morning [3d] made their appearance near 
Elizabeth-Town point; but the country being soon alarmed, they re- 
treated, took up the floor of the drawbridge in the salt meadows, and im- 
mediately threw up some works. Their near approach to Elizabeth-Town 
point greatly alarmed the inhabitants of Essex county, and particularly 
the people of Elizabetb-Town and Newark ; but they are now in a con- 
dition to receive them whenever tbey may think proper to approach. 
Two young men from Elizabeth-Town crossed the river in a canoe last 
Thursday [4th], and fired upon the regulars; but a number of them rush- 
ing out of the woods, they were obliged to retreat and cross the river 
again.* 

Livingston writes to "Washington, on the -ith, that the^'^had 

Thrown up a couple of small breastworks on the causeway leading 
from the Point over the Salt Meadow. We have between four and five 
hundred at the Point who have thrown up a line from the Point House 
eastward to answer as a cover. We have two field-pieces, with a part of 
the Company of Artillery of this Province [Capt. Neill's]. (He adds), 
Our men are raw and inexperienced, our officers mostly absent, want of 
discipline is inevitable, while we are greatly exposed for the distance of 
twelve or fourteen miles.t 

He makes an urgent appeal for troops to defend the town 
against the disciplined troops on the Island, from whom an 
invasion was constantly expected. Washington, thereupon, 
writes, on the 5th, to the President of Congress, — 

General Mercer arrived hero on Tuesday, and, the nest morning, was 
ordered to Paidus Hook to make some arrangements of the militia as 
they came in, and the best disposition he could to prevent the enemy's 
crossing from Staten Island if they should have any such views. The 
distressed fitnation of the inhabitants of Elisabeth Town and Newark has 
since induced me, upon their application, to give up all the militia from 

* Pa. Eve. Post, No. 229. Pa. Journal, No. 1T53. t Am. Archives, 4th Sen, VI. 12C2. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 437 

the Jerseys, except those engaged for six months. I am hopefal they will 
be able to repel any incursions, that may be attempted.* 

He writes to Livingston, the next day, 6th, — 

General Mercer has just set off for Jersey. In his experience and 
judgment you may repose great confidence. He will proceed to Amboy 
after conferring -with you. You will please to keep me constantly in- 
formed of the proceedings of the enemy, and be assured of every assist- 
ance and attention.t 

In the same letter, he writes, in answer to one from Liv- 
ingston, of the same date, as follows : — 

The known disaffection of the people of Amboy, and the treachery of 
those of Staten Island, who, after the fairest pi'ofessions, have shown 
themselves our most inveterate enemies, have induced me to give direc- 
tions, that all persons of known enmity or doubtful character should be 
removed from places, where they might enter into a correspondence with 
the enemy, and aid them in their schemes. For this end, General Heard 
[of Woodbridge] has directions to apprehend such persons, as from their 
conduct have shown themselves inimical, or whose situation, connexions, 
or ofliceshave given just cause of suspicion.}: 

This order had a very salutary effect, resulting in the ap- 
prehension of a considerable number of suspected persons, in 
this town and vicinity, but more particularly in Ambo}''. 
Maj. Duyckinck, of the Middlesex militia, had arrested nine 
of the principal inhabitants of Amboy, and sent them here to 
General Livingston, giving occasion to Livingston's letter to 
Washington.!' 

A Philadelphia paper, of August 10th, relates the follow- 
ing:— ■ V 

On the late alarm at Elizabeth Town, when an immediate attack of 
the regulars was expected [July 3d], and every man, capable of bearing 
arms, was summoned to defend it, there were three or four young men 
[brothers] going out from one house, when an elderly lady, mother or 
grandmother to the young men, without betraying the least signs of 
timidity, with a resolute calmness encouraged and assisted them ttf arm. 
When they were ready to go, and just setting out, she addressed them 
thus : — 

" My children, I have a few words to say to you ; you are going out in 

* Sparks' Washington, III. 419-50. t .Ibid., p. 452. 

t Ibid., III. 451-2. § Wliitehead's Amboy, p. 330. 



438 .THE HISTORY OF 

a just cause to fight for the rights and liberties of your country. You 
have my blessing and prayers, that God will protect and assist you. But 
if you fall ; his will be done. Let me beg of you, my children, that if 
you fall, it may be like men; and that your wounds may not be in your 
back parts." 

A noble specimen of the Christian heroine ! It is to be 
regretted that her name is not recorded on earth ; it is in 
heaven.* 

The two field-pieces, of which mention has been made, 
very soon gave a good account of themselves. Under date 
of July 4, 1776, 12 o'clock at night, it is said, — 

One of the enemy's armed sloops of fourteen guns, having this eveuiog 
run up near Elizabeth Point, was attacked from the shore, with two 
twelve-pounders, a great number of her men killed, she set on fire and 
entirely destroyed.! 

As this occurred just about the time that the Declaration 
of Independence was adopted by Congress, or within two or 
three hours of that event, it was probably the first military 
exploit of the new-born nation, and an auspicious omen of its 
career. 

" About one hundred and thirty sail," as Washington in- 
forms Gen. Schuyler, on the 11th, had now arrived from Hali- 
fax, and the British army on the Island numbered " between 
nine and ten thousand." The next day several ships of the 
line arrived, and among them the Admiral's ship, who had 
been daily expected. The utmost vigilance now became ne- 
cessary, the more so, as two British men of war had the same 
afternoon run up Hudson's River, and taken possession of 
Tappan Bay. Livingston, in command of the militia here, 
and Mercer, in charge of the Flying Camp at Amboy, kept 
their eye on the opposite shore of the Sound, and prevented 
all foraging incursions from the enemy on the Island. Living- 
ston found himself very much in need of military stores. In 
a letter to the Frov. Congress, July 6th, he says, — 

The number of men that are now in the service here loudly call for 
more ample supplies of almost every necessary (except provisions), than 

• Pa Eve. Post, No. 2-18. Po. Jonrnsi, No. 1T5S. t Am. Archives, 4th Ser, VI. 1272. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 439 

can be obtained here, such as ammunition, flints, arms, and indeed stores 
of every kind, an attention to wliicli I cannot give in the manner I could 
choose in the present exigency.* 

The following incidents, taken from letters written, in the 
Camp at Elizabeth. Town, show that the troops were kept 
continually on the alert : — 

Last Wednesday noon [10th] a soldier belonging to one of the regiments 
on Staten Island, being in liquor, and having wandered from his compan- 
ions, got upon the meadows near Elizabeth Town Point, which being ob- 
served by Col. Smith, who had the command that day at the Point, lie 
sent over a party of men who took him prisoner. 

Yesterday nine of our Eiflemen crossed the river [Sound] iij order to 
harass some Eegulars who were throwing up a kind of breastwork on a 
bridge for their enemies, who kept firing on our men for some time, with- 
out doing any execution, till one of the brave fellows went within a few 
yards of the enemy, and desired them to surrender. At that instant he 
received a ball through his head, which killed him on the si^ot. The Col- 
onel sent over a flag of truce to the commanding officer on the Island, de- 
siring leave to bring off his man, which the officer very politely agreed to 
and let him take man, rifle and all his accoutrements.! 

A few days before this, Gen. Mercer had come on here 
from Amboj, in order to surprise the enemy on Staten Isl- 
and. He planned an invasion for the night of the 18th, pur- 
posing to cross the Sound from the mouth of Thompson's 
Creek, a little below the Point, to the Blazing Star. Maj. 
Knowlton was to head the Continental troops. The first di- 
vision marched to the Creek by 9 o'clock in the evening. 
The Pennsylvania troops, attached to the Flying Camp, were 
to follow ; in all about 1300 men. But the Pennsylvanians 
had marched that day from ISTew Brunswick, and were com- 
pletely exhausted on their arrival. A tremendous thunder- 
storm, also, came on, making it impracticable to cross the 
Sound, and the expedition was reluctantly abandoned. :j: 

Abraham Clark, in the letter to Col. Dayton, Aug. 6th, 
referred to above, in giving him local information, says, of the 
militia, — 

* Sparks' Washington, III. 463, 8. Irvlng's Washington, II. 254. Sedgwick's Livingston, 
p. 198. t Pa. Journal, No. 1754. Am. Archives, 6lh Ser., I. 575. 

t Am. Archives, 5th Ser., I. 470. Marshall's Washington, II. 424. Sparks' Washington 
IV. 20. 



440 THE HISTORY OF 

T]icy form a chain from Elizabeth Town Point, -where strong works- 
are erected at an amazing expense of labour, chiefly effected by our Mili- 
tia before the Pennsylvanians arrived to their assistance. (lie adds), 
Elizabeth Town was in great consternation upon General Howe's taking 
possession of the Island ; but at present I believe they are very easy. I 
formerly informed you that Mrs. Dayton had sent the chief of her goods 
into Springfield. Many that moved away from Elizabetli Town have since 
returned. 

Our election for Council and Assembly, Sheriffs, &c., comes on next 
Tuesday in all the Counties of New Jersey. I now feel the w'ant of you 
in Elizabeth Town, I sat down to consider to whom I might venture to 
write on politicks, and have none that I dare speak plainly to. Had you, 
or my much esteemed friend Mr. Caldwell, been there, I should have 
been at no loss. I have none like-minded. I have friends, it is true, but 
none there now that I dare speak with freedom to.* 

The war, brouglit thus to their very doors, had wrought a 
great change in the society of the town. A large number of 
the best men of the place had taken up arms, either in the 
militia, or in the service of Congress, and so were of uncer- 
tain residence. Intercourse between families had become 
much more reserved, as no one knew at what time he might 
be betrayed to the one or the other party, nor which party 
might presently be in the ascendant. With the vast host of 
disciplined troops on Staten Island, the very flower of the 
British army, and daily increasing in numbers by the arrival 
of reinforcements, the tories had great reason to expect to be 
shortly restored to their homes and estates, and in turn to 
vex and dispossess their patriot neighbors. It is not strange 
that Clark wrote as he did. 

Mr. Irving, however, has (undesignedly, no doubt), done 
injustice to the town, by inserting, at this point of time, what 
Gov. Livingston humorously wrote, Feb. 19, 1784, more than 
seven years later, of " his own village of Elizabethtown, as 
being peopled in those agitated times by ' unknown, unrecom- 
mended strangers, guilty-looking tories and very knavisii 
whigs.' " Seven years of w^ar on the frontiers would, ot 
course, occasion great revolutions and convulsions in the so- 
cial fabric of such a locality.f 

* Am. Archives, 5th Ser., I. 785. Mr. Caldwell, his pnstor, had, about;tho 1st of Uay. ac- 
companied Col. Dayton to the North, as Chaplain of his regiment, 
t Irving's Washington, II. 255. Sedgwick's Livingston, p. 246. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 441 

Kotwithslanding the failure of Gen. Mercer's attempt to 
invade the Island on the 18th of July, Washington wrote, on 
the 27th, that he was hoping still to " make some efforts to 
annoy them " from this direction. But, on the 29th, he in- 
forms Congress that, — 

By the advice of General Mercer and other officers at Araboy, it will 
be impracticable to do any thing upon a large scale, for want of craft, as 
the enemy have the entire command of the water all round the island, I 
have desired General Mercer to have nine or ten flat-bottomed boats built 
'at Newark Bay and Elizabeth Town, with a design principally to keep 
up the communication across Ilackinsac and Passaic Rivers. 

The plan alluded to contemplated an attack from the 
Point, with a force of three thousand nine hundred men, but 
boats could not be procured to transport half that number 
across the Sound ; and so it was abandoned.* 

The militia from Pennsylvania, attached to the Flying 
Camp, and stationed at the Point and its vicinity, soon be- 
came so disaffected with the service, that " many were daily 
returning home without orders," adding greatly to the 
gathering gloom that was settling over the town. It became 
necessary for "Washington to make, Aug. 8th, an earnest 
appeal to their patriotism, in order to arrest the move- 
ment, representing to them " that the fate of our country 
depends, in all human probability, on the exertion of a few 
weeks." f 

The first battalion ©f Philadelphia, and the Pennsylvania 
Rifle Battalions were, at this time, stationed in the town and 
at the Point. A writer at 'New York, Aug. 26th, says, " Our 
people at Elizabeth-Town and the enemy on Staten Island, 
cannonaded each other yesterday afternoon [Sunday], with- 
out doing any damage except disturbing the congregation.":}: 

,The foreign mercenaries from Waldeck, Hesse Cassel, and 
Brunswick were now arriving by thousands, their numbers 
being greatly exaggerated in the reports that were' alarm- 
ingly spread over the country. Gov. Tryon wrote from Sta- 
ten Island, Aug. 14th, to Lord Germain, — 

The whole armament destined for this part of America, except the 

* Sparks' WashiDgton, IV. 19-20. t Ibid., pp. 37-S. t Pa- Journal, Nos. 1755, 1760. 



442 THE HISTORY OF 

last division of the Hessians, being now assembled here, I expect, by the 
courage and strength of this noble Army, tyranny will be 'crushed and 
legal government restored. (15th Aug.) Yesterday evening S' Peter Par- 
ker brought into the Hook a Fleet of Twenty five Sail from the South- 
ward.* 

These last were the forces that had been ineffectnallj em- 
ployed against Charleston, S. C. They numbered three 
thousand troops, and were under the command of Lord 
Cornwallis.f 

On the 21st, Gen.. Livingston wrote to Gen. "Washington, 
that the enemy were in motion ; that he had sent over a spy 
the night before, who had returned in safety, and reported, 
that 20,000 men had embarked, to make a descent on Long 
Island, and ascend the Hudson ; that 15,000 Hessians were 
to make, at the same time, a diversion at Bergen Point, 
Elizabeth Town, and Amboy. Owing to a terrific thunder- 
storm that came up the same evening, the movement was 
postponed to Thursday morning, 22d, when 9000 British sol- 
diers under Sir Henry Clinton effected a landing at Graves- 
end, L. L, without opposition. Others followed subsequently, 
and the disastrous battle of Long Island was fought at and 
near Flatbush, on the 27th, compelling the American army 
to evacuate the Island on the night of the 29th.:{: 

At this date, and before the real nature of the disaster to 
the army was fully known to him, Livingston wrote to Wm. 
Hooper of N. C, in Congress, from the " Camp at Elizabeth 
Town Point," as follows : — 

I removed my quarters from the town hither to be with the men, and 
to enure them to discipline, which by my distance from the camp before, 
considering what scurvy subaltern officers we are ever like to have while 
they are in the appointment of the mobility, I found it impossible to 
introduce. And the worst men (was there a degree above the super- 
lative) would be still pejorated, by having been fellow-soldiers with that 
discipline-hating, goodliving-loving, ' to eternal fame damn'd,' coxcombi- 
cal crew we lately had here from Philadelphia. My ancient corporeal 
fabric is almost tottering under the fatigue I have lately undergone: 
constantly rising at 2 o'clock in the morning to examine our lines, — till 
daybreak, and from that time till eleven in giving orders, sending de- 

• N. T. Col. Docmts., VIII. 654. t Irying's Washington, II. 298-9. 

. Irving's Wftshington, II. 310—335. Pa. Journal, Aug. 28. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 443 

spatches, and doing tlie proper business of quarter-masters, colonels, com- 
missaries, and I know not what.* 

Two daj^s afterwards, Aug. 31st., Gen. Livingston was 
chosen the first Governor of the State of ISTew Jersey, Pre- 
sently after, he resigned his military command, and entered 
npon his executive duties. The command of this post de- 
volved upon his friend and townsman, Col. Matthias William- 
son, who received, a few days after, from the Legislature, 
a commission appointing hiin Brigadier-General of the ISTew 
Jersey Militia. In a letter to the Governor, Sept. 15th, he 
gratefully acknowledges the honor, promises that, as far as 
his small abilities enable him, he will execute the trust com- 
mitted to his care with the utmost fidelity, and repi'esents 
the importance of longer terms of militia service and prompt 
pay, or " the important posts at the ferries of this Town will 
in a great measure be abandoned by our militia." He finds, 
also, that the ammunition magazines in this town are very 
deficient. A ton of powder was sent, in response to this 
communication. f 

At the same time, John De Hart, Esq., of this town re- 
ceived the appointment of Chief Justice of the State, and, 
on the 16th gratefully acknowledged the " great honor " con- 
ferred him, expressed the wish that his " abilities were equal 
to that high and important ofiice," and declared, that "such 
as they are they shall be exerted to discharge with dignity 
and uprightness the very great trust reposed in " him. At 
the meeting of the Legislature in January following, the 
Governor stated, that De Hart had refused to qualify as 
Chief Justice, notwithstanding his letter of acceptance, and 
Robert Morris was appointed in his stead.:}: 

On Tuesday, Sept. 24th, four transports arrived at this 
town, with 420 American soldiers, taken prisoners at Quebec, 
the previous winter. They had been liberated on parole. 
From a representation made by Gov. Livingstoh to Congress, 
it appears, that while he was in command of this post, so 

♦ Sedgwick's Livingston, pp. 199, 200. 
t Am. Archives, 5th Ser., II. 800, 1302. N. J. Rev. Correspondence p. 9. 
. t Ibid., p.:,ll. Mulford's N. J., p. 435. 



444 THE HISTORY OF 

many prisoners were sent to him from tlie army, that the 
town gaol could not contain them, and he was obliged to 
send them to Millstone, Somerset Co. In all its dire aspects, 
the people of the town were brought to know by experience 
the intense excitements and the awful horrors of war. In 
the hospitals here, 82 were reported, Kov. 1st, as sick ; of 
whom 25 were from Canada.* 

The disastrous campaign on Long Island was followed by 
the abandonment, on the part of the American army, of the 
city of IS'ew York, on Sunday, Sept. 15th, and its occupation 
by the British. A large portion of its inhabitants fled into 
the interior, and many of them into New Jersey, while the 
tories of this section, many of them, made their way as 
speedily as possible to the captured city. More and more it 
was becoming doubtful, whether the whigs, or tories, would 
prevail. It was in this gloomy period of apprehension that 
the follov/ing letter was written by the Hon. Robert Ogden, 
of this town, to his son-in-law, Maj. Francis Barber, in service 
with Col. Dayton, at German Flats, N". Y. : — 

Eliz"' Town, Oct. 6, 177G, Sunday Eve? 8 o'clock. 

My dear Son, Mr. Barber, 

Tbrougli' divine good our family are all in the land of the living, and 
we still continue in the old habitation, [on the Point Eoad] though almost 
surrounded by the regulars. They have long been on Staten Island, about 
a month on Long Island, three weeks had the possession of New York, 
which by the way is, nearly one-fifth of the city burnt to the ground ; 
who set it on fire is unknown, but the regulars charge it to the Whigs, 
and 'tis said have put several to death on that account, whether just or 
unjust the great day will decide. 

He then gives some account of the battle of Long Island, 
and the battle near the Blue Bell ; says that he has been sick, 
and adds : 

Through divine goodness the fever has now left me, but in a continual 
hurry, having much more business than a man of my years ought to do, 
but don't at present, know how to avoid it. 

In the beginning of my letter I told you wo weit almost surrounded — 
began at Staten Island, and led you round by Long Island, New York, 

* Am. Archives, 5th Ser., II , 5S3, 597, 853. 



ELIZABETH, NEW" JERSEY. 445 

and Blue Bell. But now come to a very serious part of the story — Our 
troops yesterday evacuated Bergen — carried oflf the stores and artillery, 
moved off as many of the inhabitants as they could get away, drew the 
wheat and other grain together, and 50 men were left to set fire to it, 
and last night it was set on fire, the flames were seen here. 

Your Mother * still seems undetermined whether to stay here by the 
stuff, or remove up to Sussex. A few days will determine her, hut 
perhaps in a few days it may he too late to determine a matter of this 
importance. Your uncle David [Ogden] and Mother's maxim is " they 
that live by faith won't die with fear." It has been a sickly, dying time 
in this Town for a month past. Stephen Crane has lost his wife [Aug. 
17, 1776], Daniel "Williams his, John Harris his, Benjamin "Winans his 
Timothy "Woodruff his. Sister Ogden, Hannah Ogden [wife of David] has 
lost her son Samuel, Mrs. Stubbs is dead, Mr. !N"oel,t and last night Col. 
Dayton's father [Jonathan] died suddenly in his chair, besides a great many 
children. Also Aunt Betty Mother Hetfield has been very sick but is 
recovered. Kobert is and has been very poorly this fall and a great 
to his wife and children are moved up to Morris Town, and most of 
our gentry are gone off. Matthias' wife [Hannah, daughter of Ool. Elias 
Dayton] and her granny Thompson are moved up to Springfield. Friends 
in general well. Hannah [bis daughter, set. 15,] has been sick but is got 
well and is grown considerable this summer, lives at Doct. Caleb Haly- 
stead's [his brother-in-law] with her aunt [Mary, wife of Job] Stockton. 

Your Mother has been lying for a month past — the old sore ankle — 
but the sore is now healed up. Major Morris Hatfield was taken prisoner 
on Mountrisse's [Montresor's] Island, and is sent down to New York to 
be cured of his wound as he was shot through the cheek. 

It is said Major Hatfield fought valiantly, that he fired his musket 9 
times, and the last account of him by our men was, a grenadier was 
coming up to him with bayonet fixed to run him through, and they saw 
the Major fire, and the grenadier drop at his feet ! I have now done with 
my story for this time, having wrote as I generally tell my stories, in a 
blundering, unconnected way. However I you would receive this. 

Your Mother joins me in tenderest affectionate regards to you, and all 
the family desire to be remembered to you and to all friends. 

I am yours affectionately Robert Ogden. 

The battle of White Plains was fouglit on the 28th of Oc- 
tober ; Fort "Washington was taken on the 1 Gth of JSTovember ; 
and Fort Lee evacuated on the 18th. The campaign was 
now transferred to the soil of New Jersey. Washington, 
with the fragment of an army, reduced by the expiration ot 

♦ Phebe, eldest ilaughtor of Matthias natflekl, Esq. 

t Garret Nool, previously bookaeller, N. Y.; he died, Sep. 22d. 



446 THE HISTORY OF 

militia enlistments, and the consequent scattering of his forces 
to their homes, and utterly unable to obtain new recruits or 
levies, was compelled to retire before the vastly superior 
troops of the enemy. A slight diversion had been made by 
Gen. Williamson, from the Point, on Staten Island, Sunday, 
Oct. 13th ; but it amounted to nothing. The very next day, 
Col. Slough's Battalion of Pennsylvania Associators, which 
had been stationed here, was discharged to return home, with 
the thanks of the General for their decent and orderly be- 
havior while at the- Point, and during the excursion of the 
day before. Thus, in every quarter, the patriot army was 
melting away.* 

In anticipation of the invasion of ISTew Jersey by the enemy, 
Gen. Washington wrote from White Plains, Nov. 7th, to Gov. 
Livingston, urging the importance of placing the Jersey mili- 
tia on the very best footing, and to forward him new re- 
cruits. He then adds : — 

The inliabitants contiguous to the water, should be prepared to remove 
their stock, grain, effects, and carriages upon the earliest notice. If they 
are not so, the calamities, which they will suffer, will be beyond all de- 
scription, and the advantages derived by the enemy immensely great. 
They have treated all hero without discrimination ; the distinction of 
Whig and Tory has been lost in one general scene of ravage and desola- 
tion. The article of forage is of great importance to them, and not a blade 
should remain for their use. "What cannot be removed with convenience 
should be consumed without the least hesitation. 

He urges, also, that the barracks here, at Amboy, and at 
Brunswick, be put in order " to cover our troops." He in- 
forms Congress, Nov. 14th, that the army has left the other 
side of Hudson's River, and that he intends to quarter them 
at Brunswick, Amboy, Elizabeth Town, Newark, and Hacken- 
sack. Port Washington had not then been taken. f 

Gen. AVilliamson at once wrote, Nov. 26, (on hearing of 
the capture of Forts Washington and Lee), to the brave and 
patriotic Col. Jacob Ford, Jr., of Morris Town, in the most 



urgent terms : — 



♦ Pennsylvania Journal, No. 1769.' 

t Sparks' WaahingtOD, IV. pp. 163, 4, 171 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 44.7 

Yoa are ordered to bring out all the Militia ia your County immediately, 
and march them down to Ehzabeth Town, and see that each man is fur- 
nished with a gun, and all his accoutrements, blanket, and four days' 
provision, and when they arrive to join their respective companies and 
regiments,* 

Washington had fallen back upon " Aquackanonck," on 
the right bank of the Passaic River, Nov. 21st, and, the next 
day, fell down to \N"ewark, where he remained unmolested 
for six days. The interval was improved by the people of 
Newark and Elizabeth Town, in removing their families and 
effects beyond the Newark Mountains and the Short Hills, 
into the more inaccessible interior. The distress and conster- 
nation that prevailed all along the expected route of the two 
armies can better be conceived than described. It is not 
known that a record of it remains. On Thursday morning, 
Nov. 28th, "Washington, with the wreck of his army, not more 
than 3500 in number, entered the almost deserted town by 
the old road from Newark, the advanced guard of Lord 
Cornwallis entering the latter town as the rear of the Amer- 
ican army left it. Pushing on to secure an encampment on 
the right bank of the Raritan, so as to be ready to oppose any 
troops that might be sent by way of Staten Island to Amboy 
for cutting off his retreat, he reached New Brunswick on 
Friday ; remaining there but two days, and then, on Suliday, 
December 1st, he took up the line of March for Trenton, ar- 
riving there on Monday morning. Writing from Brunswick, 
on Saturday, the 30th, he says, 

From intelligence received this morning, one division of the enemy 
was advanced last night as far as Elizabeth Town, and some of their quar- 
termasters had proceeded about four or five miles on this side, to provide 
barns for their accommodation. Other accounts say another division, 
composed of Hessians, are on the road through Springfield, and arc re- 
ported to have" reached that place last night, + 

Col. Huntington writes, Dec. 2d, from Ramapo to Col. 
Heath, that not more than a hundred of the enemy remained 
at Hackensack, and that their main body was at Elizabeth 

• Am. Archives. 5th 8er., III. 1121 t Spsrka' ■Washington, IV. 1S9, 190, 8-5, 20C. 



448 THE HISTORY OF 

Town. A field officer in the British army, on the same day, 
wrote to a friend in London, — 

The troops under General Lord Cornwallis, after driving tbe Eebels 
from Fort Lee, or Fort Constitution, in New Jersey, proceeded from Ilack- 
ensack to Newark, and from Newark to Elizabeth Town, where they 
found great quantities of stores amongst which are twenty tons of musket 
bullets. The Eebels continue flying before our army. * 

On the approach of the enemy. Gen. Williamson, with the 
militia under his command, retired np the country. Writing 
from Brunswick, on the 1st, to Gov. Livingston, Washington 
says,— 

I have not, including General Williamson's militia, more than four 
thousand men, I wrote to General Williamson last night, and pressed 
him to exert himself ; but, I have reason to believe, he has not the confi- 
dence of the people so much as could be wished. 

Gen. Williamson writes from Morris Town, December 8th, 
in defence of his apparent inefficiency, as follows : — 

Very few of the Counties of Essex and Bergen joined my command. 
(I) have it from gox)d intelligence that many who bore the character of 
warm Whigs have been foremost in seeking protection from General 
Howe and forsaking the American Cause. Colonel Thomas of Essex 
County is with us, but has no command of men. ... I can declare before 
God, I have worried myself to the heart in endeavouring to serve my 
country to the extent of my power. General Mercer is knowing to many 
diflficulties I laboured under to keep the Militia together while he had the 
command at Elizabeth Town. Upon the whole, I am so entirely disabled 
from doing my duty in the brigade, by my lameness that I have wrote to 
Governor Livingston to request his acceptance of my resignation, t 

The difficulties with which he had to contend were not ex- 
aggerated. The most disheartening was the defection of so 
many professed patriots. Washington wrote, on the 5th, to 
Congress, 

By my last advices, the enemy are still at Brunswic ; amd the account 
adds, that General Howe was expected at Elizabeth Town with a rein- 
forcement, to erect the King's standard, and demand a submission of this 
State. 

The next day, 6th, he writes,^ — 

♦ Am. Archives, 5tli Ser., III. 103T, 9. t Ibid., p. 1120. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 449 

By a letter of tlie Idtb ultimo from a Mr. Caldwell, a clergyman, and 
a stauncli friend to the cause, who has fled from Elilzabeth Town, and 
taken refuge in the mountains about ten miles from hence [thence?] I 
am informed that General or Lord Howe was expected in that town to 
publish pardon and peace. His words are, " I have not seen his procla- 
mation, but can only say he gives sixty days of grace, and pardons from 
the Congress down to the Committee. No one man in the continent 
is to be denied liis mercy." In the language of this good man, " The 
Lord deliver us from his mercy." * 

The proclamation by the brothers Howe was issued, on 
Saturday, N"ov. 30th, the day after the British occupation -of 
this town. It commanded all persons, who had taken up 
arms against his Majesty, to disband and return home ; and 
offered to all who should, within sixty days, subscribe a decla- 
ration, that they would be peaceable subjects, neither taking 
up arms themselves, nor encouraging others so to do, a free 
arid full pardon for the past. Care was taken to give every 
possible publicity to this document, and means, not always 
the most gentle, were used to induce subscriptions, f 

The people had witnessed, but a day or two before, to 
what a sad pliglit the army of Washington — " the grand 
army," that so recently confronted the British forces, — was 
reduced, as in tattered array it fled before the enemy to the 
Raritan. They were, at that moment, surrounded by the 
well-caparisoned troops of Cornwallis, whose squadrons v/ere 
spreading themselves over the whole land, and, unresisted, 
occuj)ying every town and hamlet. The patriot cause ap- 
peared to be utterly hopeless. It seemed impossible for Con- 
gress to retrieve the disasters that, since the fatal field of 
Flatbush, had come upon the country. The " Declaration of 
Independence " seemed now but an idle boast. It was re- 
garded as certain, that the authority of King George would 
soon be reestablished in all the States. Such was the confi- 
dent expectation and boast of the Loyalists at New York, on 
Long Island, on Staten Island, and in every place occupied 
by the British troops. Even the most sanguine of patriots 
spake and wrote in the most despondent terms. :{: 

* Sparks' Wflshington, IV. 204, 5. t Ibid., p. 205. Gordon's Am. Ecv., II. 129. 

t Irving's Washington, II. 44& 

29 



450 THE HISTORY OF 

In these circumstances, it is scaucely to be M^ondered at, that 
the artifice of Lord Ilowe and his brother met with very con- 
siderable success, as intimated in Gen. Williamson's letter. 
Dr. Ashbel Green observes, — 

I heard a maa of some shrewdness onco say, that when the British 
troojis overran the State of New Jersey, in the closing part of the year 
1776, the whole population could have heen bought fur eighteen pence a 
head.* 

The main body of the British army was pushed forward 
beyond the Raritan towards the Delaware. But a consider- 
able detachment remained to occupy this post, and to guard 
against any surprise from the militia of the interior. Gen. 
Charles Lee, with reinforcements for Washington, reached 
Chatham, from Peekskill, on the 8th of December, and on 
the 11th, from Morris Town, wrote to Gen. Heath, on his 
way from Peehskill, that, at Springfield, seven miles west of 
Elizabeth Town, ..." about one thousand Militia are collect- 
ed to watch the motions of the enemy." These were Col. 
Ford's troops. They were stationed at the Short Hills, just 
back of Springfield, from which point every movement of 
the enemy on the plains below could readily be seen. An 
eighteen-pounder was planted, subsequently, on the lieights 
near the residence (in after days) of Bishop Hobart, to give 
the alarm in case of the enemy's approach. A tar-barrel was 
fixed at the top of a lofty pole near by, to be set on fire when 
the alarm-gun was discharged. These could be heard and 
seen over a great extent of country.f 

The Kev. Mr. Caldwell had found an asylum for himself 
and family at Turkey [New Providence], where he soon put 
himself in communication with Col. Ford. His experience, 
the previous summer and autumn, at the North, ias Chaplain 
of Col. Dayton's regiment, enabled him now to be of great 
service to his country. Hearing of the arrival of Gen. Lee, 
he wrote him on the 12th, as follows : 

Dear Sir : I thank you for your favour from Baskingridge, of this morn- 
ing, and ioteuded to do myself the honour to wait upon you, and set out 

* Jones' Life of Eev. D'. Ashbol Green, p. 122. 

t Am. Archives, 5th Ser., III. 1167. Jones" Life of D^ Green, r- 96. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY'. 451 

for the purpose, but found my horse would not perform the journey with 
sufficient expedition, and cannot procure another horse. And indeed I 
find this "the best place to observe the enemy's motions. From sundry 
persons who have been upon the road, between Brunswick and Princeton, 
I learn the Army has very generally marched forward ; indeed, all except 
guards of the several posts. Yesterday they sent a reinforcement to 
Elizabeth Town from Amboy, of near one thousand. Some say the whole 
at Elizabeth Town are about one thousand; others say fifteen hundred. 
They are carrying off the hay from Elizabeth Town to New York. ... I be- 
lieve Elizabeth Town is their strongest post,- as they were afraid of our 
Militia, who have taken off many of the most active Tories, made some 
prisoners, and among others shot their English Foragemaster, so that he 
is mortally or very illy wounded. A company of our Militia went last 
night to "Woodbridge, and brought off the drove of stock the enemy had 
collected there, consisting of about four hundred cattle and two hundred 
sheep. Most of these cattle are only fit for stock. . . . They are driven up 
the country to be out of the enemy's way. 

At a Council of the Field Officer's this morning, a majority of them 
advised to remove the brigade of Militia back again to Chatham, for which 
they assign these reasons. Many of the Militia, rather fond of plunder 
and adventure, kept a continual scouting, which kept out so many detach- 
ed parties, that the body was weakened; and the enemy being now 
stronger at Elizabeth Town than they are, they thought they would 
better serve the cause by lying at Chatham till the expected army ap- 
proaches for their support.* 

The next morning, 13th, Gen. Lee was captured bj a snr- 
prise-party of the enemj.f 

General Heath, having reached Hackensack, wrote to 
Washington, on the 15th, in respect to the enemy, " Several 
thousands landed at Ehzabeth Town on yesterday or the day 
before." The movement of the troops under Lee and Heath, 
and the posting of the militia under Ford, at the Short Hills 
had not escaped the eye of Cornwallis. A portion of his 
forces, as appears from the following correspondence, were 
ordered to retrace their steps, and look after these Americans. 
In the night of the 17th, Ford writes from Chatham to Heath, 
by express, and says, 

"We have since sunset had a brush with the enemy, four miles below this, 
in which we have suffered, and our Militia much disheartened Thoy are 
all retreated to this place and will in all probability be attacked by day- 
break.* The enemy, Ave have reason to believe, are double our numbers. 

* Am. Archives, 6th Ser., III. 1189 t Irvlng'a Wnshlngton, II. 459-63. 



452 TUE HISTORY OF 

If in your wisdom you can assist us, we may possibly beat thcra yet ; but 
without your aid we can't stand. They are encamped (say one thousand 
British troops) at Springfield, and will bo joined by four hundred and 
fifty "Waldeckers from Elizabeth-Town, by the next morning's light. 

The next day, he again writes to Heath : — 

I have certain intelligence that the troops we engaged last night were 
General Leslie's brigade, who marched some few days since from Eliza- 
beth Town to the southard. They received an order to counter-march 
to the same place. The brigade is from twelve to thirteen hundred strong 
and the "Waldeckers upwards of four hundred. At Spauktown [Rahway], 
six miles to the southard of Elizabeth Town, there is five hundred British 
troops. This is all the enemy you have to combat in this country at pres- 
ent. TVe are not certain whether the enemy who attacked us have or 
have not yet returned to Elizabeth -Town.* 

Col. Syinmes, in a sketch of Col. Oliver Spencer, of this 
town, gives a much more detailed account of this transaction : 

On the appi'oach of Gen. Lesley's troops towards Springfield they were 
discovered by Maj. Spencer's videts stationed on the western road. Maj. 
Spencer instantly despatched a light horseman on full speed four miles 
to Chatham, to notify the Colonel commandant, that the enemy, in con- 
siderable force, were within two miles of Springfield. The brigade were 
already under arms, and were ordered instantly to march towards Spring- 
field to sustain Maj. Spencer ; mean time the Major prudently abandoned 
Springfield and retreated towards Chatham — he met the brigade at 
Briant's tavern. After Major Spencer had communicated, to the Colonel 
commandant, the position of the enemy then occupying Springfield, the 
brigade advanced to the attack. Capt. Brookfield, who commanded the 
flanking party on the left, made the first onset on the riglit of the enemy 
extending from the Church up the Vauxhall road. Capt. Seoly, who 
commanded the flanking party on the right, made a warm attack upon 
the left of the enemy spread along the "VVestfield road. The centre of the 
enemy occupied the ground in front of, and the meadow behind, Wood- 
ruff's tavern. The Colonel commandant of the militia supported by Col. 
Lindsly on the left and Maj. Spencer, who now commanded the Esses 
regiment, on the right, brought the centre of the brigade, retaining their 
fire until within pistol-shot of the enemy — the conflict continued about an 
hour, when the darkness forbade a longer contest at that time, and the 
firing seemed mutually to cease on both sides. On this occasion Major 
Spencer displayed by his conduct, the calm but intrepid soldier ; his horse 
was shot under him, when, with a smile on his countenance, and a pistol 
in each hand, ho came up to the Colonel commandant, to inform him that 

* Am. Arobives, 5th Ser., HI. 1235, 1260-1, 127T. 



ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY. 453 

he had been dismounted by the death of his hbrse. The brigade fell back 
that evening only one mile to Briant's tavern— struck up fires and lay all 
night on their arms; intending to make a second attack in the morning. 
But in the morning the enemy was not to be found ; he had withdrawn 
in the night with all possible silence, taking olf his dead and wounded in 
wagons. The militia pursued him to "Westfield, but could not come up 
with him. This was the first instance in the State of New Jersey, when, 
the British troops turned their backs and fled from those they called 
rebels ; and this success, small as the affair was, taught the Jersey militia 
that the foe was not invincible.* 

Leslie's brigade entered Newark on the morning after the 
" brush." Col. Ford, four days afterwards, found his forces 
so ranch scattered, that only about two hundred remained. 
Previous to this affiiir he had done good service, harassing 
the enemy, " surprising their guards, and taking their wagons, 
stores," &c. Ford was so much exposed and exhausted by 
this short campaign, that soon after he was seized with peri- 
pneumony, and died on the 11th, at Morris Town, in the 40th 
year of his age — eight days before his father, Col. Jacob 
Ford, Sen^t 

"Washington, learning that " about eight hundred militia 
had collected" near Morristown, sent, on the 20th of De- 
cember, Gen. Maxwell, " to take the command of them, and, 
if to be done, to harass and annoy the enemy in their quar- 
ters, and cut off their convoys," Gen. McDougall was, also, 
detailed for the same purpose. The state of affairs, the same 
day, at Elizabeth Town is thus reported from Chatham : — 

John Halstead left Elizabeth Town this morning at eight o'clock. 
Says there is no troops in Elizabeth Town but "Waldeckers, the same that 
has been there for two weeks past. Says the drums beat this morning, 
about day-break, and he understood they were to have marched; but that 
they did not, and the reason why, as ho understood, was the badness or 
' the weather. Knows not which way they were to march, but it is said 
they were to have a little march out o' town ; that he thinks six or seven 
hundred British troops went through town the day before yesterday, near 
twelve o'clock towards Newark, and that they have not as yet returned.}: 

On the morning ot Timrsday, the 26tli of December, 

* N. J. Journal, No. 4636. 

+ Am. Archives, 5th Ser., III. 1299, 13G5, 1419. Morris Town Bill of Mortality, p. 29. 

i Spark's Wasbington, IV. 239, 249. Am. Archives, 5th Ser., III. 1316. 



454 THE HISTORY OF 

"Washington surprised and captured 918 Hessians at Trenton, 
parts of Anspacli'Sj Raid's, and Knipbausen's regiments, 
with the loss of only four wounded. This brilliant manoeuvre 
completely turned the tide of affairs. The British, who be- 
lieved themselves masters of the country, and scouted the 
idea of any opposition, were painfully roused from their rev- 
eries, and began to be alarmed for their safety. The Amer- 
icans, on the other hand, were electrified with delight, and 
inspired with new life. 

On the 30th. at Trenton, Washington wrote to Maxwell, 
to collect as large a force as possible at Chatham, " and, after 
gaining the proper intelligence, endeavour to strike a stroke 
upon Elizabeth Town or that neighborhood,"